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Sample records for heterophilic antibodies interfering

  1. How to use … the Monospot and other heterophile antibody tests.

    PubMed

    Marshall-Andon, Tess; Heinz, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a highly prevalent virus, transmitted via saliva, which often causes asymptomatic infection in children but frequently results in infectious mononucleosis in adolescents. Heterophile antibody tests, including the Monospot test, are red cell or latex agglutination assays, which detect antired cell antibodies produced as part of a polyclonal antibody response occurring during EBV infection. Heterophile antibody tests are rapid, cheap and specific tests that can be performed from the onset of symptoms of infectious mononucleosis. In adolescents, heterophile antibody tests have high specificity and sensitivity in the diagnosis of primary acute EBV infection. However, the tests have low sensitivity and low negative predictive value in young children and are not useful under the age of 4. Heterophile tests may be positive in other viral infections, autoimmune disease and haematological malignancies, but do not appear to be positive in primary bacterial infection. Virus-specific serology is required in children under the age of 4 or if an older child is heterophile negative. Virus-specific serology allows diagnosis and the pattern of positivity and negativity enables the clinician to stage the EBV infection. Virus-specific serology appears to have better sensitivity in young children, but there is cross-reaction with other herpesvirus infections, a longer turnaround time and it is more expensive to perform. Further research is needed to establish which children benefit from and hence require testing for heterophile antibodies, the cost-effectiveness of EBV investigations and whether heterophile titres have predictive value for the severity of infection and the likelihood of complications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Measurement of heterophil antibody and antibodies to EB viral capsid antigen IgG and IgM in suspected cases of infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Blake, J M; Edwards, J M; Fletcher, W; McSwiggan, D A; Pereira, M S

    1976-09-01

    The EBV IgG titres in acute and convalescent specimens from 97 cases of infectious mononucleosis were compared with titres from acute and convalescent sera from 96 students with illnesses resembling infectious mononucleosis but without heterophil antibody, EB IgM or EB IgG seroconversion; and also with titres from 91 healthy students known to have had EB IgG antibody for at least six months. These titres were related to the titre of the Research Standard A.66/235 for infectious mononucleosis serum prepared by the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control. Serial sera were tested for heterophil antibody and EBVCA specific IgG and IgM from 61 university students with infectious mononucleosis. The period of persistence of heterophil antibody and EBV IgM after illness was outlined from the results of the tests. Single sera from 406 patients in hospital or general practice sent to the diagnostic laboratory for heterophil antibody tests were also tested for EBV antibodies without prior knowledge of the heterophil antibody result. The close agreement between heterophil antibody and EBV IgM results is shown. False positive EB IgM results were correlated with the presence of rheumatoid factor.

  3. Heterophile antibody interference in qualitative urine/serum hCG devices: Case report.

    PubMed

    Patel, Khushbu K; Gronowski, Ann M

    2016-06-01

    This case report investigates the origin of a false positive result on a serum qualitative human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) device. A 46-year-old woman diagnosed with chronic myeloid leukemia presented with nausea and vomiting. A qualitative serum hCG test was interpreted as positive; however, a quantitative serum hCG test was negative (<5IU/L). To further investigate this discrepancy, the sample was pretreated with heterophilic blocking reagent (HBR). Additionally, the sample was tested on other qualitative hCG devices composed of antibodies from different animal sources. Blocking reagent from an automated quantitative immunoassay was also tested for its ability to inhibit the heterophile antibody interference. The qualitative test result was negative after pretreatment with heterophilic blocking reagent. Other devices composed of antibodies from different animal sources also demonstrated mixed results with the patient's sample. Blocking reagent obtained from the automated quantitative assay inhibited the heterophile antibody interference in the patient's sample. This case demonstrates that positive serum point-of-care hCG results should be interpreted with caution and confirmed with a quantitative serum hCG immunoassay when clinical suspicion is raised. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Improvement for identification of heterophile antibody interference and AFP hook effect in immunoassays with multiplex suspension bead array system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yajie; Yu, Jinsheng; Ren, Yuan; Liu, Li; Li, Haowen; Guo, Anchen; Shi, Congning; Fang, Fang; Juehne, Twyla; Yao, Jianer; Yang, Enhuan; Zhou, Xuelei; Kang, Xixiong

    2013-11-15

    A variety of immunoassays including multiplex suspension bead array have been developed for tumor marker detections; however, these assays could be compromised in their sensitivity and specificity by well-known heterophile antibody interference and hook effect. Using Luminex® multiplex suspension bead arrays, we modified protocols with two newly-developed solutions that can identify heterophile antibody interference and AFP hook effect. Effectiveness of the two solutions was assessed in serum samples from patients. Concentrations of 9 tumor markers in heterophile antibody positive samples assayed with Solution A, containing murine monoclonal antibodies and mouse serum, were significantly reduced when compared with those false high signals assayed without Solution A (all p<0.01). With incorporation of Solution H (fluorescent beads linked with AFP antigen), a new strategy for identification of AFP hook effect was established, and with this strategy AFP hook effect was identified effectively in serum samples with very high levels of AFP. Two proprietary solutions improve the identification of heterophile antibody interference and AFP hook effect. With these solutions, multiplex suspension bead arrays provide more reliable testing results in tumor marker detection where complex clinical serum samples are used. © 2013.

  5. The specificity of heterophil antibodies in patients and healthy donors with no or minimal signs of infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, C A; Henle, W; Henle, G; Polesky, H; Wexler, H; Ward, P

    1976-01-01

    Over several years sera were collected from 14 heterophil-positive students or patients who did not fulfill minimal hematologic criteria for infectious mononucleosis (I.M.) The specificity of these heterophil reactions for I.M. was investigated by determining antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus-determined antigens, i.e., to viral capsid antigens (VCA), early antigens (EA), and EBV-associated nuclear antigens (EBNA). On the basis of detectable anti-EA and/or the early absence and late emergence of anti-EBNA, four of these 14 individuals showed evidence of a current or very recent primary Epstein-Barr virus infection. The other ten patients showed antibody patterns indicative of Epstein-Barr virus infections in the past, and no firm conclusions could be drawn with regard to the specificity of their heterophil reactions. It was assumed, however, that some represented atypical clinical forms of EBV infection and that timing of specimen collection was a factor in explaining the paucity of Downey cells. In three patients, the absorbed heterophil-positive reactions persisted with little change in titer for at least 22 mo and thus might represent false-positive tests.

  6. Heterophilic antibody interference affecting multiple hormone assays: Is it due to rheumatoid factor?

    PubMed

    Mongolu, Shiva; Armston, Annie E; Mozley, Erin; Nasruddin, Azraai

    2016-01-01

    Assay interference with heterophilic antibodies has been well described in literature. Rheumatoid factor is known to cause similar interference leading to falsely elevated hormone levels when measured by immunometric methods like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or multiplex immunoasays (MIA). We report a case of a 60-year-old male patient with a history of rheumatoid arthritis referred to our endocrine clinic for investigation of hypogonadism and was found to have high serum levels of LH, FSH, SHBG, Prolactin, HCG and TSH. We suspected assay interference and further tests were performed. We used Heteroblock tubes and PEG precipitation to eliminate the interference and the hormone levels post treatment were in the normal range. We believe the interference was caused by high serum levels of rheumatoid factor. Although he was treated with thyroxine for 3 years, we believe he may have been treated inappropriately as his Free T4 level was always normal despite high TSH due to assay interference. Our case illustrates the phenomenon of heterophilic antibody interference likely due to high levels of rheumatoid factor. It is essential for clinicians and endocrinologists in particular to be aware of this possibility when making treatment decisions in these groups of patients.

  7. Persistent low levels of serum hCG due to heterophilic mouse antibodies: an unrecognized pitfall in the diagnosis of trophoblastic disease.

    PubMed

    González Aguilera, B; Syrios, P; Gadisseur, R; Luyckx, F; Cavalier, E; Beckers, A; Valdes-Socin, H

    2016-06-01

    Phantom hCG refers to persistent mild elevations of hCG, leading physicians to unnecessary treatments whereas neither a true hCG nor a trophoblastic disease is present. We report the case of a 23-year-old woman with persistent low levels of serum hCG detected one month after miscarriage. As choriocarcinoma was suspected, a chemotherapy trial of methotrexate was prescribed, without any hCG reduction. Subsequently, laparoscopy ruled out a trophoblastic residue and the patient was referred to the Endocrine Unit for further investigations. While low levels of hCG were still detected in serum, no hCG was detected in the urine. In addition, when serum was processed in a HBT tube for revealing heterophilic antibodies, hCG was no longer detected. Such finding indicated the presence of phantom hCG due to heterophilic mouse antibodies interaction. This case raises the need of clinico-biological discussion to avoid inappropriate therapeutic decisions. Based on this case experience and after review of the literature, we suggest that current gynecological protocols for the diagnosis and treatment of trophoblastic disease should consider the inclusion of urinary hCG and/or a test for serum heterophilic antibodies when appropriate.

  8. Elimination of falsely reactive results in a commercially-available West Nile virus IgM capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay by heterophilic antibody blocking reagents.

    PubMed

    Prince, Harry E; Lapé-Nixon, Mary; Givens, Tara S; Bradshaw, Tiffany; Nowicki, Marek J

    2017-05-01

    All sera initially reactive in the Focus Diagnostics West Nile virus IgM capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (WNV IgM ELISA) must be retested with background subtraction to identify falsely-reactive (FR) samples due to antibodies that bind to immunoglobulins of other animal species (heterophilic antibodies). In some settings, such as pre-transplant testing of organ donors, the reporting delay associated with retesting can have an adverse impact on donor procurement and organ placement. We sought to determine if inclusion of heterophilic antibody blockers in assay conjugate could eliminate the nonspecific reactivity of FR samples. Of 6 blocking reagents evaluated using a well-characterized FR sample, immunoglobulin inhibiting reagent from Bioreclamation (IIR) and blocker from Fitzgerald Industries (BFI) were superior in their ability to inhibit false reactivity; these 2 blockers were then used to evaluate 20 additional FR and 21 truly-reactive (TR) samples. Both blockers eliminated the reactivity of 20/21 FR samples, whereas all 21 TR samples remained reactive; further, all 13 truly non-reactive (NR) samples evaluated remained non-reactive when using blocker-containing conjugate. A subset of 22 samples were tested in parallel using the initial lot and a second lot of IIR and BFI; with one exception, all samples showed the same qualitative result using both lots of a given blocker. These findings demonstrate that modification of the Focus WNV IgM screening ELISA to include heterophilic antibody blocker IIR or BFI in assay conjugate eliminates the reactivity of most FR samples, markedly reducing the number of samples requiring further testing by background subtraction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Reversible adrenal insufficiency and heterophile antibodies in a case of autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kharb, Sandeep; Gundgurthi, Abhay; Dutta, Manoj K.; Garg, M. K.

    2013-01-01

    A 27-year-old male was admitted with diabetic ketoacidosis and altered sensorium with slurring of speech and ataxia. He was managed with intravenous insulin and fluids and later shifted to basal bolus insulin regimen and during further evaluation was diagnosed to be suffering from primary hypothyroidism and adrenal insufficiency. He was started on thyroxin replacement and steroids only during stress. After three months of follow up he was clinically euthyroid. His glycemic control was adequate on oral anti-hyperglycemic drugs and adrenal insufficiency recovered. However, his thyrotropin levels were persistently elevated on adequate replacement doses of thyroxin. His repeat TSH was estimated after precipitating serum with polyethylene glycol which revealed normal TSH. Here we report reversible adrenal insufficiency with hypothyroidism with falsely raised TSH because of presence of heterophile antibodies in a case of poly glandular endocrinopathy syndrome. PMID:24910843

  10. Reversible adrenal insufficiency and heterophile antibodies in a case of autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kharb, Sandeep; Gundgurthi, Abhay; Dutta, Manoj K; Garg, M K

    2013-12-01

    A 27-year-old male was admitted with diabetic ketoacidosis and altered sensorium with slurring of speech and ataxia. He was managed with intravenous insulin and fluids and later shifted to basal bolus insulin regimen and during further evaluation was diagnosed to be suffering from primary hypothyroidism and adrenal insufficiency. He was started on thyroxin replacement and steroids only during stress. After three months of follow up he was clinically euthyroid. His glycemic control was adequate on oral anti-hyperglycemic drugs and adrenal insufficiency recovered. However, his thyrotropin levels were persistently elevated on adequate replacement doses of thyroxin. His repeat TSH was estimated after precipitating serum with polyethylene glycol which revealed normal TSH. Here we report reversible adrenal insufficiency with hypothyroidism with falsely raised TSH because of presence of heterophile antibodies in a case of poly glandular endocrinopathy syndrome.

  11. Heterophilic interference in specimens yielding false-reactive results on the Abbott 4th generation ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo assay.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, S; Caswell, D; Gill, M J; Kadkhoda, K; Charlton, C L; Levett, P N; Hatchette, T; Garceau, R; Maregmen, J; Mazzulli, T; Needle, R; Kadivar, K; Kim, J

    2018-07-01

    False-reactivity in HIV-negative specimens has been detected in HIV fourth-generation antigen/antibody or 'combo' assays which are able to detect both anti-HIV-1/HIV-2 antibodies and HIV-1 antigen. We sought to characterize these specimens and determine the effect of heterophilic interference. Specimens previously testing as false-reactive on the Abbott ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab combo assay and re-tested on a different (Siemens ADVIA Centaur HIV Ag/Ab) assay. A subset of these specimens were also pre-treated with heterophilic blocking agents and re-tested on the Abbott assay. Here we report that 95% (252/264) of clinical specimens that were repeatedly reactive on the Abbott ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab combo assay (S/Co range, 0.94-678) were negative when re-tested on a different fourth generation HIV combo assay (Siemens ADVIA Centaur HIV Ag/Ab). All 264 samples were subsequently confirmed to be HIV negative. On a small subset (57) of specimens with available volume, pre-treatment with two different reagents (HBT; Heterophilic Blocking Tube, NABT; Non-Specific Blocking Tube) designed to block heterophilic antibody interference either eliminated (HBT) or reduced (NABT) the false reactivity when re-tested on the ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab combo assay. Our results suggest that the Abbott ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab combo assay can be prone to heterophilic antibody interference. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermostability of heterophile antibodies from human sera infected with Schistosoma mansoni and geo-helminths. An immuno-metric statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Chamone, Munir; Atuncar, Gregorio S; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Zech

    2006-01-01

    Antibody in human sera that induces lysis of sheep erythrocytes in hemolytic assay was investigated. The present study showed that the presence in serum of the thermostable cytolytic anti-sheep red blood cells antibodies is dependent on the Schistosoma mansoni infection, and this is more frequent in adults than in children. The thermostable characteristic of hemolysins in normal sera was not dependent on the presence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura or hookworm geo-helminths. Further, thermostable complement-activating heterophile antibodies were noticed in children in association with massive number of S. mansoni eggs. The results were obtained by using the z- and the chi-square tests. The z-test allows us to formulate a one-sided alternative, i.e., a tendency of one of the attributes. On the other hand, the chi-square test analyzes the independence between attributes by using a contingency table. Besides the obtained results being interesting in the field of schistosomiasis mansoni, they can provide a new insight into the use of statistics in medical science.

  13. Antibody mediated in vivo delivery of small interfering RNAs via cell-surface receptors.

    PubMed

    Song, Erwei; Zhu, Pengcheng; Lee, Sang-Kyung; Chowdhury, Dipanjan; Kussman, Steven; Dykxhoorn, Derek M; Feng, Yi; Palliser, Deborah; Weiner, David B; Shankar, Premlata; Marasco, Wayne A; Lieberman, Judy

    2005-06-01

    Delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) into cells is a key obstacle to their therapeutic application. We designed a protamine-antibody fusion protein to deliver siRNA to HIV-infected or envelope-transfected cells. The fusion protein (F105-P) was designed with the protamine coding sequence linked to the C terminus of the heavy chain Fab fragment of an HIV-1 envelope antibody. siRNAs bound to F105-P induced silencing only in cells expressing HIV-1 envelope. Additionally, siRNAs targeted against the HIV-1 capsid gene gag, inhibited HIV replication in hard-to-transfect, HIV-infected primary T cells. Intratumoral or intravenous injection of F105-P-complexed siRNAs into mice targeted HIV envelope-expressing B16 melanoma cells, but not normal tissue or envelope-negative B16 cells; injection of F105-P with siRNAs targeting c-myc, MDM2 and VEGF inhibited envelope-expressing subcutaneous B16 tumors. Furthermore, an ErbB2 single-chain antibody fused with protamine delivered siRNAs specifically into ErbB2-expressing cancer cells. This study demonstrates the potential for systemic, cell-type specific, antibody-mediated siRNA delivery.

  14. Heterophilic binding of the adhesion molecules poliovirus receptor and immunoglobulin superfamily 4A in the interaction between mouse spermatogenic and Sertoli cells.

    PubMed

    Wakayama, Tomohiko; Sai, Yoshimichi; Ito, Akihiko; Kato, Yukio; Kurobo, Miho; Murakami, Yoshinori; Nakashima, Emi; Tsuji, Akira; Kitamura, Yukihiko; Iseki, Shoichi

    2007-06-01

    The cell adhesion protein immunoglobulin superfamily 4A (IGSF4A) is expressed on the surfaces of spermatogenic cells in the mouse testis. During spermatogenesis, IGSF4A is considered to bind to the surface of Sertoli cells in a heterophilic manner. To identify this unknown partner of IGSF4A, we generated rat monoclonal antibodies against the membrane proteins of mouse Sertoli cells grown in primary culture. Using these monoclonal antibodies, we isolated a clone that immunostained Sertoli cells and reacted with the product of immunoprecipitation of the homogenate of mouse testis with anti-IGSF4A antibody. Subsequently, to identify the Sertoli cell membrane protein that is recognized by this monoclonal antibody, we performed expression cloning of a cDNA library from the mouse testis. As a result, we identified poliovirus receptor (PVR), which is another IGSF-type cell adhesion molecule, as the binding partner of IGSF4A. The antibodies raised against PVR and IGSF4A immunoprecipitated both antigens in the homogenate of mouse testis. Immunoreactivity for PVR was present in Sertoli cells but not in spermatogenic cells at all stages of spermatogenesis. Overexpression of PVR in TM4, a mouse Sertoli cell line, increased more than three-fold its capacity to adhere to Tera-2, which is a human cell line that expresses IGSF4A. These findings suggest that the heterophilic binding of PVR to IGSF4A is responsible, at least in part, for the interaction between Sertoli and spermatogenic cells during mouse spermatogenesis.

