Science.gov

Sample records for herschel revolution unveiling

  1. Unveiling the Composite Nature of Dust-Obscured Galaxies (DOGs) with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riguccini, Laurie A.; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Mullaney, James

    2015-08-01

    DOGs are bright 24um-selected sources with extreme obscuration at optical wavelengths. Some of them are characterized by a rising power-law continuum of hot dust (T_D ~ 200-1000 K) in the near-IR emission indicating that their mid-IR luminosity is dominated by an AGN. Whereas DOGs with a fainter 24um flux display a stellar bump and their mid-IR luminosity is believed to be mainly powered by dusty star-formation. Another explanation is that the mid-IR emission still comes from AGN activity but the torus emission is so obscured that it becomes negligible with respect to the emission from the host component.In an effort to characterize the nature of the physical processes underlying their IR emission, we focus on DOGs (F24/FR>982) within the COSMOS field with Herschel data and derive their far-IR properties (e.g., total IR luminosities; mid-to-far IR colors; dust temperatures and masses and AGN contribution) based on SED fitting.Of particular interest are the 24um-bright DOGs (F24>1mJy). They present bluer far-IR/mid-IR colors than the rest of the sample, unveiling the potential presence of an AGN. The AGN contribution to the total 8-1000um flux increases as a function of the rest-frame 8um-luminosity irrespective of the redshift, with a stronger contribution at lower redshift. This confirms that faint DOGs (F24<1mJy) are dominated by star-formation while brighter DOGs show a larger contribution from an AGN.Is this FIR-selection technique allowing us to probe a new population of obscured AGN? Or does it corresponds to already known AGN in the X-rays, NIR or radio? The wealth of multi wavelength data in COSMOS will allow us to describe our results here.

  2. A new 4D trajectory-based approach unveils abnormal LV revolution dynamics in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Madeo, Andrea; Piras, Paolo; Re, Federica; Gabriele, Stefano; Nardinocchi, Paola; Teresi, Luciano; Torromeo, Concetta; Chialastri, Claudia; Schiariti, Michele; Giura, Geltrude; Evangelista, Antonietta; Dominici, Tania; Varano, Valerio; Zachara, Elisabetta; Puddu, Paolo Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of left ventricular shape changes during cardiac revolution may be a new step in clinical cardiology to ease early diagnosis and treatment. To quantify these changes, only point registration was adopted and neither Generalized Procrustes Analysis nor Principal Component Analysis were applied as we did previously to study a group of healthy subjects. Here, we extend to patients affected by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy the original approach and preliminarily include genotype positive/phenotype negative individuals to explore the potential that incumbent pathology might also be detected. Using 3D Speckle Tracking Echocardiography, we recorded left ventricular shape of 48 healthy subjects, 24 patients affected by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and 3 genotype positive/phenotype negative individuals. We then applied Generalized Procrustes Analysis and Principal Component Analysis and inter-individual differences were cleaned by Parallel Transport performed on the tangent space, along the horizontal geodesic, between the per-subject consensuses and the grand mean. Endocardial and epicardial layers were evaluated separately, different from many ecocardiographic applications. Under a common Principal Component Analysis, we then evaluated left ventricle morphological changes (at both layers) explained by first Principal Component scores. Trajectories' shape and orientation were investigated and contrasted. Logistic regression and Receiver Operating Characteristic curves were used to compare these morphometric indicators with traditional 3D Speckle Tracking Echocardiography global parameters. Geometric morphometrics indicators performed better than 3D Speckle Tracking Echocardiography global parameters in recognizing pathology both in systole and diastole. Genotype positive/phenotype negative individuals clustered with patients affected by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy during diastole, suggesting that incumbent pathology may indeed be foreseen by these methods. Left

  3. A New 4D Trajectory-Based Approach Unveils Abnormal LV Revolution Dynamics in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Madeo, Andrea; Piras, Paolo; Re, Federica; Gabriele, Stefano; Nardinocchi, Paola; Teresi, Luciano; Torromeo, Concetta; Chialastri, Claudia; Schiariti, Michele; Giura, Geltrude; Evangelista, Antonietta; Dominici, Tania; Varano, Valerio; Zachara, Elisabetta; Puddu, Paolo Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of left ventricular shape changes during cardiac revolution may be a new step in clinical cardiology to ease early diagnosis and treatment. To quantify these changes, only point registration was adopted and neither Generalized Procrustes Analysis nor Principal Component Analysis were applied as we did previously to study a group of healthy subjects. Here, we extend to patients affected by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy the original approach and preliminarily include genotype positive/phenotype negative individuals to explore the potential that incumbent pathology might also be detected. Using 3D Speckle Tracking Echocardiography, we recorded left ventricular shape of 48 healthy subjects, 24 patients affected by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and 3 genotype positive/phenotype negative individuals. We then applied Generalized Procrustes Analysis and Principal Component Analysis and inter-individual differences were cleaned by Parallel Transport performed on the tangent space, along the horizontal geodesic, between the per-subject consensuses and the grand mean. Endocardial and epicardial layers were evaluated separately, different from many ecocardiographic applications. Under a common Principal Component Analysis, we then evaluated left ventricle morphological changes (at both layers) explained by first Principal Component scores. Trajectories’ shape and orientation were investigated and contrasted. Logistic regression and Receiver Operating Characteristic curves were used to compare these morphometric indicators with traditional 3D Speckle Tracking Echocardiography global parameters. Geometric morphometrics indicators performed better than 3D Speckle Tracking Echocardiography global parameters in recognizing pathology both in systole and diastole. Genotype positive/phenotype negative individuals clustered with patients affected by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy during diastole, suggesting that incumbent pathology may indeed be foreseen by these methods

  4. Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrahy, Dennis J.

    One of a series of social studies units designed to develop the reading and writing skills of low achievers, this student activity book focuses on the theme of revolution. The unit can be used for high school classes, individual study in alternative and continuing high schools, and adult education classes. Following an introduction, material is…

  5. Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrahy, Dennis J.

    One of a series of social studies units designed to develop the reading and writing skills of low achievers, this student activity book focuses on the theme of revolution. The unit can be used for high school classes, individual study in alternative and continuing high schools, and adult education classes. Following an introduction, material is…

  6. John Herschel's Graphical Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankins, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    In 1833 John Herschel published an account of his graphical method for determining the orbits of double stars. He had hoped to be the first to determine such orbits, but Felix Savary in France and Johann Franz Encke in Germany beat him to the punch using analytical methods. Herschel was convinced, however, that his graphical method was much superior to analytical methods, because it used the judgment of the hand and eye to correct the inevitable errors of observation. Line graphs of the kind used by Herschel became common only in the 1830s, so Herschel was introducing a new method. He also found computation fatiguing and devised a "wheeled machine" to help him out. Encke was skeptical of Herschel's methods. He said that he lived for calculation and that the English would be better astronomers if they calculated more. It is difficult to believe that the entire Scientific Revolution of the 17th century took place without graphs and that only a few examples appeared in the 18th century. Herschel promoted the use of graphs, not only in astronomy, but also in the study of meteorology and terrestrial magnetism. Because he was the most prominent scientist in England, Herschel's advocacy greatly advanced graphical methods.

  7. Herschel's Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    28 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows low-albedo sand dunes in Herschel Crater in the Mare Cimmerium region of the martian southern hemisphere. Winds responsible for these dunes generally blow from the north (top).

    Location near: 14.5oS, 231.7oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  8. Unveiling Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lakhtakia, Ritu; Burney, Ikram; Qureshi, Asim; Al-Azawi, Sinan; Al-Badi, Hamid; Al-Hajri, Shaikha

    2015-01-01

    This article narrates a multifaceted educational journey undertaken by a medical student through a weekly SCRAPS (surgery, clinical disciplines, radiology, anatomy, psychiatry and laboratory sciences) clinico-pathological meeting held in the College of Medicine & Health Sciences at Sultan Qaboos University in Muscat, Oman. Through a presentation titled ‘Unveiling Cancer’, the multidisciplinary and interprofessional audience witnessed a simulated interaction between a medical student, a technologist peer and tutors in medicine, pathology and radiology. The presentation was based on the complexities of presentation, diagnosis and management of a patient with anaplastic large cell lymphoma, a rare type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, in the aftermath of a bone marrow transplantation. After describing the case, the student shared with the audience a spectrum of learning objectives, which included integration in the complex world of contemporary medicine, insight into the triumphs and travails of technology (immunohistochemistry) and peer collaboration, communication and mentorship. PMID:26355844

  9. The Herschel ATLAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eales, S.; Dunne, L.; Clements, D.; Cooray, A.; De Zotti, G.; Dye, S.; Ivison, R.; Jarvis, M.; Lagache, G.; Maddox, S.; Negrello, M.; Serjeant, S.; Thompson, M. A.; Van Kampen, E.; Amblard, A.; Andreani, P.; Baes, M.; Beelen, A.; Bendo, G. J.; Bertoldi, F.; Benford, D.; Bock, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Herschel ATLAS is the largest open-time key project that will be carried out on the Herschel Space Observatory. It will survey 570 sq deg of the extragalactic sky, 4 times larger than all the other Herschel extragalactic surveys combined, in five far-infrared and submillimeter bands. We describe the survey, the complementary multiwavelength data sets that will be combined with the Herschel data, and the six major science programs we are undertaking. Using new models based on a previous submillimeter survey of galaxies, we present predictions of the properties of the ATLAS sources in other wave bands.

  10. Dunes in Herschel Crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-14

    This image from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows dunes on the floor of Herschel Crater. Steep faces lipfaces are oriented downwind, in the direction of motion of the dunes. A dune-free area downwind of the crater is seen at the image center.

  11. On Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, William, Ed.; Brent, Harry, Ed.

    By bringing together many substantive yet disparate views on revolution, this book attempts to treat this rather emotional subject in a serious and objective manner. It attempts to bring history to bear on the modern radical scene by presenting the ideas of Marx, Lenin, Trotsky, Stalin, Mao Tse-tung, and others, along with those of modern…

  12. On Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, William, Ed.; Brent, Harry, Ed.

    By bringing together many substantive yet disparate views on revolution, this book attempts to treat this rather emotional subject in a serious and objective manner. It attempts to bring history to bear on the modern radical scene by presenting the ideas of Marx, Lenin, Trotsky, Stalin, Mao Tse-tung, and others, along with those of modern…

  13. Standards in Science Unveiled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2013-01-01

    The final version of standards aimed at reshaping the focus and delivery of science instruction in U.S. schools was publicly unveiled last week, setting the stage for states--many of which helped craft the standards--to take the next step and consider adopting them as their own. More than three years in the making, the Next Generation Science…

  14. Standards in Science Unveiled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2013-01-01

    The final version of standards aimed at reshaping the focus and delivery of science instruction in U.S. schools was publicly unveiled last week, setting the stage for states--many of which helped craft the standards--to take the next step and consider adopting them as their own. More than three years in the making, the Next Generation Science…

  15. Charles Darwin and John Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, B.

    2009-11-01

    The influence of John Herschel on the philosophical thoughts of Charles Darwin, both through the former's book, Natural Philosophy, and through their meeting in 1836 at the Cape of Good Hope, is discussed. With Herschel having himself speculated on evolution just a few months before he met Darwin, it is probable that he stimulated at least the beginnings of the latter's lifelong work on the subject.

  16. Caroline Lucretia Herschel -- Comet Huntress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, D. W.

    1999-04-01

    Caroline Herschel (1750-1848) was an active astronomer at a time when discovering comets, and calculating their orbits, was one of the main astronomical activities. She discovered eight comets and held the ladies' world record in this field until April 1987 when she was toppled from the podium by Carolyn S. Shoemaker. This paper places the Herschel cometary discoveries into the context of the contemporary cometary astronomy.

  17. The REAL Caroline Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskin, M. A.

    2003-12-01

    Caroline Herschel (1750-1848) is famous as the discoverer of eight comets, and the author of an Index to Flamsteed's British Catalogue of Stars, which the Royal Society published at its own expense. She was the devoted collaborator of her brother William during the twenty years he spent 'sweeping' for nebulae; and in old age she reorganized William's 2500 nebulae into a zone catalog that enabled his son John to re-examine these objects systematically, a work for which she was awarded a Gold Medal of the RAS. Nevertheless, study of her autobiographies and other manuscripts shows that her attitude to astronomy was ambivalent. William had rescued her from drudgery in Hanover, and her primary concern was to express her gratitude to him, even when his interests turned from music to astronomy and as a result she was required to abandon her career as a singer. Yet although the decision was hers, she often resented the sacrifice she had made. She emerges as a complex and often troubled personality, very different from the serene observer of legend.

  18. Mercury MESSENGER Stamp Unveiling

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-03

    Daughters of NASA astronaut Alan Shepard, Laura Shepard Churchley, left, Alice Wackermann and Julie Jenkins, right, speak during an unveiling ceremony of two USPS stamps that commemorate and celebrate 50 years of US Spaceflight and the MESSENGER program during an event, Wednesday, May 4, 2011 at the NASA Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. One stamp commemorates NASA’s Project Mercury, America’s first manned spaceflight program, and NASA astronaut Alan Shepard’s historic flight on May 5, 1961, aboard spacecraft Freedom 7. The other stamp draws attention to NASA’s unmanned MESSENGER mission, a scientific investigation of the planet Mercury. On March 17, 2011, MESSENGER became the first spacecraft to enter into orbit around Mercury. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Mercury MESSENGER Stamp Unveiling

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-03

    Daughters of NASA astronaut Alan Shepard, Laura Shepard Churchley, standing left, Alice Wackermann and Julie Jenkins, standing right, speak during an unveiling ceremony of two USPS stamps that commemorate and celebrate 50 years of US Spaceflight and the MESSENGER program during an event, Wednesday, May 4, 2011 at the NASA Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. One stamp commemorates NASA’s Project Mercury, America’s first manned spaceflight program, and NASA astronaut Alan Shepard’s historic flight on May 5, 1961, aboard spacecraft Freedom 7. The other stamp draws attention to NASA’s unmanned MESSENGER mission, a scientific investigation of the planet Mercury. On March 17, 2011, MESSENGER became the first spacecraft to enter into orbit around Mercury. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Mercury MESSENGER Stamp Unveiling

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-03

    United States Postal Service Vice President of Finance Steve Masse, left, and NASA Mercury Astronaut Scott Carpenter, unveil two USPS stamps to commemorate and celebrate 50 years of US Spaceflight and the MESSENGER program during an event, Wednesday, May 4, 2011 at the NASA Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. One stamp commemorates NASA’s Project Mercury, America’s first manned spaceflight program, and NASA astronaut Alan Shepard’s historic flight on May 5, 1961, aboard spacecraft Freedom 7. The other stamp draws attention to NASA’s unmanned MESSENGER mission, a scientific investigation of the planet Mercury. On March 17, 2011, MESSENGER became the first spacecraft to enter into orbit around Mercury. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Mercury MESSENGER Stamp Unveiling

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-03

    NASA Administrator Charles Boldin speaks during an unveiling ceremony of two USPS stamps that commemorate and celebrate 50 years of US Spaceflight and the MESSENGER program during an event, Wednesday, May 4, 2011 at the NASA Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. One stamp commemorates NASA’s Project Mercury, America’s first manned spaceflight program, and NASA astronaut Alan Shepard’s historic flight on May 5, 1961, aboard spacecraft Freedom 7. The other stamp draws attention to NASA’s unmanned MESSENGER mission, a scientific investigation of the planet Mercury. On March 17, 2011, MESSENGER became the first spacecraft to enter into orbit around Mercury. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Herschel Cool Universe Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-05

    Artist impression of Herschel is set against an image captured by the observatory, showing baby stars forming in the Rosette nebula. The bright spots are dusty cocoons containing massive forming stars, each one up to ten times the mass of our own sun.

  3. Mercury MESSENGER Stamp Unveiling

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-03

    From left, NASA Deputy Director, Planetary Science Division, Science Mission Directorate, Jim Adams, NASA Kennedy Space Center Director of Education and External Relations Cheryl Hurst, United States Postal Service Vice President of Finance Steve Masse, NASA Mercury Astronaut Scott Carpenter, NASA Administrator Charles Boldin, Daughters of NASA astronaut Alan Shepard, Alice Wackermann, Laura Shepard Churchley, and Julie Jenkins, and NASA Kennedy Space Center Director Robert Cabana pose for a photograph during an unveiling ceremony of two USPS stamps that commemorate and celebrate 50 years of US Spaceflight and the MESSENGER program during an event, Wednesday, May 4, 2011 at the NASA Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. One stamp commemorates NASA’s Project Mercury, America’s first manned spaceflight program, and NASA astronaut Alan Shepard’s historic flight on May 5, 1961, aboard spacecraft Freedom 7. The other stamp draws attention to NASA’s unmanned MESSENGER mission, a scientific investigation of the planet Mercury. On March 17, 2011, MESSENGER became the first spacecraft to enter into orbit around Mercury. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Revolution in the Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himmelfarb, Gertrude

    1999-01-01

    There is an electronic revolution in the library which may prove to be a revolution in the humanities and in the nature of learning and education. The humanities are an essentially human enterprise of which the record reposes in books in libraries. The central role of libraries in preserving these ideas must survive the electronic revolution.…

  5. The French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltimore City Public Schools, MD.

    This outline on the French Revolution is designed to illustrate how this period of French history influenced various aspects of contemporary culture. Four main sections are treated: (1) ideas that led to the Revolution, (2) the reigns of the Bourbon kings, (3) the Revolution, and (4) the rise of Napoleon as a reaction to chaos. A list of 16mm…

  6. Unveiling high redshift structures with Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welikala, Niraj

    2012-07-01

    The Planck satellite, with its large wavelength coverage and all-sky survey, has a unique potential of systematically detecting the brightest and rarest submillimetre sources on the sky. We present an original method based on a combination of Planck and IRAS data which we use to select the most luminous submillimetre high-redshift (z>1-2) cold sources over the sky. The majority of these sources are either individual, strongly lensed galaxies, or represent the combined emission of several submillimetre galaxies within the large beam of Planck. The latter includes, in particular, rapidly growing galaxy groups and clusters. We demonstrate our selection method on the first 5 confirmations that include a newly discovered over-density of 5 submillimetre-bright sources which has been confirmed with Herschel/SPIRE observations and followed up with ground-based observations including VLT/XSHOOTER spectroscopy. Using Planck, we also unveil the nature of 107 high-redshift dusty, lensed submillimetre galaxies that have been previously observed over 940 square degrees by the South Pole Telescope (SPT). We stack these galaxies in the Planck maps, obtaining mean SEDs for both the bright (SPT flux F _{220 GHz} > 20 mJy) and faint (F _{220 GHz} < 20 mJy) galaxy populations. These SEDs and the derived mean redshifts suggest that the bright and faint sources belong to the same population of submillimetre galaxies. Stacking the lensed submillimetre galaxies in Planck also enables us to probe the z~1 environments around the foreground lenses and we obtain estimates of their clustering. Finally, we use the stacks to extrapolate SPT source counts to the Planck HFI frequencies, thereby estimating the contribution of the SPT sources at 220 GHz to the galaxy number counts at 353 and 545 GHz.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Draco nebula Herschel 250um map (Miville-Deschenes+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miville-Deschenes, M.-A.; Salome, Q.; Martin, P. G.; Joncas, G.; Blagrave, K.; Dassas, K.; Abergel, A.; Beelen, A.; Boulanger, F.; Lagache, G.; Lockman, F. J.; Marshall, D. J.

    2017-03-01

    Draco was observed with Herschel PACS (110 and 170um) and SPIRE (250, 350 and 500um) as part of the open-time program "First steps toward star formation: unveiling the atomic to molecular transition in the diffuse interstellar medium" (P.I. M-A Miville-Deschenes). A field of 3.85x3.85 was observed in parallel mode. Unfortunately, an error occurred during the acquisition of the PACS data making them unusable. Therefore, the results presented here are solely based on SPIRE data, especially the 250um map that has the highest angular resolution. (2 data files).

  8. Herschel flight models sorption coolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duband, L.; Clerc, L.; Ercolani, E.; Guillemet, L.; Vallcorba, R.

    2008-03-01

    The Herschel and Planck satellites will be jointly launched on an ARIANE 5 in 2008. The Herschel payload consists of three instruments built by international scientific consortia, heterodyne instrument for first (HIFI), photo-conductor array camera and spectrometer (PACS) and spectral and photometric imaging receiver (SPIRE). The spacecraft provides the environment for astronomical observations in the infrared and sub-millimeter wavelength range requiring cryogenic temperatures for the cold focal plane units. The spectral and photometric imaging receiver (SPIRE) will cover the 200-670 μm spectral range using bolometric detectors, as the photo-conductor array camera and spectrometer (PACS) will cover the 60-210 μm spectral range. Both instruments SPIRE and PACS feature detectors operating at 300 mK. This cooling will be effected by two helium sorption coolers developed at the Service des Basses Températures of the Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA-SBT). These coolers based on an evaporative cooling cycle features no moving parts and can be recycled indefinitely pending the availability of a cold heat sink at temperature below 3 K. Several models were developed in the course of the Herschel program and this paper deals with the design, manufacturing and qualification of the flight model coolers.

  9. Interstellar Hydride Spectroscopy with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerin, Maryvonne

    2011-06-01

    The Herschel satellite is now giving access with unprecedented sensitivity to the THz spectral range. In particular ground state lines of simple neutral and ionized hydrides have been detected in a wide range of interstellar environments, leading to a renewed understanding of the formation processes of interstellar molecules in the diffuse interstellar medium. In this talk, I will present recent results obtained with the Herschel HIFI and PACS instruments on the carbon, oxygen and nitrogen hydrides. I will discuss how CH and HF can be used as tracers of molecular hydrogen in the diffuse interstellar matter, the new diagnostic capabilities of the cosmic ray ionization rate opened by the OH^+ and H_2O^+ molecular ions, and the role of the dissipation of turbulence in the production of the CH^+ and SH^+ reactive ions. Figure 1: Example of Herschel/HIFI spectra towards the massive star forming region G10.6--0.4. The diffuse interstellar matter along the line of sight towards this massive object is producing multiple absortion features from ˜ 6 to˜ 50 km/s while the emission or absortion signals between -20 to 5 km/s are caused by the massive source itself.

  10. The Nineteenth-Century Revolution in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batten, Alan Henry

    2015-08-01

    The term "revolution" in scientific contexts usually refers either to the beginnings of modern western science in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, or to the two great revolutions of early twentieth century physics. Comparison of what was known at the beginning of the nineteenth century with what was known at the end, however, shows that century to have been one of transformation in astronomy, and in the other sciences, that amounts to "revolution". Astronomers in 1800 knew neither the nature of the Sun nor the distances of the stars. Developments in instrumentation enabled the first determinations of stellar parallax in the 1830s, and later enabled the solar prominences to be studied outside the brief momemnts of total eclipses. The development of photography and of spectroscopy led to the birth of observational astrophysics, while the greater understanding of the nature of heat and the rise of thermodynamics made possible the first attempts to investigate the theory of stellar structure. Nothing was known in 1800 of extra-galactic objects apart from some tentative identifcations by William Herschel but, by the end of the century, the discovery of the spiral structure of some nebulae had led some to believe that these were the "island universes" about which Kant had speculated. Of course, astrophysics and cosmology would be much further developed in the twentieth century and those of us whose careers spanned the second half of that century look back on it as a "golden age" for astronomy; but the nineteenth century was undoubtedly a time of rapid transformation and can be reasonably described as as one of the periods of revolution in astronomy.

  11. Reevaluating the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromberg, Roland N.

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes previous interpretations concerning the French Revolution. Discusses several weaknesses of the Marxist views in light of recent philosophical and sociological thinking about social change. (RKM)

  12. Reevaluating the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromberg, Roland N.

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes previous interpretations concerning the French Revolution. Discusses several weaknesses of the Marxist views in light of recent philosophical and sociological thinking about social change. (RKM)

  13. John Herschel, photography and the camera lucida.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaaf, L. J.

    John Herschel's use of the camera lucida as a drawing aid and the part played by this instrument in Henry Fox Talbot's motivation to invent photography are described. Herschel's seminal contributions to the early progress of photography, his attempts at colour photography, his invention of the "blueprint" process and his assistance to other photographic pioneers are discussed.

  14. Herschel Observations of Cataclysmic Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Thomas E.; Hamilton, Ryan T.; Tappert, Claus; Hoffman, Douglas I.; Campbell, Ryan K.

    2013-01-01

    We have used the PACS instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory to observe eight cataclysmic variables at 70 and 160 μm. Of these eight objects, only AM Her was detected. We have combined the Herschel results with ground-based, Spitzer, and WISE observations to construct spectral energy distributions for all of the targets. For the two dwarf novae in the sample, SS Cyg and U Gem, we find that their infrared luminosities are completely dominated by their secondary stars. For the two highly magnetic "polars" in our survey, AM Her and EF Eri, we find that their mid-infrared excesses, previously attributed to circumbinary dust emission, can be fully explained by cyclotron emission. The WISE light curves for both sources show large, orbitally modulated variations that are identically phased to their near-IR light curves. We propose that significant emission from the lowest cyclotron harmonics (n <= 3) is present in EF Eri and AM Her. Previously, such emission would have been presumed to be optically thick, and not provide significant orbitally modulated flux. This suggests that the accretion onto polars is more complicated than assumed in the simple models developed for these two sources. We develop a model for the near-/mid-IR light curves for WZ Sge with an L2 donor star that shows that the ellipsoidal variations from its secondary star are detected. We conclude that none of the targets surveyed have dusty circumbinary disks. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  15. The Herschel Point Source Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marton, Gabor; Schulz, Bernhard; Altieri, Bruno; Calzoletti, Luca; Kiss, Csaba; Lim, Tanya; Lu, Nanyao; Paladini, Roberta; Papageorgiou, Andreas; Pearson, Chris; Rector, John; Shupe, David; Valtchanov, Ivan; Verebélyi, Erika; Xu, Kevin

    2015-08-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory was the fourth cornerstone mission in the European Space Agency (ESA) science programme with excellent broad band imaging capabilities in the submillimetre and far-infrared part of the spectrum. Although the spacecraft finished its observations in 2013, it left a large legacy dataset that is far from having been fully scrutinized and still has potential for new scientific discoveries. This is specifically true for the photometric observations of the PACS and SPIRE instruments that scanned >10% of the sky at 70, 100, 160, 250, 350 and 500 microns. Some source catalogs have already been produced by individual observing programs, but there are many observations that would never be analyzed for their full source content. To maximize the science return of the SPIRE and PACS data sets, our international team of instrument experts is in the process of building the Herschel Point Source Catalog (HPSC) from all scan map observations. Our homogeneous source extraction enables a systematic and unbiased comparison of sensitivity across the different Herschel fields that single programs will generally not be able to provide. The extracted point sources will contain individual YSOs of our Galaxy, unresolved YSO clusters in resolved nearby galaxies and unresolved galaxies of the local and distant Universe that are related to star formation. Such a huge dataset will help scientists better understand the evolution from interstellar clouds to individual stars. Furthermore the analysis of stellar clusters and the star formation on galactic scales will add more details to the understanding of star formation laws through time.We present our findings on comparison of different source detection and photometric tools. First results of the extractions are shown along with the description of our pipelines and catalogue entries. We also provide an additional science product, the structure noise map, that is used for the quality assessment of the catalogue in

  16. The Information Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilder, George

    1993-01-01

    A technological revolution is erupting all about us. A millionfold rise in computation and communications cost effectiveness will transform all industries and bureaucracies. The information revolution is a decentralizing, microcosmic electronic force opposing the centralizing, controlling Industrial-Age mentality persisting in schools. Television…

  17. The Green Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huke, Robert E.

    1985-01-01

    Modern agriculture's green revolution refers to a complex package that includes improved seeds and a wide range of efficient management practices. The genetic history of and technological developments that led to the green revolution are described, and its impact discussed. (RM)

  18. Firebrands of the Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickett, Calder M.

    Prepared as commentary for a slide/tape presentation, this document briefly examines the role of the press in the American Revolution. It discusses propagandist activities led by such agitators as Samuel Adams, newspaper reports of the day that dealt with events of the revolution, and the work of incendiary writers and journalists, including…

  19. Firebrands of the Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickett, Calder M.

    Prepared as commentary for a slide/tape presentation, this document briefly examines the role of the press in the American Revolution. It discusses propagandist activities led by such agitators as Samuel Adams, newspaper reports of the day that dealt with events of the revolution, and the work of incendiary writers and journalists, including…

  20. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS OF CATACLYSMIC VARIABLES

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Thomas E.; Hamilton, Ryan T.; Tappert, Claus; Hoffman, Douglas I.; Campbell, Ryan K. E-mail: rthamilt@nmsu.edu E-mail: dhoffman@ipac.caltech.edu

    2013-01-01

    We have used the PACS instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory to observe eight cataclysmic variables at 70 and 160 {mu}m. Of these eight objects, only AM Her was detected. We have combined the Herschel results with ground-based, Spitzer, and WISE observations to construct spectral energy distributions for all of the targets. For the two dwarf novae in the sample, SS Cyg and U Gem, we find that their infrared luminosities are completely dominated by their secondary stars. For the two highly magnetic 'polars' in our survey, AM Her and EF Eri, we find that their mid-infrared excesses, previously attributed to circumbinary dust emission, can be fully explained by cyclotron emission. The WISE light curves for both sources show large, orbitally modulated variations that are identically phased to their near-IR light curves. We propose that significant emission from the lowest cyclotron harmonics (n {<=} 3) is present in EF Eri and AM Her. Previously, such emission would have been presumed to be optically thick, and not provide significant orbitally modulated flux. This suggests that the accretion onto polars is more complicated than assumed in the simple models developed for these two sources. We develop a model for the near-/mid-IR light curves for WZ Sge with an L2 donor star that shows that the ellipsoidal variations from its secondary star are detected. We conclude that none of the targets surveyed have dusty circumbinary disks.

  1. Herschel Observations of Interstellar Chloronium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Roueff, Evelyne; Snell, Ronald L.; Lis, Dariusz; Benz, Arnold O.; Bruderer, Simon; Black, John H.; De Luca, Massimo; Gerin, Maryvonne; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Gupta, Harshal; Indriolo, Nick; Le Bourlot, Jacques; Le Petit, Franck; Larsson, Bengt; Melnick, Gary J.; Menten, Karl M.; Monje, Raquel; Nagy, Zsófia; Phillips, Thomas G.; Sandqvist, Aage; Sonnentrucker, Paule; van der Tak, Floris; Wolfire, Mark G.

    2012-03-01

    Using the Herschel Space Observatory's Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared, we have observed para-chloronium (H2Cl+) toward six sources in the Galaxy. We detected interstellar chloronium absorption in foreground molecular clouds along the sight lines to the bright submillimeter continuum sources Sgr A (+50 km s-1 cloud) and W31C. Both the para-H35 2Cl+ and para-H37 2Cl+ isotopologues were detected, through observations of their 111-000 transitions at rest frequencies of 485.42 and 484.23 GHz, respectively. For an assumed ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) of 3, the observed optical depths imply that chloronium accounts for ~4%-12% of chlorine nuclei in the gas phase. We detected interstellar chloronium emission from two sources in the Orion Molecular Cloud 1: the Orion Bar photodissociation region and the Orion South condensation. For an assumed OPR of 3 for chloronium, the observed emission line fluxes imply total beam-averaged column densities of ~2 × 1013 cm-2 and ~1.2 × 1013 cm-2, respectively, for chloronium in these two sources. We obtained upper limits on the para-H35 2Cl+ line strengths toward H2 Peak 1 in the Orion Molecular cloud and toward the massive young star AFGL 2591. The chloronium abundances inferred in this study are typically at least a factor ~10 larger than the predictions of steady-state theoretical models for the chemistry of interstellar molecules containing chlorine. Several explanations for this discrepancy were investigated, but none has proven satisfactory, and thus the large observed abundances of chloronium remain puzzling. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  2. Herschel Spots Comet Massacre Around Nearby Star

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-12

    New data from the Herschel Space Observatory suggest comets are constantly smashing together around the star Fomalhaut, a young star, just a few hundred million years old, and twice as massive as the sun.

  3. The October Revolution Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinowitch, Alexander

    1981-01-01

    Presents an historical analysis of the socialist revolution of 1917 which brought Lenin and the Bolsheviks to power in the Soviet Union and led to the establishment in Russia of a communist government. (DB)

  4. The Unfinished Revolution: Einstein's revenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beichler, James

    2007-04-01

    Thomas Kuhn defined the characteristics of scientific revolutions based upon his knowledge of the first and second Scientific Revolutions. He concluded that such revolutions are the result of crises in science. However, he missed some important clues of how revolutions develop. Instead of looking at crises, we should look at the major trends in scientific and human thought prior to the revolutions and then we could gain a better understanding of how scientific revolutions emerge from the normal course of scientific evolution. Instead of defining revolutions by the crises that precede them, revolutions actually emerge from the successes of previous science while each revolution contains the seeds for the next revolution that follows. These seeds eventually grow into the crises that trigger revolutions. Under these circumstances, it can be shown that the space-time revolution of relativity theory was never completed, thus laying the foundations for the next revolution in science. Knowing this, we can determine if we have we already entered the pre-revolutionary period of the Third Scientific Revolution.

  5. Toilet revolution in China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shikun; Li, Zifu; Uddin, Sayed Mohammad Nazim; Mang, Heinz-Peter; Zhou, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Jian; Zheng, Lei; Zhang, Lingling

    2017-09-20

    The wide-spread prevalence of unimproved sanitation technologies has been a major cause of concern for the environment and public health, and China is no exception to this. Towards the sanitation issue, toilet revolution has become a buzzword in China recently. This paper elaborates the backgrounds, connotations, and actions of the toilet revolution in China. The toilet revolution aims to create sanitation infrastructure and public services that work for everyone and that turn waste into value. Opportunities for implementing the toilet revolution include: fulfilling Millennium Development Goals and new Sustainable Development Goals; government support at all levels for popularizing sanitary toilet; environmental protection to alleviate wastewater pollution; resource recovery from human waste and disease prevention for health and wellbeing improvement. Meanwhile, the challenges faced are: insufficient funding and policy support, regional imbalance and lagging approval processes, weak sanitary awareness and low acceptance of new toilets, lack of R&D and service system. The toilet revolution requires a concerted effort from many governmental departments. It needs to address not only technology implementation, but also social acceptance, economic affordability, maintenance issues and, increasingly, gender considerations. Aligned with the ecological sanitation principles, it calls for understanding issues across the entire sanitation service chain. Public-private partnership is also recommended to absorb private capital to make up the lack of funds, as well as arouse the enthusiasm of the public. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. The Chemical Revolution revisited.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hasok

    2015-02-01

    I respond to the critical comments by Martin Kusch and Ursula Klein on my account of the Chemical Revolution. I comment along three different lines: descriptive, explanatory, and normative. (1) I agree with Klein that Lavoisier did not introduce drastic changes in chemical ontology, but maintain that there was methodological incommensurability in the Chemical Revolution; in response to Kusch's view, I maintain that Lavoisier's victory was slow and incomplete. (2) Admitting that there were many causes shaping the outcome of the Chemical Revolution, including the convenience of Lavoisier's theoretical scheme and various complicated social factors, I still think that the general rise of compositionism was an important factor. (3) I defend my normative pluralist view on the Chemical Revolution, denying Kusch's argument that chemists had overwhelmingly good reasons to trust Lavoisier and his allies over the phlogistonists. Overall, I agree with Kusch that it would be desirable to have a good descriptive-normative sociological account of the Chemical Revolution, but I also think that it should be an account that allows for divergence in individuals' and sub-communities' self-determination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Herschel and the Molecular Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Helmich, F. P.

    2006-01-01

    Over the next decade, space-based missions will open up the universe to high spatial and spectral resolution studies at infrared and submillimeter wavelengths. This will allow us to study, in much greater detail, the composition and the origin and evolution of molecules in space. Moreover, molecular transitions in these spectral ranges provide a sensitive probe of the dynamics and the physical and chemical conditions in a wide range of objects at scales ranging from budding planetary systems to galactic and extragalactic sizes. Hence, these missions provide us with the tools to study key astrophysical and astrochemical processes involved in the formation and evolution of planets, stars, and galaxies. These new missions can be expected to lead to the detection of many thousands of new spectral features. Identification, analysis and interpretation of these features in terms of the physical and chemical characteristics of the astronomical sources will require detailed astronomical modeling tools supported by laboratory measurements and theoretical studies of chemical reactions and collisional excitation rates on species of astrophysical relevance. These data will have to be made easily accessible to the scientific community through web-based data archives. In this paper, we will review the Herschel mission and its expected impact on our understanding of the molecular universe.

  8. On the insignificance of Herschel's sunspot correlation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Jeffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    We examine William Herschel's hypothesis that solar-cycle variation of the Sun's irradiance has a modulating effect on the Earth's climate and that this is, specifically, manifested as an anticorrelation between sunspot number and the market price of wheat. Since Herschel first proposed his hypothesis in 1801, it has been regarded with both interest and skepticism. Recently, reports have been published that either support Herschel's hypothesis or rely on its validity. As a test of Herschel's hypothesis, we seek to reject a null hypothesis of a statistically random correlation between historical sunspot numbers, wheat prices in London and the United States, and wheat farm yields in the United States. We employ binary-correlation, Pearson-correlation, and frequency-domain methods. We test our methods using a historical geomagnetic activity index, well known to be causally correlated with sunspot number. As expected, the measured correlation between sunspot number and geomagnetic activity would be an unlikely realization of random data; the correlation is “statistically significant.” On the other hand, measured correlations between sunspot number and wheat price and wheat yield data would be very likely realizations of random data; these correlations are “insignificant.” Therefore, Herschel's hypothesis must be regarded with skepticism. We compare and contrast our results with those of other researchers. We discuss procedures for evaluating hypotheses that are formulated from historical data.

  9. On the insignificance of Herschel's sunspot correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, Jeffrey J.

    2013-08-01

    We examine William Herschel's hypothesis that solar-cycle variation of the Sun's irradiance has a modulating effect on the Earth's climate and that this is, specifically, manifested as an anticorrelation between sunspot number and the market price of wheat. Since Herschel first proposed his hypothesis in 1801, it has been regarded with both interest and skepticism. Recently, reports have been published that either support Herschel's hypothesis or rely on its validity. As a test of Herschel's hypothesis, we seek to reject a null hypothesis of a statistically random correlation between historical sunspot numbers, wheat prices in London and the United States, and wheat farm yields in the United States. We employ binary-correlation, Pearson-correlation, and frequency-domain methods. We test our methods using a historical geomagnetic activity index, well known to be causally correlated with sunspot number. As expected, the measured correlation between sunspot number and geomagnetic activity would be an unlikely realization of random data; the correlation is "statistically significant." On the other hand, measured correlations between sunspot number and wheat price and wheat yield data would be very likely realizations of random data; these correlations are "insignificant." Therefore, Herschel's hypothesis must be regarded with skepticism. We compare and contrast our results with those of other researchers. We discuss procedures for evaluating hypotheses that are formulated from historical data.

  10. Revolution in Detection Affairs

    SciTech Connect

    Stern W.

    2013-11-02

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  11. Architecture and the Information Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Porter; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Traces how technological changes affect the architecture of the workplace. Traces these effects from the industrial revolution up through the computer revolution. Offers suggested designs for the computerized office of today and tomorrow. (JM)

  12. Architecture and the Information Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Porter; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Traces how technological changes affect the architecture of the workplace. Traces these effects from the industrial revolution up through the computer revolution. Offers suggested designs for the computerized office of today and tomorrow. (JM)

  13. Mapping the Milky Way: William Herschel's Star Gages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timberlake, Todd

    2013-01-01

    William Herschel (Fig. 1) is rightfully known as one of the greatest astronomers of all time. Born in Hanover (in modern Germany) in 1738, Herschel immigrated to England in 1757 and began a successful career as a professional musician. Later in life Herschel developed a strong interest in astronomy. He began making his own reflecting telescopes in…

  14. Mapping the Milky Way: William Herschel's Star Gages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timberlake, Todd

    2013-01-01

    William Herschel (Fig. 1) is rightfully known as one of the greatest astronomers of all time. Born in Hanover (in modern Germany) in 1738, Herschel immigrated to England in 1757 and began a successful career as a professional musician. Later in life Herschel developed a strong interest in astronomy. He began making his own reflecting telescopes in…

  15. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS OF INTERSTELLAR CHLORONIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Neufeld, David A.; Indriolo, Nick; Roueff, Evelyne; Le Bourlot, Jacques; Le Petit, Franck; Snell, Ronald L.; Lis, Dariusz; Monje, Raquel; Phillips, Thomas G.; Benz, Arnold O.; Bruderer, Simon; Black, John H.; Larsson, Bengt; De Luca, Massimo; Gerin, Maryvonne; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Gupta, Harshal; Melnick, Gary J.; Menten, Karl M.; Nagy, Zsofia; and others

    2012-03-20

    Using the Herschel Space Observatory's Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared, we have observed para-chloronium (H{sub 2}Cl{sup +}) toward six sources in the Galaxy. We detected interstellar chloronium absorption in foreground molecular clouds along the sight lines to the bright submillimeter continuum sources Sgr A (+50 km s{sup -1} cloud) and W31C. Both the para-H{sup 35}{sub 2}Cl{sup +} and para-H{sup 37}{sub 2}Cl{sup +} isotopologues were detected, through observations of their 1{sub 11}-0{sub 00} transitions at rest frequencies of 485.42 and 484.23 GHz, respectively. For an assumed ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) of 3, the observed optical depths imply that chloronium accounts for {approx}4%-12% of chlorine nuclei in the gas phase. We detected interstellar chloronium emission from two sources in the Orion Molecular Cloud 1: the Orion Bar photodissociation region and the Orion South condensation. For an assumed OPR of 3 for chloronium, the observed emission line fluxes imply total beam-averaged column densities of {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} and {approx}1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}, respectively, for chloronium in these two sources. We obtained upper limits on the para-H{sup 35}{sub 2}Cl{sup +} line strengths toward H{sub 2} Peak 1 in the Orion Molecular cloud and toward the massive young star AFGL 2591. The chloronium abundances inferred in this study are typically at least a factor {approx}10 larger than the predictions of steady-state theoretical models for the chemistry of interstellar molecules containing chlorine. Several explanations for this discrepancy were investigated, but none has proven satisfactory, and thus the large observed abundances of chloronium remain puzzling.

  16. Mirror Figuring Techniques of Sir William Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albin, E. F.

    2004-05-01

    Between the years 1773 to 1818, Sir William Herschel constructed dozens of speculum telescope mirrors, with diameters ranging from 6 - 48 inches. Very little, if any, detailed information has ever been published on the specifics of his mirror figuring efforts. The reason for this certainly relates to his desire to closely guard mirror production trade secrets. Upon Herschel's death, all telescope-making documents were passed on to his only son, Sir John Herschel. These materials are now in the possession of the British RAS and primarily consist of: a) a four volume series entitled "Experiments on the Construction of Specula," b) a 129 page treaty called "On the Construction of Specula," and c) a 179 page manuscript entitled "Results of Experiments on the Construction of Mirrors." It is suggested that publication was further delayed and then eventually abandoned due to silver-coated glass mirrors coming into favor. A recent investigation by the author, of the unpublished manuscripts on the construction of specula, suggests that Herschel's mirror figuring techniques did not involve any guess work; in fact, his methods were highly refined -- never leaving to chance the evolution of a spherical surface into the required paraboloid. At the heart of Herschel's figuring techniques were a series of aperture diaphragms (similar to the Couder masks used by modern telescope makers) that were placed over the mirror, which allowed for the precise determination of its curvature at various predefined zones. With this information, Herschel was able to vary his figuring strokes with his polishing tool accordingly. In addition, all mirrors were subsequently "star tested," sometimes with aperture diaphragms in place, allowing for field examination of the mirror's "distinctness" or performance. Double stars and the planet Saturn were favorite targets used to analyze and then correct a mirror's figure.

  17. The Brain Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Robert

    1998-01-01

    A cognitive-science revolution, reminiscent of Dewey's Progressive Education Movement, will profoundly affect future educational policy and practice. A comprehensive brain theory will emerge out of Darwin's discoveries about natural selection as a scientific explanation for biodiversity, Einstein's theoretical reconceptualization of…

  18. Revolution Now 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Donohoo-Vallett

    2016-09-01

    Revolution Now is an annually updated report produced by the Energy Department’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy that documents the accelerated deployment of five clean energy technologies thriving in the U.S. market – wind turbines, solar technologies for both utility-scale and distributed photovoltaic (PV), electric vehicles (EVs) and light-emitting diodes (LEDs).

  19. The Brain Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Robert

    1998-01-01

    A cognitive-science revolution, reminiscent of Dewey's Progressive Education Movement, will profoundly affect future educational policy and practice. A comprehensive brain theory will emerge out of Darwin's discoveries about natural selection as a scientific explanation for biodiversity, Einstein's theoretical reconceptualization of…

  20. Medical revolution in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ballarin, V L; Isoardi, R A

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses the major Argentineans contributors, medical physicists and scientists, in medical imaging and the development of medical imaging in Argentina. The following are presented: history of medical imaging in Argentina: the pioneers; medical imaging and medical revolution; nuclear medicine imaging; ultrasound imaging; and mathematics, physics, and electronics in medical image research: a multidisciplinary endeavor.

  1. Revolution and the Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorniak-Kocikowska, Krystyna

    2001-01-01

    Considers the impact that the computer revolution has had on college and university libraries. Discusses the historical background of changes that resulted from the invention of the printing press; the development of national languages; knowledge acquisition; the historical role of religion; content control of libraries; and changes in students.…

  2. Revolution in the Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himmelfarb, Gertrude

    1997-01-01

    Changes in library services due to advancing information technology constitute a revolution comparable to invention of the printing press. Democratization of access to knowledge is a positive development, but it should not be confused with democratization of knowledge. This is where any system of information networking may be misleading; in…

  3. Cyberinfrastructure: The Second Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bement, Arden L.

    2007-01-01

    The engine of change for the next revolution is cyberinfrastructure, a comprehensive phenomenon that involves the creation, dissemination, preservation, and application of knowledge. It adds new dimensions that greatly increase transformational potential. Cyberinfrastructure combines complex elements to create a dynamic system. It eclipses its…

  4. The Next British Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Explores whether England is developing an American-style underclass and argues that England faces transforming changes in the near term similar to that of the United States but faster and possibly more politically volatile. The author addresses the likely effects of the revolution on English society and comments on the political context in which…

  5. Teaching the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Thomas M.

    1989-01-01

    Reports on presentations made at a symposium sponsored by the Connecticut Humanities Council. Papers dealt with teaching the French Revolution by presenting European history in new relationships with the rest of the world and by examining the Declaration of the Rights of Man as it related to the role of women. (KO)

  6. The French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrofani, E. Robert; Johnston, Anne

    This 10-day unit on the French Revolution is designed to help high school students understand the interplay of economic, social, and political forces in the process of revolutionary change, and the development of modern democratic forms of government. Critical thinking and geographic skill activities are employed throughout the unit and include…

  7. The Unfinished Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedgmore, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    The 157 Group recently published "Adult further education--the unfinished revolution," a policy paper setting out proposals for a truly market-driven further education sector in which the choices of individuals and individual employers are central in determining the programmes that are offered. Their overall aim is to allow institutions…

  8. Helping Students Analyze Revolutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Stephen; Desrosiers, Marian

    2012-01-01

    A visitor to a random sampling of Modern World History classes in the United States will find that the subject of "revolution" is a favorite for many students. Reading about and researching individuals and topics such as Tsar Nicholas II, Rasputin, Marie Antoinette and guillotines is never boring. Unfortunately, in too many classrooms,…

  9. Teaching the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Thomas M.

    1989-01-01

    Reports on presentations made at a symposium sponsored by the Connecticut Humanities Council. Papers dealt with teaching the French Revolution by presenting European history in new relationships with the rest of the world and by examining the Declaration of the Rights of Man as it related to the role of women. (KO)

  10. The French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrofani, E. Robert; Johnston, Anne

    This 10-day unit on the French Revolution is designed to help high school students understand the interplay of economic, social, and political forces in the process of revolutionary change, and the development of modern democratic forms of government. Critical thinking and geographic skill activities are employed throughout the unit and include…

  11. The Skills Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pring, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The government, through several White and Green Papers, has promoted the 'Skills Revolution'. This requires central direction and coordination of a wide range of policies, practices and partnerships. But there are several difficulties: the impossibility of micromanaging the complex social and economic system; the dominance of the rather limited…

  12. Cyberinfrastructure: The Second Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bement, Arden L.

    2007-01-01

    The engine of change for the next revolution is cyberinfrastructure, a comprehensive phenomenon that involves the creation, dissemination, preservation, and application of knowledge. It adds new dimensions that greatly increase transformational potential. Cyberinfrastructure combines complex elements to create a dynamic system. It eclipses its…

  13. Revolution in the Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himmelfarb, Gertrude

    1997-01-01

    Changes in library services due to advancing information technology constitute a revolution comparable to invention of the printing press. Democratization of access to knowledge is a positive development, but it should not be confused with democratization of knowledge. This is where any system of information networking may be misleading; in…

  14. Revolution and the Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorniak-Kocikowska, Krystyna

    2001-01-01

    Considers the impact that the computer revolution has had on college and university libraries. Discusses the historical background of changes that resulted from the invention of the printing press; the development of national languages; knowledge acquisition; the historical role of religion; content control of libraries; and changes in students.…

  15. Helping Students Analyze Revolutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Stephen; Desrosiers, Marian

    2012-01-01

    A visitor to a random sampling of Modern World History classes in the United States will find that the subject of "revolution" is a favorite for many students. Reading about and researching individuals and topics such as Tsar Nicholas II, Rasputin, Marie Antoinette and guillotines is never boring. Unfortunately, in too many classrooms,…

  16. William Herschel, the First Observational Cosmologist

    ScienceCinema

    Lemonick, Michael [Princeton University and Time Magazine, Princeton, New Jersey, United States

    2016-07-12

    In the late 1700s, a composer, orchestra director and soloist named William Herschel became fascinated with astronomy, and, having built his own reflecting telescope, went out in his garden in Bath, England, one night and discovered Uranus—the first planet in human history ever found by an individual. The feat earned him a lifetime pension from King George III. But Herschel considered the discovery to be relatively unimportant in comparison to his real work: understanding the composition, structure and evolution of the universe. In pursuing that work, he became the first observational cosmologist.

  17. William Herschel, the First Observational Cosmologist

    SciTech Connect

    Lemonick, Michael

    2008-11-12

    In the late 1700s, a composer, orchestra director and soloist named William Herschel became fascinated with astronomy, and, having built his own reflecting telescope, went out in his garden in Bath, England, one night and discovered Uranus - the first planet in human history ever found by an individual. The feat earned him a lifetime pension from King George III. But Herschel considered the discovery to be relatively unimportant in comparison to his real work: understanding the composition, structure and evolution of the universe. In pursuing that work, he became the first observational cosmologist.

  18. William Herschel, the First Observational Cosmologist

    SciTech Connect

    Lemonick, Michael

    2008-11-12

    In the late 1700s, a composer, orchestra director and soloist named William Herschel became fascinated with astronomy, and, having built his own reflecting telescope, went out in his garden in Bath, England, one night and discovered Uranus—the first planet in human history ever found by an individual. The feat earned him a lifetime pension from King George III. But Herschel considered the discovery to be relatively unimportant in comparison to his real work: understanding the composition, structure and evolution of the universe. In pursuing that work, he became the first observational cosmologist.

  19. The neosexual revolution.

    PubMed

    Sigusch, V

    1998-08-01

    The affluent societies of the Western world have witnessed a tremendous cultural and social transformation of sexuality during the 1980s and 1990s, a process I refer to as the neosexual revolution. Up to now, this recoding and reassessment of sexuality has proceeded rather slowly and quietly. Yet both its real and its symbolic effects may indeed be more consequential than those brought about in the course of the rapid, noisy sexual revolution of the 1960s and 1970s. The neosexual revolution is dismantling the old patterns of sexuality and reassembling them anew. In the process, dimensions, intimate relationships, preferences, and sexual fragments emerge, many of which had been submerged, were unnamed, or simply did not exist before. In general, sexuality has lost much of its symbolic meaning as a cultural phenomenon. Sexuality is no longer the great metaphor for pleasure and happiness, nor is it so greatly overestimated as it was during the sexual revolution. It is now widely taken for granted, much like egotism or motility. Whereas sex was once mystified in a positive sense--as ecstasy and transgression, it has now taken on a negative mystification characterized by abuse, violence, and deadly infection. While the old sexuality was based primarily upon sexual instinct, orgasm, and the heterosexual couple, neosexualities revolve predominantly around gender difference, thrills, self-gratification, and prosthetic substitution. From the vast number of interrelated processes from which neosexualities emerge, three empirically observable phenomena have been selected for discussion here: the dissociation of the sexual sphere, the dispersion of sexual fragments, and the diversification of intimate relationships. These processes go hand in hand with the commercialization and banalization of sexuality. They are looked upon as being controlled individually through the mechanisms of a fundamentally egotistical consensus morality. In conformity with the general principles at

  20. Revised list of Sir William Herschel's Fields of Diffuse Nebulosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latusseck, A.

