Science.gov

Sample records for heterogeneous real-time embedded

  1. Heterogeneous computer architecture for embedded real-time image interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinger, Jeremy A.

    1993-10-01

    A heterogeneous parallel-processing computer architecture is being developed for embedded real-time interpretation of images and other data collected from sensors on mobile platforms. The Advanced Target Cueing and Recognition Engine (ATCURE) architecture includes specialized subsystems for input/output, image processing, numeric processing, and symbolic processing. Different specialization is provided for each subsystem to exploit distinctive demands for data storage, data representation, mixes of operations, and program control structures. The characteristics of each subsystem are described, with the Image Processing Subsystem (IPS) used to illustrate how the design is driven by careful analysis of current and projected computational requirements from many applications. These considerations led to a programming model for the Image Processing Subsystem in which images and their subsets are the fundamental unit of data. The processor implementation incorporates a scalable synchronous pipeline of processing elements that eliminates many of the bottlenecks found in MIMD and SIMD architectures.

  2. Integrating Security in Real-Time Embedded Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-04-26

    Embedded Systems Sb. GRANT NUMBER N00014-13-1-0707 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER Mohan, Sibin ; Bobba, Rakesh B... systems . Currently, there does not exist a comprehensive theoretical framework for the integration of security in embedded real-time systems ...need for security policies to adhere to the strict guidelines imposed as a result. 1S. SUBJECT TERMS Real-Time Embedded Systems , security

  3. Cluster Computing for Embedded/Real-Time Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, D.; Kepner, J.

    1999-01-01

    Embedded and real-time systems, like other computing systems, seek to maximize computing power for a given price, and thus can significantly benefit from the advancing capabilities of cluster computing.

  4. Improving Predictability in Embedded Real-Time Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-12-01

    Systems CMU/SEI-2000-SR-011 Peter H. Feiler , Software Engineering Institute Bruce Lewis, U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command Steve Vestal...SUBTITLE Improving Predictability in Embedded Real-Time Systems 5. FUNDING NUMBERS F19628-00-C-0003 6. AUTHOR(S) Peter H. Feiler , Bruce ...Carnegie Metton Software Engineering Institute Improving Predictability in Embedded Real-Time Systems Peter H. Feiler , Software Engineering

  5. Adaptive Proactive Inhibitory Control for Embedded Real-Time Applications

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shufan; McGinnity, T. Martin; Wong-Lin, KongFatt

    2012-01-01

    Psychologists have studied the inhibitory control of voluntary movement for many years. In particular, the countermanding of an impending action has been extensively studied. In this work, we propose a neural mechanism for adaptive inhibitory control in a firing-rate type model based on current findings in animal electrophysiological and human psychophysical experiments. We then implement this model on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) prototyping system, using dedicated real-time hardware circuitry. Our results show that the FPGA-based implementation can run in real-time while achieving behavioral performance qualitatively suggestive of the animal experiments. Implementing such biological inhibitory control in an embedded device can lead to the development of control systems that may be used in more realistic cognitive robotics or in neural prosthetic systems aiding human movement control. PMID:22701420

  6. Real-time depth processing for embedded platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahnama, Oscar; Makarov, Aleksej; Torr, Philip

    2017-05-01

    Obtaining depth information of a scene is an important requirement in many computer-vision and robotics applications. For embedded platforms, passive stereo systems have many advantages over their active counterparts (i.e. LiDAR, Infrared). They are power efficient, cheap, robust to lighting conditions and inherently synchronized to the RGB images of the scene. However, stereo depth estimation is a computationally expensive task that operates over large amounts of data. For embedded applications which are often constrained by power consumption, obtaining accurate results in real-time is a challenge. We demonstrate a computationally and memory efficient implementation of a stereo block-matching algorithm in FPGA. The computational core achieves a throughput of 577 fps at standard VGA resolution whilst consuming less than 3 Watts of power. The data is processed using an in-stream approach that minimizes memory-access bottlenecks and best matches the raster scan readout of modern digital image sensors.

  7. Test applications for heterogeneous real-time network testbed

    SciTech Connect

    Mines, R.F.; Knightly, E.W.

    1994-07-01

    This paper investigates several applications for a heterogeneous real-time network testbed. The network is heterogeneous in terms of network devices, technologies, protocols, and algorithms. The network is real-time in that its services can provide per-connection end-to-end performance guarantees. Although different parts of the network use different algorithms, all components have the necessary mechanisms to provide performance guarantees: admission control and priority scheduling. Three applications for this network are described in this paper: a video conferencing tool, a tool for combustion modeling using distributed computing, and an MPEG video archival system. Each has minimum performance requirements that must be provided by the network. By analyzing these applications, we provide insights to the traffic characteristics and performance requirements of practical real-time loads.

  8. Managing a Real-Time Embedded Linux Platform with Buildroot

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, J.; Martin, K.

    2015-01-01

    Developers of real-time embedded software often need to build the operating system, kernel, tools and supporting applications from source to work with the differences in their hardware configuration. The first attempts to introduce Linux-based real-time embedded systems into the Fermilab accelerator controls system used this approach but it was found to be time-consuming, difficult to maintain and difficult to adapt to different hardware configurations. Buildroot is an open source build system with a menu-driven configuration tool (similar to the Linux kernel build system) that automates this process. A customized Buildroot [1] system has been developed for use in the Fermilab accelerator controls system that includes several hardware configuration profiles (including Intel, ARM and PowerPC) and packages for Fermilab support software. A bootable image file is produced containing the Linux kernel, shell and supporting software suite that varies from 3 to 20 megabytes large – ideal for network booting. The result is a platform that is easier to maintain and deploy in diverse hardware configurations

  9. A heterogeneous hierarchical architecture for real-time computing

    SciTech Connect

    Skroch, D.A.; Fornaro, R.J.

    1988-12-01

    The need for high-speed data acquisition and control algorithms has prompted continued research in the area of multiprocessor systems and related programming techniques. The result presented here is a unique hardware and software architecture for high-speed real-time computer systems. The implementation of a prototype of this architecture has required the integration of architecture, operating systems and programming languages into a cohesive unit. This report describes a Heterogeneous Hierarchial Architecture for Real-Time (H{sup 2} ART) and system software for program loading and interprocessor communication.

  10. A distributed scheduling algorithm for heterogeneous real-time systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeineldine, Osman; El-Toweissy, Mohamed; Mukkamala, Ravi

    1991-01-01

    Much of the previous work on load balancing and scheduling in distributed environments was concerned with homogeneous systems and homogeneous loads. Several of the results indicated that random policies are as effective as other more complex load allocation policies. The effects of heterogeneity on scheduling algorithms for hard real time systems is examined. A distributed scheduler specifically to handle heterogeneities in both nodes and node traffic is proposed. The performance of the algorithm is measured in terms of the percentage of jobs discarded. While a random task allocation is very sensitive to heterogeneities, the algorithm is shown to be robust to such non-uniformities in system components and load.

  11. Embedded Triboelectric Active Sensors for Real-Time Pneumatic Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xian Peng; Bu, Tian Zhao; Xi, Feng Ben; Cheng, Ting Hai; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-09-20

    Pneumatic monitoring sensors have great demands for power supply in cylinder systems. Here, we present an embedded sliding triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) in air cylinder as active sensors for position and velocity monitoring. The embedded TENG is composed of a circular poly(tetrafluoroethylene) polymer and a triangular copper electrode. The working mechanism as triboelectric active sensors and electric output performance are systematically investigated. By integrating into the pneumatic system, the embedded triboelectric active sensors have been used for real-time air pressure/flow monitoring and energy storage. Air pressures are measured from 0.04 to 0.12 MPa at a step of 0.02 MPa with a sensitivity of 49.235 V/MPa, as well as airflow from 50 to 250 L/min at a step of 50 L/min with a sensitivity of 0.002 μA·min/L. This work has first demonstrated triboelectric active sensors for pneumatic monitoring and may promote the development of TENG in intelligent pneumatic system.

  12. Runtime verification of embedded real-time systems.

    PubMed

    Reinbacher, Thomas; Függer, Matthias; Brauer, Jörg

    We present a runtime verification framework that allows on-line monitoring of past-time Metric Temporal Logic (ptMTL) specifications in a discrete time setting. We design observer algorithms for the time-bounded modalities of ptMTL, which take advantage of the highly parallel nature of hardware designs. The algorithms can be translated into efficient hardware blocks, which are designed for reconfigurability, thus, facilitate applications of the framework in both a prototyping and a post-deployment phase of embedded real-time systems. We provide formal correctness proofs for all presented observer algorithms and analyze their time and space complexity. For example, for the most general operator considered, the time-bounded Since operator, we obtain a time complexity that is doubly logarithmic both in the point in time the operator is executed and the operator's time bounds. This result is promising with respect to a self-contained, non-interfering monitoring approach that evaluates real-time specifications in parallel to the system-under-test. We implement our framework on a Field Programmable Gate Array platform and use extensive simulation and logic synthesis runs to assess the benefits of the approach in terms of resource usage and operating frequency.

  13. High performance embedded system for real-time pattern matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotiropoulou, C.-L.; Luciano, P.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Citraro, S.; Giannetti, P.; Dell'Orso, M.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we present an innovative and high performance embedded system for real-time pattern matching. This system is based on the evolution of hardware and algorithms developed for the field of High Energy Physics and more specifically for the execution of extremely fast pattern matching for tracking of particles produced by proton-proton collisions in hadron collider experiments. A miniaturized version of this complex system is being developed for pattern matching in generic image processing applications. The system works as a contour identifier able to extract the salient features of an image. It is based on the principles of cognitive image processing, which means that it executes fast pattern matching and data reduction mimicking the operation of the human brain. The pattern matching can be executed by a custom designed Associative Memory chip. The reference patterns are chosen by a complex training algorithm implemented on an FPGA device. Post processing algorithms (e.g. pixel clustering) are also implemented on the FPGA. The pattern matching can be executed on a 2D or 3D space, on black and white or grayscale images, depending on the application and thus increasing exponentially the processing requirements of the system. We present the firmware implementation of the training and pattern matching algorithm, performance and results on a latest generation Xilinx Kintex Ultrascale FPGA device.

  14. Modeling heterogeneous processor scheduling for real time systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leathrum, J. F.; Mielke, R. R.; Stoughton, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    A new model is presented to describe dataflow algorithms implemented in a multiprocessing system. Called the resource/data flow graph (RDFG), the model explicitly represents cyclo-static processor schedules as circuits of processor arcs which reflect the order that processors execute graph nodes. The model also allows the guarantee of meeting hard real-time deadlines. When unfolded, the model identifies statically the processor schedule. The model therefore is useful for determining the throughput and latency of systems with heterogeneous processors. The applicability of the model is demonstrated using a space surveillance algorithm.

  15. Domain Compilation for Embedded Real-Time Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    A recently conceived approach to automated real-time control of the actions of a robotic system enables an embedded real-time planning algorithm to develop plans that are more robust than they would otherwise be, without imposing an excessive computational burden. This approach occupies a middle ground between two prior approaches known in the art as the universal-plan and hybrid approaches. Ever since discovering the performance limitations of taking a sense-plan-act approach to controlling robots, the robotics community has endeavored to follow a behavior-based approach in which a behavior includes a rapid feedback loop between state estimation and motor control. Heretofore, system architectures following this approach have been based, variously, on algorithms that implement universal plans or algorithms that function as hybrids of planners and executives. In a typical universal-plan case, a set of behaviors is merged into the plan, but the system must be restricted to relatively small problem domains to avoid having to reason about too many states and represent them in the plan. In the hybrid approach, one implements actions as small sets of behaviors, each applicable to a limited set of circumstances. Each action is intended to bring the system to a subgoal state. A planning algorithm is used to string these actions together into a sequence to traverse the state space from an initial or current state to a goal state. The hybrid approach works well in a static environment, but it is inherently brittle in a dynamic environment because a failure can occur when the environment strays beyond the region of applicability of the current activity. In the present approach, a system can vary from the hybrid approach to the universal-plan approach, depending on a single integer parameter, denoted n, which can range from 1 to a maximum domain-dependent value of M. As illustrated in the figure, n = 1 represents the hybrid approach, in which each linked action covers a small

  16. A Course in Real-Time Embedded Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, J. K.; Fife, W. S.

    2007-01-01

    Embedded systems are increasingly pervasive, and the creation of reliable controlling software offers unique challenges. Embedded software must interact directly with hardware, it must respond to events in a time-critical fashion, and it typically employs concurrency to meet response time requirements. This paper describes an innovative course…

  17. A Course in Real-Time Embedded Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, J. K.; Fife, W. S.

    2007-01-01

    Embedded systems are increasingly pervasive, and the creation of reliable controlling software offers unique challenges. Embedded software must interact directly with hardware, it must respond to events in a time-critical fashion, and it typically employs concurrency to meet response time requirements. This paper describes an innovative course…

  18. Real-Time Embedded High Performance Computing: Application Benchmarks.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-06-01

    Curtis P. Brown, Mark I. Flanzbaum, Richard A. Games , and John D. Ramsdell APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. 19960122 066 Rome...BENCHMARKS & AUTHOR(S) Curtis P. Brown, Mark I. Flanzbaum, Richard A. and John D. Ramsdell Games , & FUNDING NUMBERS C - F19628-94-C-0001 PE... STAP ). A scalable real-time mapping of a generic two-dimensional processing chain applicable to SAR and STAP is developed and analyzed. 14. SUBJECT

  19. Heterogeneous real-time computing in radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, John M.; Demorest, Paul; Ransom, Scott

    2010-07-01

    Modern computer architectures suited for general purpose computing are often not the best choice for either I/O-bound or compute-bound problems. Sometimes the best choice is not to choose a single architecture, but to take advantage of the best characteristics of different computer architectures to solve your problems. This paper examines the tradeoffs between using computer systems based on the ubiquitous X86 Central Processing Units (CPU's), Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based signal processors, and Graphical Processing Units (GPU's). We will show how a heterogeneous system can be produced that blends the best of each of these technologies into a real-time signal processing system. FPGA's tightly coupled to analog-to-digital converters connect the instrument to the telescope and supply the first level of computing to the system. These FPGA's are coupled to other FPGA's to continue to provide highly efficient processing power. Data is then packaged up and shipped over fast networks to a cluster of general purpose computers equipped with GPU's, which are used for floating-point intensive computation. Finally, the data is handled by the CPU and written to disk, or further processed. Each of the elements in the system has been chosen for its specific characteristics and the role it can play in creating a system that does the most for the least, in terms of power, space, and money.

  20. Real-time fetal ECG system design using embedded microprocessors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Baese, Uwe; Muddu, Harikrishna; Schinhaerl, Sebastian; Kumm, Martin; Zipf, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The emphasis of this project lies in the development and evaluation of new robust and high fidelity fetal electrocardiogram (FECG) systems to determine the fetal heart rate (FHR). Recently several powerful algorithms have been suggested to improve the FECG fidelity. Until now it is unknown if these algorithms allow a real-time processing, can be used in mobile systems (low power), and which algorithm produces the best error rate for a given system configuration. In this work we have developed high performance, low power microprocessor-based biomedical systems that allow a fair comparison of proposed, state-of-the-art FECG algorithms. We will evaluate different soft-core microprocessors and compare these solutions to other commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardcore solutions in terms of price, size, power, and speed.

  1. Real-Time Distributed Embedded Oscillator Operating Frequency Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollock, Julie; Oliver, Brett; Brickner, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses the utilization of embedded clocks inside of operating network data links as an auxiliary clock source to satisfy local oscillator monitoring requirements. Modem network interfaces, typically serial network links, often contain embedded clocking information of very tight precision to recover data from the link. This embedded clocking data can be utilized by the receiving device to monitor the local oscillator for tolerance to required specifications, often important in high-integrity fault-tolerant applications. A device can utilize a received embedded clock to determine if the local or the remote device is out of tolerance by using a single link. The local device can determine if it is failing, assuming a single fault model, with two or more active links. Network fabric components, containing many operational links, can potentially determine faulty remote or local devices in the presence of multiple faults. Two methods of implementation are described. In one method, a recovered clock can be directly used to monitor the local clock as a direct replacement of an external local oscillator. This scheme is consistent with a general clock monitoring function whereby clock sources are clocking two counters and compared over a fixed interval of time. In another method, overflow/underflow conditions can be used to detect clock relationships for monitoring. These network interfaces often provide clock compensation circuitry to allow data to be transferred from the received (network) clock domain to the internal clock domain. This circuit could be modified to detect overflow/underflow conditions of the buffering required and report a fast or slow receive clock, respectively.

  2. On-board computational efficiency in real time UAV embedded terrain reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partsinevelos, Panagiotis; Agadakos, Ioannis; Athanasiou, Vasilis; Papaefstathiou, Ioannis; Mertikas, Stylianos; Kyritsis, Sarantis; Tripolitsiotis, Achilles; Zervos, Panagiotis

    2014-05-01

    In the last few years, there is a surge of applications for object recognition, interpretation and mapping using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Specifications in constructing those UAVs are highly diverse with contradictory characteristics including cost-efficiency, carrying weight, flight time, mapping precision, real time processing capabilities, etc. In this work, a hexacopter UAV is employed for near real time terrain mapping. The main challenge addressed is to retain a low cost flying platform with real time processing capabilities. The UAV weight limitation affecting the overall flight time, makes the selection of the on-board processing components particularly critical. On the other hand, surface reconstruction, as a computational demanding task, calls for a highly demanding processing unit on board. To merge these two contradicting aspects along with customized development, a System on a Chip (SoC) integrated circuit is proposed as a low-power, low-cost processor, which natively supports camera sensors and positioning and navigation systems. Modern SoCs, such as Omap3530 or Zynq, are classified as heterogeneous devices and provide a versatile platform, allowing access to both general purpose processors, such as the ARM11, as well as specialized processors, such as a digital signal processor and floating field-programmable gate array. A UAV equipped with the proposed embedded processors, allows on-board terrain reconstruction using stereo vision in near real time. Furthermore, according to the frame rate required, additional image processing may concurrently take place, such as image rectification andobject detection. Lastly, the onboard positioning and navigation (e.g., GNSS) chip may further improve the quality of the generated map. The resulting terrain maps are compared to ground truth geodetic measurements in order to access the accuracy limitations of the overall process. It is shown that with our proposed novel system,there is much potential in

  3. Heterogeneous computing for a real-time pig monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Younchang; Kim, Jinseong; Kim, Jaehak; Chung, Yeonwoo; Chung, Yongwha; Park, Daihee; Kim, Hakjae

    2017-06-01

    Video sensor data has been widely used in automatic surveillance applications. In this study, we present a method that automatically detects pigs in a pig room by using depth information obtained from a Kinect sensor. For a real-time implementation, we propose a means of reducing the execution time by applying parallel processing techniques. In general, most parallel processing techniques have been used to parallelize a specific task. In this study, we consider parallelization of an entire system that consists of several tasks. By applying a scheduling strategy to identify a computing device for each task and implementing it with OpenCL, we can reduce the total execution time efficiently. Experimental results reveal that the proposed method can automatically detect pigs using a CPU-GPU hybrid system in real time, regardless of the relative performance between the CPU and GPU.

  4. Real time 3D and heterogeneous data fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Little, C.Q.; Small, D.E.

    1998-03-01

    This project visualizes characterization data in a 3D setting, in real time. Real time in this sense means collecting the data and presenting it before it delays the user, and processing faster than the acquisition systems so no bottlenecks occur. The goals have been to build a volumetric viewer to display 3D data, demonstrate projecting other data, such as images, onto the 3D data, and display both the 3D and projected images as fast as the data became available. The authors have examined several ways to display 3D surface data. The most effective was generating polygonal surface meshes. They have created surface maps form a continuous stream of 3D range data, fused image data onto the geometry, and displayed the data with a standard 3D rendering package. In parallel with this, they have developed a method to project real-time images onto the surface created. A key component is mapping the data on the correct surfaces, which requires a-priori positional information along with accurate calibration of the camera and lens system.

  5. Real-Time Monitoring of Heterogeneous Catalysis with Mass Spectrometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Heterogeneous, gas-solid processes constitute an important class of catalytic reactions that play a key role in a variety of applications, such as industrial processing and environmental controls. Heterogeneous catalytic chemistry can be demonstrated in a simple heated flow reactor containing a fragment of the catalytic converter from a vehicular…

  6. Real-Time Monitoring of Heterogeneous Catalysis with Mass Spectrometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Heterogeneous, gas-solid processes constitute an important class of catalytic reactions that play a key role in a variety of applications, such as industrial processing and environmental controls. Heterogeneous catalytic chemistry can be demonstrated in a simple heated flow reactor containing a fragment of the catalytic converter from a vehicular…

  7. Real-time and low-cost embedded platform for car's surrounding vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saponara, Sergio; Franchi, Emilio

    2016-04-01

    The design and the implementation of a flexible and low-cost embedded system for real-time car's surrounding vision is presented. The target of the proposed multi-camera vision system is to provide the driver a better view of the objects that surround the vehicle. Fish-eye lenses are used to achieve a larger Field of View (FOV) but, on the other hand, introduce radial distortion of the images projected on the sensors. Using low-cost cameras there could be also some alignment issues. Since these complications are noticeable and dangerous, a real-time algorithm for their correction is presented. Then another real-time algorithm, used for merging 4 camera video streams together in a single view, is described. Real-time image processing is achieved through a hardware-software platform

  8. Real time polarization sensor image processing on an embedded FPGA/multi-core DSP system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednara, Marcus; Chuchacz-Kowalczyk, Katarzyna

    2015-05-01

    Most embedded image processing SoCs available on the market are highly optimized for typical consumer applications like video encoding/decoding, motion estimation or several image enhancement processes as used in DSLR or digital video cameras. For non-consumer applications, on the other hand, optimized embedded hardware is rarely available, so often PC based image processing systems are used. We show how a real time capable image processing system for a non-consumer application - namely polarization image data processing - can be efficiently implemented on an FPGA and multi-core DSP based embedded hardware platform.

  9. Real time fabric defect detection system on an embedded DSP platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raheja, Jagdish Lal; Ajay, Bandla; Chaudhary, Ankit

    2013-11-01

    In industrial fabric productions, automated real time systems are needed to find out the minor defects. It will save the cost by not transporting defected products and also would help in making compmay image of quality fabrics by sending out only undefected products. A real time fabric defect detection system (FDDS), implementd on an embedded DSP platform is presented here. Textural features of fabric image are extracted based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). A sliding window technique is used for defect detection where window moves over the whole image computing a textural energy from the GLCM of the fabric image. The energy values are compared to a reference and the deviations beyond a threshold are reported as defects and also visually represented by a window. The implementation is carried out on a TI TMS320DM642 platform and programmed using code composer studio software. The real time output of this implementation was shown on a monitor.

  10. Constructing a working taxonomy of functional Ada software components for real-time embedded system applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Robert

    1986-01-01

    A major impediment to a systematic attack on Ada software reusability is the lack of an effective taxonomy for software component functions. The scope of all possible applications of Ada software is considered too great to allow the practical development of a working taxonomy. Instead, for the purposes herein, the scope of Ada software application is limited to device and subsystem control in real-time embedded systems. A functional approach is taken in constructing the taxonomy tree for identified Ada domain. The use of modular software functions as a starting point fits well with the object oriented programming philosophy of Ada. Examples of the types of functions represented within the working taxonomy are real time kernels, interrupt service routines, synchronization and message passing, data conversion, digital filtering and signal conditioning, and device control. The constructed taxonomy is proposed as a framework from which a need analysis can be performed to reveal voids in current Ada real-time embedded programming efforts for Space Station.

  11. Constructing a working taxonomy of functional Ada software components for real-time embedded system applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Robert

    1986-01-01

    A major impediment to a systematic attack on Ada software reusability is the lack of an effective taxonomy for software component functions. The scope of all possible applications of Ada software is considered too great to allow the practical development of a working taxonomy. Instead, for the purposes herein, the scope of Ada software application is limited to device and subsystem control in real-time embedded systems. A functional approach is taken in constructing the taxonomy tree for identified Ada domain. The use of modular software functions as a starting point fits well with the object oriented programming philosophy of Ada. Examples of the types of functions represented within the working taxonomy are real time kernels, interrupt service routines, synchronization and message passing, data conversion, digital filtering and signal conditioning, and device control. The constructed taxonomy is proposed as a framework from which a need analysis can be performed to reveal voids in current Ada real-time embedded programming efforts for Space Station.

  12. Real-time Kernel Implementation Practice Program for Embedded Software Engineers' Education and its Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Toshio; Matsumoto, Masahide; Seo, Katsuhiko; Chino, Shinichiro; Sugino, Eiji; Sawamoto, Jun; Koizumi, Hisao

    A real-time kernel (henceforth RTK) is in the center place of embedded software technology, and the understanding of RTK is indispensable for the embedded system design. To implement RTK, it is necessary to understand languages that describe RTK software program code, system programming manners, software development tools, CPU on that RTK runs and the interface between software and hardware, etc. in addition to understanding of RTK itself. This means RTK implementation process largely covers embedded software implementation process. Therefore, it is thought that RTK implementation practice program is very effective as a means of the acquisition of common embedded software skill in addition to deeper acquisition of RTK itself. In this paper, we propose to apply RTK implementing practice program to embedded software engineers educational program. We newly developed very small and step-up type RTK named μK for educational use, and held a seminar that used μK as a teaching material for the students of information science and engineers of the software house. As a result, we confirmed that RTK implementation practice program is very effective for the acquisition of embedded software common skill.

  13. Run-time implementation issues for real-time embedded Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maule, Ruth A.

    1986-01-01

    A motivating factor in the development of Ada as the department of defense standard language was the high cost of embedded system software development. It was with embedded system requirements in mind that many of the features of the language were incorporated. Yet it is the designers of embedded systems that seem to comprise the majority of the Ada community dissatisfied with the language. There are a variety of reasons for this dissatisfaction, but many seem to be related in some way to the Ada run-time support system. Some of the areas in which the inconsistencies were found to have the greatest impact on performance from the standpoint of real-time systems are presented. In particular, a large part of the duties of the tasking supervisor are subject to the design decisions of the implementer. These include scheduling, rendezvous, delay processing, and task activation and termination. Some of the more general issues presented include time and space efficiencies, generic expansions, memory management, pragmas, and tracing features. As validated compilers become available for bare computer targets, it is important for a designer to be aware that, at least for many real-time issues, all validated Ada compilers are not created equal.

  14. Robust real-time self-mixing interferometric laser vibration sensor with embedded MEMS accelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabit, Usman; Bernal, Olivier D.; Bosch, Thierry

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we present a real-time implementation of a Self-Mixing (SM) interferometric laser diode (LD) based vibration sensor coupled with an embedded MEMS (microelectromechanical system) accelerometer. Such a sensor allows measuring correct target movements even when the LD based SM sensor is subject to extraneous movements. This results in a vibration sensing system that can be used for embedded applications as there is no more need of keeping the sensor stationary. Such an approach opens the way for the use of such laser sensors in conditions where the use of anti-vibration support is not available or possible. The proposed data fusion between a MEMS accelerometer and a LD based SM sensor results in a robust, compact and low-cost sensing system.

  15. IGBT Switching Characteristic Curve Embedded Half-Bridge MMC Modelling and Real Time Simulation Realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhengang, Lu; Hongyang, Yu; Xi, Yang

    2017-05-01

    The Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) is one of the most attractive topologies in recent years for medium or high voltage industrial applications, such as high voltage dc transmission (HVDC) and medium voltage varying speed motor drive. The wide adoption of MMCs in industry is mainly due to its flexible expandability, transformer-less configuration, common dc bus, high reliability from redundancy, and so on. But, when the sub module number of MMC is more, the test of MMC controller will cost more time and effort. Hardware in the loop test based on real time simulator will save a lot of time and money caused by the MMC test. And due to the flexible of HIL, it becomes more and more popular in the industry area. The MMC modelling method remains an important issue for the MMC HIL test. Specifically, the VSC model should realistically reflect the nonlinear device switching characteristics, switching and conduction losses, tailing current, and diode reverse recovery behaviour of a realistic converter. In this paper, an IGBT switching characteristic curve embedded half-bridge MMC modelling method is proposed. This method is based on the switching curve referring and sample circuit calculation, and it is sample for implementation. Based on the proposed method, a FPGA real time simulation is carried out with 200ns sample time. The real time simulation results show the proposed method is correct.

  16. Step detection in single-molecule real time trajectories embedded in correlated noise.

    PubMed

    Arunajadai, Srikesh G; Cheng, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Single-molecule real time trajectories are embedded in high noise. To extract kinetic or dynamic information of the molecules from these trajectories often requires idealization of the data in steps and dwells. One major premise behind the existing single-molecule data analysis algorithms is the gaussian 'white' noise, which displays no correlation in time and whose amplitude is independent on data sampling frequency. This so-called 'white' noise is widely assumed but its validity has not been critically evaluated. We show that correlated noise exists in single-molecule real time trajectories collected from optical tweezers. The assumption of white noise during analysis of these data can lead to serious over- or underestimation of the number of steps depending on the algorithms employed. We present a statistical method that quantitatively evaluates the structure of the underlying noise, takes the noise structure into account, and identifies steps and dwells in a single-molecule trajectory. Unlike existing data analysis algorithms, this method uses Generalized Least Squares (GLS) to detect steps and dwells. Under the GLS framework, the optimal number of steps is chosen using model selection criteria such as Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). Comparison with existing step detection algorithms showed that this GLS method can detect step locations with highest accuracy in the presence of correlated noise. Because this method is automated, and directly works with high bandwidth data without pre-filtering or assumption of gaussian noise, it may be broadly useful for analysis of single-molecule real time trajectories.

  17. Development of embedded real-time and high-speed vision platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Zhenxing; Dong, Yimin; Yang, Hua

    2015-12-01

    Currently, high-speed vision platforms are widely used in many applications, such as robotics and automation industry. However, a personal computer (PC) whose over-large size is not suitable and applicable in compact systems is an indispensable component for human-computer interaction in traditional high-speed vision platforms. Therefore, this paper develops an embedded real-time and high-speed vision platform, ER-HVP Vision which is able to work completely out of PC. In this new platform, an embedded CPU-based board is designed as substitution for PC and a DSP and FPGA board is developed for implementing image parallel algorithms in FPGA and image sequential algorithms in DSP. Hence, the capability of ER-HVP Vision with size of 320mm x 250mm x 87mm can be presented in more compact condition. Experimental results are also given to indicate that the real-time detection and counting of the moving target at a frame rate of 200 fps at 512 x 512 pixels under the operation of this newly developed vision platform are feasible.

  18. Energy-aware embedded classifier design for real-time emotion analysis.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Manoj; Murali, Srinivasan; Rincon, Francisco; Atienza, David

    2015-01-01

    Detection and classification of human emotions from multiple bio-signals has a wide variety of applications. Though electronic devices are available in the market today that acquire multiple body signals, the classification of human emotions in real-time, adapted to the tight energy budgets of wearable embedded systems is a big challenge. In this paper we present an embedded classifier for real-time emotion classification. We propose a system that operates at different energy budgeted modes, depending on the available energy, where each mode is constrained by an operating energy bound. The classifier has an offline training phase where feature selection is performed for each operating mode, with an energy-budget aware algorithm that we propose. Across the different operating modes, the classification accuracy ranges from 95% - 75% and 89% - 70% for arousal and valence respectively. The accuracy is traded off for less power consumption, which results in an increased battery life of up to 7.7 times (from 146.1 to 1126.9 hours).

  19. Embedded Web Technology: Internet Technology Applied to Real-Time System Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniele, Carl J.

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is developing software tools to bridge the gap between the traditionally non-real-time Internet technology and the real-time, embedded-controls environment for space applications. Internet technology has been expanding at a phenomenal rate. The simple World Wide Web browsers (such as earlier versions of Netscape, Mosaic, and Internet Explorer) that resided on personal computers just a few years ago only enabled users to log into and view a remote computer site. With current browsers, users not only view but also interact with remote sites. In addition, the technology now supports numerous computer platforms (PC's, MAC's, and Unix platforms), thereby providing platform independence.In contrast, the development of software to interact with a microprocessor (embedded controller) that is used to monitor and control a space experiment has generally been a unique development effort. For each experiment, a specific graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed. This procedure works well for a single-user environment. However, the interface for the International Space Station (ISS) Fluids and Combustion Facility will have to enable scientists throughout the world and astronauts onboard the ISS, using different computer platforms, to interact with their experiments in the Fluids and Combustion Facility. Developing a specific GUI for all these users would be cost prohibitive. An innovative solution to this requirement, developed at Lewis, is to use Internet technology, where the general problem of platform independence has already been partially solved, and to leverage this expanding technology as new products are developed. This approach led to the development of the Embedded Web Technology (EWT) program at Lewis, which has the potential to significantly reduce software development costs for both flight and ground software.

  20. Real-time video streaming in mobile cloud over heterogeneous wireless networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah-Saleh, Saleh; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2012-06-01

    Recently, the concept of Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) has been proposed to offload the resource requirements in computational capabilities, storage and security from mobile devices into the cloud. Internet video applications such as real-time streaming are expected to be ubiquitously deployed and supported over the cloud for mobile users, who typically encounter a range of wireless networks of diverse radio access technologies during their roaming. However, real-time video streaming for mobile cloud users across heterogeneous wireless networks presents multiple challenges. The network-layer quality of service (QoS) provision to support high-quality mobile video delivery in this demanding scenario remains an open research question, and this in turn affects the application-level visual quality and impedes mobile users' perceived quality of experience (QoE). In this paper, we devise a framework to support real-time video streaming in this new mobile video networking paradigm and evaluate the performance of the proposed framework empirically through a lab-based yet realistic testing platform. One particular issue we focus on is the effect of users' mobility on the QoS of video streaming over the cloud. We design and implement a hybrid platform comprising of a test-bed and an emulator, on which our concept of mobile cloud computing, video streaming and heterogeneous wireless networks are implemented and integrated to allow the testing of our framework. As representative heterogeneous wireless networks, the popular WLAN (Wi-Fi) and MAN (WiMAX) networks are incorporated in order to evaluate effects of handovers between these different radio access technologies. The H.264/AVC (Advanced Video Coding) standard is employed for real-time video streaming from a server to mobile users (client nodes) in the networks. Mobility support is introduced to enable continuous streaming experience for a mobile user across the heterogeneous wireless network. Real-time video stream packets

  1. FPGA-based real-time embedded system for RISS/GPS integrated navigation.

    PubMed

    Abdelfatah, Walid Farid; Georgy, Jacques; Iqbal, Umar; Noureldin, Aboelmagd

    2012-01-01

    Navigation algorithms integrating measurements from multi-sensor systems overcome the problems that arise from using GPS navigation systems in standalone mode. Algorithms which integrate the data from 2D low-cost reduced inertial sensor system (RISS), consisting of a gyroscope and an odometer or wheel encoders, along with a GPS receiver via a Kalman filter has proved to be worthy in providing a consistent and more reliable navigation solution compared to standalone GPS receivers. It has been also shown to be beneficial, especially in GPS-denied environments such as urban canyons and tunnels. The main objective of this paper is to narrow the idea-to-implementation gap that follows the algorithm development by realizing a low-cost real-time embedded navigation system capable of computing the data-fused positioning solution. The role of the developed system is to synchronize the measurements from the three sensors, relative to the pulse per second signal generated from the GPS, after which the navigation algorithm is applied to the synchronized measurements to compute the navigation solution in real-time. Employing a customizable soft-core processor on an FPGA in the kernel of the navigation system, provided the flexibility for communicating with the various sensors and the computation capability required by the Kalman filter integration algorithm.

  2. FPGA-Based Real-Time Embedded System for RISS/GPS Integrated Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Abdelfatah, Walid Farid; Georgy, Jacques; Iqbal, Umar; Noureldin, Aboelmagd

    2012-01-01

    Navigation algorithms integrating measurements from multi-sensor systems overcome the problems that arise from using GPS navigation systems in standalone mode. Algorithms which integrate the data from 2D low-cost reduced inertial sensor system (RISS), consisting of a gyroscope and an odometer or wheel encoders, along with a GPS receiver via a Kalman filter has proved to be worthy in providing a consistent and more reliable navigation solution compared to standalone GPS receivers. It has been also shown to be beneficial, especially in GPS-denied environments such as urban canyons and tunnels. The main objective of this paper is to narrow the idea-to-implementation gap that follows the algorithm development by realizing a low-cost real-time embedded navigation system capable of computing the data-fused positioning solution. The role of the developed system is to synchronize the measurements from the three sensors, relative to the pulse per second signal generated from the GPS, after which the navigation algorithm is applied to the synchronized measurements to compute the navigation solution in real-time. Employing a customizable soft-core processor on an FPGA in the kernel of the navigation system, provided the flexibility for communicating with the various sensors and the computation capability required by the Kalman filter integration algorithm. PMID:22368460

  3. Real-time embedded system for stereo video processing for multiview displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berretty, R.-P. M.; Riemens, A. K.; Machado, P. F.

    2007-02-01

    In video systems, the introduction of 3D video might be the next revolution after the introduction of color. Nowadays multiview auto-stereoscopic displays are entering the market. Such displays offer various views at the same time. Depending on its positions, the viewers' eyes see different images. Hence, the viewers' left eye receives a signal that is different from what his right eye gets; this gives, provided the signals have been properly processed, the impression of depth. New auto-stereoscopic products use an image-plus-depth interface. On the other hand, a growing number of 3D productions from the entertainment industry use a stereo format. In this paper, we show how to compute depth from the stereo signal to comply with the display interface format. Furthermore, we present a realisation suitable for a real-time cost-effective implementation on an embedded media processor.

  4. Embedded FIR filter design for real-time refocusing using a standard plenoptic video camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahne, Christopher; Aggoun, Amar

    2014-03-01

    A novel and low-cost embedded hardware architecture for real-time refocusing based on a standard plenoptic camera is presented in this study. The proposed layout design synthesizes refocusing slices directly from micro images by omitting the process for the commonly used sub-aperture extraction. Therefore, intellectual property cores, containing switch controlled Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters, are developed and applied to the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) XC6SLX45 from Xilinx. Enabling the hardware design to work economically, the FIR filters are composed of stored product as well as upsampling and interpolation techniques in order to achieve an ideal relation between image resolution, delay time, power consumption and the demand of logic gates. The video output is transmitted via High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) with a resolution of 720p at a frame rate of 60 fps conforming to the HD ready standard. Examples of the synthesized refocusing slices are presented.

  5. Testbeam results of the first real-time embedded tracking system with artificial retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, N.; Abba, A.; Caponio, F.; Citterio, M.; Coelli, S.; Fu, J.; Merli, A.; Monti, M.; Petruzzo, M.

    2017-02-01

    We present the testbeam results of the first real-time embedded tracking system based on artificial retina algorithm. The tracking system prototype is capable of fast track reconstruction with a latency of the response below 1 μs and track parameter resolutions that are comparable with the offline results. The artificial retina algorithm was implemented in hardware in a custom data acquisition board based on commercial FPGA. The system was tested successfully using a 180 GeV/c proton beam at the CERN SPS with a maximum track rate of about 280 kHz. Online track parameters were found in good agreement with offline results and with the simulated response.

  6. An enhanced Ada run-time system for real-time embedded processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, J. T.

    1991-01-01

    An enhanced Ada run-time system has been developed to support real-time embedded processor applications. The primary focus of this development effort has been on the tasking system and the memory management facilities of the run-time system. The tasking system has been extended to support efficient and precise periodic task execution as required for control applications. Event-driven task execution providing a means of task-asynchronous control and communication among Ada tasks is supported in this system. Inter-task control is even provided among tasks distributed on separate physical processors. The memory management system has been enhanced to provide object allocation and protected access support for memory shared between disjoint processors, each of which is executing a distinct Ada program.

  7. An enhanced Ada run-time system for real-time embedded processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, J. T.

    1991-01-01

    An enhanced Ada run-time system has been developed to support real-time embedded processor applications. The primary focus of this development effort has been on the tasking system and the memory management facilities of the run-time system. The tasking system has been extended to support efficient and precise periodic task execution as required for control applications. Event-driven task execution providing a means of task-asynchronous control and communication among Ada tasks is supported in this system. Inter-task control is even provided among tasks distributed on separate physical processors. The memory management system has been enhanced to provide object allocation and protected access support for memory shared between disjoint processors, each of which is executing a distinct Ada program.

  8. System-level power optimization for real-time distributed embedded systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jiong

    Power optimization is one of the crucial design considerations for modern electronic systems. In this thesis, we present several system-level power optimization techniques for real-time distributed embedded systems, based on dynamic voltage scaling, dynamic power management, and management of peak power and variance of the power profile. Dynamic voltage scaling has been widely acknowledged as an important and powerful technique to trade off dynamic power consumption and delay. Efficient dynamic voltage scaling requires effective variable-voltage scheduling mechanisms that can adjust voltages and clock frequencies adaptively based on workloads and timing constraints. For this purpose, we propose static variable-voltage scheduling algorithms utilizing criticalpath driven timing analysis for the case when tasks are assumed to have uniform switching activities, as well as energy-gradient driven slack allocation for a more general scenario. The proposed techniques can achieve closeto-optimal power savings with very low computational complexity, without violating any real-time constraints. We also present algorithms for power-efficient joint scheduling of multi-rate periodic task graphs along with soft aperiodic tasks. The power issue is addressed through both dynamic voltage scaling and power management. Periodic task graphs are scheduled statically. Flexibility is introduced into the static schedule to allow the on-line scheduler to make local changes to PE schedules through resource reclaiming and slack stealing, without interfering with the validity of the global schedule. We provide a unified framework in which the response times of aperiodic tasks and power consumption are dynamically optimized simultaneously. Interconnection network fabrics point to a new generation of power-efficient and scalable interconnection architectures for distributed embedded systems. As the system bandwidth continues to increase, interconnection networks become power/energy limited as

  9. Real-time multiple objects tracking on Raspberry-Pi-based smart embedded camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziri, Aziz; Duranton, Marc; Chapuis, Roland

    2016-07-01

    Multiple-object tracking constitutes a major step in several computer vision applications, such as surveillance, advanced driver assistance systems, and automatic traffic monitoring. Because of the number of cameras used to cover a large area, these applications are constrained by the cost of each node, the power consumption, the robustness of the tracking, the processing time, and the ease of deployment of the system. To meet these challenges, the use of low-power and low-cost embedded vision platforms to achieve reliable tracking becomes essential in networks of cameras. We propose a tracking pipeline that is designed for fixed smart cameras and which can handle occlusions between objects. We show that the proposed pipeline reaches real-time processing on a low-cost embedded smart camera composed of a Raspberry-Pi board and a RaspiCam camera. The tracking quality and the processing speed obtained with the proposed pipeline are evaluated on publicly available datasets and compared to the state-of-the-art methods.

  10. Real-Time Scheduling in Heterogeneous Systems Considering Cache Reload Time Using Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miryani, Mohammad Reza; Naghibzadeh, Mahmoud

    Since optimal assignment of tasks in a multiprocessor system is, in almost all practical cases, an NP-hard problem, in recent years some algorithms based on genetic algorithms have been proposed. Some of these algorithms have considered real-time applications with multiple objectives, total tardiness, completion time, etc. Here, we propose a suboptimal static scheduler of nonpreemptable tasks in hard real-time heterogeneous multiprocessor systems considering time constraints and cache reload time. The approach makes use of genetic algorithm to minimize total completion time and number of processors used, simultaneously. One important issue which makes this research different from previous ones is cache reload time. The method is implemented and the results are compared against a similar method.

  11. Weapon System Software Technology Support (WSSTS). Delivery Order 0008: Real-Time Java for Embedded Systems (RTJES)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-30

    benchmarking suite established by Angelo Corsaro at the University of California, Irvine (UCI) [6] and Washington University in St. Louis. Taken...H e a p R e a lt im e Th r e a d Figure 3. Thread Inheritance in RT Java [6] A. Corsaro , D.C...Irvine, CA, October/November 2002. A. Corsaro and D.C. Schmidt, “Evaluating Real-Time Features and Performance for Real-time Embedded Systems

  12. Automatic Real-Time Embedded QRS Complex Detection for a Novel Patch-Type Electrocardiogram Recorder.

    PubMed

    Saadi, Dorthe B; Tanev, George; Flintrup, Morten; Osmanagic, Armin; Egstrup, Kenneth; Hoppe, Karsten; Jennum, Poul; Jeppesen, Jørgen L; Iversen, Helle K; Sorensen, Helge B D

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are projected to remain the single leading cause of death globally. Timely diagnosis and treatment of these diseases are crucial to prevent death and dangerous complications. One of the important tools in early diagnosis of arrhythmias is analysis of electrocardiograms (ECGs) obtained from ambulatory long-term recordings. The design of novel patch-type ECG recorders has increased the accessibility of these long-term recordings. In many applications, it is furthermore an advantage for these devices that the recorded ECGs can be analyzed automatically in real time. The purpose of this study was therefore to design a novel algorithm for automatic heart beat detection, and embed the algorithm in the CE marked ePatch heart monitor. The algorithm is based on a novel cascade of computationally efficient filters, optimized adaptive thresholding, and a refined search back mechanism. The design and optimization of the algorithm was performed on two different databases: The MIT-BIH arrhythmia database ([Formula: see text]%, [Formula: see text]) and a private ePatch training database ([Formula: see text]%, [Formula: see text]%). The offline validation was conducted on the European ST-T database ([Formula: see text]%, [Formula: see text]%). Finally, a double-blinded validation of the embedded algorithm was conducted on a private ePatch validation database ([Formula: see text]%, [Formula: see text]%). The algorithm was thus validated with high clinical performance on more than 300 ECG records from 189 different subjects with a high number of different abnormal beat morphologies. This demonstrates the strengths of the algorithm, and the potential for this embedded algorithm to improve the possibilities of early diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Real-time classification of datasets with hardware embedded neuromorphic neural networks.

    PubMed

    Bako, Laszlo

    2010-05-01

    Neuromorphic artificial neural networks attempt to understand the essential computations that take place in the dense networks of interconnected neurons making up the central nervous systems in living creatures. This article demonstrates that artificial spiking neural networks--built to resemble the biological model--encoding information in the timing of single spikes, are capable of computing and learning clusters from realistic data. It shows how a spiking neural network based on spike-time coding can successfully perform unsupervised and supervised clustering on real-world data. A temporal encoding procedure of continuously valued data is developed, together with a hardware implementation oriented new learning rule set. Solutions that make use of embedded soft-core microcontrollers are investigated, to implement some of the most resource-consuming components of the artificial neural network. Details of the implementations are given, with benchmark application evaluation and test bench description. Measurement results are presented, showing real-time and adaptive data processing capabilities, comparing these to related findings in the specific literature.

  14. Real-time imaging reveals unique heterogeneous population features in insect cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, David; Paz, Enrique; Palomares, Laura A; Ramírez, Octavio T

    2017-10-10

    Heterogeneity of cellular populations has been frequently observed. We used live cell imaging to follow Sf9 insect cells before and after infection with baculovirus, to understand population dynamics. It was possible to identify in real time cells with distinctive phenotypes. Mobile cells with an elongated bipolar shape were observed. They extended pseudopods and actively moved about the culture surface. The presence of actively moving elongated cells increased when cultures were subjected to oxygen limiting or excessive conditions, suggesting that stress triggered differentiation of cells to the mobile phenotype. A dual reporter baculovirus (DRBac), coding for two fluorescent proteins under promoters with different temporality, was designed to follow sequential phenomena through infection. Oxygen limitation reduced the number of cells that expressed the reporter proteins, possibly because it reduced the efficiency of baculovirus infection. Elongated cells did not show signs of infection. To our knowledge, this is the first time that actively moving cells are observed in real time in Sf9 cultures, which had distinctive responses towards infection. Anoxia was identified as a factor that modulates baculovirus infection. Results open a new approach for understanding the insect-cell baculovirus system. Particular cellular phenotypes with unique traits can be isolated for specific applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. EOS: A project to investigate the design and construction of real-time distributed Embedded Operating Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. H.; Essick, Ray B.; Johnston, Gary; Kenny, Kevin; Russo, Vince

    1987-01-01

    Project EOS is studying the problems of building adaptable real-time embedded operating systems for the scientific missions of NASA. Choices (A Class Hierarchical Open Interface for Custom Embedded Systems) is an operating system designed and built by Project EOS to address the following specific issues: the software architecture for adaptable embedded parallel operating systems, the achievement of high-performance and real-time operation, the simplification of interprocess communications, the isolation of operating system mechanisms from one another, and the separation of mechanisms from policy decisions. Choices is written in C++ and runs on a ten processor Encore Multimax. The system is intended for use in constructing specialized computer applications and research on advanced operating system features including fault tolerance and parallelism.

  16. Miniature embedded real-time image processor system for smart sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Christopher R.; Cicchi, Todd R.; Massie, Mark A.; McCarley, Paul L.

    2004-08-01

    Programs at Nova Biomimetics have led to the design and development of a set of miniature electronics to be used for the application of a wide variety of point- and area-type mathematical operations to be applied in real time to the digital data produced by a variety of real-time digital video camera systems. Nova is planning to market these electronics in partial satisfaction of Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program dual-use commercialization requirements.

  17. Automatic Real-Time Embedded QRS Complex Detection for a Novel Patch-Type Electrocardiogram Recorder

    PubMed Central

    Tanev, George; Flintrup, Morten; Osmanagic, Armin; Egstrup, Kenneth; Hoppe, Karsten; Jennum, Poul; Jeppesen, Jørgen L.; Iversen, Helle K.; Sorensen, Helge B. D.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are projected to remain the single leading cause of death globally. Timely diagnosis and treatment of these diseases are crucial to prevent death and dangerous complications. One of the important tools in early diagnosis of arrhythmias is analysis of electrocardiograms (ECGs) obtained from ambulatory long-term recordings. The design of novel patch-type ECG recorders has increased the accessibility of these long-term recordings. In many applications, it is furthermore an advantage for these devices that the recorded ECGs can be analyzed automatically in real time. The purpose of this study was therefore to design a novel algorithm for automatic heart beat detection, and embed the algorithm in the CE marked ePatch heart monitor. The algorithm is based on a novel cascade of computationally efficient filters, optimized adaptive thresholding, and a refined search back mechanism. The design and optimization of the algorithm was performed on two different databases: The MIT-BIH arrhythmia database (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$Se=99.90$ \\end{document}%, \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$P^{+}=99.87$ \\end{document}) and a private ePatch training database (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$Se=99.88$ \\end{document}%, \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage

  18. Optimization and real-time control for laser treatment of heterogeneous soft tissues

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yusheng; Fuentes, David; Hawkins, Andrea; Bass, Jon M.; Rylander, Marissa Nichole

    2010-01-01

    Predicting the outcome of thermotherapies in cancer treatment requires an accurate characterization of the bioheat transfer processes in soft tissues. Due to the biological and structural complexity of tumor (soft tissue) composition and vasculature, it is often very difficult to obtain reliable tissue properties that is one of the key factors for the accurate treatment outcome prediction. Efficient algorithms employing in vivo thermal measurements to determine heterogeneous thermal tissues properties in conjunction with a detailed sensitivity analysis can produce essential information for model development and optimal control. The goals of this paper are to present a general formulation of the bioheat transfer equation for heterogeneous soft tissues, review models and algorithms developed for cell damage, heat shock proteins, and soft tissues with nanoparticle inclusion, and demonstrate an overall computational strategy for developing a laser treatment framework with the ability to perform real-time robust calibrations and optimal control. This computational strategy can be applied to other thermotherapies using the heat source such as radio frequency or high intensity focused ultrasound. PMID:20485457

  19. EOS: A project to investigate the design and construction of real-time distributed embedded operating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. H.; Essick, R. B.; Grass, J.; Johnston, G.; Kenny, K.; Russo, V.

    1986-01-01

    The EOS project is investigating the design and construction of a family of real-time distributed embedded operating systems for reliable, distributed aerospace applications. Using the real-time programming techniques developed in co-operation with NASA in earlier research, the project staff is building a kernel for a multiple processor networked system. The first six months of the grant included a study of scheduling in an object-oriented system, the design philosophy of the kernel, and the architectural overview of the operating system. In this report, the operating system and kernel concepts are described. An environment for the experiments has been built and several of the key concepts of the system have been prototyped. The kernel and operating system is intended to support future experimental studies in multiprocessing, load-balancing, routing, software fault-tolerance, distributed data base design, and real-time processing.

  20. A Standard Java Virtual Machine for Real-Time Embedded Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruin, F.; Deladerrière, F.; Siebert, F.

    The AERO (Architecture for Enhanced Reprogrammability and Operability) is an ESA project with the objectives to investigate on a real-time Java virtual machine for ERC32 processor. Special attention was put on the garbage collection mechanism and deterministic execution model. The project have first investigate existing virtual machine to choose a potential candidate that will be customized, are then investigates the definition of requirements concerning a real-time interpreter in on-board systems. The second phase of the project was dedicated to the definition of software functions of the real-time Java virtual machine and to their implementation and assessment through validation tests. The resulting application is the AERO-JVM.

  1. Real-time Digital Video Watermark Embedding System based on Software in Commodity PC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Takaaki; Echizen, Isao; Tezuka, Satoru; Yoshiura, Hiroshi

    Emerging broadband networks and high performance of PCs provide new business opportunities of the live video streaming services for the Internet users in sport events or in music concerts. Digital watermarking for video helps to protect the copyright of the video content and the real-time processing is an essential requirement. For the small start of new business, it should be achieved by flexible software without special equipments. This paper describes a novel real-time watermarking system implemented on a commodity PC. We propose the system architecture and methods to shorten watermarking time by reusing the estimated watermark imperceptibility among neighboring frames. A prototype system enables real time processing in a series of capturing NTSC signals, watermarking the video, encoding it to MPEG4 in QGVA, 1Mbps, 30fps style and storing the video for 12 hours in maximum

  2. Common interface real-time multiprocessor operating system for embedded systems. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Rottman, M.S.

    1991-03-04

    Large real time applications such as aerospace avionics systems, battle management, and factory automation place many demands and constraints on the computing system not found in other applications. Software development is hindered by software dependence on the computer architecture and the lack of portability between systems. This thesis specifies and designs a real time multiprocessor operating system (RTMOS) that implements a consistent programming model, enabling the development of real time parallel software independent of the target architecture. The RTMOS defines the core functionality required to demonstrate the programming model. The RTMOS functional requirements are specified using Structured Analysis and Design Technique (SADT). A hybrid of the Design Approach for Real-Time Software (DARTS) is used to perform the preliminary and detailed designs. The preliminary design is architecture-independent; the detailed design phase maps the design to a specific parallel system, the Intel iPSC/2 hypercube. The modular RTMOS design partitions operating system operations and data structures from hardware-dependent functions for portability.

  3. Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Network for Real Time Remote Monitoring of Sand Dynamics on Coastal Dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzebon, Alessandro; Bove, Carmine; Cappelli, Irene; Alquini, Fernanda; Bertoni, Duccio; Sarti, Giovanni

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the architecture of a heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) to be deployed on coastal sand dunes is described, the aim of which is to provide real time measurements of physical parameters to better define the sediment transport in connection with Aeolian processes. The WSN integrates different typologies of sensors and is provided with both local and remote connection. In particular, three different typologies of sensors are integrated in the network: a multilayer anemometric station, a sensor developed ad-hoc to measure the sand dune level and a sand collector capable of measuring the weight of trapped sand and its quantity. Each sensor node is made up at least of a ZigBee radio module that is able to transmit the data collected by the sensor at a distance of about 100 meters. While the sand level sensor and the sand collector are provided only with this transmission module, the anemometric station also integrates a microprocessor board in charge of data processing. A Gateway node provided with a GSM connection for remote data transmission and a Zigbee radio module for Local Area communication has also been developed. This node is in charge of collecting all the data packets sent by the Sensor Nodes and transmit them to a remote server through GPRS connection. A Web server has been set up to collect these packets and store them in a database. The proposed WSN can provide both a static and a dynamic framework of sand transport processes acting on coastal dunes.

  4. A Verification Method of Inter-Task Cooperation in Embedded Real-time Systems and its Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Toshio

    In software development process of embedded real-time systems, the design of the task cooperation process is very important. The cooperating process of such tasks is specified by task cooperation patterns. Adoption of unsuitable task cooperation patterns has fatal influence on system performance, quality, and extendibility. In order to prevent repetitive work caused by the shortage of task cooperation performance, it is necessary to verify task cooperation patterns in an early software development stage. However, it is very difficult to verify task cooperation patterns in an early software developing stage where task program codes are not completed yet. Therefore, we propose a verification method using task skeleton program codes and a real-time kernel that has a function of recording all events during software execution such as system calls issued by task program codes, external interrupts, and timer interrupt. In order to evaluate the proposed verification method, we applied it to the software development process of a mechatronics control system.

  5. GPU-assisted real-time three dimensional shape measurement by speckle-embedded fringe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Shijie; Chen, Qian; Zuo, Chao

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a novel two-frame method of fringe projection for real-time, accurate and unambiguous threedimensional shape measurement. One of the used frames is a speckle pattern and the other one is a composite image which is fused by that speckle image and sinusoidal fringes. The sinusoidal component is used to retrieve the wrapped phase map. The frame of the speckle is employed to remove the phase ambiguity for the reconstruction of the absolute depth. Compared with traditional multi-frequency phase-shifting methods, the proposed scheme is of much lower sensitivity to movements as the result of the reduced number of used patterns. Moreover, its measuring precision is very close to that of the phase-shifting method, which indicates the method is of high accuracy. To process data in real time, a CUDA-enabled Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is introduced to accelerate the computations of phase and depth. With our system, measurements can be performed at 21 frames per second with a resolution of 307K points per frame.

  6. Real time observation and automated measurement of red blood cells agglutination inside a passive microfluidic biochip containing embedded reagents.