  15. Dengue vaccine-induced CD8+ T cell immunity confers protection in the context of enhancing, interfering maternal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Lam, Jian Hang; Chua, Yen Leong; Lee, Pei Xuan; Martínez Gómez, Julia María; Ooi, Eng Eong; Alonso, Sylvie

    2017-12-21

    Declining levels of maternal antibodies were shown to sensitize infants born to dengue-immune mothers to severe disease during primary infection, through the process of antibody-dependent enhancement of infection (ADE). With the recent approval for human use of Sanofi-Pasteur's chimeric dengue vaccine CYD-TDV and several vaccine candidates in clinical development, the scenario of infants born to vaccinated mothers has become a reality. This raises 2 questions: will declining levels of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies cause ADE; and, will maternal antibodies interfere with vaccination efficacy in the infant? To address these questions, the above scenario was modeled in mice. Type I IFN-deficient female mice were immunized with live attenuated DENV2 PDK53, the core component of the tetravalent DENVax candidate currently under clinical development. Pups born to PDK53-immunized dams acquired maternal antibodies that strongly neutralized parental strain 16681, but not the heterologous DENV2 strain D2Y98P-PP1, and instead caused ADE during primary infection with this strain. Furthermore, pups failed to seroconvert after PDK53 vaccination, owing to maternal antibody interference. However, a cross-protective multifunctional CD8+ T cell response did develop. Thus, our work advocates for the development of dengue vaccine candidates that induce protective CD8+ T cells despite the presence of enhancing, interfering maternal antibodies.

  16. Real-time quantification of antibody-short interfering RNA conjugate in serum by antigen capture reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Tan, Martha; Vernes, Jean-Michel; Chan, Joyce; Cuellar, Trinna L; Asundi, Aarati; Nelson, Christopher; Yip, Victor; Shen, Ben; Vandlen, Richard; Siebel, Christian; Meng, Y Gloria

    2012-11-15

    Short interfering RNA (siRNA) has therapeutic potential. However, efficient delivery is a formidable task. To facilitate delivery of siRNA into cells, we covalently conjugated siRNA to antibodies that bind to cell surface proteins and internalize. Understanding how these antibody-siRNA conjugates function in vivo requires pharmacokinetic analysis. Thus, we developed a simple real-time antigen capture reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay to detect intact antibody-siRNA conjugates. Biotinylated antigen bound to streptavidin-coated PCR tubes was used to capture antibody-siRNA conjugate. The captured antibody-siRNA conjugate was then reverse-transcribed in the same tube, avoiding a sample transfer step. This reproducible assay had a wide standard curve range of 0.029 to 480ng/ml and could detect as low as 0.58ng/ml antibody-siRNA conjugates in mouse serum. The presence of unconjugated antibody that could be generated from siRNA degradation in vivo did not affect the assay as long as the total antibody concentration in the antigen capture step did not exceed 480ng/ml. Using this assay, we observed a more rapid decrease in serum antibody-siRNA conjugate concentrations than the total antibody concentrations in mice dosed with antibody-siRNA conjugates, suggesting loss of siRNA from the antibody. This assay is useful for optimizing antibody-siRNA and likely aptamer-siRNA conjugates to improve pharmacokinetics and aid siRNA delivery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Systemic Edwardsiella tarda infection in a Western African lungfish (Protopterus annectens) with cytologic observation of heterophil projections.

    PubMed

    Rousselet, Estelle; Stacy, Nicole I; Rotstein, David S; Waltzek, Tom B; Griffin, Matt J; Francis-Floyd, Ruth

    2018-06-08

    This report describes a case of systemic bacterial infection caused by Edwardsiella tarda in a Western African lungfish (Protopterus annectens) exposed to poor environmental and husbandry conditions. The fish presented with a large, external ulcerative lesion and died 2 weeks after developing anorexia. Histological evaluation revealed multifocal areas of necrosis and heterophilic and histiocytic inflammation throughout multiple tissues. Gram stain identified small numbers of intra- and extracellular monomorphic Gram-negative 1 to 2 μm rod-shaped bacilli. Cytology of lung granuloma, kidney and testes imprints identified heterophilic inflammation with phagocytosis of small monomorphic bacilli and some heterophils exhibiting cytoplasmic projections indicative of heterophil extracellular traps (HETs). Initial phenotypic analysis of isolates from coelomic fluid cultures identified E. tarda. Subsequent molecular analysis of spleen, liver and intestine DNA using an E. tarda-specific endpoint PCR assay targeting the bacterial fimbrial subunit yielded a 115 bp band. Sequencing and BLASTN search revealed the sequence was identical (76/76) to E. tarda strain FL95-01 (GenBank acc. CP011359) and displayed 93% sequence identity (66/71) to Edwardsiella hoshinae strain ATCC 35051 (GenBank acc. CP011359). This is the first report of systemic edwardsiellosis in a lungfish with concurrent cytologically identified structures suggestive of HETs. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor reveals complex homophilic and heterophilic interactions on neural cells.

    PubMed

    Patzke, Christopher; Max, Klaas E A; Behlke, Joachim; Schreiber, Jadwiga; Schmidt, Hannes; Dorner, Armin A; Kröger, Stephan; Henning, Mechthild; Otto, Albrecht; Heinemann, Udo; Rathjen, Fritz G

    2010-02-24

    The coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) is a member of the Ig superfamily strongly expressed in the developing nervous system. Our histological investigations during development reveal an initial uniform distribution of CAR on all neural cells with a concentration on membranes that face the margins of the nervous system (e.g., the basal laminae and the ventricular side). At more advanced stages, CAR becomes downregulated and restricted to specific regions including areas rich in axonal and dendritic surfaces. To study the function of CAR on neural cells, we used the fiber knob of the adenovirus, extracellular CAR domains, blocking antibodies to CAR, as well as CAR-deficient neural cells. Blocking antibodies were found to inhibit neurite extension in retina organ and retinal explant cultures, whereas the application of the recombinant fiber knob of the adenovirus subtype Ad2 or extracellular CAR domains promoted neurite extension and adhesion to extracellular matrices. We observed a promiscuous interaction of CAR with extracellular matrix glycoproteins, which was deduced from analytical ultracentrifugation experiments, affinity chromatography, and adhesion assays. The membrane proximal Ig domain of CAR, termed D2, was found to bind to a fibronectin fragment, including the heparin-binding domain 2, which promotes neurite extension of wild type, but not of CAR-deficient neural cells. In contrast to heterophilic interactions, homophilic association of CAR involves both Ig domains, as was revealed by ultracentrifugation, chemical cross-linking, and adhesion studies. The results of these functional and binding studies are correlated to a U-shaped homodimer of the complete extracellular domains of CAR detected by x-ray crystallography.

  19. An unusual cysteine VL87 affects the antibody fragment conformations without interfering with the disulfide bond formation.

    PubMed

    Attallah, Carolina; Aguilar, María Fernanda; Garay, A Sergio; Herrera, Fernando E; Etcheverrigaray, Marina; Oggero, Marcos; Rodrigues, Daniel E

    2017-10-01

    The Cys residues are almost perfectly conserved in all antibodies. They contribute significantly to the antibody fragment stability. The relevance of two natural contiguous Cys residues of an anti-recombinant human-follicle stimulation hormone (rhFSH) in a format of single-chain variable fragment (scFv) was studied. This scFv contains 5 Cys residues: V H 22 and V H 92 in the variable heavy chain (V H ) and V L 23, V L 87 and V L 88 in the variable light chain (V L ). The influence of two unusual contiguous Cys at positions V L 87 and V L 88 was studied by considering the wild type fragment and mutant variants: V L -C88S, V L -C87S, V L -C87Y. The analysis was carried out using antigen-binding ability measurement by indirect specific ELISA and a detailed molecular modeling that comprises homology methods, long molecular dynamics simulations and docking. We found that V L -C87 affected the antibody fragment stability without interfering with the disulfide bond formation. The effect of mutating the V L -C87 by a usual residue at this position like Tyr caused distant structural changes at the V H region that confers a higher mobility to the V H -CDR2 and V H -CDR3 loops improving the scFv binding to the antigen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence and causes of abnormal PSA recovery.

    PubMed

    Lautenbach, Noémie; Müntener, Michael; Zanoni, Paolo; Saleh, Lanja; Saba, Karim; Umbehr, Martin; Velagapudi, Srividya; Hof, Danielle; Sulser, Tullio; Wild, Peter J; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Poyet, Cédric

    2018-01-26

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is of paramount importance as a diagnostic tool for the detection and monitoring of patients with prostate cancer. In the presence of interfering factors such as heterophilic antibodies or anti-PSA antibodies the PSA test can yield significantly falsified results. The prevalence of these factors is unknown. We determined the recovery of PSA concentrations diluting patient samples with a standard serum of known PSA concentration. Based on the frequency distribution of recoveries in a pre-study on 268 samples, samples with recoveries <80% or >120% were defined as suspect, re-tested and further characterized to identify the cause of interference. A total of 1158 consecutive serum samples were analyzed. Four samples (0.3%) showed reproducibly disturbed recoveries of 10%, 68%, 166% and 4441%. In three samples heterophilic antibodies were identified as the probable cause, in the fourth anti-PSA-autoantibodies. The very low recovery caused by the latter interference was confirmed in serum, as well as heparin- and EDTA plasma of blood samples obtained 6 months later. Analysis by eight different immunoassays showed recoveries ranging between <10% and 80%. In a follow-up study of 212 random plasma samples we found seven samples with autoantibodies against PSA which however did not show any disturbed PSA recovery. About 0.3% of PSA determinations by the electrochemiluminescence assay (ECLIA) of Roche diagnostics are disturbed by heterophilic or anti-PSA autoantibodies. Although they are rare, these interferences can cause relevant misinterpretations of a PSA test result.

  1. Two pseudo-outbreaks of infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, C W; Hackler, R L; Miller, G B

    1986-01-01

    Two outbreaks of suspected infectious mononucleosis (IM) were investigated. In the first outbreak IM was diagnosed in nine children attending a day care center. They had been tested in physicians' offices for heterophile antibody using rapid differential slide tests; all tests had been reported positive. On retesting, none of the suspected cases had detectable serum heterophile antibody. The initial test results had been falsely positive as a result of poor laboratory technique. In the second outbreak IM had been diagnosed in 285 college students. Suspected cases had been found to have serum IgG antibody to the viral capsid antigen of Epstein-Barr virus, but most had not been tested for the presence of heterophile antibody. Retesting of 64 students within 1 month of initial testing yielded only one with heterophile antibody. With the exception of young children (less than 4 years of age), differential slide tests for heterophile antibody are sensitive and specific for recent Epstein-Barr virus infection if properly performed. Viral capsid antigen to Epstein-Barr virus (IgG) titers are of limited usefulness in diagnosing acute IM. The misdiagnosis of IM can be prevented by the appropriate selection, performance and interpretation of diagnostic laboratory tests.

  2. Mononucleosis spot test

    MedlinePlus

    Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

  3. Gene expression profiling in chicken heterophils with Salmonella enteritidis stimulation using a chicken 44 K Agilent microarray

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) is one of the most common food-borne pathogens that cause human salmonellosis and usually results from the consumption of contaminated poultry products. The mechanism of SE resistance in chickens remains largely unknown. Previously, heterophils isolated...

  4. Quercetin manipulates the expression of genes involved in the reactive oxygen species (ROS) processin chicken heterophils.

    PubMed

    Nambooppha, Boondarika; Photichai, Kornravee; Wongsawan, Kanreuthai; Chuammitri, Phongsakorn

    2018-06-06

    Chicken heterophils generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) molecules to defend against invading pathogens. The present study examined effects of quercetin on chicken heterophils. Heterophils were stimulated with PBS, 50 μM quercetin (QH), PMA or Escherichia coli (EC) and the resulting intracellular ROS molecules were determined. Flow cytometry results showed that cells stimulated with QH, PMA and EC had a higher ROS production. Increases in intracellular ROS molecules were identified in all treatment groups by fluorescence microscopy. Determination of the ability of quercetin to manipulate mRNA expression of ROS subunits was assessed using real-time RT-PCR. Quercetin and other stimulants up-regulated the majority of genes involved in ROS production: CYBB (NOX2), NCF1 (p47 phox ), NCF2 (p67 phox ), NOX1 and RAC2. The antioxidant property of QH was explored by measuring mRNA expression of CAT and SOD1. The data indicate increased levels of CAT with all treatments; however, only QH attenuated the expression ofthe SOD1 gene. To further investigate the effects of ROS-driven inflammation or cell death, IL6, CASP8, and MCL1 genes were preferentially tested. The inflammatory gene (IL6) was profoundly down-regulated in the QH- and PMA-treated groups while EC induced a strikingly high IL6 expression level. Investigation of the known apoptotic (CASP8) and anti-apoptotic (MCL1) genes found down-regulation of CASP8 in the QH- and PMA-treated groups which were contradicted to the MCL1 gene. In conclusion, quercetin can enhance ROS production by regulating the expression of genes involved in ROS production as well as in subsequent processes.

  5. Neuroglian on hemocyte surfaces is involved in homophilic and heterophilic interactions of the innate immune system of Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Shufei; Kelo, Lisha; Nardi, James B; Kanost, Michael R

    2007-01-01

    Neuroglian, a member of the L1 family of cell adhesion molecules (L1-CAMs), is expressed on surfaces of granular cells and a subset of large plasmatocytes of Manduca sexta that act as foci for hemocyte aggregation during the innate immune response. Neuroglian expressed on surfaces of transfected Sf9 cells induced their homophilic aggregation, with the aggregation being abolished in the presence of recombinant immunoglobulin (Ig) domains of neuroglian. Neuroglian and its Ig domains also can interact with hemocyte-specific integrin (HS integrin) as demonstrated with an enzyme-linked immunoassay and a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assay. Neuroglian double-stranded (ds) RNA not only depresses expression of neuroglian in hemocytes but also depresses the cell-mediated encapsulation response of these hemocytes to foreign surfaces. After injection of a monoclonal antibody (MAb 3B11) into M. sexta larvae that recognizes the Ig domains of neuroglian, the cell-mediated encapsulation response of hemocytes was likewise inhibited. The Ig domains of neuroglian are involved in both homophilic and heterophilic interactions, and subsets of these six different Ig domains may affect different functions of neuroglian.

  6. An evaluation of the Monosticon rapid slide test diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis

    PubMed Central

    Scott, G. L.; Priest, C. J.

    1972-01-01

    A new rapid slide test for the detection of infectious mononucleosis heterophile antibody has been compared with the Paul-Bunnell absorption test. Out of 200 sera, 46 were seropositive for infectious mononucleosis by the Paul-Bunnell test and 43 of these were detected by the Monosticon test; the three Monosticon-negative sera were of low titre. There was no problem with false positive reactions due to heterophile antibody not specific for infectious mononucleosis. PMID:4678188

  7. Heterophil Phagocytic Activity Stimulated by Lactobacillus salivarius L61 and L55 Supplementation in Broilers with Salmonella Infection.

    PubMed

    Sornplang, Pairat; Leelavatcharamas, Vichai; Soikum, Chaiyaporn

    2015-11-01

    Newborn chicks are susceptible to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus probiotic isolated from chicken feces on heterophil phagocytosis in broiler chicks. A total of 150 newborn broiler chicks were divided into 5 groups (30 chicks per group) as follows: group 1 (normal control), given feed and water only, group 2 (positive control) given feed, water and SE infection, group 3 (L61 treated) given feed, water, SE infection followed by Lactobacillus salivarius L61 treatment, group 4 (L55 treated) given feed, water, SE infection followed by L. salivarius L55 treatment, and group 5 given feed, water, SE infection followed by L. salivarius L61 + L55 combination treatment. After SE infection, L. salivarius treatment lasted for 7 days. The results showed that L. salivarius L61 and L. salivarius L55 treatment, either alone or combination of both, increased the survival rate after SE infection, and upregulated heterophil phagocytosis and phagocytic index (PI). Conversely, chick groups treated with Lactobacillus showed lower SE recovery rate from cecal tonsils than that of the positive control group. The PI values of the chicken group with SE infection, followed by the combination of L. salivarius L61 and L. salivarius L55 were the highest as compared to either positive control or normal control group. Two Lactobacillus strains supplementation group showed significantly (p<0.05) higher PI value at 48 h than 24 h after treatment.

  8. Humoral responses in human organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Marion; Pierce, J. C.; Moncure, C. W.; Hume, D. M.

    1972-01-01

    The plasmas of fifteen patients undergoing organ transplantation were serially tested for a variety of humoral antibodies. The antibodies studied were those which usually reflect covert immunologic events, i.e. the antiglobulins (rheumatoid factors and serum agglutinators), heterophile antibodies and typical and atypical isoantibodies. Although the isoantibodies and the heterophile antibodies were not significantly stimulated by organ transplantation, the administration of ALG (horse antilymphocyte globulin) invariably led to the presence of antihorse globulin antibodies. Three patients were Rh negative and received organs from Rh-positive donors. However, only one of the patients responded with anti-Rh antibodies, but these antibodies exceeded in titre the anti-Rh antibodies usually observed following intentional immunization of normal volunteers. The most startling observation was the significant increase in titres of the serum agglutinators in eight of the patients. These observations suggest that the antigen–antibody complexes associated with chronic rejection may stimulate the production of the serum agglutinators. PMID:4625156

  9. Single-chain antibody-delivered Livin siRNA inhibits human malignant melanoma growth in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Yang, Yifei; Wang, Wei; Guan, Bing; Xun, Meng; Zhang, Hai; Wang, Ziling; Zhao, Yong

    2017-05-01

    Although gene therapy has brought new insights into the treatment of malignant melanoma, targeting delivery of nucleic acid which targets critical oncogene/anti-oncogene in vivo is still a bottleneck in the therapeutic application. Our previous in vitro studies have found that the oncogene Livin could serve as a potential molecular target by small interfering RNA for gene therapy of malignant melanoma. However, how to transport Livin small interfering RNA into malignant melanoma cells specifically and efficiently in vivo needs further investigation. Cumulative evidence has suggested that single-chain antibody-mediated small interfering RNA targeted delivery is an effective way to silence specific genes in human cancer cells. Indeed, this study designed a protamine-single-chain antibody fusion protein, anti-MM scFv-tP, to deliver Livin small interfering RNA into LiBr cells. Further experiments confirmed the induction of cell apoptosis and suppression of cell proliferation by anti-MM scFv-tP in LiBr cells, along with efficient silence of Livin gene both in vitro and in vivo. Altogether, our findings provide a feasible approach to transport Livin small interfering RNA to malignant melanoma cells which would be a new therapeutic strategy for combating malignant melanoma.