    2008-12-01

    William Herschel's catalogue of more than 2500 nonstellar celestial objects is without doubt one of the great astronomical achievements of this exceptional astronomer. Largely unknown, however, is a list containing fifty-two fields of extensive nebulosity, which Herschel published in 1811 as a supporting argument to his nebular hypothesis (Herschel, 1811: 275-276), all of which were observed as a by-product of his sweeps between 1783 and 1802. For the purpose of a final revision of Herschel's objects, his sister Caroline's copies of the eight observing books containing the results of his decade-long sweeps (Herschel, Herschel and Herschel, 2004) were analyzed. As a result, a number of errors and inaccuracies were found and corrected. Furthermore, the terminology used to describe the observed nebulosities--which differed widely from that used by Herschel to describe non-stellar objects in his better-known catalogues of nebulae--was investigated in order to obtain a clearer impression of the appearance of Herschel's objects. The resulting revised list, being one principal result of the review of Herschel's list of fifty-two nebulosities, contains corrected physical information on each of the nebulosities. It further gives estimates on the reliability of Herschel's observations and finally summarizes all of the noticed peculiarities in a separate column.

  1. Herschel Observations of Dusty Debris Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vican, Laura; Schneider, Adam; Bryden, Geoff; Melis, Carl; Zuckerman, B.; Rhee, Joseph; Song, Inseok

    2016-12-01

    We present results from two Herschel observing programs using the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer. During three separate campaigns, we obtained Herschel data for 24 stars at 70, 100, and 160 μm. We chose stars that were already known or suspected to have circumstellar dust based on excess infrared (IR) emission previously measured with the InfraRed Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) or Spitzer and used Herschel to examine long-wavelength properties of the dust. Fifteen stars were found to be uncontaminated by background sources and possess IR emission most likely due to a circumstellar debris disk. We analyzed the properties of these debris disks to better understand the physical mechanisms responsible for dust production and removal. Seven targets were spatially resolved in the Herschel images. Based on fits to their spectral energy distributions, nine disks appear to have two temperature components. Of these nine, in three cases, the warmer dust component is likely the result of a transient process rather than a steady-state collisional cascade. The dust belts at four stars are likely stirred by an unseen planet and merit further investigation.

  2. Herschel mission overview and key programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilbratt, Göran L.

    2008-07-01

    Herschel is the next astronomy mission in the European Space Agency (ESA) science programme. It is currently in the final stages of assembly and verification in ESA's ESTEC facility in Noordwijk, and is scheduled to be flown to the launch site at Europe's Spaceport in Kourou later this year. Herschel will carry a 3.5 metre diameter passively cooled Cassegrain telescope which is the largest of its kind and utilises novel silicon carbide technology. The science payload comprises three instruments: two direct detection cameras/medium resolution spectrometers, PACS and SPIRE, and a very high resolution heterodyne spectrometer, HIFI. The focal plane units are housed inside a superfluid helium cryostat based on ISO legacy. Herschel will be launched by an Ariane 5 ECA together with the Planck satellite into a transfer trajectory towards the operational orbit around L2. When operational Herschel will provide unprecedented observational opportunities in the 55-672 μm spectral range, much of which has never before been accessible from a space observatory. It is an observatory facility available to the worldwide astronomical community, nominally almost 20,000 hours will be available for astronomy, 32% is guaranteed time and the remainder is open to the general astronomical community through a standard competitive proposal procedure. The initial Key Programme Announcement of Opportunity (AO) was issued in Feb 2007. Both the guaranteed and open time Key Programmes have been selected and are introduced, and future observing opportunities are outlined.

  3. The first year of routine Herschel observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-06-01

    MEETING REPORT The successful completion of the first year of routine science operations of ESA's Herschel Space Observatory was marked by a Specialist Discussion Meeting of the RAS held in January 2011. A few of the early science highlights from the mission were presented. Derek Ward-Thompson and David Clements summarize.

  4. Hybrid Warfare: A Military Revolution or Revolution in Military Affairs?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-14

    4MacGregor Knox and Williamson Murray, eds., The Dynamics of Military Revolution 1300-2050 (Cambridge: Cambridge... Dynamics of Military Revolution 1300-2050.12 A case study helps compare the extrapolation of the analysis and synthesis of their writings on MR to...affairs as defined by Knox and Murray in their book The Dynamics of Military Revolution, 1300-2050. 37 Professors Knox and Murray, provide a conceptual

  5. Representing revolution: icons of industrialization.

    PubMed

    Fara, Patricia

    2006-03-01

    Appreciating pictures entails a consideration not only of the people, objects and landscape that their artists have chosen to portray, but also an imagining of what has been excluded. The term 'Industrial Revolution' has been given multiple meanings, and this article (part of the Science in the Industrial Revolution series) explores some of these by exposing the messages concealed inside some of the most enduring images of the Revolution.

  6. Support of Herschel Key Programme Teams at the NASA Herschel Science Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shupe, David L.; Appleton, P. N.; Ardila, D.; Bhattacharya, B.; Mei, Y.; Morris, P.; Rector, J.; NHSC Team

    2010-01-01

    The first science data from the Herschel Space Observatory were distributed to Key Programme teams in September 2009. This poster describes a number of resources that have been developed by the NASA Herschel Science Center (NHSC) to support the first users of the observatory. The NHSC webpages and Helpdesk serve as the starting point for information and queries from the US community. Details about the use of the Herschel Common Science Software can be looked up in the Helpdesk Knowledgebase. The capability of real-time remote support through desktop sharing has been implemented. The NHSC continues to host workshops on data analysis and observation planning. Key Programme teams have been provided Wiki sites upon request for their team's private use and for sharing information with other teams. A secure data storage area is in place for troubleshooting purposes and for use by visitors. The NHSC draws upon close working relationships with Instrument Control Centers and the Herschel Science Center in Madrid in order to have the necessary expertise on hand to assist Herschel observers, including both Key Programme teams and respondents to upcoming open time proposal calls.

  7. John Herschel on the Discovery of Neptune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollerstrom, Nicholas

    2006-12-01

    The letters of John Herschel that concern the discovery of the planet Neptune have not been greatly discussed by historians of science. I have transcribed these in the course of archiving the British Neptune-discovery documents. Herschel tends to be depicted as a background figure in narrations of the story of Neptune's discovery, whereas the present account focuses upon his evolving view of the topic: the rival merits of the two main protagonists, and the startling manner in which an obscure branch of mathematics (perturbation theory) was able to pinpoint the position of a new sphere in the sky. As the son of the man who found Uranus, his views have a special relevance. Also, I suggest that his eloquent prose style may still be enjoyed today.

  8. Herschel Observations of Debris Disks from WISE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padgett, D. L.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Liu, W.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Fajardo-Acosta, S.

    2012-01-01

    The \\Vide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has just completed a sensitive all-sky survey in photometric bands at 3.4, 4.6,12 and 22 microns. We report on a study of main sequence Hipparcos and Tycho catalog stars within 120 pc with WISE 22 micron emission in excess of photospheric levels. This warm excess emission traces material in the circumstellar region likely to host terrestrial planets and is preferentially found in young systems with ages < 1 Gyr. Nearly a hundred of the WISE new warm debris disk candidates detected among FGK stars are being observed by Herschel/PACS to characterize circumstellar dust. Preliminary results indicate 70 micron detection rates in excess of 80% for these targets, suggesting that most of these systems have both warm and cool dust in analogy to our asteroid and Kuiper belts. In this contribution, we will discuss the WISE debris disk survey and latest results from Herschel observations of these sources.

  9. IRAC Snapshot Imaging of Red Herschel Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooray, Asantha; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Wardlow, Julie; Ivison, Rob; Perez-Fournon, Ismael; Riechers, Dominik; Clements, David; Oliver, Seb; Oteo, Ivan

    2016-08-01

    Wide-field submillimeter surveys with Herschel have produced large samples of rare populations, which provide some of the most stringent constraints on galaxy formation theories. In this proposal we request IRAC observations of 'red' Herschel sources, which are the most extreme DSFGs at z>4. The proposed snapshot IRAC 3.6 and 4.5um data will probe the stellar emission from these systems - complementary data to the far-infrared dust emission that led to their identification. We will use these data to extend the SEDs into the near-IR regime and measure more reliable stellar masses than otherwise available. They will be combined with existing survey data and dedicated follow-up programs to map the evolution of DSFGs as a function of redshift, stellar mass and far-IR luminosity.

  10. The peculiar UV extinction of Herschel 36

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, J.; Helfer, H. L.; Wolf, J.; Donn, B.; Pipher, J. L.

    The differential extinction curve of Herschel 36 was determined from International Ultraviolet Explorer data. It is quite unusual, characterized by a distinct 2200 A peak with a very low far blue end at 5 to 7 mu to the -1 power. The star appears to be an extreme member of the group Savage drew attention to, previously consisting only of theta Ori, NU Ori, sigma Sco, and rho Oph. It appears that multiple scattering effects are needed to explain the observations.

  11. News Note: Herschel-Darwin commemoration dinner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Coning, Chris

    2016-08-01

    On the evening of 15 June 1836 Charles Darwin had dinner with John Herschel in Cape Town. The year 2016 makes it 180 years since this event took place. Auke Slotegraaf and Chris de Coning decided that the event should be commemorated. A total of 15 people attended the dinner, which was held on 15 June at a restaurant in the house occupied by the astronomer Fearon Fallows in 1821. It was a very informal evening and there were three speakers.

  12. Herschel Data Processing Development: 10 Years After

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, S.

    2013-10-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory, the fourth cornerstone mission in the ESA science program, was launched on the 14th of May 2009. As a cryogenic mission Herschel's operational lifetime is consumable-limited by its supply of liquid helium, estimated to be depleted by March 2013. Afterwards the mission will start a 4.75 year long post-operations phase. Originally it was considered sufficient to provide astronomers with raw data and software tools to carry out a basic data reduction, and no “data products” were to be generated and delivered. Following the realisation that the expectations of the astronomical community on the deliverables of an observatory mission evolved it was agreed to implement a single ‘cradle to grave’ data analysis system supporting the needs of all users for the whole project cycle. We will summarise the lessons learned during those ten years of Herschel data processing development, address the main challenges of this major software development project, and reflect on what went well, what needed to be adapted, and our open points.

  13. Pre-collapse phase studies before Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafalla, M.

    2012-03-01

    The role of molecular clouds as factories of stars has been recognized for decades, but understanding how a large cloud of tens of thousands or more solar masses fragments into stellar-sized pockets with an efficiency of only a few percent and an IMF spectrum is still a puzzling mystery. In this talk, I will review how our observational understanding of the stages prior to star formation has evolved with time, from the earliest molecular studies to the pre-Herschel era. Both the large scale of clouds and the small structure of dense cores will be covered, following the results from molecular-line observation and dust emission/extinction studies. Although Herschel observations are clearly revolutionizing our view of cloud and core formation, parallel work on the kinematics of the cloud gas is also shedding new light on the pre-collapse phases. I will end my presentation showing how large-scale kinematics studies, highly complementary to the Herschel continuum data, reveal a sequence of fragmentation that seems responsible for core formation.

  14. The Herschels: A very fashionable scientific family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterburn, Emily

    2011-01-01

    What is special about the Herschel family? It is a family that has attracted the attention of historians of science for many years and has done so for a number of reasons. Some simply marvel at the family's ability to have produced generations upon generation of great men and women of science. Others have highlighted the work of individuals within the family and how their work changed the way astronomy was done, what it was about, and then later did the same for science as a whole. The unusually high status enjoyed by Herschel women, Caroline Herschel in particular, has not escaped notice, though I will here question some of the conclusions drawn about her motivations. Most of all, however I will argue in this paper, they should be interesting to a modern audience for the way in which they managed time and again, generation on generation, to make science fashionable and popular. In this paper I will look at three generations of this family - from William and Caroline discovering comets and planets in the late eighteenth century, through John and his claim that society needs science to be properly civilised, to John and Margaret's children and their varied takes on the relationship between astronomy, science and the public. I will look at the role astronomy played in each of their lives, how they were taught and taught each other and how in each generation they managed to make their work the talk of the town.

  15. Louis Pasteur surgical revolution.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2009-01-01

    Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) is considered the most notable medical scientist of his time and perhaps one of the most distinguished of all times in the history of medicine. From Dole in France to Paris, from a student of crystals to "living ferments," and from chemistry to biology and medicine, Pasteur changed the world for the benefit of humanity. The genius of Pasteur dealt with the most pressing issues of his time, basing the germ theory on the effects that microorganisms had on fermentation and putrefaction of organic matter, which gave birth to the science of bacteriology. Many other difficult problems in medicine and biology were tackled by Pasteur, culminating in the spectacular results seen with the treatment of rabies. Surgery was no exception to the scientific conquests of Pasteur. The transformation of the surgical world arose from the antiseptic concepts of Lister that were based on the germ theory of the disease, which had been derived from the germ theory of fermentation and putrefaction discovered by Pasteur. The acceptance of these principles represented the surgical revolution brought on by the science of Pasteur, a revolution that is now accepted in our daily care of surgical patients.

  16. Women and the American Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jan

    1994-01-01

    Contends that anyone teaching the history of the American Revolution today faces the challenge of including the role of women. Asserts that historians continue to debate whether the changes in women's role and status were necessary or incidental outcomes of the Revolution. (CFR)

  17. Tracking a Global Academic Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.; Reisberg, Liz; Rumbley, Laura E.

    2010-01-01

    A global revolution has been taking place in higher education during the past half-century. In the educators' view, four fundamental and interrelated forces have impelled the current academic revolution: the "massification" of higher education, globalization, the advent of the knowledge society and the importance of research universities…

  18. Tracking a Global Academic Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.; Reisberg, Liz; Rumbley, Laura E.

    2010-01-01

    A global revolution has been taking place in higher education during the past half-century. In the educators' view, four fundamental and interrelated forces have impelled the current academic revolution: the "massification" of higher education, globalization, the advent of the knowledge society and the importance of research universities…

  19. The Industrial Revolution: A Misnomer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Rondo

    1982-01-01

    Argues that the British industrial revolution was in no sense inevitable and scarcely deserves the term "revolution." Examined are the characteristics which the British shared with other Europeans and ways in which they were distinctive that enabled them to become the first industrial nation. (RM)

  20. Women and the American Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jan

    1994-01-01

    Contends that anyone teaching the history of the American Revolution today faces the challenge of including the role of women. Asserts that historians continue to debate whether the changes in women's role and status were necessary or incidental outcomes of the Revolution. (CFR)

  1. OPACs and the Mobile Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liston, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    Since the turn of the century, one of the hottest topics in the IT world has been the coming mobile revolution. While there's been some arguing over the details, the fundamental tenet of the mobile revolution is that lots and lots of people will start accessing web content from handheld portable devices instead of using a traditional laptop or…

  2. The French Revolution and "Revisionism."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, Claude

    1990-01-01

    Outlines revisionist interpretations of the French Revolution that challenged the dominant historiographical tradition during the 1950s and 1960s. Distinguishes four central characteristics of revisionist works. Identifies a key split in current French Revolution historiography between reflection on nineteenth-century…

  3. The French Revolution and "Revisionism."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, Claude

    1990-01-01

    Outlines revisionist interpretations of the French Revolution that challenged the dominant historiographical tradition during the 1950s and 1960s. Distinguishes four central characteristics of revisionist works. Identifies a key split in current French Revolution historiography between reflection on nineteenth-century…

  4. OPACs and the Mobile Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liston, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    Since the turn of the century, one of the hottest topics in the IT world has been the coming mobile revolution. While there's been some arguing over the details, the fundamental tenet of the mobile revolution is that lots and lots of people will start accessing web content from handheld portable devices instead of using a traditional laptop or…

  5. The Industrial Revolution: A Misnomer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Rondo

    1982-01-01

    Argues that the British industrial revolution was in no sense inevitable and scarcely deserves the term "revolution." Examined are the characteristics which the British shared with other Europeans and ways in which they were distinctive that enabled them to become the first industrial nation. (RM)

  6. Three Steps to a Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosling, W.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the uses of television in education and considers the future in relationship to the microelectronics revolution. New microelectronic technology, cheap information storage, and cheap transmission of information are discussed as major components of a revolution in educational television use. (Author/BK)

  7. Binary AGB stars observed with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornfeld, Klaus

    2012-03-01

    Asymptotic Giant Branch stars are stars at the end of their lifetime with low to intermediate masses. They are important in the Galactic context, since they contribute a lot of dust to the interstellar medium (ISM) and influence the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. Many AGB stars show peculiar outflow morphologies depending on their mass-loss rates. The outflowing wind of these stars collides with the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM). The collisions with the ISM result in the formation of bow shocks or rings, well visible in the latest Herschel Space Observatory images made with the on-board PACS instrument. Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleight-Taylor instabilities were found in the bow shock regions. With the help of Herschel and within the framework of the MESS (Mass loss of Evolved StarS) Guaranteed Time Key Program it was tried to distinguish between the different morphologies. The outflow morphologies were categorized in 4 main classes: "fermata", "eye", "ring", and "irregular"; also point sources showing no resolved circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) were found. Some of the AGB stars in the MESS sample are known binary stars and the binary state of some other objects is still in discussion. A new attempt to clarify the binarity of the objects can be made by checking their outflow morphology and to compare the results with known morphological (a-)symmetries in binary systems. This Thesis discusses 14 binary AGB candidates from the MESS sample, the previous findings and the Herschel results. Herschel observes at infrared wavelengths. Light at this wavelengths can be seen through the dust, which is formed in the surrounding environment of these stars. For the unknown cases it is difficult to determine the binary state, because AGB stars can have very strong wind outflows, making the detection of a companion difficult. Photo- and spectroscopy, CO line outflow measurements or composite spectra can be used to identify features caused directly o! r indirectly by the

  8. Revolutions in the earth sciences

    PubMed Central

    Allègre, C.

    1999-01-01

    The 20th century has been a century of scientific revolutions for many disciplines: quantum mechanics in physics, the atomic approach in chemistry, the nonlinear revolution in mathematics, the introduction of statistical physics. The major breakthroughs in these disciplines had all occurred by about 1930. In contrast, the revolutions in the so-called natural sciences, that is in the earth sciences and in biology, waited until the last half of the century. These revolutions were indeed late, but they were no less deep and drastic, and they occurred quite suddenly. Actually, one can say that not one but three revolutions occurred in the earth sciences: in plate tectonics, planetology and the environment. They occurred essentially independently from each other, but as time passed, their effects developed, amplified and started interacting. These effects continue strongly to this day.

  9. The social media revolution.

    PubMed

    Dubose, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    The growing popularity and use of social media tools such as Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, blogging, and wikis have led to a social media revolution. Given this widespread influence, it is important for educators, administrators, and technologists to understand the risks of using social media in the classroom and workplace. To investigate popular social media sites and their effect on radiologic technology education and business practices. A comprehensive search of literature was performed to examine social media and its applications in education, health care, and business. Social media use is on the rise, affecting all aspects of mainstream society. Leaders in the radiologic sciences should be familiar with social media and cognizant of its risks. Future studies regarding social media use in the radiologic sciences are necessary to determine its effect on the radiologic science community. ©2011 by the American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  10. Embracing a Revolution - Telemedicine.

    PubMed

    Dheer, Ajay; Chaturvedi, R K

    2005-01-01

    The recent advances in information and communication technologies offer real and practical opportunities to health professionals to share expertise and resources in health care over distances. For a country like India with pockets of medical excellence surrounded by a vast number of badly equipped hospitals with limited specialists, telemedicine could revolutionize health care. The potential of telemedicine seem to be vital in avoiding the frame of travel, in timely getting specialist advise to remote areas, minimizing the cost and of course an opportunity to learn from each other. In developed countries the technological advancement and research aims primarily to satiate the needs of their armed forces and to ensure tactical and technical supremacy. The medical community in the Indian Armed Forces should harness the technologies and embrace this revolution of the information age to provide world class combat casualty care.

  11. Scrutinizing the epigenetics revolution.

    PubMed

    Meloni, Maurizio; Testa, Giuseppe

    2014-11-01

    Epigenetics is one of the most rapidly expanding fields in the life sciences. Its rise is frequently framed as a revolutionary turn that heralds a new epoch both for gene-based epistemology and for the wider discourse on life that pervades knowledge-intensive societies of the molecular age. The fundamentals of this revolution remain however to be scrutinized, and indeed the very contours of what counts as 'epigenetic' are often blurred. This is reflected also in the mounting discourse on the societal implications of epigenetics, in which vast expectations coexist with significant uncertainty about what aspects of this science are most relevant for politics or policy alike. This is therefore a suitable time to reflect on the directions that social theory could most productively take in the scrutiny of this revolution. Here we take this opportunity in both its scholarly and normative dimension, that is, proposing a roadmap for social theorizing on epigenetics that does not shy away from, and indeed hopefully guides, the framing of its most socially relevant outputs. To this end, we start with an epistemological reappraisal of epigenetic discourse that valorizes the blurring of meanings as a critical asset for the field and privileged analytical entry point. We then propose three paths of investigation. The first looks at the structuring elements of controversies and visions around epigenetics. The second probes the mutual constitution between the epigenetic reordering of living phenomena and the normative settlements that orient individual and collective responsibilities. The third highlights the material import of epigenetics and the molecularization of culture that it mediates. We suggest that these complementary strands provide both an epistemically and socially self-reflective framework to advance the study of epigenetics as a molecular juncture between nature and nurture and thus as the new critical frontier in the social studies of the life sciences.

  12. Scrutinizing the epigenetics revolution

    PubMed Central

    Meloni, Maurizio; Testa, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetics is one of the most rapidly expanding fields in the life sciences. Its rise is frequently framed as a revolutionary turn that heralds a new epoch both for gene-based epistemology and for the wider discourse on life that pervades knowledge-intensive societies of the molecular age. The fundamentals of this revolution remain however to be scrutinized, and indeed the very contours of what counts as ‘epigenetic' are often blurred. This is reflected also in the mounting discourse on the societal implications of epigenetics, in which vast expectations coexist with significant uncertainty about what aspects of this science are most relevant for politics or policy alike. This is therefore a suitable time to reflect on the directions that social theory could most productively take in the scrutiny of this revolution. Here we take this opportunity in both its scholarly and normative dimension, that is, proposing a roadmap for social theorizing on epigenetics that does not shy away from, and indeed hopefully guides, the framing of its most socially relevant outputs. To this end, we start with an epistemological reappraisal of epigenetic discourse that valorizes the blurring of meanings as a critical asset for the field and privileged analytical entry point. We then propose three paths of investigation. The first looks at the structuring elements of controversies and visions around epigenetics. The second probes the mutual constitution between the epigenetic reordering of living phenomena and the normative settlements that orient individual and collective responsibilities. The third highlights the material import of epigenetics and the molecularization of culture that it mediates. We suggest that these complementary strands provide both an epistemically and socially self-reflective framework to advance the study of epigenetics as a molecular juncture between nature and nurture and thus as the new critical frontier in the social studies of the life sciences. PMID

  13. Panchromatic spectral energy distributions of Herschel sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta, S.; Lutz, D.; Santini, P.; Wuyts, S.; Rosario, D.; Brisbin, D.; Cooray, A.; Franceschini, A.; Gruppioni, C.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Hwang, H. S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Magnelli, B.; Nordon, R.; Oliver, S.; Page, M. J.; Popesso, P.; Pozzetti, L.; Pozzi, F.; Riguccini, L.; Rodighiero, G.; Roseboom, I.; Scott, D.; Symeonidis, M.; Valtchanov, I.; Viero, M.; Wang, L.

    2013-03-01

    Combining far-infrared Herschel photometry from the PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) and Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) guaranteed time programs with ancillary datasets in the GOODS-N, GOODS-S, and COSMOS fields, it is possible to sample the 8-500 μm spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies with at least 7-10 bands. Extending to the UV, optical, and near-infrared, the number of bands increases up to 43. We reproduce the distribution of galaxies in a carefully selected restframe ten colors space, based on this rich data-set, using a superposition of multivariate Gaussian modes. We use this model to classify galaxies and build median SEDs of each class, which are then fitted with a modified version of the magphys code that combines stellar light, emission from dust heated by stars and a possible warm dust contribution heated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). The color distribution of galaxies in each of the considered fields can be well described with the combination of 6-9 classes, spanning a large range of far- to near-infrared luminosity ratios, as well as different strength of the AGN contribution to bolometric luminosities. The defined Gaussian grouping is used to identify rare or odd sources. The zoology of outliers includes Herschel-detected ellipticals, very blue z ~ 1 Ly-break galaxies, quiescent spirals, and torus-dominated AGN with star formation. Out of these groups and outliers, a new template library is assembled, consisting of 32 SEDs describing the intrinsic scatter in the restframe UV-to-submm colors of infrared galaxies. This library is tested against L(IR) estimates with and without Herschel data included, and compared to eightother popular methods often adopted in the literature. When implementing Herschel photometry, these approaches produce L(IR) values consistent with each other within a median absolute deviation of 10-20%, the scatter being dominated more by fine tuning of the codes, rather than by the choice of

  14. Mapping the Milky Way: William Herschel's Star Gages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timberlake, Todd

    2013-01-01

    William Herschel (Fig. 1) is rightfully known as one of the greatest astronomers of all time. Born in Hanover (in modern Germany) in 1738, Herschel immigrated to England in 1757 and began a successful career as a professional musician. Later in life Herschel developed a strong interest in astronomy. He began making his own reflecting telescopes in 1774, and soon his telescopes were recognized as the finest in the world. It was through one of his homemade telescopes, a Newtonian reflector with a focal length of seven feet and an aperture of 6.2 inches, that Herschel first spotted the planet Uranus in 1781. The discovery of a new planet catapulted Herschel to fame and secured him a position as personal astronomer to King George III.

  15. The Herschel DUNES Open Time Key Programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danchi, William C.

    2009-01-01

    We will use the unique photometric capabilities provided by Herschel to perform a deep and systematic survey for faint, cold debris disks around nearby stars. Our sensitivity-limited Open Time Key Programme (OTKP) aims at finding and characterizing faint extrasolar analogues to the Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt (EKB) in an unbiased, statistically significant sample of nearby FGK main-sequence stars. Our target set spans a broad range of stellar ages (from 0.1 to 10 Gyr) and is volume-limited (distances < 20 pc). All stars with known extrasolar planets within this distance are included; additionally, some M- and A-type stars will be observed in collaboration with the Herschel DEBRIS OTKP, so that the entire sample covers a decade in stellar mass, from 0.2 to 2 solar masses. We will perform PACS and SPIRE photometric observations covering the wavelength range from 70 to 500 microns. The PACS observations at 100 microns have been designed to detect the stellar photospheres down to the confusion limit with a signal-to-noise ratio > 5. The observations in the other Herschel bands will allow us to characterize, model, and constrain the disks. As a result, it will be possible for us to reach fractional dust luminosities of a few times 10-7, close to the EKB level in the Solar System. This will provide an unprecedented lower limit to the fractional abundance of planetesimal systems and allow us to assess the presence of giant planets, which would play dynamical roles similar to those played by Jupiter and Neptune in the Solar System. The proposed observations will provide new and unique evidence for the presence of mature planetary systems in the solar neighbourhood and, in turn, will address the universality of planet/planetary system formation in disks around young stars.

  16. The peculiar extinction of Herschel 36

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donn, B.; Hecht, J. H.; Helfer, H. L.; Wolf, J.; Pipher, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    The extinction of Herschel 36 was measured and found to be peculiar in the same sense as that observed in Orion. Following the treatment of Mathis and Wallenhorst, this can be explained by the presence of large silicate and graphite grains than are normally found in the interstellar medium. Correcting the stellar flux for foreground extinction results in a residual extinction curve for the associated dust cloud, with an unusually small normalized extinction (less than 1.0) at 1500 A. This low UV extinction may be due to the effects of scattering by the dust cloud material.

  17. Feudalism and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Thomas E.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews and questions the traditional established interpretation that the French Revolution was about feudalism. Concludes that revisionist historians have cast doubt upon the orthodox theory but that they have not supplied an alternative explanation. (Author/DB)

  18. Feudalism and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Thomas E.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews and questions the traditional established interpretation that the French Revolution was about feudalism. Concludes that revisionist historians have cast doubt upon the orthodox theory but that they have not supplied an alternative explanation. (Author/DB)

  19. Revolutions in Neuroscience: Tool Development

    PubMed Central

    Bickle, John

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Kuhn’s famous model of the components and dynamics of scientific revolutions is still dominant to this day across science, philosophy, and history. The guiding philosophical theme of this article is that, concerning actual revolutions in neuroscience over the past 60 years, Kuhn’s account is wrong. There have been revolutions, and new ones are brewing, but they do not turn on competing paradigms, anomalies, or the like. Instead, they turn exclusively on the development of new experimental tools. I adopt a metascientific approach and examine in detail the development of two recent neuroscience revolutions: the impact of engineered genetically mutated mammals in the search for causal mechanisms of “higher” cognitive functions; and the more recent impact of optogenetics and designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs). The two key metascientific concepts, I derive from these case studies are a revolutionary new tool’s motivating problem, and its initial and second-phase hook experiments. These concepts hardly exhaust a detailed metascience of tool development experiments in neuroscience, but they get that project off to a useful start and distinguish the subsequent account of neuroscience revolutions clearly from Kuhn’s famous model. I close with a brief remark about the general importance of molecular biology for a current philosophical understanding of science, as comparable to the place physics occupied when Kuhn formulated his famous theory of scientific revolutions. PMID:27013992

  20. Transient effects in Herschel/PACS spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadda, Dario; Jacobson, Jeffery D.; Appleton, Philip N.

    2016-10-01

    Context. The Ge:Ga detectors used in the PACS spectrograph onboard the Herschel space telescope react to changes of the incident flux with a certain delay. This generates transient effects on the resulting signal which can be important and last for up to an hour. Aims: The paper presents a study of the effects of transients on the detected signal and proposes methods to mitigate them especially in the case of the unchopped mode. Methods: Since transients can arise from a variety of causes, we classified them in three main categories: transients caused by sudden variations of the continuum due to the observational mode used; transients caused by cosmic ray impacts on the detectors; transients caused by a continuous smooth variation of the continuum during a wavelength scan. We propose a method to disentangle these effects and treat them separately. In particular, we show that a linear combination of three exponential functions is needed to fit the response variation of the detectors during a transient. An algorithm to detect, fit, and correct transient effects is presented. Results: The solution proposed to correct the signal for the effects of transients substantially improves the quality of the final reduction with respect to the standard methods used for archival reduction in the cases where transient effects are most pronounced. Conclusions: The programs developed to implement the corrections are offered through two new interactive data reduction pipelines in the latest releases of the Herschel Interactive Processing Environment.

  1. Vibrationally Excited Molecular Hydrogen Near Herschel 36

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachford, Brian L.; Snow, T. P.; Ross, T.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first high resolution UV spectra toward Herschel 36, a Trapezium-like system of high-mass stars contained within the Lagoon Nebula (M8, NGC 6523). The spectra reveal extreme ro-vibrational excitation of molecular hydrogen in material at a single velocity or very small range of velocities, most likely the largest ever seen in UV absorption spectra. While the velocities of the highly excited H2 lines are consistent within each observation, it appears that they underwent a ≈60 km s-1 redshift during the 3.6 years between observations. In neither case does the velocity of the highly excited material match the velocity of the bulk of the line-of-sight material which appears to mostly be in the foreground of M8. Recent work shows unusually excited CH and CH+ lines and several unusually broad Diffuse Interstellar Bands (DIBs) towards Herschel 36. Along with the H2 excitation, all of these findings appear to be related to the extreme environment within ˜0.1 pc of the massive young stellar system.

  2. The Copernican Revolution Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingerich, O.

    1999-12-01

    The rapid pace of modern astronomy seems driven by technological advances: larger telescopes, new detectors, a wider spectral range, more powerful computers. In contrast, the revolution in astronomy initiated by Nicolaus Copernicus' De revolutionibus seems slow and unrelated to any new observations; it was an idea ``pleasing to the mind." On aesthetic grounds but without empirical proof Copernicus argued for 1) the perfection of the circle, and 2) the elegance of the heliocentric plan. This prize lecture will argue that in fact the slow acceptance of Copernicus' radical heliocentric cosmology resulted primarily because Copernicus was far in advance of the technological developments needed to test his hypotheses. Tycho Brahe's precision instruments (and his failed campaign to find the parallax of Mars) produced the observational base for Kepler's physical astronomy, while in Galileo's hands the telescope provided evidence from the phases of Venus that disproved the Ptolemaic arrangement. Once the new instrumentation opened the way for observational tests, Copernicus' insistence on the uniform, circular motion fell by the wayside, but his other grand aesthetic vision, the heliocentric cosmology, found relatively rapid adoption. The lecture will include vignettes from our three-decades-long search for annotated copies of Copernicus' book, leading to the census of 270 copies of the first edition (Nuremberg, 1543) and nearly 320 copies of the second edition (Basel, 1566).

  3. China's revolution in health.

    PubMed

    Miller, N N; Strickler, J C

    1980-01-01

    Since the revolution and the overthrow of the Gang of Four, China has embarked upon a program of modernization, internationalization, and technological development. The sloganeering campaign for general health as espoused by Chairman Mao is as follows: 1) prevention, including immunizations and early illness detection; 2) serve the workers, peasants, and soldiers; 3) medical work integrated into all other modernization efforts; and 4) combine traditional and Western medicine. The mass campaign aims to involve individuals in improving their health care facilities at the same time they are involved in production of goods and services. Rural workers are mobilized in mass cleanup and prevention campaigns. Of the 8.7 million health workers, nearly 2 million are barefoot doctors, or other types of doctors serving at the lowest rung of paramedical service. Basic services are widely available. Costs are low, access is easy. For about 95% of illnesses the system works very well. Patients with illnesses requiring high technology care, e.g., organ transplant, cannot survive. Chairman Mao codified traditional medicine as a curriculum component for education; it is based on ancient West-Central Chinese practices, mostly from the Han people. The 4 main components are theory, diagnosis and prescription, herbal medicine, and accupuncture.

  4. Nanosciences: Evolution or revolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pautrat, Jean-Louis

    2011-09-01

    In miniaturized objects fabricated by modern technology the smallest linear size may be of a few nanometers. In the field of microelectronics, the advantages of such a miniaturization are huge (increased complexity and reliability, reduced costs). The technology is now approaching the limits where further size reduction will be impossible, except for very novel techniques such as molecular electronics. Miniaturization research has also led to the discovery of nanometric objects such as carbon nanotubes, which turn out to be particularly appropriate for inventing new materials. Miniaturization techniques have been progressively applied in other fields, with the hope of obtaining improvements similar to those encountered in microelectronics. Examples are biochips, which concentrate on a few cm 2 the recognition of ADN sequences, or 'lab-on-a-chip' devices, each of which constitutes a whole laboratory of chemical analysis, or MEMs (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems). New therapies will use miniaturized objects with multiple functions: For instance a nanoparticle can both recognize the target organ thanks to an appropriate protein, and deliver the therapeutic molecule to this target. These results have only been possible through new observation instruments, able to observe and manipulate nano objects. Is the observed evolution really a revolution of science and techniques? This is a point discussed in the conclusion, which also deals with risks associated to nanotechnologies, while the need for a social regulation is stressed.

  5. Dust in the Diffuse Emission of the Galactic Plane: The Herschel/Spitzer Spectral Energy Distribution Fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compiègne, M.; Flagey, N.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Martin, P. G.; Bernard, J.-P.; Paladini, R.; Molinari, S.

    2010-11-01

    The first Herschel Hi-Gal images of the Galactic plane unveil the far-infrared diffuse emission of the interstellar medium with an unprecedented angular resolution and sensitivity. In this Letter, we present the first analysis of these data in combination with those of Spitzer GLIMPSE and MIPSGAL. We selected a relatively diffuse and low excitation region of the l ~ 59° Hi-Gal Science Demonstration Phase field to perform a pixel-by-pixel fitting of the 8 to 500 μm spectral energy distribution (SED) using the DustEM dust emission model. We derived maps of the very small grain (VSG) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) abundances from the model. Our analysis allows us to illustrate that the aromatic infrared band intensity does not necessarily trace the PAH abundance but rather the product of "abundance × column density × intensity of the exciting radiation field." We show that the spatial structure of PACS 70 μm maps resemble the shorter wavelengths (e.g., IRAC 8 μm) maps, because they trace both the intensity of exciting radiation field and column density. We also show that the modeled VSG contribution to PACS 70 μm (PACS 160 μm) band intensity can be up to 50% (7%). The interpretation of diffuse emission spectra at these wavelengths must take stochastically heated particles into account. Finally, this preliminary study emphasizes the potential of analyzing the full dust SED sampled by Herschel and Spitzer data, with a physical dust model (DustEM) to reach the properties of the dust at simultaneously large and small scales. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA. The Spitzer Space Telescope is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA.

  6. William Herschel and the 'garnet' stars: μ Cephei and more

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinicke, Wolfgang

    2015-07-01

    Although William Herschel's 'Garnet Star' (μ Cephei) is a prominent object, the story of the discovery of this famous red star is not well documented. Prior to and after Herschel, the identification of this star was the subject of confusion in various catalogues and atlases. The case is complex and involves other stars in southern Cepheus, including double stars, found by Herschel in the course of his star surveys. It is also fascinating to learn that μ Cephei is not the only star called 'garnet' by him. This study reveals that there are 21 in all, resulting in a 'Herschel Catalogue of Garnet Stars' - the first historical catalogue of red stars. Among them are prominent objects, which in the literature are credited to later observers. This misconception is corrected here, for Herschel was the true discoverer of all of them. The most interesting cases are Hind's 'Crimson Star', Secchi's 'La Superba', John Herschel's 'Ruby Star' and Schmidt's V Aquilae. Finally, we discussed whether Herschel speculated about the physical nature of his garnet stars, many of which are now known to be variable.

  7. Herschel's Far-Infrared View of Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, James

    2014-01-01

    Herschel opened a new window on galaxy formation at far-infrared and sub-millimeter wavelengths, providing imaging in 6 spectral bands ranging from 70 - 500 um, diffraction-limited spatial resolution, and surveys ranging from deep well-studied fields to scanned maps covering large areas of sky. Herschel shows rapidly evolving far-infrared galaxy populations, with emission largely driven by dust-obscured star-formation. Herschel survey data mapped out the detailed evolution of the far-infrared luminosity function from our local universe to moderate redshifts. Combined with multi-wavelength surveys, we determined the role of far-infrared emission in diverse galaxy populations, including AGNs, as well as dust-obscured, Lyman-break, and radio galaxies. Herschel images provide a ready means to identify gravitationally lensed systems, expanding on the total number of known lenses, and providing spectacular high-redshift galaxies for detailed study. Observations of rich cluster fields produced new measurements on lensed galaxies, the extragalactic background, and the SZ effect. The analysis of Herschel images pioneered new statistical techniques to probe galaxies below the confusion limit, stacking on known populations to derive ensemble properties, and mapping large-scale structure through power spectral methods to explore the relationship between galaxy formation and the underlying distribution of dark matter. I will present recent results from Herschel extragalactic science observations, concentrating on the Herschel Multi-Tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES), with selected highlights from all surveys.

  8. Mapping dust in Orion protostars: from Herschel to APEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanke, Thomas; Stutz, Amelia; Megeath, Thomas; HOPS Team

    2013-07-01

    HOPS (Herschel Orion Protostar Survey) is a 70 and 160mum Herschel PACS survey towards a sample of Spitzer identified protostar candidates in the Orion A and B giant molecular clouds. In this poster we give an overview of our efforts to obtain longer wavelength dust continuum maps, using the Laboca and Saboca cameras (870 and 350mum, respectively) at the APEX telescope, which provide maps at spatial resolutions well matched to the Herschel PACS data. The Laboca maps cover the entire field surveyed also by Herschel, providing a dust continuum measurement for all protostars observed by Herschel. The Saboca maps are restricted to smaller maps, mainly targeting PACS-bright protostar candidates, new protostar candidates not seen previously by Spitzer and identified from the Herschel maps, and also all bright cores found in the Laboca maps which do not have a protostellar association (i.e., starless cores). The data are used to provide long-wavelength submm photometry constraining the protostellar envelope masses. The 350mum Saboca data spatially resolve the emission from the outer envelope and are used to constrain their radial density distribution. Furthermore, combined with the Herschel data, we derive column density and temperature maps of the dense gas surrounding the protostars.

  9. Telemedicine: the slow revolution.

    PubMed

    Moncrief, Jack W

    2014-01-01

    The use of interactive video has been recognized as a means of delivering medical support to isolated areas since the 1950s. The Department of Defense recognized early the capacity of telemedicine to deliver medical care and support to front-line military personnel. In 1989, the Texas Telemedicine Project received grants and support from the then American Telephone and Telegraph Company (now AT&T) and the Meadows Foundation of Dallas, Texas, to establish and evaluate telemedicine delivery in central Texas. That project had 6 connected telemedicine sites: 3 in Austin, Texas, and 3 in Giddings, Texas (a small community 55 miles to the southeast of Austin). The sites in Giddings included a chronic outpatient dialysis facility, an inpatient psychiatric hospital, and the emergency department at Giddings Hospital. Patient contact began in April 1991 and continued through March 1993. During that period, data on the 1500 patient contacts made were recorded. After termination of the Texas Telemedicine Project, AT&T continued to provide the transmission lines, and between 1993 and 1996, another 12,000 patient contacts were made. Approximately 80% were dialysis evaluations and 20% were non-dialysis primary care contacts. The original cost of materials and equipment in the Texas Telemedicine Project exceeded $50,000 per site. Today, a secure Internet connection with full-motion video and wireless data transfer to almost any location in the world is achievable with an iPad. Multiple inexpensive applications with connections for electrocardiogram, otoscope, and stethoscope, among others, make this technology extremely inexpensive and user-friendly. The revolution now is rapidly moving forward, with Medicare reimbursing telemedicine contacts in medically underserved areas. Multiple bills are before Congress to expand Medicare and therefore private insurance payment for this service.

  10. Thailand's reproductive revolution.

    PubMed

    Knodel, J

    1987-01-01

    Thailand has achieved a remarkable population revolution in the past 15 years, resulting in a fertility decline of 44%, the 3rd greatest decline of the major developing countries. Thailand is quite distinct from either China or South Korea, the leaders in fertility decline. It has neither China's authoritarian power system to enforce population control nor the highly developed, Westernized outlook of South Korea. Instead it achieved its astounding fertility drop through a noncoercive family planning program operating within a context of rapid social change and a cultural setting. Thailand's drop in population growth has touched almost all segments of Thai society. The preferred number of children among couples married less than 5 years has dropped in both rural and urban families at almost exactly the same rate, from about 3.2 in 1969 to 2.3 in 1984. Religious groups represent the only substantial difference in family size preference; Moslem women married less than 5 years stated a desired average of 3.1 children versus 2.3 for Buddhist women. The direct case of the fertility drop is a national increase in contraceptive use. In 1984, 65% of Thai women reported using contraception. The Thai population, however, was ripe for using contraception when it became available due to 1) mass media creating a desire for consumer goods, 2) the increased costs of education to parents, 3) the willingness of parents to trade off "parent repayment" from many children for a few quality children, 4) couples' autonomy in fertility decision making, 5) the high status of women in Thailand, and 6) the fact that Buddhism poses no barriers to contraception. Current trends show no immediate sign of change.

  11. Herschel Views on Stellar and Circumstellar Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waelkens, Christoffel

    2010-05-01

    We review the first results of Herschel on stellar and circumstellar evolution. - For main-sequence stars, PACS and SPIRE measurements of the debris disks surrounding Vega and Beta Pictoris are presented, revealing the disks with unprecedented spatial resolution at the peaks of their spectral energy distribution. - Through imaging and spectroscopic studies, the mass loss mechanisms and histories during the final stages of stellar evolution are investigated. Imaging of the circumstellar environments of AGB stars enables a detailed discussion of the discontinuous nature of the mass loss processes which induce the final evolution. With their moderately high spectral resolution, PACS and SPIRE reveal spectacularly rich molecular diagnostics on the dynamics of and the chemistry in the environments of objects such as CW Leo and VY CMa.

  12. Caroline Herschel: agency and self-presentation

    PubMed Central

    Winterburn, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Caroline Herschel was rare among her female contemporaries in gaining public recognition for her work in science, yet her role in this process and her role in designing her training have never previously been studied. We know that access to education and participation in science was different for men and women in the eighteenth century. However, drawing on feminist, pedagogical and biographical approaches to history, I argue that although access depended on a variety of factors, a more consistent gender divide came in lessons on how to learn, and in what was regarded as appropriate behaviour. Caroline's skill—so often misunderstood—was to be aware of the differences and to use them to her own advantage. PMID:26489184

  13. Exploring the Sandy Province of Herschel Crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-04

    This view from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows the downwind stretches of a sand sheet in central part of the much larger Herschel Crater. This sandy province began kilometers upwind in a string of barchan sand dunes. As the north-to-south blowing wind weakened downwind, it could no longer fashion the sand into dunes but rather into amorphously-shaped sand sheets. While perhaps not awe-inspiringly beautiful, sand sheets can tell us about Mars' current and past environmental conditions as a piece of the puzzle for understanding habitability. Having dunes upwind of sheets is the opposite situation Earth has, where upwind sand sheets evolve downwind into sand dunes. This mystery is receiving ongoing research to to understand these sandy differences between Earth and Mars. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21933

  14. CAROLINE HERSCHEL: AGENCY AND SELF-PRESENTATION.

    PubMed

    Winterburn, Emily

    2015-03-20

    Caroline Herschel was rare among her female contemporaries in gaining public recognition for her work in science, yet her role in this process and her role in designing her training have never previously been studied. We know that access to education and participation in science was different for men and women in the eighteenth century. However, drawing on feminist, pedagogical and biographical approaches to history, I argue that although access depended on a variety of factors, a more consistent gender divide came in lessons on how to learn, and in what was regarded as appropriate behaviour. Caroline's skill--so often misunderstood--was to be aware of the differences and to use them to her own advantage.

  15. Studying evolved stars with Herschel observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Santos, João Manuel

    2016-07-01

    A systematic inspection of the far-infrared (FIR) properties of evolved stars allows not only to constrain physical models, but also to understand the chemical evolution that takes place in the end of their lives. In this work we intend to study the circumstellar envelopes (CSE) on a sample of stars in the THROES catalogue from AGB/post-AGB stars to planetary nebulae using photometry and spectroscopy provided by the PACS instrument on-board Herschel telescope. In the first part we are interested in obtaining an estimate of the size of FIR emitting region and to sort our targets in two classes: point-like and extended. Secondly, we focus on the molecular component of the envelope traced by carbon monoxide (CO) rotational lines. We conduct a line survey on a sample of evolved stars by identifying and measuring flux of both 12CO and 13CO isotopologues in the PACS range, while looking at the overall properties of the sample. Lastly, we will be interested in obtaining physical parameters of the CSE, namely gas temperature, mass and mass-loss rate on a sample of carbon stars. For that, we make use of PACS large wavelength coverage, which enables the simultaneous study of a large number of CO transitions, to perform the rotational diagram analysis. We report the detection of CO emission in a high number of stars from the catalogue, which were mostly classified as point-like targets with a few exceptions of planetary nebulae. High J rotational number transitions were detected in a number of targets, revealing the presence of a significant amount of hot gas (T ˜ 400-900 K) and high mass-loss rates. We conclude that Herschel/PACS is in a privileged position to detect a new population of warmer gas, typically missed in sub-mm/mm observations.

  16. Sir William Herschel's notebooks - Abstracts of solar observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, Douglas V.; Schatten, Kenneth H.

    1992-01-01

    An introduction to the background of Sir William Herschel's notebooks and the historical context within which his observations were made are provided. The observations have relevance in reconstructing solar behavior, as discussed in a separate analysis paper by Hoyt and Schatten (1992), and in understanding active features on the sun such as faculae. The text of Herschel's notebooks with modern terms used throughout forms the body of this paper. The complete text has not previously been published and is not easily accessible to scholars. Herschel used different words for solar features than are used today, and thus, for clarity, his terminology is changed on two occasions. A glossary explains the terminology changed. In the text of the notebooks, several contemporaries are mentioned; a brief description of Herschel's colleagues is provided.

  17. John Herschel, Charles Lyell, and the planet Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    John Herschel and Charles Lyell are not usually seen as scientists who had much in common. One was an astronomer, the other a geologist. They shared, however, an active interest in the age of the Earth and in the history of the physical processes that produced the planet before us. Herschel brought to this discussion a well-polished mastery of celestial mechanics and the chemistry and optics of crystals, and Lyell brought with him a familiarity with fossils, strata, and rock types. This talk focuses on Herschel and Lyell's discussions about the Earth through time and space, and about what qualified (to them) as acceptable geo-theory. Along the way, more attention is paid to Herschel's interests in terrestrial topics, since this is less well known.

  18. The Herschel/PACS view of the Cep OB2 region: Global protoplanetary disk evolution and clumpy star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Roccatagliata, Veronica; Getman, Konstantin; Rivière-Marichalar, Pablo; Birnstiel, Tilman; Merín, Bruno; Fang, Min; Henning, Thomas; Eiroa, Carlos; Currie, Thayne

    2015-01-01

    . The mini-clusters reveal multi-episodic star formation in Tr 37. The long survival of mini-clusters suggest that they formed from the fragmentation of the same core. Their various morphologies favour different formation/triggering mechanisms acting within the same cluster. The beads-on-a-string structure in one mini-cluster is consistent with gravitational fragmentation or gravitational focusing, acting on very small scales (solar-mass stars in ~0.5 pc filaments). Multi-episodic star formation could also produce evolutionary variations between disks in the same region. Finally, Herschel also unveils what could be the first heavy mass loss episode of the O6.5 star HD 206267 in Tr 37. Based on observations obtained with the Herschel Space Telescope within open time proposal "Disk dispersal in Cep OB2", OT1_asicilia_1. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led PI consortia and with important participation from NASA.Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. Highlights And Shadows Of High Redshift Starbursts: A Herschel­Fmos Joint Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, Annagrazia

    2017-06-01

    Starburst galaxies represent a critical stage in galaxy evolution as they are the likely progenitors of passively evolving ellipticals. The properties of high-redshift starbursts are however still debated as it is not clear to which extent their vigorous star formation rate is caused by an enhanced gas fraction or an enhanced star formation efficiency, and what physical processes trigger such violent activity. Our study of the rest-frame optical spectra from the FMOS-COSMOS survey of twelve z 1.6 Herschel starbursts combined with a rich ancillary data-set from UV to ALMA, is shedding light on some of these questions. By measuring the nebular extinction from different indicators, we find that 90% of their extreme SFR arises from an heavily obscured component which is thick in the optical. We also measure their gas-phase metallicity, showing that starbursts are metal-rich outliers from the metallicity-SFR anticorrelation observed at fixed stellar mass for the main sequence population. Our findings are consistent with a major merger origin for the starburst event. I will present this study discussing its implications on our interpretation of the high-redshift starbursts physics. I will also briefly discuss possible extensions of this work with the future PFS survey and how we can take advantage of the IFU capabilities of JWST/NIRspec to unveil the complex structure of these elusive systems.

  20. Extreme debris discs around nearby stars with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J. P.; Eiroa, C.

    2011-10-01

    The excellent sensitivity and high resolution of PACS on the Herschel Space Observatory has opened up the possibility of detecting direct analogues to the Solar System's Edgeworth-Kuiper belt around nearby stars. We present an overview of the results from the Herschel/ DUNES Open Time Key Program, highlighting the extreme diversity of observed debris discs, covering both newly discovered and newly resolved systems that are amongst the largest, faintest and coldest discs yet known around Sun-like stars.

  1. Revolution in nuclear detection affairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Warren M.

    2014-05-01

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  2. Revolution in nuclear detection affairs

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, Warren M.

