Science.gov

Sample records for hertfordshire physical activity

  1. BJSM social media contributes to health policy rethink: a physical activity success story in Hertfordshire.

    PubMed

    Weiler, Richard; Neyndorff, Christine

    2013-06-01

    Strategies to modernise the National Health Service (NHS) in England have brought about the development of local organisations called Health and Wellbeing (H&WB) boards through the Health and Social Care Act 2012. These boards were intended to become a forum where key leaders and stakeholders from health and care systems work together to improve the health and well-being of their local population and reduce health inequalities. Throughout England these boards have been drafting their strategies, largely ignoring the importance of physical activity in health and well-being. In the county of Hertfordshire, the initial draft priorities were released in 2012 and physical activity promotion was not included. Using a BJSM blog, BJSM online poll, Twitter and email, an attempt was made to generate as much interest and formal feedback as possible to the draft strategy, in order to ensure the inclusion of physical activity as a priority in the revised strategy.

  2. Does diet influence physical performance in community-dwelling older people? Findings from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Martin, Helen; Aihie Sayer, Avan; Jameson, Karen; Syddall, Holly; Dennison, Elaine M; Cooper, Cyrus; Robinson, Siân

    2011-03-01

    recent studies suggest that diet may affect the physical performance of older adults, but the impact of variations in the UK diet on physical performance has not been assessed. to examine relationships between diet and physical performance in community-dwelling older men and women. a total of 628 men and women aged 63-73 years who were taking part in the Hertfordshire Cohort Study. diet was assessed using an administered food frequency questionnaire; physical performance was assessed by the time taken to complete a 3-m walk, chair-rise test and one-legged balance test. in women, higher intakes of the antioxidant nutrients, β-carotene and selenium, were associated with shorter 3-m walk times; higher β-carotene and vitamin C intakes were associated with shorter chair-rise times (all P < 0.05). Higher vitamin D intakes and percentage energy from protein were also associated with faster 3-m walk times (both P < 0.05), but they were not related to chair-rise time. There were no associations between any measure of dietary intake and balance in the women studied. After adjustment for the effects of confounding influences, we found no associations between diet and physical performance among men. these data indicate that variations in the diets of community-dwelling older women may be linked to differences in physical performance, but further work is needed to determine the role of variations in diet on physical performance and its decline with age among older adults in the UK.

  3. The Hertfordshire Computer Managed Mathematics Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatfield Polytechnic (England).

    This is a general information document describing the Hertfordshire Computer Managed Mathematics Project funded over a four-year period by the National Development Programme in Computer Assisted Learning. Its aims were to develop a two-year course for all-ability 11-to 13-year-old pupils and to implement a computer system to serve the course. This…

  4. Physical Activity (Exercise)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet ePublications Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet How can physical activity improve my ... recent hip surgery More information on physical activity (exercise) For more information about physical activity (exercise), call ...

  5. Type of milk feeding in infancy and health behaviours in adult life: findings from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Siân; Ntani, Georgia; Simmonds, Shirley; Syddall, Holly; Dennison, Elaine; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Barker, David; Cooper, Cyrus

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies suggest that breastfeeding has beneficial effects on adult cardiovascular risk factors in adulthood, although the mechanisms involved are unknown. One possible explanation is that adults who were breastfed differ in their health behaviours. In a historical cohort, adult health behaviours were examined in relation to type of milk feeding in infancy. From 1931-1939, records were kept on all infants born in Hertfordshire, UK. Their type of milk feeding was summarised as breastfed only, breast & bottle-fed, or bottle-fed only. Information about adult health behaviours was collected from 3217 of these men and women when they were aged 59-73 years. Diet was assessed by administered food frequency questionnaire; the key dietary pattern was a ‘prudent’ pattern, that described compliance with ‘healthy’ eating recommendations. 60% of the men and women were breastfed, 31% were breast & bottle-fed, 9% were bottle-fed. Type of milk feeding did not differ according to social class at birth, and was not related to social class attained in adult life. There were no differences in smoking status, alcohol intake or reported physical activity according to type of milk feeding, but there were differences in the participants’ dietary patterns. In a multivariate model that included gender and infant weight gain, there were independent associations between type of feeding and prudent diet scores in adult life (P=0.009), such that higher scores were associated with being breast fed. These data support experimental findings that suggest that early dietary exposures can have lifelong influences on food choice. PMID:23021469

  6. Type of milk feeding in infancy and health behaviours in adult life: findings from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Siân; Ntani, Georgia; Simmonds, Shirley; Syddall, Holly; Dennison, Elaine; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Barker, David; Cooper, Cyrus

    2013-03-28

    A number of studies suggest that breast-feeding has beneficial effects on an individual's cardiovascular risk factors in adulthood, although the mechanisms involved are unknown. One possible explanation is that adults who were breastfed differ in their health behaviours. In a historical cohort, adult health behaviours were examined in relation to type of milk feeding in infancy. From 1931 to 1939, records were kept on all infants born in Hertfordshire, UK. Their type of milk feeding was summarised as breastfed only, breast and bottle-fed, or bottle-fed only. Information about adult health behaviours was collected from 3217 of these men and women when they were aged 59-73 years. Diet was assessed using an administered FFQ; the key dietary pattern was a 'prudent' pattern that described compliance with 'healthy' eating recommendations. Of the study population, 60 % of the men and women were breastfed, 31 % were breast and bottle-fed, and 9 % were bottle-fed. Type of milk feeding did not differ according to social class at birth, and was not related to social class attained in adult life. There were no differences in smoking status, alcohol intake or reported physical activity according to type of milk feeding, but there were differences in the participants' dietary patterns. In a multivariate model that included sex and infant weight gain, there were independent associations between type of feeding and prudent diet scores in adult life (P= 0.009), such that higher scores were associated with having been breastfed. These data support experimental findings which suggest that early dietary exposures can have lifelong influences on food choice.

  7. Benefits of Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Benefits of Physical Activity Physical activity has many health benefits. These benefits ... of physical activity for your heart and lungs. Physical Activity Strengthens Your Heart and Improves Lung Function When ...

  8. Physical Activity Assessment

    Cancer.gov

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  9. Physical Activity Guidelines

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov Physical Activity Guidelines Physical Activity Guidelines The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (PAG or the Guidelines) are an essential resource for health professional and policymakers. Based on the latest science, they provide guidance on how children and adults ...

  10. From Teacher Research to Teacher Leadership: The Case of the Hertfordshire Learning Preferences Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, David; Roberts, Julie

    2004-01-01

    The article provides an account of a school improvement project which began with a single teacher's classroom-based action research and subsequently involved a number of Hertfordshire secondary schools, their local education authority and the University of Cambridge Faculty of Education. Julie Roberts had used a learning preferences profiling…

  11. Obesity and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Jakicic, John M; Davis, Kelliann K

    2011-12-01

    Physical activity seems to be an important component of lifestyle interventions for weight loss and maintenance. Although the effects of physical activity on weight loss may seem to be modest, there seems to be a dose-response relationship between physical activity and weight loss. Physical activity also seems to be a critically important behavior to promote long-term weight loss and the prevention of weight regain. The benefits of physical activity on weight loss are also observed in patients with severe obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m²) and in patients who have undergone bariatric surgery. Moreover, independent of the effect of physical activity on body weight, engagement in physical activity that results in improved cardiorespiratory fitness can contribute to reductions in health risk in overweight and obese adults. Thus, progression of overweight and obese patients to an adequate dose of physical activity needs to be incorporated into clinical interventions for weight control.

  12. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  13. Physical Activity and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... can include working, exercising, performing household chores, and leisure-time activities such as walking, tennis, hiking, bicycling, ... active ( 4 ). A pooled analysis of data on leisure-time physical activity (activities done at an individual’s ...

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & ... DFCN Promotion Implementation Maintaining Interest Needs Assessment Evaluating Success CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing ...

  15. What influences diet quality in older people? A qualitative study among community-dwelling older adults from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study, UK.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Ilse; Lawrence, Wendy; Barker, Mary; Baird, Janis; Dennison, Elaine; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Cooper, Cyrus; Robinson, Sian

    2017-10-01

    To explore influences on diet in a group of community-dwelling older adults in the UK. Data were collected through focus group discussions with older people; discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and transcripts analysed thematically. Hertfordshire, UK. Participants were sampled purposively from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study, focusing on those whose diets had been assessed at two time points: 1998-2001 and 2011. Ninety-two adults participated (47 % women; 74-83 years) and eleven focus groups were held. A number of age-related factors were identified that were linked to food choices, including lifelong food experiences, retirement, bereavement and medical conditions, as well as environmental factors (such as transport). There appeared to be variability in how individuals responded to these influences, indicating that other underlying factors may mediate the effects of age-related factors on diet. Discussions about 'keeping going', being motivated to 'not give up', not wanting to be perceived as 'old', as well as examples of resilience and coping strategies, suggest the importance of mediating psychological factors. In addition, discussion about social activities and isolation, community spirit and loneliness, indicated the importance of social engagement as an influence on diet. Interventions to promote healthier diets in older age should take account of underlying psychological and social factors that influence diet, which may mediate the effects of age-related factors.

  16. Peak Longevity Physical Activity

    Cancer.gov

    People who engage in three to five times the recommended minimum level of leisure-time physical activity derive the greatest benefit in terms of mortality reduction when compared with people who do not engage in leisure-time physical activity.

  17. Physical Activity Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Videos Glossary of Terms Success Stories Harold, Age 7 Maria, Age 16 Alex, ... CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329- ...

  18. [Approaching Physically Inactive Elderly for Physical Activity].

    PubMed

    Allmer, H; Allmer, M; Euskirchen, J; Froböse, I; Wallmann, B; Walter, T; Walschek, R

    2015-09-01

    The majority of elderly persons are still not sufficiently physically active. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate different approaches (physical activity courses, poster, online-survey) for activating elderly to participate in physical activity. The most effective approach was target group physical activity courses with which higher course participation rates in men as well as in people with lower levels of education were achieved. Referring to the transtheoretical model (TTM) it is necessary for future analyses of target group approaches to consider more intensely the initial motivational position of physically inactive elderly.

  19. Active gel physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prost, J.; Jülicher, F.; Joanny, J.-F.

    2015-02-01

    The mechanical behaviour of cells is largely controlled by a structure that is fundamentally out of thermodynamic equilibrium: a network of crosslinked filaments subjected to the action of energy-transducing molecular motors. The study of this kind of active system was absent from conventional physics and there was a need for both new theories and new experiments. The field that has emerged in recent years to fill this gap is underpinned by a theory that takes into account the transduction of chemical energy on the molecular scale. This formalism has advanced our understanding of living systems, but it has also had an impact on research in physics per se. Here, we describe this developing field, its relevance to biology, the novelty it conveys to other areas of physics and some of the challenges in store for the future of active gel physics.

  20. Physical Activity and Your Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Physical Activity? Español Physical activity is any body movement that ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: June 22, 2016 Physical Activity and Your Heart in the News April 6, ...

  1. Energy assessment: physical activity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Physical activity is an important component of total energy expenditure, contributing to energy intake needs; it also provides certain health benefits. This review chapter provides state-of-the-art information to researchers and clinicians who are interested in developing research studies or interv...

  2. Physical Activities for Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Dorothy C.; And Others

    The underlying premise of the University of Hawaii Physical Activities for Preschool curriculum is that important contributions to a positive self-concept are made by motor independence and a realistic body image. Program objectives include: (1) the development of strength, endurance, and flexibility in skills that involve the muscles,…

  3. Physical Activity in Elderly.

    PubMed

    Cvecka, Jan; Tirpakova, Veronika; Sedliak, Milan; Kern, Helmut; Mayr, Winfried; Hamar, Dušan

    2015-08-24

    Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared.

  4. Physical Activity in Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Tirpakova, Veronika; Sedliak, Milan; Kern, Helmut; Mayr, Winfried; Hamar, Dušan

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared. PMID:26913164

  5. Classification of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Paulino, Thiago Marques Luz; Zaharieva, Dessi P.; Yavelberg, Loren; Jamnik, Veronica; Riddell, Michael C.; Cinar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity has a wide range of effects on glucose concentrations in type 1 diabetes (T1D) depending on the type (ie, aerobic, anaerobic, mixed) and duration of activity performed. This variability in glucose responses to physical activity makes the development of artificial pancreas (AP) systems challenging. Automatic detection of exercise type and intensity, and its classification as aerobic or anaerobic would provide valuable information to AP control algorithms. This can be achieved by using a multivariable AP approach where biometric variables are measured and reported to the AP at high frequency. We developed a classification system that identifies, in real time, the exercise intensity and its reliance on aerobic or anaerobic metabolism and tested this approach using clinical data collected from 5 persons with T1D and 3 individuals without T1D in a controlled laboratory setting using a variety of common types of physical activity. The classifier had an average sensitivity of 98.7% for physiological data collected over a range of exercise modalities and intensities in these subjects. The classifier will be added as a new module to the integrated multivariable adaptive AP system to enable the detection of aerobic and anaerobic exercise for enhancing the accuracy of insulin infusion strategies during and after exercise. PMID:26443291

  6. Asthma and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Oseid, S

    1982-01-01

    Physical activity regularly leads to a decline in lung function in children and adolescents with asthma. This decline is a consequence of what is known as exercise-induced asthma (EIA), and can be determined and graded with the help of lung function tests before and after submaximal workloads on the ergometer cycle or the treadmill. Typical EIA appears in asthmatic individuals with entirely normal lung function before the effort, but EIA may also become clinically manifest with exercise in patients who have a subclinical degree of obstruction. The grade of EIA is essentially dependent on the duration and intensity of effort but also on the type of exercise. For example, free running causes much greater bronchoconstriction than swimming. The temperature and humidity of the inspired air may partially explain this difference. At the Voksentoppen Allergy Institute we find that about 85% of children develop a fall in lung function of 15% or more after a six minute ergometer cycle test. With typical EIA the fall may be totally or partially abolished by prophylactic medication 10 minutes before the start of the test. Disodium cromoglycate (Intal) and/or beta-adrenergic drugs are regularly used before all physical activity. Training programmes must be based on the interval principle. Swimming, ball games, relay races and dancing are examples of useful activities in the training and rehabilitation of children and adolescents with asthma. Through prophylactic medication and physical training, the aerobic work capacity, muscle strength and lung function in asthmatic children is improved. Training also leads to a significant mobilisation of mental resources and an increase in social integration.

  7. [Sport and physical activity].

    PubMed

    Bria, S; Zeppilli, P

    2010-01-01

    A regular sport activity involves physical and psychological benefits helping to improve the quality of life at any age. This aspect is even more important in the developing age, when the sport takes on a role of training and education. In this context, instances directed to allow adolescent and young adults with heart disease to practice sports seem justified, and they're becoming more pressing since when the diagnostic and therapeutic advances, especially in cardiac surgery and in interventional hemodynamics, allow an increasing number of patients, previously allocated to physical inactivity, to lead an active lifestyle. However, we have to keep in mind that congenital heart disease population is varied, not only by the nature of the malformation, but also because in the same cardiopathy you can find subjects in "natural history" or after surgery and, between them, subjects treated with several techniques and different outcomes. This justifies the need for a close collaboration between sports doctors, cardiologists and heart surgeons, particularly in the management of the most difficult and delicate problems.

  8. Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity Nutrition and physical activity ... What foods can I eat if I have diabetes? You may worry that having diabetes means going ...

  9. Physical activity - preventive medicine (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing ... loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical activity also helps the body use calories more efficiently, ...

  10. Assessing physical activity using wearable monitors: measures of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Butte, Nancy F; Ekelund, Ulf; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity may be defined broadly as "all bodily actions produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that increase energy expenditure above basal level." Physical activity is a complex construct that can be classified into major categories qualitatively, quantitatively, or contextually. The quantitative assessment of physical activity using wearable monitors is grounded in the measurement of energy expenditure. Six main categories of wearable monitors are currently available to investigators: pedometers, load transducers/foot-contact monitors, accelerometers, HR monitors, combined accelerometer and HR monitors, and multiple sensor systems. Currently available monitors are capable of measuring total physical activity as well as components of physical activity that play important roles in human health. The selection of wearable monitors for measuring physical activity will depend on the physical activity component of interest, study objectives, characteristics of the target population, and study feasibility in terms of cost and logistics. Future development of sensors and analytical techniques for assessing physical activity should focus on the dynamic ranges of sensors, comparability for sensor output across manufacturers, and the application of advanced modeling techniques to predict energy expenditure and classify physical activities. New approaches for qualitatively classifying physical activity should be validated using direct observation or recording. New sensors and methods for quantitatively assessing physical activity should be validated in laboratory and free-living populations using criterion methods of calorimetry or doubly labeled water.

  11. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  12. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  13. Motivating Kids in Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Maureen R.

    2000-01-01

    This article adopts a motivational stance in identifying factors that strongly predict physical activity in children. One model for understanding physical activity motivation in children portrays the sources and consequences of self-esteem for physical activity behavior (perceived competency/adequacy, social support, enjoyment, and physical…

  14. New planetary systems from the Calan-Hertfordshire Extrasolar Planet Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, J. S.; Jones, H. R. A.; Tuomi, M.; Díaz, M.; Cordero, J. P.; Aguayo, A.; Pantoja, B.; Arriagada, P.; Mahu, R.; Brahm, R.; Rojo, P.; Soto, M. G.; Ivanyuk, O.; Becerra Yoma, N.; Day-Jones, A. C.; Ruiz, M. T.; Pavlenko, Y. V.; Barnes, J. R.; Murgas, F.; Pinfield, D. J.; Jones, M. I.; López-Morales, M.; Shectman, S.; Butler, R. P.; Minniti, D.

    2017-04-01

    We report the discovery of eight new giant planets, and updated orbits for four known planets, orbiting dwarf and subgiant stars using the CORALIE, HARPS, and MIKE instruments as part of the Calan-Hertfordshire Extrasolar Planet Search. The planets have masses in the range 1.1-5.4 MJ's, orbital periods from 40 to 2900 d, and eccentricities from 0.0 to 0.6. They include a double-planet system orbiting the most massive star in our sample (HD147873), two eccentric giant planets (HD128356b and HD154672b), and a rare 14 Herculis analogue (HD224538b). We highlight some population correlations from the sample of radial velocity detected planets orbiting nearby stars, including the mass function exponential distribution, confirmation of the growing body of evidence that low-mass planets tend to be found orbiting more metal-poor stars than giant planets, and a possible period-metallicity correlation for planets with masses >0.1 MJ, based on a metallicity difference of 0.16 dex between the population of planets with orbital periods less than 100 d and those with orbital periods greater than 100 d.

  15. Physical Activity and Health: The Benefits of Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & ... DFCN Promotion Implementation Maintaining Interest Needs Assessment Evaluating Success CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing ...

  16. Promoting physical activity in schools.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, N

    1993-10-01

    Neil Armstrong, director of the Coronary Prevention in Children Project, argues for a comprehensive programme for promoting children's physical activity. The project's survey of adult coronary risk factors in British children revealed a worryingly low level of physical activity among British schoolchildren. Schools are ideally placed to encourage children to take physical exercise, he writes, but parental role models also play an important part.

  17. The Physics of Sport Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Walter C.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a physics course, Biomechanics, designed for physical education majors, where stroboscopic photography is used to provide student data to calculate average velocities of objects in different sport activities. (GA)

  18. The Physics of Sport Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Walter C.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a physics course, Biomechanics, designed for physical education majors, where stroboscopic photography is used to provide student data to calculate average velocities of objects in different sport activities. (GA)

  19. Physical Activity and Cancer Survivorship

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, David O.; Thomson, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increase in the cancer survivor population in the United States over the past several decades primarily due to improvements in early detection of first malignancies and effective treatment modalities. A wealth of evidence has demonstrated that regular physical activity is associated with a lower risk of death, all-cause mortality, cancer recurrence, and several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, common comorbid conditions in people who have survived cancer. Physical activity also is a central component of weight management. Methods This review summarizes the current physical activity recommendations and the evidence linking physical activity to improvements in weight management, physiological effects, and psychological health outcomes for cancer survivors. Results The available literature suggests physical activity is safe and is positively associated with weight management, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength and endurance, quality of life, fatigue, and other psychosocial factors in cancer survivors. Yet relationships related to specific cancer diagnoses, treatments, and underlying cardiometabolic mechanisms associated with survival have not been thoroughly examined in randomized controlled trials. Furthermore, factors that influence adherence to physical activity behaviors must be identified to develop effective exercise programs. The use of objective measures of physical activity and the standardization of reporting outcome measures within intervention trials are needed to complement this effort. Conclusions Healthcare providers should consider individual differences among cancer survivors and tailor physical activity programs to meet the individual needs of the patient to assist in the adoption and maintenance of a physically active lifestyle. PMID:25335787

  20. Quantifying Habitual Levels of Physical Activity According to Impact in Older People: Accelerometry Protocol for the VIBE Study

    PubMed Central

    Deere, Kevin C.; Hannam, Kimberly; Coulson, Jessica; Ireland, Alex; McPhee, Jamie S.; Moss, Charlotte; Edwards, Mark H.; Dennison, Elaine; Cooper, Cyrus; Sayers, Adrian; Lipperts, Matthijs; Grimm, Bernd; Tobias, Jon H.

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) may need to produce high impacts to be osteogenic. The aim of this study was to identify threshold(s) for defining high impact PA for future analyses in the VIBE (Vertical Impact and Bone in the Elderly) study, based on home recordings with triaxial accelerometers. Recordings were obtained from 19 Master Athlete Cohort (MAC; mean 67.6 years) and 15 Hertfordshire Cohort Study (HCS; mean 77.7 years) participants. Data cleaning protocols were developed to exclude artifacts. Accelerations expressed in g units were categorized into three bands selected from the distribution of positive Y-axis peak accelerations. Data were available for 6.6 and 4.4 days from MAC and HCS participants respectively, with approximately 14 hr recording daily. Three-fold more 0.5–1.0g impacts were observed in MAC versus HCS, 20-fold more 1.0–1.5g impacts, and 140-fold more impacts ≥ 1.5g. Our analysis protocol successfully distinguishes PA levels in active and sedentary older individuals. PMID:26372670

  1. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Cancer.gov

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  2. Prevalence of sarcopenia in community-dwelling older people in the UK using the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) definition: findings from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study (HCS).

    PubMed

    Patel, Harnish P; Syddall, Holly Emma; Jameson, Karen; Robinson, Sian; Denison, Hayley; Roberts, Helen C; Edwards, Mark; Dennison, Elaine; Cooper, Cyrus; Aihie Sayer, Avan

    2013-05-01

    sarcopenia is associated with adverse health outcomes. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of sarcopenia in community-dwelling older people in the UK using the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) consensus definition. we applied the EWGSOP definition to 103 community-dwelling men participating in the Hertfordshire Sarcopenia Study (HSS) using both the lowest third of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) lean mass (LM) and the lowest third of skin-fold-based fat-free mass (FFM) as markers of low muscle mass. We also used the FFM approach among 765 male and 1,022 female participants in the Hertfordshire Cohort Study (HCS). Body size, physical performance and self-reported health were compared in participants with and without sarcopenia. the prevalence of sarcopenia in HSS men (mean age 73 years) was 6.8% and 7.8% when using the lowest third of DXA LM and FFM, respectively. DXA LM and FFM were highly correlated (0.91, P < 0.001). The prevalence of sarcopenia among the HCS men and women (mean age 67 years) was 4.6% and 7.9%, respectively. HSS and HCS participants with sarcopenia were shorter, weighed less and had worse physical performance. HCS men and women with sarcopenia had poorer self-reported general health and physical functioning scores. this is one of the first studies to describe the prevalence of sarcopenia in UK community-dwelling older people. The EWGSOP consensus definition was of practical use for sarcopenia case finding. The next step is to use this consensus definition in other ageing cohorts and among older people in a range of health-care settings.

  3. Prevalence of sarcopenia in community-dwelling older people in the UK using the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) definition: findings from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study (HCS)

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Harnish P.; Syddall, Holly Emma; Jameson, Karen; Robinson, Sian; Denison, Hayley; Roberts, Helen C.; Edwards, Mark; Dennison, Elaine; Cooper, Cyrus; Aihie Sayer, Avan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: sarcopenia is associated with adverse health outcomes. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of sarcopenia in community-dwelling older people in the UK using the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) consensus definition. Methods: we applied the EWGSOP definition to 103 community-dwelling men participating in the Hertfordshire Sarcopenia Study (HSS) using both the lowest third of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) lean mass (LM) and the lowest third of skin-fold-based fat-free mass (FFM) as markers of low muscle mass. We also used the FFM approach among 765 male and 1,022 female participants in the Hertfordshire Cohort Study (HCS). Body size, physical performance and self-reported health were compared in participants with and without sarcopenia. Results: the prevalence of sarcopenia in HSS men (mean age 73 years) was 6.8% and 7.8% when using the lowest third of DXA LM and FFM, respectively. DXA LM and FFM were highly correlated (0.91, P < 0.001). The prevalence of sarcopenia among the HCS men and women (mean age 67 years) was 4.6% and 7.9%, respectively. HSS and HCS participants with sarcopenia were shorter, weighed less and had worse physical performance. HCS men and women with sarcopenia had poorer self-reported general health and physical functioning scores. Conclusions: this is one of the first studies to describe the prevalence of sarcopenia in UK community-dwelling older people. The EWGSOP consensus definition was of practical use for sarcopenia case finding. The next step is to use this consensus definition in other ageing cohorts and among older people in a range of health-care settings. PMID:23384705

  4. Cancer, Physical Activity, and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Justin C.; Winters-Stone, Kerri; Lee, Augustine; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2014-01-01

    This review examines the relationship between physical activity and cancer along the cancer continuum, and serves as a synthesis of systematic and meta-analytic reviews conducted to date. There exists a large body of epidemiologic evidence that conclude those who participate in higher levels of physical activity have a reduced likelihood of developing a variety of cancers compared to those who engage in lower levels of physical activity. Despite this observational evidence, the causal pathway underling the association between participation in physical activity and cancer risk reduction remains unclear. Physical activity is also a useful adjunct to improve the deleterious sequelae experienced during cancer treatment. These deleterious sequelae may include fatigue, muscular weakness, deteriorated functional capacity, including many others. The benefits of physical activity during cancer treatment are similar to those experienced after treatment. Despite the growing volume of literature examining physical activity and cancer across the cancer continuum, a number of research gaps exist. There is little evidence on the safety of physical activity among all cancer survivors, as most trials have selectively recruited participants. It is also unclear the specific dose of exercise needed that is optimal for primary cancer prevention or symptom control during and after cancer treatment. PMID:23720265

  5. Cancer, physical activity, and exercise.

    PubMed

    Brown, Justin C; Winters-Stone, Kerri; Lee, Augustine; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2012-10-01

    This review examines the relationship between physical activity and cancer along the cancer continuum, and serves as a synthesis of systematic and meta-analytic reviews conducted to date. There exists a large body of epidemiologic evidence that conclude those who participate in higher levels of physical activity have a reduced likelihood of developing a variety of cancers compared to those who engage in lower levels of physical activity. Despite this observational evidence, the causal pathway underlying the association between participation in physical activity and cancer risk reduction remains unclear. Physical activity is also a useful adjunct to improve the deleterious sequelae experienced during cancer treatment. These deleterious sequelae may include fatigue, muscular weakness, deteriorated functional capacity, and many others. The benefits of physical activity during cancer treatment are similar to those experienced after treatment. Despite the growing volume of literature examining physical activity and cancer across the cancer continuum, a number of research gaps exist. There is little evidence on the safety of physical activity among all cancer survivors, as most trials have selectively recruited participants. The specific dose of exercise needed to optimize primary cancer prevention or symptom control during and after cancer treatment remains to be elucidated.

  6. Interdisciplinarity in Adapted Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouffard, Marcel; Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that inquiry in adapted physical activity involves the use of different disciplines to address questions. It is often advanced today that complex problems of the kind frequently encountered in adapted physical activity require a combination of disciplines for their solution. At the present time, individual research…

  7. Interdisciplinarity in Adapted Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouffard, Marcel; Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that inquiry in adapted physical activity involves the use of different disciplines to address questions. It is often advanced today that complex problems of the kind frequently encountered in adapted physical activity require a combination of disciplines for their solution. At the present time, individual research…

  8. Physical activity: practice this idea

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Guilherme Veiga; Ciolac, Emmanuel Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary habits or insufficient activities to promote health benefits can influence the occurrence of chronic diseases. The cardiovascular risk factors arise, at least partially, from the individual-environment interaction during life, and worsen with aging and lack of physical exercise. Health promotion and prevention are among the greatest challenges of public health policies. However, physical activity turns out to be rarely recommended and, thus have a very poor adhesion. In spite of consensus about the benefits of physical activity in both primary and secondary prevention, only 32% of adults and 66% of children and adolescents, according to Healthy People 2010 guideline, practice leisure-time physical activity. Thus, the regular practice of physical activity and healthy habits require changes in basic concepts in government and social policies. The higher involvement of public and private sectors related to health and education, the more expressive would be the reduction in socioeconomic costs and the improvement in quality of life. PMID:24551484

  9. Increasing Youth Physical Activity with Activity Calendars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckler, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.

  10. Increasing Youth Physical Activity with Activity Calendars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckler, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.

  11. [Physical activity and brain function].

    PubMed

    Kempermann, G

    2012-06-01

    Physical activity has direct and indirect effects on brain function in health and disease. Findings demonstrating that physical activity improves cognitive and non-cognitive functions and is preventive for several neuropsychiatric disorders have attracted particular interest. This short review focuses on sports and physical exercise in normal brain function and summarizes which mechanisms might underlie the observed effects, which methodological problems exist, which relationships exist to concepts of plasticity and neural reserves and what evolutionary relevance the initially surprising finding that physical exercise is good for the brain has.

  12. Physics of solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturrock, Peter A.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the research activity was to increase our understanding of solar activity through data analysis, theoretical analysis, and computer modeling. Because the research subjects were diverse and many researchers were supported by this grant, a select few key areas of research are described in detail. Areas of research include: (1) energy storage and force-free magnetic field; (2) energy release and particle acceleration; (3) radiation by nonthermal electrons; (4) coronal loops; (5) flare classification; (6) longitude distributions of flares; (7) periodicities detected in the solar activity; (8) coronal heating and related problems; and (9) plasma processes.

  13. Physical Activity & Well-being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Vern, Ed.

    This book reviews evidence in the biological and behavioral sciences relating physical activity to human well-being. The following articles are included: (1) "Physical Growth and Maturation" (Robert M. Malina); (2) "Acquisition of Motor Skills During Childhood" (John L. Haubenstricker and Vern D. Seefeldt); (3) "Development of Sensory-Motor…

  14. The Value of Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Vern; Vogel, Paul

    This booklet summarizes results of research and literature reviews that had been collected in a source book titled "Physical Activity & Well-Being" and published in 1986 by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education. The evidence presented suggests that exercise can reduce or delay the undesirable effects of many degenerative…

  15. Psychosocial factors underlying physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Juan; Middlestadt, Susan E; Ji, Cheng-Ye

    2007-01-01

    Background Given the increasing importance of obesity in China, prevention interventions encouraging physical activity by middle school students are needed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how a rapid elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about physical activity as perceived by middle school students and to provide suggestions for interventions and quantitative research. Method A theory-based qualitative study using a self-completion elicitation was conducted with 155 students from two middle schools in Beijing, China. Following the Theory of Planned Behavior, six open-ended questions asked students for their perceptions about performing physical activity at least 60 minutes each day: advantages of participating in physical activity; disadvantages of doing so; people who approve of participation; people who disapprove; things that make it easy; and things that make it hard. Content analysis revealed categories of salient consequences, reference groups, and circumstances. Results While the three most frequently mentioned advantages elicited from the students were physical health consequences (e.g., will strengthen my body (58.7%)), four of the salient advantages were not (e.g., will improve my grades (12.2%)). Parents were the most frequently mentioned social referent (42.6% as approving; 27.7% as disapproving) when students were asked who might approve or disapprove of their participation. Circumstances perceived to hinder daily physical activity included having too many assignments and not having enough time. Conclusion While many of the beliefs about physical activity elicited from this study were similar to those found with students from England and the US, several were unique to these students from Beijing. The results of this qualitative research suggest that interventions to encourage physical activity among middle school students should address: perceived consequences of physical activity on

  16. Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight Language: English Español (Spanish) ... calories are used in typical activities? Why is physical activity important? Regular physical activity is important for good ...

  17. Increasing opportunities for physical activity.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Sue

    2007-07-01

    Being physically active can have a number of benefits - having fun, meeting with friends, keeping healthy and experiencing success. For children with Down syndrome the foundations need to be laid early if they are to keep active in school, teenage and adult years and parents ask for more help in this area from professionals.

  18. Physical activity decreases diverticular complications.

    PubMed

    Strate, Lisa L; Liu, Yan L; Aldoori, Walid H; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2009-05-01

    Little is known about the effect of physical activity on diverticular complications. This study prospectively examined the associations between physical activity and diverticular bleeding and diverticulitis. We studied 47,228 US males in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study cohort who were aged 40-75 years and free of diverticular disease, gastrointestinal cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease at baseline in 1986. Men reporting newly diagnosed diverticular disease on biennial follow-up questionnaires were sent supplemental questionnaires outlining details of diagnosis and treatment. Physical activity was assessed every 2 years. Men recorded the average time per week spent in eight recreational activities, and flights of stairs climbed per day. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate relative risks (RRs). During 18 years of follow-up, 800 cases of diverticulitis and 383 cases of diverticular bleeding were identified. Total cumulative physical activity was associated with a decreased risk of diverticulitis and diverticular bleeding. After adjustment for potential confounders, the RR for men in the highest quintile of total activity (> or = 57.4 metabolic equivalent hours per week (MET-h/week) was 0.75 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.58-0.95) for diverticulitis and 0.54 (95% CI, 0.38-0.77) for bleeding, as compared with men in the lowest quintile (< or = 8.2 MET-h/week). Vigorous activity was inversely related to diverticulitis in a high vs. low comparison (multivariable RR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.51-0.86) and bleeding (multivariable RR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.41-0.90), whereas nonvigorous activity was not. These results were similar for recent (simple updated) and baseline activity. Data from this large prospective cohort suggest that physical activity lowers the risk of diverticulitis and diverticular bleeding. Vigorous activity appears to account for this association.

  19. Interventions for promoting physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Charles; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Thorogood, Margaret; Kaur, Asha; Wedatilake, Thamindu

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effectiveness of strategies to enable people to achieve and maintain recommended levels of physical activity. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to promote physical activity in adults aged 16 years and older, not living in an institution. Search methods We searched The Cochrane Library (issue 1 2005), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycLIT, BIDS ISI, SPORTDISCUS, SIGLE, SCISEARCH (from earliest dates available to December 2004). Reference lists of relevant articles were checked. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials that compared different interventions to encourage sedentary adults not living in an institution to become physically active. Studies required a minimum of six months follow up from the start of the intervention to the collection of final data and either used an intention-to-treat analysis or, failing that, had no more than 20% loss to follow up. Data collection and analysis At least two reviewers independently assessed each study quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information where necessary. Standardised mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for continuous measures of self-reported physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness. For studies with dichotomous outcomes, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Main results The effect of interventions on self-reported physical activity (19 studies; 7598 participants) was positive and moderate (pooled SMD random effects model 0.28 95% CI 0.15 to 0.41) as was the effect of interventions (11 studies; 2195 participants) on cardio-respiratory fitness (pooled SMD random effects model 0.52 95% CI 0.14 to 0.90). There was significant heterogeneity in the reported effects as well as heterogeneity in characteristics of the interventions. The heterogeneity in reported effects was reduced in higher quality studies, when physical

  20. Smoking, physical activity, and active life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Ferrucci, L; Izmirlian, G; Leveille, S; Phillips, C L; Corti, M C; Brock, D B; Guralnik, J M

    1999-04-01

    The effect of smoking and physical activity on active and disabled life expectancy was estimated using data from the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE). Population-based samples of persons aged > or = 65 years from the East Boston, Massachusetts, New Haven, Connecticut, and Iowa sites of the EPESE were assessed at baseline between 1981 and 1983 and followed for mortality and disability over six annual follow-ups. A total of 8,604 persons without disability at baseline were classified as "ever" or "never" smokers and doing "low," "moderate," or "high" level physical activity. Active and disabled life expectancies were estimated using a Markov chain model. Compared with smokers, men and women nonsmokers survived 1.6-3.9 and 1.6-3.6 years longer, respectively, depending on level of physical activity. When smokers were disabled and close to death, most nonsmokers were still nondisabled. Physical activity, from low to moderate to high, was significantly associated with more years of life expectancy in both smokers (9.5, 10.5, 12.9 years in men and 11.1, 12.6, 15.3 years in women at age 65) and nonsmokers (11.0, 14.4, 16.2 years in men and 12.7, 16.2, 18.4 years in women at age 65). Higher physical activity was associated with fewer years of disability prior to death. These findings provide strong and explicit evidence that refraining from smoking and doing regular physical activity predict a long and healthy life.

  1. [Physical activity and cardiovascular health].

    PubMed

    Temporelli, Pier Luigi

    2016-03-01

    It is well known that regular moderate physical activity, in the context of a healthy lifestyle, significantly reduces the likelihood of cardiovascular events, both in primary and secondary prevention. In addition, it is scientifically proven that exercise can reduce the incidence of diabetes, osteoporosis, depression, breast cancer and colon cancer. Despite this strong evidence, sedentary lifestyle remains a widespread habit in the western world. Even in Italy the adult population has a poor attitude to regular physical activity. It is therefore necessary, as continuously recommended by the World Health Organization, to motivate people to "move" since the transition from inactivity to regular light to moderate physical activity has a huge impact on health, resulting in significant savings of resources. We do not need to be athletes to exercise - it should be part of all our daily routines.

  2. Motivating People To Be Physically Active. Physical Activity Intervention Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Bess H.; Forsyth, LeighAnn H.

    This book describes proven methods for helping people change from inactive to active living. The behavior change methods are useful for healthy adults as well as individuals with chronic physical and psychological conditions. The book describes intervention programs for individuals and groups and for workplace and community settings. Part 1,…

  3. [Experiences in promoting physical activity].

    PubMed

    Mena-Bejarano, Beatriz

    2006-12-01

    Evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of some experiences emphasising physical activity in promoting health in Bogotá. A documentary review of theoretical models of intervention was first undertaken, followed by examining guidelines proposed in international declarations and in Bogotá related to physical activity. Three-phase analysis was carried. 1) The exploratory phase involved collecting general information regarding programmes pertaining to physical activity aimed at preventing non-transmittable chronic diseases (NTCD) and promoting health. 2) The descriptive phase involved characterising programmes for promoting physical activity according to their objectives, scope and the strategies and methodologies used in such processes. 3) The analytical phase involved a critical analysis of current programmes in terms of their strengths and weaknesses. The programmes analysed here promoted self-management and autonomy by producing support networks and training leaders for guaranteeing their sustainability. The programmes involved people and the community by holding practical and theoretical workshops which did not cover the whole vital human process, but concentrated on specific population groups. They were deficient in broadcasting in the mass-media.

  4. Increasing Physical Activity during the School Day through Physical Activity Classes: Implications for Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Megan; Bice, Matt; Bartee, Todd; Heelan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Across the nation schools are adopting health and wellness policies, specifically physical activity (PA) initiatives that aid healthy long-term lifestyles. Interest has been generated about the inclusion of physical activity classes to complement existing physical education classes. Furthermore, discussion has evolved as to if additional…

  5. Increasing Physical Activity during the School Day through Physical Activity Classes: Implications for Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Megan; Bice, Matt; Bartee, Todd; Heelan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Across the nation schools are adopting health and wellness policies, specifically physical activity (PA) initiatives that aid healthy long-term lifestyles. Interest has been generated about the inclusion of physical activity classes to complement existing physical education classes. Furthermore, discussion has evolved as to if additional…

  6. Physical activity, hydration and health.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Ascensión; Manonelles, Pedro; Palacios, Nieves; Wärnberg, Julia; Casajús, José A; Pérez, Margarita; Aznar, Susana; Benito, Pedro J; Martínez-Gomez, David; Ortega, Francisco B; Ortega, Eduardo; Urrialde, Rafael

    2014-06-01

    Since the beginning of mankind, man has sought ways to promote and preserve health as well as to prevent disease. Hydration, physical activity and exercise are key factors for enhancing human health. However, either a little dose of them or an excess can be harmful for health maintenance at any age. Water is an essential nutrient for human body and a major key to survival has been to prevent dehydration. However, there is still a general controversy regarding the necessary amount to drink water or other beverages to properly get an adequate level of hydration. In addition, up to now the tools used to measure hydration are controversial. To this end, there are several important groups of variables to take into account such as water balance, hydration biomarkers and total body water. A combination of methods will be the most preferred tool to find out any risk or situation of dehydration at any age range. On the other hand, physical activity and exercise are being demonstrated to promote health, avoiding or reducing health problems, vascular and inflammatory disea ses and helping weight management. Therefore, physical activity is also being used as a pill within a therapy to promote health and reduce risk diseases, but as in the case of drugs, dose, intensity, frequency, duration and precautions have to be evaluated and taken into account in order to get the maximum effectiveness and success of a treatment. On the other hand, sedentariness is the opposite concept to physical activity that has been recently recognized as an important factor of lifestyle involved in the obesogenic environment and consequently in the risk of the non-communicable diseases. In view of the literature consulted and taking into account the expertise of the authors, in this review a Decalogue of global recommendations is included to achieve an adequate hydration and physical activity status to avoid overweight/obesity consequences.

  7. Fitness and Physical Activity. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2005-01-01

    What can be done to support fitness and physical activity? Schools can guide students in developing life-long habits of participating in physical activities. According to the National Association for Sports and Physical Education, the concepts of physical fitness activities and physical education are used synonymously, however, they are not the…

  8. Youth physical activity resource use and activity measured by accelerometry.

    PubMed

    Maslow, Andréa L; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether use of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily (1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and (2) vigorous physical activity. Using a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources.

  9. Youth Physical Activity Resources Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    Maslow, Andréa L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether utilization of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods 111 adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported utilization of a physical activity resource (none/1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily 1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and 2) vigorous physical activity. Results Utilizing a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African-Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources. PMID:21204684

  10. Promoting Lifelong Physical Activity through Quality Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Amelia M.

    2004-01-01

    Despite the recognized health risks associated with physical inactivity, most Americans are not active enough to achieve health benefits, and many report no planned physical activity at all. The Surgeon General's report on physical activity and health and several research studies have provided evidence that most Americans do not exercise and are…

  11. Let's Get Moving! Physical Activity and Students with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menear, Kristi Sayers; Shapiro, Deborah R.

    2004-01-01

    Roughly 39% of children and youth with disabilities are physically active (Longmuir & Bar-Or, 2000). Increasing the number of individuals with disabilities who are physically active is a public health priority (Kosma, Cardinal & Rintala, 2002). This paper will highlight the current status of physical activity for persons with a disability by…

  12. Physical Education: A Cornerstone for Physically Active Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tappe, Marlene K.; Burgeson, Charlene R.

    2004-01-01

    "Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General" ("Physical Activity and Health"; United States Department of Health and Human Services [USDHHS], 1996) documented for the first time the cumulative body of evidence related to physical activity and health. This report completed the set of Surgeon General's reports…

  13. Physical Activity Assessments for Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fittipaldi-Wert, Jeanine; Brock, Sheri J.

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity is important in maintaining and improving overall health for all. Students with disabilities tend to have lower fitness levels due to the lack of participation in physical activities, therefore, progressions and modifications to physical activities are needed. Assessing the physical activity levels of students with disabilities…

  14. DOING Physics: Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Recommends an experiment which will help students experience the physical evidence that floors, tables, and walls actually bend when pressure is exerted against them. Set-up includes: laser, radio, solar cell, and wall-mounted mirror. When the beam is moved by pressure on the wall, participants can "hear the wall bend." (DH)

  15. DOING Physics: Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Recommends an experiment which will help students experience the physical evidence that floors, tables, and walls actually bend when pressure is exerted against them. Set-up includes: laser, radio, solar cell, and wall-mounted mirror. When the beam is moved by pressure on the wall, participants can "hear the wall bend." (DH)

  16. Quantification of Daily Physical Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert; Breit, Greg; Quintana, Jason

    1994-01-01

    The influence of physical activity on the maintenance and adaptation of musculoskeletal tissue is difficult to assess. Cumulative musculoskeletal loading is hard to quantify and the attributes of the daily tissue loading history affecting bone metabolism have not been completely identified. By monitoring the vertical component of the daily ground reaction force (GRFz), we have an indirect measure of cumulative daily lower limb musculoskeletal loading to correlate with bone density and structure. The objective of this research is to develop instrumentation and methods of analysis to quantify activity level in terms of the daily history of ground reaction forces.