  10. Anti-CD22 Antibody Targeting of pH-responsive Micelles Enhances Small Interfering RNA Delivery and Gene Silencing in Lymphoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Palanca-Wessels, Maria C; Convertine, Anthony J; Cutler-Strom, Richelle; Booth, Garrett C; Lee, Fan; Berguig, Geoffrey Y; Stayton, Patrick S; Press, Oliver W

    2011-01-01

    The application of small interfering RNA (siRNA) for cancer treatment is a promising strategy currently being explored in early phase clinical trials. However, efficient systemic delivery limits clinical implementation. We developed and tested a novel delivery system comprised of (i) an internalizing streptavidin-conjugated monoclonal antibody (mAb-SA) directed against CD22 and (ii) a biotinylated diblock copolymer containing both a positively charged siRNA condensing block and a pH-responsive block to facilitate endosome release. The modular design of the carrier facilitates the exchange of different targeting moieties and siRNAs to permit its usage in a variety of tumor types. The polymer was synthesized using the reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) technique and formed micelles capable of binding siRNA and mAb-SA. A hemolysis assay confirmed the predicted membrane destabilizing activity of the polymer under acidic conditions typical of the endosomal compartment. Enhanced siRNA uptake was demonstrated in DoHH2 lymphoma and transduced HeLa-R cells expressing CD22 but not in CD22 negative HeLa-R cells. Gene knockdown was significantly improved with CD22-targeted vs. nontargeted polymeric micelles. Treatment of DoHH2 cells with CD22-targeted polymeric micelles containing 15 nmol/l siRNA produced 70% reduction of gene expression. This CD22-targeted polymer carrier may be useful for siRNA delivery to lymphoma cells. PMID:21629223

  11. Anti-CD22 antibody targeting of pH-responsive micelles enhances small interfering RNA delivery and gene silencing in lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Palanca-Wessels, Maria C; Convertine, Anthony J; Cutler-Strom, Richelle; Booth, Garrett C; Lee, Fan; Berguig, Geoffrey Y; Stayton, Patrick S; Press, Oliver W

    2011-08-01

    The application of small interfering RNA (siRNA) for cancer treatment is a promising strategy currently being explored in early phase clinical trials. However, efficient systemic delivery limits clinical implementation. We developed and tested a novel delivery system comprised of (i) an internalizing streptavidin-conjugated monoclonal antibody (mAb-SA) directed against CD22 and (ii) a biotinylated diblock copolymer containing both a positively charged siRNA condensing block and a pH-responsive block to facilitate endosome release. The modular design of the carrier facilitates the exchange of different targeting moieties and siRNAs to permit its usage in a variety of tumor types. The polymer was synthesized using the reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) technique and formed micelles capable of binding siRNA and mAb-SA. A hemolysis assay confirmed the predicted membrane destabilizing activity of the polymer under acidic conditions typical of the endosomal compartment. Enhanced siRNA uptake was demonstrated in DoHH2 lymphoma and transduced HeLa-R cells expressing CD22 but not in CD22 negative HeLa-R cells. Gene knockdown was significantly improved with CD22-targeted vs. nontargeted polymeric micelles. Treatment of DoHH2 cells with CD22-targeted polymeric micelles containing 15 nmol/l siRNA produced 70% reduction of gene expression. This CD22-targeted polymer carrier may be useful for siRNA delivery to lymphoma cells.

  12. Polymers in Small-Interfering RNA Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Singha, Kaushik; Namgung, Ran

    2011-01-01

    This review will cover the current strategies that are being adopted to efficiently deliver small interfering RNA using nonviral vectors, including the use of polymers such as polyethylenimine, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), polypeptides, chitosan, cyclodextrin, dendrimers, and polymers-containing different nanoparticles. The article will provide a brief and concise account of underlying principle of these polymeric vectors and their structural and functional modifications which were intended to serve different purposes to affect efficient therapeutic outcome of small-interfering RNA delivery. The modifications of these polymeric vectors will be discussed with reference to stimuli-responsiveness, target specific delivery, and incorporation of nanoconstructs such as carbon nanotubes, gold nanoparticles, and silica nanoparticles. The emergence of small-interfering RNA as the potential therapeutic agent and its mode of action will also be mentioned in a nutshell. PMID:21749290

  13. Altered Functionality of Anti-Bacterial Antibodies in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lamontagne, Anne; Long, Ronald E.; Comunale, Mary Ann; Hafner, Julie; Rodemich-Betesh, Lucy; Wang, Mengjun; Marrero, Jorge; Di Bisceglie, Adrian M.; Block, Timothy; Mehta, Anand

    2013-01-01

    Background Using comparative glycoproteomics, we have previously identified a glycoprotein that is altered in both amount and glycosylation as a function of liver cirrhosis. The altered glycoprotein is an agalactosylated (G0) immunoglobulin G molecule (IgG) that recognizes the heterophilic alpha-gal epitope. Since the alpha gal epitope is found on gut enterobacteria, it has been hypothesized that anti-gal antibodies are generated as a result of increased bacterial exposure in patients with liver disease. Methods The N-linked glycosylation of anti-gal IgG molecules from patients with fibrosis and cirrhosis was determined and the effector function of anti-bacterial antibodies from over 100 patients examined. In addition, markers of microbial exposure were determined. Results Surprisingly, the subset of agalactosylated anti-gal antibodies described here, was impaired in their ability to mediate complement mediated lysis and inhibited the complement-mediated destruction of common gut bacteria. In an analysis of serum from more than 100 patients with liver disease, we have shown that those with increased levels of this modified anti-gal antibody had increased levels of markers of bacterial exposure. Conclusions Anti-gal antibodies in patients with liver cirrhosis were reduced in their ability to mediate complement mediated lysis of target cells. As bacterial infection is a major complication in patients with cirrhosis and bacterial products such as LPS are thought to play a major role in the development and progression of liver fibrosis, this finding has many clinical implications in the etiology, prognosis and treatment of liver disease. PMID:23750224

  14. Emergence of anti-red blood cell antibodies triggers red cell phagocytosis by activated macrophages in a rabbit model of Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Wen-Chuan; Chang, Yao; Hsu, Mei-Chi; Lan, Bau-Shin; Hsiao, Guan-Chung; Chuang, Huai-Chia; Su, Ih-Jen

    2007-05-01

    Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is a fatal complication frequently associated with viral infections. In childhood HPS, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the major causative agent, and red blood cells (RBCs) are predominantly phagocytosed by macrophages. To investigate the mechanism of RBC phagocytosis triggered by EBV infection, we adopted a rabbit model of EBV-associated HPS previously established by using Herpesvirus papio (HVP). The kinetics of virus-host interaction was studied. Using flow cytometry, we detected the emergence of antibody-coated RBCs, as well as anti-platelet antibodies, at peak virus load period at weeks 3 to 4 after HVP injection, and the titers increased thereafter. The presence of anti-RBCs preceded RBC phagocytosis in tissues and predicted the full-blown development of HPS. The anti-RBC antibodies showed cross-reactivity with Paul-Bunnell heterophile antibodies. Preabsorption of the HVP-infected serum with control RBCs removed the majority of anti-RBC activities and remarkably reduced RBC phagocytosis. The RBC phagocytosis was specifically mediated via an Fc fragment of antibodies in the presence of macrophage activation. Therefore, the emergence of anti-RBC antibodies and the presence of macrophage activation are both essential in the development of HPS. Our observations in this animal model provide a potential mechanism for hemophagocytosis in EBV infection.

  15. Emergence of Anti-Red Blood Cell Antibodies Triggers Red Cell Phagocytosis by Activated Macrophages in a Rabbit Model of Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Hemophagocytic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Wen-Chuan; Chang, Yao; Hsu, Mei-Chi; Lan, Bau-Shin; Hsiao, Guan-Chung; Chuang, Huai-Chia; Su, Ih-Jen

    2007-01-01

    Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is a fatal complication frequently associated with viral infections. In childhood HPS, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the major causative agent, and red blood cells (RBCs) are predominantly phagocytosed by macrophages. To investigate the mechanism of RBC phagocytosis triggered by EBV infection, we adopted a rabbit model of EBV-associated HPS previously established by using Herpesvirus papio (HVP). The kinetics of virus-host interaction was studied. Using flow cytometry, we detected the emergence of antibody-coated RBCs, as well as anti-platelet antibodies, at peak virus load period at weeks 3 to 4 after HVP injection, and the titers increased thereafter. The presence of anti-RBCs preceded RBC phagocytosis in tissues and predicted the full-blown development of HPS. The anti-RBC antibodies showed cross-reactivity with Paul-Bunnell heterophile antibodies. Preabsorption of the HVP-infected serum with control RBCs removed the majority of anti-RBC activities and remarkably reduced RBC phagocytosis. The RBC phagocytosis was specifically mediated via an Fc fragment of antibodies in the presence of macrophage activation. Therefore, the emergence of anti-RBC antibodies and the presence of macrophage activation are both essential in the development of HPS. Our observations in this animal model provide a potential mechanism for hemophagocytosis in EBV infection. PMID:17456768

  16. 32 CFR 1903.8 - Interfering with Agency functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interfering with Agency functions. 1903.8 Section 1903.8 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.8 Interfering with Agency functions. The following are prohibited...

  17. 32 CFR 1903.8 - Interfering with Agency functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interfering with Agency functions. 1903.8 Section 1903.8 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.8 Interfering with Agency functions. The following are prohibited...

  18. 32 CFR 1903.8 - Interfering with Agency functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interfering with Agency functions. 1903.8 Section 1903.8 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.8 Interfering with Agency functions. The following are prohibited...

  19. 32 CFR 1903.8 - Interfering with Agency functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interfering with Agency functions. 1903.8 Section 1903.8 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.8 Interfering with Agency functions. The following are prohibited...

  20. 32 CFR 1903.8 - Interfering with Agency functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interfering with Agency functions. 1903.8 Section 1903.8 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.8 Interfering with Agency functions. The following are prohibited...

  1. Composing Interfering Abstract Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    Tecnologia , Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica, Portugal. This document is a companion technical report of the paper, “Composing Interfering Abstract...a Ciência e Tecnologia (Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) through the Carnegie Mellon Portugal Program under grant SFRH / BD / 33765

  2. 32 CFR 234.6 - Interfering with agency functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interfering with agency functions. 234.6 Section 234.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.6 Interfering with agency functions. The following are...

  3. 47 CFR 73.185 - Computation of interfering signal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Computation of interfering signal. 73.185... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.185 Computation of interfering signal. (a) Measured... paragraphs (a) (1) or (2) of this section. (b) For skywave signals from stations operating on all channels...

  4. 47 CFR 73.185 - Computation of interfering signal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Computation of interfering signal. 73.185... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.185 Computation of interfering signal. (a) Measured... paragraphs (a) (1) or (2) of this section. (b) For skywave signals from stations operating on all channels...

  5. 47 CFR 73.185 - Computation of interfering signal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Computation of interfering signal. 73.185... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.185 Computation of interfering signal. (a) Measured... paragraphs (a) (1) or (2) of this section. (b) For skywave signals from stations operating on all channels...

  6. 47 CFR 73.185 - Computation of interfering signal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Computation of interfering signal. 73.185... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.185 Computation of interfering signal. (a) Measured... paragraphs (a) (1) or (2) of this section. (b) For skywave signals from stations operating on all channels...

  7. 47 CFR 73.185 - Computation of interfering signal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Computation of interfering signal. 73.185... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.185 Computation of interfering signal. (a) Measured... paragraphs (a) (1) or (2) of this section. (b) For skywave signals from stations operating on all channels...

  8. Clinical inquiries. What test is the best for diagnosing infectious mononucleosis?

    PubMed

    Bell, Amy Trelease; Fortune, Barbara; Sheeler, Robert

    2006-09-01

    Tests for antibodies to Epstein-Barr viral capsid antigen or Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen are the most sensitive, are highly specific, and are also the most expensive for diagnosing infectious mononucleosis (strength of recommendation [SOR]: C, based on validating cohort study). Heterophile antibody tests have similar specificity and are cheaper, but are less sensitive in children or in adults during the early days of the illness (SOR: C, based on validating cohort study). The polymerase chain reaction assay for Epstein-Barr virus DNA is more sensitive than the heterophile antibody test in children, is highly specific, but is also expensive (SOR: C, based on validating cohort study). The percentages of atypical lymphocytes and total lymphocytes on a complete blood count provide another specific and moderately sensitive, yet inexpensive, test (SOR: C, based on validating cohort study).

  9. Correlation between the immunological condition and the results of immunoenzymatic tests in diagnosing infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Tamaro, Giorgio; Donato, Michela; Princi, Tanja; Parco, Sergio

    2009-04-01

    A symptom-based diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis is not sufficiently accurate, since some clinical symptoms of infectious mononucleosis are also detected in other virally induced diseases. Moreover, not all patients suffering from infectious mononucleosis show circulating atypical lymphocytes, which are considered characteristic of this disease. Therefore, when this disorder is suspected, serum analyses are carried out to detect the presence of certain immunoglobulins associated with infectious mononucleosis in the patient's blood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and the specificity of a rapid test detecting heterophil antibodies in diagnosing infectious mononucleosis in a paediatric population. We considered 163 paediatric patients with suspected infectious mononucleosis and we tested their serums to detect heterophil antibodies (using an inexpensive and rapid test) and specific immunoglobulins directed against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (these assays are known to be characterized by high sensitivity and specificity, but are more expensive and time-consuming). By comparing the results of the rapid test with those of the other assays, we found that the sensitivity of the first test was 61.8%, whereas its specificity was sufficiently high (about 90%). We show that, in paediatric patients, the detection of heterophil antibodies is not a very sensitive test, therefore the determination of immunoglobulins against specific antigens of EBV is recommended.

  10. IGE AND IGGA ANTIBODY-MEDIATED RELEASE OF HISTAMINE FROM RAT PERITONEAL CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Michael K.; Bloch, Kurt J.; Austen, K. Frank

    1971-01-01

    IgGa, in contrast to IgE, antibodies mediated the antigen-induced release of histamine from rat peritoneal mast cells without a requirement for a latent period and without the capacity to bind firmly to the target cell. Nonetheless, IgGa anti-DNP antibody interfered with the capacity of rat anti-N. brasiliensis antiserum rich in IgE antibodies to prepare the target cells for histamine release by worm antigen. Further, interaction of IgE antibody-prepared cells with IgGa anti-DNP antibody and DNP-BSA at 0°C so as to achieve sterile activation, or at 30°C to permit histamine release, inactivated such cells as determined by the subsequent failure to release histamine upon challenge with worm antigen. Thus, although IgE and IgGa antibodies are immunochemically distinct homologous immunoglobulins and exhibit different functional characteristics, their interaction at the target cell involves a common receptor and at least one common point in the pathway to the release of pharmacologic agents from the cell. PMID:4101607

  11. Determining antibody-binding site of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B to protect mice from group a streptococcus infection.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Nina; Cheng, Miao-Hui; Yang, Hsiu-Chen; Wang, Yu-Chieh; Liu, Yi-Ling; Kuo, Chih-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SPE B), a cysteine protease, is an important virulence factor in group A streptococcal (GAS) infection. SPE B binds and cleaves antibody isotypes and further impairs the immune system by inhibiting complement activation. In this study, we examined the antibody-binding site of SPE B and used it to block SPE B actions during GAS infection. We constructed different segments of the spe B gene and induced them to express different recombinant fragments of SPE B. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we found that residues 345-398 of the C-terminal domain of SPE B (rSPE B(345-398)), but not the N-terminal domain, was the major binding site for antibody isotypes. Using a competitive ELISA, we also found that rSPE B(345-398) bound to the Fc portion of IgG. The in vitro functional assays indicate that rSPE B(345-398) not only interfered with cleavage of antibody isotypes but also interfered with SPE B-induced inhibition of complement activation. Immunization of BALB/c mice using rSPE B(345-398) was able to induce production of a high titer of anti-rSPE B(345-398) antibodies and efficiently protected mice from GAS-induced death. These findings suggest that SPE B uses its C-terminal domain to bind the Fc portion of IgG and that immunization of mice with this binding domain (rSPE B(345-398)) could protect mice from GAS infection.

  12. Reversible Opening of the Blood-Brain Barrier by Anti-Bacterial Antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuomanen, Elaine I.; Prasad, Sudha M.; George, Jonathan S.; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.; Ibsen, Per; Heron, Iver; Starzyk, Ruth M.

    1993-08-01

    The leukocyte adhesion molecule CR3 (CD11b/CD18, Mac-1) promotes leukocyte transmigration into tissues by engaging an unknown cognate ligand on the surface of vascular endothelial cells. Filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), an adhesin of the bacterium Bordetella pertussis, binds to CR3. We hypothesized that FHA mimics the native ligand for the CR3 integrin on endothelial cells and predicted that anti-FHA antibodies should bind to endothelial cells, interfere with leukocyte recruitment, and induce endothelial permeability. Anti-FHA monoclonal antibodies bound to cerebral microvessels in sections from human brain and upon intravenous injection into rabbits. Antibody binding correlated with the ability to recognize two polypeptides in extracts of human cerebral vessels that were also bound by CD18. In vivo, antibody binding not only interfered with transmigration of leukocytes into cerebrospinal fluid but also induced a dose-dependent reversible increase in blood-brain barrier permeability sufficient to improve delivery of intravenously administered therapeutic agents to brain parenchyma.

  13. Re-examination of the Neisser—Wechsberg (antibody prozone) phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Muschel, L. H.; Gustafson, Linda; Larsen, Linda J.

    1969-01-01

    Although the Neisser—Wechsberg phenomenon resembles the inhibition of agglutination systems by excess antibody, the experimental results have indicated that with heat-inactivated antiserum the phenomenon results both from an excess of specific antibody and of non-specific anti-complementary activity. Complement (C) has been shown to be fixed in the presence of the excess antiserum which inhibits the bactericidal reaction. The inhibition was overcome by an excess of the third complement component factors indicating that the excess of antiserum interfered with the activation or function of the components acting at one of the late steps in the reaction sequence. The prozone phenomenon was relatively slight when unheated antiserum was used or when sensitized organisms were washed to remove serum substances unrelated to antibody. Non-specific anti-complementary activity, therefore, is a major contributor to the prozone phenomenon. Both IgM and IgG fractions of rabbit antisera elicited a prozone although the former had relatively greater bactericidal than inhibitory activity. PMID:5352361

  14. Lemierre's and Lemierre's-like syndromes in association with infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Chacko, E M; Krilov, L R; Patten, W; Lee, P J

    2010-12-01

    This study aimed to review cases of Lemierre's and Lemierre's-like syndromes in paediatric patients, to examine a possible association with Epstein-Barr virus as a predisposing factor, and to assess the impact of this virus on the severity of illness. We performed a retrospective analysis of data from the in-patient database at Winthrop University Hospital, from January 2001 to October 2007. We reviewed clinical and laboratory findings as well as the outcome of infection in patients aged 21 years or less with a diagnosis of Lemierre's syndrome. An additional case of Lemierre's-like syndrome was also included. The illness severity and duration of in-patient management of those testing positive for heterophile antibody were then compared with the same parameters in patients who tested negative. Of the five patients diagnosed with Lemierre's syndrome, two had concomitant acute infection with Epstein-Barr virus. Additionally, a 19-year-old adolescent was admitted during this period with acute infectious mononucleosis, Fusobacterium necrophorum sepsis, sinusitis, frontal lobe abscess and ophthalmic vein thrombosis. The clinical presentation of all patients included fever, sore throat, and ear or neck pain. The duration of symptoms ranged from two days to three weeks prior to admission. The patients with acute Epstein-Barr virus infection had been diagnosed with infectious mononucleosis prior to admission, and tested positive for heterophile antibody. These patients subsequently underwent more extensive in-patient treatment, including intensive care management and ventilator support. The patients who tested negative for heterophile antibody experienced a milder course of illness, with a shorter duration of in-patient management. Two patients diagnosed with Lemierre's syndrome, and a third with Fusobacterium necrophorum sepsis, had coexisting acute Epstein-Barr virus infection. Patients who tested positive for heterophile antibody experienced a more severe course of

  15. Rabies neutralizing antibody response to different schedules of serum and vaccine inoculations in non-exposed persons

    PubMed Central

    Atanasiu, P.; Bahmanyar, M.; Baltazard, M.; Fox, J. P.; Habel, K.; Kaplan, M. M.; Kissling, R. E.; Komarov, A.; Koprowski, H.; Lépine, P.; Gallardo, F. Pérez; Schaeffer, M.