    2014-05-09

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  3. Information Technology and the Third Industrial Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimmons, Joe

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the so-called third industrial revolution, or the information revolution. Topics addressed include the progression of the revolution in the U.S. economy, in Europe, and in Third World countries; the empowering technologies, including digital switches, optical fiber, semiconductors, CD-ROM, networks, and combining technologies; and future…

  4. The French Revolution: A Simulation Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, James Patrick

    1978-01-01

    Describes a college-level simulation game about the French Revolution. Based on George Lefebvre's "The Coming of the French Revolution," the role-play focuses on social and economic causes of the revolution and allows students to understand citizens' grievances against the French government. (AV)

  5. The French Revolution: A Simulation Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, James Patrick

    1978-01-01

    Describes a college-level simulation game about the French Revolution. Based on George Lefebvre's "The Coming of the French Revolution," the role-play focuses on social and economic causes of the revolution and allows students to understand citizens' grievances against the French government. (AV)

  6. Information Technology and the Third Industrial Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimmons, Joe

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the so-called third industrial revolution, or the information revolution. Topics addressed include the progression of the revolution in the U.S. economy, in Europe, and in Third World countries; the empowering technologies, including digital switches, optical fiber, semiconductors, CD-ROM, networks, and combining technologies; and future…

  7. The Herschel Lensing Survey (HLS): HST Frontier Field Coverage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egami, Eiichi

    2015-08-01

    The Herschel Lensing Survey (HLS; PI: Egami) is a large Far-IR/Submm imaging survey of massive galaxy clusters using the Herschel Space Observatory. Its main goal is to detect and study IR/Submm galaxies that are below the nominal confusion limit of Herschel by taking advantage of the strong gravitational lensing power of massive galaxy clusters. HLS has obtained deep PACS (100/160 um) and SPIRE (250/350/500 um) images for 54 cluster fields (HLS-deep) as well as shallower but nearly confusion-limited SPIRE-only images for 527 cluster fields (HLS-snapshot) with a total observing time of ~420 hours. Extensive multi-wavelength follow-up studies are currently on-going with a variety of observing facilities including ALMA.Here, I will focus on the analysis of the deep Herschel PACS/SPIRE images obtained for the 6 HST Frontier Fields (5 observed by HLS-deep; 1 observed by the Herschel GT programs). The Herschel/SPIRE maps are wide enough to cover the Frontier-Field parallel pointings, and we have detected a total of ~180 sources, some of which are strongly lensed. I will present the sample and discuss the properties of these Herschel-detected dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) identified in the Frontier Fields. Although the majority of these Herschel sources are at moderate redshift (z<3), a small number of extremely high-redshift (z>6) candidates can be identified as "Herschel dropouts" when combined with longer-wavelength data. We have also identified ~40 sources as likely cluster members, which will allow us to study the properties of DSFGs in the dense cluster environment.A great legacy of our HLS project will be the extensive multi-wavelength database that incorporates most of the currently available data/information for the fields of the Frontier-Field, CLASH, and other HLS clusters (e.g., HST/Spitzer/Herschel images, spectroscopic/photometric redshifts, lensing models, best-fit SED models etc.). Provided with a user-friendly GUI and a flexible search engine, this

  8. Automation; The New Industrial Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnstein, George E.

    Automation is a word that describes the workings of computers and the innovations of automatic transfer machines in the factory. As the hallmark of the new industrial revolution, computers displace workers and create a need for new skills and retraining programs. With improved communication between industry and the educational community to…

  9. Cuba: Background to a Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Fuente, Alejandro

    2000-01-01

    Provides historical information on Cuba. Addresses early colonization, the advent of plantation agriculture, the role and presence of the United States in the Caribbean and Cuba, and the social and economic developments in Cuba after the revolution in 1959 led by Fidel Castro. (CMK)

  10. The Quality Revolution in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonstingl, John Jay

    1992-01-01

    Whether viewed through Deming's 14 points, Juran's Trilogy, or Kaoru Ishikawa's Thought Revolution, Total Quality Management embodies 4 fundamental tenets: primary focus on customers and suppliers, universal commitment to continuous improvement, a systems approach, and top management responsibility. Educational organizations are recreating their…

  11. Humanities II: Man and Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton School District, Wilmington, DE.

    "Man and Revolution," the second syllabus in a sequential program, provides 11th grade students with a humanities course that deals heavily in political theory. The rationale, objectives, guidelines, methods, and arrangement are the same as those described in SO 004 030. The introductory unit, followed by further units, helps students define and…

  12. Ruin and Revolution in ``Hamlet."

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usher, P. D.

    1999-05-01

    In the cosmic allegorical interpretation of Shakespeare's "Hamlet" (BAAS 28, 859 & 1305, 1996; Mercury 26:1, 20, 1997; RPS 18:3, 6, 1997; Giornale di Astronomia 24:3, 27, 1998), the usurper King Claudius, namesake of Ptolemy, personifies geocentricity. Textual support for this reading is found in 1.2 where Hamlet is associated with the Sun, as befits a rightful heir, while Claudius is associated with the Earth. In 3.3 Claudius fears Hamlet's antics. Rosencrantz states that the lives of many depend on the well-being of the King. He warns that if the King were to be imperiled, his subjects, those "ten thousand lesser things", would fall in a "boisterous ruin" along with "each small annexment" and "petty consequence." These 10,000 lesser lights are the naked eye stars (mv ~ 6.5) which would collapse with the demise of the pre-Diggesian firmament, along with ancient planets and their geometrical contrivances. In 5.1 Shakespeare puns on "De revolutionibus" when he refers to "fine revolution." The double meaning of "revolution" (alteration, orbital motion) was in use long before 1600. Since "revolution" is used in the context of digging, it may refer as much to the Diggesian as the Copernican Revolution. Shakespeare's prescience is revealed by his anticipation of change, as encapsulated geocentricity is transformed to stellar boundlessness, while his presence is suggested by fatherly concerns and ghost-like direction.

  13. The Futurist Revolution in Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornish, Edward S.

    1981-01-01

    U.S. society needs to become oriented toward the future if it is to cope with rapid social and technological change; a future-oriented society is necessarily a research-oriented society. Priorities for research are in national and world economies, the communications revolution, and the future of the family. (MSE)

  14. NASA Facts, Orbits and Revolutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is intended for senior high physics students. It contains information on the sidereal and synodic periods of revolution of an orbiting satellite, including their calculation. This pamphlet is one of the NASA Facts Science Series (each of which consists of four pages) and is designed to fit in the standard size three-ring notebook.…

  15. The Geophysical Revolution in Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter J.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the physicists' impact on the revolution in the earth sciences particularly involving the overthrow of the fixist notions in geology. Topics discussed include the mobile earth, the route to plate tectonics, radiometric dating, the earth's magnetic field, ocean floor spreading plate boundaries, infiltration of physics into geology and…

  16. India and the Green Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilden, Clark G.

    In the 1960s it was predicted that famine would strike India because the country lacked the necessary resources to feed its rapidly growing population. Yet, in the 1970s and 1980s new agricultural developments occured that have helped abate the crisis. These developments comprise what is now called the Green Revolution. India's food/population…

  17. Flowing through the American Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Kathy

    1992-01-01

    Describes a two-day lesson plan for teaching U.S. history at the fifth-grade level. Focuses on the cause and effect relationship between historical events of 1763-76 and how they led to the American Revolution. Includes a flow chart to be used as a test question and a basis for class discussion. (DK)

  18. Electronic Revolution on Main Street.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Gail Garfield

    1986-01-01

    The electronics revolution is changing way work is done and description of available jobs, shifting some jobs from office to home, and offering new communication services. Technology's impact on central business districts (CBDs) will depend on broad economic forces, but its effects on CBDs as business locations will be conditioned by local real…

  19. Cuba: Background to a Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Fuente, Alejandro

    2000-01-01

    Provides historical information on Cuba. Addresses early colonization, the advent of plantation agriculture, the role and presence of the United States in the Caribbean and Cuba, and the social and economic developments in Cuba after the revolution in 1959 led by Fidel Castro. (CMK)

  20. Humanities II: Man and Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton School District, Wilmington, DE.

    "Man and Revolution," the second syllabus in a sequential program, provides 11th grade students with a humanities course that deals heavily in political theory. The rationale, objectives, guidelines, methods, and arrangement are the same as those described in SO 004 030. The introductory unit, followed by further units, helps students define and…

  1. Extreme Programming: A Kuhnian Revolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Northover, Mandy; Northover, Alan; Gruner, Stefan; Kourie, Gerrick G.; Boake, Andrew

    This paper critically assesses the extent to which the Agile Software community's use of Thomas Kuhn's theory of revolutionary scientific change is justified. It will be argued that Kuhn's concepts of "scientific revolution" and "paradigm shift" cannot adequately explain the change from one type of software methodology to another.

  2. Electronic Revolution on Main Street.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Gail Garfield

    1986-01-01

    The electronics revolution is changing way work is done and description of available jobs, shifting some jobs from office to home, and offering new communication services. Technology's impact on central business districts (CBDs) will depend on broad economic forces, but its effects on CBDs as business locations will be conditioned by local real…

  3. The Quality Revolution in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonstingl, John Jay

    1992-01-01

    Whether viewed through Deming's 14 points, Juran's Trilogy, or Kaoru Ishikawa's Thought Revolution, Total Quality Management embodies 4 fundamental tenets: primary focus on customers and suppliers, universal commitment to continuous improvement, a systems approach, and top management responsibility. Educational organizations are recreating their…

  4. The Information Revolution in Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikunov, Vladimir S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a number of topics in geography that are effected by the multimedia information revolution. These include research in political geography, finance, and the geography of tourism and medicine. Considers new technologies assisting spatial modeling and visualization of data and their effects on these fields. (MJP)

  5. The Geophysical Revolution in Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter J.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the physicists' impact on the revolution in the earth sciences particularly involving the overthrow of the fixist notions in geology. Topics discussed include the mobile earth, the route to plate tectonics, radiometric dating, the earth's magnetic field, ocean floor spreading plate boundaries, infiltration of physics into geology and…

  6. India and the Green Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarabhai, Vikram

    1972-01-01

    The introduction of new grain varieties has had profound social effects in addition to increasing food supply. If political power is sensitive to the needs of the underprivileged...advanced technology in agriculture, as in (nuclear) power generation, is indeed going to create a social revolution.'' (Author/AL)

  7. A Herschel study of NGC 650

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hoof, P. A. M.; Van de Steene, G. C.; Exter, K. M.; Barlow, M. J.; Ueta, T.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Gear, W. K.; Gomez, H. L.; Hargrave, P. C.; Ivison, R. J.; Leeks, S. J.; Lim, T. L.; Olofsson, G.; Polehampton, E. T.; Swinyard, B. M.; Van Winckel, H.; Waelkens, C.; Wesson, R.

    2013-12-01

    As part of the Herschel guaranteed time key project Mass loss of Evolved StarS (MESS) we have imaged a sample of planetary nebulae. In this paper we present the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) and Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) images of the classical bipolar planetary nebula NGC 650. We used these images to derive a temperature map of the dust. We also constructed a photoionization and dust radiative transfer model using the spectral synthesis code Cloudy. To constrain this model, we used the PACS and SPIRE fluxes and combined them with hitherto unpublished International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) and Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) spectra as well as various other data from the literature. A temperature map combined with a photoionization model were used to study various aspects of the central star, the nebula, and in particular the dust grains in the nebula. The central star parameters are determined to be Teff = 208 kK and L = 261 L⊙ assuming a distance of 1200 pc. The stellar temperature is much higher than previously published values. We confirm that the nebula is carbon-rich with a C/O ratio of 2.1. The nebular abundances are typical for a type IIa planetary nebula. With the photoionization model we determined that the grains in the ionized nebula are large (assuming single-sized grains, they would have a radius of 0.15 μm). Most likely these large grains were inherited from the asymptotic giant branch phase. The PACS 70/160 μm temperature map shows evidence of two radiation components heating the grains. The first component is direct emission from the central star, while the second component is diffuse emission from the ionized gas (mainly Lyα). We show that previous suggestions of a photo-dissociation region surrounding the ionized region are incorrect. The neutral material resides in dense clumps inside the ionized region. These may also harbor stochastically heated very small grains in addition to the large

  8. Bars as seen by Herschel and Sloan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consolandi, Guido; Dotti, Massimo; Boselli, Alessandro; Gavazzi, Giuseppe; Gargiulo, Fabio

    2017-02-01

    We present an observational study of the effect of bars on the gas component and on the star formation properties of their host galaxies in a statistically significant sample of resolved objects, the Herschel Reference Sample. The analysis of optical and far-infrared images allows us to identify a clear spatial correlation between stellar bars and the cold-gas distribution mapped by the warm dust emission. We find that the infrared counterparts of optically identified bars are either bar-like structures or dead central regions in which star formation is strongly suppressed. Similar morphologies are found in the distribution of star formation directly traced by Hα maps. The sizes of such optical and infrared structures correlate remarkably well, hinting at a causal connection. In the light of previous observations and of theoretical investigations in the literature, we interpret our findings as further evidence of the scenario in which bars drive strong inflows toward their host nuclei: young bars are still in the process of perturbing the gas and star formation clearly delineates the shape of the bars; old bars on the contrary already removed any gas within their extents, carving a dead region of negligible star formation.

  9. Herschel View of G49 Filament

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-28

    New images of huge filamentary structures of gas and dust from ESA's Herschel space observatory reveal how matter is distributed across our Milky Way galaxy. Long and flimsy threads emerge from a twisted mix of material, taking on complex shapes. This image shows a filament called G49, which contains 80,000 suns' worth of mass. This huge but slender structure of gas and dust extends about 280 light-years in length, while its diameter is only about 5 light-years across. In this image, longer-wavelength light has been assigned visible colors. Light with wavelengths of 70 microns is blue; 160-micron light is green; and 350-micron light is red. Cooler gas and dust are seen in red and yellow, with temperatures as low as minus 421 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 252 degrees Celsius). In the densest and coolest clumps, the seeds of new generations of stars are taking shape. A brighter clump of matter is visible at the left tip of the wispy thread. This filament is about 18,000 light-years away. The image is oriented with northeast toward the left of the image and southwest toward the right. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19340

  10. Observations of ammonia in comets with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biver, N.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Hartogh, P.; Crovisier, J.; de Val-Borro, M.; Kidger, M.; Küppers, M.; Lis, D.; Moreno, R.; Szutowicz, S.; HssO Team

    2014-07-01

    Ammonia is the most abundant nitrogen bearing species in comets. However, it has been scarcely observed in comets due to the weakness of the lines observable from the ground at infrared and centimetre wavelengths. Nevertheless, its main photodissociation product NH_2 has been observed in several comets in the visible. The fundamental rotational J_{K}=(1_0-0_0) transition of NH_3 at 572.5 GHz has been observed in comets since 2004, with the Odin satellite (Biver et al. 2007). In the frame of the Herschel guaranteed time key program ''HssO'' (Hartogh et al. 2009), ammonia was detected with the HIFI instrument in comets 10P/Tempel 2 (Biver et al. 2012), 45P/Honda- Mrkos-Pajdusakova, 103P/Hartley 2, and C/2009 P1 (Garradd). The hyperfine structure of the line is resolved. We have built a complete excitation model to interpret these observations, including the radial distribution in comet 103P. The derived abundances relative to water are on the order of 0.5 %, similar to the values inferred from visible observations of NH_2.

  11. The Mystery of Herschel's ``Cold Debris Disks''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivov, A. V.; Löhne, T.; Eiroa, C.; Marshall, J. P.

    2012-03-01

    An important result of the Herschel Open Times Key Program DUNES is a discovery of a new class of ``cold debris disks''. These are tenuous disks that show little or no infrared excess at 100μm, but a significant one at 160μm and possibly longer wavelengths. A comparison of the dust temperatures inferred from the SEDs to the disk radii estimated from resolved images suggests that the dust is colder than a black body at the dust location. This requires the grains to be large (compared to far-infrared wavelengths) and to have low absorption in the visible. While the latter can be achieved, for instance if the dust is rich in ices, the absence of small grains is puzzling, since collisional models of debris disks predict the grains of all sizes down to several times the radiation pressure blowout limit to be present. We will discuss several scenarios proposed to explain depletion of small grains: transport-dominated disks, disks with dynamically cold dust-producing planetesimals, and the disks of unstirred primordial millimeter-sized grains. While the first two scenarios encounter problems, the last one looks more promising. Our collisional simulations show that, at least for some collision outcome prescriptions, such disks can indeed survive for gigayears, largely preserving the primordial size distribution. The modeled thermal emission appears to be roughly consistent with the observed one.

  12. Unveiling causal activity of complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams-García, Rashid V.; Beggs, John M.; Ortiz, Gerardo

    2017-07-01

    We introduce a novel tool for analyzing complex network dynamics, allowing for cascades of causally-related events, which we call causal webs (c-webs), to be separated from other non-causally-related events. This tool shows that traditionally-conceived avalanches may contain mixtures of spatially-distinct but temporally-overlapping cascades of events, and dynamical disorder or noise. In contrast, c-webs separate these components, unveiling previously hidden features of the network and dynamics. We apply our method to mouse cortical data with resulting statistics which demonstrate for the first time that neuronal avalanches are not merely composed of causally-related events. The original version of this article was uploaded to the arXiv on March 17th, 2016 [1].

  13. Laboratory Astrophysics Needs of the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, J. C.

    2002-11-01

    The science teams of the Herschel Space Observatory have identified a number of areas for laboratory study required for proper interpretation of Herschel observational data. The most critical is the collection and compilation of laboratory data on spectral line frequencies, transition probabilities and energy levels for the known astrophysical atomic and molecular species in 670 to 57 micron wavelength range of Herschel. The second most critical need is the compilation of collisional excitation cross sections for the species known to dominate the energy balance in the ISM and the temperature dependent chemical reaction rates. On the theoretical front chemical and radiative transfer models need to be prepared in advance to assess calibration and identify instrument anomalies. In the next few years there will be a need to incorporate spectroscopists and theoretical chemists into teams of astronomers so that the spectroscopic surveys planned can be properly calibrated and rapidly interpreted once the data becomes available. The science teams have also noted that the enormous prospects for molecular discovery will be greatly handicapped by the nearly complete lack of spectroscopic data for anything not already well known in the ISM. As a minimum, molecular species predicted to exist by chemical models should be subjected to detailed laboratory study to ensure conclusive detections. This has the greatest impact on any astrobiology program that might be proposed for Herschel. Without a significant amount of laboratory work in the very near future Herschel will not be prepared for many planned observations, much less addressing the open questions in molecular astrophysics.

  14. Laboratory Astrophysics Needs of the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, J. C.

    2002-01-01

    The science teams of the Herschel Space Observatory have identified a number of areas where laboratory study is required for proper interpretation of Herschel observational data. The most critical is the collection and compilation of laboratory data on spectral line frequencies, transition probabilities and energy levels for the known astrophysical atomic and molecular species in 670 to 57 micron wavelength range of Herschel. The second most critical need is the compilation of collisional excitation cross sections for the species known to dominate the energy balance in the ISM and the temperature dependent chemical reaction rates. On the theoretical front, chemical and radiative transfer models need to be prepared in advance to assess calibration and identify instrument anomalies. In the next few years there will be a need to incorporate spectroscopists and theoretical chemists into teams of astronomers so that the spectroscopic surveys planned can he properly calibrated and rapidly interpreted once the data becomes available. The science teams have also noted that the enormous prospects for molecular discovery will be greatly handicapped by the nearly complete lack of spectroscopic data for anything not already well known in the ISM. As a minimum, molecular species predicted to exist by chemical models should be subjected to detailed laboratory study to ensure conclusive detections. This has the greatest impact on any astrobiology program that might be proposed for Herschel. Without a significant amount of laboratory work in the very near future Herschel will not be prepared for many planned observations, much less addressing the open questions in molecular astrophysics.

  15. Revolution and progress in medicine.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, William

    2015-02-01

    This paper adapts Kuhn's conceptual framework to developmental episodes in the theory and practice of medicine. Previous attempts to understand the reception of Ignaz Semmelweis's work on puerperal fever in Kuhnian terms are used as a starting point. The author identifies some limitations of these attempts and proposes a new way of understanding the core Kuhnian notions of "paradigm," "progress," and "revolution" in the context of a socially embedded technoscience such as medicine.

  16. The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey. I. Luminosity function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, J. I.; Baes, M.; Bendo, G. J.; Bianchi, S.; Bomans, D. J.; Boselli, A.; Clemens, M.; Corbelli, E.; Cortese, L.; Dariush, A.; De Looze, I.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Fadda, D.; Fritz, J.; Garcia-Appadoo, D. A.; Gavazzi, G.; Giovanardi, C.; Grossi, M.; Hughes, T. M.; Hunt, L. K.; Jones, A. P.; Madden, S.; Pierini, D.; Pohlen, M.; Sabatini, S.; Smith, M. W. L.; Verstappen, J.; Vlahakis, C.; Xilouris, E. M.; Zibetti, S.

    2010-07-01

    We describe the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS) and the first data obtained as part of the science demonstration phase (SDP). The data cover a central 4×4 sq deg region of the cluster. We use SPIRE and PACS photometry data to produce 100, 160, 250, 350 and 500 μm luminosity functions (LFs) for optically bright galaxies that are selected at 500 μm and detected in all bands. We compare these LFs with those previously derived using IRAS, BLAST and Herschel-ATLAS data. The Virgo cluster LFs do not have the large numbers of faint galaxies or examples of very luminous galaxies seen previously in surveys covering less dense environments. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  17. ESA Unveils Its New Comet Chaser.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-07-01

    The objective is to study one of these primordial objects at close quarters by placing a lander on its surface and chasing, with an orbiter, the comet for millions of kilometres through space. Comets - among the oldest (4.6 billion years!) and last altered objects in the solar system - are regarded as the building blocks from which the planets formed. Thus the Rosetta's discoveries will allow the scientists to learn more about birth and evolution of the planets and about the origin of life on the Earth. The final design of the Rosetta orbiter will be revealed for the first time at the Royal Society in London on 1 July when a 1:4 scale model will be unveiled by ESA's Director of Science, Prof.. Roger Bonnet. (The full size version of the spacecraft is 32 metres across, so large that it would stretch the entire width of a football pitch. Almost 90 of this is accounted for by the giant solar panels which are needed to provide electrical power in the dark depths of the Solar System). "Rosetta is a mission of major scientific importance," said Prof. Bonnet. "It will build on the discoveries made by Giotto and confirm ESA's leading role in the exploration of the Solar System and the Universe as a whole." The timing of this event has been chosen to coincide with the London meeting of the Rosetta Science Working Team and the second Earth flyby of the now non-operational Giotto spacecraft. In addition, the opening of the British Museum's 'Cracking Codes' Exhibition, for which the Rosetta Stone is the centrepiece, is set to take place on 10 July. The Rosetta mission. Rosetta is the third Cornerstone in ESA's 'Horizon 2000' long-term scientific programme. It will be launched by Ariane 5 rocket from Kourou spaceport in French Guiana in January 2003. In order to gain sufficient speed to reach the distant comet, Rosetta will require gravity assists from the Earth (twice) and Mars. After swinging around Mars in May 2005, Rosetta will return to Earth's vicinity in October 2005 and

  18. Infrared study of transitional disks in Ophiuchus with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebollido, Isabel; Merín, Bruno; Ribas, Álvaro; Bustamante, Ignacio; Bouy, Hervé; Riviere-Marichalar, Pablo; Prusti, Timo; Pilbratt, Göran L.; André, Philippe; Ábrahám, Péter

    2015-09-01

    Context. Observations of nearby star-forming regions with the Herschel Space Observatory complement our view of the protoplanetary disks in Ophiuchus with information about the outer disks. Aims: The main goal of this project is to provide new far-infrared fluxes for the known disks in the core region of Ophiuchus and to identify potential transitional disks using data from Herschel. Methods: We obtained PACS and SPIRE photometry of previously spectroscopically confirmed young stellar objects (YSO) in the region and analysed their spectral energy distributions. Results: From an initial sample of 261 objects with spectral types in Ophiuchus, we detect 49 disks in at least one Herschel band. We provide new far-infrared fluxes for these objects. One of them is clearly a new transitional disk candidate. Conclusions: The data from Herschel Space Observatory provides fluxes that complement previous infrared data and that we use to identify a new transitional disk candidate. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Final reduced Herschel maps are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/581/A30Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgAll tables are also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/581/A30

  19. The Herschel Inner Galaxy Gas Survey (HIGGS): Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Christopher; Walker, C.; Kulesa, C.; Stark, A.; Smith, H.; Tolls, V.; White, G.; Israel, F.; Guesten, R.; Requenna-Torres, M.; Shaw, T.; Chen, S.; Schlawin, E.

    The Herschel Inner Galaxy Gas Survey (HIGGS) is a Herschel Open Time Key Programme to use the HIFI and PACS instruments to observe [CII], [NII], [OI], [OIII], and high-J CO emission lines in focused regions near the Galactic Center. By separating and evaluating the distinctly different roles of the central nuclear engine, the Galactic Bar, and dynamical stellar and interstellar feedback mechanisms, HIGGS will provide a high-resolution template for the physical processes in galactic nuclei throughout the local universe, in particular those engaged in starburst activity. We intend to present our early results along with a description of the data reduction and analysis tools that we have developed.

  20. Very high-z low luminosity dusty galaxy candidates in the LABOCA follow up of the Herschel Lensing Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boone, Frederic; Schaerer, Daniel; Lutz, Dieter; Weiss, Axel; Richard, Johan; Clement, Benjamin; Rawle, Tim; Egami, Eiichi; Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava; Combes, Francoise; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Smail, Ian; Pello, Roser; HLS Team

    2015-08-01

    To unveil the yet hidden part of dusty star formation in the distant Universe, we have undertaken a 870μm follow-up of ten massive lensing clusters of the Herschel Lensing Survey (HLS, Egami et al 2010, Rawle et al 2010) with the APEX/LABOCA bolometer array in a large program of ˜300 hours.In four clusters (AS1063, A2744, MS2137 and A2667) we find LABOCA sources that are undetected with Herschel (PACS and SPIRE) and have S850μm /S500μm > 0.5. This very red color implies either a very high redshift (z > 4) or a very low dust temperature (T < 25K). These sources have observed fluxes S850μm < 10 mJy, and are therefore expected to have lower intrinsic luminosities than the flux-selected SMGs (H-ATLAS and SPT samples) or than blank field SMGs (e.g., LESS sample). Some of them are extended and could correspond to multiple sources or to multiple images of a lensed source.Thus, we found a very red submm source in AS1063 that may be associated with a multiple-image system confirmed spectroscopically at z=6.107. This may be the first dusty star forming galaxy with LFIR < 10^12 Lsol at z>5 selected from submm observations. Similarly, we identified potential z>4 counterparts to all the other very red LABOCA sources. We discuss the implications of these discoveries and the ongoing ALMA Cycle 2 observations.

  1. DUST IN THE DIFFUSE EMISSION OF THE GALACTIC PLANE: THE HERSCHEL/SPITZER SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION FITTING

    SciTech Connect

    Compiegne, M.; Martin, P. G.; Flagey, N.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Paladini, R.; Bernard, J.-P.; Molinari, S.

    2010-11-20

    The first Herschel Hi-Gal images of the Galactic plane unveil the far-infrared diffuse emission of the interstellar medium with an unprecedented angular resolution and sensitivity. In this Letter, we present the first analysis of these data in combination with those of Spitzer GLIMPSE and MIPSGAL. We selected a relatively diffuse and low excitation region of the l {approx} 59{sup 0} Hi-Gal Science Demonstration Phase field to perform a pixel-by-pixel fitting of the 8 to 500 {mu}m spectral energy distribution (SED) using the DustEM dust emission model. We derived maps of the very small grain (VSG) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) abundances from the model. Our analysis allows us to illustrate that the aromatic infrared band intensity does not necessarily trace the PAH abundance but rather the product of 'abundance x column density x intensity of the exciting radiation field'. We show that the spatial structure of PACS 70 {mu}m maps resemble the shorter wavelengths (e.g., IRAC 8 {mu}m) maps, because they trace both the intensity of exciting radiation field and column density. We also show that the modeled VSG contribution to PACS 70 {mu}m (PACS 160 {mu}m) band intensity can be up to 50% (7%). The interpretation of diffuse emission spectra at these wavelengths must take stochastically heated particles into account. Finally, this preliminary study emphasizes the potential of analyzing the full dust SED sampled by Herschel and Spitzer data, with a physical dust model (DustEM) to reach the properties of the dust at simultaneously large and small scales.

  2. The spine of the swan: a Herschel study of the DR21 ridge and filaments in Cygnus X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennemann, M.; Motte, F.; Schneider, N.; Didelon, P.; Hill, T.; Arzoumanian, D.; Bontemps, S.; Csengeri, T.; André, Ph.; Konyves, V.; Louvet, F.; Marston, A.; Men'shchikov, A.; Minier, V.; Nguyen Luong, Q.; Palmeirim, P.; Peretto, N.; Sauvage, M.; Zavagno, A.; Anderson, L. D.; Bernard, J.-Ph.; Di Francesco, J.; Elia, D.; Li, J. Z.; Martin, P. G.; Molinari, S.; Pezzuto, S.; Russeil, D.; Rygl, K. L. J.; Schisano, E.; Spinoglio, L.; Sousbie, T.; Ward-Thompson, D.; White, G. J.

    2012-07-01

    In order to characterise the cloud structures responsible for the formation of high-mass stars, we present Herschel observations of the DR21 environment. Maps of the column density and dust temperature unveil the structure of the DR21 ridge and several connected filaments. The ridge has column densities higher than 1023 cm-2 over a region of 2.3 pc2. It shows substructured column density profiles and branches into two major filaments in the north. The masses in the filaments range between 130 and 1400 M⊙, whereas the mass in the ridge is 15 000 M⊙. The accretion of these filaments onto the DR21 ridge, suggested by a previous molecular line study, could provide a continuous mass inflow to the ridge. In contrast to the striations seen in, e.g., the Taurus region, these filaments are gravitationally unstable and form cores and protostars. These coresformed in the filaments potentially fall into the ridge. Both inflow and collisions of cores could be important to drive the observed high-mass star formation. The evolutionary gradient of star formation running from DR21 in the south to the northern branching is traced by decreasing dust temperature. This evolution and the ridge structure can be explained by two main filamentary components of the ridge that merged first in the south. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA (Pilbratt et al. 2010).Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  3. Special Ceremony Planned to Unveil Innovative Air Quality Monitoring Bench

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Nov. 5, 2015) The Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), the Myriad Botanical Gardens and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will unveil an innovative air quality monitoring park bench during a special ceremony at

  4. Chemistry union unveils names of four new elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Hamish

    2016-07-01

    The periodic table could soon be graced by four new symbols - Nh, Mc, Ts and Og - after the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) unveiled its proposed names for the four most recently discovered elements.

  5. HERSCHEL MEASUREMENTS OF MOLECULAR OXYGEN IN ORION

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Paul F.; Chen, Jo-Hsin; Li Di; Liseau, Rene; Black, John H.; Bell, Tom A.; Hollenbach, David; Kaufman, Michael J.; Lis, Dariusz C.; Melnick, Gary; Neufeld, David; Pagani, Laurent; Encrenaz, Pierre; Snell, Ronald; Benz, Arnold O.; Bruderer, Simon; Bergin, Edwin; Caselli, Paola; Caux, Emmanuel; Falgarone, Edith

    2011-08-20

    We report observations of three rotational transitions of molecular oxygen (O{sub 2}) in emission from the H{sub 2} Peak 1 position of vibrationally excited molecular hydrogen in Orion. We observed the 487 GHz, 774 GHz, and 1121 GHz lines using the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared on the Herschel Space Observatory, having velocities of 11 km s{sup -1} to 12 km s{sup -1} and widths of 3 km s{sup -1}. The beam-averaged column density is N(O{sub 2}) = 6.5 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}, and assuming that the source has an equal beam-filling factor for all transitions (beam widths 44, 28, and 19''), the relative line intensities imply a kinetic temperature between 65 K and 120 K. The fractional abundance of O{sub 2} relative to H{sub 2} is (0.3-7.3) x 10{sup -6}. The unusual velocity suggests an association with a {approx}5'' diameter source, denoted Peak A, the Western Clump, or MF4. The mass of this source is {approx}10 M{sub sun} and the dust temperature is {>=}150 K. Our preferred explanation of the enhanced O{sub 2} abundance is that dust grains in this region are sufficiently warm (T {>=} 100 K) to desorb water ice and thus keep a significant fraction of elemental oxygen in the gas phase, with a significant fraction as O{sub 2}. For this small source, the line ratios require a temperature {>=}180 K. The inferred O{sub 2} column density {approx_equal}5 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -2} can be produced in Peak A, having N(H{sub 2}) {approx_equal} 4 x 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2}. An alternative mechanism is a low-velocity (10-15 km s{sup -1}) C-shock, which can produce N(O{sub 2}) up to 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}.

  6. Unveiling the Origin of Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olinto, Angela V.

    2015-04-01

    The origin of cosmic rays, relativistic particles that range from below GeVs to hundreds of EeVs, is a century old mystery. Extremely energetic phenomena occurring over a wide range of scales, from the Solar System to distant galaxies, are needed to explain the non-thermal particle spectrum that covers over 12 orders of magnitude. Space Missions are the most effective platforms to study the origin and history of these cosmic particles. Current missions probe particle acceleration and propagation in the Solar System and in our Galaxy. This year ISS-CREAM and CALET join AMS in establishing the International Space Station as the most active site for studying the origin of Galactic cosmic rays. These missions will study astrophysical cosmic ray accelerators as well as other possible sources of energetic particles such as dark matter annihilation or decay. In the future, the ISS may also be the site for studying extremely high-energy extragalactic cosmic rays with JEM-EUSO. We review recent results in the quest for unveiling the sources of energetic particles with balloons and space payloads and report on activities of the Cosmic ray Science Interest Group (CosmicSIG) under the Physics of the Cosmos Program Analysis Group (PhysPAG).

  7. Models of the η Corvi Debris Disk from the Keck Interferometer, Spitzer, and Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, J.; Beichman, C.; Bryden, G.; Defrère, D.; Mennesson, B.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Boccaletti, A.

    2016-02-01

    Debris disks are signposts of analogs to small-body populations of the solar system, often, however, with much higher masses and dust production rates. The disk associated with the nearby star η Crv is especially striking, as it shows strong mid- and far-infrared excesses despite an age of ∼1.4 Gyr. We undertake constructing a consistent model of the system that can explain a diverse collection of spatial and spectral data. We analyze Keck Interferometer Nuller measurements and revisit Spitzer and additional spectrophotometric data, as well as resolved Herschel images, to determine the dust spatial distribution in the inner exozodi and in the outer belt. We model in detail the two-component disk and the dust properties from the sub-AU scale to the outermost regions by fitting simultaneously all measurements against a large parameter space. The properties of the cold belt are consistent with a collisional cascade in a reservoir of ice-free planetesimals at 133 AU. It shows marginal evidence for asymmetries along the major axis. KIN enables us to establish that the warm dust consists of a ring that peaks between 0.2 and 0.8 AU. To reconcile this location with the ∼400 K dust temperature, very high albedo dust must be invoked, and a distribution of forsterite grains starting from micron sizes satisfies this criterion, while providing an excellent fit to the spectrum. We discuss additional constraints from the LBTI and near-infrared spectra, and we present predictions of what James Webb Space Telescope can unveil about this unusual object and whether it can detect unseen planets.

  8. MODELS OF THE η CORVI DEBRIS DISK FROM THE KECK INTERFEROMETER, SPITZER, AND HERSCHEL

    SciTech Connect

    Lebreton, J.; Beichman, C.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Bryden, G.; Mennesson, B.; Defrère, D.; Boccaletti, A.

    2016-02-01

    Debris disks are signposts of analogs to small-body populations of the solar system, often, however, with much higher masses and dust production rates. The disk associated with the nearby star η Crv is especially striking, as it shows strong mid- and far-infrared excesses despite an age of ∼1.4 Gyr. We undertake constructing a consistent model of the system that can explain a diverse collection of spatial and spectral data. We analyze Keck Interferometer Nuller measurements and revisit Spitzer and additional spectrophotometric data, as well as resolved Herschel images, to determine the dust spatial distribution in the inner exozodi and in the outer belt. We model in detail the two-component disk and the dust properties from the sub-AU scale to the outermost regions by fitting simultaneously all measurements against a large parameter space. The properties of the cold belt are consistent with a collisional cascade in a reservoir of ice-free planetesimals at 133 AU. It shows marginal evidence for asymmetries along the major axis. KIN enables us to establish that the warm dust consists of a ring that peaks between 0.2 and 0.8 AU. To reconcile this location with the ∼400 K dust temperature, very high albedo dust must be invoked, and a distribution of forsterite grains starting from micron sizes satisfies this criterion, while providing an excellent fit to the spectrum. We discuss additional constraints from the LBTI and near-infrared spectra, and we present predictions of what James Webb Space Telescope can unveil about this unusual object and whether it can detect unseen planets.

  9. Who Invented the Word Asteroid: William Herschel or Stephen Weston?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Clifford J.; Orchiston, Wayne

    2011-11-01

    William Herschel made the first serious study of 1 Ceres and 2 Pallas in the year 1802. He was moved by their dissimilarities to the other planets to coin a new term to distinguish them. For this purpose he enlisted the aid of his good friends William Watson and Sir Joseph Banks. Watson gave him a long list of possible names, which Herschel rejected. With a lifetime of experience classifying and naming newly found objects in nature, Banks became the man both Erasmus Darwin (in 1781) and William Herschel (in 1802) turned to for sage advice in developing a new descriptive language. In the case of Ceres and Pallas, Banks turned the task over to his friend, the noted philologist Stephen Weston, FRS. It has recently been stated by a noted British historian that it was Weston - not Herschel - who coined the term 'asteroid' to collectively describe Ceres and Pallas. This claim is investigated, and parallels are drawn in the use of neologism in astronomy and botany.

  10. John Herschel's position in the post-Neptune discovery debates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollerstrom, N.

    2005-08-01

    In the course of archiving Britain's Neptune correspondence I have transcribed letters by Herschel (from the Royal Society Library) that have been little appreciated by scholars. The great polemical debates took place chiefly within the RAS but also affecting the Royal Society and the British Association, and Herschel was very much at the centre of things. His views become especially interesting once the sceptical American view started to be heard some months after the discovery, that because the real Neptune was so very different in its motions from that predicted by Adams and LeVerrier, and because the 2:1 resonance between Uranus and Neptune is such a large effect and yet was wholly unknown to these two, the prediction had to have been a mere happy coincidence. Herschel's view that the synchrony involved was beneficial for public understanding of science remains of relevance today. During these intense debates, Herschel was completing his bestseller 'Outlines of Astronomy' that was to go through twelve editions.

  11. Herschel Hi-GAL imaging of massive young stellar objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olguin, F. A.; Hoare, M. G.; Wheelwright, H. E.; Clay, S. J.; de Wit, W.-J.; Rafiq, I.; Pezzuto, S.; Molinari, S.

    2015-05-01

    We used Herschel Hi-GAL (Herschel infrared Galactic Plane survey) data to determine whether massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) are resolved at 70 μm and to study their envelope density distribution. Our analysis of three relatively isolated sources in the l = 30° and 59° Galactic fields show that the objects are partially resolved at 70 μm. The Herschel Hi-GAL survey data have a high scan velocity which makes unresolved and partially resolved sources appear elongated in the 70 μm images. We analysed the two scan directions separately and examine the intensity profile perpendicular to the scan direction. Spherically symmetric radiative transfer models with a power-law density distribution were used to study the circumstellar matter distribution. Single dish submm data were also included to study how different spatial information affects the fitted density distribution. The density distribution which best fits both the 70 μm intensity profile and spectral energy distribution has an average index of ˜0.5. This index is shallower than expected and is probably due to the dust emission from bipolar outflow cavity walls not accounted for in the spherical models. We conclude that 2D axisymmetric models and Herschel images at low scan speeds are needed to better constrain the matter distribution around MYSOs.

  12. The JOSE atmospheric seeing monitor at the William Herschel Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Jacques, D.; Cox, G. C.; Baldwin, J. E.; Mackay, C. D.; Waldram, E. M.; Wilson, R. W.

    1997-09-01

    We have installed a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor at the William Herschel Telescope. The sensor has 8x8 subapertures and operates at frame rates up to 865 Hz. It is used to monitor those aspects of the seeing relevant to the design and optimization of the future WHT adaptive optics system. Here we describe its implementation and present some sample results.

  13. Footprint Database and web services for the Herschel space observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verebélyi, Erika; Dobos, László; Kiss, Csaba

    2015-08-01

    Using all telemetry and observational meta-data, we created a searchable database of Herschel observation footprints. Data from the Herschel space observatory is freely available for everyone but no uniformly processed catalog of all observations has been published yet. As a first step, we unified the data model for all three Herschel instruments in all observation modes and compiled a database of sky coverage information. As opposed to methods using a pixellation of the sphere, in our database, sky coverage is stored in exact geometric form allowing for precise area calculations. Indexing of the footprints allows for very fast search among observations based on pointing, time, sky coverage overlap and meta-data. This enables us, for example, to find moving objects easily in Herschel fields. The database is accessible via a web site and also as a set of REST web service functions which makes it usable from program clients like Python or IDL scripts. Data is available in various formats including Virtual Observatory standards.

  14. Microbial proteomics: the quiet revolution

    SciTech Connect

    Seraphin, Bertrand; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L

    2012-01-01

    Technological developments in DNA sequencing and their application to study thousands of microbial genomes or even microbial ecosystems still today often make the headlines of general newspapers and scientific journals. These revolutionary changes are hiding another revolution that is unfolding more quietly in the background: the development of microbial proteomics to study genome expression products. It is important to recognize that while DNA sequencing reveals extensive details about the genomic potential of an organism or community, proteomic measurements reveal the functional gene products that are present and operational under specific environmental conditions, and thus perhaps better characterize the critical biomolecules that execute the life processes (enzymes, signaling, structural factors, etc.).

  15. Fourier-space combination of Planck and Herschel images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu-Vicente, J.; Stutz, A.; Henning, Th.; Keto, E.; Ballesteros-Paredes, J.; Robitaille, T.

    2017-08-01

    Context. Herschel has revolutionized our ability to measure column densities (NH) and temperatures (T) of molecular clouds thanks to its far infrared multiwavelength coverage. However, the lack of a well defined background intensity level in the Herschel data limits the accuracy of the NH and T maps. Aims: We aim to provide a method that corrects the missing Herschel background intensity levels using the Planck model for foreground Galactic thermal dust emission. For the Herschel/PACS data, both the constant-offset as well as the spatial dependence of the missing background must be addressed. For the Herschel/SPIRE data, the constant-offset correction has already been applied to the archival data so we are primarily concerned with the spatial dependence, which is most important at 250 μm. Methods: We present a Fourier method that combines the publicly available Planck model on large angular scales with the Herschel images on smaller angular scales. Results: We have applied our method to two regions spanning a range of Galactic environments: Perseus and the Galactic plane region around l = 11deg (HiGal-11). We post-processed the combined dust continuum emission images to generate column density and temperature maps. We compared these to previously adopted constant-offset corrections. We find significant differences (≳20%) over significant ( 15%) areas of the maps, at low column densities (NH ≲ 1022 cm-2) and relatively high temperatures (T ≳ 20 K). We have also applied our method to synthetic observations of a simulated molecular cloud to validate our method. Conclusions: Our method successfully corrects the Herschel images, including both the constant-offset intensity level and the scale-dependent background variations measured by Planck. Our method improves the previous constant-offset corrections, which did not account for variations in the background emission levels. The image FITS files used in this paper are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp

  16. Identification of new transitional disk candidates in Lupus with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamante, I.; Merín, B.; Ribas, Á.; Bouy, H.; Prusti, T.; Pilbratt, G. L.; André, Ph.

    2015-06-01

    Context. New data from the Herschel Space Observatory are broadening our understanding of the physics and evolution of the outer regions of protoplanetary disks in star-forming regions. In particular they prove to be useful for identifying transitional disk candidates. Aims: The goals of this work are to complement the detections of disks and the identification of transitional disk candidates in the Lupus clouds with data from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey. Methods: We extracted photometry at 70, 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm of all spectroscopically confirmed Class II members previously identified in the Lupus regions and analyzed their updated spectral energy distributions. Results: We have detected 34 young disks in Lupus in at least one Herschel band, from an initial sample of 123 known members in the observed fields. Using recently defined criteria, we have identified five transitional disk candidates in the region. Three of them are new to the literature. Their PACS-70 μm fluxes are systematically higher than those of normal T Tauri stars in the same associations, as already found in T Cha and in the transitional disks in the Chamaeleon molecular cloud. Conclusions: Herschel efficiently complements mid-infrared surveys for identifying transitional disk candidates and confirms that these objects seem to have substantially different outer disks than the T Tauri stars in the same molecular clouds. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Tables 5-7 and Figs. 3 and 4 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  17. Exploring New Spectral Windows with the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergin, Edwin A.

    2011-06-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory, an ESA cornerstone mission with NASA participation, has been in operation for over a year. I will briefly outline the overall capabilities of Herschel which has both photometric and spectroscopic coverage from 63 to 610 microns. Herschel offers unprecedented sensitivity as well as continuous spectral coverage across the gaps imposed by the atmosphere, opening up a largely unexplored wavelength regime to high resolution spectroscopy. In particular, I will present results from the guaranteed time key program: Herschel observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources (HEXOS). Our program is nearing completion of data acquisition and I will discuss the most complete molecular spectrum of star-forming gas ever obtained in the spectrum of Orion KL and the galactic center molecular cloud Sagittarius B2. These spectra have over 1.4 THz of bandwidth and a resolution of 1 MHz. We estimate that there are over 100,000 spectral lines alone in the Orion KL spectrum with numerous lines of water vapor, ammonia, sulfur-bearing molecules, and numerous organics. I will demonstrate the power of molecular spectroscopy in characterizing the physical state of dense gas near massive stars through the perspective offered by observations of hundreds of lines of a single molecule and are revealing a new tracer of active galactic nuclei. I will show how the spectra provide a near complete chemical assay and cooling census of star-forming gas. Ultimately the gains from Herschel have tremendous potential to extend our understanding of the physics of star birth and feedback while informing on the origin of water and organics in space.

  18. "Heart" of Herschel to be presented to media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-09-01

    The Herschel mission, equipped with the largest telescope ever launched in space (3.5 m diameter), will give astronomers their best capability yet to explore the universe at far-infrared and sub-millimetre wavelengths. By measuring the light at these wavelengths, scientists see the ‘cold’ universe. Herschel will give them an unprecedented view, allowing them to see deep into star forming regions, galactic centres and planetary systems. In order to achieve its objectives and to be able to detect the faint radiation coming from the coolest objects in the cosmos, otherwise ‘invisible’, Herschel’s detectors must operate at very low and stable temperatures. The spacecraft is equipped so as to cool them close to absolute zero (-273.15 ºC), ranging from -271 ºC to only a few tenths of a degree above absolute zero. To have achieved this particular feature alone is a remarkable accomplishment for European industry and science. The final integration of the various components of the Herschel spacecraft - payload module, cryostat, service module, telescope and solar arrays - will be completed in the next few months. This phase will be followed by a series of tests to get the spacecraft ready for launch at the end of July 2008. Herschel will be launched into space on an Ariane 5 ECA rocket. The launch is shared with Planck, ESA’s mission to study relic radiation from the Big Bang. Media interested to attend the press event are invited to fill in the reply form below. Note for editors The Prime Contractor for the Herschel spacecraft is Thales Alenia Space (Cannes, France). It leads a consortium of industrial partners with Astrium (Germany) responsible for the Extended Payload Module (EPLM, including the Herschel cryostat), Astrium (France) responsible for the telescope, and the Thales Alenia Space industry branch of Torino, Italy, responsible for the Service Module (SVM). There is also a host of subcontractors spread throughout Europe. The three Herschel

  19. The Coming Primary Care Revolution.

    PubMed

    Ellner, Andrew L; Phillips, Russell S

    2017-04-01

    The United States has the most expensive, technologically advanced, and sub-specialized healthcare system in the world, yet it has worse population health status than any other high-income country. Rising healthcare costs, high rates of waste, the continued trend towards chronic non-communicable disease, and the growth of new market entrants that compete with primary care services have set the stage for fundamental change in all of healthcare, driven by a revolution in primary care. We believe that the coming primary care revolution ought to be guided by the following design principles: 1) Payment must adequately support primary care and reward value, including non-visit-based care. 2) Relationships will serve as the bedrock of value in primary care, and will increasingly be fostered by teams, improved clinical operations, and technology, with patients and non-physicians assuming an ever-increasing role in most aspects of healthcare. 3) Generalist physicians will increasingly focus on high-acuity and high-complexity presentations, and primary care teams will increasingly manage conditions that specialists managed in the past. 4) Primary care will refocus on whole-person care, and address health behaviors as well as vision, hearing, dental, and social services. Design based on these principles should lead to higher-value healthcare, but will require new approaches to workforce training.

  20. No sire, it's a revolution.

    PubMed

    Moccia, P

    1990-09-01

    In much the way 18th century France was ripe for a revolution, so are the two social systems within which we live and work: health care and higher education. In health care, too many are suffering so that a few might live lives of luxury. Higher education is structured so as to reproduce a social order of class privilege and patriarchal values. For a complex set of reasons, (some known to us, many more beyond our consciousness) we have chosen higher education and nursing education as our arena--as the place where we might contribute to the world order, to our society, to individuals and communities who are striving to be healthy. Our project, then, is to enable others so that they might enable still others: to teach and learn with our students who are our colleagues in creating a future; to teach and learn in caring ways that will serve as prototypes for caring communities. To those who would dismiss the curriculum revolution as a fad and those involved it as aging malcontents, I refer them to the diaries of Governor Morris, an American guest of Marie Antoinette who was at Versailles during the months before the fall of the Bastille on July 14, 1789: Yesterday, it was the Fashion at Versailles not to believe that there had been any disturbances at Paris. I presume this Day's Transactions will induce a Conviction that all is not perfectly quiet (Pernoud, 1960, p. 45).

  1. Enlarging Our Perspectives on Two American Revolutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branson, Margaret Stimmann

    1976-01-01

    Examines ways in which social studies teachers can help students identify and evaluate significant changes in the past and present and enlarge their perspectives on change. Information on the roles of women in the first American Revolution and insights on the present revolution are provided. (Author/DB)

  2. Teaching Brinton's Model for Analyzing Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, Bob; Braun, Joseph A., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a model for studying and identifying revolution condensed from Crane Brinton's "Anatomy of Revolution." Explains how the characteristics of the model can be applied to hypothetical, historical, and contemporary situations. Outlines the teaching sequence, illustrating how students are taught a historical model and how to apply…

  3. The Cultural Revolution and Contemporary Chinese Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Guey-Meei; Suchan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Using this instructional resource, teachers can explore the impact of the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) on contemporary art in mainland China with their students. The three artists Luo Zhongli (b. 1948), Xu Bing (b. 1955), and Wang Guangyi (b. 1957) came of age during the Cultural Revolution and are representative of a much larger number of…

  4. The Press and the Bolivian National Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Jerry W.

    1973-01-01

    Social revolutions, which frequently use the press as a propaganda weapon, have been rare in Latin America despite the striking social inequalities of the region. Only three classic socioeconomic revolutions have unfolded in the hemisphere--in Mexico in 1910, in Bolivia in 1952, and in Cuba in 1959. Bolivia attempted to effect radical reforms…

  5. Enlarging Our Perspectives on Two American Revolutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branson, Margaret Stimmann

    1976-01-01

    Examines ways in which social studies teachers can help students identify and evaluate significant changes in the past and present and enlarge their perspectives on change. Information on the roles of women in the first American Revolution and insights on the present revolution are provided. (Author/DB)

  6. Extending the Computer Revolution into Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, Leslie J.

    1999-01-01

    The computer revolution is far from over on Earth. It is just beginning in space. We can look forward to an era of enhanced scientific exploration of the solar system and even other start systems. We can look forward to the benefits of this space revolution to commercial uses on and around Earth.