    PubMed

    Huet, Maxime; Cubizolles, Myriam; Buhot, Arnaud

    2017-07-15

    The process of agglutination is commonly used for the detection of biomarkers like proteins or viruses. The multiple bindings between micrometer sized particles, either latex beads or red blood cells (RBCs), create aggregates that are easily detectable and give qualitative information about the presence of the biomarkers. In most cases, the detection is made by simple naked-eye observation of agglutinates without any access to the kinetics of agglutination. In this study, we address the development of a real-time time observation of RBCs agglutination. Using ABO blood typing as a proof-of-concept, we developed i) an integrated biological protocol suitable for further use as point-of-care (POC) analysis and ii) two dedicated image processing algorithms for the real-time and quantitative measurement of agglutination. Anti-A or anti-B typing reagents were dried inside the microchannel of a passive microfluidic chip designed to enhance capillary flow. A blood drop deposit at the tip of the biochip established a simple biological protocol. In situ agglutination of autologous RBCs was achieved by means of embedded reagents and real time agglutination process was monitored by video recording. Using a training set of 24 experiments, two real-time indicators based on correlation and variance of gray levels were optimized and then further confirmed on a validation set. 100% correct discrimination between positive and negative agglutinations was performed within less than 2min by measuring real-time evolution of both correlation and variance indicators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Toward real-time virtual biopsy of oral lesions using confocal laser endomicroscopy interfaced with embedded computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thong, Patricia S. P.; Tandjung, Stephanus S.; Movania, Muhammad Mobeen; Chiew, Wei-Ming; Olivo, Malini; Bhuvaneswari, Ramaswamy; Seah, Hock-Soon; Lin, Feng; Qian, Kemao; Soo, Khee-Chee

    2012-05-01

    Oral lesions are conventionally diagnosed using white light endoscopy and histopathology. This can pose a challenge because the lesions may be difficult to visualise under white light illumination. Confocal laser endomicroscopy can be used for confocal fluorescence imaging of surface and subsurface cellular and tissue structures. To move toward real-time "virtual" biopsy of oral lesions, we interfaced an embedded computing system to a confocal laser endomicroscope to achieve a prototype three-dimensional (3-D) fluorescence imaging system. A field-programmable gated array computing platform was programmed to enable synchronization of cross-sectional image grabbing and Z-depth scanning, automate the acquisition of confocal image stacks and perform volume rendering. Fluorescence imaging of the human and murine oral cavities was carried out using the fluorescent dyes fluorescein sodium and hypericin. Volume rendering of cellular and tissue structures from the oral cavity demonstrate the potential of the system for 3-D fluorescence visualization of the oral cavity in real-time. We aim toward achieving a real-time virtual biopsy technique that can complement current diagnostic techniques and aid in targeted biopsy for better clinical outcomes.

  8. Real time sensing of structural glass fiber reinforced composites by using embedded PVA - carbon nanotube fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexopoulos, N.; Poulin, P.; Bartholome, C.; Marioli-Riga, Z.

    2010-06-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol - carbon nanotube (PVA-CNT) fibers had been embedded to glass fiber reinforced polymers (GFRP) for the structural health monitoring of the composite material. The addition of the conductive PVA-CNT fiber to the nonconductive GFRP material aimed to enhance its sensing ability by means of the electrical resistance measurement method. The test specimen’s response to mechanical load and the in situ PVA-CNT fiber’s electrical resistance measurements were correlated for sensing and damage monitoring purposes. The embedded PVA-CNT fiber worked as a sensor in GFRP coupons in tensile loadings. Sensing ability of the PVA-CNT fibers was also demonstrated on an integral composite structure. PVA-CNT fiber near the fracture area of the structure recorded very high values when essential damage occurred to the structure. A finite element model of the same structure was developed to predict axial strains at locations of the integral composite structure where the fibers were embedded. The predicted FEA strains were correlated with the experimental measurements from the PVA-CNT fibers. Calculated and experimental values were in good agreement, thus enabling PVA-CNT fibers to be used as strain sensors.

  9. Embedded Hardware-Efficient Real-Time Classification With Cascade Support Vector Machines.

    PubMed

    Kyrkou, Christos; Bouganis, Christos-Savvas; Theocharides, Theocharis; Polycarpou, Marios M

    2016-01-01

    Cascade support vector machines (SVMs) are optimized to efficiently handle problems, where the majority of the data belong to one of the two classes, such as image object classification, and hence can provide speedups over monolithic (single) SVM classifiers. However, SVM classification is a computationally demanding task and existing hardware architectures for SVMs only consider monolithic classifiers. This paper proposes the acceleration of cascade SVMs through a hybrid processing hardware architecture optimized for the cascade SVM classification flow, accompanied by a method to reduce the required hardware resources for its implementation, and a method to improve the classification speed utilizing cascade information to further discard data samples. The proposed SVM cascade architecture is implemented on a Spartan-6 field-programmable gate array (FPGA) platform and evaluated for object detection on 800×600 (Super Video Graphics Array) resolution images. The proposed architecture, boosted by a neural network that processes cascade information, achieves a real-time processing rate of 40 frames/s for the benchmark face detection application. Furthermore, the hardware-reduction method results in the utilization of 25% less FPGA custom-logic resources and 20% peak power reduction compared with a baseline implementation.

  10. Extensions to the Parallel Real-Time Artificial Intelligence System (PRAIS) for fault-tolerant heterogeneous cycle-stealing reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, David

    1991-01-01

    Extensions to an architecture for real-time, distributed (parallel) knowledge-based systems called the Parallel Real-time Artificial Intelligence System (PRAIS) are discussed. PRAIS strives for transparently parallelizing production (rule-based) systems, even under real-time constraints. PRAIS accomplished these goals (presented at the first annual C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) conference) by incorporating a dynamic task scheduler, operating system extensions for fact handling, and message-passing among multiple copies of CLIPS executing on a virtual blackboard. This distributed knowledge-based system tool uses the portability of CLIPS and common message-passing protocols to operate over a heterogeneous network of processors. Results using the original PRAIS architecture over a network of Sun 3's, Sun 4's and VAX's are presented. Mechanisms using the producer-consumer model to extend the architecture for fault-tolerance and distributed truth maintenance initiation are also discussed.

  11. Real-time head movement system and embedded Linux implementation for the control of power wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, H T; King, L M; Knight, G

    2004-01-01

    Mobility has become very important for our quality of life. A loss of mobility due to an injury is usually accompanied by a loss of self-confidence. For many individuals, independent mobility is an important aspect of self-esteem. Head movement is a natural form of pointing and can be used to directly replace the joystick whilst still allowing for similar control. Through the use of embedded LINUX and artificial intelligence, a hands-free head movement wheelchair controller has been designed and implemented successfully. This system provides for severely disabled users an effective power wheelchair control method with improved posture, ease of use and attractiveness.

  12. Natrium: Use of FPGA embedded processors for real-time data compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Frezza, O.; Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Rossetti, D.; Salamon, A.; Salina, G.; Simula, F.; Tosoratto, L.; Vicini, P.

    2011-12-01

    We present test results and characterization of a data compression system for the readout of the NA62 liquid krypton calorimeter trigger processor. The Level-0 electromagnetic calorimeter trigger processor of the NA62 experiment at CERN receives digitized data from the calorimeter main readout board. These data are stored on an on-board DDR2 RAM memory and read out upon reception of a Level-0 accept signal. The maximum raw data throughput from the trigger front-end cards is 2.6 Gbps. To readout these data over two Gbit Ethernet interfaces we investigated different implementations of a data compression system based on the Rice-Golomb coding: one is implemented in the FPGA as a custom block and one is implemented on the FPGA embedded processor running a C code. The two implementations are tested on a set of sample events and compared with respect to achievable readout bandwidth.

  13. Embedded System for Real-Time Digital Processing of Medical Ultrasound Doppler Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, S.; Dallai, A.; Boni, E.; Bassi, L.; Guidi, F.; Cellai, A.; Tortoli, P.

    2008-12-01

    Ultrasound (US) Doppler systems are routinely used for the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. Depending on the application, either single tone bursts or more complex waveforms are periodically transmitted throughout a piezoelectric transducer towards the region of interest. Extraction of Doppler information from echoes backscattered from moving blood cells typically involves coherent demodulation and matched filtering of the received signal, followed by a suitable processing module. In this paper, we present an embedded Doppler US system which has been designed as open research platform, programmable according to a variety of strategies in both transmission and reception. By suitably sharing the processing tasks between a state-of-the-art FGPA and a DSP, the system can be used in several medical US applications. As reference examples, the detection of microemboli in cerebral circulation and the measurement of wall _distension_ in carotid arteries are finally presented.

  14. PTIDES: A Programming Model for Distributed Real-Time Embedded Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-28

    obviates the need for null messages. This paper reviews the PTIDES programming model (pro- nounced “tides,” where the “P” is silent, as in “ Ptolemy ”), an...model as an experimental domain in Ptolemy II [2]. The Ptolemy framework is a Java-based environ- ment for modeling and simulation of heterogeneous concur...rent systems. Ptolemy supports an actor-oriented design methodology. A special actor in a Ptolemy model, the di- rector, manages the interaction of

  15. Assessing HER2 amplification by IHC, FISH, and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis (real-time PCR) following LCM in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue from 40 women with ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Hillig, Thore; Thode, Jørgen; Breinholt, Marie F; Franzmann, Maria-Benedicte; Pedersen, Carsten; Lund, Flemming; Mygind, Henrik; Sölétormos, György; Rudnicki, Martin

    2012-12-01

    We compare HER2 receptor amplification analysis by immunohistochemistry (IHC), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) DNA copy-number assay following laser capture microdissection (LCM) in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue from 40 women with verified ovarian cancer. We speculate that LCM should result in a more accurate assessment of HER2 amplification in our real-time PCR assay compared with IHC and FISH. HER2 overexpression measured by IHC, FISH, or real-time PCR was found in 5.0%, 5.0%, and 22.5%, respectively. HER2 negative results measured by IHC, FISH, or real-time PCR were found in 95%, 92.5%, and 60.0%, respectively. Analysis failed for IHC, FISH, or real-time PCR in 0%, 2.5%, or 17.5% of cases. Concordance between IHC and FISH, IHC and real-time PCR, or FISH and real-time PCR were 89.7%, 72.7%, or 78.1%, respectively. Only few ovarian cancer patients were HER2 overexpressed measured by IHC or FISH and thus could be eligible for antibody-based therapy with trastuzumab (Herceptin). Interestingly, we find an increased number of HER2 positive patients by real-time PCR analysis on microdissected cancer cells, suggesting a number of HER2 positive patients not detected by current methods. Thus, the concept of quantitative measurement of HER2 on microdissected cancer cells should be explored further.

  16. Real-time fast ultrasonic monitoring of concrete cracking using embedded piezoelectric transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumoulin, Cédric; Deraemaeker, Arnaud

    2017-10-01

    This paper deals with the use of embedded piezoelectric transducers for ultrasonic monitoring of cracking in concrete. Based on the previous developments of our research team on that topic, we design a new data acquisition system which is able to interrogate the emitter-receiver pair up to 150 times per second. The system is based on low-voltage actuation (up to 20 V) and the signal-to-noise ratio is excellent due to the use of a voltage amplifier at the receiver side and the possibility to perform averages. With such a high measurement rate, we are able to follow brittle failure events such as the failure of a concrete cylinder in compression, which is the application example presented. In this application, we show that, in addition to the ultrasonic active monitoring of cracking, the system is also able to record the passive acoustic emission events which can be used as a complementary indicator of damage in the cylinder. We also demonstrate that because of the high level of stresses in compression, the damage indicator defined in our previous studies is not suited for crack monitoring due to the elastoacoustic effect. The amplitude of the first wave arrival is shown to be a robust alternative damage indicator allowing to follow accurately the three successive phases of cracking leading to the failure of the cylinder.

  17. Towards a Real-Time Embedded System for Water Monitoring Installed in a Robotic Sailboat

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Junior, Andouglas Goncalves; de Lima Sa, Sarah Thomaz; dos Santos, Davi Henrique; de Negreiros, Álvaro Pinto Ferrnandes; de Souza Silva, João Moreno Vilas Boas; Álvarez Jácobo, Justo Emílio; Garcia Gonçalves, Luiz Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Problems related to quality (and quantity) of water in natural resources or in artificial reservoirs are frequently arising and are at the center of attention of authorities and governments around the world. Many times the monitoring is not performed in an efficient time frame and a precise manner, whereas the adoption of fast and punctual solutions would undoubtedly improve the water quality and consequently enhance the life of people. To minimize or diminish such kinds of problems, we propose an architecture for sensors installed in a robotic platform, an autonomous sail boat, able to acquire raw data relative to water quality, to process and make them available to people that might be interested in such information. The main contributions are the sensors architecture itself, which uses low cost sensors, with practical experimentation done with a prototype. Results show data collected for points in lakes and rivers in the northeast of Brazil. This embedded system is fixed in the sailboat robot with the intention to facilitate the study of water quality for long endurance missions. This robot can help monitoring water bodies in a more consistent manner. Nonetheless the system can also be used with fixed vases or buoys in strategic points. PMID:27509506

  18. Towards a Real-Time Embedded System for Water Monitoring Installed in a Robotic Sailboat.

    PubMed

    Silva Junior, Andouglas Goncalves da; Lima Sa, Sarah Thomaz de; Santos, Davi Henrique Dos; Negreiros, Álvaro Pinto Ferrnandes de; Souza Silva, João Moreno Vilas Boas de; Álvarez Jácobo, Justo Emílio; Garcia Gonçalves, Luiz Marcos

    2016-08-08

    Problems related to quality (and quantity) of water in natural resources or in artificial reservoirs are frequently arising and are at the center of attention of authorities and governments around the world. Many times the monitoring is not performed in an efficient time frame and a precise manner, whereas the adoption of fast and punctual solutions would undoubtedly improve the water quality and consequently enhance the life of people. To minimize or diminish such kinds of problems, we propose an architecture for sensors installed in a robotic platform, an autonomous sail boat, able to acquire raw data relative to water quality, to process and make them available to people that might be interested in such information. The main contributions are the sensors architecture itself, which uses low cost sensors, with practical experimentation done with a prototype. Results show data collected for points in lakes and rivers in the northeast of Brazil. This embedded system is fixed in the sailboat robot with the intention to facilitate the study of water quality for long endurance missions. This robot can help monitoring water bodies in a more consistent manner. Nonetheless the system can also be used with fixed vases or buoys in strategic points.

  19. A modular low-complexity ECG delineation algorithm for real-time embedded systems.

    PubMed

    Bote, Jose Manuel; Recas, Joaquin; Rincon, Francisco; Atienza, David; Hermida, Roman

    2017-02-17

    This work presents a new modular and lowcomplexity algorithm for the delineation of the different ECG waves (QRS, P and T peaks, onsets and end). Involving a reduced number of operations per second and having a small memory footprint, this algorithm is intended to perform realtime delineation on resource-constrained embedded systems. The modular design allows the algorithm to automatically adjust the delineation quality in run time to a wide range of modes and sampling rates, from a Ultra-low power mode when no arrhythmia is detected, in which the ECG is sampled at low frequency, to a complete High-accuracy delineation mode in which the ECG is sampled at high frequency and all the ECG fiducial points are detected, in case of arrhythmia. The delineation algorithm has been adjusted using the QT database, providing very high sensitivity and positive predictivity, and validated with the MIT database. The errors in the delineation of all the fiducial points are below the tolerances given by the Common Standards for Electrocardiography (CSE) committee in the High-accuracy mode, except for the P wave onset, for which the algorithm is above the agreed tolerances by only a fraction of the sample duration. The computational load for the ultra-low-power 8-MHz TI MSP430 series microcontroller ranges from 0.2 to 8.5% according to the mode used.

  20. Socioscape: Real-Time Analysis of Dynamic Heterogeneous Networks In Complex Socio-Cultural Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-22

    Real-time Analysis and Mining of Dynamic Networks in Complex SocioCultural Systems Our proposed research consists of 5 research themes: 1: Develop...membership triangular model (MMTM) for inference latent role based on more informative network motif features, the joint network- text models for...Hierarchies from Text and Links, Proceedings of the International World Wide Web Conference (WWW 2012). Q. Ho, J. Yin and E. P. Xing, On Triangular

  1. Heterogeneous Defensive Naval Weapon Assignment To Swarming Threats In Real Time

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    optimal engagement profile in approximately two seconds on a general-purpose laptop and has the potential to be continuously run to provide real-time...recommendations to the operator. 14. SUBJECT TERMS weapon-target pairing, optimization , battlespace management, decision aid, integer programming...allowing the operator to plan future defensive actions. For scenarios involving four defensive weapons and 13 targets, this model produces an optimal

  2. Embedded Real-Time Linux for Instrument Control and Data Logging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clanton, Sam; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    When I moved to the west. coast to take a job at NASA's Ames Research Center in Mountain View, CA, I was impressed with the variety of equipment and software which scientists at the center use to conduct their research. was happy to find that I was just as likely to see a machine running Lenox as one running Windows in the offices and laboratories of NASA Ames (although many people seem to use Moos around here). I was especially happy to find that the particular group with whom I was going to work, the Atmospheric Physics Branch at Ames, relied almost entirely on Lenox machines for their day-to-day work. So it was no surprise that when it was time to construct a new control system for one of their most important pieces of hardware, a switch from an unpredictable DOS-based platform to an Embedded Linux-based one was a decision easily made. The system I am working on is called the Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR), a PC-104 based system custom-built by Dr. Warren Gore at Ames. Dr. Gore, Dr. Peter Pilewskie, Dr. Maura Robberies and Larry Pezzolo use the SSFR in their research. The team working on the controller project consists of Dr. Gore, John Pommier, and myself. The SSFR is used by the ,cities Atmospheric Radiation Group to measure solar spectral irradiance at moderate resolution to determine the radiative effect of clouds, aerosols, and gases on climate, and also to infer the physical properties of aerosols and clouds. Two identical SSFR's have been built and successfully deployed in three field missions: 1) the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE) II in February/March, 2000; 2) the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment (PRIDE) in July, 2000; and 3) the South African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI) in August/September, 2000. Additionally, the SSFR was used to acquire water vapor spectra using the Ames Diameter base-path multiple-reflection absorption cell in a laboratory experiment.

  3. An Implementation of real-time phased array radar fundamental functions on DSP-focused, high performance embedded computing platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xining; Zhang, Yan; Patel, Ankit; Zahrai, Allen; Weber, Mark

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of real-time, multiple channel processing of a digital phased array system backend design, with focus on high-performance embedded computing (HPEC) platforms constructed based on general purpose digital signal processor (DSP). Serial RapidIO (SRIO) is used as inter-chip connection backend protocol to support the inter-core communications and parallelisms. Performance benchmark was obtained based on a SRIO system chassis and emulated configuration similar to a field scale demonstrator of Multi-functional Phased Array Radar (MPAR). An interesting aspect of this work is comparison between "raw and low-level" DSP processing and emerging tools that systematically take advantages of the parallelism and multi-core capability, such as OpenCL and OpenMP. Comparisons with other backend HPEC solutions, such as FPGA and GPU, are also provided through analysis and experiments.

  4. [Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in paraffin-embedded tissues by real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction].

    PubMed

    Ye, Feng; Chen, Yu; He, Du; Jian, Shu-yu; Zheng, Ke; Li, Gan-di; Bu, Hong

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the feasibility of real-time fluorescent quantitative (qPCR) assay in detecting mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) in paraffin embedded tissues for diagnostic purpose. Using qPCR assay, 1000 consecutive formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues (from 2011 to 2012) suspected of MTB infection were tested by amplifying the MTB specific insertion sequence 6110 (IS6110). The specificity of the PCR product was confirmed by Sanger sequencing as compared with the MTB genomic DNA of the IS6110 sequence. Tissues with Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast staining were used as control. In the 1000 samples, 513 were positive for mycobacterium by Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast staining (detection rate 51.3%); whereas 546 were MTB positive by qPCR assay (detection rate 54.6%). Concordance rate for both assays was 73.1%. The diagnosis rate increased by 14.4% by combinination of Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast staining and qPCR results. More interestingly, by analyzing the Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast staining and qPCR results three cases of M.leprae infection and four cases of non-tuberculous Mycobacterium (NTM) infection were identified. qPCR detection of MTB in FFPE tissue is more sensitive than Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast staining assay. Combination of these two assays can increase the detection rate and also identify some rare cases of NTM infection.

  5. Quantifying Metabolic Heterogeneity in Head and Neck Tumors in Real Time: 2-DG Uptake Is Highest in Hypoxic Tumor Regions

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Erica C.; Laymon, Charles; Oborski, Matthew; Hou, Weizhou; Wang, Lin; Grandis, Jennifer R.; Ferris, Robert L.; Mountz, James M.; Van Houten, Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity may increase the likelihood of treatment failure due to the presence of a subset of resistant tumor cells. Using a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) xenograft model and a real-time fluorescence imaging approach, we tested the hypothesis that tumors are metabolically heterogeneous, and that tumor hypoxia alters patterns of glucose uptake within the tumor. Experimental Design Cal33 cells were grown as xenograft tumors (n = 16) in nude mice after identification of this cell line's metabolic response to hypoxia. Tumor uptake of fluorescent markers identifying hypoxia, glucose import, or vascularity was imaged simultaneously using fluorescent molecular tomography. The variability of intratumoral 2-deoxyglucose (IR800-2-DG) concentration was used to assess tumor metabolic heterogeneity, which was further investigated using immunohistochemistry for expression of key metabolic enzymes. HNSCC tumors in patients were assessed for intratumoral variability of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake in clinical PET scans. Results IR800-2-DG uptake in hypoxic regions of Cal33 tumors was 2.04 times higher compared to the whole tumor (p = 0.0001). IR800-2-DG uptake in tumors containing hypoxic regions was more heterogeneous as compared to tumors lacking a hypoxic signal. Immunohistochemistry staining for HIF-1α, carbonic anhydrase 9, and ATP synthase subunit 5β confirmed xenograft metabolic heterogeneity. We detected heterogeneous 18F-FDG uptake within patient HNSCC tumors, and the degree of heterogeneity varied amongst tumors. Conclusion Hypoxia is associated with increased intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity. 18F-FDG PET scans may be used to stratify patients according to the metabolic heterogeneity within their tumors, which could be an indicator of prognosis. PMID:25127378

  6. Parallelizing Compiler Framework and API for Power Reduction and Software Productivity of Real-Time Heterogeneous Multicores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Akihiro; Wada, Yasutaka; Watanabe, Takeshi; Sekiguchi, Takeshi; Mase, Masayoshi; Shirako, Jun; Kimura, Keiji; Kasahara, Hironori

    Heterogeneous multicores have been attracting much attention to attain high performance keeping power consumption low in wide spread of areas. However, heterogeneous multicores force programmers very difficult programming. The long application program development period lowers product competitiveness. In order to overcome such a situation, this paper proposes a compilation framework which bridges a gap between programmers and heterogeneous multicores. In particular, this paper describes the compilation framework based on OSCAR compiler. It realizes coarse grain task parallel processing, data transfer using a DMA controller, power reduction control from user programs with DVFS and clock gating on various heterogeneous multicores from different vendors. This paper also evaluates processing performance and the power reduction by the proposed framework on a newly developed 15 core heterogeneous multicore chip named RP-X integrating 8 general purpose processor cores and 3 types of accelerator cores which was developed by Renesas Electronics, Hitachi, Tokyo Institute of Technology and Waseda University. The framework attains speedups up to 32x for an optical flow program with eight general purpose processor cores and four DRP(Dynamically Reconfigurable Processor) accelerator cores against sequential execution by a single processor core and 80% of power reduction for the real-time AAC encoding.

  7. Detection and Quantification of CWD Prions in Fixed Paraffin Embedded Tissues by Real-Time Quaking-Induced Conversion

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, Clare E.; Davenport, Kristen A.; Henderson, Davin M.; Pulscher, Laura A.; Mathiason, Candace K.; Zabel, Mark D.; Hoover, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional diagnostic detection of chronic wasting disease (CWD) relies on immunodetection of misfolded CWD prion protein (PrPCWD) by western blotting, ELISA, or immunohistochemistry (IHC). These techniques require separate sample collections (frozen and fixed) which may result in discrepancies due to variation in prion tissue distribution and assay sensitivities that limit detection especially in early and subclinical infections. Here, we harness the power of real-time quaking induced conversion (RT-QuIC) to amplify, detect, and quantify prion amyloid seeding activity in fixed paraffin-embedded (FPE) tissue sections. We show that FPE RT-QuIC has greater detection sensitivity than IHC in tissues with low PrPCWD burdens, including those that are IHC-negative. We also employ amyloid formation kinetics to yield a semi-quantitative estimate of prion concentration in a given FPE tissue. We report that FPE RT-QuIC has the ability to enhance diagnostic and investigative detection of disease-associated PrPRES in prion, and potentially other, protein misfolding disease states. PMID:27157060

  8. Black-Box System Testing of Real-Time Embedded Systems Using Random and Search-Based Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcuri, Andrea; Iqbal, Muhammad Zohaib; Briand, Lionel

    Testing real-time embedded systems (RTES) is in many ways challenging. Thousands of test cases can be potentially executed on an industrial RTES. Given the magnitude of testing at the system level, only a fully automated approach can really scale up to test industrial RTES. In this paper we take a black-box approach and model the RTES environment using the UML/MARTE international standard. Our main motivation is to provide a more practical approach to the model-based testing of RTES by allowing system testers, who are often not familiar with the system design but know the application domain well-enough, to model the environment to enable test automation. Environment models can support the automation of three tasks: the code generation of an environment simulator, the selection of test cases, and the evaluation of their expected results (oracles). In this paper, we focus on the second task (test case selection) and investigate three test automation strategies using inputs from UML/MARTE environment models: Random Testing (baseline), Adaptive Random Testing, and Search-Based Testing (using Genetic Algorithms). Based on one industrial case study and three artificial systems, we show how, in general, no technique is better than the others. Which test selection technique to use is determined by the failure rate (testing stage) and the execution time of test cases. Finally, we propose a practical process to combine the use of all three test strategies.

  9. Concurrent heterogeneous neural model simulation on real-time neuromimetic hardware.

    PubMed

    Rast, Alexander; Galluppi, Francesco; Davies, Sergio; Plana, Luis; Patterson, Cameron; Sharp, Thomas; Lester, David; Furber, Steve

    2011-11-01

    Dedicated hardware is becoming increasingly essential to simulate emerging very-large-scale neural models. Equally, however, it needs to be able to support multiple models of the neural dynamics, possibly operating simultaneously within the same system. This may be necessary either to simulate large models with heterogeneous neural types, or to simplify simulation and analysis of detailed, complex models in a large simulation by isolating the new model to a small subpopulation of a larger overall network. The SpiNNaker neuromimetic chip is a dedicated neural processor able to support such heterogeneous simulations. Implementing these models on-chip uses an integrated library-based tool chain incorporating the emerging PyNN interface that allows a modeller to input a high-level description and use an automated process to generate an on-chip simulation. Simulations using both LIF and Izhikevich models demonstrate the ability of the SpiNNaker system to generate and simulate heterogeneous networks on-chip, while illustrating, through the network-scale effects of wavefront synchronisation and burst gating, methods that can provide effective behavioural abstractions for large-scale hardware modelling. SpiNNaker's asynchronous virtual architecture permits greater scope for model exploration, with scalable levels of functional and temporal abstraction, than conventional (or neuromorphic) computing platforms. The complete system illustrates a potential path to understanding the neural model of computation, by building (and breaking) neural models at various scales, connecting the blocks, then comparing them against the biology: computational cognitive neuroscience. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Comparison of two different real-time PCR systems in postmortem diagnosis of tuberculosis in paraffin-embedded tissues].

    PubMed

    Yağmur, Gülhan; Albayrak, Nurhan; Daş, Taner; Yıldırım, Muzaffer; Ozgün, Ayşe; Büyük, Yalçın

    2014-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of those infections with high morbidity and mortality in all around the world. Hundreds of people died from this disease without diagnosed or due to resistant strains in Turkey. Therefore, it is important to identify postmortem cases who have died from tuberculosis. Molecular methods have been widely used as well as conventional methods in the diagnosis of tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to compare the two different real-time polymerase chain reaction (Rt-PCR) system in the postmortem diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections in paraffin-embedded tissues. A total of 40 paraffin-embedded tissue samples [lung (n= 35), brain (n= 2), heart (n= 2), lymph node (n= 1)] in which histopathologic findings consistent with TB (necrotizing granulomatous inflammation, gelatinous caseous pneumonia, necrotic fibrous nodul) obtained from 37 autopsy cases (31 male, 6 female; age range: 25-85 yrs) were included in the study. Paraffin-embedded tissues were deparafinized with xylene and ethyl alcohol and then DNA isolation was done with QIAsymphony DSP Virus/Pathogen Midi kit in the QIAsymphony device. DNA amplification process was performed by Rt-PCR using the kit Artus® M. tuberculosis RG-PCR in the Rotor-Gene® Q device (Qiagen, Germany). Likewise, after deparafinization process, samples placed in the cartridge and isolation and Rt-PCR was performed by Xpert® MTB/RIF (Cepheid, USA) system, simultaneosly. Seventeen and 20 out of the 40 paraffin-embedded tissues yielded positive results with Qiagen and Xpert system, respectively. M.tuberculosis DNA was found positive in 13 (32.5%) and negative in 16 (40%) of the samples by both of the systems, exhibiting 72.5% (29/40) of concordance. On the other hand, seven (17.5%) samples that were positive with Xpert system yielded negative result with the Qiagen, while four (10%) samples that were positive with Qiagen yielded negative result with the Xpert system. Of the 20 positive cases detected with

  11. Real-time detection of hydrogen peroxide using microelectrodes in an ultrasonic enhanced heterogeneous Fenton process catalyzed by ferrocene.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jun; Xin, Qing; Gao, Xiumin

    2015-07-01

    Microelectrodes were used for real-time detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in a heterogeneous sono-Fenton system with ferrocene as the catalyst. The working mechanism of reactive blue 13 decolorization in a heterogeneous sono-Fenton system was investigated. Ultrasonic irradiation showed no effect on decolorization when used alone and did not enhance decolorization in the H2O2 system (43.0 % for H2O2 vs. 48.1 % for US+H2O2). However, a system with the presence of Fenton-like reagents achieved complete decolorization. Decolorization was greatly accelerated by the addition of ultrasonic irradiation. Thorough decolorization was achieved in 20 min in the heterogeneous sono-Fenton system, which was 30 min faster than in the heterogeneous Fenton system. Based on the data collected by microelectrodes, accelerated decomposition of H2O2 was also observed. Ultrasonic irradiation aided the ferrocene catalyst in liberating more •OH from Fenton reactions, leading to the faster decolorization.

  12. A heterogeneous system based on GPU and multi-core CPU for real-time fluid and rigid body simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Junior, José Ricardo; Gonzalez Clua, Esteban W.; Montenegro, Anselmo; Lage, Marcos; Dreux, Marcelo de Andrade; Joselli, Mark; Pagliosa, Paulo A.; Kuryla, Christine Lucille

    2012-03-01

    Computational fluid dynamics in simulation has become an important field not only for physics and engineering areas but also for simulation, computer graphics, virtual reality and even video game development. Many efficient models have been developed over the years, but when many contact interactions must be processed, most models present difficulties or cannot achieve real-time results when executed. The advent of parallel computing has enabled the development of many strategies for accelerating the simulations. Our work proposes a new system which uses some successful algorithms already proposed, as well as a data structure organisation based on a heterogeneous architecture using CPUs and GPUs, in order to process the simulation of the interaction of fluids and rigid bodies. This successfully results in a two-way interaction between them and their surrounding objects. As far as we know, this is the first work that presents a computational collaborative environment which makes use of two different paradigms of hardware architecture for this specific kind of problem. Since our method achieves real-time results, it is suitable for virtual reality, simulation and video game fluid simulation problems.

  13. Real-time imaging with radial GRAPPA: Implementation on a Heterogeneous Architecture for Low-Latency Reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Saybasili, Haris; Herzka, Daniel A.; Seiberlich, Nicole; A.Griswold, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Combination of non-Cartesian trajectories with parallel MRI permits to attain unmatched acceleration rates when compared to traditional Cartesian MRI during real-time imaging.However, computationally demanding reconstructions of such imaging techniques, such as k-space domain radial generalized auto-calibrating partially parallel acquisitions (radial GRAPPA) and image domain conjugate gradient sensitivity encoding (CG-SENSE), lead to longer reconstruction times and unacceptable latency for online real-time MRI on conventional computational hardware. Though CG-SENSE has been shown to work with low-latency using a general purpose graphics processing unit (GPU), to the best of our knowledge, no such effort has been made for radial GRAPPA. radial GRAPPA reconstruction, which is robust even with highly undersampled acquisitions, is not iterative, requiring only significant computation during initial calibration while achieving good image quality for low-latency imaging applications. In this work, we present a very fast, low-latency, reconstruction framework based on a heterogeneous system using multi-core CPUs and GPUs. We demonstrate an implementation of radial GRAPPA that permits reconstruction times on par with or faster than acquisition of highly accelerated datasets in both cardiac and dynamic musculoskeletal imaging scenarios. Acquisition and reconstructions times are reported. PMID:24690453

  14. Solving Energy-Aware Real-Time Tasks Scheduling Problem with Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm on Heterogeneous Platforms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weizhe; Bai, Enci; He, Hui; Cheng, Albert M K

    2015-06-11

    Reducing energy consumption is becoming very important in order to keep battery life and lower overall operational costs for heterogeneous real-time multiprocessor systems. In this paper, we first formulate this as a combinatorial optimization problem. Then, a successful meta-heuristic, called Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm (SFLA) is proposed to reduce the energy consumption. Precocity remission and local optimal avoidance techniques are proposed to avoid the precocity and improve the solution quality. Convergence acceleration significantly reduces the search time. Experimental results show that the SFLA-based energy-aware meta-heuristic uses 30% less energy than the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm, and 60% less energy than the Genetic Algorithm (GA) algorithm. Remarkably, the running time of the SFLA-based meta-heuristic is 20 and 200 times less than ACO and GA, respectively, for finding the optimal solution.

  15. Solving Energy-Aware Real-Time Tasks Scheduling Problem with Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm on Heterogeneous Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weizhe; Bai, Enci; He, Hui; Cheng, Albert M.K.

    2015-01-01

    Reducing energy consumption is becoming very important in order to keep battery life and lower overall operational costs for heterogeneous real-time multiprocessor systems. In this paper, we first formulate this as a combinatorial optimization problem. Then, a successful meta-heuristic, called Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm (SFLA) is proposed to reduce the energy consumption. Precocity remission and local optimal avoidance techniques are proposed to avoid the precocity and improve the solution quality. Convergence acceleration significantly reduces the search time. Experimental results show that the SFLA-based energy-aware meta-heuristic uses 30% less energy than the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm, and 60% less energy than the Genetic Algorithm (GA) algorithm. Remarkably, the running time of the SFLA-based meta-heuristic is 20 and 200 times less than ACO and GA, respectively, for finding the optimal solution. PMID:26110406

  16. A Real-Time Parallel Application:. The Detection of Gravitational Waves by a Network of Heterogeneous Workstations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marano, Stefano; Medugno, Mario; Longo, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    We deal with the detection of gravitational chirp signals among noisy data, where the reception and the detection are piped and run in parallel. We consider the classical theory of signal detection, which yields a detector with a "bank-of-filters" structure. We investigate distributed network computing in order to implement such a detector by heterogeneous high performance workstations interconnected via an Ethernet network. The goal is to design a distributed detector running on a number of available workstations. The computation is decomposed across the workstations in such a way to minimize communications and to match the acquisition rate. Our approach is general and can be used for networks of workstations different from those used in our experimentation. We point out that the classical performance analysis seems inappropriate if applied to real-time detection by heterogeneous distributed systems, because the execution time requirements are disregarded. To take into account such constraints we characterize the algorithm, evaluate performances on different workstations, and propose a task decomposition strategy assigning the appropriateGrainto each workstation.

  17. Configuration Management and Infrastructure Monitoring Using CFEngine and Icinga for Real-time Heterogeneous Data Taking Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poat, M. D.; Lauret, J.; Betts, W.

    2015-12-01

    The STAR online computing environment is an intensive ever-growing system used for real-time data collection and analysis. Composed of heterogeneous and sometimes groups of custom-tuned machines, the computing infrastructure was previously managed by manual configurations and inconsistently monitored by a combination of tools. This situation led to configuration inconsistency and an overload of repetitive tasks along with lackluster communication between personnel and machines. Globally securing this heterogeneous cyberinfrastructure was tedious at best and an agile, policy-driven system ensuring consistency, was pursued. Three configuration management tools, Chef, Puppet, and CFEngine have been compared in reliability, versatility and performance along with a comparison of infrastructure monitoring tools Nagios and Icinga. STAR has selected the CFEngine configuration management tool and the Icinga infrastructure monitoring system leading to a versatile and sustainable solution. By leveraging these two tools STAR can now swiftly upgrade and modify the environment to its needs with ease as well as promptly react to cyber-security requests. By creating a sustainable long term monitoring solution, the detection of failures was reduced from days to minutes, allowing rapid actions before the issues become dire problems, potentially causing loss of precious experimental data or uptime.

  18. XSTREAM: A Highly Efficient High Speed Real-time Satellite Data Acquisition and Processing System using Heterogeneous Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramod Kumar, K.; Mahendra, P.; Ramakrishna rReddy, V.; Tirupathi, T.; Akilan, A.; Usha Devi, R.; Anuradha, R.; Ravi, N.; Solanki, S. S.; Achary, K. K.; Satish, A. L.; Anshu, C.

    2014-11-01

    In the last decade, the remote sensing community has observed a significant growth in number of satellites, sensors and their resolutions, thereby increasing the volume of data to be processed each day. Satellite data processing is a complex and time consuming activity. It consists of various tasks, such as decode, decrypt, decompress, radiometric normalization, stagger corrections, ephemeris data processing for geometric corrections etc., and finally writing of the product in the form of an image file. Each task in the processing chain is sequential in nature and has different computing needs. Conventionally the processes are cascaded in a well organized workflow to produce the data products, which are executed on general purpose high-end servers / workstations in an offline mode. Hence, these systems are considered to be ineffective for real-time applications that require quick response and just-intime decision making such as disaster management, home land security and so on. This paper discusses anovel approach to processthe data online (as the data is being acquired) using a heterogeneous computing platform namely XSTREAM which has COTS hardware of CPUs, GPUs and FPGA. This paper focuses on the process architecture, re-engineering aspects and mapping of tasks to the right computing devicewithin the XSTREAM system, which makes it an ideal cost-effective platform for acquiring, processing satellite payload data in real-time and displaying the products in original resolution for quick response. The system has been tested for IRS CARTOSAT and RESOURCESAT series of satellites which have maximum data downlink speed of 210 Mbps.

  19. Application of RLEP Real-Time PCR for Detection of M. leprae DNA in Paraffin-Embedded Skin Biopsy Specimens for Diagnosis of Paucibacillary Leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Wen; Xing, Yan; Yuan, Lian Chao; De Yang, Rong; Tan, Fu Yue; Zhang, Ying; Li, Huan-Ying

    2014-01-01

    The TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was evaluated systematically with respect to the standard curve, linear range, and used for detecting Mycobacterium leprae DNA in paraffin-embedded skin biopsy specimens from 60 confirmed leprosy patients and three healthy individuals and 29 other dermatoses and bacterial DNA from 21 different species. The test was further evaluated with 51 paucibacillary (PB) patients. The results showed that the test had good sensitivity (8 fg) and good specificity with no cross-reactivity with 21 other bacterial species and the control specimens, except one with Xanthomatosis. The real-time PCR detection rate for the 51 PB specimens was 74.5% (38 of 51). We conclude that the real-time PCR test is a useful adjunct test for diagnosing early stage or PB leprosy cases. PMID:24493677

  20. Moving Object Detection in Heterogeneous Conditions in Embedded Systems.

    PubMed

    Garbo, Alessandro; Quer, Stefano

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a system for moving object exposure, focusing on pedestrian detection, in external, unfriendly, and heterogeneous environments. The system manipulates and accurately merges information coming from subsequent video frames, making small computational efforts in each single frame. Its main characterizing feature is to combine several well-known movement detection and tracking techniques, and to orchestrate them in a smart way to obtain good results in diversified scenarios. It uses dynamically adjusted thresholds to characterize different regions of interest, and it also adopts techniques to efficiently track movements, and detect and correct false positives. Accuracy and reliability mainly depend on the overall receipt, i.e., on how the software system is designed and implemented, on how the different algorithmic phases communicate information and collaborate with each other, and on how concurrency is organized. The application is specifically designed to work with inexpensive hardware devices, such as off-the-shelf video cameras and small embedded computational units, eventually forming an intelligent urban grid. As a matter of fact, the major contribution of the paper is the presentation of a tool for real-time applications in embedded devices with finite computational (time and memory) resources. We run experimental results on several video sequences (both home-made and publicly available), showing the robustness and accuracy of the overall detection strategy. Comparisons with state-of-the-art strategies show that our application has similar tracking accuracy but much higher frame-per-second rates.

  1. Applying a Real-Time PCR Assay for Histoplasma capsulatum to Clinically Relevant Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Human Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Koepsell, Scott A.; Hinrichs, Steven H.

    2012-01-01

    A real-time PCR assay to detect Histoplasma capsulatum in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue is described. The assay had an analytical sensitivity of 6 pg/μl of fungal DNA, analytical specificity of 100%, and clinical sensitivity of 88.9%. This proof-of-concept study may aid in the diagnosis of histoplasmosis from FFPE tissue. PMID:22855519

  2. Liquid biopsies for solid tumors: Understanding tumor heterogeneity and real time monitoring of early resistance to targeted therapies.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Angela; Criscitiello, Carmen; Locatelli, Marzia; Milano, Monica; Curigliano, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    In the era of personalized medicine detection of the molecular drivers of tumors and of specific DNA mutations predicting response or resistance to targeted agents has become routine practice in clinical oncology. The tumor biopsy depicts only a single timeframe from a single site, and might be inadequate to characterize a tumor because of intratumoral and intermetastatic heterogeneity. Circulating tumor DNA offers a "real time" tool for serially monitoring tumor genomes in a non-invasive manner providing accessible genetic biomarkers for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy. The liquid biopsy can be used for a variety of clinical and investigational applications. Future development will have to provide a cost effective analysis mainly identifying the genes known to be recurrently mutated in each tumor. Therefore, developing standardized methodologies for DNA analyses and validation in large prospective clinical studies is mandatory to implement the 'liquid biopsy' approach in the clinical management of cancer patients. In our review, we will focus on the clinical applications of liquid biopsies and on the recent findings in this field.

  3. An embedded real-time red peach detection system based on an OV7670 camera, ARM cortex-M4 processor and 3D look-up tables.

    PubMed

    Teixidó, Mercè; Font, Davinia; Pallejà, Tomàs; Tresanchez, Marcel; Nogués, Miquel; Palacín, Jordi

    2012-10-22

    This work proposes the development of an embedded real-time fruit detection system for future automatic fruit harvesting. The proposed embedded system is based on an ARM Cortex-M4 (STM32F407VGT6) processor and an Omnivision OV7670 color camera. The future goal of this embedded vision system will be to control a robotized arm to automatically select and pick some fruit directly from the tree. The complete embedded system has been designed to be placed directly in the gripper tool of the future robotized harvesting arm. The embedded system will be able to perform real-time fruit detection and tracking by using a three-dimensional look-up-table (LUT) defined in the RGB color space and optimized for fruit picking. Additionally, two different methodologies for creating optimized 3D LUTs based on existing linear color models and fruit histograms were implemented in this work and compared for the case of red peaches. The resulting system is able to acquire general and zoomed orchard images and to update the relative tracking information of a red peach in the tree ten times per second.

  4. An Embedded Real-Time Red Peach Detection System Based on an OV7670 Camera, ARM Cortex-M4 Processor and 3D Look-Up Tables

    PubMed Central

    Teixidó, Mercè; Font, Davinia; Pallejà, Tomàs; Tresanchez, Marcel; Nogués, Miquel; Palacín, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    This work proposes the development of an embedded real-time fruit detection system for future automatic fruit harvesting. The proposed embedded system is based on an ARM Cortex-M4 (STM32F407VGT6) processor and an Omnivision OV7670 color camera. The future goal of this embedded vision system will be to control a robotized arm to automatically select and pick some fruit directly from the tree. The complete embedded system has been designed to be placed directly in the gripper tool of the future robotized harvesting arm. The embedded system will be able to perform real-time fruit detection and tracking by using a three-dimensional look-up-table (LUT) defined in the RGB color space and optimized for fruit picking. Additionally, two different methodologies for creating optimized 3D LUTs based on existing linear color models and fruit histograms were implemented in this work and compared for the case of red peaches. The resulting system is able to acquire general and zoomed orchard images and to update the relative tracking information of a red peach in the tree ten times per second. PMID:23202040

  5. A heterogeneous sensor network simulation system with integrated terrain data for real-time target detection in 3D space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hong; Tanner, Steve; Rushing, John; Graves, Sara; Criswell, Evans

    2008-03-01

    Large scale sensor networks composed of many low-cost small sensors networked together with a small number of high fidelity position sensors can provide a robust, fast and accurate air defense and warning system. The team has been developing simulations of such large networks, and is now adding terrain data in an effort to provide more realistic analysis of the approach. This work, a heterogeneous sensor network simulation system with integrated terrain data for real-time target detection in a three-dimensional environment is presented. The sensor network can be composed of large numbers of low fidelity binary and bearing-only sensors, and small numbers of high fidelity position sensors, such as radars. The binary and bearing-only sensors are randomly distributed over a large geographic region; while the position sensors are distributed evenly. The elevations of the sensors are determined through the use of DTED Level 0 dataset. The targets are located through fusing measurement information from all types of sensors modeled by the simulation. The network simulation utilizes the same search-based optimization algorithm as in our previous two-dimensional sensor network simulation with some significant modifications. The fusion algorithm is parallelized using spatial decomposition approach: the entire surveillance area is divided into small regions and each region is assigned to one compute node. Each node processes sensor measurements and terrain data only for the assigned sub region. A master process combines the information from all the compute nodes to get the overall network state. The simulation results have indicated that the distributed fusion algorithm is efficient enough so that an optimal solution can be reached before the arrival of the next sensor data with a reasonable time interval, and real-time target detection can be achieved. The simulation was performed on a Linux cluster with communication between nodes facilitated by the Message Passing Interface

  6. Real-Time Discovery Services over Large, Heterogeneous and Complex Healthcare Datasets Using Schema-Less, Column-Oriented Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Begoli, Edmon; Dunning, Ted; Charlie, Frasure

    2016-01-01

    We present a service platform for schema-leess exploration of data and discovery of patient-related statistics from healthcare data sets. The architecture of this platform is motivated by the need for fast, schema-less, and flexible approaches to SQL-based exploration and discovery of information embedded in the common, heterogeneously structured healthcare data sets and supporting components (electronic health records, practice management systems, etc.) The motivating use cases described in the paper are clinical trials candidate discovery, and a treatment effectiveness analysis. Following the use cases, we discuss the key features and software architecture of the platform, the underlying core components (Apache Parquet, Drill, the web services server), and the runtime profiles and performance characteristics of the platform. We conclude by showing dramatic speedup with some approaches, and the performance tradeoffs and limitations of others.

  7. An algorithm of a real time image tracking system using a camera with pan/tilt motors on an embedded system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hie-Sik; Nam, Chul; Ha, Kwan-Yong; Ayurzana, Odgeral; Kwon, Jong-Won

    2005-12-01

    The embedded systems have been applied to many fields, including households and industrial sites. The user interface technology with simple display on the screen was implemented more and more. The user demands are increasing and the system has more various applicable fields due to a high penetration rate of the Internet. Therefore, the demand for embedded system is tend to rise. An embedded system for image tracking was implemented. This system is used a fixed IP for the reliable server operation on TCP/IP networks. Using an USB camera on the embedded Linux system developed a real time broadcasting of video image on the Internet. The digital camera is connected at the USB host port of the embedded board. All input images from the video camera are continuously stored as a compressed JPEG file in a directory at the Linux web-server. And each frame image data from web camera is compared for measurement of displacement Vector. That used Block matching algorithm and edge detection algorithm for past speed. And the displacement vector is used at pan/tilt motor control through RS232 serial cable. The embedded board utilized the S3C2410 MPU, which used the ARM 920T core form Samsung. The operating system was ported to embedded Linux kernel and mounted of root file system. And the stored images are sent to the client PC through the web browser. It used the network function of Linux and it developed a program with protocol of the TCP/IP.

  8. Development of wireless brain computer interface with embedded multitask scheduling and its application on real-time driver's drowsiness detection and warning.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Teng; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Huang, Teng-Yi; Chiu, Tien-Ting; Ko, Li-Wei; Liang, Sheng-Fu; Hsieh, Hung-Yi; Hsu, Shang-Hwa; Duann, Jeng-Ren

    2008-05-01

    Biomedical signal monitoring systems have been rapidly advanced with electronic and information technologies in recent years. However, most of the existing physiological signal monitoring systems can only record the signals without the capability of automatic analysis. In this paper, we proposed a novel brain-computer interface (BCI) system that can acquire and analyze electroencephalogram (EEG) signals in real-time to monitor human physiological as well as cognitive states, and, in turn, provide warning signals to the users when needed. The BCI system consists of a four-channel biosignal acquisition/amplification module, a wireless transmission module, a dual-core signal processing unit, and a host system for display and storage. The embedded dual-core processing system with multitask scheduling capability was proposed to acquire and process the input EEG signals in real time. In addition, the wireless transmission module, which eliminates the inconvenience of wiring, can be switched between radio frequency (RF) and Bluetooth according to the transmission distance. Finally, the real-time EEG-based drowsiness monitoring and warning algorithms were implemented and integrated into the system to close the loop of the BCI system. The practical online testing demonstrates the feasibility of using the proposed system with the ability of real-time processing, automatic analysis, and online warning feedback in real-world operation and living environments.

  9. Detection of West Nile virus using formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues in crows and horses: quantification of viral transcripts by real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Deepanker; Kim, Hyun; Feria, Willard; Russo, Brigite; Acland, Helen

    2004-08-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) RNA was quantified in WNV infected crows and horses with the help of a real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR assay. A 5' nuclease assay, based on NS5 gene detection with a fluorescent probe was used for quantifying WNV RNA using formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue specimens. Quantitative detection of WNV RNA showed the presence of a higher amount of the viral RNA in crow tissues compared to equine tissues and these results correlated well with the detection of WNV antigen by immunostaining. In crows, the highest amount of virus was seen in the intestine and in horses in the brain.

  10. Real-time enzyme-digesting identification of double-strand DNA in a resonance-cantilever embedded micro-chamber.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tiegang; Yu, Haitao; Xu, Pengcheng; Xu, Wangjie; Chen, Wenqing; Chen, Chuanzhao; Li, Xinxin

    2014-03-21

    A novel direct identification of double-strand DNA is proposed by using real-time enzyme-digestion in a resonant-cantilever embedded microfluidic chip. The new gene-level detection method is expected to replace the conventional DNA-hybridization based gene-detection that suffers from not only nonspecific adsorption induced false-positives but also complicated single-strand DNA preparation and hybridization. Since a detected DNA chain features a unique cutting site for a certain restriction-enzyme, the accurately cut-off mass (representing the length of the digested segment) can be online recorded by the frequency-shift signal of the resonant micro-cantilever sensor. This enzyme-digestion technique is confirmed by experimental identification of the stx2 gene of E. coli O157:H7. The direct-PCR sample is directly analyzed by using our lab-made cantilever-embedded microfluidic-chip. The 3776 bp DNA is immobilized via biotin-streptavidin binding and the added mass is recorded by a frequency-decrease of 15.9 kHz within 10 min. Then, with EcoRV-enzyme digestion at the site of 2635 bp, the cut-off mass is real-time detected by a frequency-increase of 10.2 kHz within 6 min. The detected frequency-shift ratio of 15.9/10.2 = 64.2% is consistent with the length ratio between the cut-off fragment and the whole DNA chain (2635/3776 = 69.8%). Hence, the simple and accurate double-strand detection method is verified experimentally.

  11. Initial international multicenter human experience with a novel epicardial access needle embedded with a real-time pressure/frequency monitoring to facilitate epicardial access: Feasibility and safety.

    PubMed

    Di Biase, Luigi; Burkhardt, J David; Reddy, Vivek; Romero, Jorge; Neuzil, Petr; Petru, Jan; Sadiva, Lucie; Skoda, Jan; Ventura, Miguel; Carbucicchio, Corrado; Dello Russo, Antonio; Csanadi, Zoltan; Casella, Michela; Fassini, Gaetano M; Tondo, Claudio; Sacher, Frederic; Theran, Mike; Dukkipati, Srinivas; Koruth, Jacob; Jais, Pierre; Natale, Andrea

    2017-07-01

    Epicardial ablation is often necessary for the treatment of complex arrhythmias refractory to endocardial ablation. Conventional needle access to the pericardial space is considered quite challenging, and it is often associated with several potential complications, particularly inadvertent right ventricular puncture. The novel EpiAccess needle tip is embedded with a pressure sensor able to report the pressure waveform in real time when used with the EpiAccess System. We prospectively evaluated the feasibility and safety of the EpiAccess System by EpiEP, Inc., with a novel epicardial access needle in a multicenter study. Twenty-five patients with a clinical need for epicardial access were enrolled. The EpiAccess needle and EpiAccess System were used for epicardial access in each case. Successful epicardial access, defined as the ability to introduce a guidewire into the epicardial space, was assessed via the device and confirmed with fluoroscopy. Significant pericardial bleeding was defined as >80 mL of blood by using peer review article definitions. Patients were men (76%) with a mean age of 62 years (range 28-84 years). Epicardial access for ventricular tachycardia ablation was indicated in 80% of the patients. Successful epicardial access was obtained in all cases, with pressure monitoring guiding pericardial wire access in all cases. One delayed pericardial effusion occurred. Epicardial access with the novel EpiAccess needle and System with real-time pressure monitoring is feasible and safe. The pressure monitoring capability identifies successfully the epicardial space, facilitating access and potentially minimizing complications. This has relevant clinical implications. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Progesterone receptor isoform analysis by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded canine mammary dysplasias and tumors.

    PubMed

    Guil-Luna, S; Stenvang, J; Brünner, N; Sánchez-Céspedes, R; Millán, Y; Gómez-Laguna, J; de las Mulas, J Martín

    2014-09-01

    Cloning and sequencing of the progesterone receptor gene in dogs have revealed 2 isoforms, A and B, transcribed from a single gene. Distribution of isoforms A and B in canine mammary lesions has hitherto been investigated only by Western blot analysis. This study analyzed progesterone receptor and its isoforms in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples from canine mammary lesions (4 dysplasias, 10 benign tumors, and 46 carcinomas) using 1-step SYBR Green quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Progesterone receptor was expressed in 75% of dysplasias, all benign tumors, and 59% of carcinomas. Carcinomas, and particularly simple epithelial-type carcinomas, displayed the lowest levels of expression. A high rate of agreement was recorded between RT-qPCR and immunohistochemical labeling. Isoforms A and B were successfully amplified, with correlation coefficients of 0.99 and amplification efficiencies close to 2, and were expressed in all lesion types analyzed. Predominance of A over B expression was observed in carcinomas and complex adenomas. Low-grade tumors exhibited higher progesterone receptor messenger RNA (mRNA) levels, but no difference was observed in the expression of isoform A versus B. Analysis of progesterone receptor mRNA isoforms by RT-qPCR was successful in routinely formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples and enabled the distribution of isoforms A and B to be identified for the first time in dysplasias, benign tumors, and malignant tumors of the canine mammary gland. These findings will facilitate future research into the role of progesterone receptor isoforms in the progression of canine mammary tumors. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction is an alternative method for the detection of HER-2 amplification in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast cancer samples.

    PubMed

    Pu, Tianjie; Guo, Peng; Qiu, Yan; Chen, Shinan; Yang, Libo; Sun, Linyong; Ye, Feng; Bu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) are the most common methods that are used to quantify HER-2 gene and protein levels, respectively, in human breast cancer. However, due to bad sample quality, some samples are unable to be subjected to a FISH assay. We evaluated 71 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) breast carcinoma specimens by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), IHC, and FISH. We also performed qPCR and FISH assays on delayed formalin-fixed (DDF) samples. The qPCR results were in complete concordance with the results of IHC and FISH. In regards to the DDF samples, the HER-2 fluorescent signal seemed decayed compared with that of the DDF samples after 1 h. However, the qPCR method still works well up to 12 hours. Our results indicated that qPCR was obviously superior to FISH in cases that were not fixed in a reasonable amount of time. However, qPCR can be an alternative method by which to perform HER2 amplification assays in breast cancer.

  14. Sequential real-time PCR assays applied to identification of genomic signatures in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues: a case report about brucella-induced osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Binxue; Wear, Douglas J; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Izadjoo, Mina

    2013-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection transmitted from animals to human by ingestion of infected food products, direct contact with an infected animal, or inhalation of aerosols. Brucella infection-induced osteomyelitis may present only with nonspecific clinical and radiographic findings, mild elevations in serum inflammatory markers, as well as nonspecific histological changes. We studied a case of an Iraqi war veteran with multifocal vertebral body and left iliac bone lesions on radio nucleotide scans and magnetic resonance imaging, clinically suspected osteomyelitis possibly because of Brucella. Although histomorphological findings were nonspecific, consisting of chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate and reactive fibrosis, tissue gram and silver impregnation stains of bone biopsies were informative, revealing gram-negative coccobacilli consistent in size with Brucella species. Total nucleic acids were extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues and amplified by sequential real-time polymerase chain reaction, targeting genes coding (1) outer membrane protein (omp-31) of Brucella species and (2) insertion sequence (IS711) of Brucella abortus (b-abt). Polymerase chain reaction results confirmed B. abortus as the causative pathogens for presumed diagnosis of Brucella osteomyelitis.