    1957-01-01

    Further studies were made on groups of adult humans, previously unexposed to rabies and with no history of rabies vaccination, who were inoculated with different schedules of phenolized inactivated vaccine given subcutaneously and high egg passage (HEP) Flury strain vaccine given intradermally, with and without inoculation of antirabies serum. Serum specimens of the inoculated individuals were studied for antibody up to the 60th day after the first inoculation of the vaccines and serum. Studies were also made on the effect of “booster” doses of HEP Flury strain vaccine given 6 months after preparatory inoculations. The results can be summarized as follows: 1. Fourteen daily inoculations of phenolized vaccine produced a superior antibody response to that obtained with 3 inoculations given 5 days apart. 2. Three intradermal inoculations of HEP Flury vaccine given 5 days apart gave a low level of antibody response, but these individuals responded efficiently by producing antibody to a “booster” dose of the same vaccine given 6 months later. 3. Administration of phenolized vaccine or of HEP Flury vaccine alone did not produce detectable antibody in most individuals until between the 10th and the 15th day after the first inoculation of the vaccine. 4. Passive antibody following inoculation of antirabies serum persisted in some individuals for as long as 42 days. Two inoculations of serum administered 5 days apart did not give levels of antibody higher than those obtained with one inoculation. 5. One inoculation of serum completely suppressed antibody response to 3 inoculations of Flury vaccine given intradermally 5 days apart, and also prevented the preparation of the individuals to respond to a later “booster” dose of this vaccine. 6. Three inoculation of phenolized vaccine given 5 days apart acted efficiently in producing antibody by the 60th day. However, the interfering action of one and two inoculations of serum was clearly defined in this schedule. 7

  16. [The influence of interfered circadian rhythm on pregnancy and neonatal rats].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Jun; Sheng, Wen-Jie; Guo, Yin-Hua; Tan, Yong

    2015-10-25

    The aim of this study was to observe the influence of interfered circadian rhythm on pregnancy of rats and growth of neonatal rats, and to explore the relationship between the interfered circadian rhythm and the changes of melatonin and progesterone. Continuous light was used to inhibit melatonin secretion and therefore the interfered circadian rhythm animal model was obtained. The influence of interfered circadian rhythm on delivery of pregnant rats was observed. Serum was collected from rats during different stages of pregnancy to measure the concentrations of melatonin and progesterone. In order to observe the embryo resorption rate, half of pregnant rats were randomly selected to undergo a laparotomy, and the remainder was used to observe delivery and assess the growth of neonatal rats after delivery. The results showed that the interfered circadian rhythm induced adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes, including an increase of embryo resorption rate and a decrease in the number of live births; inhibited the secretion of melatonin along with decreased serum progesterone level; prolonged the stage of labor, but not the duration of pregnancy; and disturbed the fetal intrauterine growth and the growth of neonatal rats. The results suggest that interfered circadian rhythm condition made by continuous light could make adverse effects on both pregnant rats and neonatal rats. The results of our study may provide a way to modulate pregnant women's circadian rhythm and a possibility of application of melatonin on pregnant women.

  17. 21 CFR 866.5640 - Infectious mononucleosis immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Infectious mononucleosis immunological test system....5640 Infectious mononucleosis immunological test system. (a) Identification. An infectious... immunochemical techniques heterophile antibodies frequently associated with infectious mononucleosis in serum...

  18. 21 CFR 866.5640 - Infectious mononucleosis immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infectious mononucleosis immunological test system....5640 Infectious mononucleosis immunological test system. (a) Identification. An infectious... immunochemical techniques heterophile antibodies frequently associated with infectious mononucleosis in serum...

  19. 21 CFR 866.5640 - Infectious mononucleosis immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Infectious mononucleosis immunological test system....5640 Infectious mononucleosis immunological test system. (a) Identification. An infectious... immunochemical techniques heterophile antibodies frequently associated with infectious mononucleosis in serum...

  20. 21 CFR 866.5640 - Infectious mononucleosis immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Infectious mononucleosis immunological test system....5640 Infectious mononucleosis immunological test system. (a) Identification. An infectious... immunochemical techniques heterophile antibodies frequently associated with infectious mononucleosis in serum...

  1. 21 CFR 866.5640 - Infectious mononucleosis immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Infectious mononucleosis immunological test system....5640 Infectious mononucleosis immunological test system. (a) Identification. An infectious... immunochemical techniques heterophile antibodies frequently associated with infectious mononucleosis in serum...

  2. Serum sample containing endogenous antibodies interfering with multiple hormone immunoassays. Laboratory strategies to detect interference.

    PubMed

    García-González, Elena; Aramendía, Maite; Álvarez-Ballano, Diego; Trincado, Pablo; Rello, Luis

    2016-04-01

    Endogenous antibodies (EA) may interfere with immunoassays, causing erroneous results for hormone analyses. As (in most cases) this interference arises from the assay format and most immunoassays, even from different manufacturers, are constructed in a similar way, it is possible for a single type of EA to interfere with different immunoassays. Here we describe the case of a patient whose serum sample contains EA that interfere several hormones tests. We also discuss the strategies deployed to detect interference. Over a period of four years, a 30-year-old man was subjected to a plethora of laboratory and imaging diagnostic procedures as a consequence of elevated hormone results, mainly of pituitary origin, which did not correlate with the overall clinical picture. Once analytical interference was suspected, the best laboratory approaches to investigate it were sample reanalysis on an alternative platform and sample incubation with antibody blocking tubes. Construction of an in-house 'nonsense' sandwich assay was also a valuable strategy to confirm interference. In contrast, serial sample dilutions were of no value in our case, while polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation gave inconclusive results, probably due to the use of inappropriate PEG concentrations for several of the tests assayed. Clinicians and laboratorians must be aware of the drawbacks of immunometric assays, and alert to the possibility of EA interference when results do not fit the clinical pattern.

  3. Differentiation of Cariogenic Streptococci by Fluorescent Antibody1

    PubMed Central

    Jablon, James M.; Zinner, Doran D.

    1966-01-01

    Jablon, J. M. (University of Miami, Miami, Fla.), and D. D. Zinner. Differentiation of cariogenic streptococci by fluorescent antibody. J. Bacteriol. 92:1590–1596. 1966.—Eight strains of streptococci were isolated from human carious lesions by the fluorescent-antibody (FA) technique. Seven of these strains produced experimental caries in hamsters or rats maintained on a high sucrose diet. The eighth strain was noncariogenic in animals but possessed some antigenic components in common with the cariogenic strains. On the basis of antigen-antibody reactions by microprecipitin and agar-gel diffusion patterns, the strains were divided into four groups; these groups differed with regard to their cariogenic activity in hamsters. Fluorescein-conjugated antisera, prepared against the human strains, showed some cross-reactions which interfered with the efficacy of the FA technique in differentiating between the related streptococcal groups. To eliminate these cross-reactions, a small amount of related-strain antisera was added to the fluorescein-conjugated antisera to the cariogenic strains. This technique is effective in blocking cross-reactions and should be tried wherever cross-reactions are encountered in the FA technique. Images PMID:5334765

  4. Antibody-Mediated Inhibition of Ricin Toxin Retrograde Transport

    PubMed Central

    Yermakova, Anastasiya; Klokk, Tove Irene; Cole, Richard; Sandvig, Kirsten; Mantis, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ricin is a member of the ubiquitous family of plant and bacterial AB toxins that gain entry into the cytosol of host cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and retrograde traffic through the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). While a few ricin toxin-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been identified, the mechanisms by which these antibodies prevent toxin-induced cell death are largely unknown. Using immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and a TGN-specific sulfation assay, we demonstrate that 24B11, a MAb against ricin’s binding subunit (RTB), associates with ricin in solution or when prebound to cell surfaces and then markedly enhances toxin uptake into host cells. Following endocytosis, however, toxin-antibody complexes failed to reach the TGN; instead, they were shunted to Rab7-positive late endosomes and LAMP-1-positive lysosomes. Monovalent 24B11 Fab fragments also interfered with toxin retrograde transport, indicating that neither cross-linking of membrane glycoproteins/glycolipids nor the recently identified intracellular Fc receptor is required to derail ricin en route to the TGN. Identification of the mechanism(s) by which antibodies like 24B11 neutralize ricin will advance our fundamental understanding of protein trafficking in mammalian cells and may lead to the discovery of new classes of toxin inhibitors and therapeutics for biodefense and emerging infectious diseases. PMID:24713323

  5. An experimental adaptive array to suppress weak interfering signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, Eric K.; Gupta, Inder J.; Ksienski, Aharon A.; Ward, James

    1988-01-01

    An experimental adaptive antenna system to suppress weak interfering signals is described. It is a sidelobe canceller with two auxiliary elements. Modified feedback loops are used to control the array weights. The received signals are simulated in hardware for parameter control. Digital processing is used for algorithm implementation and performance evaluation. The experimental results are presented. They show that interfering signals as much as 10 dB below the thermal noise level in the main channel are suppressed by 20-30 dB. Such a system has potential application in suppressing the interference encountered in direct broadcast satellite communication systems.

  6. Intratracheal Administration of Small Interfering RNA Targeting Fas Reduces Lung Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Del Sorbo, Lorenzo; Costamagna, Andrea; Muraca, Giuseppe; Rotondo, Giuseppe; Civiletti, Federica; Vizio, Barbara; Bosco, Ornella; Martin Conte, Erica L; Frati, Giacomo; Delsedime, Luisa; Lupia, Enrico; Fanelli, Vito; Ranieri, V Marco

    2016-08-01

    Lung ischemia-reperfusion injury is the main cause of primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation and results in increased morbidity and mortality. Fas-mediated apoptosis is one of the pathologic mechanisms involved in the development of ischemia-reperfusion injury. We hypothesized that the inhibition of Fas gene expression in lungs by intratracheal administration of small interfering RNA could reduce lung ischemia-reperfusion injury in an ex vivo model reproducing the procedural sequence of lung transplantation. Prospective, randomized, controlled experimental study. University research laboratory. C57/BL6 mice weighing 28-30 g. Ischemia-reperfusion injury was induced in lungs isolated from mice, 48 hours after treatment with intratracheal small interfering RNA targeting Fas, control small interfering RNA, or vehicle. Isolated lungs were exposed to 6 hours of cold ischemia (4°C), followed by 2 hours of warm (37°C) reperfusion with a solution containing 10% of fresh whole blood and mechanical ventilation with constant low driving pressure. Fas gene expression was significantly silenced at the level of messenger RNA and protein after ischemia-reperfusion in lungs treated with small interfering RNA targeting Fas compared with lungs treated with control small interfering RNA or vehicle. Silencing of Fas gene expression resulted in reduced edema formation (bronchoalveolar lavage protein concentration and lung histology) and improvement in lung compliance. These effects were associated with a significant reduction of pulmonary cell apoptosis of lungs treated with small interfering RNA targeting Fas, which did not affect cytokine release and neutrophil infiltration. Fas expression silencing in the lung by small interfering RNA is effective against ischemia-reperfusion injury. This approach represents a potential innovative strategy of organ preservation before lung transplantation.

  7. The architecture and biological function of dual antibody-coated dendrimers: enhanced control of circulating tumor cells and their hetero-adhesion to endothelial cells for metastasis prevention.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jingjing; Zhao, Rongli; Gu, Songen; Dong, Haiyan; Wang, Jichuang; Lu, Yusheng; Sinko, Patrick J; Yu, Ting; Xie, Fangwei; Wang, Lie; Shao, Jingwei; Jia, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Dissemination of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in blood and their hetero-adhesion to vascular endothelial bed of distant metastatic secondary organs are the critical steps to initiate cancer metastasis. The rarity of CTCs made their in vivo capture technically challenging. Current techniques by virtue of nanostructured scaffolds monovalently conjugated with a single antibody and/or drug seem less efficient and specific in capturing CTCs. Here, we report a novel platform developed to re-engineer nanoscale dendrimers for capturing CTCs in blood and interfering their adhesion to vascular endothelial bed to form micrometastatic foci. The nanoscale dendrimers were spatiotemporally accommodated with dual antibodies to target two surface biomarkers of colorectal CTCs. Physiochemical characterization, including spectra, fluorescence, electron microscope, dynamic light scattering, electrophoresis, and chromatography analyses, was conducted to demonstrate the successful conjugation of dual antibodies to dendrimer surface. The dual antibody conjugates were able to specifically recognize and bind CTCs, moderately down-regulate the activity of the captured CTCs by arresting them in S phase. The related adhesion assay displayed that the dual antibody conjugates interfered the hetero-adhesion of CTCs to fibronectin (Fn)-coated substrates and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The dual antibody conjugates also showed the enhanced specificity and efficiency in vitro and in vivo in restraining CTCs in comparison with their single antibody counterparts. The present study showed a novel means to effectively prevent cancer metastatic initiation by binding, restraining CTCs and inhibiting their hetero-adhesion to blood vessels, not by traditional cytotoxic-killing of cancer cells.

  8. Adaptive antenna arrays for weak interfering signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, I. J.

    1985-01-01

    The interference protection provided by adaptive antenna arrays to an Earth station or satellite receive antenna system is studied. The case where the interference is caused by the transmission from adjacent satellites or Earth stations whose signals inadverently enter the receiving system and interfere with the communication link is considered. Thus, the interfering signals are very weak. To increase the interference suppression, one can either decrease the thermal noise in the feedback loops or increase the gain of the auxiliary antennas in the interfering signal direction. Both methods are examined. It is shown that one may have to reduce the noise correlation to impractically low values and if directive auxiliary antennas are used, the auxiliary antenna size may have to be too large. One can, however, combine the two methods to achieve the specified interference suppression with reasonable requirements of noise decorrelation and auxiliary antenna size. Effects of the errors in the steering vector on the adaptive array performance are studied.

  9. Interfering with Gendered Development: A Timely Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaise, Mindy

    2014-01-01

    Instead of relying on colonial and Western developmental logic to understand and research gender, this paper proposes interfering as a strategy toward generating gender knowledges that are more inclusive to other-than-Western concepts and contexts. This paper shows how post-developmental perspectives interfere with psychological and biological…

  10. Development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against canine PD-1 and PD-L1.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Yuki; Shosu, Kazuha; Okuda, Masaru; Noguchi, Shunsuke; Mizuno, Takuya

    2018-04-01

    Recent research has focused on immunotherapy, particularly with regard to cancer treatment. Programmed death-1 and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) pathway blockade is a central topic of the promising immunotherapy field. In veterinary medicine, observations of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway, including the relationship between immune cells and diseases, have increased. In this study, monoclonal antibodies specific to canine PD-1 and PD-L1 were developed, and the antibodies against PD-1 and PD-L1 bind to PD-1 and PD-L1 overexpressing cells, respectively. Additionally, each antibody interfered with the interaction between PD-1 and PD-L1. The expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 was detected on activated T cells from canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and, remarkably, was the first recorded instance of PD-L1 expression on canine immature dendritic cells. Production of IFN-γ by activated T cells increased significantly when incubated with anti-PD-1 antibody alone and with both anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 antibodies, revealing the functional effects of the antibodies. The antibodies will be useful for research on immune systems and may be the first passive immunotherapy approach in canine cancer patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Adaptive Arrays for Weak Interfering Signals: An Experimental System. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, James

    1987-01-01

    An experimental adaptive antenna system was implemented to study the performance of adaptive arrays in the presence of weak interfering signals. It is a sidelobe canceler with two auxiliary elements. Modified feedback loops, which decorrelate the noise components of the two inputs to the loop correlators, control the array weights. Digital processing is used for algorithm implementation and performance evaluation. The results show that the system can suppress interfering signals which are 0 to 10 dB below the thermal noise level in the main channel by 20 to 30 dB. When the desired signal is strong in the auxiliary elements the amount of interference suppression decreases. The amount of degradation depends on the number of interfering signals incident on the communication system. A modified steering vector which overcomes this problem is proposed.

  12. SMI adaptive antenna arrays for weak interfering signals. [Sample Matrix Inversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Inder J.

    1986-01-01

    The performance of adaptive antenna arrays in the presence of weak interfering signals (below thermal noise) is studied. It is shown that a conventional adaptive antenna array sample matrix inversion (SMI) algorithm is unable to suppress such interfering signals. To overcome this problem, the SMI algorithm is modified. In the modified algorithm, the covariance matrix is redefined such that the effect of thermal noise on the weights of adaptive arrays is reduced. Thus, the weights are dictated by relatively weak signals. It is shown that the modified algorithm provides the desired interference protection.

  13. Antibody-mediated inhibition of ricin toxin retrograde transport.

    PubMed

    Yermakova, Anastasiya; Klokk, Tove Irene; Cole, Richard; Sandvig, Kirsten; Mantis, Nicholas J

    2014-04-08

    Ricin is a member of the ubiquitous family of plant and bacterial AB toxins that gain entry into the cytosol of host cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and retrograde traffic through the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). While a few ricin toxin-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been identified, the mechanisms by which these antibodies prevent toxin-induced cell death are largely unknown. Using immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and a TGN-specific sulfation assay, we demonstrate that 24B11, a MAb against ricin's binding subunit (RTB), associates with ricin in solution or when prebound to cell surfaces and then markedly enhances toxin uptake into host cells. Following endocytosis, however, toxin-antibody complexes failed to reach the TGN; instead, they were shunted to Rab7-positive late endosomes and LAMP-1-positive lysosomes. Monovalent 24B11 Fab fragments also interfered with toxin retrograde transport, indicating that neither cross-linking of membrane glycoproteins/glycolipids nor the recently identified intracellular Fc receptor is required to derail ricin en route to the TGN. Identification of the mechanism(s) by which antibodies like 24B11 neutralize ricin will advance our fundamental understanding of protein trafficking in mammalian cells and may lead to the discovery of new classes of toxin inhibitors and therapeutics for biodefense and emerging infectious diseases. IMPORTANCE Ricin is the prototypic member of the AB family of medically important plant and bacterial toxins that includes cholera and Shiga toxins. Ricin is also a category B biothreat agent. Despite ongoing efforts to develop vaccines and antibody-based therapeutics against ricin, very little is known about the mechanisms by which antibodies neutralize this toxin. In general, it is thought that antibodies simply prevent toxins from attaching to cell surface receptors or promote their clearance through Fc receptor (FcR)-mediated uptake

  14. Limitations of available tests for diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Fleisher, G R; Collins, M; Fager, S

    1983-04-01

    Among 500 students seen at a university health service for illnesses resembling infectious mononucleosis (IM), the diagnosis of IM was established in 124 (25%) on the basis of the initial presence or subsequent emergence of the spectrum of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibodies characteristic of a primary EBV infection. Of these 124 patients, 113 had an EBV-specific antibody pattern in the initial serum indicative of current primary infection; however, 11 (9%) had no detectable immunoglobulin G antibodies to EBV-specific antigens in their first serum. The sensitivity of this panel of EBV antibody assays was 91% and the specificity was 100%. Initial sera had detectable heterophil antibodies for 107 (86%) of the 124 students with IM and for 2 with other illnesses. Among our patients, the Monospot (Ortho Diagnostics Inc.) test had a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 99%. Reliance on hematological criteria (lymphocyte count greater than or equal to 50% and atypical lymphocyte count greater than or equal to 10%) gave a sensitivity of only 39%, but a specificity of 99%. Students with IM who showed a delayed emergence of the spectrum of EBV-specific antibodies characteristic of an acute infection were compared with control patients who had such antibodies at the time of their initial visit to the health service. They were found to have a briefer duration of illness (P greater than 0.05), lower leukocyte (P less than 0.005), lymphocyte (P less than 0.005), and atypical lymphocyte (P less than 0.05) counts, and a less frequent occurrence of heterophil antibodies (P less than 0.05).