  17. The Role of Physical Activity Assessments for School-Based Physical Activity Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    The emphasis in public health on lifestyle physical activity in recent years has focused attention on the promotion of lifetime physical activity as the primary objective of physical education. If used properly, physical activity and physical fitness assessments can enhance individual promotion of physical activity and also provide valuable…

  18. The Role of Physical Activity Assessments for School-Based Physical Activity Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    The emphasis in public health on lifestyle physical activity in recent years has focused attention on the promotion of lifetime physical activity as the primary objective of physical education. If used properly, physical activity and physical fitness assessments can enhance individual promotion of physical activity and also provide valuable…

  19. "LET US Play": Maximizing Physical Activity "in" Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Webster, Collin; Beets, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Schools have been identified as a promising setting for increasing youth physical activity levels because of their broad reach and the amount of time youth spend in attendance. Specifically, physical education is one key time during the school day where youth can accumulate health-enhancing levels of physical activity. Indicators of quality…

  20. "LET US Play": Maximizing Physical Activity "in" Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Webster, Collin; Beets, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Schools have been identified as a promising setting for increasing youth physical activity levels because of their broad reach and the amount of time youth spend in attendance. Specifically, physical education is one key time during the school day where youth can accumulate health-enhancing levels of physical activity. Indicators of quality…

  1. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Glenn; Insley, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Explains two activities: (1) a "rotator demonstration" (a turntable, pendulum, chalk, and other materials), which can be used in many activities to demonstrate rotational concepts; and (2) an "Eskimo yo-yo," consisting of two balls (plus long strings and a glass tube) which rotate in opposite directions to show centripetal force. (JN)

  2. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity which demonstrates standing waves in air generated by a loudspeaker driven by an audio oscillator. The waves are detected by cool spots on a glowing nichrome wire contained in an inexpensive piece of equipment. Also describes activities involving analysis of kinematics through data taking and graphing. (JM)

  3. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity which demonstrates standing waves in air generated by a loudspeaker driven by an audio oscillator. The waves are detected by cool spots on a glowing nichrome wire contained in an inexpensive piece of equipment. Also describes activities involving analysis of kinematics through data taking and graphing. (JM)

  4. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Glenn; Insley, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Explains two activities: (1) a "rotator demonstration" (a turntable, pendulum, chalk, and other materials), which can be used in many activities to demonstrate rotational concepts; and (2) an "Eskimo yo-yo," consisting of two balls (plus long strings and a glass tube) which rotate in opposite directions to show centripetal force. (JN)

  5. Assessing physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD.

    PubMed

    Painter, Patricia; Marcus, Robin L

    2013-05-01

    Patients with CKD are characterized by low levels of physical functioning, which, along with low physical activity, predict poor outcomes in those treated with dialysis. The hallmark of clinical care in geriatric practice and geriatric research is the orientation to and assessment of physical function and functional limitations. Although there is increasing interest in physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD, the nephrology field has not focused on this aspect of care. This paper provides an in-depth review of the measurement of physical function and physical activity. It focuses on physiologic impairments and physical performance limitations (impaired mobility and functional limitations). The review is based on established frameworks of physical impairment and functional limitations that have guided research in physical function in the aging population. Definitions and measures for physiologic impairments, physical performance limitations, self-reported function, and physical activity are presented. On the basis of the information presented, recommendations for incorporating routine assessment of physical function and encouragement for physical activity in clinical care are provided.

  6. Macronutrient Intake for Physical Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buford, Thomas

    Proper nutrition is an essential element of athletic performance, body composition goals, and general health. Although natural variability among persons makes it impossible to create a single diet that can be recommended to all; examining scientific principles makes it easier for athletes and other physically active persons to eat a diet that prepares them for successful training and/or athletic competition. A proper nutritional design incorporates these principles and is tailored to the individual. It is important for the sports nutritionist, coach, and athlete to understand the role that each of the macronutrients plays in an active lifestyle. In addition, keys to success include knowing how to determine how many calories to consume, the macronutrient breakdown of those calories, and proper timing to maximize the benefits needed for the individual's body type and activity schedule.

  7. Doing Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Materials needed and procedures for conducting two activities are provided. The first investigates drops of a liquid which float on water in a watchglass resting on top of a loudspeaker. The second investigates electromagnetic phenomena. (JN)

  8. Doing Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Materials needed and procedures for conducting two activities are provided. The first investigates drops of a liquid which float on water in a watchglass resting on top of a loudspeaker. The second investigates electromagnetic phenomena. (JN)

  9. [Habitual physical activity during growth].

    PubMed

    Gavarry, Olivier; Falgairette, Guy

    2004-04-01

    The three objectives of the present review of the literature were to: characterize the evolution of habitual physical activity (HPA) during growth; evaluate the tracking of HPA from childhood to adulthood; and analyse the level of HPA in children and adolescents according to public health recommendations. Data indicates that HPA decreases from childhood to adulthood about 7% per year, with a great reduction during puberty and adolescence concurrent to changes in the type of physical activity. It appears that HPA is not quite steady (0.09 < r < 0.66) during growth, which means that behavioural changes occur. Being very active during childhood or adolescence does not necessarily translate into a high level of HPA in adulthood. The mean values of HPA of children and adolescents vary from 15 to 90 min.day(-1) between studies, and for most of them HPA has been higher or close to public health recommendations. However, these results mask a great number of children and adolescents who are inactive or becoming inactive (40 to 45% of the population).

  10. Weight Status and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Helen; Blanco, Estela; Algarín, Cecilia; Peirano, Patricio; Burrows, Raquel; Reyes, Marcela; Wing, David; Godino, Job G.; Gahagan, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    We tested the independent and combined influence of overweight/obesity and meeting moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) guidelines (≥60 minutes per day) on cardiometabolic risk factors among healthy adolescents. We measured anthropometry, blood pressure, fasting lipids, and activity by accelerometer in 223 adolescents. They were categorized as overweight/obese versus normal weight and meeting the World Health Organization guidelines for MVPA per day. Adolescents were 16.8 years, 41% overweight/obese, 30% met MVPA guidelines, 50% low high-density lipoprotein, 22% high triglycerides, 12% high blood pressure, and 6% high fasting glucose. Controlling for sex, overweight/obese adolescents who did not meet MVPA guidelines had 4.0 and 11.9 increased odds for elevated triglycerides and systolic blood pressure, respectively, compared to normal weight adolescents who met MVPA guidelines. Overweight/obese and normal weight adolescents who met MVPA guidelines did not differ in cardiometabolic risk factors. Among overweight/obese adolescents, being physically active attenuated the likelihood of high triglycerides and systolic blood pressure. PMID:27803943

  11. [Physical activity for knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Masashi; Ishijima, Muneaki; Kaneko, Haruka; Takazawa, Yuji; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Kazuo

    Elder populations have been increasing in Japan and estimated 24 million people have knee osteoarthritis(OA). Recently, people have diverse sociological background and demand for participating sports has been growing. People may participate sports to prevent some diseases such as locomotive syndrome. According to the recent studies, excessive high impact sports increase the risk of OA, while daily life exercise decrease the risk. Epidemiological approach demonstrated that reduced knee extension muscle strength increases the risk of OA. We reviewed and discussed the recent topics including efficacy of physical therapy for knee OA and how much sports activities could be beneficial after knee surgery.

  12. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Describes three demonstrations/activities that involve forces: (1) a canoe-like boat made from copper window screen; (2) magnetic forces with a paper clip and ceramic magnetic; and (3) an "icemobile" machine that cuts ice cubes without an obvious source of energy. (DH)

  13. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity in which two pulleys are connected by a wire loop; when the bottom pulley is dipped into hot water, the pulleys rotate. Also suggests that students design/build a machine to propel a bean; the machine must use materials including one bean, two plastic straws, and two rubber bands. (JN)

  14. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity in which two pulleys are connected by a wire loop; when the bottom pulley is dipped into hot water, the pulleys rotate. Also suggests that students design/build a machine to propel a bean; the machine must use materials including one bean, two plastic straws, and two rubber bands. (JN)

  15. Activities report in applied physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Research concerning acoustics, heat, architecture, materials research, and (optical) instrumentation is presented; active noise control and acoustic path identification were investigated. Energy conservation, solar energy, and building physics activities were carried out. Ultraviolet absorbing glasses, glass fibers, sheet glass, and aluminium and silicon oxynitrides, were studied. Glass fiber based sensor and laser applications, and optical space-instrumentation are discussed. Signal processing, sensors, and integrated electronics applications were developed. Scale model experiments for flow induced noise and vibrations, caused by engines, ventilators, wind turbines, and propellers, were executed. A multispectral charge coupled device airborne scanner, with four modules (one for forward observations) is described. A ground radar, based on seismic exploration signal processing and used for the location of pipes, sewers and cables, was developed.

  16. [Physical activity and reproductive health].

    PubMed

    Sundgot-Borgen, J

    2000-11-20

    The purpose of this article is to review the present knowledge about physical activity and reproductive health. Medline and manual search for articles related to exercise and menstrual function, and exercise and pregnancy were performed. Repetitive intensive exercise with increased stress hormone utilisation seems to partly explain the disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The prevalence of menstrual irregularities is higher among athletes who participate in sports in which leanness is considered important for performance. Most of the studies concerning exercise-induced amenorrhoea have focused on low body weight and low fat ratio of body weight. However, energy drain and nutrient deficiency have been found to be important variables explaining menstrual irregularity in athletes. Loss of bone mass is related to menstrual irregularities hence it is important that menstrual irregularity not is considered a "normal" aspect of being an athlete. There are a number of positive effects and a few hypothetical risks related to exercise during pregnancy. There are no clinically controlled studies allowing us to draw conclusions about the effect of intensive training during pregnancy. Physically active women should be aware of the importance of sufficient energy intake to keep their regular menstrual cycle. Moderate exercise during pregnancy is recommended.

  17. Physical Activity during the School Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castelli, Darla M.; Ward, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    In response to concerns that children are physically inactive, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention committee developed school-based implementation strategies centered on the components of a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP), composed of the physical education program, physical activity during the school day, staff…

  18. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) recommends that all PK-12 schools implement a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program. Schools play an important role in public health, and the physical, mental, and social benefits of regular physical activity for youth are well documented. Leading public health, medical,…

  19. School Programs to Increase Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Amelia; Solmon, Melinda

    2007-01-01

    A quality physical education program is at the heart of any plan to promote lifelong participation in physical activity, but it has become evident at many schools that physical education specialists alone cannot address the physical activity needs of children. This is why a series of studies were conducted to develop strategies for the…

  20. Can we modulate physical activity in children?

    PubMed

    Reilly, J J

    2011-10-01

    There is concern that interventions that use physical activity to prevent obesity in children might be undermined by an 'Activitystat', which exerts an effect to maintain a low set point for physical activity. The present critique summarises evidence from systematic reviews of interventions, from empirical tests of the Activitystat hypothesis, from studies on the heritability of physical activity in childhood and the physical activity of children of and adolescents across a wide range of physical and cultural environments. This body of evidence is inconsistent with the Activitystat hypothesis in its current form, and suggests that the emphasis on physical activity in obesity prevention interventions in children should be increased, not reduced.

  1. Does HOPSports Promote Youth Physical Activity in Physical Education Classes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Stephanie T.; Shores, Kindal A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how a technological intervention, HOPSports (HOPS), impacted youth physical activity (PA) in a physical education (PE) class. Research indicates rising levels of youth television watching and video game use, physical inactivity, and related overweight. One approach to increase youth PA is to use technology-based…

  2. Physical Education and Physical Activity: A Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guedes, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    Although many recent studies have shown that the lack of physical activity is one of the major causes of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease among children and adolescents, few studies have shown the connection between the lack of physical education and the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle. However, it is clear that physical education…

  3. Differences in Physical Activity during School Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgers, Nicola D.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Huberty, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: School recess provides a daily opportunity for physical activity engagement. The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity levels during recess by gender, ethnicity, and grade, and establish the contribution of recess to daily school physical activity levels. Methods: Two hundred and ten children (45% boys) from grades 3…

  4. Putting Physical Activity on the Policy Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Catherine B.; Mutrie, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline why physical activity policy is important in terms of promoting population based increases in physical activity. The promotion of physical activity through public policy happens globally and nationally, however to be successful it should also happen at state and local levels. We outline the rationale for the…

  5. Global recommendations on physical activity for health

    MedlinePlus

    ... English Français Русский Español Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health Menu Diet, Physical Activity & Health Global ... obesity Documents & publications Related links Global recommendations on physical activity for health WHO developed the "Global Recommendations on ...

  6. Putting Physical Activity on the Policy Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Catherine B.; Mutrie, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline why physical activity policy is important in terms of promoting population based increases in physical activity. The promotion of physical activity through public policy happens globally and nationally, however to be successful it should also happen at state and local levels. We outline the rationale for the…

  7. Evaluating a Model of Youth Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzler, Carrie D.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Erickson, Darin J.; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Sirard, John R.; Story, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between social influences, self-efficacy, enjoyment, and barriers and physical activity. Methods: Structural equation modeling examined relationships between parent and peer support, parent physical activity, individual perceptions, and objectively measured physical activity using accelerometers among a…

  8. [Physical activity and breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Karol; Acevedo, Francisco; Herrera, María Elisa; Ibáñez, Carolina; Sánchez, César

    2017-01-01

    In Chile breast cancer (BC) is the first cause of death in women. While the most important risk factor for its development is estrogenic stimulation, environmental factors and lifestyles also contribute to its pathogenesis. Epidemiological studies show a direct relationship between physical activity (PA), incidence and recurrence of BC. Supervised PA practice is recommended in most cancer patients to improve their quality of life, to reduce adverse effects from treatment and eventually to improve the prognosis of the disease. We review the epidemiological evidence linking PA and BC and the biological basis of this relationship. We also review the relevant interventional studies and we explore some practical indications of PA in patients with BC, as a model for other tumors of epidemiological importance.

  9. Physical activity and cognitive vitality.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Voss, Michelle W; Erickson, Kirk I; Kramer, Arthur F

    2015-01-03

    We examine evidence supporting the associations among physical activity (PA), cognitive vitality, neural functioning, and the moderation of these associations by genetic factors. Prospective epidemiological studies provide evidence for PA to be associated with a modest reduction in relative risk of cognitive decline. An evaluation of the PA-cognition link across the life span provides modest support for the effect of PA on preserving and even enhancing cognitive vitality and the associated neural circuitry in older adults, with the majority of benefits seen for tasks that are supported by the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus. The literature on children and young adults, however, is in need of well-powered randomized controlled trials. Future directions include a more sophisticated understanding of the dose-response relationship, the integration of genetic and epigenetic approaches, inclusion of multimodal imaging of brain-behavior changes, and finally the design of multimodal interventions that may yield broader improvements in cognitive function.

  10. Neighborhood context and immigrant children's physical activity.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Mackenzie; Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert

    2014-09-01

    Physical activity is an important determinant of obesity and overall health for children, but significant race/ethnic and nativity disparities exist in the amount of physical activity that children receive, with immigrant children particularly at risk for low levels of physical activity. In this paper, we examine and compare patterns in physical activity levels for young children of U.S.-born and immigrant mothers from seven race/ethnic and nativity groups, and test whether physical activity is associated with subjective (parent-reported) and objective (U.S. Census) neighborhood measures. The neighborhood measures include parental-reported perceptions of safety and physical and social disorder and objectively defined neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and immigrant concentration. Using restricted, geo-coded Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K) data (N = 17,510) from 1998 to 1999 linked with U.S. Census 2000 data for the children's neighborhoods, we utilize zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) models to predict the odds of physical inactivity and expected days of physical activity for kindergarten-aged children. Across both outcomes, foreign-born children have lower levels of physical activity compared to U.S.-born white children. This disparity is not attenuated by a child's socioeconomic, family, or neighborhood characteristics. Physical and social disorder is associated with higher odds of physical inactivity, while perceptions of neighborhood safety are associated with increased expected days of physical activity, but not with inactivity. Immigrant concentration is negatively associated with both physical activity outcomes, but its impact on the probability of physical inactivity differs by the child's race/ethnic and nativity group, such that it is particularly detrimental for U.S.-born white children's physical activity. Research interested in improving the physical activity patterns of minority and second-generation immigrant children should

  11. Exergaming for Physical Activity in Online Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kooiman, Brian J.; Sheehan, Dwayne P.; Wesolek, Michael; Reategui, Eliseo

    2016-01-01

    For many the thought of students taking an online course conjures up images of students sitting at a computer desk. Students taking online physical education (OLPE) at home may lack opportunities for competitive or cooperative physical activity that are available to students in a traditional setting. Active video games (exergames) can be played…

  12. Physical Disability, Stigma, and Physical Activity in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barg, Carolyn J.; Armstrong, Brittany D.; Hetz, Samuel P.; Latimer, Amy E.

    2010-01-01

    Using the stereotype content model as a guiding framework, this study explored whether the stigma that able-bodied adults have towards children with a physical disability is reduced when the child is portrayed as being active. In a 2 (physical activity status) x 2 (ability status) study design, 178 university students rated a child described in…

  13. Exergaming for Physical Activity in Online Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kooiman, Brian J.; Sheehan, Dwayne P.; Wesolek, Michael; Reategui, Eliseo

    2016-01-01

    For many the thought of students taking an online course conjures up images of students sitting at a computer desk. Students taking online physical education (OLPE) at home may lack opportunities for competitive or cooperative physical activity that are available to students in a traditional setting. Active video games (exergames) can be played…

  14. Physical activity assessment in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sirard, J R; Pate, R R

    2001-01-01

    Chronic disease risk factors, including a sedentary lifestyle, may be present even in young children, suggesting that early prevention programmes may be critical to reducing the rates of chronic disease. Accurate assessment of physical activity in children is necessary to identify current levels of activity and to assess the effectiveness of intervention programmes designed to increase physical activity. This article summarises the strengths and limitations of the methods used to evaluate physical activity in children and adolescents. MEDLINE searches and journal article citations were used to locate 59 articles that validated physical activity measurement methods in children and adolescents. Only those methods that were validated against a more stringent measure were included in the review. Based on the definition of physical activity as any bodily movement resulting in energy expenditure (EE), direct observation of the individual's movement should be used as the gold standard for physical activity research. The doubly labelled water technique and indirect calorimetry can also be considered criterion measures for physical activity research, because they measure EE, a physiologic consequence closely associated with physical activity. Devices such as heart rate monitors, pedometers and accelerometers have become increasingly popular as measurement tools for physical activity. These devices reduce the subjectivity inherent in survey methods and can be used with large groups of individuals. Heart rate monitoring is sufficiently valid to use in creating broad physical activity categories (e.g. highly active, somewhat active, sedentary) but lacks the specificity needed to estimate physical activity in individuals. Laboratory and field validations of pedometers and accelerometers yield relatively high correlations using oxygen consumption (r = 0.62 to 0.93) or direct observation (r = 0.80 to 0.97) as criterion measures, although, they may not be able to capture all

  15. Perceived environment and physical activity in youth.

    PubMed

    Fein, Allan J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Wild, T Cameron; Spence, John C

    2004-01-01

    The examination of physical environments to explain and promote physical activity is an important yet under-investigated area of research inquiry. This study explored relationships between the perceived availability of physical environmental resources and the perceived importance of these resources in relation to physical activity levels amongst youth. A self-report questionnaire was completed by 610 students (mean age = 15.5 years old; 62% female participants) from four high schools (grades 9-12) in rural Alberta, Canada. Perceived physical environment constructs explained 5% of the variance in physical activity, with home, neighborhood, and school as significant domains. Perceived importance constructs explained 8% of the variance in physical activity with school context showing the only significant relationship with physical activity. A hierarchical regression analysis entered sex, grade, self-efficacy, peer, family and physical education teacher relationships, as the first block and eight environmental constructs as the second block. The first block variables accounted for 22% of the variance and environmental constructs accounted for an added 4% of the variance in physical activity. Perceived importance of the school environment was the only environment variable significantly associated with physical activity (beta = .14; p < .05) after taking into account the impact of these traditional predictors. These findings reinforce the need to provide and support school physical environments related to physical activity.

  16. Physical activity opportunities in afterschool programs.

    PubMed

    Weaver, R Glenn; Beets, Michael W; Huberty, Jennifer; Freedman, Darcy; Turner-Mcgrievy, Gabrielle; Ward, Diane

    2015-05-01

    Afterschool programs (ASPs) have potential to provide children moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The availability and types (e.g., free play or organized activities) of physical activity opportunities, their structure (e.g., presence of lines, elimination games), and staff behaviors (e.g., encouragement, engaged) can influence children's MVPA. This study explored these factors in 20 ASPs serving over 1,700 elementary-age children. The occurrence, types, and structure of physical activity opportunities, and staff behaviors were collected via the SOSPAN (System for Observing Staff Promotion of Physical Activity and Nutrition). A total of 4,660 SOSPAN scans were completed across 63 complete program days (1,733 during physical activity opportunities). Physical activity opportunities were observed on 60 program days across all 20 sites, with 73% of those opportunities classified as free play. ASPs scheduled an average of 66.3 minutes (range 15-150 minutes) of physical activity opportunities daily. Games played included basketball, tag, soccer, and football. Staff rarely engaged in physical activity promotion behaviors, and the structure of organized games discouraged MVPA. For example, staff verbally promoted physical activity in just 6.1% of scans, while organized games were more likely to involve lines and elimination. Professional development training may enhance staffs' physical activity promotion and the structure of activity opportunities. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  17. Physical activity opportunities in afterschool programs

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Beets, Michael W.; Huberty, Jennifer; Freedman, Darcy; Turner-Mcgrievy, Gabrielle; Ward, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Afterschool programs (ASPs) have potential to provide children moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The availability and types (e.g., free play or organized activities) of physical activity opportunities, their structure (e.g., presence of lines, elimination games), and staff behaviors (e.g., encouragement, engaged) can influence children’s MVPA. This study explored these factors in 20 ASPs serving over 1,700 elementary-age children. The occurrence, types and structure of physical activity opportunities, and staff behaviors were collected via the System for Observing Staff Promotion of Physical Activity and Nutrition (SOSPAN). A total of 4,660 SOSPAN scans were completed across 63 complete program days (1733 during physical activity opportunities). Physical activity opportunities were observed on 60 program days across all 20 sites, with 73% of those opportunities classified as free play. ASPs scheduled an average of 66.3 minutes (range 15-150min) of physical activity opportunities daily. Games played included basketball, tag, soccer and football. Staff rarely engaged in physical activity promotion behaviors, and the structure of organized games discouraged MVPA. For example, staff verbally promoted physical activity in just 6.1% of scans, while organized games were more likely to involve lines and elimination. Professional development training may enhance staffs’ physical activity promotion and the structure of activity opportunities. PMID:25586132

  18. Comprehensive School-Based Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidorn, Brent D.; Hall, Tina J.; Carson, Russell L.

    2010-01-01

    A Comprehensive School-based Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) represents a commitment to support the health and well-being of students, faculty, staff, and the community. A CSPAP is a similar approach that specifically focuses on incorporating additional physical activity opportunities for youth within the school day and beyond physical education…

  19. Exergames: Increasing Physical Activity through Effective Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudella, Jennifer L.; Butz, Jennifer V.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the growing obesity epidemic in the United States, educators must consider new ways to increase physical activity in an effort to address obesity. There are a variety of ways educators can increase physical activity in the classroom, and exergames--video games that require physical movement in order to play--are a modern-day approach to…

  20. Exergaming: Syncing Physical Activity and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Lisa; Higgins, John

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses exergaming, a groundbreaking type of video game which is creating a revolution in physical education. Exergaming combines physical activity and video gaming to create an enjoyable and appealing way for students to be physically active. An extremely popular choice in this genre is the music video/dance rhythm game (MVDG). One…

  1. Exergames: Increasing Physical Activity through Effective Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudella, Jennifer L.; Butz, Jennifer V.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the growing obesity epidemic in the United States, educators must consider new ways to increase physical activity in an effort to address obesity. There are a variety of ways educators can increase physical activity in the classroom, and exergames--video games that require physical movement in order to play--are a modern-day approach to…

  2. Exergaming: Syncing Physical Activity and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Lisa; Higgins, John

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses exergaming, a groundbreaking type of video game which is creating a revolution in physical education. Exergaming combines physical activity and video gaming to create an enjoyable and appealing way for students to be physically active. An extremely popular choice in this genre is the music video/dance rhythm game (MVDG). One…

  3. Patterns of dietary supplement use among older men and women in the UK: findings from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Denison, H J; Jameson, K A; Syddall, H E; Dennison, E M; Cooper, C; Sayer, A Aihie; Robinson, S M

    2012-04-01

    To determine patterns of supplement use in a UK community-dwelling older population, and to investigate the extent to which supplement user groups differ, in terms of their sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics, diet and morbidity. Cross-sectional cohort study. Home interview and clinic visit. 3217 Hertfordshire Cohort Study participants, aged 59 to 73. Information was obtained on the participant's social and medical history by a trained research nurse. Diet over the preceding 3 months was assessed by Food Frequency Questionnaire; compliance with 'healthy' eating recommendations was defined using individual scores for a 'prudent' dietary pattern, identified using principal components analysis. Details of all dietary supplements taken in the preceding 3 months were recorded. Individual supplements were allocated to one of 10 types based on their nutrient composition. Cluster analysis was used to define groups of supplement users. 45.4% of men and 57.5% of women reported taking at least one dietary supplement in the previous 3 month period. There were 5 distinct clusters of supplement users; these were common to men and women. They were labelled according to the principal supplement taken; oils, glucosamine, single vitamins, vitamins and minerals, and herbal products. These groups differed in their social class and prudent diet score, but few other characteristics. With the exception of a difference in diagnosis of diabetes among the women, there were no differences in morbidity between the supplement groups in either men or women. Dietary supplement use is high in this population. There are distinct patterns of supplement use, which are related to sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics including diet, though there were few clear differences in morbidity.

  4. [Physical activity and management of obese patients].

    PubMed

    Oppert, J M; Balarac, N

    2001-09-01

    Physical activity is recognized as an integral part of obesity treatment, in association with other therapeutic means. A major benefit of physical activity is the association with better long-term maintenance of weight loss. Physical activity has also positive psychological effects and increases quality of life. An evaluation of the usual level of physical activity and inactivity is needed for each patient. Physical activity counselling should be individualized and graded, in a perspective of individual progression. In subjects with massive obesity, remobilization based on physiotherapy techniques is the first step. All patients should be given simple advice to decrease sedentary behavior: use the stairs instead of the escalators, limit the time spent seated, etc. In general, current physical activity recommendations for the general population fit well with a majority of obese patients, i.e. a minimum of 30 minutes/day of moderate intensity physical activity (brisk walking or equivalent) on most, and preferably all, days of the week. Physical activities of higher intensities (endurance training programme) can be proposed on an individual basis. The type of physical activity required for long-term weight maintenance, and the question of adherence to physical activity recommendations in obese patients should be further investigated.

  5. How Much Physical Activity Do Adults Need?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & ... DFCN Promotion Implementation Maintaining Interest Needs Assessment Evaluating Success CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing ...

  6. Prescribing physical activity in primary care.

    PubMed

    Fuscaldo, Joseph M

    2002-01-01

    Physical activity is a powerful weapon for individuals interested in health maintenance. Many benefits of regular physical activity are well known to the medical community including improved weight control, healthier cardiovascular system, and tighter diabetic control. Less recognized benefits of physical activity may include stronger bones, better sleep, lower blood pressure, improved mood, opportunities for personal enjoyment, cancer prevention, and even a longer lifespan. Despite these numerous incentives, less than a quarter of the U.S. population is active enough to gain the rewards (13). West Virginians are among the least physically active; more than 40% of state residents engage in no leisure time physical activity at all (15), so it is critical that physicians in the state take a much more active role in prescribing physical activity for their patients. Although more research is needed, data exists to suggest counseling by physicians does result in increased physical activity (20-23). Attention to risk factors and specific red flags can help decide when formal pre-exercise stress testing is necessary. An organized approach includes development of the mode, frequency, duration, intensity and progression of exercise by a physician who knows the patient's interests and limitations (28). The most current consensus guidelines suggest 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity daily (12). Physicians need to encourage this goal during office visits and there appears to be benefit in putting specific physical activity advice in the form of a written prescription (21).

  7. Conceptual Physical Education Course and College Freshmen's Physical Activity Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shangguan, Rulan; Keating, Xiaofen Deng; Liu, Jingwen; Zhou, Ke; Clark, Langston; Leitner, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Conceptual physical education (CPE) courses play a critical role in promoting physical activity (PA) among students in American higher education settings. To date, however, very limited knowledge is available about the effectiveness of such courses. Aims: The primary purpose of the study was to examine effects of a CPE course on altering freshmen…

  8. Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

  9. Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

  10. Using Pedometers to Promote Physical Activity in Secondary Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Lori; Tannehill, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    Some schools across the country have recently reduced the time and frequency that students spend participating in physical education. During the school day children spend considerably more time sitting and listening than they do moving and being physically active. Devoting more time to academics may be producing more knowledgeable and academically…

  11. Physical Education and Recess Contributions to Sixth Graders' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Ashley A.; Williams, Skip M.; Coleman, Margaret M.; Garrahy, Deborah A.; Laurson, Kelly R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine the percentage of the daily threshold (12,000 steps) that physical education (PE) class and recess contribute to 6th grade students' overall daily physical activity (PA) and (b) to examine the relationships between gender, PA outside of school, BMI, and steps during both recess and…

  12. Physical Activity in Physical Education: Are Longer Lessons Better?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nicole J.; Monnat, Shannon M.; Lounsbery, Monica A. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to compare physical activity (PA) outcomes in a sample of high school (HS) physical education (PE) lessons from schools that adopted "traditional" versus "modified block" schedule formats. Methods: We used the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) to conduct observations…

  13. Physical Activity in Physical Education: Are Longer Lessons Better?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nicole J.; Monnat, Shannon M.; Lounsbery, Monica A. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to compare physical activity (PA) outcomes in a sample of high school (HS) physical education (PE) lessons from schools that adopted "traditional" versus "modified block" schedule formats. Methods: We used the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) to conduct observations…

  14. Physical Education and Recess Contributions to Sixth Graders' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Ashley A.; Williams, Skip M.; Coleman, Margaret M.; Garrahy, Deborah A.; Laurson, Kelly R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine the percentage of the daily threshold (12,000 steps) that physical education (PE) class and recess contribute to 6th grade students' overall daily physical activity (PA) and (b) to examine the relationships between gender, PA outside of school, BMI, and steps during both recess and…

  15. Physical activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, Frank; Tordi, Nicolas; Prati, Clément; Demougeot, Céline; Mougin, Fabienne; Wendling, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common chronic inflammatory joint disease and is associated with an excess risk of cardiovascular disease. For the general population, the World Health Organization has issued detailed recommendations on the type of physical activity appropriate for decreasing the cardiovascular risk. The objective of this work is to review available data on the effects of physical activity in patients with RA. RA is responsible for a marked decrease in physical activity. Physical activity significantly diminishes both the cardiovascular risk and the DAS 28. Vascular benefits from physical activity include improved endothelial function and slowing of the atherosclerotic process. Physical activity also has favorable effects on bone, slowing radiographic disease progression in small joints and increasing bone mineral density at the femoral neck, although these effects are not statistically significant. Finally, engaging in physical activity increases self-esteem, alleviates symptoms of depression, improves sleep quality, and decreases pain perception. Aerobic exercise is the most commonly advocated type of physical activity. Most interventions were of short duration (4 weeks) and involved aerobic activity (running or cycling) for 60minutes a day 5 days a week. Resistance training has been shown to decrease systemic inflammation and increase muscle strength. The main obstacles to physical activity in patients with RA are related to both the patients, who lack both motivation and knowledge, and the rheumatologists, who also lack knowledge and place insufficient emphasis on promoting physical activity. Physical activity provides many benefits in patients with RA and should be widely performed. Promoting physical activity should be among the objectives of therapeutic patient education for RA. Copyright © 2015 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Youth Physical Activity Resource Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslow, Andra L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether use of physical activity resources (e.g., parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods: One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1 resources). The main…

  17. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs: Helping All Students Achieve 60 Minutes of Physical Activity Each Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Eloise; Erwin, Heather; Hall, Tina; Heidorn, Brent

    2013-01-01

    The American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance recommends that all schools implement a comprehensive school physical activity program. Physical activity is important to the overall health and well-being of everyone, including all school age children. The benefits of physical activity are well documented and include the…

  18. Effectiveness of School-Initiated Physical Activity Program on Secondary School Students' Physical Activity Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gråstén, Arto; Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    Background: The promotion of physical activity and health has become a universal challenge. The Sotkamo Physical Activity as Civil Skill Program was implemented to increase students' physical activity by promoting supportive psychological and physical school environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the…

  19. Break for Physical Activity: Incorporating Classroom-Based Physical Activity Breaks into Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Robinson, Leah E.; Beckham, Karen; Webster, Kip

    2012-01-01

    Engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity is essential to lifelong health and wellness. Physical activity behaviors established in early childhood relate to physical activity behaviors in later years. However, research has shown that children are adopting more sedentary behaviors. Incorporating structured and planned physical activity…

  20. Break for Physical Activity: Incorporating Classroom-Based Physical Activity Breaks into Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Robinson, Leah E.; Beckham, Karen; Webster, Kip

    2012-01-01

    Engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity is essential to lifelong health and wellness. Physical activity behaviors established in early childhood relate to physical activity behaviors in later years. However, research has shown that children are adopting more sedentary behaviors. Incorporating structured and planned physical activity…

  1. Effectiveness of School-Initiated Physical Activity Program on Secondary School Students' Physical Activity Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gråstén, Arto; Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    Background: The promotion of physical activity and health has become a universal challenge. The Sotkamo Physical Activity as Civil Skill Program was implemented to increase students' physical activity by promoting supportive psychological and physical school environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the…

  2. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs: Helping All Students Achieve 60 Minutes of Physical Activity Each Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Eloise; Erwin, Heather; Hall, Tina; Heidorn, Brent

    2013-01-01

    The American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance recommends that all schools implement a comprehensive school physical activity program. Physical activity is important to the overall health and well-being of everyone, including all school age children. The benefits of physical activity are well documented and include the…

  3. Barriers to Physical Activity on University Student

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jajat; Sultoni, K.; Suherman, A.

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the research is to analyze the factors that become barriers to physical activity in university students based on physical activity level. An internet-based survey was conducted. The participants were 158 University students from Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia. Barriers to Physical Activity Quiz (BPAQ) were used to assessed the factors that become barriers to physical activity in university students. IPAQ (short form) were used to assessed physical activity level. The results show there was no differences BPAQ based on IPAQ level. But when analyzed further based on seven factors barriers there are differences in factors “social influence and lack of willpower” based IPAQ level. Based on this it was concluded that the “influence from other and lack of willpower” an inhibiting factor on students to perform physical activity.

  4. The Evolution of the Physical Activity Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Steven N.; Powell, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    This article includes an historical review of research on physical activity and health, and how the findings have contributed to physical activity participation and promotion today. In the 20th century, research began to accumulate on the effects of exercise on physiological functions, and later on the relation between regular activity and various…

  5. Physical Activity for Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pangrazi, Robert P.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A series of questions and answers helps teachers and leaders understand how much physical activity is enough for children and adolescents, discussing the guidelines used to make recommendations; childrens' and adolescents' unique physical activity needs; lifetime activity needs; and aerobic versus strength, endurance, and flexibility training. (SM)

  6. The Evolution of the Physical Activity Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Steven N.; Powell, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    This article includes an historical review of research on physical activity and health, and how the findings have contributed to physical activity participation and promotion today. In the 20th century, research began to accumulate on the effects of exercise on physiological functions, and later on the relation between regular activity and various…

  7. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Behavior of Physical Education Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Bradley J.

    1995-01-01

    In this study researchers conducted exercise testing, collected data on demographics and physical activity, analyzed data by gender and major, and compared results with data on nonphysical education majors. The paper presents the results by category. (SM)

  8. Active travel intervention and physical activity behaviour: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Norwood, Patricia; Eberth, Barbara; Farrar, Shelley; Anable, Jillian; Ludbrook, Anne

    2014-07-01

    A physically active lifestyle is an important contributor to individual health and well-being. The evidence linking higher physical activity levels with better levels of morbidity and mortality is well understood. Despite this, physical inactivity remains a major global risk factor for mortality and, consequently, encouraging individuals to pursue physically active lifestyles has been an integral part of public health policy in many countries. Physical activity promotion and interventions are now firmly on national health policy agendas, including policies that promote active travel such as walking and cycling. This study evaluates one such active travel initiative, the Smarter Choices, Smarter Places programme in Scotland, intended to encourage uptake of walking, cycling and the use of public transport as more active forms of travel. House to house surveys were conducted before and after the programme intervention, in May/June 2009 and 2012 (12,411 surveys in 2009 and 9542 in 2012), for the evaluation of the programme. This paper analyses the physical activity data collected, focussing on what can be inferred from the initiative with regards to adult uptake of physical activity participation and whether, for those who participated in physical activity, the initiative impacted on meeting recommended physical activity guidelines. The results suggest that the initiative impacted positively on the likelihood of physical activity participation and meeting the recommended physical activity guidelines. Individuals in the intervention areas were on average 6% more likely to meet the physical activity guidelines compared to individuals in the non intervention areas. However, the absolute prevalence of physical activity participation declined in both intervention and control areas over time. Our evaluation of this active transport initiative indicates that similar programmes may aid in contributing to achieving physical activity targets and adds to the international

  9. Physical activity level, waist circumference, and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Reeder, Bruce A.; Elliott, Susan; Joffres, Michel R.; Pahwa, Punam; Kirkland, Susan A.; Paradis, Gilles; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2014-01-01

    This study predicted all-cause mortality based on physical activity level (active or inactive) and waist circumference (WC) in 8208 Canadian adults in Alberta, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, and Saskatchewan, surveyed between 1986–1995 and followed through 2004. Physically inactive adults had higher mortality risk than active adults overall (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval = 1.20, 1.05–1.37) and within the low WC category (1.51, 1.19–1.92). Detrimental effects of physical inactivity and high WC demonstrate the need for physical activity promotion. PMID:22703160

  10. Adolescents' physical activity is associated with previous and current physical activity practice by their parents.

    PubMed

    Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Andersen, Lars Bo; Andrade, Selma Maffei de; Barros, Mauro Virgílio Gomes de; Saraiva, Bruna Thamyres Ciccotti; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes

    2017-07-25

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether parents' current and previous physical activity practice is associated with adolescents' physical activity. The sample was composed of 1231 adolescents (14-17 years), and 1202 mothers and 871 fathers were interviewed. Weight and height of the adolescents were measured. Self-reported parents' weight and height were obtained. The current and previous physical activity levels (Baecke's questionnaire) of parents (during childhood and adolescence) and adolescents' physical activity levels were obtained using a questionnaire. The magnitude of the associations between parent and adolescent physical activity levels was determined by binary logistic regression (adjusted by sex, age, and socioeconomic level of adolescents and education level of parents). The current physical activity practice by parents was associated with adolescents' physical activity (p<0.001). The physical activities reported by parents in their childhood and adolescence were also associated with higher physical activity levels among adolescents. Adolescents whose parents were both physically active in the past and present were six times (OR=6.67 [CI=1.94-22.79]) more likely to be physically active compared to adolescents with no parents who were physically active in the past. The current and previous physical activities of parents were associated with higher levels of physical activity in adolescents, even after controlling for confounding factors. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Rest Rust ! Physical active for active and healthy ageing

    PubMed Central

    Vollenbroek-Hutten, M; Pais, S; Ponce, S; Dekker-van Weering, M; Jansen-Kosterink, S; Schena, F; Tabarini, N; Carotenuto, F; Iadicicco, V; Illario, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an insight on how physical activity can be defined, parameterized and measured in older adults and on different options to deal with citizen physical activity promotion at European level. Three relevant aspects are highlighted: When talking about physical activity, two different aspects are often unfairly mixed up: “physical activity” and “physical capacity”. Physical activity, is referred to as the level of physical activity someone is actually performing in daily life.Physical capacity is referred to as the maximum physical activity a person can perform.Both physical activity and physical capacity can be expressed in different dimensions such as time, frequency, or type of activity with the consequence that there are many tools and techniques available. In order to support people to choose an appropriate instrument in their everyday practice a list of 9 criteria that are considered important is defined.Older adults score differently across the various physical dimensions, so strategies to promote physical activity should consider individual differences, in order to adapt for these variations. PMID:27042429

  12. Effects of physical activity on cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Na, Hye-Kyung; Oliynyk, Sergiy

    2011-07-01

    Results of most epidemiological and laboratory studies suggest an inverse relationship between regular exercise and the risk of certain malignancies, such as intestinal, colon, pancreatic, breast, lung, skin, mammary, endometrial, and prostate cancer. However, physical activity can have different influence on carcinogenesis, depending on energy supply and the age of the subject as well as strength, frequency, and length of exercise. The biochemical and molecular basis of the interaction between aerobic physical activity and tumorigenic processes remains poorly understood. Physical activity may generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) to a different extent. Mild oxidative stress caused by moderate physical activity can activate cellular stress response signaling and potentiate cellular antioxidant defense capacity. However, accumulation of relatively large amounts of ROS as a consequence of exhaustive exercise can either directly damage DNA, causing mutation, or promote tumorigenesis by activating proinflammatory signaling. This review highlights the effects of physical activity on various malignancies in the context of redox status modulated during exercise.

  13. Physical Activity for the Autistic Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Robert E.

    1983-01-01

    Physical, cognitive, and social-emotional symptoms of autism are described, along with possible causes of the condition and treatments. A "theraplay" physical education program in Newark, Delaware, is discussed, where physical activities such as rhythm, body awareness, perceptual motor development, and swimming are used to engage…

  14. Active Learning Strategies in Physics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karamustafaoglu, Orhan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine physics teachers' opinions about student-centered activities applicable in physics teaching and learning in context. A case study approach was used in this research. First, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 6 physics teachers. Then, a questionnaire was developed based on the data obtained…

  15. Physical Activity for the Autistic Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Robert E.

    1983-01-01

    Physical, cognitive, and social-emotional symptoms of autism are described, along with possible causes of the condition and treatments. A "theraplay" physical education program in Newark, Delaware, is discussed, where physical activities such as rhythm, body awareness, perceptual motor development, and swimming are used to engage…

  16. Physical activity motivation and cancer survivorship.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Bernardine M; Ciccolo, Joseph T

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) participation has been shown to be helpful in improving physical and mental well-being among cancer survivors. The purpose of this chapter is to review the literature on the determinants of physical activity motivation and behavior among cancer survivors. Using theories of behavior change, researchers have sought to identify the correlates of motivation that predict the participation in regular physical activity in observational studies, while intervention studies have focused on manipulating those factors to support the initiation of physical activity. The majority of this work has been conducted with breast cancer survivors, and there is an interest in expanding this work to survivors of others cancers (e.g., prostate, lung, and colorectal cancer). Results suggest that constructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), Transtheoretical Model (TTM), and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) are associated with greater motivation for physical activity, and some of these constructs have been used in interventions to promote physical activity adoption. There is scope for understanding the determinants of physical activity adoption in various cancer survivor populations. Much more needs to done to identify the determinants of maintenance of physical activity.