  15. Discrimination of Aspergillosis, Mucormycosis, Fusariosis, and Scedosporiosis in Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Specimens by Use of Multiple Real-Time Quantitative PCR Assays.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Elham; Hedayati, Mohammad T; Zoll, Jan; Rafati, Haleh; Ghasemi, Maryam; Doroudinia, Atosa; Abastabar, Mahdi; Tolooe, Ali; Snelders, Eveline; van der Lee, Henrich A; Rijs, Antonius J M M; Verweij, Paul E; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Melchers, Willem J G

    2016-11-01

    In a retrospective multicenter study, 102 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens with histopathology results were tested. Two 4- to 5-μm FFPE tissue sections from each specimen were digested with proteinase K, followed by automated nucleic acid extraction. Multiple real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays targeting the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of ribosomal DNA, using fluorescently labeled primers, was performed to identify clinically important genera and species of Aspergillus, Fusarium, Scedosporium, and the Mucormycetes The molecular identification was correlated with results from histological examination. One of the main findings of our study was the high sensitivity of the automated DNA extraction method, which was estimated to be 94%. The qPCR procedure that was evaluated identified a range of fungal genera/species, including Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Scedosporium apiospermum, Rhizopus oryzae, Rhizopus microsporus, Mucor spp., and Syncephalastrum Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani DNA was amplified from five specimens from patients initially diagnosed by histopathology as having aspergillosis. Aspergillus flavus, S. apiospermum, and Syncephalastrum were detected from histopathological mucormycosis samples. In addition, examination of four samples from patients suspected of having concomitant aspergillosis and mucormycosis infections resulted in the identification of two A. flavus isolates, one Mucor isolate, and only one sample having both R. oryzae and A. flavus Our results indicate that histopathological features of molds may be easily confused in tissue sections. The qPCR assay used in this study is a reliable tool for the rapid and accurate identification of fungal pathogens to the genus and species levels directly from FFPE tissues. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Performance characteristics of nested polymerase chain reaction vs real-time polymerase chain reaction methods for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in paraffin-embedded human tissues.

    PubMed

    Seo, An Na; Park, Hyo Jin; Lee, Hye Seung; Park, Jung Ok; Chang, Ho Eun; Nam, Kyung Han; Choe, Gheeyoung; Park, Kyoung Un

    2014-09-01

    Nucleic acid amplification tests on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens enable Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) detection and rapid tuberculosis diagnosis in the absence of microbiologic culture tests. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for detecting Mycobacterium species in FFPE tissues. We examined 110 FFPE specimens (56 nonmycobacterial cases, 32 MTB, and 22 nontuberculous mycobacteria [NTM] determined by acid-fast bacilli [AFB] culture) to assess five PCR methods: nested PCR (N-PCR) (Seeplex MTB Nested ACE Detection; Seegene, Seoul, South Korea), an in-house real-time PCR (RT-PCR) method, and three commercial RT-PCR methods (AccuPower MTB RT-PCR [Bioneer, Seoul, Korea], artus M tuberculosis TM PCR [Qiagen, Hilden, Germany], and AdvanSure tuberculosis/NTM RT-PCR [LG Life Sciences, Seoul, Korea]). The results of N-PCR, in-house RT-PCR, and AdvanSure RT-PCR correlated well with AFB culture results (concordance rates, 94.3%, 87.5%, and 89.5%, respectively). The sensitivity of N-PCR (87.5%) was higher than that of the RT-PCR methods, although these differences were not statistically significant between N-PCR and the in-house and AdvanSure RT-PCR methods (68.8% and 80.0%, respectively). All the PCR methods had high specificities, ranging from 98.2% to 100%. Only two NTM cases were detected by AdvanSure RT-PCR, implying a very low sensitivity. Well-designed RT-PCR and N-PCR can effectively identify MTB in FFPE specimens. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  17. Real-time monitoring of mycobacterium genomic DNA with target-primed rolling circle amplification by a Au nanoparticle-embedded SPR biosensor.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yang; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Huang, Qing; Zheng, Junsong; Fu, Weiling

    2015-04-15

    In this study, we developed a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) DNA biosensor array based on target-primed rolling circle amplification (RCA) for isothermal and rapid detection of two pathogenic mycobacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC).The species-specific padlock probe (PLP) was designed to target the sequence in 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS). After ligation, the circularized PLP could be primed by the target sequence to initial RCA. The RCA performed simultaneously with the cleavage reaction to produce small fragments of single strand DNA which immediately hybridized with the probe immobilized on the sensor chip without denaturation. This process caused SPR angle changes on the chip surface, which made the detection for analysis from the solution achievable, and dynamic real-time RCA monitoring of mycobacterium possible. Besides, Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) were directly assembled onto the surface of the sensor chip via hexanedithiol (HDT) for the enhancement of sensitivity as a label-free detection system. Experimental results show that the signal enhancement by the target-primed RCA together with AuNPs-embedded surface caused at least10-fold increased sensitivity as compared with conventional RCA on bare SPR chip method. Within 40min amplification duration as low as 20amol of synthetic targets and 10(4)CFUmL(-1) of genomic DNA from clinical samples can be detected. The proposed method not only provides a simple design idea for liquid-phase amplification monitoring, but also apply it in clinical pathogen detection, which holds great promise in ultrasensitive bioassay in the future.

  18. Heterogeneous data fusion and intelligent techniques embedded in a mobile application for real-time chronic disease management.

    PubMed

    Bellos, Christos; Papadopoulos, Athanassios; Rosso, Roberto; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I

    2011-01-01

    CHRONIOUS system is an integrated platform aiming at the management of chronic disease patients. One of the most important components of the system is a Decision Support System (DSS) that has been developed in a Smart Device (SD). This component decides on patient's current health status by combining several data, which are acquired either by wearable sensors or manually inputted by the patient or retrieved from the specific database. In case no abnormal situation has been tracked, the DSS takes no action and remains deactivated until next abnormal situation pack of data are being acquired or next scheduled data being transmitted. The DSS that has been implemented is an integrated classification system with two parallel classifiers, combining an expert system (rule-based system) and a supervised classifier, such as Support Vector Machines (SVM), Random Forests, artificial Neural Networks (aNN like the Multi-Layer Perceptron), Decision Trees and Naïve Bayes. The above categorized system is useful for providing critical information about the health status of the patient.

  19. The role of interparticle heterogeneities in the selenization pathway of Cu-Zn-Sn-S nanoparticle thin films: A real-time study

    DOE PAGES

    Carter, Nathaniel J.; Mainz, Roland; Walker, Bryce C.; ...

    2015-06-10

    Real-time energy dispersive x-ray diffraction (EDXRD) analysis has been utilized to observe the selenization of Cu-Zn-Sn-S nanoparticle films coated from three nanoparticle populations: Cu- and Sn-rich particles roughly 5 nm in size, Zn-rich nanoparticles ranging from 10 to 20 nm in diameter, and a mixture of both types of nanoparticles (roughly 1:1 by mass), which corresponds to a synthesis recipe yielding CZTSSe solar cells with reported total-area efficiencies as high as 7.9%. The EDXRD studies presented herein show that the formation of copper selenide intermediates during the selenization of mixed-particle films can be primarily attributed to the small, Cu- andmore » Sn-rich particles. Moreover, the formation of these copper selenide phases represents the first stage of the CZTSSe grain growth mechanism. The large, Zn-rich particles subsequently contribute their composition to form micrometer-sized CZTSSe grains. In conclusion, these findings enable further development of a previously proposed selenization pathway to account for the roles of interparticle heterogeneities, which in turn provides a valuable guide for future optimization of processes to synthesize high quality CZTSSe absorber layers.« less

  20. The role of interparticle heterogeneities in the selenization pathway of Cu-Zn-Sn-S nanoparticle thin films: A real-time study

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Nathaniel J.; Mainz, Roland; Walker, Bryce C.; Hages, Charles J.; Just, Justus; Klaus, Manuela; Schmidt, Sebastian S.; Weber, Alfons; Yang, Wei -Chang D.; Zander, Ole; Stach, Eric A.; Unold, Thomas; Agrawal, Rakesh

    2015-06-10

    Real-time energy dispersive x-ray diffraction (EDXRD) analysis has been utilized to observe the selenization of Cu-Zn-Sn-S nanoparticle films coated from three nanoparticle populations: Cu- and Sn-rich particles roughly 5 nm in size, Zn-rich nanoparticles ranging from 10 to 20 nm in diameter, and a mixture of both types of nanoparticles (roughly 1:1 by mass), which corresponds to a synthesis recipe yielding CZTSSe solar cells with reported total-area efficiencies as high as 7.9%. The EDXRD studies presented herein show that the formation of copper selenide intermediates during the selenization of mixed-particle films can be primarily attributed to the small, Cu- and Sn-rich particles. Moreover, the formation of these copper selenide phases represents the first stage of the CZTSSe grain growth mechanism. The large, Zn-rich particles subsequently contribute their composition to form micrometer-sized CZTSSe grains. In conclusion, these findings enable further development of a previously proposed selenization pathway to account for the roles of interparticle heterogeneities, which in turn provides a valuable guide for future optimization of processes to synthesize high quality CZTSSe absorber layers.

  1. Real-Time Ada Problem Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-24

    define this set of problems. The authors were chosen because of their proven expertise in real-time development with Ada. They could enrich the results of...for Real-Time Embedded Systems". LabTek Corporation, the author , had proven expertise in embedded system design utilizing Motorola MC680XO- based...processors. The second report is entitledSoftware Enineering Problems Using Ada in Computers Integral to Weapons Systems. Its author , Sonicraft, had

  2. Studies on Geometries for Inducing Homogeneous Magnetic Fields in the Application of Real Time Imaging of Steel Reinforcing Bars Embedded Within Pre-Stressed and Reinforced Concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Quek, S.; Benitez, D.; Gaydecki, P.; Torres, V.

    2006-03-06

    This paper addresses fundamental issues associated with the development of a real time inductive scanning system for non-destructive testing of pre-stressed and reinforced concrete. Simulated results has indicated that given a coil dimension of 300mmx300mmx2.5mm, 10mm rebars can be imaged down to a depth of 100 mm. Studies also indicate that the vertical component of the induced magnetic field is most favourable as it can be readily reconstructed to yield geometry and dimensional information pertaining to the rebar structure.

  3. Real Time Network Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-12

    Demonstrate a simple system Conduct a feasibility assessment of data storage, maintenance, and integration requirements Test a web-based data feed...Real Time Network Assessment Prototype We demonstrated the feasibility of linking near real time network analytics to mashups and web- based...combining similar concepts into single node) Stemmers Thesauri application Network position Statistical common patterns Pronoun identification

  4. The relationship between gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori in formaldehyde fixed paraffin embedded gastric tissues of gastric cancer patients-scorpion real-time PCR assay findings.

    PubMed

    Naserpour Farivar, Taghi; Johari, Pouran; Najafipour, Reza; Farzam, Amir; Nasirian, Neda; HajManouchehri, Fatemeh; Jahani Hashemi, Hassan; Azimi, Akram; Bahrami, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide and it seems that environmental and lifestyle factors and infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) have had a major role in the etiology of gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of H. pylori DNA in archival gastric tissues of patients with gastric cancer disease by rapid, sensitive and specific technique of Scorpion Realtime PCR. This retrospective cross-sectional study was performed on 285 paraffin embedded gastric specimens of patients who were pathologically proved for gastric cancer admitted in Bou-Ali, Shahid Rajaie and Dehkhoda hospitals and Bahar and Farzam private laboratory in Qazvin city in Iran during 2009 and 150 paraffin embedded pathological specimens of patients with other proved diagnosis other than gastric cancer. Results of our Scorpion Realtime PCR analysis showed that DNA of H. pylori DNA was present in 78.42% of our total specimens. Modified McMullen's Staining of paraffin embedded sections was positive in 210 patients. Also we were not able to finding significant relationship between demographic characteristics of our studied patients and presence of H. pylori DNA in their formaldehyde fixed paraffin embedded gastric tissues samples. Existence of H. pylori in gastric tissue samples of patients with gastric cancer is controversial and our results indicated that in our studied specimens prevalence of H. pylori was significantly more than recent published reports.

  5. Embedded Electro-Optic Sensor Network for the On-Site Calibration and Real-Time Performance Monitoring of Large-Scale Phased Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-09

    This final report summarizes the progress during the Phase I SBIR project entitled "Embedded Electro - Optic Sensor Network for the On-Site Calibration...sensor network based on an electro - optic field-detection technique (the Electro - optic Sensor Network, or ESN) for the performance evaluation of phased

  6. A Reinforcement Sensor Embedded Vertical Handoff Controller for Vehicular Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Limin; Xu, Yubin; Soong, Boon-Hee; Ma, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Vehicular communication platforms that provide real-time access to wireless networks have drawn more and more attention in recent years. IEEE 802.11p is the main radio access technology that supports communication for high mobility terminals, however, due to its limited coverage, IEEE 802.11p is usually deployed by coupling with cellular networks to achieve seamless mobility. In a heterogeneous cellular/802.11p network, vehicular communication is characterized by its short time span in association with a wireless local area network (WLAN). Moreover, for the media access control (MAC) scheme used for WLAN, the network throughput dramatically decreases with increasing user quantity. In response to these compelling problems, we propose a reinforcement sensor (RFS) embedded vertical handoff control strategy to support mobility management. The RFS has online learning capability and can provide optimal handoff decisions in an adaptive fashion without prior knowledge. The algorithm integrates considerations including vehicular mobility, traffic load, handoff latency, and network status. Simulation results verify that the proposed algorithm can adaptively adjust the handoff strategy, allowing users to stay connected to the best network. Furthermore, the algorithm can ensure that RSUs are adequate, thereby guaranteeing a high quality user experience. PMID:24193101

  7. Real-time radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Bossi, R.H.; Oien, C.T.

    1981-02-26

    Real-time radiography is used for imaging both dynamic events and static objects. Fluorescent screens play an important role in converting radiation to light, which is then observed directly or intensified and detected. The radiographic parameters for real-time radiography are similar to conventional film radiography with special emphasis on statistics and magnification. Direct-viewing fluoroscopy uses the human eye as a detector of fluorescent screen light or the light from an intensifier. Remote-viewing systems replace the human observer with a television camera. The remote-viewing systems have many advantages over the direct-viewing conditions such as safety, image enhancement, and the capability to produce permanent records. This report reviews real-time imaging system parameters and components.

  8. Real time obscuration monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agricola, Koos

    2016-09-01

    Recently a real time particle deposition monitoring system is developed. After discussions with optical system engineers a new feature has been added. This enables the real time monitoring of obscuration of exposed optical components by counting the deposited particles and sizing the obscuration area of each particle. This way the Particle Obscuration Rate (POR) can be determined. The POR can be used to determine the risk of product contamination during exposure. The particle size distribution gives information on the type of potential particle sources. The deposition moments will indicate when these sources were present.

  9. The LAA real-time benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Block, R.K.; Krischer, W.; Lone, S.

    1989-04-01

    In the context of the LAA detector development program a subgroup Real Time Data Processing has tackled the problem of intelligent triggering. The main goal of this group is to show how fast digital devices, implemented as custom-made or commercial processors, can execute some basic algorithms, and how they can be embedded in the data flow between detector readout components and fully programmable commercial processors, which are expected to be the final data processing filter in real time.

  10. Evaluation of MDM2 and CDK4 amplification by real-time PCR on paraffin wax-embedded material: a potential tool for the diagnosis of atypical lipomatous tumours/well-differentiated liposarcomas.

    PubMed

    Hostein, I; Pelmus, M; Aurias, A; Pedeutour, F; Mathoulin-Pélissier, S; Coindre, J M

    2004-01-01

    Atypical lipomatous tumours/well-differentiated liposarcomas and dedifferentiated liposarcomas are characterized by 12q13-15 region amplification. In contrast, this molecular event has not been reported in benign lipomas. Within the 12q13-15 chromosomal region, the MDM2, SAS, HMGA2, and CDK4 genes are the most frequent targets of amplification. A series of lipomas (36 cases) and liposarcomas (48 cases) was analysed for MDM2 and CDK4 gene amplification by real-time PCR. MDM2 and CDK4 gene amplification was detected in 2.8% and 5.6% of lipomas and 98.2% and 82.4% of liposarcomas, respectively. Moreover, co-amplification of the two genes as well as a higher-level amplification was observed more frequently in dedifferentiated liposarcomas than in atypical lipomatous tumours/well-differentiated liposarcomas. Real-time PCR proved to be a fast and reliable method to characterize lipomas and liposarcomas by quantification of MDM2 and CDK4 gene amplification. It is applicable to paraffin wax-embedded tissues and could be useful when histological diagnosis is difficult. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. A laparoscopic applicator probe for real-time en-face mapping of near-surface optical sources of heterogeneity over a 1cm instrument-tip-size field-of-view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piao, Daqing; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Holyoak, G. Reed; Patel, Sanjay

    2017-02-01

    Surgeons operating laparoscopically often have to rely upon subjective visual cues for complete oncological control and avoiding tumor violation or iatrogenic injury to critical tissues. A laparoscopic imaging tool to allow assessment of tumor margin or identification of anatomical structures buried under the layer of tissue being dissected is desirable to probe tissue contrast at a few millimeters depth, visualize over the lateral view for resection guidance, have a non-microscopic field-of-view (FOV) adequate for rapid survey of the resection site, and form the image in real-time. Probing light diffusely propagated through tissue provides sub-surface sensitivity, but the image formation generally involves intense computation that may be costly to intraoperative time-frame. Projecting these modalities laparoscopically to sample subsurface tissue heterogeneity over a non-microscopic FOV for rapid site-survey has been challenging. We demonstrate a laparoscopic applicator probe and a method thereof for real-time en-face mapping of near-surface heterogeneity for potential use towards intraoperative margin assessment. The probe fits a 12mm port and houses at 128 copper-coated 750μm fibers that form radially alternating illumination (70 fibers) and detection (58 fibers) channels. By simultaneously illuminating the 70 source channels of the laparoscopic probe that is in contact with a scattering medium and concurrently measuring the light diffusely propagated to the 58 detector channels, the presence of near-surface optical heterogeneities can be resolved in an en-face 9.5mm field-of-view in real-time. Visualization of subsurface margin of strong attenuation contrast at a depth up to 3mm is demonstrated at a frame rate of 1.25Hz.

  12. Real-Time PCR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evrard, A.; Boulle, N.; Lutfalla, G. S.

    Over the past few years there has been a considerable development of DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and real-time PCR has now superseded conventional PCR techniques in many areas, e.g., the quantification of nucleic acids and genotyping. This new approach is based on the detection and quantification of a fluorescent signal proportional to the amount of amplicons generated by PCR. Real-time detection is achieved by coupling a thermocycler with a fluorimeter. This chapter discusses the general principles of quantitative real-time PCR, the different steps involved in implementing the technique, and some examples of applications in medicine. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) provides a way of obtaining a large number of copies of a double-stranded DNA fragment of known sequence. This DNA amplification technique, developed in 1985 by K. Mullis (Cetus Corporation), saw a spectacular development over the space of a few years, revolutionising the methods used up to then in molecular biology. Indeed, PCR has many applications, such as the detection of small amounts of DNA, cloning, and quantitative analysis (assaying), each of which will be discussed further below.

  13. Real-time cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quercellini, Claudia; Amendola, Luca; Balbi, Amedeo; Cabella, Paolo; Quartin, Miguel

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, improved astrometric and spectroscopic techniques have opened the possibility of measuring the temporal change of radial and transverse position of sources in the sky over relatively short time intervals. This has made at least conceivable to establish a novel research domain, which we dub “real-time cosmology”. We review for the first time most of the work already done in this field, analysing the theoretical framework as well as some foreseeable observational strategies and their capability to constrain models. We first focus on real-time measurements of the overall redshift drift and angular separation shift in distant sources, which allows the observer to trace the background cosmic expansion and large scale anisotropy, respectively. We then examine the possibility of employing the same kind of observations to probe peculiar and proper accelerations in clustered systems, and therefore their gravitational potential. The last two sections are devoted to the future change of the cosmic microwave background on “short” time scales, as well as to the temporal shift of the temperature anisotropy power spectrum and maps. We conclude revisiting in this context the usefulness of upcoming experiments (like CODEX and Gaia) for real-time observations.

  14. Real-Time Revolution?

    PubMed

    Berlin, Joey

    2016-03-01

    Austin Regional Clinic (ARC) physicians and officials know patient feedback is important, but getting patients to provide it can be a challenge. A pilot program of a new, real-time feedback system provided ARC patients a high-tech convenience previous attempts lacked and produced participation numbers dwarfing those past efforts. ARC's initial results with the system, in which patients answer five to seven questions on a computer tablet and can leave free-text comments, were so successful the clinic is already planning to expand it to all of its locations by the end of June.

  15. Real time Faraday spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Tommy E.; Struve, Kenneth W.; Colella, Nicholas J.

    1991-01-01

    This invention uses a dipole magnet to bend the path of a charged particle beam. As the deflected particles exit the magnet, they are spatially dispersed in the bend-plane of the magnet according to their respective momenta and pass to a plurality of chambers having Faraday probes positioned therein. Both the current and energy distribution of the particles is then determined by the non-intersecting Faraday probes located along the chambers. The Faraday probes are magnetically isolated from each other by thin metal walls of the chambers, effectively providing real time current-versus-energy particle measurements.

  16. Cell-cycle fate-monitoring distinguishes individual chemosensitive and chemoresistant cancer cells in drug-treated heterogeneous populations demonstrated by real-time FUCCI imaging.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Shinji; Yano, Shuya; Kimura, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Mako; Toneri, Makoto; Matsumoto, Yasunori; Uehara, Fuminari; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Murakami, Takashi; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Yamamoto, Norio; Bouvet, Michael; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Essentially every population of cancer cells within a tumor is heterogeneous, especially with regard to chemosensitivity and resistance. In the present study, we utilized the fluorescence ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (FUCCI) imaging system to investigate the correlation between cell-cycle behavior and apoptosis after treatment of cancer cells with chemotherapeutic drugs. HeLa cells expressing FUCCI were treated with doxorubicin (DOX) (5 μM) or cisplatinum (CDDP) (5 μM) for 3 h. Cell-cycle progression and apoptosis were monitored by time-lapse FUCCI imaging for 72 h. Time-lapse FUCCI imaging demonstrated that both DOX and CDDP could induce cell cycle arrest in S/G2/M in almost all the cells, but a subpopulation of the cells could escape the block and undergo mitosis. The subpopulation which went through mitosis subsequently underwent apoptosis, while the cells arrested in S/G2/M survived. The present results demonstrate that chemoresistant cells can be readily identified in a heterogeneous population of cancer cells by S/G2/M arrest, which can serve in future studies as a visible target for novel agents that kill cell-cycle-arrested cells.

  17. Real time automated inspection

    DOEpatents

    Fant, K.M.; Fundakowski, R.A.; Levitt, T.S.; Overland, J.E.; Suresh, B.R.; Ulrich, F.W.

    1985-05-21

    A method and apparatus are described relating to the real time automatic detection and classification of characteristic type surface imperfections occurring on the surfaces of material of interest such as moving hot metal slabs produced by a continuous steel caster. A data camera transversely scans continuous lines of such a surface to sense light intensities of scanned pixels and generates corresponding voltage values. The voltage values are converted to corresponding digital values to form a digital image of the surface which is subsequently processed to form an edge-enhanced image having scan lines characterized by intervals corresponding to the edges of the image. The edge-enhanced image is thresholded to segment out the edges and objects formed by the edges by interval matching and bin tracking. Features of the objects are derived and such features are utilized to classify the objects into characteristic type surface imperfections. 43 figs.

  18. Real time automated inspection

    DOEpatents

    Fant, Karl M.; Fundakowski, Richard A.; Levitt, Tod S.; Overland, John E.; Suresh, Bindinganavle R.; Ulrich, Franz W.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus relating to the real time automatic detection and classification of characteristic type surface imperfections occurring on the surfaces of material of interest such as moving hot metal slabs produced by a continuous steel caster. A data camera transversely scans continuous lines of such a surface to sense light intensities of scanned pixels and generates corresponding voltage values. The voltage values are converted to corresponding digital values to form a digital image of the surface which is subsequently processed to form an edge-enhanced image having scan lines characterized by intervals corresponding to the edges of the image. The edge-enhanced image is thresholded to segment out the edges and objects formed by the edges are segmented out by interval matching and bin tracking. Features of the objects are derived and such features are utilized to classify the objects into characteristic type surface imperfections.

  19. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plattsmier, George; Stetson, Howard

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto- Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  20. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plattsmier, George I.; Stetson, Howard K.

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto-Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner- TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  1. Real time polarimetric dehazing.

    PubMed

    Mudge, Jason; Virgen, Miguel

    2013-03-20

    Remote sensing is a rich topic due to its utility in gathering detailed accurate information from locations that are not economically feasible traveling destinations or are physically inaccessible. However, poor visibility over long path lengths is problematic for a variety of reasons. Haze induced by light scatter is one cause for poor visibility and is the focus of this article. Image haze comes about as a result of light scattering off particles and into the imaging path causing a haziness to appear on the image. Image processing using polarimetric information of light scatter can be used to mitigate image haze. An imaging polarimeter which provides the Stokes values in real time combined with a "dehazing" algorithm can automate image haze removal for instant applications. Example uses are to improve visual display providing on-the-spot detection or imbedding in an active control loop to improve viewing and tracking while on a moving platform. In addition, removing haze in this manner allows the trade space for a system operational waveband to be opened up to bands which are object matched and not necessarily restricted by scatter effects.

  2. A Study of Heterogeneous Catalysis by Nanoparticle-Embedded Paper-Spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Shibdas; Basheer, Chanbasha; Zare, Richard N

    2016-10-04

    We have developed nanoparticle-embedded paper-spray mass spectrometry for studying three types of heterogeneously catalyzed reactions: 1) Palladium-nanoparticle-catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling reactions, 2) palladium- or silver-nanoparticle-catalyzed 4-nitrophenol reduction, and 3) gold-nanoparticle-catalyzed glucose oxidation. These reactions were almost instantaneous on the nanocatalyst-embedded paper, which subsequently transferred the transient intermediates and products to a mass spectrometer for their detection. This in situ method of capturing transient intermediates and products from heterogeneous catalysis is highly promising for investigating the mechanism of catalysis and rapidly screening catalytic activity under ambient conditions.

  3. Embedded Learning Strategy Instruction: Story-Structure Pedagogy in Heterogeneous Secondary Literature Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faggella-Luby, Michael; Schumaker, Jean S.; Deshler, Donald D.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of using the Embedded Story-Structure (ESS) Routine in a literature course were investigated. A heterogeneous group of 79 ninth graders, including 14 students with LD, were randomly assigned to one of two conditions, with instruction occurring in groups of 12 to 14 students in general education literature classes over a nine-day…

  4. Comparison of the QuantiGene 2.0 Assay and Real-Time RT-PCR in the Detection of p53 Isoform mRNA Expression in Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissues- A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Morten, Brianna C.; Scott, Rodney J.; Avery-Kiejda, Kelly A.

    2016-01-01

    p53 is expressed as multiple smaller isoforms whose functions in cancer are not well understood. The p53 isoforms demonstrate abnormal expression in different cancers, suggesting they are important in modulating the function of full-length p53 (FLp53). The quantification of relative mRNA expression has routinely been performed using real-time PCR (qPCR). However, there are serious limitations when detecting p53 isoforms using this method, particularly for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. The use of FFPE tumours would be advantageous to correlate expression of p53 isoforms with important clinical features of cancer. One alternative method of RNA detection is the hybridization-based QuantiGene 2.0 Assay, which has been shown to be advantageous for the detection of RNA from FFPE tissues. In this pilot study, we compared the QuantiGene 2.0 Assay to qPCR for the detection of FLp53 and its isoform Δ40p53 in matched fresh frozen (FF) and FFPE breast tumours. FLp53 mRNA expression was detected using qPCR in FF and FFPE tissues, but Δ40p53 mRNA was only detectable in FF tissues. Similar results were obtained for the QuantiGene 2.0 Assay. FLp53 relative mRNA expression was shown to be strongly correlated between the two methods (R2 = 0.9927, p = 0.0031) in FF tissues, however Δ40p53 was not (R2 = 0.4429, p = 0.3345). When comparing the different methods for the detection of FLp53 mRNA from FFPE and FF samples, no correlation (R2 = 0.0002, p = 0.9863) was shown using the QuantiGene 2.0 Assay, and in contrast, the level of expression was highly correlated between the two tissues using qPCR (R2 = 0.8753, p = 0.0644). These results suggest that both the QuantiGene 2.0 Assay and qPCR methods are inadequate for the quantification of Δ40p53 mRNA in FFPE tissues. Therefore, alternative methods of RNA detection and quantification are required to study the relative expression of Δ40p53 in FFPE samples. PMID:27832134

  5. Large-scale monocular FastSLAM2.0 acceleration on an embedded heterogeneous architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abouzahir, Mohamed; Elouardi, Abdelhafid; Bouaziz, Samir; Latif, Rachid; Tajer, Abdelouahed

    2016-12-01

    Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) is widely used in many robotic applications and autonomous navigation. This paper presents a study of FastSLAM2.0 computational complexity based on a monocular vision system. The algorithm is intended to operate with many particles in a large-scale environment. FastSLAM2.0 was partitioned into functional blocks allowing a hardware software matching on a CPU-GPGPU-based SoC architecture. Performances in terms of processing time and localization accuracy were evaluated using a real indoor dataset. Results demonstrate that an optimized and efficient CPU-GPGPU partitioning allows performing accurate localization results and high-speed execution of a monocular FastSLAM2.0-based embedded system operating under real-time constraints.

  6. Real-time flutter identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, R.; Walker, R.

    1985-01-01

    The techniques and a FORTRAN 77 MOdal Parameter IDentification (MOPID) computer program developed for identification of the frequencies and damping ratios of multiple flutter modes in real time are documented. Physically meaningful model parameterization was combined with state of the art recursive identification techniques and applied to the problem of real time flutter mode monitoring. The performance of the algorithm in terms of convergence speed and parameter estimation error is demonstrated for several simulated data cases, and the results of actual flight data analysis from two different vehicles are presented. It is indicated that the algorithm is capable of real time monitoring of aircraft flutter characteristics with a high degree of reliability.

  7. Real-time software receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledvina, Brent M. (Inventor); Psiaki, Mark L. (Inventor); Powell, Steven P. (Inventor); Kintner, Jr., Paul M. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A real-time software receiver that executes on a general purpose processor. The software receiver includes data acquisition and correlator modules that perform, in place of hardware correlation, baseband mixing and PRN code correlation using bit-wise parallelism.

  8. Real-time software receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledvina, Brent M. (Inventor); Psiaki, Mark L. (Inventor); Powell, Steven P. (Inventor); Kintner, Jr., Paul M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A real-time software receiver that executes on a general purpose processor. The software receiver includes data acquisition and correlator modules that perform, in place of hardware correlation, baseband mixing and PRN code correlation using bit-wise parallelism.

  9. Real Time Conference 2014 Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomachi, Masaharu

    2015-06-01

    This article presents an overview of the 19th Real Time Conference held last May 26-30, 2014, at the Nara Prefectural New Public Hall, Nara, Japan, organized by the Research Center for Nuclear Physics of the Osaka University. The program included many invited talks and oral sessions offering an extensive overview on the following topics: real-time system architectures, intelligent signal processing, fast data transfer links and networks, trigger systems, data acquisition, processing-farms, control, monitoring and test systems, emerging real-time technologies, new standards, real-time safety and security, and some feedback on experiences. In parallel to the oral and poster presentations, industrial exhibits by companies, workshops and short courses also ran through the week.

  10. Real Time Data System (RTDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muratore, John F.

    1991-01-01

    Lessons learned from operational real time expert systems are examined. The basic system architecture is discussed. An expert system is any software that performs tasks to a standard that would normally require a human expert. An expert system implies knowledge contained in data rather than code. And an expert system implies the use of heuristics as well as algorithms. The 15 top lessons learned by the operation of a real time data system are presented.

  11. Real-time vision systems

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Lu, Shin-yee

    1994-11-15

    Many industrial and defence applications require an ability to make instantaneous decisions based on sensor input of a time varying process. Such systems are referred to as `real-time systems` because they process and act on data as it occurs in time. When a vision sensor is used in a real-time system, the processing demands can be quite substantial, with typical data rates of 10-20 million samples per second. A real-time Machine Vision Laboratory (MVL) was established in FY94 to extend our years of experience in developing computer vision algorithms to include the development and implementation of real-time vision systems. The laboratory is equipped with a variety of hardware components, including Datacube image acquisition and processing boards, a Sun workstation, and several different types of CCD cameras, including monochrome and color area cameras and analog and digital line-scan cameras. The equipment is reconfigurable for prototyping different applications. This facility has been used to support several programs at LLNL, including O Division`s Peacemaker and Deadeye Projects as well as the CRADA with the U.S. Textile Industry, CAFE (Computer Aided Fabric Inspection). To date, we have successfully demonstrated several real-time applications: bullet tracking, stereo tracking and ranging, and web inspection. This work has been documented in the ongoing development of a real-time software library.

  12. Subsystem real-time time dependent density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Krishtal, Alisa; Ceresoli, Davide; Pavanello, Michele

    2015-04-21

    We present the extension of Frozen Density Embedding (FDE) formulation of subsystem Density Functional Theory (DFT) to real-time Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (rt-TDDFT). FDE is a DFT-in-DFT embedding method that allows to partition a larger Kohn-Sham system into a set of smaller, coupled Kohn-Sham systems. Additional to the computational advantage, FDE provides physical insight into the properties of embedded systems and the coupling interactions between them. The extension to rt-TDDFT is done straightforwardly by evolving the Kohn-Sham subsystems in time simultaneously, while updating the embedding potential between the systems at every time step. Two main applications are presented: the explicit excitation energy transfer in real time between subsystems is demonstrated for the case of the Na4 cluster and the effect of the embedding on optical spectra of coupled chromophores. In particular, the importance of including the full dynamic response in the embedding potential is demonstrated.

  13. Subsystem real-time time dependent density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishtal, Alisa; Ceresoli, Davide; Pavanello, Michele

    2015-04-01

    We present the extension of Frozen Density Embedding (FDE) formulation of subsystem Density Functional Theory (DFT) to real-time Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (rt-TDDFT). FDE is a DFT-in-DFT embedding method that allows to partition a larger Kohn-Sham system into a set of smaller, coupled Kohn-Sham systems. Additional to the computational advantage, FDE provides physical insight into the properties of embedded systems and the coupling interactions between them. The extension to rt-TDDFT is done straightforwardly by evolving the Kohn-Sham subsystems in time simultaneously, while updating the embedding potential between the systems at every time step. Two main applications are presented: the explicit excitation energy transfer in real time between subsystems is demonstrated for the case of the Na4 cluster and the effect of the embedding on optical spectra of coupled chromophores. In particular, the importance of including the full dynamic response in the embedding potential is demonstrated.

  14. HEVC real-time decoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bross, Benjamin; Alvarez-Mesa, Mauricio; George, Valeri; Chi, Chi Ching; Mayer, Tobias; Juurlink, Ben; Schierl, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    The new High Efficiency Video Coding Standard (HEVC) was finalized in January 2013. Compared to its predecessor H.264 / MPEG4-AVC, this new international standard is able to reduce the bitrate by 50% for the same subjective video quality. This paper investigates decoder optimizations that are needed to achieve HEVC real-time software decoding on a mobile processor. It is shown that HEVC real-time decoding up to high definition video is feasible using instruction extensions of the processor while decoding 4K ultra high definition video in real-time requires additional parallel processing. For parallel processing, a picture-level parallel approach has been chosen because it is generic and does not require bitstreams with special indication.

  15. Dependable Real-Time Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-30

    and F. Wang, "On thle Competitiveness of On-Line Real-Time Task Sc~eduling," to appear. Proc. Icai - Time Systemns Symposium, Dec 1991. 6. Biyabaiii, S...Stankovic, and K. Ramrnamritham, "System Support for lRal-’Vi111C Al: A Spring Project Perspective," Workshop on Real-Time .A1, ICAI ., August 198!). 29...Informatics, Computer S,,iety ,f India , t,, aptpear. 41 . Shilh, C. and J. A. Stankovic, "Distributed Deadlock Detection in Ada IRuntinv En vi- ronments," TRI

  16. Real-Time Surface Traffic Adviser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian J. (Inventor); Spirkovska, Liljana (Inventor); McDermott, William J. (Inventor); Reisman, Ronald J. (Inventor); Gibson, James (Inventor); Iverson, David L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A real-time data management system which uses data generated at different rates by multiple heterogeneous incompatible data sources are presented. In one embodiment, the invention is as an airport surface traffic data management system (traffic adviser) that electronically interconnects air traffic control, airline, and airport operations user communities to facilitate information sharing and improve taxi queuing. The system uses an expert system to fuse dam from a variety of airline, airport operations, ramp control, and air traffic control sources, in order to establish, predict, and update reference data values for every aircraft surface operation.

  17. Real Time Conference 2016 Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchetta, Adriano

    2017-06-01

    This is a special issue of the IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science containing papers from the invited, oral, and poster presentation of the 20th Real Time Conference (RT2016). The conference was held June 6-10, 2016, at Centro Congressi Padova “A. Luciani,” Padova, Italy, and was organized by Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA) and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare. The Real Time Conference is multidisciplinary and focuses on the latest developments in real-time techniques in high-energy physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics and astroparticle physics, nuclear fusion, medical physics, space instrumentation, nuclear power instrumentation, general radiation instrumentation, and real-time security and safety. Taking place every second year, it is sponsored by the Computer Application in Nuclear and Plasma Sciences technical committee of the IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society. RT2016 attracted more than 240 registrants, with a large proportion of young researchers and engineers. It had an attendance of 67 students from many countries.

  18. Real Time Sonic Boom Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering, Ed

    2014-01-01

    This presentation will provide general information about sonic boom mitigation technology to the public in order to supply information to potential partners and licensees. The technology is a combination of flight data, atmospheric data and terrain information implemented into a control room real time display for flight planning. This research is currently being performed and as such, any results and conclusions are ongoing.

  19. POSIX real-time extensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, Henry H.

    1992-01-01

    POSIX is an evolving set of operating system interface standards, whose parts are in varying stages of production in a number of standards working groups. This presentation separates the real-time POSIX standards work in process from the rest and provides an overview of the purpose, status, dependencies, content, and project schedule of each.

  20. Exploring the Possibilities of Embedding Heterogeneous Data Attributes in Familiar Visualizations.

    PubMed

    Loorak, Mona Hosseinkhani; Perin, Charles; Collins, Christopher; Carpendale, Sheelagh

    2017-01-01

    Heterogeneous multi-dimensional data are now sufficiently common that they can be referred to as ubiquitous. The most frequent approach to visualizing these data has been to propose new visualizations for representing these data. These new solutions are often inventive but tend to be unfamiliar. We take a different approach. We explore the possibility of extending well-known and familiar visualizations through including Heterogeneous Embedded Data Attributes (HEDA) in order to make familiar visualizations more powerful. We demonstrate how HEDA is a generic, interactive visualization component that can extend common visualization techniques while respecting the structure of the familiar layout. HEDA is a tabular visualization building block that enables individuals to visually observe, explore, and query their familiar visualizations through manipulation of embedded multivariate data. We describe the design space of HEDA by exploring its application to familiar visualizations in the D3 gallery. We characterize these familiar visualizations by the extent to which HEDA can facilitate data queries based on attribute reordering.

  1. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  2. Real Time Data Analysis Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silberberg, George G.

    1983-03-01

    By the early 1970s, classical photo-optical range instrumentation technology (as a means of gathering weapons' system performance data) had become a costly and inefficient process. Film costs were increasing due to soaring silver prices. Time required to process, read, and produce optical data was becoming unacceptable as a means of supporting weapon system development programs. NWC investigated the feasibility of utilizing Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) technology as an alternative solution for providing optical data. In 1978 a program entitled Metric Video (measurements from video images) was formulated at the Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, California. The purpose of this program was to provide timely data, to reduce the number of operating personnel, and to lower data acquisition costs. Some of the task elements for this program included a near real-time vector miss-distance system, a weapons scoring system, a velocity measuring system, a time-space position system, and a system to replace film cameras for gathering real-time engineering sequential data. These task elements and the development of special hardware and techniques to achieve real-time data will be discussed briefly in this paper.

  3. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  4. In-line real time air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Wise, Marcus B.; Thompson, Cyril V.

    1998-01-01

    An in-line gas monitor capable of accurate gas composition analysis in a continuous real time manner even under strong applied vacuum conditions operates by mixing an air sample with helium forming a sample gas in two complementary sample loops embedded in a manifold which includes two pairs of 3-way solenoid valves. The sample gas is then analyzed in an ion trap mass spectrometer on a continuous basis. Two valve drivers actuate the two pairs of 3-way valves in a reciprocating fashion, so that there is always flow through the in-line gas monitor via one or the other of the sample loops. The duty cycle for the two pairs of 3-way valves is varied by tuning the two valve drivers to a duty cycle typically between 0.2 to 0.7 seconds.

  5. In-line real time air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Wise, M.B.; Thompson, C.V.

    1998-07-14

    An in-line gas monitor capable of accurate gas composition analysis in a continuous real time manner even under strong applied vacuum conditions operates by mixing an air sample with helium forming a sample gas in two complementary sample loops embedded in a manifold which includes two pairs of 3-way solenoid valves. The sample gas is then analyzed in an ion trap mass spectrometer on a continuous basis. Two valve drivers actuate the two pairs of 3-way valves in a reciprocating fashion, so that there is always flow through the in-line gas monitor via one or the other of the sample loops. The duty cycle for the two pairs of 3-way valves is varied by tuning the two valve drivers to a duty cycle typically between 0.2 to 0.7 seconds. 3 figs.

  6. A Flexible Real-Time Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    WICKSTROM,GREGORY L.

    2000-08-17

    Assuring hard real-time characteristics of I/O associated with embedded software is often a difficult task. Input-Output related statements are often intermixed with the computational code, resulting in I/O timing that is dependent on the execution path and computational load. One way to mitigate this problem is through the use of interrupts. However, the non-determinism that is introduced by interrupt driven I/O may be so difficult to analyze that it is prohibited in some high consequence systems. This paper describes a balanced hardware/software solution to obtain consistent interrupt-free I/O timing, and results in software that is much more amenable to analysis.

  7. A Comprehensive Software System for Interactive, Real-time, Visual 3D Deterministic and Stochastic Groundwater Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.

    2002-05-01

    Taking advantage of the recent developments in groundwater modeling research and computer, image and graphics processing, and objected oriented programming technologies, Dr. Li and his research group have recently developed a comprehensive software system for unified deterministic and stochastic groundwater modeling. Characterized by a new real-time modeling paradigm and improved computational algorithms, the software simulates 3D unsteady flow and reactive transport in general groundwater formations subject to both systematic and "randomly" varying stresses and geological and chemical heterogeneity. The software system has following distinct features and capabilities: Interactive simulation and real time visualization and animation of flow in response to deterministic as well as stochastic stresses. Interactive, visual, and real time particle tracking, random walk, and reactive plume modeling in both systematically and randomly fluctuating flow. Interactive statistical inference, scattered data interpolation, regression, and ordinary and universal Kriging, conditional and unconditional simulation. Real-time, visual and parallel conditional flow and transport simulations. Interactive water and contaminant mass balance analysis and visual and real-time flux update. Interactive, visual, and real time monitoring of head and flux hydrographs and concentration breakthroughs. Real-time modeling and visualization of aquifer transition from confined to unconfined to partially de-saturated or completely dry and rewetting Simultaneous and embedded subscale models, automatic and real-time regional to local data extraction; Multiple subscale flow and transport models Real-time modeling of steady and transient vertical flow patterns on multiple arbitrarily-shaped cross-sections and simultaneous visualization of aquifer stratigraphy, properties, hydrological features (rivers, lakes, wetlands, wells, drains, surface seeps), and dynamically adjusted surface flooding area

  8. Interactive real time flow simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadrehaghighi, I.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1990-01-01

    An interactive real time flow simulation technique is developed for an unsteady channel flow. A finite-volume algorithm in conjunction with a Runge-Kutta time stepping scheme was developed for two-dimensional Euler equations. A global time step was used to accelerate convergence of steady-state calculations. A raster image generation routine was developed for high speed image transmission which allows the user to have direct interaction with the solution development. In addition to theory and results, the hardware and software requirements are discussed.

  9. Real time infrared aerosol analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Stanley A.; Reedy, Gerald T.; Kumar, Romesh

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for analyzing aerosols in essentially real time includes a virtual impactor which separates coarse particles from fine and ultrafine particles in an aerosol sample. The coarse and ultrafine particles are captured in PTFE filters, and the fine particles impact onto an internal light reflection element. The composition and quantity of the particles on the PTFE filter and on the internal reflection element are measured by alternately passing infrared light through the filter and the internal light reflection element, and analyzing the light through infrared spectrophotometry to identify the particles in the sample.

  10. Real-time flutter analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R.; Gupta, N.

    1984-01-01

    The important algorithm issues necessary to achieve a real time flutter monitoring system; namely, the guidelines for choosing appropriate model forms, reduction of the parameter convergence transient, handling multiple modes, the effect of over parameterization, and estimate accuracy predictions, both online and for experiment design are addressed. An approach for efficiently computing continuous-time flutter parameter Cramer-Rao estimate error bounds were developed. This enables a convincing comparison of theoretical and simulation results, as well as offline studies in preparation for a flight test. Theoretical predictions, simulation and flight test results from the NASA Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Test (DAST) Program are compared.

  11. Real-time streamflow conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graczyk, David J.; Gebert, Warren A.

    1996-01-01

    Would you like to know streamflow conditions before you go fishing in Wisconsin or in more distant locations? Real-time streamflow data throughout Wisconsin and the United States are available on the Internet from the U.S. Geological Survey. You can see if the stream you are interested in fishing is high due to recent rain or low because of an extended dry spell. Flow conditions at more than 100 stream-gaging stations located throughout Wisconsin can be viewed by accessing the Wisconsin District Home Page at: http://wwwdwimdn.er.usgs.gov

  12. Real-time pulmonary graphics.

    PubMed

    Mammel, Mark C; Donn, Steven M

    2015-06-01

    Real-time pulmonary graphics now enable clinicians to view lung mechanics and patient-ventilator interactions on a breath-to-breath basis. Displays of pressure, volume, and flow waveforms, pressure-volume and flow-volume loops, and trend screens enable clinicians to customize ventilator settings based on the underlying pathophysiology and responses of the individual patient. This article reviews the basic concepts of pulmonary graphics and demonstrates how they contribute to our understanding of respiratory physiology and the management of neonatal respiratory failure.

  13. Comparison of targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) and real-time PCR in the detection of EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF mutations on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor material of non-small cell lung carcinoma-superiority of NGS.

    PubMed

    Tuononen, Katja; Mäki-Nevala, Satu; Sarhadi, Virinder Kaur; Wirtanen, Aino; Rönty, Mikko; Salmenkivi, Kaisa; Andrews, Jenny M; Telaranta-Keerie, Aino I; Hannula, Sari; Lagström, Sonja; Ellonen, Pekka; Knuuttila, Aija; Knuutila, Sakari

    2013-05-01

    The development of tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatments has made it important to test cancer patients for clinically significant gene mutations that influence the benefit of treatment. Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) provides a promising method for diagnostic purposes by enabling the simultaneous detection of multiple mutations in various genes in a single test. The aim of our study was to screen EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF mutations by targeted NGS and commonly used real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods to evaluate the feasibility of targeted NGS for the detection of the mutations. Furthermore, we aimed to identify potential novel mutations by targeted NGS. We analyzed formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor tissue specimens from 81 non-small cell lung carcinoma patients. We observed a significant concordance (from 96.3 to 100%) of the EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF mutation detection results between targeted NGS and real-time PCR. Moreover, targeted NGS revealed seven nonsynonymous single-nucleotide variations and one insertion-deletion variation in EGFR not detectable by the real-time PCR methods. The potential clinical significance of these variants requires elucidation in future studies. Our results support the use of targeted NGS in the screening of EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF mutations in FFPE tissue material.

  14. Real time analysis under EDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneberk, D.

    1985-07-01

    The analysis component of the Enrichment Diagnostic System (EDS) developed for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is described. Four different types of analysis are performed on data acquired through EDS: (1) absorption spectroscopy on laser-generated spectral lines, (2) mass spectrometer analysis, (3) general purpose waveform analysis, and (4) separation performance calculations. The information produced from this data includes: measures of particle density and velocity, partial pressures of residual gases, and overall measures of isotope enrichment. The analysis component supports a variety of real-time modeling tasks, a means for broadcasting data to other nodes, and a great degree of flexibility for tailoring computations to the exact needs of the process. A particular data base structure and program flow is common to all types of analysis. Key elements of the analysis component are: (1) a fast access data base which can configure all types of analysis, (2) a selected set of analysis routines, (3) a general purpose data manipulation and graphics package for the results of real time analysis.

  15. Real-time analysis keratometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adachi, Iwao P. (Inventor); Adachi, Yoshifumi (Inventor); Frazer, Robert E. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A computer assisted keratometer in which a fiducial line pattern reticle illuminated by CW or pulsed laser light is projected on a corneal surface through lenses, a prismoidal beamsplitter quarterwave plate, and objective optics. The reticle surface is curved as a conjugate of an ideal corneal curvature. The fiducial image reflected from the cornea undergoes a polarization shift through the quarterwave plate and beamsplitter whereby the projected and reflected beams are separated and directed orthogonally. The reflected beam fiducial pattern forms a moire pattern with a replica of the first recticle. This moire pattern contains transverse aberration due to differences in curvature between the cornea and the ideal corneal curvature. The moire pattern is analyzed in real time by computer which displays either the CW moire pattern or a pulsed mode analysis of the transverse aberration of the cornea under observation, in real time. With the eye focused on a plurality of fixation points in succession, a survey of the entire corneal topography is made and a contour map or three dimensional plot of the cornea can be made as a computer readout in addition to corneal radius and refractive power analysis.

  16. Real time analysis under EDS

    SciTech Connect

    Schneberk, D.

    1985-07-01

    This paper describes the analysis component of the Enrichment Diagnostic System (EDS) developed for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Four different types of analysis are performed on data acquired through EDS: (1) absorption spectroscopy on laser-generated spectral lines, (2) mass spectrometer analysis, (3) general purpose waveform analysis, and (4) separation performance calculations. The information produced from this data includes: measures of particle density and velocity, partial pressures of residual gases, and overall measures of isotope enrichment. The analysis component supports a variety of real-time modeling tasks, a means for broadcasting data to other nodes, and a great degree of flexibility for tailoring computations to the exact needs of the process. A particular data base structure and program flow is common to all types of analysis. Key elements of the analysis component are: (1) a fast access data base which can configure all types of analysis, (2) a selected set of analysis routines, (3) a general purpose data manipulation and graphics package for the results of real time analysis. Each of these components are described with an emphasis upon how each contributes to overall system capability. 3 figs.

  17. Real-time flood forecasting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lai, C.; Tsay, T.-K.; Chien, C.-H.; Wu, I.-L.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers at the Hydroinformatic Research and Development Team (HIRDT) of the National Taiwan University undertook a project to create a real time flood forecasting model, with an aim to predict the current in the Tamsui River Basin. The model was designed based on deterministic approach with mathematic modeling of complex phenomenon, and specific parameter values operated to produce a discrete result. The project also devised a rainfall-stage model that relates the rate of rainfall upland directly to the change of the state of river, and is further related to another typhoon-rainfall model. The geographic information system (GIS) data, based on precise contour model of the terrain, estimate the regions that were perilous to flooding. The HIRDT, in response to the project's progress, also devoted their application of a deterministic model to unsteady flow of thermodynamics to help predict river authorities issue timely warnings and take other emergency measures.

  18. Real Time Mars Approach Navigation Aided by the Mars Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Todd A.; Duncan, Courtney; Lightsey, E. Glenn; Mogensen, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    A NASA Mars technology project is described that is building a prototype embedded real time Mars approach navigation capability which can be hosted on the Mars Network's Electra transceiver. The paper motivates the reason for doing real time Mars approach navigation via a set of analyses demonstrating its utility for enabling Mars pin-point landing (less than 1-km landing error). The development approach, software design, and test results are discussed. Finally, the way forward towards a flight demonstration on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is presented.

  19. Real Time Mars Approach Navigation Aided by the Mars Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Todd A.; Duncan, Courtney; Lightsey, E. Glenn; Mogensen, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    A NASA Mars technology project is described that is building a prototype embedded real time Mars approach navigation capability which can be hosted on the Mars Network's Electra transceiver. The paper motivates the reason for doing real time Mars approach navigation via a set of analyses demonstrating its utility for enabling Mars pin-point landing (< 1-km landing error). The development approach, software design, and test results are discussed. Finally, the way forward towards a flight demonstration on the Mars Science Laboratory is presented.

  20. Design and Implementation of a VoIP Broadcasting Service over Embedded Systems in a Heterogeneous Network Environment

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Hsiang; Hsieh, Wen-Bin; Lo, Chien-Chih

    2014-01-01

    As the digitization is integrated into daily life, media including video and audio are heavily transferred over the Internet nowadays. Voice-over-Internet Protocol (VoIP), the most popular and mature technology, becomes the focus attracting many researches and investments. However, most of the existing studies focused on a one-to-one communication model in a homogeneous network, instead of one-to-many broadcasting model among diverse embedded devices in a heterogeneous network. In this paper, we present the implementation of a VoIP broadcasting service on the open source—Linphone—in a heterogeneous network environment, including WiFi, 3G, and LAN networks. The proposed system featuring VoIP broadcasting over heterogeneous networks can be integrated with heterogeneous agile devices, such as embedded devices or mobile phones. VoIP broadcasting over heterogeneous networks can be integrated into modern smartphones or other embedded devices; thus when users run in a traditional AM/FM signal unreachable area, they still can receive the broadcast voice through the IP network. Also, comprehensive evaluations are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed implementation. PMID:25300280

  1. Design and implementation of a VoIP broadcasting service over embedded systems in a heterogeneous network environment.

    PubMed

    Leu, Jenq-Shiou; Lin, Wei-Hsiang; Hsieh, Wen-Bin; Lo, Chien-Chih

    2014-01-01

    As the digitization is integrated into daily life, media including video and audio are heavily transferred over the Internet nowadays. Voice-over-Internet Protocol (VoIP), the most popular and mature technology, becomes the focus attracting many researches and investments. However, most of the existing studies focused on a one-to-one communication model in a homogeneous network, instead of one-to-many broadcasting model among diverse embedded devices in a heterogeneous network. In this paper, we present the implementation of a VoIP broadcasting service on the open source-Linphone-in a heterogeneous network environment, including WiFi, 3G, and LAN networks. The proposed system featuring VoIP broadcasting over heterogeneous networks can be integrated with heterogeneous agile devices, such as embedded devices or mobile phones. VoIP broadcasting over heterogeneous networks can be integrated into modern smartphones or other embedded devices; thus when users run in a traditional AM/FM signal unreachable area, they still can receive the broadcast voice through the IP network. Also, comprehensive evaluations are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed implementation.

  2. Clinical virology in real time.

    PubMed

    Niesters, Hubert G M

    2002-12-01

    The ability to detect nucleic acids has had and still has a major impact on diagnostics in clinical virology. Both quantitative and qualitative techniques, whether signal or target amplification based systems, are currently used routinely in most if not all virology laboratories. Technological improvements, from automated sample isolation to real time amplification technology, have given the ability to develop and introduce systems for most viruses of clinical interest, and to obtain clinical relevant information needed for optimal antiviral treatment options. Both polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) can currently be used together with real time detection to generate results in a short turn-around time and to determine whether variants relevant for antiviral resistance are present. These new technologies enable the introduction of an individual patient disease management concept. Within our clinical setting, we have introduced this e.g. for quantitative detection of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) in T-dell depleted allogeneic stem cell transplant patients. This enabled us to develop models for pre-emptive anti B-cell immunotherapy for EBV reactivation, thereby effectively reducing not the incidence of EBV-lymphoproliferative disease but the virus related mortality. Furthermore, additional clinically relevant viruses can now easily be detected simultaneously. It also becomes more feasible to introduce molecular testing for those viruses that can easily be detected using classical virological methods, like culture techniques or antigen detection. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate the clinical importance of the additional positive samples detected. It should however be made clear that a complete exchange of technologies is unlikely to occur, and that some complementary technologies should stay operational enabling the discovery of new viruses. The implementation of these molecular diagnostic technologies furthermore

  3. Mobile real time radiography system

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S.

    1997-11-01

    A 450-keV Mobile Real Time Radiography (RTR) System was delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in January 1996. It was purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at (LANL). Since its delivery it has been used to radiograph more than 600 drums of radioactive waste at various LANL sites. It has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from <1-gal. buckets up to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). It has three independent x-ray acquisition formats. The primary system used is a 12- in. image intensifier, the second is a 36-in. linear diode array (LDA) and the last is an open system. It is fully self contained with on board generator, HVAC, and a fire suppression system. It is on a 53-ft long x 8-ft. wide x 14-ft. high trailer that can be moved over any highway requiring only an easily obtainable overweight permit because it weights {approximately}38 tons. It was built to conform to industry standards for a cabinet system which does not require an exclusion zone. The fact that this unit is mobile has allowed us to operate where the waste is stored, rather than having to move the waste to a fixed facility.

  4. Algebraic multiscale method for flow in heterogeneous porous media with embedded discrete fractures (F-AMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ţene, Matei; Al Kobaisi, Mohammed Saad; Hajibeygi, Hadi

    2016-09-01

    This paper introduces an Algebraic MultiScale method for simulation of flow in heterogeneous porous media with embedded discrete Fractures (F-AMS). First, multiscale coarse grids are independently constructed for both porous matrix and fracture networks. Then, a map between coarse- and fine-scale is obtained by algebraically computing basis functions with local support. In order to extend the localization assumption to the fractured media, four types of basis functions are investigated: (1) Decoupled-AMS, in which the two media are completely decoupled, (2) Frac-AMS and (3) Rock-AMS, which take into account only one-way transmissibilities, and (4) Coupled-AMS, in which the matrix and fracture interpolators are fully coupled. In order to ensure scalability, the F-AMS framework permits full flexibility in terms of the resolution of the fracture coarse grids. Numerical results are presented for two- and three-dimensional heterogeneous test cases. During these experiments, the performance of F-AMS, paired with ILU(0) as second-stage smoother in a convergent iterative procedure, is studied by monitoring CPU times and convergence rates. Finally, in order to investigate the scalability of the method, an extensive benchmark study is conducted, where a commercial algebraic multigrid solver is used as reference. The results show that, given an appropriate coarsening strategy, F-AMS is insensitive to severe fracture and matrix conductivity contrasts, as well as the length of the fracture networks. Its unique feature is that a fine-scale mass conservative flux field can be reconstructed after any iteration, providing efficient approximate solutions in time-dependent simulations.