  7. The Information "Revolution": Information, Communications and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostry, Bernard

    Today's communications systems and technology facilitate the erosion of cultural differences, threatening cultural sovereignty. In the fifteenth century, the first information revolution created the concept of the nation-state with its unique cultural identity. The technology of the second information revolution, which has advanced video…

  8. The Nature of the Darwinian Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Ernst

    1972-01-01

    Analysis of the writings of anti-evolutionists contemporary with Darwin reveals that there were many objections that had to be overcome and that the Darwinian revolution" does not conform to the simple model of a scientific revolution as outlined by T. S. Kuhn. (AL)

  9. The Cultural Revolution and Contemporary Chinese Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Guey-Meei; Suchan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Using this instructional resource, teachers can explore the impact of the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) on contemporary art in mainland China with their students. The three artists Luo Zhongli (b. 1948), Xu Bing (b. 1955), and Wang Guangyi (b. 1957) came of age during the Cultural Revolution and are representative of a much larger number of…

  10. Economic Motives Behind the 2011 Egyptian Revolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    pdf. 119 Ibid. 120 Andrey V. Korotayev and Julia V. Zinkina, “Egyptian Revolution: A Demographic Structural Analysis,” Entelequia. Revista ...Structural Analysis,” Entelequia. Revista Interdisciplinar 13 (2011). Lesch, Ann M. “Egypt’s Spring: Causes of the Revolution.” Middle East Policy

  11. The Nature of the Darwinian Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Ernst

    1972-01-01

    Analysis of the writings of anti-evolutionists contemporary with Darwin reveals that there were many objections that had to be overcome and that the Darwinian revolution" does not conform to the simple model of a scientific revolution as outlined by T. S. Kuhn. (AL)

  12. COUNTER-REVOLUTION IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HOCKING, ELTON

    THE AUTHOR STATES THAT THE AUDIOLINGUAL REVOLUTION IS BEING SUBJECTED TO A COUNTER-REVOLUTION IS APPARENT IN SUCH RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AS THE 1966 NORTHEAST CONFERENCE, WHEN CARROLL, FERGUSON, AND CHOMSKY DENIED THAT PSYCHOLOGY AND LINGUISTICS PROVIDE DIRECT SUPPORT FOR AUDIOLINGUAL TEACHING, THE WRITINGS OF RIVERS, HAYES, BELASCO, AND VALDMAN WHO…

  13. OT2_eegami_5: Herschel Lensing Survey II: Completing the Herschel Legacy with the HST/MCT CLASH Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egami, E.

    2011-09-01

    For deep imaging longward of 100 um, confusion noise sets the fundamental sensitivity limits achievable with Herschel, and these limits cannot be improved by integrating longer. To penetrate through this confusion limit and detect faint high-redshift galaxies, gravitational lensing by massive galaxy clusters offers a very powerful and yet cheap solution. For this reason, our team has been conducting a PACS/SPIRE imaging survey of 44 massive lensing clusters as one of the Herschel Key Programs, "The Herschel Lensing Survey" (PI: Egami, 292.3 hrs). Deep PACS/SPIRE imaging data of massive clusters are quite rich with a variety of information, which allows us to study not only the properties of gravitationally lensed high-redshift galaxies but also those of cluster member galaxies and the intracluster medium through the analysis of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. In January 2010, a massive HST program targeting powerful lensing clusters was accepted as one of the three multi-cycle treasury (MCT) programs. This program, ``the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble'' (CLASH), has an allocation of 524 orbits, and will obtain deep ACS and WFC3 images of 25 massive galaxy clusters using 16 broad-band filters from near-UV (2250 A) to near-IR (1.6 um). These extensive multi-filter imaging observations will produce high-precision photometric redshifts (sigma/(1+z)<0.02). On average, the program spends 20 orbits per cluster. Considering this enormous investment of HST time, the CLASH program will define the ultimate sample of massive galaxy clusters on which future studies will focus. Here, we propose to obtain deep PACS and SPIRE images for 10 CLASH clusters that still lack such data (the other 15 clusters already have a good Herschel coverage). To fully exploit the combination of the Herschel and HST data, the HLS and CLASH teams are submitting this proposal jointly with the participation of key scientists from both teams.

  14. Uzbekistan unveiled. [Uranium production to commence

    SciTech Connect

    Mazurkevich, A.P.

    1993-05-01

    Through centuries of revolution, war and strife, the people of Uzbekistan have built a reputation as skilled and tenacious merchants. Since antiquity, when the Silk Road from China turned toward Europe at Smarakand, they have been master traders of such valuable commodities as cotton, fruits, vegetables, spices and gold. Now, they're about to introduce another of their specialties to the world: Uranium. Uranium mining in the country is controlled by a new, independent company, the Kizilkumredmetzoloto, parent of the Navoi Mining Metallurgy Combine [NMMC]. Established in 1958 at the height of the Cold War, when uranium mining for military stockpiles got started in earnest, Navoi was wholly owned by the USSR's Ministry of Medium Machine Building. Up until 1991, virtually all of Navoi's uranium production, strictly in the form of uranium concentrates, was used for either military purposes or for nuclear power plants within the former Soviet Union. The republic exerted no control over the final destination of its uranium. All production and operating decisions for Navoi's mines were dictated by the Soviet Union's Ministry of Atomic Power Industry [MAPI], which developed annual quotas for uranium production in each republic of the country. Uranium from the republics was sold to Techsnabexport [Tenex], the distribution and marketing arm of MAPI. Exports to other countries were handled strictly by Tenex.

  15. Chilean medicine under social revolution.

    PubMed

    Medina, E; Cruz-Coke, R

    1976-07-22

    During the last decade Chile has experienced a series of social changes under Christian Socialist (1964-1970), Marxist Socialist (1970-1973) and military (1973-1975) governments. These changes grossly affected the evolution of medicine and public health in Chile. Nevertheless, vital statistics show an overall improvement in health indexes, with a short interruption during the Marxist government. During this period medical standards and the quality of medical services declined when revolutionaries disrupted the organization of traditional socialized Chilean medicine founded 50 years ago. The vital statistics of 1974 suggest an overall recovery, but physical and human resources for health, eroded by revolution and the present acute economic crisis, have not yet begun to improve. Nevertheless, Chilean medicine has reasumed the technical character that should never have been abandoned.

  16. Intelligent hearing aids: the next revolution.

    PubMed

    Tao Zhang; Mustiere, Fred; Micheyl, Christophe

    2016-08-01

    The first revolution in hearing aids came from nonlinear amplification, which allows better compensation for both soft and loud sounds. The second revolution stemmed from the introduction of digital signal processing, which allows better programmability and more sophisticated algorithms. The third revolution in hearing aids is wireless, which allows seamless connectivity between a pair of hearing aids and with more and more external devices. Each revolution has fundamentally transformed hearing aids and pushed the entire industry forward significantly. Machine learning has received significant attention in recent years and has been applied in many other industries, e.g., robotics, speech recognition, genetics, and crowdsourcing. We argue that the next revolution in hearing aids is machine intelligence. In fact, this revolution is already quietly happening. We will review the development in at least three major areas: applications of machine learning in speech enhancement; applications of machine learning in individualization and customization of signal processing algorithms; applications of machine learning in improving the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical tests. With the advent of the internet of things, the above developments will accelerate. This revolution will bring patient satisfactions to a new level that has never been seen before.

  17. The five generations of American medical revolutions.

    PubMed

    Garrison, R L

    1995-03-01

    Current medical authors frequently use the term "revolution," yet American medicine is resisting change rather than embracing it. The last completed American medical revolutionary movement was the specialist-technologist movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. This paper describes a five-generational model of revolution. First-generation persons foment revolution; second-generation persons shape it into workable form and precipitate conflict; third-generation persons join the fight only when it appears to be all but won; fourth-generation persons enjoy the fruits of revolution; and fifth-generation persons, having risen to domination in the mature system, resist all attempts at reform by the next round of revolutionaries. In political revolutions, severe reactionary activity by the ruling party is often an indicator of an imminent overthrow by revolution. In scientific revolutions, the opposition of an established (specialist-technologist) paradigm to an emerging alternative (generalist) paradigm increases in intensity as the old order declines in strength; the opposition becomes most fierce just before the collapse of the old order. American specialist-technologist medicine, declining into its senescent fifth generation, will resist all but incremental change whenever possible, and accept major change only by force.

  18. A "large and graceful sinuosity". John Herschel's graphical method.

    PubMed

    Hankins, Thomas L

    2006-12-01

    In 1833 John Herschel published a graphical method for determining the orbits of double stars. He argued that his method, which depended on human judgment rather than mathematical analysis, gave better results than computation, given the uncertainty in the data. Herschel found that astronomy and terrestrial physics were especially suitable for graphical treatment, and he expected that graphs would soon become important in all areas of science. He argued with William Whewell and James D. Forbes over the process of induction, over the application of probability, and over the moral content of science. Graphs entered into all these debates; but because they constituted a method, not a metaphysics, they were acceptable to most practicing scientists and became increasingly popular throughout the nineteenth century.

  19. A "Large and Graceful Sinuosity": John Herschel's Graphical Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankins, Thomas L.

    2006-12-01

    In 1833 John Herschel published a graphical method for determining the orbits of double stars. He argued that this method, which depended on human judgment rather than mathematical analysis, gave better results than computation, given the uncertainty in the data. Herschel found that astronomy and terrestrial physics were especially suitable for graphical treatment, and he expected that graphs would soon become important in all areas of science. He argued with William Whewell and James D. Forbes over the process of induction, over the application of probability, and over the moral content of science. Graphs entered into all these debates, but because they constituted a method, not a metaphysics, they were acceptable to most practicing scientists and became increasingly popular throughout the nineteenth century.

  20. Herschel and Planck Power System Flight Return Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciancetta, Ezio; Deplus, Nicolas; Zanella, Pietro; Neto, Alessandro; Fernandez, Emilio

    2014-08-01

    Herschel and Planck are space observatories managed by the European Space Agency. The two satellites were launched on May 14, 2009 by a single Ariane-5 launcher and operated in two different Lissajous orbits around the second Lagrangian point (L2), 1.5 million kilometres away from the Earth.Herschel completed its scientific operation in April 2013 and it was passivated on 17 June 2013; Planck has been passivated on 23 October 2013.This paper will first outline the power system design providing a description of the major design drivers, then will provide a synthesis of the behaviour of the Electrical Power System (EPS) in the whole 4-years mission, looking at the performance at launch and during major manoeuvres, verifying the Solar Array degradation with life compared to the expected one and summarizing the main lesson learnt.

  1. Are planets and debris correlated? Herschel imaging of 61 Vir.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, M.; Kennedy, G. M.; Moro-Martín, A.

    2012-03-01

    Debris disk studies with Spitzer found no evidence of a correlation between (giant) exoplanets and circumsteallar dust. Since these studies were carried out, a new parameter space of fainter and colder debris disks has been opened up by the Herschel Space Observatory -- improving our knowledge of the disk frequency, in particular around cooler stars -- and simultaneously higher precision doppler surveys have allowed the detection of lower-mass planets, the frequency of which can now be characterized.Ê Here, we revisit the planet-debris disk correlation using Herschel data from the DEBRIS and DUNES surveys. We assess whether the frequency and properties of disks around stars with high-mass and low-mass planets are any different from a control sample, and if these differences can be used to shed light on planet formation mechanisms and to ÒpredictÓ the presence of planets around stars with certain disk characteristics.

  2. Quantum technology: the second quantum revolution.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Jonathan P; Milburn, Gerard J

    2003-08-15

    We are currently in the midst of a second quantum revolution. The first quantum revolution gave us new rules that govern physical reality. The second quantum revolution will take these rules and use them to develop new technologies. In this review we discuss the principles upon which quantum technology is based and the tools required to develop it. We discuss a number of examples of research programs that could deliver quantum technologies in coming decades including: quantum information technology, quantum electromechanical systems, coherent quantum electronics, quantum optics and coherent matter technology.

  3. Understanding Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies in the Herschel Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Jason; Sanders, David B.; Larson, Kirsten L.; Mazzarella, Joseph M.; Howell, Justin; Diaz Santos, Tanio; Xu, C. Kevin; Paladini, Roberta; Schulz, Bernhard; Shupe, David L.; Appleton, Philip N.; Armus, Lee; Billot, Nicolas; Pan Chan, Hiu; Evans, Aaron S.; Fadda, Dario; Frayer, David T.; Haan, Sebastian; Mie Ishida, Catherine; Iwasawa, Kazushi; Kim, Dong-Chan; Lord, Steven D.; Murphy, Eric J.; Petric, Andreea; Privon, George C.; Surace, Jason A.; Treister, Ezequiel; Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey, Cosmic Evolution Survey

    2017-06-01

    Luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies [(U)LIRGs] are some of the most extreme objects in the universe with their elevated star formation rates and/or presence of a powerful AGN, playing a central role in the evolution of galaxies throughout cosmic history. The 201 local (U)LIRGs (z<0.088) within the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) provide an unmatched opportunity to characterize the diverse properties in a large, statistically significant sample, in addition to comparisons with their high redshift counterparts. In this thesis talk I will first present the Herschel PACS and SPIRE far infrared image atlas of the entire GOALS sample (encompassing the 70-500 micron wavelength range), and demonstrate the excellent data quality. The Herschel GOALS images presented here are the highest resolution, most sensitive and comprehensive far-infrared imaging survey of the nearest (U)LIRGs to date. This allows us for the first time to directly probe the critical far infrared and submillimeter wavelength regime of these systems, enabling us to accurately determine the bolometric luminosities, infrared surface brightnesses, star formation rates, and dust masses and temperatures on spatial scales of 2-5 kpc. In addition, the superb resolution of Herschel means we can resolve many of the galaxy pairs and systems within the GOALS sample, allowing us to measure far infrared fluxes of component galaxies. Finally, using the Herschel photometry in conjunction with Spitzer, WISE, and IRAS data, I will show our first results on the global properties of (U)LIRGs such as their average 3-500 micron infrared SEDs and far infrared colors, and compare them to lower infrared luminosity objects. We will also compare and contrast their infrared SED shapes with previously published SED templates from the literature. If time permits, I will also show initial results from our rest-frame optical spectroscopy program on z~2.3 infrared selected galaxies in the COSMOS field.

  4. OT2_smalhotr_3: Herschel Extreme Lensing Line Observations (HELLO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhotra, S.

    2011-09-01

    We request 59.8 hours of Herschel time to observe 20 normal star-forming galaxies in the [CII] 158 micron and [OI] 63 micron lines. These galaxies lie at high redshift (1Herschel offers the unique opportunity to study both lines with high sensitivity throughout this epoch (using HIFI for [CII] and PACS for [OI]). These two lines are the main cooling lines of the atomic medium. By measuring their fluxes, we will measure (1) the cooling efficiency of gas, (2) gas densities and temperatures near starforming regions, and (3) gas pressures, which are important to drive the winds that provide feedback to starformation processes. By combining the proposed observations with existing multiwavelength data on these objects, we will obtain as complete a picture of galaxy-scale star formation and ISM physical conditions at high redshifts as we have at z=0. Then perhaps we can understand why star formation and AGN activity peaked at this epoch. In Herschel cycle OT1, 49 high redshift IR luminous galaxies were approved for spectroscopy, but only two so-called normal galaxies were included. This is an imbalance that should be corrected, to balance Herschel's legacy.

  5. Exploring science and technology through the Herschel space observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minier, V.; Rouzé, M.

    2015-03-01

    Because modern astronomy associates the quest of our origins and high-tech instruments, communicating and teaching astronomy explore both science and technology. We report here on our work in communicating astronomy to the public through Web sites (www.herschel.fr), movies on Dailymotion (www.dailymotion.com/AstrophysiqueTV) and new ITC tools that describe interactively the technological dimension of a space mission for astrophysics.

  6. Continued monitoring of aeolian activity within Herschel Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardinale, Marco; Pozzobon, Riccardo; Michaels, Timothy; Bourke, Mary C.; Okubo, Chris H.; Chiara Tangari, Anna; Marinangeli, Lucia

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we study a dark dune field on the western side of Herschel crater, a 300 km diameter impact basin located near the Martian equator (14.4°S, 130°E), where the ripple and dune motion reflects the actual atmospheric wind conditions. We develop an integrated analysis using (1) automated ripple mapping that yields ripple orientations and evaluates the spatial variation of actual atmospheric wind conditions within the dunes, (2) an optical cross-correlation that allows us to quantify an average ripple migration rate of 0.42 m per Mars year, and (3) mesoscale climate modeling with which we compare the observed aeolian changes with modeled wind stresses and directions. Our observations are consistent with previous work [1] [2] that detected aeolian activity in the western part of the crater. It also demonstrates that not only are the westerly Herschel dunes movable, but that predominant winds from the north are able to keep the ripples and dunes active within most (if not all) of Herschel crater in the current atmospheric conditions. References: [1] Cardinale, M., Silvestro, S., Vaz, D.A., Michaels, T., Bourke, M.C., Komatsu, G., Marinangeli, L., 2016. Present-day aeolian activity in Herschel Crater, Mars. Icarus 265, 139-148. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.10.022. [2] Runyon, K.D., Bridges, N.T., Ayoub, F., Newman, C.E. and Quade, J.J., 2017. An integrated model for dune morphology and sand fluxes on Mars. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 457, pp.204-212.

  7. Simbol-X: Synergies with JWST, ALMA and Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiolino, R.

    2009-05-01

    I discuss the synergies between Simbol-X and three among the major astronomical facilities that, in the next decade, will be operative in the infrared-millimeter spectral range, namely JWST, Herschel and ALMA. I first provide a brief overview of the main features and observing capabilities offered by these facilities. Then I will discuss a few research fields (mostly extragalactic) that will geatly benefit of the joint exploitation of Simbol-X and these IR-mm observatories.

  8. John Herschel and the Cape flora, 1834 - 1839.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rourke, J. P.

    John Herschel's interest in botany was stimulated by his contact with the species-rich Cape flora while resident in Cape Town, 1834 - 1838. The comparative study of his extensive living collection of bulbous plants, mainly of the Iridaceae, Liliaceae, Amarayllidaceae and Orchidaceae led him to consider some basic aspects of the origin of species and of taxonomic theory, in letters to colleagues in Europe.

  9. Debris disks as seen by Herschel: statistics and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, J.; Marshall, J. P.; Augereau, J. C.; Eiroa, C.

    2011-10-01

    As leftovers of planet formation, debris disks represent an essential component of planetary systems. We first introduce the latest statistics obtained by the DUNES consortium, who are taking a census of extrasolar analogues to the Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt using the Herschel Space Observatory. Then we present a detailed study of the much younger debris disk surrounding the F5.5 star HD 181327. We derive strong constraints on the properties of its dust and we discuss its possible gaseous counterpart.

  10. Making Room for Revolution in Social Studies Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Revolutions of all kinds are a mainstay of social studies and history classes across Canada. While revolution as subject matter is prevalent in Canadian social studies classrooms, it is unclear the degree to which what Howard Gardner calls the "cognitive revolution" has found its way into those same classrooms. This is the revolution in…

  11. The French Revolution after 200 Years: Is It Finally Over?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorrock, William I.

    1990-01-01

    Maintains that the effects of the French Revolution continue today. Presents scholarly views on the significance of the revolution. Challenges the view that the French Revolution led to the violent totalitarian regimes of the twentieth century. Traces the history of the revolution and outlines its legacy. (RW)

  12. Making Room for Revolution in Social Studies Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Revolutions of all kinds are a mainstay of social studies and history classes across Canada. While revolution as subject matter is prevalent in Canadian social studies classrooms, it is unclear the degree to which what Howard Gardner calls the "cognitive revolution" has found its way into those same classrooms. This is the revolution in…

  13. The French Revolution after 200 Years: Is It Finally Over?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorrock, William I.

    1990-01-01

    Maintains that the effects of the French Revolution continue today. Presents scholarly views on the significance of the revolution. Challenges the view that the French Revolution led to the violent totalitarian regimes of the twentieth century. Traces the history of the revolution and outlines its legacy. (RW)

  14. The dual Green Revolutions in South Korea: reforestation and agricultural revolution under the authoritarian regime.

    PubMed

    Moon, Manyong

    2012-01-01

    In South Korea, the Green Revolution has been commonly understood as the development and dissemination of new rice varieties ('Tongil' rice) and the rapid increase of rice yield in the 1970s. However, revolutionary success in agriculture was not the only green revolution South Korea experienced; another green revolution lay in the success of reforestation projects. In the 1970s, South Korea's forest greening was closely related to its agricultural revolution in several ways. Therefore, South Korea's Green Revolution was an intrinsically linked double feature of agriculture and forestry. This two-pronged revolution was initiated by scientific research - yet accomplished by the strong administrative mobilization of President Park Chung Hee's regime. The process of setting goals and meeting them through a military-like strategy in a short time was made possible under the authoritarian regime, known as 'Yushin', though the administration failed to fully acknowledge scientific expertise in the process of pushing to achieve goals.

  15. A Herschel resolved debris disc around HD 105211

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hengst, S.; Marshall, J. P.; Horner, J.; Marsden, S. C.

    2017-07-01

    Debris discs are the dusty aftermath of planet formation processes around main-sequence stars. Analysis of these discs is often hampered by the absence of any meaningful constraint on the location and spatial extent of the disc around its host star. Multi-wavelength, resolved imaging ameliorates the degeneracies inherent in the modelling process, making such data indispensable in the interpretation of these systems. The Herschel Space Observatory observed HD 105211 (η Cru, HIP 59072) with its Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) instrument in three far-infrared wavebands (70, 100 and 160 μm). Here we combine these data with ancillary photometry spanning optical to far-infrared wavelengths in order to determine the extent of the circumstellar disc. The spectral energy distribution and multi-wavelength resolved emission of the disc are simultaneously modelled using a radiative transfer and imaging codes. Analysis of the Herschel/PACS images reveals the presence of extended structure in all three PACS images. From a radiative transfer model we derive a disc extent of 87.0 ± 2.5 au, with an inclination of 70.7 ± 2.2° to the line of sight and a position angle of 30.1 ± 0.5°. Deconvolution of the Herschel images reveals a potential asymmetry but this remains uncertain as a combined radiative transfer and image analysis replicates both the structure and the emission of the disc using a single axisymmetric annulus.

  16. Who Invented the Word Asteroid: William Herschel or Stephen Weston?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Clifford J.

    2011-01-01

    William Herschel made the first serious study of 1 Ceres and 2 Pallas in the year 1802. He was moved by their dissimilarities to the other planets to coin a new term to distinguish them. For this purpose he enlisted the aid of his good friends William Watson and Sir Joseph Banks. Watson gave him a long list of possible names, most of which sound quite ludicrous. With a lifetime of experience classifying and naming newly found objects in nature, Banks became the man both Erasmus Darwin (in 1781) and William Herschel (in 1802) turned to for sage advice in developing a new descriptive language. In the case of Ceres and Pallas, Banks turned the task over to his friend, the noted philologist Stephen Weston FRS. It has recently been stated by a noted British historian that it was Weston- not Herschel- who coined the term "asteroid" to collectively describe Ceres and Pallas. This claim is investigated, and parallels are drawn in the use of neologism in astronomy and botany.

  17. EDITORIAL: Permanent revolution - or evolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Ken

    1998-03-01

    Honorary Editor It was that temporary Bolshevik Leon Trotsky who developed the principle of `permanent revolution', a principle that perhaps characterizes the recent history of education in (south) Britain more than does, say, principles traditionally associated with the Conservative or Labour parties. As this editorial is being written, changes are being made to primary school education, and the long-awaited details of the post-Dearing reorganizing of post-16 education are yet to hit the overful bookshelves and filing cabinets of school heads and examination board officials. But something unique has happened recently which might have surprised even Trotsky. The Secretary of State for Education has set up targets for primary school pupils' attainment and threatened (or promised) to resign if they are not met within the lifetime of our newly elected parliament. Of course, if Mr Blunkett is still in a position to resign at that stage he will have been the longest serving Secretary of State since time immemorial. But we should not carp: this is truly a revolutionary idea. Not the promise to resign - although this idea is not so fashionable now as it once was. The revolutionary idea is that a major change to an educational process is actually being made that carries with it a predicted and testable outcome. By contrast, when school physics was refreshed a generation ago by the introduction of Nuffield courses at both pre- and post-16 stages, no `targets' were set. I and many other physics teachers certainly preferred teaching these to teaching their predecessor syllabuses, and might even dare to assert that the pupils liked them too. But we still don't really know whether or not they learned more - or even better - physics. Very little happened as far as the outside world was concerned: the usual fraction of students gave up physics at the usual ages, and those who were examined didn't really get a better reward for their more up-to-date and more enjoyably learned

  18. The American Revolution: A Bicentennial Booklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellon, Elner

    1976-01-01

    Both fiction and nonfiction citations are included in this booklist of children's literature pertaining to the American Revolution, and grade levels are assigned to each of the nearly 500 citations. (JC)

  19. High School Textbooks and the American Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seller, Maxine; Trusz, Andrew

    1976-01-01

    In terms of teaching about the American Revolution, this article surveys strengths and weaknesses of representative, frequently used high school history books. It suggests how the most common weaknesses can be corrected. (Author/AV)

  20. Must We Have a Cultural Revolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampf, Louis

    1970-01-01

    Argues that a cultural revolution must precede anything approaching substantial, meaningful curriculum change; a speech given at annual meeting of Conference on College Composition and Communication, National Council of Teachers of English (Seattle, Washington, March 19, 1970). (Editor/RD)

  1. High School Textbooks and the American Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seller, Maxine; Trusz, Andrew

    1976-01-01

    In terms of teaching about the American Revolution, this article surveys strengths and weaknesses of representative, frequently used high school history books. It suggests how the most common weaknesses can be corrected. (Author/AV)

  2. The American Revolution; A Bibliography of Multimedia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fultz, Norma J.

    1975-01-01

    This bibliography lists several types of multimedia instructional materials useful in teaching the American Revolution for elementary and secondary students. The following types of media are included: audiotapes, films, filmstrips, kits, phonodiscs, pictures, realia, simulations, slides, and transparencies. (JR)

  3. The American Revolution: A Bicentennial Booklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellon, Elner

    1976-01-01

    Both fiction and nonfiction citations are included in this booklist of children's literature pertaining to the American Revolution, and grade levels are assigned to each of the nearly 500 citations. (JC)

  4. The American Revolution; A Bibliography of Multimedia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fultz, Norma J.

    1975-01-01

    This bibliography lists several types of multimedia instructional materials useful in teaching the American Revolution for elementary and secondary students. The following types of media are included: audiotapes, films, filmstrips, kits, phonodiscs, pictures, realia, simulations, slides, and transparencies. (JR)

  5. The Patterns and Dynamics of Revolution: Insights into Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-18

    replicated the patterns and dynamics of classic revolutions as presented by Crane Brinton in his seminal work, Anatomy of a Revolution. By using the patterns...government as presented by Crane Brinton in his seminal work, Anatomy of a Revolution? Next, it will demonstrate that these patterns can be seen in the...REVOLUTION In the 1965 revision of his work, The Anatomy of Revolution, Crane Brinton outlines a number of ’uniformities’ that he associates with socio

  6. Windblown Dunes on the Floor of Herschel Impact Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Herschel Basin, one of many meteor impact craters on Mars, has some dark material on its floor that appeared from earlier spacecraft missions to have been blown and/or deposited by wind. Herschel Basin was imaged at low resolution by the Mariner 9 and Viking orbiters ((A) above) in the 1970s, and again by the Phobos 2 orbiter in 1989.

    On June 14, 1998, Mars Global Surveyor's Mars Orbiter Camera revealed that part of the dark surface on the floor of Herschel Basin consists of a field of sand dunes ((B) above). These dunes have a distinct crescent-like shape characteristic of dunes on Earth called barchan dunes. They result from winds that blow from a single dominant direction.

    In the case of Herschel Basin, the dunes indicate that the strongest winds blow approximately north-to-south. The crescent horns on the ends of some of the dunes in this image are elongated. This condition indicates that the dominant winds do not always blow in exactly the same direction-- sometimes the winds blow from the northeast, sometimes from the northwest, and sometimes from the north. The local topography probably influences the wind direction--and hence dune shape--because this dune field is located on a narrow, low plain between a high crater rim to the east, and a narrow mountain range-- the inner ring of the Herschel impact basin--to the west (see image (A)).

    MOC image 36507 was obtained on Mars Global Surveyor's 365th orbit around 10:51 a.m. PDT on June 14, 1998. This subframe is centered around 14.27oS, 231.68oW.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  7. The Landscape Documentary: Unveiling the Face of "Wasteland."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Craig L.

    This paper outlines the process of a photographic landscape documentary project which set out to unveil the face of Utah's West Desert (a 42,000 square-mile, sparsely-populated, broad, rugged land of salt bed "playas" and high mountain ranges) comprising one-third of the state and which hoped to make the West Desert, recently under…

  8. First National Picture of Trends in the Humanities Is Unveiled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    When it comes to hard data about what they do, policy makers and educators in the humanities have been mostly left out in the cold, forced to rely on isolated statistics that do not give an overview of the field. That changed this month, as the American Academy of Arts and Sciences unveiled the prototype of its long-awaited Humanities Indicators…

  9. Unveiling Reality of the Mind: Cultural Arbitrary of Consumerism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Su-Jin

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the cultural arbitrary of consumerism by focusing on a personal realm. That is, I discuss what consumerism appeals to and how it flourishes in relation to our minds. I argue that we need to unveil reality of the mind, be aware of ourselves in relation to the perpetuation of consumerism, in order to critically intervene in the…

  10. Unveiling Reality of the Mind: Cultural Arbitrary of Consumerism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Su-Jin

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the cultural arbitrary of consumerism by focusing on a personal realm. That is, I discuss what consumerism appeals to and how it flourishes in relation to our minds. I argue that we need to unveil reality of the mind, be aware of ourselves in relation to the perpetuation of consumerism, in order to critically intervene in the…

  11. First National Picture of Trends in the Humanities Is Unveiled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    When it comes to hard data about what they do, policy makers and educators in the humanities have been mostly left out in the cold, forced to rely on isolated statistics that do not give an overview of the field. That changed this month, as the American Academy of Arts and Sciences unveiled the prototype of its long-awaited Humanities Indicators…

  12. Book review: Unveiling the Whale: Discourses on Whales and Whaling

    Treesearch

    John Schelhas

    2012-01-01

    Whaling represents one of the most internationally controversial and highly polarized environmental issues of recent times. Arne Kalland, in Unveiling the Whale: Discourses on Whales and Whaling, examines the whaling issue from the perspective of a pro-whaling country with an emphasis on analysis of discourse in international arenas, primarily the International Whaling...

  13. Epilepsy genetics: the ongoing revolution.

    PubMed

    Lesca, G; Depienne, C

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsies have long remained refractory to gene identification due to several obstacles, including a highly variable inter- and intrafamilial expressivity of the phenotypes, a high frequency of phenocopies, and a huge genetic heterogeneity. Recent technological breakthroughs, such as array comparative genomic hybridization and next generation sequencing, have been leading, in the past few years, to the identification of an increasing number of genomic regions and genes in which mutations or copy-number variations cause various epileptic disorders, revealing an enormous diversity of pathophysiological mechanisms. The field that has undergone the most striking revolution is that of epileptic encephalopathies, for which most of causing genes have been discovered since the year 2012. Some examples are the continuous spike-and-waves during slow-wave sleep and Landau-Kleffner syndromes for which the recent discovery of the role of GRIN2A mutations has finally confirmed the genetic bases. These new technologies begin to be used for diagnostic applications, and the main challenge now resides in the interpretation of the huge mass of variants detected by these methods. The identification of causative mutations in epilepsies provides definitive confirmation of the clinical diagnosis, allows accurate genetic counselling, and sometimes permits the development of new appropriate and specific antiepileptic therapies. Future challenges include the identification of the genetic or environmental factors that modify the epileptic phenotypes caused by mutations in a given gene and the understanding of the role of somatic mutations in sporadic epilepsies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Laparoscopic revolution in bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sundbom, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    The history of bariatric surgery is investigational. Dedicated surgeons have continuously sought for an ideal procedure to relieve morbidly obese patients from their burden of comorbid conditions, reduced life expectancy and low quality of life. The ideal procedure must have low complication risk, both in short- and long term, as well as minimal impact on daily life. The revolution of laparoscopic techniques in bariatric surgery is described in this summary. Advances in minimal invasive techniques have contributed to reduced operative time, length of stay, and complications. The development in bariatric surgery has been exceptional, resulting in a dramatic increase of the number of procedures performed world wide during the last decades. Although, a complex bariatric procedure can be performed with operative mortality no greater than cholecystectomy, specific procedure-related complications and other drawbacks must be taken into account. The evolution of laparoscopy will be the legacy of the 21st century and at present, day-care surgery and further reduction of the operative trauma is in focus. The impressive effects on comorbid conditions have prompted the adoption of minimal invasive bariatric procedures into the field of metabolic surgery. PMID:25386062

  15. Tactical cockpits: the coming revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Eugene C.

    1997-07-01

    A cockpit revolution is in the making. Many of the much ballyhooed, much promised, but little delivered technologies of the 70's and 80's will finally come of age in the 90's just in time to complement the data explosion coming from sensor and processor advances. Technologies such as helmet systems, large flat panel displays, speech recognition, color graphics, decision aiding and stereopsis, are simultaneously reaching technology maturities that promise big payoffs for the third generation cockpit and beyond. The first generation cockpit used round dials to help the pilot keep the airplane flying right side up. The second generation cockpits used multifunction displays and the HUD to interface the pilot with sensors and weapons. What might the third generation cockpit look like. How might it integrate many of these technologies to simplify the pilots life and most of all: what is the payoff. This paper will examine tactical cockpit problems, the technologies needed to solve them and recommend three generations of solutions.

  16. Tactical cockpits: the coming revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Eugene C.

    1992-07-01

    A cockpit revolution is in the making. Many of the much ballyhooed, much promised, but little delivered technologies of the 70s and 80s will finally come of age in the 90s, just in time to complement the data explosion coming from sensor and processing advances. Technologies such as helmet systems, large flat panel displays, speech recognition, color graphics, decision aiding, and stereopsis are simultaneously reaching technology maturities that promise big payoffs for the third generation cockpit and beyond. The first generation cockpit used round dials to help the pilot keep the airplane flying right side up. The second generation cockpits used multifunction displays and the HUD to interface the pilot with sensors and weapons. What might the third generation cockpit look like? How might it integrate many of these technologies to simplify the pilot's life and most of all: what is the payoff? This paper examines tactical cockpit problems, the technologies needed to solve them, and recommends three generations of solutions.

  17. Tactical cockpits: the coming revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Eugene C.

    1992-07-01

    A cockpit revolution is in the making. Many of the much ballyhooed, much promised, but little delivered technologies of the 70''s and 80''s will finally come of age in the 90''s just in time to complement the data explosion coming from sensor and processing advances. Technologies such as helmet systems, large flat panel displays, speech recognition, color graphics, decision aiding and stereopsis, are simultaneously reaching technology maturities that promise big payoffs for the third generation cockpit and beyond. The first generation cockpit used round dials to help the pilot keep the airplane flying right side up. The second generation cockpit used Multifunction Displays and the HUD to interface the pilot with sensors and weapons. What might the third generation cockpit look like? How might it integrate many of these technologies to simplify the pilots life and most of all: what is the payoff? This paper will examine tactical cockpit problems, the technologies needed to solve them and recommend three generations of solutions.

  18. Tactical cockpits: the coming revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Eugene C.

    1995-05-01

    A cockpit revolution is in the making. Many of the much ballyhooed, much promised, but little delivered technologies of the 70's and 80's will finally come of age in the 90's just in time to complement the data explosion coming from sensor and processing advances. Technologies such as helmet systems, large flat panel displays, speech recognition, color graphics, decision aiding and stereopsis, are simultaneously reaching technology maturities that promise big payoffs for the third generation cockpit and beyond. The first generation cockpit used round dials to help the pilot keep the airplane flying right side up. The second generation cockpits used Multifunction Displays and the HUD to interface the pilot with sensors and weapons. What might the third generation cockpit look like? How might it integrated many of these technologies to simplify the pilots life and most of all: what is the payoff? This paper will examine tactical cockpit problems, the technologies needed to solve them and recommend three generations of solutions.

  19. The digital revolution in phenotyping

    PubMed Central

    Oellrich, Anika; Collier, Nigel; Groza, Tudor; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich; Shah, Nigam; Bodenreider, Olivier; Boland, Mary Regina; Georgiev, Ivo; Liu, Hongfang; Livingston, Kevin; Luna, Augustin; Mallon, Ann-Marie; Manda, Prashanti; Robinson, Peter N.; Rustici, Gabriella; Simon, Michelle; Wang, Liqin; Winnenburg, Rainer; Dumontier, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypes have gained increased notoriety in the clinical and biological domain owing to their application in numerous areas such as the discovery of disease genes and drug targets, phylogenetics and pharmacogenomics. Phenotypes, defined as observable characteristics of organisms, can be seen as one of the bridges that lead to a translation of experimental findings into clinical applications and thereby support ‘bench to bedside’ efforts. However, to build this translational bridge, a common and universal understanding of phenotypes is required that goes beyond domain-specific definitions. To achieve this ambitious goal, a digital revolution is ongoing that enables the encoding of data in computer-readable formats and the data storage in specialized repositories, ready for integration, enabling translational research. While phenome research is an ongoing endeavor, the true potential hidden in the currently available data still needs to be unlocked, offering exciting opportunities for the forthcoming years. Here, we provide insights into the state-of-the-art in digital phenotyping, by means of representing, acquiring and analyzing phenotype data. In addition, we provide visions of this field for future research work that could enable better applications of phenotype data. PMID:26420780

  20. X-rays surgical revolution.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2009-01-01

    Wilhelm Roentgen (1845-1923) created a surgical revolution with the discovery of the X-rays in late 1895 and the subsequent introduction of this technique for the management of surgical patients. No other physician or scientist had ever imagined such a powerful and worthwhile discovery. Other scientists paved the way for Roentgen to approach the use of these new X-rays for medical purposes. In this way, initially, and prior to Roentgen, Thompson, Hertz, and Lenard applied themselves to the early developments of this technology. They made good advances but never reached the clearly defined understanding brought about by Roentgen. The use of a Crookes tube, a barium platinocyanide screen, with fluorescent light and the generation of energy to propagate the cathode rays were the necessary elements for the conception of an X-ray picture. On November 8, 1895, Roentgen began his experiments on X-ray technology when he found that some kind of rays were being produced by the glass of the tube opposite to the cathode. The development of a photograph successfully completed this early imaging process. After six intense weeks of research, on December 22, he obtained a photograph of the hand of his wife, the first X-ray ever made. This would be a major contribution to the world of medicine and surgery.

  1. Revolution and the Re-Birth of Inequality: The Bolivian National Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Jonathan; Klein, Herbert S.

    This study of Bolivia's National Revolution of 1952 illustrates the effects of a peasant revolution on inequality and status inheritance. It was hypothesized that when an exploited peasantry revolts and overthrows the traditonal elite, peasants would be better off because inequality and status inheritance would decline as a result of the…

  2. Peace Revolution's Online Social Platform: From Inner Revolution to Global Evolution of Ethical Media Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Samantha; Dhanissaro, Phra John Paramai; Thangsurbkul, Worakate

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a project called Peace Revolution [http://peacerevolution.net], which provides an opportunity for young people from around the world to learn and share positive messages and activities relating to peace. The Peace Revolution project aims to empower young people via a unique process related to youth development, helping young…

  3. The mammalian Cretaceous cochlear revolution.

    PubMed

    Manley, Geoffrey A

    2016-12-19

    The hearing organs of amniote vertebrates show large differences in their size and structure between the species' groups. In spite of this, their performance in terms of hearing sensitivity and the frequency selectivity of auditory-nerve units shows unexpectedly small differences. The only substantial difference is that therian, defined as live-bearing, mammalian groups are able to hear ultrasonic frequencies (above 15-20 kHz), whereas in contrast monotreme (egg laying) mammals and all non-mammalian amniotes cannot. This review compares the structure and physiology of the cochleae of the main groups and asks the question as to why the many structural differences seen in therian mammals arose, yet did not result in greater differences in physiology. The likely answers to this question are found in the history of the mammals during the Cretaceous period that ended 65 million years ago. During that period, the therian cochlea lost its lagenar macula, leading to a fall in endolymph calcium levels. This likely resulted in a small revolution and an auditory crisis that was compensated for by a subsequent series of structural and physiological adaptations. The end result was a system of equivalent performance to that independently evolved in other amniotes but with the additional - and of course "unforeseen" - advantage that ultrasonic-frequency responses became an available option. That option was not always availed of, but in most groups of therian mammals it did evolve and is used for communication and orientation based on improved sound localization, with micro-bats and toothed whales relying on it for prey capture.

  4. The Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey: HerMES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, S.J.; Bock, J.; Altieri, B.; Amblard, A.; Arumugam, V.; Aussel, H.; Babbedge, T.; Beelen, A.; Bethermin, M.; Blain, A.; Boselli, A.; Bridge, C.; Brisbin, D; Buat, V.; Burgarella, D.; Castro-Rodriguez, N.; Cava, A.; Chanial, P.; Cirasuolo, M.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Conversi, L.; Dwek, E.; Levenson, L.; Nguyen, H. T.

    2012-01-01

    The Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey, HerMES, is a legacy program designed to map a set of nested fields totalling approx. 380 deg(exp 2). Fields range in size from 0.01 to approx. 20 deg (exp 2), using Herschel-SPIRE (at 250, 350 and 500 micron), and Herschel-PACS (at 100 and 160 micron), with an additional wider component of 270 deg. (exp. 2) with SPIRE alone. These bands cover the peak of the redshifted thermal spectral energy distribution from interstellar dust and thus capture the re-processed optical and ultra-violet radiation from star formation that has been absorbed by dust, and are critical for forming a complete multi-wavelength understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. The survey will detect of order 100,000 galaxies at 5-sigma in some of the best studied fields in the sky. Additionally, HerMES is closely coordinated with the PACS Evolutionary Probe survey. Making maximum use of the full spectrum of ancillary data, from radio to X-ray wavelengths, it is designed to: facilitate redshift determination; rapidly identify unusual objects; and understand the relationships between thermal emission from dust and other processes. Scientific questions HerMES will be used to answer include: the total infrared emission of galaxies; the evolution of the luminosity function; the clustering properties of dusty galaxies; and the properties of populations of galaxies which lie below the confusion limit through lensing and statistical techniques. This paper defines the survey observations and data products, outlines the primary scientific goals of the HerMES team, and reviews some of the early results.

  5. A new population of protostars discovered by Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutz, A. M.; Tobin, J.; Fischer, W.; S. T. Megeath; Stanke, T.; Ali, B.; Henning, T.

    2012-03-01

    We present a newly discovered Herschel--detected class of very red protostars found in the Herschel Orion Protostar Survey (HOPS). In contrast to the known Orion protostars targeted with HOPS, the new sources are undetected or very faint in the Spitzer 24 μm imaging. A subset of these sources is redder than any of the known Orion Class 0 protostars, and appear similar in their 70 μm to 24 μm colors to the most extreme Class 0 objects known. These new Orion protostars are likely to be in a very early and short lived stage of protostellar evolution. As a sample of extremely red sources at a common distance, they represent an important new population of protostars. The majority of these reddest sources exhibit associated IRAC 4.5, and 5.8 μm extended emission that suggests the presence of an outflow, confirming their protostellar nature. In addition, many of these sources are located within classical filaments as traced by Spitzer absorption features and APEX 870 μm dust emission maps. Fits of the broad--band SEDs to radiative transfer models of protostars suggest that the extremely red 70 μm to 24 μm colors result from a combination of nearly edge--on viewing angles and high envelope infall rates. We analyze the properties of the filaments from which these sources form using sub--mm and IRAM 30 m N_2H^+ measurements. Finally, we present the initial results of a search for outflows using IRAM 30 m CO maps. As a population of cold protostars detected by Herschel but not Spitzer, the PBRS extend the Spitzer--identified sample to earlier stages of envelope evolution, allowing the most complete census yet of the Orion protostellar population.

  6. Herschel/HIFI Observations Of The Galactic Center's Molecular World*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnentrucker, Paule; Neufeld, D. A.; Gerin, M.; Phillips, T. G.; PRISMAS Team

    2011-05-01

    Because of its unique thermo-chemistry, fluorine is the only atom in the periodic table that can react exothermically with H2 to form a hydride. An implication of this is that HF will be the dominant reservoir of fluorine wherever the interstellar H2/atomic H ratio exceeds 1 (Neufeld, Wolfire & Schilke 2005; Neufeld & Wolfire 2009). The recent detections of strong HF absorptions toward a large number of Herschel sources indicate that HF is ubiquitous in the diffuse interstellar medium and that HF can be used as a valuable surrogate tracer of molecular hydrogen, as predicted. In this work we present new Herschel/HIFI observations of the gas clouds associated with the +50 km/s Giant Molecular Cloud (GMC), a cloud complex located nearby Sgr A at the Galactic Center. Absorptions from HF, para-water and CH are detected over velocities ranging from about -185 km/s to +80 km/s. Our spectra exhibit a bi-modal distribution where the HF optical depth is larger than that of para-water by at least a factor of 2 for velocities greater than -80 km/s, as found for other Galactic sources. However, for velocities lower than -80 km/s, the HF optical depth is smaller than that of para-water by factors of 2 to 3. The implications of these differences are reviewed in this paper. *Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  7. SPITZER-IRAC Identification of HERSCHEL-ATLAS SPIRE Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sam; Wardlow, Julie L.; Cooray, Asantha; Fleuren, S.; Sutherland, W.; Khostovan, A. A.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Bussmann, R. S.; Buttiglione, S.; Cava, A.; Clements, D.; Dariush, A.; De Zotti, G.; Dunne, L.; Dye, S.; Eales, S.; Fritz, J.; Hopwood, R.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R.; Jarvis, M.; Maddox, S.; Michałowski, M. J.; Pascale, E.; Pohlen, M.; Rigby, E.; Scott, D.; Smith, D. J. B.; Temi, P.; van der Werf, P.

    2012-09-01

    We use Spitzer-IRAC data to identify near-infrared counterparts to submillimeter galaxies detected with Herschel-SPIRE at 250 μm in the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey. Using a likelihood ratio analysis we identify 146 reliable IRAC counterparts to 123 SPIRE sources out of the 159 in the survey area. We find that, compared to the field population, the SPIRE counterparts occupy a distinct region of the 3.6 and 4.5 μm color-magnitude space, and we use this property to identify 23 further counterparts to 13 SPIRE sources. The IRAC identification rate of 86% is significantly higher than those that have been demonstrated with wide-field ground-based optical and near-IR imaging of Herschel fields. We estimate a false identification rate of 3.6%, corresponding to 4-5 sources. Among the 73 counterparts that are undetected in Sloan Digital Sky Survey, 57 have both 3.6 and 4.5 μm coverage. Of these, 43 have [3.6] - [4.5] > 0, indicating that they are likely to be at z >~ 1.4. Thus, ~40% of identified SPIRE galaxies are likely to be high-redshift (z >~ 1.4) sources. We discuss the statistical properties of the IRAC-identified SPIRE galaxy sample including far-IR luminosities, dust temperatures, star formation rates, and stellar masses. The majority of our detected galaxies have 1010-1011 L ⊙ total IR luminosities and are not intense starbursting galaxies as those found at z ~ 2, but they have a factor of 2-3 above average specific star formation rates compared to near-IR selected galaxy samples.

  8. OT1_swampfle_1: WATCH - WATer Chemistry with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wampfler, S.

    2010-07-01

    Water is one of the most abundant species in star-forming regions and plays important roles in both the energy balance, acting as a coolant, and the chemistry of star formation. Many of the species involved in the water chemistry emit in the far-infrared and are thus not observable from ground based facilities because of atmospheric absorption. Therefore, the Herschel Space Observatory provides a unique opportunity to study the chemical reactions involved in the formation and destruction of water and to probe the energetic processes in star-forming regions. Previous results from Herschel have shown that two species, OH+ and H2O+, that were thought to be important in the water chemistry of young stellar objects, are now mainly attributed to foreground clouds. These results raised the question on which chemical paths the formation and destruction of water takes place in the interior of protostellar envelopes. In this proposal, we plan to observe the different formation and destruction routes of water in a sample of eight nearby young stellar objects, which were chosen to cover a broad range of masses, luminosities and evolutionary stages. We propose to observe H3O+ and HCO+, two species that are closely linked to the formation and destruction of H2O and require high temperatures for excitation, in serveral high-J lines. This effort is complementary to the observations of H2O and OH done in the 'Water in star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH)' key project. The combination of the information from the H2O, OH, H3O+ and HCO+ emission will tell us on which routes the formation and destruction of H2O in protostellar envelopes proceeds.

  9. Debris disks as seen by Herschel/DUNES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löhne, T.; Eiroa, C.; Augereau, J.-C.; Ertel, S.; Marshall, J. P.; Mora, A.; Absil, O.; Stapelfeldt, K.; Thébault, P.; Bayo, A.; del Burgo, C.; Danchi, W.; Krivov, A. V.; Lebreton, J.; Letawe, G.; Magain, P.; Maldonado, J.; Montesinos, B.; Pilbratt, G. L.; White, G. J.; Wolf, S.

    2012-06-01

    The far-infrared excesses produced by debris disks are common features of stellar systems. These disks are thought to contain solids ranging from micron-sized dust to planetesimals. Naturally, their formation and evolution are linked to those of potential planets. With this motivation, the Herschel open time key programme DUNES (DUst around NEarby Stars) aims at further characterising known debris disks and discovering new ones in the regime explored by the Herschel space observatory. On the one hand, in their survey of 133 nearby FGK stars, DUNES discovered a class of extremely cold and faint debris disks, different from well-known disks such as the one around Vega in that their inferred typical grain sizes are rather large, indicating low dynamical excitation and low collision rates. On the other hand, for the more massive disk around the sun-like star HD 207129, well-resolved PACS images confirmed the ring-liked structure seen in HST images and provided valuable information for an in-depth study and benchmark for models. Employing both models for power-law fitting and collisional evolution we found the disk around HD 207129 to feature low collision rates and large grains, as well. Transport by means of Poynting-Robertson drag likely plays a role in replenishing the dust seen closer to the star, inside of the ring. The inner edge is therefore rather smooth and the contribution from the extended halo of barely bound grains is small. Both slowly self-stirring and planetary perturbations could potentially have formed and shaped this disk. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  10. The Photoconductor Array Camera & Spectrometer (PACS) instrument for Herschel.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Babar; Frayer, D. T.; Fadda, D.; Appleton, P.; Latter, B.

    2007-05-01

    PACS is one of three science instruments for ESA ’ s Herschel Space Observatory (HSO, formerly known as FIRST). It operates either as an imaging photometer or an integral field spectrometer over the spectral band from 57 to 210 µm. PACS is being designed and built by a consortium of institutes and university departments from across Europe under the leadership of Principal Investigator Albrecht Poglitsch located at Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE), Garching, Germany. Consortium members are: Austria: UVIE; Belgium: IMEC, KUL, CSL; France: CEA, OAMP; Germany: MPE, MPIA; Italy: IFSI, OAP/OAT, OAA/CAISMI, LENS, SISSA; Spain: IAC.

  11. Far Infrared dropout galaxies in the Herschel GOODS fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, Lennox

    The most massively star-forming galaxies in the universe are dust enshrouded and radiate primarily in the far-infrared. At high redshifts these galaxies cannot be easily found with ultraviolet or optical searches and constitute a missing portion of the universal star formation history determined with conventional techniques. Current studies suggest that these obscured galaxies contain a substantial fraction (about 20%) of the star formation out to a redshift of at least five. The goals of the present proposal are to refine these measurements, to search for yet higher redshift dusty galaxies, to study the morphologies and other properties of these galaxies, and to determine how the star formation rates in these galaxies correlate with the X-ray luminosities. The deepest Herschel imaging observations are of the two GOODS fields. Here we propose to extend the wavelength range of these observations to 850 micron, which is sensitive to very high redshifts (z out to about 8) where the rest-frame wavelength of the observations lies close to the peak in the thermal dust spectrum. We are making the 850 micron observations with the powerful SCUBA-2 camera on the JCMT telescope. Combined with the Spitzer and Herschel data, we will be able to measure the long wavelength spectral energy distributions of the SCUBA-2 detected galaxies and search for the highest redshift galaxies, which should be faint in the Spitzer and shorter wavelength Herschel data (mid and far-infrared dropout galaxies). We can obtain the morphologies from HST for those galaxies that are visible at optical or nearinfrared wavelengths, and we can measure the star formation rates for those that are detected with Chandra. Submillimeter detected luminous dusty galaxies have the highest star formation rates in the universe, and determining their properties and redshift distribution is key to understanding the formation of the most massive galaxies in the universe. The proposed work will add value to the Spitzer

  12. The Era of Newton, Herschel and Lord Rosse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Jim

    2009-08-01

    In the eighteenth century England was dominant in building telescopes and instrumentation. This paper describes the contributions of the most important opticians and telescope builders, from Newton’s Opticks and the telescope design that bears his name, through various instrument makers who constructed ‘popular’ telescopes and published descriptions of mirror grinding (Smith, the Dollonds and their patent on achromatic lenses), to Herschel, who refined the description of his polishing procedures, and Lord Rosse, who attempted to communicate his through publication. The narrative of theory, practice and communication takes unexpected turns.