  17. Psoriasis and physical activity: a review.

    PubMed

    Wilson, P B; Bohjanen, K A; Ingraham, S J; Leon, A S

    2012-11-01

    Psoriasis is a common, chronic inflammatory skin disease that can cause significant discomfort and impairment to quality of life. Recent research indicates that individuals with moderate-to-severe psoriasis are likely at greater risk for chronic cardiometabolic co-morbidities such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome. Physical activity can be an effective primary and adjunctive treatment for these maladies in other populations. Unfortunately, only a limited number of studies have examined physical activity in psoriasis, which are limited by poor design and lack of validated physical activity assessment methodologies. A variety of data suggest shared physiologic pathways between physical activity, psoriasis, and psoriasis cardiometabolic co-morbidities. Increased adiposity, inflammation, oxidative stress, adhesion molecules and lipids are physiologically linked to psoriasis, the risk of psoriasis cardiometabolic co-morbidities, and low levels of physical activity. In addition, epigenetic pathways are involved in psoriasis and could be influenced by physical activity. The physical and psychosocial impairments common in psoriasis may make it difficult to participate in regular physical activity, and future studies should aim to determine if physical activity interventions improve functioning and reduce co-morbidities in psoriasis.

  18. Physical activity in youth dance classes.

    PubMed

    Cain, Kelli L; Gavand, Kavita A; Conway, Terry L; Peck, Emma; Bracy, Nicole L; Bonilla, Edith; Rincon, Patricia; Sallis, James F

    2015-06-01

    The majority of youth are not meeting the US Department of Health and Human Services physical activity guidelines. Dance is a popular activity, particularly for girls, and has the potential to increase physical activity for many youth. This study investigated physical activity of children and adolescents in 7 dance types: ballet, hip-hop, jazz, Latin-flamenco, Latin-salsa/ballet folklorico, partnered, and tap. Data were collected in 17 private studios and 4 community centers in San Diego, California. A total of 264 girls from 66 classes participated (n =154 children; n = 110 adolescents). Physical activity was measured with accelerometers, and activity levels during class were calculated. Participants recorded an average of 17.2 ± 8.9 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (36% of class), but this varied by age and dance type. For children, dance type differences were observed with percent of class in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity ranging from 13.6% (Latin-flamenco) to 57% (hip-hop). For adolescents, there were no differences across dance types. Children were more active than adolescents in all types except ballet. Children and adolescents were more active in private compared with community center classes. Overall, physical activity in youth dance classes was low; 8% of children and 6% of adolescents met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 30-minute guideline for after-school physical activity during dance. To increase physical activity in dance classes, teaching methods could be employed to increase activity in all types, or emphasis could be placed on greater participation in more active dance types. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Physical activity patterns of Singaporeans in 2001.

    PubMed

    Teh, K C; Ong, V T H

    2004-11-01

    This study was conducted on Singaporean males and females to determine the extent of involvement in sport, work-based and home-based physical activities, and other activities such as walking and stairclimbing. A Physical Activity Questionnaire was designed and data collected in conjunction with the Singapore National Sports Participation Survey 2001. Three hundred and ten households with 605 respondents (287 males and 318 females) completed the questionnaire, representing a response rate of 81 percent. Males spent more time doing sports, work-based physical activity and walking and stairclimbing activities while females spent more time in housework. However, females spent more time (568 versus 410 minutes per week) on overall physical activity, mainly due to their heavier involvement in housework. Compared with a similar study in 1997, males and females were doing more sports activities and walking and stairclimbing activities, but had reduced involvement in work-based and home-based activities. Overall, respondents in 2001 were spending about 31 percent less time (457 versus 598 minutes per week) on physical activities than respondents in 1997. There was a reduction in physical activities among males from 476 minutes per week to 410 minutes per week, and a sharper drop among females from 904 minutes per week to 567 minutes per week. Singaporean males and females in 2001 are spending less time on overall physical activities. The trend towards a reduction in overall physical activities from 1997 to 2001 is cause for concern. Relevant organisations would, therefore, need to continue promoting sports and physical activities to the Singapore population.

  20. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    PubMed

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-06-01

    Our research indicated that 10-12-year-old children receiving two active Wii(™) (Nintendo(®); Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity.

  1. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    PubMed Central

    Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Our research indicated that 10–12-year-old children receiving two active Wii™ (Nintendo®; Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity. PMID:24416640

  2. Effect of an independent-sector treatment centre on provision of elective orthopaedic surgery in east and north Hertfordshire.

    PubMed

    Vanhegan, I; Hakmi, A; de Roeck, N; Rumian, A

    2015-10-01

    Introduction Independent Sector Treatment Centres (ISTCs) were created to relieve pressure from Acute Hospital Trusts. In October 2011, an ISTC opened on the grounds of a hospital within the East and North Hertfordshire NHS Trust. Most elective orthopaedic procedures were transferred there. We investigated the effect on productivity of operating theatres working in the ISTC compared with those working in the Acute Hospital Trust (AHT). Methods A 3-month period of working at the AHT was compared with the same period 9-months later in the ISTC, which were termed 'pre-' and 'post-ISTC' opening, respectively. Data for upper limb (UL) as well as foot and ankle (F&A) surgery were collected. Differences in the number of lists and patients per list constituted usage analyses. Financial productivity was calculated from the latest Payment by Results (PbR) data. A two-tailed Mann-Whitney U-test at a confidence level of 95% was employed to compare costs between groups. Results The UL surgeon undertook 18 lists in both years with 66 patients (pre-ISTC) and 32 (post-ISTC), eliciting a reduction in productivity of 51.5%. There were 13 lists for F&A surgery pre-ISTC with 67 procedures, and 20 lists with 49 patients post-ISTC. Allowing for the difference in the number of lists, a reduction of 52.5% was noted. PbR analyses confirmed productivity of £169,695 (pre-ISTC) and £95,760 (post-ISTC) at a loss of £73,935 for the UL surgeon. F&A data revealed £97,801 (pre-ISTC) and £91,960 (post-ISTC) at a loss of £54,742 when correcting for the difference in the number of lists. There was a combined reduction in potential financial productivity of £128,677 over 3 months or £514,708 over 1 year. Discussion Implementation of the ISTC was detrimental to departmental efficiency, with <50% of the number of patients being treated and a marked reduction in financial productivity.

  3. Prescription of Physical Activity: A Paradigm Shift.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, William P.

    2001-01-01

    Proposes a paradigm shift in physical activity prescription which involves: an idiographic approach; preferred exertion rather than a given percent of maximum in the prescription of exercise intensity; and purposeful physical activity. A summary of 10 cases is presented, revealing adherence figures ranging from 5 to 79 years. Adherence of 100…

  4. PASS: Creating Physically Active School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciotto, Carol M.; Fede, Marybeth H.

    2014-01-01

    PASS, a Physically Active School System, is a program by which school districts and schools utilize opportunities for school-based physical activity that enhance overall fitness and cognition, which can be broken down into four integral parts consisting of connecting, communicating, collaborating, and cooperating. There needs to be an…

  5. Promoting Physical Activity in Afterschool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighle, Aaron; Beets, Michael W.; Erwin, Heather E.; Huberty, Jennifer; Moore, Justin B.; Stellino, Megan

    2010-01-01

    Children in the United States are not engaging in sufficient amounts of routine physical activity, and this lack is an emerging public health concern (Strong, Malina, Blimkie, Daniels, Dishman, Gutin, et al., 2005). Efforts to increase the physical activity levels of children and adolescents has become a national priority, attracting attention…

  6. Physical Activity and Public Health: Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the effects of physical activity on depression and anxiety, discussing the scientific strength of studies on physical activity, depression, and anxiety against the standards of science accepted in epidemiology with a focus on the independence, consistency, dose-response gradient, and biological plausibility of the evidence. (Author/SM)

  7. Making Sense of Multiple Physical Activity Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, Charles B.; LeMasurier, Guy; Franks, B. Don

    2002-01-01

    This digest provides basic information designed to help people determine which of the many physical activity guidelines are most appropriate for use in specific situations. After an introduction, the digest focuses on: "Factors to Consider in Selecting Appropriate Physical Activity Guidelines" (group credibility and purpose, benefits to…

  8. PASS: Creating Physically Active School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciotto, Carol M.; Fede, Marybeth H.

    2014-01-01

    PASS, a Physically Active School System, is a program by which school districts and schools utilize opportunities for school-based physical activity that enhance overall fitness and cognition, which can be broken down into four integral parts consisting of connecting, communicating, collaborating, and cooperating. There needs to be an…

  9. Physiological Response to Physical Activity in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, Thomas B.

    This is a report on research in the field of physical responses of children to strenuous activity. The paper is divided into three subtopics: (1) peak performance measure in children; (2) training effects on children; and (3) importance of physical activity for children. Measurements used are oxygen consumption, ventilation, heart rate, cardiac…

  10. Promote Physical Activity--It's Proactive Guidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartrell, Dan; Sonsteng, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    Healthy child development relies on physical activity. New curriculum models are effectively integrating physical activity in education programs. The authors describe three such models: S.M.A.R.T. (Stimulating Maturity through Accelerated Readiness Training); Kids in Action, incorporating cardiovascular endurance, muscle strength and endurance,…

  11. Physical Activity Fundamental to Preventing Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    Regular physical activity, fitness, and exercise are critically important for all people's health and wellbeing. It can reduce morbidity and mortality from many chronic diseases. Despite its well-known benefits, most U.S. adults, and many children, are not active enough to achieve these health benefits. Physical inactivity and related health…

  12. Increasing Physical Activity through Recess. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighle, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity promotes important health benefits, reduces risk for obesity and is linked with enhanced academic performance among students. The U.S. Surgeon General recommends that children engage in at least 60 minutes of moderate physical activity most days of the week, yet fewer than half of children ages 6 to 11 meet that…

  13. Promoting Physical Activity during Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidoni, Carla; Ignico, Arlene

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents from low-income families in the USA has become a significant concern over the last 20 years. One of the major contributors to this problem is the lack of physical activity. The purpose of this paper is to describe initiatives designed to: (1) engage young children in physical activity during…

  14. Cultural Components of Physically Active Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickwood, Greg

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that a large majority of school-age children and adolescents are not active enough to gain the physical and psychological benefits associated with regular moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Schools can play a pivotal role in reversing this trend due to the time students spend in this setting. The purpose of this article is to…

  15. Promoting Physical Activity during Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidoni, Carla; Ignico, Arlene

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents from low-income families in the USA has become a significant concern over the last 20 years. One of the major contributors to this problem is the lack of physical activity. The purpose of this paper is to describe initiatives designed to: (1) engage young children in physical activity during…

  16. Promote Physical Activity--It's Proactive Guidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartrell, Dan; Sonsteng, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    Healthy child development relies on physical activity. New curriculum models are effectively integrating physical activity in education programs. The authors describe three such models: S.M.A.R.T. (Stimulating Maturity through Accelerated Readiness Training); Kids in Action, incorporating cardiovascular endurance, muscle strength and endurance,…

  17. The Built Environment Predicts Observed Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Cheryl; Wilson, Jeffrey S.; Schootman, Mario; Clennin, Morgan; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In order to improve our understanding of the relationship between the built environment and physical activity, it is important to identify associations between specific geographic characteristics and physical activity behaviors. Purpose: Examine relationships between observed physical activity behavior and measures of the built environment collected on 291 street segments in Indianapolis and St. Louis. Methods: Street segments were selected using a stratified geographic sampling design to ensure representation of neighborhoods with different land use and socioeconomic characteristics. Characteristics of the built environment on-street segments were audited using two methods: in-person field audits and audits based on interpretation of Google Street View imagery with each method blinded to results from the other. Segments were dichotomized as having a particular characteristic (e.g., sidewalk present or not) based on the two auditing methods separately. Counts of individuals engaged in different forms of physical activity on each segment were assessed using direct observation. Non-parametric statistics were used to compare counts of physically active individuals on each segment with built environment characteristic. Results: Counts of individuals engaged in physical activity were significantly higher on segments with mixed land use or all non-residential land use, and on segments with pedestrian infrastructure (e.g., crosswalks and sidewalks) and public transit. Conclusion: Several micro-level built environment characteristics were associated with physical activity. These data provide support for theories that suggest changing the built environment and related policies may encourage more physical activity. PMID:24904916

  18. Understanding Motivators and Barriers to Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patay, Mary E.; Patton, Kevin; Parker, Melissa; Fahey, Kathleen; Sinclair, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the factors that influence physical activity among year-round residents in an isolated summer resort community. Specifically, we explored the personal, environmental, social, and culture-specific perceived motivators and barriers to physical activity. Participants were formally interviewed about their…

  19. Interdisciplinary Best Practices for Adapted Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szostak, Rick

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the literature on interdisciplinary research. It then draws lessons from that literature for the field of adapted physical activity. It is argued that adapted physical activity should be a self-consciously interdisciplinary field. It should insist that research be performed according to recognized…

  20. Physical Activity among Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Sarah J.; Sturts, Jill R.; Ross, Craig M.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study provides insight into the perceived physical activity levels of students attending a Midwestern 2-year community college. Over 60% of respondents were classified as overweight or obese based on a BMI measurement. The majority of respondents were not participating regularly in physical activity to gain any health benefits,…

  1. Understanding Motivators and Barriers to Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patay, Mary E.; Patton, Kevin; Parker, Melissa; Fahey, Kathleen; Sinclair, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the factors that influence physical activity among year-round residents in an isolated summer resort community. Specifically, we explored the personal, environmental, social, and culture-specific perceived motivators and barriers to physical activity. Participants were formally interviewed about their…

  2. Jumpin' Jaguars: Encouraging Physical Activity After School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather E.; Rose, Stephanie A.; Small, Sarah R.; Perman, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Many afterschool physical activity programs and curricula are available, but evaluation of their effectiveness is needed. Well-marketed programs such as the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) Kids Club have shown limited effectiveness in increasing physical activity for participants in comparison to control groups.…

  3. Interdisciplinary Best Practices for Adapted Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szostak, Rick

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the literature on interdisciplinary research. It then draws lessons from that literature for the field of adapted physical activity. It is argued that adapted physical activity should be a self-consciously interdisciplinary field. It should insist that research be performed according to recognized…

  4. Activity Specificity, Physical and Psychosocial Dimensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatfield, Frederick C.

    The position is taken that the physical parameters of one's involvement in activity learning depend in large measure upon the objectives of the participant. General comments regarding the physical parameters of most activity classes are made. Underlying commonalities existing among these parameters are identified as: (1) freedom from disease; (2)…

  5. Environmental influences on children's physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Pouliou, Theodora; Sera, Francesco; Griffiths, Lucy; Joshi, Heather; Geraci, Marco; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Law, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Background This paper aims to assess whether 7-year-olds’ physical activity is associated with family and area-level measures of the physical and socioeconomic environments. Methods We analysed the association of environments with physical activity in 6497 singleton children from the UK Millennium Cohort Study with reliable accelerometer data (≥2 days and ≥10 h/day). Activity levels were assessed as counts per minute; minutes of moderate to vigorous activity (MVPA); and whether meeting recommended guidelines (≥60 min/day MVPA). Results Higher levels of children's physical activity were associated with households without use of a car and with having a television in a child's bedroom (for counts per minute only). Aspects of the home socioeconomic environment that were associated with more children's physical activity were lone motherhood, lower maternal socioeconomic position and education, family income below 60% national median, and not owning the home. Children's activity levels were higher when parents perceived their neighbourhood as poor for bringing up children and also when families were living in the most deprived areas. Relationships were independent of characteristics such as child's body mass index and ethnic group. When adjusted for physical and socioeconomic correlates, the factors remaining significant in all outcomes were: household car usage and maternal education. Conclusions Although physical and socioeconomic environments are associated with children’s physical activity, much of the variation appears to be determined by the child's home socioeconomic circumstances rather than the wider environment where they live. PMID:25359920

  6. Physical activity in the prevention of cancer.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Joanna; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to update epidemiological research on relations between physical activity and cancer risk, including physical activity measurement and potential mechanisms of prevention of cancer. Review of recent systematic reviews, meta-analyses and studies on the topic that have been published in the recent literature. Convincing epidemiological evidence exists that physical activity reduces colon and breast cancers. The evidence is weaker for prostate (classified as probable), lung and endometrial cancers (classified as possible), and insufficient for cancers at all other sites. Hypothesized biological mechanisms for the physical activity--cancer association include changes in hormone level, reduced percentage of body fat, enhancement of the immune system, and alteration in free radical damage by scavenger systems. The available data indicate that 30-60 minutes per day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity is needed to be protective against breast and colon cancers. A greater understanding of the biological mechanisms operating in the physical activity--cancer relation, complete measurements of physical activity through a subject's life, assessment of all potential confounders and association modifiers are needed to confirm a protective role of physical activity in cancer development and allow specific exercise prescriptions for prevention in particular cancer sites.

  7. Activity Specificity, Physical and Psychosocial Dimensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatfield, Frederick C.

    The position is taken that the physical parameters of one's involvement in activity learning depend in large measure upon the objectives of the participant. General comments regarding the physical parameters of most activity classes are made. Underlying commonalities existing among these parameters are identified as: (1) freedom from disease; (2)…

  8. Physiological Response to Physical Activity in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, Thomas B.

    This is a report on research in the field of physical responses of children to strenuous activity. The paper is divided into three subtopics: (1) peak performance measure in children; (2) training effects on children; and (3) importance of physical activity for children. Measurements used are oxygen consumption, ventilation, heart rate, cardiac…

  9. Physical Activity among Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Sarah J.; Sturts, Jill R.; Ross, Craig M.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study provides insight into the perceived physical activity levels of students attending a Midwestern 2-year community college. Over 60% of respondents were classified as overweight or obese based on a BMI measurement. The majority of respondents were not participating regularly in physical activity to gain any health benefits,…

  10. Political activity for physical activity: health advocacy for active transport

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Effective health advocacy is a priority for efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Local councils are an important audience for this advocacy. The aim of the current study was to describe features of advocacy for active transport via submissions to city council annual plans in New Zealand, and the impact of an information sheet to encourage the health sector to be involved in this process. Written submissions to city council's annual consultation process were requested for 16 city councils over the period of three years (2007/08, 2008/09, and 2009/10). Submissions were reviewed and categories of responses were created. An advocacy information sheet encouraging health sector participation and summarising some of the evidence-base related to physical activity, active transport and health was released just prior to the 2009/10 submission time. Over the period of the study, city councils received 47,392 submissions, 17% of which were related to active transport. Most submissions came from city residents, with a small proportion (2%) from the health sector. The largest category of submissions was in support of pedestrian and cycling infrastructure, design and maintenance of facilities and additional features to support use of these transport modes. Health arguments featured prominently in justifications for active transport initiatives, including concerns about injury risk, obesity, physical inactivity, personal safety and facilities for people with disabilities. There was evidence that the information sheet was utilised by some health sector submitters (12.5%), providing tentative support for initiatives of this nature. In conclusion, the study provides novel information about the current nature of health advocacy for active transport and informs future advocacy efforts about areas for emphasis, such as health benefits of active transport, and potential alliances with other sectors such as environmental sustainability, transport and urban

  11. Tips for Starting Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... in your life. Do strengthening activities twice per week. Activities that make you push or pull against ... 3 sets for each muscle group twice per week may help. Even 1 set of strength training ...

  12. Physics Matters: An Introduction to Conceptual Physics, Activity Book

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trefil, James; Hazen, Robert M.

    2004-02-01

    From amusement park rides to critical environmental issues such as energy generation-physics affects almost every aspect of our world. In PHYSICS MATTERS, James Trefil and Robert Hazen examine the fundamental physics principles at work behind the many practical applications that fuel our society and individual lives. Their goal is to promote a deeper understanding of how the great ideas of physics connect to form a much larger understanding of the universe in which we live. Highlights Helps readers build a general knowledge of key ideas in physics and their connection to technology and other areas of science. Promotes an appreciation of what science is, how scientific knowledge is developed, and how it differs from other intellectual activities. Examines modern technologies, including GPS, the Internet, and information technologies, as well as medical technologies, such as MRI, PET scans, CAT scans, and radioisotope tracers. Explores key issues facing the world today, such as global warning, nuclear waste, and government funding for research.

  13. Physical activity and health in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bhavesh; Robinson, Rebecca; Till, Simon

    2015-06-01

    Adolescence represents a critical period of development during which personal lifestyle choices and behaviour patterns establish, including the choice to be physically active. Physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour and low cardiorespiratory fitness are strong risk factors for the development of chronic diseases with resulting morbidity and mortality, as well as economic burden to wider society from health and social care provision, and reduced occupational productivity. Worrying trends in adverse physical activity behaviours necessitate urgent and concerted action. Healthcare professionals caring for adolescents and young adults are ideally placed and suited to deliver powerful messages promoting physical activity and behaviour change. Every encounter represents an opportunity to ask about physical activity, provide advice, or signpost to appropriate pathways or opportunities. Key initial targets include getting everyone to reduce their sedentary behaviour and be more active, with even a little being more beneficial than none at all. © Royal College of Physicians 2015. All rights reserved.

  14. Multimorbidity, cognitive function, and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D

    2016-02-01

    Previous research demonstrates that both physical activity and multimorbidity are associated with cognitive function. However, the extent to which physical activity may moderate the relationship between multimorbidity and cognitive function has not been thoroughly evaluated. Data from the 1999-2002 NHANES were used (60+ years; N = 2157). A multimorbidity index variable was created based on physician diagnosis of a multitude of chronic diseases. Physical activity was self-reported and cognitive function was evaluated from the digit symbol substitution test. Multimorbidity was inversely associated with cognitive function for the unadjusted and adjusted models. However, generally, multimorbidity was no longer associated with cognitive function for the majority of older adults who achieved the minimum recommended physical activity level (≥2000 MET-min-month), as issued by the United States Department of Health and Human Services. In this national sample of older adults, there was some evidence to suggest that physical activity moderates the relationship between multimorbidity and cognitive function.

  15. Students' Daily Physical Activity Behaviors: The Role of Quality Physical Education in a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wiyun; Hypnar, Andrew J.; Mason, Steve A.; Zalmout, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of quality physical education (QPET) in a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) which is intended to promote physical activity (PA) behaviors in and outside of schools. Participants were nine elementary physical education teachers and their fourth- and fifth-grade students…

  16. Students' Daily Physical Activity Behaviors: The Role of Quality Physical Education in a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wiyun; Hypnar, Andrew J.; Mason, Steve A.; Zalmout, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of quality physical education (QPET) in a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) which is intended to promote physical activity (PA) behaviors in and outside of schools. Participants were nine elementary physical education teachers and their fourth- and fifth-grade students…

  17. Physics Education activities sponsored by LAPEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora Ley, Cesar E.

    2007-05-01

    In this work we present the first activities of the Latin-American Physics Education Network (LAPEN) organized by representatives of Brazil, Cuba, Mexico, Argentina, Colombia, Uruguay, Peru and Spain. These activities include Seminars, Congress, Postgraduate Programs on Physics Education and several publications. The creation of LAPEN has been inspired and warranted by members of the International Commission on Physics Education of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics. LAPEN was constituted in the International Meeting on Teaching Physics and Training Teachers (RIEFEP 2005) which was held in Matanzas, Cuba in November 2005. The creation of LAPEN was also warranted by the General Assembly of the IX Inter-American Conference on Physics Education held in San José, Costa Rica from 3 to 7 July 2006, and by the ICPE Committee in the International Conference on Physics Education 2006 at Tokyo, Japan. LAPEN has a Coordinator Committee integrated by a President, a Vice-president and an Executive Secretary.

  18. Mechanisms of stroke protection by physical activity.

    PubMed

    Endres, Matthias; Gertz, Karen; Lindauer, Ute; Katchanov, Juri; Schultze, Jörg; Schröck, Helmut; Nickenig, Georg; Kuschinsky, Wolfgang; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Laufs, Ulrich

    2003-11-01

    Regular physical activity is associated with a decrease of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events, which may relate to enhanced endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Here, we provide evidence that physical activity protects against ischemic stroke via mechanisms related to the upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the vasculature. Voluntary training on running wheels or exercise on a treadmill apparatus for 3 weeks, respectively, reduced cerebral infarct size and functional deficits, improved endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, and augmented cerebral blood flow in wild-type mice. The neuroprotective effects of physical training were completely absent in eNOS-deficient mice, indicating that the enhanced eNOS activity by physical training was the predominant mechanism by which this modality protects against cerebral injury. Our results suggest that physical activity not only decreases stroke risk, but also provides a prophylactic treatment strategy for increasing blood flow and reducing brain injury during cerebral ischemia.

  19. [Protein nutrition and physical activity].

    PubMed

    Navarro, M P

    1992-09-01

    The relationship between physical exercise and diet in order to optimize performance is getting growing interest. This review examines protein needs and protein intakes as well as the role of protein in the body and the metabolic changes occurring at the synthesis and catabolic levels during exercise. Protein synthesis in muscle or liver, amino acids oxidation, glucose production via gluconeogenesis from amino acids, etc., are modified, and consequently plasma and urinary nitrogen metabolites are affected. A brief comment on the advantages, disadvantages and forms of different protein supplements for sportsmen is given.

  20. [Relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Yao, Chong-hua; Zuo, Hui-juan; Kong, Ling-zhi; Yang, Xiao-guang; Zhai, Feng-ying

    2006-08-15

    To investigate the relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome (MS). A multi-stage stratified cluster sampling was conducted in 132 sampling 218,920 residents, aged 44.3 +/- 15.3 (15 - 96), in the 31 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities of the mainland China according to the program of the National Nutrition and Health Survey. Questionnaire survey, interview, physical examination, measurement of biochemical indices, and dietary investigation were done. Information of physical activity and measurement of fasting glucose and/or glucose 2 hours after meal, blood pressure, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were obtained in 50,494 participants. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Chinese Medical Association's definition. The intensity of physical activity was divided into 3 categories according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention of US/American College of Sports Medicine criteria. 50,495 subjects, 23,932 males (47.4%) and 26,562 females (52.6%), were diagnosed as with MS. The MS incidence of those with high intensity of physical activity was lower by 60% in comparison with those with low intensity of physical activity (odds ratio 0.60, 95% CI: 0.362 - 0.443) adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and alcohol intake. The risk of MS in those with moderate intensity of physical activity of 151 - 300 minutes/week was slightly decreased compared to those with moderate intensity of physical activity of 90 - 150 minutes/week, (odds ratio 0.935, 95% CI: 0.685 - 1.277), however, the risk of MS in those with the moderate intensity of physical activity over 300 minutes/week increased slightly (OR = 1.269, 95% CI: 0.923 - 1.745). The risk of MS in those with low-level physical activity of 301 - 420 minutes/week was lower by 35% in comparison with those with the low-level physical activity of 90 - 150 minutes/week (95% CI: 0.451 - 0.933), however, the risk of MS in those with the low-level physical activity over 420

  1. Obesity, Physical Activity and Bladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Jonathan L; Liss, Michael A; Parsons, J Kellogg

    2015-10-01

    While smoking and exposure to certain chemicals are well-defined risk factors for bladder cancer, there is no consensus as to the roles of modifiable lifestyle factors, notably physical activity, and obesity. We evaluated associations of obesity and physical activity with bladder cancer risk by performing a system-wide search of PubMed for cohort and case-control studies focused on obesity, exercise, and bladder cancer. A total of 31 studies were identified that evaluated the associations of obesity and physical activity with bladder cancer risk: 20 focused on obesity, eight on physical activity, and three on both. There was marked heterogeneity in population composition and outcomes assessment. Fifteen (65%) of the obesity studies used prevalence or incidence as the primary outcome and seven (30%) used bladder cancer mortality. Ten (44%) observed positive and 13 (56%) null associations of obesity with bladder cancer. Three (100%) of three studies also noted strong positive associations of obesity with bladder cancer progression or recurrence. Ten (91%) of the physical activity studies analyzed prevalence or incidence and one (9%) mortality. One (9%) study observed positive, seven (64%) null, and three (27%) negative associations of physical activity with bladder cancer. Study heterogeneity precluded quantitative assessment of outcomes. Obesity is potentially associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, particularly for progression, recurrence, or death. Further studies of physical activity and bladder cancer are needed to validate these observations and elucidate the associations of exercise with bladder cancer progression and mortality.

  2. Physical Activity and the Prevention of Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Keith M.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2013-01-01

    As the worldwide prevalence of hypertension continues to increase, the primary prevention of hypertension has become an important global public health initiative. Physical activity is commonly recommended as an important lifestyle modification that may aid in the prevention of hypertension. Recent epidemiologic evidence has demonstrated a consistent, temporal, and dose-dependent relationship between physical activity and the development of hypertension. Experimental evidence from interventional studies have further confirmed a relationship between physical activity and hypertension as the favorable effects of exercise on blood pressure reduction have been well characterized in recent years. Despite the available evidence strongly supporting a role for physical activity in the prevention of hypertension, many unanswered questions regarding the protective benefits of physical activity in high-risk individuals, the factors that may moderate the relationship between physical activity and hypertension, and the optimal prescription for hypertension prevention remain. We review the most recent evidence for the role of physical activity in the prevention of hypertension and discuss recent studies that have sought to address these unanswered questions. PMID:24052212

  3. Physical activity in adulthood: genes and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Karvinen, Sira; Waller, Katja; Silvennoinen, Mika; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kainulainen, Heikki; Kujala, Urho M.

    2015-01-01

    Observational studies report a strong inverse relationship between leisure-time physical activity and all-cause mortality. Despite suggestive evidence from population-based associations, scientists have not been able to show a beneficial effect of physical activity on the risk of death in controlled intervention studies among individuals who have been healthy at baseline. On the other hand, high cardiorespiratory fitness is known to be a strong predictor of reduced mortality, even more robust than physical activity level itself. Here, in both animals and/or human twins, we show that the same genetic factors influence physical activity levels, cardiorespiratory fitness, and risk of death. Previous observational follow-up studies in humans suggest that increasing fitness through physical activity levels could prolong life; however, our controlled interventional study with laboratory rats bred for low and high intrinsic fitness contrast with these findings. Also, we find no evidence for the suggested association using pairwise analysis among monozygotic twin pairs who are discordant in their physical activity levels. Based on both our animal and human findings, we propose that genetic pleiotropy might partly explain the frequently observed associations between high baseline physical activity and later reduced mortality in humans. PMID:26666586

  4. Physics of Space Plasma Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Karl

    2010-04-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; Part I. Setting the Scene: 2. Sites of activity; 3. Plasma models; Part II. Quiescence: 4. Introduction; 5. Magnetohydrodynamic states; 6. Particle picture of steady states; 7. A unified theory of steady states; 8. Quasi-static evolution and thin current sheets (TCS); Part III. Dynamics: 9. Nonideal effects; 10. Selected macroinstabilities; 11. Magnetic reconnection; 12. Aspects of bifurcation and nonlinear dynamics; Part IV. Applications: 13. Magnetospheric activity; 14. Models of solar activity; 15. Discussion; Appendix 1. Unified theory: details and derivations; Appendix 2. Variational principle for collisionless plasmas; Appendix 3. Symbols and fundamental constants; References; Index.

  5. Childhood Physical Activity and Adulthood Earnings.

    PubMed

    Kari, Jaana T; Tammelin, Tuija H; Viinikainen, Jutta; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli T; Pehkonen, Jaakko

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the associations between childhood physical activity level and adulthood earnings. The data were drawn from the ongoing longitudinal Young Finns Study, which was combined with register-based Finnish Longitudinal Employer-Employee Data and register-based parents' background information from the Longitudinal Population Census of Statistics Finland. The study consisted of children who were 9 yr (n = 1257, 52% boys), 12 yr (n = 1662, 51% boys), and 15 yr (n = 1969, 49% boys) of age at the time when physical activity was measured. The children were followed until 2010, when they were between 33 and 45 yr old. Leisure-time physical activity in childhood was self-reported, whereas earnings in adulthood were register based and covered over a 10-yr period from 2000 to 2010. Ordinary least squares models were used to analyze the relationship between physical activity and earnings. Childhood physical activity level was positively associated with long-term earnings among men (P < 0.001). In more detail, a higher level of leisure-time physical activity at the age of 9, 12, and 15 yr was associated with an approximate 12%-25% increase in average annual earnings over a 10-yr period. The results were robust to controlling, e.g., an individual's chronic conditions and body fat, parents' education and physical activity, and family income. Among women, no relation was observed. The findings provide evidence that childhood physical activity can have far-reaching positive effects on adulthood earnings. Possibilities for improving physical activity during childhood may not only promote health but also affect long-term labor market outcomes.

  6. [Atherosclerosis, oxidative stress and physical activity. Review].

    PubMed

    Calderón, Juan Camilo; Fernández, Ana Zita; María de Jesús, Alina Isabel

    2008-09-01

    Atherosclerosis and related diseases have emerged as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world and, therefore, as a problem of public health. Free radicals and reactive oxygen species have been suggested to be part of the pathophysiology of these diseases. It is well known that physical activity plays an important role as a public health measure by reducing the risk of developing atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular events in the general population. It is also known that physical activity increases in some tissues, the reactive oxygen species production. In this review the atherosclerosis-oxidative stress-physical activity relationship is focused on the apparent paradox by which physical activity reduces atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk in parallel with the activation of an apparently damaging mechanism which is an increased oxidative stress. A hypothesis including the experimental and clinical evidence is presented to explain the aforementioned paradox.

  7. Physical activity in physical education: teacher or technology effects.

    PubMed

    Grissom, Traci; Ward, Phillip; Martin, Beth; Leenders, Nicole Y J M

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed if wearing a heart rate monitor influenced student activity levels in elementary physical education. Data were analyzed for 4 students using an alternating treatment design to assess differential effects between accelerometer activity counts obtained from students when wearing the heart rate monitor and when they were not wearing the monitor. Results show that (a) there was no difference in activity counts between the 2 conditions, (b) boys had higher means than girls, and (c) the variance between more and less active boys was greater than the variance among the girls.

  8. Physical activity after total joint arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Laura A; Carotenuto, Giuseppe; Basti, John J; Levine, William N

    2011-09-01

    Total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is a common surgical option to treat painful degenerative joint disease. However, there is currently no consensus on the appropriate intensity of physical activity after TJA or how physical activity level affects the rate of revision surgery. A systematic review of the literature regarding physical or athletic activity after TJA was performed to determine current clinical opinion and recommendations regarding appropriate activity levels after TJA, as well as variables affecting successful surgery and improved outcomes. Many studies in the literature regarding athletic activity after TJA focus on total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty. The literature reports contradictory results regarding rates of physical activity after TJA as well as the relationship between physical activity and rates of revision surgery. The current trend in expert opinion shows more liberal recommendations for patients to engage in athletic activity after TJA. Individual characteristics, lifestyle, and patient preferences must be taken into account when one considers appropriate recommendations for athletic activity after TJA. Current trends in clinical opinion favor a higher level of athletic activity after TJA, but clinicians should caution patients not to participate in contact sports or sports that create high joint loads in the replaced joint.

  9. Large-scale physical activity data reveal worldwide activity inequality.

    PubMed

    Althoff, Tim; Sosič, Rok; Hicks, Jennifer L; King, Abby C; Delp, Scott L; Leskovec, Jure

    2017-07-20

    To be able to curb the global pandemic of physical inactivity and the associated 5.3 million deaths per year, we need to understand the basic principles that govern physical activity. However, there is a lack of large-scale measurements of physical activity patterns across free-living populations worldwide. Here we leverage the wide usage of smartphones with built-in accelerometry to measure physical activity at the global scale. We study a dataset consisting of 68 million days of physical activity for 717,527 people, giving us a window into activity in 111 countries across the globe. We find inequality in how activity is distributed within countries and that this inequality is a better predictor of obesity prevalence in the population than average activity volume. Reduced activity in females contributes to a large portion of the observed activity inequality. Aspects of the built environment, such as the walkability of a city, are associated with a smaller gender gap in activity and lower activity inequality. In more walkable cities, activity is greater throughout the day and throughout the week, across age, gender, and body mass index (BMI) groups, with the greatest increases in activity found for females. Our findings have implications for global public health policy and urban planning and highlight the role of activity inequality and the built environment in improving physical activity and health.

  10. Adherence to Exercise and Physical Activity: Preface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, William P.; Dishman, Rod K.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a collection of papers on adherence to exercise programs and physical activity from the 2000 American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education conference, which included research on middle school boys and girls, college men and women, and men and women in the later years, as well as on the more traditional subject of middle aged…

  11. Integrating Physical Activity into Academic Pursuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaus, Mark D.; Simpson, Cynthia G.

    2009-01-01

    Children of today may be the first generation in the United States in more than 200 years to have a life expectancy shorter than their parents. Low levels of fitness caused by physical inactivity and poor nutritional habits of many of today's youth may be a contributing factor. Combating low fitness levels with physical activity is of utmost…

  12. Fostering Physical Activity among Canadians with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, A. E.

    1990-01-01

    This article shares some current thoughts, actions, and plans to foster physical activity among Canadians with disabilities. Topics include mainstreaming physically disabled students, impact of the Jasper Talks Symposium, a national action plan (Blueprint for Action), and recent initiatives that reflect Canadian commitment to adapted physical…

  13. [Physical activity and sports for oncology patients].

    PubMed

    Sauveplane, Dominique; Descotes, Jean-Marc; Renvoise, Nathalie; Dauchy, Sarah

    2014-02-01

    Physical activity and sport are integrated into support care and their indication is officially recognised. The aim is to improve patients' physical capacities, restore social contact and help improve their psychological condition, by reinforcing in particular their self-esteem. However, patients are not sufficiently well-informed.

  14. Activities in Developmental Physical Education; Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarnieri, Barbara; Sandeen, Cecile

    Presented in the curriculum guide are activities for a sequenced physical education program to be used with trainable mentally retarded students (TMR). Defined are teaching approaches such as station teaching. Reviewed are a brief history of adaptive physical education (APE), APE literature on TMR children, and local APE program development.…

  15. Identifying Diverse Means for Assessing Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Dana J.; Pearson, Phil

    2012-01-01

    Physical inactivity is of concern for the majority of age groups within the United States. Limited engagement in physical activity (PA) has been linked with an increased risk for a host of health problems, including but not limited to heart disease, diabetes and cancer. Benefits of PA are widely documented and accepted yet many people, especially…

  16. Adherence to Exercise and Physical Activity: Preface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, William P.; Dishman, Rod K.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a collection of papers on adherence to exercise programs and physical activity from the 2000 American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education conference, which included research on middle school boys and girls, college men and women, and men and women in the later years, as well as on the more traditional subject of middle aged…

  17. Identifying Diverse Means for Assessing Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Dana J.; Pearson, Phil

    2012-01-01

    Physical inactivity is of concern for the majority of age groups within the United States. Limited engagement in physical activity (PA) has been linked with an increased risk for a host of health problems, including but not limited to heart disease, diabetes and cancer. Benefits of PA are widely documented and accepted yet many people, especially…

  18. Physical Activity, Public Health, and Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Kahan, David

    2008-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a serious public health problem that is associated with numerous preventable diseases. Public health concerns, particularly those related to the increased prevalence of overweight, obesity, and diabetes, call for schools to become proactive in the promotion of healthy, physically active lifestyles. This article begins by…

  19. Fostering Physical Activity among Canadians with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, A. E.

    1990-01-01

    This article shares some current thoughts, actions, and plans to foster physical activity among Canadians with disabilities. Topics include mainstreaming physically disabled students, impact of the Jasper Talks Symposium, a national action plan (Blueprint for Action), and recent initiatives that reflect Canadian commitment to adapted physical…

  20. Physical Activity, Public Health, and Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Kahan, David

    2008-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a serious public health problem that is associated with numerous preventable diseases. Public health concerns, particularly those related to the increased prevalence of overweight, obesity, and diabetes, call for schools to become proactive in the promotion of healthy, physically active lifestyles. This article begins by…

  1. Integrating Physical Activity into Academic Pursuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaus, Mark D.; Simpson, Cynthia G.

    2009-01-01

    Children of today may be the first generation in the United States in more than 200 years to have a life expectancy shorter than their parents. Low levels of fitness caused by physical inactivity and poor nutritional habits of many of today's youth may be a contributing factor. Combating low fitness levels with physical activity is of utmost…

  2. Factors Influencing Cypriot Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Chedzoy, Sue M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present selected findings from a larger study, which set out to examine the physical activity levels of Cypriot primary school children and determinants of their activity. Twenty parents of children who obtained high and low activity scores based on pedometer counts and self-reports scores were interviewed. By…

  3. The Elderly's Need for Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foret, Claire M.; Clemons, James M.

    1996-01-01

    This article provides: information on the importance of physical activity for older adults and guidelines to ensure safe and successful activity. It discusses the need for activity, risk levels, prescription of exercise intensity, determination of entry level fitness and monitoring of improvement, and the role of the professional. (SM)

  4. The Elderly's Need for Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foret, Claire M.; Clemons, James M.

    1996-01-01

    This article provides: information on the importance of physical activity for older adults and guidelines to ensure safe and successful activity. It discusses the need for activity, risk levels, prescription of exercise intensity, determination of entry level fitness and monitoring of improvement, and the role of the professional. (SM)

  5. Korean women's attitudes toward physical activity.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Choe, Myoung-Ae

    2004-02-01

    In this study attitudes toward physical activity of three groups of Korean women were explored using a feminist qualitative research design. Seventeen healthy Korean women, 11 Korean women at risk of muscular atrophy, and 16 Korean immigrant women were recruited using a purposive sampling method. In-depth interviews using an interview guide were audiotaped and transcribed. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings indicate that the women viewed physical activity holistically, that death was viewed as the opposite of physical activity, that exercise was differentiated from physical activity, that exercise was connected to health, and that the women rarely participated in exercise because of their busy lives. The findings confirm the importance of considering the psychosocial contexts of attitudes toward health behavior.

  6. Perceived climate in physical activity settings.

    PubMed

    Gill, Diane L; Morrow, Ronald G; Collins, Karen E; Lucey, Allison B; Schultz, Allison M

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the perceived climate for LGBT youth and other minority groups in physical activity settings. A large sample of undergraduates and a selected sample including student teachers/interns and a campus Pride group completed a school climate survey and rated the climate in three physical activity settings (physical education, organized sport, exercise). Overall, school climate survey results paralleled the results with national samples revealing high levels of homophobic remarks and low levels of intervention. Physical activity climate ratings were mid-range, but multivariate analysis of variation test (MANOVA) revealed clear differences with all settings rated more inclusive for racial/ethnic minorities and most exclusive for gays/lesbians and people with disabilities. The results are in line with national surveys and research suggesting sexual orientation and physical characteristics are often the basis for harassment and exclusion in sport and physical activity. The current results also indicate that future physical activity professionals recognize exclusion, suggesting they could benefit from programs that move beyond awareness to skills and strategies for creating more inclusive programs.

  7. [Physical education, health and physical activities: difficult relationships].

    PubMed

    Cogérino, Geneviève

    2016-06-08

    Physical education (PE) is an appropriate subject to investigate the links between physical activity (PA) and health. The current training of PE teachers tends to emphasize the link between PA and physical fitness, to the detriment of other health components. The occupational, environmental, cultural dimensions of PA are frequently overlooked. This article lists four topics related to PA-health links, which could be more extensively included in initial PE teacher training, on the basis of abundant scientific literature: 1. the diversity of exercise motives, according to the subject’s age, gender, ability, competence, living conditions, etc.; 2. the role of body image on the desire or reluctance of teenagers to perform PA or certain physical activities; 3. the evolution of motivations towards PA throughout life; 4. the impact of the PE teachers’ masculinist conceptions, consubstantial of PE, due to its link with sport. These topics could contribute to a better analysis of what individuals seek through PA and the PA-health links they value. They could help teachers to adjust their teaching to contribute to the pupils’ health and not solely their physical fitness..