  15. A polarization converting device for an interfering enhanced CPT atomic clock.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kewei; Tian, Yuan; Yin, Yi; Wang, Yuanchao; Gu, Sihong

    2017-11-01

    With interfering enhanced coherent population trapping (CPT) signals, a CPT atomic clock with improved frequency stability performance can be realized. We explore an optical device that converts single-polarized bichromatic light to left and right circularly polarized superposed bichromatic light to generate interfering enhanced CPT resonance with atoms. We have experimentally studied a tabletop CPT atomic clock apparatus with a microfabricated 87 Rb atomic chip-scale cell, and the study results show that it is promising to realize a compact CPT atomic clock, even a chip-scale CPT atomic clock through microfabrication, with improved frequency stability performance.

  16. A polarization converting device for an interfering enhanced CPT atomic clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kewei; Tian, Yuan; Yin, Yi; Wang, Yuanchao; Gu, Sihong

    2017-11-01

    With interfering enhanced coherent population trapping (CPT) signals, a CPT atomic clock with improved frequency stability performance can be realized. We explore an optical device that converts single-polarized bichromatic light to left and right circularly polarized superposed bichromatic light to generate interfering enhanced CPT resonance with atoms. We have experimentally studied a tabletop CPT atomic clock apparatus with a microfabricated 87Rb atomic chip-scale cell, and the study results show that it is promising to realize a compact CPT atomic clock, even a chip-scale CPT atomic clock through microfabrication, with improved frequency stability performance.

  17. Naturally Occurring Antibodies That Recognize Linear Epitopes in the Amino Terminus of the Hepatitis C Virus E2 Protein Confer Noninterfering, Additive Neutralization

    PubMed Central

    Tarr, Alexander W.; Urbanowicz, Richard A.; Jayaraj, Dhanya; Brown, Richard J. P.; McKeating, Jane A.; Irving, William L.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can persist even in the presence of a broadly neutralizing antibody response. Various mechanisms that underpin viral persistence have been proposed, and one of the most recently proposed mechanisms is the presence of interfering antibodies that negate neutralizing responses. Specifically, it has been proposed that antibodies targeting broadly neutralizing epitopes located within a region of E2 encompassing residues 412 to 423 can be inhibited by nonneutralizing antibodies binding to a less conserved region encompassing residues 434 to 446. To investigate this phenomenon, we characterized the neutralizing and inhibitory effects of human-derived affinity-purified immunoglobulin fractions and murine monoclonal antibodies and show that antibodies to both regions neutralize HCV pseudoparticle (HCVpp) and cell culture-infectious virus (HCVcc) infection albeit with different breadths and potencies. Epitope mapping revealed the presence of overlapping but distinct epitopes in both regions, which may explain the observed differences in neutralizing phenotypes. Crucially, we failed to demonstrate any inhibition between these two groups of antibodies, suggesting that interference by nonneutralizing antibodies, at least for the region encompassing residues 434 to 446, does not provide a mechanism for HCV persistence in chronically infected individuals. PMID:22171278

  18. A novel albumin nanocomplex containing both small interfering RNA and gold nanorods for synergetic anticancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jin-Ha; Hwang, Hai-Jin; Shin, Seung Won; Choi, Jeong-Woo; Um, Soong Ho; Oh, Byung-Keun

    2015-05-01

    Therapeutic nanocomplexes have been extensively developed for the effective treatment of aggressive cancers because of their outstanding versatility, easy manipulation, and low cytotoxicity. In this study, we describe the synthesis of a novel bovine serum albumin (BSA)-based nanocomplex harboring both Bcl-2-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) and gold (Au) nanorods (siRNA and rods encapsulated in BSA; SREB) with the aim of developing a targeted breast cancer therapeutic. The SREB complexes contained 2 × 105 siRNA molecules and eight Au nanorods per BSA complex and were successively functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and anti-ErbB-2 antibodies to facilitate active targeting. The synergetic therapeutic activity originating from the two components effectively induced cell death (~80% reduction in viability compared with control cells) in target breast cancer cells after a single dose of laser irradiation. Intracellular SREB nanocomplex decomposition by proteolytic enzymes resulted in simultaneous RNA interference and thermal ablation, thus leading to apoptosis in the targeted cancer cells. Moreover, these therapeutic effects were sustained for approximately 72 hours. The intrinsic biocompatibility, multifunctionality, and potent in vitro anticancer properties of these SREB nanocomplexes indicate that they have great therapeutic potential for in vivo targeted cancer therapy, in addition to other areas of nanomedicine.Therapeutic nanocomplexes have been extensively developed for the effective treatment of aggressive cancers because of their outstanding versatility, easy manipulation, and low cytotoxicity. In this study, we describe the synthesis of a novel bovine serum albumin (BSA)-based nanocomplex harboring both Bcl-2-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) and gold (Au) nanorods (siRNA and rods encapsulated in BSA; SREB) with the aim of developing a targeted breast cancer therapeutic. The SREB complexes contained 2 × 105 siRNA molecules and eight Au

  19. Antibody targeting facilitates effective intratumoral siRNA nanoparticle delivery to HER2-overexpressing cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Palanca-Wessels, Maria C.; Booth, Garrett C.; Convertine, Anthony J.; Lundy, Brittany B.; Berguig, Geoffrey Y.; Press, Michael F.; Stayton, Patrick S.; Press, Oliver W.

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of RNA interference (RNAi) has been limited by inefficient delivery of short interfering RNA (siRNA). Tumor-specific recognition can be effectively achieved by antibodies directed against highly expressed cancer cell surface receptors. We investigated the utility of linking an internalizing streptavidin-conjugated HER2 antibody to an endosome-disruptive biotinylated polymeric nanocarrier to improve the functional cytoplasmic delivery of siRNA in breast and ovarian cancer cells in vitro and in an intraperitoneal ovarian cancer xenograft model in vivo, yielding an 80% reduction of target mRNA and protein levels with sustained repression for at least 96 hours. RNAi-mediated site specific cleavage of target mRNA was demonstrated using the 5′ RLM-RACE (RNA ligase mediated-rapid amplification of cDNA ends) assay. Mice bearing intraperitoneal human ovarian tumor xenografts demonstrated increased tumor accumulation of Cy5.5 fluorescently labeled siRNA and 70% target gene suppression after treatment with HER2 antibody-directed siRNA nanocarriers. Detection of the expected mRNA cleavage product by 5′ RLM-RACE assay confirmed that suppression occurs via the expected RNAi pathway. Delivery of siRNA via antibody-directed endosomolytic nanoparticles may be a promising strategy for cancer therapy. PMID:26840082

  20. Antibody targeting facilitates effective intratumoral siRNA nanoparticle delivery to HER2-overexpressing cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Palanca-Wessels, Maria C; Booth, Garrett C; Convertine, Anthony J; Lundy, Brittany B; Berguig, Geoffrey Y; Press, Michael F; Stayton, Patrick S; Press, Oliver W

    2016-02-23

    The therapeutic potential of RNA interference (RNAi) has been limited by inefficient delivery of short interfering RNA (siRNA). Tumor-specific recognition can be effectively achieved by antibodies directed against highly expressed cancer cell surface receptors. We investigated the utility of linking an internalizing streptavidin-conjugated HER2 antibody to an endosome-disruptive biotinylated polymeric nanocarrier to improve the functional cytoplasmic delivery of siRNA in breast and ovarian cancer cells in vitro and in an intraperitoneal ovarian cancer xenograft model in vivo, yielding an 80% reduction of target mRNA and protein levels with sustained repression for at least 96 hours. RNAi-mediated site specific cleavage of target mRNA was demonstrated using the 5' RLM-RACE (RNA ligase mediated-rapid amplification of cDNA ends) assay. Mice bearing intraperitoneal human ovarian tumor xenografts demonstrated increased tumor accumulation of Cy5.5 fluorescently labeled siRNA and 70% target gene suppression after treatment with HER2 antibody-directed siRNA nanocarriers. Detection of the expected mRNA cleavage product by 5' RLM-RACE assay confirmed that suppression occurs via the expected RNAi pathway. Delivery of siRNA via antibody-directed endosomolytic nanoparticles may be a promising strategy for cancer therapy.

  1. Recombinant ELISA using baculovirus-expressed VP2 for detection of antibodies against canine parvovirus.

    PubMed

    Elia, Gabriella; Desario, Costantina; Pezzoni, Giulia; Camero, Michele; Brocchi, Emiliana; Decaro, Nicola; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2012-09-01

    The gene encoding the VP2 protein of canine parvovirus type 2 was expressed in an insect-baculovirus system. The recombinant (r) VP2 was similar antigenically/functionally to the native capsid protein as demonstrated by hemagglutination, Western blotting and hemagglutination inhibition test, using Canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2) positive sera. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the rVP2 was used for testing CPV-2 positive and negative sera from dogs and for determining the threshold of maternally derived antibodies interfering with successful vaccination of pups against CPV-2. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Antibody-Induced Internalization of the Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Fusion Protein.

    PubMed

    Leemans, A; De Schryver, M; Van der Gucht, W; Heykers, A; Pintelon, I; Hotard, A L; Moore, M L; Melero, J A; McLellan, J S; Graham, B S; Broadbent, L; Power, U F; Caljon, G; Cos, P; Maes, L; Delputte, P

    2017-07-15

    able to protect infants from severe disease, if administered prophylactically. However, antibody responses established after natural RSV infections are poorly protective against reinfection, and high levels of antibodies do not always correlate with protection. Therefore, RSV might be capable of interfering, at least partially, with antibody-induced neutralization. In this study, a process through which surface-expressed RSV F proteins are internalized after interaction with RSV-specific antibodies is described. One the one hand, this antigen-antibody complex internalization could result in an antiviral effect, since it may interfere with virus particle formation and virus production. On the other hand, this mechanism may also reduce the efficacy of antibody-mediated effector mechanisms toward infected cells. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Antibody-Induced Internalization of the Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Fusion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Leemans, A.; De Schryver, M.; Van der Gucht, W.; Heykers, A.; Pintelon, I.; Hotard, A. L.; Moore, M. L.; Melero, J. A.; McLellan, J. S.; Graham, B. S.; Broadbent, L.; Power, U. F.; Caljon, G.; Cos, P.; Maes, L.

    2017-01-01

    -specific antibodies are able to protect infants from severe disease, if administered prophylactically. However, antibody responses established after natural RSV infections are poorly protective against reinfection, and high levels of antibodies do not always correlate with protection. Therefore, RSV might be capable of interfering, at least partially, with antibody-induced neutralization. In this study, a process through which surface-expressed RSV F proteins are internalized after interaction with RSV-specific antibodies is described. One the one hand, this antigen-antibody complex internalization could result in an antiviral effect, since it may interfere with virus particle formation and virus production. On the other hand, this mechanism may also reduce the efficacy of antibody-mediated effector mechanisms toward infected cells. PMID:28468888

  4. Structural insights into humanization of anti-tissue factor antibody 10H10.

    PubMed

    Teplyakov, Alexey; Obmolova, Galina; Malia, Thomas J; Raghunathan, Gopalan; Martinez, Christian; Fransson, Johan; Edwards, Wilson; Connor, Judith; Husovsky, Matthew; Beck, Heena; Chi, Ellen; Fenton, Sandra; Zhou, Hong; Almagro, Juan Carlos; Gilliland, Gary L

    Murine antibody 10H10 raised against human tissue factor is unique in that it blocks the signaling pathway, and thus inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth without interfering with coagulation. As a potential therapeutic, the antibody was humanized in a two-step procedure. Antigen-binding loops were grafted onto selected human frameworks and the resulting chimeric antibody was subjected to affinity maturation by using phage display libraries. The results of humanization were analyzed from the structural perspective through comparison of the structure of a humanized variant with the parental mouse antibody. This analysis revealed several hot spots in the framework region that appear to affect antigen binding, and therefore should be considered in human germline selection. In addition, some positions in the Vernier zone, e.g., residue 71 in the heavy chain, that are traditionally thought to be crucial appear to tolerate amino acid substitutions without any effect on binding. Several humanized variants were produced using both short and long forms of complementarity-determining region (CDR) H2 following the difference in the Kabat and Martin definitions. Comparison of such pairs indicated consistently higher thermostability of the variants with short CDR H2. Analysis of the binding data in relation to the structures singled out the ImMunoGeneTics information system® germline IGHV1-2*01 as dubious owing to two potentially destabilizing mutations as compared to the other alleles of the same germline and to other human germlines.

  5. Improved silencing properties using small internally segmented interfering RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Bramsen, Jesper B.; Laursen, Maria B.; Damgaard, Christian K.; Lena, Suzy W.; Ravindra Babu, B.; Wengel, Jesper; Kjems, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    RNA interference is mediated by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that upon incorporation into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) can target complementary mRNA for degradation. Standard siRNA design usually feature a 19–27 base pair contiguous double-stranded region that is believed to be important for RISC incorporation. Here, we describe a novel siRNA design composed of an intact antisense strand complemented with two shorter 10–12 nt sense strands. This three-stranded construct, termed small internally segmented interfering RNA (sisiRNA), is highly functional demonstrating that an intact sense strand is not a prerequisite for RNA interference. Moreover, when using the sisiRNA design only the antisense strand is functional in activated RISC thereby completely eliminating unintended mRNA targeting by the sense strand. Interestingly, the sisiRNA design supports the function of chemically modified antisense strands, which are non-functional within the context of standard siRNA designs. This suggests that the sisiRNA design has a clear potential of improving the pharmacokinetic properties of siRNA in vivo. PMID:17726057

  6. Selection of peptides interfering with protein-protein interaction.

    PubMed

    Gaida, Annette; Hagemann, Urs B; Mattay, Dinah; Räuber, Christina; Müller, Kristian M; Arndt, Katja M

    2009-01-01

    Cell physiology depends on a fine-tuned network of protein-protein interactions, and misguided interactions are often associated with various diseases. Consequently, peptides, which are able to specifically interfere with such adventitious interactions, are of high interest for analytical as well as medical purposes. One of the most abundant protein interaction domains is the coiled-coil motif, and thus provides a premier target. Coiled coils, which consist of two or more alpha-helices wrapped around each other, have one of the simplest interaction interfaces, yet they are able to confer highly specific homo- and heterotypic interactions involved in virtually any cellular process. While there are several ways to generate interfering peptides, the combination of library design with a powerful selection system seems to be one of the most effective and promising approaches. This chapter guides through all steps of such a process, starting with library options and cloning, detailing suitable selection techniques and ending with purification for further down-stream characterization. Such generated peptides will function as versatile tools to interfere with the natural function of their targets thereby illuminating their down-stream signaling and, in general, promoting understanding of factors leading to specificity and stability in protein-protein interactions. Furthermore, peptides interfering with medically relevant proteins might become important diagnostics and therapeutics.

  7. Gas Chromatographic/Mass Spectrometric Differentiation of Atenolol, Metoprolol, Propranolol, and an Interfering Metabolite Product of Metoprolol

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    Gas Chromatographic/Mass Spectrometric Differentiation of Atenolol, Metoprolol , Propranolol, and an Interfering Metabolite Product of Metoprolol ...4. Title and Subtitle 5. Report Date October 2004 Gas Chromatographic/Mass Spectrometric Differentiation of Atenolol, Metoprolol , Propranolol...and an Interfering Metabolite Product of Metoprolol 6. Performing Organization Code 7. Author(s) 8. Performing Organization Report No. Angier MK

  8. Common questions about infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Womack, Jason; Jimenez, Marissa

    2015-03-15

    Epstein-Barr is a ubiquitous virus that infects 95% of the world population at some point in life. Although Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections are often asymptomatic, some patients present with the clinical syndrome of infectious mononucleosis (IM). The syndrome most commonly occurs between 15 and 24 years of age. It should be suspected in patients presenting with sore throat, fever, tonsillar enlargement, fatigue, lymphadenopathy, pharyngeal inflammation, and palatal petechiae. A heterophile antibody test is the best initial test for diagnosis of EBV infection, with 71% to 90% accuracy for diagnosing IM. However, the test has a 25% false-negative rate in the first week of illness. IM is unlikely if the lymphocyte count is less than 4,000 mm3. The presence of EBV-specific immunoglobulin M antibodies confirms infection, but the test is more costly and results take longer than the heterophile antibody test. Symptomatic relief is the mainstay of treatment. Glucocorticoids and antivirals do not reduce the length or severity of illness. Splenic rupture is an uncommon complication of IM. Because physical activity within the first three weeks of illness may increase the risk of splenic rupture, athletic participation is not recommended during this time. Children are at the highest risk of airway obstruction, which is the most common cause of hospitalization from IM. Patients with immunosuppression are more likely to have fulminant EBV infection.

  9. Therapeutic opportunities of small interfering RNA.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Bhoomika R; Patel, Mayur M; Soni, Mithil K; Bhadada, Shraddha V

    2009-08-01

    Formation of small interfering RNA (siRNA) occurs in two steps involving binding of the RNA nucleases to a large double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and its cleavage into fragments called siRNA. In the second step, these siRNAs join a multinuclease complex, which degrades the homologous single-stranded mRNAs. The delivery of siRNA involves viral- and non-viral-mediated delivery systems; the approaches for chemical modifications have also been developed. It has various therapeutic applications for disorders like cardiovascular diseases, central nervous system (CNS) disorders, cancer, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatic disorders, etc. The present review gives an overview of the applications of siRNA and their potential for treating many hitherto untreatable diseases.