  13. Herschel survey of brown dwarf disks in ρ Ophiuchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves de Oliveira, C.; Ábrahám, P.; Marton, G.; Pinte, C.; Kiss, Cs.; Kun, M.; Kóspál, Á.; André, P.; Könyves, V.

    2013-11-01

    Context. Young brown dwarfs are known to possess circumstellar disks, a characteristic that is fundamental to the understanding of their formation process, and raises the possibility that these objects harbour planets. Aims: We want to characterise the far-IR emission of disks around the young brown dwarf population of the ρ Ophiuchi cluster in LDN 1688. Methods: Recent observations of the ρ Ophiuchi cluster with the Herschel Space Observatory allow us to probe the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the brown dwarf population in the far-IR, where the disk emission peaks. We performed aperture photometry at 70, 100, and 160 μm, and constructed SEDs for all previously known brown dwarfs detected. These were complemented with ancillary photometry at shorter wavelengths. We compared the observed SEDs to a grid of synthetic disks produced with the radiative transfer code MCFOST, and used the relative figure of merit estimated from the Bayesian inference of each disk parameter to analyse the structural properties. Results: We detected 12 Class II brown dwarfs with Herschel, which corresponds to one-third of all currently known brown dwarf members of ρ Ophiuchi. We did not detect any of the known Class III brown dwarfs. Comparison to models reveals that the disks are best described by an inner radius between 0.01 and 0.07 AU, and a flared disk geometry with a flaring index between 1.05 and 1.2. Furthermore, we can exclude values of the disk scale-height lower than 10 AU (measured at a fiducial radius of 100 AU). We combined the Herschel data with recent ALMA observations of the brown dwarf GY92 204 (ISO-Oph 102), and by comparing its SED to the same grid of disk models, we derived an inner disk radius of 0.035 AU, a scale height of 15 AU with a flaring index of β ~ 1.15, an exponent for dust settling of -1.5, and a disk mass of 0.001 M⊙. This corresponds to a disk-to-central object mass ratio of ~1%. Conclusions: The structural parameters constrained by the

  14. Herschel observations of the debris disc around HIP 92043

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J. P.; Krivov, A. V.; del Burgo, C.; Eiroa, C.; Mora, A.; Montesinos, B.; Ertel, S.; Bryden, G.; Liseau, R.; Augereau, J.-C.; Bayo, A.; Danchi, W.; Löhne, T.; Maldonado, J.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Stapelfeldt, K.; Thebault, P.; White, G. J.; Wolf, S.

    2013-09-01

    Context. Typical debris discs are composed of particles ranging from several micron sized dust grains to km sized asteroidal bodies, and their infrared emission peaks at wavelengths 60-100 μm. Recent Herschel DUNES observations have identified several debris discs around nearby Sun-like stars (F, G and K spectral type) with significant excess emission only at 160 μm. Aims: We observed HIP 92043 (110 Her, HD 173667) at far-infrared and sub-millimetre wavelengths with Herschel PACS and SPIRE. Identification of the presence of excess emission from HIP 92043 and the origin and physical properties of any excess was undertaken through analysis of its spectral energy distribution (SED) and the PACS images. Methods: The PACS and SPIRE images were produced using the HIPE photProject map maker routine. Fluxes were measured using aperture photometry. A stellar photosphere model was scaled to optical and near infrared photometry and subtracted from the far-infared and sub-mm fluxes to determine the presence of excess emission. Source radial profiles were fitted using a 2D Gaussian and compared to a PSF model based on Herschel observations of α Boo to check for extended emission. Results: Clear excess emission from HIP 92043 was observed at 70 and 100 μm. Marginal excess was observed at 160 and 250 μm. Analysis of the images reveals that the source is extended at 160 μm. A fit to the source SED is inconsistent with a photosphere and single temperature black body. Conclusions: The excess emission from HIP 92043 is consistent with the presence of an unresolved circumstellar debris disc at 70 and 100 μm, with low probability of background contamination. The extended 160 μm emission may be interpreted as an additional cold component to the debris disc or as the result of background contamination along the line of sight. The nature of the 160 μm excess cannot be determined absolutely from the available data, but we favour a debris disc interpretation, drawing parallels with

  15. Debris Discs and Connection to Exoplanets: Herschel Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greaves, J. S.

    2012-03-01

    Debris discs are an exciting science area that has been opened up by Herschel through deep far-infrared observations. Key Projects cover disc evolution from the early stages when planets form (GASPS) and onwards to discs hosted by stars even older than the Solar System (GT, DUNES, DEBRIS). New categories are being discovered, including very cold cometary belts and unusual types of dust grain, and new connections are being made for systems of low-mass stars and planets. I will review these discoveries in the context of our ideas on how planetesimal belts from and evolve.

  16. The Herschel Data Processing System - Hipe And Pipelines - During The Early Mission Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardila, David R.; Herschel Science Ground Segment Consortium

    2010-01-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory, the fourth cornerstone mission in the ESA science program, was launched 14th of May 2009. With a 3.5 m telescope, it is the largest space telescope ever launched. Herschel's three instruments (HIFI, PACS, and SPIRE) perform photometry and spectroscopy in the 55 - 672 micron range and will deliver exciting science for the astronomical community during at least three years of routine observations. Here we summarize the state of the Herschel Data Processing System and give an overview about future development milestones and plans. The development of the Herschel Data Processing System started seven years ago to support the data analysis for Instrument Level Tests. Resources were made available to implement a freely distributable Data Processing System capable of interactively and automatically reduce Herschel data at different processing levels. The system combines data retrieval, pipeline execution and scientific analysis in one single environment. The software is coded in Java and Jython to be platform independent and to avoid the need for commercial licenses. The Herschel Interactive Processing Environment (HIPE) is the user-friendly face of Herschel Data Processing. The first PACS preview observation of M51 was processed with HIPE, using basic pipeline scripts to a fantastic image within 30 minutes of data reception. Also the first HIFI observations on DR-21 were successfully reduced to high quality spectra, followed by SPIRE observations on M66 and M74. The Herschel Data Processing System is a joint development by the Herschel Science Ground Segment Consortium, consisting of ESA, the NASA Herschel Science Center, and the HIFI, PACS and SPIRE consortium members.

  17. EDITORIAL: The next photonic revolution The next photonic revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2009-11-01

    This special section on Nanophotonics and Metamaterials is a follow-up to the second European Topical Meeting of the NANOMETA series of meetings (see www.nanometa.org) which took place on 5-8 January 2009, in Seefeld, Austria. The main idea of the first NANOMETA meeting held in 2007 was to bring together the mature community of microwave electrical engineers with the emerging community of photonics researchers interested in the physics of light coupled to nanostructures. In recent years the research landscape has shifted dramatically. A wider proliferation of nanofabrication techniques such as electron beam lithography, nanoimprint and focused ion beam milling, diagnostics techniques such as near-field scanning imaging, cathodoluminescence with nanoscale resolution and micro-spectrometry, and the availability of affordable broadband and ultrafast optical sources, have moved the research focus of the NANOMETA community to the optical domain. Quite naturally the ideas of the nonlinearity of materials and the coherency of light in the nanoscale realm have been widely discussed. Driven by the dream of untapped device and material functionality, nonlinear and switchable nanophotonic devices and photonic metamaterials, along with the concept of tailoring the electromagnetic space with metamaterials, appear to be the main avenues along which the subject will develop in the coming years. Indeed, in the last 20 years photonics has played a key role in creating the world as we know it, with enormous beneficial social impact worldwide. It is impossible to imagine modern society without the globe-spanning broadband internet and mobile telephony made possible by the implementation of optical fibre core networks, optical disc data storage (underpinned by the development of compact semiconductor lasers), modern image display technologies and laser-assisted manufacturing. We now anticipate that the next photonic revolution will continue to grow, explosively fuelled by a new

  18. Hacking the quantum revolution: 1925-1975

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweber, Silvan S.

    2015-01-01

    I argue that the quantum revolution should be seen as an Ian Hacking type of scientific revolution: a profound, longue durée, multidisciplinary process of transforming our understanding of physical nature, with deep-rooted social components from the start. The "revolution" exhibits a characteristic style of reasoning - the hierarchization of physical nature - and developed and uses a specific language - quantum field theory (QFT). It is by virtue of that language that the quantum theory has achieved some of its deepest insights into the description of the dynamics of the physical world. However, the meaning of what a quantum field theory is and what it describes has deeply altered, and one now speaks of "effective" quantum field theories. Interpreting all present day quantum field theories as but "effective" field theories sheds additional light on Phillip Anderson's assertion that "More is different". This important element is addressed in the last part of the paper.

  19. Postal Service unveils new space stamps at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Postal Service unveils its newest series of stamps, Space Discovery, at the KSC Visitor Complex. The event coincided with NASA's 40th anniversary on this date. Participating in the unveiling are (left to right) Barry Ziehl, U.S. Postal Service; JoAnn Morgan, KSC associate director of advanced development and shuttle upgrades; Karla Corcoran, Postal Service inspector general; Kristene A. Graves, a student from Lewis Carroll Elementary School ; and Dr. Donald Thomas, astronaut and veteran of four Shuttle missions. Behind them is the mockup of an orbiter. During the ceremony, Kristene read her essay 'My Stamp Adventure' that she had written for an area-wide contest for the event. The stamps were designed by renowned aerospace artist Attila Heija. The strip of five individual stamps together make up a futuristic scene complete with space vehicles, a futuristic space city, and space explorers. The stamps are available nationwide beginning Oct. 1.

  20. Postal Service unveils new space stamps at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Applauding the unveiling of the U.S. Postal Service's newest series of stamps, Space Discovery, are are (left to right) Barry Ziehl, U.S. Postal Service; JoAnn Morgan, KSC associate director of advanced development and shuttle upgrades; Karla Corcoran, Postal Service inspector general; Kristene A. Graves, a student from Lewis Carroll Elementary School; and Dr. Donald Thomas, astronaut and veteran of four Shuttle missions. During the ceremony, Kristene read her essay 'My Stamp Adventure' that she had written for an area-wide contest for the event. The unveiling took place at the KSC Visitor Complex and coincided with NASA's 40th anniversary on this date. Behind the large display can be seen the mockup of an orbiter. The stamps were designed by renowned aerospace artist Attila Heija. The strip of five individual stamps together make up a futuristic scene complete with space vehicles, a futuristic space city, and space explorers. The stamps are available nationwide beginning Oct. 1.

  1. The HERschel Inventory of the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the Magellanic Clouds, a HERschel Open Time Key Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meixner, Margaret; Panuzzo, P.; Roman-Duval, J.; Engelbracht, C.; Babler, B.; Seale, J.; Hony, S.; Montiel, E.; Sauvage, M.; Gordon, K.; Misselt, K.; Okumura, K.; Chanial, P.; Beck, T.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bolatto, A.; Bot, C.; Boyer, M. L.; Carlson, L. R.; Clayton, G. C.; Chen, C.-H. R.; Cormier, D.; Fukui, Y.; Galametz, M.; Galliano, F.

    2013-01-01

    We present an overview or the HERschel Inventory of The Agents of Galaxy Evolution (HERITAGE) in the Magellanic Clouds project, which is a Herschel Space Observatory open time key program. We mapped the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) at 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 micron with the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) and Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) instruments on board Herschel using the SPIRE/PACS parallel mode. The overriding science goal of HERITAGE is to study the life cycle of matter as traced by dust in the LMC and SMC. The far-infrared and submillimeter emission is an effective tracer of the interstellar medium (ISM) dust, the most deeply embedded young stellar objects (YSOs), and the dust ejected by the most massive stars. We describe in detail the data processing, particularly for the PACS data, which required some custom steps because of the large angular extent of a single observational unit and overall the large amount of data to be processed as an ensemble. We report total global fluxes for LMC and SMC and demonstrate their agreement with measurements by prior missions. The HERITAGE maps of the LMC and SMC are dominated by the ISM dust emission and bear most resemblance to the tracers of ISM gas rather than the stellar content of the galaxies. We describe the point source extraction processing and the critetia used to establish a catalog for each waveband for the HERITAGE program. The 250 micron band is the most sensitive and the source catalogs for this band have approx. 25,000 objects for the LMC and approx. 5500 objects for the SMC. These data enable studies of ISM dust properties, submillimeter excess dust emission, dust-to-gas ratio, Class 0 YSO candidates, dusty massive evolved stars, supemova remnants (including SN1987A), H II regions, and dust evolution in the LMC and SMC. All images and catalogs are delivered to the Herschel Science Center as part of the conummity support

  2. THE HERSCHEL INVENTORY OF THE AGENTS OF GALAXY EVOLUTION IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS, A HERSCHEL OPEN TIME KEY PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Meixner, M.; Roman-Duval, J.; Seale, J.; Gordon, K.; Beck, T.; Boyer, M. L.; Panuzzo, P.; Hony, S.; Sauvage, M.; Okumura, K.; Chanial, P.; Babler, B.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bolatto, A.; Bot, C.; Carlson, L. R.; Clayton, G. C.; and others

    2013-09-15

    We present an overview of the HERschel Inventory of The Agents of Galaxy Evolution (HERITAGE) in the Magellanic Clouds project, which is a Herschel Space Observatory open time key program. We mapped the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) at 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m with the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) and Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) instruments on board Herschel using the SPIRE/PACS parallel mode. The overriding science goal of HERITAGE is to study the life cycle of matter as traced by dust in the LMC and SMC. The far-infrared and submillimeter emission is an effective tracer of the interstellar medium (ISM) dust, the most deeply embedded young stellar objects (YSOs), and the dust ejected by the most massive stars. We describe in detail the data processing, particularly for the PACS data, which required some custom steps because of the large angular extent of a single observational unit and overall the large amount of data to be processed as an ensemble. We report total global fluxes for the LMC and SMC and demonstrate their agreement with measurements by prior missions. The HERITAGE maps of the LMC and SMC are dominated by the ISM dust emission and bear most resemblance to the tracers of ISM gas rather than the stellar content of the galaxies. We describe the point source extraction processing and the criteria used to establish a catalog for each waveband for the HERITAGE program. The 250 {mu}m band is the most sensitive and the source catalogs for this band have {approx}25,000 objects for the LMC and {approx}5500 objects for the SMC. These data enable studies of ISM dust properties, submillimeter excess dust emission, dust-to-gas ratio, Class 0 YSO candidates, dusty massive evolved stars, supernova remnants (including SN1987A), H II regions, and dust evolution in the LMC and SMC. All images and catalogs are delivered to the Herschel Science Center as part of the community support

  3. Unveiling the Broze Bust of General George C. Marshall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    President Eisenhower and Mrs. Marshall unveil the bronze bust of General George C. Marshall at the dedication ceremony of the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center on September 8. 1960. On March 15, 1960, a Presidential Executive Order arnouced that the missile development complex within the boundaries of Redstone Arsenal would become the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The Center was activated on July 1, 1960

  4. Safe Operation of HIFI Local Oscillator Subsystem on Herschel Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalska, Malgorzata; Juchnikowski, Grzegorz; Klein, Thomas; Leinz, Christian; Nowosielski, Witold; Orleanski, Piotr; Ward, John

    The HIFI Local Oscillator Subsystem is part of the Heterodyne Instrument for Far Infrared (HIFI) dedicated for astronomical observations,to be mounted on the ESA satellite HER- SCHEL. The Subsystem provides the local oscillator signal (480-1910 GHz) to each of the fourteen HIFI input mixers. Part of LO, the Local Oscillator Control Unit (LCU) provides the main interface between Local Oscillator Subsystem and HIFI/Herschel power and telemetry buses. The unit supplies Local Oscillator, decodes the HIFI macro-commands, programs and monitors the parameters of Ka-Band Synthesizer and THz multiplier chains and controls the operation of the whole Local Oscillator Subsystem. The unique microwave components used in HF multipliers are extremely sensitive to the proper biasing (polarity, voltage, current, presence of HF power).The ESA strategy of this mission requires full safe operation of the instrument. This requirements is covered by complex protection system implemented inside LCU. In this paper, we present the general overview of the protection system of microwave components. The different levels of protection (hardware realization and software procedures) are described as well as various reliability aspects. The functionality of LO subsystem controlled by LCU was tested in 2007. Now the flight model of HIFI instrument is integrated with the satellite and will be launched with Herschel mission in July 2008.

  5. Herschel/Planck Environmental Tests in the CSL Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tychon, I.; Domken, I.; Cucchiaro, A.; Thome, M.; Jamotton, P.; Grodent, C.

    2004-08-01

    The Herschel/Planck scientific mission is the fourth cornerstone project in the European Space Agency (ESA) science "Horizon 2000"plan. In the scope of this project, the Centre Spatial de Liege (CSL) has in charge to perform cryo-optical environmental tests on systems and subsystems of the two satellites. The tests will be conducted in four of the CSL facilities. Most of them have been especially upgraded in order to receive the mission systems and subsystems: Focal XXL, the cryovibrations chamber and Focal 5. In the frame of the Planck satellite, tests campaign will be accomplished on the Secondary and the Primary Reflectors of the Telescope, on the Telescope itself and on the overall Spacecraft. This last one consists in a high technical challenge as it is the only way to measure the end-to-end cooling chain of the instrument. Concerning the Herschel satellite, the Telescope will be tested in space conditions while scientific focal plane instruments will undergo cryogenic vibrations (PACS, HIFI, SPIRE) in a specific facility. In addition to the optical measurements specifications, each test requires cryogenic temperatures, lower than 20 [K]. Consequently, all the facilities are linked to a common cold helium circuitry. This allows performing some of the aboved-mentionned tests independently in several facilities, at the same time. From the facilities point of view, the relevant testing philosophies used to meet the specifications, the related problems and the CSL solutions are presented. Results of the first campaigns will also be presented.

  6. Herschel PACS and SPIRE imaging of CW Leonis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladjal, D.; Barlow, M. J.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Ueta, T.; Blommaert, J. A. D. L.; Cohen, M.; Decin, L.; De Meester, W.; Exter, K.; Gear, W. K.; Gomez, H. L.; Hargrave, P. C.; Huygen, R.; Ivison, R. J.; Jean, C.; Kerschbaum, F.; Leeks, S. J.; Lim, T. L.; Olofsson, G.; Polehampton, E.; Posch, T.; Regibo, S.; Royer, P.; Sibthorpe, B.; Swinyard, B. M.; Vandenbussche, B.; Waelkens, C.; Wesson, R.

    2010-07-01

    Herschel PACS and SPIRE images have been obtained over a 30' × 30' area around the well-known carbon star CW Leo (IRC +10 216). An extended structure is found in an incomplete arc of 22' diameter, which is cospatial with the termination shock due to interaction with the interstellar medium (ISM) as defined by Sahai & Chronopoulos from ultraviolet GALEX images. Fluxes are derived in the 70, 160, 250, 350, and 550 μm bands in the region where the interaction with the ISM takes place, and this can be fitted with a modified black body with a temperature of 25 ± 3 K. Using the published proper motion and radial velocity for the star, we derive a heliocentric space motion of 25.1 km s-1. Using the PACS and SPIRE data and the analytical formula of the bow shock structure, we infer a de-projected standoff distance of the bow shock of R0 = (8.0 ± 0.3) × 1017 cm. We also derive a relative velocity of the star with respect to the ISM of (106.6 ± 8.7)/√{n_ISM} km s-1, where nISM is the number density of the local ISM. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  7. Spray Formation of Herschel-Bulkley Fluids using Impinging Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Neil; Gao, Jian; Chen, Jun; Sojka, Paul E.

    2015-11-01

    The impinging jet spray formation of two non-Newtonian, shear-thinning, Herschel-Bulkley fluids was investigated in this work. The water-based gelled solutions used were 1.0 wt.-% agar and 1.0 wt.-% kappa carrageenan. A rotational rheometer and a capillary viscometer were used to measure the strain-rate dependency of viscosity and the Herschel-Bulkley Extended (HBE) rheological model was used to characterize the shear-thinning behavior. A generalized HBE jet Reynolds number Rej , gen - HBE was used as the primary parameter to characterize the spray formation. A like-on-like impinging jet doublet was used to produce atomization. Shadowgraphs were captured in the plane of the sheet formed by the two jets using a CCD camera with an Nd:YAG laser beam providing the back-illumination. Typical behavior for impinging jet atomization using Newtonian liquids was not generally observed due to the non-Newtonian, viscous properties of the agar and kappa carrageenan gels. Instead various spray patterns were observed depending on Rej , gen - HBE. Spray characteristics of maximum instability wavelength and sheet breakup length were extracted from the shadowgraphs. Multi-University Research Initiative Grant Number W911NF-08-1-0171.

  8. A snapshot beyond the Local Universe with Herschel/SPIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinter, Sandor; Marton, Gabor; Toth, L. Viktor; Pearson, Chris; Bagoly, Zsolt; Balazs, Lajos G.; Horvath, Istvan; Racz, Istvan I.

    The European Large-Area ISO Survey (ELAIS) N1 field is one of the extragalactic windows where the lack of the Galactic ISM allows us to analyze the unbiased FIR properties of extragalactic objects. The field was investigated recently based on Herschel observations by the HerMES key project. We present a survey of the field covering a larger area than HerMES (12.54 deg2 vs 3.47 deg2). We provide accurate 250, 350, and 500 micrometer flux densities for about 8000 point sources using the latest Herschel analysis and calibration procedures. Based on SDSS spectroscopic and SWIRE photometric data our sample has approximately 4000 and 4500 galaxies with 0.2 < z < 0.5 and z > 0.5 redshifts, respectively. The new flux densities are crucial limiting the star-forming activity of galaxies outside the Local Universe, as it is demonstrated in the star-forming galaxy 2MASS J16072472+5412119.

  9. A snapshot beyond the Local Universe with Herschel/SPIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marton, Gabor; Pinter, Sandor; Toth, L. Viktor

    2015-08-01

    The European Large-Area ISO Survey (ELAIS) N1 field is one of the extragalactic windows where the lack of the Galactic ISM allows us to analyze the unbiased FIR properties of extragalactic objects. The field was observed by the ISO and Spitzer infrared space telescopes, and followed-up with a number of ground base measurements in various wavelength bands. Its content was investigated in more details recently based on deep Herschel observations by the HerMES key project. We present a list of objects from observations covering a larger area than that of the HerMES ones and correlate our results with theirs to achieve a sufficient photometric accuracy. We provide accurate 250 micrometer flux densities for about 8000 point sources using the latest Herschel analysis and calibration procedures. Our sample has approximately 500 and 6000 galaxies with 0.21 redshifts respectively based on SDSS spectroscopic data. The new flux densities are crucial limiting the star forming activity of galaxies outside the Local Universe, and especially for the ones at z>1.

  10. Cryogenic Testing of the Herschel Flight Model Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahn, G.; Langfermann, M.; Wagner, K.; Hohn, R.; Demolder, B.; Jewell, C.; Linder, M.

    2010-04-01

    The `Herschel Space Observatory' is the fourth cornerstone mission in the `Horizons 2000' program of the European Space Agency (ESA), with the objectives to study the formation of galaxies in the early universe and the creation of stars. It will observe the chemical composition of surfaces and atmospheres of comets, planets and natural satellites, and examine the molecular chemistry of the universe. Herschel was launched into an operational Lissajous orbit around the Earth-Sun L2 point by an Ariane 5 on May 14th 2009 to perform photometer and spectrometer measurements, covering the full far infrared to sub-millimeter wavelength range from 60 to 670 micrometers during its operational lifetime of more than four years. This paper gives a short overview of the cryogenic system and summarises the cryogenic aspects of the different phases of the acceptance test campaign, including the launch preparation phase as well as the post-launch transient cool-down of the system, the verification of the Passive Phase Separator performance and the evaluation of pressure drop measurements performed on the helium venting system. The impact of thermo-acoustic oscillations within the helium subsystem is described, which were present during the initial cool-down test phase. A comparison of measurements to numerical analysis results is shown.

  11. Herschel observations of FIR emission lines in brightest cluster galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edge, A. C.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Mittal, R.; Allen, S. W.; Baum, S. A.; Böhringer, H.; Bregman, J. N.; Bremer, M. N.; Combes, F.; Crawford, C. S.; Donahue, M.; Egami, E.; Fabian, A. C.; Ferland, G. J.; Hamer, S. L.; Hatch, N. A.; Jaffe, W.; Johnstone, R. M.; McNamara, B. R.; O'Dea, C. P.; Popesso, P.; Quillen, A. C.; Salomé, P.; Sarazin, C. L.; Voit, G. M.; Wilman, R. J.; Wise, M. W.

    2010-07-01

    The question of how much gas cools in the cores of clusters of galaxies has been the focus of many, multiwavelength studies in the past 30 years. In this letter we present the first detections of the strongest atomic cooling lines, [Cii], [Oi] and [Nii] in two strong cooling flow clusters, A1068 and A2597, using Herschel-PACS. These spectra indicate that the substantial mass of cold molecular gas (> 109 M_⊙) known to be present in these systems is being irradiated by intense UV radiation, most probably from young stars. The line widths of these FIR lines indicate that they share dynamics similar but not identical to other ionised and molecular gas traced by optical, near-infrared and CO lines. The relative brightness of the FIR lines compared to CO and FIR luminosity is consistent with other star-forming galaxies indicating that the properties of the molecular gas clouds in cluster cores and the stars they form are not unusual. These results provide additional evidence for a reservoir of cold gas that is fed by the cooling of gas in the cores of the most compact clusters and provide important diagnostics of the temperature and density of the dense clouds this gas resides in. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  12. FIR colours and SEDs of nearby galaxies observed with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; Buat, V.; Cortese, L.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Bendo, G. J.; Bianchi, S.; Bock, J.; Bomans, D. J.; Bradford, M.; Castro-Rodriguez, N.; Chanial, P.; Charlot, S.; Clemens, M.; Clements, D.; Corbelli, E.; Cooray, A.; Cormier, D.; Dariush, A.; Davies, J.; de Looze, I.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Dwek, E.; Eales, S.; Elbaz, D.; Fadda, D.; Fritz, J.; Galametz, M.; Galliano, F.; Garcia-Appadoo, D. A.; Gavazzi, G.; Gear, W.; Giovanardi, C.; Glenn, J.; Gomez, H.; Griffin, M.; Grossi, M.; Hony, S.; Hughes, T. M.; Hunt, L.; Isaak, K.; Jones, A.; Levenson, L.; Lu, N.; Madden, S. C.; O'Halloran, B.; Okumura, K.; Oliver, S.; Page, M.; Panuzzo, P.; Papageorgiou, A.; Parkin, T.; Perez-Fournon, I.; Pierini, D.; Pohlen, M.; Rangwala, N.; Rigby, E.; Roussel, H.; Rykala, A.; Sabatini, S.; Sacchi, N.; Sauvage, M.; Schulz, B.; Schirm, M.; Smith, M. W. L.; Spinoglio, L.; Stevens, J.; Sundar, S.; Symeonidis, M.; Trichas, M.; Vaccari, M.; Verstappen, J.; Vigroux, L.; Vlahakis, C.; Wilson, C.; Wozniak, H.; Wright, G.; Xilouris, E. M.; Zeilinger, W.; Zibetti, S.

    2010-07-01

    We present infrared colours (in the 25-500 μm spectral range) and UV to radio continuum spectral energy distributions of a sample of 51 nearby galaxies observed with SPIRE on Herschel. The observed sample includes all morphological classes, from quiescent ellipticals to active starbursts. Active galaxies have warmer colour temperatures than normal spirals. In ellipticals hosting a radio galaxy, the far-infrared (FIR) emission is dominated by the synchrotron nuclear emission. The colour temperature of the cold dust is higher in quiescent E-S0a than in star-forming systems probably because of the different nature of their dust heating sources (evolved stellar populations, X-ray, fast electrons) and dust grain properties. In contrast to the colour temperature of the warm dust, the f350/f500 index sensitive to the cold dust decreases with star formation and increases with metallicity, suggesting an overabundance of cold dust or an emissivity parameter β < 2 in low metallicity, active systems. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by Principal Investigator consortia. It is open for proposals for observing time from the worldwide astronomical community.

  13. Star formation in Herschel's Monsters versus semi-analytic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruppioni, C.; Calura, F.; Pozzi, F.; Delvecchio, I.; Berta, S.; De Lucia, G.; Fontanot, F.; Franceschini, A.; Marchetti, L.; Menci, N.; Monaco, P.; Vaccari, M.

    2015-08-01

    We present a direct comparison between the observed star formation rate functions (SFRFs) and the state-of-the-art predictions of semi-analytic models (SAMs) of galaxy formation and evolution. We use the PACS Evolutionary Probe Survey and Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey data sets in the COSMOS and GOODS-South fields, combined with broad-band photometry from UV to sub-mm, to obtain total (IR+UV) instantaneous star formation rates (SFRs) for individual Herschel galaxies up to z ˜ 4, subtracted of possible active galactic nucleus (AGN) contamination. The comparison with model predictions shows that SAMs broadly reproduce the observed SFRFs up to z ˜ 2, when the observational errors on the SFR are taken into account. However, all the models seem to underpredict the bright end of the SFRF at z ≳ 2. The cause of this underprediction could lie in an improper modelling of several model ingredients, like too strong (AGN or stellar) feedback in the brighter objects or too low fallback of gas, caused by weak feedback and outflows at earlier epochs.

  14. Energy and the English Industrial Revolution.

    PubMed

    Wrigley, E A

    2013-03-13

    Societies before the Industrial Revolution were dependent on the annual cycle of plant photosynthesis for both heat and mechanical energy. The quantity of energy available each year was therefore limited, and economic growth was necessarily constrained. In the Industrial Revolution, energy usage increased massively and output rose accordingly. The energy source continued to be plant photosynthesis, but accumulated over a geological age in the form of coal. This poses a problem for the future. Fossil fuels are a depleting stock, whereas in pre-industrial time the energy source, though limited, was renewed each year.

  15. Report calls for Earth science education "revolution"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    With just 7% of U.S. high school students taking classes in Earth and space science, in contrast to 88% studying biology, a new report calls for a "revolution" in Earth science education in the nation's schools, from kindergarten through 12th grade.The June 2002 report, "Blueprint for Change, notes that an increased emphasis on the Earth as a system and the expanded use of Internet resources is causing Earth and space science education to undergo "a revolution that is reshaping the nature and content of what is taught."

  16. Manifesto for a new (computational) cognitive revolution.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Thomas L

    2015-02-01

    The cognitive revolution offered an alternative to merely analyzing human behavior, using the notion of computation to rigorously express hypotheses about the mind. Computation also gives us new tools for testing these hypotheses - large behavioral databases generated by human interactions with computers and with one another. This kind of data is typically analyzed by computer scientists, who focus on predicting people's behavior based on their history. A new cognitive revolution is needed, demonstrating the value of minds as intervening variables in these analyses and using the results to evaluate models of human cognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. So What About History and the American Revolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Edmund S.

    1974-01-01

    A short introduction to the study of the American Revolution coordinates photographs and pertinent questions to gain a perspective on history as a discipline in general and the history of the revolution in particular. (KM)

  18. So What About History and the American Revolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Edmund S.

    1974-01-01

    A short introduction to the study of the American Revolution coordinates photographs and pertinent questions to gain a perspective on history as a discipline in general and the history of the revolution in particular. (KM)

  19. William Herschel's 'Hole in the Sky' and the discovery of dark nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinicke, Wolfgang

    2016-12-01

    In 1785 William Herschel published a paper in the Philosophical Transactions containing the remarkable section "An opening or hole". It describes an unusual vacant place in Scorpius. This matter falls into oblivion until Caroline Herschel initiated a correspondence with her nephew John in 1833. It contains Herschel's spectacular words "Hier ist wahrhaftig ein Loch im Himmel" ("Here truly is a hole in the sky"). About a hundred years later, Johann Georg Hagen, Director of the Vatican Observatory, presented a spectacular candidate for the 'hole', discovered in 1857 by Angelo Secchi in Sagittarius and later catalogued by Edward E. Barnard as the dark nebula B 86. Hagen's claim initiated a debate, mainly in the Journal of the British Astronomical Association, about the identity of Herschel's 'object'. Though things could be partly cleared up, unjustified claims still remain. This is mainly due to the fact that original sources were not consulted. A comprehensive study of the curious 'hole' is presented here. It covers major parts of the epochal astronomical work of William, Caroline and John Herschel. This includes a general study of 'vacant places', found by William Herschel and others, and the speculations about their nature, eventually leading to the finding that dark nebulae are due to absorbing interstellar matter. Some of the 'vacant places' could be identified in catalogues of dark nebulae and this leads to a 'Herschel Catalogue of Dark Nebulae' - the first historic catalogue of its kind.

  20. Walking through the Revolution: A Spatial Reading of Literary Echoes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queiroz, Ana Isabel; Alves, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an embryo of a literary guide on the Carnation Revolution to be explored for educational historical excursions other than leisure and tourism. We propose a historical trail through the centre of Lisbon, city of the Carnation Revolution, called "Walk through the Revolution." The trail aims to reinforce collective…

  1. The Great Drama: Germany and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Gerhard

    Revolution did not spread to Germany from France at the end of the 18th century, yet the German and other European states were forced to come to terms with the principles of the French Revolution such as political and legal freedoms and national unity. Germany was affected by the French Revolution particularly by the reactions of German…

  2. The Industrial Revolution: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinhey, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides a list, from the ERIC database, of teaching materials and background information on the Industrial Revolution. Specific topics include life in Lowell (Massachusetts), the global impact of the Industrial Revolution, and England's Industrial Revolution. Offers directions for obtaining the full text of these materials. (CMK)

  3. The Great Drama: Germany and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Gerhard

    Revolution did not spread to Germany from France at the end of the 18th century, yet the German and other European states were forced to come to terms with the principles of the French Revolution such as political and legal freedoms and national unity. Germany was affected by the French Revolution particularly by the reactions of German…

  4. Using the Microcomputer to Study the Anatomy of Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Mark

    1982-01-01

    Describes computer program designed to enable students to analyze process of political revolution by generating graphs for comparisons of such factors as violence, economic instability, and political instability. Student activities, abilities, and reactions, and teacher involvement are noted. Sources concerning revolution, the French Revolution,…

  5. Using the Microcomputer to Study the Anatomy of Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Mark

    1982-01-01

    Describes computer program designed to enable students to analyze process of political revolution by generating graphs for comparisons of such factors as violence, economic instability, and political instability. Student activities, abilities, and reactions, and teacher involvement are noted. Sources concerning revolution, the French Revolution,…

  6. The Industrial Revolution: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinhey, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides a list, from the ERIC database, of teaching materials and background information on the Industrial Revolution. Specific topics include life in Lowell (Massachusetts), the global impact of the Industrial Revolution, and England's Industrial Revolution. Offers directions for obtaining the full text of these materials. (CMK)

  7. The JCMT and Herschel Gould Belt Surveys: a comparison of SCUBA-2 and Herschel data of dense cores in the Taurus dark cloud L1495

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward-Thompson, D.; Pattle, K.; Kirk, J. M.; Marsh, K.; Buckle, J.; Hatchell, J.; Nutter, D. J.; Griffin, M. J.; Di Francesco, J.; André, P.; Beaulieu, S.; Berry, D.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Kirk, H.; Mottram, J.; Pineda, J.; Quinn, C.; Sadavoy, S.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Walker-Smith, S.; White, G.; Hill, T.; Könyves, V.; Palmeirim, P.; Pezzuto, S.

    2016-11-01

    We present a comparison of Submillimetre Common User Bolometer Array-2 (SCUBA-2) 850-μm and Herschel 70-500-μm observations of the L1495 filament in the Taurus Molecular Cloud with the goal of characterizing the SCUBA-2 Gould Belt Survey (GBS) data set. We identify and characterize starless cores in three data sets: SCUBA-2 850-μm, Herschel 250-μm, and Herschel 250-μm spatially filtered to mimic the SCUBA-2 data. SCUBA-2 detects only the highest-surface-brightness sources, principally detecting protostellar sources and starless cores embedded in filaments, while Herschel is sensitive to most of the cloud structure, including extended low-surface-brightness emission. Herschel detects considerably more sources than SCUBA-2 even after spatial filtering. We investigate which properties of a starless core detected by Herschel determine its detectability by SCUBA-2, and find that they are the core's temperature and column density (for given dust properties). For similar-temperature cores, such as those seen in L1495, the surface brightnesses of the cores are determined by their column densities, with the highest-column-density cores being detected by SCUBA-2. For roughly spherical geometries, column density corresponds to volume density, and so SCUBA-2 selects the densest cores from a population at a given temperature. This selection effect, which we quantify as a function of distance, makes SCUBA-2 ideal for identifying those cores in Herschel catalogues that are closest to forming stars. Our results can now be used by anyone wishing to use the SCUBA-2 GBS data set.

  8. The Mexican Revolution and health care or the health of the Mexican Revolution.

    PubMed

    Horn, J J

    1985-01-01

    Despite a victorious social revolution, a self-proclaimed "revolutionary" government, and a significant post-war economic growth, Mexico has not achieved a just or equitable social system. The Mexican Revolution led to the emergence of a new bureaucratic class whose "trickle-down" development strategy sacrificed social welfare to capital accumulation. Mexican morbidity and mortality patterns resemble those of more impoverished developing nations without revolutionary experience. The patterns of health care in Mexico reflect inequities and contradictions in the society and economy at large and flow from the erosion of the egalitarian aims of the revolution concomitant with the expansion of capitalism and the concentration of the benefits of "modernization" in the hands of privileged elites. Mexico's health problems are symptomatic of a general socio-economic malaise which questions the legitimacy of the Revolution.

  9. Philomaths, Herschel, and the myth of the self-taught man

    PubMed Central

    Winterburn, Emily

    2014-01-01

    The role of technicians and background characters in the historical practice of science is slowly gaining recognition. This paper looks at the collective effort involved in learning science, using as my case study the eighteenth-century musician turned astronomer, William Herschel. Lacking a university education, Herschel, like many contemporaries, presented himself as self-taught, thereby hiding his engagement with a rich network of didactic resources. Placing Herschel's story within the history of pedagogy, I argue that this network, previously discussed only in the context of popular or marketplace science, was an important resource for science education at its highest level. PMID:25254276

  10. The American Revolution: Causes. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Gary

    Based on an 18th century poem (actually, a song originally) about the Boston Tea Party, this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that taxation of the American colonists by the British led to the American Revolution; all eras have protest poetry or songs; and students can perform and analyze old literature. The main…

  11. "ZEAL": An Aesthetic Revolution for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Barbara A.; French, James Joss

    2012-01-01

    Educators are hesitant to venture into the unknown landscape within a child's heart and mind because they have throughout their education experienced the same non-compassionate teachers. This research proposes an awakening, making a wave for a new revolution of compassionate teachers that institutes aesthetic methodology to address relevant…

  12. The Microarray Revolution: Perspectives from Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, Jay L.; Beason, K. Beth; Eckdahl, Todd T.; Evans, Irene M.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, microarray analysis has become a key experimental tool, enabling the analysis of genome-wide patterns of gene expression. This review approaches the microarray revolution with a focus upon four topics: 1) the early development of this technology and its application to cancer diagnostics; 2) a primer of microarray research,…

  13. Quantitative Studies and the American Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Harry S.

    1976-01-01

    Author states that "...quantitative studies have demonstrated the impossibility of understanding the American Revolution without understanding the society in which it emerged. Combining the quantitative studies of early American social structure with the exploration of popular ideology or culture should...make possible a sense of how revolutionary…

  14. Propagandist of the Revolution: Samuel Adams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Thomas M.

    This paper explores Samuel Adam's role as perhaps the most important propagandist of the American Revolution and his efforts to exploit Great Britain's mistakes and to engender in the American colonists a love of liberty and a fear that Great Britain, if not resisted, would replace that liberty with tyranny. Suggesting that the Revolutionary War…

  15. The Information Highway as Revolution or Evolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esrock, Stuart L.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that society is more likely in the midst of an information evolution, rather than a revolution. Uses new media technology and forecasting literatures as a framework to evaluate current technology developments and public discussion about the information highway. Compares the hopeful rhetoric that surrounds the information highway to…

  16. "Which Communications Revolution Is It, Anyway?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Mitchell

    1998-01-01

    Belongs to a series of papers from a panel discussion on "The Future of the Internet: A Historical Perspective" examining how scholars understand and explain the Internet. Draws four lessons from two earlier "communication revolutions" (writing and the printing press) and applies them to our age of television, computers, and the Internet. (SR)

  17. The Management of the Knowledge Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanassiades, John C.

    This essay on the management of information presents areas of agreement and disagreement about the "knowledge revolution", its general effect on the world population, and its particular effect on libraries and other information systems, as well as on those who are charged with its management. The myth of Adam and Eve is used to symbolize the…

  18. The New Technological Revolution and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Yuangeng

    1990-01-01

    Considers the impact of the technological revolution, especially in information and production, on Chinese economy and society. Foresees new disciplines emerging that will profoundly influence traditional education. Advocates adult education programs in which on-the-job training becomes lifelong training. Recommends directions for Chinese adult…

  19. Educating Democracy: Conjunctures in the Long Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranson, Stewart

    2014-01-01

    Democratic comprehensive education has been the target of neo-liberal governments--Conservative and New Labour--for thirty years. The project of the present right wing regime Coalition is to complete the demolition. The question before the social democratic tradition is thus to ask whether Raymond Williams' historic "long revolution"…

  20. Nascent Revolution in Post USSR Russia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    to Revolution. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1978. 23 Op Cit. (Goldstone) p. 3 24 Ibid. p. 56 25 Ibid. p. 56 26 Ibid. p. 81 27 Ibid. p. 4 28 Ritzer , George . Sociological Theory. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. 1988. p. 118. 29

  1. Quantitative Studies and the American Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Harry S.

    1976-01-01

    Author states that "...quantitative studies have demonstrated the impossibility of understanding the American Revolution without understanding the society in which it emerged. Combining the quantitative studies of early American social structure with the exploration of popular ideology or culture should...make possible a sense of how revolutionary…

  2. The American Revolution. An Eyewitness History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burg, David F.

    While the American Revolution officially began in Lexington, Massachusetts, in April 1775, the seeds of rebellion had been sown for decades. The struggle for representation in the British Parliament left many colonists eager to seek out independence. This book provides hundreds of firsthand accounts of the period from diary entries, letters,…

  3. Propagandist of the Revolution: Samuel Adams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Thomas M.

    This paper explores Samuel Adam's role as perhaps the most important propagandist of the American Revolution and his efforts to exploit Great Britain's mistakes and to engender in the American colonists a love of liberty and a fear that Great Britain, if not resisted, would replace that liberty with tyranny. Suggesting that the Revolutionary War…

  4. The Strengths Revolution: A Positive Psychology Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Christopher Peterson received the Circle of Courage Award and made the following address in a symposium on "The Strength-Based Revolution" at Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan (Peterson & Brendtro, 2008). Dr. Peterson shared personal reflections on the strengths movement, which is transforming youth development. His…

  5. The American Revolution. An Eyewitness History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burg, David F.

    While the American Revolution officially began in Lexington, Massachusetts, in April 1775, the seeds of rebellion had been sown for decades. The struggle for representation in the British Parliament left many colonists eager to seek out independence. This book provides hundreds of firsthand accounts of the period from diary entries, letters,…

  6. Beginnings of the Industrial Revolution in England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrofani, E. Robert, Ed.

    These teacher-developed materials are designed to help educators integrate economic concepts into the teaching of history. The materials include readings on the Industrial Revolution in England and a series of activities that require students to analyze the impact of industrialization first on English peasant farmers, and then on workers in early…

  7. Participative Education and the Inevitable Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wight, Albert R.

    Participative education could provide impetus and direction to the educational revolution that has been brewing for some time. This approach, based on student involvement and participation, would meet the needs of students and teachers, both of whom are searching for alternatives to traditional education. Emphasizing self-responsibility,…

  8. France: Africans and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatunde, Tunde

    1989-01-01

    The French Revolution had profound and long-term effects for Africans, both in Africa and throughout the Western hemisphere. Revolutionary leaders not only opposed the emancipation of slaves in French territories but supported an intensified slave trade, sparking numerous rebellions. French exploitation of Africans extended well into the twentieth…

  9. The Information Highway as Revolution or Evolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esrock, Stuart L.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that society is more likely in the midst of an information evolution, rather than a revolution. Uses new media technology and forecasting literatures as a framework to evaluate current technology developments and public discussion about the information highway. Compares the hopeful rhetoric that surrounds the information highway to…

  10. Black Heroes of the American Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisis, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Discusses seven black colonialists who fought the British in the American War of Independence: Caesar Tarrant, Deborah Gannett, Samuel Charlton, Austin Dabney, Henry Christophe (ultimately Emperor of Haiti), James Armistead, and James Robinson. Reprinted from "Black Heroes of the American Revolution, 1775-1783," an NAACP publication. (JM)

  11. France: Africans and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatunde, Tunde

    1989-01-01

    The French Revolution had profound and long-term effects for Africans, both in Africa and throughout the Western hemisphere. Revolutionary leaders not only opposed the emancipation of slaves in French territories but supported an intensified slave trade, sparking numerous rebellions. French exploitation of Africans extended well into the twentieth…

  12. The Start of a Tech Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrli, Kurt O.

    2009-01-01

    We are at the start of a revolution in the use of computers, one that analysts predict will rival the development of the PC in its significance. Companies such as Google, HP, Amazon, Sun Microsystems, Sony, IBM, and Apple are orienting their entire business models toward this change, and software maker SAS has announced plans for a $70 million…

  13. The Bayesian Revolution Approaches Psychological Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Thomas R.

    2007-01-01

    This commentary reviews five articles that apply Bayesian ideas to psychological development, some with psychology experiments, some with computational modeling, and some with both experiments and modeling. The reviewed work extends the current Bayesian revolution into tasks often studied in children, such as causal learning and word learning, and…

  14. Scattering from inhomogeneous penetrable bodies of revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govind, S.; Wilton, D. R.; Glisson, A. W.

    1984-11-01

    A systematic procedure for studying scattering from inhomogeneous penetrable bodies in which the inhomogeneity is modeled by piecewise homogeneous layers, is presented. The procedure utilizes the block tridiagonal property of the system matrix to simplify the computations and is applied to examples of dielectric bodies of revolution. An extension of the technique permits the solution of a composite missile/plume scattering problem.

  15. Educating Democracy: Conjunctures in the Long Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranson, Stewart

    2014-01-01

    Democratic comprehensive education has been the target of neo-liberal governments--Conservative and New Labour--for thirty years. The project of the present right wing regime Coalition is to complete the demolition. The question before the social democratic tradition is thus to ask whether Raymond Williams' historic "long revolution"…

  16. Governing Education: Remaking the Long Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranson, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Behind the thin veil of the Conservative regime's rationale of deficit reduction hides the final demolition of public comprehensive education and Raymond Williams's more expansive long revolution unfolding over a century of creating a democratic state that affords opportunity, voice and justice for all. Restoring the politics of a pre-war or…

  17. Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John A.

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on the analysis of Thomas S. Kuhn's book, "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions." Science history is reviewed as it is viewed through the idea of a paradigm. The sequence in science or life cycle of a paradigm is explained. (SA)

  18. Tradition and Revolution in ESL Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raimes, Ann

    1983-01-01

    Explores the development of language teaching in light of Thomas Kuhn's theory of scientific revolution and briefly defines the positivist tradition in language teaching. Argues that the current emphasis on communication does not mark the emergence of a new paradigm, as it still operates in the positivist tradition, but rather a paradigm shift.…

  19. The Start of a Tech Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrli, Kurt O.

    2009-01-01

    We are at the start of a revolution in the use of computers, one that analysts predict will rival the development of the PC in its significance. Companies such as Google, HP, Amazon, Sun Microsystems, Sony, IBM, and Apple are orienting their entire business models toward this change, and software maker SAS has announced plans for a $70 million…

  20. Tradition and Revolution in ESL Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raimes, Ann

    1983-01-01

    Explores the development of language teaching in light of Thomas Kuhn's theory of scientific revolution and briefly defines the positivist tradition in language teaching. Argues that the current emphasis on communication does not mark the emergence of a new paradigm, as it still operates in the positivist tradition, but rather a paradigm shift.…

  1. The Early Childhood Mathematics Education Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hachey, Alyse C.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: We are in the midst of a revolution. Prior to the onset of the 21st century, mathematics education in the United States was deemphasized (Geary, 1996), and mathematics as an instructional subject has traditionally been considered above the preschool and kindergarten levels. However, the old regime--the knowledge and philosophies…

  2. The Bayesian Revolution Approaches Psychological Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Thomas R.

    2007-01-01

    This commentary reviews five articles that apply Bayesian ideas to psychological development, some with psychology experiments, some with computational modeling, and some with both experiments and modeling. The reviewed work extends the current Bayesian revolution into tasks often studied in children, such as causal learning and word learning, and…

  3. Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John A.

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on the analysis of Thomas S. Kuhn's book, "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions." Science history is reviewed as it is viewed through the idea of a paradigm. The sequence in science or life cycle of a paradigm is explained. (SA)

  4. The Management of the Knowledge Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanassiades, John C.

    This essay on the management of information presents areas of agreement and disagreement about the "knowledge revolution", its general effect on the world population, and its particular effect on libraries and other information systems, as well as on those who are charged with its management. The myth of Adam and Eve is used to symbolize the…

  5. SPECIES DATABASES AND THE BIOINFORMATICS REVOLUTION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological databases are having a growth spurt. Much of this results from research in genetics and biodiversity, coupled with fast-paced developments in information technology. The revolution in bioinformatics, defined by Sugden and Pennisi (2000) as the "tools and techniques for...

  6. The Early Childhood Mathematics Education Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hachey, Alyse C.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: We are in the midst of a revolution. Prior to the onset of the 21st century, mathematics education in the United States was deemphasized (Geary, 1996), and mathematics as an instructional subject has traditionally been considered above the preschool and kindergarten levels. However, the old regime--the knowledge and philosophies…

  7. The Microarray Revolution: Perspectives from Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, Jay L.; Beason, K. Beth; Eckdahl, Todd T.; Evans, Irene M.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, microarray analysis has become a key experimental tool, enabling the analysis of genome-wide patterns of gene expression. This review approaches the microarray revolution with a focus upon four topics: 1) the early development of this technology and its application to cancer diagnostics; 2) a primer of microarray research,…

  8. Military Medical Revolution: Prehospital Combat Casualty Care

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Military medical revolution: Prehospital combat casualty care Lorne H. Blackbourne, MD, David G. Baer, PhD, Brian J. Eastridge, MD, Bijan Kheirabadi...sur- vival for patients with combat-related traumatic injuries. J Trauma. 2009;66(suppl 4):S69 S76. 33. Eastridge BJ, Hardin M, Cantrell J, Oetjen

  9. SPECIES DATABASES AND THE BIOINFORMATICS REVOLUTION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological databases are having a growth spurt. Much of this results from research in genetics and biodiversity, coupled with fast-paced developments in information technology. The revolution in bioinformatics, defined by Sugden and Pennisi (2000) as the "tools and techniques for...

  10. "Which Communications Revolution Is It, Anyway?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Mitchell

    1998-01-01

    Belongs to a series of papers from a panel discussion on "The Future of the Internet: A Historical Perspective" examining how scholars understand and explain the Internet. Draws four lessons from two earlier "communication revolutions" (writing and the printing press) and applies them to our age of television, computers, and the Internet. (SR)

  11. Public Germplasm Collections and Revolutions in Biotechnology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Public germplasm collections provided the biological material critical for launching the three most important revolutions in modern biotechnology: (i) An isolate of Penicillium chrysogenum, NRRL 1951, the basis for industrial production of penicillan, originated from the ARS Culture Collection in Pe...