  8. What Young People Say about Physical Activity: The Children's Sport Participation and Physical Activity (CSPPA) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannehill, Deborah; MacPhail, Ann; Walsh, Julia; Woods, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The Children's Sport Participation and Physical Activity (CSPPA) study is a unique multi-centre/discipline study undertaken by three Irish institutions, Dublin City University, University of Limerick and University College Cork. The study sought to assess participation in physical activity, physical education and sport (PAPES) among 10-18 year…

  9. What Young People Say about Physical Activity: The Children's Sport Participation and Physical Activity (CSPPA) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannehill, Deborah; MacPhail, Ann; Walsh, Julia; Woods, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The Children's Sport Participation and Physical Activity (CSPPA) study is a unique multi-centre/discipline study undertaken by three Irish institutions, Dublin City University, University of Limerick and University College Cork. The study sought to assess participation in physical activity, physical education and sport (PAPES) among 10-18 year…

  10. Physical activity programs for persons with dementia.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Dorothy; Forbes, Sean; Morgan, Debra G; Markle-Reid, Maureen; Wood, Jennifer; Culum, Ivan

    2008-07-16

    There is some evidence that physical activity delays the onset of dementia in healthy older adults and slows down cognitive decline to prevent the onset of cognitive disability. Studies using animal models suggest that physical activity has the potential to attenuate the pathophysiology of dementia. 'Physical activity' refers to 'usual care plus physical activity'. Primary: do physical activity programs maintain or improve cognition, function, behaviour, depression, and mortality compared to usual care in older persons with dementia?Secondary: do physical activity programs have an indirect positive impact on family caregivers' health, quality of life, and mortality compared to family caregivers of older persons with dementia who received usual care alone? Do physical activity programs reduce the use of health care services (e.g., visits to the emergency department) compared to usual care in older persons with dementia and their family caregiver? The trials were identified from searches of the Specialized Register of the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group, The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and LILACS on 9 September 2007 using the search terms: exercise OR "physical activity" OR cycling OR swim* OR gym* OR walk* OR danc* OR yoga OR "tai chi". All relevant, randomized controlled trials in which physical activity programs were compared with usual care for the effect on managing or improving cognition, function, behaviour, depression, and mortality in people with dementia of any type and degree of severity. Secondary outcomes related to the family caregiver(s) included quality of life, mortality, and use of health care services were intended to be examined. Two reviewers independently assessed the retrieved articles for relevance and methodological quality, and extracted data from the selected trials. These were pooled were appropriate. Four trials met the inclusion criteria. However, only two trials were included in the analyses

  11. Environmental influences on children's physical activity.

    PubMed

    Pouliou, Theodora; Sera, Francesco; Griffiths, Lucy; Joshi, Heather; Geraci, Marco; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Law, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to assess whether 7-year-olds' physical activity is associated with family and area-level measures of the physical and socioeconomic environments. We analysed the association of environments with physical activity in 6497 singleton children from the UK Millennium Cohort Study with reliable accelerometer data (≥2 days and ≥10 h/day). Activity levels were assessed as counts per minute; minutes of moderate to vigorous activity (MVPA); and whether meeting recommended guidelines (≥60 min/day MVPA). Higher levels of children's physical activity were associated with households without use of a car and with having a television in a child's bedroom (for counts per minute only). Aspects of the home socioeconomic environment that were associated with more children's physical activity were lone motherhood, lower maternal socioeconomic position and education, family income below 60% national median, and not owning the home. Children's activity levels were higher when parents perceived their neighbourhood as poor for bringing up children and also when families were living in the most deprived areas. Relationships were independent of characteristics such as child's body mass index and ethnic group. When adjusted for physical and socioeconomic correlates, the factors remaining significant in all outcomes were: household car usage and maternal education. Although physical and socioeconomic environments are associated with children's physical activity, much of the variation appears to be determined by the child's home socioeconomic circumstances rather than the wider environment where they live. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Physical activity levels and patients' expectations of physical activity during acute general medical admission.

    PubMed

    Cattanach, N; Sheedy, R; Gill, S; Hughes, A

    2014-05-01

    Bedrest during hospital admission is common and might be harmful. There is scarce published evidence that quantifies physical activity levels and expectations regarding physical activity of general medical patients during an acute inpatient stay. The current study aimed to investigate physical activity levels and expectations regarding physical activity in general medical patients at a large Australian teaching hospital. A convenience sample of 24 general medical patients was observed at 10-min intervals in one day between 8:00 and 17:00 and their physical activity status recorded. Participants completed a questionnaire regarding their expectations of physical activity during illness and hospital admission. Patients were observed to be in bed 51% of the time, were sitting out of bed 43% of the time, were standing 1% of the time and were walking 5% of the time. One third of participants (n = 8) were not observed to walk during the observation period. Questionnaire data indicated that nine (38%) participants expected to remain in bed while in hospital. General medical patients had low levels of physical activity during their hospital stay, which was consistent with many participants' expectations of appropriate activity when in hospital. If physical activity is an important part of acute general medical patient management, then patient expectations of the appropriateness of physical activity need to be addressed and methods to increase physical activity implemented. © 2014 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  13. The active video games' narrative impact on children's physical activities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Active video games (AVGs) capable of inducing physical activity offer an innovative approach to combating childhood obesity. Unfortunately, children's AVG game play decreases quickly, underscoring the need to identify novel methods for player engagement. Narratives have been demonstrated to influenc...

  14. Blood Volume Response to Physical Activity and Inactivity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    physical activity through exposure to exercise ...ing physical activity . Reduced Physical Activity : Bed Rest If increased physical activity associated with reg- ular exercise results in hypervolemia... Activity : Exercise Increased physical activity provides the stimulus for action of several mechanisms that promote the expansion of plasma and

  15. Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture.

    PubMed

    Brittin, Jeri; Sorensen, Dina; Trowbridge, Matthew; Lee, Karen K; Breithecker, Dieter; Frerichs, Leah; Huang, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Increasing children's physical activity at school is a national focus in the U.S. to address childhood obesity. While research has demonstrated associations between aspects of school environments and students' physical activity, the literature currently lacks a synthesis of evidence to serve as a practical, spatially-organized resource for school designers and decision-makers, as well as to point to pertinent research opportunities. This paper describes the development of a new practical tool: Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture. Its aims are to provide architects and designers, as well as school planners, educators, and public health professionals, with strategies for making K-12 school environments conducive to healthy physical activity, and to engage scientists in transdisciplinary perspectives toward improved knowledge of the school environment's impact. We used a qualitative review process to develop evidence-based and theory-driven school design guidelines that promote increased physical activity among students. The design guidelines include specific strategies in 10 school design domains. Implementation of the guidelines is expected to enable students to adopt healthier physical activity behaviors. The tool bridges a translational gap between research and environmental design practice, and may contribute to setting new industry and education standards.

  16. Physical activity, brain plasticity, and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Kirk I; Weinstein, Andrea M; Lopez, Oscar L

    2012-11-01

    In this review we summarize the epidemiological, cross-sectional, and interventional studies examining the association between physical activity and brain volume, function, and risk for Alzheimer's disease. The epidemiological literature provides compelling evidence that greater amounts of physical activity are associated with a reduced risk of dementia in late life. In addition, randomized interventions using neuroimaging tools have reported that participation in physical activity increases the size of prefrontal and hippocampal brain areas, which may lead to a reduction in memory impairments. Consistent with these findings, longitudinal studies using neuroimaging tools also find that the volume of prefrontal and hippocampal brain areas are larger in individuals who engaged in more physical activity earlier in life. We conclude from this review that there is convincing evidence that physical activity has a consistent and robust association with brain regions implicated in age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease. In addition to summarizing this literature we provide recommendations for future research on physical activity and brain health. Copyright © 2012 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Brittin, Jeri; Sorensen, Dina; Trowbridge, Matthew; Lee, Karen K.; Breithecker, Dieter; Frerichs, Leah; Huang, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Increasing children’s physical activity at school is a national focus in the U.S. to address childhood obesity. While research has demonstrated associations between aspects of school environments and students’ physical activity, the literature currently lacks a synthesis of evidence to serve as a practical, spatially-organized resource for school designers and decision-makers, as well as to point to pertinent research opportunities. This paper describes the development of a new practical tool: Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture. Its aims are to provide architects and designers, as well as school planners, educators, and public health professionals, with strategies for making K-12 school environments conducive to healthy physical activity, and to engage scientists in transdisciplinary perspectives toward improved knowledge of the school environment’s impact. We used a qualitative review process to develop evidence-based and theory-driven school design guidelines that promote increased physical activity among students. The design guidelines include specific strategies in 10 school design domains. Implementation of the guidelines is expected to enable students to adopt healthier physical activity behaviors. The tool bridges a translational gap between research and environmental design practice, and may contribute to setting new industry and education standards. PMID:26230850

  18. Physical activity information seeking and advertising recall.

    PubMed

    Berry, Tanya R; Spence, John C; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Bauman, Adrian

    2011-04-01

    The purposes of this research were to examine the characteristics of those who look for physical activity-related information, where they find it, and to examine what types of physical activity-related advertisements are recalled (i.e., publicly funded or commercial). These purposes were tested using secondary data analyses from two population health surveys. Results from the first survey (n=1211) showed gender, age, education, and activity-level differences in who is more likely to search for physical activity-related information. Adding the goal of being active into the model made age and activity level no longer significant but gender and education remained significant factors. The Internet was the most often cited source of physical activity information. The second survey (n=1600) showed that adults 55 years of age or older and participants with the least amount of education were more than twice as likely to name commercial advertisements than were participants aged 18-54 years or those with more education. These results help further our understanding of how publicly funded promotional campaigns fare against commercial advertising and also highlight the need to understand physical activity information-seeking behavior on the Internet and its implications for health promotion.

  19. Physical Activity Information Seeking and Advertising Recall

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Tanya R.; Spence, John C.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Bauman, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this research were to examine the characteristics of those who look for physical activity-related information, where they find it, and to examine what types of physical activity-related advertisements are recalled (i.e., publicly funded or commercial). These purposes were tested using secondary data analyses from two population health surveys. Results from the first survey (N = 1211) showed that gender, age, education, and activity level differences in who is more likely to search for physical activity-related information. Adding the goal of being active into the model made age and activity level no longer significant but gender and education remained significant factors. The Internet was the most often cited source of physical activity information. The second survey (N = 1600) showed that adults 55 years of age or older and participants with the least amount of education were more than twice as likely to name commercial advertisements than were participants aged 18 – 54 years or those with more education. These results help further our understanding of how publicly funded promotional campaigns fare against commercial advertising and also highlight the need to understand physical activity information seeking behaviour on the Internet and its implications for health promotion. PMID:21347937

  20. From Physical Activity Guidelines to a National Activity Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Daniel B.; Pate, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. National Physical Activity Plan (NPAP) is a comprehensive strategic plan aimed at increasing physical activity levels in all segments of the American population. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the development of the NPAP, provide an update on the status of the NPAP, and comment on the future of the NPAP. The NPAP was released…

  1. From Physical Activity Guidelines to a National Activity Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Daniel B.; Pate, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. National Physical Activity Plan (NPAP) is a comprehensive strategic plan aimed at increasing physical activity levels in all segments of the American population. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the development of the NPAP, provide an update on the status of the NPAP, and comment on the future of the NPAP. The NPAP was released…

  2. How Active Are Your Students? Increasing Physical Activity in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Marybell; Brandt, Janet

    2010-01-01

    The U. S. Department of Health and Human Services recommends that youth engage in at least 60 minutes of physical activity each day, most of which should be either moderate- or vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity. Half of this amount (30 minutes) should be achieved during the school day. NASPE provides guidance in the form of a…

  3. Physically active lessons as physical activity and educational interventions: a systematic review of methods and results.

    PubMed

    Norris, E; Shelton, N; Dunsmuir, S; Duke-Williams, O; Stamatakis, E

    2015-03-01

    Physically active lessons aim to increase children's physical activity whilst maintaining academic time. This systematic review aimed to investigate the methods used in such interventions and their effects on physical activity and educational outcomes. In March 2014; PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO and ERIC electronic databases were searched. Inclusion criteria were: 1. Classroom lessons containing both PA and educational elements; 2. intervention studies featuring a control group or within-subjects baseline measurement period; 3. any age-group; and 4. English language. Studies assessing physically active lessons within complex interventions were excluded. Data were extracted onto a standardised form. Risk of bias was assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) tool. Eleven studies were identified: five examined physical activity outcomes only, three examined educational outcomes only and three examined both physical activity and educational outcomes. All studies found improved physical activity following physically active lessons: either in the whole intervention group or in specific demographics. Educational outcomes either significantly improved or were no different compared to inactive teaching. Studies ranged from low to high risk of bias. Encouraging evidence of improved physical activity and educational outcomes following physically active lessons is provided. However, too few studies exist to draw firm conclusions. Future high-quality studies with longer intervention periods are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Physical activity in an ageing population.

    PubMed

    Schroll, M

    2003-02-01

    This review over previously published articles, describes physical activity changes during ageing from age 50-85 in the 1914-cohort in Glostrup, Denmark, and analyses the association between physical activity and mortality, myocardial infarction, hip fractures and functional ability. The 1914-cohort in Glostrup was examined at age 50 in 1964 and re-examined 1974, 1984, 1989, 1994 and 1999. Some analyses were based on pooled data (CCPPS: Copenhagen Centre for Prospective Population Studies) from three longitudinal population studies conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark: The Copenhagen County Centre for Preventive Medicine in Glostrup, The Copenhagen City Heart Study and The Copenhagen Male Study. Physical activity of work and leisure time was classified into four levels based on questions originally constructed by Saltin and Grimby. all-cause mortality, fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction, hip fracture and functional ability (Avlund mobility index of dependency). The lifetime risk from a sedentary leisure time was analysed in multivariate regression analyses controlling for covariates describing gender, age, life style, education and chronic diseases. Less than one third of the population had a sedentary leisure time. Physical activity definitely influenced health and quality of life over the life course in a positive way: compared to the group of inactive men and women, the mortality was about 60%, the incidence of myocardial infarction 70% and the incidence of hip fractures 75% in the moderate active groups. On top the physically active persons gained independency in activities of daily living.

  5. Physical activity and the healthy mind.

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    Physicians should seek to enhance the quality rather than the quantity of human life. Physical activity programs can increase life satisfaction through an immediate increase of arousal and a long-term enhancement of self-esteem and body image. In the young child competition can cause excessive arousal, but long-term adverse effects are rare. In the adult a reduction of anxiety and stress and a general feeling of well-being reduce the frequency of minor medical complaints, generating important economic benefits. Physical activity programs also help to correct the reactive depression that accompanies conditions such as myocardial infarction. Interest in physical activity should be stimulated from the earliest years of primary school. The allocation of curricular time to physical education does not hamper academic achievement. Rather, through its impact on psychomotor learning, it enhances the total process of intellectual and psychomotor development. PMID:6337692

  6. [Influence of physical activity on human health].

    PubMed

    Predel, H-G; Tokarski, W

    2005-08-01

    The lack of physical activity -- frequently associated with malnutrition -- has led to a dramatic increase of so-called diseases of civilization in industrial nations. Hereby -- apart from the cardiovascular diseases -- in particular disorders of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism as well as the musculoskeletal system are included. Physical inactivity can be considered a proven risk factor for these diseases. Children and adolescents are increasingly affected. In the development of effective preventive strategies, the enhancement of physical/sportive activities in everyday life as well as with in the framework of systematic health-orientated training plays a central role. This is confirmed by an abundance of scientific studies indicating that regular physical activity has anenormous potential with regard to the physical and psychological health maintenance in all life phases. The underlying biological mechanisms are complex and affect almost all human organic systems. Yet, the health benefit is critically dependent upon the form, duration and intensity. Endurance-orientated activities such as walking, running, cycling etc. performed at a moderate intensity, exercised at least 2 days a week for a duration of 30-60 min, are recommended. This should be supplemented by moderate strength training comprising all relevant muscle groups. An early commencement of regular, continuous, lifelong physical activities is particularly effective and can be, thus, recommended from a health-orientated perspective.

  7. Health-enhancing physical activity among Saudi adults using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ).

    PubMed

    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M

    2007-01-01

    To describe the physical activity profile of Saudi adults living in Riyadh, using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) short-version telephone format. Physical activity was assessed using the official Arabic short form of IPAQ, intended for use in telephone interview. The instrument asks for times spent in walking, moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity of at least 10 min duration. The sample consisted of 1616 Saudis, between 15 and 78 years of age, living in Riyadh. Participants were drawn from a list of names in the telephone book using a simple random method. Telephone interviews were administered during the spring of 2003 by trained male interviewers. The final sample size was 1064 Saudi males and females (response rate of 66%), with males comprising about 66% of the respondents. Over 43% of Saudis did not participate in any type of moderate-intensity physical activity lasting for at least 10 min. More than 72% of the sample did not engage in any type of vigorous-intensity physical activity lasting for at least 10 min. The proportion of Saudis who walked for 150 min or more per week was 33.3%. Females were engaged more in moderate physical activity than males, whereas males participated more in vigorous activity compared with females. Activity levels did not show significant relationships with education level or job hours per week. Based on the three activity categories established by IPAQ, 40.6% of Saudis were inactive, 34.3% were minimally active and 25.1% were physically active. Physical inactivity increased with advancing age. The data suggest that the prevalence of physical inactivity among Saudis adults is relatively high. Efforts are needed to encourage Saudis to be more physically active, with the goal of increasing the proportion of Saudis engaging in health-enhancing physical activity.

  8. Correlation between pedometer and the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire on physical activity measurement in office workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to examine the correlation of physical activity levels assessed by pedometer and those by the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) in a population of office workers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 320 office workers. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to each office worker by hand. Physical activity level was objectively assessed by a pedometer for 7 consecutive days and subjectively assessed by the GPAQ. Based on the pedometer and GPAQ outcomes, participants were classified into 3 groups: inactive, moderately active, and highly active. Results No correlation in the physical activity level assessed by the pedometer and GPAQ was found (rs = .08, P = 0.15). When considering the pedometer as the criterion for comparison, 65.3% of participants had underestimated their physical activity level using the GPAQ, whereas 9.3% of participants overestimated their physical activity level. Conclusions Physical activity level in office workers assessed by a subjective measure was greatly different from assessed by an objective tool. Consequently, research on physical activity level, especially in those with sedentary lifestyle, should consider using an objective measure to ensure that it closely reflects a person’s physical activity level. PMID:24886593

  9. Return to physical activity after gastrocnemius recession

    PubMed Central

    Tang Qian Ying, Camelia; Lai Wei Hong, Sean; Lee, Bing Howe; Thevendran, Gowreeson

    2016-01-01

    AIM To prospectively investigate the time taken and patients’ ability to resume preoperative level of physical activity after gastrocnemius recession. METHODS Endoscopic gastrocnemius recession (EGR) was performed on 48 feet in 46 consecutive sportspersons, with a minimum follow-up of 24 mo. The Halasi Ankle Activity Score was used to quantify the level of physical activity. Time taken to return to work and physical activity was recorded. Functional outcomes were evaluated using the short form 36 (SF-36), American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Hindfoot score and modified Olerud and Molander (O and M) scores respectively. Patient’s satisfaction and pain experienced were assessed using a modified Likert scale and visual analogue scales. P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS Ninety-one percent (n = 42) of all patients returned to their preoperative level of physical activity after EGR. The mean time for return to physical activity was 7.5 (2-24) mo. Ninety-eight percent (n = 45) of all patients were able to return to their preoperative employment status, with a mean time of 3.6 (1-12) mo. Ninety-six percent (n = 23) of all patients with an activity score > 2 were able to resume their preoperative level of physical activity in mean time of 8.8 mo, as compared to 86% (n = 19) of patients whose activity score was ≤ 2, with mean time of 6.1 mo. Significant improvements were noted in SF-36, AOFAS hindfoot and modified O and M scores. Ninety percent of all patients rated good or very good outcomes on the Likert scale. CONCLUSION The majority of patients were able to return to their pre-operative level of sporting activity after EGR. PMID:27900272

  10. Leisure-time physical activity in relation to occupational physical activity among women

    PubMed Central

    Ekenga, Christine C.; Parks, Christine G.; Wilson, Lauren E.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between occupational physical activity and leisure-time physical activity among US women in the Sister Study. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 26,334 women who had been employed in their current job for at least 1 year at baseline (2004–2009). Occupational physical activity was self-reported and leisure-time physical activity was estimated in metabolic equivalent hours per week. Log multinomial regression was used to evaluate associations between occupational (sitting, standing, manually active) and leisure-time (insufficient, moderate, high) activity. Models were adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, income, geographic region, and body mass index. Results Only 54% of women met or exceeded minimum recommended levels of leisure-time physical activity (moderate 32% and high 22%). Women who reported sitting (PR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.74–0.92) or standing (PR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.75–0.94) most of the time at work were less likely to meet the requirements for high leisure-time physical activity than manually active workers. Associations were strongest among women living in the Northeast and the South. Conclusion In this nationwide study, low occupational activity was associated with lower leisure-time physical activity. Women who are not active in the workplace may benefit from strategies to promote leisure-time physical activity. PMID:25773471

  11. Physical Activity and Modernization among Bolivian Amerindians

    PubMed Central

    Gurven, Michael; Jaeggi, Adrian V.; Kaplan, Hillard; Cummings, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is a growing public health problem, and the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Conversely, indigenous populations living traditional lifestyles reportedly engage in vigorous daily activity that is protective against non-communicable diseases. Here we analyze physical activity patterns among the Tsimane, forager-horticulturalists of Amazonian Bolivia with minimal heart disease and diabetes. We assess age patterns of adult activity among men and women, test whether modernization affects activity levels, and examine whether nascent obesity is associated with reduced activity. Methods and Findings A factorial method based on a large sample of behavioral observations was employed to estimate effects of age, sex, body mass index, and modernization variables on physical activity ratio (PAR), the ratio of total energy expenditure to basal metabolic rate. Accelerometry combined with heart rate monitoring was compared to the factorial method and used for nighttime sampling. Tsimane men and women display 24 hr physical activity level (PAL) of 2.02–2.15 and 1.73–1.85, respectively. Little time was spent “sedentary”, whereas most activity was light to moderate, rather than vigorous. Activity peaks by the late twenties in men, and declines thereafter, but remains constant among women after the early teens. Neither BMI, fat free mass or body fat percentage are associated with PAR. There was no negative effect of modernization on physical activity. Conclusions Tsimane display relatively high PALs typical of other subsistence populations, but of moderate intensity, and not outside the range of developed populations. Despite rapidly increasing socioeconomic change, there is little evidence that total activity has yet been affected. Overweight and obesity are more prevalent among women than men, and Spanish fluency is associated with greater obesity in women. The lack of cardiovascular disease among Tsimane is unlikely caused by

  12. Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels, & Health-Related Physical Fitness in Middle School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Newton, Maria; Carson, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the predictive utility of students' motivation (self-efficacy and task values) to their physical activity levels and health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength/endurance) in middle school fitness activity classes. Participants (N = 305) responded to questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy…

  13. Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels, & Health-Related Physical Fitness in Middle School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Newton, Maria; Carson, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the predictive utility of students' motivation (self-efficacy and task values) to their physical activity levels and health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength/endurance) in middle school fitness activity classes. Participants (N = 305) responded to questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy…

  14. Canada's Physical Activity Guide: examining print-based material for motivating physical activity in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Todosijczuk, Ivan; Johnson, Steven T; Karunamuni, Nandini

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted a secondary analysis on 202 adults from the Physical Activity Workplace Study. The aim of this analysis was to examine demographic characteristics associated with reading Canada's Physical Activity Guide (CPAG), being motivated by the guide, and whether participants in the Physical Activity Workplace Study who read the CPAG increased their physical activity levels over 1 year. Results revealed that less than 50% of participants read the full version of CPAG, and less than 10% were motivated by it. The CPAG also appears to be more appealing to and effective for women than for men. Although the CPAG had some influence in increasing mild physical activity levels in a workplace sample, there was also a decrease in physical activity levels among some members of the group. Overall, the effectiveness of CPAG was not substantial, and the findings of this analysis could help guide future targeted intervention materials and programs.

  15. Increased physical activity reduces prevalence of periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Al-Zahrani, Mohammad S; Borawski, Elaine A; Bissada, Nabil F

    2005-10-01

    Physical activity has been shown to have a protective relationship with several chronic diseases. Recently, physical activity was also found to reduce the risk of periodontitis in a study in male health professionals. However, the relationship between physical activity and periodontitis in a diverse group of individuals is not thoroughly examined. The purpose of this study was to examine if there is an association between sustained physical activity and periodontitis in a subset of the third national health and nutrition examination survey (NHANES III). NHANES III participants 18 years of age or older who had had a periodontal examination and reported to have a similar physical activity (or inactivity) level for 10 years or longer were selected (n=2521). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between physical activity and periodontitis. The analysis was adjusted for: age, gender, race, education, smoking, body mass index, poverty index, vitamin use, healthy eating index, time since last dental visit, gingival bleeding, and dental calculus. Engaging in the recommended level of physical activity was significantly associated with lower periodontitis prevalence (OR=0.58, 95% CI, 0.35-0.96). Smoking, however, was found to modify this relationship. The association was strong and significant among never (OR=0.46, 95% CI, 0.23-0.93) and former smokers (OR=0.26, 95% CI: 0.09-0.72), but not among current smokers (OR=1.10, 95% CI: 0.48-2.53). These results suggest that engaging in the recommended level of exercise is associated with lower periodontitis prevalence, especially among never and former smokers.

  16. Identifying physical activity gender differences among youth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Physical activity (PA) is an important part of a healthy lifestyle and reduces risk of certain chronic diseases. Many youth do not currently meet PA guidelines; evidence suggests that girls are less active than boys are at all ages. PA differences need to be understood, so that gender-specific inter...

  17. Defining Adapted Physical Activity: International Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Sherrill, Claudine

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe international perspectives concerning terms, definitions, and meanings of adapted physical activity (APA) as (a) activities or service delivery, (b) a profession, and (c) an academic field of study. Gergen's social constructionism, our theory, guided analysis of multiple sources of data via qualitative…

  18. Physical Activity Opportunities before and after School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastie, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the many ways in which schools can provide physical activity opportunities for students by taking advantage of hours that students might otherwise spend waiting for school to begin or playing computer games after school has ended. The article presents creative strategies for engaging students in activities that are…

  19. Girls' Physically Active Play and Parental Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauber, Margaret A.

    Sex differences in children's physical activity levels, and associations between girls' activity level, childrearing characteristics and parent-child play behavior were investigated in a quasi-naturalistic situation. As part of a longitudinal project, 144 third grade children were videotaped in a 1-hour play session with one of their parents. A…

  20. Defining Adapted Physical Activity: International Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Sherrill, Claudine

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe international perspectives concerning terms, definitions, and meanings of adapted physical activity (APA) as (a) activities or service delivery, (b) a profession, and (c) an academic field of study. Gergen's social constructionism, our theory, guided analysis of multiple sources of data via qualitative…

  1. Healthy obesity and objective physical activity.

    PubMed

    Bell, Joshua A; Hamer, Mark; van Hees, Vincent T; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimäki, Mika; Sabia, Séverine

    2015-08-01

    Disease risk is lower in metabolically healthy obese adults than in their unhealthy obese counterparts. Studies considering physical activity as a modifiable determinant of healthy obesity have relied on self-reported measures, which are prone to inaccuracies and do not capture all movements that contribute to health. We aimed to examine differences in total and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity between healthy and unhealthy obese groups by using both self-report and wrist-worn accelerometer assessments. Cross-sectional analyses were based on 3457 adults aged 60-82 y (77% male) participating in the British Whitehall II cohort study in 2012-2013. Normal-weight, overweight, and obese adults were considered "healthy" if they had <2 of the following risk factors: low HDL cholesterol, hypertension, high blood glucose, high triacylglycerol, and insulin resistance. Differences across groups in total physical activity, based on questionnaire and wrist-worn triaxial accelerometer assessments (GENEActiv), were examined by using linear regression. The likelihood of meeting 2010 World Health Organization recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous activity (≥2.5 h/wk) was compared by using prevalence ratios. Of 3457 adults, 616 were obese [body mass index (in kg/m²) ≥30]; 161 (26%) of those were healthy obese. Obese adults were less physically active than were normal-weight adults, regardless of metabolic health status or method of physical activity assessment. Healthy obese adults had higher total physical activity than did unhealthy obese adults only when assessed by accelerometer (P = 0.002). Healthy obese adults were less likely to meet recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity than were healthy normal-weight adults based on accelerometer assessment (prevalence ratio: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.79) but were not more likely to meet these recommendations than were unhealthy obese adults (prevalence ratio: 1.26; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.80). Higher total physical

  2. Healthy obesity and objective physical activity123

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Joshua A; Hamer, Mark; van Hees, Vincent T; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimäki, Mika; Sabia, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    Background: Disease risk is lower in metabolically healthy obese adults than in their unhealthy obese counterparts. Studies considering physical activity as a modifiable determinant of healthy obesity have relied on self-reported measures, which are prone to inaccuracies and do not capture all movements that contribute to health. Objective: We aimed to examine differences in total and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity between healthy and unhealthy obese groups by using both self-report and wrist-worn accelerometer assessments. Design: Cross-sectional analyses were based on 3457 adults aged 60–82 y (77% male) participating in the British Whitehall II cohort study in 2012–2013. Normal-weight, overweight, and obese adults were considered “healthy” if they had <2 of the following risk factors: low HDL cholesterol, hypertension, high blood glucose, high triacylglycerol, and insulin resistance. Differences across groups in total physical activity, based on questionnaire and wrist-worn triaxial accelerometer assessments (GENEActiv), were examined by using linear regression. The likelihood of meeting 2010 World Health Organization recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous activity (≥2.5 h/wk) was compared by using prevalence ratios. Results: Of 3457 adults, 616 were obese [body mass index (in kg/m2) ≥30]; 161 (26%) of those were healthy obese. Obese adults were less physically active than were normal-weight adults, regardless of metabolic health status or method of physical activity assessment. Healthy obese adults had higher total physical activity than did unhealthy obese adults only when assessed by accelerometer (P = 0.002). Healthy obese adults were less likely to meet recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity than were healthy normal-weight adults based on accelerometer assessment (prevalence ratio: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.79) but were not more likely to meet these recommendations than were unhealthy obese adults (prevalence ratio: 1

  3. Physical activity in patients with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Achamrah, Najate; Coëffier, Moïse; Déchelotte, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is often associated with physical hyperactivity. Recent studies have established links between anorexia and hyperactivity, suggesting the existence of commonalities in neural pathways. How physical activity should be managed during the clinical care of patients with anorexia remains controversial. This review first focuses on the implication of hyperactivity in the pathophysiology of AN. Hyperactivity during refeeding of patients with AN has been associated with increased energy needs to achieve weight gain, poorer clinical outcome, longer hospitalization, and increased psychiatric comorbidity. This typically leads to the prescription of bed rest. However, current knowledge suggests that preserving some kind of physical activity during refeeding of patients with AN should be safe and beneficial for the restoration of body composition, the preservation of bone mineral density, and the management of mood and anxiety. In the absence of standardized guidelines, it is suggested here that physical activity during refeeding of patients with AN should be personalized according to the physical and mental status of each patient. More research is needed to assess whether programmed physical activity may be a beneficial part of the treatment of AN.

  4. Do physical activity facilities near schools affect physical activity in high school girls?

    PubMed

    Trilk, Jennifer L; Ward, Dianne S; Dowda, Marsha; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Porter, Dwayne E; Hibbert, James; Pate, Russell R

    2011-03-01

    To investigate associations between the number of physical activity facilities within walking distance of school and physical activity behavior in 12th grade girls during after-school hours. Girls (N=1394) from 22 schools completed a self-report to determine physical activity after 3:00 p.m. The number of physical activity facilities within a 0.75-mile buffer of the school was counted with a Geographic Information System. Associations between the number of facilities and girls' physical activity were examined using linear mixed-model analysis of variance. Overall, girls who attended schools with ≥5 facilities within the buffer reported more physical activity per day than girls in schools with <5 facilities. In addition, girls who attended rural schools with ≥5 facilities reported ∼12% more physical activity per day than girls who attended rural schools with <5 facilities. No difference existed for girls in urban/suburban schools with ≥5 vs. <5 facilities. When school siting decisions are made, the number of physical activity facilities surrounding the school should be considered to encourage physical activity in 12th grade girls. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Validation of reported physical activity for cholesterol control using two different physical activity instruments.

    PubMed

    Fan, Amy Z; Ham, Sandra A; Muppidi, Shravani Reddy; Mokdad, Ali H

    2009-01-01

    The National Cholesterol Education Program recommends increasing physical activity to improve cholesterol levels and overall cardiovascular health. We examined whether US adults who reported increasing their physical activity to control or lower blood cholesterol following physician's advice or on their own efforts had higher levels of physical activity than those who reported that they did not. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004, which implemented two physical activity assessment instruments. The physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) assessed self-reported frequency, intensity, and duration of leisure-time, household, and transportation-related physical activity in the past month. Physical movement was objectively monitored using a waist accelerometer that assessed minute-by-minute intensity (counts of movement/minute) during waking time over a 7-day period. We adjusted our analysis for age, gender, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and body mass index. Participants who reported increasing physical activity to control blood cholesterol had more PAQ-assessed physical activity and more accelerometer-assessed active days per week compared to those who did not. However, there were no significant differences in cholesterol levels between comparison groups. These findings suggest that self-report of exercising more to control or lower cholesterol levels among US adults might be valid.

  6. [Metabolic fitness: physical activity and health].

    PubMed

    Saltin, Bengt; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2002-04-15

    Physical inactivity is strongly associated with an increased risk of premature disease and death, and the falling level of physical activity in Denmark (as in many other countries) makes physical inactivity a major life-style risk factor in many western countries today. Both aerobic fitness (maximum oxygen uptake) and metabolic capacity of the muscles are important in this matter. The present paper focuses on the role of the metabolic capacity/fitness of muscle, because this appears to be especially critical for the development of metabolic-related diseases and thus for the health of the individual. A definition of metabolic fitness is proposed as the ratio between mitochondrial capacity for substrate utilisation and maximum oxygen uptake of the muscle. Indirect means of determining this parameter are discussed. Skeletal muscle is an extraordinarily plastic tissue and metabolic capacity/fitness changes quickly when the level of physical activity is altered. High metabolic fitness includes an elevated use of fat at rest and during exercise. The capacity for glucose metabolism is also enhanced in trained muscle. Some of these adaptations to physical activity are explained. Exercise-induced activation of genes coding for proteins involved in metabolism is described as an underlying mechanism for some of these adaptations. The increased gene expression is of relatively short duration, which implies that a certain regularity of physical activity is required to maintain high metabolic fitness. Thus, metabolic fitness is directly related to how much the muscle is used, but even low levels of physical activity have a beneficial effect on metabolic fitness and the overall health of the individual.

  7. Adulthood lifetime physical activity and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Peplonska, Beata; Lissowska, Jolanta; Hartman, Terryl J; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Blair, Aaron; Zatonski, Witold; Sherman, Mark E; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Brinton, Louise A

    2008-03-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that breast cancer risk is reduced 30% to 40% in highly physically active compared with inactive women. However, the effects of moderate activities, timing of activities, and intervening effects of other risk factors remain less clear. We analyzed data on physical activity patterns in 2176 incident breast cancer cases and 2326 controls in a population-based breast cancer case-control study in Poland conducted in 2000-2003. Using unconditional logistic regression analyses, we calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with physical activity levels (measured by average metabolic equivalents of energy expenditure hours per week), controlling for potential confounders. Total adult lifetime activity reduced risk of breast cancer, with individuals in the highest quartile having an OR of 0.80 (CI = 0.67-0.96) compared with the lowest quartile. Reduced risks were most consistent for the highest quartiles of moderate-to-vigorous activities: moderate/vigorous recreational activities (OR = 0.74; CI = 0.62-0.89), outdoor activities (0.81; 0.68-0.97), heavy physical work (0.60; 0.42-0.87), and combined high intensity (metabolic equivalent >6.0) activities (0.75; 0.63-0.90). These relations were not modified by body mass index, menopausal status, or family history of breast cancer. Reductions in risk with moderate/vigorous recreational activities were stronger for larger tumors and those with nodal involvement. Women who increased their recreational activity in their 50s had significantly reduced risk, with those in the highest tertile of change being at a 27% lower risk. Leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous activities reduce breast cancer risk irrespective of underlying host characteristics.

  8. Physical education, school physical activity, school sports and academic performance

    PubMed Central

    Trudeau, François; Shephard, Roy J

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this paper is to review relationships of academic performance and some of its determinants to participation in school-based physical activities, including physical education (PE), free school physical activity (PA) and school sports. Methods Linkages between academic achievement and involvement in PE, school PA and sport programmes have been examined, based on a systematic review of currently available literature, including a comprehensive search of MEDLINE (1966 to 2007), PSYCHINFO (1974 to 2007), SCHOLAR.GOOGLE.COM, and ERIC databases. Results Quasi-experimental data indicate that allocating up to an additional hour per day of curricular time to PA programmes does not affect the academic performance of primary school students negatively, even though the time allocated to other subjects usually shows a corresponding reduction. An additional curricular emphasis on PE may result in small absolute gains in grade point average (GPA), and such findings strongly suggest a relative increase in performance per unit of academic teaching time. Further, the overwhelmingly majority of such programmes have demonstrated an improvement in some measures of physical fitness (PF). Cross-sectional observations show a positive association between academic performance and PA, but PF does not seem to show such an association. PA has positive influences on concentration, memory and classroom behaviour. Data from quasi-experimental studies find support in mechanistic experiments on cognitive function, pointing to a positive relationship between PA and intellectual performance. Conclusion Given competent providers, PA can be added to the school curriculum by taking time from other subjects without risk of hindering student academic achievement. On the other hand, adding time to "academic" or "curricular" subjects by taking time from physical education programmes does not enhance grades in these subjects and may be detrimental to health. PMID:18298849

  9. Adolescent physical fitness and activity as predictors of adulthood activity.

    PubMed

    Huotari, Pertti; Nupponen, Heimo; Mikkelsson, Lasse; Laakso, Lauri; Kujala, Urho

    2011-08-01

    A 25-year population-based study was conducted to determine how physical fitness and participation in leisure-time physical activity in adolescence (age 12-18 years) predict leisure-time physical activity in adulthood (age 37-43 years). In 1976, five field tests were conducted to measure muscular fitness, agility and aerobic capacity, and self-report weekly frequencies of activity were obtained by questionnaire. A modified questionnaire was repeated in 2001, when participants were age 37-43 years (N = 1525). On the basis of the questionnaire, a physical activity index was calculated both in 1976 and 2001. The odds ratios (OR) for being inactive in adulthood among those who were physically very active in adolescence compared with those who were inactive in adolescence was 0.13 for males (95%CI: 0.06-0.31) and 0.28 for females (95%CI: 0.13-0.59). The odds ratio for adult inactivity among males in the highest versus lowest fitness group in adolescence was 0.24 (95%CI: 0.07-0.81). Activity in adolescence predicted activity in adulthood in both males and females. The risk for adult inactivity was significantly lower for those who were physically active in adolescence. In addition, high fitness predicted adult activity among males but not among females.

  10. Physical activity and lung cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Emaus, Aina; Thune, Inger

    2011-01-01

    Since lung cancer is among the cancers with the highest incidence and has the highest mortality rate of cancer worldwide, the means of reducing its impact are urgently needed. Emerging evidence shows that physical activity plays an etiological role in lung cancer risk reduction. The majority of studies support the fact that total and recreational physical activity reduces lung cancer risk by 20-30% for women and 20-50% for men, and there is evidence of a dose-response effect. The biological mechanisms operating between physical activity and lung cancer are likely complex and influenced by many factors including inherited or acquired susceptibility genes, gender, smoking, and other environmental factors. Several plausible biological factors and mechanisms have been hypothesized linking physical activity to reduced lung cancer risk including: improved pulmonary function, reduced concentrations of carcinogenic agents in the lungs, enhanced immune function, reduced inflammation, enhanced DNA repair capacity, changes in growth factor levels and possible gene-physical activity interactions. Future research should target the possible subgroup effects and the biologic mechanisms that may be involved.

  11. [Physical activity, eating behavior, and pathology].

    PubMed

    Jáuregui Lobera, Ignacio; Estébanez Humanes, Sonia; Santiago Fernández, María José

    2008-09-01

    Intense physical activity has been reported in patients with eating disorders, and hyperactivity can be found in more than 80% in severe stages. The beginning of food restriction occurs at earlier ages if there is an intense physical activity; body dissatisfaction is more intense among patients who practice exercise; and the presence of intense activity in anorexia nervosa usually precedes to the restrictive diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of exercise at the beginning of the eating disorder, and to analyze possible differences in the kind of exercise, according to age, sex and diagnostic subgroups. In order to evaluate the exercise 745 patients were assessed by the Eating Disorders Examination (EDE). The presence of physical activity (driving to caloric consumption, weight loss or modification of body shape), kind of activity, and its intensity were considered. Only the presence of moderate or high intensity clearly related with the mentioned objectives was considered. 407 patients (54.63%) engaged in exercise: 68.96% with anorexia, 68.96% with bulimia, and 34.73% with other non-specified eating disorders. There were not significant differences between men and women. Hyperactivity was the most frequent (47.42%), followed by gym activity (25.79%). Taking into account the different clinic subgroups, we could observe significant differences. To assess eating disorders, a correct evaluation of the physical activity should be necessary in order to include this aspect in treatment programs.

  12. [The importance of physical activity and fitness for human health].

    PubMed

    Brandes, M

    2012-01-01

    The decline of physical activity is considered to play an important role in the deterioration of health predictors, such as overweight, and the associated increase of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Therefore, most interventional strategies aim for increasing physical activity. Instead of physical activity, some studies use physical fitness as a key variable. Though physical fitness is influenced by genetic factors, physical fitness has to be developed by physical activity. As recent reports demonstrate the prospective associations between physical fitness and health and mortality, these associations are not reported for physical activity. Due to the fact that physical fitness-in contrast to physical activity-is evaluated with standardized laboratory measurements, it appears advisable to assess physical fitness for prospective health perspectives. Although physical fitness is determined by genetics, physical activity is the primary modifiable determinant for increasing physical fitness and should be aimed for to improve physical fitness in interventional strategies.

  13. [Sedentarity--sedentary lifestyle and physical activity].

    PubMed

    Rabaeus, M

    2005-09-01

    Physical inactivity is the most important planetary reason for non-transmissible mortality. Technical developments have allowed a sedentary lifestyle. This causes health problems such as insulin resistance, atherosclerosis, heart failure and obesity. In addition, disturbances of bones and muscles as well as dementia of the Alzheimer type are associated with sedentarity. Assessing this risk factor and attempting to increase physical activity should be a very important part of any general practitioner's measures.

  14. The place of physical activity in the WHO Global Strategy on Diet and Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Adrian; Craig, Cora L

    2005-08-24

    In an effort to reduce the global burden of non-communicable disease, the World Health Organization released a Global Strategy for Diet and Physical Activity in May 2004. This commentary reports on the development of the strategy and its importance specifically for physical activity-related work of NGOs and researchers interested in increasing global physical activity participation. Sparked by its work on global efforts to target non-communicable disease prevention in 2000, the World Health Organization commissioned a global strategy on diet and physical activity. The physical activity interest followed efforts that had led to the initial global "Move for Health Day" in 2002. WHO assembled a reference group for the global strategy, and a regional consultation process with countries was undertaken. Underpinning the responses was the need for more physical activity advocacy; partnerships outside of health including urban planning; development of national activity guidelines; and monitoring of the implementation of the strategy. The consultation process was an important mechanism to confirm the importance and elevate the profile of physical activity within the global strategy. It is suggested that separate implementation strategies for diet and physical activity may be needed to work with partner agencies in disparate sectors (e.g. urban planning for physical activity, agriculture for diet). International professional societies are well situated to make an important contribution to global public health by advocating for the importance of physical activity among risk factors; developing international measures of physical activity and global impacts of inactivity; and developing a global research and intervention agenda.