  5. Real-Time Nonlinear Optical Information Processing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    operations aree presented. One approach realizes the halftone method of nonlinear optical processing in real time by replacing the conventional...photographic recording medium with a real-time image transducer. In the second approach halftoning is eliminated and the real-time device is used directly

  6. Students Collecting Real time Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, P.

    2006-05-01

    Students Collecting Real-Time Data The Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary has created opportunities for middle and high school students to become Student Researchers and to be involved in real-time marine data collection. It is important that we expose students to different fields of science and encourage them to enter scientific fields of study. The Humpback Whale Sanctuary has an education visitor center in Kihei, Maui. Located right on the beach, the site has become a living classroom facility. There is a traditional Hawaiian fishpond fronting the property. The fishpond wall is being restored, using traditional methods. The site has the incredible opportunity of incorporating Hawaiian cultural practices with scientific studies. The Sanctuary offers opportunities for students to get involved in monitoring and data collection studies. Invasive Seaweed Study: Students are collecting data on invasive seaweed for the University of Hawaii. They pull a large net through the shallow waters. Seaweed is sorted, identified and weighed. The invasive seaweeds are removed. The data is recorded and sent to UH. Remote controlled monitoring boats: The sanctuary has 6 boogie board sized remote controlled boats used to monitor reefs. Boats have a camera with lights on the underside. The boats have water quality monitoring devices and GPS units. The video from the underwater camera is transmitted via a wireless transmission. Students are able to monitor the fish, limu and invertebrate populations on the reef and collect water quality data via television monitors or computers. The boat can also pull a small plankton tow net. Data is being compiled into data bases. Artificial Reef Modules: The Sanctuary has a scientific permit from the state to build and deploy artificial reef modules. High school students are designing and building modules. These are deployed out in the Fishpond fronting the Sanctuary site and students are monitoring them on a weekly basis

  7. Real-time optical tweezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Shah Mohammed Tamzidur

    In this thesis a new approach called ‘space-time-wavelength mapping’ has been developed for real-time electronic control of optical tweezers. The proposed technique enables precise control of optical signals in space, time, and frequency through time-domain dispersion and diffractive optics, which in turn enables generation of controlled radiation forces acting on small particles. In this study we show that 150 fs ultrafast optical pulses can be dispersed in time and space to achieve a 20 μm x 2 μm focused elliptical beam. The force field at the focal plane of the beam is dependent on local intensity gradients along the plane. The spatial intensity profile can be electronically controlled by assigning local power levels to each wavelength using time-domain RF modulation of dispersed pulses, and sending each wavelength, and hence the assigned power level, to a specific location in space through diffractive optics. We show that by choosing the appropriate RF waveform, one is able to create force fields for cell stretching and compression as well as multiple force hot-spots (of >200 pN force per pulse) for attractive and repulsive forces. A detailed theoretical model and simulation results from a proposed experimental setup are presented. This approach is significantly more advantageous in terms of flexibility and control, compared to conventional optical tweezers that require mechanical steering or holographic optical tweezers that produce undesired ‘ghost traps’. In addition, it is shown how the technique can also be extended to create tunable 2D force field distributions using a virtually-imaged phased-array (VIPA).

  8. Real-Time Data Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedings, Marc

    2007-01-01

    RT-Display is a MATLAB-based data acquisition environment designed to use a variety of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware to digitize analog signals to a standard data format usable by other post-acquisition data analysis tools. This software presents the acquired data in real time using a variety of signal-processing algorithms. The acquired data is stored in a standard Operator Interactive Signal Processing Software (OISPS) data-formatted file. RT-Display is primarily configured to use the Agilent VXI (or equivalent) data acquisition boards used in such systems as MIDDAS (Multi-channel Integrated Dynamic Data Acquisition System). The software is generalized and deployable in almost any testing environment, without limitations or proprietary configuration for a specific test program or project. With the Agilent hardware configured and in place, users can start the program and, in one step, immediately begin digitizing multiple channels of data. Once the acquisition is completed, data is converted into a common binary format that also can be translated to specific formats used by external analysis software, such as OISPS and PC-Signal (product of AI Signal Research Inc.). RT-Display at the time of this reporting was certified on Agilent hardware capable of acquisition up to 196,608 samples per second. Data signals are presented to the user on-screen simultaneously for 16 channels. Each channel can be viewed individually, with a maximum capability of 160 signal channels (depending on hardware configuration). Current signal presentations include: time data, fast Fourier transforms (FFT), and power spectral density plots (PSD). Additional processing algorithms can be easily incorporated into this environment.

  9. Holin triggering in real time.

    PubMed

    White, Rebecca; Chiba, Shinobu; Pang, Ting; Dewey, Jill S; Savva, Christos G; Holzenburg, Andreas; Pogliano, Kit; Young, Ry

    2011-01-11

    During λ infections, the holin S105 accumulates harmlessly in the membrane until, at an allele-specific time, suddenly triggering to form irregular holes of unprecedented size (>300 nm), releasing the endolysin from the cytoplasm, resulting in lysis within seconds. Here we used a functional S105-GFP chimera and real-time deconvolution fluorescence microscopy to show that the S105-GFP fusion accumulated in a uniformly distributed fashion, until suddenly, within 1 min, it formed aggregates, or rafts, at the time of lethal triggering. Moreover, the isogenic fusion to a nonlethal S105 mutant remained uniformly distributed, whereas a fusion to an early-lysing mutant showed early triggering and early raft formation. Protein accumulation rates of the WT, early, and nonlethal alleles were identical. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) revealed that the nonlethal mutant and untriggered WT hybrids were highly mobile in the membrane, whereas the WT raft was essentially immobile. Finally, an antiholin allele, S105(ΔTMD1)-mcherryfp, in the product of which the S105 sequence deleted for the first transmembrane domain was fused to mCherryFP. This hybrid retained full antiholin activity, in that it blocked lethal hole formation by the S105-GFP fusion, accumulated uniformly throughout the host membrane and prevented the S105-GFP protein from forming rafts. These findings suggest that phage lysis occurs when the holin reaches a critical concentration and nucleates to form rafts, analogous to the initiation of purple membrane formation after the induction of bacteriorhodopsin in halobacteria. This model for holin function may be relevant for processes in mammalian cells, including the release of nonenveloped viruses and apoptosis.

  10. Holin triggering in real time

    PubMed Central

    White, Rebecca; Chiba, Shinobu; Pang, Ting; Dewey, Jill S.; Savva, Christos G.; Holzenburg, Andreas; Pogliano, Kit; Young, Ry

    2011-01-01

    During λ infections, the holin S105 accumulates harmlessly in the membrane until, at an allele-specific time, suddenly triggering to form irregular holes of unprecedented size (>300 nm), releasing the endolysin from the cytoplasm, resulting in lysis within seconds. Here we used a functional S105–GFP chimera and real-time deconvolution fluorescence microscopy to show that the S105–GFP fusion accumulated in a uniformly distributed fashion, until suddenly, within 1 min, it formed aggregates, or rafts, at the time of lethal triggering. Moreover, the isogenic fusion to a nonlethal S105 mutant remained uniformly distributed, whereas a fusion to an early-lysing mutant showed early triggering and early raft formation. Protein accumulation rates of the WT, early, and nonlethal alleles were identical. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) revealed that the nonlethal mutant and untriggered WT hybrids were highly mobile in the membrane, whereas the WT raft was essentially immobile. Finally, an antiholin allele, S105ΔTMD1–mcherryfp, in the product of which the S105 sequence deleted for the first transmembrane domain was fused to mCherryFP. This hybrid retained full antiholin activity, in that it blocked lethal hole formation by the S105–GFP fusion, accumulated uniformly throughout the host membrane and prevented the S105–GFP protein from forming rafts. These findings suggest that phage lysis occurs when the holin reaches a critical concentration and nucleates to form rafts, analogous to the initiation of purple membrane formation after the induction of bacteriorhodopsin in halobacteria. This model for holin function may be relevant for processes in mammalian cells, including the release of nonenveloped viruses and apoptosis. PMID:21187415

  11. Real-time Social Internet Data to Guide Forecasting Models

    SciTech Connect

    Del Valle, Sara Y.

    2016-09-20

    Our goal is to improve decision support by monitoring and forecasting events using social media, mathematical models, and quantifying model uncertainty. Our approach is real-time, data-driven forecasts with quantified uncertainty: Not just for weather anymore. Information flow from human observations of events through an Internet system and classification algorithms is used to produce quantitatively uncertain forecast. In summary, we want to develop new tools to extract useful information from Internet data streams, develop new approaches to assimilate real-time information into predictive models, validate approaches by forecasting events, and our ultimate goal is to develop an event forecasting system using mathematical approaches and heterogeneous data streams.

  12. Research in Distributed Real-Time Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, R.

    1997-01-01

    This document summarizes the progress we have made on our study of issues concerning the schedulability of real-time systems. Our study has produced several results in the scalability issues of distributed real-time systems. In particular, we have used our techniques to resolve schedulability issues in distributed systems with end-to-end requirements. During the next year (1997-98), we propose to extend the current work to address the modeling and workload characterization issues in distributed real-time systems. In particular, we propose to investigate the effect of different workload models and component models on the design and the subsequent performance of distributed real-time systems.

  13. Evaluation of Open-Source Hard Real Time Software Packages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattei, Nicholas S.

    2004-01-01

    replacing this somewhat costly implementation is the focus of one of the SA group s current research projects. The explosion of open source software in the last ten years has led to the development of a multitude of software solutions which were once only produced by major corporations. The benefits of these open projects include faster release and bug patching cycles as well as inexpensive if not free software solutions. The main packages for hard real time solutions under Linux are Real Time Application Interface (RTAI) and two varieties of Real Time Linux (RTL), RTLFree and RTLPro. During my time here at NASA I have been testing various hard real time solutions operating as layers on the Linux Operating System. All testing is being run on an Intel SBC 2590 which is a common embedded hardware platform. The test plan was provided to me by the Software Assurance group at the start of my internship and my job has been to test the systems by developing and executing the test cases on the hardware. These tests are constructed so that the Software Assurance group can get hard test data for a comparison between the open source and proprietary implementations of hard real time solutions.

  14. Evaluation of Open-Source Hard Real Time Software Packages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattei, Nicholas S.

    2004-01-01

    replacing this somewhat costly implementation is the focus of one of the SA group s current research projects. The explosion of open source software in the last ten years has led to the development of a multitude of software solutions which were once only produced by major corporations. The benefits of these open projects include faster release and bug patching cycles as well as inexpensive if not free software solutions. The main packages for hard real time solutions under Linux are Real Time Application Interface (RTAI) and two varieties of Real Time Linux (RTL), RTLFree and RTLPro. During my time here at NASA I have been testing various hard real time solutions operating as layers on the Linux Operating System. All testing is being run on an Intel SBC 2590 which is a common embedded hardware platform. The test plan was provided to me by the Software Assurance group at the start of my internship and my job has been to test the systems by developing and executing the test cases on the hardware. These tests are constructed so that the Software Assurance group can get hard test data for a comparison between the open source and proprietary implementations of hard real time solutions.

  15. Real-Time Communication and Coordination in Embedded Sensor Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    en- hance the RTS/CTS handshaking mechanism, the details of which can be found in [48] and [49]. Some other variations are MACAW [16], MACA/PR [88...IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 13, pp. 1383–1395, Oct. 1995. [16] V. Bharghavan, A. Demers, S. Shenker, and L. Zhang, “ MACAW : A media access

  16. Real Time Distributed Embedded Oscillator Operating Frequency Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollock, Julie (Inventor); Oliver, Brett D. (Inventor); Brickner, Christopher (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for clock monitoring in a network is provided. The method comprises receiving a first network clock signal at a network device and comparing the first network clock signal to a local clock signal from a primary oscillator coupled to the network device.

  17. Model compilation for embedded real-time planning and diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes MEXEC, an implemented micro executive that compiles a device model into an interal structure. Not only does this structure facilitate computing the most likely current device mode from n sets of sensor measurements, but it also facilitates generating an n step reconfiguration plan that is most likely not to result in reaching a target mode - if such a plan exists.

  18. Real-Time Configuration of Networked Embedded Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    reviewed by the Air Force Research Laboratory, Information Directorate, Public Affairs Office (IFOIPA) and is releasable to the National Technical... reviewed and is approved for publication APPROVED: /s/ RAYMOND A. LIUZZI Project Engineer FOR THE DIRECTOR...including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing

  19. Static Schedulers for Embedded Real-Time Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    function EQUALGRAPHS(GI : in GRAPH; G2 : in GRAPH) return BOOLEAN; procedure EMPTY(G out GRAPH); function ISNODE(X in VERTEX; G GRAPH ) return BOOLEAN...VERTEX; G : GRAPH ) return BOOLEAN is begin if LOOK4(X, G.VERTICES) /= null then return TRUE; else return FALSE; end if; end ISNODE; function IS LINK(X

  20. Real-time skeleton tracking for embedded systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleca, Foti; Klement, Sascha; Martinetz, Thomas; Barth, Erhardt

    2013-03-01

    Touch-free gesture technology is beginning to become more popular with consumers and may have a significant future impact on interfaces for digital photography. However, almost every commercial software framework for gesture and pose detection is aimed at either desktop PCs or high-powered GPUs, making mobile implementations for gesture recognition an attractive area for research and development. In this paper we present an algorithm for hand skeleton tracking and gesture recognition that runs on an ARM-based platform (Pandaboard ES, OMAP 4460 architecture). The algorithm uses self-organizing maps to fit a given topology (skeleton) into a 3D point cloud. This is a novel way of approaching the problem of pose recognition as it does not employ complex optimization techniques or data-based learning. After an initial background segmentation step, the algorithm is ran in parallel with heuristics, which detect and correct artifacts arising from insufficient or erroneous input data. We then optimize the algorithm for the ARM platform using fixed-point computation and the NEON SIMD architecture the OMAP4460 provides. We tested the algorithm with two different depth-sensing devices (Microsoft Kinect, PMD Camboard). For both input devices we were able to accurately track the skeleton at the native framerate of the cameras.

  1. Model compilation for embedded real-time planning and diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes MEXEC, an implemented micro executive that compiles a device model into an interal structure. Not only does this structure facilitate computing the most likely current device mode from n sets of sensor measurements, but it also facilitates generating an n step reconfiguration plan that is most likely not to result in reaching a target mode - if such a plan exists.

  2. Real-Time Embedded High Performance Computing: Communications Scheduling.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-06-01

    big disadvantage of STDM in our context is that it does not attempt to make use of the distributed nature of the network, it may be unacceptably...are attained. We are motivated by situations where most messages are relatively long and are sent broken up into many packets of size Adata . There...may be different packet sizes for different messages, but we start by assuming that Adata is fixed. On the other hand, the optimal value for Adata is

  3. Real time programming environment for Windows

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, D.R.

    1998-04-01

    This document provides a description of the Real Time Programming Environment (RTProE). RTProE tools allow a programmer to create soft real time projects under general, multi-purpose operating systems. The basic features necessary for real time applications are provided by RTProE, leaving the programmer free to concentrate efforts on his specific project. The current version supports Microsoft Windows{trademark} 95 and NT. The tasks of real time synchronization and communication with other programs are handled by RTProE. RTProE includes a generic method for connecting a graphical user interface (GUI) to allow real time control and interaction with the programmer`s product. Topics covered in this paper include real time performance issues, portability, details of shared memory management, code scheduling, application control, Operating System specific concerns and the use of Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools. The development of RTProE is an important step in the expansion of the real time programming community. The financial costs associated with using the system are minimal. All source code for RTProE has been made publicly available. Any person with access to a personal computer, Windows 95 or NT, and C or FORTRAN compilers can quickly enter the world of real time modeling and simulation.

  4. Real Time Seismic Prediction while Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, F. R.; Bohlen, T.; Edelmann, T.; Kassel, A.; Heim, A.; Gehring, M.; Lüth, S.; Giese, R.; Jaksch, K.; Rechlin, A.; Kopf, M.; Stahlmann, J.; Gattermann, J.; Bruns, B.

    2009-12-01

    Efficient and safe drilling is a prerequisite to enhance the mobility of people and goods, to improve the traffic as well as utility infrastructure of growing megacities, and to ensure the growing energy demand while building geothermal and in hydroelectric power plants. Construction within the underground is often building within the unknown. An enhanced risk potential for people and the underground building may arise if drilling enters fracture zones, karsts, brittle rocks, mixed solid and soft rocks, caves, or anthropogenic obstacles. Knowing about the material behavior ahead of the drilling allows reducing the risk during drilling and construction operation. In drilling operations direct observations from boreholes can be complemented with geophysical investigations. In this presentation we focus on “real time” seismic prediction while drilling which is seen as a prerequisite while using geophysical methods in modern drilling operations. In solid rocks P- and S-wave velocity, refraction and reflection as well as seismic wave attenuation can be used for the interpretation of structures ahead of the drilling. An Integrated Seismic Imaging System (ISIS) for exploration ahead of a construction is used, where a pneumatic hammer or a magnetostrictive vibration source generate repetitive signals behind the tunneling machine. Tube waves are generated which travel along the tunnel to the working face. There the tube waves are converted to mainly S- but also P-Waves which interact with the formation ahead of the heading face. The reflected or refracted waves travel back to the working front are converted back to tube waves and recorded using three-component geophones which are fit into the tips of anchor rods. In near real time, the ISIS software allows for an integrated 3D imaging and interpretation of the observed data, geological and geotechnical parameters. Fracture zones, heterogeneities, and variations in the rock properties can be revealed during the drilling

  5. Soft Real-Time PID Control on a VME Computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karayan, Vahag; Sander, Stanley; Cageao, Richard

    2007-01-01

    microPID (uPID) is a computer program for real-time proportional + integral + derivative (PID) control of a translation stage in a Fourier-transform ultraviolet spectrometer. microPID implements a PID control loop over a position profile at sampling rate of 8 kHz (sampling period 125microseconds). The software runs in a strippeddown Linux operating system on a VersaModule Eurocard (VME) computer operating in real-time priority queue using an embedded controller, a 16-bit digital-to-analog converter (D/A) board, and a laser-positioning board (LPB). microPID consists of three main parts: (1) VME device-driver routines, (2) software that administers a custom protocol for serial communication with a control computer, and (3) a loop section that obtains the current position from an LPB-driver routine, calculates the ideal position from the profile, and calculates a new voltage command by use of an embedded PID routine all within each sampling period. The voltage command is sent to the D/A board to control the stage. microPID uses special kernel headers to obtain microsecond timing resolution. Inasmuch as microPID implements a single-threaded process and all other processes are disabled, the Linux operating system acts as a soft real-time system.

  6. The ALMA Real Time Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Jeffrey S.; Juerges, Thomas A.; Marson, Ralph G.

    2009-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is a revolutionary millimeter and submillimeter array being developed on the Atacama plateau of northern Chile. An international partnership lead by NRAO, ESO, and NAOJ this powerful and flexible telescope will provide unprecedented observations of this relatively unexplored frequency range. The control subsystem for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array must coordinate the monitor and control of at least sixty six antennas (in four different styles), two correlators, and all of the ancillary equipment (samplers, local oscillators, front ends, etc.). This equipment will be spread over tens of kilometers and operated remotely. Operation of the array requires a robust, scalable, and maintainable real time control system. The real time control system is responsible for monitoring and control of any devices where there are fixed deadlines. Examples in the ALMA context are antenna pointing and fringe tracking. Traditionally the real time portion of a large software system is an intricate and error prone portion of the software. As a result the real time portion is very expensive in terms of effort expended both during construction and during maintenance phases of a project. The ALMA real time control system uses a Linux based real time operating system to interact with the hardware and the CORBA based ALMA Common Software to communicate in the distributed computing environment. Mixing the requirements of real time computing and the non-deterministic CORBA middleware has produced an interesting design. We discuss the architecture, design, and implementation of the ALMA real time control system. Highlight some lessons learned along the way, and justify our assertion that this should be the last large scale real time control system in radio astronomy.

  7. A distributed agent architecture for real-time knowledge-based systems: Real-time expert systems project, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. Daniel

    1990-01-01

    We propose a distributed agent architecture (DAA) that can support a variety of paradigms based on both traditional real-time computing and artificial intelligence. DAA consists of distributed agents that are classified into two categories: reactive and cognitive. Reactive agents can be implemented directly in Ada to meet hard real-time requirements and be deployed on on-board embedded processors. A traditional real-time computing methodology under consideration is the rate monotonic theory that can guarantee schedulability based on analytical methods. AI techniques under consideration for reactive agents are approximate or anytime reasoning that can be implemented using Bayesian belief networks as in Guardian. Cognitive agents are traditional expert systems that can be implemented in ART-Ada to meet soft real-time requirements. During the initial design of cognitive agents, it is critical to consider the migration path that would allow initial deployment on ground-based workstations with eventual deployment on on-board processors. ART-Ada technology enables this migration while Lisp-based technologies make it difficult if not impossible. In addition to reactive and cognitive agents, a meta-level agent would be needed to coordinate multiple agents and to provide meta-level control.

  8. Real-time medical applications and telecommunications.

    PubMed

    Stravs, M

    1999-01-01

    Telecommunications play an important role in telemedicine. Many forms of telecommunication services based on different telecommunication technologies are developed for various needs. The paper deals with complex real-time applications which demand high telecommunication requirements. At the beginning, medical applications are categorised and real-time applications qualified as multimedia applications. Requirements for multimedia elements are listed separately. Later on, short introduction of related telecommunication protocols is given. Real-time medical applications can show their ability in case of guaranteed quality of services delivered by telecommunication network as it is explained in the end.

  9. Achieving real-time performance in FIESTA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, William; Happell, Nadine; Miksell, Steve; Quillin, Robert; Carlisle, Candace

    1988-01-01

    The Fault Isolation Expert System for TDRSS Applications (FIESTA) is targeted for operation in a real-time online environment. Initial stages of the prototype development concentrated on acquisition and representation of the knowledge necessary to isolate faults in the TDRSS Network. Recent efforts focused on achieving real-time performance including: a discussion of the meaning of FIESTA real-time requirements, determination of performance levels (benchmarking) and techniques for optimization. Optimization techniques presented include redesign of critical relations, filtering of redundant data and optimization of patterns used in rules. Results are summarized.

  10. Real Time Computer Graphics From Body Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Scott; Marion, Ann

    1983-10-01

    This paper focuses on the recent emergence and development of real, time, computer-aided body tracking technologies and their use in combination with various computer graphics imaging techniques. The convergence of these, technologies in our research results, in an interactive display environment. in which multipde, representations of a given body motion can be displayed in real time. Specific reference, to entertainment applications is described in the development of a real time, interactive stage set in which dancers can 'draw' with their bodies as they move, through the space. of the stage or manipulate virtual elements of the set with their gestures.

  11. Real time sensor for therapeutic radiation delivery

    DOEpatents

    Bliss, M.; Craig, R.A.; Reeder, P.L.

    1998-01-06

    The invention is a real time sensor for therapeutic radiation. A probe is placed in or near the patient that senses in real time the dose at the location of the probe. The strength of the dose is determined by either an insertion or an exit probe. The location is determined by a series of vertical and horizontal sensing elements that gives the operator a real time read out dose location relative to placement of the patient. The increased accuracy prevents serious tissue damage to the patient by preventing overdose or delivery of a dose to a wrong location within the body. 14 figs.

  12. Real-time monitoring of landslides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Mark E.; LaHusen, Richard G.; Baum, Rex L.; Kean, Jason W.; Schulz, William H.; Highland, Lynn M.

    2012-01-01

    Landslides cause fatalities and property damage throughout the Nation. To reduce the impact from hazardous landslides, the U.S. Geological Survey develops and uses real-time and near-real-time landslide monitoring systems. Monitoring can detect when hillslopes are primed for sliding and can provide early indications of rapid, catastrophic movement. Continuous information from up-to-the-minute or real-time monitoring provides prompt notification of landslide activity, advances our understanding of landslide behavior, and enables more effective engineering and planning efforts.

  13. Real time sensor for therapeutic radiation delivery

    DOEpatents

    Bliss, Mary; Craig, Richard A.; Reeder, Paul L.

    1998-01-01

    The invention is a real time sensor for therapeutic radiation. A probe is placed in or near the patient that senses in real time the dose at the location of the probe. The strength of the dose is determined by either an insertion or an exit probe. The location is determined by a series of vertical and horizontal sensing elements that gives the operator a real time read out dose location relative to placement of the patient. The increased accuracy prevents serious tissue damage to the patient by preventing overdose or delivery of a dose to a wrong location within the body.

  14. Achieving real-time performance in FIESTA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, William; Happell, Nadine; Miksell, Steve; Quillin, Robert; Carlisle, Candace

    1988-01-01

    The Fault Isolation Expert System for TDRSS Applications (FIESTA) is targeted for operation in a real-time online environment. Initial stages of the prototype development concentrated on acquisition and representation of the knowledge necessary to isolate faults in the TDRSS Network. Recent efforts focused on achieving real-time performance including: a discussion of the meaning of FIESTA real-time requirements, determination of performance levels (benchmarking) and techniques for optimization. Optimization techniques presented include redesign of critical relations, filtering of redundant data and optimization of patterns used in rules. Results are summarized.

  15. Interferometer real time control development for SIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Charles E.

    2003-02-01

    Real Time Control (RTC) for the Space Interferometry Mission will build on the real time core interferometer control technology under development at JPL since the mid 1990s, with heritage from the ground based MKII and Palomar Testbed Interferometer projects developed in the late '80s and early '90s. The core software and electronics technology for SIM interferometer real time control is successfully operating on several SIM technology demonstration testbeds, including the Real-time Interferometer Control System Testbed, System Testbed-3, and the Microarcsecond Metrology testbed. This paper provides an overview of the architecture, design, integration, and test of the SIM flight interferometer real time control to meet challenging flight system requirements for the high processor throughput, low-latency interconnect, and precise synchronization to support microarcsecond-level astrometric measurements for greater than five years at 1 AU in Earth-trailing orbit. The electronics and software architecture of the interferometer real time control core and its adaptation to a flight design concept are described. Control loops for pointing and pathlength control within each of four flight interferometers and for coordination of control and data across interferometers are illustrated. The nature of onboard data processing to fit average downlink rates while retaining post-processed astrometric measurement precision and accuracy is also addressed. Interferometer flight software will be developed using a software simulation environment incorporating models of the metrology and starlight sensors and actuators to close the real time control loops. RTC flight software and instrument flight electronics will in turn be integrated utilizing the same simulation architecture for metrology and starlight component models to close real time control loops and verify RTC functionality and performance prior to delivery to flight interferometer system integration at Lockheed Martin

  16. Real-time scheduling using minimum search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadepalli, Prasad; Joshi, Varad

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we consider a simple model of real-time scheduling. We present a real-time scheduling system called RTS which is based on Korf's Minimin algorithm. Experimental results show that the schedule quality initially improves with the amount of look-ahead search and tapers off quickly. So it sppears that reasonably good schedules can be produced with a relatively shallow search.

  17. Real-time interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ralston, Tyler S.; Marks, Daniel L.; Carney, P. Scott; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    An interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM) system design with real-time 2D cross-sectional processing is described in detail. The system can acquire, process, and display the ISAM reconstructed images at frame rates of 2.25 frames per second for 512 × 1024 pixel images. This system provides quantitatively meaningful structural information from previously indistinguishable scattering intensities and provides proof of feasibility for future real-time ISAM systems. PMID:18542337

  18. Real Time Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    i AFRL-RH-AZ-TR-2011-0005 Real Time Cockpit Resource Management ( CRM ) Training David Kaiser Jeffery Eberhart Chris Butler Gregg...Resource Management ( CRM ) Training 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-08-C-6848 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Kaiser, David...283 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 Real Time Cockpit Resource Management ( CRM ) Training 4 Table of

  19. Analysis of real-time vibration data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, E.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, a few structures have been instrumented to provide continuous vibration data in real time, recording not only large-amplitude motions generated by extreme loads, but also small-amplitude motions generated by ambient loads. The main objective in continuous recording is to track any changes in structural characteristics, and to detect damage after an extreme event, such as an earthquake or explosion. The Fourier-based spectral analysis methods have been the primary tool to analyze vibration data from structures. In general, such methods do not work well for real-time data, because real-time data are mainly composed of ambient vibrations with very low amplitudes and signal-to-noise ratios. The long duration, linearity, and the stationarity of ambient data, however, allow us to utilize statistical signal processing tools, which can compensate for the adverse effects of low amplitudes and high noise. The analysis of real-time data requires tools and techniques that can be applied in real-time; i.e., data are processed and analyzed while being acquired. This paper presents some of the basic tools and techniques for processing and analyzing real-time vibration data. The topics discussed include utilization of running time windows, tracking mean and mean-square values, filtering, system identification, and damage detection.

  20. Real-time photoacoustic imaging system for clinical burn diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ida, Taiichiro; Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Kawauchi, Satoko; Iwaya, Keiichi; Saitoh, Daizoh; Sato, Shunichi; Iwai, Toshiaki

    2013-03-01

    We have developed a real-time (8~30 fps) photoacoustic (PA) imaging system with a linear-array transducer for burn diagnosis. In this system, PA signals originating from blood in the noninjured tissue layer located under the injured tissue layer are detected. The phantom study showed that thin light absorbers embedded in the tissue-mimicking scattering medium at depths of > 3 mm can be imaged with high contrast. The diagnostic experiments using rat burn models showed good agreements between the injury depths (zones of stasis) indicated by PA imaging and those by histological analysis. These results demonstrate the potential usefulness of the present system for clinical burn diagnosis.

  1. Real-time control system for adaptive resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Flath, L; An, J; Brase, J; Hurd, R; Kartz, M; Sawvel, R; Silva, D

    2000-07-24

    Sustained operation of high average power solid-state lasers currently requires an adaptive resonator to produce the optimal beam quality. We describe the architecture of a real-time adaptive control system for correcting intra-cavity aberrations in a heat capacity laser. Image data collected from a wavefront sensor are processed and used to control phase with a high-spatial-resolution deformable mirror. Our controller takes advantage of recent developments in low-cost, high-performance processor technology. A desktop-based computational engine and object-oriented software architecture replaces the high-cost rack-mount embedded computers of previous systems.

  2. Real-Time Aircraft Engine-Life Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This project developed an inservice life-monitoring system capable of predicting the remaining component and system life of aircraft engines. The embedded system provides real-time, inflight monitoring of the engine's thrust, exhaust gas temperature, efficiency, and the speed and time of operation. Based upon this data, the life-estimation algorithm calculates the remaining life of the engine components and uses this data to predict the remaining life of the engine. The calculations are based on the statistical life distribution of the engine components and their relationship to load, speed, temperature, and time.

  3. REAL TIME SYSTEM OPERATIONS 2006-2007

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph H.; Parashar, Manu; Lewis, Nancy Jo

    2008-08-15

    The Real Time System Operations (RTSO) 2006-2007 project focused on two parallel technical tasks: (1) Real-Time Applications of Phasors for Monitoring, Alarming and Control; and (2) Real-Time Voltage Security Assessment (RTVSA) Prototype Tool. The overall goal of the phasor applications project was to accelerate adoption and foster greater use of new, more accurate, time-synchronized phasor measurements by conducting research and prototyping applications on California ISO's phasor platform - Real-Time Dynamics Monitoring System (RTDMS) -- that provide previously unavailable information on the dynamic stability of the grid. Feasibility assessment studies were conducted on potential application of this technology for small-signal stability monitoring, validating/improving existing stability nomograms, conducting frequency response analysis, and obtaining real-time sensitivity information on key metrics to assess grid stress. Based on study findings, prototype applications for real-time visualization and alarming, small-signal stability monitoring, measurement based sensitivity analysis and frequency response assessment were developed, factory- and field-tested at the California ISO and at BPA. The goal of the RTVSA project was to provide California ISO with a prototype voltage security assessment tool that runs in real time within California ISO?s new reliability and congestion management system. CERTS conducted a technical assessment of appropriate algorithms, developed a prototype incorporating state-of-art algorithms (such as the continuation power flow, direct method, boundary orbiting method, and hyperplanes) into a framework most suitable for an operations environment. Based on study findings, a functional specification was prepared, which the California ISO has since used to procure a production-quality tool that is now a part of a suite of advanced computational tools that is used by California ISO for reliability and congestion management.

  4. A Survey of Real-Time Operating Systems and Virtualization Solutions for Space Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    increasing complexity of operating systems (Armand, 2009). Microkernels are well suited for use in embedded systems , which are often not designed ...VxWorks is a proprietary suite of software products designed for embedded systems with real-time requirements. VxWorks is developed and maintained... system is tightly coupled with the additional software products designed for embedded systems that Wind River offers. As such, the operating system is

  5. Hard Real-Time: C++ Versus RTSJ

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dvorak, Daniel L.; Reinholtz, William K.

    2004-01-01

    In the domain of hard real-time systems, which language is better: C++ or the Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ)? Although ordinary Java provides a more productive programming environment than C++ due to its automatic memory management, that benefit does not apply to RTSJ when using NoHeapRealtimeThread and non-heap memory areas. As a result, RTSJ programmers must manage non-heap memory explicitly. While that's not a deterrent for veteran real-time programmers-where explicit memory management is common-the lack of certain language features in RTSJ (and Java) makes that manual memory management harder to accomplish safely than in C++. This paper illustrates the problem for practitioners in the context of moving data and managing memory in a real-time producer/consumer pattern. The relative ease of implementation and safety of the C++ programming model suggests that RTSJ has a struggle ahead in the domain of hard real-time applications, despite its other attractive features.

  6. Visualization of Real-Time Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansifer, Ryan; Engrand, Peter

    1996-01-01

    In this project we explored various approaches to presenting real-time data from the numerous systems monitored on the space shuttle to computer users. We examined the approach that several projects at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) used to accomplish this. We undertook to build a prototype system to demonstrate that the Internet and the Java programming language could be used to present the real-time data conveniently. Several Java programs were developed that presented real-time data in different forms including one form that emulated the display screens of the PC GOAL system which is familiar to many at KSC. Also, we developed several communications programs to supply the data continuously. Furthermore, a framework was created using the World Wide Web (WWW) to organize the collection and presentation of the real-time data. We believe our demonstration project shows the great flexibility of the approach. We had no particular use of the data in mind, instead we wanted the most general and the least complex framework possible. People who wish to view data need only know how to use a WWW browser and the address (the URL). People wanting to build WWW documents containing real-time data need only know the values of a few parameters, they do not need to program in Java or any other language. These are stunning advantages over more monolithic systems.

  7. Personnel real time dosimetry in interventional radiology.

    PubMed

    Servoli, L; Bissi, L; Fabiani, S; Magalotti, D; Placidi, P; Scorzoni, A; Calandra, A; Cicioni, R; Chiocchini, S; Dipilato, A C; Forini, N; Paolucci, M; Di Lorenzo, R; Cappotto, F P; Scarpignato, M; Maselli, A; Pentiricci, A

    2016-12-01

    Interventional radiology and hemodynamic procedures have rapidly grown in number in the past decade, increasing the importance of personnel dosimetry not only for patients but also for medical staff. The optimization of the absorbed dose during operations is one of the goals that fostered the development of real-time dosimetric systems. Indeed, introducing proper procedure optimization, like correlating dose rate measurements with medical staff position inside the operating room, the absorbed dose could be reduced. Real-time dose measurements would greatly facilitate this task through real-time monitoring and automatic data recording. Besides real-time dose monitoring could allow automatic data recording. In this work, we will describe the calibration and validation of a wireless real-time prototype dosimeter based on a new sensor device (CMOS imager). The validation measurement campaign in clinical conditions has demonstrated the prototype capability of measuring dose-rates with a frequency in the range of few Hz, and an uncertainty smaller than 10%. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Real-time Enhanced Vision System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Glenn D.; Rahman, Zia-Ur; Jobson, Daniel J.; Woodell, Glenn A.; Harrah, Steven D.

    2005-01-01

    Flying in poor visibility conditions, such as rain, snow, fog or haze, is inherently dangerous. However these conditions can occur at nearly any location, so inevitably pilots must successfully navigate through them. At NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), under support of the Aviation Safety and Security Program Office and the Systems Engineering Directorate, we are developing an Enhanced Vision System (EVS) that combines image enhancement and synthetic vision elements to assist pilots flying through adverse weather conditions. This system uses a combination of forward-looking infrared and visible sensors for data acquisition. A core function of the system is to enhance and fuse the sensor data in order to increase the information content and quality of the captured imagery. These operations must be performed in real-time for the pilot to use while flying. For image enhancement, we are using the LaRC patented Retinex algorithm since it performs exceptionally well for improving low-contrast range imagery typically seen during poor visibility conditions. In general, real-time operation of the Retinex requires specialized hardware. To date, we have successfully implemented a single-sensor real-time version of the Retinex on several different Digital Signal Processor (DSP) platforms. In this paper we give an overview of the EVS and its performance requirements for real-time enhancement and fusion and we discuss our current real-time Retinex implementations on DSPs.

  9. Characterization of real-time computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, K. G.; Krishna, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    A real-time system consists of a computer controller and controlled processes. Despite the synergistic relationship between these two components, they have been traditionally designed and analyzed independently of and separately from each other; namely, computer controllers by computer scientists/engineers and controlled processes by control scientists. As a remedy for this problem, in this report real-time computers are characterized by performance measures based on computer controller response time that are: (1) congruent to the real-time applications, (2) able to offer an objective comparison of rival computer systems, and (3) experimentally measurable/determinable. These measures, unlike others, provide the real-time computer controller with a natural link to controlled processes. In order to demonstrate their utility and power, these measures are first determined for example controlled processes on the basis of control performance functionals. They are then used for two important real-time multiprocessor design applications - the number-power tradeoff and fault-masking and synchronization.

  10. Spectral embedding based probabilistic boosting tree (ScEPTre): classifying high dimensional heterogeneous biomedical data.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Pallavi; Rosen, Mark; Reed, Galen; Kurhanewicz, John; Madabhushi, Anant

    2009-01-01

    The major challenge with classifying high dimensional biomedical data is in identifying the appropriate feature representation to (a) overcome the curse of dimensionality, and (b) facilitate separation between the data classes. Another challenge is to integrate information from two disparate modalities, possibly existing in different dimensional spaces, for improved classification. In this paper, we present a novel data representation, integration and classification scheme, Spectral Embedding based Probabilistic boosting Tree (ScEPTre), which incorporates Spectral Embedding (SE) for data representation and integration and a Probabilistic Boosting Tree classifier for data classification. SE provides an alternate representation of the data by non-linearly transforming high dimensional data into a low dimensional embedding space such that the relative adjacencies between objects are preserved. We demonstrate the utility of ScEPTre to classify and integrate Magnetic Resonance (MR) Spectroscopy (MRS) and Imaging (MRI) data for prostate cancer detection. Area under the receiver operating Curve (AUC) obtained via randomized cross validation on 15 prostate MRI-MRS studies suggests that (a) ScEPTre on MRS significantly outperforms a Haar wavelets based classifier, (b) integration of MRI-MRS via ScEPTre performs significantly better compared to using MRI and MRS alone, and (c) data integration via ScEPTre yields superior classification results compared to combining decisions from individual classifiers (or modalities).

  11. Towards OpenVL: Improving Real-Time Performance of Computer Vision Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Changsong; Little, James J.; Fels, Sidney

    Meeting constraints for real-time performance is a main issue for computer vision, especially for embedded computer vision systems. This chapter presents our progress on our open vision library (OpenVL), a novel software architecture to address efficiency through facilitating hardware acceleration, reusability, and scalability for computer vision systems. A logical image understanding pipeline is introduced to allow parallel processing. We also discuss progress on our middleware—vision library utility toolkit (VLUT)—that enables applications to operate transparently over a heterogeneous collection of hardware implementations. OpenVL works as a state machine,with an event-driven mechanismto provide users with application-level interaction. Various explicit or implicit synchronization and communication methods are supported among distributed processes in the logical pipelines. The intent of OpenVL is to allow users to quickly and easily recover useful information from multiple scenes, in a cross-platform, cross-language manner across various software environments and hardware platforms. To validate the critical underlying concepts of OpenVL, a human tracking system and a local positioning system are implemented and described. The novel architecture separates the specification of algorithmic details from the underlying implementation, allowing for different components to be implemented on an embedded system without recompiling code.

  12. Real-Time Visualization of Tissue Ischemia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bearman, Gregory H. (Inventor); Chrien, Thomas D. (Inventor); Eastwood, Michael L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A real-time display of tissue ischemia which comprises three CCD video cameras, each with a narrow bandwidth filter at the correct wavelength is discussed. The cameras simultaneously view an area of tissue suspected of having ischemic areas through beamsplitters. The output from each camera is adjusted to give the correct signal intensity for combining with, the others into an image for display. If necessary a digital signal processor (DSP) can implement algorithms for image enhancement prior to display. Current DSP engines are fast enough to give real-time display. Measurement at three, wavelengths, combined into a real-time Red-Green-Blue (RGB) video display with a digital signal processing (DSP) board to implement image algorithms, provides direct visualization of ischemic areas.

  13. Real-time inspection by submarine images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tascini, Guido; Zingaretti, Primo; Conte, Giuseppe

    1996-10-01

    A real-time application of computer vision concerning tracking and inspection of a submarine pipeline is described. The objective is to develop automatic procedures for supporting human operators in the real-time analysis of images acquired by means of cameras mounted on underwater remotely operated vehicles (ROV) Implementation of such procedures gives rise to a human-machine system for underwater pipeline inspection that can automatically detect and signal the presence of the pipe, of its structural or accessory elements, and of dangerous or alien objects in its neighborhood. The possibility of modifying the image acquisition rate in the simulations performed on video- recorded images is used to prove that the system performs all necessary processing with an acceptable robustness working in real-time up to a speed of about 2.5 kn, widely greater than that the actual ROVs and the security features allow.

  14. Network protocols for real-time applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marjory J.

    1987-01-01

    The Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) and the SAE AE-9B High Speed Ring Bus (HSRB) are emerging standards for high-performance token ring local area networks. FDDI was designed to be a general-purpose high-performance network. HSRB was designed specifically for military real-time applications. A workshop was conducted at NASA Ames Research Center in January, 1987 to compare and contrast these protocols with respect to their ability to support real-time applications. This report summarizes workshop presentations and includes an independent comparison of the two protocols. A conclusion reached at the workshop was that current protocols for the upper layers of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) network model are inadequate for real-time applications.

  15. Continuous, real time microwave plasma element sensor

    DOEpatents

    Woskov, P.P.; Smatlak, D.L.; Cohn, D.R.; Wittle, J.K.; Titus, C.H.; Surma, J.E.

    1995-12-26

    Microwave-induced plasma is described for continuous, real time trace element monitoring under harsh and variable conditions. The sensor includes a source of high power microwave energy and a shorted waveguide made of a microwave conductive, refractory material communicating with the source of the microwave energy to generate a plasma. The high power waveguide is constructed to be robust in a hot, hostile environment. It includes an aperture for the passage of gases to be analyzed and a spectrometer is connected to receive light from the plasma. Provision is made for real time in situ calibration. The spectrometer disperses the light, which is then analyzed by a computer. The sensor is capable of making continuous, real time quantitative measurements of desired elements, such as the heavy metals lead and mercury. 3 figs.

  16. Continuous, real time microwave plasma element sensor

    DOEpatents

    Woskov, Paul P.; Smatlak, Donna L.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Wittle, J. Kenneth; Titus, Charles H.; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1995-01-01

    Microwave-induced plasma for continuous, real time trace element monitoring under harsh and variable conditions. The sensor includes a source of high power microwave energy and a shorted waveguide made of a microwave conductive, refractory material communicating with the source of the microwave energy to generate a plasma. The high power waveguide is constructed to be robust in a hot, hostile environment. It includes an aperture for the passage of gases to be analyzed and a spectrometer is connected to receive light from the plasma. Provision is made for real time in situ calibration. The spectrometer disperses the light, which is then analyzed by a computer. The sensor is capable of making continuous, real time quantitative measurements of desired elements, such as the heavy metals lead and mercury.

  17. Real-time, high frequency QRS electrocardiograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T. (Inventor); DePalma, Jude L. (Inventor); Moradi, Saeed (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Real time cardiac electrical data are received from a patient, manipulated to determine various useful aspects of the ECG signal, and displayed in real time in a useful form on a computer screen or monitor. The monitor displays the high frequency data from the QRS complex in units of microvolts, juxtaposed with a display of conventional ECG data in units of millivolts or microvolts. The high frequency data are analyzed for their root mean square (RMS) voltage values and the discrete RMS values and related parameters are displayed in real time. The high frequency data from the QRS complex are analyzed with imbedded algorithms to determine the presence or absence of reduced amplitude zones, referred to herein as RAZs. RAZs are displayed as go, no-go signals on the computer monitor. The RMS and related values of the high frequency components are displayed as time varying signals, and the presence or absence of RAZs may be similarly displayed over time.

  18. Asymmetric catalysis at the mesoscale: gold nanoclusters embedded in chiral self-assembled monolayer as heterogeneous catalyst for asymmetric reactions.

    PubMed

    Gross, Elad; Liu, Jack H; Alayoglu, Selim; Marcus, Matthew A; Fakra, Sirine C; Toste, F Dean; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2013-03-13

    Research to develop highly versatile, chiral, heterogeneous catalysts for asymmetric organic transformations, without quenching the catalytic reactivity, has met with limited success. While chiral supramolecular structures, connected by weak bonds, are highly active for homogeneous asymmetric catalysis, their application in heterogeneous catalysis is rare. In this work, asymmetric catalyst was prepared by encapsulating metallic nanoclusters in chiral self-assembled monolayer (SAM), immobilized on mesoporous SiO2 support. Using olefin cyclopropanation as an example, it was demonstrated that by controlling the SAM properties, asymmetric reactions can be catalyzed by Au clusters embedded in chiral SAM. Up to 50% enantioselectivity with high diastereoselectivity were obtained while employing Au nanoclusters coated with SAM peptides as heterogeneous catalyst for the formation of cyclopropane-containing products. Spectroscopic measurements correlated the improved enantioselectivity with the formation of a hydrogen-bonding network in the chiral SAM. These results demonstrate the synergetic effect of the catalytically active metallic sites and the surrounding chiral SAM for the formation of a mesoscale enantioselective catalyst.

  19. Machine vision for real time orbital operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinz, Frank L.

    1988-01-01

    Machine vision for automation and robotic operation of Space Station era systems has the potential for increasing the efficiency of orbital servicing, repair, assembly and docking tasks. A machine vision research project is described in which a TV camera is used for inputing visual data to a computer so that image processing may be achieved for real time control of these orbital operations. A technique has resulted from this research which reduces computer memory requirements and greatly increases typical computational speed such that it has the potential for development into a real time orbital machine vision system. This technique is called AI BOSS (Analysis of Images by Box Scan and Syntax).

  20. Automated real-time software development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Walker, Carrie K.; Turkovich, John J.

    1993-01-01

    A Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) system has been developed at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL) under the direction of the NASA Langley Research Center. The CSDL CASE tool provides an automated method of generating source code and hard copy documentation from functional application engineering specifications. The goal is to significantly reduce the cost of developing and maintaining real-time scientific and engineering software while increasing system reliability. This paper describes CSDL CASE and discusses demonstrations that used the tool to automatically generate real-time application code.

  1. Axial Tomography from Digitized Real Time Radiography

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Zolnay, A. S.; McDonald, W. M.; Doupont, P. A.; McKinney, R. L.; Lee, M. M.

    1985-01-18

    Axial tomography from digitized real time radiographs provides a useful tool for industrial radiography and tomography. The components of this system are: x-ray source, image intensifier, video camera, video line extractor and digitizer, data storage and reconstruction computers. With this system it is possible to view a two dimensional x-ray image in real time at each angle of rotation and select the tomography plane of interest by choosing which video line to digitize. The digitization of a video line requires less than a second making data acquisition relatively short. Further improvements on this system are planned and initial results are reported.

  2. Software Package For Real-Time Graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, Jacqueline C.; Moore, Archie L.

    1991-01-01

    Software package for master graphics interactive console (MAGIC) at Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) of NASA Ames Research Center provides general-purpose graphical display system for real-time and post-real-time analysis of data. Written in C language and intended for use on workstation of interactive raster imaging system (IRIS) equipped with level-V Unix operating system. Enables flight researchers to create their own displays on basis of individual requirements. Applicable to monitoring of complicated processes in chemical industry.

  3. Real-Time, Interactive Sonic Boom Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering, Jr., Edward A. (Inventor); Plotkin, Kenneth J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention is an improved real-time, interactive sonic boom display for aircraft. By using physical properties obtained via various sensors and databases, the invention determines, in real-time, sonic boom impacts locations and intensities for aircraft traveling at supersonic speeds. The information is provided to a pilot via a display that lists a selectable set of maneuvers available to the pilot to mitigate sonic boom issues. Upon selection of a maneuver, the information as to the result of the maneuver is displayed and the pilot may proceed with making the maneuver, or provide new data to the system in order to calculate a different maneuver.

  4. Imaging of living cells in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tychinsky, Vladimir P.; Koufal, Georgy E.; Perevedentseva, Elena V.; Vyshenskaia, Tatiana V.; Nikandrov, Serguei L.

    1996-12-01

    Parameters of intrinsic cell motility is one of the cell activity characteristics which can be measured in real-time. For evaluation of certain organelles velocity we propose to use high sensitivity of computer-aided phase microscope airyscan to local phase changes connected with refractive index. This method is based on periodical scanning of cell profile in direction perpendicular to organelles movement. Analysis of the obtained 2-dimensional time-coordinate matrix allows us to define organelle velocity in quasi-real time and areas of cell activity. The experiments with onion cells confirm the method applicability for cell activity investigation.

  5. Robotic real-time radiographic inspection system

    SciTech Connect

    McNair, J.

    1987-01-01

    A computer-controlled real-time radiographic system with remote robotic material handling has been developed and installed at the US Army's Yuma Proving Ground. This system is used for the nondestructive examination of a variety of munition types tested at the proving ground. This paper describes the system and its capabilities. The system consists of an overhead robot for material handling, a five-axis manipulator for positioning the item being inspected, and the real-time radiographic image acquisition and analysis equipment. The system is fully automated and uses a single minicomputer as the system controller.

  6. Real-time elastography of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Junker, D; De Zordo, T; Quentin, M; Ladurner, M; Bektic, J; Horniger, W; Jaschke, W; Aigner, F

    2014-01-01

    Palpation of organs is one of the oldest clinical examination techniques, for instance, if you think of the palpation of the breast or the digital rectal examination of the prostate, where hard palpable regions are suspicious for cancer. This is the basic principle of real-time elastography, an ultrasound technique, which is able to visualise tissue elasticity. Since prostate cancer features an increased stiffness due to the higher cell and vessel density than the normal surrounding tissue, real-time elastography has been used for several years for prostate cancer detection. This review introduces the different techniques of ultrasound elastography and furthermore summarises its limitations and potentials.

  7. Real-Time Elastography of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Junker, D.; De Zordo, T.; Quentin, M.; Ladurner, M.; Bektic, J.; Horniger, W.; Jaschke, W.; Aigner, F.

    2014-01-01

    Palpation of organs is one of the oldest clinical examination techniques, for instance, if you think of the palpation of the breast or the digital rectal examination of the prostate, where hard palpable regions are suspicious for cancer. This is the basic principle of real-time elastography, an ultrasound technique, which is able to visualise tissue elasticity. Since prostate cancer features an increased stiffness due to the higher cell and vessel density than the normal surrounding tissue, real-time elastography has been used for several years for prostate cancer detection. This review introduces the different techniques of ultrasound elastography and furthermore summarises its limitations and potentials. PMID:24967334

  8. Quantitative Real-Time PCR: Recent Advances.

    PubMed

    Singh, Charanjeet; Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction is a technique for simultaneous amplification and product quantification of a target DNA as the process takes place in real time in a "closed-tube" system. Although this technique can provide an absolute quantification of the initial template copy number, quantification relative to a control sample or second sequence is typically adequate. The quantification process employs melting curve analysis and/or fluorescent detection systems and can provide amplification and genotyping in a relatively short time. Here we describe the properties and uses of various fluorescent detection systems used for quantification.

  9. Software Package For Real-Time Graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, Jacqueline C.; Moore, Archie L.

    1991-01-01

    Software package for master graphics interactive console (MAGIC) at Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) of NASA Ames Research Center provides general-purpose graphical display system for real-time and post-real-time analysis of data. Written in C language and intended for use on workstation of interactive raster imaging system (IRIS) equipped with level-V Unix operating system. Enables flight researchers to create their own displays on basis of individual requirements. Applicable to monitoring of complicated processes in chemical industry.

  10. Machine vision for real time orbital operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinz, Frank L.

    1988-01-01

    Machine vision for automation and robotic operation of Space Station era systems has the potential for increasing the efficiency of orbital servicing, repair, assembly and docking tasks. A machine vision research project is described in which a TV camera is used for inputing visual data to a computer so that image processing may be achieved for real time control of these orbital operations. A technique has resulted from this research which reduces computer memory requirements and greatly increases typical computational speed such that it has the potential for development into a real time orbital machine vision system. This technique is called AI BOSS (Analysis of Images by Box Scan and Syntax).

  11. Real-time Shakemap implementation in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weginger, Stefan; Jia, Yan; Papi Isaba, Maria; Horn, Nikolaus

    2017-04-01

    ShakeMaps provide near-real-time maps of ground motion and shaking intensity following significant earthquakes. They are automatically generated within a few minutes after occurrence of an earthquake. We tested and included the USGS ShakeMap 4.0 (experimental code) based on python in the Antelope real-time system with local modified GMPE and Site Effects based on the conditions in Austria. The ShakeMaps are provided in terms of Intensity, PGA, PGV and PSA. Future presentation of ShakeMap contour lines and Ground Motion Parameter with interactive maps and data exchange over Web-Services are shown.

  12. Mobile waste inspection real time radiography system

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S.; Rael, C.; Martinez, F.; Mendez, J.

    1995-10-01

    The 450-KeV Mobile Real Time Radiography System was designed and purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Mobile Real Time Radiography System has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from 5-gal. buckets to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). The fact that this unit is mobile makes it an attractive alternative to the costly road closures associated with moving waste from the waste generator to storage or disposal facilities.

  13. Real-time ISEE data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, B. T.; Baker, D. N.

    1979-01-01

    A real-time ISEE data system directed toward predicting geomagnetic substorms and storms is discussed. Such a system may allow up to 60+ minutes advance warning of magnetospheric substorms and up to 30 minute warnings of geomagnetic storms (and other disturbances) induced by high-speed streams and solar flares. The proposed system utilizes existing capabilities of several agencies (NASA, NOAA, USAF), and thereby minimizes costs. This same concept may be applicable to data from other spacecraft, and other NASA centers; thus, each individual experimenter can receive quick-look data in real time at his or her base institution.

  14. Axial tomography from digitized real time radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Zolnay, A.S.; McDonald, W.M.; Doupont, P.A.; McKinney, R.L.; Lee, M.M.

    1985-01-18

    Axial tomography from digitized real time radiographs provides a useful tool for industrial radiography and tomography. The components of this system are: x-ray source, image intensifier, video camera, video line extractor and digitizer, data storage and reconstruction computers. With this system it is possible to view a two dimensional x-ray image in real time at each angle of rotation and select the tomography plane of interest by choosing which video line to digitize. The digitization of a video line requires less than a second making data acquisition relatively short. Further improvements on this system are planned and initial results are reported.

  15. Real-Time Occupancy Change Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The Real-Time Occupancy Change Analyzer (ROCA) produces an occupancy grid map of an environment around the robot, scans the environment to generate a current obstacle map relative to a current robot position, and converts the current obstacle map to a current occupancy grid map. Changes in the occupancy grid can be reported in real time to support a number of tracking capabilities. The benefit of ROCA is that rather than only providing a vector to the detected change, it provides the actual x,y position of the change.

  16. Detection of Histoplasma capsulatum from clinical specimens by cycling probe-based real-time PCR and nested real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Muraosa, Yasunori; Toyotome, Takahito; Yahiro, Maki; Watanabe, Akira; Shikanai-Yasuda, Maria Aparecida; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2016-05-01

    We developed new cycling probe-based real-time PCR and nested real-time PCR assays for the detection of Histoplasma capsulatum that were designed to detect the gene encoding N-acetylated α-linked acidic dipeptidase (NAALADase), which we previously identified as an H. capsulatum antigen reacting with sera from patients with histoplasmosis. Both assays specifically detected the DNAs of all H. capsulatum strains but not those of other fungi or human DNA. The limited of detection (LOD) of the real-time PCR assay was 10 DNA copies when using 10-fold serial dilutions of the standard plasmid DNA and 50 DNA copies when using human serum spiked with standard plasmid DNA. The nested real-time PCR improved the LOD to 5 DNA copies when using human serum spiked with standard plasmid DNA, which represents a 10-fold higher than that observed with the real-time PCR assay. To assess the ability of the two assays to diagnose histoplasmosis, we analyzed a small number of clinical specimens collected from five patients with histoplasmosis, such as sera (n = 4), formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue (n = 4), and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) (n = 1). Although clinical sensitivity of the real-time PCR assay was insufficiently sensitive (33%), the nested real-time PCR assay increased the clinical sensitivity (77%), suggesting it has a potential to be a useful method for detecting H. capsulatum DNA in clinical specimens.

  17. Real-time monitoring system of composite aircraft wings utilizing Fibre Bragg Grating sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorathin, E.; Hafizi, Z. M.; Che Ghani, S. A.; Lim, K. S.

    2016-10-01

    Embedment of Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor in composite aircraft wings leads to the advancement of structural condition monitoring. The monitored aircraft wings have the capability to give real-time response under critical loading circumstances. The main objective of this paper is to develop a real-time FBG monitoring system for composite aircraft wings to view real-time changes when the structure undergoes some static loadings and dynamic impact. The implementation of matched edge filter FBG interrogation system to convert wavelength variations to strain readings shows that the structure is able to response instantly in real-time when undergoing few loadings and dynamic impact. This smart monitoring system is capable of updating the changes instantly in real-time and shows the weight induced on the composite aircraft wings instantly without any error. It also has a good agreement with acoustic emission (AE) sensor in the dynamic test.