  12. Successful Insurgent Revolutions in Latin America: Analysis of the Cuban and Nicaraguan Revolutions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    The intention of this thesis is to explore the factors that led to the success of two Latin American revolutions in Cuba (1959) and the Sandinista...the post-World War II era, have taken power by overthrowing the incumbent regimes by force of arms. Understanding the most prominent factors that led...the four critical factors that contributed to the success of the Cuban and Nicaraguan revolutions are leadership (strategy), popular support (the

  13. Herschel observations of the Galactic H II region RCW 79

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong-Li; Figueira, Miguel; Zavagno, Annie; Hill, Tracey; Schneider, Nicola; Men'shchikov, Alexander; Russeil, Delphine; Motte, Frédérique; Tigé, Jérémy; Deharveng, Lise; Anderson, Loren D.; Li, Jin-Zeng; Wu, Yuefang; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Huang, Maohai

    2017-06-01

    Context. Triggered star formation around H II regions could be an important process. The Galactic H II region RCW 79 is a prototypical object for triggered high-mass star formation. Aims: We aim to obtain a census of the young stellar population observed at the edges of the H II region and to determine the properties of the young sources in order to characterize the star formation processes that take place at the edges of this ionized region. Methods: We take advantage of Herschel data from the surveys HOBYS, "Evolution of Interstellar Dust", and Hi-Gal to extract compact sources. We use the algorithm getsources. We complement the Herschel data with archival 2MASS, Spitzer, and WISE data to determine the physical parameters of the sources (e.g., envelope mass, dust temperature, and luminosity) by fitting the spectral energy distribution. Results: We created the dust temperature and column density maps along with the column density probability distribution function (PDF) for the entire RCW 79 region. We obtained a sample of 50 compact sources in this region, 96% of which are situated in the ionization-compressed layer of cold and dense gas that is characterized by the column density PDF with a double-peaked lognormal distribution. The 50 sources have sizes of 0.1-0.4 pc with a typical value of 0.2 pc, temperatures of 11-26 K, envelope masses of 6-760 M⊙, densities of 0.1-44 × 105 cm-3, and luminosities of 19-12 712 L⊙. The sources are classified into 16 class 0, 19 intermediate, and 15 class I objects. Their distribution follows the evolutionary tracks in the diagram of bolometric luminosity versus envelope mass (Lbol-Menv) well. A mass threshold of 140 M⊙, determined from the Lbol-Menv diagram, yields 12 candidate massive dense cores that may form high-mass stars. The core formation efficiency (CFE) for the 8 massive condensations shows an increasing trend of the CFE with density. This suggests that the denser the condensation, the higher the fraction of its

  14. The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey - VIII. The Bright Galaxy Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, J. I.; Bianchi, S.; Cortese, L.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Bendo, G. J.; Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; Clemens, M.; Corbelli, E.; De Looze, I.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Fritz, J.; Gavazzi, G.; Pappalardo, C.; Grossi, M.; Hunt, L. K.; Madden, S.; Magrini, L.; Pohlen, M.; Smith, M. W. L.; Verstappen, J.; Vlahakis, C.

    2012-02-01

    We describe the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey and the first data that cover the complete survey area (four 4 × 4 deg2 regions). We use these data to measure and compare the global far-infrared properties of 78 optically bright galaxies that are selected at 500 μm and detected in all five far-infrared bands. We show that our measurements and calibration are broadly consistent with previous data obtained by the IRAS, ISO, Spitzer and Planck. We use SPIRE and PACS photometry data to produce 100-, 160-, 250-, 350- and 500-μm cluster luminosity distributions. These luminosity distributions are not power laws, but 'peaked', with small numbers of both faint and bright galaxies. We measure a cluster 100-500 μm far-infrared luminosity density of 1.6(7.0) ± 0.2 × 109 L⊙ Mpc-3. This compares to a cluster 0.4-2.5 μm optical luminosity density of 5.0(20.0) × 109 L⊙ Mpc-3, some 3.2(2.9) times larger than the far-infrared. A 'typical' photon originates from an optical depth of 0.4 ± 0.1. Most of our sample galaxies are well fitted by a single modified blackbody (β= 2), leading to a mean dust mass of log MDust= 7.31 M⊙ and temperature of 20.0 K. We also derive both stellar and atomic hydrogen masses from which we calculate mean values for the star-to-gas (atomic) and gas (atomic)-to-dust mass ratios of 15.1 and 58.2, respectively. Using our derived dust, atomic gas and stellar masses, we estimate cluster mass densities of 8.6(27.8) × 106, 4.6(13.9) × 108 and 7.8(29.7) × 109 M⊙ Mpc-3 for dust, atomic gas and stars, respectively. These values are higher than those derived for field galaxies by factors of 39(126), 6(18) and 34(129), respectively. In the above, the luminosity/mass densities are given using the whole sample with the values in brackets using just those galaxies that lie between 17 and 23 Mpc. We provide a data table of flux densities in all the Herschel bands for all 78 bright Virgo Cluster galaxies. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science

  15. A Herschel-PACS view of 16 Centaurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffard, Rene; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Vilenius, E.; Ortiz, J.; Mueller, T.; Fornasier, S.; Lellouch, E.; Mommert, M.; Pal, A.; Kiss, C.; Mueller, M.; Stansberry, J.; Delsanti, A.; Peixinho, N.

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this work is to characterize a set of Centaurs in terms of their size, albedo, and thermal properties. The Herschel open time key program "TNOs are Cool!'' observed 130 Centaurs and TNOs in 2009-2012. In this particular work we use Herschel/PACS three-band photometry to obtain monochromatic flux densities at 70, 100 and 160 μm. Additionally, we also incorporate Spitzer/MIPS flux densities at 24 and 70 μm when available. We use a consistent method for data reduction and aperture photometry to finally determine sizes and albedos of 16 Centaurs using radiometric techniques. We study the correlations between the size and albedo resulting from our models and other physical (i.e spectral slope) and orbital parameters using a more extended sample (obtained from literature). The final sample comprises 36 objects: 18 Centaurs observed with Herschel/PACS; 10 observed only with Spitzer and 8 SDOs. The first conclusion is that the albedo of the Centaurs is not determined by their orbit. Similarly we do not find any correlation between diameter and orbital parameters. We also find that most of the objects in our sample are dark (pv < 7%) and most of them are small (D < 120km). However, we do not find any correlation between albedo and diameter, in particular for the group of the small objects we can find albedo values homogeneously distributed from 4 - 15%. When it comes to correlation with the color of the objects, we find that the red objects are all small (mean diameter 65 km), while the gray ones are either small or large (mean diameter 120 km). Also, the gray objects seem to be darker, with a mean value of 5.6%, while for the red objects the albedo can vary from 5 to 15%, with a mean value of 8.5%. All of this shows that there are other physical properties (size and albedo distribution) that make differences between the gray and red objects, even if we do not yet have a physical explanation for the origin of this bimodality.

  16. The Newly-named "Herschel Space Observatory" revisits its science goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-12-01

    In science, new answers often trigger new questions. And in astronomy, new questions often mean new instruments. The ESA 'Herschel Space Observatory', formerly called 'Far Infrared and Submillimetre Telescope' (FIRST), is the instrument that inherits many of the questions triggered by its predecessor, ESA's Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). 200 astronomers from all over the world met last week in Toledo, Spain, to discuss how to insert these new questions in Herschel's 'scientific agenda'. Thus, Herschel will study the origin of stars and galaxies -its main goals-, but it will also keep on searching for water in space -as ISO did-, and will help us to understand the formation of our own Solar System through detailed observations of comets and of the poorly known 'transneptunian objects'. A new name for 'FIRST' The new name for FIRST, 'Herschel Space Observatory', or 'Herschel', was announced at the opening of the Toledo conference by ESA's Director of Science, Roger Bonnet. William Herschel was an Anglo-German astronomer who discovered infrared light in 1800. Thanks to his discovery, astronomers can now observe a facet of the Universe that remains hidden to other telescopes. ESA's Herschel is the first space observatory covering a major part of the far-infrared and submillimetre waveband (from 57 to 670 microns) and its new name honours Herschel on the 200th anniversary of his discovery. Roger Bonnet explained: "It strikes me that we are at a key scientific conference devoted to the next ESA infrared space mission, gathering many 'infrared pioneers', 200 years after a famous musician and astronomer discovered that by placing a thermometer in the remote part of the solar spectrum, where apparently there was no light, he could detect heat. What we call now infrared radiation. This meeting marks two events: the beginning of a very promising utilisation of FIRST, and the adoption of a new name for the telescope: the Herschel Space Observatory". Roger Bonnet also

  17. A Debris Disk Case Study: 49 Ceti with Herschel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberge, Aki

    2011-01-01

    Gas-poor debris disks represent a fundamentally different class of circumstellar disk than gas-rich protoplanetary disks. Their gas probably originates from the same source as the dust, i.e. planetesimal destruction, but the low gas densities make it difficult to detect. So far, Herschel has detected far-IR gas emission from one debris disk, Beta Pictoris. Here I discuss a well-known debris disk system in the GASPS survey, 49 Ceti. It serves as a case study for modeling low-density gas in optically thin disks. The dust disk appears to be spatially resolved at 70 um. Most interestingly, there appears to be a hint of ClI 158 urn emission at the roughly 2 sigma level. Preliminary modeling suggests that reconciling the sub-mm CO emission from this system with the weak or non-existent far-IR atomic lines may require an unusual chemical composition in the gas of this disk.

  18. Water vapor toward starless cores: The Herschel view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caselli, P.; Keto, E.; Pagani, L.; Aikawa, Y.; Yıldız, U. A.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Tafalla, M.; Bergin, E. A.; Nisini, B.; Codella, C.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Bachiller, R.; Baudry, A.; Benedettini, M.; Benz, A. O.; Bjerkeli, P.; Blake, G. A.; Bontemps, S.; Braine, J.; Bruderer, S.; Cernicharo, J.; Daniel, F.; di Giorgio, A. M.; Dominik, C.; Doty, S. D.; Encrenaz, P.; Fich, M.; Fuente, A.; Gaier, T.; Giannini, T.; Goicoechea, J. R.; de Graauw, Th.; Helmich, F.; Herczeg, G. J.; Herpin, F.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Jackson, B.; Jacq, T.; Javadi, H.; Johnstone, D.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Kester, D.; Kristensen, L. E.; Laauwen, W.; Larsson, B.; Lis, D.; Liseau, R.; Luinge, W.; Marseille, M.; McCoey, C.; Megej, A.; Melnick, G.; Neufeld, D.; Olberg, M.; Parise, B.; Pearson, J. C.; Plume, R.; Risacher, C.; Santiago-García, J.; Saraceno, P.; Shipman, R.; Siegel, P.; van Kempen, T. A.; Visser, R.; Wampfler, S. F.; Wyrowski, F.

    2010-10-01

    Aims: Previous studies by the satellites SWAS and Odin provided stringent upper limits on the gas phase water abundance of dark clouds (x(H2O) < 7 × 10-9). We investigate the chemistry of water vapor in starless cores beyond the previous upper limits using the highly improved angular resolution and sensitivity of Herschel and measure the abundance of water vapor during evolutionary stages just preceding star formation. Methods: High spectral resolution observations of the fundamental ortho water (o-H2O) transition (557 GHz) were carried out with the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared onboard Herschel toward two starless cores: Barnard 68 (hereafter B68), a Bok globule, and LDN 1544 (L1544), a prestellar core embedded in the Taurus molecular cloud complex. Detailed radiative transfer and chemical codes were used to analyze the data. Results: The RMS in the brightness temperature measured for the B68 and L1544 spectra is 2.0 and 2.2 mK, respectively, in a velocity bin of 0.59 km s-1. The continuum level is 3.5 ± 0.2 mK in B68 and 11.4 ± 0.4 mK in L1544. No significant feature is detected in B68 and the 3σ upper limit is consistent with a column density of o-H2O N(o-H2O) < 2.5 × 1013 cm-2, or a fractional abundance x(o-H2O) < 1.3 × 10-9, more than an order of magnitude lower than the SWAS upper limit on this source. The L1544 spectrum shows an absorption feature at a 5σ level from which we obtain the first value of the o-H2O column density ever measured in dark clouds: N(o-H2O) = (8 ± 4) × 1012 cm-2. The corresponding fractional abundance is x(o-H2O) ≃ 5 × 10-9 at radii >7000 AU and ≃2 × 10-10 toward the center. The radiative transfer analysis shows that this is consistent with a x(o-H2O) profile peaking at ≃10-8, 0.1 pc away from the core center, where both freeze-out and photodissociation are negligible. Conclusions: Herschel has provided the first measurement of water vapor in dark regions. Column densities of o-H2O are low, but prestellar

  19. SPITZER IMAGING OF HERSCHEL-ATLAS GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED SUBMILLIMETER SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Hopwood, R.; Negrello, M.; Wardlow, J.; Cooray, A.; Khostovan, A. A.; Kim, S.; Barton, E.; Da Cunha, E.; Cooke, J.; Burgarella, D.; Aretxaga, I.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Bertoldi, F.; Bonfield, D. G.; Blundell, R.; Buttiglione, S.; Cava, A.; Dannerbauer, H.

    2011-02-10

    We present physical properties of two submillimeter selected gravitationally lensed sources, identified in the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey. These submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) have flux densities >100 mJy at 500 {mu}m, but are not visible in existing optical imaging. We fit light profiles to each component of the lensing systems in Spitzer IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m data and successfully disentangle the foreground lens from the background source in each case, providing important constraints on the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the background SMG at rest-frame optical-near-infrared wavelengths. The SED fits show that these two SMGs have high dust obscuration with A{sub V} {approx} 4-5 and star formation rates of {approx}100 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. They have low gas fractions and low dynamical masses compared with 850 {mu}m selected galaxies.

  20. SED fitting of nearby galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciesla, L.; Boselli, A.; Buat, V.; Cortese, L.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Bendo, G. J.; Bianchi, S.; Bock, J.; Bomans, D. J.; Bradford, M.; Castro-Rodriguez, N.; Chanial, P.; Charlot, S.; Clemens, M.; Clements, D.; Corbell, E.; Cooray, A.; Cormie, D.; Dariush, A.; Davies, J.; de Looze, I.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Dwek, E.; Eales, S.; Elbaz, D.; Fadda, D.; Fritz, J.; Galametz, M.; Galliano, F.; Garcia-Appadoo, D. A.; Gavazzi, G.; Gear, W.; Giovanardi, C.; Glenn, J.; Gomez, H.; Griffin, M.; Grossi, M.; Hony, S.; Hughes, T. M.; Hunt, L.; Isaak, K.; Jones, A.; Levenson, L.; Lu, N.; Madden, S. C.; O'Halloran, B.; Okumura, K.; Oliver, S.; Page, M.; Panuzzo, P.; Papageorgiou, A.; Parkin, T.; Perez-Fournon, I.; Pierini, D.; Pohlen, M.; Rangwala, N.; Rigby, E.; Roussel, H.; Rykala, A.; Sabatini, S.; Sacchi, N.; Sauvage, M.; Schulz, B.; Schirm, M.; Smith, M. W. L.; Spinoglio, L.; Stevens, J.; Sundar, S.; Symeonidis, M.; Trichas, M.; Vaccari, M.; Verstappen, J.; Vigroux, L.; Vlahakis, C.; Wilson, C.; Wozniak, H.; Wright, G.; Xilouris, E. M.; Zeilinger, W.; Zibetti, S.

    2010-12-01

    We compute UV to radio continuum spectral energy distributions of 51 nearby galaxies recently observed with SPIRE onboard Herschel and present infrared colours (in the 25-500 μm spectral range). SPIRE data of normal galaxies are well reproduced with a modified black body (β=2) of temperature T≃q 20 K. In ellipticals hosting a radio galaxy, the far-infrared (FIR) emission is dominated by the synchrotron nuclear emission. The colour temperature of the cold dust is higher in quiescent E-S0a than in star-forming systems probably because of the different nature of their dust heating sources (evolved stellar populations, X-ray, fast electrons) and dust grain properties.

  1. Spitzer Imaging of Herschel-atlas Gravitationally Lensed Submillimeter Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopwood, R.; Wardlow, J.; Cooray, A.; Khostovan, A. A.; Kim, S.; Negrello, M.; da Cunha, E.; Burgarella, D.; Aretxaga, I.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Barton, E.; Bertoldi, F.; Bonfield, D. G.; Blundell, R.; Buttiglione, S.; Cava, A.; Clements, D. L.; Cooke, J.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dariush, A.; de Zotti, G.; Dunlop, J.; Dunne, L.; Dye, S.; Eales, S.; Fritz, J.; Frayer, D.; Gurwell, M. A.; Hughes, D. H.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Jarvis, M. J.; Lagache, G.; Leeuw, L.; Maddox, S.; Michałowski, M. J.; Omont, A.; Pascale, E.; Pohlen, M.; Rigby, E.; Rodighiero, G.; Scott, D.; Serjeant, S.; Smail, I.; Smith, D. J. B.; Temi, P.; Thompson, M. A.; Valtchanov, I.; van der Werf, P.; Verma, A.; Vieira, J. D.

    2011-02-01

    We present physical properties of two submillimeter selected gravitationally lensed sources, identified in the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey. These submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) have flux densities >100 mJy at 500 μm, but are not visible in existing optical imaging. We fit light profiles to each component of the lensing systems in Spitzer IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μm data and successfully disentangle the foreground lens from the background source in each case, providing important constraints on the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the background SMG at rest-frame optical-near-infrared wavelengths. The SED fits show that these two SMGs have high dust obscuration with A V ~ 4-5 and star formation rates of ~100 M sun yr-1. They have low gas fractions and low dynamical masses compared with 850 μm selected galaxies.

  2. Alignment in star-debris disc systems seen by Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greaves, J. S.; Kennedy, G. M.; Thureau, N.; Eiroa, C.; Marshall, J. P.; Maldonado, J.; Matthews, B. C.; Olofsson, G.; Barlow, M. J.; Moro-Martín, A.; Sibthorpe, B.; Absil, O.; Ardila, D. R.; Booth, M.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Brown, D. J. A.; Cameron, A. Collier; del Burgo, C.; Di Francesco, J.; Eislöffel, J.; Duchêne, G.; Ertel, S.; Holland, W. S.; Horner, J.; Kalas, P.; Kavelaars, J. J.; Lestrade, J.-F.; Vican, L.; Wilner, D. J.; Wolf, S.; Wyatt, M. C.

    2014-02-01

    Many nearby main-sequence stars have been searched for debris using the far-infrared Herschel satellite, within the DEBRIS, DUNES and Guaranteed-Time Key Projects. We discuss here 11 stars of spectral types A-M where the stellar inclination is known and can be compared to that of the spatially resolved dust belts. The discs are found to be well aligned with the stellar equators, as in the case of the Sun's Kuiper belt, and unlike many close-in planets seen in transit surveys. The ensemble of stars here can be fitted with a star-disc tilt of ≲ 10°. These results suggest that proposed mechanisms for tilting the star or disc in fact operate rarely. A few systems also host imaged planets, whose orbits at tens of au are aligned with the debris discs, contrary to what might be expected in models where external perturbers induce tilts.

  3. Herschel Shines Light on the Episodic Evolutionary Sequence of Protostars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Joel D.; DIGIT; FOOSH; COPS Teams

    2014-01-01

    New far-infrared and submillimeter spectroscopic capabilities, along with moderate spatial and spectral resolution, provide the opportunity to study the diversity of shocks, accretion processes, and compositions of the envelopes of developing protostellar objects in nearby molecular clouds. We present the "COPS" (CO in Protostars) sample; a statistical analysis of the full sample of 30 Class 0/I protostars from the "DIGIT" Key project using Herschel-PACS/SPIRE 50-700 micron spectroscopy. We consider the sample as a whole in characteristic spectral lines, using a standardized data reduction procedure for all targets, and analyze the differences in the continuum and gas over the full sample, presenting an overview of trends. We compare the sources in evolutionary state, envelope mass, and gas properties to more evolved sources from the"FOOSH'' (FUor) samples.

  4. Optical and infrared astronomy in the 21st century - the continuing revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesarsky, Catherine; West, Richard

    2002-05-01

    For some decades, astronomy and astrophysics have undergone a technological and conceptual revolution. Supported by ever more powerful telescopes and instruments on the ground and in space, the volume and quality of new insights is incredible, both in terms of physical understanding of individual celestial objects and the grand evolutionary scheme. New and powerful observational facilities such as the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) are opening new horizons, from the nearby solar system to the corners of the Milky Way galaxy in which we live and, not least, towards the vast expanses in time and space of the remote and early Universe. The next generation of ultra-sensitive optical-infrared telescopes such as Herschel and ALMA will be ready within this decade and concepts are being elaborated for the construction of super-giant telescopes like the 100 m optical/IR OWL, the ‘Overwhelmingly Large telescope’. With these impressive developments, and in a true spirit of exploration, astronomers can now look forward to great research opportunities, in a resounding manifestation of the continuous drive towards a better understanding of our cosmic surroundings and of our own origins, so characteristic for enlightened humankind of every age.

  5. Derivation of sideband gain ratio for Herschel/HIFI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kester, Do; Higgins, Ronan; Teyssier, David

    2017-03-01

    Context. Heterodyne mixers are commonly used for high-resolution spectroscopy at radio telescopes. When used as a double sideband system, the accurate flux calibration of spectral lines acquired by those detectors is highly dependent on the system gains in the respective mixer sidebands via the so-called sideband gain ratio (SBR). As such, the SBR was one of the main contributors to the calibration uncertainty budget of the Herschel/HIFI instrument. Aims: We want to determine the HIFI instrument sideband gain ratio for all bands on a fine frequency grid and within an accuracy of a few percent. Methods: We introduce a novel technique involving in-orbit HIFI data that is bootstrapped onto standard methods involving laboratory data measurements of the SBR. We deconvolved the astronomical data to provide a proxy of the expected signal at every frequency channel, and extracted the sideband gain ratios from the residuals of that process. Results: We determine the HIFI sideband gain ratio to an accuracy varying between 1 and 4%, with degraded accuracy in higher frequency ranges, and at places where the reliability of the technique is lower. These figures were incorporated into the HIFI data processing pipeline and improved the overall flux uncertainty of the legacy data from this instrument. Conclusions: We demonstrate that a modified sideband deconvolution algorithm, using astronomical data in combination with gas cell measurements, can be used to generate an accurate and fine-granularity picture of the sideband gain ratio behaviour of a heterodyne receiver. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  6. Spitzer Imaging of Herschel Lensed Sub-mm Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooray, Asantha; Wardlow, Julie; Kim, Sam; Khostovan, Ali; Mitchell-Wynne, Ketron; Barton, Elizabeth; Gong, Yan; Amblard, Alexandre; Serra, Paolo; Cooke, Jeff; Riechers, Dominik; Dominic, Benford; Frayer, David; Gardner, Jonathan; Fu, Hai; Bussmann, Shane; Gurwell, Mark; Leeuw, Lerothodi; Pasquale, Temi; Conley, Alex; Bock, Jamie; Vieira, Joaquin; Bridge, Carrie; Glenn, Jason; Zemcov, Michael; Schulz, Bernhard; Shupe, David; Hopwood, Ros; Negrello, Mattia; Andreani, Paola; Clements, David; Dannerbauer, Helmut; de Zotti, Gianfranco; Dunne, Loretta; Dunlop, James; Eales, Steve; Farrah, Duncan; Ivison, Rob; Jarvis, Matt; Maddox, Steve; Michalowski, Michal; Omont, Alain; Perez-Fournon, Ismael; Rigopoulou, Dimitra; Serjeant, Stephen; Smail, Ian; Thompson, Mark; Vaccari, Mattia; Verma, Aprajita; Coppin, Kirsten; Oliver, Seb; Wang, Lingyu

    2011-05-01

    Sub-millimeter surveys have, in the last decade, revealed an unexpected population of high-redshift dust-obscured sub-mm galaxies (SMGs) which are forming stars at a tremendous rate. Due to steep number counts and the negative k-correction at sub-mm wavelengths sub-mm surveys are effective at finding intrinsically faint, gravitationally lensed galaxies. We have now produced a reliable list of about 150 bright lensed SMGs in 200 sq. deg of the Herschel-ATLAS and HerMES (the GTO program of the SPIRE Instrument team) surveys with Herschel-SPIRE. We propose Spitzer IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 micron imaging of 122 of these gravitationally lensed SMGs. The target SMGs are selected to maximally overlap with existing and planned multi-wavelength followup programs, without duplicating existing deep IRAC data. Using the proposed Spitzer data we will: (a) Extend the SEDs of z~ 1 to 5 lensed SMGs into the near-IR regime, where derived stellar masses are more reliable than those estimated at other wavelengths alone; (b) Combine with lens models from existing and planned high-resolution sub-mm imaging (SMA, CARMA, PdBI) to map the evolution of stellar mass as a function of redshift and star-formation rate (SFR); (c) Combine with existing and planned CO and CII molecular line measurements to map the evolution of dust-to-gas and stellar-to-gas mass ratios as a function of redshift and SFR; (d) Obtain snapshot statistics on the sub-mm galaxy evolution from z of 1 to 5 as a function of stellar, dust, and gas mass to study the role of mergers and AGN contribution that may regulate the starburst phenomenon; (e) Compare our results to those from numerical simulations of high-redshift starburst galaxies to investigate the physical conditions in SMGs, and their evolutionary pathways.

  7. A search for debris disks in the Herschel-ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, M. A.; Smith, D. J. B.; Stevens, J. A.; Jarvis, M. J.; Vidal Perez, E.; Marshall, J.; Dunne, L.; Eales, S.; White, G. J.; Leeuw, L.; Sibthorpe, B.; Baes, M.; González-Solares, E.; Scott, D.; Vieiria, J.; Amblard, A.; Auld, R.; Bonfield, D. G.; Burgarella, D.; Buttiglione, S.; Cava, A.; Clements, D. L.; Cooray, A.; Dariush, A.; de Zotti, G.; Dye, S.; Eales, S.; Frayer, D.; Fritz, J.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Herranz, D.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Lagache, G.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Maddox, S.; Negrello, M.; Pascale, E.; Pohlen, M.; Rigby, E.; Rodighiero, G.; Samui, S.; Serjeant, S.; Temi, P.; Valtchanov, I.; Verma, A.

    2010-07-01

    Aims: We aim to demonstrate that the Herschel-ATLAS (H-ATLAS) is suitable for a blind and unbiased survey for debris disks by identifying candidate debris disks associated with main sequence stars in the initial science demonstration field of the survey. We show that H-ATLAS reveals a population of far-infrared/sub-mm sources that are associated with stars or star-like objects on the SDSS main-sequence locus. We validate our approach by comparing the properties of the most likely candidate disks to those of the known population. Methods: We use a photometric selection technique to identify main sequence stars in the SDSS DR7 catalogue and a Bayesian Likelihood Ratio method to identify H-ATLAS catalogue sources associated with these main sequence stars. Following this photometric selection we apply distance cuts to identify the most likely candidate debris disks and rule out the presence of contaminating galaxies using UKIDSS LAS K-band images. Results: We identify 78 H-ATLAS sources associated with SDSS point sources on the main-sequence locus, of which two are the most likely debris disk candidates: H-ATLAS J090315.8 and H-ATLAS J090240.2. We show that they are plausible candidates by comparing their properties to the known population of debris disks. Our initial results indicate that bright debris disks are rare, with only 2 candidates identified in a search sample of 851 stars. We also show that H-ATLAS can derive useful upper limits for debris disks associated with Hipparcos stars in the field and outline the future prospects for our debris disk search programme. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  8. HERSCHEL GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY OF [N ii] FINE STRUCTURE EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Paul F.; Yıldız, Umut A.; Langer, William D.; Pineda, Jorge L.

    2015-12-01

    We present the first large-scale high angular resolution survey of ionized nitrogen in the Galactic Plane through emission of its two fine structure transitions ([N ii]) at 122 and 205 μm. The observations were largely obtained with the PACS instrument onboard the Herschel Space Observatory. The lines of sight were in the Galactic plane, following those of the Herschel OTKP project GOT C+. Both lines are reliably detected at the 10{sup −8}–10{sup −7} Wm{sup −2} sr{sup −1} level over the range –60° ≤ l ≤ 60°. The rms of the intensity among the 25 PACS spaxels of a given pointing is typically less than one third of the mean intensity, showing that the emission is extended. [N ii] is produced in gas in which hydrogen is ionized, and collisional excitation is by electrons. The ratio of the two fine structure transitions provides a direct measurement of the electron density, yielding n(e) largely in the range 10–50 cm{sup −3} with an average value of 29 cm{sup −3} and N{sup +} column densities 10{sup 16}–10{sup 17} cm{sup −2}. [N ii] emission is highly correlated with that of [C ii], and we calculate that between 1/3 and 1/2 of the [C ii] emission is associated with the ionized gas. The relatively high electron densities indicate that the source of the [N ii] emission is not the warm ionized medium (WIM), which has electron densities more than 100 times smaller. Possible origins of the observed [N ii] include the ionized surfaces of dense atomic and molecular clouds, the extended low-density envelopes of H ii regions, and low-filling factor high-density fluctuations of the WIM.

  9. JCMT in the Post-Herschel ERA of Alma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnstone, Doug

    2013-07-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT), with a 15m dish, is the largest single-dish astronomical telescope in the world designed specifically to operate in the sub-mm wavelength regime. The JCMT is located close to the summit of Mauna Kea, Hawaii, at an altitude of 4092m. The most recent addition to the JCMT's suite of instruments is the 10,000 bolometer sub-mm continuum instrument: SCUBA-2. SCUBA-2 operates simultaneously with 7' x7' foot print sub-arrays at both 450 and 850-microns. SCUBA-2's wide field surveying potential, combined with a 65% shared view of the sky from both sites, makes it the ideal instrument to provide complementary data for the ALMA Project. Furthermore, the SCUBA-2 sub-millimetre wavelength coverage and angular resolution complement existing Herschel observations. A set of comprehensive surveys of the submillimetre sky is underway at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) using SCUBA-2 and HARP, a heterodyne array receiver operating between 325 and 375 GHz. The JCMT Legacy Survey (JLS) is comprised of seven survey projects, and ranges in scope from the study of nearby debris disk systems, the study of star formation in nearby molecular cloud systems and more distant structures in our Galactic Plane, to the structure and composition of galaxies in our local neighbourhood and the number and evolution of submillimetre galaxies at high redshifts in the early Universe. In addition to the JLS, the COHR survey is imaging the Galactic plane in CO (3-2) and a JAC Staff-led project is using SCUBA-2 to survey the Galactic Centre. This poster highlights the significant survey capabilities of SCUBA-2 and HARP and reveals the continuing importance of the JCMT in a post-Herschel, ALMA world.

  10. Herschel Galactic Plane Survey of [NII] Fine Structure Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, Paul F.; Yıldız, Umut A.; Langer, William D.; Pineda, Jorge L.

    2015-12-01

    We present the first large-scale high angular resolution survey of ionized nitrogen in the Galactic Plane through emission of its two fine structure transitions ([N ii]) at 122 and 205 μm. The observations were largely obtained with the PACS instrument onboard the Herschel Space Observatory. The lines of sight were in the Galactic plane, following those of the Herschel OTKP project GOT C+. Both lines are reliably detected at the 10-8-10-7 Wm-2 sr-1 level over the range -60° ≤ l ≤ 60°. The rms of the intensity among the 25 PACS spaxels of a given pointing is typically less than one third of the mean intensity, showing that the emission is extended. [N ii] is produced in gas in which hydrogen is ionized, and collisional excitation is by electrons. The ratio of the two fine structure transitions provides a direct measurement of the electron density, yielding n(e) largely in the range 10-50 cm-3 with an average value of 29 cm-3 and N+ column densities 1016-1017 cm-2. [N ii] emission is highly correlated with that of [C ii], and we calculate that between 1/3 and 1/2 of the [C ii] emission is associated with the ionized gas. The relatively high electron densities indicate that the source of the [N ii] emission is not the warm ionized medium (WIM), which has electron densities more than 100 times smaller. Possible origins of the observed [N ii] include the ionized surfaces of dense atomic and molecular clouds, the extended low-density envelopes of H ii regions, and low-filling factor high-density fluctuations of the WIM.

  11. Herschel DEBRIS survey of debris discs around A stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thureau, N.

    2014-11-01

    The Herschel DEBRIS survey (Disc Emission via a Bias-free Reconnaissance in the Infrared/Submillimetre) brings a unique perspective to the study of debris discs around main-sequence A-type stars. We have observed a sample of 89 A-stars with the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) on the Herschel space telescope at 100 and 160 μm. A statistical analysis of the data shows a lower debris disc rate than has previously been found. The drop is due in part to the fact that some excess sources were resolved as background objects by the superior angular resolution (a factor of 2.5) of PACS-100 relative to that of Spitzer (MIPS-70). We found a 3-σ detection rate of 23 myblue which is similar to the the detection rate around main-sequence F, G and K stars. Most of the debris discs were detected around the youngest and hottest stars in our sample. The incidence of discs in single and multiple systems was similar. The debris discs in multiple systems ware found either in tight binary systems (<1 AU) or wide ones (>100 AU). Debris discs in both tight and wide binary systems have physical properties that are statistically similar to those of discs around single stars. We did not detect any debris discs in binary systems with intermediate separation, in which the orbit and the debris disc would be on the same scale. One possible explanation is that discs in intermediate systems have evolved much faster owing to the disc-companion interactions and they are now undetectable.

  12. Mapping water in Jupiter with Herschel/HIFI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalié, Thibault; Hartogh, P.; Lellouch, E.; Moreno, R.; Jarchow, C.; Billebaud, F.; Orton, G.; Rengel, M.; Sagawa, H.; Lara, L.; Gonzalez, A.; HssO Team

    2010-10-01

    A major discovery of ISO was the detection of water in the upper atmospheres of the four giant planets and Titan (Feuchtgruber et al, 1997; Coustenis et al, 1998), implying the existence of external sources of water. This oxygen supply, which manifests itself also through the presence of CO2 and CO in these atmospheres, may have several sources: (i) a permanent flux from interplanetary dust particles produced from asteroid collisions and from comet activity (Prather et al,1978), (ii) local sources from planetary environments (rings, satellites) (Strobel and Yung, 1979; Prangé et al, 2006), (iii) cometary ``Shoemaker-Levy 9 (SL9) type'’ impacts (Lellouch et al, 1995). Disentangling the various sources at Jupiter is a key objective of the Herschel Space Observatory key program HssO (Hartogh et al, 2009). Herschel/HIFI observed H2O in Jupiter at 1669 GHz in a 5x5 point map on July 7, 2010. From this observation, we will present and discuss the search for latitudinal variability of H2O in Jupiter. Acknowledgement: Research by T. Cavalié was supported by the Fondation des Amis des Sciences. References: Coustenis et al, A&A 336,L85-L89. Feuchtgruber et al, 1997. Nature 389, 159-162. Hartogh et al, 2009. Planet. Space Sci. 57, 1596-1606. Lellouch et al, 1995. Nature 373, 592-595. Prangé et al, 2006. Icarus 180, 379-392. Prather, 1978. ApJ 223, 1072-1081. Strobel & Yung, 1979. Icarus 37, 256-263.

  13. The dusty and molecular universe: a prelude to Herschel and ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, A.

    2005-01-01

    Contents: General overviews. Potential Herschel/ALMA impact. ISM and global star formation. Galaxies and cosmology. Planetary systems. Local star formation and ISM. Stars and dust production. Synthesis and strategy.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: M31 Herschel images (Viaene+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viaene, S.; Fritz, J.; Baes, M.; Bendo, G. J.; Blommaert, J. A. D. L.; Boquien, M.; Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; Cortese, L.; de Looze, I.; Gear, W. K.; Gentile, G.; Hughes, T. M.; Jarrett, T.; Karczewski, O. L.; Smith, M. W. L.; Spinoglio, L.; Tamm, A.; Tempel, E.; Thilker, D.; Verstappen, J.

    2014-05-01

    We present new, reduced Herschel Space Observatory PACS and SPIRE 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 micron observations of M31 taken has part of the Herschel Exploitation of Local Galaxy Andromeda (P.I.: J. Fritz) The PACS 100 and 160 observations were reduced with the Herschel Interactive Processing Environment (HIPE) v.8 and Scanamorphos v.15.0 (Roussel, 2012, ASCL, 1209.012). The SPIRE 250, 350, and 500 micron observations data were reduced with HIPE v.8 and BriGAdE (Smith, in preparation). Complete details on the data reduction may be found in our first paper (Fritz et al., 2012A&A...546A..34F). Image properties are summarised in images.dat. The raw data can be retrieved from the Herschel Science Archive (ESA). (2 data files).

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Herschel counterparts of SDC (Peretto+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peretto, N.; Lenfestey, C.; Fuller, G. A.; Traficante, A.; Molinari, S.; Thompson, M. A.; Ward-Thompson, D.

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this paper is to identify which of the clouds from the Spitzer Dark Cloud catalogue (Peretto & Fuller, 2009, Cat. J/A+A/505/405) are real, which are artefacts. For this we used Herschel Hi-GAL (Molinari et al., 2010PASP..122..314M) column density maps and search for spatial associations between Spitzer Dark Cloud and Herschel column density peaks. Description: This table provides some of the key properties of the Spitzer Dark Clouds that we estimated using the Herschel data and used to disentangle between real and spurious clouds. For each cloud of the Peretto & Fuller (2009, Cat. J/A+A/505/405) catalogue we give the cloud name, the cloud equivalent radius, the average Herschel column density within the boundaries of the SDCs, the average Herschel column density immediately outside the boundary of the SDCs, the Herschel column density noise at the position of the SDC, the Herschel column density peak within the boundaries of the SDCs, the value for criterion c1, the value for criterion c2, the value for criterion c3, and a tag that indicates if the cloud has been identified as real by our automated detection scheme based on the values of c1 and c2. This tag can take a number of values. These are: 'y' for yes; n for no; 'sat' for a SDC entirely located in a saturated portion of the Herschel images; 'ysat' for a cloud that is considered real despite being partially saturated; 'out' for a SDC that is not covered by Herschel images; 'yout' for a cloud that is considered real despite being partially covered by Herschel images; 'nout' for a cloud considered spurious despite being partially covered by Herschel images. Also, note that the column referring to the equivalent radius Req is the same quantity as the one quoted in Table 1 column 11 of Peretto & Fuller (2009, Cat. J/A+A/505/405). However, these latter values should be discarded since a mistake has been found in the calculation of the equivalent radius. Only the new values, the ones provided in Table 1

  16. Unveiling square and triangular optical lattices: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Silva, Juarez G; Jesus-Silva, Alcenísio J; Alencar, Márcio A R C; Hickmann, Jandir M; Fonseca, Eduardo J S

    2014-02-15

    We study square and triangular optical lattice formation using a diffraction technique with light-possessing orbital angular momentum (OAM). We demonstrate that it is possible to use Fraunhofer diffraction of light by a square aperture to unveil OAM about two times bigger than would be possible with a triangular aperture. We notice that the pattern remains truncated until a topological charge (TC) equal to 20 with good precision. Even though a square pattern cannot be used to determine the TC sign, it is possible to measure high order of the modulus and sign of the TC up to 20, combining patterns of the triangular and square apertures.

  17. Unveiling locally linearly polarized vector fields with broken axial symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xilin; Lou Kai; Chen Jing; Gu Bing; Li Yongnan; Wang Huitian

    2011-06-15

    We explore how the focusing of axial-symmetry-broken vector fields is associated with a sector aperture whose apex coincides with the field axis. Its focused field is azimuthally split into a pair of orthogonal right- and left-handed circularly polarized partial rings which are rotated by angles of {+-}{pi}/2 with respect to the input vector field carrying no orbital angular momentum (OAM) and no spin angular momentum (SAM), respectively. Each member of the pair of partial rings carries not only the opposite OAM but also the opposite SAM. We unveil the underlying physics behind such an effect.

  18. Herschel Observations of the Pre-Collapse Phase of Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Francesco, J.

    2012-03-01

    Stars form after compact gas cores condense out of larger molecular clouds and collapse. How these cores themselves form has been difficult to observe, given the limitations of detecting from the ground faint, diffuse sub-structure in clouds (e.g., clumps and filaments). With its sensitive, spaceborne instrumentation, however, Herschel has now detected these structures in numerous clouds out to several kiloparsecs from their continuum emission. Indeed, the continuum data from PACS and SPIRE are revolutionizing our understanding of the environments from which cores themselves arise. In this review, we will summarize the recent results of several Herschel Key Programmes whose goals include better physical understanding of these environments. The specific programmes with prestellar core targets include the Herschel Gould Belt Survey (GBS; PI: Ph. André), the Herschel OB Young Star survey (HOBYS; PI: F. Motte), Galactic Cold Cores (GCC; PI: M. Juvela), the Earliest Phases of Star Formation (EPoS; PI: O. Krause), and the Herschel Galactic Plane Survey (HiGAL; PI: S. Molinari). We show in general that filaments are found on many scales throughout the Galaxy, and are a key aspect to the pre-collapse phase of star formation not previously appreciated before Herschel. In addition, the continuum data are providing new direct probes of the thermal and density structures of pre-collapse star-forming objects.

  19. Potential flow about elongated bodies of revolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Carl

    1936-01-01

    This report presents a method of solving the problem of axial and transverse potential flows around arbitrary elongated bodies of revolution. The solutions of Laplace's equation for the velocity potentials of the axial and transverse flows, the system of coordinates being an elliptic one in a meridian plane, are given. The theory is applied to a body of revolution obtained from a symmetrical Joukowsky profile, a shape resembling an airship hull. The pressure distribution and the transverse-force distribution are calculated and serve as examples of the procedure to be followed in the case of an actual airship. A section on the determination of inertia coefficients is also included in which the validity of some earlier work is questioned.

  20. Global health governance - the next political revolution.

    PubMed

    Kickbusch, I; Reddy, K S

    2015-07-01

    The recent Ebola crisis has re-opened the debate on global health governance and the role of the World Health Organization. In order to analyze what is at stake, we apply two conceptual approaches from the social sciences - the work on gridlock and the concept of cosmopolitan moments - to assess the ability of the multilateral governance system to reform. We find that gridlock can be broken open by a health crisis which in turn generates a political drive for change. We show that a set of cosmopolitan moments have led to the introduction of the imperative of health in a range of policy arenas and moved health into 'high politics' - this has been called a political revolution. We contend that this revolution has entered a second phase with increasing interest of heads of state in global health issues. Here lies the window of opportunity to reform global health governance.

  1. They Say They Want a Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Rama

    2008-01-01

    Even if one does not believe--and it is getting increasingly difficult not to--that the "green revolution" on college campuses is akin to the great movements for social change that rocked universities in the 1960s and '70s, there is no denying that it has taken root in such a way that no campus administrator can afford to ignore it. And unlike the…

  2. Toward a microbial Neolithic revolution in buildings.

    PubMed

    Thaler, David S

    2016-03-29

    The Neolithic revolution--the transition of our species from hunter and gatherer to cultivator--began approximately 14,000 years ago and is essentially complete for macroscopic food. Humans remain largely pre-Neolithic in our relationship with microbes but starting with the gut we continue our hundred-year project of approaching the ability to assess and cultivate benign microbiomes in our bodies. Buildings are analogous to the body and it is time to ask what it means to cultivate benign microbiomes in our built environment. A critical distinction is that we have not found, or invented, niches in buildings where healthful microbial metabolism occurs and/or could be cultivated. Key events affecting the health and healthfulness of buildings such as a hurricane leading to a flood or a burst pipe occur only rarely and unpredictably. The cause may be transient but the effects can be long lasting and, e.g., for moisture damage, cumulative. Non-invasive "building tomography" could find moisture and "sentinel microbes" could record the integral of transient growth. "Seed" microbes are metabolically inert cells able to grow when conditions allow. All microbes and their residue present actinic molecules including immunological epitopes (molecular shapes). The fascinating hygiene and microbial biodiversity hypotheses propose that a healthy immune system requires exposure to a set of microbial epitopes that is rich in diversity. A particular conjecture is that measures of the richness of diversity derived from microbiome next-generation sequencing (NGS) can be mechanistically coupled to--rather than merely correlated with some measures of--human health. These hypotheses and conjectures inspire workers and funders but an alternative is also consequent to the first Neolithic revolution: That the genetic uniformity of contemporary foods may also decrease human exposure to molecular biodiversity in a heath-relevant manner. Understanding the consequences--including the unintended

  3. They Say They Want a Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Rama

    2008-01-01

    Even if one does not believe--and it is getting increasingly difficult not to--that the "green revolution" on college campuses is akin to the great movements for social change that rocked universities in the 1960s and '70s, there is no denying that it has taken root in such a way that no campus administrator can afford to ignore it. And unlike the…

  4. Plate tectonics: Scientific revolution or scientific program?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mareschal, Jean-Claude

    In The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Thomas S. Kuhn suggested that science progresses discontinuously: As a scientific theory becomes obsolete, a period of crisis results, at the end of which the old theory is overthrown and replaced by a new, sounder, more complete theory [Kuhn, 1962]. After the scientific community has accepted the new [paradigm,] it undertakes only routine research until a new crisis occurs, usually as a result of an anomalous experiment that accidentally happens to be critical.

  5. Toward a Rethinking of the Relativity Revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    This journey in the history of physics is offered in celebration of David Cassidy's Pais Prize. The journey, undertaken in part with the community of historians of physics and in part not, starts from a conventional characterization of the relativity revolution as an abrupt transition, in 1905, from pre-Einsteinian darkness to Einsteinian light, and ends with an alternative perspective on the relativity revolution, seeing it as a process extending over 50 years, in two phases: first, the protorelativity phase, lasting from the early 1880s to 1905, and involving initial treatments of the length contraction, the mass increase, and invariance properties; second, the Einsteinian phase, beginning with his recasting of the basic theoretical framework--with the inclusion now of the time dilation and the E = mc2 relationship--and continuing with the ensuing competition between the protorelativistic and Einsteinian approaches, issuing in the final triumph of the Einsteinian approach only in the early 1930s. A proper appreciation of the character and importance of the protorelativity phase of the relativity revolution is relevant to a variety of contexts: for the teaching of relativity theory, it makes available a more concrete and pictorial approach to the relativistic effects--retaining greater (length contraction) or somewhat lesser (mass increase) validity to the present day; for the ongoing discourse on the nature of scientific revolutions, it provides a perspective on the intricacies and complexities of those occurrences, and on the elements of continuity and gradualism in even the most radical changes; and for our general understanding of historical process in the history of the sciences, it shows the importance of the broader scientific research community for even the most individual accomplishments.

  6. William Herschel's fifty-two fields of extensive diffused nebulosity - a revision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latusseck, Arndt

    2008-11-01

    Since its publication in 1811, William Herschel's list of fifty-two fields of extensive nebulosity has been largely disregarded, or even discredited, by the astronomical community. Neither he nor his successors decided to include the observations of large structureless fields of background nebulosity in their major catalogues. lt was only during a short period in the early twentieth century that astronomers like I. Roberts, E.E. Barnard, and M. Wolf started more serious investigations into the nature and reality of Herschel's nebulosities, but without deriving conclusive results. Those few who tried to understand Herschel's elusive observations were often puzzled by his ambiguous descriptions and frequently tended to reject the nebulosities as being optical illusions, because only a small number of them could be proven by celestial photography. The only unconditional supporter of the reality of the nebulosities was Johann Georg Hagen, who in the 1920s used them as evidence for his hypothesis that nebulous matter covered almost the entire celestial sphere. He claimed to have succeeded in visually observing nebulous matter in every single one of Herschel's fields, which raised sharp opposition from his numerous critics. The questionable quality of Herschel's original descriptions, the weak supporting arguments, and the lack of photographic evidence, finally led historians to conclude that Herschel's fifty-two fields of extensive nebulosity were illusions. But it would seem astonishing that this gifted observer could have been fooled to such an extent. As a first approach to investigate this apparent anomaly, a complete analysis of Herschel's observing books was carried out, and the raw observations of the various catalogued nebulous fields were extracted. Some important stylistic uncertainties in the descriptions of the visual appearance of the nebulosities were cleared up, leading to a better understanding of what Herschel actually saw. Possible sources of error

  7. Herschel Survey of the Trans-Neptunian Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Thomas G.

    2015-08-01

    Transneptunian Objects (TNOs) are believed to retain the most pristine and least altered material of the Solar System. We studied a sample of more than 130 objects with Herschel as part of a key program "TNOs are Cool" and smaller projects related to prominent targets.Our sample includes TNOs in each of the dynamical classes, including Centaurs, and 2 satellites. The PACS data were used to determine diameters and albedos for over 100 of those targets. We were also able to constrain the temperature distribution on the surfaces of over 80 objects, in some cases by combining the Herschel data with shorter-wavelength Spitzer or WISE measurements. The temperature distribution is controlled by the thermal inertia and roughness of the surface, and so gives deeper insight into surface processes in the outer Solar System. We obtained thermal lightcurve observations for a few interesting targets like Haumea, Eris, Varuna, to discriminate between shape and surface variegation effects. For the characterization of dwarf planets (e.g. Makemake, Orcus, Quaoar) and other bright object we extented the wavelength coverage into the submm by using the SPIRE photometer. Also the two Centaurs with ring systems -Chariklo and Chiron- have been observed at far-IR wavelengths with very high photometric accuracy. We were also able to study a few Centaurs with extreme orbits, including the super-comet candidate 2013 AZ60 showing very perculiar properties.The diameters measured in this program have been combined with mass-determinations for binary systems to give an intriguing first-look at the density of TNOs as a function of size. The analysis of albedo data revealed the existence of two distinct types of surface among mid-sized TNOs: The colour-albedo diagram shows that the objects located in dynamically stable orbits within the classical Kuiper Belt region and beyond have high albedo and red colours, implying a formation further from the Sun than the dark, neutral-colour bodies.The results

  8. The Effects on Education of Scientific Revolutions (In the Sense of T. S. Kuhn).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter G.

    1981-01-01

    Examined are social factors that influence biological science knowledge content in terms of these paradigm shifts: the DNA revolution, the Continental Drift revolution, the Darwinian revolution, and the sociobiology revolution, with the term "revolution" being used in the sense of Thomas S. Kuhn's writings. (PB)

  9. The Effects on Education of Scientific Revolutions (In the Sense of T. S. Kuhn).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter G.

    1981-01-01

    Examined are social factors that influence biological science knowledge content in terms of these paradigm shifts: the DNA revolution, the Continental Drift revolution, the Darwinian revolution, and the sociobiology revolution, with the term "revolution" being used in the sense of Thomas S. Kuhn's writings. (PB)

  10. Public and Private Responsibility for Mental Health: Mental Health's Fourth Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dokecki, Paul R.

    Three revolutions in the history of mental health were identified by Nicholas Hobbs: the humane revolution, the scientific and therapeutic revolution, and the public health revolution. The shift of responsibilities for mental health and substance abuse services from the public to the private sector may constitute a fourth mental health revolution.…

  11. IRAC Snapshot Imaging of Massive-Cluster Gravitational Lenses Observed by the Herschel Lensing Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egami, Eiichi; Rawle, Timothy; Cava, Antonio; Clement, Benjamin; Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava; Ebeling, Harald; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Perez-Gonzalez, Pablo; Richard, Johan; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Schaerer, Daniel; Walth, Gregory

    2015-10-01

    Using the Herschel Space Observatory, our team has been conducting a large survey of the fields of massive galaxy clusters, 'The Herschel Lensing Survey (HLS)' (PI: Egami; 419 hours). The main scientific goal is to penetrate the confusion limit of Herschel by taking advantage of the strong gravitational lensing power of these massive clusters and study the population of low-luminosity and/or high-redshift dusty star-forming galaxies that are beyond the reach of field Herschel surveys. In the course of this survey, we have obtained deep PACS (100/160 um) and SPIRE (250/350/500 um) images for 54 clusters (HLS-deep) as well as shallower (but nearly confusion-limited) SPIRE images for 527 clusters (HLS-snapshot). The goal of this proposal is to obtain shallow (500 sec/band) 3.6/4.5 um images of 266 cluster fields that have been observed by the HLS-snapshot survey but do not have any corresponding IRAC data. The HLS-snapshot SPIRE images are deep enough to detect a large number of sources in the target cluster fields, many of which are distant star-forming galaxies lensed by the foreground clusters, and the large sample size of HLS-snapshot promises a great potential for making exciting discoveries. Yet, these Herschel images would be of limited use if we could not identify the counterparts of the Herschel sources accurately and efficiently. The proposed IRAC snapshot program will greatly enhance the utility of these Herschel data, and will feed powerful gound observing facilities like ALMA and NOEMA with interesting targets to follow up.

  12. The Footprint Database and Web Services of the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobos, László; Varga-Verebélyi, Erika; Verdugo, Eva; Teyssier, David; Exter, Katrina; Valtchanov, Ivan; Budavári, Tamás; Kiss, Csaba

    2016-10-01

    Data from the Herschel Space Observatory is freely available to the public but no uniformly processed catalogue of the observations has been published so far. To date, the Herschel Science Archive does not contain the exact sky coverage (footprint) of individual observations and supports search for measurements based on bounding circles only. Drawing on previous experience in implementing footprint databases, we built the Herschel Footprint Database and Web Services for the Herschel Space Observatory to provide efficient search capabilities for typical astronomical queries. The database was designed with the following main goals in mind: (a) provide a unified data model for meta-data of all instruments and observational modes, (b) quickly find observations covering a selected object and its neighbourhood, (c) quickly find every observation in a larger area of the sky, (d) allow for finding solar system objects crossing observation fields. As a first step, we developed a unified data model of observations of all three Herschel instruments for all pointing and instrument modes. Then, using telescope pointing information and observational meta-data, we compiled a database of footprints. As opposed to methods using pixellation of the sphere, we represent sky coverage in an exact geometric form allowing for precise area calculations. For easier handling of Herschel observation footprints with rather complex shapes, two algorithms were implemented to reduce the outline. Furthermore, a new visualisation tool to plot footprints with various spherical projections was developed. Indexing of the footprints using Hierarchical Triangular Mesh makes it possible to quickly find observations based on sky coverage, time and meta-data. The database is accessible via a web site http://herschel.vo.elte.hu and also as a set of REST web service functions, which makes it readily usable from programming environments such as Python or IDL. The web service allows downloading footprint data

  13. Einstein and Lorentz: The structure of a scientific revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouwer, W.