  15. The place of physical activity in the WHO Global Strategy on Diet and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, Adrian; Craig, Cora L

    2005-01-01

    In an effort to reduce the global burden of non-communicable disease, the World Health Organization released a Global Strategy for Diet and Physical Activity in May 2004. This commentary reports on the development of the strategy and its importance specifically for physical activity-related work of NGOs and researchers interested in increasing global physical activity participation. Sparked by its work on global efforts to target non-communicable disease prevention in 2000, the World Health Organization commissioned a global strategy on diet and physical activity. The physical activity interest followed efforts that had led to the initial global "Move for Health Day" in 2002. WHO assembled a reference group for the global strategy, and a regional consultation process with countries was undertaken. Underpinning the responses was the need for more physical activity advocacy; partnerships outside of health including urban planning; development of national activity guidelines; and monitoring of the implementation of the strategy. The consultation process was an important mechanism to confirm the importance and elevate the profile of physical activity within the global strategy. It is suggested that separate implementation strategies for diet and physical activity may be needed to work with partner agencies in disparate sectors (e.g. urban planning for physical activity, agriculture for diet). International professional societies are well situated to make an important contribution to global public health by advocating for the importance of physical activity among risk factors; developing international measures of physical activity and global impacts of inactivity; and developing a global research and intervention agenda. PMID:16120214

  16. The effect of physical activity homework on physical activity among college students.

    PubMed

    Claxton, David; Wells, Gayle M

    2009-03-01

    This study examined the effect of using physical activity homework on physical activity levels of college students. Students in randomly assigned sections of a university health course were assigned 30 minutes of physical activity homework 3 days a week or no homework for 12 weeks. Participants completed self-reports of physical activity before the homework intervention and again at the conclusion of the 12 weeks of physical activity homework. Participants in all course sections reported significant increases in the number of days per week of moderate and vigorous physical activity. Participants in homework sections additionally showed significant increases in the days they engaged in muscular strength/endurance training and activities to manage weight. Participants in sections without homework showed a significant increase in the number of days engaged in flexibility training. Comparison of gain scores showed statistically significant increases by the homework group in the days they participated in activities designed to manage weight. Physical activity homework was deemed to be an effective method of increasing college students' levels of physical activity.

  17. Physical activity in physical education: are longer lessons better?

    PubMed

    Smith, Nicole J; Monnat, Shannon M; Lounsbery, Monica A F

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare physical activity (PA) outcomes in a sample of high school (HS) physical education (PE) lessons from schools that adopted traditional versus modified block schedule formats. We used the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) to conduct observations of 168 HS PE lessons delivered by 22 PE teachers in 4 schools. T-tests and multilevel models were used to explore variability in moderate PA and vigorous PA. PA outcomes were significantly different between modified block and traditional schools. Students who attended traditional schools engaged in more vigorous PA in PE lessons. Modified block lessons lost more scheduled lesson time due to poor transition to and from the locker room. PA outcomes were positively associated with fitness and teacher promotion of PA and negatively associated with lost time, class size, management, and knowledge. Although PE proponents widely advocate for more PE minutes, this study showed that greater time scheduled in PE does not necessarily result in more student accrual of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) minutes. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  18. Levels of physical activity during physical education lessons in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Fröberg, Andreas; Raustorp, Anders; Pagels, Peter; Larsson, Christel; Boldemann, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the percentage of sedentary light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (%MVPA) provided by physical education (PE) lessons for Swedish second, fifth and eighth grade students, aged eight, 11 and 14. We observed 39 PE lessons and divided them into seven lesson categories: ball play, ball games, dance, fitness, playing games, orienteering and gymnastics. Physical activity (PA) during PE was estimated using accelerometers and the height and weight of the children were measured. We studied 149 children: 63 in the second grade, 66 in the fifth grade and 19 in the eighth grade. On average, 25% of the PE lessons were spent in MVPA and the mean %MVPA varied with the lesson content, with fitness, orienteering and playing games being the most intense. The highest %MVPA was in the fitness category, providing 33% (8-62%) for girls and 37% (7-72%) for boys. With the exception of the second grade, no significant gender differences in %MVPA were seen. The content of Swedish PE lessons affected the %MVPA in all age groups. In some content, individuals reached two-thirds of their daily PA recommendations, highlighting the potential that PE contributes to public health goals. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Mobile computer application for promoting physical activity.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Siobhan; Vankipuram, Mithra; Fleury, Julie

    2013-04-01

    Despite evidence that physical activity reduces the risk of falls and other causes of disability and death, the majority of older adults do not engage in physical activity on a regular basis. Mobile technology applications have emerged as potential resources for promoting physical activity behavior. This article describes features of a new application, Ready∼Steady, highlighting approaches used in its design and development, and implications for clinical practice. Iterative processes enabled the design, development, implementation, and evaluation of the application consistent with the wellness motivation theory, as well as established user-specific strategies and theoretical design principles. Implications in terms of potential benefits and constraints are discussed. Integrating technology that promotes health and wellness in the form of mobile computer applications is a promising adjunct to nursing practice.

  20. Mobile Computer Application for Promoting Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Siobhan; Vankipuram, Mithra; Fleury, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Despite evidence that physical activity reduces the risk of falls and other causes of disability and death, the majority of older adults do not engage in physical activity on a regular basis. Mobile technology applications have emerged as potential resources for promoting physical activity behavior. This article describes features of a new application, Ready~Steady, highlighting approaches used in its design and development, and implications for clinical practice. Iterative processes enabled the design, development, implementation, and evaluation of the application consistent with the wellness motivation theory, as well as established user-specific strategies and theoretical design principles. Implications in terms of potential benefits and constraints are discussed. Integrating technology that promotes health and wellness in the form of mobile computer applications is a promising adjunct to nursing practice. PMID:23463915

  1. Physical activity recommendations for older Australians.

    PubMed

    Sims, Jane; Hill, Keith; Hunt, Susan; Haralambous, Betty

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this research was to produce evidence-based recommendations on physical activity designed to improve and maintain the health of older Australians. The authors reviewed existing guidelines and consensus statements, systematic reviews, meta-analyses and research articles. Draft recommendations were circulated to stakeholder agencies and to an expert advisory group. Final recommendations were then forwarded to the Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing for Ministerial approval. The physical activity recommendations for older Australians complement the current National Physical Activity Guidelines for adults and the American College of Sports Medicine and American Heart Association recommendations for older adults. The recommendations provide advice developed specifically for older Australians. Although the recommendations may be manifested in different ways, according to specific populations or settings, they apply to older people across all levels of health and have application to community dwelling people and those in residential care accommodation.

  2. Contribution of Public Parks to Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Deborah A.; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Sehgal, Amber; Williamson, Stephanie; Golinelli, Daniela; Lurie, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. Parks provide places for people to experience nature, engage in physical activity, and relax. We studied how residents in low-income, minority communities use public, urban neighborhood parks and how parks contribute to physical activity. Methods. In 8 public parks, we used direct observation to document the number, gender, race/ethnicity, age group, and activity level of park users 4 times per day, 7 days per week. We also interviewed 713 park users and 605 area residents living within 2 miles of each park. Results. On average, over 2000 individuals were counted in each park, and about two thirds were sedentary when observed. More males than females used the parks, and males were twice as likely to be vigorously active. Interviewees identified the park as the most common place they exercised. Both park use and exercise levels of individuals were predicted by proximity of their residence to the park. Conclusions. Public parks are critical resources for physical activity in minority communities. Because residential proximity is strongly associated with physical activity and park use, the number and location of parks are currently insufficient to serve local populations well. PMID:17267728

  3. The determinants of physical activity and exercise.

    PubMed Central

    Dishman, R K; Sallis, J F; Orenstein, D R

    1985-01-01

    Evaluation and delivery of physical activity and exercise programs appear impeded by the substantial numbers of Americans who are unwilling or unable to participate regularly in physical activity. As a step toward identifying effective interventions, we reviewed available research on determinants relating to the adoption and maintenance of physical activity. We categorized determinants as personal, environmental, or characteristic of the exercise. We have considered supervised participation separately from spontaneous activity in the general population. A wide variety of determinants, populations, and settings have been studied within diverse research traditions and disciplines. This diversity and the varied interpretation of the data hinder our clearly summarizing the existing knowledge. Although we provide some directions for future study and program evaluation, there is a need for research that tests hypotheses derived from theoretical models and that has clear implications for intervention programs. We still need to explore whether general theories of health behavior or approaches relating to specific exercises or activities can be used to predict adoption and maintenance of physical activity. PMID:3920714

  4. Influence of physical activity to bone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Drenjančević, Ines; Davidović Cvetko, Erna

    2013-02-01

    Bone remodeling is a lifetime process. Peak bone mass is achieved in the twenties, and that value is very important for skeleton health in older years of life. Modern life style with its diet poor in nutrients, and very low intensity of physical activity negatively influences health in general, and bone health as well. Bones are adapting to changes in load, so applying mechanical strain to bones results in greater bone mass and hardness. That makes physical activity important in maintaining skeleton health. Numerous studies confirm good influence of regular exercising to bone health, and connection of physical activity in youth to better bone density in older age. To activate bone remodeling mechanisms, it is necessary to apply mechanical strain to bones by exercise. Considering global problem of bone loss and osteoporosis new ways of activating young people to practice sports and active stile of life are necessary to maintain skeleton health and health in general. This paper aims to review physiological mechanisms of bone remodeling that are influenced by physical exercise.

  5. Contribution of neighbourhood socioeconomic status and physical activity resources to physical activity among women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rebecca E; Cubbin, Catherine; Winkleby, Marilyn

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Residence in a deprived neighbourhood is associated with lower rates of physical activity. Little is known about the manifestation of deprivation that mediates this relationship. This study aimed to investigate whether access to physical activity resources mediated the relationship between neighbourhood socioeconomic status and physical activity among women. Method Individual data from women participating in the Stanford Heart Disease Prevention Program (1979–90) were linked to census and archival data from existing records. Multilevel regression models were examined for energy expenditure and moderate and vigorous physical activity as reported in physical activity recalls. Results After accounting for individual‐level socioeconomic status, women who lived in lower‐socioeconomic status neighbourhoods reported greater energy expenditure, but undertook less moderate physical activity, than women in moderate‐socioeconomic status neighbourhoods. In contrast, women living in higher‐socioeconomic status neighbourhoods reported more vigorous physical activity than women in moderate‐socioeconomic status neighbourhoods. Although availability of physical activity resources did not appear to mediate any neighbourhood socioeconomic status associations, several significant interactions emerged, suggesting that women with low income or who live in lower‐socioeconomic status neighbourhoods may differentially benefit from greater physical activity resource availability. Discussion Although we found expected relationships between residence in a lower‐socioeconomic status neighbourhood and undertaking less moderate or vigorous physical activity among women, we also found that these same women reported greater overall energy expenditure, perhaps as a result of greater work or travel demands. Greater availability of physical activity resources nearby appears to differentially benefit women living in lower‐socioeconomic status neighbourhoods and low

  6. Physical Activity Transitions and Chronic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Gregory W.

    2009-01-01

    The 20th century in the United States (U.S.) has experienced a dramatic increase in life expectancy among adult men and women, an increase unprecedented in the history of this country. As a result, the pattern of disease and conditions most responsible for death in the U.S. shifted during the past century from infectious diseases and unintentional injuries to the current array of the leading causes of mortality dominated by the chronic diseases. During this same period, daily lifestyle dramatically shifted from a life full of active living to one of inactivity. The argument has been made that in the case of human beings, there has been little or no change in our genotype within the past 50 years. However, there have been major changes documented in the living environment among economically developed societies during this same time period. Through the collection of epidemiologic, clinical, and experimental findings, evidence exists to suggest that physical inactivity is associated with the onset of chronic diseases of our day. Trends in physical inactivity evident through the monitoring of transport, recreational, sport, and purposeful activity have demonstrated that the current lifestyle of the 21st century has contributed substantially to the chronic disease burden in the U.S. and elsewhere. By addressing the domains that influence physical activity behaviors including the environment (both physical and social/cultural), health systems access, and behavioral correlates of physical activity and inactivity, the current chronic disease crisis can potentially be addressed. PMID:20161359

  7. Physical Activity and Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Candace C.; Wagner, Gregory R.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Buxton, Orfeu M.; Kenwood, Christopher T.; Sabbath, Erika L.; Hashimoto, Dean M.; Hopcia, Karen; Allen, Jennifer; Sorensen, Glorian

    2014-01-01

    Background The workplace is an important domain for adults, and many effective interventions targeting physical activity and weight reduction have been implemented in the workplace. However, the U.S. workforce is aging and few studies have examined the relationship of BMI, physical activity, and age as they relate to workplace characteristics. Purpose This paper reports on the distribution of physical activity and BMI by age in a population of hospital-based healthcare workers and investigates the relationships among workplace characteristics, physical activity, and BMI. Methods Data from a survey of patient care workers in two large academic hospitals in the Boston area were collected in late 2009 and analyzed in early 2013. Results In multivariate models, workers reporting greater decision latitude (OR=1.02; 95% CI=1.01, 1.03) and job flexibility (OR=1.05; 95% CI=1.01, 1.10) reported greater physical activity. Overweight and obesity increased with age (p<0.01), even after adjusting for workplace characteristics. Sleep deficiency (OR=1.56; 95% CI=1.15, 2.12) and workplace harassment (OR= 1.62; 95% CI=1.20, 2.18) were also associated with obesity. Conclusions These findings underscore the persistent impact of the work environment for workers of all ages. Based on these results, programs or policies aimed at improving the work environment, especially decision latitude, job flexibility and workplace harassment should be included in the design of worksite-based health promotion interventions targeting physical activity or obesity. PMID:24512930

  8. Prescribing physical activity through primary care: does activity intensity matter?

    PubMed

    Knight, Emily; Stuckey, Melanie I; Petrella, Robert J

    2014-09-01

    Physical activity guidelines recommend engaging in moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity to elicit health benefits. Similarly, these higher intensity ranges for activity are typically targeted in healthy living interventions (ie, exercise prescription). Comparatively less attention has been focused on changing lower intensity physical activity (ie, sedentary activity) behaviors. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of prescribing changes to physical activity of various intensities (ie, sedentary through exercise) through the primary care setting. Sixty older adults (aged 55-75 years; mean age 63 = 5 years) volunteered to participate, and were randomly assigned to 4 groups: 3 receiving an activity prescription intervention targeting a specific intensity of physical activity (exercise, sedentary, or both), and 1 control group. During the 12-week intervention period participants followed personalized activity programs at home. Basic clinical measures (anthropometrics, blood pressure, aerobic fitness) and blood panel for assessing cardiometabolic risk (glucose, lipid profile) were conducted at baseline (week 0) and follow-up (week 12) in a primary care office. There were no differences between groups at baseline (P > 0.05). The intervention changed clinical (F₅,₅₀ = 20.458, P = 0.000, ηP² = 0.672) and blood panel measures (F₅,₅₀ = 4.576, P = 0.002, ηP² = 0.314) of cardiometabolic health. Post hoc analyses indicted no differences between groups (P > 0.05). Physical activity prescription of various intensities through the primary care setting improved cardiometabolic health status. To our knowledge, this is the first report of sedentary behavior prescription (alone, or combined with exercise) in primary care. The findings support the ongoing practice of fitness assessment and physical activity prescription for chronic disease management and prevention.

  9. Is enhanced physical activity possible using active videogames?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our research indicated that 10– to 12-year-old children receiving two active Wii (TM)(Nintendo (R); Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase phys...

  10. Physical activity, sport, and pediatric diabetes.

    PubMed

    Riddell, M C; Iscoe, K E

    2006-02-01

    The benefits derived from regular physical activity include improved cardiovascular fitness, increased lean mass, improved blood lipid profile, enhanced psychosocial well-being, and decreased body adiposity. The benefits for children with diabetes may also include blood glucose control and enhanced insulin sensitivity. However, for these children, engagement in vigorous physical activity and sport must be properly controlled through modifications in insulin therapy and nutritional intake so that the benefits of exercise outweigh the risks. The following review describes the various physiological and metabolic factors which occur both during exercise and during sport while describing specific recommendations to control glucose excursions by proper insulin management and diet.

  11. Physical activity, exercise, depression and anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Ströhle, Andreas

    2009-06-01

    There is a general belief that physical activity and exercise have positive effects on mood and anxiety and a great number of studies describe an association of physical activity and general well-being, mood and anxiety. In line, intervention studies describe an anxiolytic and antidepressive activity of exercise in healthy subjects and patients. However, the majority of published studies have substantial methodological shortcomings. The aim of this paper is to critically review the currently available literature with respect to (1) the association of physical activity, exercise and the prevalence and incidence of depression and anxiety disorders and (2) the potential therapeutic activity of exercise training in patients with depression or anxiety disorders. Although the association of physical activity and the prevalence of mental disorders, including depression and anxiety disorders have been repeatedly described, only few studies examined the association of physical activity and mental disorders prospectively. Reduced incidence rates of depression and (some) anxiety disorders in exercising subjects raise the question whether exercise may be used in the prevention of some mental disorders. Besides case series and small uncontrolled studies, recent well controlled studies suggest that exercise training may be clinically effective, at least in major depression and panic disorder. Although, the evidence for positive effects of exercise and exercise training on depression and anxiety is growing, the clinical use, at least as an adjunct to established treatment approaches like psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy, is still at the beginning. Further studies on the clinical effects of exercise, interaction with standard treatment approaches and details on the optimal type, intensity, frequency and duration may further support the clinical administration in patients. Furthermore, there is a lack of knowledge on how to best deal with depression and anxiety related symptoms

  12. Physical Activity Change through Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs in Urban Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centeio, Erin E.; McCaughtry, Nate; Gutuskey, Lila; Garn, Alex C.; Somers, Cheryl; Shen, Bo; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Kulik, Noel L.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs (CSPAPs) on urban children's, educators', and parents' physical activity (PA) is relatively unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore overall changes in student, educator, and parent PA after an 8-month CSPAP-based program. This longitudinal, exploratory study implemented a…

  13. Physical Activity Change through Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs in Urban Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centeio, Erin E.; McCaughtry, Nate; Gutuskey, Lila; Garn, Alex C.; Somers, Cheryl; Shen, Bo; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Kulik, Noel L.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs (CSPAPs) on urban children's, educators', and parents' physical activity (PA) is relatively unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore overall changes in student, educator, and parent PA after an 8-month CSPAP-based program. This longitudinal, exploratory study implemented a…

  14. Experimental Nuclear Physics Activity in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiavassa, E.; de Marco, N.

    2003-04-01

    The experimental Nuclear Physics activity of the Italian researchers is briefly reviewed. The experiments, that are financially supported by the INFN, are done in strict collaboration by more than 500 INFN and University researchers. The experiments cover all the most important field of the modern Nuclear Physics with probes extremely different in energy and interactions. Researches are done in all the four National Laboratories of the INFN even if there is a deeper involvement of the two national laboratories expressly dedicated to Nuclear Physics: the LNL (Laboratorio Nazionale di Legnaro) and LNS (Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud) where nuclear spectroscopy and reaction dynamics are investigated. All the activities with electromagnetic probes develops in abroad laboratories as TJNAF, DESY, MAMI, ESFR and are dedicated to the studies of the spin physics and of the nucleon resonance; hypernuclear and kaon physics is investigated at LNF. A strong community of researchers work in the relativistic and ultra-relativistic heavy ions field in particular at CERN with the SPS Pb beam and in the construction of the ALICE detector for heavy-ion physics at the LHC collider. Experiments of astrophysical interest are done with ions of very low energy; in particular the LUNA accelerator facility at LNGS (Laboratorio Nazionale del Gran Sasso) succeeded measuring cross section at solar energies, below or near the solar Gamow peak. Interdisciplinary researches on anti-hydrogen atom spectroscopy and on measurements of neutron cross sections of interest for ADS development are also supported.

  15. Lack of knowledge of physical activity guidelines: can physical activity promotion campaigns do better?

    PubMed Central

    Knox, Emily C L; Esliger, Dale W; Biddle, Stuart J H; Sherar, Lauren B

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify the prevalence of knowledge of the current UK physical activity guidelines which were introduced in 2011 and prior physical activity guidelines (30 min on 5 days each week) within two large samples of UK adult's. To investigate whether knowledge of physical activity guidelines differs according to demographics such as ethnicity, age, education and employment status. Design Descriptive cross-sectional study comparing two distinctive adult samples. Setting National survey and online-administered survey conducted in England. Participants The 2007 Health Survey for England provides data on knowledge of physical activity guidelines from 2860 UK adults (56% women, 89% white, 63% under 45 years old). In 2013, an online survey was disseminated and data were collected from 1797 UK adults on knowledge of the most recent physical activity guidelines. The 2013 sample was 70% women, 92% white and 57% under 45 years old. All adults in both samples were >18 years old and without illnesses/disorders likely to restrict physical activity. Main outcomes Knowledge of physical activity guidelines in 2007 and 2013. Demographic correlates of knowledge of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity guidelines. Results 18% of the 2013 sample accurately recalled the current physical activity guidelines compared with 11% of the 2007 sample who accurately recalled the previous guidelines. The differences in knowledge of physical activity guidelines existed for marital status, gender, age, education and employment status within both 2007 and 2013 samples (p<0.05). Men with lower education and employment status (unemployed including student and retired) and older adults were less likely to know physical activity guidelines (p<0.05). Knowledge of physical activity guidelines remained higher in the 2013 sample after controlling for demographic differences (p<0.05). Conclusions Disadvantaged population groups are less knowledgeable about physical activity guidelines

  16. Physical activity and physical activity adherence in the elderly based on smoking status.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Theodore V; Resor, Michelle R; Stoever, Colby J; Dubbert, Patricia M

    2007-10-01

    This study assessed the impact of current smoking status and lifetime smoking status on physical fitness and physical activity regimen adherence as part of a larger study on walking for exercise in elderly primary care patients at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. At baseline, 218 participants self-reported smoking status which was verified by carbon monoxide expiration. Former and current smokers responded to questions about length of time quit, average daily cigarette intake, and years a smoker. Smoking measures were re-collected at 6- and 12-month follow-ups if the participants indicated a change in smoking status. Veterans completed multiple measures of physical activity (e.g., 6-min walk, 7-day Physical Activity Recall), and adherence to a physical activity goal was assessed. The Physical Component Summary (PCS) subscale of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (MOS SF-36) was used to assess health-related quality of life. Hierarchical regression models indicated smoking status was a predictor of the baseline 6-min walk such that smokers walked significantly shorter distances than nonsmokers. In addition, smoking status was found to be a significant predictor of adherence; however, the overall model that included smoking status as a predictor did not demonstrate a significant effect on adherence. Neither smoking status nor pack years were predictors of baseline self-reported physical activity or changes in physical activity post intervention. Results are consistent with recommendations to use physical exercise as an aid to tobacco cessation, even in aging men with extensive smoking histories.

  17. Cardiovascular reactivity, stress, and physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Webb, Heather E.; Zourdos, Michael C.; Acevedo, Edmund O.

    2013-01-01

    Psychological stress has been proposed as a major contributor to the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Acute mental stress can activate the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) axis, eliciting the release of catecholamines (NE and EPI) resulting in the elevation of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP). Combined stress (psychological and physical) can exacerbate these cardiovascular responses, which may partially contribute to the elevated risk of CVD and increased proportionate mortality risks experienced by some occupations (e.g., firefighting and law enforcement). Studies have supported the benefits of physical activity on physiological and psychological health, including the cardiovascular response to acute stress. Aerobically trained individuals exhibit lower sympathetic nervous system (e.g., HR) reactivity and enhanced cardiovascular efficiency (e.g., lower vascular reactivity and decreased recovery time) in response to physical and/or psychological stress. In addition, resistance training has been demonstrated to attenuate cardiovascular responses and improve mental health. This review will examine stress-induced cardiovascular reactivity and plausible explanations for how exercise training and physical fitness (aerobic and resistance exercise) can attenuate cardiovascular responses to stress. This enhanced functionality may facilitate a reduction in the incidence of stroke and myocardial infarction. Finally, this review will also address the interaction of obesity and physical activity on cardiovascular reactivity and CVD. PMID:24223557

  18. "Physical activity as a luxury": African American women's attitudes toward physical activity.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Ko, Young; Hwang, Hyenam; Yoo, Kyung Hee; Chee, Wonshik; Stuifbergen, Alexa; Walker, Lorraine; Brown, Adama; McPeek, Chelsea; Chee, Eunice

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore African American midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity. Using a feminist perspective, a 6-month online forum was conducted with 21 African American midlife women recruited on the Internet. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Four themes emerged: (a) culturally acceptable body, (b) missed opportunity to learn, (c) physical activity as a luxury, and (d) want to do by myself. The women had positive body images regardless of their actual weight. The women considered physical activity "a luxury" in their busy lives and thought that they had already missed opportunities to learn. The women wanted to participate in physical activities alone because of their bad childhood experiences and hesitance to go out in public with sweaty, messy hair. The findings suggested that unique programs that promote physical activity should be developed that consider the women's ethnic-specific attitudes.

  19. Evaluation of methods to assess physical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leenders, Nicole Y. J. M.

    Epidemiological evidence has accumulated that demonstrates that the amount of physical activity-related energy expenditure during a week reduces the incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and all-cause mortality. To further understand the amount of daily physical activity and related energy expenditure that are necessary to maintain or improve the functional health status and quality of life, instruments that estimate total (TDEE) and physical activity-related energy expenditure (PAEE) under free-living conditions should be determined to be valid and reliable. Without evaluation of the various methods that estimate TDEE and PAEE with the doubly labeled water (DLW) method in females there will be eventual significant limitations on assessing the efficacy of physical activity interventions on health status in this population. A triaxial accelerometer (Tritrac-R3D, (TT)), an uniaxial (Computer Science and Applications Inc., (CSA)) activity monitor, a Yamax-Digiwalker-500sp°ler , (YX-stepcounter), by measuring heart rate responses (HR method) and a 7-d Physical Activity Recall questionnaire (7-d PAR) were compared with the "criterion method" of DLW during a 7-d period in female adults. The DLW-TDEE was underestimated on average 9, 11 and 15% using 7-d PAR, HR method and TT. The underestimation of DLW-PAEE by 7-d PAR was 21% compared to 47% and 67% for TT and YX-stepcounter. Approximately 56% of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the registration of body movement with accelerometry. A larger proportion of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} was explained by jointly incorporating information from the vertical and horizontal movement measured with the CSA and Tritrac-R3D (rsp2 = 0.87). Although only a small amount of variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the number of steps taken per day, because of its low cost and ease of use, the Yamax-stepcounter is useful in studies promoting daily walking. Thus, studies involving the

  20. Health Care Provider Physical Activity Prescription Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josyula, Lakshmi; Lyle, Roseann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the feasibility and impact of a health care provider’s (HCP) physical activity (PA) prescription on the PA of patients on preventive care visits. Methods: Consenting adult patients completed health and PA questionnaires and were sequentially assigned to intervention groups. HCPs prescribed PA using a written prescription only…

  1. Health Care Provider Physical Activity Prescription Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josyula, Lakshmi; Lyle, Roseann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the feasibility and impact of a health care provider’s (HCP) physical activity (PA) prescription on the PA of patients on preventive care visits. Methods: Consenting adult patients completed health and PA questionnaires and were sequentially assigned to intervention groups. HCPs prescribed PA using a written prescription only…

  2. Physics Division activities report, 1986--1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes the research activities of the Physics Division for the years 1986 and 1987. Areas of research discussed in this paper are: research on e/sup +/e/sup /minus// interactions; research on p/bar p/ interactions; experiment at TRIUMF; double beta decay; high energy astrophysics; interdisciplinary research; and advanced technology development and the SSC.

  3. Teaching Responsibility through Physical Activity. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellison, Don

    This book guides teachers in using physical activity to foster personal and social responsibility. Focusing on teaching in school settings, the book features comments from real students to motivate teachers to apply the concept; take-aways that summarize each chapter and help teachers consider their own situations; new chapters on the lesson plan…

  4. Juvenile Obesity, Physical Activity, and Lifestyle Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar-Or, Oded

    2000-01-01

    Because many obese children become obese adults, the recent rapid increase in juvenile obesity poses a major public health challenge. Enhanced physical activity is a cornerstone in a multidisciplinary approach to preventing and treating juvenile obesity. Giving exercise recommendations focused for obese youth is critical. Cutting down on sedentary…

  5. Congenital Heart Defects and Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Apr 19,2016 Exercise Is for Everyone Physical exercise has many benefits and should be a regular part of almost ... lifting. It's likely that for most patients, the benefits of exercise outweigh the perceived risks. Low-intensity activity is ...

  6. Advertising Content in Physical Activity Print Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the advertising content contained in physical activity print materials. Analysis of print materials obtained from 80 sources (e.g., physicians' offices and fitness events) indicated that most materials contained some form of advertising. Materials coming from commercial product vendors generally contained more advertising than materials…

  7. Juvenile Obesity, Physical Activity, and Lifestyle Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar-Or, Oded

    2000-01-01

    Because many obese children become obese adults, the recent rapid increase in juvenile obesity poses a major public health challenge. Enhanced physical activity is a cornerstone in a multidisciplinary approach to preventing and treating juvenile obesity. Giving exercise recommendations focused for obese youth is critical. Cutting down on sedentary…

  8. Physical activity and stress in adult Hispanics.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Jean; Brooten, Dorothy; Youngblut, JoAnne M; Hildago, Ivette; Roche, Rosa; Seagrave, Lynn

    2015-02-01

    Physical inactivity and obesity are major U.S. health concerns. Hispanics have higher rates of obesity and lower incidence of meeting physical activity (PA) recommendations, however most studies on PA focus on non-Hispanic Whites. This study examined type and amount of physical activities, and their relationship to age, BMI, employment, and stress in adult female Hispanics. Sixty-three female Hispanics (mean age 34 years, SD = 10.5) were recruited in the Miami community. By BMI, of 47 women reporting both weight and height, 8.5% were underweight, 38.3% were normal weight, 27.2% were overweight, and 26.0% were obese. Women completed two instruments measuring PA and two measuring stress. Attitudes toward PA were positive; greatest concerns were job security and finances not exercise. Leisure walking (14.3%) was the most common type of PA followed by activities watching TV (32.8%) and using video games (32.8%). Women with greater stress had higher BMIs and were less physically active (p < .05). In this sample, exercise was not a main priority although 53% were overweight/obese. Stress related to employment and finances was a major concern. Interventions on stress reduction and incorporating exercise within their daily lives are important strategies. ©2014 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  9. PHYSICAL EDUCATION ACTIVITIES FOR THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SMALLEY, JEANNETTE

    PHYSICAL EDUCATION ACTIVITIES FOR USE IN GRADES ONE THROUGH SIX ARE ENUMERATED AND DESCRIBED IN THIS MANUAL. UNITS OF THE MANUAL WHICH ARE CONCERNED WITH SIDEWALK GAMES, SCHOOLROOM GAMES, BALL GAMES FOR GRADES ONE AND TWO, STUNTS AND STUNT GAMES, AND GAMES OF LOW ORGANIZATION ARE PRESENTED IN A FORMAT WHICH CONSISTS OF (1) A LISTING OF CRITERIA BY…

  10. Physical activity in obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    Biological aging is typically associated with a progressive increase in body fat mass and a loss of lean body mass. Owing to the metabolic consequences of reduced muscle mass, it is understood that normal aging and/or decreased physical activity may lead to a higher prevalence of metabolic disorders. Lifestyle modification, specifically changes in diet, physical activity, and exercise, is considered the cornerstone of obesity management. However, for most overweight people it is difficult to lose weight permanently through diet or exercise. Thus, prevention of weight gain is thought to be more effective than weight loss in reducing obesity rates. A key question is whether physical activity can extenuate age-related weight gain and promote metabolic health in adults. Current guidelines suggest that adults should accumulate about 60 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity daily to prevent unhealthy weight gain. Because evidence suggests that resistance training may promote a negative energy balance and may change body fat distribution, it is possible that an increase in muscle mass after resistance training may be a key mediator leading to better metabolic control.

  11. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Chemistry & Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of chemistry and physics experiments. Each unit presents an introduction to the unit; objectives; required skills and knowledge; materials; method; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet.…

  12. Physical activity in obesity and metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Biological aging is typically associated with a progressive increase in body fat mass and a loss of lean body mass. Owing to the metabolic consequences of reduced muscle mass, it is understood that normal aging and/or decreased physical activity may lead to a higher prevalence of metabolic disorders. Lifestyle modification, specifically changes in diet, physical activity, and exercise, is considered the cornerstone of obesity management. However, for most overweight people it is difficult to lose weight permanently through diet or exercise. Thus, prevention of weight gain is thought to be more effective than weight loss in reducing obesity rates. A key question is whether physical activity can extenuate age-related weight gain and promote metabolic health in adults. Current guidelines suggest that adults should accumulate about 60 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity daily to prevent unhealthy weight gain. Because evidence suggests that resistance training may promote a negative energy balance and may change body fat distribution, it is possible that an increase in muscle mass after resistance training may be a key mediator leading to better metabolic control. PMID:23167451

  13. Why Should I Be Physically Active?

    MedlinePlus

    ... one or more of these: • Hiking or jogging • Stair climbing • Bicycling, swimming or rowing • Aerobic dancing or cross-country skiing (continued) ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction Fitness + Weight Management Why Should I Be Physically Active? How often ...

  14. A social neuroscience perspective on physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hall, Peter A; Elias, Lorin J; Fong, Geoffrey T; Harrison, Amabilis H; Borowsky, Ron; Sarty, Gordon E

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to examine the cognitive characteristics of individuals who demonstrate successful and unsuccessful self-regulation of physical activity behavior. In Study 1, participants articulated 1-week intentions for physical activity and wore a triaxial accelerometer over the subsequent 7 days. Among those who were motivated to increase their physical activity, those who were most and least successful were administered an IQ test. In Study 2, a second sample of participants completed the same protocol and a smaller subset of matched participants attended a functional imaging (fMRI) session. In Study 1, successful self-regulators (SSRs) scored significantly higher than unsuccessful self-regulators (USRs) on a test of general cognitive ability, and this difference could not be accounted for by favorability of attitudes toward physical activity or conscientiousness. In Study 2, the IQ effect was replicated, with SSRs showing a full standard deviation advantage over USRs. In the imaging protocol, USRs showed heavier recruitment of cognitive resources relative to SSRs in the anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortex during performance of a Stroop task; SSRs showed heavier recruitment in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

  15. Is physical activity in natural environments better for mental health than physical activity in other environments?

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that there may be synergy between the psychological benefits of physical activity, and the restorative effects of contact with a natural environment; physical activity in a natural environment might produce greater mental health benefits than physical activity elsewhere. However, such experiments are typically short-term and, by definition, artificially control the participant types, physical activity and contact with nature. This observational study asked whether such effects can be detected in everyday settings at a population level. It used data from the Scottish Health Survey 2008, describing all environments in which respondents were physically active. Associations were sought between use of each environment, and then use of environments grouped as natural or non-natural, and the risk of poor mental health (measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)) and level of wellbeing (measured by the Warwick Edinburgh Mental health and Wellbeing Score (WEMWBS). Results showed an independent association between regular use of natural environments and a lower risk of poor mental health, but not for activity in other types of environment. For example, the odds of poor mental health (GHQ ≥ 4) among those regularly using woods or forests for physical activity were 0.557 (95% CI 0.323-0.962), compared to non-users. However, regular use of natural environments was not clearly associated with greater wellbeing, whilst regular use of non-natural environments was. The study concludes that physical activity in natural environments is associated with a reduction in the risk of poor mental health to a greater extent than physical activity in other environments, but also that activity in different types of environment may promote different kinds of positive psychological response. Access to natural environments for physical activity should be protected and promoted as a contribution to protecting and improving population mental health.

  16. Community wide interventions for increasing physical activity.

    PubMed

    Baker, Philip R A; Francis, Daniel P; Soares, Jesus; Weightman, Alison L; Foster, Charles

    2015-01-05

    Multi-strategic community wide interventions for physical activity are increasingly popular but their ability to achieve population level improvements is unknown. To evaluate the effects of community wide, multi-strategic interventions upon population levels of physical activity. We searched the Cochrane Public Health Group Segment of the Cochrane Register of Studies,The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, MEDLINE in Process, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, PsycINFO, ASSIA, the British Nursing Index, Chinese CNKI databases, EPPI Centre (DoPHER, TRoPHI), ERIC, HMIC, Sociological Abstracts, SPORT Discus, Transport Database and Web of Science (Science Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Conference Proceedings Citation Index). We also scanned websites of the EU Platform on Diet, Physical Activity and Health; Health-Evidence.org; the International Union for Health Promotion and Education; the NIHR Coordinating Centre for Health Technology (NCCHTA); the US Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and NICE and SIGN guidelines. Reference lists of all relevant systematic reviews, guidelines and primary studies were searched and we contacted experts in the field. The searches were updated to 16 January 2014, unrestricted by language or publication status. Cluster randomised controlled trials, randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental designs which used a control population for comparison, interrupted time-series studies, and prospective controlled cohort studies were included. Only studies with a minimum six-month follow up from the start of the intervention to measurement of outcomes were included. Community wide interventions had to comprise at least two broad strategies aimed at physical activity for the whole population. Studies which randomised individuals from the same community were excluded. At least two review authors independently extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias. Each study was assessed for the setting, the number of included components

  17. Physical Activity and Weight Gain Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Lee, I-Min; Djoussé, Luc; Sesso, Howard D.; Wang, Lu; Buring, Julie E.

    2010-01-01

    Context The amount of physical activity needed to prevent long-term weight gain is unclear. In 2008, federal guidelines recommended ≥150min/week (7.5 MET-hr/week) of moderate-intensity activity for “substantial health benefits”. Objective To examine the association of different amounts of physical activity with long-term weight changes among women consuming a usual diet. Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective cohort study, following 34,079 healthy, US women (mean age, 54.2 years) from 1992–2007. At baseline, 36-, 72-, 96-, 120-, 144- and 156-months’ follow-up, women reported their physical activity and body weight. Women were classified as expending <7.5, 7.5-<21, and ≥21 MET-hr/week of activity at each time. Repeated measures regression prospectively examined physical activity and weight change over intervals averaging 3 years. Main Outcome Measure Change in weight. Results Women gained a mean of 2.6 kg throughout the study. In multivariate analysis, compared with women expending ≥21 MET-hr/week, those expending 7.5-<21 and <7.5 MET-hr/week gained 0.11 kg (SD=0.04; P=0.003) and 0.12 kg (SD=0.04; P=0.002), respectively, over a mean interval of 3 years. There was a significant interaction by body mass index (BMI), such that there was an inverse dose-response relation between activity levels and weight gain among women with BMI <25 kg/m2 (P, trend <0.0001), but no relation among heavier women (P, trend=0.56 and 0.50, respectively, for BMI 25–29.9 and ≥30.0 kg/m2). A total of 4,540 women (13.3%) began the study with BMI <25 kg/m2 and successfully maintained their weight, gaining <2.3 kg throughout; their mean activity level over the study was 21.5 MET-hr/week (~60 min/day moderate-intensity activity). Conclusion Among women consuming a usual diet, physical activity was associated with less weight gain only among women with BMI <25 kg/m2. Women successful in maintaining normal weight and gaining <2.3 kg over 13 years averaged ~60 min/day of

  18. Religious preference, church activity, and physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Merrill, R M; Thygerson, A L

    2001-07-01

    Utah has the highest percentage of physically active adults in the United States. It also has a high percentage of religiously active people. About 90% of the adult population has a religious preference and 62% of those individuals attend church weekly. This study evaluates the relationship between religious preference, church attendance, and physical activity. Analysis is based on 6,188 adult respondents ages 18 years and older to a cross-sectional random telephone survey involving 12 health districts in the state of Utah from June 1 to August 31, 1996. Within religious groups, those attending church weekly were more likely to exercise than individuals attending church less than weekly. About 70% of Utah consists of members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS). LDS attending church less than weekly were least physically active in Utah. The percentages of those exercising vigorously at least 20 min three times per week were 52.3% (LDS who attend church weekly), 44.5% (LDS who attend church less than weekly), 57.6% (non-LDS who attend church weekly), 54.3% (non-LDS who attend church less than weekly), and 53.1% (no religious preference) (P = 0.0070). When adjustment was made for age, smoking status, education, marital status, and general health, differences in exercise between church activity levels within religious groups became insignificant. Smoking and general health have the greatest influences on the relationship between religious preference, church attendance, and exercise. LDS were significantly less physically active than non-LDS in the adjusted model. Although differential smoking levels and general health status explained differences between church activity levels within religious groups, lower levels of exercise among LDS versus non-LDS could not be explained and require further study. Copyright 2001 American Health Foundation and Academic Press.

  19. Spontaneous physical activity in a respiratory chamber is correlated to habitual physical activity.

    PubMed

    Snitker, S; Tataranni, P A; Ravussin, E

    2001-10-01

    During a stay in a respiratory chamber without an exercise protocol, physical activity is limited to activities of daily living, change of posture and 'fidgeting,' collectively referred to as spontaneous physical activity (SPA). SPA is quite variable among individuals and is a heritable trait. A low SPA during a chamber stay is a predictor of weight gain in men. However, it remains to be established whether physical activity in a respiratory chamber relates to physical activity under habitual, free-living conditions. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether physical activity in a chamber is correlated to habitual, free-living physical activity. Fifty healthy, non-diabetic Pima Indians (30 M/20 F, 30+/-6 y; 37+/-10% body fat; means+/-s.d.) completed a 24 h stay in the respiratory chamber followed by a 7 day measurement of habitual, free-living energy expenditure by doubly labeled water. Free-living physical activity was expressed as activity energy expenditure (AEE(FL); daily energy expenditure-(sleeping metabolic rate+thermic effect of food)), physical activity level (PAL(FL); daily energy expenditure/sleeping metabolic rate) and body-size independent activity units. Activity during the chamber stay was expressed as PAL(Ch), AEE(Ch), and based on radar sensor measurements, as percentage of time with activity (SPA(Radar)). AEE(FL) (averaging 930+/-310 kcal/day (3.89+/-1.30 MJ/day)) was correlated to AEE(CH) (averaging 440+/-160 kcal/day (1.84+/-0.67 MJ/day)) and higher in men than in women (r=0.53, P=0.003) and r=0.53, P=0.02, respectively). Likewise, PAL(FL) (averaging 1.75+/-0.21) was correlated to PAL(Ch) (averaging 1.42+/-0.10) and higher in men than in women (r=0.49, P=0.006 and r=0.42, P=0.02, respectively). Free-living activity expressed in body-size independent activity units (averaging 17.8+/-7.0) was correlated to SPA(Radar) (averaging 6.4+/-1.7) with no effect of sex (r=0.30, P=0.03). Physical activity in a respiratory chamber was

  20. Age, Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, Body Composition, and Incidence of Orthopedic Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Effects of age, physical activity, physical fitness, and body mass index (BMI) on the occurrence of orthopedic problems were examined. For men, physical fitness, BMI, and physical activity were associated with orthopedic problems; for women, physical activity was the main predictor. Age was not a factor for either gender. (JD)

  1. Beyond the Gym: Increasing Outside of School Physical Activity through Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Stephen; Bycura, Dierdra

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of physical education is to guide youngsters to become and remain physically active for life. Research on correlates and determinants of physical activity has shown the importance of developing intrinsic motivation in students so that they will choose to be physically active in their leisure time. When the physical education curriculum…

  2. Beyond the Gym: Increasing Outside of School Physical Activity through Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Stephen; Bycura, Dierdra

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of physical education is to guide youngsters to become and remain physically active for life. Research on correlates and determinants of physical activity has shown the importance of developing intrinsic motivation in students so that they will choose to be physically active in their leisure time. When the physical education curriculum…

  3. Physical Education and Physical Activity: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sarah M.; Burgeson, Charlene R.; Fulton, Janet E.; Spain, Christine G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Comprehensive school-based physical activity programs consist of physical education and other physical activity opportunities including recess and other physical activity breaks, intramurals, interscholastic sports, and walk and bike to school initiatives. This article describes the characteristics of school physical education and…

  4. Age, Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, Body Composition, and Incidence of Orthopedic Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Effects of age, physical activity, physical fitness, and body mass index (BMI) on the occurrence of orthopedic problems were examined. For men, physical fitness, BMI, and physical activity were associated with orthopedic problems; for women, physical activity was the main predictor. Age was not a factor for either gender. (JD)

  5. Physical Education and Physical Activity: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sarah M.; Burgeson, Charlene R.; Fulton, Janet E.; Spain, Christine G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Comprehensive school-based physical activity programs consist of physical education and other physical activity opportunities including recess and other physical activity breaks, intramurals, interscholastic sports, and walk and bike to school initiatives. This article describes the characteristics of school physical education and…

  6. A Portfolio Approach to Impacting Physically Active Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ray; Pulling, Andrew R.; Alpert, Amanda; Jackman, Emma

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a physical activity portfolio designed to help students manage their own fitness and health-related physical activity outside of the physical education classroom. A main goal of physical education programs is to prepare students to lead a physically active lifestyle and maintain a lifetime of health-related fitness. The…

  7. Physical activity and the pelvic floor.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Ingrid E; Shaw, Janet M

    2016-02-01

    Pelvic floor disorders are common, with 1 in 4 US women reporting moderate to severe symptoms of urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, or fecal incontinence. Given the high societal burden of these disorders, identifying potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial. Physical activity is one such potentially modifiable risk factor; the large number of girls and women participating in sport and strenuous training regimens increases the need to understand associated risks and benefits of these exposures. The aim of this review was to summarize studies reporting the association between physical activity and pelvic floor disorders. Most studies are cross-sectional and most include small numbers of participants. The primary findings of this review include that urinary incontinence during exercise is common and is more prevalent in women during high-impact sports. Mild to moderate physical activity, such as brisk walking, decreases both the odds of having and the risk of developing urinary incontinence. In older women, mild to moderate activity also decreases the odds of having fecal incontinence; however, young women participating in high-intensity activity are more likely to report anal incontinence than less active women. Scant data suggest that in middle-aged women, lifetime physical activity increases the odds of stress urinary incontinence slightly and does not increase the odds of pelvic organ prolapse. Women undergoing surgery for pelvic organ prolapse are more likely to report a history of heavy work than controls; however, women recruited from the community with pelvic organ prolapse on examination report similar lifetime levels of strenuous activity as women without this examination finding. Data are insufficient to determine whether strenuous activity while young predisposes to pelvic floor disorders later in life. The existing literature suggests that most physical activity does not harm the pelvic floor and does provide numerous health benefits for

  8. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND THE PELVIC FLOOR

    PubMed Central

    Nygaard, Ingrid E.; Shaw, Janet M.