  18. Towards real-time stereovision systems for planetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkes, Stephen Maxwell

    1993-01-01

    Stereovision algorithms applicable to planetary mobile vehicles are considered. Stereovision systems have an important role to play in planetary exploration from digital elevation modeling of planetary surfaces to navigation of semiautonomous vehicles and control of robotic manipulators. Real time stereovision systems require very high processing power which can only be met by a heterogeneous multiprocessor processing architecture. The current and future processing technologies are examined together with the constraints on space-based electronic systems. The integrated multiprocessor system being developed for digital signal and image processing applications is described.

  19. Real-time distributed multimedia systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rahurkar, S.S.; Bourbakis, N.G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a survey on distributed multimedia systems and discusses real-time issues. In particular, different subsystems are reviewed that impact on multimedia networking, the networking for multimedia, the networked multimedia systems, and the leading edge research and developments efforts and issues in networking.

  20. REAL TIME CONTROL OF URBAN DRAINAGE NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Real-time control (RTC) is a custom-designed, computer-assisted management technology for a specific sewerage network to meet the operational objectives of its collection/conveyance system. RTC can operate in several modes, including a mode that is activated during a wet weather ...

  1. REAL TIME CONTROL OF URBAN DRAINAGE NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Real-time control (RTC) is a custom-designed, computer-assisted management technology for a specific sewerage network to meet the operational objectives of its collection/conveyance system. RTC can operate in several modes, including a mode that is activated during a wet weather ...

  2. Real Time Grid Reliability Management 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joe; Eto, Joe; Lesieutre, Bernard; Lewis, Nancy Jo; Parashar, Manu

    2008-07-07

    The increased need to manage California?s electricity grid in real time is a result of the ongoing transition from a system operated by vertically-integrated utilities serving native loads to one operated by an independent system operator supporting competitive energy markets. During this transition period, the traditional approach to reliability management -- construction of new transmission lines -- has not been pursued due to unresolved issues related to the financing and recovery of transmission project costs. In the absence of investments in new transmission infrastructure, the best strategy for managing reliability is to equip system operators with better real-time information about actual operating margins so that they can better understand and manage the risk of operating closer to the edge. A companion strategy is to address known deficiencies in offline modeling tools that are needed to ground the use of improved real-time tools. This project: (1) developed and conducted first-ever demonstrations of two prototype real-time software tools for voltage security assessment and phasor monitoring; and (2) prepared a scoping study on improving load and generator response models. Additional funding through two separate subsequent work authorizations has already been provided to build upon the work initiated in this project.

  3. Feedback as Real-Time Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keiding, Tina Bering; Qvortrup, Ane

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a re-description of feedback and the significance of time in feedback constructions based on systems theory. It describes feedback as internal, real-time constructions in a learning system. From this perspective, feedback is neither immediate nor delayed, but occurs in the very moment it takes place. This article argues for a…

  4. The Power of Real-Time PCR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valasek, Mark A.; Repa, Joyce J.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has emerged as a robust and widely used methodology for biological investigation because it can detect and quantify very small amounts of specific nucleic acid sequences. As a research tool, a major application of this technology is the rapid and accurate assessment of changes in gene…

  5. The Power of Real-Time PCR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valasek, Mark A.; Repa, Joyce J.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has emerged as a robust and widely used methodology for biological investigation because it can detect and quantify very small amounts of specific nucleic acid sequences. As a research tool, a major application of this technology is the rapid and accurate assessment of changes in gene…

  6. Real-time analysis of telemetry data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Simon A.; Laffey, Thomas J.; Schmidt, James L.; Read, Jackson Y.; Dunham, Larry L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper descibes a knowledge-based system for performing real-time monitoring and analysis of telemetry data from the NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST). In order to handle asynchronous inputs and perform in real time the system consists of three or more separate processes, which run concurrently and communicate via a message passing scheme. The data management process gathers, compresses, and scales the incoming telemetry data befoe sending it to the other tasks. The inferencing process uses the incoming data to perform a real-time analysis of the state and health of the Space Telescope. The I/O process receives telemetry monitors from the data management process, updates its graphical displays in real time, and acts as the interface to the console operator. The three processes may run on the same or different computers. This system is currently under development and is being used to monitor testcases produced by the Bass Telemetry System in the Hardware/Software Integration Facility at Lockheed Missile and Space Co. in Sunnyvale, California.

  7. Feedback as Real-Time Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keiding, Tina Bering; Qvortrup, Ane

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a re-description of feedback and the significance of time in feedback constructions based on systems theory. It describes feedback as internal, real-time constructions in a learning system. From this perspective, feedback is neither immediate nor delayed, but occurs in the very moment it takes place. This article argues for a…

  8. Quantitative real-time imaging of glutathione

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Glutathione plays many important roles in biological processes; however, the dynamic changes of glutathione concentrations in living cells remain largely unknown. Here, we report a reversible reaction-based fluorescent probe—designated as RealThiol (RT)—that can quantitatively monitor the real-time ...

  9. Real-time Metadata Capture Implementations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chayes, D. N.; Arko, R. A.

    2002-12-01

    The current rate of data acquisition in the ocean sciences precludes the manual generation of appropriate metadata after the fact. Recognizing this fact, we have begun to implement methods for creating metadata and inserting them into relational databases in real-time. We have also created web-based tools for watchstanders and maintenance personnel to enter logbook data in real-time. Several examples will be addressed in this poster. Enhancements to the Hudson Interactive River Observatory (HIRO) real-time data logging system have been made that create metadata records and insert them (as SQL transactions over a secure wireless TCP/IP connection) into a relational database in real-time. These records document the start and stop time of individual data files, of sensor-specific data streams and of the logging system as a whole. An interactive watchstanders logbook has been developed and used on the R/V Maurice Ewing to create and log metadata records associated with upgrades to the Hydrosweep DS2 multibeam system. A similar version of this tool is being used to capture the maintenance and update records associated with the HRIO system.

  10. Real-Time Operating System/360

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, R. L.; Kopp, R. S.; Mueller, H. H.; Pollan, W. D.; Van Sant, B. W.; Weiler, P. W.

    1969-01-01

    RTOS has a cost savings advantage for real-time applications, such as those with random inputs requiring a flexible data routing facility, display systems simplified by a device independent interface language, and complex applications needing added storage protection and data queuing.

  11. Real-time optoacoustic monitoring during thermotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esenaliev, Rinat O.; Larina, Irina V.; Larin, Kirill V.; Motamedi, Massoud

    2000-05-01

    Optoacoustic monitoring of tissue optical properties and speed of sound in real time can provide fast and accurate feedback information during thermotherapy performed with various heating or cooling agents. Amplitude and temporal characteristics of optoacoustic pressure waves are dependent on tissue properties. Detection and measurement of the optoacoustic waves may be used to monitor the extent of tissue hyperthermia, coagulation, or freezing with high resolution and contrast. We studied real-time optoacoustic monitoring of thermal coagulation induced by conductive heating and laser radiation and cryoablation with liquid nitrogen. Q-switched Nd:YAG laser pulses were used as probing radiation to induce optoacoustic waves in tissues. Dramatic changes in optoacoustic signal parameters were detected during tissue freezing and coagulation due to sharp changes in tissue properties. The dimensions of thermally- induced lesions were measured in real time with the optoacoustic technique. Our studies demonstrated that the laser optoacoustic technique is capable of real-time monitoring of tissue coagulation and freezing front with submillimeter spatial resolution. This may allow accurate thermal ablation or cryotherapy of malignant and benign lesions with minimal damage to normal tissues.

  12. OPAD-EDIFIS Real-Time Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsinis, Constantine

    1997-01-01

    The Optical Plume Anomaly Detection (OPAD) detects engine hardware degradation of flight vehicles through identification and quantification of elemental species found in the plume by analyzing the plume emission spectra in a real-time mode. Real-time performance of OPAD relies on extensive software which must report metal amounts in the plume faster than once every 0.5 sec. OPAD software previously written by NASA scientists performed most necessary functions at speeds which were far below what is needed for real-time operation. The research presented in this report improved the execution speed of the software by optimizing the code without changing the algorithms and converting it into a parallelized form which is executed in a shared-memory multiprocessor system. The resulting code was subjected to extensive timing analysis. The report also provides suggestions for further performance improvement by (1) identifying areas of algorithm optimization, (2) recommending commercially available multiprocessor architectures and operating systems to support real-time execution and (3) presenting an initial study of fault-tolerance requirements.

  13. Tradeoffs for real-time hyperspectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Edwin M.; Schlangen, Michael J.; Hill, Anthony B.; Simi, Christopher G.; Winter, Michael E.

    2002-08-01

    There has been considerable interest in the application of real-time processing techniques to the problem of hyperspectral scene analysis. Recent satellite and aircraft systems can produce data at a rate far faster than the data can be analyzed by interactive computer procedures. Automated and fast procedures for preparing the data for analyst inspection are required for even laboratory use of the large quantities of data. In addition, there are several real-time applications where the data must be processed as it is being acquired. A typical application is a computing system on-board an airplane for operator analysis of the scene as the hyperspectral sensor collects data. In this paper the possible tradeoffs fore rapid analysis are discussed, including choice of algorithm, possible dimensionality reduction, and reduced display level. A real time anomaly detection processing system based on the N- FINDR algorithm has been designed and implemented for the Night Vision Imaging Spectrometer (NVIS). The N-FINDR algorithm is a linear unmixing based algorithm that automatically finds spectral endmembers. The algorithm works by inflating a simplex inside the data, beginning with a random set of pixels. Once these endmember spectra have been found, the image cube can be unmixed using a least-squares approach into a map of fractional abundances of each endmember material in each pixel. In addition to the N-FINDR algorithm, the real-time processing system performs calibration, bad pixel removal, and display of selected fraction planes. The real-time processor is implemented in a commercial Pentium IV computer.

  14. New technologies for supporting real-time on-board software development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerridge, D.

    1995-03-01

    The next generation of on-board data management systems will be significantly more complex than current designs, and will be required to perform more complex and demanding tasks in software. Improved hardware technology, in the form of the MA31750 radiation hard processor, is one key component in addressing the needs of future embedded systems. However, to complement these hardware advances, improved support for the design and implementation of real-time data management software is now needed. This will help to control the cost and risk assoicated with developing data management software development as it becomes an increasingly significant element within embedded systems. One particular problem with developing embedded software is managing the non-functional requirements in a systematic way. This paper identifies how Logica has exploited recent developments in hard real-time theory to address this problem through the use of new hard real-time analysis and design methods which can be supported by specialized tools. The first stage in transferring this technology from the research domain to industrial application has already been completed. The MA37150 Hard Real-Time Embedded Software Support Environment (HESSE) is a loosely integrated set of hardware and software tools which directly support the process of hard real-time analysis for software targeting the MA31750 processor. With further development, this HESSE promises to provide embedded system developers with software tools which can reduce the risks associated with developing complex hard real-time software. Supported in this way by more sophisticated software methods and tools, it is foreseen that MA31750 based embedded systems can meet the processing needs for the next generation of on-board data management systems.

  15. Qos Management in Real-Time Spatial Big Data Using Feedback Control Scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdi, S.; Bouazizi, E.; Faiz, S.

    2015-08-01

    Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present all types of spatial data. Spatial data, whether captured through remote sensors or large scale simulations has always been big and heterogenous. The issue of real-time and heterogeneity have been extremely important for taking effective decision. Thus, heterogeneous real-time spatial data management has become a very active research domain. Existing research has principally focused on querying of real-time spatial data and their updates. But the unpredictability of access to data maintain the behavior of the real-time GIS unstable. In this paper, we propose the use of the real-time Spatial Big Data and we define a new architecture called FCSA-RTSBD (Feedback Control Scheduling Architecture for Real-Time Spatial Big Data). The main objectives of this architecture are the following: take in account the heterogeneity of data, guarantee the data freshness, enhance the deadline miss ratio even in the presence of conflicts and unpredictable workloads and finally satisfy the requirements of users by the improving of the quality of service (QoS).

  16. NSTX-U Advances in Real-Time C++11 on Linux

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, Keith G.

    2015-08-14

    Programming languages like C and Ada combined with proprietary embedded operating systems have dominated the real-time application space for decades. The new C++11standard includes native, language-level support for concurrency, a required feature for any nontrivial event-oriented real-time software. Threads, Locks, and Atomics now exist to provide the necessary tools to build the structures that make up the foundation of a complex real-time system. The National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) is breaking new ground with the language as applied to the needs of fusion devices. A new Digital Coil Protection System (DCPS) will serve as the main protection mechanism for the magnetic coils, and it is written entirely in C++11 running on Concurrent Computer Corporation's real-time operating system, RedHawk Linux. It runs over 600 algorithms in a 5 kHz control loop that determine whether or not to shut down operations before physical damage occurs. To accomplish this, NSTX-U engineers developed software tools that do not currently exist elsewhere, including real-time atomic synchronization, real-time containers, and a real-time logging framework. Together with a recent (and carefully configured) version of the GCC compiler, these tools enable data acquisition, processing, and output using a conventional operating system to meet a hard real-time deadline (that is, missing one periodic is a failure) of 200 microseconds.

  17. NSTX-U Advances in Real-Time C++11 on Linux

    DOE PAGES

    Erickson, Keith G.

    2015-08-14

    Programming languages like C and Ada combined with proprietary embedded operating systems have dominated the real-time application space for decades. The new C++11standard includes native, language-level support for concurrency, a required feature for any nontrivial event-oriented real-time software. Threads, Locks, and Atomics now exist to provide the necessary tools to build the structures that make up the foundation of a complex real-time system. The National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) is breaking new ground with the language as applied to the needs of fusion devices. A new Digital Coil Protection System (DCPS) willmore » serve as the main protection mechanism for the magnetic coils, and it is written entirely in C++11 running on Concurrent Computer Corporation's real-time operating system, RedHawk Linux. It runs over 600 algorithms in a 5 kHz control loop that determine whether or not to shut down operations before physical damage occurs. To accomplish this, NSTX-U engineers developed software tools that do not currently exist elsewhere, including real-time atomic synchronization, real-time containers, and a real-time logging framework. Together with a recent (and carefully configured) version of the GCC compiler, these tools enable data acquisition, processing, and output using a conventional operating system to meet a hard real-time deadline (that is, missing one periodic is a failure) of 200 microseconds.« less

  18. NSTX-U Advances in Real-Time C++11 on Linux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Keith G.

    2015-08-01

    Programming languages like C and Ada combined with proprietary embedded operating systems have dominated the real-time application space for decades. The new C++11 standard includes native, language-level support for concurrency, a required feature for any nontrivial event-oriented real-time software. Threads, Locks, and Atomics now exist to provide the necessary tools to build the structures that make up the foundation of a complex real-time system. The National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) is breaking new ground with the language as applied to the needs of fusion devices. A new Digital Coil Protection System (DCPS) will serve as the main protection mechanism for the magnetic coils, and it is written entirely in C++11 running on Concurrent Computer Corporation's real-time operating system, RedHawk Linux. It runs over 600 algorithms in a 5 kHz control loop that determine whether or not to shut down operations before physical damage occurs. To accomplish this, NSTX-U engineers developed software tools that do not currently exist elsewhere, including real-time atomic synchronization, real-time containers, and a real-time logging framework. Together with a recent (and carefully configured) version of the GCC compiler, these tools enable data acquisition, processing, and output using a conventional operating system to meet a hard real-time deadline (that is, missing one periodic is a failure) of 200 microseconds.

  19. ALMA Correlator Real-Time Data Processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisano, J.; Amestica, R.; Perez, J.

    2005-10-01

    The design of a real-time Linux application utilizing Real-Time Application Interface (RTAI) to process real-time data from the radio astronomy correlator for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is described. The correlator is a custom-built digital signal processor which computes the cross-correlation function of two digitized signal streams. ALMA will have 64 antennas with 2080 signal streams each with a sample rate of 4 giga-samples per second. The correlator's aggregate data output will be 1 gigabyte per second. The software is defined by hard deadlines with high input and processing data rates, while requiring interfaces to non real-time external computers. The designed computer system - the Correlator Data Processor or CDP, consists of a cluster of 17 SMP computers, 16 of which are compute nodes plus a master controller node all running real-time Linux kernels. Each compute node uses an RTAI kernel module to interface to a 32-bit parallel interface which accepts raw data at 64 megabytes per second in 1 megabyte chunks every 16 milliseconds. These data are transferred to tasks running on multiple CPUs in hard real-time using RTAI's LXRT facility to perform quantization corrections, data windowing, FFTs, and phase corrections for a processing rate of approximately 1 GFLOPS. Highly accurate timing signals are distributed to all seventeen computer nodes in order to synchronize them to other time-dependent devices in the observatory array. RTAI kernel tasks interface to the timing signals providing sub-millisecond timing resolution. The CDP interfaces, via the master node, to other computer systems on an external intra-net for command and control, data storage, and further data (image) processing. The master node accesses these external systems utilizing ALMA Common Software (ACS), a CORBA-based client-server software infrastructure providing logging, monitoring, data delivery, and intra-computer function invocation. The software is being developed in tandem

  20. Real-Time Seismology in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custodio, S.; Marreiros, C.; Carvalho, S.; Vales, D.; Lima, V.; Carrilho, F.

    2012-12-01

    Portugal is located next to the plate boundary between Eurasia (Iberia) and Africa (Nubia). The country has been repeatedly affected by some of the largest earthquakes, both onshore and offshore, in the historical European record, including the largest historical European earthquake, the great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 (~M8.5). The Portuguese territory has suffered directly the consequences of strong ground shaking (collapse of buildings, etc) and also some of the most destructive consequences of earthquakes (e.g. tsunamis, fires, etc). However, the rate of tectonic deformation in the Portuguese territory is low (the Eurasian-African plates converge at a rate of ~ 5 mm/yr), which results in long recurrence intervals between earthquakes. This low to moderate rate of seismic activity has two major negative effects: 1) it is difficult to study the regional seismo-tectonics with traditional passive methods; 2) the population is little aware of earthquake risk and unprepared to react in case of disaster. In this scenario, real-time seismology is key to monitoring earthquake crisis in real-time, providing early warnings about potentially destructive events, and assisting in the channeling of recovery efforts in case of disaster. In this paper we will present the real-time algorithms implemented at Instituto de Meteorologia (IM), the institution responsible for seismic monitoring in Portugal. In particular, we will focus on the following aspects: 1) Data collection and real-time transmission to the headquarters. Broadband seismological stations are owned and operated by five different institutions. The last years have witnessed an effort for integration, and presently most data arrives at IM lab in real-time. 2) Earthquake location and local magnitude determination. Data is automatically analyzed in order to obtain a first earthquake hypocenter and ML. While this process is mostly automatic, it still requires the revision by an operator, who is available 24h. 3

  1. AMON: Transition to real-time operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowen, D. F.; Keivani, A.; Tešić, G.

    2016-04-01

    The Astrophysical Multimessenger Observatory Network (AMON) will link the world's leading high-energy neutrino, cosmic-ray, gamma-ray and gravitational wave observatories by performing real-time coincidence searches for multimessenger sources from observatories' subthreshold data streams. The resulting coincidences will be distributed to interested parties in the form of electronic alerts for real-time follow-up observation. We will present the science case, design elements, current and projected partner observatories, status of the AMON project, and an initial AMON-enabled analysis. The prototype of the AMON server has been online since August 2014 and processing archival data. Currently, we are deploying new high-uptime servers and will be ready to start issuing alerts as early as winter 2015/16.

  2. Real-time imaging of quantum entanglement.

    PubMed

    Fickler, Robert; Krenn, Mario; Lapkiewicz, Radek; Ramelow, Sven; Zeilinger, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Quantum Entanglement is widely regarded as one of the most prominent features of quantum mechanics and quantum information science. Although, photonic entanglement is routinely studied in many experiments nowadays, its signature has been out of the grasp for real-time imaging. Here we show that modern technology, namely triggered intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) cameras are fast and sensitive enough to image in real-time the effect of the measurement of one photon on its entangled partner. To quantitatively verify the non-classicality of the measurements we determine the detected photon number and error margin from the registered intensity image within a certain region. Additionally, the use of the ICCD camera allows us to demonstrate the high flexibility of the setup in creating any desired spatial-mode entanglement, which suggests as well that visual imaging in quantum optics not only provides a better intuitive understanding of entanglement but will improve applications of quantum science.

  3. System Equivalent for Real Time Digital Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xi

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a method of making system equivalents for the Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS), which should enhance its capability of simulating large power systems. The proposed equivalent combines a Frequency Dependent Network Equivalent (FDNE) for the high frequency electromagnetic transients and a Transient Stability Analysis (TSA) type simulation block for the electromechanical transients. The frequency dependent characteristic for FDNE is obtained by curve-fitting frequency domain admittance characteristics using the Vector Fitting method. An approach for approximating the frequency dependent characteristic of large power networks from readily available typical power-flow data is also introduced. A new scheme of incorporating TSA solution in RTDS is proposed. This report shows how the TSA algorithm can be adapted to a real time platform. The validity of this method is confirmed with examples, including the study of a multi in-feed HVDC system based network.

  4. Real-Time Gauge/Gravity Duality

    SciTech Connect

    Skenderis, Kostas; Rees, Balt C. van

    2008-08-22

    We present a general prescription for the holographic computation of real-time n-point functions in nontrivial states. In quantum field theory such real-time computations involve a choice of a time contour in the complex time plane. The holographic prescription amounts to 'filling in' this contour with bulk solutions: real segments of the contour are filled in with Lorentzian solutions while imaginary segments are filled in with Riemannian solutions and appropriate matching conditions are imposed at the corners of the contour. We illustrate the general discussion by computing the 2-point function of a scalar operator using this prescription and by showing that this leads to an unambiguous answer with the correct i{epsilon} insertions.

  5. Real Time Radiation Monitoring Using Nanotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jing (Inventor); Wilkins, Richard T. (Inventor); Hanratty, James J. (Inventor); Lu, Yijiang (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    System and method for monitoring receipt and estimating flux value, in real time, of incident radiation, using two or more nanostructures (NSs) and associated terminals to provide closed electrical paths and to measure one or more electrical property change values .DELTA.EPV, associated with irradiated NSs, during a sequence of irradiation time intervals. Effects of irradiation, without healing and with healing, of the NSs, are separately modeled for first order and second order healing. Change values.DELTA.EPV are related to flux, to cumulative dose received by NSs, and to radiation and healing effectivity parameters and/or.mu., associated with the NS material and to the flux. Flux and/or dose are estimated in real time, based on EPV change values, using measured .DELTA.EPV values. Threshold dose for specified changes of biological origin (usually undesired) can be estimated. Effects of time-dependent radiation flux are analyzed in pre-healing and healing regimes.

  6. Real Time Radiation Exposure And Health Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Shaowen; Barzilla, Janet E.; Semones, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation from solar particle events (SPEs) poses a serious threat to future manned missions outside of low Earth orbit (LEO). Accurate characterization of the radiation environment in the inner heliosphere and timely monitoring the health risks to crew are essential steps to ensure the safety of future Mars missions. In this project we plan to develop an approach that can use the particle data from multiple satellites and perform near real-time simulations of radiation exposure and health risks for various exposure scenarios. Time-course profiles of dose rates will be calculated with HZETRN and PDOSE from the energy spectrum and compositions of the particles archived from satellites, and will be validated from recent radiation exposure measurements in space. Real-time estimation of radiation risks will be investigated using ARRBOD. This cross discipline integrated approach can improve risk mitigation by providing critical information for risk assessment and medical guidance to crew during SPEs.

  7. Real-time remote scientific model validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frainier, Richard; Groleau, Nicolas

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes flight results from the use of a CLIPS-based validation facility to compare analyzed data from a space life sciences (SLS) experiment to an investigator's preflight model. The comparison, performed in real-time, either confirms or refutes the model and its predictions. This result then becomes the basis for continuing or modifying the investigator's experiment protocol. Typically, neither the astronaut crew in Spacelab nor the ground-based investigator team are able to react to their experiment data in real time. This facility, part of a larger science advisor system called Principal Investigator in a Box, was flown on the space shuttle in October, 1993. The software system aided the conduct of a human vestibular physiology experiment and was able to outperform humans in the tasks of data integrity assurance, data analysis, and scientific model validation. Of twelve preflight hypotheses associated with investigator's model, seven were confirmed and five were rejected or compromised.

  8. Real time gamma-ray signature identifier

    DOEpatents

    Rowland, Mark [Alamo, CA; Gosnell, Tom B [Moraga, CA; Ham, Cheryl [Livermore, CA; Perkins, Dwight [Livermore, CA; Wong, James [Dublin, CA

    2012-05-15

    A real time gamma-ray signature/source identification method and system using principal components analysis (PCA) for transforming and substantially reducing one or more comprehensive spectral libraries of nuclear materials types and configurations into a corresponding concise representation/signature(s) representing and indexing each individual predetermined spectrum in principal component (PC) space, wherein an unknown gamma-ray signature may be compared against the representative signature to find a match or at least characterize the unknown signature from among all the entries in the library with a single regression or simple projection into the PC space, so as to substantially reduce processing time and computing resources and enable real-time characterization and/or identification.

  9. Real-time photo-magnetic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Nouizi, Farouk; Erkol, Hakan; Luk, Alex; Unlu, Mehmet B.; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2016-01-01

    We previously introduced a new high resolution diffuse optical imaging modality termed, photo-magnetic imaging (PMI). PMI irradiates the object under investigation with near-infrared light and monitors the variations of temperature using magnetic resonance thermometry (MRT). In this paper, we present a real-time PMI image reconstruction algorithm that uses analytic methods to solve the forward problem and assemble the Jacobian matrix much faster. The new algorithm is validated using real MRT measured temperature maps. In fact, it accelerates the reconstruction process by more than 250 times compared to a single iteration of the FEM-based algorithm, which opens the possibility for the real-time PMI. PMID:27867701

  10. The Real-Time Data Distribution Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsaro, A.; Karoui, R.; Richard-Foy, M.

    2011-08-01

    A large class of Aerospace applications, such as, very large telescopes, shuttle launch systems, ground satellite systems, etc., are characterised by the need of distributing very large volumes of data in real-time. Some of this applications, especially those involved in the control of telescopes mirrors or launch systems require that the system predictability is maintained in face of partial failure and overload.The Data Distribution Service of Real-Time Systems (DDS) is an Object Management Group standard that was introduced in 2004 to address the needs of applications requiring high performance and determinism. Since its inception, implementation of this standard have been adopted in different domains, such as Aerospace, Defence, Capital Market, and SCADA. This paper introduces the key features of DDS, provides some performance characterisation of OpenSplice DDS, an Open Source DDS implementation, and concludes by providing a use case to Aerospace where DDS is applied to overcome APEX ARINC653 communication system limitations.

  11. Visualizations for Real-time Pricing Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Marinovici, Maria C.; Hammerstrom, Janelle L.; Widergren, Steven E.; Dayley, Greg K.

    2014-10-13

    In this paper, the visualization tools created for monitoring the operations of a real-time pricing demonstration system that runs at a distribution feeder level are presented. The information these tools provide gives insights into demand behavior from automated price responsive devices, distribution feeder characteristics, impact of weather on system’s development, and other significant dynamics. Given the large number of devices that bid into a feeder-level real-time electricity market, new techniques are explored to summarize the present state of the system and contrast that with previous trends as well as future projections. To better understand the system behavior and correctly inform decision-making procedures, effective visualization of the data is imperative.

  12. Real-Time Imaging of Quantum Entanglement

    PubMed Central

    Fickler, Robert; Krenn, Mario; Lapkiewicz, Radek; Ramelow, Sven; Zeilinger, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Quantum Entanglement is widely regarded as one of the most prominent features of quantum mechanics and quantum information science. Although, photonic entanglement is routinely studied in many experiments nowadays, its signature has been out of the grasp for real-time imaging. Here we show that modern technology, namely triggered intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) cameras are fast and sensitive enough to image in real-time the effect of the measurement of one photon on its entangled partner. To quantitatively verify the non-classicality of the measurements we determine the detected photon number and error margin from the registered intensity image within a certain region. Additionally, the use of the ICCD camera allows us to demonstrate the high flexibility of the setup in creating any desired spatial-mode entanglement, which suggests as well that visual imaging in quantum optics not only provides a better intuitive understanding of entanglement but will improve applications of quantum science. PMID:23715056

  13. Distributed Real-Time Computing with Harness

    SciTech Connect

    Di Saverio, Emanuele; Cesati, Marco; Di Biagio, Christian; Pennella, Guido; Engelmann, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Modern parallel and distributed computing solutions are often built onto a ''middleware'' software layer providing a higher and common level of service between computational nodes. Harness is an adaptable, plugin-based middleware framework for parallel and distributed computing. This paper reports recent research and development results of using Harness for real-time distributed computing applications in the context of an industrial environment with the needs to perform several safety critical tasks. The presented work exploits the modular architecture of Harness in conjunction with a lightweight threaded implementation to resolve several real-time issues by adding three new Harness plug-ins to provide a prioritized lightweight execution environment, low latency communication facilities, and local timestamped event logging.

  14. Real time processor for array speckle interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Gordon; Florez, Jose; Borelli, Renan; Fong, Wai; Miko, Joseph; Trujillo, Carlos

    1989-01-01

    The authors are constructing a real-time processor to acquire image frames, perform array flat-fielding, execute a 64 x 64 element two-dimensional complex FFT (fast Fourier transform) and average the power spectrum, all within the 25 ms coherence time for speckles at near-IR (infrared) wavelength. The processor will be a compact unit controlled by a PC with real-time display and data storage capability. This will provide the ability to optimize observations and obtain results on the telescope rather than waiting several weeks before the data can be analyzed and viewed with offline methods. The image acquisition and processing, design criteria, and processor architecture are described.

  15. Real time processor for array speckle interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Gordon; Florez, Jose; Borelli, Renan; Fong, Wai; Miko, Joseph; Trujillo, Carlos

    1989-01-01

    The authors are constructing a real-time processor to acquire image frames, perform array flat-fielding, execute a 64 x 64 element two-dimensional complex FFT (fast Fourier transform) and average the power spectrum, all within the 25 ms coherence time for speckles at near-IR (infrared) wavelength. The processor will be a compact unit controlled by a PC with real-time display and data storage capability. This will provide the ability to optimize observations and obtain results on the telescope rather than waiting several weeks before the data can be analyzed and viewed with offline methods. The image acquisition and processing, design criteria, and processor architecture are described.

  16. Real-Time Dynamics of String Breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebenstreit, F.; Berges, J.; Gelfand, D.

    2013-11-01

    We study the real-time dynamics of string breaking in quantum electrodynamics in one spatial dimension. A two-stage process with a clear separation of time and energy scales for the fermion-antifermion pair creation and subsequent charge separation leading to the screening of external charges is found. Going away from the traditional setup of external static charges, we establish the phenomenon of multiple string breaking by considering dynamical charges flying apart.

  17. Applications of real-time holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    Holographic principles are discussed, with a description of the steps of hologram production and reconstruction and the materials used in storage of the images. Real-time holography applications, including photolithography, double-exposure interferometry, time-averaged holography, parallel optical processing, optical phase conjugation, beam steering, and moving holograms, are described in detail. In addition, current areas of active research and some experimental applications are discussed.

  18. Nonlinear Real-Time Optical Signal Processing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    DTIC ELECTE I B IIMAGE PROCESSING INSTITUTE 84 11 26 107 UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (When Dota Entered), REPORT DOCUMENTATION...30, 1984 N NONLINEAR REAL-TIME OPTICAL SIGNAL PROCESSING i E~ A.A. Sawchuk, Principal Investigator T.C. Strand and A.R. Tanguay. Jr. October 1, 1984...RDepartment of Electrical Engineering Image Processing institute University of Southern California University Park-MC 0272 Los Angeles, California

  19. Real time computer controlled weld skate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, W. A., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A real time, adaptive control, automatic welding system was developed. This system utilizes the general case geometrical relationships between a weldment and a weld skate to precisely maintain constant weld speed and torch angle along a contoured workplace. The system is compatible with the gas tungsten arc weld process or can be adapted to other weld processes. Heli-arc cutting and machine tool routing operations are possible applications.

  20. Nonlinear Real-Time Optical Signal Processing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-30

    bandwidth and space-bandwidth products. Real-time homonorphic and loga- rithmic filtering by halftone nonlinear processing has been achieved. A...Page ABSTRACT 1 1. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES AND PROGRESS 3 I-- 1.1 Introduction and Project overview 3 1.2 Halftone Processing 9 1.3 Direct Nonlinear...time homomorphic and logarithmic filtering by halftone nonlinear processing has been achieved. A detailed analysis of degradation due to the finite gamma

  1. Real-Time X-Ray Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulthuis, Ronald V.

    1988-01-01

    X-ray imaging instrument adapted to continuous scanning. Modern version of fluoroscope enables rapid x-ray inspection of parts. Developed for detection of buckling in insulated ducts. Uses radiation from radioactive gadolinium or thallium source. Instrument weighs only 6 1/2 lb. Quickly scanned by hand along duct surface, providing real-time image. Based on Lixiscope, developed at Goddard Space Flight Center.

  2. Real-Time Ocean Modeling Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-22

    2002 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Journal Article 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Real-time 16iebaf Modeling Systems \\&&»A 5a...Director NCST E.O. Hartwig, 7000 Public Affairs (Unclassified/ Unlimited Only), Code 7n30 4 Division, Code Author, Code HQ-NRL 5511/6 (Rev. 12-93...according to the routing in Section 4 . 1. NRL Reports Submit the diskette (if available), manuscript, typed double-spaced, complete with tables

  3. Real-time radiographic inspection facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A real time radiographic inspection facility has been developed for nondestructive evaluation applications. It consists of an X-ray source, an X-ray sensitive television imaging system, an electronic analog image processing system, and a digital image processing system. The digital image processing system is composed of a computer with the necessary software to drive the overall facility. Descriptions are given of the design strategy, the facility's components, and its current capabilities.

  4. Neural Network Retinal Model Real Time Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-02

    addresses the specific needs of vision processing. The goal of this SBIR Phase I project has been to take a significant neural network vision...application and to map it onto dedicated hardware for real time implementation. The neural network was already demonstrated using software simulation on a...general purpose computer. During Phase 1, HNC took a neural network model of the retina and, using HNC’s Vision Processor (ViP) prototype hardware

  5. Real-time RGBD SLAM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czupryński, BłaŻej; Strupczewski, Adam

    2015-09-01

    A real-time tracking and mapping SLAM system is presented. The developed system uses input from an RGBD sensor and tracks the camera pose from frame to frame. The tracking is based on matched feature points and is performed with respect to selected keyframes. The system is robust and scalable, as an arbitrary number of keyframes can be chosen for visualization and tracking depending on the desired accuracy and speed. The presented system is also a good platform for further research.

  6. Thermal imaging with real time picture presentation.

    PubMed

    Borg, S B

    1968-09-01

    The accomplishment of thermal imaging with real-time picture presentation represents a significant advance in nondestructive testing. Described here is the AGA Thermovision, capable of producing such imaging. Operating principles, basic features, and recording techniques are reviewed, and a survey is made of the range of applications. Examples include electrical power distribution elements, a turbine blade, and a missile model in a wind tunnel.

  7. Real-time optical image processing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1988-01-01

    Nonlinear real-time optical processing on spatial pulse frequency modulation has been pursued through the analysis, design, and fabrication of pulse frequency modulated halftone screens and the modification of micro-channel spatial light modulators (MSLMs). Micro-channel spatial light modulators are modified via the Fabry-Perot method to achieve the high gamma operation required for non-linear operation. Real-time nonlinear processing was performed using the halftone screen and MSLM. The experiments showed the effectiveness of the thresholding and also showed the needs of higher SBP for image processing. The Hughes LCLV has been characterized and found to yield high gamma (about 1.7) when operated in low frequency and low bias mode. Cascading of two LCLVs should also provide enough gamma for nonlinear processing. In this case, the SBP of the LCLV is sufficient but the uniformity of the LCLV needs improvement. These include image correlation, computer generation of holograms, pseudo-color image encoding for image enhancement, and associative-retrieval in neural processing. The discovery of the only known optical method for dynamic range compression of an input image in real-time by using GaAs photorefractive crystals is reported. Finally, a new architecture for non-linear multiple sensory, neural processing has been suggested.

  8. Software Analyzes Complex Systems in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Expert system software programs, also known as knowledge-based systems, are computer programs that emulate the knowledge and analytical skills of one or more human experts, related to a specific subject. SHINE (Spacecraft Health Inference Engine) is one such program, a software inference engine (expert system) designed by NASA for the purpose of monitoring, analyzing, and diagnosing both real-time and non-real-time systems. It was developed to meet many of the Agency s demanding and rigorous artificial intelligence goals for current and future needs. NASA developed the sophisticated and reusable software based on the experience and requirements of its Jet Propulsion Laboratory s (JPL) Artificial Intelligence Research Group in developing expert systems for space flight operations specifically, the diagnosis of spacecraft health. It was designed to be efficient enough to operate in demanding real time and in limited hardware environments, and to be utilized by non-expert systems applications written in conventional programming languages. The technology is currently used in several ongoing NASA applications, including the Mars Exploration Rovers and the Spacecraft Health Automatic Reasoning Pilot (SHARP) program for the diagnosis of telecommunication anomalies during the Neptune Voyager Encounter. It is also finding applications outside of the Space Agency.

  9. Real-time earthquake data feasible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    Scientists agree that early warning devices and monitoring of both Hurricane Hugo and the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic eruption saved thousands of lives. What would it take to develop this sort of early warning and monitoring system for earthquake activity?Not all that much, claims a panel assigned to study the feasibility, costs, and technology needed to establish a real-time earthquake monitoring (RTEM) system. The panel, drafted by the National Academy of Science's Committee on Seismology, has presented its findings in Real-Time Earthquake Monitoring. The recently released report states that “present technology is entirely capable of recording and processing data so as to provide real-time information, enabling people to mitigate somewhat the earthquake disaster.” RTEM systems would consist of two parts—an early warning system that would give a few seconds warning before severe shaking, and immediate postquake information within minutes of the quake that would give actual measurements of the magnitude. At this time, however, this type of warning system has not been addressed at the national level for the United States and is not included in the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program, according to the report.

  10. Real-time Interactive Tree Animation.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Ed; Yu, Yue; Huang, Jingwei; Lin, Winnie; Fedkiw, Ronald

    2017-01-30

    We present a novel method for posing and animating botanical tree models interactively in real time. Unlike other state of the art methods which tend to produce trees that are overly flexible, bending and deforming as if they were underwater plants, our approach allows for arbitrarily high stiffness while still maintaining real-time frame rates without spurious artifacts, even on quite large trees with over ten thousand branches. This is accomplished by using an articulated rigid body model with as-stiff-as-desired rotational springs in conjunction with our newly proposed simulation technique, which is motivated both by position based dynamics and the typical O(N) algorithms for articulated rigid bodies. The efficiency of our algorithm allows us to pose and animate trees with millions of branches or alternatively simulate a small forest comprised of many highly detailed trees. Even using only a single CPU core, we can simulate ten thousand branches in real time while still maintaining quite crisp user interactivity. This has allowed us to incorporate our framework into a commodity game engine to run interactively even on a low-budget tablet. We show that our method is amenable to the incorporation of a large variety of desirable effects such as wind, leaves, fictitious forces, collisions, fracture, etc.

  11. Real-time preprocessing of holographic information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Bradley W.; Poon, Ting-Chung

    1995-11-01

    Optical scanning holography (OSH) is a holographic recording technique that uses active optical heterodyne scanning to generate holographic information pertaining to an object. The holographic information manifests itself as an electrical signal suitable for real-time image reconstruction using a spatial light modulator. The electrical signal that carries the holographic information can also be digitized for computer storage and processing, allowing the image reconstruction to be performed numerically. In previous experiments with this technique, holographic information has been recorded using the interference pattern of a plane wave and a spherical wave of different temporal frequencies to scan an object. However, the proper manipulation of the pupil functions in the recording stage can result in real-time processing of the holographic edge extraction technique as an important example of real-time preprocessing of holographic information that utilizes alternate pupils in the OSH recording stage. We investigate the theory of holographic preprocessing using a spatial frequency-domain analysis based on the recording system's optical transfer function. The theory is reinforced through computer simulation.

  12. Real-time optical image processing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1988-10-01

    Nonlinear real-time optical processing on spatial pulse frequency modulation has been pursued through the analysis, design, and fabrication of pulse frequency modulated halftone screens and the modification of micro-channel spatial light modulators (MSLMs). Micro-channel spatial light modulators are modified via the Fabry-Perot method to achieve the high gamma operation required for non-linear operation. Real-time nonlinear processing was performed using the halftone screen and MSLM. The experiments showed the effectiveness of the thresholding and also showed the needs of higher SBP for image processing. The Hughes LCLV has been characterized and found to yield high gamma (about 1.7) when operated in low frequency and low bias mode. Cascading of two LCLVs should also provide enough gamma for nonlinear processing. In this case, the SBP of the LCLV is sufficient but the uniformity of the LCLV needs improvement. These include image correlation, computer generation of holograms, pseudo-color image encoding for image enhancement, and associative-retrieval in neural processing. The discovery of the only known optical method for dynamic range compression of an input image in real-time by using GaAs photorefractive crystals is reported. Finally, a new architecture for non-linear multiple sensory, neural processing has been suggested.

  13. Real-time speckle photography: a breakthrough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Valery

    1996-12-01

    Speckle photography for small displacements can be carried out rather easily. It is a well established method. Unfortunately problems arise when specklegrams must be obtained in real time. Silver halide media infer lengthy multi-stage photoprocessing of specklegrams. Real time speckle photography utilizing non-silver media can be implemented but the techniques involved are rather complicated. Extremely simple and inexpensive approaches to speckle photography are introduced here. They combine positive features of speckle photography and momental holography. This permits the user to produce quasi real time specklegrams within a few seconds. High quality speckle photographs were obtained with different laser sources on high resolution silver halide media: Russian PFG-03, PFG-03 C (color), Agfa-Gevaert 8E 75 HD films and plates. Very good specklegrams were obtained also in lighted environment. Hybrid holospecklegrams i.e. holograms and speckle photographs of the same object were obtained simultaneously on the same media. Such holospecklegrams were also produced within fa few seconds. Quite unexpectedly good specklegrams were recorded even in water. Photographs of momentally produced specklegrams are given.

  14. The IGS Real-Time Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caissy, Mark; Agrotis, Loukis; Weber, Georg; Fisher, Steven

    2013-04-01

    The IGS Real-Time Service (RTS) is being rolled out in 2013 following the successful completion of the IGS Real-Time Pilot Project. The RTS has recently completed beta testing and is now operating at the level of initial operating capability. The service will reach full operating capability by the end of 2013. RTS products include GNSS data streams and GNSS orbit and clock correction streams. These products are available in real-time in accordance with the IGS open-data policy using RTCM standard formats and the NTRIP transportation protocol. The RTS is key to IGS's support of the GGOS Natural Hazards theme. Of particular importance in this context is the high degree of redundancy that is build into the RTS in order to reliably support public-good scientific applications commonly associated with natural hazards; for example, precise-point positioning applications requiring high accuracy and low latency related to earthquakes and tsunamis . This presentation will illustrate the data gathering through product generation to user distribution design of the RTS, highlighting built-in robustness at various stages. The presentation will also present an assessment of the performance of the service to date.

  15. Real-time monitoring system for microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapuppo, F.; Cantelli, G.; Fortuna, L.; Arena, P.; Bucolo, M.

    2007-05-01

    A new non-invasive real-time system for the monitoring and control of microfluidodynamic phenomena is proposed. The general purpose design of such system is suitable for in vitro and in vivo experimental setup and therefore for microfluidic application in the biomedical field such as lab-on-chip and for research studies in the field of microcirculation. The system consists of an ad hoc optical setup for image magnification providing images suitable for image acquisition and processing. The optic system was designed and developed using discrete opto-mechanic components mounted on a breadboard in order to provide an optic path accessible at any point where the information needs to be acquired. The optic sensing, acquisition, and processing were performed using an integrated vision system based on the Cellular Nonlinear Networks (CNNs) analogic technology called Focal Plane Processor (FPP, Eye-RIS, Anafocus) and inserted in the optic path. Ad hoc algorithms were implemented for the real-time analysis and extraction of fluido-dynamic parameters in micro-channels. They were tested on images recorded during in vivo microcirculation experiments on hamsters and then they were applied on images optically acquired and processed in real-time during in vitro experiments on a continuous microfluidic device (serpentine mixer, ThinXXS) with a two-phase fluid.

  16. PRAIS: Distributed, real-time knowledge-based systems made easy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, David G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses an architecture for real-time, distributed (parallel) knowledge-based systems called the Parallel Real-time Artificial Intelligence System (PRAIS). PRAIS strives for transparently parallelizing production (rule-based) systems, even when under real-time constraints. PRAIS accomplishes these goals by incorporating a dynamic task scheduler, operating system extensions for fact handling, and message-passing among multiple copies of CLIPS executing on a virtual blackboard. This distributed knowledge-based system tool uses the portability of CLIPS and common message-passing protocols to operate over a heterogeneous network of processors.

  17. Mining the Optical Sky in Real Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestrand, W. T.

    2002-05-01

    While it has been known for centuries that the optical sky is variable, monitoring the sky for optical transients with durations of less than a day is a rich area of research that remains largely unexplored. The fact that spectacular optical transients exist was clearly demonstrated by the detection of an optical flash associated with a Gamma Ray Burst at redshift z=1.6. However, the depth and breath of optical sky monitoring is so incomplete that this cosmological optical transient, which reached the astounding apparent magnitude of 9, would have been missed but for the real-time position provided by a high-energy satellite. Since there are many reasons to suspect the existence of rapid optical transients that cannot be found through sky monitoring by high-energy satellites, we need all-sky optical monitoring systems that can locate rapid transients in real time. We discuss how with existing technology it is possible to construct robotic telescope systems for monitoring all of the optical sky that can autonomously locate celestial optical transients with timescales as short as a fraction of a minute. The data from such a monitoring system could also be used to recognize important variations of known sources. Real-time alerts from such an optical all-sky monitoring system would enable otherwise impossible observations with more powerful, narrow-field telescopes that more deeply probe the physics of the rapidly varying sources. As an example of this new type of sky monitoring system, we discuss the RAPTOR telescope system at Los Alamos National Laboratory that is designed to identify and make follow-up observations of optical transients in real time. The system is composed of two arrays of telescopes, separated by 38 kilometers, that stereoscopically monitor a field of about 1500 square degrees for transients down to about 12th magnitude in 30 seconds. Each array also contains a sensitive, higher resolution "fovea" telescope, capable of imaging at a faster cadence

  18. A Comparison and Evaluation of Real-Time Software Systems Modeling Languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evensen, Kenneth D.; Weiss, Kathryn Anne

    2010-01-01

    A model-driven approach to real-time software systems development enables the conceptualization of software, fostering a more thorough understanding of its often complex architecture and behavior while promoting the documentation and analysis of concerns common to real-time embedded systems such as scheduling, resource allocation, and performance. Several modeling languages have been developed to assist in the model-driven software engineering effort for real-time systems, and these languages are beginning to gain traction with practitioners throughout the aerospace industry. This paper presents a survey of several real-time software system modeling languages, namely the Architectural Analysis and Design Language (AADL), the Unified Modeling Language (UML), Systems Modeling Language (SysML), the Modeling and Analysis of Real-Time Embedded Systems (MARTE) UML profile, and the AADL for UML profile. Each language has its advantages and disadvantages, and in order to adequately describe a real-time software system's architecture, a complementary use of multiple languages is almost certainly necessary. This paper aims to explore these languages in the context of understanding the value each brings to the model-driven software engineering effort and to determine if it is feasible and practical to combine aspects of the various modeling languages to achieve more complete coverage in architectural descriptions. To this end, each language is evaluated with respect to a set of criteria such as scope, formalisms, and architectural coverage. An example is used to help illustrate the capabilities of the various languages.

  19. A Comparison and Evaluation of Real-Time Software Systems Modeling Languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evensen, Kenneth D.; Weiss, Kathryn Anne

    2010-01-01

    A model-driven approach to real-time software systems development enables the conceptualization of software, fostering a more thorough understanding of its often complex architecture and behavior while promoting the documentation and analysis of concerns common to real-time embedded systems such as scheduling, resource allocation, and performance. Several modeling languages have been developed to assist in the model-driven software engineering effort for real-time systems, and these languages are beginning to gain traction with practitioners throughout the aerospace industry. This paper presents a survey of several real-time software system modeling languages, namely the Architectural Analysis and Design Language (AADL), the Unified Modeling Language (UML), Systems Modeling Language (SysML), the Modeling and Analysis of Real-Time Embedded Systems (MARTE) UML profile, and the AADL for UML profile. Each language has its advantages and disadvantages, and in order to adequately describe a real-time software system's architecture, a complementary use of multiple languages is almost certainly necessary. This paper aims to explore these languages in the context of understanding the value each brings to the model-driven software engineering effort and to determine if it is feasible and practical to combine aspects of the various modeling languages to achieve more complete coverage in architectural descriptions. To this end, each language is evaluated with respect to a set of criteria such as scope, formalisms, and architectural coverage. An example is used to help illustrate the capabilities of the various languages.

  20. Acting to gain information: Real-time reasoning meets real-time perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenschein, Stan

    1994-01-01

    Recent advances in intelligent reactive systems suggest new approaches to the problem of deriving task-relevant information from perceptual systems in real time. The author will describe work in progress aimed at coupling intelligent control mechanisms to real-time perception systems, with special emphasis on frame rate visual measurement systems. A model for integrated reasoning and perception will be discussed, and recent progress in applying these ideas to problems of sensor utilization for efficient recognition and tracking will be described.

  1. Acting to gain information: Real-time reasoning meets real-time perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenschein, Stan

    1994-01-01

    Recent advances in intelligent reactive systems suggest new approaches to the problem of deriving task-relevant information from perceptual systems in real time. The author will describe work in progress aimed at coupling intelligent control mechanisms to real-time perception systems, with special emphasis on frame rate visual measurement systems. A model for integrated reasoning and perception will be discussed, and recent progress in applying these ideas to problems of sensor utilization for efficient recognition and tracking will be described.

  2. Dynamic earthquake rupture simulations on nonplanar faults embedded in 3D geometrically complex, heterogeneous elastic solids

    SciTech Connect

    Duru, Kenneth; Dunham, Eric M.

    2016-01-15

    Dynamic propagation of shear ruptures on a frictional interface in an elastic solid is a useful idealization of natural earthquakes. The conditions relating discontinuities in particle velocities across fault zones and tractions acting on the fault are often expressed as nonlinear friction laws. The corresponding initial boundary value problems are both numerically and computationally challenging. In addition, seismic waves generated by earthquake ruptures must be propagated for many wavelengths away from the fault. Therefore, reliable and efficient numerical simulations require both provably stable and high order accurate numerical methods. We present a high order accurate finite difference method for: a) enforcing nonlinear friction laws, in a consistent and provably stable manner, suitable for efficient explicit time integration; b) dynamic propagation of earthquake ruptures along nonplanar faults; and c) accurate propagation of seismic waves in heterogeneous media with free surface topography. We solve the first order form of the 3D elastic wave equation on a boundary-conforming curvilinear mesh, in terms of particle velocities and stresses that are collocated in space and time, using summation-by-parts (SBP) finite difference operators in space. Boundary and interface conditions are imposed weakly using penalties. By deriving semi-discrete energy estimates analogous to the continuous energy estimates we prove numerical stability. The finite difference stencils used in this paper are sixth order accurate in the interior and third order accurate close to the boundaries. However, the method is applicable to any spatial operator with a diagonal norm satisfying the SBP property. Time stepping is performed with a 4th order accurate explicit low storage Runge–Kutta scheme, thus yielding a globally fourth order accurate method in both space and time. We show numerical simulations on band limited self-similar fractal faults revealing the complexity of rupture

  3. Dynamic earthquake rupture simulations on nonplanar faults embedded in 3D geometrically complex, heterogeneous elastic solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duru, Kenneth; Dunham, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic propagation of shear ruptures on a frictional interface in an elastic solid is a useful idealization of natural earthquakes. The conditions relating discontinuities in particle velocities across fault zones and tractions acting on the fault are often expressed as nonlinear friction laws. The corresponding initial boundary value problems are both numerically and computationally challenging. In addition, seismic waves generated by earthquake ruptures must be propagated for many wavelengths away from the fault. Therefore, reliable and efficient numerical simulations require both provably stable and high order accurate numerical methods. We present a high order accurate finite difference method for: a) enforcing nonlinear friction laws, in a consistent and provably stable manner, suitable for efficient explicit time integration; b) dynamic propagation of earthquake ruptures along nonplanar faults; and c) accurate propagation of seismic waves in heterogeneous media with free surface topography. We solve the first order form of the 3D elastic wave equation on a boundary-conforming curvilinear mesh, in terms of particle velocities and stresses that are collocated in space and time, using summation-by-parts (SBP) finite difference operators in space. Boundary and interface conditions are imposed weakly using penalties. By deriving semi-discrete energy estimates analogous to the continuous energy estimates we prove numerical stability. The finite difference stencils used in this paper are sixth order accurate in the interior and third order accurate close to the boundaries. However, the method is applicable to any spatial operator with a diagonal norm satisfying the SBP property. Time stepping is performed with a 4th order accurate explicit low storage Runge-Kutta scheme, thus yielding a globally fourth order accurate method in both space and time. We show numerical simulations on band limited self-similar fractal faults revealing the complexity of rupture dynamics

  4. Optoacoustic real-time dosimetry for selective retina treatment.

    PubMed

    Schuele, Georg; Elsner, Hanno; Framme, Carsten; Roider, Johann; Birngruber, Reginald; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2005-01-01

    The selective retina treatment (SRT) targets retinal diseases associated with disorders in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Due to the ophthalmoscopic invisibility of the laser-induced RPE effects, we investigate a noninvasive optoacoustic real-time dosimetry system. In vitro porcine RPE is irradiated with a Nd:YLF laser (527 nm, 1.7-micros pulse duration, 5 to 40 microJ, 30 pulses, 100-Hz repetition rate). Generated acoustic transients are measured with a piezoelectric transducer. During 27 patient treatments, the acoustic transients are measured with a transducer embedded in an ophthalmic contact lens. After treatment, RPE damage is visualized by fluorescein angiographic leakage. Below the RPE damage threshold, the optoacoustic transients show no pulse-to-pulse fluctuations within a laser pulse train. Above threshold, fluctuations of the individual transients among each other are observed. If optoacoustic pulse-to-pulse fluctuations are present, RPE leakage is observed in fluorescein angiography. In 96% of the irradiated areas, RPE leakage correlated with the optoacoustic defined threshold value. A noninvasive optoacoustic real-time dosimetry for SRT is developed and proved in vitro and during patient treatment. It detects the ophthalmoscopically invisible laser-induced damage of RPE cells and overcomes practical limitations of SRT for use in private practice.

  5. Fast Context Switching in Real-Time Propositional Reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayak, P. Pandurang; Williams, Brian C.

    1997-01-01

    The trend to increasingly capable and affordable control processors has generated an explosion of embedded real-time gadgets that serve almost every function imaginable. The daunting task of programming these gadgets is greatly alleviated with real-time deductive engines that perform all execution and monitoring functions from a single core model, Fast response times are achieved using an incremental propositional deductive database (an LTMS). Ideally the cost of an LTMS's incremental update should be linear in the number of labels that change between successive contexts. Unfortunately an LTMS can expend a significant percentage of its time working on labels that remain constant between contexts. This is caused by the LTMS's conservative approach: a context switch first removes all consequences of deleted clauses, whether or not those consequences hold in the new context. This paper presents a more aggressive incremental TMS, called the ITMS, that avoids processing a significant number of these consequences that are unchanged. Our empirical evaluation for spacecraft control shows that the overhead of processing unchanged consequences can be reduced by a factor of seven.

  6. Real Time Energy Management Control Strategies for Hybrid Powertrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaher, Mohamed Hegazi Mohamed

    In order to improve fuel efficiency and reduce emissions of mobile vehicles, various hybrid power-train concepts have been developed over the years. This thesis focuses on embedded control of hybrid powertrain concepts for mobile vehicle applications. Optimal robust control approach is used to develop a real time energy management strategy for continuous operations. The main idea is to store the normally wasted mechanical regenerative energy in energy storage devices for later usage. The regenerative energy recovery opportunity exists in any condition where the speed of motion is in opposite direction to the applied force or torque. This is the case when the vehicle is braking, decelerating, or the motion is driven by gravitational force, or load driven. There are three main concepts for regernerative energy storing devices in hybrid vehicles: electric, hydraulic, and flywheel. The real time control challenge is to balance the system power demand from the engine and the hybrid storage device, without depleting the energy storage device or stalling the engine in any work cycle, while making optimal use of the energy saving opportunities in a given operational, often repetitive cycle. In the worst case scenario, only engine is used and hybrid system completely disabled. A rule based control is developed and tuned for different work cycles and linked to a gain scheduling algorithm. A gain scheduling algorithm identifies the cycle being performed by the machine and its position via GPS, and maps them to the gains.

  7. Real-time Adaptive Control Using Neural Generalized Predictive Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haley, Pam; Soloway, Don; Gold, Brian

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of a Nonlinear Generalized Predictive Control algorithm by showing real-time adaptive control on a plant with relatively fast time-constants. Generalized Predictive Control has classically been used in process control where linear control laws were formulated for plants with relatively slow time-constants. The plant of interest for this paper is a magnetic levitation device that is nonlinear and open-loop unstable. In this application, the reference model of the plant is a neural network that has an embedded nominal linear model in the network weights. The control based on the linear model provides initial stability at the beginning of network training. In using a neural network the control laws are nonlinear and online adaptation of the model is possible to capture unmodeled or time-varying dynamics. Newton-Raphson is the minimization algorithm. Newton-Raphson requires the calculation of the Hessian, but even with this computational expense the low iteration rate make this a viable algorithm for real-time control.

  8. REAL TIME ULTRASONIC ALUMINUM SPOT WELD MONITORING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Regalado, W. Perez; Chertov, A. M.; Maev, R. Gr.