    1980-06-01

    In a course entitled ''Revolutions in Physics'' a number of episodes in the history of physics are examined, in order to test the theories of Kuhn, Popper, Lakatos, and others, with regard to any common structure exhibited by the various revolutions that physics has undergone. The conflict between Lorentz's Electron Theory and Einstein's Special Relativity becomes a major focal point in the second half of the course for the models of scientific revolutions that are studied.

  14. How Personal Is the Political? Democratic Revolution and Fertility Decline

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Amy Kate

    2010-01-01

    Existing theory has identified the capacity of political revolutions to effect change in a variety of social institutions, although relationships between revolution and many institutions remain unexplored. Using historical data from 22 European and four diaspora countries, I examine the temporal relationship between timing of revolution and onset of fertility decline. I hypothesize that specific kinds of revolutionary events affect fertility by engendering ideological changes in popular understandings of the individual’s relationship to society, and ultimately the legitimacy of couples’ authority over their reproductive capacities. Results demonstrate that popular democratic revolution – but not institutionalized democratic structures – predict the timing of the onset of fertility decline. PMID:19999826

  15. How personal is the political? Democratic revolution and fertility decline.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Amy Kate

    2009-10-01

    Existing theory has identified the capacity of political revolutions to effect change in a variety of social institutions, although relationships between revolution and many institutions remain unexplored. Using historical data from twenty-two European and four diaspora countries, the author examines the temporal relationship between timing of revolution and onset of fertility decline. The author hypothesizes that specific kinds of revolutionary events affect fertility by engendering ideological changes in popular understandings of the individual's relationship to society and ultimately the legitimacy of couples' authority over their reproductive capacities. Results demonstrate that popular democratic revolutions -- but not institutionalized democratic structures -- predict the timing of the onset of fertility decline.

  16. Fan Noise Control Using Herschel-Quincke Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdisso, Ricardo A.; Ng, Wing F.

    2003-01-01

    The research effort proposed for this NASA NRA is mainly experimental. In addition, Virginia Tech is working in partnership with Goodrich Aerospace, Aerostructures Group for the analytical development needed to support the experimental endeavor, i.e. model development, design, and system studies. In this project, Herschel-Quincke (HQ)liner technology experiments will be performed at the NASA Glenn Active Noise Control Fan (ANCF) facility. A schematic of both inlet and aft HQ-liner systems installed in the ANCF rig as well as a picture of the Glenn facility is shown. The main goal is to simultaneously test in both the inlet and bypass duct sections. The by-pass duct will have HQ-systems in both the inner and outer duct walls. The main advantages of performing tests at the ANCF facility are that the effect of the inlet HQ-system on the by-pass HQ-system and vice versa, can be accurately determined from the in-duct modal data. Another significant advantage is that it offers the opportunity to assess (on a common basis) the proposed noise reduction concept on the ANCF rig which in the past has been used for assessing other active and passive noise reduction strategies.

  17. Advanced GLS map-making for the Herschel's photometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazzo, Lorenzo; Raguso, Maria C.; Mastrogiuseppe, Marco; Calzoletti, Luca; Altieri, Bruno

    2016-07-01

    We discuss Generalised Least Squares (GLS) map-making for the data of the Herschel satellite's photometers, which is a difficult task, due to the many disturbances affecting the data, and requires appropriate pre- and post-processing. Taking an existing map-maker as a reference, we propose several advanced techniques, which can improve both the quality of the estimate and the efficiency of the software. As a main contribution we discuss two disturbances, which have not been studied yet and may be detrimental to the image quality. The first is a data shift, due to delays in the timing system or in the processing chain. The second is a random noise, termed pixel noise, due to the jitter and the approximation of the pointing information. For both these disturbances, we develop a mathematical model and propose a compensation method. As an additional contribution, we note that the performance can be improved by properly adapting the algorithm parameters to the data being processed and discuss an automatic setting method. We also provide a rich set of examples and experiments, illustrating the impact of the proposed techniques on the image quality and the execution speed.

  18. Calibration of Herschel SPIRE FTS observations at different spectral resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchili, N.; Hopwood, R.; Fulton, T.; Polehampton, E. T.; Valtchanov, I.; Zaretski, J.; Naylor, D. A.; Griffin, M. J.; Imhof, P.; Lim, T.; Lu, N.; Makiwa, G.; Pearson, C.; Spencer, L.

    2017-01-01

    The SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer on-board the Herschel Space Observatory had two standard spectral resolution modes for science observations: high resolution (HR) and low resolution (LR), which could also be performed in sequence (H+LR). A comparison of the HR and LR resolution spectra taken in this sequential mode revealed a systematic discrepancy in the continuum level. Analysing the data at different stages during standard pipeline processing demonstrates that the telescope and instrument emission affect HR and H+LR observations in a systematically different way. The origin of this difference is found to lie in the variation of both the telescope and instrument response functions, while it is triggered by fast variation of the instrument temperatures. As it is not possible to trace the evolution of the response functions using housekeeping data from the instrument subsystems, the calibration cannot be corrected analytically. Therefore, an empirical correction for LR spectra has been developed, which removes the systematic noise introduced by the variation of the response functions.

  19. CMB Polarization B -mode Delensing with SPTpol and Herschel

    DOE PAGES

    Manzotti, A.; Story, K. T.; Wu, W. L. K.; ...

    2017-08-30

    Here, we present a demonstration of delensing the observed cosmic microwave background (CMB) Bmode polarization anisotropy. This process of reducing the gravitational-lensing generated B-mode component will become increasingly important for improving searches for the B modes produced by primordial gravitational waves. In this work, we delens B-mode maps constructed from multi-frequency SPTpol observations of a 90 deg2 patch of sky by subtracting a B-mode template constructed from two inputs: SPTpol E-mode maps and a lensing potential map estimated from the Herschel 500 µm map of the CIB. We find that our delensing procedure reduces the measured B-mode power spectrum bymore » 28% in the multipole range 300 < ℓ< 2300; this is shown to be consistent with expectations from theory and simulations and to be robust against systematics. Furthermore, the null hypothesis of no delensing is rejected at 6.9σ. Furthermore, we build and use a suite of realistic simulations to study the general properties of the delensing process and find that the delensing efficiency achieved in this work is limited primarily by the noise in the lensing potential map. We also demonstrate the importance of including realistic experimental non-idealities in the delensing forecasts used to inform instrument and survey-strategy planning of upcoming lower-noise experiments, such as CMB-S4.« less

  20. CMB Polarization B-mode Delensing with SPTpol and Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzotti, A.; Story, K. T.; Wu, W. L. K.; Austermann, J. E.; Beall, J. A.; Bender, A. N.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Bock, J. J.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Chiang, H. C.; Cho, H.-M.; Citron, R.; Conley, A.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Dodelson, S.; Everett, W.; Gallicchio, J.; George, E. M.; Gilbert, A.; Halverson, N. W.; Harrington, N.; Henning, J. W.; Hilton, G. C.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hoover, S.; Hou, Z.; Hrubes, J. D.; Huang, N.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K. D.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Li, D.; McMahon, J. J.; Meyer, S. S.; Mocanu, L. M.; Natoli, T.; Nibarger, J. P.; Novosad, V.; Padin, S.; Pryke, C.; Reichardt, C. L.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Sayre, J. T.; Schaffer, K. K.; Smecher, G.; Stark, A. A.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Viero, M. P.; Wang, G.; Whitehorn, N.; Yefremenko, V.; Zemcov, M.

    2017-09-01

    We present a demonstration of delensing the observed cosmic microwave background (CMB) B-mode polarization anisotropy. This process of reducing the gravitational-lensing-generated B-mode component will become increasingly important for improving searches for the B modes produced by primordial gravitational waves. In this work, we delens B-mode maps constructed from multi-frequency SPTpol observations of a 90 deg2 patch of sky by subtracting a B-mode template constructed from two inputs: SPTpol E-mode maps and a lensing potential map estimated from the Herschel 500 μm map of the cosmic infrared background. We find that our delensing procedure reduces the measured B-mode power spectrum by 28% in the multipole range 300< {\\ell }< 2300; this is shown to be consistent with expectations from simulations and to be robust against systematics. The null hypothesis of no delensing is rejected at 6.9σ . Furthermore, we build and use a suite of realistic simulations to study the general properties of the delensing process and find that the delensing efficiency achieved in this work is limited primarily by the noise in the lensing potential map. We demonstrate the importance of including realistic experimental non-idealities in the delensing forecasts used to inform instrument and survey-strategy planning of upcoming lower-noise experiments, such as CMB-S4.

  1. Winds of Binary AGB Stars as Observed by Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, A.; Jorissen, A.; Kerschbaum, F.; Ottensamer, R.; Mečina, M.; Paladini, C.; Cox, N. L. J.; Nowotny, W.; Aringer, B.; Pourbaix, D.; Mohamed, S.; Siopis, C.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.

    2015-08-01

    We present Herschel/PACS observations of the large-scale environments of binary AGB stars as part of the Mass-loss of Evolved StarS (MESS) sample. From the literature we found 18 of the objects to be members of physically bound multiple systems. Several show a large-scale far-IR emission which differs significantly from spherical symmetry. A probable cause is the gravitational force of the companion on the stellar AGB wind and the mass-losing star itself. A spiral pattern is thereby imprinted in the dusty stellar wind. The most remarkable structures are found around o Ceti, W Aquilæ, R Aquarii, and π1 Gruis. The environments of o Cet and W Aql show a spiral pattern while the symbiotic nature of R Aqr is revealed as two opposing arms which reflect a nova outburst. The emission around π1 Gru is dominated by two structures, a disk and an arc, which are presumably not caused by the same companion. We found evidence that π1 Gru is a hierarchical triple system in which a close companion attracts the AGB wind onto the orbital plane and the outer companion forms a spiral arm. These far-IR observations underline the role of a companion as a major external influence in creating asymmetric winds in the AGB phase, even before the star becomes a planetary nebula (PN).

  2. THE DEBRIS DISK AROUND {gamma} DORADUS RESOLVED WITH HERSCHEL

    SciTech Connect

    Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Matthews, Brenda C.; Booth, Mark; Kavelaars, J. J.; Koning, Alice; Kennedy, Grant M.; Wyatt, Mark C.; Sibthorpe, Bruce; Lawler, Samantha M.; Qi, Chenruo; Su, Kate Y. L.; Rieke, George H.; Wilner, David J.; Greaves, Jane S.

    2013-01-01

    We present observations of the debris disk around {gamma} Doradus, an F1V star, from the Herschel Key Programme DEBRIS (Disc Emission via Bias-free Reconnaissance in the Infrared/Submillimetre). The disk is well resolved at 70, 100, and 160 {mu}m, resolved along its major axis at 250 {mu}m, detected but not resolved at 350 {mu}m, and confused with a background source at 500 {mu}m. It is one of our best resolved targets and we find it to have a radially broad dust distribution. The modeling of the resolved images cannot distinguish between two configurations: an arrangement of a warm inner ring at several AU (best fit 4 AU) and a cool outer belt extending from {approx}55 to 400 AU or an arrangement of two cool, narrow rings at {approx}70 AU and {approx}190 AU. This suggests that any configuration between these two is also possible. Both models have a total fractional luminosity of {approx}10{sup -5} and are consistent with the disk being aligned with the stellar equator. The inner edge of either possible configuration suggests that the most likely region to find planets in this system would be within {approx}55 AU of the star. A transient event is not needed to explain the warm dust's fractional luminosity.

  3. 20 Cataclysmic variables to be observed by William Herschel Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2016-05-01

    Roque Ruiz-Carmona (Ph.D. candidate, Institute of Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands) has requested AAVSO assistance with his campaign to observe a set of 20 cataclysmic variables (CVs) with the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) at La Palma TONIGHT. This campaign is identical in format to the ones successfully carried out by the AAVSO on his behalf in 2015 (AAVSO Alert Notices 524 and 527). The full details of and instructions for this campaign are included here although the first of the two nights for which data are requested has passed. In order for WHT to observe each of the targets safely and to maximize the science value of the observations obtained, it is essential to know whether they are in outburst or quiescence. To this end, the PI has requested our observers to obtain one image of each target on each of TWO separate nights so he may analyze them to determine the final observing list for WHT. The images must be taken and posted within a certain window. Links to finder charts as well as reporting instructions and other information may be found in the full Alert Notice.

  4. Herschel observations of Circinus X-1 during outburst and quiescence

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Thomas E.; Gelino, Dawn M.; Buxton, Michelle; Fost, Tyler E-mail: dawn@ipac.caltech.edu E-mail: tyler.fost@gmail.com

    2014-07-01

    We have used the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer and Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver instruments on the Herschel Space Observatory to observe Cir X-1 both in and out of outburst. We detected Cir X-1 during outburst at 70 μm. Unfortunately, a cold background source dominates Cir X-1 at longer wavelengths. We have assembled optical and infrared (IR) data for Cir X-1 to model its spectral energy distribution (SED) in both quiescence and outburst and find that in both states it is consistent with a heavily reddened, 10,000 K blackbody. We believe this behavior is completely consistent with previous suggestions that these outbursts are due to accretion disk events, not unlike those of dwarf novae. To explore the behavior of other low-mass X-ray binaries with reported synchrotron jets, we have extracted and/or compiled optical and near- and mid-IR data sets for five such systems to construct their SEDs. The Z-source GX 349+2 and the black hole system GRS 1915+105 have strong and variable mid-IR excesses that suggest synchrotron emission. The other Z-sources have rather weak (or no) IR excesses that can be explained as reddened blackbody spectra with the addition of either synchrotron or bremsstrahlung components.

  5. Herschel/HIFI reveals the first stages of stellar formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herpin, F.; Bontemps, S.; Chavarria, L.; van der Tak, F.; Wyrowski, F.; van Dishoeck, E.

    2010-12-01

    The understanding of the star formation is still on progress. Especially, the formation of high-mass stars is much less understood than the low-mass case: even the time order of observational phenomena is uncertain. Water, one of the most important molecules in the Universe, might elucidate key episodes in the process of stellar birth, and especially could be a major role in the formation of high-mass stars. For both types of stars, the source chemical composition is not well known and even less known is the chemical evolution of the interstellar matter throughout the various phases of star formation. This talk presents the first results of the various Herschel Space Observatory star formation key-programs. One of the instruments on-board HSO, HIFI, is the most powerful spectrometer never built, covering a huge frequency range, most of them unaccessible from ground. In particular, one of the KP, WISH, aims at following the process of star formation during the various stages and at using the water as a physical diagnostic throughout the evolution.

  6. Fan Noise Control Using Herschel-quincke Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burdisso, Ricardo A.; Ng, Wing F.; Provenza, Andrew (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The research effort proposed for this NASA NRA is mainly experimental. In addition, Virginia Tech is working in partnership with Goodrich Aerospace, Aerostructures Group for the analytical development needed to support the experimental endeavor, i.e. model development, design, and system studies. In this project, Herschel-Quincke (HQ)liner technology experiments will be performed at the NASA Glenn Active Noise Control Fan (ANCF) facility. A schematic of both inlet and aft HQ-liner systems installed in the ANCF rig as well as a picture of the Glenn facility is shown. The main goal is to simultaneously test in both the inlet and bypass duct sections. The by-pass duct will have HQ-systems in both the inner and outer duct walls. The main advantages of performing tests at the ANCF facility are that the effect of the inlet HQ-system on the by-pass HQ-system and vice versa, can be accurately determined from the in-duct modal data. Another significant advantage is that it offers the opportunity to assess (on a common basis) the proposed noise reduction concept on the ANCF rig which in the past has been used for assessing other active and passive noise reduction strategies.

  7. Herschel Space Observatory Telescope characterization with Hartmann wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dovillaire, Guillaume; Wang, Yong; Toth, Rémy; Porcar-Guézénec, Raphael

    2012-09-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory Telescope is the first of its kind to cover the 60-670 μm far infrared spectral band. Its optical characterization, performed in the visible range, was a true technological challenge requiring very large dynamic range coupled to very high accuracy. A specific Hartmann Wavefront Sensor (HWFS) was designed to meet the demanding specifications of the measurement. The metrological system used by the EADS Astrium team to characterize the silicon car-bide based telescope will be presented as well as the main features of the specifically developed HWFS. The large expected wavefront error was measured in a double path set-up using the HWFS positioned in an extra-focal plane and a point source in the focal plane. The auto-collimation was carried out thanks to several liquid mirrors covering the M1 pupil plane and located in the conjugation plane of the HWFS sub-apertures. The results on the wavefront error obtained at the Centre Spatial de Liege (CSL) in Belgium will be shown as well as the simulated Point Spread Function to be compared to the real PSF obtained during on flight measurements. The thermally induced focal length variations are also presented as the telescope is meant to operate at 70°K in space.

  8. The Herschel/planck Programme Planck Pfm Testing Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reix, Jean-Michel; Rideau, Pascal; Gavila, Emmanuel; Chambelland, Jean-Philippe; Collaudin, Bernard; Passvogel, Thomas; Guillaume, Bernard

    2010-04-01

    The two science missions Herschel, an observatory-type mission, and Planck, a survey mission, are combined in one programme within ESAs long-term science programme. The objective for Planck is to image systematically the whole sky simultaneously with two scientific instruments in nine frequency channels between 30 and 900 GHz to unravel the temperature fluctuations, the anisotropy, of the cosmic background radiation. For both satellites, which have now been launched from the European Space Port in Kourou, French Guiana, on a single Ariane 5 launcher, the orbits will be Lissajous orbits around the 2nd Lagrange Point L2 of the Earth-Sun system. Having surpassed the technological problems and more generally the development phase, this paper focuses on the extensive assembly, integration and tests undertaken for the Proto-Flight Model (PFM) of the Planck Satellite. The paper details the early stages of the integration of the PFM until completeness of the assembly. It then describes the logic and the various tests implemented for the acceptance verification of the Planck PFM. It finally depicts the Launch campaign activities up to the launch from Kourou in the first half of May 2009.

  9. The Herschel Orion Protostar Survey: Luminosity and Envelope Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, William J.; Megeath, S. Thomas; Furlan, Elise; Ali, Babar; Stutz, Amelia M.; Tobin, John J.; Osorio, Mayra; Stanke, Thomas; Manoj, P.; Poteet, Charles A.; Booker, Joseph J.; Hartmann, Lee; Wilson, Thomas L.; Myers, Philip C.; Watson, Dan M.

    2017-05-01

    The Herschel Orion Protostar Survey obtained well-sampled 1.2-870 μm spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of over 300 protostars in the Orion molecular clouds, home to most of the young stellar objects (YSOs) in the nearest 500 pc. We plot the bolometric luminosities and temperatures for 330 Orion YSOs, 315 of which have bolometric temperatures characteristic of protostars. The histogram of the bolometric temperature is roughly flat; 29% of the protostars are in Class 0. The median luminosity decreases by a factor of four with increasing bolometric temperature; consequently, the Class 0 protostars are systematically brighter than the Class I protostars, with a median luminosity of 2.3 L⊙ as opposed to 0.87 L⊙. At a given bolometric temperature, the scatter in luminosities is three orders of magnitude. Using fits to the SEDs, we analyze how the luminosities corrected for inclination and foreground reddening relate to the mass in the inner 2500 au of the best-fit model envelopes. The histogram of the envelope mass is roughly flat, while the median-corrected luminosity peaks at 15 L⊙ for young envelopes and falls to 1.7 L⊙ for late-stage protostars with remnant envelopes. The spread in luminosity at each envelope mass is three orders of magnitude. Envelope masses that decline exponentially with time explain the flat mass histogram and the decrease in luminosity, while the formation of a range of stellar masses explains the dispersion in luminosity.

  10. Herschel DUNES Observations of Cold Debris Disks Around Nearby Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberge, Aki; Eiroa, C.; DUNES Team

    2011-01-01

    The DUNES (DUst discs around NEarby Stars) Open Time Key Programme for the Herschel Space Observatory is a sensitivity-limited photometric survey for faint, cold debris disks around nearby FGK stars. It takes advantage of the PACS and SPIRE instruments to detect and characterize cold disks as faint as Ldust/Lstar 10-7 - 10-6, at dust temperatures around 30 - 40 K. Such systems are extrasolar analogues of Solar System's Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt (EKB). DUNES will observe a statistically significant, volume-limited (d < 20 pc) sample, constrained only by background confusion. Stars at larger distances (d < 25 pc) with previously known exoplanets and/or Spitzer-detected faint debris disks are also included. More than one third of the DUNES sample has been observed to date. Our goal of detecting very faint, cold dust disks has been achieved; many disks are also spatially resolved. The unresolved disks show a variety of spectral energy distributions, some suggesting the presence of cold EKB-like dust rings. A number of previously unknown debris disks have been detected, including the coldest disks yet found. Preliminary results relating disk properties to the host star parameters will be shown.

  11. Boeing Unveils New Suit for Commercial Crew Astronauts

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-23

    Boeing unveiled its spacesuit design Wednesday as the company continues to move toward flight tests and crew rotation missions of its Starliner spacecraft and launch systems that will fly astronauts to the International Space Station. Astronauts heading into orbit for the station aboard the Starliner will wear Boeing’s new spacesuits. The suits are custom-designed to fit each astronaut, lighter and more comfortable than earlier versions and meet NASA requirements for safety and functionality. NASA's commercial crew astronauts Eric Boe and Suni Williams tried on the suits at Boeing’s Commercial Crew and Cargo Facility at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. Boe, Williams, Bob Behnken, and Doug Hurley were selected by NASA in July 2015 to train for commercial crew test flights aboard the Starliner and SpaceX’s Crew Dragon spacecraft. The flight assignments have not been set, so all four of the astronauts are rehearsingheavily for flights aboard both vehicles.

  12. ``THE UNVEILED HEART'' a teaching program in cardiovascular nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itti, Roland; Merabet, Yasmina; Roca, Ramona; Bontemps, Laurence; Itti, Emmanuel

    2004-07-01

    The functional investigation of cardiac diseases using nuclear techniques involves several variables, such as myocardial perfusion, cellular viability or mechanical contraction. The combined, topographical and quantitative assessment of these variables can characterize the functional state of the heart in terms of normal myocardium, ischemia, hibernation or necrosis. The teaching program, "The Unveiled Heart", has been designed in order to help nuclear physicians or cardiologists approaching these concepts and their implications for diagnosis of coronary artery disease, optimization of therapeutic strategies and prognosis evaluation. Anatomical correlations with coronary angiographic results obtained during balloon occlusion at the time of coronary angioplasty demonstrate the complementary role of imaging techniques and highlight the patient to patient variability of risk areas. A sectorial model derived from a polar projection of the myocardium presents for each sector the probability of involvement of a given coronary artery.

  13. Unveiling in Vivo Subcutaneous Thermal Dynamics by Infrared Luminescent Nanothermometers.

    PubMed

    Ximendes, Erving Clayton; Santos, Weslley Queiroz; Rocha, Uéslen; Kagola, Upendra Kumar; Sanz-Rodríguez, Francisco; Fernández, Nuria; Gouveia-Neto, Artur da Silva; Bravo, David; Domingo, Agustín Martín; del Rosal, Blanca; Brites, Carlos D S; Carlos, Luís Dias; Jaque, Daniel; Jacinto, Carlos

    2016-03-09

    The recent development of core/shell engineering of rare earth doped luminescent nanoparticles has ushered a new era in fluorescence thermal biosensing, allowing for the performance of minimally invasive experiments, not only in living cells but also in more challenging small animal models. Here, the potential use of active-core/active-shell Nd(3+)- and Yb(3+)-doped nanoparticles as subcutaneous thermal probes has been evaluated. These temperature nanoprobes operate in the infrared transparency window of biological tissues, enabling deep temperature sensing into animal bodies thanks to the temperature dependence of their emission spectra that leads to a ratiometric temperature readout. The ability of active-core/active-shell Nd(3+)- and Yb(3+)-doped nanoparticles for unveiling fundamental tissue properties in in vivo conditions was demonstrated by subcutaneous thermal relaxation monitoring through the injected core/shell nanoparticles. The reported results evidence the potential of infrared luminescence nanothermometry as a diagnosis tool at the small animal level.

  14. NuSTAR catches the unveiling nucleus of NGC 1068

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, S.

    2015-07-01

    We present a NuSTAR and XMM-Newton monitoring campaign in 2014/2015 of the Compton-thick Seyfert 2 galaxy, NGC 1068. We detect a clear high-energy excess above 15 keV during the observation performed on August 2014, which disappears in the following observation, in February 2015, reverting back to the spectrum observed by NuSTAR in 2012. We carry on a detailed broad band spectral analysis, using self-consistent models to reproduce all the emission components arising from the complex environment of this AGN. In this scenario, the observed high energy excess can be explained by a decrease of the column density of the obscuring material along the line of sight, which allows us for the first time to unveil the nuclear radiation of the archetypal AGN buried in NGC1068.

  15. Family medicine in the research revolution.

    PubMed

    Wender, Richard C

    2010-01-01

    National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding has contributed to improvements in the health of the nation, but the pace of progress, particularly in the war on cancer, has been frustratingly slow. Departments of family medicine receive less NIH funding than all other specialties. Although numerous factors contribute to low family medicine funding levels, persistent undervaluing of primary care plays a paramount role. Fueled by the harsh reality that our nation's health is unconscionably poor, we are entering a new era in our nation's research enterprise, a virtual research revolution. The 3 components of this revolution are the NIH roadmap, personalized medicine, and the Clinical and Translational Science Awards. Each of these elements will contribute to a growing emphasis on translational research. Translational research demands formation of innovative structures in academic health centers (AHCs) to enable them to address questions of vital relevance to improving public health. Service research, funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and foundations, defines a new approach to research with high potential to improve the health of communities. To be a part of the research revolution, departments must rely on senior researchers to secure funding and provide mentorship for junior investigators. Junior investigators must relentlessly pursue answers to questions of direct relevance to improving health. Finally, department chairs have the obligation to identify research mentors, find ways to fund research gaps, and create a culture of scholarship and investigation. Advocating for AHCs to commit to improving the health of the regions they serve can have a substantial impact on the types of questions that centers choose to study and, ultimately, on the health of the communities they serve.

  16. Rotor Wake Development During the First Revolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAlister, Kenneth W.

    2003-01-01

    The wake behind a two-bladed model rotor in light climb was measured using particle image velocimetry, with particular emphasis on the development of the trailing vortex during the first revolution of the rotor. The distribution of vorticity was distinguished from the slightly elliptical swirl pattern. Peculiar dynamics within the void region may explain why the peak vorticity appeared to shift away from the center as the vortex aged, suggesting the onset of instability. The swirl and axial velocities (which reached 44 and 12 percent of the rotor-tip speed, respectively) were found to be asymmetric relative to the vortex center. In particular, the axial flow was composed of two concentrated zones moving in opposite directions. The radial distribution of the circulation rapidly increased in magnitude until reaching a point just beyond the core radius, after which the rate of growth decreased significantly. The core-radius circulation increased slightly with wake age, but the large-radius circulation appeared to remain relatively constant. The radial distributions of swirl velocity and vorticity exhibit self-similar behaviors, especially within the core. The diameter of the vortex core was initially about 10 percent of the rotor-blade chord, but more than doubled its size after one revolution of the rotor. According to vortex models that approximate the measured data, the core-radius circulation was about 79 percent of the large-radius circulation, and the large-radius circulation was about 67 percent of the maximum bound circulation on the rotor blade. On average, about 53 percent of the maximum bound circulation resides within the vortex core during the first revolution of the rotor.

  17. Perspective: the revolution is upon us.

    PubMed

    Sierles, Frederick S

    2010-05-01

    Profound socioeconomic pressures on medical student education have been catalogued extensively. These pressures include teaching patient shortages, teacher shortages, conflicting systems, and financial problems. Many of these problems have been caused by an unregulated free market affecting medicine overall, with market values sometimes overshadowing the academic values of education, research, and patient care. This has caused profound changes in the conduct of medical student education. Particularly important has been a reduction in the "gold standard" of teaching: direct student-teacher and supervised student-patient interaction, replaced by a potpourri of online and simulated modules. The aggregate of these changes constitutes a revolution that challenges whether medical schools, school buildings, classes, and dedicated faculty are even necessary. The author posits several recommendations in response to this revolution: (1) recognize the revolution as such, and carefully guide or abort it, lest its outcome be inadequate, inauthentic, or corrupt, (2) prioritize academic rather than business values, (3) ensure that funds allotted for education are used for education, (4) insist that medical schools, not industry, teach students, (5) value authentic education more than simulation, (6) adopt learner-centered teaching without misusing it, (7) maintain acceptable class attendance without requiring it, (8) provide, from the first school day, authentic, patient-centered medical education characterized by vertical integration, humanism, early patient exposure, biopsychosocial orientation, and physician role modeling, (9) ensure that third- and fourth-year students have rich patient-care responsibility, and 10) keep tenure. These actions would permit the preservation of an educational gold standard that justifies medical education's cost.

  18. First Year In-Flight and Early Science with the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Lario, P.

    2011-07-01

    Herschel, an ESA space observatory equipped with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia with important participation from NASA, was launched on 14 May 2009. With its 3.5m diameter primary mirror, Herschel is the largest telescope ever launched into space. Herschel carries three science instruments whose focal plane units are cryogenically cooled inside a superfluid helium cryostat. The PACS and SPIRE instruments provide broadband imaging photometry in six bands centered on 75, 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm and imaging spectroscopy over the range 55-672 μm. The HIFI instrument provides very high-resolution heterodyne spectroscopy over the ranges 157-212 and 240-625 μm. The prime science objectives of Herschel are intimately connected to the physics of, and processes in, the interstellar medium (ISM) in the widest sense. Near and far in both space and time, they stretch from solar system objects and the relics of the formation of the sun and our solar system, through star formation in the ISM and the feedback material returned by evolved stars to the ISM, to the star formation history of the universe, galaxy evolution, and cosmology. The very first observational results from Herschel already show that it will have strong impact on research in all of these fields, as exemplified by the few observational results presented here, These are just the tip of the iceberg of what is yet to come in the remaining 2 years of operations.

  19. 'Land-marks of the universe': John Herschel against the background of positional astronomy.

    PubMed

    Case, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    John Herschel (1792-1871) was the leading British natural philosopher of the nineteenth century, widely known and regarded for his work in philosophy, optics and chemistry as well as his important research and popular publications on astronomy. To date, however, there exists no extended treatment of his astronomical career. This paper, part of a larger study exploring Herschel's contributions to astronomy, examines his work in the context of positional astronomy, the dominant form of astronomical practice throughout his lifetime. Herschel, who did not himself practice positional astronomy and who was known for his non-meridional observations of specific stellar objects, was nonetheless a strong advocate for positional astronomy-but for very different reasons than the terrestrial applications to which it was most often put. For Herschel, the star catalogues of positional astronomy were the necessary observational foundation upon which information about the stars as physical objects could be constructed. Positional astronomy practiced in the great national observatories was not about navigation or timekeeping; it was a way to standardize stellar observations and make them useful data for constructing theories of the stars themselves. For Herschel, the seeds of the new astronomy emerged from the practices of the old.

  20. 'Land-marks of the universe': John Herschel against the background of positional astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    John Herschel (1792-1871) was the leading British natural philosopher of the nineteenth century, widely known and regarded for his work in philosophy, optics and chemistry as well as his important research and popular publications on astronomy. To date, however, there exists no extended treatment of his astronomical career. This paper, part of a larger study exploring Herschel's contributions to astronomy, examines his work in the context of positional astronomy, the dominant form of astronomical practice throughout his lifetime. Herschel, who did not himself practice positional astronomy and who was known for his non-meridional observations of specific stellar objects, was nonetheless a strong advocate for positional astronomy - but for very different reasons than the terrestrial applications to which it was most often put. For Herschel, the star catalogues of positional astronomy were the necessary observational foundation upon which information about the stars as physical objects could be constructed. Positional astronomy practiced in the great national observatories was not about navigation or timekeeping; it was a way to standardize stellar observations and make them useful data for constructing theories of the stars themselves. For Herschel, the seeds of the new astronomy emerged from the practices of the old.

  1. Imagineering the astronomical revolution - Essay review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardine, Nicholas.

    2006-11-01

    Concerning following Books: (I) Transmitting knowledge - words, images, and instruments in early modern Europe. Kusukawa and Maclean (eds.), OUP, Oxford, 2006; (II) Widmung, Welterklärung und Wissenschaftslegitimierung: Titelbilder und ihre Funktionen in der wissenschaftlichen Revolution. Remmert, Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, 2005; (III) The power of images in early modern science. Lefevre, Renn and Schoepflin (eds.), Birkhäuser, Basel, 2003; (IV) Immagini per conoscere - dal Rinascimento alla rivoluzione scientifica. Meroi and Pogliano (eds.), Olschki, Florenz, 2001; (V) Erkenntnis Erfindung Konstruktion - Studien zur Bildgeschichte von Naturwissenschaften und Technik vom 16. bis zum 19. Jahrhundert. Holländer (ed.), Mann, Berlin, 2000.

  2. Revolution at the library service desk.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Beverly; Peterson, Richard A; Vines, Hattie; von Isenburg, Megan; Berney, Elizabeth; James, Robert; Rodriguez, Marcos; Thibodeau, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This article will describe how a revolution in customer service provision beginning in 2002 has led to an evolution of library services. When the reference and circulation desks were merged to create a single service point, responsibilities were broadened, core competencies were developed, and staff members were cross trained. In 2005, an analysis of staffing and work patterns demonstrated a need to build upon the original model to better utilize staff and ensure coverage of the desk. Reference librarians were moved to "on call" status, technical services staff were added to the schedule, and core competencies and procedures were refined.

  3. The quiet revolution of numerical weather prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Peter; Thorpe, Alan; Brunet, Gilbert

    2015-09-01

    Advances in numerical weather prediction represent a quiet revolution because they have resulted from a steady accumulation of scientific knowledge and technological advances over many years that, with only a few exceptions, have not been associated with the aura of fundamental physics breakthroughs. Nonetheless, the impact of numerical weather prediction is among the greatest of any area of physical science. As a computational problem, global weather prediction is comparable to the simulation of the human brain and of the evolution of the early Universe, and it is performed every day at major operational centres across the world.

  4. Hamiltonization of Solids of Revolution Through Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balseiro, Paula

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we study the relation between conserved quantities of nonholonomic systems and the hamiltonization problem employing the geometric methods of Balseiro (Arch Ration Mech Anal 214:453-501, 2014) and Balseiro and Garcia-Naranjo (Arch Ration Mech Anal 205(1):267-310, 2012). We illustrate the theory with classical examples describing the dynamics of solids of revolution rolling without sliding on a plane. In these cases, using the existence of two conserved quantities we obtain, by means of gauge transformations and symmetry reduction, genuine Poisson brackets describing the reduced dynamics.

  5. [Treatment of hepatitis C - an imminent revolution].

    PubMed

    Schärer, Verena; Bruggmann, Philip; Müllhaupt, Beat; Fehr, Jan

    2014-09-17

    Treatment of hepatitis C is approaching a revolution. During the last years, many agents have been developed that directly interfere with the viral replication cycle. Therapy of hepatitis C will no longer need Interferon in the future. The new therapies will be shorter, more efficient and with fewer side effects. For patients, the burden of treatment will drop substantially. Even patients are traditionally classified who as "difficult to treat", such as cirrhotic patients, HIV/hepatitis C coinfected patients and patients after liver transplantation will have better chances of cure. For more patients to benefit from the new therapies, identification of infected individuals and diagnostic investigations have to be improved.

  6. The quiet revolution of numerical weather prediction.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Peter; Thorpe, Alan; Brunet, Gilbert

    2015-09-03

    Advances in numerical weather prediction represent a quiet revolution because they have resulted from a steady accumulation of scientific knowledge and technological advances over many years that, with only a few exceptions, have not been associated with the aura of fundamental physics breakthroughs. Nonetheless, the impact of numerical weather prediction is among the greatest of any area of physical science. As a computational problem, global weather prediction is comparable to the simulation of the human brain and of the evolution of the early Universe, and it is performed every day at major operational centres across the world.

  7. Plant Biology. Hormones and the green revolution.

    PubMed

    Salamini, Francesco

    2003-10-03

    The success of the green revolution largely resulted from the creation of dwarf cultivars of wheat and rice, which had much higher yields than conventional crops. Characterization of these dwarf cultivars showed that the mutant genes were involved in either the synthesis or signaling of gibberellin, a plant growth hormone. In his Perspective, Salamini highlights new work (Multani et al.) that identifies the cause of dwarfism in agronomically important varieties of maize and sorghum. In these cases, dwarfism is caused by defective transport of another growth hormone called auxin.

  8. Sound and heat revolutions in phononics.

    PubMed

    Maldovan, Martin

    2013-11-14

    The phonon is the physical particle representing mechanical vibration and is responsible for the transmission of everyday sound and heat. Understanding and controlling the phononic properties of materials provides opportunities to thermally insulate buildings, reduce environmental noise, transform waste heat into electricity and develop earthquake protection. Here I review recent progress and the development of new ideas and devices that make use of phononic properties to control both sound and heat. Advances in sonic and thermal diodes, optomechanical crystals, acoustic and thermal cloaking, hypersonic phononic crystals, thermoelectrics, and thermocrystals herald the next technological revolution in phononics.

  9. Why the Pre-Copernican Cosmological Revolution Was Not a Revolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacholczyk, A. G.

    The 'scientific component' of the Copernican cosmological revolution followed a seemingly minor local structural change (consisting of the transposition of the Earth and the Sun), initially not affecting the global Platonic-Aristotelian spherical symmetry of the Universe and the general arrangement of astronomical bodies at sufficiently large distances from its center. Yet this change resulted in a rich 'ideological component' of the Copernican revolution in the Popperian sense; the importance of this ideological component is generally regarded as a consequence of the tensions arising from apparent contradictions between the new cosmos and several Scriptural passages (as if the previous Platonic-Aristotelian cosmos were in perfect agreement with the Scriptures, which certainly was not the case). The scientific component of the pre-Copernican cosmological revolution (replacing the plane-parallel scriptural cosmos with the spherically symmetric non-scriptural Universe of Plato and Aristotle), was a major global change in the large-scale structure of the Universe. This change took place at different times in different places in Christendom, and was by no means ideologically revolutionary: the pre-Copernican revolution had a very insignificant 'ideological component'. In this paper, after examining this transition in more detail, we shall ask the pertinent question: why did the pre-Copernican cosmological revolution not have any significant 'ideological component'? If the God-created Universe could be depicted in the opinion of the majority of Church Fathers and Schoolmen by the (non-scriptural) spherically symmetric Platonic or Aristotelian model as well as by the (scriptural) tabernacular Babylonian model, then why couldn't it be described just as well in the opinion of 17th century churchmen by the (also non-scriptural) Copernican model? The paper suggests that the tentative answers to these questions are provided by different anthropocentric ramifications of

  10. The microbiota revolution: Excitement and caution.

    PubMed

    Rescigno, Maria

    2017-09-01

    Scientific progress is characterized by important technological advances. Next-generation DNA sequencing has, in the past few years, led to a major scientific revolution: the microbiome revolution. It has become possible to generate a fingerprint of the whole microbiota of any given environment. As it becomes clear that the microbiota affects several aspects of our lives, each new scientific finding should ideally be analyzed in light of these communities. For instance, animal experimentation should consider animal sources and husbandry; human experimentation should include analysis of microenvironmental cues that might affect the microbiota, including diet, antibiotic, and drug use, genetics. When analyzing the activity of a drug, we should remember that, according to the microbiota of the host, different drug activities might be observed, either due to modification or degradation by the microbiota, or because the microbiota changes the immune system of the host in a way that makes that drug more or less effective. This minireview will not be a comprehensive review on the interaction between the host and microbiota, but it will aim at creating awareness on why we should not forget the contribution of the microbiota in any single aspect of biology. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Great revolutions in the history of life.

    PubMed

    Seilacher, A

    1997-03-25

    Evolution is a historical process. Like human history its course is unpredictable, because it results from the response of organisms and their biographies to changing outside conditions. Yet it makes perfect sense in retrospect, because every move was conditioned by the previous one. Another characteristic of historical changes is that they proceed gradually on the one hand, but are accentuated by events on the other. With regard to human history, one has always emphasized the events, such as wars and political revolutions; only recently historians got also interested in the more gradual changes in everyday life during the intervening periods. In evolutionary biology, emphasis was reversed. Darwinian theory focuses in gradual transformations, because this is what we can directly observe in natural and domesticated populations. Therefore the breaks that paleontologists noted in the fossil record were for a long time considered as preservational artifacts. Today we know that they reflect real evolutionary cascades induced by environmental perturbations of higher order. We are also becoming aware that the impact of our own species on the global environment could mark such a break which a few million years later will be taken as the end of the Cenozoic and the beginning of a new era, the "Anthropozoic". With such perspectives in mind we shall now study the patterns of the great revolutions in the history of life, back to the greatest of all, the "Cambrian Explosion".

  12. Science in History, Volume 2: The Scientific and Industrial Revolutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, J. D.

    This volume, the second of four, includes parts four and five of the eight parts in the series. Part Four deals with what is called the Scientific Revolution from 1440-1690. This "revolution" is divided into three phases: Phase 1 (1440-1540) includes the Renaissance and the Reformation, during which the world-picture adopted from classical times…

  13. Science in History, Volume 2: The Scientific and Industrial Revolutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, J. D.

    This volume, the second of four, includes parts four and five of the eight parts in the series. Part Four deals with what is called the Scientific Revolution from 1440-1690. This "revolution" is divided into three phases: Phase 1 (1440-1540) includes the Renaissance and the Reformation, during which the world-picture adopted from classical times…

  14. The On-Going Revolution: Rhetoric, Fantasy, and Vested Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Robert L.

    The historical rhetoric, mythic heroes, and values of the American Revolution have become the justification for many other contemporary "revolutions." Collective movements advocating states' independence, the abolition of slavery, women's rights, civil rights, and so on, have manipulated the concept of heroic equality as it is embodied…

  15. Theological Higher Education in Cuba: Part 3--The Cuban Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the Cuban Revolution and its implications and consequences for Christian higher education in Cuba. Christian institutions experienced the same oppression from the communist revolution as the rest of the evangelical denominations during the sixties and seventies. The worst period for Protestantism began in 1965…

  16. The Cognitive Revolution and the Computer. Version 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Richard J.; Mueller, Christine L.

    The cognitive revolution began in the 1950s as researchers began to move away from the study of knowledge acquisition and behaviorism to the study of information and the way it is processed. Four factors are discussed in chapter 1 as contributing to the increase in popularity of the "cognitive revolution" (increasing enthusiasm for the…

  17. Mexican Birthdays: Independence and Revolution, 1810 and 1910

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Jose Angel

    2010-01-01

    The latter decades of the eighteenth century and first decades of the nineteenth century were full or revolutions and births of new nations, particularly in the Americas. The period has been termed the Age of Revolution. In 2010, Mexico celebrated along with several other countries the two hundred-year celebration of their movement toward…

  18. Technology and Curriculum: Will the Promised Revolution Take Place?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mojkowski, Charles

    1987-01-01

    To take advantage of the emerging technological revolution, education must undertake its own revolution. Otherwise, technology will never be successfully integrated into the curriculum and may effect change without improvement. Primary focus must be on the future of curriculum and instruction, particularly discipline-specific process skills and…

  19. Modern Times: The Industrial Revolution and the Concept of Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doppen, Frans H.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the role the Industrial Revolution had in changing humankind's perception of time and recommends using the flashback approach in order to encourage students to think about how the process of industrialization still affects their lives. Provides activities that address the concept of time caused by the Industrial Revolution. (CMK)

  20. The French Revolution on Film: American and French Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harison, Casey

    2005-01-01

    It is not hard to locate negative or condescending images of the French Revolution in aspects of popular American culture, including film. Despite a handful of instances where nuanced or ambiguous "messages" may be identified, the number of American film interpretations of the French Revolution that might be judged historically…

  1. Revolutions: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Teaching Printmaking and Latin American History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiddy, Elizabeth; Woodward, Kristen T.

    2013-01-01

    As part of a U.S. Department of Education grant to expand Latin American and Caribbean Studies at Albright College, the authors of this article, one a historian and one an artist, teamed up to teach a course called Revolutions: Art and Revolution in Latin America. In the class, they proposed to combine a studio art printmaking class with Latin…

  2. The Anglo Revolution in New Mexico: The Maxwell Land Grant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Thomas K.

    1979-01-01

    Second in a 3-part series of case studies tracing the impact of the "Anglo revolution" on New Mexico, this article traces the effect of the "Anglo revolution" in the history of New Mexico's vast Maxwell Land Grant, which involves property ownership and property law. (Editor/NQ)

  3. Theological Higher Education in Cuba: Part 3--The Cuban Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the Cuban Revolution and its implications and consequences for Christian higher education in Cuba. Christian institutions experienced the same oppression from the communist revolution as the rest of the evangelical denominations during the sixties and seventies. The worst period for Protestantism began in 1965…

  4. Navigating the Information Revolution: Choices for Laggard Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatune, Julius

    2007-01-01

    The rapid diffusion of information and communication technologies (ICTs) during the last two decades has had a profound impact on all spheres of human endeavors, changes that are collectively referred to as the Information Revolution (IR). But the revolution has been uneven, with some countries being far ahead and others far behind in IR,…

  5. Why Are Your Students Sleeping through the French Revolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Brad

    2008-01-01

    The French Revolution can be a difficult subject to teach. Students often struggle to relate to events that happened more than two hundred years ago in France. In this article, the author suggests three key causes for the failure of the revolution that social studies teachers can focus on when teaching this topic. He also provides several stories…

  6. Why Are Your Students Sleeping through the French Revolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Brad

    2008-01-01

    The French Revolution can be a difficult subject to teach. Students often struggle to relate to events that happened more than two hundred years ago in France. In this article, the author suggests three key causes for the failure of the revolution that social studies teachers can focus on when teaching this topic. He also provides several stories…

  7. The On-Going Revolution: Rhetoric, Fantasy, and Vested Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Robert L.

    The historical rhetoric, mythic heroes, and values of the American Revolution have become the justification for many other contemporary "revolutions." Collective movements advocating states' independence, the abolition of slavery, women's rights, civil rights, and so on, have manipulated the concept of heroic equality as it is embodied…

  8. Revolutions: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Teaching Printmaking and Latin American History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiddy, Elizabeth; Woodward, Kristen T.

    2013-01-01

    As part of a U.S. Department of Education grant to expand Latin American and Caribbean Studies at Albright College, the authors of this article, one a historian and one an artist, teamed up to teach a course called Revolutions: Art and Revolution in Latin America. In the class, they proposed to combine a studio art printmaking class with Latin…

  9. The French Revolution on Film: American and French Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harison, Casey

    2005-01-01

    It is not hard to locate negative or condescending images of the French Revolution in aspects of popular American culture, including film. Despite a handful of instances where nuanced or ambiguous "messages" may be identified, the number of American film interpretations of the French Revolution that might be judged historically…

  10. Modern Times: The Industrial Revolution and the Concept of Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doppen, Frans H.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the role the Industrial Revolution had in changing humankind's perception of time and recommends using the flashback approach in order to encourage students to think about how the process of industrialization still affects their lives. Provides activities that address the concept of time caused by the Industrial Revolution. (CMK)

  11. Mexican Birthdays: Independence and Revolution, 1810 and 1910

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Jose Angel

    2010-01-01

    The latter decades of the eighteenth century and first decades of the nineteenth century were full or revolutions and births of new nations, particularly in the Americas. The period has been termed the Age of Revolution. In 2010, Mexico celebrated along with several other countries the two hundred-year celebration of their movement toward…

  12. Navigating the Information Revolution: Choices for Laggard Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatune, Julius

    2007-01-01

    The rapid diffusion of information and communication technologies (ICTs) during the last two decades has had a profound impact on all spheres of human endeavors, changes that are collectively referred to as the Information Revolution (IR). But the revolution has been uneven, with some countries being far ahead and others far behind in IR,…

  13. THE INVISIBLE MONSTER HAS TWO FACES: OBSERVATIONS OF {epsilon} AURIGAE WITH THE HERSCHEL SPACE OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Hoard, D. W.; Ladjal, D.; Stencel, R. E.; Howell, S. B.

    2012-04-01

    We present Herschel Space Observatory photometric observations of the unique, long-period eclipsing binary star {epsilon} Aurigae. Its extended spectral energy distribution is consistent with our previously published cool (550 K) dust disk model. We also present an archival infrared spectral energy distribution of the side of the disk facing the bright F-type star in the binary, which is consistent with a warmer (1150 K) disk model. The lack of strong molecular emission features in the Herschel bands suggests that the disk has a low gas-to-dust ratio. The spectral energy distribution and Herschel images imply that the 250 GHz radio detection reported by Altenhoff et al. is likely contaminated by infrared-bright, extended background emission associated with a nearby nebular region and should be considered an upper limit to the true flux density of {epsilon} Aur.

  14. The Invisible Monster Has Two Faces: Observations of epsilon Aurigae with the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoard, D. W.; Ladjal, D.; Stencel, R. E.; Howell, S. B.

    2012-04-01

    We present Herschel Space Observatory photometric observations of the unique, long-period eclipsing binary star epsilon Aurigae. Its extended spectral energy distribution is consistent with our previously published cool (550 K) dust disk model. We also present an archival infrared spectral energy distribution of the side of the disk facing the bright F-type star in the binary, which is consistent with a warmer (1150 K) disk model. The lack of strong molecular emission features in the Herschel bands suggests that the disk has a low gas-to-dust ratio. The spectral energy distribution and Herschel images imply that the 250 GHz radio detection reported by Altenhoff et al. is likely contaminated by infrared-bright, extended background emission associated with a nearby nebular region and should be considered an upper limit to the true flux density of epsilon Aur.

  15. Herschel Interactive Processing Environment (HIPE): Open to the World and the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balm, P.

    2012-09-01

    Herschel is ESA's space-based infrared observatory. It was launched on May 14, 2009 and is in routine science operations. The Herschel Interactive Processing Environment, HIPE, is Herschel's interactive analysis package. HIPE has a user-base of approximately 1,000 users and a major new version is released twice a year. HIPE is the first open-source astronomy data analysis package written entirely in Java and Jython, which allows it to provide a modern GUI with command echoing, sophisticated interoperability and extensibility, with access to the vast amounts of Java libraries. HIPE includes the official data reduction scripts and allows executing and modifying them as needed. These aspects may make HIPE the seed for the astronomy working environment of the future.

  16. A Herschel and CARMA view of CO and [C ii] in Hickson Compact groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alatalo, Katherine; Appleton, Philip N.; Lisenfeld, Ute

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the evolution of galaxies from the starforming blue cloud to the quiescent red sequence has been revolutionized by observations taken with Herschel Space Observatory, and the onset of the era of sensitive millimeter interferometers, allowing astronomers to probe both cold dust as well as the cool interstellar medium in a large set of galaxies with unprecedented sensitivity. Recent Herschel observations of of H2-bright Hickson Compact Groups of galaxies (HCGs) has shown that [C ii] may be boosted in diffuse shocked gas. CARMA CO(1-0) observations of these [C ii]-bright HCGs has shown that these turbulent systems also can show suppression of SF. Here we present preliminary results from observations of HCGs with Herschel and CARMA, and their [C ii] and CO(1-0) properties to discuss how shocks influence galaxy transitions and star formation.

  17. The far-infrared view of M87 as seen by the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baes, M.; Clemens, M.; Xilouris, E. M.; Fritz, J.; Cotton, W. D.; Davies, J. I.; Bendo, G. J.; Bianchi, S.; Cortese, L.; De Looze, I.; Pohlen, M.; Verstappen, J.; Böhringer, H.; Bomans, D. J.; Boselli, A.; Corbelli, E.; Dariush, A.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Fadda, D.; Garcia-Appadoo, D. A.; Gavazzi, G.; Giovanardi, C.; Grossi, M.; Hughes, T. M.; Hunt, L. K.; Jones, A. P.; Madden, S.; Pierini, D.; Sabatini, S.; Smith, M. W. L.; Vlahakis, C.; Zibetti, S.