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic floor disorders (PFDs) are common, with one in four U.S. women reporting moderate to severe symptoms of urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse or fecal incontinence. Given the high societal burden of these disorders, identifying potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial. Physical activity is one such potentially modifiable risk factor; the large number of girls and women participating in sport and strenuous training regimens increases the need to understand associated risks and benefits of these exposures. The aim of this review is to summarize studies reporting the association between physical activity and PFDs. Most studies are cross-sectional and most include small numbers of participants. The primary findings of this review include: Urinary incontinence during exercise is common and is more prevalent in women during high-impact sports. Mild to moderate physical activity, such as brisk walking, decreases both the odds of having and the risk of developing urinary incontinence. In older women, mild to moderate activity also decreases the odds of having fecal incontinence; however, young women participating in high intensity activity are more likely to report anal incontinence than less active women. Scant data suggest that in middle-aged women, lifetime physical activity increases the odds of stress urinary incontinence slightly and does not increase the odds of pelvic organ prolapse. Women undergoing surgery for pelvic organ prolapse are more likely to report a history of heavy work than controls; however, women recruited from the community with pelvic organ prolapse on examination report similar lifetime levels of strenuous activity as women without this exam finding. Data are insufficient to determine whether strenuous activity while young predisposes to pelvic floor disorders later in life. The existing literature suggests that most physical activity does not harm the pelvic floor and does provide numerous health benefits for women. However

  9. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A

    2016-06-23

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12-17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents.

  10. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12–17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents. PMID:27347993

  11. Physical terms and leisure time activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valovičová, Ľubomíra; Siptáková, Mária; ŠtubÅa, Martin

    2017-01-01

    People have to educate not only in school but also outside it. One approach to acquire new knowledge are leisure activities such as hobby groups or camps. Leisure activities, more and more seem to be the appropriate form for informal learning of physics concepts. Within leisure activities pupils have the possibility to acquire new concepts in unusual and interesting way. It is possible to inspire their intrinsic motivation on the matter or the phenomenon which is the aim of all teachers. This article deals with the description of and insights on acquisition of the concept of uniform and non-uniform rectilinear movement during a physics camp where pupils had the opportunity to use modern technologies which are despite of modernization of education still unconventional teaching methods in our schools.

  12. Physical aspects of biological activity and cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorný, Jiří

    2012-03-01

    Mitochondria are organelles at the boundary between chemical-genetic and physical processes in living cells. Mitochondria supply energy and provide conditions for physical mechanisms. Protons transferred across the inner mitochondrial membrane diffuse into cytosol and form a zone of a strong static electric field changing water into quasi-elastic medium that loses viscosity damping properties. Mitochondria and microtubules form a unique cooperating system in the cell. Microtubules are electrical polar structures that make possible non-linear transformation of random excitations into coherent oscillations and generation of coherent electrodynamic field. Mitochondria supply energy, may condition non-linear properties and low damping of oscillations. Electrodynamic activity might have essential significance for material transport, organization, intra- and inter-cellular interactions, and information transfer. Physical processes in cancer cell are disturbed due to suppression of oxidative metabolism in mitochodria (Warburg effect). Water ordering level in the cell is decreased, excitation of microtubule electric polar oscilations diminished, damping increased, and non-linear energy transformation shifted towards the linear region. Power and coherence of the generated electrodynamic field are reduced. Electromagnetic activity of healthy and cancer cells may display essential differences. Local invasion and metastastatic growth may strongly depend on disturbed electrodynamic activity. Nanotechnological measurements may disclose yet unknown properties and parameters of electrodynamic oscillations and other physical processes in healthy and cancer cells.

  13. Longitudinal Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Physical Fitness in Preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Leppänen, Marja H; Henriksson, Pontus; Delisle Nyström, Christine; Henriksson, Hanna; Ortega, Francisco B; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Löf, Marie

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate longitudinal associations of objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with body composition and physical fitness at a 12-month follow-up in healthy Swedish 4-yr-old children. The data from the population-based MINISTOP trial were collected between 2014 and 2016, and this study included the 138 children who were in the control group. PA and SB were assessed using the wrist-worn ActiGraph (wGT3x-BT) accelerometer during seven 24-h periods and, subsequently, defined as SB, light-intensity PA, moderate-intensity PA, vigorous-intensity PA (VPA), and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Body composition was measured using air-displacement plethysmography and physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness, lower and upper muscular strength as well as motor fitness) by the PREFIT fitness battery. Linear regression and isotemporal substitution models were applied. Greater VPA and MVPA at the age of 4.5 yr were associated with higher fat-free mass index (FFMI) at 5.5 yr (P < 0.001 and P = 0.044, respectively). Furthermore, greater VPA and MVPA at the age of 4.5 yr were associated with higher scores for cardiorespiratory fitness, lower body muscular strength, and motor fitness at 12-month follow-up (P = 0.001 to P = 0.031). Substituting 5 min·d of SB, light-intensity PA, or moderate-intensity PA for VPA at the age of 4.5 yr were associated with higher FFMI, and with greater upper and lower muscular strength at 12-month follow-up (P < 0.001 to P = 0.046). Higher VPA and MVPA at the age of 4.5 yr were significantly associated with higher FFMI and better physical fitness at 12-month follow-up. Our results indicate that promoting high-intensity PA at young ages may have long-term beneficial effects on childhood body composition and physical fitness, in particular muscular strength.

  14. The effects of exergaming on physical activity in a third-grade physical education class.

    PubMed

    Shayne, Rachel K; Fogel, Victoria A; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Koehler, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    We compared the effects of exergaming and traditional physical education on physical activity among 4 active children who were not overweight and who had experience with the exergaming activities prior to the study. Results showed that exergaming produced substantially higher percentages of physical activity and opportunity to engage in physical activity. In addition, an evaluation of the exergaming equipment showed that exergaming stations were associated with differential levels of physical activity across participants.

  15. Development of a Scottish physical activity questionnaire: a tool for use in physical activity interventions

    PubMed Central

    Lowther, M.; Mutrie, N.; Loughlan, C.; McFarlane, C.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Three studies were undertaken to establish the reliability and validity of the Scottish physical activity questionnaire (SPAQ), developed to aid seven day recall of leisure and occupational physical activity. METHODS: To establish reliability, SPAQs (n = 34) were completed on a Monday and the following Wednesday. Thus each questionnaire measured four identical days. To establish concurrent validity, 94 participants completed a SPAQ and an adapted stage of exercise behaviour change questionnaire. Responses to SPAQ were then analysed by stage of exercise behaviour change. In a further study of criterion validity, 30 volunteers wore a Caltrac motion sensor for four consecutive days, after which they completed a SPAQ. RESULTS: In the first study, total physical activity had a coefficient of repeatability (R) of 53 minutes. Occupational physical activity showed a similar variance (R = 54.6 minutes) but leisure physical activity was more reliable (R = 29.3 minutes). The main variation in occupational physical activity was found to be walking (R = 39.8 minutes). In study 2, a one way analysis of variance showed the expected relation between physical activity and stage of exercise behaviour change, confirming the concurrent validity of SPAQ with the stage of exercise behaviour change model. In study 3, several erroneous recordings affected both SPAQ and the Caltrac results (kcal). After relevant corrections had been made, the correlation between the two measurement devices was 0.52 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: SPAQ has been shown to be reliable and to hold strong concurrent validity and limited criterion validity. The main limitation in SPAQ appears to be the measurement of occupational walking. It is therefore recommended that further work be conducted to refine the measurement of this physical activity component. It is evident nonetheless that SPAQ can be used with confidence to measure outcomes in physical activity interventions when account is taken of its

  16. Physical activity across the life-span: Does feeling physically younger help you to plan physical activities?

    PubMed

    Wienert, Julian; Gellert, Paul; Lippke, Sonia

    2017-03-01

    We tested whether the relationship between subjective physical age and physical activity is mediated by planning. Participants came from a broad age range (25-78 years, M = 39.57, standard deviation = 10.75) and reported relatively good health ( M = 3.36, standard deviation = 0.90). The model supported the suggested mediation ( β = -.01, standard error = .01, p = .042). Feeling physically younger is associated with higher planning to adopt higher levels of physical activity and more planning is associated with more subsequent physical activity. Results open avenues for interventions that help people to become more active by focusing on subjective age. One way to do so might be tailoring approaches for interventions.

  17. Associations between physical activity parenting practices and adolescent girls' self-perceptions and physical activity intentions.

    PubMed

    Sebire, Simon J; Haase, Anne M; Montgomery, Alan A; McNeill, Jade; Jago, Russ

    2014-05-01

    The current study investigated cross-sectional associations between maternal and paternal logistic and modeling physical activity support and the self-efficacy, self-esteem, and physical activity intentions of 11- to 12-year-old girls. 210 girls reported perceptions of maternal and paternal logistic and modeling support and their self-efficacy, self-esteem and intention to be physically active. Data were analyzed using multivariable regression models. Maternal logistic support was positively associated with participants' self-esteem, physical activity self-efficacy, and intention to be active. Maternal modeling was positively associated with self-efficacy. Paternal modeling was positively associated with self-esteem and self-efficacy but there was no evidence that paternal logistic support was associated with the psychosocial variables. Activity-related parenting practices were associated with psychosocial correlates of physical activity among adolescent girls. Logistic support from mothers, rather than modeling support or paternal support may be a particularly important target when designing interventions aimed at preventing the age-related decline in physical activity among girls.

  18. Physical Activity and Health: Does Physical Education Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Russell R.; O'Neill, Jennifer R.; McIver, Kerry L.

    2011-01-01

    Physical education has been an institution in American schools since the late 19th century, and today almost all American children are exposed to physical education classes. It has often been claimed that physical education provides important benefits to public health. The purpose of this paper is to determine if physical education increases…

  19. Physical Activity and Health: Does Physical Education Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Russell R.; O'Neill, Jennifer R.; McIver, Kerry L.

    2011-01-01

    Physical education has been an institution in American schools since the late 19th century, and today almost all American children are exposed to physical education classes. It has often been claimed that physical education provides important benefits to public health. The purpose of this paper is to determine if physical education increases…

  20. [Physical activity and aging: opposing physiologic effects].

    PubMed

    Charansonney, O

    2012-11-01

    The benefits of physical activity in preventing premature mortality have been established by a large set of epidemiological studies. These benefits have been shown both in middle-aged and elderly individuals. Furthermore, the reduction of acute events such as myocardial infarction observed with higher levels of physical activity together with the increase in disease-free life expectancy among the most active individuals supports physical activity's antiaging effect. This review highlights two models supporting this effect. The first model describes the path to frailty and the second explains that immobilization is a stressor which triggers stress-responses responsible for many chronic diseases. Aging reduces the physiological reserve and can lead to frailty when this reserve cannot allow an appropriate adaptation of the aging body to environmental challenges. The components of this physiological reserve can easily be measured by cardiorespiratory testing. Among them are heart rate reserve and VO(2)max, the maximal body oxygen consumption. The opposite effects of exercise training and aging on the physiological reserve are detailed. Sedentary lifestyle accelerates the effects of aging in susceptible individuals. Sedentary lifestyle induces mechanisms which lead to risk factors of chronic diseases and, eventually, to premature death. These inappropriate mechanisms and their consequences constitute the sedentary lifestyle syndrome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Physical activity and abdominal obesity in youth.

    PubMed

    Kim, YoonMyung; Lee, SoJung

    2009-08-01

    Childhood obesity continues to escalate despite considerable efforts to reverse the current trends. Childhood obesity is a leading public health concern because overweight-obese youth suffer from comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease, conditions once considered limited to adults. This increasing prevalence of chronic health conditions in youth closely parallels the dramatic increase in obesity, in particular abdominal adiposity, in youth. Although mounting evidence in adults demonstrates the benefits of regular physical activity as a treatment strategy for abdominal obesity, the independent role of regular physical activity alone (e.g., without calorie restriction) on abdominal obesity, and in particular visceral fat, is largely unclear in youth. There is some evidence to suggest that, independent of sedentary activity levels (e.g., television watching or playing video games), engaging in higher-intensity physical activity is associated with a lower waist circumference and less visceral fat. Several randomized controlled studies have shown that aerobic types of exercise are protective against age-related increases in visceral adiposity in growing children and adolescents. However, evidence regarding the effect of resistance training alone as a strategy for the treatment of abdominal obesity is lacking and warrants further investigation.

  2. MicroRNAs and Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Altana, Valentina; Geretto, Marta; Pulliero, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are responsible for important and evolutionary-conserved regulatory functions in several cellular processes such as apoptosis, signalling, differentiation and proliferation. There is a growing interest in understanding more clearly the mechanisms regulating activation and suppression of miRNAs expression in benefit of health prevention advancement. It is now acknowledged that physical activity represents one of the most effective preventive agents in chronic degenerative diseases. Indeed, a regular exercise exerts a great influence on several parameters and biological pathways, both at genomic and post-genomic levels. Recent works have highlighted the effects of structured physical activity on miRNAs modulation. Modulation of MiRNAs, regulated by exercise in human skeletal muscle, depends on type, duration and intensity of an exercise performed. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of scientific evidence concerning the effects of physical activity on miRNAs and its relevance for chronic-degenerative diseases prevention.

  3. Research to Practice: Implementing Physical Activity Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Sally M.; Cruz, Theresa H.; Kozoll, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dissemination and implementation (D&I) science focuses on bridging the gap between research and practice. The Community Preventive Services Task Force (CPSTF) published recommendations for increasing physical activity based on scientific review and consensus. Little research on the D&I of these recommendations has been conducted in under-represented populations at high risk for inactivity and chronic disease. Methods Partnering with one rural community (beta site), the University of New Mexico Prevention Research Center studied the translation of CPSTF recommendations to practice. Strategies for increasing physical activity were selected, implemented, and analyzed in 2009 to 2013. Participant observations; content analysis of meeting minutes, field notes, and other documents; and in-depth interviews were conducted over the 5-year period to identify factors important for carrying out the CPSTF recommendations for physical activity in a rural New Mexico community. Results Included among the implementation outcomes were new sidewalks and trails, a community-wide campaign, social support of walking, and park improvements. The following factors were identified as important to the implementation process: an active community-academic partnership; multiple partners; culturally appropriate strategies; and approaches that fit local context and place characteristics (topography, land ownership, population clusters, existing roadways). Conclusions This study illustrates how evidence can be translated to practice and identifies key factors in that process. The successful beta model provides a practical blueprint for D&I in rural, under-represented populations. This model is currently being disseminated (scaled up) to other rural New Mexico communities. PMID:28215385

  4. Physical Activity and Health. A Report of the Surgeon General.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    The informatin in this report summarizes the existing literature on the role of physical activity in preventing disease and on the status of interventions to increase physical activity, focusing on endurance-type physical activity. School-based interventions have been shown to be successful in increasing physical activity levels. With evidence…

  5. Physical activity levels of children during school playtime.

    PubMed

    Ridgers, Nicola D; Stratton, Gareth; Fairclough, Stuart J

    2006-01-01

    School represents a suitable setting for intervention programmes aiming to promote physical activity to benefit health. During the school day, physical education and school playtime offer children regular opportunities to engage in physical activity. However, there is growing concern that, internationally, curricular time allocated to physical education is not meeting statutory guidelines. The effectiveness of the playground environment to promote physical activity has been considered as a complementary setting to physical education. Physical activity guidelines state that children should engage in at least 1 hour of moderate intensity physical activity a day. Currently no empirically tested guidelines exist for physical activity levels during playtime. However, studies cited in this article indicate that playtime can contribute between 5-40% of recommended daily physical activity levels when no interventions have been utilised. The limited school-based investigations that have been reported in the literature suggest that boys engage in more physical activity during playtime than girls. Studies that have implemented intervention strategies in order to promote physical activity levels indicate that playtime can substantially contribute towards daily optimal physical activity guidelines. Energy expenditure and physical activity levels have increased during playtime following the implementation of playtime-based interventions. In order to advance knowledge of children's physical activity during playtime, a number of key issues for consideration in future research are detailed. Research on children's use of playtime to be physically active and the extent of the contribution of playtime to daily physical activity guidelines is warranted.

  6. Physical activity behavior and role overload in mothers.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Geoff P; Butler, Frances R

    2015-01-01

    We examined physical activity stages of change, physical activity behavior, and role overload in different stages of motherhood in a predominantly Australian sample. Neither physical activity behavior, stages of physical activity change, nor role overload significantly differed across motherhood groups. Role overload was significantly higher for mothers in the contemplation, planning, and action stages of physical activity than in the maintenance stage of change. Role overload had a weak, although significant, negative correlation with leisure-time physical activity. We conclude that strategies focused upon reducing role overload or perceived role overload have only limited potential to meaningfully increase leisure-time physical activity in mothers.

  7. Physical Activity, Health Benefits, and Mortality Risk

    PubMed Central

    Kokkinos, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A plethora of epidemiologic evidence from large studies supports unequivocally an inverse, independent, and graded association between volume of physical activity, health, and cardiovascular and overall mortality. This association is evident in apparently healthy individuals, patients with hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease, regardless of body weight. Moreover, the degree of risk associated with physical inactivity is similar to, and in some cases even stronger than, the more traditional cardiovascular risk factors. The exercise-induced health benefits are in part related to favorable modulations of cardiovascular risk factors observed by increased physical activity or structured exercise programs. Although the independent contribution of the exercise components, intensity, duration, and frequency to the reduction of mortality risk is not clear, it is well accepted that an exercise volume threshold defined at caloric expenditure of approximately 1,000 Kcal per week appears to be necessary for significant reduction in mortality risk. Further reductions in risk are observed with higher volumes of energy expenditure. Physical exertion is also associated with a relatively low and transient increase in risk for cardiac events. This risk is significantly higher for older and sedentary individuals. Therefore, such individuals should consult their physician prior to engaging in exercise. “Walking is man’s best medicine”Hippocrates PMID:23198160

  8. Biomarkers of physical activity and exercise.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Gonzalo; Pedrero-Chamizo, Raquel; Palacios, Nieves; Maroto-Sánchez, Beatriz; Aznar, Susana; González-Gross, Marcela

    2015-02-26

    Traditionally, biomarkers have been of interest in sports in order to measure performance, progress in training and for identifying overtraining. During the last years, growing interest is set on biomarkers aiming at evaluating health-related aspects which can be modulated by regular physical activity and sport. The value or concentration of a biomarker depends on many factors, as the training status of the subject, the degree of fatigue and the type, intensity and duration of exercise, apart from age and sex. Most of the biomarkers are measured in blood, urine and saliva. One of the main limitations for biochemical biomarkers is that reference values for blood concentration of biomarkers specifically adapted to physically active people and athletes are lacking. Concentrations can differ widely from normal reference ranges. Therefore, it is important to adapt reference values as much as possible and to control each subject regularly, in order to establish his/her own reference scale. Other useful biomarkers are body composition (specifically muscle mass, fat mass, weight), physical fitness (cardiovascular capacity, strength, agility, flexibility), heart rate and blood pressure. Depending on the aim, one or several biomarkers should be measured. It may differ if it is for research purpose, for the follow up of training or to prevent risks. For this review, we will get deeper into the biomarkers used to identify the degree of physical fitness, chronic stress, overtraining, cardiovascular risk, oxidative stress and inflammation.

  9. Physical Activity Measurement Device Agreement: Pedometer Steps/Minute and Physical Activity Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scruggs, Philip W.; Mungen, Jonathan D.; Oh, Yoonsin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine agreement between the Walk4Life DUO pedometer (W4L; Walk4Life, Plainfield, Illinois, USA) and two criterion instruments in the measurement of physical activity. Participants (N = 189, M = 16.74 years, SD = 0.99) in high school physical education concurrently wore the DUO (i.e., comparison instrument) and…

  10. Rethinking Middle School Physical Education: Combining Lifetime Leisure Activities and Sport Education to Encourage Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Derek J.; Townsend, J. Scott; Pritchard, Tony

    2006-01-01

    Physical education represents an area of the middle school curriculum that has the potential to impact adolescents' developing knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors in positive and meaningful ways that may endure across the lifespan. Despite the well-documented benefits of engaging in regular physical activity (e.g., American Heart…

  11. Physical Activity and Quality of Life Experienced by Highly Active Individuals with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.; Stancil, Michael; Hardin, Brent; Bryant, Lance

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined links between physical activity and quality of life experienced by individuals with physical disabilities recruited from a wheelchair user's basketball tournament. The participants included 12 male and 14 female adults between the ages of 18-54 (M = 31.12, SD = 10.75) who all reported one or more condition(s) that…

  12. Associations between Socio-Motivational Factors, Physical Education Activity Levels and Physical Activity Behavior among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ning, Weihong; Gao, Zan; Lodewyk, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between established socio-motivational factors and children's physical activity levels daily and during physical education classes. A total of 307 middle school students (149 boys, 158 girls) from a suburban public school in the Southern United States participated in this study. Participants completed…

  13. Physical Activity and Quality of Life Experienced by Highly Active Individuals with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.; Stancil, Michael; Hardin, Brent; Bryant, Lance

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined links between physical activity and quality of life experienced by individuals with physical disabilities recruited from a wheelchair user's basketball tournament. The participants included 12 male and 14 female adults between the ages of 18-54 (M = 31.12, SD = 10.75) who all reported one or more condition(s) that…

  14. Assessment of physical activity using wearable monitors: Measures of physical activity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Physical activitymay be defined broadly as "all bodily actions produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that increase energy expenditure above basal level." Physical activity is a complex construct that can be classified into major categories qualitatively, quantitatively, or contextually. The...

  15. Effects of a Classroom-Based Physical Activity Program on Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Tan Leng; Hannon, James; Webster, Collin Andrew; Podlog, Leslie William; Brusseau, Timothy; Newton, Maria

    2014-01-01

    High levels of physical inactivity are evident among many American children. To address this problem, providing physical activity (PA) during the school day within the CSPAP framework, is one strategy to increase children's PA. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a classroom-based PA program on children's PA. Two hundred…

  16. Physical Activity Measurement Device Agreement: Pedometer Steps/Minute and Physical Activity Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scruggs, Philip W.; Mungen, Jonathan D.; Oh, Yoonsin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine agreement between the Walk4Life DUO pedometer (W4L; Walk4Life, Plainfield, Illinois, USA) and two criterion instruments in the measurement of physical activity. Participants (N = 189, M = 16.74 years, SD = 0.99) in high school physical education concurrently wore the DUO (i.e., comparison instrument) and…

  17. Physical Activity Outcomes of CHAMPS II: A Physical Activity Promotion Program for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Anita L.; Verboncoeur, Carol J.; McLellan, Barbara Y.; Gillis, Dawn E.; Rush, Stephanie; Mills, Kris M.; King, Abby C.; Ritter, Philip; Brown, Byron W.; Bortz, Walter M.

    2006-01-01

    Background Despite well-known benefits of physical activity for older adults, about two thirds are underactive. Community-based programs are needed to facilitate increased physical activity. We examine the effectiveness of CHAMPS II, an inclusive, choice-based physical activity promotion program to increase lifetime physical activity levels of seniors. CHAMPS guided participants to choose activities that took into account their health, preferences, and abilities. It offered information on ways for them to exercise safely, motivate themselves, overcome barriers, and develop a balanced exercise regimen. Methods A 1-year randomized controlled trial was conducted with physically underactive seniors in a multispecialty group practice. Changes in self-reported physical activity by group were evaluated using ANCOVA, controlling for age and sex. Results Of 173 randomized subjects, 164 (95%) completed the trial. Subjects were aged 65 to 90 years (M = 74, SD = 6); 66% were female. The intervention group increased estimated caloric expenditure by 487 calories/week in moderate (or greater) intensity activities (MET ≥3.0; p < .001) and by 687 calories/week in physical activities of any intensity (p = .001). Control group changes were negligible. Between-group analyses found that the changes were significantly different in both measures (p values < .05). Overweight persons especially benefited from this program. The program was as effective for women, older adults (75+), and those who did not set aside time to exercise at baseline. Conclusions The program led to meaningful physical activity increases. Individually tailored programs to encourage lifestyle changes in seniors may be effective and applicable to health care and community settings. PMID:11487597

  18. Diet and physical activity: a healthful binomial.

    PubMed

    Entrala-Bueno, A; Iglesias, C; de Jesús, F

    2003-09-01

    Individual health status is the result of a combination of different factors such as genetics, dowry, age, nutritional status, physical activity, as well as environmental factors, hygiene, salubrity, stress and tobacco consumption. The existence of bad food habits and other risk factors leads to an increase in the development of chronic diseases, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and certain types of cancer. Such diseases occupy greater rates of morbidity and mortality in European countries. This situation seems to justify that in our country defective intervention on different risk factors or, perhaps, a worsening in the control of some of them is taking place where the diet and lifestyle seem clearly implied. It is clear that if we take as bases the angular determinants for cardiovascular health identified in the 'Victory Declaration on Cardiac Health', healthful food habits, free tobacco lifestyle, regular physical activity and positive psycho-social atmosphere, future perspectives in our country do not seem to be very favourable.

  19. Physical Activity and Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Colberg, Sheri R.; Laan, Remmert; Dassau, Eyal; Kerr, David

    2015-01-01

    While being physically active bestows many health benefits on individuals with type 1 diabetes, their overall blood glucose control is not enhanced without an effective balance of insulin dosing and food intake to maintain euglycemia before, during, and after exercise of all types. At present, a number of technological advances are already available to insulin users who desire to be physically active with optimal blood glucose control, although a number of limitations to those devices remain. In addition to continued improvements to existing technologies and introduction of new ones, finding ways to integrate all of the available data to optimize blood glucose control and performance during and following exercise will likely involve development of “smart” calculators, enhanced closed-loop systems that are able to use additional inputs and learn, and social aspects that allow devices to meet the needs of the users. PMID:25568144

  20. Autonomous motivation mediates the relation between goals for physical activity and physical activity behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Michael J; Eyre, Emma Lj; Bryant, Elizabeth; Seghers, Jan; Galbraith, Niall; Nevill, Alan M

    2015-10-07

    Overall, 544 children (mean age ± standard deviation = 14.2 ± .94 years) completed self-report measures of physical activity goal content, behavioral regulations, and physical activity behavior. Body mass index was determined from height and mass. The indirect effect of intrinsic goal content on physical activity was statistically significant via autonomous (b = 162.27; 95% confidence interval [89.73, 244.70]), but not controlled motivation (b = 5.30; 95% confidence interval [-39.05, 45.16]). The indirect effect of extrinsic goal content on physical activity was statistically significant via autonomous (b = 106.25; 95% confidence interval [63.74, 159.13]) but not controlled motivation (b = 17.28; 95% confidence interval [-31.76, 70.21]). Weight status did not alter these findings.

  1. Correlates of physical activity: why are some people physically active and others not?

    PubMed

    Bauman, Adrian E; Reis, Rodrigo S; Sallis, James F; Wells, Jonathan C; Loos, Ruth J F; Martin, Brian W

    2012-07-21

    Physical inactivity is an important contributor to non-communicable diseases in countries of high income, and increasingly so in those of low and middle income. Understanding why people are physically active or inactive contributes to evidence-based planning of public health interventions, because effective programmes will target factors known to cause inactivity. Research into correlates (factors associated with activity) or determinants (those with a causal relationship) has burgeoned in the past two decades, but has mostly focused on individual-level factors in high-income countries. It has shown that age, sex, health status, self-efficacy, and motivation are associated with physical activity. Ecological models take a broad view of health behaviour causation, with the social and physical environment included as contributors to physical inactivity, particularly those outside the health sector, such as urban planning, transportation systems, and parks and trails. New areas of determinants research have identified genetic factors contributing to the propensity to be physically active, and evolutionary factors and obesity that might predispose to inactivity, and have explored the longitudinal tracking of physical activity throughout life. An understanding of correlates and determinants, especially in countries of low and middle income, could reduce the eff ect of future epidemics of inactivity and contribute to effective global prevention of non-communicable diseases.

  2. Regulatory fit messages and physical activity motivation.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, Ines

    2013-04-01

    Targeted communication about health behaviors seems to be more effective than mass communication in which undifferentiated audiences receive identical messages. Regulatory focus is psychological variable that can be used to build two target groups: promotion-focused or prevention-focused people. It is hypothesized that targeting messages to an individual's regulatory focus creates regulatory fit and is more successful to promote a physically active lifestyle than nonfit messages. Two different print messages promoting a physically active lifestyle derived from regulatory focus theory (promotion message vs. prevention message) were randomly assigned to N = 98 participants after measuring their regulatory focus. It was examined whether regulatory fit between the regulatory focus and the assigned print message would lead to more positive evaluations in the dependent variables inclination toward the message (preference for the message), intention to perform the behavior, prospective and retrospective feelings associated with the behavior (positive and negative), and perceived value of the behavior directly after reading the message. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that regulatory fit led to stronger intentions in the prevention-message condition and more prospective positive and retrospective positive feelings associated with the behavior in the promotion-message condition in contrast to the nonfit conditions. Prospective positive feelings associated with the behavior mediated the effect of regulatory fit on intention. The results partly provided support for the regulatory fit concept. Matching print messages to the regulatory focus of individuals seems to be a useful approach to enhance physical activity motivation. Future studies should include an objective measure of physical activity behavior.

  3. Physical activity and Alzheimer disease course.

    PubMed

    Scarmeas, Nikolaos; Luchsinger, Jose A; Brickman, Adam M; Cosentino, Stephanie; Schupf, Nicole; Xin-Tang, Ming; Gu, Yian; Stern, Yaakov

    2011-05-01

    To examine the association between physical activity (PA) and Alzheimer disease (AD) course. PA has been related to lower risk for AD. Whether PA is associated with subsequent AD course has not been investigated. In a population-based study of individuals aged 65 years and older in New York who were prospectively followed up with standard neurologic and neuropsychological evaluations (every ~1.5 years), 357 participants i) were nondemented at baseline and ii) were diagnosed with AD during follow-up (incident AD). PA (sum of participation in a variety of physical activities, weighted by the type of activity [light, moderate, and severe]) obtained 2.4 (standard deviation [SD], 1.9) years before incidence was the main predictor of mortality in Cox models and of cognitive decline in generalized estimating equation models that were adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, education, comorbidities, and duration between PA evaluation and dementia onset. One hundred fifty incident AD cases (54%) died during the course of 5.2 (SD, 4.4) years of follow-up. When compared with incident AD cases who were physically inactive, those with some PA had lower mortality risk, whereas incident AD participants with much PA had an even lower risk. Additional adjustments for apolipoprotein genotype, smoking, comorbidity index, and cognitive performance did not change the associations. PA did not affect rates of cognitive or functional decline. Exercise may affect not only risk for AD but also subsequent disease duration: more PA is associated with prolonged survival in AD.

  4. Physical activity, fitness, and gray matter volume.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Kirk I; Leckie, Regina L; Weinstein, Andrea M

    2014-09-01

    In this review, we explore the association among physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and exercise on gray matter volume in older adults. We conclude that higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels are routinely associated with greater gray matter volume in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus and less consistently in other regions. We also conclude that physical activity is associated with greater gray matter volume in the same regions that are associated with cardiorespiratory fitness including the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Some heterogeneity in the literature may be explained by effect moderation by age, stress, or other factors. Finally, we report promising results from randomized exercise interventions that suggest that the volume of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex remain pliable and responsive to moderate intensity exercise for 6 months-1 year. Physical activity appears to be a propitious method for influencing gray matter volume in late adulthood, but additional well-controlled studies are necessary to inform public policies about the potential protective or therapeutic effects of exercise on brain volume. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Physical activity, fitness, and gray matter volume

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Kirk I.; Leckie, Regina L.; Weinstein, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    In this review we explore the association between physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and exercise on gray matter volume in older adults. We conclude that higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels are routinely associated with greater gray matter volume in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, and less consistently in other regions. We also conclude that physical activity is associated with greater gray matter volume in the same regions that are associated with cardiorespiratory fitness including the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Some heterogeneity in the literature may be explained by effect moderation by age, stress, or other factors. Finally, we report promising results from randomized exercise interventions that suggest that the volume of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex remain pliable and responsive to moderate intensity exercise for 6-months to 1-year. Physical activity appears to be a propitious method for influencing gray matter volume in late adulthood, but additional well-controlled studies are necessary to inform public policies about the potential protective or therapeutic effects of exercise on brain volume. PMID:24952993

  6. Physical activity, air pollution and the brain.

    PubMed

    Bos, Inge; De Boever, Patrick; Int Panis, Luc; Meeusen, Romain

    2014-11-01

    This review introduces an emerging research field that is focused on studying the effect of exposure to air pollution during exercise on cognition, with specific attention to the impact on concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inflammatory markers. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that regular physical activity enhances cognition, and evidence suggests that BDNF, a neurotrophin, plays a key role in the mechanism. Today, however, air pollution is an environmental problem worldwide and the high traffic density, especially in urban environments and cities, is a major cause of this problem. During exercise, the intake of air pollution increases considerably due to an increased ventilation rate and particle deposition fraction. Recently, air pollution exposure has been linked to adverse effects on the brain such as cognitive decline and neuropathology. Inflammation and oxidative stress seem to play an important role in inducing these health effects. We believe that there is a need to investigate whether the well-known benefits of regular physical activity on the brain also apply when physical activity is performed in polluted air. We also report our findings about exercising in an environment with ambient levels of air pollutants. Based on the latter results, we hypothesize that traffic-related air pollution exposure during exercise may inhibit the positive effect of exercise on cognition.

  7. Impact of an After-School Physical Activity Program on Youth's Physical Activity Correlates and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chaoqun; Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C.; Schultz, Barry; Newton, Maria; Jenson, William

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of a sports-based, after-school physical activity (PA) program on youth's physical activity PA levels and PA correlates. After the pretest, 130 youth were assigned to the intervention group (i.e., after-school PA group) or the comparison (i.e., no after-school PA group) group.…

  8. Relationship between beliefs, motivation, and worries about physical activity and physical activity participation in persons with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich-Jones, Linda; Lee, Jungwha; Semanik, Pamela; Cox, Cheryl; Dunlop, Dorothy; Chang, Rowland W

    2011-12-01

    To determine the relationship between beliefs, motivation, and worries about physical activity and physical activity participation in persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A cross-sectional study used baseline data from 185 adults with RA enrolled in a randomized clinical trial assessing the effectiveness of an intervention to promote physical activity. Data included patients' self-reported beliefs that physical activity can be beneficial for their disease, motivation for physical activity participation, worries about physical activity participation, and average daily accelerometer counts of activity over a week's time. Body mass index (BMI), sex, age, race, and disease activity were measured as potential statistical moderators of physical activity. Physical activity participation was greater for those with higher scores on scales measuring beliefs that physical activity is beneficial for their disease (P for trend = 0.032) and motivation for physical activity participation (P for trend = 0.007) when adjusted for age, sex, BMI, race, and disease activity. There was a positive but nonsignificant trend in physical activity participation in relation to worries. Stronger beliefs that physical activity can be helpful for managing disease and increased motivation to engage in physical activity are related to higher levels of physical activity participation. These data provide a preliminary empirical rationale for why interventions targeting these concepts should lead to improved physical activity participation in adults with RA. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  9. Childhood temperament predictors of adolescent physical activity.

    PubMed

    Janssen, James A; Kolacz, Jacek; Shanahan, Lilly; Gangel, Meghan J; Calkins, Susan D; Keane, Susan P; Wideman, Laurie

    2017-01-05

    Physical inactivity is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Many patterns of physical activity involvement are established early in life. To date, the role of easily identifiable early-life individual predictors of PA, such as childhood temperament, remains relatively unexplored. Here, we tested whether childhood temperamental activity level, high intensity pleasure, low intensity pleasure, and surgency predicted engagement in physical activity (PA) patterns 11 years later in adolescence. Data came from a longitudinal community study (N = 206 participants, 53% females, 70% Caucasian). Parents reported their children's temperamental characteristics using the Child Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ) when children were 4 & 5 years old. Approximately 11 years later, adolescents completed self-reports of PA using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Ordered logistic regression, ordinary least squares linear regression, and Zero-inflated Poisson regression models were used to predict adolescent PA from childhood temperament. Race, socioeconomic status, and adolescent body mass index were used as covariates. Males with greater childhood temperamental activity level engaged in greater adolescent PA volume (B = .42, SE = .13) and a 1 SD difference in childhood temperamental activity level predicted 29.7% more strenuous adolescent PA per week. Males' high intensity pleasure predicted higher adolescent PA volume (B = .28, SE = .12). Males' surgency positively predicted more frequent PA activity (B = .47, SE = .23, OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.54) and PA volume (B = .31, SE = .12). No predictions from females' childhood temperament to later PA engagement were identified. Childhood temperament may influence the formation of later PA habits, particularly in males. Boys with high temperamental activity level, high intensity pleasure, and surgency may directly seek out pastimes that involve PA

  10. Connecting Physical Education to Out-of-School Physical Activity through Sport Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwamberger, Benjamin; Sinelnikov, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    One of the goals of physical education, according to The Society of Health and Physical Educators, is for children to establish "patterns of regular participation in meaningful physical activity." However, participation alone in physical education classes is not enough for students to reach daily recommended levels of physical activity.…

  11. Connecting Physical Education to Out-of-School Physical Activity through Sport Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwamberger, Benjamin; Sinelnikov, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    One of the goals of physical education, according to The Society of Health and Physical Educators, is for children to establish "patterns of regular participation in meaningful physical activity." However, participation alone in physical education classes is not enough for students to reach daily recommended levels of physical activity.…

  12. Intention-behavior gap is wider for walking and moderate physical activity than for vigorous physical activity in university students.