    2010-02-22

    Aluminum alloys pose several properties that make them one of the most popular engineering materials: they have excellent corrosion resistance, and high weight-to-strength ratio. Resistance spot welding of aluminum alloys is widely used today but oxide film and aluminum thermal and electrical properties make spot welding a difficult task. Electrode degradation due to pitting, alloying and mushrooming decreases the weld quality and adjustment of parameters like current and force is required. To realize these adjustments and ensure weld quality, a tool to measure weld quality in real time is required. In this paper, a real time ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation system for aluminum spot welds is presented. The system is able to monitor nugget growth while the spot weld is being made. This is achieved by interpreting the echoes of an ultrasound transducer located in one of the welding electrodes. The transducer receives and transmits an ultrasound signal at different times during the welding cycle. Valuable information of the weld quality is embedded in this signal. The system is able to determine the weld nugget diameter by measuring the delays of the ultrasound signals received during the complete welding cycle. The article presents the system performance on aluminum alloy AA6022.

  9. A real-time groundwater management model using data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Wei-Chen; Putti, Mario; Kendall, Donald R.; Yeh, William W.-G.

    2011-06-01

    This study develops a groundwater management model for real-time operation of an aquifer system. A groundwater flow model is allied with a nudging data assimilation algorithm that reduces the forecast error, minimizes the risk of system failure, and improves management strategies. The nudging algorithm treats the unknown private pumping as an additional sink term in the groundwater flow equation and provides a consistently physical interpretation for the identification of pumping rates. The system response due to pumping and injection is represented by a response matrix that is generated by the influence coefficient method. The response matrix (with a much smaller dimension) is used as a reduced model and is embedded directly in the management model as a part of the constraint set. Additionally, the influence coefficient method is utilized to include the nudging effect in the reduced model. The management model optimizes the monthly operation for 12 months into the future and determines the optimal strategy using the information provided by nudging. The management model is updated at the beginning of each month when new head observations and pumping data become available. We also discuss the utility, accuracy, and efficiency of the proposed management model for real-time operation.

  10. Real-time holographic pattern recognition with bacteriorhodopsin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampp, Norbert A.; Thoma, Ralph; Braeuchle, Christoph R.; Oesterhelt, Dieter

    1993-03-01

    The biological photochrome bacteriorhodopsin (BR) has attractive photophysical properties which allow its use as the photoactive component for dynamic recording media for optical applications. Purple membrane (PM) patches, which contain BR in a two-dimensional crystalline lattice, are isolated from Halobacterium halobium. Polymeric films with embedded PM are well suited reversible media for holographic recording. In addition, artificial derivatives of BR with improved optical properties can be generated by genetic methods and isolated from the mutated halobacterial strains. The high reversibility (> 106 record/erase cycles), the fast timescale of its photoconversions (fs - ms), and the high resolution (> 5000 lines/mm) make these films suitable media for real-time holographic applications. A dual-axis joint-Fourier-transform correlator is described with two liquid crystal television screens as input devices and a BR-film as active holographic material in the Fourier plane. The experimental data presented demonstrate that this system is capable of processing two independent video signals in real-time with a signal-to-noise ratio of 45 dB. The polarization recording properties of BR-films offer an efficient method to separate the correlation signal from scattered light.

  11. A chromatographic estimate of the degree of surface heterogeneity of RPLC packing materials. III. Endcapped amido-embedded reversed phase

    SciTech Connect

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges A

    2006-01-01

    The difference in adsorption behavior between a conventional monomeric endcapped C{sub 18} stationary phase (3.43 {micro}mol/m{sup 2}) and an endcapped polymeric RP-Amide phase (3.31 {micro}mol/m{sup 2}) was investigated. The adsorption isotherms of four compounds (phenol, caffeine, sodium 2-naphthalene sulfonate, and propranololium chloride) were measured by frontal analysis (FA) and the degree of heterogeneity of each phase for each solute was characterized by their adsorption energy distributions (AED), derived using the Expectation-Maximization method. The results show that only certain analytes (phenol and 2-naphthalene sulfonate) are sensitive to the presence of the polar embedded amide groups within the RP phase. Their binding constants on the amide-bonded phase are significantly higher than on conventional RPLC phases. Furthermore, an additional type of adsorption sites was observed for these two compounds. However, these sites having a low density, their presence does not affect much the retention factors of the two analytes. On the other hand, the adsorption behavior of the other two analytes (caffeine and propranololium chloride) is almost unaffected by the presence of the amide group in the bonded layer. Strong selective interactions may explain these observations. For example, hydrogen-bond interactions between an analyte (e.g., phenol or naphthalene sulfonate) and the carbonyl group (acceptor) or the nitrogen (donor) of the amido-embedded group may take place. No such interactions may take place with either caffeine or the cation propranololium chloride. This study confirms the hypothesis that analytes have ready access to locations deep inside the bonded layer, where the amide groups are present.

  12. Planarized nanophotonic sensor for real-time fluid sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yazhao; Salemink, H. W. M.

    2017-09-01

    A planarized on-chip nanophotonic sensor based on a photonic crystal cavity is realized in this work. The sensor was embedded in a solid protecting material (flowable oxide) with perfect filled holes: this eliminates problems of fouling in practical applications. The functional area of the sensor is created by carefully removing the protecting material only on the top surface of the cavity. A wavelength shift of 7.5 nm was observed in experiment which is very close to a simulation result of 9.0 nm for sensing water (n=1.33) and crude oil (n=1.45) samples. Swift and accurate sensing was verified by a real-time dynamic measurement with rapidly alternating analytes in a microfluid channel.

  13. Real-Time System Verification by Kappa-Induction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, Lee S.

    2005-01-01

    We report the first formal verification of a reintegration protocol for a safety-critical, fault-tolerant, real-time distributed embedded system. A reintegration protocol increases system survivability by allowing a node that has suffered a fault to regain state consistent with the operational nodes. The protocol is verified in the Symbolic Analysis Laboratory (SAL), where bounded model checking and decision procedures are used to verify infinite-state systems by k-induction. The protocol and its environment are modeled as synchronizing timeout automata. Because k-induction is exponential with respect to k, we optimize the formal model to reduce the size of k. Also, the reintegrator's event-triggered behavior is conservatively modeled as time-triggered behavior to further reduce the size of k and to make it invariant to the number of nodes modeled. A corollary is that a clique avoidance property is satisfied.

  14. Exploring Earthquakes in Real-Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo, T. K.; Kafka, A. L.; Coleman, B.; Taber, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquakes capture the attention of students and inspire them to explore the Earth. Adding the ability to view and explore recordings of significant and newsworthy earthquakes in real-time makes the subject even more compelling. To address this opportunity, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), in collaboration with Moravian College, developed ';jAmaSeis', a cross-platform application that enables students to access real-time earthquake waveform data. Students can watch as the seismic waves are recorded on their computer, and can be among the first to analyze the data from an earthquake. jAmaSeis facilitates student centered investigations of seismological concepts using either a low-cost educational seismograph or streamed data from other educational seismographs or from any seismic station that sends data to the IRIS Data Management System. After an earthquake, students can analyze the seismograms to determine characteristics of earthquakes such as time of occurrence, distance from the epicenter to the station, magnitude, and location. The software has been designed to provide graphical clues to guide students in the analysis and assist in their interpretations. Since jAmaSeis can simultaneously record up to three stations from anywhere on the planet, there are numerous opportunities for student driven investigations. For example, students can explore differences in the seismograms from different distances from an earthquake and compare waveforms from different azimuthal directions. Students can simultaneously monitor seismicity at a tectonic plate boundary and in the middle of the plate regardless of their school location. This can help students discover for themselves the ideas underlying seismic wave propagation, regional earthquake hazards, magnitude-frequency relationships, and the details of plate tectonics. The real-time nature of the data keeps the investigations dynamic, and offers students countless opportunities to explore.

  15. Real-time structured light depth extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Kurtis; Ackerman, Jeremy D.

    2000-03-01

    Gathering depth data using structured light has been a procedure for many different environments and uses. Many of these system are utilized instead of laser line scanning because of their quickness. However, to utilize depth extraction for some applications, in our case laparoscopic surgery, the depth extraction must be in real time. We have developed an apparatus that speeds up the raw image display and grabbing in structured light depth extraction from 30 frames per second to 60 and 180 frames per second. This results in an updated depth and texture map of about 15 times per second versus about 3. This increased update rate allows for real time depth extraction for use in augmented medical/surgical applications. Our miniature, fist-sized projector utilizes an internal ferro-reflective LCD display that is illuminated with cold light from a flex light pipe. The miniature projector, attachable to a laparoscope, displays inverted pairs of structured light into the body where these images are then viewed by a high-speed camera set slightly off axis from the projector that grabs images synchronously. The images from the camera are ported to a graphics-processing card where six frames are worked on simultaneously to extract depth and create mapped textures from these images. This information is then sent to the host computer with 3D coordinate information of the projector/camera and the associated textures. The surgeon is then able to view body images in real time from different locations without physically moving the laparoscope imager/projector, thereby, reducing the trauma of moving laparoscopes in the patient.

  16. Real-time failure control (SAFD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panossian, Hagop V.; Kemp, Victoria R.; Eckerling, Sherry J.

    1990-01-01

    The Real Time Failure Control program involves development of a failure detection algorithm, referred as System for Failure and Anomaly Detection (SAFD), for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). This failure detection approach is signal-based and it entails monitoring SSME measurement signals based on predetermined and computed mean values and standard deviations. Twenty four engine measurements are included in the algorithm and provisions are made to add more parameters if needed. Six major sections of research are presented: (1) SAFD algorithm development; (2) SAFD simulations; (3) Digital Transient Model failure simulation; (4) closed-loop simulation; (5) SAFD current limitations; and (6) enhancements planned for.

  17. Real-Time Ada Demonstration Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-31

    CENER OR OFTAREENGINEERING ADVANCED SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY Subject: Final Report - Real-Time Ada Demonstration Proj e-t- --.-. SEP 0 1989 D SEA)~ CIN...C02 0921I 6))00 I 31 MAY 1989 *:i ’C O~ 0"ed ~ 842 190 ?’ 45 DEMONSTRATION PROJECT FINAL REPORT PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army HQ CECOM Center for Software ...Engineering Advanced Software Technology Fort Monmouth, NJ 07703-5000 Accession For NTIS G1A&I DTIC TAB PREPARED BY: unannou:1r2d E LabTek Corporation

  18. Systems Analyze Water Quality in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    A water analyzer developed under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Kennedy Space Center now monitors treatment processes at water and wastewater facilities around the world. Originally designed to provide real-time detection of nutrient levels in hydroponic solutions for growing plants in space, the ChemScan analyzer, produced by ASA Analytics Inc., of Waukesha, Wisconsin, utilizes spectrometry and chemometric algorithms to automatically analyze multiple parameters in the water treatment process with little need for maintenance, calibration, or operator intervention. The company has experienced a compound annual growth rate of 40 percent over its 15-year history as a direct result of the technology's success.

  19. CUDA-based real time surgery simulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Youquan; De, Suvranu

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a general software platform that enables real time surgery simulation on the newly available compute unified device architecture (CUDA)from NVIDIA. CUDA-enabled GPUs harness the power of 128 processors which allow data parallel computations. Compared to the previous GPGPU, it is significantly more flexible with a C language interface. We report implementation of both collision detection and consequent deformation computation algorithms. Our test results indicate that the CUDA enables a twenty times speedup for collision detection and about fifteen times speedup for deformation computation on an Intel Core 2 Quad 2.66 GHz machine with GeForce 8800 GTX.

  20. Real-Time Reed-Solomon Decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maki, Gary K.; Cameron, Kelly B.; Owsley, Patrick A.

    1994-01-01

    Generic Reed-Solomon decoder fast enough to correct errors in real time in practical applications designed to be implemented in fewer and smaller very-large-scale integrated, VLSI, circuit chips. Configured to operate in pipelined manner. One outstanding aspect of decoder design is that Euclid multiplier and divider modules contain Galoisfield multipliers configured as combinational-logic cells. Operates at speeds greater than older multipliers. Cellular configuration highly regular and requires little interconnection area, making it ideal for implementation in extraordinarily dense VLSI circuitry. Flight electronics single chip version of this technology implemented and available.

  1. Real-time teleteaching in medical physics

    PubMed Central

    Woo, M; Ng, KH

    2008-01-01

    Medical physics is a relatively small professional community, usually with a scarcity of expertise that could greatly benefit students entering the field. However, the reach of the profession can span great geographical distances, making the training of students a difficult task. In addition to the requirement of training new students, the evolving field of medical physics, with its many emerging advanced techniques and technologies, could benefit greatly from ongoing continuing education as well as consultation with experts. Many continuing education courses and workshops are constantly being offered, including many web-based study courses and virtual libraries. However, one mode of education and communication that has not been widely used is the real-time interactive process. Video-based conferencing systems do exist, but these usually require a substantial amount of effort and cost to set up. The authors have been working on promoting the ever-expanding capability of the Internet to facilitate the education of medical physics to students entering the field. A pilot project has been carried out for six years and reported previously. The project is a collaboration between the Department of Medical Physics at the Toronto Odette Cancer Centre in Canada and the Department of Biomedical Imaging at the University of Malaya in Malaysia. Since 2001, medical physics graduate students at the University of Malaya have been taught by lecturers from Toronto every year, using the Internet as the main tool of communication. The pilot study explored the different methods that can be used to provide real-time interactive remote education, and delivered traditional classroom lectures as well as hands-on workshops. Another similar project was started in 2007 to offer real-time teaching to a class of medical physics students at Wuhan University in Hubei, China. There are new challenges as well as new opportunities associated with this project. By building an inventory of tools and

  2. Low cost real time interactive analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetina, F.

    1988-01-01

    Efforts continue to develop a low cost real time interactive analysis system for the reception of satellite data. A multi-purpose ingest hardware software frame formatter was demonstrated for GOES and TIROS data and work is proceeding on extending the capability to receive GMS data. A similar system was proposed as an archival and analysis system for use with INSAT data and studies are underway to modify the system to receive the planned SeaWiFS (ocean color) data. This system was proposed as the core of a number of international programs in support of U.S. AID activities. Systems delivered or nearing final testing are listed.

  3. Real-time teleteaching in medical physics.

    PubMed

    Woo, M; Ng, Kh

    2008-01-01

    Medical physics is a relatively small professional community, usually with a scarcity of expertise that could greatly benefit students entering the field. However, the reach of the profession can span great geographical distances, making the training of students a difficult task. In addition to the requirement of training new students, the evolving field of medical physics, with its many emerging advanced techniques and technologies, could benefit greatly from ongoing continuing education as well as consultation with experts.Many continuing education courses and workshops are constantly being offered, including many web-based study courses and virtual libraries. However, one mode of education and communication that has not been widely used is the real-time interactive process. Video-based conferencing systems do exist, but these usually require a substantial amount of effort and cost to set up.The authors have been working on promoting the ever-expanding capability of the Internet to facilitate the education of medical physics to students entering the field. A pilot project has been carried out for six years and reported previously. The project is a collaboration between the Department of Medical Physics at the Toronto Odette Cancer Centre in Canada and the Department of Biomedical Imaging at the University of Malaya in Malaysia. Since 2001, medical physics graduate students at the University of Malaya have been taught by lecturers from Toronto every year, using the Internet as the main tool of communication.The pilot study explored the different methods that can be used to provide real-time interactive remote education, and delivered traditional classroom lectures as well as hands-on workshops.Another similar project was started in 2007 to offer real-time teaching to a class of medical physics students at Wuhan University in Hubei, China. There are new challenges as well as new opportunities associated with this project. By building an inventory of tools and

  4. High energy real-time imaging studies

    SciTech Connect

    Haskins, J.J.; Dolan, K.W.; Perkins, D.E.; Rikard, D.; Schneberk, D.J.

    1993-04-01

    Performance characteristics of high energy real-time radiography (RTR) systems were optimized by interchanging components and varying optical coupling methods. Phosphor screens, fiber optic scintillation plates, monolithic high density glass scintillation plates, mirror coatings, different cameras and integration times were studied. X-ray sources were 4- and 9-MeV linear accelerators. High density monolithic glass, high resolution and wide dynamic range CCD cameras, and special focusing and fixturing methods have provided significantly improved spatial resolution and contrast for our high energy real-rime imaging. RTR systems with improved performance characteristics and proper translational/rotational staging were adapted for computed tomography applications.

  5. Real-time video image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedley, Kirk G.; Yool, Stephen R.

    1990-11-01

    Lockheed has designed and implemented a prototype real-time Video Enhancement Workbench (VEW) using commercial offtheshelf hardware and custom software. The hardware components include a Sun workstation Aspex PIPE image processor time base corrector VCR video camera and realtime disk subsystem. A cornprehensive set of image processing functions can be invoked by the analyst at any time during processing enabling interactive enhancement and exploitation of video sequences. Processed images can be transmitted and stored within the system in digital or video form. VEW also provides image output to a laser printer and to Interleaf technical publishing software.

  6. Object detection in real-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solder, Ulrich; Graefe, Volker

    1991-03-01

    An algorithm working on monocular gray-scale image sequences for object detection combined with a road tracker is presented. This algorithm appropriate for the real-time demands of an autonomous car driving with speeds over 40 km/h may be used for triggering obstacle avoidance maneuvers such as coming to a safe stop automatically in front of an obstacle or following another car. Moving and static objects have been detected in real-world experiments on various types of roads even under unfavorable weather conditions. . Morgenthaler and

  7. Real-time optical fiber dosimeter probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croteau, André; Caron, Serge; Rink, Alexandra; Jaffray, David; Mermut, Ozzy

    2011-03-01

    There is a pressing need for a passive optical fiber dosimeter probe for use in real-time monitoring of radiation dose delivered to clinical radiation therapy patients. An optical fiber probe using radiochromic material has been designed and fabricated based on a thin film of the radiochromic material on a dielectric mirror. Measurements of the net optical density vs. time before, during, and after irradiation at a rate of 500cGy/minute to a total dose of 5 Gy were performed. Net optical densities increased from 0.2 to 2.0 for radiochromic thin film thicknesses of 2 to 20 μm, respectively.

  8. [Development of real-time CT fluoroscopy].

    PubMed

    Katada, K; Anno, H; Takeshita, G; Ogura, Y; Koga, S; Ida, Y; Nonomura, K; Kanno, T; Ohashi, A; Sata, S

    1994-10-25

    A new CT system that permits real-time monitoring of CT images was developed. Phantom and volunteer studies revealed that the images were displayed at a rate of six per second with a delay time of 0.83 second with clinically sufficient resolution (256 x 256) using the newly developed fast image processor and partial-reconstruction algorithm. The clinical trial of stereotactic aspiration of intracerebral hematoma was successful. The initial trial with CT fluoroscopy revealed potential usefulness of the system in biopsy and other CT-guided interventions.

  9. Real time analysis of voiced sounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, J. P. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A power spectrum analysis of the harmonic content of a voiced sound signal is conducted in real time by phase-lock-loop tracking of the fundamental frequency, (f sub 0) of the signal and successive harmonics (h sub 1 through h sub n) of the fundamental frequency. The analysis also includes measuring the quadrature power and phase of each frequency tracked, differentiating the power measurements of the harmonics in adjacent pairs, and analyzing successive differentials to determine peak power points in the power spectrum for display or use in analysis of voiced sound, such as for voice recognition.

  10. Implementation of and Ada real-time executive: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laird, James D.; Burton, Bruce A.; Koppes, Mary R.

    1986-01-01

    Current Ada language implementations and runtime environments are immature, unproven and are a key risk area for real-time embedded computer system (ECS). A test-case environment is provided in which the concerns of the real-time, ECS community are addressed. A priority driven executive is selected to be implemented in the Ada programming language. The model selected is representative of real-time executives tailored for embedded systems used missile, spacecraft, and avionics applications. An Ada-based design methodology is utilized, and two designs are considered. The first of these designs requires the use of vendor supplied runtime and tasking support. An alternative high-level design is also considered for an implementation requiring no vendor supplied runtime or tasking support. The former approach is carried through to implementation.

  11. An application generator for rapid prototyping of Ada real-time control software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Jim; Biglari, Haik; Lehman, Larry

    1990-01-01

    The need to increase engineering productivity and decrease software life cycle costs in real-time system development establishes a motivation for a method of rapid prototyping. The design by iterative rapid prototyping technique is described. A tool which facilitates such a design methodology for the generation of embedded control software is described.

  12. Real Time Simulation of Power Grid Disruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Chinthavali, Supriya; Dimitrovski, Aleksandar D; Fernandez, Steven J; Groer, Christopher S; Nutaro, James J; Olama, Mohammed M; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Shankar, Mallikarjun; Spafford, Kyle L; Vacaliuc, Bogdan

    2012-11-01

    DOE-OE and DOE-SC workshops (Reference 1-3) identified the key power grid problem that requires insight addressable by the next generation of exascale computing is coupling of real-time data streams (1-2 TB per hour) as the streams are ingested to dynamic models. These models would then identify predicted disruptions in time (2-4 seconds) to trigger the smart grid s self healing functions. This project attempted to establish the feasibility of this approach and defined the scientific issues, and demonstrated example solutions to important smart grid simulation problems. These objectives were accomplished by 1) using the existing frequency recorders on the national grid to establish a representative and scalable real-time data stream; 2) invoking ORNL signature identification algorithms; 3) modeling dynamically a representative region of the Eastern interconnect using an institutional cluster, measuring the scalability and computational benchmarks for a national capability; and 4) constructing a prototype simulation for the system s concept of smart grid deployment. The delivered ORNL enduring capability included: 1) data processing and simulation metrics to design a national capability justifying exascale applications; 2) Software and intellectual property built around the example solutions; 3) demonstrated dynamic models to design few second self-healing.

  13. Real-time PCR in microfluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Holger; Hlawatsch, Nadine; Klemm, Richard; Moche, Christian; Hansen-Hagge, Thomas; Gärtner, Claudia

    2014-03-01

    A central method in a standard biochemical laboratory is represented by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), therefore many attempts have been performed so far to implement this technique in lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices. PCR is an ideal candidate for miniaturization because of a reduction of assay time and decreased costs for expensive bio-chemicals. In case of the "classical" PCR, detection is done by identification of DNA fragments electrophoretically separated in agarose gels. This method is meanwhile frequently replaced by the so-called Real-Time-PCR because here the exponential increase of amplificates can be observed directly by measurement of DNA interacting fluorescent dyes. Two main methods for on-chip PCRs are available: traditional "batch" PCR in chambers on a chip using thermal cycling, requiring about 30 minutes for a typical PCR protocol and continuous-flow PCR, where the liquid is guided over stationary temperature zones. In the latter case, the PCR protocol can be as fast as 5 minutes. In the presented work, a proof of concept is demonstrated for a real-time-detection of PCR products in microfluidic systems.

  14. Real-Time Flight Envelope Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerho, Michael; Bragg, Michael B.; Ansell, Phillip J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this effort was to show that real-time aircraft control-surface hinge-moment information could be used to provide a robust and reliable prediction of vehicle performance and control authority degradation. For a given airfoil section with a control surface -- be it a wing with an aileron, rudder, or elevator -- the control-surface hinge moment is sensitive to the aerodynamic characteristics of the section. As a result, changes in the aerodynamics of the section due to angle-of-attack or environmental effects such as icing, heavy rain, surface contaminants, bird strikes, or battle damage will affect the control surface hinge moment. These changes include both the magnitude of the hinge moment and its sign in a time-averaged sense, and the variation of the hinge moment with time. The current program attempts to take the real-time hinge moment information from the aircraft control surfaces and develop a system to predict aircraft envelope boundaries across a range of conditions, alerting the flight crew to reductions in aircraft controllability and flight boundaries.

  15. Real-time sensor data validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickmore, Timothy W.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the status of an on-going effort to develop software capable of detecting sensor failures on rocket engines in real time. This software could be used in a rocket engine controller to prevent the erroneous shutdown of an engine due to sensor failures which would otherwise be interpreted as engine failures by the control software. The approach taken combines analytical redundancy with Bayesian belief networks to provide a solution which has well defined real-time characteristics and well-defined error rates. Analytical redundancy is a technique in which a sensor's value is predicted by using values from other sensors and known or empirically derived mathematical relations. A set of sensors and a set of relations among them form a network of cross-checks which can be used to periodically validate all of the sensors in the network. Bayesian belief networks provide a method of determining if each of the sensors in the network is valid, given the results of the cross-checks. This approach has been successfully demonstrated on the Technology Test Bed Engine at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Current efforts are focused on extending the system to provide a validation capability for 100 sensors on the Space Shuttle Main Engine.

  16. REal-time COsmic Ray Database (RECORD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usoskin, I.; Kozlov, Valery; Ksenofontov, Leonid, Kudela, Karel; Starodubtsev, Sergei; Turpanov, Alexey; Yanke, Victor

    2003-07-01

    In this paper we present a first distributed REal-time COsmic Ray Database (RECORD). The aim of the project is to develop a unified database with data from different neutron monitors collected together, in unified format and to provide a user with several commonly used data access methods. The database contains not only original cosmic ray data but also auxiliary data necessary for scientific data analysis. Currently the database includes Lomn.Stit, Moscow, Oulu; Tixie Bay, Yakutsk stations. The main database server is located in IKFIA SB RAS (Yakutsk) but there will be several mirrors of the database. The database and all its mirrors are up dated on the nearly real-time (1 hour) basis. The data access software includes WWW-interface, Perl scripts and C library, which may be linked to a user program. Most of frequently used functions are implemented to make it operable to users without SQL language knowledge. A draft of the data representation standard is suggested, based on common practice of neutron monitor community. The database engine is freely distributed open-sourced PostgreSQL server coupled with a set of replication to ols developed at Bio engineering division of the IRCCS E.Medea, Italy.

  17. An efficient real time superresolution ASIC system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Dikpal; Yue, Zhanfeng; Topiwala, Pankaj

    2008-04-01

    Superresolution of images is an important step in many applications like target recognition where the input images are often grainy and of low quality due to bandwidth constraints. In this paper, we present a real-time superresolution application implemented in ASIC/FPGA hardware, and capable of 30 fps of superresolution by 16X in total pixels. Consecutive frames from the video sequence are grouped and the registered values between them are used to fill the pixels in the higher resolution image. The registration between consecutive frames is evaluated using the algorithm proposed by Schaum et al. The pixels are filled by averaging a fixed number of frames associated with the smallest error distances. The number of frames (the number of nearest neighbors) is a user defined parameter whereas the weights in the averaging process are decided by inverting the corresponding smallest error distances. Wiener filter is used to post process the image. Different input parameters, such as size of input image, enlarging factor and the number of nearest neighbors, can be tuned conveniently by the user. We use a maximum word size of 32 bits to implement the algorithm in Matlab Simulink as well as the hardware, which gives us a fine balance between the number of bits and performance. The algorithm performs with real time speed with very impressive superresolution results.

  18. Neutron monitor database in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, Valery; Kudela, Karel; Starodubtsev, Sergei; Turpanov, Alexey; Usoskin, Ilya; Yanke, Victor

    2003-09-01

    A first distributed Real Time Cosmic Ray Database using measurements of several neutron monitors is presented. The aim of the project is to develop a unified database with data from different neutron monitors collected together, in unified format and to provide a user with several commonly used data access methods. The database contains original cosmic ray as well as all housekeeping and technical data necessary for scientific data analysis. Currently the database includes Lomnicky Stit, Moscow, Oulu, Tixie Bay, Yakutsk stations and it is opened for other neutron monitors. The main database server is located in IKFIA SB RAS (Yakutsk) but there will be several mirrors of the database. The datbase and all its mirrors are updated on the nearly real-time (1 hour) basis. The data access software includes WWW-interface, Perl scipts and C library, which may be linked to a user program. Most of frequently used functions are implemented to make it operable to users without SQL language knowledge. A draft of the data representation standard is suggested, based on common practice of neutron monitor community. The database engine is freely distributed open-sourced PostgreSQL server coupled with a set of replication tools developed at Bioengineering division of the IRCCS E. Medea, Italy.

  19. Real-time design with peer tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goforth, Andre; Howes, Norman R.; Wood, Jonathan D.; Barnes, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    We introduce a real-time design methodology for large scale, distributed, parallel architecture, real-time systems (LDPARTS), as an alternative to those methods using rate or dead-line monotonic analysis. In our method the fundamental units of prioritization, work items, are domain specific objects with timing requirements (deadlines) found in user's specification. A work item consists of a collection of tasks of equal priority. Current scheduling theories are applied with artifact deadlines introduced by the designer whereas our method schedules work items to meet user's specification deadlines (sometimes called end-to-end deadlines). Our method supports these scheduling properties. Work item scheduling is based on domain specific importance instead of task level urgency and still meets as many user specification deadlines as can be met by scheduling tasks with respect to urgency. Second, the minimum (closest) on-line deadline that can be guaranteed for a work item of highest importance, scheduled at run time, is approximately the inverse of the throughput, measured in work items per second. Third, throughput is not degraded during overload and instead of resorting to task shedding during overload, the designer can specify which work items to shed. We prove these properties in a mathematical model.

  20. Real-time applications of neural nets

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, J.E.

    1989-05-01

    Producing, accelerating and colliding very high power, low emittance beams for long periods is a formidable problem in real-time control. As energy has grown exponentially in time so has the complexity of the machines and their control systems. Similar growth rates have occurred in many areas, e.g., improved integrated circuits have been paid for with comparable increases in complexity. However, in this case, reliability, capability and cost have improved due to reduced size, high production and increased integration which allow various kinds of feedback. In contrast, most large complex systems (LCS) are perceived to lack such possibilities because only one copy is made. Neural nets, as a metaphor for LCS, suggest ways to circumvent such limitations. It is argued that they are logically equivalent to multi-loop feedback/forward control of faulty systems. While complimentary to AI, they mesh nicely with characteristics desired for real-time systems. Such issues are considered, examples given and possibilities discussed. 21 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Real-time applications of neural nets

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, J.E. )

    1989-10-01

    Producing, accelerating and colliding very high power, low emittance beams for long periods is a formidable problem in real-time control. As energy has grown exponentially in time so has the complexity of the machines and their control systems. Similar growth rates have occurred in many areas e.g. improved integrated circuits have been paid for with comparable increases in complexity. However, in this case, reliability, capability and cost have improved due to reduced size, high production and increased integration which allow various kinds of feedback. In contrast, most large complex systems (LCS) are perceived to lack such possibilities because only one copy is made. Neural nets, as a metaphor for LCS, suggest ways to circumvent such limitations. It is argued that they are logically equivalent to multi-loop feedback/forward control of faulty systems. While complimentary to AI, they mesh nicely with characteristics desired for real-time systems. In this paper, such issues are considered, examples given and possibilities discussed.

  2. Machine learning for real time remote detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labbé, Benjamin; Fournier, Jérôme; Henaff, Gilles; Bascle, Bénédicte; Canu, Stéphane

    2010-10-01

    Infrared systems are key to providing enhanced capability to military forces such as automatic control of threats and prevention from air, naval and ground attacks. Key requirements for such a system to produce operational benefits are real-time processing as well as high efficiency in terms of detection and false alarm rate. These are serious issues since the system must deal with a large number of objects and categories to be recognized (small vehicles, armored vehicles, planes, buildings, etc.). Statistical learning based algorithms are promising candidates to meet these requirements when using selected discriminant features and real-time implementation. This paper proposes a new decision architecture benefiting from recent advances in machine learning by using an effective method for level set estimation. While building decision function, the proposed approach performs variable selection based on a discriminative criterion. Moreover, the use of level set makes it possible to manage rejection of unknown or ambiguous objects thus preserving the false alarm rate. Experimental evidences reported on real world infrared images demonstrate the validity of our approach.

  3. Real-time protein kinase assay.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongye; Low, Karen E; Woo, Sam; Noble, Richard L; Graham, Ronald J; Connaughton, Sonia S; Gee, Melissa A; Lee, Linda G

    2005-04-01

    We report a novel, real-time fluorogenic kinase assay. The peptide substrates are synthesized with a fluorescent dye and a hydrocarbon tail. The substrate self-assembles into micelles, increasing the local concentration of the dye and quenching its fluorescence. Upon phosphorylation, the fluorescence intensity increases 4-6-fold due to micelle reorganization. Both dynamic light scattering data and cryoelectron microscope images show that the size and the shape of the phosphopeptide micelles are significantly different from micelles of substrate peptide. The system provides a robust fluorescence increase in a real-time protein kinase assay. Unlike other fluorogenic systems, the fluorophore may be distant from the serine, threonine, or tyrosine that is phosphorylated. Assays for several kinases, including PKA, PKC, p38, MAPKAP K2, akt, Erk1, and src-family kinases, have been developed. IC(50) values of inhibitors for PKC betaII determined with this technology are consistent with published values. The utility of this assay to high-throughput screening was demonstrated with Sigma's LOPAC library, a collection of 640 compounds with known biological activities, and satisfactory results were obtained.

  4. NSTX power supply real time controller

    SciTech Connect

    Neumeyer, C.; Hatcher, R.; Marsala, R.; Ramakrishnan, S.

    2000-01-06

    The NSTX is a new national facility for the study of plasma confinement, heating, and current drive in a low aspect ratio, spherical torus (ST) configuration. The ST configuration is an alternate magnetic confinement concept which is characterized by high beta (ratio plasma pressure to magnetic field pressure) and low toroidal field compared to conventional tokamaks, and could provide a pathway to the realization of a practical fusion power source. The NSTX depends on a real time, high speed, synchronous, and deterministic control system acting on a system of thyristor rectifier power supplies to (1) establish the initial magnetic field configuration; (2) initiate plasma within the vacuum vessel; (3) inductively drive plasma current; and (4) control plasma position and shape. For the initial ``day 0'' 1st plasma operations (Feb. 1999), the system was limited to closed loop proportional-integral current control of the power supplies based on preprogrammed reference waveforms. For the ``day 1'' phase of operations beginning Sept. 1999 the loop has been closed on plasma current and position. This paper focuses on the Power Supply Real Time Controller (PSRTC).

  5. Reconfigurable real-time distributed processing network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, S. F.; Seely, R. D.; Hickman, D.

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes a novel real-time image and signal processing network, RONINTM, which facilitates the rapid design and deployment of systems providing advanced geospatial surveillance and situational awareness capability. RONINTM is a distributed software architecture consisting of multiple agents or nodes, which can be configured to implement a variety of state-of-the-art computer vision and signal processing algorithms. The nodes operate in an asynchronous fashion and can run on a variety of hardware platforms, thus providing a great deal of scalability and flexibility. Complex algorithmic configuration chains can be assembled using an intuitive graphical interface in a plug-and- play manner. RONINTM has been successfully exploited for a number of applications, ranging from remote event detection to complex multiple-camera real-time 3D object reconstruction. This paper describes the motivation behind the creation of the network, the core design features, and presents details of an example application. Finally, the on-going development of the network is discussed, which is focussed on dynamic network reconfiguration. This allows to the network to automatically adapt itself to node or communications failure by intelligently re-routing network communications and through adaptive resource management.

  6. Image denoising for real-time MRI.

    PubMed

    Klosowski, Jakob; Frahm, Jens

    2017-03-01

    To develop an image noise filter suitable for MRI in real time (acquisition and display), which preserves small isolated details and efficiently removes background noise without introducing blur, smearing, or patch artifacts. The proposed method extends the nonlocal means algorithm to adapt the influence of the original pixel value according to a simple measure for patch regularity. Detail preservation is improved by a compactly supported weighting kernel that closely approximates the commonly used exponential weight, while an oracle step ensures efficient background noise removal. Denoising experiments were conducted on real-time images of healthy subjects reconstructed by regularized nonlinear inversion from radial acquisitions with pronounced undersampling. The filter leads to a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) improvement of at least 60% without noticeable artifacts or loss of detail. The method visually compares to more complex state-of-the-art filters as the block-matching three-dimensional filter and in certain cases better matches the underlying noise model. Acceleration of the computation to more than 100 complex frames per second using graphics processing units is straightforward. The sensitivity of nonlocal means to small details can be significantly increased by the simple strategies presented here, which allows partial restoration of SNR in iteratively reconstructed images without introducing a noticeable time delay or image artifacts. Magn Reson Med 77:1340-1352, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  7. Real-time Raman sensing without spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min Ju; Kim, Sungho; Yang, Timothy K.; Kumar, Dinesh; Bae, Sung Chul

    2015-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been a powerful tool in various fields of science and technology ranging from analytical chemistry to biomedical imaging. In spite of unique features, Raman spectroscopy has also some limitations. Among them are weak Raman signal compared to strong fluorescence and relatively complicated setup with expensive and bulky spectrometer. In order to increase the sensitivity of Raman technique, many clever attempts have been made and some of them were very successful including CARS, SRS, and so on. However, these still requires expensive and more complicated setup. In this work, we have attempted to build a real-time compact Raman sensor without spectrometer. Conventional spectrometer was replaced with a narrow-band optical filter and alternatively modulated two lasers with slightly different wavelengths. At one laser, Raman signal from a target molecule was transmitted through the optical filter. At the other laser, this signal was blocked by the optical filter and could not be detected by photon detector. The alternative modulation of two lasers will modulate the Raman signal from a target molecule at the same modulation frequency. This modulated weak Raman signal was amplified by a lock-in amplifier. The advantages of this setup include compactness, low cost, real-time monitoring, and so on. We have tested the sensitivity of this setup and we found that it doesn't have enough sensitivity to detect single molecule-level, but it is still good enough to monitor the change of major chemical composition in the sample.

  8. Real-time animation of complex hairstyles.

    PubMed

    Volino, Pascal; Magnenat-Thalmann, Nadia

    2006-01-01

    True real-time animation of complex hairstyles on animated characters is the goal of this work, and the challenge is to build a mechanical model of the hairstyle which is sufficiently fast for real-time performance while preserving the particular behavior of the hair medium and maintaining sufficient versatility for simulating any kind of complex hairstyles. Rather than building a complex mechanical model directly related to the structure of the hair strands, we take advantage of a volume free-form deformation scheme. We detail the construction of an efficient lattice mechanical deformation model which represents the volume behavior of the hair strands. The lattice is deformed as a particle system using state-of-the-art numerical methods, and animates the hairs using quadratic B-Spline interpolation. The hairstyle reacts to the body skin through collisions with a metaball-based approximation. The model is highly scalable and allows hairstyles of any complexity to be simulated in any rendering context with the appropriate trade off between accuracy and computation speed, fitting the need of Level-of-Detail optimization schemes.

  9. Design for interaction between humans and intelligent systems during real-time fault management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schreckenghost, Debra L.; Thronesbery, Carroll G.

    1992-01-01

    Initial results are reported to provide guidance and assistance for designers of intelligent systems and their human interfaces. The objective is to achieve more effective human-computer interaction (HCI) for real time fault management support systems. Studies of the development of intelligent fault management systems within NASA have resulted in a new perspective of the user. If the user is viewed as one of the subsystems in a heterogeneous, distributed system, system design becomes the design of a flexible architecture for accomplishing system tasks with both human and computer agents. HCI requirements and design should be distinguished from user interface (displays and controls) requirements and design. Effective HCI design for multi-agent systems requires explicit identification of activities and information that support coordination and communication between agents. The effects are characterized of HCI design on overall system design and approaches are identified to addressing HCI requirements in system design. The results include definition of (1) guidance based on information level requirements analysis of HCI, (2) high level requirements for a design methodology that integrates the HCI perspective into system design, and (3) requirements for embedding HCI design tools into intelligent system development environments.

  10. Real-Time and Near Real-Time Data for Space Weather Applications and Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, H. J.; Balch, C. C.; Biesecker, D. A.; Matsuo, T.; Onsager, T. G.

    2015-12-01

    Space weather can be defined as conditions in the vicinity of Earth and in the interplanetary environment that are caused primarily by solar processes and influenced by conditions on Earth and its atmosphere. Examples of space weather are the conditions that result from geomagnetic storms, solar particle events, and bursts of intense solar flare radiation. These conditions can have impacts on modern-day technologies such as GPS or electric power grids and on human activities such as astronauts living on the International Space Station or explorers traveling to the moon or Mars. While the ultimate space weather goal is accurate prediction of future space weather conditions, for many applications and services, we rely on real-time and near-real time observations and model results for the specification of current conditions. In this presentation, we will describe the space weather system and the need for real-time and near-real time data that drive the system, characterize conditions in the space environment, and are used by models for assimilation and validation. Currently available data will be assessed and a vision for future needs will be given. The challenges for establishing real-time data requirements, as well as acquiring, processing, and disseminating the data will be described, including national and international collaborations. In addition to describing how the data are used for official government products, we will also give examples of how these data are used by both the public and private sector for new applications that serve the public.

  11. Real-time DNA sequencing from single polymerase molecules.

    PubMed

    Korlach, Jonas; Bjornson, Keith P; Chaudhuri, Bidhan P; Cicero, Ronald L; Flusberg, Benjamin A; Gray, Jeremy J; Holden, David; Saxena, Ravi; Wegener, Jeffrey; Turner, Stephen W

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Biosciences has developed a method for real-time sequencing of single DNA molecules (Eid et al., 2009), with intrinsic sequencing rates of several bases per second and read lengths into the kilobase range. Conceptually, this sequencing approach is based on eavesdropping on the activity of DNA polymerase carrying out template-directed DNA polymerization. Performed in a highly parallel operational mode, sequential base additions catalyzed by each polymerase are detected with terminal phosphate-linked, fluorescence-labeled nucleotides. This chapter will first outline the principle of this single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) DNA sequencing method, followed by descriptions of its underlying components and typical sequencing run conditions. Two examples are provided which illustrate that, in addition to the DNA sequence, the dynamics of DNA polymerization from each enzyme molecules is directly accessible: the determination of base-specific kinetic parameters from single-molecule sequencing reads, and the characterization of DNA synthesis rate heterogeneities. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Real-time, face recognition technology

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, S.

    1995-11-01

    The Institute for Scientific Computing Research (ISCR) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory recently developed the real-time, face recognition technology KEN. KEN uses novel imaging devices such as silicon retinas developed at Caltech or off-the-shelf CCD cameras to acquire images of a face and to compare them to a database of known faces in a robust fashion. The KEN-Online project makes that recognition technology accessible through the World Wide Web (WWW), an internet service that has recently seen explosive growth. A WWW client can submit face images, add them to the database of known faces and submit other pictures that the system tries to recognize. KEN-Online serves to evaluate the recognition technology and grow a large face database. KEN-Online includes the use of public domain tools such as mSQL for its name-database and perl scripts to assist the uploading of images.

  13. Real time speech formant analyzer and display

    DOEpatents

    Holland, George E.; Struve, Walter S.; Homer, John F.

    1987-01-01

    A speech analyzer for interpretation of sound includes a sound input which converts the sound into a signal representing the sound. The signal is passed through a plurality of frequency pass filters to derive a plurality of frequency formants. These formants are converted to voltage signals by frequency-to-voltage converters and then are prepared for visual display in continuous real time. Parameters from the inputted sound are also derived and displayed. The display may then be interpreted by the user. The preferred embodiment includes a microprocessor which is interfaced with a television set for displaying of the sound formants. The microprocessor software enables the sound analyzer to present a variety of display modes for interpretive and therapeutic used by the user.

  14. Real time speech formant analyzer and display

    DOEpatents

    Holland, G.E.; Struve, W.S.; Homer, J.F.

    1987-02-03

    A speech analyzer for interpretation of sound includes a sound input which converts the sound into a signal representing the sound. The signal is passed through a plurality of frequency pass filters to derive a plurality of frequency formants. These formants are converted to voltage signals by frequency-to-voltage converters and then are prepared for visual display in continuous real time. Parameters from the inputted sound are also derived and displayed. The display may then be interpreted by the user. The preferred embodiment includes a microprocessor which is interfaced with a television set for displaying of the sound formants. The microprocessor software enables the sound analyzer to present a variety of display modes for interpretive and therapeutic used by the user. 19 figs.

  15. PCs stir reliability, real-time concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Strothman, J.

    1994-11-01

    While pre-Christmas price wars regularly boost personal computer sales this time of year, price cuts alone won`t cause process control systems designers to open their wallets and buy PCs. User studies and user feedback to process control equipment suppliers show several other issues continue to rank higher than price including: (1) Hardware and software reliability; (2) easy-to-use user interfaces; (3) ability to do multitasking; (4) need for real-time updates. These and several other non-price issues - including open versus proprietary systems, slower scan rates from PCs compared to programmable controllers, and assurances that the PC will work in an industrial environment - scored high in a study authored earlier this year by Jesse Yoder, owner of Idea Network, Clinton, NJ. The report, titled {open_quotes}The World Market for Process Control Equipment,{close_quotes} was written for FIND/SVP, a New York City market research firm.

  16. Near real-time traffic routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Chaowei (Inventor); Cao, Ying (Inventor); Xie, Jibo (Inventor); Zhou, Bin (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A near real-time physical transportation network routing system comprising: a traffic simulation computing grid and a dynamic traffic routing service computing grid. The traffic simulator produces traffic network travel time predictions for a physical transportation network using a traffic simulation model and common input data. The physical transportation network is divided into a multiple sections. Each section has a primary zone and a buffer zone. The traffic simulation computing grid includes multiple of traffic simulation computing nodes. The common input data includes static network characteristics, an origin-destination data table, dynamic traffic information data and historical traffic data. The dynamic traffic routing service computing grid includes multiple dynamic traffic routing computing nodes and generates traffic route(s) using the traffic network travel time predictions.

  17. Real-time monitoring of swimming performance.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Gonzalo, R; Lemkaddem, A; Renevey, Ph; Calvo, E Muntane; Lemay, M; Cox, K; Ashby, D; Willardson, J; Bertschi, M

    2016-08-01

    This article presents the performance results of a novel algorithm for swimming analysis in real-time within a low-power wrist-worn device. The estimated parameters are: lap count, stroke count, time in lap, total swimming time, pace/speed per lap, total swam distance, and swimming efficiency (SWOLF). In addition, several swimming styles are automatically detected. Results were obtained using a database composed of 13 different swimmers spanning 646 laps and 858.78 min of total swam time. The final precision achieved in lap detection ranges between 99.7% and 100%, and the classification of the different swimming styles reached a sensitivity and specificity above 98%. We demonstrate that a swimmers performance can be fully analyzed with the smart bracelet containing the novel algorithm. The presented algorithm has been licensed to ICON Health & Fitness Inc. for their line of wearables under the brand iFit.

  18. Cerebral Autoregulation Real-Time Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Tsalach, Adi; Ratner, Eliahu; Lokshin, Stas; Silman, Zmira; Breskin, Ilan; Budin, Nahum; Kamar, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral autoregulation is a mechanism which maintains constant cerebral blood flow (CBF) despite changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP). Assessing whether this mechanism is intact or impaired and determining its boundaries is important in many clinical settings, where primary or secondary injuries to the brain may occur. Herein we describe the development of a new ultrasound tagged near infra red light monitor which tracks CBF trends, in parallel, it continuously measures blood pressure and correlates them to produce a real time autoregulation index. Its performance is validated in both in-vitro experiment and a pre-clinical case study. Results suggest that using such a tool, autoregulation boundaries as well as its impairment or functioning can be identified and assessed. It may therefore assist in individualized MAP management to ensure adequate organ perfusion and reduce the risk of postoperative complications, and might play an important role in patient care. PMID:27571474

  19. REAL TIME DATA FOR REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES [11505

    SciTech Connect

    BROCK CT

    2011-01-13

    Health physicists from the CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company collaborated with Berkeley Nucleonics Corporation to modify the SAM 940 isotope identifier instrument to be used for nuclear waste remediation. These modifications coupled with existing capabilities of the SAM 940 have proven to be invaluable during remediation activities, reducing disposal costs by allowing swift remediation of targeted areas that have been identified as having isotopes of concern (IOC), and eliminating multiple visits to sites by declaring an excavation site clear of IOCs before demobilizing from the site. These advantages are enabled by accumulating spectral data for specific isotopes that is nearly 100 percent free of false positives, which are filtered out in 'real time.'

  20. Terrestrial Real-Time Volcano Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, M.

    2013-12-01

    As volcano monitoring involves more and different sensors from seismic to GPS receivers, from video and thermal cameras to multi-parameter probes measuring temperature, ph values and humidity in the ground and the air, it becomes important to design real-time networks that integrate and leverage the multitude of available parameters. In order to do so some simple principles need to be observed: a) a common time base for all measurements, b) a packetized general data communication protocol for acquisition and distribution, c) an open and well documented interface to the data permitting standard and emerging innovative processing, and d) an intuitive visualization platform for scientists and civil defense personnel. Although mentioned as simple principles, the list above does not necessarily lead to obvious solutions or integrated systems, which is, however, required to take advantage of the available data. Only once the different data streams are put into context to each other in terms of time and location can a broader view be obtained and additional information extracted. The presentation is a summary of currently available technologies and how they can achieve the goal of an integrated real-time volcano monitoring system. A common time base are standard for seismic and GPS networks. In different projects we extended this to video feeds and time-lapse photography. Other probes have been integrated with vault interface enclosures (VIE) as used in the Transportable Array (TA) of the USArray. The VIE can accommodate the sensors employed in volcano monitoring. The TA has shown that Antelope is a versatile and robust middleware. It provides the required packetized general communication protocol that is independent from the actual physical communication link leaving the network design to adopt appropriate and possible hybrid solutions. This applies for the data acquisition and the data/information dissemination providing both a much needed collaboration platform, as

  1. Real Time Correction of Aircraft Flight Fonfiguration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schipper, John F. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for monitoring and analyzing, in real time, variation with time of an aircraft flight parameter. A time-dependent recovery band, defined by first and second recovery band boundaries that are spaced apart at at least one time point, is constructed for a selected flight parameter and for a selected time recovery time interval length .DELTA.t(FP;rec). A flight parameter, having a value FP(t=t.sub.p) at a time t=t.sub.p, is likely to be able to recover to a reference flight parameter value FP(t';ref), lying in a band of reference flight parameter values FP(t';ref;CB), within a time interval given by t.sub.p.ltoreq.t'.ltoreq.t.sub.p.DELTA.t(FP;rec), if (or only if) the flight parameter value lies between the first and second recovery band boundary traces.

  2. Real time visualization of quantum walk

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, Akihide; Hamada, Shinji; Sekino, Hideo

    2014-02-20

    Time evolution of quantum particles like electrons is described by time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE). The TDSE is regarded as the diffusion equation of electrons with imaginary diffusion coefficients. And the TDSE is solved by quantum walk (QW) which is regarded as a quantum version of a classical random walk. The diffusion equation is solved in discretized space/time as in the case of classical random walk with additional unitary transformation of internal degree of freedom typical for quantum particles. We call the QW for solution of the TDSE a Schrödinger walk (SW). For observation of one quantum particle evolution under a given potential in atto-second scale, we attempt a successive computation and visualization of the SW. Using Pure Data programming, we observe the correct behavior of a probability distribution under the given potential in real time for observers of atto-second scale.

  3. Real-time value-driven diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dambrosio, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Diagnosis is often thought of as an isolated task in theoretical reasoning (reasoning with the goal of updating our beliefs about the world). We present a decision-theoretic interpretation of diagnosis as a task in practical reasoning (reasoning with the goal of acting in the world), and sketch components of our approach to this task. These components include an abstract problem description, a decision-theoretic model of the basic task, a set of inference methods suitable for evaluating the decision representation in real-time, and a control architecture to provide the needed continuing coordination between the agent and its environment. A principal contribution of this work is the representation and inference methods we have developed, which extend previously available probabilistic inference methods and narrow, somewhat, the gap between probabilistic and logical models of diagnosis.

  4. Real-time value-driven diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ambrosio, Bruce

    1994-03-01

    Diagnosis is often thought of as an isolated task in theoretical reasoning (reasoning with the goal of updating our beliefs about the world). We present a decision-theoretic interpretation of diagnosis as a task in practical reasoning (reasoning with the goal of acting in the world) and sketch components of our approach to this task. These components include an abstract problem description, a decision-theoretic model of the basic task, a set of inference methods suitable for evaluating the decision representation in real time, and a control architecture to provide the needed continuing coordination between the agent and its environment. A principal contribution of this work is the representation and inference methods we have developed, which extend previously available probabilistic inference methods and narrow, somewhat, the gap between probabilistic and logical models of diagnosis.

  5. Optimal, real-time control--colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, J.E.

    1991-05-01

    With reasonable definitions, optimal control is possible for both classical and quantal systems with new approaches called PISC(Parallel) and NISC(Neural) from analogy with RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing). If control equals interaction, observation and comparison to some figure of merit with interaction via external fields, then optimization comes from varying these fields to give design or operating goals. Structural stability can then give us tolerance and design constraints. But simulations use simplified models, are not in real-time and assume fixed or stationary conditions, so optimal control goes far beyond convergence rates of algorithms. It is inseparable from design and this has many implications for colliders. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Real-time slicing of data space

    SciTech Connect

    Crawfis, R.A.

    1996-07-01

    Real-time rendering of iso-contour surfaces is problematic for large complex data sets. In this paper, an algorithm is presented that allows very rapid representation of an interval set surrounding a iso-contour surface. The algorithm draws upon three main ideas. A fast indexing scheme is used to select only those data points near the contour surface. Hardware assisted splatting is then employed on these data points to produce a volume rendering of the interval set. Finally, by shifting a small window through the indexing scheme or data space, animated volumes are produced showing the changing contour values. In addition to allowing fast selection and rendering of the data, the indexing scheme allows a much compressed representation of the data by eliminating ``noise`` data points.

  7. Near Real Time Quantitative Gas Analysis Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herget, William F.; Tromp, Marianne L.; Anderson, Charles R.

    1985-12-01

    A Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) - based system has been developed and is undergoing evaluation for near real time multicomponent quantitative analysis of undiluted gaseous automotive exhaust emissions. The total system includes: (1) a gas conditioning system (GCS) for tracer gas injection, gas mixing, and temperature stabilization; and (2) an exhaust gas analyzer (EGA) consisting of a sample cell, an FT-IR system, and a computerized data processing system. Tests have shown that the system can monitor about 20 individual species (concentrations down to the 1-20 ppm range) with a time resolution of one second. Tests have been conducted on a chassis dynamometer system utilizing different autos, different fuels, and different driving cycles. Results were compared with those obtained using a standard constant volume sampling (CVS) system.

  8. A Measure of Real-Time Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavane, Vaibhav

    2013-03-01

    We propose a new measure of intelligence for general reinforcement learning agents, based on the notion that an agent's environment can change at any step of execution of the agent. That is, an agent is considered to be interacting with its environment in real-time. In this sense, the resulting intelligence measure is more general than the universal intelligence measure (Legg and Hutter, 2007) and the anytime universal intelligence test (Hernández-Orallo and Dowe, 2010). A major advantage of the measure is that an agent's computational complexity is factored into the measure in a natural manner. We show that there exist agents with intelligence arbitrarily close to the theoretical maximum, and that the intelligence of agents depends on their parallel processing capability. We thus believe that the measure can provide a better evaluation of agents and guidance for building practical agents with high intelligence.

  9. Real-Time Inspection Of Currency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazek, Henry

    1986-12-01

    An automatic inspection machine, designed and manufactured by the Perkin-Elmer Corporation for the U.S. Bureau of Engraving and Printing, is capable of real-time inspection of currency at rates compatible with the output of modern high-speed printing presses. Inspection is accomplished by comparing test notes (in 32-per-sheet format) with reference notes stored in the memory of a digital computer. This paper describes the development of algorithms for detecting defective notes, one of the key problems solved during the development of the inspection system. Results achieved on an analytical model, used for predicting probability of false alarms and probability of detecting typically defective notes, are compared to those obtained by system simulation.

  10. Identifying financial crises in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Fonseca, Eder Lucio; Ferreira, Fernando F.; Muruganandam, Paulsamy; Cerdeira, Hilda A.

    2013-03-01

    Following the thermodynamic formulation of a multifractal measure that was shown to enable the detection of large fluctuations at an early stage, here we propose a new index which permits us to distinguish events like financial crises in real time. We calculate the partition function from which we can obtain thermodynamic quantities analogous to the free energy and specific heat. The index is defined as the normalized energy variation and it can be used to study the behavior of stochastic time series, such as financial market daily data. Famous financial market crashes-Black Thursday (1929), Black Monday (1987) and the subprime crisis (2008)-are identified with clear and robust results. The method is also applied to the market fluctuations of 2011. From these results it appears as if the apparent crisis of 2011 is of a different nature to the other three. We also show that the analysis has forecasting capabilities.

  11. Near real-time stereo vision system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Charles H. (Inventor); Matthies, Larry H. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The apparatus for a near real-time stereo vision system for use with a robotic vehicle is described. The system is comprised of two cameras mounted on three-axis rotation platforms, image-processing boards, a CPU, and specialized stereo vision algorithms. Bandpass-filtered image pyramids are computed, stereo matching is performed by least-squares correlation, and confidence ranges are estimated by means of Bayes' theorem. In particular, Laplacian image pyramids are built and disparity maps are produced from the 60 x 64 level of the pyramids at rates of up to 2 seconds per image pair. The first autonomous cross-country robotic traverses (of up to 100 meters) have been achieved using the stereo vision system of the present invention with all computing done onboard the vehicle. The overall approach disclosed herein provides a unifying paradigm for practical domain-independent stereo ranging.

  12. Real-time forecasts of dengue epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamana, T. K.; Shaman, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease prevalent in the tropics and subtropics, with an estimated 2.5 billion people at risk of transmission. In many areas with endemic dengue, disease transmission is seasonal but prone to high inter-annual variability with occasional severe epidemics. Predicting and preparing for periods of higher than average transmission is a significant public health challenge. Here we present a model of dengue transmission and a framework for optimizing model simulations with real-time observational data of dengue cases and environmental variables in order to generate ensemble-based forecasts of the timing and severity of disease outbreaks. The model-inference system is validated using synthetic data and dengue outbreak records. Retrospective forecasts are generated for a number of locations and the accuracy of these forecasts is quantified.

  13. Towards real time speckle controlled retinal photocoagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliedtner, Katharina; Seifert, Eric; Stockmann, Leoni; Effe, Lisa; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2016-03-01

    Photocoagulation is a laser treatment widely used for the therapy of several retinal diseases. Intra- and inter-individual variations of the ocular transmission, light scattering and the retinal absorption makes it impossible to achieve a uniform effective exposure and hence a uniform damage throughout the therapy. A real-time monitoring and control of the induced damage is highly requested. Here, an approach to realize a real time optical feedback using dynamic speckle analysis is presented. A 532 nm continuous wave Nd:YAG laser is used for coagulation. During coagulation, speckle dynamics are monitored by a coherent object illumination using a 633nm HeNe laser and analyzed by a CMOS camera with a frame rate up to 1 kHz. It is obvious that a control system needs to determine whether the desired damage is achieved to shut down the system in a fraction of the exposure time. Here we use a fast and simple adaption of the generalized difference algorithm to analyze the speckle movements. This algorithm runs on a FPGA and is able to calculate a feedback value which is correlated to the thermal and coagulation induced tissue motion and thus the achieved damage. For different spot sizes (50-200 μm) and different exposure times (50-500 ms) the algorithm shows the ability to discriminate between different categories of retinal pigment epithelial damage ex-vivo in enucleated porcine eyes. Furthermore in-vivo experiments in rabbits show the ability of the system to determine tissue changes in living tissue during coagulation.