    2011-02-01

    The origin of the far-infrared emission from the nearby radio galaxy M87 remains a matter of debate. Some studies find evidence of a far-infrared excess due to thermal dust emission, whereas others propose that the far-infrared emission can be explained by synchrotron emission without the need for an additional dust emission component. We observed M87 with PACS and SPIRE as part of the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS). We compare the new Herschel data with a synchrotron model based on infrared, submm and radio data to investigate the origin of the far-infrared emission. We find that both the integrated SED and the Herschel surface brightness maps are adequately explained by synchrotron emission. At odds with previous claims, we find no evidence of a diffuse dust component in M87.

  18. The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey . II. Truncated dust disks in H I-deficient spirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortese, L.; Davies, J. I.; Pohlen, M.; Baes, M.; Bendo, G. J.; Bianchi, S.; Boselli, A.; De Looze, I.; Fritz, J.; Verstappen, J.; Bomans, D. J.; Clemens, M.; Corbelli, E.; Dariush, A.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Fadda, D.; Garcia-Appadoo, D. A.; Gavazzi, G.; Giovanardi, C.; Grossi, M.; Hughes, T. M.; Hunt, L. K.; Jones, A. P.; Madden, S.; Pierini, D.; Sabatini, S.; Smith, M. W. L.; Vlahakis, C.; Xilouris, E. M.; Zibetti, S.

    2010-07-01

    By combining Herschel-SPIRE observations obtained as part of the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey with 21 cm Hi data from the literature, we investigate the role of the cluster environment on the dust content of Virgo spiral galaxies. We show for the first time that the extent of the dust disk is significantly reduced in Hi-deficient galaxies, following remarkably well the observed “truncation” of the Hi disk. The ratio of the submillimetre-to-optical diameter correlates with the Hi-deficiency, suggesting that the cluster environment is able to strip dust as well as gas. These results provide important insights not only into the evolution of cluster galaxies but also into the metal enrichment of the intra-cluster medium. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The Herschel Orion Protostar Survey (HOPS): SEDs (Furlan+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlan, E.; Fischer, W. J.; Ali, B.; Stutz, A. M.; Stanke, T.; Tobin, J. J.; Megeath, S. T.; Osorio, M.; Hartmann, L.; Calvet, N.; Poteet, C. A.; Booker, J.; Manoj, P.; Watson, D. M.; Allen, L.

    2016-06-01

    To summarize, starting from a sample of 410 Herschel Orion Protostar Survey (HOPS) targets (see section 2), but excluding likely contaminants and objects not observed or detected by PACS, there are 330 remaining objects that have Spitzer and Herschel data and are considered protostars (based on their Spitzer classification from Megeath et al. 2012, J/AJ/144/192). They form the sample studied in this work. In order to construct SEDs for our sample of 330 YSOs, we combined our own Herschel/PACS observations (see Proposal KPOTtmegeath2) with data from the literature and existing catalogs (see section 3.1). To extend the SEDs into the submillimeter, most of the YSOs were also observed in the continuum at 350 and 870um with the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) telescope (Stutz et al. 2013, J/ApJ/767/36). (5 data files).

  20. DUNES: DUst around NEarby Stars. A Herschel Open Time Key Programme.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiroa, C.; Dunes Consortium

    2013-04-01

    Preliminary results of the Herschel Open Time Key Programme DUNES are presented. The data show the capability of Herschel/PACS to detect and resolve dust disks with a luminosity close to the EKB luminosity. Our results suggest that the incidence of debris disks around mature solar-type, main-sequence stars is ˜ 24%, which is a remarkable increase with respect to previous estimates. The rate of resolved disks is ˜ 50% of the total number of identified debris disks, which again represents a huge increase in the number of resolved disk in the far-IR. The Herschel/PACS images allow us to study with unprecedent spatial detail many of those disks. The interpretation of some data poses challenges to debris disk models since the observed SEDs. e.g. the steep sources and the cold disks, cannot be explained by means of “clasical” debris disk scenarios

  1. Herschel's DEBRIS - An Update on the Search for Kuiper Belts Around the Nearest Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butner, Harold M.; Matthews, B.; DEBRIS Survey Team

    2011-01-01

    DEBRIS (Disk Emission via a Bias-free Reconnaissance in the Infrared/Submillimetre) is an open time key project on Herschel that aims to conduct an unbiased statistical survey for debris disks around the nearest stars. The goal is to achieve flux-limited observations at 100 and 160 microns - and thereby reach unprecedented debris disk mass limits. The sample includes 446 primaries, 348 of which are observed by the DEBRIS team and 98 which are covered by another project (DUNES - DUst disks around NEarby Stars). The sample covers spectral types from A0 through M7, and is designed to allow the detection of dust masses similar to those of our own Kuiper belt. The superior resolution of Herschel combined with the fact that our sample are all nearby stars will provide resolved disks for many of the detected disks. We will discuss the status of ongoing Herschel observations for this unique unbiased survey of debris disk candidates.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Planck and Herschel images combination (Abreu-Vicente+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu-Vicente, J.; Stutz, A.; Henning, T.; Keto, E.; Ballesteros-Paredes, J.; Robitaille, T.

    2017-06-01

    We provide a method that combines the Herschel and Planck data in the Fourier space. Our method corrects the missing Herschel background intensity levels using the Planck model for foreground Galactic thermal dust emission. We apply our method to two regions spanning a range of Galactic environments: Perseus and the Galactic plane region around l=11°. We post-process the combined dust continuum emission images to generate column density and temperature maps. In this file we show the original Herschel and Planck products used to obtain our new combined images, also attached. We further provide the column density and temperature maps of Perseus and HiGaL 11 obtained through our new images. (2 data files).

  3. Probing the interstellar medium of NGC 1569 with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lianou, S.; Barmby, P.; Rémy-Ruyer, A.; Madden, S. C.; Galliano, F.; Lebouteiller, V.

    2014-11-01

    NGC 1569 has some of the most vigorous star formation among nearby galaxies. It hosts two super star clusters (SSCs) and has a higher star formation rate (SFR) per unit area than other starburst dwarf galaxies. Extended emission beyond the galaxy's optical body is observed in warm and hot ionized and atomic hydrogen gas; a cavity surrounds the SSCs. We aim to understand the impact of the massive star formation on the surrounding interstellar medium in NGC 1569 through a study of its stellar and dust properties. We use Herschel and ancillary multiwavelength observations, from the ultraviolet to the submillimetre regime, to construct its spectral energy distribution, which we model with MAGPHYS on ˜300 pc scales at the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) 250 μm resolution. The multiwavelength morphology shows low levels of dust emission in the cavity, and a concentration of several dust knots in its periphery. The extended emission seen in the ionized and neutral hydrogen observations is also present in the far-infrared emission. The dust mass is higher in the periphery of the cavity, driven by ongoing star formation and dust emission knots. The SFR is highest in the central region, while the specific SFR is more sensitive to the ongoing star formation. The region encompassing the cavity and SSCs contains only 12 per cent of the dust mass of the central starburst, in accord with other tracers of the interstellar medium. The gas-to-dust mass ratio is lower in the cavity and fluctuates to higher values in its periphery.

  4. Resolved imaging of the HR 8799 Debris disk with Herschel

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Brenda; Booth, Mark; Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Marois, Christian; Kennedy, Grant; Wyatt, Mark; Sibthorpe, Bruce; Macintosh, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    We present Herschel far-infrared and submillimeter maps of the debris disk associated with the HR 8799 planetary system. We resolve the outer disk emission at 70, 100, 160, and 250 μm and detect the disk at 350 and 500 μm. A smooth model explains the observed disk emission well. We observe no obvious clumps or asymmetries associated with the trapping of planetesimals that is a potential consequence of planetary migration in the system. We estimate that the disk eccentricity must be <0.1. As in previous work by Su et al., we find a disk with three components: a warm inner component and two outer components, a planetesimal belt extending from 100 to 310 AU, with some flexibility (±10 AU) on the inner edge, and the external halo that extends to ∼2000 AU. We measure the disk inclination to be 26° ± 3° from face-on at a position angle of 64° E of N, establishing that the disk is coplanar with the star and planets. The spectral energy distribution of the disk is well fit by blackbody grains whose semi-major axes lie within the planetesimal belt, suggesting an absence of small grains. The wavelength at which the spectrum steepens from blackbody, 47 ± 30 μm, however, is short compared with other A star debris disks, suggesting that there are atypically small grains likely populating the halo. The PACS longer wavelength data yield a lower disk color temperature than do MIPS data (24 and 70 μm), implying two distinct halo dust-grain populations.

  5. HERSCHEL SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF LITTLE THINGS DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Cigan, Phil; Young, Lisa; Cormier, Diane; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Madden, Suzanne; Brinks, Elias; Elmegreen, Bruce; Schruba, Andreas; Heesen, Volker; Collaboration: LITTLE THINGS Team

    2016-01-15

    We present far-infrared (FIR) spectral line observations of five galaxies from the Little Things sample: DDO 69, DDO 70, DDO 75, DDO 155, and WLM. While most studies of dwarfs focus on bright systems or starbursts due to observational constraints, our data extend the observed parameter space into the regime of low surface brightness dwarf galaxies with low metallicities and moderate star formation rates. Our targets were observed with Herschel at the [C ii] 158 μm, [O i] 63 μm, [O iii] 88 μm, and [N ii] 122 μm emission lines using the PACS Spectrometer. These high-resolution maps allow us for the first time to study the FIR properties of these systems on the scales of larger star-forming complexes. The spatial resolution in our maps, in combination with star formation tracers, allows us to identify separate photodissociation regions (PDRs) in some of the regions we observed. Our systems have widespread [C ii] emission that is bright relative to continuum, averaging near 0.5% of the total infrared (TIR) budget—higher than in solar-metallicity galaxies of other types. [N ii] is weak, suggesting that the [C ii] emission in our galaxies comes mostly from PDRs instead of the diffuse ionized interstellar medium (ISM). These systems exhibit efficient cooling at low dust temperatures, as shown by ([O i]+[C ii])/TIR in relation to 60 μm/100 μm, and low [O i]/[C ii] ratios which indicate that [C ii] is the dominant coolant of the ISM. We observe [O iii]/[C ii] ratios in our galaxies that are lower than those published for other dwarfs, but similar to levels noted in spirals.

  6. 21 Cataclysmic variables to be observed by William Herschel Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2016-12-01

    Roque Ruiz-Carmona (Ph.D. candidate, Institute of Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands) has requested AAVSO assistance with his campaign to observe a set of 21 cataclysmic variables (CVs) with the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) at La Palma on 2016 December 16. This campaign is essentially identical in format to the ones successfully carried out by the AAVSO on his behalf in 2015 and in May 2016 (AAVSO Alert Notices 524, 527, 543). Ruiz-Carmona writes: "As the end of my PhD is closer now, this is the second-to-last campaign monitoring CVs into outburst. As an update on my research, it seems that unexpectedly spiral density waves can only be detectable in high inclination systems and it seems that the luminosity of the disk in outburst outshines the spiral pattern for the rest of the system. This can also have deep implications: it can be that the spiral density waves are only an effect of the atmospheres of the disks and are therefore unrelated to transport of matter and angular momentum in the disks. In order to investigate this hypothesis, the sample of CVs I would like to monitor contains only eclipsing systems."[As before,] I just need to know if the targets are in outburst or not..." The PI has requested AAVSO observers to obtain one image of each target on each of TWO separate nights so he may analyze them to determine the final observing list for WHT. Links to finder charts as well as reporting instructions and other information may be found in the full Alert Notice.

  7. K2 and Herschel/PACS photometry of irregular satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Andras; Kiss, Csaba; Molnar, Laszlo; Mueller, Thomas G.; Sarneczky, Krisztian; Szabo, Robert; Kiss, Laszlo L.; Szabo, Gyula M.

    2016-10-01

    The combination of optical and far-infrared photometric measurements yields an unambiguous method for characterizing the basic physical and surface properties of minor bodies in the Solar System. In principle, an object with a certain visible brightness can either be an object with a small but bright or a large but dim surface. To resolve this issue, conducting thermal emission measurements can also be acquired since both larger and dimmer objects have higher infrared radiations. In addition, the precise modelling of thermal emission should certainly take into account the rotation period of these bodies - otherwise the presence of surface thermal inertia can result in inaccurate conclusions regarding to the physical size and albedo.Since early 2014, Kepler Space Telescope surveys fields close to the Ecliptic in a framework of quarterly campaigns of the K2 initiative. This program makes possible to continuously observe Solar System bodies during this period of 80-90 days and hence provide an uninterrupted photometric series of moving Solar System objects down to the magnitude range of R = 23.5. This instrument hence an ideal observatory now for Solar System studies. Due to the fact that the expected rotational periods of these objects are commensurable to the diurnal characteristics of ground-based observations, such uninterrupted light curves are rather valuable for the accurate determination of rotational characteristics - including the physical rotation period, the amplitude and the confirmation of the presence of double- or multiple peaked features.In this presentation we summarize our results of current K2 and legacy Herschel/PACS observations regarding to some of the irregular satellites of Uranus and Neptune, namely Caliban, Sycorax, Prospero, Setebos and Nereid. By comparing these results with similar kind of observations for trans-Neptunian objects (see Kiss et al., this DPS meeting), one can conclude how the formation and evolution of the outer Solar

  8. Gaussian beam measurement for HIFI instrument: Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantaleev, Miroslav G.; Ermisch, Karsten; Fredrixon, Mathias; Svensson, Magnus; Belitsky, Victor

    2004-09-01

    The Heterodyne Instrument (HIFI) is part of the ESA Herschel Space Observatory Project. The instrument is intended for high-resolution spectroscopy and has a frequency coverage from 480 to 1250 GHz band in five receiver bands and 1410 to 1910 GHz in two additional bands. HIFI is built based on a modular principle: the mixers together with their respective optics are integrated into Mixer Sub-Assemblies (MSA). Each frequency band has two MSAs allocated for horizontal and vertical polarization. In this paper, we present the work done on the design and construction of a Gaussian beam measurement range. One of the unique features of the developed method is a possibility to measure the beam parameters of the MSAs in the absolute coordinate system referred to the device under test. This along with other methods should allow integration of the entire HIFI with the best possible coupling of the antenna beam to the receivers and achieving ultimate performance in such a complicated optical system. The range houses the measured MSA, which is at 4 K ambient temperature, and a continuous wave source placed on a precise scanner entirely under vacuum. Developed triangulation system provides mechanical reference data on the MSA, in-situ, after the entire system is evacuated and the cooling is finished. We adopted a scalar measurement approach where the test source scans the receiver input beam and the mixer IF power is measured. The data collected from 3-4 planar scans are used to calculate the orientation and position of the optical axis. We present results from the first beam measurements for MSA HIFI bands 1 and 2 (480 and 640 GHz), the measurement system performance and accuracy analysis.

  9. Herschel/SPIRE Submillimeter Spectra of Local Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Spinoglio, Luigi; Busquet, Gemma; Wilson, Christine D.; Glenn, Jason; Isaak, Kate G.; Kamenetzky, Julia; Rangwala, Naseem; Schirm, Maximilien R. P.; Baes, Maarten; Barlow, Michael J.; Boselli, Alessandro; Cooray, Asantha; Cormier, Diane

    2013-05-01

    We present the submillimeter spectra from 450 to 1550 GHz of 11 nearby active galaxies observed with the SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (SPIRE/FTS) on board Herschel. We detect CO transitions from J up = 4 to 12, as well as the two [C I] fine structure lines at 492 and 809 GHz and the [N II]1461 GHz line. We used radiative transfer models to analyze the observed CO spectral line energy distributions. The FTS CO data were complemented with ground-based observations of the low-J CO lines. We found that the warm molecular gas traced by the mid-J CO transitions has similar physical conditions (n_H_2 \\sim 103.2-103.9 cm-3 and T kin ~ 300-800 K) in most of our galaxies. Furthermore, we found that this warm gas is likely producing the mid-IR rotational H2 emission. We could not determine the specific heating mechanism of the warm gas, however, it is possibly related to the star formation activity in these galaxies. Our modeling of the [C I] emission suggests that it is produced in cold (T kin < 30 K) and dense (n_H_2 \\gt 10^3 cm-3) molecular gas. Transitions of other molecules are often detected in our SPIRE/FTS spectra. The HF J = 1-0 transition at 1232 GHz is detected in absorption in UGC 05101 and in emission in NGC 7130. In the latter, near-infrared pumping, chemical pumping, or collisional excitation with electrons are plausible excitation mechanisms likely related to the active galactic nucleus of this galaxy. In some galaxies, few H2O emission lines are present. Additionally, three OH+ lines at 909, 971, and 1033 GHz are identified in NGC 7130.

  10. HERSCHEL/SPIRE SUBMILLIMETER SPECTRA OF LOCAL ACTIVE GALAXIES {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Spinoglio, Luigi; Busquet, Gemma; Wilson, Christine D.; Schirm, Maximilien R. P.; Glenn, Jason; Kamenetzky, Julia; Rangwala, Naseem; Isaak, Kate G.; Baes, Maarten; Barlow, Michael J.; Boselli, Alessandro; Cooray, Asantha; Cormier, Diane

    2013-05-01

    We present the submillimeter spectra from 450 to 1550 GHz of 11 nearby active galaxies observed with the SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (SPIRE/FTS) on board Herschel. We detect CO transitions from J{sub up} = 4 to 12, as well as the two [C I] fine structure lines at 492 and 809 GHz and the [N II]1461 GHz line. We used radiative transfer models to analyze the observed CO spectral line energy distributions. The FTS CO data were complemented with ground-based observations of the low-J CO lines. We found that the warm molecular gas traced by the mid-J CO transitions has similar physical conditions (n{sub H{sub 2}}{approx} 10{sup 3.2}-10{sup 3.9} cm{sup -3} and T{sub kin} {approx} 300-800 K) in most of our galaxies. Furthermore, we found that this warm gas is likely producing the mid-IR rotational H{sub 2} emission. We could not determine the specific heating mechanism of the warm gas, however, it is possibly related to the star formation activity in these galaxies. Our modeling of the [C I] emission suggests that it is produced in cold (T{sub kin} < 30 K) and dense (n{sub H{sub 2}}>10{sup 3} cm{sup -3}) molecular gas. Transitions of other molecules are often detected in our SPIRE/FTS spectra. The HF J = 1-0 transition at 1232 GHz is detected in absorption in UGC 05101 and in emission in NGC 7130. In the latter, near-infrared pumping, chemical pumping, or collisional excitation with electrons are plausible excitation mechanisms likely related to the active galactic nucleus of this galaxy. In some galaxies, few H{sub 2}O emission lines are present. Additionally, three OH{sup +} lines at 909, 971, and 1033 GHz are identified in NGC 7130.

  11. Chemical Herschel Surveys of Star Forming Regions (chess)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emprechtinger, Martin

    2011-06-01

    CHESS is an unbiased line survey of low-, intermediate-, and high-mass star forming regions at different stages of their evolution. The eight sources in the CHESS program are observed with the HIFI instrument on board of the Herschel Space Telescope, which provides a high spectral resolution (R˜ 10^6) and covers a frequency range from 480 to 1910 GHz. The objective of CHESS is to study the chemical composition and physical conditions in star forming regions and their variation with mass and evolutionary stage. To date about 50% of the program have been completed. One of the eight objects in the CHESS program is the hot core NGC 6334 I. With an envelope mass of 200 M_⊙ and temperatures 100 K, NGC 6334 I is very line rich. In this object emission lines of more than 40 species have been identified, including first detections of H_2Cl^+ (Lis et al. 2010) and H_2O^+ (Ossenkopf et al. 2010). Furthermore, several lines of ortho and para water and ammonia have been detected, allowing to determine the ortho/para ratio of these crucial species. In addition many hydrides (HF, CH) and hydride ions (SH^+, OH^+, CH^+) have been found. In the low mass protostar IRAS 16293-2422, another source of our sample, several deuterated species, including the first detection of ND (Bacmann et al. 2010), were found. The data allowed also the first determination of the ortho/para ratio of D_2H^+ (>2.6) (Vastel et al. 2010). In this talk I will give a summary of the conducted observation and highlight the most important results.

  12. The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey - XVI. A cluster inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, J. I.; Bianchi, S.; Baes, M.; Bendo, G. J.; Clemens, M.; De Looze, I.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Fritz, J.; Fuller, C.; Pappalardo, C.; Hughes, T. M.; Madden, S.; Smith, M. W. L.; Verstappen, J.; Vlahakis, C.

    2014-03-01

    Herschel far-infrared (FIR) observations are used to construct Virgo cluster galaxy luminosity functions and to show that the cluster lacks the very bright and the numerous faint sources detected in field galaxy surveys. The FIR spectral energy distributions are fitted to obtain dust masses and temperatures and the dust mass function. The cluster is overdense in dust by about a factor of 100 compared to the field. The same emissivity (β)-temperature relation applies for different galaxies as that found for different regions of M31. We use optical and H I data to show that Virgo is overdense in stars and atomic gas by about a factor of 100 and 20, respectively. Metallicity values are used to measure the mass of metals in the gas phase. The mean metallicity is ˜0.7 solar, and ˜50 per cent of the metals are in the dust. For the cluster as a whole, the mass density of stars in galaxies is eight times that of the gas and the gas mass density is 130 times that of the metals. We use our data to consider the chemical evolution of the individual galaxies, inferring that the measured variations in the effective yield are due to galaxies having different ages, being affected to varying degrees by gas loss. Four galaxy scaling relations are considered: mass-metallicity, mass-velocity, mass-star formation rate and mass-radius - we suggest that initial galaxy mass is the prime driver of a galaxy's ultimate destiny. Finally, we use X-ray observations and galaxy dynamics to assess the dark and baryonic matter content compared to the cosmological model.

  13. Locating dust crystals in protoplanetary disks with Herschel PACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulders, Gijs; Dominik, Carsten; Maaskant, Koen; Waters, Rens

    2012-03-01

    Forsterite is one of the crystalline dust species that is often observed in protoplanetary disks and solar system comets. Being absent in the interstellar medium, it must be produced during the disk lifetime, though its connection with disk evolution and planet formation remains unclear. One reason for this is that mid infrared spectroscopy can only give a hint of crystal location and abundance. Additional information -- such as the shape of the temperature dependent 69 micron feature of forsterite -- is necessary to pin down its exact location. The DIGIT key program targets a sample of 24 Herbig stars with Herschel PACS at sufficient resolution to spectrally resolve the shape of the 69 micron feature. Combined with spatially resolved imaging and radiative transfer calculations, these data allow us to constrain the crystal location with great precision. We report on detailed studies of the spatial distribution and abundance of forsterite in three transitional disks. In HD100546 and HD169142, we find that forsterite is concentrated at the outer edge of the disk gap, with a local abundance that is much higher than the overall crystallinity. This suggests that the origin of forsterite in these objects is closely linked to the disk gap, carved by protoplanets. IRS 48 shows a different pattern: although similar in disk morphology, its forsterite is much colder and located further out in the disk, suggesting a different formation channel. These objects demonstrate the diagnostic power of the 69 micron forsterite feature observed as part of DIGIT, and show that the standard scenario of radial mixing of crystals from the inner disk does not suffice. A different formation mechanism, perhaps tied to the transitional nature of these disks, is necessary to explain the observed location of dust crystals.

  14. The multiplicity of 250-μm Herschel sources in the COSMOS field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scudder, Jillian M.; Oliver, Seb; Hurley, Peter D.; Griffin, Matt; Sargent, Mark T.; Scott, Douglas; Wang, Lingyu; Wardlow, Julie L.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the multiplicity of extragalactic sources detected by the Herschel Space Observatory in the COSMOS field. Using 3.6- and 24-μm catalogues, in conjunction with 250-μm data from Herschel, we seek to determine if a significant fraction of Herschel sources are composed of multiple components emitting at 250 μm. We use the XID+ code, using Bayesian inference methods to produce probability distributions of the possible contributions to the observed 250-μm flux for each potential component. The fraction of Herschel flux assigned to the brightest component is highest for sources with total 250-μm fluxes <45 mJy; however, the flux in the brightest component is still highest in the brightest Herschel sources. The faintest 250-μm sources (30-45 mJy) have the majority of their flux assigned to a single bright component; the second brightest component is typically significantly weaker, and contains the remainder of the 250-μm source flux. At the highest 250-μm fluxes (45-110 mJy), the brightest and second brightest components are assigned roughly equal fluxes, and together are insufficient to reach 100 per cent of the 250-μm source flux. This indicates that additional components are required, beyond the brightest two components, to reproduce the observed flux. 95 per cent of the sources in our sample have a second component that contains more than 10 per cent of the total source flux. Particularly for the brightest Herschel sources, assigning the total flux to a single source may overestimate the flux contributed by around 150 per cent.

  15. Spitzer Imaging of Strongly lensed Herschel-selected Dusty Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Brian; Cooray, Asantha; Calanog, J. A.; Nayyeri, H.; Timmons, N.; Casey, C.; Baes, M.; Chapman, S.; Dannerbauer, H.; da Cunha, E.; De Zotti, G.; Dunne, L.; Farrah, D.; Fu, Hai; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Magdis, G.; Michałowski, M. J.; Oteo, I.; Riechers, D. A.; Scott, D.; Smith, M. W. L.; Wang, L.; Wardlow, J.; Vaccari, M.; Viaene, S.; Vieira, J. D.

    2015-11-01

    We present the rest-frame optical spectral energy distribution (SED) and stellar masses of six Herschel-selected gravitationally lensed dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) at 1 < z < 3. These galaxies were first identified with Herschel/SPIRE imaging data from the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) and the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES). The targets were observed with Spitzer/IRAC at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. Due to the spatial resolution of the IRAC observations at the level of 2″, the lensing features of a background DSFG in the near-infrared are blended with the flux from the foreground lensing galaxy in the IRAC imaging data. We make use of higher resolution Hubble/WFC3 or Keck/NIRC2 Adaptive Optics imaging data to fit light profiles of the foreground lensing galaxy (or galaxies) as a way to model the foreground components, in order to successfully disentangle the foreground lens and background source flux densities in the IRAC images. The flux density measurements at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, once combined with Hubble/WFC3 and Keck/NIRC2 data, provide important constraints on the rest-frame optical SED of the Herschel-selected lensed DSFGs. We model the combined UV- to millimeter-wavelength SEDs to establish the stellar mass, dust mass, star formation rate, visual extinction, and other parameters for each of these Herschel-selected DSFGs. These systems have inferred stellar masses in the range 8 × 1010-4 × 1011 M⊙ and star formation rates of around 100 M⊙ yr-1. This puts these lensed submillimeter systems well above the SFR-M* relation observed for normal star-forming galaxies at similar redshifts. The high values of SFR inferred for these systems are consistent with a major merger-driven scenario for star formation.

  16. Herschel-resolved Outer Belts of Two-belt Debris Disks—Evidence of Icy Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, F. Y.; Bryden, G.; Werner, M. W.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.

    2016-11-01

    We present dual-band Herschel/PACS imaging for 59 main-sequence stars with known warm dust (T warm ˜ 200 K), characterized by Spitzer. Of 57 debris disks detected at Herschel wavelengths (70 and/or 100 and 160 μm), about half have spectral energy distributions (SEDs) that suggest two-ring disk architectures mirroring that of the asteroid-Kuiper Belt geometry; the rest are consistent with single belts of warm, asteroidal material. Herschel observations spatially resolve the outer/cold dust component around 14 A-type and 4 solar-type stars with two-belt systems, 15 of which for the first time. Resolved disks are typically observed with radii >100 AU, larger than expected from a simple blackbody fit. Despite the absence of narrow spectral features for ice, we find that the shape of the continuum, combined with resolved outer/cold dust locations, can help constrain the grain size distribution and hint at the dust’s composition for each resolved system. Based on the combined Spitzer/IRS+Multiband Imaging Photometer (5-to-70 μm) and Herschel/PACS (70-to-160 μm) data set, and under the assumption of idealized spherical grains, we find that over half of resolved outer/cold belts are best fit with a mixed ice/rock composition. Minimum grain sizes are most often equal to the expected radiative blowout limit, regardless of composition. Three of four resolved systems around the solar-type stars, however, tend to have larger minimum grains compared to expectation from blowout (f MB = a min/a BOS ˜ 5). We also probe the disk architecture of 39 Herschel-unresolved systems by modeling their SEDs uniformly, and find them to be consistent with 31 single- and 8 two-belt debris systems. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia, with important participation from NASA.

  17. Pressure Distribution in a Porous Squeeze Film Bearing Lubricated with a Herschel-Bulkley Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walicka, A.; Jurczak, P.

    2016-12-01

    The influence of a wall porosity on the pressure distribution in a curvilinear squeeze film bearing lubricated with a lubricant being a viscoplastic fluid of a Herschel-Bulkley type is considered. After general considerations on the flow of the viscoplastic fluid (lubricant) in a bearing clearance and in a porous layer the modified Reynolds equation for the curvilinear squeeze film bearing with a Herschel-Bulkley lubricant is given. The solution of this equation is obtained by a method of successive approximation. As a result one obtains a formula expressing the pressure distribution. The example of squeeze films in a step bearing (modeled by two parallel disks) is discussed in detail.

  18. Candidate High Redshift Clusters of Dusty Galaxies from Herschel and Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, D. L.; Greenslade, J.; Greenslade

    By examining Herschel images in the HerMES & H-ATLAS surveys at the position of Planck Catalog of Compact Source sources we are able to determine the nature of the Planck sources. Most are simply nearby, known, dusty galaxies, while others are foreground galactic `cirrus' dust. About 11% of sources, though, appear to be groups or clumps of fainter Herschel objects. Followup of a number of these indicates that they are galaxy clusters or protoclusters at z ~1-3 that contain a number of galaxies undergoing contemporaneous massive starbursts. These sources present challenges for current galaxy & cluster formation/evolution models.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: HST Frontier Fields Herschel sources (Rawle+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawle, T. D.; Altieri, B.; Egami, E.; Perez-Gonzalez, P. G.; Boone, F.; Clement, B.; Ivison, R. J.; Richard, J.; Rujopakarn, W.; Valtchanov, I.; Walth, G.; Weiner, B. J.; Blain, A. W.; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.; Kneib, J.-P.; Lutz, D.; Rodighiero, G.; Schaerer, D.; Smail, I.

    2017-07-01

    We present a complete census of the 263 Herschel-detected sources within the HST Frontier Fields, including 163 lensed sources located behind the clusters. Our primary aim is to provide a robust legacy catalogue of the Herschel fluxes, which we combine with archival data from Spitzer and WISE to produce IR SEDs. We optimally combine the IR photometry with data from HST, VLA and ground-based observatories in order to identify optical counterparts and gain source redshifts. Each cluster is observed in two distinct regions, referred to as the central and parallel footprints. (2 data files).

  20. Educators must take the electronic revolution seriously.

    PubMed

    Chodorow, S

    1996-03-01

    The advanced fields in the physical sciences and quantitative social sciences began using computers years ago. But only recently has the electronic revolution reached the point where educators in both medicine and the humanities must take it seriously. This is because (1) computers have finally become powerful enough to permit the creation of teaching machines (called multimedia packages) that can manipulate the massive amounts of information involved in medicine and the humanities; and (2) the Internet is now fast enough and widely distributed enough to change teaching practices. Multimedia packages will drastically change traditional teaching and learning; the author reviews these and other likely impacts of these packages. For example, faculty members' effective contact with students will not be bound by time and place; students can learn at their own paces in their preferred modes; and the distinction between elementary and advanced learning will be virtually impossible to maintain. The Internet makes it possible to offer classes to students no matter where they or the teacher are located, to ignore strict constraints of time (a class discussion can go on for days), and to create "electronic communities" of students and faculty. The author reviews the great advantages of these capabilities, but states that this development of the virtual university could seriously undermine actual universities (e.g., difficulties of maintaining faculty competence in their disciplines; impossibility of deciding issues of department size and diversity; questions of the effectiveness of learning that does not take place face-to-face; problems of students' and teachers' time management, on which the traditional structures of curricula and teaching methods are built). Despite the fundamental adjustments that will be necessary, the author sees the electronic revolution in education as a necessary consequence of what is already taking place in research, where multimedia packages and

  1. Mass spectrometry: a revolution in clinical microbiology?

    PubMed

    Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Espinal, Paula; Dunyach-Remy, Catherine; Messad, Nourredine; Pantel, Alix; Sotto, Albert

    2013-02-01

    Recently, different bacteriological laboratory interventions that decrease reporting time have been developed. These promising new broad-based techniques have merit, based on their ability to identify rapidly many bacteria, organisms difficult to grow or newly emerging strains, as well as their capacity to track disease transmission. The benefit of rapid reporting of identification and/or resistance of bacteria can greatly impact patient outcomes, with an improvement in the use of antibiotics, in the reduction of the emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria and in mortality rates. Different techniques revolve around mass spectrometry (MS) technology: matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), PCR combined with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (PCR/ESIMS), iPLEX MassArray system and other new evolutions combining different techniques. This report emphasizes the (r)evolution of these technologies in clinical microbiology.

  2. The astronomical revolution. Copernicus - Kepler - Borelli.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyré, A.

    The work was originally published in 1961 under the title "La révolution astronomique" as part of the series, Histoire de la pensée. This book is an unabridged and unaltered republication of the English translation, by R. E. W. Maddison, originally published in 1973 (see 10.003.074). The author elucidates, precisely and in stages, the revolutionary ideas of Nicolaus Copernicus as well as the work of two other thinkers who made major contributions to the astronomical revolution: Johannes Kepler and Giovanni Borelli. He illuminates the exact contribution of each man, placing his work in its historical context and dispelling a host of misconceptions about it. In order to effectively recapture the ferment and flavor of the times, the author, whenever possible, has allowed Copernicus, Kepler and Borelli to speak for themselves by quoting key passages from their writings. Many of these passages were here translated for the first time.

  3. Who lost the health care revolution?

    PubMed

    Curry, W

    1990-01-01

    Just a year ago, in the March-April 1989 issue of Harvard Business Review, Professor Regina E. Herzlinger of the Harvard Business School took a long look at the U.S. health care system and declared the much touted revolution in the health care delivery system a failure. This article is a summary of the arguments that Professor Herzlinger marshaled for her treatise. In the following two articles, members of the College assess those arguments in terms of the medical management profession and in terms of the organizations, a hospital and a managed care company, for which they work. Finally, Professor Herzlinger returns to the subject with a response to these physician executives.

  4. Another Semiconductor Revolution: This Time It's Lighting!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haitz, Roland

    A 40 year old semiconductor technology, Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) has steadily improved performance and cost to a point where it will move from its home turf, signaling applications to the much larger market, general lighting. The white LEDs are building momentum at such a rapid rate that we predict a revolution in lighting comparable to blowing out the gaslights by Edison's incandescent lamp 100 years ago. One technology will compete for all applications from the smallest indicator lamp to the lighting system for sports stadiums. LEDs will provide superior performance and lower cost of ownership, at any point in this dynamic range of 11 orders of magnitude. A complete conversion to LED based lamps could reduce electricity consumption for lighting by up to 75% and reduce global coal production by approximately 600 Mtons/year. There is no single technology investment on the horizon with a better environmental benefits to cost ratio.

  5. Silicon: Child and Progenitor of Revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahn, R. W.

    Antoine Lavoisier, the pioneering French chemist who (together with Joseph Priestley in England) identified oxygen as an element and gave it its name, in 1789 concluded that quartz was probably a compound with an as-yet undiscovered but presumably extremely common element. That was also the year in which the French Revolution broke out. Five years later, the Jacobins accused Lavoisier of offences against the people and cut off his head, thereby nearly cutting off the new chemistry. It was not until 1824 that Jöns Berzelius in Sweden succeeded in confirming Lavoisier's speculation by isolating silicon. Argument at once broke out among the scientific elite as to whether the newly found element was a metal or an insulator. It took more than a century to settle that disagreement decisively: As so often, when all-or-nothing alternatives are fiercely argued, the truth turned out to be neither all nor nothing.

  6. [The bioresorbable coronary stent: a revolution].

    PubMed

    Koegler, Flora; De Benedetti, Edoardo

    2013-04-10

    Coronary angioplasty has undergone several technological revolutions: starting with balloon angioplasty, then with bare metal stent and finally with drug eluting stent (DES), this technique is now mature. However, once we thought the problem of instent restenosis solved with DES, new concerns arise with late and very late stent thrombosis. Should we therefore proscribe DES? How long should be the duration of dual antiplatelet therapy? And how should we manage the patients who need a surgery and are at high risk of bleeding? Are bioresorbable stents the final solution with their initial mechanical properties, then with their drug eluting effect against intra-stent restenosis, and finally with their complete resorption which leaves the artery free of any foreign material?

  7. Design of efficient stiffened shells of revolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumder, D. K.; Thornton, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    A method to produce efficient piecewise uniform stiffened shells of revolution is presented. The approach uses a first order differential equation formulation for the shell prebuckling and buckling analyses and the necessary conditions for an optimum design are derived by a variational approach. A variety of local yielding and buckling constraints and the general buckling constraint are included in the design process. The local constraints are treated by means of an interior penalty function and the general buckling load is treated by means of an exterior penalty function. This allows the general buckling constraint to be included in the design process only when it is violated. The self-adjoint nature of the prebuckling and buckling formulations is used to reduce the computational effort. Results for four conical shells and one spherical shell are given.

  8. Information revolution: William Chambers, the publishing pioneer.

    PubMed

    Fyfe, Aileen

    2006-12-01

    With the arrival of steam power and new machinery in the 19th century, the production of printed media was transformed for the first time since the emergence of the printing press more than 300 years earlier. Yet until the 1850s, most publishers remained content with traditional methods, which enabled them to make profits from a small but affluent circle of readers. This article (part of the Science in the Industrial Revolution series) will show how William Chambers (1800-1883) was one of the first to make full use of the new technologies. He was driven by a determination to reach readers of all social classes, to produce a genuinely cheap instructive publication and to overcome the challenges of reaching a national market from his base in Edinburgh.

  9. Hidden temporal order unveiled in stock market volatility variance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapira, Y.; Kenett, D. Y.; Raviv, Ohad; Ben-Jacob, E.

    2011-06-01

    When analyzed by standard statistical methods, the time series of the daily return of financial indices appear to behave as Markov random series with no apparent temporal order or memory. This empirical result seems to be counter intuitive since investor are influenced by both short and long term past market behaviors. Consequently much effort has been devoted to unveil hidden temporal order in the market dynamics. Here we show that temporal order is hidden in the series of the variance of the stocks volatility. First we show that the correlation between the variances of the daily returns and means of segments of these time series is very large and thus cannot be the output of random series, unless it has some temporal order in it. Next we show that while the temporal order does not show in the series of the daily return, rather in the variation of the corresponding volatility series. More specifically, we found that the behavior of the shuffled time series is equivalent to that of a random time series, while that of the original time series have large deviations from the expected random behavior, which is the result of temporal structure. We found the same generic behavior in 10 different stock markets from 7 different countries. We also present analysis of specially constructed sequences in order to better understand the origin of the observed temporal order in the market sequences. Each sequence was constructed from segments with equal number of elements taken from algebraic distributions of three different slopes.

  10. NuSTAR catches the unveiling nucleus of NGC 1068

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinucci, A.; Bianchi, S.; Matt, G.; Alexander, D. M.; Baloković, M.; Bauer, F. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Gandhi, P.; Guainazzi, M.; Harrison, F. A.; Iwasawa, K.; Koss, M.; Madsen, K. K.; Nicastro, F.; Puccetti, S.; Ricci, C.; Stern, D.; Walton, D. J.

    2016-02-01

    We present a NuSTAR and XMM-Newton monitoring campaign in 2014/2015 of the Compton-thick Seyfert 2 galaxy, NGC 1068. During the 2014 August observation, we detect with NuSTAR a flux excess above 20 keV (32 ± 6 per cent) with respect to the 2012 December observation and to a later observation performed in 2015 February. We do not detect any spectral variation below 10 keV in the XMM-Newton data. The transient excess can be explained by a temporary decrease of the column density of the obscuring material along the line of sight (from NH ≃ 1025 cm-2 to NH = 6.7 ± 1.0 × 1024 cm-2), which allows us for the first time to unveil the direct nuclear radiation of the buried active galactic nucleus in NGC 1068 and to infer an intrinsic 2-10 keV luminosity L_X=7^{+7}_{-4} × 10^{43} erg s-1.

  11. Trajectory-based unveiling of the angular momentum of photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongnan; Ren, Zhi-Cheng; Kong, Ling-Jun; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2017-04-01

    The Heisenberg uncertainty principle suggests that it is impossible to determine the trajectory of a quantum particle in the same way as a classical particle. However, we may still yield insight into novel behavior of photons based on the average photon trajectories (APTs). Here we explore the APTs of optical fields carrying spin angular momentum (SAM) and orbital angular momentum (OAM) under the paraxial condition. We define the helicity and differential helicity for unveiling the three-dimensional spiral structures of the APTs of optical fields carrying the SAM and/or the OAM. We clarify the novel behaviors of the APTs caused by the SAM and OAM as well as the SAM-OAM coupling. The APT concept is also very helpful for profoundly understanding trapped particle motion and has the potential to elucidate other physical systems. Due to the presence of the helical path caused by the SAM and/or the OAM, the actual traveling distance of the photons might be much longer than the geometric distance.

  12. The Darwinian revolution: rethinking its meaning and significance.

    PubMed

    Ruse, Michael

    2009-06-16

    The Darwinian revolution is generally taken to be one of the key events in the history of Western science. In recent years, however, the very notion of a scientific revolution has come under attack, and in the specific case of Charles Darwin and his Origin of Species there are serious questions about the nature of the change (if there was such) and the specifically Darwinian input. This article considers these issues by addressing these questions: Was there a Darwinian revolution? That is, was there a revolution at all? Was there a Darwinian revolution? That is, what was the specific contribution of Charles Darwin? Was there a Darwinian revolution? That is, what was the conceptual nature of what occurred on and around the publication of the Origin? I argue that there was a major change, both scientifically and in a broader metaphysical sense; that Charles Darwin was the major player in the change, although one must qualify the nature and the extent of the change, looking particularly at things in a broader historical context than just as an immediate event; and that the revolution was complex and we need the insights of rather different philosophies of scientific change to capture the whole phenomenon. In some respects, indeed, the process of analysis is still ongoing and unresolved.

  13. The Darwinian revolution: Rethinking its meaning and significance

    PubMed Central

    Ruse, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Darwinian revolution is generally taken to be one of the key events in the history of Western science. In recent years, however, the very notion of a scientific revolution has come under attack, and in the specific case of Charles Darwin and his Origin of Species there are serious questions about the nature of the change (if there was such) and the specifically Darwinian input. This article considers these issues by addressing these questions: Was there a Darwinian revolution? That is, was there a revolution at all? Was there a Darwinian revolution? That is, what was the specific contribution of Charles Darwin? Was there a Darwinian revolution? That is, what was the conceptual nature of what occurred on and around the publication of the Origin? I argue that there was a major change, both scientifically and in a broader metaphysical sense; that Charles Darwin was the major player in the change, although one must qualify the nature and the extent of the change, looking particularly at things in a broader historical context than just as an immediate event; and that the revolution was complex and we need the insights of rather different philosophies of scientific change to capture the whole phenomenon. In some respects, indeed, the process of analysis is still ongoing and unresolved. PMID:19528652

  14. The Herschel Fornax Cluster Survey - I. The bright galaxy sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, J. I.; Bianchi, S.; Baes, M.; Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; Clemens, M.; Davis, T. A.; De Looze, I.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Fuller, C.; Fritz, J.; Hunt, L. K.; Serra, P.; Smith, M. W. L.; Verstappen, J.; Vlahakis, C.; Xilouris, E. M.; Bomans, D.; Hughes, T.; Garcia-Appadoo, D.; Madden, S.

    2013-01-01

    We present Herschel Space Telescope observations of the nearby Fornax cluster at 100, 160, 250, 350 and 500 μm with a spatial resolution of 7-36 arcsec (10 arcsec ≈ 1 kpc at dFornax = 17.9 Mpc). We define a sample of 11 bright galaxies, selected at 500 μm, that can be directly compared with our past work on the Virgo cluster. We check and compare our results with previous observations made by IRAS and Planck, finding good agreement. The far-infrared luminosity density is higher, by about a factor of 3, in Fornax compared to Virgo, consistent with the higher number density of galaxies. The 100 μm (42.5-122.5 μm) luminosity is two orders of magnitude larger in Fornax than in the local field as measured by IRAS. We calculate stellar (L0.4-2.5) and far-infrared (L100-500) luminosities for each galaxy and use these to estimate a mean optical depth of τ = 0.4 ± 0.1 - the same value as we previously found for Virgo cluster galaxies. For 10 of the 11 galaxies (NGC 1399 excepted), we fit a modified blackbody curve (β = 2.0) to our observed flux densities to derive dust masses and temperatures of 106.54-8.35 M⊙ and T =14.6-24.2 K, respectively, values comparable to those found for Virgo. The derived stars-to-gas(atomic) and gas(atomic)-to-dust ratios vary from 1.1-67.6 to 9.8-436.5, respectively, again broadly consistent with values for Virgo. Fornax is a mass overdensity in stars and dust of about 120 when compared to the local field (30 for Virgo). Fornax and Virgo are both a factor of 6 lower overdensities in gas(atomic) than in stars and dust indicating loss of gas, but not dust and stars, in the cluster environment. We consider in more detail two of the sample galaxies. As the brightest source in either Fornax or Virgo, NGC 1365 is also detected by Planck. The Planck data fit the PACS/SPIRE spectral energy distribution out to 1382 μm with no evidence of other sources of emission (`spinning dust', free-free, synchrotron). At the opposite end of the scale, NGC

  15. WATER VAPOR IN NEARBY INFRARED GALAXIES AS PROBED BY HERSCHEL

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Chentao; Gao Yu; Liu Daizhong; Isaak, K. G.; Downes, D.; Van der Werf, P. P.; Lu Nanyao

    2013-07-10

    We report the first systematic study of the submillimeter water vapor rotational emission lines in infrared (IR) galaxies based on the Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) data of Herschel SPIRE. Among the 176 galaxies with publicly available FTS data, 45 have at least one H{sub 2}O emission line detected. The H{sub 2}O line luminosities range from {approx}1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} L{sub Sun} to {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} L{sub Sun} while the total IR luminosities (L{sub IR}) have a similar spread ({approx}1-300 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} L{sub Sun }). In addition, emission lines of H{sub 2}O{sup +} and H{sub 2}{sup 18}O are also detected. H{sub 2}O is found, for most galaxies, to be the strongest molecular emitter after CO in FTS spectra. The luminosity of the five most important H{sub 2}O lines is near-linearly correlated with L{sub IR}, regardless of whether or not strong active galactic nucleus signature is present. However, the luminosity of H{sub 2}O(2{sub 11}-2{sub 02}) and H{sub 2}O(2{sub 20}-2{sub 11}) appears to increase slightly faster than linear with L{sub IR}. Although the slope turns out to be slightly steeper when z {approx} 2-4 ULIRGs are included, the correlation is still closely linear. We find that L{sub H{sub 2O}}/L{sub IR} decreases with increasing f{sub 25}/f{sub 60}, but see no dependence on f{sub 60}/f{sub 100}, possibly indicating that very warm dust contributes little to the excitation of the submillimeter H{sub 2}O lines. The average spectral line energy distribution (SLED) of the entire sample is consistent with individual SLEDs and the IR pumping plus collisional excitation model, showing that the strongest lines are H{sub 2}O(2{sub 02}-1{sub 11}) and H{sub 2}O(3{sub 21}-3{sub 12}).

  16. How bright planets became dim stars: planetary speculations in John Herschel's double star astronomy.

    PubMed

    Case, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Previous research on the origins of double star astronomy in the early nineteenth century emphasized the role mathematical methods and instrumentation played in motivating early observations of these objects. The work of the British astronomer John Herschel, however, shows that questions regarding the physical nature of double stars were also important. In particular, an analysis of John Herschel's early work on double stars illustrates the way in which speculations regarding these objects were shaped by assumptions of the properties of stars themselves. For Herschel, a major consideration in double star astronomy was distinguishing between types of double stars. Optical doubles were useful in determining parallax while binary doubles were not. In practice, classification of a specific double star pair into one of these categories was based on the assumption that stars were of approximately the same luminosity and thus differences in relative brightness between stars were caused by difference in distances. Such assumptions, though ultimately abandoned, would lead Herschel in the 1830s to advance the possibility that the dim companion stars in certain double star pairs were not stars at all but in fact planets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Recent star formation in the Lupus clouds as seen by Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rygl, K. L. J.; Benedettini, M.; Schisano, E.; Elia, D.; Molinari, S.; Pezzuto, S.; André, Ph.; Bernard, J. P.; White, G. J.; Polychroni, D.; Bontemps, S.; Cox, N. L. J.; Di Francesco, J.; Facchini, A.; Fallscheer, C.; di Giorgio, A. M.; Hennemann, M.; Hill, T.; Könyves, V.; Minier, V.; Motte, F.; Nguyen-Luong, Q.; Peretto, N.; Pestalozzi, M.; Sadavoy, S.; Schneider, N.; Spinoglio, L.; Testi, L.; Ward-Thompson, D.

    2013-01-01

    We present a study of the star formation histories of the Lupus I, III, and IV clouds using the Herschel 70-500 μm maps obtained by the Herschel Gould Belt Survey Key Project. By combining the new Herschel data with the existing Spitzer catalog we obtained an unprecedented census of prestellar sources and young stellar objects in the Lupus clouds, which allowed us to study the overall star formation rate (SFR) and efficiency (SFE). The high SFE of Lupus III, its decreasing SFR, and its large number of pre-main sequence stars with respect to proto- and prestellar sources, suggest that Lupus III is the most evolved cloud, and after having experienced a major star formation event in the past, is now approaching the end of its current star-forming cycle. Lupus I is currently undergoing a large star formation event, apparent by the increasing SFR, the large number of prestellar objects with respect to more evolved objects, and the high percentage of material at high extinction (e.g., above AV ≈ 8 mag). Also Lupus IV has an increasing SFR; however, the relative number of prestellar sources is much lower, suggesting that its star formation has not yet reached its peak. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  18. Biorheological Model on Flow of Herschel-Bulkley Fluid through a Tapered Arterial Stenosis with Dilatation

    PubMed Central

    Priyadharshini, S.; Ponalagusamy, R.

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of blood flow through a tapered artery with stenosis and dilatation has been carried out where the blood is treated as incompressible Herschel-Bulkley fluid. A comparison between numerical values and analytical values of pressure gradient at the midpoint of stenotic region shows that the analytical expression for pressure gradient works well for the values of yield stress till 2.4. The wall shear stress and flow resistance increase significantly with axial distance and the increase is more in the case of converging tapered artery. A comparison study of velocity profiles, wall shear stress, and flow resistance for Newtonian, power law, Bingham-plastic, and Herschel-Bulkley fluids shows that the variation is greater for Herschel-Bulkley fluid than the other fluids. The obtained velocity profiles have been compared with the experimental data and it is observed that blood behaves like a Herschel-Bulkley fluid rather than power law, Bingham, and Newtonian fluids. It is observed that, in the case of a tapered stenosed tube, the streamline pattern follows a convex pattern when we move from r/R = 0 to r/R = 1 and it follows a concave pattern when we move from r/R = 0 to r/R = −1. Further, it is of opposite behaviour in the case of a tapered dilatation tube which forms new information that is, for the first time, added to the literature. PMID:27041979

  19. PDR properties and spatial structures probed by Herschel and Spitzer spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Y.; Berné, O.; Pilleri, P.; Dedes, C.; Gonzalez, M.; Joblin, C.; Kramer, C.; Ossenkopf, V.; Mookerjea, B.; Röllig, M.

    2011-11-01

    We report the analysis of the mid-infrared spectral maps observed by Spitzer/IRS toward star-forming regions where the Herschel key program WADI has observed / will observe with HIFI and PACS. The IRS spectra are fitted using 4 components of small grains: PAH0, PAH+, PAHx, and evaporating VSG, and the spatial distributions of these components are derived.

  20. Thermal Emission of the Eris — Dysnomia System as Observed by Herschel/PACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Cs.; Vilenius, E.; Müller, Th. G.; Pál, A.; Rengel, M.; Mommert, M.; Szalai, N.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Lellouch, E.; Stansberry, J.

    2012-05-01

    We will present the physical characteristics of Eris (size, albedo, thermal inertia, etc.) based on our recent Herschel/PACS data, and will discuss the influence of Dysnomia in our system-integrated thermal data and constrain its size and albedo.