    PubMed

    Rebar, Amanda L; Maher, Jaclyn P; Doerksen, Shawna E; Elavsky, Steriani; Conroy, David E

    2016-02-01

    The theory of planned behavior proposes that physical activity is the result of intentions; however little is known about whether the relation between intentions and behavior differs between vigorous, moderate physical activity, and walking. For university students, vigorous physical activity is oftentimes enacted as a goal-directed behavior; whereas walking is oftentimes a means to achieving a goal other than physical activity (e.g., transportation). The study was a one-week prospective study. Undergraduate students (N=164) reported intentions for walking, moderate physical activity, and vigorous physical activity and self-reported these behaviors one week later. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that intentions were more strongly related to vigorous physical activity than to moderate physical activity or walking. Intention-enhancing interventions may effectively promote vigorous physical activity, but other motivational processes may be more appropriate to target in interventions of walking and moderate physical activity. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Physical Activity Interventions in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Hoehner, Christine M.; Ribeiro, Isabela C.; Parra, Diana C.; Reis, Rodrigo S.; Azevedo, Mario R.; Hino, Adriano A.; Soares, Jesus; Hallal, Pedro C.; Simões, Eduardo J.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2013-01-01

    Context Systematic reviews of public health interventions are useful for identifying effective strategies for informing policy and practice. The goals of this review were to (1) update a previous systematic review of physical activity interventions in Latin America which found that only school-based physical education had sufficient evidence to recommend widespread adoption; (2) assess the reporting of external validity elements; and (3) develop and apply an evidence typology for classifying interventions. Evidence acquisition In 2010–2011, community-level, physical activity intervention studies from Latin America were identified, categorized, and screened based on the peer-reviewed literature or Brazilian theses published between 2006 and 2010. Articles meeting inclusion criteria were evaluated using U.S. Community Guide methods. External validity reporting was assessed among a subset of articles reviewed to date. An evidence rating typology was developed and applied to classify interventions along a continuum based on evidence about their effectiveness in the U.S. context, reach, adoption, implementation, institutionalization, and benefits and costs. Evidence synthesis Thirteen articles published between 2006 and 2010 met inclusion criteria and were abstracted systematically, yet when combined with evidence from articles from the previous systematic review, no additional interventions could be recommended for practice. Moreover, the reporting of external validity elements was low among a subset of 19 studies published to date (median=21% of elements reported). By applying the expanded evidence rating typology, one intervention was classified as evidence-based, seven as promising, and one as emerging. Conclusions Several physical activity interventions have been identified as promising for future research and implementation in Latin America. Enhanced reporting of external validity elements will inform the translation of research into practice. PMID:23415133

  14. Measuring the Built Environment for Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Brownson, Ross C.; Hoehner, Christine M.; Day, Kristen; Forsyth, Ann; Sallis, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the most important public health issues in the U.S. and internationally. Increasingly, links are being identified between various elements of the physical—or built—environment and physical activity. To understand the impact of the built environment on physical activity, the development of high-quality measures is essential. Three categories of built environment data are being used: (1) perceived measures obtained by telephone interview or self-administered questionnaires; (2) observational measures obtained using systematic observational methods (audits); and (3) archival data sets that are often layered and analyzed with GIS. This review provides a critical assessment of these three types of built-environment measures relevant to the study of physical activity. Among perceived measures, 19 questionnaires were reviewed, ranging in length from 7 to 68 questions. Twenty audit tools were reviewed that cover community environments (i.e., neighborhoods, cities), parks, and trails. For GIS-derived measures, more than 50 studies were reviewed. A large degree of variability was found in the operationalization of common GIS measures, which include population density, land-use mix, access to recreational facilities, and street pattern. This first comprehensive examination of built-environment measures demonstrates considerable progress over the past decade, showing diverse environmental variables available that use multiple modes of assessment. Most can be considered first-generation measures, so further development is needed. In particular, further research is needed to improve the technical quality of measures, understand the relevance to various population groups, and understand the utility of measures for science and public health. PMID:19285216

  15. Positive Youth Development through Physical Activity: Opportunities for Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    As physical educators continue to advocate for school-based PE, they should also consider ways to extend their work into community settings in an effort to ensure that all kids have an opportunity to develop physical literacy. This article describes how positive youth development programs can provide an opportunity for physical educators to engage…

  16. Positive Youth Development through Physical Activity: Opportunities for Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    As physical educators continue to advocate for school-based PE, they should also consider ways to extend their work into community settings in an effort to ensure that all kids have an opportunity to develop physical literacy. This article describes how positive youth development programs can provide an opportunity for physical educators to engage…

  17. Workplace pedometer interventions for increasing physical activity.

    PubMed

    Freak-Poli, Rosanne L A; Cumpston, Miranda; Peeters, Anna; Clemes, Stacy A

    2013-04-30

    The World Health Organization and the World Economic Forum have recommended further research to strengthen current knowledge of workplace health programmes, particularly on effectiveness and using simple instruments. A pedometer is one such simple instrument that can be incorporated in workplace interventions. To assess the effectiveness of pedometer interventions in the workplace for increasing physical activity and improving subsequent health outcomes. Electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (671 potential papers), MEDLINE (1001), Embase (965), CINAHL (1262), OSH UPDATE databases (75) and Web of Science (1154) from the earliest record to between 30th January and 6th February 2012 yielded 3248 unique records. Reference lists of articles yielded an additional 34 papers. Contact with individuals and organisations did not produce any further records. We included individual and cluster-randomised controlled trials of workplace health promotion interventions with a pedometer component in employed adults. The primary outcome was physical activity and was part of the eligibility criteria. We considered subsequent health outcomes, including adverse effects, as secondary outcomes. Two review authors undertook the screening of titles and abstracts and the full-text papers independently. Two review authors (RFP and MC) independently completed data extraction and risk of bias assessment. We contacted authors to obtain additional data and clarification. We found four relevant studies providing data for 1809 employees, 60% of whom were allocated to the intervention group. All studies assessed outcomes immediately after the intervention had finished and the intervention duration varied between three to six months. All studies had usual treatment control conditions; however one study's usual treatment was an alternative physical activity programme while the other three had minimally active controls. In general, there was high risk of bias mainly

  18. The Effect of Physical Education Climates on Elementary Students' Physical Activity Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Gell, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Background: With the growing need for children from underserved populations to be physically active it is imperative to create developmentally appropriate and enjoyable physical education programs that promote physical activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of mastery and performance climates on physical activity during…

  19. Engaging Middle School Students in Physical Education and Physical Activity Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    With school-based physical activity emerging as a public health issue, it is more important than ever to understand what keeps children and adolescents interested and participating in physical education and physical activity. As the research on physical activity patterns indicates, the middle school years may be a watershed moment in the lives of…

  20. Engaging Middle School Students in Physical Education and Physical Activity Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    With school-based physical activity emerging as a public health issue, it is more important than ever to understand what keeps children and adolescents interested and participating in physical education and physical activity. As the research on physical activity patterns indicates, the middle school years may be a watershed moment in the lives of…

  1. Influence of High School Physical Education on University Student's Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Jessica; Jenkins, Jayne; Wallhead, Tristan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the Lifelong Physical Activity (LLPA) framework to examine the influence of high school physical education (PE) on university students' level of physical activity (PA). Participants included 365 undergraduate students from the Rocky Mountain West of the USA enrolled in a university physical activity course.…

  2. Physical Activity and the Achievement Gap among Urban Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basch, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To outline the prevalence and disparities of physical activity among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which low levels of physical activity and fitness adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to increase physical activity and physical fitness among youth. Methods:…

  3. Physical Activity and the Achievement Gap among Urban Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basch, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To outline the prevalence and disparities of physical activity among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which low levels of physical activity and fitness adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to increase physical activity and physical fitness among youth. Methods:…

  4. Physical Activity Patterns of Young Women Post-College Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliah, LuAnn; Walter, Janelle; Antosh, Deeanna

    2008-01-01

    Americans need more physical activity in their daily routines. There are numerous physical as well as psychological benefits that can be credited to regular physical activity. The purpose of this research was to examine the physical activity patterns of young women, post-college graduation. The average woman in this study exercised 22 minutes per…

  5. Community wide interventions for increasing physical activity.

    PubMed

    Baker, Philip Ra; Francis, Daniel P; Soares, Jesus; Weightman, Alison L; Foster, Charles

    2011-04-13

    Multi-strategic community wide interventions for physical activity are increasingly popular but their ability to achieve population level improvements is unknown. To evaluate the effects of community wide, multi-strategic interventions upon population levels of physical activity. We searched the Cochrane Public Health Group Specialised Register, The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, MEDLINE in Process, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, PsycINFO, ASSIA, The British Nursing Index, Chinese CNKI databases, EPPI Centre (DoPHER, TRoPHI), ERIC, HMIC, Sociological Abstracts, SPORTDiscus, Transport Database and Web of Science (Science Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Conference Proceedings Citation Index). We also scanned websites of the EU Platform on Diet, Physical Activity and Health; Health-Evidence.ca; the International Union for Health Promotion and Education; the NIHR Coordinating Centre for Health Technology (NCCHTA) and NICE and SIGN guidelines. Reference lists of all relevant systematic reviews, guidelines and primary studies were followed up. We contacted experts in the field from the National Obesity Observatory Oxford, Oxford University; Queensland Health, Queensland University of Technology, the University of Central Queensland; the University of Tennessee and Washington University; and handsearched six relevant journals. The searches were last updated to the end of November 2009 and were not restricted by language or publication status. Cluster randomised controlled trials, randomised controlled trials (RCT), quasi-experimental designs which used a control population for comparison, interrupted time-series (ITS) studies, and prospective controlled cohort studies (PCCS) were included. Only studies with a minimum six-month follow up from the start of the intervention to measurement of outcomes were included. Community wide interventions had to comprise at least two broad strategies aimed at physical activity for the whole population. Studies which randomised

  6. Physical Activity Levels of Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Physical Activity in T1D.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Valderi Abreu; Mascarenhas, Luis Paulo Gomes; Decimo, Juliana Pereira; de Souza, William Cordeiro; Monteiro, Anna Louise Stellfeld; Lahart, Ian; França, Suzana Nesi; Leite, Neiva

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in teenagers with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) in comparison with healthy scholar participants. Total of 154 teenagers (T1D = 45 and CON = 109). Height, weight, cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), and the level of physical activity by the Bouchard's Physical Activity Record were measured, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in T1D. The VO2max was lower in the T1D (38.38 ± 7.54) in comparison with the CON (42.44 ± 4.65; p < .05). The VO2max had correlation with the amount of time of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (r = .63; p = .0001) and an inverse correlation with sedentary activities (r= -0.46; p = .006). In the T1D the levels of HbA1c had an inverse correlation with the amount of time of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (r= -0.34; p = .041) and correlation with the BMI z-score (r = .43; p = .017). Only 37,8% of the participants in the T1D reached the adequate amount of daily moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity, in the CON 81,7% reached the WHO's recommendation. T1D had less cardiorespiratory capacity then healthy controls, the teenagers of T1D with lower BMI z-score and that dedicated a greater time in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity demonstrated a better glycemic control.

  7. Activated coconut shell charcoal carbon using chemical-physical activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budi, Esmar; Umiatin, Nasbey, Hadi; Bintoro, Ridho Akbar; Wulandari, Futri; Erlina

    2016-02-01

    The use of activated carbon from natural material such as coconut shell charcoal as metal absorbance of the wastewater is a new trend. The activation of coconut shell charcoal carbon by using chemical-physical activation has been investigated. Coconut shell was pyrolized in kiln at temperature about 75 - 150 °C for about 6 hours in producing charcoal. The charcoal as the sample was shieved into milimeter sized granule particle and chemically activated by immersing in various concentration of HCl, H3PO4, KOH and NaOH solutions. The samples then was physically activated using horizontal furnace at 400°C for 1 hours in argon gas environment with flow rate of 200 kg/m3. The surface morphology and carbon content of activated carbon were characterized by using SEM/EDS. The result shows that the pores of activated carbon are openned wider as the chemical activator concentration is increased due to an excessive chemical attack. However, the pores tend to be closed as further increasing in chemical activator concentration due to carbon collapsing.

  8. Rockets: Physical science teacher's guide with activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, Gregory L.; Rosenberg, Carla R. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This guide begins with background information sections on the history of rocketry, scientific principles, and practical rocketry. The sections on scientific principles and practical rocketry are based on Isaac Newton's three laws of motion. These laws explain why rockets work and how to make them more efficient. The background sections are followed with a series of physical science activities that demonstrate the basic science of rocketry. Each activity is designed to be simple and take advantage of inexpensive materials. Construction diagrams, materials and tools lists, and instructions are included. A brief discussion elaborates on the concepts covered in the activities and is followed with teaching notes and discussion questions. The guide concludes with a glossary of terms, suggested reading list, NASA educational resources, and an evaluation questionnaire with a mailer.

  9. Effect of physical activity on body composition

    SciTech Connect

    Zanzi, I; Ellis, K J; Aloia, J; Cohn, S H

    1980-01-01

    It has been noted that the deleterious effects on bone calcium of prolonged periods of inactivity, such as bed rest, are halted following resumption of activity. It would seem possible in light of the observations that have been made, that exercise may stimulate bone formation and perhaps counter, to some extent, bone loss as observed in the osteoporosis of aging. The present study was designed to determine the relation between total body calcium, total body potassium and bone mineral content of the radius to the degree of physical activity in a population of normal subjects. Measurement of the calcium was made by in-vivo total body neutron activation analysis. Bone mineral content of the radius and total body potassium, (an index of lean body mass) were measured by photon absorptiometry and the whole body counter, respectively.

  10. National plan for physical activity: education sector.

    PubMed

    Siedentop, Daryl L

    2009-11-01

    Schools must play a central role in combating the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and youths. This cannot be achieved without more robust policy and funding programs at both federal and state levels. Reviews of meta-analyses were used to assess the efficacy of improving PA/MVPA through interventions in school physical education programs. Individual research studies were reviewed to assess the efficacy of improving PA/MVPA in preschool settings, recess, and classroom activity breaks. Legislation at the federal and state levels was reviewed along with surveillance and accountability mechanisms at the state level. Physical education interventions produce improvements in PA/MVPA if protocols relating to use of time are followed. PA/MVPA in recess can be increased through careful planning for attractive activity opportunities on carefully designed playgrounds. Classroom activity breaks provide important PA/MVPA daily and improve student on-task behavior. Federal legislation is needed to provide guidelines and financial support for states to improve the quantity and quality of PA in school programs. States need to develop clear expectations for quantity and quality of PA programs in schools, surveillance systems to monitor district compliance in meeting those expectations, and an accountability system aimed at ensuring that state expectations are being met with assistance for districts that do not meet expectations.

  11. Physical environment virtualization for human activities recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poshtkar, Azin; Elangovan, Vinayak; Shirkhodaie, Amir; Chan, Alex; Hu, Shuowen

    2015-05-01

    Human activity recognition research relies heavily on extensive datasets to verify and validate performance of activity recognition algorithms. However, obtaining real datasets are expensive and highly time consuming. A physics-based virtual simulation can accelerate the development of context based human activity recognition algorithms and techniques by generating relevant training and testing videos simulating diverse operational scenarios. In this paper, we discuss in detail the requisite capabilities of a virtual environment to aid as a test bed for evaluating and enhancing activity recognition algorithms. To demonstrate the numerous advantages of virtual environment development, a newly developed virtual environment simulation modeling (VESM) environment is presented here to generate calibrated multisource imagery datasets suitable for development and testing of recognition algorithms for context-based human activities. The VESM environment serves as a versatile test bed to generate a vast amount of realistic data for training and testing of sensor processing algorithms. To demonstrate the effectiveness of VESM environment, we present various simulated scenarios and processed results to infer proper semantic annotations from the high fidelity imagery data for human-vehicle activity recognition under different operational contexts.

  12. Relationship between physical functioning and physical activity in the lifestyle interventions and independence for elders pilot

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether participation in usual moderate-intensity or more-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is associated with physical function performance and to identify sociodemographic, psychosocial, and disease-related covariates that may also compromise physical function performance....

  13. Associations between selected demographic, biological, school environmental and physical education based correlates, and adolescent physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hilland, Toni A; Ridgers, Nicola D; Stratton, Gareth; Fairclough, Stuart J

    2011-02-01

    The study investigated associations between selected physical activity correlates among 299 adolescents (90 boys, age 12-14 years) from 3 English schools. Physical activity was assessed by self-report and accelerometry. Correlates represented biological, predisposing, and demographic factors as described in the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model. Boys engaged in more self-reported (p < .01) and accelerometer assessed physical activity than girls (p = .02). Positive associations between sex (male), BMI, Perceived PE Ability, Perceived PE Worth, number of enrolled students, and physical activity outcomes were evident (p < .05). School-based physical activity promotion should emphasize sex-specific enhancement of students' perceived PE competence and enjoyment.

  14. Teaching Ideas. Cardiovascular Health. Physical Activity: Fit to be Tried.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osness, Donna L.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of a physical fitness unit within the health education curriculum is to help students understand the importance of physical fitness. Four physical activities for fourth to sixth grade students are described. (CJ)

  15. The Effects of Exergaming on Physical Activity in a Third-Grade Physical Education Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shayne, Rachel K.; Fogel, Victoria A.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Koehler, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    We compared the effects of exergaming and traditional physical education on physical activity among 4 active children who were not overweight and who had experience with the exergaming activities prior to the study. Results showed that exergaming produced substantially higher percentages of physical activity and opportunity to engage in physical…

  16. The Effects of Exergaming on Physical Activity in a Third-Grade Physical Education Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shayne, Rachel K.; Fogel, Victoria A.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Koehler, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    We compared the effects of exergaming and traditional physical education on physical activity among 4 active children who were not overweight and who had experience with the exergaming activities prior to the study. Results showed that exergaming produced substantially higher percentages of physical activity and opportunity to engage in physical…

  17. Physical activity and the achievement gap among urban minority youth.

    PubMed

    Basch, Charles E

    2011-10-01

    To outline the prevalence and disparities of physical activity among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which low levels of physical activity and fitness adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to increase physical activity and physical fitness among youth. Literature review. A large proportion of youth is insufficiently physically active. Estimates of population-wide levels of physical activity indicate that Black and Hispanic youth are less physically active than White youth, with disparities particularly evident for females. The population segments of youth with lowest levels of physical activity and fitness also have least access to school-based physical activity opportunities and resources. Physical activity affects metabolism and all major body systems, exerting powerful positive influences on the brain and spinal cord and, consequently, on emotional stability, physical health, and motivation and ability to learn. The cornerstone of school-based physical activity programs should be a high-quality physical education program based on national standards. Such programs are strongly recommended by the Task Force on Community Preventive Services as a way to increase physical activity and physical fitness among youth. Physical inactivity is highly and disproportionately prevalent among school-aged urban minority youth, has a negative impact on academic achievement through its effects on cognition, and effective practices are available for schools to address this problem. Increasing students' physical activity and physical fitness can best be achieved through a comprehensive approach that includes physical education, wise use of recess and after-school times, co-curricular physical activity opportunities, and bicycling or walking to and from school. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  18. Exploring strategies used to deliver physical activity experiences to Veterans with a physical disability.

    PubMed

    Shirazipour, Celina H; Aiken, Alice B; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E

    2017-09-15

    Physical activity is an important method of rehabilitation used to promote positive physical and psychosocial outcomes among military personnel, including Veterans, with a physical disability. However, minimal research has explored physical activity program implementation strategies, particularly how these strategies may foster positive rehabilitation outcomes, and quality participation experiences among Veterans post-injury. The purpose of the current study is to document strategies used to deliver physical activity programs to Veterans with a physical disability. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with program staff from three Veteran physical activity programs, and program documentation was collected. Data were analyzed using a thematic analysis. Four themes were identified representing strategies used for delivering physical activity programming: (1) foster social connections; (2) challenge participants; (3) tailor programs and outcomes to match participant needs; and (4) include knowledgeable coaches/instructors. The study provides researchers and practitioners (e.g., rehabilitation professionals, program facilitators, coaches) with evidence of strategies for delivering physical activity programming for Veterans post-injury, thus assisting with future program development and evaluation. The findings also provide preliminary insight regarding the potential relationships between physical activity programming and elements of quality participation. Implications for Rehabilitation Physical activity is a popular method of rehabilitation for military personnel post-injury. Findings highlight four strategies used to deliver physical activity experiences to Veterans with a physical disability. Strategies highlighted provide insight as to how rehabilitation specialists can promote quality experiences for Veterans with a physical disability during physical activity programming.

  19. Cardiovascular risk profile: cross-sectional analysis of motivational determinants, physical fitness and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Sassen, Barbara; Kok, Gerjo; Schaalma, Herman; Kiers, Henri; Vanhees, Luc

    2010-10-07

    Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with physical fitness and, to a lesser extent, physical activity. Lifestyle interventions directed at enhancing physical fitness in order to decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases should be extended. To enable the development of effective lifestyle interventions for people with cardiovascular risk factors, we investigated motivational, social-cognitive determinants derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and other relevant social psychological theories, next to physical activity and physical fitness. In the cross-sectional Utrecht Police Lifestyle Intervention Fitness and Training (UP-LIFT) study, 1298 employees (aged 18 to 62) were asked to complete online questionnaires regarding social-cognitive variables and physical activity. Cardiovascular risk factors and physical fitness (peak VO2) were measured. For people with one or more cardiovascular risk factors (78.7% of the total population), social-cognitive variables accounted for 39% (p < .001) of the variance in the intention to engage in physical activity for 60 minutes every day. Important correlates of intention to engage in physical activity were attitude (beta = .225, p < .001), self-efficacy (beta = .271, p < .001), descriptive norm (beta = .172, p < .001) and barriers (beta = -.169, p < .01). Social-cognitive variables accounted for 52% (p < .001) of the variance in physical active behaviour (being physical active for 60 minutes every day). The intention to engage in physical activity (beta = .469, p < .001) and self-efficacy (beta = .243, p < .001) were, in turn, important correlates of physical active behavior.In addition to the prediction of intention to engage in physical activity and physical active behavior, we explored the impact of the intensity of physical activity. The intensity of physical activity was only significantly related to physical active behavior (beta = .253, p < .01, R2 = .06, p < .001). An important goal of our study was to

  20. Cardiovascular risk profile: Cross-sectional analysis of motivational determinants, physical fitness and physical activity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with physical fitness and, to a lesser extent, physical activity. Lifestyle interventions directed at enhancing physical fitness in order to decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases should be extended. To enable the development of effective lifestyle interventions for people with cardiovascular risk factors, we investigated motivational, social-cognitive determinants derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and other relevant social psychological theories, next to physical activity and physical fitness. Methods In the cross-sectional Utrecht Police Lifestyle Intervention Fitness and Training (UP-LIFT) study, 1298 employees (aged 18 to 62) were asked to complete online questionnaires regarding social-cognitive variables and physical activity. Cardiovascular risk factors and physical fitness (peak VO2) were measured. Results For people with one or more cardiovascular risk factors (78.7% of the total population), social-cognitive variables accounted for 39% (p < .001) of the variance in the intention to engage in physical activity for 60 minutes every day. Important correlates of intention to engage in physical activity were attitude (beta = .225, p < .001), self-efficacy (beta = .271, p < .001), descriptive norm (beta = .172, p < .001) and barriers (beta = -.169, p < .01). Social-cognitive variables accounted for 52% (p < .001) of the variance in physical active behaviour (being physical active for 60 minutes every day). The intention to engage in physical activity (beta = .469, p < .001) and self-efficacy (beta = .243, p < .001) were, in turn, important correlates of physical active behavior. In addition to the prediction of intention to engage in physical activity and physical active behavior, we explored the impact of the intensity of physical activity. The intentsity of physical activity was only significantly related to physical active behavior (beta = .253, p < .01, R2 = .06, p < .001). An

  1. Can physical activity improve peak bone mass?

    PubMed

    Specker, Bonny; Minett, Maggie

    2013-09-01

    The pediatric origin of osteoporosis has led many investigators to focus on determining factors that influence bone gain during growth and methods for optimizing this gain. Bone responds to bone loading activities by increasing mass or size. Overall, pediatric studies have found a positive effect of bone loading on bone size and accrual, but the types of loads necessary for a bone response have only recently been investigated in human studies. Findings indicate that responses vary by sex, maturational status, and are site-specific. Estrogen status, body composition, and nutritional status also may influence the bone response to loading. Despite the complex interrelationships among these various factors, it is prudent to conclude that increased physical activity throughout life is likely to optimize bone health.

  2. [Exercise, physical activity and diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Canabal Torres, M Y

    1992-02-01

    Vigorous regular exercise is a recommended inclusion in the management of diabetes of persons with diabetes of both types, regardless of age. Benefits can be identified in the physiological (improved cardiovascular fitness, flexibility and muscle toning; in the metabolic and hormonal processes for energy production), as well as psychosocial realms (self-esteem, stress management, socialization opportunities). Considerations of the risks (hyper or hypoglicemia, ketoacidosis, neuropathies or complications os cardiac risks), and contraindications (unplanned weight training in cases with proliferative retinopathy, hypertensión, uncontrolled diabetes) must be part of the exercise prescription and implemmentation. Exercise programs must be fun, varied and comply with exercise physiology principles such as gradual progression in intensity or target heart rate, recommended frequency and duration, regular hydration, and warm-ups and cooling routines. Regular vigorous physical education, sports, regular exercise and active recreational activities can be part of a healthy lifestyle of persons with diabetes.

  3. Physical Activity and Obesity in Endometrial Cancer Survivors: Associations with Pain, Fatigue, and Physical Functioning

    PubMed Central

    BASEN-ENGQUIST, Karen; SCRUGGS, Stacie; JHINGRAN, Anuja; BODURKA, Diane C.; LU, Karen; RAMONDETTA, Lois; HUGHES, Daniel; TAYLOR, Cindy CARMACK

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study aims to determine the prevalence of physical activity and obesity and their relationship to physical functioning, fatigue, and pain in endometrial cancer survivors. STUDY DESIGN Surveys were mailed to 200 survivors of endometrial cancer diagnosed within the last five years; 61% were returned. Surveys assessed physical activity, height and weight, comorbid health problems, physical functioning, fatigue, and pain. RESULTS Twenty-two percent exercised in the past month at the level of current public health recommendations; 41% reported no physical activity, and 38% reported some activity. Sixteen percent were overweight and 50% were obese. Both lower BMI and higher physical activity were related to better physical functioning. Higher physical activity was related to less fatigue, primarily for patients of normal BMI. CONCLUSIONS Results suggest endometrial cancer survivors’ obesity and inactivity contributes to poorer quality of life. This population could benefit from quality of life interventions incorporating physical activity. PMID:19110220

  4. Physical activity in spondyloarthritis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, Tom; O'Shea, Finbar; Wilson, Fiona

    2015-03-01

    Physical activity (PA) is associated with numerous health-related benefits among adults with chronic diseases and the general population. As the benefits are dose-dependent, this review aims to establish the PA levels of adults with spondyloarthritis and to compare these to the general population. Electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, MEDLINE/PubMed, PEDro, AMED, CINAHL) were systematically searched from inception to May 2014 using medical subject headings and keywords. This was supplemented by searching conference abstracts and hand-searching reference lists of included studies. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials and observational studies of adults with SpA in which free-living PA or energy expenditure levels were measured. Subjects less than 18 years or with juvenile-onset SpA were excluded. Outcomes included objective and self-report measurements. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion and assessed methodological quality using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and the RTI item bank. From the 2,431 records reviewed, nine studies involving 2,972 participants were included. This review focused on qualitative synthesis. Meta-analyses were not undertaken due to differences in study design, measurement tools, and participant characteristics. This heterogeneity, coupled with the risk of bias inherent in the included observational studies, limits the generalizability of findings. Objective measurements suggest PA levels may be lower among adults with spondyloarthritis than in healthy population controls. Self-reported PA and self-reported rates of adherence to PA recommendations varied largely across studies; higher disease activity was associated with lower self-reported PA levels. Physical activity levels may be lower in adults with axial spondyloarthritis, with higher disease activity associated with lower PA levels.

  5. The Influence of Physical Education on Physical Activity Levels of Urban Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauenhauer, Brian D.; Keating, Xiaofen D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of physical education in shaping physical activity patterns. Seventy-one Hispanic and African American elementary students participated in the study. Students attended one 30- and one 60-min physical education class weekly. Pedometer steps were used to estimate physical activity. Data suggest that…

  6. The Effects of Physical Education Requirements on Physical Activity of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Derrick

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if requiring multiple credits of high school physical education for graduation has an impact on promoting physical activity in young adults. Participants in this study (N=361) were surveyed concerning their high school physical education experiences and current performance of physical activity. Results…

  7. Optimizing the Role of Physical Education in Promoting Physical Activity: A Social-Ecological Approach.

    PubMed

    Solmon, Melinda A

    2015-01-01

    The benefits associated with being physically active are well documented, but a significant proportion of the population is insufficiently active. Physical inactivity is a major health risk factor in our society, and physical education programs are consistently identified as a means to address this concern. The purpose of this article is to use the social-ecological model as a framework to examine ways in which physical education programs can play an important role in promoting physical activity. Policies that require time allocations and resources for physical education and physical activity in schools and community designs that provide infrastructure that makes being physically active accessible and convenient are important factors in making schools and communities healthier spaces. It is clear, however, that policies alone are not sufficient to address concerns about physical inactivity. We must consider individual factors that influence decisions to be physically active in efforts to engage children in physical education programs that promote active lifestyles. The learning climate that teachers create determines what students do and learn in physical education classes. Ensuring that students see value in the content presented and structuring classes so that students believe they can experience success when they exert effort are key elements in an effective motivational climate. Efforts to address public health concerns about physical inactivity require a comprehensive approach including quality physical education. It is critical that kinesiology professionals emerge as leaders in these efforts to place physical education programs at the center of promoting children's physical activity.

  8. Children's Physical Activity and Environmental Influences during Elementary School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Bik C.; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Louie, Lobo

    2008-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) during physical education is important for health purposes and for developing physical fitness and movement skills. To examine PA levels and how PA was influenced by environmental and instructor-related characteristics, we assessed children's activity during 368 lessons taught by 105 physical education specialists in 42…

  9. The Influence of Physical Education on Physical Activity Levels of Urban Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauenhauer, Brian D.; Keating, Xiaofen D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of physical education in shaping physical activity patterns. Seventy-one Hispanic and African American elementary students participated in the study. Students attended one 30- and one 60-min physical education class weekly. Pedometer steps were used to estimate physical activity. Data suggest that…

  10. Implications for Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Grace Goc; Scruggs, Philip W.; Brown, Helen; Kelder, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    As mentioned in the introduction, Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) programs and physical education teachers will need to identify and resolve the tensions of shifting from a traditional role of a self-contained physical education program to that of an expanding role of physical education that supports lifelong physical activity in…

  11. Implications for Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Grace Goc; Scruggs, Philip W.; Brown, Helen; Kelder, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    As mentioned in the introduction, Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) programs and physical education teachers will need to identify and resolve the tensions of shifting from a traditional role of a self-contained physical education program to that of an expanding role of physical education that supports lifelong physical activity in…

  12. Becoming the Physical Activity Champion: Empowerment through Social Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colquitt, Gavin; Alfonso, Moya L.; Walker, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Physical education teachers can champion their profession through marketing the importance of physical activity to children and families in the communities they serve. Social marketing, a consumer-based approach to behavior change, is an excellent choice for physical education teachers who want to "sell" physical activity to their…

  13. Movement and Learning: Integrating Physical Activity into the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Emily; Miller, Stacia; Chavez, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    We know the benefits of physical activity, and yet recess and physical education classes are being cut or scaled back to make room for meeting academic standards. Is cutting recess and physical education really benefiting academics? A look at some recent studies suggests that it is not. Integrating physical activity into the classroom may increase…

  14. Movement and Learning: Integrating Physical Activity into the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Emily; Miller, Stacia; Chavez, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    We know the benefits of physical activity, and yet recess and physical education classes are being cut or scaled back to make room for meeting academic standards. Is cutting recess and physical education really benefiting academics? A look at some recent studies suggests that it is not. Integrating physical activity into the classroom may increase…

  15. Becoming the Physical Activity Champion: Empowerment through Social Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colquitt, Gavin; Alfonso, Moya L.; Walker, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Physical education teachers can champion their profession through marketing the importance of physical activity to children and families in the communities they serve. Social marketing, a consumer-based approach to behavior change, is an excellent choice for physical education teachers who want to "sell" physical activity to their…

  16. Certification and Duties of a Director of Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Russell

    2012-01-01

    In order for a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program to meet its full potential, a director of physical activity (DPA) is needed. To train physical educators for this new role, a task force recently created a professional development program endorsed by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education that certifies current…

  17. School-based physical activity interventions and physical activity enjoyment: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Burns, Ryan D; Fu, You; Podlog, Leslie W

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine the effectiveness of school-based physical activity interventions on increasing students' physical activity enjoyment. An internet search with several databases using the keywords "Adolescents", "Children", "Enjoyment", "Physical Activity", and "Schools" was performed yielding over 200 published studies. Studies were eliminated based on the lack of experimental manipulation (i.e., non-intervention studies), no assessment of physical activity enjoyment as an outcome variable, a lack of a control or comparison group, and no reporting of the effect estimate's variability (i.e., standard deviation, standard error, etc.). This procedure resulted in 10 studies being examined in the meta-analysis. Data were analyzed in the state of Utah, USA in 2017. The Hartung-Knapp-Sidak-Jonkman method for a random effects meta-analysis was employed with studies being weighted by inverse variance. The pooled Standardized Mean Difference=0.38 (95% C.I. [0.10-0.65], p=0.011). Cochran's Q test showed statistical significance (p<0.001) and the I(2)=76.6%, suggesting large heterogeneity across the 10 studies. Egger's regression model yielded an intercept coefficient that was statistically significant (bias=3.28, 95% C.I. [0.21-6.36], p=0.039), indicating the presence of small-study effects. This meta-analysis provides evidence that school-based physical activity interventions can be effective in increasing physical activity enjoyment in children and adolescents. However, the magnitude of the pooled effect was small-to-moderate and there was evidence for publication bias and large between-study heterogeneity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Heart and soul physical activity program for African American women.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Jane A; Cheng, An-Lin

    2011-08-01

    African American women are less physically active than White women and have a higher prevalence of inactivity-related diseases. Increased physical activity is known to reduce the risks for many chronic diseases. Positive health behavior changes have resulted from health promotion interventions conducted in African American churches. Eighteen midlife African American women participated in the Heart and Soul Physical Activity Program (HSPAP), a church-based physical activity intervention conceptualized in appraisal, belonging, tangible, and self-esteem domains of social support. Feasibility of the HSPAP was tested by determining changes in time and intensity of physical activity and social support for physical activity from baseline to 6 weeks. Data analyses were conducted utilizing paired t tests. Significant increases in time spent in physical activity from a mean of 412 min/week at baseline to 552 min/week at 6 weeks were noted. Participants reported increases in social support for physical activity in the 6-week study.

  19. Be physically active each day. How can we know?

    PubMed

    Troiano, R P; Macera, C A; Ballard-Barbash, R

    2001-02-01

    For the first time in its five versions, Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary Guidelines for Americans contains an apparently nondietary guideline recommending physical activity. Although new as a separate guideline, physical activity has been included in the weight guideline of previous versions. The current version recognizes the importance of physical activity to health beyond its effect on weight maintenance. The purpose of this paper is to examine what data are available or required to evaluate the level of physical activity in the population, particularly in light of current recommendations. The physical activity sections of several national surveys that assess individual behavior or activity-related policies are described. Surveillance of physical activity as a risk factor for chronic disease is critical because physical inactivity is highly prevalent, strongly associated with increased morbidity and mortality, costly and preventable. Determinants of physical activity behavior are also considered. These determinants are potentially important factors for surveillance and are critical components for planning successful interventions.

  20. How Can I Keep Track of Physical Activity and Eating?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Weight Management How Can I Keep Track of Physical Activity and Healthy Eating? Taking care of your heart ... life. Planning a healthy diet and a regular physical activity program is the key to success. Prepare yourself ...

  1. How Does Physical Activity Help Build Healthy Bones?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How does physical activity help build healthy bones? Skip sharing on social ... Page Content ​​Bones are living tissue. Weight-bearing physical activity causes new bone tissue to form, and this ...

  2. Summary of International Guidelines for Physical Activity Following Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Mottola, Michelle F.; Owe, Katrine M.; Rousham, Emily K.; Brown, Wendy J.

    2014-01-01

    Postpartum physical activity can improve mood, maintain cardiorespiratory fitness, improve weight control, promote weight loss, and reduce depression and anxiety. This review summarizes current guidelines for postpartum physical activity worldwide. PubMed (MedLINE) was searched for country-specific government and clinical guidelines on physical activity following pregnancy through the year 2013. Only the most recent guideline was included in the review. An abstraction form facilitated extraction of key details and helped to summarize results. Six guidelines were identified from five countries (Australia, Canada, Norway, United Kingdom, United States). All guidelines were embedded within pregnancy-related physical activity recommendations. All provided physical activity advice related to breastfeeding and three remarked about physical activity following Caesarean delivery. Recommended physical activities mentioned in the guidelines included aerobic (3/6), pelvic floor exercise (3/6), strengthening (2/6), stretching (2/6), and walking (2/6). None of the guidelines discussed sedentary behavior. The guidelines that were identified lacked specificity for physical activity. Greater clarity in guidelines would be more useful to both practitioners and the women they serve. Postpartum physical activity guidelines have the potential to assist women to initiate or resume physical activity following childbirth, so that they can transition to meeting recommended levels of physical activity. Health care providers have a critical role in encouraging women to be active at this time, and the availability of more explicit guidelines may assist them to routinely include physical activity advice in their postpartum care. PMID:25112589

  3. Physical activity, diet and skeletal health.

    PubMed

    Branca, F

    1999-09-01

    Diet and physical exercise concur in the determination of skeletal mass at the end of adolescence and in the conservation of it during adult life. The functional demand imposed on bone is a major determinant of its structural characteristics. Stress applied to a skeletal segment affects the geometry of the bone, the microarchitecture and the composition of the matrix. The stimulatory effect occurs when the skeleton is subjected to strains exceeding habitual skeletal loads, and the intensity of load is more important than the duration of the stimulus. Physical activity leads to greater bone density in children and adolescents and, to a minor extent, in adults. Weight bearing activities, such as walking, have a greater effect than non weight bearing activities, such as cycling and swimming. Reduction of loads as in bed resting or in space flights leads to bone loss. Intense training may cause damage, promptly repaired, as in stress fractures observed in army recruits. Female athletes may experience oligo-amenorrhea, though they still have a positive bone balance. There is an important interaction between the mechanical demands and the availability of nutrients to manufacture bone tissue. The increase in bone density in post-menopausal women is positively related to calcium intake when calcium supplementation is accompanied by exercise. When mechanical demands are low, such as during immobilisation, the intestinal calcium absorption is reduced. Calcium intake should also be analysed in the light of other dietary factors affecting the balance between absorption and excretion, and in combination with a number of other minerals, trace elements and bioactive substances with an impact on bone metabolism.

  4. Physical Fitness and Physical Activity in Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borremans, Erwin; Rintala, Pauli; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    While physical activity is beneficial for youth with developmental disabilities, little is known about those individuals' fitness profile and levels of activity. Therefore the purpose of this study was to investigate the physical fitness profile and physical activity level of 30 adolescents with and without Asperger syndrome (AS). Evaluations were…

  5. Physical Fitness and Physical Activity in Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borremans, Erwin; Rintala, Pauli; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    While physical activity is beneficial for youth with developmental disabilities, little is known about those individuals' fitness profile and levels of activity. Therefore the purpose of this study was to investigate the physical fitness profile and physical activity level of 30 adolescents with and without Asperger syndrome (AS). Evaluations were…

  6. The Role of Physical Activity and Physical Function on the Risk of Falls in Older Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Zakkoyya H; Markides, Kyriakos S; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Al Snih, Soham

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the relationship between physical activity and physical function on the risk of falls over time in a cohort of Mexican-American adults aged 75 and older from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (H-EPESE). Participants were divided into four groups according to their level of physical activity and physical function: low physical activity and low physical function (n = 453); low physical activity and high physical function (n = 54); high physical activity and low physical function (n = 307); and high physical activity and high physical function (n = 197). Using generalized linear equation estimation, we showed that participants with high physical activity and low physical function had a greater fall risk over time, followed by the high physical activity and high physical function group. Participants seldom took part in activities that improve physical function. To prevent falls, modifications to physical activity should be made for older Mexican Americans.

  7. Physical activity in preschoolers: understanding prevalence and measurement issues.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Melody; Schofield, Grant M; Kolt, Gregory S

    2007-01-01

    Accurate physical activity quantification in preschoolers is essential to establish physical activity prevalence, dose-response relationships between activity and health outcomes, and intervention effectiveness. To date, best practice approaches for physical activity measurement in preschool-aged children have been relatively understudied. This article provides a review of physical activity measurement tools for preschoolers, an overview of measurement of preschoolers' physical activity, and directions for further research. Electronic and manual literature searches were used to identify 49 studies that measured young children's physical activity, and 32 studies that assessed the validity and/or reliability of physical activity measures with preschool-aged children. While no prevalence data exist, measurement studies indicate that preschool children exhibit low levels of vigorous activity and high levels of inactivity, boys are more active than girls, and activity patterns tend to be sporadic and omnidirectional. As such, measures capable of capturing differing activity intensities in very short timeframes and over multiple planes are likely to have the most utility with this population. Accelerometers are well suited for this purpose, and a number of models have been used to objectively quantify preschoolers' physical activity. Only one model of pedometer has been investigated for validity with preschool-aged children, showing equivocal results. Direct observation of physical activity can provide detailed contextual information on preschoolers' physical activity, but is subjective and impractical for understanding daily physical activity. Proxy-report questionnaires are unlikely to be useful for determining actual physical activity levels of young children, and instead may be useful for identifying potential correlates of activity. Establishing validity is challenging due to the absence of a precise physical activity measure, or 'criterion', for young children

  8. Physical Activity and Youth with Disabilities: Barriers and Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Martin E.; Taliaferro, Andrea; Moran, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity and active use of leisure time is important for everyone but particularly important for youth with disabilities. Unfortunately, youth with disabilities often have a difficult time or are even excluded from participating in physical activity due to limited physical and cognitive skills, attitudinal barriers in the community, lack…

  9. Intentional Development: A Model to Guide Lifelong Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherubini, Jeffrey M.

    2009-01-01

    Framed in the context of researching influences on physical activity and actually working with individuals and groups seeking to initiate, increase or maintain physical activity, the purpose of this review is to present the model of Intentional Development as a multi-theoretical approach to guide research and applied work in physical activity.…

  10. Daily Physical Activity and Life Satisfaction across Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Jaclyn P.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is considered a valuable tool for enhancing life satisfaction. However, the processes linking these constructs likely differ across the adult life span. In older adults the association between physical activity and life satisfaction appears to involve usual levels of physical activity (i.e., a between-person association driven by…

  11. The Afrocentric Paradigm in Health-Related Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Beverly D.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the potential role of culture in health-related physical activity participation, discussing kinesiology and reporting results from a health-related physical activity study of women, some of whom had taken a culturally designed aerobics class. Participants demonstrated the positive impact of culture on physical activity participation.…

  12. Striding Toward Social Justice: The Ecologic Milieu of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rebecca E.; Cubbin, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Disparities in physical activity should be investigated in light of social justice principles. This manuscript critically evaluates evidence and trends in disparities research within an ecologic framework, focusing on multi-level factors such as neighborhood and racial discrimination that influence physical activity. Discussion focuses on strategies for integrating social justice into physical activity promotion and intervention programming within an ecologic framework. PMID:19098519

  13. Striding toward social justice: the ecologic milieu of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Rebecca E; Cubbin, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Disparities in physical activity should be investigated in light of social justice principles. This article critically evaluates evidence and trends in disparities research within an ecologic framework, focusing on multilevel factors such as neighborhood and racial discrimination that influence physical activity. Discussion focuses on strategies for integrating social justice into physical activity promotion and intervention programming within an ecologic framework.

  14. Physical activity levels in the treatment of juvenile fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Sherry, David D

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is paramount in the treatment of juvenile fibromyalgia, although some interventions use indirect methods to increase activity levels rather than address physical dysfunction head-on. New research explores the effects of a psychotherapeutic approach on levels of physical activity in adolescents with fibromyalgia.

  15. Focus on Freshman: Basic Instruction Programs Enhancing Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Jarred; Jenkins, Jayne M.; Weatherford, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity sharply decreases after different life stages, particularly high school graduation to beginning university education. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a specifically designed university physical activity class, Exercise Planning for Freshman (EPF), on students' physical activity and group cohesion…

  16. Mission Impossible? Physical Activity Programming for Individuals Experiencing Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Melanie J.; Bedard, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A pilot study was conducted to describe the physical activity experiences and perceived benefits of and barriers to physical activity participation for patrons of a homeless shelter. The resulting pilot data may be used to inform the creation of and support for physical activity and sport programs for those experiencing homelessness.…

  17. Physical Activity and Youth with Disabilities: Barriers and Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Martin E.; Taliaferro, Andrea; Moran, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity and active use of leisure time is important for everyone but particularly important for youth with disabilities. Unfortunately, youth with disabilities often have a difficult time or are even excluded from participating in physical activity due to limited physical and cognitive skills, attitudinal barriers in the community, lack…

  18. International Approaches to Whole-of-School Physical Activity Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, Jaimie; Ní Chróinín, Déirdre; Tammelin, Tuija; Pogorzelska, Malgorzata; van der Mars, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Increasing physical activity opportunities in schools has emerged as a global priority among school-aged youth. As a result, many countries have designed and implemented whole-of-school physical activity initiatives that seek to increase physical activity opportunities that are available to school-aged children before, during, and after school.…

  19. Daily Physical Activity and Life Satisfaction across Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Jaclyn P.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is considered a valuable tool for enhancing life satisfaction. However, the processes linking these constructs likely differ across the adult life span. In older adults the association between physical activity and life satisfaction appears to involve usual levels of physical activity (i.e., a between-person association driven by…

  20. Jegi-Chagi: A Traditional Korean Physical Education Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Kibum; Kim, Minhyun; Lee, Heesu

    2017-01-01

    Physical education programs should provide a wide range of physical activities. However, several limitations, such as insufficient space and equipment, make it challenging to incorporate variety into the curriculum. Jegi-chagi, a traditional Korean physical activity, has been proven to be a cost-effective, safe and healthy activity for students.…

  1. Parental Mediatory Role in Children's Physical Activity Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, P. Y. Peggy; Chow, Bik C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Parents are important agents in the physical activity socializing process in children. The present study aims to examine the parental mediatory role in children's physical activity participation via a youth physical activity promotion (YPAP) model. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 872 Hong Kong Chinese children (aged ten to 13) in…

  2. Engaging school governance leaders to influence physical activity policies.

    PubMed

    Cox, Lindsey; Berends, Victoria; Sallis, James F; St John, Jessica Marie; McNeil, Betsy; Gonzalez, Martin; Agron, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    Most youth are not meeting physical activity guidelines, and schools are a key venue for providing physical activity. School districts can provide physical activity opportunities through the adoption, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of policies. This paper reports results of a 2009 survey of California school governance leaders on the barriers and opportunities to providing school-based physical activity and strategies to promote adoption of evidence-based policies. California school board members (n = 339) completed an 83 item online survey about policy options, perceptions, and barriers to improving physical activity in schools. Board members' highest rated barriers to providing physical activity were budget concerns, limited time in a school day, and competing priorities. The key policy opportunities to increase physical activity were improving the quantity and quality of physical education, integrating physical activity throughout the school day, supporting active transportation to/from school, providing access to physical activity facilities during nonschool hours, and integrating physical activity into before/after school programs. Survey findings were used to develop policy resources and trainings for school governance leaders that provide a comprehensive approach to improving physical activity in schools.

  3. Who Attends Physical Activity Programmes in Deprived Neighbourhoods?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Withall, J.; Jago, R.; Fox, K. R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Physical activity can reduce the risk of several chronic diseases. Such diseases are most prevalent in economically-disadvantaged groups where physical activity levels are consistently lower. There is a need to engage disadvantaged groups in programmes to increase physical activity. This case study examined programmes on offer in a…

  4. Best Practices and Recommendations for Increasing Physical Activity in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather; Beets, Michael W.; Centeio, Erin; Morrow, James R., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Many efforts to increase the physical activity levels of Americans have been introduced and implemented over the past 20 years. National Physical Activity Guidelines have been established, and the National Physical Activity Plan (NPAP) is now in place, which includes a specific sector dedicated to education. This article addresses the Education…

  5. Impact of Structured Movement Time on Preschoolers' Physical Activity Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Kara K.; Matsuyama, Abigail L.; Robinson, Leah E.