  10. Small heterodimer partner blocks cardiac hypertrophy by interfering with GATA6 signaling.

    PubMed

    Nam, Yoon Seok; Kim, Yoojung; Joung, Hosouk; Kwon, Duk-Hwa; Choe, Nakwon; Min, Hyun-Ki; Kim, Yong Sook; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Kim, Don-Kyu; Cho, Young Kuk; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Nam, Kwang-Il; Choi, Hyoung Chul; Park, Dong Ho; Suk, Kyoungho; Lee, In-Kyu; Ahn, Youngkeun; Lee, Chul-Ho; Choi, Hueng-Sik; Eom, Gwang Hyeon; Kook, Hyun

    2014-08-15

    Small heterodimer partner (SHP; NR0B2) is an atypical orphan nuclear receptor that lacks a conventional DNA-binding domain. Through interactions with other transcription factors, SHP regulates diverse biological events, including glucose metabolism in liver. However, the role of SHP in adult heart diseases has not yet been demonstrated. We aimed to investigate the role of SHP in adult heart in association with cardiac hypertrophy. The roles of SHP in cardiac hypertrophy were tested in primary cultured cardiomyocytes and in animal models. SHP-null mice showed a hypertrophic phenotype. Hypertrophic stresses repressed the expression of SHP, whereas forced expression of SHP blocked the development of hypertrophy in cardiomyocytes. SHP reduced the protein amount of Gata6 and, by direct physical interaction with Gata6, interfered with the binding of Gata6 to GATA-binding elements in the promoter regions of natriuretic peptide precursor type A. Metformin, an antidiabetic agent, induced SHP and suppressed cardiac hypertrophy. The metformin-induced antihypertrophic effect was attenuated either by SHP small interfering RNA in cardiomyocytes or in SHP-null mice. These results establish SHP as a novel antihypertrophic regulator that acts by interfering with GATA6 signaling. SHP may participate in the metformin-induced antihypertrophic response. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Development and characterization of a pre-treatment procedure to eliminate human monoclonal antibody therapeutic drug and matrix interference in cell-based functional neutralizing antibody assays.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weifeng; Jiang, Hao; Titsch, Craig; Haulenbeek, Jonathan R; Pillutla, Renuka C; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; DeSilva, Binodh S; Arnold, Mark E; Zeng, Jianing; Dodge, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    Biological therapeutics can induce an undesirable immune response resulting in the formation of anti-drug antibodies (ADA), including neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). Functional (usually cell-based) NAb assays are preferred to determine NAb presence in patient serum, but are often subject to interferences from numerous serum factors, such as growth factors and disease-related cytokines. Many functional cell-based NAb assays are essentially drug concentration assays that imply the presence of NAbs by the detection of small changes in functional drug concentration. Any drug contained in the test sample will increase the total amount of drug in the assay, thus reducing the sensitivity of NAb detection. Biotin-drug Extraction with Acid Dissociation (BEAD) has been successfully applied to extract ADA, thereby removing drug and other interfering factors from human serum samples. However, to date there has been no report to estimate the residual drug level after BEAD treatment when the drug itself is a human monoclonal antibody; mainly due to the limitation of traditional ligand-binding assays. Here we describe a universal BEAD optimization procedure for human monoclonal antibody (mAb) drugs by using a LC-MS/MS method to simultaneously measure drug (a mutant human IgG4), NAb positive control (a mouse IgG), and endogenous human IgGs as an indicator of nonspecific carry-over in the BEAD eluate. This is the first report demonstrating that residual human mAb drug level in clinical sample can be measured after BEAD pre-treatment, which is critical for further BEAD procedure optimization and downstream immunogenicity testing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Antibody-mediated platelet phagocytosis by human macrophages is inhibited by siRNA specific for sequences in the SH2 tyrosine kinase, Syk.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ying; Wang, Weiming; Mao, Huiming; Hu, Hai; Wu, Yanling; Chen, Bing-Guan; Liu, Zhongmin

    2011-01-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia depends upon Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis that involves signaling through the SH2 tyrosine kinase, Syk. We designed small interfering (siRNA) sequences complementary to Syk coding regions to decrease the expression of Syk in the human macrophage cell line, THP-1. To evaluate the functional effect of siRNA on phagocytosis, we developed a new in vitro assay for antibody-mediated platelet ingestion by THP-1 cells. Incubation of THP-1 cells at 37°C with fluorescence-labeled platelets and anti-platelet antibody promoted ingestion of platelets that could be quantitated by flow cytometry. Transfection of THP-1 cells with Syk-specific siRNA resulted in a reduction in the amount of FcγRII-associated Syk protein. Coincident with decreased Syk expression, we observed inhibition of antibody-mediated platelet ingestion. These results confirm a key role for Syk in antibody-mediated phagocytosis and suggest Syk-specific siRNA as a possible therapeutic candidate for immune thrombocytopenia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. HA Antibody-Mediated FcγRIIIa Activity Is Both Dependent on FcR Engagement and Interactions between HA and Sialic Acids.

    PubMed

    Cox, Freek; Kwaks, Ted; Brandenburg, Boerries; Koldijk, Martin H; Klaren, Vincent; Smal, Bastiaan; Korse, Hans J W M; Geelen, Eric; Tettero, Lisanne; Zuijdgeest, David; Stoop, Esther J M; Saeland, Eirikur; Vogels, Ronald; Friesen, Robert H E; Koudstaal, Wouter; Goudsmit, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    Interactions with receptors for the Fc region of IgG (FcγRs) have been shown to contribute to the in vivo protection against influenza A viruses provided by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) that bind to the viral hemagglutinin (HA) stem. In particular, Fc-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to contribute to protection by stem-binding bnAbs. Fc-mediated effector functions appear not to contribute to protection provided by strain-specific HA head-binding antibodies. We used a panel of anti-stem and anti-head influenza A and B monoclonal antibodies with identical human IgG1 Fc domains and investigated their ability to mediate ADCC-associated FcγRIIIa activation. Antibodies which do not interfere with sialic acid binding of HA can mediate FcγRIIIa activation. However, the FcγRIIIa activation was inhibited when a mutant HA, unable to bind sialic acids, was used. Antibodies which block sialic acid receptor interactions of HA interfered with FcγRIIIa activation. The inhibition of FcγRIIIa activation by HA head-binding and sialic acid receptor-blocking antibodies was confirmed in plasma samples of H5N1 vaccinated human subjects. Together, these results suggest that in addition to Fc-FcγR binding, interactions between HA and sialic acids on immune cells are required for optimal Fc-mediated effector functions by anti-HA antibodies.

  14. An endogenous small interfering RNA pathway in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Czech, Benjamin; Malone, Colin D.; Zhou, Rui; Stark, Alexander; Schlingeheyde, Catherine; Dus, Monica; Perrimon, Norbert; Kellis, Manolis; Wohlschlegel, James A.; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Hannon, Gregory J.; Brennecke, Julius

    2009-01-01

    Drosophila endogenous small RNAs are categorized according to their mechanisms of biogenesis and the Argonaute protein to which they bind. MicroRNAs are a class of ubiquitously expressed RNAs of ~22 nucleotides in length, which arise from structured precursors through the action of Drosha–Pasha and Dicer-1–Loquacious complexes1–7. These join Argonaute-1 to regulate gene expression8,9. A second endogenous small RNA class, the Piwi-interacting RNAs, bind Piwi proteins and suppress transposons10,11. Piwi-interacting RNAs are restricted to the gonad, and at least a subset of these arises by Piwi-catalysed cleavage of single-stranded RNAs12,13. Here we show that Drosophila generates a third small RNA class, endogenous small interfering RNAs, in both gonadal and somatic tissues. Production of these RNAs requires Dicer-2, but a subset depends preferentially on Loquacious1,4,5 rather than the canonical Dicer-2 partner, R2D2 (ref. 14). Endogenous small interfering RNAs arise both from convergent transcription units and from structured genomic loci in a tissue-specific fashion. They predominantly join Argonaute-2 and have the capacity, as a class, to target both protein-coding genes and mobile elements. These observations expand the repertoire of small RNAs in Drosophila, adding a class that blurs distinctions based on known biogenesis mechanisms and functional roles. PMID:18463631

  15. Characterization of a recombinant humanized anti-cocaine monoclonal antibody and its Fab fragment.

    PubMed

    Kirley, Terence L; Norman, Andrew B

    2015-01-01

    Variations of post-translational modifications are important for stability and in vivo behavior of therapeutic antibodies. A recombinant humanized anti-cocaine monoclonal antibody (h2E2) was characterized for heterogeneity of N-linked glycosylation and disulfide bonds. In addition, charge heterogeneity, which is partially due to the presence or absence of C-terminal lysine on the heavy chains, was examined. For cocaine overdose therapy, Fab fragments may be therapeutic, and thus, a simplified method of generation, purification, and characterization of the Fab fragment generated by Endoproteinase Lys-C digestion was devised. Both the intact h2E2 antibody and purified Fab fragments were analyzed for their affinities for cocaine and 2 of its metabolites, benzoylecgonine and cocaethylene, by fluorescence quenching of intrinsic antibody tyrosine and tryptophan fluorescence resulting from binding of these drugs. Binding constants obtained from fluorescence quenching measurements are in agreement with recently published radioligand and ELISA binding assays. The dissociation constants determined for the h2E2 monoclonal and its Fab fragment are approximately 1, 5, and 20 nM for cocaethylene, cocaine, and benzoylecgonine, respectively. Tryptophan fluorescence quenching (emission at 330 nm) was measured after either excitation of tyrosine and tryptophan (280 nm) or selective excitation of tryptophan alone (295 nm). More accurate binding constants are obtained using tryptophan selective excitation at 295 nm, likely due to interfering absorption of cocaine and metabolites at 280 nm. These quenching results are consistent with multiple tryptophan and tyrosine residues in or near the predicted binding location of cocaine in a previously published 3-D model of this antibody's variable region.

  16. 36 CFR 261.3 - Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false report to a Forest officer. 261.3... General Prohibitions § 261.3 Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program..., intimidating, or intentionally interfering with any Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program...

  17. 36 CFR 261.3 - Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false report to a Forest officer. 261.3... General Prohibitions § 261.3 Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program..., intimidating, or intentionally interfering with any Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program...

  18. 36 CFR 261.3 - Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false report to a Forest officer. 261.3... General Prohibitions § 261.3 Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program..., intimidating, or intentionally interfering with any Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program...

  19. 36 CFR 261.3 - Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false report to a Forest officer. 261.3... General Prohibitions § 261.3 Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program..., intimidating, or intentionally interfering with any Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program...

  20. 36 CFR 261.3 - Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false report to a Forest officer. 261.3... General Prohibitions § 261.3 Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program..., intimidating, or intentionally interfering with any Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program...

  1. Antithyroglobulin antibody

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroglobulin antibody; Thyroiditis - thyroglobulin antibody; Hypothyroidism - thyroglobulin antibody; Thyroiditis - thyroglobulin antibody; Graves disease - thyroglobulin antibody; Underactive thyroid - thyroglobulin antibody

  2. Development and characterization of a panel of cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies generated using H1N1 influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chun-yan; Tang, Yi-gui; Qi, Zong-li; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Xiang-rong; Huo, Xue-ping; Li, Yan; Feng, Qing; Zhao, Peng-hua; Wang, Xin; Li, Yuan; Wang, Hai-fang; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Xin-jian

    2015-08-01

    To characterize the antigenic epitopes of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of H1N1 influenza virus, a panel consisting of 84 clones of murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were generated using the HA proteins from the 2009 pandemic H1N1 vaccine lysate and the seasonal influenza H1N1(A1) vaccines. Thirty-three (39%) of the 84 mAbs were found to be strain-specific, and 6 (7%) of the 84 mAbs were subtype-specific. Twenty (24%) of the 84 mAbs recognized the common HA epitopes shared by 2009 pandemic H1N1, seasonal A1 (H1N1), and A3 (H3N2) influenza viruses. Twenty-five of the 84 clones recognized the common HA epitopes shared by the 2009 pandemic H1N1, seasonal A1 (H1N1) and A3 (H3N2) human influenza viruses, and H5N1 and H9N2 avian influenza viruses. We found that of the 16 (19%) clones of the 84 mAbs panel that were cross-reactive with human respiratory pathogens, 15 were made using the HA of the seasonal A1 (H1N1) virus and 1 was made using the HA of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. Immunohistochemical analysis of the tissue microarray (TMA) showed that 4 of the 84 mAb clones cross-reacted with human tissue (brain and pancreas). Our results indicated that the influenza virus HA antigenic epitopes not only induce type-, subtype-, and strain-specific monoclonal antibodies against influenza A virus but also cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies against human tissues. Further investigations of these cross-reactive (heterophilic) epitopes may significantly improve our understanding of viral antigenic variation, epidemics, pathophysiologic mechanisms, and adverse effects of influenza vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Homologous interference mediated by defective interfering influenza virus derived from a temperature-sensitive mutant of influenza virus.

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, D P; Tobita, K; Janda, J M; Davis, A R; De, B K

    1978-01-01

    A temperature-sensitive group II mutant of influenza virus, ts-52, with a presumed defect in viral RNA synthesis, readily produced von Magnus-type defective interfering virus (DI virus) when passed serially (four times) at high multiplicity in MDBK cells. The defective virus (ts-52 DI virus) had a high hemagglutinin and a low infectivity titer, and strongly interfered with the replication of standard infectious viruses (both ts-52 and wild-type ts+) in co-infected cells. Progeny virus particles produced by co-infection of DI virus and infectious virus were also defective and also had low infectivity, high hemagglutinating activity, and a strong interfering property. Infectious viruses ts+ and ts-52 were indistinguishable from ts-52 DI viruses by sucrose velocity or density gradient analysis. Additionally, these viruses all possessed similar morphology. However, when the RNA of DI viruses was analyzed by use of polyacrylamide gels containing 6 M urea, there was a reduction in the amount of large RNA species (V1 to V4), and a number of new smaller RNA species (D1 to D6) with molecular weights ranging from 2.9 X 10(5) to 1.05 X 10(5) appeared. Since these smaller RNA species (D1 to D6) were absent in some clones of infectious viruses, but were consistently associated with DI viruses and increased during undiluted passages and during co-infection of ts-52 with DI virus, they appeared to be a characteristic of DI viruses. Additionally, the UV target size of interfering activity and infectivity of DI virus indicated that interfering activity was 40 times more resistant to UV irradiation than was infectivity, further implicating small RNA molecules in interference. Our data suggest that the loss of infectivity observed among DI viruses may be due to nonspecific loss of a viral RNA segment(s), and the interfering property of DI viruses may be due to interfering RNA segments (DIRNA, D1 to D6). ts-52 DI virus interfered with the replication of standard virus (ts+) at both

  4. Nanoparticle-based delivery of small interfering RNA: challenges for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Miele, Evelina; Spinelli, Gian Paolo; Miele, Ermanno; Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Ferretti, Elisabetta; Tomao, Silverio; Gulino, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    During recent decades there have been remarkable advances and profound changes in cancer therapy. Many therapeutic strategies learned at the bench, including monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors, have been used at the bedside, leading to important successes. One of the most important advances in biology has been the discovery that small interfering RNA (siRNA) is able to regulate the expression of genes, by a phenomenon known as RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi is one of the most rapidly growing fields of research in biology and therapeutics. Much research effort has gone into the application of this new discovery in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. However, even though these molecules may have potential and strong utility, some limitations make their clinical application difficult, including delivery problems, side effects due to off-target actions, disturbance of physiological functions of the cellular machinery involved in gene silencing, and induction of the innate immune response. Many researchers have attempted to overcome these limitations and to improve the safety of potential RNAi-based therapeutics. Nanoparticles, which are nanostructured entities with tunable size, shape, and surface, as well as biological behavior, provide an ideal opportunity to modify current treatment regimens in a substantial way. These nanoparticles could be designed to surmount one or more of the barriers encountered by siRNA. Nanoparticle drug formulations afford the chance to improve drug bioavailability, exploiting superior tissue permeability, payload protection, and the “stealth” features of these entities. The main aims of this review are: to explain the siRNA mechanism with regard to potential applications in siRNA-based cancer therapy; to discuss the possible usefulness of nanoparticle-based delivery of certain molecules for overcoming present therapeutic limitations; to review the ongoing relevant clinical research with its pitfalls and

  5. Evaluation of bilirubin concentration in hemolysed samples, is it really impossible? The altitude-curve cartography approach to interfered assays.

    PubMed

    Brunori, Paola; Masi, Piergiorgio; Faggiani, Luigi; Villani, Luciano; Tronchin, Michele; Galli, Claudio; Laube, Clarissa; Leoni, Antonella; Demi, Maila; La Gioia, Antonio

    2011-04-11

    Neonatal jaundice might lead to severe clinical consequences. Measurement of bilirubin in samples is interfered by hemolysis. Over a method-depending cut-off value of measured hemolysis, bilirubin value is not accepted and a new sample is required for evaluation although this is not always possible, especially with newborns and cachectic oncological patients. When usage of different methods, less prone to interferences, is not feasible an alternative recovery method for analytical significance of rejected data might help clinicians to take appropriate decisions. We studied the effects of hemolysis over total bilirubin measurement, comparing hemolysis-interfered bilirubin measurement with the non-interfered value. Interference curves were extrapolated over a wide range of bilirubin (0-30 mg/mL) and hemolysis (H Index 0-1100). Interference "altitude" curves were calculated and plotted. A bimodal acceptance table was calculated. Non-interfered bilirubin of given samples was calculated, by linear interpolation between the nearest lower and upper interference curves. Rejection of interference-sensitive data from hemolysed samples for every method should be based not upon the interferent concentration but upon a more complex algorithm based upon the concentration-dependent bimodal interaction between the interfered analyte and the measured interferent. The altitude-curve cartography approach to interfered assays may help laboratories to build up their own method-dependent algorithm and to improve the trueness of their data by choosing a cut-off value different from the one (-10% interference) proposed by manufacturers. When re-sampling or an alternative method is not available the altitude-curve cartography approach might also represent an alternative recovery method for analytical significance of rejected data. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Generation and Characterization of Human Monoclonal Antibodies Targeting Anthrax Protective Antigen following Vaccination with a Recombinant Protective Antigen Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Chi, Xiangyang; Li, Jianmin; Liu, Weicen; Wang, Xiaolin; Yin, Kexin; Liu, Ju; Zai, Xiaodong; Li, Liangliang; Song, Xiaohong; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Yin, Ying; Fu, Ling; Xu, Junjie; Yu, Changming; Chen, Wei

    2015-05-01

    The anthrax protective antigen (PA) is the central component of the three-part anthrax toxin, and it is the primary immunogenic component in the approved AVA anthrax vaccine and the "next-generation" recombinant PA (rPA) anthrax vaccines. Animal models have indicated that PA-specific antibodies (AB) are sufficient to protect against infection with Bacillus anthracis. In this study, we investigated the PA domain specificity, affinity, mechanisms of neutralization, and synergistic effects of PA-specific antibodies from a single donor following vaccination with the rPA vaccine. Antibody-secreting cells were isolated 7 days after the donor received a boost vaccination, and 34 fully human monoclonal antibodies (hMAb) were identified. Clones 8H6, 4A3, and 22F1 were able to neutralize lethal toxin (LeTx) both in vitro and in vivo. Clone 8H6 neutralized LeTx by preventing furin cleavage of PA in a dose-dependent manner. Clone 4A3 enhanced degradation of nicked PA, thereby interfering with PA oligomerization. The mechanism of 22F1 is still unclear. A fourth clone, 2A6, that was protective only in vitro was found to be neutralizing in vivo in combination with a toxin-enhancing antibody, 8A7, which binds to domain 3 of PA and PA oligomers. These results provide novel insights into the antibody response elicited by the rPA vaccine and may be useful for PA-based vaccine and immunotherapeutic cocktail design. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. The Influence of Interfering Substances on the Antimicrobial Activity of Selected Quaternary Ammonium Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Paula A.; Lemos, Madalena; Mergulhão, Filipe; Melo, Luís; Simões, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Standard cleaning processes may not remove all the soiling typically found in food industry, such as carbohydrates, fats, or proteins. Contaminants have a high impact in disinfection as their presence may reduce the activity of disinfectants. The influence of alginic acid, bovine serum albumin, yeast extract, and humic acids was assessed on the antimicrobial activities of benzalkonium chloride and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide against Bacillus cereus vegetative cells and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The bacteria (single and consortium) were exposed to surfactants (single and combined) in the absence and presence of potential disinfection interfering substances. The antimicrobial effects of the surfactants were assessed based on the bacterial respiratory activity measured by oxygen uptake rate due to glucose oxidation. The tested surfactants were efficient against both bacteria (single and consortium) with minimum bactericidal concentrations ranging from 3 to 35 mg·L−1. The strongest effect was caused by humic acids that severely quenched antimicrobial action, increasing the minimum bactericidal concentration of the surfactants on P. fluorescens and the consortium. The inclusion of the other interfering substances resulted in mild interferences in the antibacterial activity. This study clearly demonstrates that humic acids should be considered as an antimicrobial interfering substance in the development of disinfection strategies. PMID:26904590

  8. Next Generation Antibody Therapeutics Using Bispecific Antibody Technology.

    PubMed

    Igawa, Tomoyuki

    2017-01-01

    Nearly fifty monoclonal antibodies have been approved to date, and the market for monoclonal antibodies is expected to continue to grow. Since global competition in the field of antibody therapeutics is intense, we need to establish novel antibody engineering technologies to provide true benefit for patients, with differentiated product values. Bispecific antibodies are among the next generation of antibody therapeutics that can bind to two different target antigens by the two arms of immunoglobulin G (IgG) molecule, and are thus believed to be applicable to various therapeutic needs. Until recently, large scale manufacturing of human IgG bispecific antibody was impossible. We have established a technology, named asymmetric re-engineering technology (ART)-Ig, to enable large scale manufacturing of bispecific antibodies. Three examples of next generation antibody therapeutics using ART-Ig technology are described. Recent updates on bispecific antibodies against factor IXa and factor X for the treatment of hemophilia A, bispecific antibodies against a tumor specific antigen and T cell surface marker CD3 for cancer immunotherapy, and bispecific antibodies against two different epitopes of soluble antigen with pH-dependent binding property for the elimination of soluble antigen from plasma are also described.