  14. Real-time visualization of joint cavitation.

    PubMed

    Kawchuk, Gregory N; Fryer, Jerome; Jaremko, Jacob L; Zeng, Hongbo; Rowe, Lindsay; Thompson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Cracking sounds emitted from human synovial joints have been attributed historically to the sudden collapse of a cavitation bubble formed as articular surfaces are separated. Unfortunately, bubble collapse as the source of joint cracking is inconsistent with many physical phenomena that define the joint cracking phenomenon. Here we present direct evidence from real-time magnetic resonance imaging that the mechanism of joint cracking is related to cavity formation rather than bubble collapse. In this study, ten metacarpophalangeal joints were studied by inserting the finger of interest into a flexible tube tightened around a length of cable used to provide long-axis traction. Before and after traction, static 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired. During traction, rapid cine magnetic resonance images were obtained from the joint midline at a rate of 3.2 frames per second until the cracking event occurred. As traction forces increased, real-time cine magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated rapid cavity inception at the time of joint separation and sound production after which the resulting cavity remained visible. Our results offer direct experimental evidence that joint cracking is associated with cavity inception rather than collapse of a pre-existing bubble. These observations are consistent with tribonucleation, a known process where opposing surfaces resist separation until a critical point where they then separate rapidly creating sustained gas cavities. Observed previously in vitro, this is the first in-vivo macroscopic demonstration of tribonucleation and as such, provides a new theoretical framework to investigate health outcomes associated with joint cracking.

  15. Real-Time Visualization of Joint Cavitation

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Cracking sounds emitted from human synovial joints have been attributed historically to the sudden collapse of a cavitation bubble formed as articular surfaces are separated. Unfortunately, bubble collapse as the source of joint cracking is inconsistent with many physical phenomena that define the joint cracking phenomenon. Here we present direct evidence from real-time magnetic resonance imaging that the mechanism of joint cracking is related to cavity formation rather than bubble collapse. In this study, ten metacarpophalangeal joints were studied by inserting the finger of interest into a flexible tube tightened around a length of cable used to provide long-axis traction. Before and after traction, static 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired. During traction, rapid cine magnetic resonance images were obtained from the joint midline at a rate of 3.2 frames per second until the cracking event occurred. As traction forces increased, real-time cine magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated rapid cavity inception at the time of joint separation and sound production after which the resulting cavity remained visible. Our results offer direct experimental evidence that joint cracking is associated with cavity inception rather than collapse of a pre-existing bubble. These observations are consistent with tribonucleation, a known process where opposing surfaces resist separation until a critical point where they then separate rapidly creating sustained gas cavities. Observed previously in vitro, this is the first in-vivo macroscopic demonstration of tribonucleation and as such, provides a new theoretical framework to investigate health outcomes associated with joint cracking. PMID:25875374

  16. Real Time Monitor of Grid job executions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colling, D. J.; Martyniak, J.; McGough, A. S.; Křenek, A.; Sitera, J.; Mulač, M.; Dvořák, F.

    2010-04-01

    In this paper we describe the architecture and operation of the Real Time Monitor (RTM), developed by the Grid team in the HEP group at Imperial College London. This is arguably the most popular dissemination tool within the EGEE [1] Grid. Having been used, on many occasions including GridFest and LHC inauguration events held at CERN in October 2008. The RTM gathers information from EGEE sites hosting Logging and Bookkeeping (LB) services. Information is cached locally at a dedicated server at Imperial College London and made available for clients to use in near real time. The system consists of three main components: the RTM server, enquirer and an apache Web Server which is queried by clients. The RTM server queries the LB servers at fixed time intervals, collecting job related information and storing this in a local database. Job related data includes not only job state (i.e. Scheduled, Waiting, Running or Done) along with timing information but also other attributes such as Virtual Organization and Computing Element (CE) queue - if known. The job data stored in the RTM database is read by the enquirer every minute and converted to an XML format which is stored on a Web Server. This decouples the RTM server database from the client removing the bottleneck problem caused by many clients simultaneously accessing the database. This information can be visualized through either a 2D or 3D Java based client with live job data either being overlaid on to a 2 dimensional map of the world or rendered in 3 dimensions over a globe map using OpenGL.

  17. Otolaryngology consultations by real-time telemedicine.

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, R.; Gilliland, D.; Adams, D.

    2002-01-01

    We aimed to assess the value of real-time telemedicine using low cost videoconferencing equipment for otorhinolaryngology consultations. A general practitioner, using low cost videoconferencing equipment, presented patients to an otorhinolaryngologist. After history taking and clinical examination, investigations were requested if required and a diagnosis and management plan formulated. The patients were then seen, by the same otorhinolaryngologist, for a conventional face-to-face consultation. Differences in the history, clinical examination and investigation requests were reported. The accuracy of diagnosis and correlation of management plans between the two consultations were analysed. Forty-three patients were admitted to the study but one, a young child, refused examination either by tele-link or the conventional approach and had to be excluded. There were thus 42 patients with 55 diagnoses included in the trial, 26 (62%) females and 16 (38%) males. Age range was 5 months to 70 years. There was no difficulty with any of the patients in obtaining an accurate history and ordering investigations, if required, via the telelink. Clinical examination during the tele-link consultation was inadequate for eight out of the first 20 patients, resulting in a wrong diagnosis in three patients and a missed diagnosis in five patients. All of the next 22 patients had a correct diagnosis and management plan. Comparison of data from the two types of consultation showed that a correct diagnosis and management plan was made in 34 patients. Low cost real-time telemedicine is a useful technique, providing reliable otorhinolaryngology consultations in a general practice setting. However initial difficulties due to inexperience in using the equipment need to be overcome. PMID:12137160

  18. Towards Real-Time High Performance Computing For Power Grid Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hui, Peter SY; Lee, Barry; Chikkagoudar, Satish

    2012-11-16

    Real-time computing has traditionally been considered largely in the context of single-processor and embedded systems, and indeed, the terms real-time computing, embedded systems, and control systems are often mentioned in closely related contexts. However, real-time computing in the context of multinode systems, specifically high-performance, cluster-computing systems, remains relatively unexplored. Imposing real-time constraints on a parallel (cluster) computing environment introduces a variety of challenges with respect to the formal verification of the system's timing properties. In this paper, we give a motivating example to demonstrate the need for such a system--- an application to estimate the electromechanical states of the power grid--- and we introduce a formal method for performing verification of certain temporal properties within a system of parallel processes. We describe our work towards a full real-time implementation of the target application--- namely, our progress towards extracting a key mathematical kernel from the application, the formal process by which we analyze the intricate timing behavior of the processes on the cluster, as well as timing measurements taken on our test cluster to demonstrate use of these concepts.

  19. Platform for Real-Time Simulation of Dynamic Systems and Hardware-in-the-Loop for Control Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Isaac D. T.; Silva, Sergio N.; Teles, Rafael M.; Fernandes, Marcelo A. C.

    2014-01-01

    The development of new embedded algorithms for automation and control of industrial equipment usually requires the use of real-time testing. However, the equipment required is often expensive, which means that such tests are often not viable. The objective of this work was therefore to develop an embedded platform for the distributed real-time simulation of dynamic systems. This platform, called the Real-Time Simulator for Dynamic Systems (RTSDS), could be applied in both industrial and academic environments. In industrial applications, the RTSDS could be used to optimize embedded control algorithms. In the academic sphere, it could be used to support research into new embedded solutions for automation and control and could also be used as a tool to assist in undergraduate and postgraduate teaching related to the development of projects concerning on-board control systems. PMID:25320906

  20. Platform for real-time simulation of dynamic systems and hardware-in-the-loop for control algorithms.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Isaac D T; Silva, Sergio N; Teles, Rafael M; Fernandes, Marcelo A C

    2014-10-15

    The development of new embedded algorithms for automation and control of industrial equipment usually requires the use of real-time testing. However, the equipment required is often expensive, which means that such tests are often not viable. The objective of this work was therefore to develop an embedded platform for the distributed real-time simulation of dynamic systems. This platform, called the Real-Time Simulator for Dynamic Systems (RTSDS), could be applied in both industrial and academic environments. In industrial applications, the RTSDS could be used to optimize embedded control algorithms. In the academic sphere, it could be used to support research into new embedded solutions for automation and control and could also be used as a tool to assist in undergraduate and postgraduate teaching related to the development of projects concerning on-board control systems.

  1. Real-time data flow and product generating for GNSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muellerschoen, Ronald J.; Caissy, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The last IGS workshop with the theme 'Towards Real-Time' resulted in the design of a prototype for real-time data and sharing within the IGS. A prototype real-time network is being established that will serve as a test bed for real-time activities within the IGS. We review the developments of the prototype and discuss some of the existing methods and related products of real-time GNSS systems. Recommendations are made concerning real-time data distribution and product generation.

  2. A tool for modeling concurrent real-time computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, D. D.; Huang, Shie-Rei; Bhatt, Rahul; Sridharan, N. S.

    1990-01-01

    Real-time computation is a significant area of research in general, and in AI in particular. The complexity of practical real-time problems demands use of knowledge-based problem solving techniques while satisfying real-time performance constraints. Since the demands of a complex real-time problem cannot be predicted (owing to the dynamic nature of the environment) powerful dynamic resource control techniques are needed to monitor and control the performance. A real-time computation model for a real-time tool, an implementation of the QP-Net simulator on a Symbolics machine, and an implementation on a Butterfly multiprocessor machine are briefly described.

  3. The real-time complex cruise scene motion detection system based on DSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhi-guo; Wang, Ming-jia

    2014-11-01

    Dynamic target recognition is an important issue in the field of image processing research. It is widely used in photoelectric detection, target tracking, video surveillance areas. Complex cruise scene of target detection, compared to the static background, since the target and background objects together and both are in motion, greatly increases the complexity of moving target detection and recognition. Based on the practical engineering applications, combining an embedded systems and real-time image detection technology, this paper proposes a real-time movement detection method on an embedded system based on the FPGA + DSP system architecture on an embedded system. The DSP digital image processing system takes high speed digital signal processor DSP TMS320C6416T as the main computing components. And we take large capacity FPGA as coprocessor. It is designed and developed a high-performance image processing card. The FPGA is responsible for the data receiving and dispatching, DSP is responsible for data processing. The FPGA collects image data and controls SDRAM according to the digital image sequence. The SDRAM realizes multiport image buffer. DSP reads real-time image through SDRAM and performs scene motion detection algorithm. Then we implement the data reception and data processing parallelization. This system designs and realizes complex cruise scene motion detection for engineering application. The image edge information has the anti-light change and the strong anti-interference ability. First of all, the adjacent frame and current frame image are processed by convolution operation, extract the edge images. Then we compute correlation strength and the value of movement offset. We can complete scene motion parameters estimation by the result, in order to achieve real-time accurate motion detection. We use images in resolution of 768 * 576 and 25Hz frame rate to do the real-time cruise experiment. The results show that the proposed system achieves real-time

  4. Approaching near real-time biosensing: microfluidic microsphere based biosensor for real-time analyte detection.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Noa; Sabhachandani, Pooja; Golberg, Alexander; Konry, Tania

    2015-04-15

    In this study we describe a simple lab-on-a-chip (LOC) biosensor approach utilizing well mixed microfluidic device and a microsphere-based assay capable of performing near real-time diagnostics of clinically relevant analytes such cytokines and antibodies. We were able to overcome the adsorption kinetics reaction rate-limiting mechanism, which is diffusion-controlled in standard immunoassays, by introducing the microsphere-based assay into well-mixed yet simple microfluidic device with turbulent flow profiles in the reaction regions. The integrated microsphere-based LOC device performs dynamic detection of the analyte in minimal amount of biological specimen by continuously sampling micro-liter volumes of sample per minute to detect dynamic changes in target analyte concentration. Furthermore we developed a mathematical model for the well-mixed reaction to describe the near real time detection mechanism observed in the developed LOC method. To demonstrate the specificity and sensitivity of the developed real time monitoring LOC approach, we applied the device for clinically relevant analytes: Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α cytokine and its clinically used inhibitor, anti-TNF-α antibody. Based on the reported results herein, the developed LOC device provides continuous sensitive and specific near real-time monitoring method for analytes such as cytokines and antibodies, reduces reagent volumes by nearly three orders of magnitude as well as eliminates the washing steps required by standard immunoassays.

  5. Development of a cyber-physical experimental platform for real-time dynamic model updating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wei; Dyke, Shirley

    2013-05-01

    Model updating procedures are traditionally performed off-line. With the significant recent advances in embedded systems and the related real-time computing capabilities, online or real-time, model updating can be performed to inform decision making and controller actions. The applications for real-time model updating are mainly in the areas of (i) condition diagnosis and prognosis of engineering systems; and (ii) control systems that benefit from accurate modeling of the system plant. Herein, the development of a cyber-physical real-time model updating experimental platform, including real-time computing environment, model updating algorithm, hardware architecture and testbed, is described. Results from two challenging experimental implementations are presented to illustrate the performance of this cyber-physical platform in achieving the goal of updating nonlinear systems in real-time. The experiments consider typical nonlinear engineering systems that exhibit hysteresis. Among the available algorithms capable of identification of such complex nonlinearities, the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is selected for these experiments as an effective method to update nonlinear dynamic system models under realistic conditions. The implementation of the platform is discussed for successful completion of these experiments, including required timing constraints and overall evaluation of the system.

  6. Clinical experience with real-time ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chimiak, William J.; Wolfman, Neil T.; Covitz, Wesley

    1995-05-01

    After testing the extended multimedia interface (EMMI) product which is an asynchronous transmission mode (ATM) user to network interface (UNI) of AT&T at the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology conference in Winston-Salem, the Department of Radiology together with AT&T are implementing a tele-ultrasound system to combine real- time ultrasound with the static imaging features of more traditional digital ultrasound systems. Our current ultrasound system archives digital images to an optical disk system. Static images are sent using our digital radiology systems. This could be transferring images from one digital imaging and communications (DICOM)-compliant machine to another, or the current image transfer methodologies. The prototype of a live ultrasound system using the EMMI demonstrated the feasibility of doing live ultrasound. We now are developing the scenarios using a mix of the two methodologies. Utilizing EMMI technology, radiologists at the BGSM review at a workstation both static images and real-time scanning done by a technologist on patients at a remote site in order to render on-line primary diagnosis. Our goal is to test the feasibility of operating an ultrasound laboratory at a remote site utilizing a trained technologist without the necessity of having a full-time radiologist at that site. Initial plans are for a radiologist to review an initial set of static images on a patient taken by the technologist. If further scanning is required, the EMMI is used to transmit real-time imaging and audio using the audio input of a standard microphone system and the National Television Standards Committee (NTSC) output of the ultrasound equipment from the remote site to the radiologist in the department review station. The EMMI digitally encodes this data and places it in an ATM format. This ATM data stream goes to the GCNS2000 and then to the other EMMI where the ATM data stream is decoded into the live studies and voice communication which are then

  7. Real-time image processing for non-contact monitoring of dynamic displacements using smartphone technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Jae-Hong; Gelo, Nikolas J.; Jo, Hongki

    2016-04-01

    The newly developed smartphone application, named RINO, in this study allows measuring absolute dynamic displacements and processing them in real time using state-of-the-art smartphone technologies, such as high-performance graphics processing unit (GPU), in addition to already powerful CPU and memories, embedded high-speed/ resolution camera, and open-source computer vision libraries. A carefully designed color-patterned target and user-adjustable crop filter enable accurate and fast image processing, allowing up to 240fps for complete displacement calculation and real-time display. The performances of the developed smartphone application are experimentally validated, showing comparable accuracy with those of conventional laser displacement sensor.

  8. Development and validation of a Myxoma virus real-time polymerase chain reaction assay.

    PubMed

    Albini, Sarah; Sigrist, Brigitte; Güttinger, Regula; Schelling, Claude; Hoop, Richard K; Vögtlin, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    To aid in the rapid diagnosis of myxomatosis in rabbits, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the specific detection of Myxoma virus is described. Primers and probe were designed to amplify a 147-bp fragment within the Serp2 gene. The assay was able to detect 23 copies of a synthesized oligo indicating a reliable sensitivity. In addition, the real-time PCR did not detect the Rabbit fibroma virus used in myxomatosis vaccines. The novel PCR was shown to be able to detect Myxoma virus in fresh and paraffin-embedded rabbit tissues originating from myxomatosis cases from various regions in Switzerland.

  9. The FPGA realization of a real-time Bayer image restoration algorithm with better performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Huaping; Liu, Shuang; Zhou, Jiangyong; Tang, Zunlie; Deng, Qilin; Zhang, Hongliu

    2014-11-01

    Along with the wide usage of realizing Bayer color interpolation algorithm through FPGA, better performance, real-time processing, and less resource consumption have become the pursuits for the users. In order to realize the function of high speed and high quality processing of the Bayer image restoration with less resource consumption, the color reconstruction is designed and optimized from the interpolation algorithm and the FPGA realization in this article. Then the hardware realization is finished with FPGA development platform, and the function of real-time and high-fidelity image processing with less resource consumption is realized in the embedded image acquisition systems.

  10. Real-time geometric scene estimation for RGBD images using a 3D box shape grammar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, Andrew R.; Brink, Kevin M.

    2016-06-01

    This article describes a novel real-time algorithm for the purpose of extracting box-like structures from RGBD image data. In contrast to conventional approaches, the proposed algorithm includes two novel attributes: (1) it divides the geometric estimation procedure into subroutines having atomic incremental computational costs, and (2) it uses a generative "Block World" perceptual model that infers both concave and convex box elements from detection of primitive box substructures. The end result is an efficient geometry processing engine suitable for use in real-time embedded systems such as those on an UAVs where it is intended to be an integral component for robotic navigation and mapping applications.

  11. Teaching with Real-Time Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, T. K.; Ortiz, A.; Hall-Wallace, M.; Taber, J.; Braile, L.

    2002-12-01

    Many terabytes of digital seismic data have been gathered in the past decade. These data include summary tables of events as well as raw seismograms. The event information, which can be plotted, analyzed statistically and interpreted in the context of plate tectonics and geologic hazards, make excellent classroom investigations. However, the bulk of the data are raw seismograms that require advanced knowledge and specific software to analyze and manipulate thus, they are generally inaccessible to a non-seismologist. To make real-time seismic data more accessible to students in high schools and colleges, we are developing a network of school seismometers through the IRIS Seismometer in Schools Program. The goal of this program is to promote seismology as a platform for teaching principles of physics and Earth science in schools across the nation. When studying plate tectonics and earthquakes, a seismometer in the classroom promotes awareness of earthquake activity around the world and provides an opportunity to teach with real-time data and real-world examples. The AS-1 seismometer is a low cost, durable, yet precise instrument that allows students to both investigate how a seismometer works and the recordings of the instrument, making it ideal for student and classroom use. The AS-1 recording and analysis software, AmaSeis, is simple to use yet includes all the basic tools needed for analysis: waveform display, filtering, and phase picking. The software also includes travel time curves to determine event distance and location. The seismometer keeps time using the computer's clock, which can be updated regularly through the Internet. While each instrument's response is unique, it is possible to calibrate the instrument and determine accurate magnitudes for events. In the past year our efforts have resulted in teachers using the seismometer effectively in high school classrooms. For example, using data from their own station and several others, students located

  12. CRANS - CONFIGURABLE REAL-TIME ANALYSIS SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccluney, K.

    1994-01-01

    In a real-time environment, the results of changes or failures in a complex, interconnected system need evaluation quickly. Tabulations showing the effects of changes and/or failures of a given item in the system are generally only useful for a single input, and only with regard to that item. Subsequent changes become harder to evaluate as combinations of failures produce a cascade effect. When confronted by multiple indicated failures in the system, it becomes necessary to determine a single cause. In this case, failure tables are not very helpful. CRANS, the Configurable Real-time ANalysis System, can interpret a logic tree, constructed by the user, describing a complex system and determine the effects of changes and failures in it. Items in the tree are related to each other by Boolean operators. The user is then able to change the state of these items (ON/OFF FAILED/UNFAILED). The program then evaluates the logic tree based on these changes and determines any resultant changes to other items in the tree. CRANS can also search for a common cause for multiple item failures, and allow the user to explore the logic tree from within the program. A "help" mode and a reference check provide the user with a means of exploring an item's underlying logic from within the program. A commonality check determines single point failures for an item or group of items. Output is in the form of a user-defined matrix or matrices of colored boxes, each box representing an item or set of items from the logic tree. Input is via mouse selection of the matrix boxes, using the mouse buttons to toggle the state of the item. CRANS is written in C-language and requires the MIT X Window System, Version 11 Revision 4 or Revision 5. It requires 78K of RAM for execution and a three button mouse. It has been successfully implemented on Sun4 workstations running SunOS, HP9000 workstations running HP-UX, and DECstations running ULTRIX. No executable is provided on the distribution medium; however

  13. CRANS - CONFIGURABLE REAL-TIME ANALYSIS SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccluney, K.

    1994-01-01

    In a real-time environment, the results of changes or failures in a complex, interconnected system need evaluation quickly. Tabulations showing the effects of changes and/or failures of a given item in the system are generally only useful for a single input, and only with regard to that item. Subsequent changes become harder to evaluate as combinations of failures produce a cascade effect. When confronted by multiple indicated failures in the system, it becomes necessary to determine a single cause. In this case, failure tables are not very helpful. CRANS, the Configurable Real-time ANalysis System, can interpret a logic tree, constructed by the user, describing a complex system and determine the effects of changes and failures in it. Items in the tree are related to each other by Boolean operators. The user is then able to change the state of these items (ON/OFF FAILED/UNFAILED). The program then evaluates the logic tree based on these changes and determines any resultant changes to other items in the tree. CRANS can also search for a common cause for multiple item failures, and allow the user to explore the logic tree from within the program. A "help" mode and a reference check provide the user with a means of exploring an item's underlying logic from within the program. A commonality check determines single point failures for an item or group of items. Output is in the form of a user-defined matrix or matrices of colored boxes, each box representing an item or set of items from the logic tree. Input is via mouse selection of the matrix boxes, using the mouse buttons to toggle the state of the item. CRANS is written in C-language and requires the MIT X Window System, Version 11 Revision 4 or Revision 5. It requires 78K of RAM for execution and a three button mouse. It has been successfully implemented on Sun4 workstations running SunOS, HP9000 workstations running HP-UX, and DECstations running ULTRIX. No executable is provided on the distribution medium; however

  14. The INGV Real Time Strong Motion Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massa, Marco; D'Alema, Ezio; Mascandola, Claudia; Lovati, Sara; Scafidi, Davide; Gomez, Antonio; Carannante, Simona; Franceschina, Gianlorenzo; Mirenna, Santi; Augliera, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    The INGV real time strong motion data sharing is assured by the INGV Strong Motion Database. ISMD (http://ismd.mi.ingv.it) was designed in the last months of 2011 in cooperation among different INGV departments, with the aim to organize the distribution of the INGV strong-motion data using standard procedures for data acquisition and processing. The first version of the web portal was published soon after the occurrence of the 2012 Emilia (Northern Italy), Mw 6.1, seismic sequence. At that time ISMD was the first European real time web portal devoted to the engineering seismology community. After four years of successfully operation, the thousands of accelerometric waveforms collected in the archive need necessary a technological improvement of the system in order to better organize the new data archiving and to make more efficient the answer to the user requests. ISMD 2.0 was based on PostgreSQL (www.postgresql.org), an open source object- relational database. The main purpose of the web portal is to distribute few minutes after the origin time the accelerometric waveforms and related metadata of the Italian earthquakes with ML≥3.0. Data are provided both in raw SAC (counts) and automatically corrected ASCII (gal) formats. The web portal also provide, for each event, a detailed description of the ground motion parameters (i.e. Peak Ground Acceleration, Velocity and Displacement, Arias and Housner Intensities) data converted in velocity and displacement, response spectra up to 10.0 s and general maps concerning the recent and the historical seismicity of the area together with information about its seismic hazard. The focal parameters of the events are provided by the INGV National Earthquake Center (CNT, http://cnt.rm.ingv.it). Moreover, the database provides a detailed site characterization section for each strong motion station, based on geological, geomorphological and geophysical information. At present (i.e. January 2017), ISMD includes 987 (121

  15. A real-time monitoring system for night glare protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jun; Ni, Xuxiang

    2010-11-01

    When capturing a dark scene with a high bright object, the monitoring camera will be saturated in some regions and the details will be lost in and near these saturated regions because of the glare vision. This work aims at developing a real-time night monitoring system. The system can decrease the influence of the glare vision and gain more details from the ordinary camera when exposing a high-contrast scene like a car with its headlight on during night. The system is made up of spatial light modulator (The liquid crystal on silicon: LCoS), image sensor (CCD), imaging lens and DSP. LCoS, a reflective liquid crystal, can modular the intensity of reflective light at every pixel as a digital device. Through modulation function of LCoS, CCD is exposed with sub-region. With the control of DSP, the light intensity is decreased to minimum in the glare regions, and the light intensity is negative feedback modulated based on PID theory in other regions. So that more details of the object will be imaging on CCD and the glare protection of monitoring system is achieved. In experiments, the feedback is controlled by the embedded system based on TI DM642. Experiments shows: this feedback modulation method not only reduces the glare vision to improve image quality, but also enhances the dynamic range of image. The high-quality and high dynamic range image is real-time captured at 30hz. The modulation depth of LCoS determines how strong the glare can be removed.

  16. A Real-Time Groundwater Management Model Using Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, W.; Putti, M.; Kendall, D.; Yeh, W. W.

    2009-12-01

    This study develops a groundwater management model for real time operation of an aquifer system. A groundwater flow model is allied with a nudging data assimilation algorithm that reduces the forecast error, minimizes the risk of system failure, and improves management strategies. The nudging algorithm treats the unknown private pumping as an additional sink term in the groundwater flow equations and provides a consistently physical interpretation for pumping rates identification. The response of the groundwater simulation model due to pumping/injection is represented by a response matrix which is generated by the influence coefficient method. The response matrix with a much smaller dimension (referred to as the reduced simulation model) is directly embedded in the management model as a part of the constraint set. Additionally, the influence coefficient method is utilized to include the nudging effect as additional terms in the reduced simulation model. The management model optimizes monthly operational policy for 12 months into the future with given initial condition and system constraints. We apply the developed management model to the Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) project of the Las Posas Groundwater Basin in southern California. We consider both the injection and pumping scenarios. In the case studies, six unknown pumping rates from private wells are estimated using measured heads from four observation wells. The management model determines the optimal operational strategies using the information provided by nudging and is updated at the beginning of each month when new head observations become available. We also discuss the utility, accuracy, and efficiency of the proposed management model for real time operation.

  17. VLBI real-time analysis by Kalman Filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karbon, Maria; Soja, Benedikt; Nilson, Tobias; Heinkelmann, Robert; Liu, Li; Lu, Ciuxian; Xu, Minghui; Raposo-Pulido, Virginia; Mora-Diaz, Julian; Schuh, Harald

    2014-05-01

    Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is one of the primary space geodetic techniques. It provides the full set of Earth Orientation Parameter (EOP) and is unique for observing long term Universal Time (UT1) and precession/nutation. Currently the VLBI products are delivered with a delay of about two weeks from the moment of the observation. However, the need for near-real time estimates of the parameters is increasing, e.g. for satellite based navigation and positioning or for enabling precise tracking of interplanetary spacecraft. The goal is thus to reduce the time span between observation and the final result to less than one day. This can be archived by replacing the classical least squares method with an adaptive Kalman filter. We have developed a Kalman filter for VLBI data analysis. This method has the advantage that it is simultaneously possible to estimate stationary parameters, e.g. station positions, and to model the highly variable stochastic behavior of non-stationary parameters like clocks or atmospheric parameters. The filter is able to perform without any human interaction, making it a completely autonomous tool. In this work we describe the filter and discuss its application for EOP determination and prediction. We discuss the implementation of the stochastic models to statistically account for unpredictable changes in EOP. Furthermore, additional data like results from other techniques can be included to improve the performance. For example, atmospheric angular momentum calculated from numerical weather models can be introduced to supplement the short-term prediction of UT1 and polar motion. This Kalman filter will be extended and embedded in the newly developed Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS) as a completely autonomous tool enabling the VLBI analysis in near real-time and providing all the parameters of interest with the highest possible accuracy.

  18. Parallel pipeline algorithm of real time star map preprocessing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hai-yong; Qin, Tian-mu; Liu, Jia-qi; Li, Zhi-feng; Li, Jian-hua

    2016-03-01

    To improve the preprocessing speed of star map and reduce the resource consumption of embedded system of star tracker, a parallel pipeline real-time preprocessing algorithm is presented. The two characteristics, the mean and the noise standard deviation of the background gray of a star map, are firstly obtained dynamically by the means that the intervene of the star image itself to the background is removed in advance. The criterion on whether or not the following noise filtering is needed is established, then the extraction threshold value is assigned according to the level of background noise, so that the centroiding accuracy is guaranteed. In the processing algorithm, as low as two lines of pixel data are buffered, and only 100 shift registers are used to record the connected domain label, by which the problems of resources wasting and connected domain overflow are solved. The simulating results show that the necessary data of the selected bright stars could be immediately accessed in a delay time as short as 10us after the pipeline processing of a 496×496 star map in 50Mb/s is finished, and the needed memory and registers resource total less than 80kb. To verify the accuracy performance of the algorithm proposed, different levels of background noise are added to the processed ideal star map, and the statistic centroiding error is smaller than 1/23 pixel under the condition that the signal to noise ratio is greater than 1. The parallel pipeline algorithm of real time star map preprocessing helps to increase the data output speed and the anti-dynamic performance of star tracker.

  19. Ames Lab 101: Real-Time 3D Imaging

    ScienceCinema

    Zhang, Song

    2016-07-12

    Ames Laboratory scientist Song Zhang explains his real-time 3-D imaging technology. The technique can be used to create high-resolution, real-time, precise, 3-D images for use in healthcare, security, and entertainment applications.

  20. Ames Lab 101: Real-Time 3D Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Song

    2010-01-01

    Ames Laboratory scientist Song Zhang explains his real-time 3-D imaging technology. The technique can be used to create high-resolution, real-time, precise, 3-D images for use in healthcare, security, and entertainment applications.

  1. Real-Time Principal-Component Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Vu; Duong, Tuan

    2005-01-01

    A recently written computer program implements dominant-element-based gradient descent and dynamic initial learning rate (DOGEDYN), which was described in Method of Real-Time Principal-Component Analysis (NPO-40034) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 1 (January 2005), page 59. To recapitulate: DOGEDYN is a method of sequential principal-component analysis (PCA) suitable for such applications as data compression and extraction of features from sets of data. In DOGEDYN, input data are represented as a sequence of vectors acquired at sampling times. The learning algorithm in DOGEDYN involves sequential extraction of principal vectors by means of a gradient descent in which only the dominant element is used at each iteration. Each iteration includes updating of elements of a weight matrix by amounts proportional to a dynamic initial learning rate chosen to increase the rate of convergence by compensating for the energy lost through the previous extraction of principal components. In comparison with a prior method of gradient-descent-based sequential PCA, DOGEDYN involves less computation and offers a greater rate of learning convergence. The sequential DOGEDYN computations require less memory than would parallel computations for the same purpose. The DOGEDYN software can be executed on a personal computer.

  2. Real-time flexible preventive maintenance scheduling.

    PubMed

    Kendall, E B; Cronk, J W; White, R N

    1993-01-01

    There are still obstacles to overcome as we enter the programming phase of this project. We envision an automated system, similar to an expert system, that performs the interval/history analysis and makes the changes. Initially a field will need to be added to the inventory to denote whether a device belongs to one of the previously described groups that are exempt from interval changes. An intermediate step will be the formatting of a periodic report showing equipment that meets the change criteria as described in the two rules. For now, the actual changes would be reviewed and made by our management and technical staff. This report would be retained as documentation of the basis for each change, for our own benefit and to meet JCAHO requirements. We are still discussing whether the repair count should include all repairs (user error, abuse, unpredictable failure, etc.) or just those that are "significant and preventable" and could have been averted by PM. This is perhaps a question whose answer might vary from hospital to hospital, depending upon size and patient mix. With more emphasis being placed on process outcomes, on quality of work, and on getting the most benefit for our efforts, we believe our flexible, real-time PM scheduling program is a major step in the right direction. It is outcome-driven and it focuses resources where they are needed the most.

  3. Real-time adaptive radiometric compensation.

    PubMed

    Grundhöfer, Anselm; Bimber, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Recent radiometric compensation techniques make it possible to project images onto colored and textured surfaces. This is realized with projector-camera systems by scanning the projection surface on a per-pixel basis. Using the captured information, a compensation image is calculated that neutralizes geometric distortions and color blending caused by the underlying surface. As a result, the brightness and the contrast of the input image is reduced compared to a conventional projection onto a white canvas. If the input image is not manipulated in its intensities, the compensation image can contain values that are outside the dynamic range of the projector. These will lead to clipping errors and to visible artifacts on the surface. In this article, we present an innovative algorithm that dynamically adjusts the content of the input images before radiometric compensation is carried out. This reduces the perceived visual artifacts while simultaneously preserving a maximum of luminance and contrast. The algorithm is implemented entirely on the GPU and is the first of its kind to run in real-time.

  4. Real-time Detection of Locked Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelini, S.; Granetz, R. S.; Wolfe, S. M.

    2007-11-01

    Disruptions are one of the largest problems facing tokamaks. In a large-scale experiment such as ITER, disruptions would cause crippling damage and severe setbacks in experimentation. One method for disruption mitigation involves the use of a gas jet which has been tested on both normally running plasmas and vertical displacement events (VDEs) on Alcator C-Mod. In both cases, the jet was successful in mitigating disruption effects. The gas jet has not yet been tested on other types of disruptions. Locked-mode major disruptions are easily created in C-Mod and could be used to test the effectiveness of the gas jet as a mitigation method if the jet could be fired early enough. It has been empirically observed that the electron cyclotron emissions (ECE) signal displays a flattening of the normally-present sawteeth before the current quench occurs in certain locked-mode major disruptions. A procedure is being written which will detect the ECE flattening by reading changes in the standard deviation of the signal. This procedure will be programmed into the digital plasma control system (DPCS) for real-time testing.

  5. High sensitivity real-time NVR monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, William D. (Inventor); Chuan, Raymond L. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A real time non-volatile residue (NVR) monitor, which utilizes surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators to detect molecular contamination in a given environment. The SAW resonators operate at a resonant frequency of approximately 200 MHz-2,000 MHz which enables the NVR monitor to detect molecular contamination on the order of 10.sup.-11 g-cm.sup.-2 to 10.sup.-13 g-cm.sup.2. The NVR monitor utilizes active temperature control of (SAW) resonators to achieve a stable resonant frequency. The temperature control system of the NVR monitor is able to directly heat and cool the SAW resonators utilizing a thermoelectric element to maintain the resonators at a present temperature independent of the environmental conditions. In order to enable the direct heating and cooling of the SAW resonators, the SAW resonators are operatively mounted to a heat sink. In one embodiment, the heat sink is located in between the SAW resonators and an electronic circuit board which contains at least a portion of the SAW control electronics. The electrical leads of the SAW resonators are connected through the heat sink to the circuit board via an electronic path which prevents inaccurate frequency measurement.

  6. Real-Time Accumulative Computation Motion Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; López, María Teresa; Castillo, José Carlos; Maldonado-Bascón, Saturnino

    2009-01-01

    The neurally inspired accumulative computation (AC) method and its application to motion detection have been introduced in the past years. This paper revisits the fact that many researchers have explored the relationship between neural networks and finite state machines. Indeed, finite state machines constitute the best characterized computational model, whereas artificial neural networks have become a very successful tool for modeling and problem solving. The article shows how to reach real-time performance after using a model described as a finite state machine. This paper introduces two steps towards that direction: (a) A simplification of the general AC method is performed by formally transforming it into a finite state machine. (b) A hardware implementation in FPGA of such a designed AC module, as well as an 8-AC motion detector, providing promising performance results. We also offer two case studies of the use of AC motion detectors in surveillance applications, namely infrared-based people segmentation and color-based people tracking, respectively. PMID:22303161

  7. Real-time sensing of optical alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stier, Mark T.; Wissinger, Alan B.

    1988-01-01

    The Large Deployable Reflector and other future segmented optical systems may require autonomous, real-time alignment of their optical surfaces. Researchers have developed gratings located directly on a mirror surface to provide interferometric sensing of the location and figure of the mirror. The grating diffracts a small portion of the incident beam to a diffractive focus where the designed diagnostics can be performed. Mirrors with diffraction gratings were fabricated in two separate ways. The formation of a holographic grating over the entire surface of a mirror, thereby forming a Zone Plate Mirror (ZPM) is described. Researchers have also used computer-generated hologram (CGH) patches for alignment and figure sensing of mirrors. When appropriately illuminated, a grid of patches spread over a mirror segment will yield a grid of point images at a wavefront sensor, with the relative location of the points providing information on the figure and location of the mirror. A particular advantage of using the CGH approach is that the holographic patches can be computed, fabricated, and replicated on a mirror segment in a mass production 1-g clean room environment.

  8. Real-Time Optical Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Klaus R.; Jørgensen, Erik; Droce, Aida; Olesen, Tom; Jensen, Bent B.; Rosenvinge, Flemming S.; Sondergaard, Teis E.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing is in high demand in health care fields as antimicrobial-resistant bacterial strains emerge and spread. Here, we describe an optical screening system (oCelloScope) which, based on time-lapse imaging of 96 bacteria-antibiotic combinations at a time, introduces real-time detection of bacterial growth and antimicrobial susceptibility with imaging material to support the automatically generated graphs. Automated antibiotic susceptibility tests of a monoculture showed statistically significant antibiotic effects within 6 min and within 30 min in complex samples from pigs suffering from catheter-associated urinary tract infections. The oCelloScope system provides a fast high-throughput screening method for detecting bacterial susceptibility that might entail an earlier diagnosis and introduction of appropriate targeted therapy and thus combat the threat from multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. The oCelloScope system can be employed for a broad range of applications within bacteriology and might present new vistas as a point-of-care instrument in clinical and veterinary settings. PMID:23596243

  9. VLTI fringe tracking real time computer architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abuter, Roberto; di Lieto, Nicola; Schmid, Christian

    2012-07-01

    Fringe tracking is a CPU intensive real time application. Rates of up to 1 KHz are needed to be able to freeze the atmosphere; in addition, each available baseline must be tracked independently. To be able to overcome the CPU performance limits, VLTI 1st generation trackers PRIMA fringe sensor unit (FSU) and FINITO were implemented in a distributed architecture separating the sensor from the controller. A side effect of this design was that the control loop delay increases as the system runs asynchronously causing an increase of the phase RMS value. This is in conflict with the objective of stabilizing the fringes with the smallest possible phase RMS. VLTI 2nd generation trackers (GRAVITY 6 and ESO 2GFT) currently being designed, will operate with up to six baselines and need to achieve phase RMS values smaller than 200 [nm]. This paper will present the computer architecture of the first generation trackers. Using simulations carried out in the PRIMA testbed, the induction of phase RMS by additional pure delays of the control loop will be precisely quantify. Afterwards, using the current architecture as reference, expected values of pure delays will be estimated for a six baselines tracker. Finally, an in order to overcome this problem, a new design that exploits the inherent parallelism of the multiples baselines and integrates the sensor and the controller in a single computer will be briefly proposed.

  10. Real-time DIRCM system modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersson, Mikael

    2004-12-01

    Directed infrared countermeasures (DIRCM) play an increasingly important role in electronic warfare to counteract threats posed by infrared seekers. The usefulness and performance of such countermeasures depend, for example, on atmospheric conditions (attenuation and turbulence) and platform vibrations, causing pointing and tracking errors for the laser beam and reducing the power transferred to the seeker aperture. These problems make it interesting to simulate the performance of a DIRCM system in order to understand how easy or difficult it is to counteract an approaching threat and evaluate limiting factors in various situations. This paper describes a DIRCM model that has been developed, including atmospheric effects such as attenuation and turbulence as well as closed loop tracking algorithms, where the retro reflex of the laser is used for the pointing control of the beam. The DIRCM model is part of a large simulation framework (EWSim), which also incorporates several descriptions of different seekers (e.g. reticle, rosette, centroid, nutating cross) and models of robot dynamics. Effects of a jamming laser on a specific threat can be readily verified by simulations within this framework. The duel between missile and countermeasure is simulated in near real-time and visualized graphically in 3D. A typical simulation with a reticle seeker jammed by a modulated laser is included in the paper.

  11. Handheld Real-Time PCR Device

    PubMed Central

    Ahrberg, Christian D.; Ilic, Bojan Robert; Manz, Andreas; Neužil, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Here we report one of the smallest real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system up to date with approximate size of 100 mm × 60 mm × 33 mm. The system is an autonomous unit requiring an external 12 V power supply. Four simultaneous reactions are performed in form of virtual reaction chambers (VRC) where a ≈ 200 nL sample is covered with mineral oil and placed on a glass cover slip. Fast, 40 cycle amplification of an amplicon from the H7N9 gene was used to demonstrate PCR performance. The standard curve slope was (−3.02 ± 0.16) cycles at threshold per decade (mean ± standard deviation) corresponding to an amplification efficiency of (0.91 ± 0.05) per cycle (mean ± standard deviation). The PCR device was capable of detecting a single deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) copy. These results further suggest that our handheld PCR device may have broad, technologically-relevant applications extending to rapid detection of infectious diseases in small clinics. PMID:26753557

  12. Recommendations for real-time speech MRI.

    PubMed

    Lingala, Sajan Goud; Sutton, Brad P; Miquel, Marc E; Nayak, Krishna S

    2016-01-01

    Real-time magnetic resonance imaging (RT-MRI) is being increasingly used for speech and vocal production research studies. Several imaging protocols have emerged based on advances in RT-MRI acquisition, reconstruction, and audio-processing methods. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art, discusses technical considerations, and provides specific guidance for new groups entering this field. We provide recommendations for performing RT-MRI of the upper airway. This is a consensus statement stemming from the ISMRM-endorsed Speech MRI summit held in Los Angeles, February 2014. A major unmet need identified at the summit was the need for consensus on protocols that can be easily adapted by researchers equipped with conventional MRI systems. To this end, we provide a discussion of tradeoffs in RT-MRI in terms of acquisition requirements, a priori assumptions, artifacts, computational load, and performance for different speech tasks. We provide four recommended protocols and identify appropriate acquisition and reconstruction tools. We list pointers to open-source software that facilitate implementation. We conclude by discussing current open challenges in the methodological aspects of RT-MRI of speech. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Recommendations for Real-Time Speech MRI

    PubMed Central

    Lingala, Sajan Goud; Sutton, Brad P.; Miquel, Marc E.; Nayak, Krishna S.

    2016-01-01

    Real-time magnetic resonance imaging (RT-MRI) is being increasingly used for speech and vocal production research studies. Several imaging protocols have emerged based on advances in RT-MRI acquisition, reconstruction, and audio-processing methods. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art, discusses technical considerations, and provides specific guidance for new groups entering this field. We provide recommendations for performing RT-MRI of the upper airway. This is a consensus statement stemming from the ISMRM-endorsed Speech MRI summit held in Los Angeles, February 2014. A major unmet need identified at the summit was the need for consensus on protocols that can be easily adapted by researchers equipped with conventional MRI systems. To this end, we provide a discussion of tradeoffs in RT-MRI in terms of acquisition requirements, a priori assumptions, artifacts, computational load, and performance for different speech tasks. We provide four recommended protocols and identify appropriate acquisition and reconstruction tools. We list pointers to open-source software that facilitate implementation. We conclude by discussing current open challenges in the methodological aspects of RT-MRI of speech. PMID:26174802

  14. Real-Time 3D Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Butler Hine, former director of the Intelligent Mechanism Group (IMG) at Ames Research Center, and five others partnered to start Fourth Planet, Inc., a visualization company that specializes in the intuitive visual representation of dynamic, real-time data over the Internet and Intranet. Over a five-year period, the then NASA researchers performed ten robotic field missions in harsh climes to mimic the end- to-end operations of automated vehicles trekking across another world under control from Earth. The core software technology for these missions was the Virtual Environment Vehicle Interface (VEVI). Fourth Planet has released VEVI4, the fourth generation of the VEVI software, and NetVision. VEVI4 is a cutting-edge computer graphics simulation and remote control applications tool. The NetVision package allows large companies to view and analyze in virtual 3D space such things as the health or performance of their computer network or locate a trouble spot on an electric power grid. Other products are forthcoming. Fourth Planet is currently part of the NASA/Ames Technology Commercialization Center, a business incubator for start-up companies.

  15. Real-time optoacoustic monitoring of stroke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneipp, Moritz; Turner, Jake; Hambauer, Sebastian; Krieg, Sandro M.; Lehmberg, Jens; Lindauer, Ute; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Characterizing disease progression and identifying possible therapeutic interventions in stroke is greatly aided by the use of longitudinal function imaging studies. In this study, we investigate the applicability of real-time multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) as a tool for non-invasive monitoring of the progression of stroke in the whole brain. The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) method was used to induce stroke. Mice were imaged under isoflurane anesthesia preoperatively and at several time points during and after the 60-minute occlusion. The animals were sacrificed after 24 hours and their excised brains frozen at -80°C for sectioning. The cryosection were stained using H&E staining to identify the ischemic lesion. Major vessels are readily identifiable in the whole mouse head in the in vivo optoacoustic scans. During ischemia, a reduction in cerebral blood volume is detectable in the cortex. Post ischemia, spectral unmixing of the optoacoustic signals shows an asymmetry of the deoxygenated hemoglobin in the hemisphere affected by MCAO. This hypoxic area was mainly located around the boundary of the ischemic lesion and was therefore identified as the ischemic penumbra. Non-invasive functional MSOT imaging is able to visualize the hypoxic penumbra in brains affected by stroke. Stopping the spread of the infarct area and revitalizing the penumbra is central in stroke research, this new imaging technique may therefore prove to be a valuable tool in the monitoring and developing new treatments.

  16. Near Real Time Ship Detection Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusch, S.; Lehner, S.; Schwarz, E.; Fritz, T.

    2010-04-01

    A new Near Real Time (NRT) ship detection processor SAINT (SAR AIS Integrated Toolbox) was developed in the framework of the ESA project MARISS. Data are received at DLRs ground segment DLR-BN (Neustrelitz, Germany). Results of the ship detection are available on ftp server within 30 min after the acquisition started. The detectability of ships on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) ERS-2, ENVISAT ASAR and TerraSAR-X (TS-X) images is validated by coastal (live) AIS and space AIS. The monitoring areas chosen for surveillance are the North-, Baltic Sea, and Cape Town. The detectability in respect to environmental parameters like wind field, sea state, currents and changing coastlines due to tidal effects is investigated. In the South Atlantic a tracking experiment of the German research vessel Polarstern has been performed. Issues of piracy in particular in respect to ships hijacked at the Somali coast are discussed. Some examples using high resolution images from TerraSAR-X are given.

  17. Real-time virtual Doppler ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshniat, Mahdieh; Thorne, Meghan L.; Poepping, Tamie L.; Holdsworth, David W.; Steinman, David A.

    2004-04-01

    Doppler ultrasound (DUS) is widely used to diagnose and plan treatments for vascular diseases, but the relationship between complex blood flow dynamics and the observed DUS signal is not completely understood. In this paper, we demonstrate that Doppler ultrasound can be realistically simulated in a real-time manner via the coupling of a known, previously computed velocity field with a simple model of the ultrasound physics. In the present case a 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of physiologically pulsatile flow a stenosed carotid bifurcation was interrogated using a sample volume of known geometry and power distribution. Velocity vectors at points within the sample volume were interpolated using a fast geometric search algorithm and, using the specified US probe characteristics and orientation, converted into Doppler shifts for subsequent display as a Doppler spectrogram or color DUS image. The important effect of the intrinsic spectral broadening was simulated by convolving the velocity at each point within the sample volume by a triangle function whose width was proportional to velocity. A spherical sample volume with a Gaussian power distribution was found to be adequate for producing realistic Doppler spectrogram in regions of uniform, jet, and recirculation flow. Fewer than 1000 points seeded uniformly within a radius comprising more than 99% of the total power were required, allowing spectra to be generated from high resolution CFD data at 100Hz frame rates on an inexpensive desktop workstation.

  18. Dating Concurrent Objects: Real-Time Modeling and Schedulability Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Frank S.; Jaghoori, Mohammad Mahdi; Johnsen, Einar Broch

    In this paper we introduce a real-time extension of the concurrent object modeling language Creol which is based on duration statements indicating best and worst case execution times and deadlines. We show how to analyze schedulability of an abstraction of real-time concurrent objects in terms of timed automata. Further, we introduce techniques for testing the conformance between these behavioral abstractions and the executable semantics of Real-Time Creol in Real-Time Maude.

  19. 17 CFR 38.157 - Real-time market monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Real-time market monitoring... DESIGNATED CONTRACT MARKETS Compliance With Rules § 38.157 Real-time market monitoring. A designated contract market must conduct real-time market monitoring of all trading activity on its electronic...

  20. 17 CFR 38.157 - Real-time market monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Real-time market monitoring... DESIGNATED CONTRACT MARKETS Compliance With Rules § 38.157 Real-time market monitoring. A designated contract market must conduct real-time market monitoring of all trading activity on its electronic...

  1. Real-time support for high performance aircraft operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidal, Jacques J.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of real-time processing schemes using artificial neural networks (ANNs) is investigated. A rationale for digital neural nets is presented and a general processor architecture for control applications is illustrated. Research results on ANN structures for real-time applications are given. Research results on ANN algorithms for real-time control are also shown.

  2. Apparatus Characterizes Transient Voltages in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    is received, a volatile memory is filled with data for a total time of 200 ms. After the data are transferred to nonvolatile memory, the recorder rearms itself within 400 ms to enable recording of subsequent transients. Unfortunately, the recorded data must be retrieved through a serial communication link. Depending on the amount of data recorded, the memory can be filled before retrieval is completed. Although large amounts of data are recorded and retrieved, only a small part of the information (the selected parameters) is usually required. The present transient-voltage recorder provides the required information, without incurring the overhead associated with the recording, storage, and retrieval of complete transient-waveform data. In operation, this apparatus processes transient voltage waveforms in real time to extract and record the selected parameters. An analog-to-digital converter that operates at a speed of as much as 100 mega-samples per second is used to sample a transient waveform. A real-time comparator and peak detector are implemented by use of fast field-programmable gate arrays.

  3. Real-time or faster-than-real-time simulation of airflow in buildings.

    PubMed

    Zuo, W; Chen, Q

    2009-02-01

    Real-time flow simulation is crucial for emergency management in buildings, such as fire and accidental or intentional release of chemical/biological agents (contaminants). The simulation results can then be used to impose proper measures to minimize casualties. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is accurate, but too time-consuming. Nodal models are fast, but not informative. To obtain a quick and informative solution, this study proposes an intermediate approach between nodal models and CFD by introducing a fast fluid dynamics (FFD) method. This investigation used the FFD methods with and without turbulence treatments to study systematically four basic flows in buildings, and compared the numerical results with the corresponding CFD results and the data from the literature. The results show that, on one hand, the FFD can offer much richer flow information than nodal models, but less accurate results than CFD. On the other hand, the FFD is 50 times faster than the CFD. The results also show that the FFD with the laminar assumption has the best overall performance as regards both accuracy and speed. It is possible to conduct faster-than-real-time flow simulations with detailed flow information by using the FFD method. The paper introduces a fast fluid dynamics (FFD) method, which can simulate airflow and contaminant dispersion in buildings with real-time or faster-than-real-time speed and provide informative solutions. As an intermediate approach between nodal models and the computational fluid dynamics (CFD), the FFD can be a very useful tool for emergency management in case of fire and accidental or intentional release of chemical or biological agents in a building or around the buildings. The FFD can also be used as a preliminary test tool for quick assessment of indoor airflows before a detailed CFD analysis.

  4. A real-time prediction of UTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Claudine; Allan, David W.

    1994-05-01

    The reference time scale for all scientific and technologic applications on the Earth, the Universal Coordinated Time (UTC), must be as stable, reliable, and accurate as possible. With this in view the BIPM and before it the BIH, have always calculated and then disseminated UTC with a delay of about 80 days. There are three fundamental reasons for doing this: (1) It takes some weeks for data, gathered from some 200 clocks spread world-wide, to be collected and for errors to be eliminated; (2) changes in clock rates can only be measured with high precision well after the fact; and (3) the measurement noise originating in time links, in particular using Loran-C, is smoothed out only when averaging over an extended period. Until mid-1992, the ultimate stability of UTC was reached at averaging times of about 100 days and corresponded to an Allan deviation sigma(sub y)(tau) of about 1,5x10(exp -14) then compared to the best primary clock in the world, the PTB CS2. For several years now, a predicted UTC has been computed by the USNO through an extrapolation of the values as published in deferred time by the BIPM. This is made available through the USNO Series 4, through the USNO Automated Data Service, and through GPS signals. Due to the instability of UTC, the poor predictability of the available clocks, and the intentional SA degradation of GPS signals, the real-time access to this extrapolated UTC has represented the true deferred-time UTC only to within several hundreds of nanoseconds.

  5. Practical Real-Time Imaging Stereo Matcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishihara, H. K.

    1984-10-01

    A binocular-stereo-matching algorithm for making rapid visual range measurements in noisy images is described. This technique is developed for application to problems in robotics where noise tolerance, reliability, and speed are predominant issues. A high speed pipelined convolver for preprocessing images and an unstructured light technique for improving signal quality are introduced to help enhance performance to meet the demands of this task domain. These optimizations, however, are not sufficient. A closer examination of the problems encountered suggests that broader interpretations of both the objective of binocular stereo and of the zero-crossing theory of Marr and Poggio [Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 204, 301 (1979)] are required. In this paper, we restrict ourselves to the problem of making a single primitive surface measurement for example, to determine whether or not a specified volume of space is occupied, to measure the range to a surface at an indicated image location, or to determine the elevation gradient at that position. In this framework we make a subtle but important shift from the explicit use of zero-crossing contours (in bandpass-filtered images) as the elements matched between left and right images, to the use of the signs between zero crossings. With this change, we obtain a simpler algorithm with a reduced sensitivity to noise and a more predictable behavior. The practical real-time imaging stereo matcher (PRISM) system incorporates this algorithm with the unstructured light technique and a high speed digital convolver. It has been used successfully by others as a sensor in a path-planning system and a bin-picking system.

  6. Public Science with Real-Time Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenardic, A.

    2013-12-01

    One of the best ways for professional scientists to engage in public outreach is to get outside of the university and/or lab walls and go out into the public. That is, go to public spaces to do some science experiments with the public - this includes students of all ages that constitute that public. Technological advance in portable measurement gear now allow one to do real, or near real, time experiments in outdoor, public spaces. We have been running a meta-experiment of this sort, aimed at the public display of science, for about a year now in Houston TX at the Lee and Joe Jamail Skatepark. The project goes under the title of Sk8Lab Houston and has introduced students of all ages to the power of scientific experimentation. We bring a portable science pack with us to the park. The pack has a range of wireless measurement gear that allow experiments to be done on the spot. Some of the experiments are designed by us but many are designed on by whoever suggests them to us that day. Over time the Sk8Lab scientists have built up a level of "trust" with the people who frequent the park (no one feels like we are gonna grade them at the park and they know that the learning is not on some regimented clock). This has broken down some learning walls and allowed for a more informal mode of exploration and a more genuine mode of experimentation (as compared to what often happens in class labs when students feel like they are just being forced to reproduce some known result). We will describe some of the test case experiments we have run and also discuss some of the trials, tribulations, and happy successes (many unplanned) along the way.

  7. Toward Real Time Neural Net Flight Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, C. C.; Mah, R. W.; Ross, J.; Lu, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center has an ongoing program in neural network control technology targeted toward real time flight demonstrations using a modified F-15 which permits direct inner loop control of actuators, rapid switching between alternative control designs, and substitutable processors. An important part of this program is the ACTIVE flight project which is examining the feasibility of using neural networks in the design, control, and system identification of new aircraft prototypes. This paper discusses two research applications initiated with this objective in mind: utilization of neural networks for wind tunnel aircraft model identification and rapid learning algorithms for on line reconfiguration and control. The first application involves the identification of aerodynamic flight characteristics from analysis of wind tunnel test data. This identification is important in the early stages of aircraft design because complete specification of control architecture's may not be possible even though concept models at varying scales are available for aerodynamic wind tunnel testing. Testing of this type is often a long and expensive process involving measurement of aircraft lift, drag, and moment of inertia at varying angles of attack and control surface configurations. This information in turn can be used in the design of the flight control systems by applying the derived lookup tables to generate piece wise linearized controllers. Thus, reduced costs in tunnel test times and the rapid transfer of wind tunnel insights into prototype controllers becomes an important factor in more efficient generation and testing of new flight systems. NASA Ames Research Center is successfully applying modular neural networks as one way of anticipating small scale aircraft model performances prior to testing, thus reducing the number of in tunnel test hours and potentially, the number of intermediate scaled models required for estimation of surface flow effects.

  8. Real-time volumetric scintillation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beddar, S.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this brief review is to review the current status of real-time 3D scintillation dosimetry and what has been done so far in this area. The basic concept is to use a large volume of a scintillator material (liquid or solid) to measure or image the dose distributions from external radiation therapy (RT) beams in three dimensions. In this configuration, the scintillator material fulfills the dual role of being the detector and the phantom material in which the measurements are being performed. In this case, dose perturbations caused by the introduction of a detector within a phantom will not be at issue. All the detector configurations that have been conceived to date used a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera to measure the light produced within the scintillator. In order to accurately measure the scintillation light, one must correct for various optical artefacts that arise as the light propagates from the scintillating centers through the optical chain to the CCD chip. Quenching, defined in its simplest form as a nonlinear response to high-linear energy transfer (LET) charged particles, is one of the disadvantages when such systems are used to measure the absorbed dose from high-LET particles such protons. However, correction methods that restore the linear dose response through the whole proton range have been proven to be effective for both liquid and plastic scintillators. Volumetric scintillation dosimetry has the potential to provide fast, high-resolution and accurate 3D imaging of RT dose distributions. Further research is warranted to optimize the necessary image reconstruction methods and optical corrections needed to achieve its full potential.