    2017-01-01

    Preschool-aged children are not meeting national physical activity recommendations. This study compares preschoolers' physical activity engagement during two different physical activity opportunities: outdoor free play or a structured movement session. Eighty-seven children served as participants: 40 children participated in outdoor free play and…

  6. Focus on Freshman: Basic Instruction Programs Enhancing Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Jarred; Jenkins, Jayne M.; Weatherford, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity sharply decreases after different life stages, particularly high school graduation to beginning university education. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a specifically designed university physical activity class, Exercise Planning for Freshman (EPF), on students' physical activity and group cohesion…

  7. Best Practices and Recommendations for Increasing Physical Activity in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather; Beets, Michael W.; Centeio, Erin; Morrow, James R., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Many efforts to increase the physical activity levels of Americans have been introduced and implemented over the past 20 years. National Physical Activity Guidelines have been established, and the National Physical Activity Plan (NPAP) is now in place, which includes a specific sector dedicated to education. This article addresses the Education…

  8. International Approaches to Whole-of-School Physical Activity Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, Jaimie; Ní Chróinín, Déirdre; Tammelin, Tuija; Pogorzelska, Malgorzata; van der Mars, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Increasing physical activity opportunities in schools has emerged as a global priority among school-aged youth. As a result, many countries have designed and implemented whole-of-school physical activity initiatives that seek to increase physical activity opportunities that are available to school-aged children before, during, and after school.…

  9. Mission Impossible? Physical Activity Programming for Individuals Experiencing Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Melanie J.; Bedard, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A pilot study was conducted to describe the physical activity experiences and perceived benefits of and barriers to physical activity participation for patrons of a homeless shelter. The resulting pilot data may be used to inform the creation of and support for physical activity and sport programs for those experiencing homelessness.…

  10. Who Attends Physical Activity Programmes in Deprived Neighbourhoods?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Withall, J.; Jago, R.; Fox, K. R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Physical activity can reduce the risk of several chronic diseases. Such diseases are most prevalent in economically-disadvantaged groups where physical activity levels are consistently lower. There is a need to engage disadvantaged groups in programmes to increase physical activity. This case study examined programmes on offer in a…

  11. Association of Parent and Peer Support with Adolescent Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Rodgers, Miki W.; Sallis, James F.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the association between social support and adolescent physical activity when assessing physical activity using different methods and when separating social support into parent and peer support. Self-report and accelerometer data indicated that parent and peer support significantly correlated with physical activity. Perceived social…

  12. Parental Mediatory Role in Children's Physical Activity Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, P. Y. Peggy; Chow, Bik C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Parents are important agents in the physical activity socializing process in children. The present study aims to examine the parental mediatory role in children's physical activity participation via a youth physical activity promotion (YPAP) model. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 872 Hong Kong Chinese children (aged ten to 13) in…

  13. A System for Monitoring Posture and Physical Activity Using Accelerometers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Abstract- Accelerometers can be used to monitor physical activity in the home over prolonged periods. We describe a novel system for...processing schema in which these parameters are extracted is described. Keywords - physical activity , accelerometers, congestive heart failure, chronic...When monitoring the condition of patients with neurodegenerative or chronic diseases, a knowledge of their body movement and physical activity

  14. After-School Physical Activity Programs for Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Doris L.; Poczwaradowski, Artur; Eisenman, Pat

    2000-01-01

    Describes adolescent girls' responses to an after-school physical activity program, examining how it functioned as a listening tool within a social marketing approach to promoting physical activity. Focus groups and interviews indicated that girls enjoyed and valued the program. Though the program did not increase girls' physical activity levels,…

  15. Impact of Structured Movement Time on Preschoolers' Physical Activity Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Kara K.; Matsuyama, Abigail L.; Robinson, Leah E.

    2017-01-01

    Preschool-aged children are not meeting national physical activity recommendations. This study compares preschoolers' physical activity engagement during two different physical activity opportunities: outdoor free play or a structured movement session. Eighty-seven children served as participants: 40 children participated in outdoor free play and…

  16. Feelings of well being in elderly people: relationship to physical activity and physical function.

    PubMed

    Garatachea, Nuria; Molinero, Olga; Martínez-García, Raquel; Jiménez-Jiménez, Rodrigo; González-Gallego, Javier; Márquez, Sara

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate in a sample of Spanish elderly whether measures of physical activity and physical function are related to feelings of well being, and whether level of dependence is a moderator in the relation of well being, physical activity and physical function. The sample was a cohort of 151 elderly people (89 women and 62 men, aged 60-98 years) from the North of Spain. Participants completed surveys including demographic characteristics, and measures of physical activity (Yale Physical Activity Survey, YPAS), instrumental activities of daily living (Barthel Index, BI) and well being (Psychological Well Being Scale, from Spanish: Escala de Bienestar Psicológico=EBP). Components of the physical function were measured by the Senior Fitness Test (SFT). Upper and lower body strength, dynamic balance, aerobic endurance, self-reported weekly energy expenditure and physical activity total time were significantly correlated with both Material and Subjective well being. All components of physical function were significantly impaired in dependent subjects when compared to independent individuals of the same sex and physical activity category. Significant differences were also observed in Subjective well being among less active dependent or independent individuals. In conclusion, physical function and physical activity are related to feelings of well being, and results emphasize the positive functional and psychological effects of physical activity in dependent subjects.

  17. Trajectory of change in pain, depression, and physical functioning after physical activity adoption in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Jennifer L; Bigatti, Silvia M; Ang, Dennis C

    2015-07-01

    Fibromyalgia is associated with widespread pain, depression, and declines in physical functioning. The purpose of this study was to examine the trajectory of these symptoms over time related to physical activity adoption and maintenance via motivational interviewing versus education, to increase physical activity. There were no treatment group differences; we divided the sample (n = 184) based on changes in physical activity. Repeated measures analyses demonstrated differential patterns in depression, pain, and physical functioning at 24 and 36 weeks. Findings suggest increased physical activity may serve as a multiple-target intervention that provides moderate to large, long-lasting benefits for individuals with fibromyalgia.

  18. Physical activity self-definition among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Lorraine B; Pis, Monika B; Pender, Nola J; Kazanis, Anamaria S

    2004-01-01

    Since research involving adults indicates that physical activity (PA) self-definition influences PA participation, understanding PA self-definition and related factors, such as PA frequency and enjoyment, in youth is essential for designing interventions to reverse the decline in PA that occurs from childhood through adolescence. The objective of this study was to explore correlates of PA self-definition and assess differences in PA self-definition among African American and European American boys and girls in early, middle, and late puberty. A 3 (developmental stage) x 2 (gender) design was used. African American and European American boys and girls, ages 9 to 17, participated. A total of 168 adolescents completed demographic data, developmental stage, and current and future PA self-definition questionnaires. Peak VO2 was obtained as a measure of physical fitness. Current PA self-definition was positively correlated with peak VO2 (p < .01) and future PA self-definition (p <.01). Males had higher current (p = .032) and future (p = .021) PA self-definition than females. The finding that boys have stronger current and future PA self-definitions than girls highlights the challenge for health professionals to enact immediate and effective measures to alter girls' perceptions of themselves in terms of PA participation. Since current PA self-definition is also significantly correlated with future PA participation, strategies to assist girls in developing a strong PA self-definition may contribute to increased PA in their adult years.

  19. Using a Single-Item Physical Activity Measure to Describe and Validate Parents' Physical Activity Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kyra; White, Katherine M.; Cuddihy, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The accurate measurement of health-related physical activity (PA), often interpreted as either 150 min/week of at least moderate-intensity PA (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008) or at least 30 min of at least moderate-intensity PA on 5 or more days per week (Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing [AGDHA], 2005;…

  20. Promoting Children's Physical Activity in Physical Education: The Role of Active Video Gaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Tao; Moore, William; Gu, Xiangli; Chu, Tsz Lun; Gao, Zan

    2016-01-01

    Approximately half of the children in the United States do not meet the global physical activity guidelines, and many children adopt sedentary lifestyles. Given the fact about two-thirds children are classified as overweight or obese, traditional video games have been blamed as a major contributor to children's sedentary behavior and excessive…

  1. Physical Activity Intensity, Lesson Context, and Teacher Interactions during an Unstructured Afterschool Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Timothy K.; Miller, Daniel J.; Schuna, John M.; Liebert, Mina L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Afterschool programs are promising arenas to improve youth physical activity (PA) levels. During the school year for 2012-2013, 5 elementary schools from a low-socioeconomic status (SES) school district in southern Colorado participated in evaluation of the afterschool program entitled Keep It Moving! (KIM). Methods: In this…

  2. Physical activity and physical activity induced energy expenditure in humans: measurement, determinants, and effects.

    PubMed

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure. The doubly labeled water method for the measurement of total energy expenditure (TEE), in combination with resting energy expenditure, is the reference for physical activity under free-living conditions. To compare the physical activity level (PAL) within and between species, TEE is divided by resting energy expenditure resulting in a figure without dimension. The PAL for sustainable lifestyles ranges between a minimum of 1.1-1.2 and a maximum of 2.0-2.5. The average PAL increases from 1.4 at age 1 year to 1.7-1.8 at reproductive age and declines again to 1.4 at age 90 year. Exercise training increases PAL in young adults when energy balance is maintained by increasing energy intake. Professional endurance athletes can reach PAL values around 4.0. Most of the variation in PAL between subjects can be ascribed to predisposition. A higher weight implicates higher movement costs and less body movement but not necessarily a lower PAL. Changes in physical activity primarily affect body composition and to a lesser extent body weight. Modern man has a similar PAL as a wild mammal of a similar body size.

  3. Using a Single-Item Physical Activity Measure to Describe and Validate Parents' Physical Activity Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kyra; White, Katherine M.; Cuddihy, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The accurate measurement of health-related physical activity (PA), often interpreted as either 150 min/week of at least moderate-intensity PA (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008) or at least 30 min of at least moderate-intensity PA on 5 or more days per week (Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing [AGDHA], 2005;…

  4. Physical activity and physical activity induced energy expenditure in humans: measurement, determinants, and effects

    PubMed Central

    Westerterp, Klaas R.

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure. The doubly labeled water method for the measurement of total energy expenditure (TEE), in combination with resting energy expenditure, is the reference for physical activity under free-living conditions. To compare the physical activity level (PAL) within and between species, TEE is divided by resting energy expenditure resulting in a figure without dimension. The PAL for sustainable lifestyles ranges between a minimum of 1.1–1.2 and a maximum of 2.0–2.5. The average PAL increases from 1.4 at age 1 year to 1.7–1.8 at reproductive age and declines again to 1.4 at age 90 year. Exercise training increases PAL in young adults when energy balance is maintained by increasing energy intake. Professional endurance athletes can reach PAL values around 4.0. Most of the variation in PAL between subjects can be ascribed to predisposition. A higher weight implicates higher movement costs and less body movement but not necessarily a lower PAL. Changes in physical activity primarily affect body composition and to a lesser extent body weight. Modern man has a similar PAL as a wild mammal of a similar body size. PMID:23637685

  5. Effects of Instructional Physical Activity Courses on Overall Physical Activity and Mood in University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Porter, Kandice J.; Hill, Grant M.; Goldfine, Bernard D.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this research was to assess the association between university-based instructional physical activity (PA) courses and changes in overall PA levels and negative mood and their interrelations. The study also sought to determine the amount of change in PA required to significantly improve mood in course enrollees. Method:…

  6. The neighbourhood environment and use of neighbourhood resources in older adults with and without lower limb osteoarthritis: results from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Erik J; van der Pas, Suzan; Cooper, Cyrus; Schaap, Laura A; Edwards, Mark H; Deeg, Dorly J H; Gale, Catharine R; Dennison, Elaine M

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to examine the associations of perceptions of neighbourhood cohesion and neighbourhood problems and objectively measured neighbourhood deprivation with the use of neighbourhood resources by older adults with and without lower limb osteoarthritis (LLOA), and to assess whether these relationships are stronger in older persons with LLOA than in those without the condition. Data from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study were used. American College of Rheumatology classification criteria were used to diagnose clinical LLOA (knee and/or hip osteoarthritis). Use of neighbourhood resources was assessed using the Home and Community Environment instrument. Participants were asked about their perceptions of neighbourhood cohesion and neighbourhood problems. Objective neighbourhood deprivation was assessed using the Index of Multiple Deprivation score based on 2010 census data. Of the 401 participants (71-80 years), 74 (18.5 %) had LLOA. The neighbourhood measures were not significantly associated with use of resources in the full sample. A trend for a negative association between use of public transport and perceived neighbourhood problems was observed in participants with LLOA (OR = 0.77, 99 % CI = 0.53-1.12), whereas a trend for a positive association between perceived neighbourhood problems and use of public transport was found in participants without LLOA (OR = 1.18, 99 % CI = 1.00-1.39). The perception of more neighbourhood problems seems only to hinder older adults with LLOA to make use of public transport. Older adults with LLOA may be less able to deal with neighbourhood problems and more challenging environments than those without the condition.

  7. Lean mass and fat mass have differing associations with bone microarchitecture assessed by high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography in men and women from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Mark H; Ward, Kate A; Ntani, Georgia; Parsons, Camille; Thompson, Jennifer; Sayer, Avan A; Dennison, Elaine M; Cooper, Cyrus

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the effects of muscle and fat on bone is increasingly important in the optimisation of bone health. We explored relationships between bone microarchitecture and body composition in older men and women from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study. 175 men and 167 women aged 72-81 years were studied. High resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT) images (voxel size 82 μm) were acquired from the non-dominant distal radius and tibia with a Scanco XtremeCT scanner. Standard morphological analysis was performed for assessment of macrostructure, densitometry, cortical porosity and trabecular microarchitecture. Body composition was assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Lunar Prodigy Advanced). Lean mass index (LMI) was calculated as lean mass divided by height squared and fat mass index (FMI) as fat mass divided by height squared. The mean (standard deviation) age in men and women was 76 (3) years. In univariate analyses, tibial cortical area (p<0.01), cortical thickness (p<0.05) and trabecular number (p<0.01) were positively associated with LMI and FMI in both men and women. After mutual adjustment, relationships between cortical area and thickness were only maintained with LMI [tibial cortical area, β (95% confidence interval (CI)): men 6.99 (3.97,10.01), women 3.59 (1.81,5.38)] whereas trabecular number and density were associated with FMI. Interactions by sex were found, including for the relationships of LMI with cortical area and FMI with trabecular area in both the radius and tibia (p<0.05). In conclusion, LMI and FMI appeared to show independent relationships with bone microarchitecture. Further studies are required to confirm the direction of causality and explore the mechanisms underlying these tissue-specific associations.

  8. [Afterschool physical activity programs: Literature review].

    PubMed

    Reloba-Martínez, Sergio; Martín-Tamayo, Ignacio; Martínez-López, Emilio José; Guerrero-Almeida, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to analyze the scientific production about extra-curricular physical activity (PA) in western children of 6-12 years. Medline / Pub-Med, Scopus and Google Scholar were used. This search collects articles published between January 1990 and May 2013. A total of 104 publications were analyzed. The body composition parameters are best used to assess the results of the studies, followed by those which estimate the maximum aerobic capacity. Articles of intervention are presented with very heterogeneous methodological features but there are clear trends in the use of certain aspects. As for the reviews, most are systematic and include meta-analysis. In this studies, body mass index (BMI) is the most used parameter.

  9. [Historical compendium of physical activity and sport].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Luis Pablo

    2004-01-01

    The Historical Compendium of Physical Activity and Sport analyses, from a scientific perspective, past events in the array of tasks or manoeuvres comprising body movement, in a setting of human liberty and creative capacity. Sport is examined as a result of the evolution of games and in a context of these games. This book contemplates sports, whose selection criteria have included specific features of their individual or team qualities, or combat or opposition characteristics, or those related to their artistic features or to instrumentation or adaptation, or other connotations. 1st authors are 36 professors, from the universities of Barcelona, (Central), Granada, Jaen, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, León, Madrid (Complutense), Málaga, Murcia, Oviedo, País Vasco, Salamanca, Valencia and Zaragoza.

  10. Political activism among physically disabled individuals.

    PubMed

    Feinblatt, A

    1981-08-01

    The study examined the relationships between demographic, personality, and disability-specific variables and membership in a political action organization among the physically disabled. Thirty-nine disabled members of a political organization an 40 disabled nonmembers were interviewed. Educational and occupational status were found to be related to membership. Disability-specific variables, including diagnosis, length of time disabled, degree and etiology of disability, were found to be unrelated to membership in a political action organization. Degree of general political activity accounted for the greatest amount of variance in distinguishing members from nonmembers. Scores obtained on scales measuring degree of emotional stability, responsibility, and sociability were not significantly related to membership. Members, however, were found to be more assertive, more independent, and less conforming than nonmembers. Transportation difficulty was the main reason given for nonmembership by 50% of the nonmembers. Statistically significant differences between members and nonmembers were found concerning the goals of transportation and political action.

  11. [Physical activities and sports in asthmatic patients].

    PubMed

    Todaro, A

    1983-05-31

    Asthma patients are too often advised to refrain from sport. Enforced sedentariness, especially in children, leads to muscle hypotonia, reduced mechanical efficiency, paramorphisms, and adverse psychological consequences. Not all asthmatics develop airway spasm as a result of exercise. On the other hand, there are subjects whose bronchial hyper-reactivity is stimulated solely by muscular effort. The pathogenesis of exercise-induced bronchospasm is not fully understood. In any event, numerous studies have demonstrated the beneficial and even therapeutic effect of physical exercise and sport in cases of asthma. Provided they are practised with judgment and in accordance with a suitable programme, swimming, activities of an alternating aerobic and anaerobic type, cross-country skiing, gymnastics, and fencing are primarily indicated. Some asthmatics have also won Olympic medals. In the light of the studies carried out so far, it is strongly suggested that asthmatics be encouraged to take up sport suitable to their psychophysical characteristics, and not kept wrapped up in cotton wool.

  12. Physical activity in pregnancy: women's perceptions, practices, and influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Cioffi, Jane; Schmied, Virginia; Dahlen, Hannah; Mills, Annie; Thornton, Charlene; Duff, Margaret; Cummings, Joanne; Kolt, Gregory S

    2010-01-01

    Evidence shows that physical activity during and after pregnancy results in health gains for women. There is no clear understanding apparent in the literature of women's experiences with physical activity during their pregnancy. The aim of this study was to describe women's perceptions and participation in physical activity during pregnancy and identify factors influencing participation. In this qualitative descriptive study, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 19 women, all at different stages of pregnancy, who were asked about their experiences with physical activity. Data analysis resulted in four categories describing "meaning of physical activity," "perceived benefits of physical activity in pregnancy," "barriers to and motives for participation in physical activity," and "process of engagement in physical activity." The process of engagement in physical activity by women was shown to have three marked phases: "uncertainty," "engaging," and "compromise." To facilitate women's self-management across these phases, support is needed that focuses on providing strategies to strengthen individual approaches by women. Such support might promote activities of daily living as a specific entity of physical activity, expose myths about activity during pregnancy, and endorse the benefits of weight management arising from physical activity, not just during pregnancy, but across the lifespan. (c) 2010 American College of Nurse-Midwives. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Detection of physical activities using a physical activity monitor system for wheelchair users.

    PubMed

    Hiremath, Shivayogi V; Intille, Stephen S; Kelleher, Annmarie; Cooper, Rory A; Ding, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Availability of physical activity monitors for wheelchair users can potentially assist these individuals to track regular physical activity (PA), which in turn could lead to a healthier and more active lifestyle. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and validate algorithms for a physical activity monitoring system (PAMS) to detect wheelchair based activities. The PAMS consists of a gyroscope based wheel rotation monitor (G-WRM) and an accelerometer device (wocket) worn on the upper arm or on the wrist. A total of 45 persons with spinal cord injury took part in the study, which was performed in a structured university-based laboratory environment, a semi-structured environment at the National Veterans Wheelchair Games, and in the participants' home environments. Participants performed at least ten PAs, other than resting, taken from a list of PAs. The classification performance for the best classifiers on the testing dataset for PAMS-Arm (G-WRM and wocket on upper arm) and PAMS-Wrist (G-WRM and wocket on wrist) was 89.26% and 88.47%, respectively. The outcomes of this study indicate that multi-modal information from the PAMS can help detect various types of wheelchair-based activities in structured laboratory, semi-structured organizational, and unstructured home environments.

  14. Characteristics of Physically Active Smokers and Implications for Harm Reduction

    PubMed Central

    deRuiter, Wayne K.; Faulkner, Guy; Cairney, John; Veldhuizen, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to establish the prevalence of physical activity among smokers, whether or not physically active smokers were more likely to attempt cessation, and who these physically active smokers were. Methods. We used logistic regression to contrast physically active and inactive smokers in a secondary data analysis of the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.1. Results. Physically active smokers represented almost one quarter of the smoking population. Compared with physically inactive smokers, physically active smokers were more likely to have attempted cessation in the past year. Physically active smokers were more likely to be young, single, and men compared with their inactive counterparts. Income had no influence in distinguishing physically active and inactive smokers. Conclusions. Skepticism persists regarding the practicality and potential risks of promoting physical activity as a harm-reduction strategy for tobacco use. We found that a modest proportion of the daily smoking population was physically active and that engagement in this behavior was related to greater cessation attempts. Interventions could be developed that target smokers who are likely to adopt physical activity. PMID:18381990

  15. Retirement and physical activity: analyses by occupation and wealth.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sukyung; Domino, Marisa E; Stearns, Sally C; Popkin, Barry M

    2009-05-01

    Older adults close to retirement age show the lowest level of physical activity. Changes in lifestyle with retirement may alter physical activity levels. This study investigated whether retirement changes physical activity and how the effect differs by occupation type and wealth level. This longitudinal study used the Health and Retirement Study (1996-2002), U.S. population-based data. Analyses were conducted in 2007 and 2008. Physical activity was measured by a composite indicator of participation in either work-related or leisure-time physical activity. Fixed-effects regression models were used to account for confounders and unobserved heterogeneity. The dependent variable was a composite indicator of participation in regular physical activity either at work or during nonworking hours. Physical activity decreased with retirement from a physically demanding job but increased with retirement from a sedentary job. Occupation type interacted with wealth level, with the negative impact on physical activity of retirement exacerbated by lack of wealth and the positive effect of retirement on physical activity enhanced by wealth. Substantial differences in the effect of retirement on physical activity occurred across subgroups. As the number of people approaching retirement age rapidly increases, findings suggest that a growing segment of the nation's population may not sustain an adequate level of physical activity.

  16. Daily physical activity in stable heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Dontje, Manon L; van der Wal, Martje H L; Stolk, Ronald P; Brügemann, Johan; Jaarsma, Tiny; Wijtvliet, Petra E P J; van der Schans, Cees P; de Greef, Mathieu H G

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity is the only nonpharmacological therapy that is proven to be effective in heart failure (HF) patients in reducing morbidity. To date, little is known about the levels of daily physical activity in HF patients and about related factors. The objectives of this study were to (a) describe performance-based daily physical activity in HF patients, (b) compare it with physical activity guidelines, and (c) identify related factors of daily physical activity. The daily physical activity of 68 HF patients was measured using an accelerometer (SenseWear) for 48 hours. Psychological characteristics (self-efficacy, motivation, and depression) were measured using questionnaires. To have an indication how to interpret daily physical activity levels of the study sample, time spent on moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activities was compared with the 30-minute activity guideline. Steps per day was compared with the criteria for healthy adults, in the absence of HF-specific criteria. Linear regression analyses were used to identify related factors of daily physical activity. Forty-four percent were active for less than 30 min/d, whereas 56% were active for more than 30 min/d. Fifty percent took fewer than 5000 steps per day, 35% took 5000 to 10 000 steps per day, and 15% took more than 10 000 steps per day. Linear regression models showed that New York Heart Association classification and self-efficacy were the most important factors explaining variance in daily physical activity. The variance in daily physical activity in HF patients is considerable. Approximately half of the patients had a sedentary lifestyle. Higher New York Heart Association classification and lower self-efficacy are associated with less daily physical activity. These findings contribute to the understanding of daily physical activity behavior of HF patients and can help healthcare providers to promote daily physical activity in sedentary HF patients.

  17. Motives for and barriers to physical activity in twin pairs discordant for leisure time physical activity for 30 years.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, S; Leskinen, T; Morris, T; Alen, M; Kaprio, J; Liukkonen, J; Kujala, U

    2012-02-01

    Long-term persistent physical activity is important in the prevention of chronic diseases, but a large number of people do not participate in physical activity to obtain health benefits. The purpose of this study was to examine the motives and perceived barriers to long-term engagement in leisure time physical activity. Same-sex twin pairs (N=16, mean age 60) discordant for physical activity over 30 years were identified from the Finnish Twin Cohort. We evaluated participants' physical activity motivation with the 73-item Recreational Exercise Motivation Measure and assessed barriers to physical activity with a 25-item questionnaire. The characteristics of physical activity motivation and perceived barriers between the active and inactive co-twins were analysed using paired tests. Motives related to the sub-dimensions of enjoyment and physical fitness and psychological state were the most important reasons for participation in physical activity among all the twin individuals analysed. The sub-dimensions mastery (p=0.018, Cohen's d=0.76), physical fitness (p=0.029, Cohen's d=0.69), and psychological state (p=0.039, Cohen's d=0.65) differed significantly between active and inactive co-twins. More than half of the participants reported no reasons for not being physically active. If reasons existed, participation in physical activity was deterred mostly by pain and various health problems. This study found no differences in perceived barriers between active and inactive co-twins. We conclude from our results that the main factors promoting persistent leisure time physical activity were participants' wish to improve or maintain their physical skills or techniques, a feeling that exercise would improve their mental and physical health and that they found the activity enjoyable. This study helps us understand the importance of the role of motives and the minor role of perceived barriers for engagement in persistent physical activity.

  18. Physical Activity Predicts Performance in an Unpracticed Bimanual Coordination Task

    PubMed Central

    Boisgontier, Matthieu P.; Serbruyns, Leen; Swinnen, Stephan P.

    2017-01-01

    Practice of a given physical activity is known to improve the motor skills related to this activity. However, whether unrelated skills are also improved is still unclear. To test the impact of physical activity on an unpracticed motor task, 26 young adults completed the international physical activity questionnaire and performed a bimanual coordination task they had never practiced before. Results showed that higher total physical activity predicted higher performance in the bimanual task, controlling for multiple factors such as age, physical inactivity, music practice, and computer games practice. Linear mixed models allowed this effect of physical activity to be generalized to a large population of bimanual coordination conditions. This finding runs counter to the notion that generalized motor abilities do not exist and supports the existence of a “learning to learn” skill that could be improved through physical activity and that impacts performance in tasks that are not necessarily related to the practiced activity. PMID:28265253

  19. Perceived physical competence towards physical activity, and motivation and enjoyment in physical education as longitudinal predictors of adolescents' self-reported physical activity.

    PubMed

    Timo, Jaakkola; Sami, Yli-Piipari; Anthony, Watt; Jarmo, Liukkonen

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate if adolescents' perceived physical competence towards physical activity (PA), and autonomous motivation and enjoyment in physical education (PE) during early adolescence can predict amount and intensity of self-reported physical activity six years later. This study utilized a 6-year longitudinal data set collected within Finnish school settings. Students responded to questionnaires measuring their perceived physical competence towards physical activity, and autonomous motivation and enjoyment in PE during their first year at middle school (Grade 7), and their PA engagement during their last year in high school (Grade 12). A sample of 333 students (200 girls, 133 boys; M age=12.41, years, SD=.27) participated in the study. Perceived physical competence in physical activity was assessed by the sport competence dimension of the Physical Self-Perception Profile, autonomous motivation in PE was assessed by the Sport Motivation Scale and enjoyment in PE by the Sport Enjoyment Scale. Students' self-reported metabolic equivalent (MET) and PA intensity (light [LPA], moderate [MPA], vigorous [VPA]) was calculated from the short form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Perceived physical competence towards physical activity significantly predicted total METs (β=.28), MPA (β=.18) and VPA (β=.29) six years later. Autonomous motivation and enjoyment in PE at Grade 7, however, were not significant predictors of later PA. The results of this study support the proposition that self-perception of an individual's abilities arising from interactions with the environment related to PA during early puberty has an influential effect on later PA behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Is there such a thing as sustainable physical activity?

    PubMed

    Bjørnarå, H B; Torstveit, M K; Stea, T H; Bere, E

    2017-03-01

    There is a global need to diminish climate gas emissions, and a simultaneous call for enhanced levels of physical activity. Increased physical activity entails reduced risk for overweight and chronic diseases, as well as a potential to reduce transport's major contribution to global CO2 emissions. However, increased physical activity level also implies increased energy expenditure. Therefore, we aim to introduce the concept of sustainable physical activity, and to suggest certain physical activity habits due to their potentially sustainable properties. Worldwide, a third of adults and four fifths of adolescents ought to be more physically active in order to comply with current physical activity recommendations. Yet, considering upcoming resource challenges, types of physical activity should be taken into account. Active transportation represents carbon-friendly means of transportation as well as an opportunity for enhanced physical activity. Physical activity conducted in the local community is likely to favor sustainability through less use of fossil fuel, as it makes transportation redundant. Moreover, going "back to basic", using less equipment and appliances for everyday tasks could contribute toward energy balance through increased physical activity, and could decrease resource use. Finally, balancing food intake and energy expenditure would require less food production with accompanying energy savings.

  1. [Evidence-based guidelines for physical activity of adult Canadians].

    PubMed

    Warburton, Darren E R; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Rhodes, Ryan E; Shephard, Roy J

    2007-01-01

    This review of the literature provides an update on the scientific biological and psychosocial bases for Canada's Physical Activity Guide for Health Active Living, with particular reference to the effect of physical activity on the health of adults aged 20-55 years. Existing physical activity guidelines for adults from around the world are summarized briefly and compared to the Canadian guidelines. The descriptive epidemiology of physical activity and inactivity in Canada is presented, and the strength of the relationship between physical activity and specific health outcomes is evaluated, with particular emphasis on minimal and optimal physical activity requirements. Finally, areas requiring further investigation are highlighted. Summarizing the findings, Canadian and most international physical activity guidelines advocate moderate-intensity physical activity on most days of the week. Physical activity appears to reduce the risk for over 25 chronic conditions, in particular coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, breast cancer, colon cancer, type 2 diabetes, and osteoporosis. Current literature suggests that if the entire Canadian population followed current physical activity guidelines, approximately one-third of deaths related to coronary heart disease, one quarter of deaths related to stroke and osteoporosis, 20% of deaths related to colon cancer, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes, and 14% of deaths related to breast cancer could be prevented. It also appears that the prevention of weight gain and the maintenance of weight loss require greater physical activity levels than current recommendations.

  2. Physics Handbook: Activities for a Modern Program in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    This handbook contains information that has been used in the high school laboratory by many teachers. Most of the experiments can be adapted for use as individual laboratory exercises or as teacher-student demonstrations. The resource material in this handbook should be helpful to all physics teachers as they continue to adapt their courses to…

  3. Physical Activity Stories: Assessing the "Meaning Standard" in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tyler G.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of the "meaning standard" in both national and state content standards suggests that professionals consider it an important outcome of a quality physical education program. However, only 10 percent of states require an assessment to examine whether students achieve this standard. The purpose of this article is to introduce…

  4. Physical Activity Stories: Assessing the "Meaning Standard" in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tyler G.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of the "meaning standard" in both national and state content standards suggests that professionals consider it an important outcome of a quality physical education program. However, only 10 percent of states require an assessment to examine whether students achieve this standard. The purpose of this article is to introduce…

  5. Nutrition and function, with emphasis on physical activity.

    PubMed

    Torun, B; Viteri, F E

    1993-01-01

    Consumption of insufficient quantities of food would result to energy deficiency in children, and this can be prevented by early assessment of changes in physical activity. This paper focuses on the effects of general undernutrition on physical activity and on growth, behavior, and cognitive development in Mexico, Uganda, Colombia, and Guatemala. The paper contains studies investigating the influence of undernutrition on physical activity; total energy expenditure; level of physical fitness; influence of physical activity and growth; and relationship of physical activity with behavior and cognitive development. The level of energy expenditure between nutritional groups could be accounted for the smaller size of the body among undernourished children. On the other hand, physiological potential to physically perform work can be maintained by children with mild or moderate malnutrition, but their smaller size limits their output. Lastly, increased physical activity of children receiving food supplementation was associated with exploratory and behavioral differences compared with nonsupplemented children.

  6. The physical sacrifice of thinking: Investigating the relationship between thinking and physical activity in everyday life.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Todd; Dickinson, David L; Stroh, Nathan; Dickinson, Christopher A

    2016-08-01

    Physical activity level is an important contributor to overall human health and obesity. Research has shown that humans possess a number of traits that influence their physical activity level including social cognition. We examined whether the trait of "need for cognition" was associated with daily physical activity levels. We recruited individuals who were high or low in need for cognition and measured their physical activity level in 30-second epochs over a 1-week period. The overall findings showed that low-need-for-cognition individuals were more physically active, but this difference was most pronounced during the 5-day work week and lessened during the weekend.

  7. Assessing Preschool Children's Physical Activity: The Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William H.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Almeida, M. Joao C. A.; Pate, Russell R.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present initial information concerning a new direct observation system--the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool Version. The system will allow researchers to record young children's physical activity levels while also coding the topography of their physical activity, as well as detailed…

  8. Gender Differences in Barriers to Physical Activity among College Students Reporting Varying Levels of Regular Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munford, Shawn N.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have studied the primary determinants of physical activity in an effort to enhance health promotion initiatives nationwide. These physical activity determinants have been observed to differ among various segments of the population, suggesting a further examination of physical activity barriers among differing populations. Little…

  9. Validation of Self-Report Measures of Physical Activity: A Case Study Using the New Zealand Physical Activity Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackay, Lisa M.; Schofield, Grant M.; Schluter, Philip J.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate measurement of physical activity is fundamentally important in epidemiological research of physical activity behavior. A widely used telephone-based physical activity questionnaire was compared with other methods of administration and objective measures (pedometers and accelerometers) among 80 adults (43 women). The telephone…

  10. Gender Differences in Barriers to Physical Activity among College Students Reporting Varying Levels of Regular Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munford, Shawn N.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have studied the primary determinants of physical activity in an effort to enhance health promotion initiatives nationwide. These physical activity determinants have been observed to differ among various segments of the population, suggesting a further examination of physical activity barriers among differing populations. Little…

  11. Environmental correlates of children's physical activity and obesity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jia; Settles, Barbara H

    2014-01-01

    To examine the individual, parental, and neighborhood environment correlates of children's physical activity and risk of obesity. Secondary data of 1514 children drawn from the Delaware Survey of Children's Health were used for analysis. A conceptual framework was developed based on the Social Determinants of Health and Environmental Health Promotion model and tested using structural equation modeling. Findings confirmed that parental support on physical activity and a favorable neighborhood environment predicted children's physical activity. However, the risk of overweight and obesity was not associated with parental support of physical activity and children's physical activity. Future preventive practice requires a multifaceted approach incorporating both individual and environmental changes.

  12. Daily Spousal Influence on Physical Activity in Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Martire, Lynn M.; Stephens, Mary Ann Parris; Mogle, Jacqueline; Schulz, Richard; Brach, Jennifer; Keefe, Francis J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical activity is critical for the management of knee osteoarthritis, and the spouse may play a role in encouraging or discouraging physical activity. Purpose To examine four types of spousal influence—spouses' daily activity, autonomy support, pressure, and persuasion--on the daily physical activity of adults living with knee osteoarthritis. Methods A total of 141 couples reported their daily experiences for 22 days using a handheld computer, and wore an accelerometer to measure moderate activity and steps. Results Spouses' autonomy support for patient physical activity, as well as their own level of activity, was concurrently associated with patients' greater daily moderate activity and steps. In addition, on days when male patients perceived that spouses exerted more pressure to be active, they spent less time in moderate activity. Conclusions Couple-oriented interventions for knee osteoarthritis should target physical activity in both partners and spousal strategies for helping patients stay active. PMID:23161472

  13. Active Control of Complex Physical Systems: An Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    release; distribution is unlimited. 13. ABSTRACT (Maxtmum 200 words) Active control of complex systems imposes unique requirements for physical models and...months after the meeting, SPrinte In USA. Acceslon For NTIS CRA&W DTIC TAB Unlannounced ] Active Control of Complex Physical Systems Justificatton An...control strategies. Physical models This work on the active control of which are adequate to predict the influence of specific physical systems has been

  14. The Development of Intrinsic Motivation for Physical Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    individuals to become more intrinsically motivated to engage in regular exercise and/or physical activity . This paper will present theories...an exercise or physical activity program. DiClemente and Velasquez (2002) make the 29 argument that people in the preparation stage may have...they are making are worthy of 30 Do you currently do any physical exercise ? Do you intend to do some vigorous physical activity in the next six

  15. Association between Physical Activity Levels and Physical Symptoms or Illness among University Students in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sang-Hyun; Um, Yoo-Jin; Kim, Young-Ju; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Oh, Seung-Won; Lee, Cheol Min; Kwon, Hyuktae

    2016-01-01

    Background Low levels of physical activity can cause various physical symptoms or illness. However, few studies on this association have been conducted in young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity levels and physical symptoms or illness in young adults. Methods Subjects were university students who participated in a web-based self-administered questionnaire in a university in Seoul in 2013. We obtained information on physical activities and physical symptoms or illness in the past year. Independent variables were defined as symptoms or illness which were associated with decreased academic performance. Logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of each physical symptom or illness with adjustment for covariables. Results A total of 2,201 participants were included in the study. The main physical symptoms or illness among participants were severe fatigue (64.2%), muscle or joint pain (46.3%), gastrointestinal problems (43.1%), headache or dizziness (38.6%), frequent colds (35.1%), and sleep problems (33.3%). Low physical activity levels were significantly associated with high ORs of physical symptoms or illness. Multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs) in the lowest vs. highest tertile of physical activity were 1.45 (1.14–1.83) for severe fatigue, 1.35 (1.07–1.70) for frequent colds, and 1.29 (1.02–1.63) for headaches or dizziness. We also found that lower levels of physical activity were associated with more physical symptoms or bouts of illness. Conclusion Low physical activity levels were significantly associated with various physical symptoms or illness among university students. Also, individuals in the lower levels of physical activity were more likely to experience more physical symptoms or bouts of illness than those in the highest tertile of physical activity. PMID:27688861

  16. The improved physical activity index for measuring physical activity in EPIC Germany.

    PubMed

    Wientzek, Angelika; Vigl, Matthäus; Steindorf, Karen; Brühmann, Boris; Bergmann, Manuela M; Harttig, Ulrich; Katzke, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    In the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC), physical activity (PA) has been indexed as a cross-tabulation between PA at work and recreational activity. As the proportion of non-working participants increases, other categorization strategies are needed. Therefore, our aim was to develop a valid PA index for this population, which will also be able to express PA continuously. In the German EPIC centers Potsdam and Heidelberg, a clustered sample of 3,766 participants was re-invited to the study center. 1,615 participants agreed to participate and 1,344 participants were finally included in this study. PA was measured by questionnaires on defined activities and a 7-day combined heart rate and acceleration sensor. In a training sample of 433 participants, the Improved Physical Activity Index (IPAI) was developed. Its performance was evaluated in a validation sample of 911 participants and compared with the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index. The IPAI consists of items covering five areas including PA at work, sport, cycling, television viewing, and computer use. The correlations of the IPAI with accelerometer counts in the training and validation sample ranged r = 0.40-0.43 and with physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) r = 0.33-0.40 and were higher than for the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index previously applied in EPIC. In non-working participants the IPAI showed higher correlations than the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index, with r = 0.34 for accelerometer counts and r = 0.29 for PAEE. In conclusion, we developed a valid physical activity index which is able to express PA continuously as well as to categorize participants according to their PA level. In populations with increasing rates of non-working people the performance of the IPAI is better than the established indices used in EPIC.

  17. Youth physical activity opportunities in lower and higher income neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Suminski, Richard Robert; Ding, Ding; Lee, Rebecca; May, Linda; Tota, Tonya; Dinius, David

    2011-08-01

    The presence of youth physical activity opportunities is one of the strongest environmental correlates of youth physical activity. More detailed information about such opportunities is needed to maximize their contributions to physical activity promotion especially in under resourced, lower income areas. The objectives of this study were to construct a comprehensive profile of youth physical activity opportunities and contrast profile characteristics between lower and higher income neighborhoods. Youth physical activity opportunities in eight lower (median household income <$36,000) and eight higher (>$36,000) income neighborhoods were identified and described using interviews, neighborhood tours, site visits, and systematic searches of various sources (e.g., Internet). Lower income neighborhoods had a greater number of locations offering youth physical activity opportunities but similar quantities of amenities. Lower income neighborhoods had more faith-based locations and court, trail/path, event, and water-type amenities. Higher income neighborhoods had significantly more for-profit businesses offering youth physical activity opportunities. Funding for youth physical activity opportunities in lower income neighborhoods was more likely to come from donations and government revenue (e.g., taxes), whereas the majority of youth physical activity opportunities in the higher income neighborhoods were supported by for-profit business revenue. Differences between lower and higher income neighborhoods in the type and amenities of youth physical activity opportunities may be driven by funding sources. Attention to these differences could help create more effective and efficient strategies for promoting physical activity among youth.

  18. Relation Between Higher Physical Activity and Public Transit Use

    PubMed Central

    Vernez Moudon, Anne; Kang, Bumjoon; Hurvitz, Philip M.; Zhou, Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We isolated physical activity attributable to transit use to examine issues of substitution between types of physical activity and potential confounding of transit-related walking with other walking. Methods. Physical activity and transit use data were collected in 2008 to 2009 from 693 Travel Assessment and Community study participants from King County, Washington, equipped with an accelerometer, a portable Global Positioning System, and a 7-day travel log. Physical activity was classified into transit- and non–transit-related walking and nonwalking time. Analyses compared physical activity by type between transit users and nonusers, between less and more frequent transit users, and between transit and nontransit days for transit users. Results. Transit users had more daily overall physical activity and more total walking than did nontransit users but did not differ on either non–transit-related walking or nonwalking physical activity. Most frequent transit users had more walking time than least frequent transit users. Higher physical activity levels for transit users were observed only on transit days, with 14.6 minutes (12.4 minutes when adjusted for demographics) of daily physical activity directly linked with transit use. Conclusions. Because transit use was directly related to higher physical activity, future research should examine whether substantive increases in transit access and use lead to more physical activity and related health improvements. PMID:24625142

  19. Millikan Lecture 1996: Promoting active learning based on physics education research in introductory physics courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laws, P. W.

    1997-01-01

    Early in his career Robert Millikan experimented with a laboratory-based method of teaching introductory physics that bears close resemblance to Workshop Physics.® In this talk, key elements of Workshop Physics are summarized. Some Workshop Physics activities are described which involve apparati that are used for rapid observations of conceptual aspects of physical phenomena as well as for equation verification experiments. Challenges are discussed that must be faced if recently developed activity-based approaches to teaching based on the outcomes of physics education research are to provide a foundation for a major paradigm shift in physics teaching.

  20. Mental Health in Multiple Sclerosis Patients without Limitation of Physical Function: The Role of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Tallner, Alexander; Waschbisch, Anne; Hentschke, Christian; Pfeifer, Klaus; Mäurer, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, in general, show reduced physical function, physical activity, and quality of life. Positive associations between physical activity and quality of life have been reported. In particular, we were interested in the relation between physical activity and mental health in MS patients without limitation of physical function, since limitations of physical function may influence both physical activity and quality of life. Assessment comprised the Baecke questionnaire on physical activity, the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We ranked our sample according to physical activity into four groups and performed an ANOVA to analyze the relationship between levels of physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Then we performed a subgroup analysis and included patients with unlimited walking distance and a score of less than 18 in the BDI. Most active vs. inactive patients were compared for the mental subscales of the SF-36 and depression scores. From 632 patients, 265 met inclusion criteria and hence quartiles were filled with 67 patients each. Active and inactive patients did not differ considerably in physical function. In contrast, mental subscales of the SF-36 were higher in active patients. Remarkable and significant differences were found regarding vitality, general health perception, social functioning and mental health, all in favor of physically active patients. Our study showed that higher physical activity is still associated with higher mental health scores even if limitations of physical function are accounted for. Therefore, we believe that physical activity and exercise have considerable health benefits for MS patients. PMID:26147422