  9. Detecting and Eliminating Interfering Organic Compounds in Waters Analyzed for Isotopic Composition by Crds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, B. A.; Hsiao, G. S.; Rella, C.

    2010-12-01

    Optical spectroscopy based CRDS technology for isotopic analysis of δD and δ18O directly from liquid water has greatly increased the number and type of liquid samples analyzed. This increase has also revealed a previously unrecognized sample contamination problem. Recently West[1] and Brand[2] identified samples containing ethanol, methanol, plant extracts and other organic compounds analyzed by CRDS and other spectroscopy based techniques as yielding erroneous results for δD and δ18O (especially δD) due to spectroscopic interference. Not all organic compounds generate interference. Thus, identifying which samples are contaminated by which organic compounds is of key importance for data credibility and correction. To address this problem a new approach in the form of a software suite, ChemCorrect™, has been developed. A chemometrics component uses a spectral library of water isotopologues and interfering organic compounds to best fit the measured spectra. The best fit values provide a quantitative assay of the actual concentrations of the various species and are then evaluated to generate a visual flag indicating samples affected by organic contamination. Laboratory testing of samples spiked with known quantities of interfering organic compounds such as methanol, ethanol, and terpenes was performed. The software correctly flagged and identified type of contamination for all the spiked samples without any false positives. Furthermore the reported values were a linear function of actual concentration with an R^2>0.99 even for samples which contained multiple organic compounds. Further testing was carried out against a range of industrial chemical compounds which can contaminate ground water as well as a variety of plant derived waters and juices which were also analyzed by IRMS. The excellent results obtained give good insight into which organic compounds cause interference and which classes of plants are likely to contain interfering compounds. Finally

  10. Negative psychosocial and heavy physical workloads associated with musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life in older adults: cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Lilje, Stina C; Skillgate, Eva; Anderberg, Peter; Berglund, Johan

    2015-07-01

    Pain is one of the most frequent reasons for seeking health care, and is thus a public health problem. Although there is a progressive increase in pain and impaired physical function with age, few studies are performed on older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate if there are associations between musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life in older adults and physical and psychosocial workloads through life. The association of heavy physical workload and negative psychosocial workload and musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life (SF 12) was analyzed by multiple logistic regression. The model was adjusted for eight background covariates: age, gender, growing-up environment, educational level, if living alone or not, obesity, smoking, and leisure physical activity. Negative psychosocial and heavy physical workloads were independently associated with musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life (adjusted OR: 4.44, 95% CI: 2.84-6.92), and (adjusted OR: 1.88, 95% CI: 1.20-2.93), respectively. The background covariates female gender and higher education were also associated with musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life, and physical leisure activity was inversely associated. The findings suggest that negative psychosocial and heavy physical workloads are strongly associated with musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life in older adults. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  11. Antibodies and Selection of Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Hanack, Katja; Messerschmidt, Katrin; Listek, Martin

    Monoclonal antibodies are universal binding molecules with a high specificity for their target and are indispensable tools in research, diagnostics and therapy. The biotechnological generation of monoclonal antibodies was enabled by the hybridoma technology published in 1975 by Köhler and Milstein. Today monoclonal antibodies are used in a variety of applications as flow cytometry, magnetic cell sorting, immunoassays or therapeutic approaches. First step of the generation process is the immunization of the organism with appropriate antigen. After a positive immune response the spleen cells are isolated and fused with myeloma cells in order to generate stable, long-living antibody-producing cell lines - hybridoma cells. In the subsequent identification step the culture supernatants of all hybridoma cells are screened weekly for the production of the antibody of interest. Hybridoma cells producing the antibody of interest are cloned by limited dilution till a monoclonal hybridoma is found. This is a very time-consuming and laborious process and therefore different selection strategies were developed since 1975 in order to facilitate the generation of monoclonal antibodies. Apart from common automation of pipetting processes and ELISA testing there are some promising approaches to select the right monoclonal antibody very early in the process to reduce time and effort of the generation. In this chapter different selection strategies for antibody-producing hybridoma cells are presented and analysed regarding to their benefits compared to conventional limited dilution technology.

  12. Trans-acting small interfering RNA4: key to nutraceutical synthesis in grape development?

    PubMed

    Rock, Christopher D

    2013-11-01

    The facility and versatility of microRNAs (miRNAs) to evolve and change likely underlies how they have become dominant constituents of eukaryotic genomes. In this opinion article I propose that trans-acting small interfering RNA gene 4 (TAS4) evolution may be important for biosynthesis of polyphenolics, arbuscular symbiosis, and bacterial pathogen etiologies. Expression-based and phylogenetic evidence shows that TAS4 targets two novel grape (Vitis vinifera L.) MYB transcription factors (VvMYBA6, VvMYBA7) that spawn phased small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) which probably function in nutraceutical bioflavonoid biosynthesis and fruit development. Characterization of the molecular mechanisms of TAS4 control of plant development and integration into biotic and abiotic stress- and nutrient-signaling regulatory networks has applicability to molecular breeding and the development of strategies for engineering healthier foods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Antibodies and antibody-derived analytical biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shikha; Byrne, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    The rapid diagnosis of many diseases and timely initiation of appropriate treatment are critical determinants that promote optimal clinical outcomes and general public health. Biosensors are now being applied for rapid diagnostics due to their capacity for point-of-care use with minimum need for operator input. Antibody-based biosensors or immunosensors have revolutionized diagnostics for the detection of a plethora of analytes such as disease markers, food and environmental contaminants, biological warfare agents and illicit drugs. Antibodies are ideal biorecognition elements that provide sensors with high specificity and sensitivity. This review describes monoclonal and recombinant antibodies and different immobilization approaches crucial for antibody utilization in biosensors. Examples of applications of a variety of antibody-based sensor formats are also described. PMID:27365031

  14. Antibody functionalized graphene biosensor for label-free electrochemical immunosensing of fibrinogen, an indicator of trauma induced coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Waqas; Salinas, Carlos; Watkins, Brian; Garvey, Gavin; Sharma, Anjal C; Ghosh, Ritwik

    2016-12-15

    An antibody, specific to fibrinogen, has been covalently attached to graphene and deposited onto screen printed electrodes using a chitosan hydrogel binder to prepare an inexpensive electrochemical fibrinogen biosensor. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy has been utilized to confirm the presence of the antibody on the graphene scaffold. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) has been utilized to demonstrate that the biosensor responds in a selective manner to fibrinogen in aqueous media even in the presence of plasminogen, a potentially interfering molecule in the coagulopathy cascade. Furthermore, the biosensor was shown to reliably sense fibrinogen in the presence of high background serum albumin levels. Finally, we demonstrated detection of clinically relevant fibrinogen concentrations (938-44,542μg/dL) from human serum and human whole blood samples using this biosensor. This biosensor can potentially be used in a point-of-care device to detect the onset of coagulopathy and monitor response following therapeutic intervention in trauma patients. Thus this biosensor may improve the clinical management of patients with trauma-induced coagulopathy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Adaptive antenna arrays for weak interfering signals. [in satellite communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, I. J.; Ksienski, A. A.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that conventional adaptive arrays are unable to suppress weak interfering signals. To overcome this problem, the feedback loops controlling the array weights were modified, reducing the noise level by reducing the correlation between the noise components of the two inputs to the loop correlator. Various techniques to decorrelate these noise components are discussed. An expression is derived for the amount of noise decorrelation required to achieve a specified interference suppression. The results are of interest in connection with satellite communications.

  16. Infectious mononucleosis

    PubMed Central

    Balfour, Henry H; Dunmire, Samantha K; Hogquist, Kristin A

    2015-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is a clinical entity characterized by pharyngitis, cervical lymph node enlargement, fatigue and fever, which results most often from a primary Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection. EBV, a lymphocrytovirus and a member of the γ-herpesvirus family, infects at least 90% of the population worldwide, the majority of whom have no recognizable illness. The virus is spread by intimate oral contact among adolescents, but how preadolescents acquire the virus is not known. During the incubation period of approximately 6 weeks, viral replication first occurs in the oropharynx followed by viremia as early as 2 weeks before onset of illness. The acute illness is marked by high viral loads in both the oral cavity and blood accompanied by the production of immunoglobulin M antibodies against EBV viral capsid antigen and an extraordinary expansion of CD8+ T lymphocytes directed against EBV-infected B cells. During convalescence, CD8+ T cells return to normal levels and antibodies develop against EBV nuclear antigen-1. A typical clinical picture in an adolescent or young adult with a positive heterophile test is usually sufficient to make the diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis, but heterophile antibodies are not specific and do not develop in some patients especially young children. EBV-specific antibody profiles are the best choice for staging EBV infection. In addition to causing acute illness, long-term consequences are linked to infectious mononucleosis, especially Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple sclerosis. There is no licensed vaccine for prevention and no specific approved treatment. Future research goals are development of an EBV vaccine, understanding the risk factors for severity of the acute illness and likelihood of developing cancer or autoimmune diseases, and discovering anti-EBV drugs to treat infectious mononucleosis and other EBV-spurred diseases. PMID:25774295

  17. Infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Balfour, Henry H; Dunmire, Samantha K; Hogquist, Kristin A

    2015-02-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is a clinical entity characterized by pharyngitis, cervical lymph node enlargement, fatigue and fever, which results most often from a primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. EBV, a lymphocrytovirus and a member of the γ-herpesvirus family, infects at least 90% of the population worldwide, the majority of whom have no recognizable illness. The virus is spread by intimate oral contact among adolescents, but how preadolescents acquire the virus is not known. During the incubation period of approximately 6 weeks, viral replication first occurs in the oropharynx followed by viremia as early as 2 weeks before onset of illness. The acute illness is marked by high viral loads in both the oral cavity and blood accompanied by the production of immunoglobulin M antibodies against EBV viral capsid antigen and an extraordinary expansion of CD8(+) T lymphocytes directed against EBV-infected B cells. During convalescence, CD8(+) T cells return to normal levels and antibodies develop against EBV nuclear antigen-1. A typical clinical picture in an adolescent or young adult with a positive heterophile test is usually sufficient to make the diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis, but heterophile antibodies are not specific and do not develop in some patients especially young children. EBV-specific antibody profiles are the best choice for staging EBV infection. In addition to causing acute illness, long-term consequences are linked to infectious mononucleosis, especially Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple sclerosis. There is no licensed vaccine for prevention and no specific approved treatment. Future research goals are development of an EBV vaccine, understanding the risk factors for severity of the acute illness and likelihood of developing cancer or autoimmune diseases, and discovering anti-EBV drugs to treat infectious mononucleosis and other EBV-spurred diseases.

  18. Thiophenone Attenuates Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O103:H2 Virulence by Interfering with AI-2 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Witsø, Ingun Lund; Valen Rukke, Håkon; Benneche, Tore; Aamdal Scheie, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Interference with bacterial quorum sensing communication provides an anti-virulence strategy to control pathogenic bacteria. Here, using the Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) O103:H2, we showed for the first time that thiophenone TF101 reduced expression of lsrB; the gene encoding the AI-2 receptor. Combined results of transcriptional and phenotypic analyses suggested that TF101 interfere with AI-2 signalling, possibly by competing with AI-2 for binding to LsrB. This is supported by in silico docking prediction of thiophenone TF101 in the LsrB pocket. Transcriptional analyses furthermore showed that thiophenone TF101 interfered with expression of the virulence genes eae and fimH. In addition, TF101 reduced AI-2 induced E. coli adhesion to colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. TF101, on the other hand, did not affect epinephrine or norepinephrine enhanced E. coli adhesion. Overall, our results showed that thiophenone TF101 interfered with virulence expression in E. coli O103:H2, suggestedly by interfering with AI-2 mediated quorum sensing. We thus conclude that thiophenone TF101 might represent a promising future anti-virulence agent in the fight against pathogenic E. coli.

  19. Thiophenone Attenuates Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O103:H2 Virulence by Interfering with AI-2 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Valen Rukke, Håkon; Benneche, Tore; Aamdal Scheie, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Interference with bacterial quorum sensing communication provides an anti-virulence strategy to control pathogenic bacteria. Here, using the Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) O103:H2, we showed for the first time that thiophenone TF101 reduced expression of lsrB; the gene encoding the AI-2 receptor. Combined results of transcriptional and phenotypic analyses suggested that TF101 interfere with AI-2 signalling, possibly by competing with AI-2 for binding to LsrB. This is supported by in silico docking prediction of thiophenone TF101 in the LsrB pocket. Transcriptional analyses furthermore showed that thiophenone TF101 interfered with expression of the virulence genes eae and fimH. In addition, TF101 reduced AI-2 induced E. coli adhesion to colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. TF101, on the other hand, did not affect epinephrine or norepinephrine enhanced E. coli adhesion. Overall, our results showed that thiophenone TF101 interfered with virulence expression in E. coli O103:H2, suggestedly by interfering with AI-2 mediated quorum sensing. We thus conclude that thiophenone TF101 might represent a promising future anti-virulence agent in the fight against pathogenic E. coli. PMID:27309855

  20. Infectious Mononucleosis

    PubMed Central

    Dunmire, Samantha K.; Hogquist, Kristin A.; Balfour, Henry H.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is a clinical entity characterized by sore throat, cervical lymph node enlargement, fatigue and fever most often seen in adolescents and young adults and lasting several weeks. It can be caused by a number of pathogens, but this chapter only discusses infectious mononucleosis due to primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. EBV is a γ-herpesvirus that infects at least 90% of the population worldwide. The virus is spread by intimate oral contact among teenagers and young adults. How preadolescents acquire the virus is not known. A typical clinical picture with a positive heterophile test is usually sufficient to make the diagnosis, but heterophile antibodies are not specific and do not develop in some patients. EBV-specific antibody profiles are the best choice for staging EBV infection. In addition to causing acute illness, there can also be long-term consequences as the result of acquisition of the virus. Several EBV related illnesses occur including certain cancers and autoimmune diseases, as well as complications of primary immunodeficiency in persons with the certain genetic mutations. A major obstacle to understanding these sequelae has been the lack of an efficient animal model for EBV infection, although progress in primate and mouse models has recently been made. Key future challenges are to develop protective vaccines and effective treatment regimens. PMID:26424648

  1. Infectious Mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Dunmire, Samantha K; Hogquist, Kristin A; Balfour, Henry H

    2015-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is a clinical entity characterized by sore throat, cervical lymph node enlargement, fatigue, and fever most often seen in adolescents and young adults and lasting several weeks. It can be caused by a number of pathogens, but this chapter only discusses infectious mononucleosis due to primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. EBV is a γ-herpesvirus that infects at least 90% of the population worldwide. The virus is spread by intimate oral contact among teenagers and young adults. How preadolescents acquire the virus is not known. A typical clinical picture with a positive heterophile test is usually sufficient to make the diagnosis, but heterophile antibodies are not specific and do not develop in some patients. EBV-specific antibody profiles are the best choice for staging EBV infection. In addition to causing acute illness, there can also be long-term consequences as the result of acquisition of the virus. Several EBV-related illnesses occur including certain cancers and autoimmune diseases, as well as complications of primary immunodeficiency in persons with the certain genetic mutations. A major obstacle to understanding these sequelae has been the lack of an efficient animal model for EBV infection, although progress in primate and mouse models has recently been made. Key future challenges are to develop protective vaccines and effective treatment regimens.