  9. Variational optical flow computation in real time.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, Andrés; Weickert, Joachim; Feddern, Christian; Kohlberger, Timo; Schnörr, Christoph

    2005-05-01

    This paper investigates the usefulness of bidirectional multigrid methods for variational optical flow computations. Although these numerical schemes are among the fastest methods for solving equation systems, they are rarely applied in the field of computer vision. We demonstrate how to employ those numerical methods for the treatment of variational optical flow formulations and show that the efficiency of this approach even allows for real-time performance on standard PCs. As a representative for variational optic flow methods, we consider the recently introduced combined local-global method. It can be considered as a noise-robust generalization of the Horn and Schunck technique. We present a decoupled, as well as a coupled, version of the classical Gauss-Seidel solver, and we develop several multgrid implementations based on a discretization coarse grid approximation. In contrast, with standard bidirectional multigrid algorithms, we take advantage of intergrid transfer operators that allow for nondyadic grid hierarchies. As a consequence, no restrictions concerning the image size or the number of traversed levels have to be imposed. In the experimental section, we juxtapose the developed multigrid schemes and demonstrate their superior performance when compared to unidirectional multgrid methods and nonhierachical solvers. For the well-known 316 x 252 Yosemite sequence, we succeeded in computing the complete set of dense flow fields in three quarters of a second on a 3.06-GHz Pentium4 PC. This corresponds to a frame rate of 18 flow fields per second which outperforms the widely-used Gauss-Seidel method by almost three orders of magnitude.

  10. A real-time prediction of UTC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Claudine; Allan, David W.

    1994-01-01

    The reference time scale for all scientific and technologic applications on the Earth, the Universal Coordinated Time (UTC), must be as stable, reliable, and accurate as possible. With this in view the BIPM and before it the BIH, have always calculated and then disseminated UTC with a delay of about 80 days. There are three fundamental reasons for doing this: (1) It takes some weeks for data, gathered from some 200 clocks spread world-wide, to be collected and for errors to be eliminated; (2) changes in clock rates can only be measured with high precision well after the fact; and (3) the measurement noise originating in time links, in particular using Loran-C, is smoothed out only when averaging over an extended period. Until mid-1992, the ultimate stability of UTC was reached at averaging times of about 100 days and corresponded to an Allan deviation sigma(sub y)(tau) of about 1,5x10(exp -14) then compared to the best primary clock in the world, the PTB CS2. For several years now, a predicted UTC has been computed by the USNO through an extrapolation of the values as published in deferred time by the BIPM. This is made available through the USNO Series 4, through the USNO Automated Data Service, and through GPS signals. Due to the instability of UTC, the poor predictability of the available clocks, and the intentional SA degradation of GPS signals, the real-time access to this extrapolated UTC has represented the true deferred-time UTC only to within several hundreds of nanoseconds.

  11. Real time PV manufacturing diagnostic system

    SciTech Connect

    Kochergin, Vladimir; Crawford, Michael A.

    2015-09-01

    The main obstacle Photovoltaic (PV) industry is facing at present is the higher cost of PV energy compared to that of fossil energy. While solar cell efficiencies continue to make incremental gains these improvements are so far insufficient to drive PV costs down to match that of fossil energy. Improved in-line diagnostics however, has the potential to significantly increase the productivity and reduce cost by improving the yield of the process. On this Phase I/Phase II SBIR project MicroXact developed and demonstrated at CIGS pilot manufacturing line a high-throughput in-line PV manufacturing diagnostic system, which was verified to provide fast and accurate data on the spatial uniformity of thickness, an composition of the thin films comprising the solar cell as the solar cell is processed reel-to-reel. In Phase II project MicroXact developed a stand-alone system prototype and demonstrated the following technical characteristics: 1) ability of real time defect/composition inconsistency detection over 60cm wide web at web speeds up to 3m/minute; 2) Better than 1mm spatial resolution on 60cm wide web; 3) an average better than 20nm spectral resolution resulting in more than sufficient sensitivity to composition imperfections (copper-rich and copper-poor regions were detected). The system was verified to be high vacuum compatible. Phase II results completely validated both technical and economic feasibility of the proposed concept. MicroXact’s solution is an enabling technique for in-line PV manufacturing diagnostics to increase the productivity of PV manufacturing lines and reduce the cost of solar energy, thus reducing the US dependency on foreign oil while simultaneously reducing emission of greenhouse gasses.

  12. Real-Time Feature Tracking Using Homography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clouse, Daniel S.; Cheng, Yang; Ansar, Adnan I.; Trotz, David C.; Padgett, Curtis W.

    2010-01-01

    This software finds feature point correspondences in sequences of images. It is designed for feature matching in aerial imagery. Feature matching is a fundamental step in a number of important image processing operations: calibrating the cameras in a camera array, stabilizing images in aerial movies, geo-registration of images, and generating high-fidelity surface maps from aerial movies. The method uses a Shi-Tomasi corner detector and normalized cross-correlation. This process is likely to result in the production of some mismatches. The feature set is cleaned up using the assumption that there is a large planar patch visible in both images. At high altitude, this assumption is often reasonable. A mathematical transformation, called an homography, is developed that allows us to predict the position in image 2 of any point on the plane in image 1. Any feature pair that is inconsistent with the homography is thrown out. The output of the process is a set of feature pairs, and the homography. The algorithms in this innovation are well known, but the new implementation improves the process in several ways. It runs in real-time at 2 Hz on 64-megapixel imagery. The new Shi-Tomasi corner detector tries to produce the requested number of features by automatically adjusting the minimum distance between found features. The homography-finding code now uses an implementation of the RANSAC algorithm that adjusts the number of iterations automatically to achieve a pre-set probability of missing a set of inliers. The new interface allows the caller to pass in a set of predetermined points in one of the images. This allows the ability to track the same set of points through multiple frames.

  13. Real Time Land-Surface Hydrologic Modeling Over Continental US

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houser, Paul R.

    1998-01-01

    The land surface component of the hydrological cycle is fundamental to the overall functioning of the atmospheric and climate processes. Spatially and temporally variable rainfall and available energy, combined with land surface heterogeneity cause complex variations in all processes related to surface hydrology. The characterization of the spatial and temporal variability of water and energy cycles are critical to improve our understanding of land surface-atmosphere interaction and the impact of land surface processes on climate extremes. Because the accurate knowledge of these processes and their variability is important for climate predictions, most Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) centers have incorporated land surface schemes in their models. However, errors in the NWP forcing accumulate in the surface and energy stores, leading to incorrect surface water and energy partitioning and related processes. This has motivated the NWP to impose ad hoc corrections to the land surface states to prevent this drift. A proposed methodology is to develop Land Data Assimilation schemes (LDAS), which are uncoupled models forced with observations, and not affected by NWP forcing biases. The proposed research is being implemented as a real time operation using an existing Surface Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (SVATS) model at a 40 km degree resolution across the United States to evaluate these critical science questions. The model will be forced with real time output from numerical prediction models, satellite data, and radar precipitation measurements. Model parameters will be derived from the existing GIS vegetation and soil coverages. The model results will be aggregated to various scales to assess water and energy balances and these will be validated with various in-situ observations.

  14. Custom FPGA processing for real-time fetal ECG extraction and identification.

    PubMed

    Torti, E; Koliopoulos, D; Matraxia, M; Danese, G; Leporati, F

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring the fetal cardiac activity during pregnancy is of crucial importance for evaluating fetus health. However, there is a lack of automatic and reliable methods for Fetal ECG (FECG) monitoring that can perform this elaboration in real-time. In this paper, we present a hardware architecture, implemented on the Altera Stratix V FPGA, capable of separating the FECG from the maternal ECG and to correctly identify it. We evaluated our system using both synthetic and real tracks acquired from patients beyond the 20th pregnancy week. This work is part of a project aiming at developing a portable system for FECG continuous real-time monitoring. Its characteristics of reduced power consumption, real-time processing capability and reduced size make it suitable to be embedded in the overall system, that is the first proposed exploiting Blind Source Separation with this technology, to the best of our knowledge.

  15. Intelligent real-time performance monitoring and quality prediction for batch/fed-batch cultivations.

    PubMed

    Undey, Cenk; Tatara, Eric; Cinar, Ali

    2004-02-19

    Supervision of batch bioprocess operations in real-time during the progress of a batch run offers many advantages over end-of-batch quality control. Multivariate statistical techniques such as multiway partial least squares (MPLS) provide an efficient modeling and supervision framework. A new type of MPLS modeling technique that is especially suitable for online real-time process monitoring and the multivariate monitoring charts are presented. This online process monitoring technique is also extended to include predictions of end-of-batch quality measurements during the progress of a batch run. Process monitoring, quality estimation and fault diagnosis activities are automated and supervised by embedding them into a real-time knowledge-based system (RTKBS). Interpretation of multivariate charts is also automated through a generic rule-base for efficient alarm handling. The integrated RTKBS and the implementation of MPLS-based process monitoring and quality control are illustrated using a fed-batch penicillin production benchmark process simulator.

  16. Real-time multi-camera video acquisition and processing platform for ADAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saponara, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents the design of a real-time and low-cost embedded system for image acquisition and processing in Advanced Driver Assisted Systems (ADAS). The system adopts a multi-camera architecture to provide a panoramic view of the objects surrounding the vehicle. Fish-eye lenses are used to achieve a large Field of View (FOV). Since they introduce radial distortion of the images projected on the sensors, a real-time algorithm for their correction is also implemented in a pre-processor. An FPGA-based hardware implementation, re-using IP macrocells for several ADAS algorithms, allows for real-time processing of input streams from VGA automotive CMOS cameras.

  17. ControlShell - A real-time software framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Stanley A.; Ullman, Marc A.; Chen, Vincent W.

    1991-01-01

    ControlShell is designed to enable modular design and impplementation of real-time software. It is an object-oriented tool-set for real-time software system programming. It provides a series of execution and data interchange mechansims that form a framework for building real-time applications. These mechanisms allow a component-based approach to real-time software generation and mangement. By defining a set of interface specifications for intermodule interaction, ControlShell provides a common platform that is the basis for real-time code development and exchange.

  18. A customizable system for real-time image processing using the Blackfin DSProcessor and the MicroC/OS-II real-time kernel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, Stephen; Connell, Joseph

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents a development platform for real-time image processing based on the ADSP-BF533 Blackfin processor and the MicroC/OS-II real-time operating system (RTOS). MicroC/OS-II is a completely portable, ROMable, pre-emptive, real-time kernel. The Blackfin Digital Signal Processors (DSPs), incorporating the Analog Devices/Intel Micro Signal Architecture (MSA), are a broad family of 16-bit fixed-point products with a dual Multiply Accumulate (MAC) core. In addition, they have a rich instruction set with variable instruction length and both DSP and MCU functionality thus making them ideal for media based applications. Using the MicroC/OS-II for task scheduling and management, the proposed system can capture and process raw RGB data from any standard 8-bit greyscale image sensor in soft real-time and then display the processed result using a simple PC graphical user interface (GUI). Additionally, the GUI allows configuration of the image capture rate and the system and core DSP clock rates thereby allowing connectivity to a selection of image sensors and memory devices. The GUI also allows selection from a set of image processing algorithms based in the embedded operating system.

  19. ROADNET: A Real-time Data Aware System for Earth, Oceanographic, and Environmental Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernon, F.; Hansen, T.; Lindquist, K.; Ludascher, B.; Orcutt, J.; Rajasekar, A.

    2003-12-01

    The Real-time Observatories, Application, and Data management Network (ROADNet) Program aims to develop an integrated, seamless, and transparent environmental information network that will deliver geophysical, oceanographic, hydrological, ecological, and physical data to a variety of users in real-time. ROADNet is a multidisciplinary, multinational partnership of researchers, policymakers, natural resource managers, educators, and students who aim to use the data to advance our understanding and management of coastal, ocean, riparian, and terrestrial Earth systems in Southern California, Mexico, and well off shore. To date, project activity and funding have focused on the design and deployment of network linkages and on the exploratory development of the real-time data management system. We are currently adapting powerful "Data Grid" technologies to the unique challenges associated with the management and manipulation of real-time data. Current "Grid" projects deal with static data files, and significant technical innovation is required to address fundamental problems of real-time data processing, integration, and distribution. The technologies developed through this research will create a system that dynamically adapt downstream processing, cataloging, and data access interfaces when sensors are added or removed from the system; provide for real-time processing and monitoring of data streams--detecting events, and triggering computations, sensor and logger modifications, and other actions; integrate heterogeneous data from multiple (signal) domains; and provide for large-scale archival and querying of "consolidated" data. The software tools which must be developed do not exist, although limited prototype systems are available. This research has implications for the success of large-scale NSF initiatives in the Earth sciences (EarthScope), ocean sciences (OOI- Ocean Observatories Initiative), biological sciences (NEON - National Ecological Observatory Network) and

  20. Satellite clock corrections estimation to accomplish real time ppp: experiments for brazilian real time network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Haroldo; Monico, João; Aquino, Marcio; Melo, Weyller

    2014-05-01

    The real time PPP method requires the availability of real time precise orbits and satellites clocks corrections. Currently, it is possible to apply the solutions of clocks and orbits available by BKG within the context of IGS Pilot project or by using the operational predicted IGU ephemeris. The accuracy of the satellite position available in the IGU is enough for several applications requiring good quality. However, the satellites clocks corrections do not provide enough accuracy (3 ns ~ 0.9 m) to accomplish real time PPP with the same level of accuracy. Therefore, for real time PPP application it is necessary to further research and develop appropriated methodologies for estimating the satellite clock corrections in real time with better accuracy. Currently, it is possible to apply the real time solutions of clocks and orbits available by Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG) within the context of IGS Pilot project. The BKG corrections are disseminated by a new proposed format of the RTCM 3.x and can be applied in the broadcasted orbits and clocks. Some investigations have been proposed for the estimation of the satellite clock corrections using GNSS code and phase observable at the double difference level between satellites and epochs (MERVAT, DOUSA, 2007). Another possibility consists of applying a Kalman Filter in the PPP network mode (HAUSCHILD, 2010) and it is also possible the integration of both methods, using network PPP and observables at double difference level in specific time intervals (ZHANG; LI; GUO, 2010). For this work the methodology adopted consists in the estimation of the satellite clock corrections based on the data adjustment in the PPP mode, but for a network of GNSS stations. The clock solution can be solved by using two types of observables: code smoothed by carrier phase or undifferenced code together with carrier phase. In the former, we estimate receiver clock error; satellite clock correction and troposphere, considering

  1. Enhancement of EarthScope Infrastructure with Real Time Seismogeodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Y.; Melgar, D.; Geng, J.; Haase, J. S.; Crowell, B. W.; Squibb, M. B.

    2013-12-01

    developed cost-effective hardware and embedded firmware to upgrade existing real-time GPS stations with low-cost MEMS accelerometers. Fifteen PBO and SCIGN stations in southern California have already been upgraded with this technology. We have also developed a software suite to analyze seismogeodetic data in real time using a tightly-coupled precise point positioning (PPP) Kalman filter that supports PPP with ambiguity resolution (PPP-AR) throughout the seismically active regions of the Western U.S. The seismogeodetic system contributes directly to collaborative natural hazards research by providing technology for early warning systems for earthquakes, volcanoes and tsunamis, and for short-term high impact weather forecasting and related flooding hazards (we are also installing MEMS temperature and pressure sensors for GPS meteorology). The systems have also been deployed for earthquake engineering research for large structures (e.g., bridges, buildings, dams). Here we present the components and status of our seismogeodetic earthquake and tsunami monitoring system. Although the analysis techniques are quite advanced, the project lends itself to opportunities for education and outreach, specifically in illustrating concepts in elementary physics of position, velocity, and acceleration. Many of the animations generated in the research are available for development into appealing and accessible educational modules.

  2. Real-time {sup 90}Sr Counter

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, Naomi; Kawai, Hideyuki; Kodama, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Tabata, Makoto; Ito, Hiroshi; Han, Soorim

    2015-07-01

    Radioisotopes have been emitted around Japan due to a nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station in March 2011. A problem is the contaminated water including the atomic nucleus which relatively has a long half- life time and soluble such as {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs. Internal exposures by {sup 90}Sr are more dangerous than {sup 137}Cs's because Sr has effective half-life time of 18 years and property of accumulation in a born. We have developed real-time {sup 90}Sr counter which is sensitive beta-ray of maximum kinematic energy of 2.28 MeV from {sup 90}Sr and insensitive of beta-ray of maximum kinematic energy of 1.17 MeV and gamma-ray from {sup 90}Sr by Cherenkov detection. This counter composes of Cerenkov counter, trigger scintillation counter and veto counter. Silica aerogel for Cherenkov counter can obtain refractive index between 1.017 and 1.049 easily. And wavelength shifting fiber (WLSF) is used as a light guide for extending effective area and producing lower cost. A mechanism of the identification of {sup 90}Sr is explained in following. In case of {sup 90}Sr, when the trigger counter reacts on the beta-ray from {sup 90}Sr, aerogel emits the Cherenkov light and WLSF reacts and read the Cherenkov light. On the other hand, in case of {sup 137}Cs, the trigger counter reacts on the beta-ray, aerogel stops the beta- ray and Cherenkov light is not emitted. Therefore, aerogel has a function as a radiator and shielding material. the gamma-ray is not reacted on the lower density detector. Cosmic rays would be also reacted by the veto counter. A prototype counter whose the effective area is 30 cm x 10 cm was obtained (2.0±1.2){sup 3} of mis-identification as {sup 137}Cs/{sup 90}Sr. Detection limit in the surface contamination inspection depends on measurement time and effective area mainly. The sensitivity of wide range, 10{sup -2} - 10{sup 4} Bq/cm{sup 2}, is obtained by adjustment of detection level in circuit of this counter. A lower

  3. Instrumentation development for real time brainwave monitoring.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Lawrence Frederick; Clough, Benjamin W.

    2005-12-01

    The human brain functions through a chemically-induced biological process which operates in a manner similar to electrical systems. The signal resulting from this biochemical process can actually be monitored and read using tools and having patterns similar to those found in electrical and electronics engineering. The primary signature of this electrical activity is the ''brain wave'', which looks remarkably similar to the output of many electrical systems. Likewise, the device currently used in medical arenas to read brain electrical activity is the electroencephalogram (EEG) which is synonymous with a multi-channel oscilloscope reading. Brain wave readings and recordings for medical purposes are traditionally taken in clinical settings such as hospitals, laboratories or diagnostic clinics. The signal is captured via externally applied scalp electrodes using semi-viscous gel to reduce impedance. The signal will be in the 10 to 100 microvolt range. In other instances, where surgeons are attempting to isolate particular types of minute brain signals, the electrodes may actually be temporarily implanted in the brain during a preliminary procedure. The current configurations of equipment required for EEGs involve large recording instruments, many electrodes, wires, and large amounts of hard disk space devoted to storing large files of brain wave data which are then eventually analyzed for patterns of concern. Advances in sensors, signal processing, data storage and microelectronics over the last decade would seem to have paved the way for the realization of devices capable of ''real time'' external monitoring, and possible assessment, of brain activity. A myriad of applications for such a capability are likewise presenting themselves, including the ability to assess brain functioning, level of functioning and malfunctioning. Our plan is to develop the sensors, signal processing, and portable instrumentation package which could capture, analyze, and communicate

  4. Real Time Seismic Loss Estimation in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goretti, A.; Sabetta, F.

    2009-04-01

    By more than 15 years the Seismic Risk Office is able to perform a real-time evaluation of the earthquake potential loss in any part of Italy. Once the epicentre and the magnitude of the earthquake are made available by the National Institute for Geophysiscs and Volca-nology, the model, based on the Italian Geographic Information Sys-tems, is able to evaluate the extent of the damaged area and the consequences on the built environment. In recent years the model has been significantly improved with new methodologies able to conditioning the uncertainties using observa-tions coming from the fields during the first days after the event. However it is reputed that the main challenges in loss analysis are related to the input data, more than to methodologies. Unlike the ur-ban scenario, where the missing data can be collected with enough accuracy, the country-wise analysis requires the use of existing data bases, often collected for other purposed than seismic scenario evaluation, and hence in some way lacking of completeness and homogeneity. Soil properties, building inventory and population dis-tribution are the main input data that are to be known in any site of the whole Italian territory. To this end the National Census on Popu-lation and Dwellings has provided information on the residential building types and the population that lives in that building types. The critical buildings, such as Hospital, Fire Brigade Stations, Schools, are not included in the inventory, since the national plan for seismic risk assessment of critical buildings is still under way. The choice of a proper soil motion parameter, its attenuation with distance and the building type fragility are important ingredients of the model as well. The presentation will focus on the above mentioned issues, highlight-ing the different data sets used and their accuracy, and comparing the model, input data and results when geographical areas with dif-ferent extent are considered: from the urban scenarios

  5. Benchmarking real-time HEVC streaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nightingale, James; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2012-06-01

    Work towards the standardisation of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC), the next generation video coding scheme, is currently gaining pace. HEVC offers the prospect of a 50% improvement in compression over the current H.264 Advanced Video Coding standard (H.264/AVC). Thus far, work on HEVC has concentrated on improvements to the coding efficiency and has not yet addressed transmission in networks other than to mandate byte stream compliance with Annex B of H.264/AVC. For practical networked HEVC applications a number of essential building blocks have yet to be defined. In this work, we design and prototype a real-time HEVC streaming system and empirically evaluate its performance, in particular we consider the robustness of the current Test Model under Consideration (TMuC HM4.0) for HEVC to packet loss caused by a reduction in available bandwidth both in terms of decoder resilience and degradation in perceptual video quality. A NAL unit packetisation and streaming framework for HEVC encoded video streams is designed, implemented and empirically tested in a number of streaming environments including wired, wireless, single path and multiple path network scenarios. As a first step the HEVC decoder's error resilience is tested under a comprehensive set of packet loss conditions and a simple error concealment method for HEVC is implemented. Similarly to H.264 encoded streams, the size and distribution of NAL units within an HEVC stream and the nature of the NAL unit dependencies influences the packetisation and streaming strategies which may be employed for such streams. The relationships between HEVC encoding mode and the quality of the received video are shown under a wide range of bandwidth constraints. HEVC streaming is evaluated in both single and multipath network configuration scenarios. Through the use of extensive experimentation, we establish a comprehensive set of benchmarks for HEVC streaming in loss prone network environments. We show the visual quality

  6. Real-time Forensic Disaster Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, F.; Daniell, J.; Khazai, B.; Mühr, B.; Kunz-Plapp, T.; Markus, M.; Vervaeck, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM, www.cedim.de) - an interdisciplinary research center founded by the German Research Centre for Geoscience (GFZ) and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) - has embarked on a new style of disaster research known as Forensic Disaster Analysis. The notion has been coined by the Integrated Research on Disaster Risk initiative (IRDR, www.irdrinternational.org) launched by ICSU in 2010. It has been defined as an approach to studying natural disasters that aims at uncovering the root causes of disasters through in-depth investigations that go beyond the reconnaissance reports and case studies typically conducted after disasters. In adopting this comprehensive understanding of disasters CEDIM adds a real-time component to the assessment and evaluation process. By comprehensive we mean that most if not all relevant aspects of disasters are considered and jointly analysed. This includes the impact (human, economy, and infrastructure), comparisons with recent historic events, social vulnerability, reconstruction and long-term impacts on livelihood issues. The forensic disaster analysis research mode is thus best characterized as "event-based research" through systematic investigation of critical issues arising after a disaster across various inter-related areas. The forensic approach requires (a) availability of global data bases regarding previous earthquake losses, socio-economic parameters, building stock information, etc.; (b) leveraging platforms such as the EERI clearing house, relief-web, and the many sources of local and international sources where information is organized; and (c) rapid access to critical information (e.g., crowd sourcing techniques) to improve our understanding of the complex dynamics of disasters. The main scientific questions being addressed are: What are critical factors that control loss of life, of infrastructure, and for economy? What are the critical interactions

  7. Real Time Wide Area Radiation Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biafore, M.

    2012-04-01

    We present the REWARD project, financed within the FP7 programme, theme SEC-2011.1.5-1 (Development of detection capabilities of difficult to detect radioactive sources and nuclear materials - Capability Project). Within this project, we propose a novel mobile system for real time, wide area radiation surveillance. The system is based on the integration of new miniaturized solid-state radiation sensors: a CdZnTe detector for gamma radiation and a high efficiency neutron detector based on novel silicon technologies. The sensing unit will include a wireless communication interface to send the data remotely to a monitoring base station which also uses a GPS system to calculate the position of the tag. The system will also incorporate middleware and high level software to provide web-service interfaces for the exchange of information, and that will offer top level functionalities as management of users, mobile tags and environment data and alarms, database storage and management and a web-based graphical user interface. Effort will be spent to ensure that the software is modular and re-usable across as many architectural levels as possible. Finally, an expert system will continuously analyze the information from the radiation sensor and correlate it with historical data from the tag location in order to generate an alarm when an abnormal situation is detected. The system will be useful for many different scenarios, including such lost radioactive sources and radioactive contamination. It will be possible to deploy in emergency units and in general in any type of mobile or static equipment. The sensing units will be highly portable thanks to their low size and low energy consumption. The complete system will be scalable in terms of complexity and cost and will offer very high precision on both the measurement and the location of the radiation. The modularity and flexibility of the system will allow for a realistic introduction to the market. Authorities may start with a

  8. Real-time quantitative fluorescence imaging using a single snapshot optical properties technique for neurosurgical guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdes, Pablo A.; Angelo, Joseph; Gioux, Sylvain

    2015-03-01

    Fluorescence imaging has shown promise as an adjunct to improve the extent of resection in neurosurgery and oncologic surgery. Nevertheless, current fluorescence imaging techniques do not account for the heterogeneous attenuation effects of tissue optical properties. In this work, we present a novel imaging system that performs real time quantitative fluorescence imaging using Single Snapshot Optical Properties (SSOP) imaging. We developed the technique and performed initial phantom studies to validate the quantitative capabilities of the system for intraoperative feasibility. Overall, this work introduces a novel real-time quantitative fluorescence imaging method capable of being used intraoperatively for neurosurgical guidance.

  9. Cell-bionics: tools for real-time sensor processing.

    PubMed

    Toumazou, Chris; Cass, Tony

    2007-08-29

    The accurate monitoring of the physiological status of cells, tissues and whole organisms demands a new generation of devices capable of providing accurate data in real time with minimal perturbation of the system being measured. To deliver on the promise of cell-bionics advances over the past decade in miniaturization, analogue signal processing, low-power electronics, materials science and protein engineering need to be brought together. In this paper we summarize recent advances in our research that is moving us in this direction. Two areas in particular are highlighted: the exploitation of the physical properties inherent in semiconductor devices to perform very low power on chip signal processing and the use of gene technology to tailor proteins for sensor applications. In the context of engineered tissues, cell-bionics could offer the ability to monitor the precise physiological state of the construct, both during 'manufacture' and post-implantation. Monitoring during manufacture, particularly by embedded devices, would offer quality assurance of the materials components and the fabrication process. Post-implantation monitoring would reveal changes in the underlying physiology as a result of the tissue construct adapting to its new environment.

  10. Real-Time PCR Method for Detection of Zygomycetes ▿

    PubMed Central

    Hata, D. Jane; Buckwalter, Seanne P.; Pritt, Bobbi S.; Roberts, Glenn D.; Wengenack, Nancy L.

    2008-01-01

    Zygomycete infections can be devastating in immunocompromised hosts. Difficulties in the histopathologic differentiation of this class from other filamentous fungi (e.g., Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp.) may lead to delays in diagnosis and initiation of appropriate treatment, thereby significantly affecting patient outcome. A real-time PCR assay was developed to detect species of the zygomycete genera Absidia, Apophysomyces, Cunninghamella, Mucor, Rhizopus, and Saksenaea in culture and tissue samples. Primers and fluorescence resonance energy transfer hybridization probes were designed to detect a 167-bp conserved region of the multicopy zygomycete cytochrome b gene. A plasmid containing target sequence from Mucor racemosus was constructed as a positive control. The analytical sensitivity of the assay is 10 targets/μl, and a specificity panel consisting of other filamentous fungi, yeasts (Candida spp.), and bacteria demonstrated no cross-reactivity in the assay. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of the assay from culture isolates were 100% (39/39) and 92% (59/64), respectively. Sensitivity and specificity determined using a limited number of fresh tissue specimens were both 100% (2/2). The sensitivity seen with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues was 56% (35/62), and the specificity was 100% (19/19). The speed, sensitivity, and specificity of the PCR assay indicate that it is useful for the rapid and accurate detection of zygomycetes. PMID:18480229

  11. Real Time Classification of Viruses in 12 Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Shek-Chung; Huang, Hsin-Hsiung; He, Rong Lucy; Yang, Jie; Yau, Stephen S.-T.

    2013-01-01

    The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses authorizes and organizes the taxonomic classification of viruses. Thus far, the detailed classifications for all viruses are neither complete nor free from dispute. For example, the current missing label rates in GenBank are 12.1% for family label and 30.0% for genus label. Using the proposed Natural Vector representation, all 2,044 single-segment referenced viral genomes in GenBank can be embedded in . Unlike other approaches, this allows us to determine phylogenetic relations for all viruses at any level (e.g., Baltimore class, family, subfamily, genus, and species) in real time. Additionally, the proposed graphical representation for virus phylogeny provides a visualization of the distribution of viruses in . Unlike the commonly used tree visualization methods which suffer from uniqueness and existence problems, our representation always exists and is unique. This approach is successfully used to predict and correct viral classification information, as well as to identify viral origins; e.g. a recent public health threat, the West Nile virus, is closer to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex based on our visualization. Based on cross-validation results, the accuracy rates of our predictions are as high as 98.2% for Baltimore class labels, 96.6% for family labels, 99.7% for subfamily labels and 97.2% for genus labels. PMID:23717598

  12. Real time classification of viruses in 12 dimensions.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chenglong; Hernandez, Troy; Zheng, Hui; Yau, Shek-Chung; Huang, Hsin-Hsiung; He, Rong Lucy; Yang, Jie; Yau, Stephen S-T

    2013-01-01

    The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses authorizes and organizes the taxonomic classification of viruses. Thus far, the detailed classifications for all viruses are neither complete nor free from dispute. For example, the current missing label rates in GenBank are 12.1% for family label and 30.0% for genus label. Using the proposed Natural Vector representation, all 2,044 single-segment referenced viral genomes in GenBank can be embedded in [Formula: see text]. Unlike other approaches, this allows us to determine phylogenetic relations for all viruses at any level (e.g., Baltimore class, family, subfamily, genus, and species) in real time. Additionally, the proposed graphical representation for virus phylogeny provides a visualization of the distribution of viruses in [Formula: see text]. Unlike the commonly used tree visualization methods which suffer from uniqueness and existence problems, our representation always exists and is unique. This approach is successfully used to predict and correct viral classification information, as well as to identify viral origins; e.g. a recent public health threat, the West Nile virus, is closer to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex based on our visualization. Based on cross-validation results, the accuracy rates of our predictions are as high as 98.2% for Baltimore class labels, 96.6% for family labels, 99.7% for subfamily labels and 97.2% for genus labels.

  13. Real-time temperature determination during retinal photocoagulation on patients.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Ralf; Koinzer, Stefan; Schlott, Kerstin; Ptaszynski, Lars; Bever, Marco; Baade, Alexander; Luft, Susanne; Miura, Yoko; Roider, Johann; Birngruber, Reginald

    2012-06-01

    The induced thermal damage in retinal photocoagulation depends on the temperature increase and the time of irradiation. The temperature rise is unknown due to intraocular variations in light transmission, scattering and grade of absorption in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the choroid. Thus, in clinical practice, often stronger and deeper coagulations are applied than therapeutically needed, which can lead to extended neuroretinal damage and strong pain perception. This work focuses on an optoacoustic (OA) method to determine the temperature rise in real-time during photocoagulation by repetitively exciting thermoelastic pressure transients with nanosecond probe laser pulses, which are simultaneously applied to the treatment radiation. The temperature-dependent pressure amplitudes are non-invasively detected at the cornea with an ultrasonic transducer embedded in the contact lens. During clinical treatment, temperature courses as predicted by heat diffusion theory are observed in most cases. For laser spot diameters of 100 and 300 μm, and irradiation times of 100 and 200 ms, respectively, peak temperatures range between 70°C and 85°C for mild coagulations. The obtained data look very promising for the realization of a feedback-controlled treatment, which automatically generates preselected and reproducible coagulation strengths, unburdens the ophthalmologist from manual laser dosage, and minimizes adverse effects and pain for the patient.

  14. Real-time temperature determination during retinal photocoagulation on patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkmann, Ralf; Koinzer, Stefan; Schlott, Kerstin; Ptaszynski, Lars; Bever, Marco; Baade, Alexander; Luft, Susanne; Miura, Yoko; Roider, Johann; Birngruber, Reginald

    2012-06-01

    The induced thermal damage in retinal photocoagulation depends on the temperature increase and the time of irradiation. The temperature rise is unknown due to intraocular variations in light transmission, scattering and grade of absorption in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the choroid. Thus, in clinical practice, often stronger and deeper coagulations are applied than therapeutically needed, which can lead to extended neuroretinal damage and strong pain perception. This work focuses on an optoacoustic (OA) method to determine the temperature rise in real-time during photocoagulation by repetitively exciting thermoelastic pressure transients with nanosecond probe laser pulses, which are simultaneously applied to the treatment radiation. The temperature-dependent pressure amplitudes are non-invasively detected at the cornea with an ultrasonic transducer embedded in the contact lens. During clinical treatment, temperature courses as predicted by heat diffusion theory are observed in most cases. For laser spot diameters of 100 and 300 μm, and irradiation times of 100 and 200 ms, respectively, peak temperatures range between 70°C and 85°C for mild coagulations. The obtained data look very promising for the realization of a feedback-controlled treatment, which automatically generates preselected and reproducible coagulation strengths, unburdens the ophthalmologist from manual laser dosage, and minimizes adverse effects and pain for the patient.

  15. Real-time application of the drag based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žic, Tomislav; Temmer, Manuela; Vršnak, Bojan

    2016-04-01

    The drag-based model (DBM) is an analytical model which is usually used for calculating kinematics of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the interplanetary space, prediction of the CME arrival times and impact speeds at arbitrary targets in the heliosphere. The main assumption of the model is that beyond a distance of about 20 solar radii from the Sun, the drag is dominant in the interplanetary space. The previous version of DBM relied on the rough assumption of averaged, unperturbed and constant environmental conditions as well as constant CME properties throughout the entire interplanetary CME propagation. The continuation of our work consists of enhancing the model into a form which uses a time dependent and perturbed environment without constraints on CME properties and distance forecasting. The extension provides the possibility of application in various scenarios, such as automatic least-square fitting on initial CME kinematic data suitable for a real-time forecasting of CME kinematics, or embedding the DBM into pre-calculated interplanetary ambient conditions provided by advanced numerical simulations (for example, codes of ENLIL, EUHFORIA, etc.). A demonstration of the enhanced DBM is available on the web-site: http://www.geof.unizg.hr/~tzic/dbm.html. We acknowledge the support of European Social Fund under the "PoKRet" project.

  16. Combining instruction prefetching with partial cache locking to improve WCET in real-time systems.

    PubMed

    Ni, Fan; Long, Xiang; Wan, Han; Gao, Xiaopeng

    2013-01-01

    Caches play an important role in embedded systems to bridge the performance gap between fast processor and slow memory. And prefetching mechanisms are proposed to further improve the cache performance. While in real-time systems, the application of caches complicates the Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET) analysis due to its unpredictable behavior. Modern embedded processors often equip locking mechanism to improve timing predictability of the instruction cache. However, locking the whole cache may degrade the cache performance and increase the WCET of the real-time application. In this paper, we proposed an instruction-prefetching combined partial cache locking mechanism, which combines an instruction prefetching mechanism (termed as BBIP) with partial cache locking to improve the WCET estimates of real-time applications. BBIP is an instruction prefetching mechanism we have already proposed to improve the worst-case cache performance and in turn the worst-case execution time. The estimations on typical real-time applications show that the partial cache locking mechanism shows remarkable WCET improvement over static analysis and full cache locking.

  17. A real time monitoring system of ringer's solution residual amount for automatic nursing in hopsitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Jong-Won; Ha, Kwan-Yong; Nam, Chul; Ayurzana, Odgelral; Kim, Hie-Sik

    2005-12-01

    A real-time embedded system was developed for remote monitoring and checking the residual quantity and changing of Ringer's solution. It is monitored nurses' room. A Load Cell was applied as a sensor to check the residual quantity of Ringer's solution. This Load Cell detects the physical changes of Ringer's solution and transfers electronic signal to the amplifier. Amplified analog signal is converted into digital signal by A/D converter. Developed Embedded system, which computes these data with microprocess (8052) then makes it possible to monitor the residual quantity of Ringer's solution real-time on a server computer. A Checking system on Residual Quantity of Ringer's Solution Using Load cell cut costs using a simple design for a circuit.

  18. Real-time object tracking for moving target auto-focus in digital camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Haike; Niinami, Norikatsu; Liu, Tong

    2015-02-01

    Focusing at a moving object accurately is difficult and important to take photo of the target successfully in a digital camera. Because the object often moves randomly and changes its shape frequently, position and distance of the target should be estimated at real-time so as to focus at the objet precisely. We propose a new method of real-time object tracking to do auto-focus for moving target in digital camera. Video stream in the camera is used for the moving target tracking. Particle filter is used to deal with problem of the target object's random movement and shape change. Color and edge features are used as measurement of the object's states. Parallel processing algorithm is developed to realize real-time particle filter object tracking easily in hardware environment of the digital camera. Movement prediction algorithm is also proposed to remove focus error caused by difference between tracking result and target object's real position when the photo is taken. Simulation and experiment results in digital camera demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed method. We embedded real-time object tracking algorithm in the digital camera. Position and distance of the moving target is obtained accurately by object tracking from the video stream. SIMD processor is applied to enforce parallel real-time processing. Processing time less than 60ms for each frame is obtained in the digital camera with its CPU of only 162MHz.

  19. Real-time monitoring and control of the plasma hearth process

    SciTech Connect

    Power, M.A.; Carney, K.P.; Peters, G.G.

    1996-05-01

    A distributed monitoring and control system is proposed for a plasma hearth, which will be used to decompose hazardous organic materials, encapsulate actinide waste in an obsidian-like slag, and reduce storage volume of actinide waste. The plasma hearth will be installed at ANL-West with the assistance of SAIC. Real-time monitoring of the off-gas system is accomplished using a Sun Workstation and embedded PCs. LabWindows/CVI software serves as the graphical user interface.

  20. Real Time Coincidence Processing Algorithm for Geiger Mode LADAR using FPGAs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-09

    processing algorithm implemented on a FPGA . By utilizing FPGAs we are able to achieve a “micro-ladar” system that resides in a design space not...developed embedded FPGA real time processing algorithms that take noisy raw data, streaming at upwards of 1GB/sec, and filters the data to obtain a near- ly...current operating parameters and extrapo- lated for future system upgrades. Simulated ladar data is processed using the FPGA and compared to the Matlab

  1. Real-Time Geo-Registration on High-Performance Computers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    2001 Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. Real-Time Geo- Registration on High-Performance Computers Alan Chao Monica Burke ALPHATECH, Inc. High...Performance Embedded Computing Workshop - September 24, 2002 Thomas Kurien Luke Cico Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. Report Documentation Page Form...ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Mercury

  2. Real-Time Wireless Data Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valencia, Emilio J.; Perotti, Jose; Lucena, Angel; Mata, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Current and future aerospace requirements demand the creation of a new breed of sensing devices, with emphasis on reduced weight, power consumption, and physical size. This new generation of sensors must possess a high degree of intelligence to provide critical data efficiently and in real-time. Intelligence will include self-calibration, self-health assessment, and pre-processing of raw data at the sensor level. Most of these features are already incorporated in the Wireless Sensors Network (SensorNet(TradeMark)), developed by the Instrumentation Group at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A system based on the SensorNet(TradeMark) architecture consists of data collection point(s) called Central Stations (CS) and intelligent sensors called Remote Stations (RS) where one or more CSs can be accommodated depending on the specific application. The CS's major function is to establish communications with the Remote Stations and to poll each RS for data and health information. The CS also collects, stores and distributes these data to the appropriate systems requiring the information. The system has the ability to perform point-to-point, multi-point and relay mode communications with an autonomous self-diagnosis of each communications link. Upon detection of a communication failure, the system automatically reconfigures to establish new communication paths. These communication paths are automatically and autonomously selected as the best paths by the system based on the existing operating environment. The data acquisition system currently under development at KSC consists of the SensorNet(TradeMark) wireless sensors as the remote stations and the central station called the Radio Frequency Health Node (RFHN). The RFF1N is the central station which remotely communicates with the SensorNet(TradeMark) sensors to control them and to receive data. The system's salient feature is the ability to provide deterministic sensor data with accurate time stamps for both time critical and non

  3. Real Time Flux Control in PM Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Otaduy, P.J.

    2005-09-27

    Significant research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) is being conducted to develop ways to increase (1) torque, (2) speed range, and (3) efficiency of traction electric motors for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) within existing current and voltage bounds. Current is limited by the inverter semiconductor devices' capability and voltage is limited by the stator wire insulation's ability to withstand the maximum back-electromotive force (emf), which occurs at the upper end of the speed range. One research track has been to explore ways to control the path and magnitude of magnetic flux while the motor is operating. The phrase, real time flux control (RTFC), refers to this mode of operation in which system parameters are changed while the motor is operating to improve its performance and speed range. RTFC has potential to meet an increased torque demand by introducing additional flux through the main air gap from an external source. It can augment the speed range by diverting flux away from the main air gap to reduce back-emf at high speeds. Conventional RTFC technology is known as vector control [1]. Vector control decomposes the stator current into two components; one that produces torque and a second that opposes (weakens) the magnetic field generated by the rotor, thereby requiring more overall stator current and reducing the efficiency. Efficiency can be improved by selecting a RTFC method that reduces the back-emf without increasing the average current. This favors methods that use pulse currents or very low currents to achieve field weakening. Foremost in ORNL's effort to develop flux control is the work of J. S. Hsu. Early research [2,3] introduced direct control of air-gap flux in permanent magnet (PM) machines and demonstrated it with a flux-controlled generator. The configuration eliminates the problem of demagnetization because it diverts all the flux from the magnets instead of

  4. Fast Simulation of Tsunamis in Real Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryer, G. J.; Wang, D.; Becker, N. C.; Weinstein, S. A.; Walsh, D.

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. Tsunami Warning Centers primarily base their wave height forecasts on precomputed tsunami scenarios, such as the SIFT model (Standby Inundation Forecasting of Tsunamis) developed by NOAA's Center for Tsunami Research. In SIFT, tsunami simulations for about 1600 individual earthquake sources, each 100x50 km, define shallow subduction worldwide. These simulations are stored in a database and combined linearly to make up the tsunami from any great earthquake. Precomputation is necessary because the nonlinear shallow-water wave equations are too time consuming to compute during an event. While such scenario-based models are valuable, they tacitly assume all energy in a tsunami comes from thrust at the décollement. The thrust assumption is often violated (e.g., 1933 Sanriku, 2007 Kurils, 2009 Samoa), while a significant number of tsunamigenic earthquakes are completely unrelated to subduction (e.g., 1812 Santa Barbara, 1939 Accra, 1975 Kalapana). Finally, parts of some subduction zones are so poorly defined that precomputations may be of little value (e.g., 1762 Arakan, 1755 Lisbon). For all such sources, a fast means of estimating tsunami size is essential. At the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center, we have been using our model RIFT (Real-time Inundation Forecasting of Tsunamis) experimentally for two years. RIFT is fast by design: it solves only the linearized form of the equations. At 4 arc-minutes resolution calculations for the entire Pacific take just a few minutes on an 8-processor Linux box. Part of the rationale for developing RIFT was earthquakes of M 7.8 or smaller, which approach the lower limit of the more complex SIFT's abilities. For such events we currently issue a fixed warning to areas within 1,000 km of the source, which typically means a lot of over-warning. With sources defined by W-phase CMTs, exhaustive comparison with runup data shows that we can reduce the warning area significantly. Even before CMTs are available, we routinely run models

  5. Easy and hard testbeds for real-time search algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, S.; Simmons, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    Although researchers have studied which factors influence the behavior of traditional search algorithms, currently not much is known about how domain properties influence the performance of real-time search algorithms. In this paper we demonstrate, both theoretically and experimentally, that Eulerian state spaces (a super set of undirected state spaces) are very easy for some existing real-time search algorithms to solve: even real-time search algorithms that can be intractable, in general, are efficient for Eulerian state spaces. Because traditional real-time search testbeds (such as the eight puzzle and gridworlds) are Eulerian, they cannot be used to distinguish between efficient and inefficient real-time search algorithms. It follows that one has to use non-Eulerian domains to demonstrate the general superiority of a given algorithm. To this end, we present two classes of hard-to-search state spaces and demonstrate the performance of various real-time search algorithms on them.

  6. PERTS: A Prototyping Environment for Real-Time Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Jane W. S.; Lin, Kwei-Jay; Liu, C. L.

    1991-01-01

    We discuss an ongoing project to build a Prototyping Environment for Real-Time Systems, called PERTS. PERTS is a unique prototyping environment in that it has (1) tools and performance models for the analysis and evaluation of real-time prototype systems, (2) building blocks for flexible real-time programs and the support system software, (3) basic building blocks of distributed and intelligent real time applications, and (4) an execution environment. PERTS will make the recent and future theoretical advances in real-time system design and engineering readily usable to practitioners. In particular, it will provide an environment for the use and evaluation of new design approaches, for experimentation with alternative system building blocks and for the analysis and performance profiling of prototype real-time systems.

  7. Catalysis in real time using X-ray lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, A.; LaRue, J.; Öberg, H.; Ogasawara, H.; Dell'Angela, M.; Beye, M.; Öström, H.; Gladh, J.; Nørskov, J. K.; Wurth, W.; Abild-Pedersen, F.; Pettersson, L. G. M.

    2017-05-01

    We describe how the unique temporal and spectral characteristics of X-ray free-electron lasers (XFEL) can be utilized to follow chemical transformations in heterogeneous catalysis in real time. We highlight the systematic study of CO oxidation on Ru(0 0 0 1), which we initiate either using a femtosecond pulse from an optical laser or by activating only the oxygen atoms using a THz pulse. We find that CO is promoted into an entropy-controlled precursor state prior to desorbing when the surface is heated in the absence of oxygen, whereas in the presence of oxygen, CO desorbs directly into the gas phase. We monitor the activation of atomic oxygen explicitly by the reduced split between bonding and antibonding orbitals as the oxygen comes out of the strongly bound hollow position. Applying these novel XFEL techniques to the full oxidation reaction resulted in the surprising observation of a significant fraction of the reactants at the transition state through the electronic signature of the new bond formation.

  8. Catalysis in real time using x-ray lasers

    DOE PAGES

    Nilsson, A.; LaRue, J.; Öberg, H.; ...

    2017-02-14

    Here, we describe how the unique temporal and spectral characteristics of X-ray free-electron lasers (XFEL) can be utilized to follow chemical transformations in heterogeneous catalysis in real time. We highlight the systematic study of CO oxidation on Ru(0 0 0 1), which we initiate either using a femtosecond pulse from an optical laser or by activating only the oxygen atoms using a THz pulse. We find that CO is promoted into an entropy-controlled precursor state prior to desorbing when the surface is heated in the absence of oxygen, whereas in the presence of oxygen, CO desorbs directly into the gasmore » phase. We monitor the activation of atomic oxygen explicitly by the reduced split between bonding and antibonding orbitals as the oxygen comes out of the strongly bound hollow position. Applying these novel XFEL techniques to the full oxidation reaction resulted in the surprising observation of a significant fraction of the reactants at the transition state through the electronic signature of the new bond formation.« less

  9. Real Time Quality Control Methods for Cued EMI Data Collection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-12

    source solvers in the in-field inversion to account for magnetic soil effects and high target densities. ESTCP-MR-201264 Real Time Quality Control ...project, we evaluated an in-field Quality Control (QC) software module that incorporates a real-time inversion capability to provide field operators...several operators indicate that the interpretation of inversion results is more ESTCP-MR-201264 Real Time Quality Control Methods for Cued EMI Data

  10. A Real-Time Linux for Multicore Platforms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-20

    B . Chattopadhyay , S. Baruah. A lookup-table driven approach to partitioned scheduling, IEEE Real-Time Technology and Applications Symposium...reviewed journals: Number of Papers published in non peer-reviewed journals: ( b ) Papers published in non-peer-reviewed journals (N/ A for none) James H...Herman, B . Brandenburg, A . Mills, J. Anderson. Soft Real-Time on Multiprocessors:Are Analysis-Based Schedulers ReallyWorth It?, 32nd IEEE Real-Time

  11. Advancements in real-time engine simulation technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szuch, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The approaches used to develop real-time engine simulations are reviewed. Both digital and hybrid (analog and digital) techniques are discussed and specific examples of each are cited. These approaches are assessed from the standpoint of their usefulness for digital engine control development. A number of NASA-sponsored simulation research activities, aimed at exploring real-time simulation techniques, are described. These include the development of a microcomputer-based, parallel processor system for real-time engine simulation.

  12. Extensions to Real-time Hierarchical Mine Detection Algorithm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    Extensions to Real-Time Hierarchical Mine Detection Algorithm System Number: Patron Number: Requester: Notes: DSIS Use only: Deliver to: DK...Recherche et developpement pour Ia defense Canada Extensions to Real-Time Hierarchical Mine Detection Algorithm Final Report Sinh Duong and Mabo R. Ito...EXTENSIONS TO REAL-TIME HIERARCHICAL MINE DETECTION ALGORITHM FINAL REPORT by Smh Duong and Mabo R Ito The Univer~ity of Bntl~h Columbia Vancouver

  13. Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assays for Rickettsial Diseases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    agents in the blood stream the diseases are also difficult to diagnose by laboratory methods. For that reason we have developed real - time PCR assays to...detect rickettsial disease agents both at the genus and the species level. Real - time PCR assays were developed to identify: 1) pathogenic Rickettsia...calculate the sensitivity of the assays. These real - time PCR assays were found to be capable of detecting rickettsial disease agents quickly and with great sensitivity and specificity.

  14. PERTS: A Prototyping Environment for Real-Time Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Jane W. S.; Lin, Kwei-Jay; Liu, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    PERTS is a prototyping environment for real-time systems. It is being built incrementally and will contain basic building blocks of operating systems for time-critical applications, tools, and performance models for the analysis, evaluation and measurement of real-time systems and a simulation/emulation environment. It is designed to support the use and evaluation of new design approaches, experimentations with alternative system building blocks, and the analysis and performance profiling of prototype real-time systems.

  15. Real-time monitoring for bioaerosols--flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Shih; Li, Chih-Shan

    2007-01-01

    Bioaerosol detection in real time is an urgent civilian and military requirement. In this article, bioaerosol mass spectrometry, an instrument for real-time detection of bioaerosols using simultaneous measurement of particle aerodynamic size and intrinsic fluorescence, real-time qPCR, and FCM/FL were discussed. Although, challenging work remains to determine the interfering substances (e.g. particulates) of different environments, distinguish the specific species with specific probe, and overcome the high detection limit of FCM (10(4)-10(8) cells ml(-1)), literature reports suggested that FCM/FL has a great potential for real-time monitoring of bioaerosols.

  16. Geographically distributed real-time digital simulations using linear prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ren; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Panwar, Mayank; Hovsapian, Rob; Srivastava, Anurag; Suryanarayanan, Siddharth

    2016-07-04

    Real time simulation is a powerful tool for analyzing, planning, and operating modern power systems. For analyzing the ever evolving power systems and understanding complex dynamic and transient interactions larger real time computation capabilities are essential. These facilities are interspersed all over the globe and to leverage unique facilities geographically-distributed real-time co-simulation in analyzing the power systems is pursued and presented. However, the communication latency between different simulator locations may lead to inaccuracy in geographically distributed real-time co-simulations. In this paper, the effect of communication latency on geographically distributed real-time co-simulation is introduced and discussed. In order to reduce the effect of the communication latency, a real-time data predictor, based on linear curve fitting is developed and integrated into the distributed real-time co-simulation. Two digital real time simulators are used to perform dynamic and transient co-simulations with communication latency and predictor. Results demonstrate the effect of the communication latency and the performance of the real-time data predictor to compensate it.

  17. Geographically distributed real-time digital simulations using linear prediction

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Ren; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Panwar, Mayank; ...

    2016-07-04

    Real time simulation is a powerful tool for analyzing, planning, and operating modern power systems. For analyzing the ever evolving power systems and understanding complex dynamic and transient interactions larger real time computation capabilities are essential. These facilities are interspersed all over the globe and to leverage unique facilities geographically-distributed real-time co-simulation in analyzing the power systems is pursued and presented. However, the communication latency between different simulator locations may lead to inaccuracy in geographically distributed real-time co-simulations. In this paper, the effect of communication latency on geographically distributed real-time co-simulation is introduced and discussed. In order to reduce themore » effect of the communication latency, a real-time data predictor, based on linear curve fitting is developed and integrated into the distributed real-time co-simulation. Two digital real time simulators are used to perform dynamic and transient co-simulations with communication latency and predictor. Results demonstrate the effect of the communication latency and the performance of the real-time data predictor to compensate it.« less

  18. Real-time prediction of mediastinal lymph node malignancy by endobronchial ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Shafiek, Hanaa; Fiorentino, Federico; Peralta, Alejandro David; Serra, Enrique; Esteban, Blanca; Martinez, Rocío; Noguera, Maria Angels; Moyano, Pere; Sala, Ernest; Sauleda, Jaume; Cosío, Borja G

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the utility of different ultrasonographic (US) features in differentiating benign and malignant lymph node (LN) by endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) and validate a score for real-time clinical application. 208 mediastinal LN acquired from 141 patients were analyzed. Six different US criteria were evaluated (short axis ≥10 mm, shape, margin, echogenicity, and central hilar structure [CHS], and presence of hyperechoic density) by two observers independently. A simplified score was generated where the presence of margin distinction, round shape and short axis ≥10 mm were scored as 1 and heterogeneous echogenicity and absence of CHS were scored as 1.5. The score was evaluated prospectively for real-time clinical application in 65 LN during EBUS procedure in 39 patients undertaken by two experienced operators. These criteria were correlated with the histopathological results and the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) were calculated. Both heterogenicity and absence of CHS had the highest sensitivity and NPV (≥90%) for predicting LN malignancy with acceptable inter-observer agreement (92% and 87% respectively). On real-time application, the sensitivity and specificity of the score >5 were 78% and 86% respectively; only the absence of CHS, round shape and size of LN were significantly associated with malignant LN. Combination of different US criteria can be useful for prediction of mediastinal LN malignancy and valid for real-time clinical application. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of a Control Optimization System for Real Time Monitoring of Managed Aquifer Recharge and Recovery Systems Using Intelligent Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smits, K. M.; Drumheller, Z. W.; Lee, J. H.; Illangasekare, T. H.; Regnery, J.; Kitanidis, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    Aquifers around the world show troubling signs of irreversible depletion and seawater intrusion as climate change, population growth, and urbanization lead to reduced natural recharge rates and overuse. Scientists and engineers have begun to revisit the technology of managed aquifer recharge and recovery (MAR) as a means to increase the reliability of the diminishing and increasingly variable groundwater supply. Unfortunately, MAR systems remain wrought with operational challenges related to the quality and quantity of recharged and recovered water stemming from a lack of data-driven, real-time control. This research seeks to develop and validate a general simulation-based control optimization algorithm that relies on real-time data collected though embedded sensors that can be used to ease the operational challenges of MAR facilities. Experiments to validate the control algorithm were conducted at the laboratory scale in a two-dimensional synthetic aquifer under both homogeneous and heterogeneous packing configurations. The synthetic aquifer used well characterized technical sands and the electrical conductivity signal of an inorganic conservative tracer as a surrogate measure for water quality. The synthetic aquifer was outfitted with an array of sensors and an autonomous pumping system. Experimental results verified the feasibility of the approach and suggested that the system can improve the operation of MAR facilities. The dynamic parameter inversion reduced the average error between the simulated and observed pressures between 12.5 and 71.4%. The control optimization algorithm ran smoothly and generated optimal control decisions. Overall, results suggest that with some improvements to the inversion and interpolation algorithms, which can be further advanced through testing with laboratory experiments using sensors, the concept can successfully improve the operation of MAR facilities.

  20. Study on field weed recognition in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yong; Pan, Jiazhi; Zhang, Yun

    2006-02-01

    This research aimed to identify weeds from crops in early stage in the field by using image-processing technology. As 3CCD images offer greater binary value difference between weed and crop section than ordinary digital images taken by common cameras. It has 3 channels (green, red, ir red), which takes a snap-photo of the same area, and the three images can be composed into one image, which facilitates the segmentation of different areas. In this research, MS3100 3CCD camera is used to get images of 6 kinds of weeds and crops. Part of these images contained more than 2 kinds of plants. The leaves' shapes, sizes and colors may be very similar or differs from each other greatly. Some are sword-shaped and some (are) round. Some are large as palm and some small as peanut. Some are little brown while other is blue or green. Different combinations are taken into consideration. By the application of image-processing toolkit in MATLAB, the different areas in the image can be segmented clearly. The texture of the images was also analyzed. The processing methods include operations, such as edge detection, erosion, dilation and other algorithms to process the edge vectors and textures. It is of great importance to segment, in real time, the different areas in digital images in field. When the technique is applied in precision farming, many energies and herbicides and many other materials can be saved. At present time large scale softwares as MATLAB on PC are also used, but the computation can be reduced and integrated into a small embedded system. The research results have shown that the application of this technique in agricultural engineering is feasible and of great economical value.