  2. Correction partielle des Effets de la Turbulence atmosphérique en Interférométrie optique: Traitement des Données et Développement d'Optiques adaptatives pour l'Interféromètre GI2T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vérinaud, Christophe

    2000-11-01

    Dans le domaine de la haute résolution angulaire en astronomie, les techniques de l'interférométrie optique et de l'optique adaptative sont en plein essor. La principale limitation de l'interférométrie est laturbulence atmosphérique qui entraîne des pertes de cohérence importantes, préjudiciables à la sensibilité et à la précision des mesures. L'optique adaptative appliquée à l'interférométrie va permettre un gain en sensibilité considérable. Le but de cette thèse est l'étude de l'influence de l'optique adaptative sur les mesures interférométriques et son application au Grand Interféromètre à DeuxTélescopes (GI2T) situé sur le Mont Calern dans le sud de la France. Deux problèmes principaux sont étudiés de manière théorique par des développements analytiques et des simulations numériques: le premier est le contrôle en temps réel de la variation des différences de marche optique, encore appelée piston différentiel, induite par l'optique adaptative ; le deuxième problème important est la calibration des mesures de contraste des franges dans le cas de la correction partielle. Je limite mon étude au cas d'un interféromètre multi-modes en courtes poses, mode de fonctionnement principal du GI2T également prévu sur le Very Large Telescope Interferometer installé au Cerro Paranal au Chili. Je développe une méthode de calibration des pertes de cohérence spatio-temporelles connaissant la fonction de structure des fronts d'onde corrigés. Je montre en particulier qu'il est possible d'estimer fréquence par fréquence la densité spectrale des images en courtes poses, méthode très utile pour augmenter la couverture du plan des fréquences spatiales dans l'observation d'objets étendus. La dernière partie de ce mémoire est consacrée au développements instrumentaux auxquels j'ai participé. J'ai développé un banc de qualification du système d'optique adaptative à courbure destiné au GI2T et j'ai étudié l

  3. Theranostics Using Antibodies and Antibody-Related Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Moek, Kirsten L; Giesen, Danique; Kok, Iris C; de Groot, Derk Jan A; Jalving, Mathilde; Fehrmann, Rudolf S N; Lub-de Hooge, Marjolijn N; Brouwers, Adrienne H; de Vries, Elisabeth G E

    2017-09-01

    In theranostics, radiolabeled compounds are used to determine a treatment strategy by combining therapeutics and diagnostics in the same agent. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and antibody-related therapeutics represent a rapidly expanding group of cancer medicines. Theranostic approaches using these drugs in oncology are particularly interesting because antibodies are designed against specific targets on the tumor cell membrane and immune cells as well as targets in the tumor microenvironment. In addition, these drugs are relatively easy to radiolabel. Noninvasive molecular imaging techniques, such as SPECT and PET, provide information on the whole-body distribution of radiolabeled mAbs and antibody-related therapeutics. Molecular antibody imaging can potentially elucidate drug target expression, tracer uptake in the tumor, tumor saturation, and heterogeneity for these parameters within the tumor. These data can support drug development and may aid in patient stratification and monitoring of the treatment response. Selecting a radionuclide for theranostic purposes generally starts by matching the serum half-life of the mAb or antibody-related therapeutic and the physical half-life of the radionuclide. Furthermore, PET imaging allows better quantification than the SPECT technique. This information has increased interest in theranostics using PET radionuclides with a relatively long physical half-life, such as 89 Zr. In this review, we provide an overview of ongoing research on mAbs and antibody-related theranostics in preclinical and clinical oncologic settings. We identified 24 antibodies or antibody-related therapeutics labeled with PET radionuclides for theranostic purposes in patients. For this approach to become integrated in standard care, further standardization with respect to the procedures involved is required. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  4. SMI adaptive antenna arrays for weak interfering signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, I. J.

    1987-01-01

    The performance of adaptive antenna arrays is studied when a sample matrix inversion (SMI) algorithm is used to control array weights. It is shown that conventional SMI adaptive antennas, like other adaptive antennas, are unable to suppress weak interfering signals (below thermal noise) encountered in broadcasting satellite communication systems. To overcome this problem, the SMI algorithm is modified. In the modified algorithm, the covariance matrix is modified such that the effect of thermal noise on the weights of the adaptive array is reduced. Thus, the weights are dictated by relatively weak coherent signals. It is shown that the modified algorithm provides the desired interference protection. The use of defocused feeds as auxiliary elements of an SMI adaptive array is also discussed.

  5. Humoral immune response in infectious mononucleosis. Late emergence of anti-EA(R) and the effects of corticosteroid therapy.

    PubMed

    Fleisher, G R; Collins, M; Fager, S

    1985-11-01

    The antibody response to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antigens in patients with infectious mononucleosis (IM) was studied to assess antibody appearance to the restricted (R) component of the early antigen (EA) complex and to determine the effect of corticosteroids on all aspects of the humoral immune response. Sixty college students with heterophil-positive clinical IM, confirmed by EBV-specific serology, were followed for a period of 4-26 weeks, Half received prednisone for six days, and the remainder received no corticosteroid therapy. Regardless of therapy, 48% of the patients developed anti-EA(R) antibodies. The response to other antigens was similar in both groups with the exception that antibodies to the EB-associated nuclear antigen (EBNA) developed later during convalescence and at lower titers in the corticosteroid-treated group. We conclude that 1) anti-EA(R) antibodies develop with considerable frequency following IM and are not a marker, as previously proposed, of unusually severe disease, and 2) corticosteroid therapy may retard the formation of anti-EBNA antibodies but it does not otherwise influence the humoral immune response to EBV.

  6. The role of ultrasound in the management and diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Currently, infectious mononucleosis (IM) is a clinically diagnosed condition. According to the American Family Physician criteria for IM, splenomegaly is the key factor that distinguishes IM from other causes of sore throat. Though heterophile antibody tests are often ordered to confirm diagnosis of IM, this test has a high false-negative rate early in the course of the disease. This case report provides an example of how the use of ultrasound to diagnose splenomegaly and subsequently mononucleosis increases diagnostic accuracy. PMID:24580968

  7. Novel and general approach to linear filter design for contrast-to-noise ratio enhancement of magnetic resonance images with multiple interfering features in the scene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Windham, Joe P.

    1992-04-01

    Maximizing the minimum absolute contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) between a desired feature and multiple interfering processes, by linear combination of images in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scene sequence, is attractive for MRI analysis and interpretation. A general formulation of the problem is presented, along with a novel solution utilizing the simple and numerically stable method of Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization. We derive explicit solutions for the case of two interfering features first, then for three interfering features, and, finally, using a typical example, for an arbitrary number of interfering feature. For the case of two interfering features, we also provide simplified analytical expressions for the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and CNRs of the filtered images. The technique is demonstrated through its applications to simulated and acquired MRI scene sequences of a human brain with a cerebral infarction. For these applications, a 50 to 100% improvement for the smallest absolute CNR is obtained.

  8. Development of Internal Controls for the Luminex Instrument as Part of a Multiplex Seven-Analyte Viral Respiratory Antibody Profile

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Thomas B.

    2002-01-01

    The ability of the Luminex system to simultaneously quantitate multiple analytes from a single sample source has proven to be a feasible and cost-effective technology for assay development. In previous studies, my colleagues and I introduced two multiplex profiles consisting of 20 individual assays into the clinical laboratory. With the Luminex instrument’s ability to classify up to 100 distinct microspheres, however, we have only begun to realize the enormous potential of this technology. By utilizing additional microspheres, it is now possible to add true internal controls to each individual sample. During the development of a seven-analyte serologic viral respiratory antibody profile, internal controls for detecting sample addition and interfering rheumatoid factor (RF) were investigated. To determine if the correct sample was added, distinct microspheres were developed for measuring the presence of sufficient quantities of immunoglobulin G (IgG) or IgM in the diluted patient sample. In a multiplex assay of 82 samples, the IgM verification control correctly identified 23 out of 23 samples with low levels (<20 mg/dl) of this antibody isotype. An internal control microsphere for RF detected 30 out of 30 samples with significant levels (>10 IU/ml) of IgM RF. Additionally, RF-positive samples causing false-positive adenovirus and influenza A virus IgM results were correctly identified. By exploiting the Luminex instrument’s multiplexing capabilities, I have developed true internal controls to ensure correct sample addition and identify interfering RF as part of a respiratory viral serologic profile that includes influenza A and B viruses, adenovirus, parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, and 3, and respiratory syncytial virus. Since these controls are not assay specific, they can be incorporated into any serologic multiplex assay. PMID:11777827

  9. Development of internal controls for the Luminex instrument as part of a multiplex seven-analyte viral respiratory antibody profile.

    PubMed

    Martins, Thomas B

    2002-01-01

    The ability of the Luminex system to simultaneously quantitate multiple analytes from a single sample source has proven to be a feasible and cost-effective technology for assay development. In previous studies, my colleagues and I introduced two multiplex profiles consisting of 20 individual assays into the clinical laboratory. With the Luminex instrument's ability to classify up to 100 distinct microspheres, however, we have only begun to realize the enormous potential of this technology. By utilizing additional microspheres, it is now possible to add true internal controls to each individual sample. During the development of a seven-analyte serologic viral respiratory antibody profile, internal controls for detecting sample addition and interfering rheumatoid factor (RF) were investigated. To determine if the correct sample was added, distinct microspheres were developed for measuring the presence of sufficient quantities of immunoglobulin G (IgG) or IgM in the diluted patient sample. In a multiplex assay of 82 samples, the IgM verification control correctly identified 23 out of 23 samples with low levels (<20 mg/dl) of this antibody isotype. An internal control microsphere for RF detected 30 out of 30 samples with significant levels (>10 IU/ml) of IgM RF. Additionally, RF-positive samples causing false-positive adenovirus and influenza A virus IgM results were correctly identified. By exploiting the Luminex instrument's multiplexing capabilities, I have developed true internal controls to ensure correct sample addition and identify interfering RF as part of a respiratory viral serologic profile that includes influenza A and B viruses, adenovirus, parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, and 3, and respiratory syncytial virus. Since these controls are not assay specific, they can be incorporated into any serologic multiplex assay.

  10. Human antibody technology and the development of antibodies against cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Ohlin, Mats; Söderberg-Nauclér, Cecilia

    2015-10-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a virus that causes chronic infections in a large set of the population. It may cause severe disease in immunocompromised individuals, is linked to immunosenescence and implied to play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Modulation of the immune system's abilities to manage the virus represent a highly viable therapeutic option and passive immunotherapy with polyclonal antibody preparations is already in clinical use. Defined monoclonal antibodies offer many advantages over polyclonal antibodies purified from serum. Human CMV-specific monoclonal antibodies have consequently been thoroughly investigated with respect to their potential in the treatment of diseases caused by CMV. Recent advances in human antibody technology have substantially expanded the breadth of antibodies for such applications. This review summarizes the fundamental basis for treating CMV disease by use of antibodies, the basic technologies to be used to develop such antibodies, and relevant human antibody specificities available to target this virus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antimitochondrial antibody

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003529.htm Antimitochondrial antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are substances ( antibodies ) that form against mitochondria. ...

  12. Antibody mimetics: promising complementary agents to animal-sourced antibodies.

    PubMed

    Baloch, Abdul Rasheed; Baloch, Abdul Wahid; Sutton, Brian J; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Despite their wide use as therapeutic, diagnostic and detection agents, the limitations of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies have inspired scientists to design the next generation biomedical agents, so-called antibody mimetics that offer many advantages over conventional antibodies. Antibody mimetics can be constructed by protein-directed evolution or fusion of complementarity-determining regions through intervening framework regions. Substantial progress in exploiting human, butterfly (Pieris brassicae) and bacterial systems to design and select mimetics using display technologies has been made in the past 10 years, and one of these mimetics [Kalbitor® (Dyax)] has made its way to market. Many challenges lie ahead to develop mimetics for various biomedical applications, especially those for which conventional antibodies are ineffective, and this review describes the current characteristics, construction and applications of antibody mimetics compared to animal-sourced antibodies. The possible limitations of mimetics and future perspectives are also discussed.

  13. Incorporation of osteogenic and angiogenic small interfering RNAs into chitosan sponge for bone tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Sen; Yang, Xinjie; Song, Wen; Wang, Lei; Fang, Kaixiu; Hu, Zhiqiang; Yang, Zihui; Shan, Chun; Lei, Delin; Lu, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Engineered bone substitutes are being extensively explored in response to growing demand. However, the angiogenesis that occurs during bone formation is often overlooked in scaffold design. In this novel study, we incorporated two small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), ie, small interfering RNA targets casein kinase 2 interaction protein 1 (siCkip-1) and small interfering RNA targets soluble VEGF receptor 1 (siFlt-1), which can promote osteogenesis and angiogenesis, into a chitosan sponge. This scaffold could maintain siRNAs for over 2 weeks in neutral phosphate-buffered saline and degraded rapidly in the presence of lysozyme. The chitosan sponge with siCkip-1 and siFlt-1 in vitro bioactivity was investigated using mesenchymal stem cells. Target genes were significantly suppressed, and osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, and vascular endothelial growth factor were significantly upregulated. Alizarin Red staining revealed that mineralization of the extracellular matrix was markedly enhanced by dual transfection. Further analysis by immunofluorescence confirmed that the siRNA-modified scaffold simultaneously improved the expression of osteocalcin and von Willebrand factor. In vivo testing in a skull critical-size defect model showed marked bone regeneration in rats treated with siCkip-1 and siFlt-1. In conclusion, chitosan sponge containing osteogenic and angiogenic siRNAs may be used as a scaffold for bone regeneration. The dual siRNA concept may also be useful in the biofunctionalization of other materials. PMID:25429217

  14. Combinatorial delivery of small interfering RNAs reduces RNAi efficacy by selective incorporation into RISC

    PubMed Central

    Castanotto, Daniela; Sakurai, Kumi; Lingeman, Robert; Li, Haitang; Shively, Louise; Aagaard, Lars; Soifer, Harris; Gatignol, Anne; Riggs, Arthur; Rossi, John J.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the great potential of RNAi, ectopic expression of shRNA or siRNAs holds the inherent risk of competition for critical RNAi components, thus altering the regulatory functions of some cellular microRNAs. In addition, specific siRNA sequences can potentially hinder incorporation of other siRNAs when used in a combinatorial approach. We show that both synthetic siRNAs and expressed shRNAs compete against each other and with the endogenous microRNAs for transport and for incorporation into the RNA induced silencing complex (RISC). The same siRNA sequences do not display competition when expressed from a microRNA backbone. We also show that TAR RNA binding protein (TRBP) is one of the sensors for selection and incorporation of the guide sequence of interfering RNAs. These findings reveal that combinatorial siRNA approaches can be problematic and have important implications for the methodology of expression and use of therapeutic interfering RNAs. PMID:17660190

  15. Photoactivable antibody binding protein: site-selective and covalent coupling of antibody.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yongwon; Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Jung-won; Yoon, Jeongwon; Cho, Hyunmin; Chung, Bong Hyun

    2009-02-01

    Here we report new photoactivable antibody binding proteins, which site-selectively capture antibodies and form covalent conjugates with captured antibodies upon irradiation. The proteins allow the site-selective tagging and/or immobilization of antibodies with a highly preferred orientation and omit the need for prior antibody modifications. The minimal Fc-binding domain of protein G, a widely used antibody binding protein, was genetically and chemically engineered to contain a site-specific photo cross-linker, benzophenone. In addition, the domain was further mutated to have an enhanced Fc-targeting ability. This small engineered protein was successfully cross-linked only to the Fc region of the antibody without any nonspecific reactivity. SPR analysis indicated that antibodies can be site-selectively biotinylated through the present photoactivable protein. Furthermore, the system enabled light-induced covalent immobilization of antibodies directly on various solid surfaces, such as those of glass slides, gold chips, and small particles. Antibody coupling via photoactivable antibody binding proteins overcomes several limitations of conventional approaches, such as random chemical reactions or reversible protein binding, and offers a versatile tool for the field of immunosensors.

  16. Protótipo do primeiro interferômetro brasileiro - BDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecatto, J. R.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Neri, J. A. C. F.; Bethi, N.; Felipini, N. S.; Madsen, F. R. H.; Andrade, M. C.; Soares, A. C.; Alonso, E. M. B., Sawant, H. S.

    2004-04-01

    A interferometria é uma poderosa ferramenta usada para investigar estruturas espaciais de fontes astrofísicas fornecendo uma riqueza de detalhes inatingível pelas técnicas convencionais de imageamento. Em particular, a interferometria com ondas de rádio abre o horizonte de conhecimento do Universo nesta ampla banda do espectro eletromagnético, que vai de cerca de 20 kHz até centenas de GHz já próximo ao infravermelho, e que está acessível a partir de instrumentos instalados em solo. Neste trabalho, apresentamos o interferômetro designado por Arranjo Decimétrico Brasileiro (BDA). Trata-se do primeiro interferômetro a ser desenvolvido no Brasil e América Latina que já está em operação na fase de protótipo. Apresentamos o desenvolvimento realizado até o momento, o sítio de instalação do instrumento, o protótipo e os principais resultados dos testes de sua operação, as perspectivas futuras e a ciência a ser desenvolvida com o instrumento nas fases II e III. Neste trabalho é dada ênfase ao desenvolvimento, testes de operação e principais resultados do protótipo. É discutida brevemente a ciência que pode ser feita com o instrumento. Tanto os detalhes técnicos quanto os principais parâmetros estimados para o instrumento nas próximas fases de desenvolvimento e o desempenho do protótipo serão publicados em breve.

  17. [VGKC-complex antibodies].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Osamu

    2013-04-01

    Various antibodies are associated with voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs). Representative antibodies to VGKCs were first identified by radioimmunoassays using radioisotope-labeled alpha-dendrotoxin-VGKCs solubilized from rabbit brain. These antibodies were detected only in a proportion of patients with acquired neuromyotonia (Isaacs' syndrome). VGKC antibodies were also detected in patients with Morvan's syndrome and in those with a form of autoimmune limbic encephalitis. Recent studies indicated that the "VGKC" antibodies are mainly directed toward associated proteins (for example LGI-1 and CASPR-2) that complex with the VGKCs themselves. The "VGKC" antibodies are now commonly known as VGKC-complex antibodies. In general, LGI-1 antibodies are most commonly detected in patients with limbic encephalitis with syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. CASPR-2 antibodies are present in the majority of patients with Morvan's syndrome. These patients develop combinations of CNS symptoms, autonomic dysfunction, and peripheral nerve hyperexcitability. Furthermore, VGKC-complex antibodies are tightly associated with chronic idiopathic pain. Hyperexcitability of nociceptive pathways has also been implicated. These antibodies may be detected in sera of some patients with neurodegenerative diseases (for example, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease).

  18. Infectious mononucleosis presenting as spontaneous splenic rupture without other symptoms.

    PubMed

    Stockinger, Zsolt T

    2003-09-01

    Splenic rupture is an uncommon complication of infectious mononucleosis (IM), occurring in 0.1% to 0.5% of all patients. It remains the most common lethal complication of IM. Rupture of the spleen with no other symptoms of IM is almost unheard of. This is the report of a case of spontaneous splenic rupture requiring splenectomy in a patient with a positive heterophil antibody test and no other signs or symptoms of IM. The diagnosis and management of splenic rupture in IM are discussed.

  19. Compositions, antibodies, asthma diagnosis methods, and methods for preparing antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Hongjun; Zangar, Richard C.

    Methods for preparing an antibody are provided with the method including incorporating 3-bromo-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid into a protein to form an antigen, immunizing a mammalian host with the antigen, and recovering an antibody having an affinity for the antigen from the host. Antibodies having a binding affinity for a monohalotyrosine are provided as well as composition comprising an antibody bound with monohalotyrosine. Compositions comprising a protein having a 3-bromo-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid moiety are also provided. Methods for evaluating the severity of asthma are provide with the methods including analyzing sputum of a patient using an antibody having a binding affinity for monohalotyrosine,more » and measuring the amount of antibody bound to protein. Methods for determining eosinophil activity in bodily fluid are also provided with the methods including exposing bodily fluid to an antibody having a binding affinity for monohalotyrosine, and measuring the amount of bound antibody to determine the eosinophil activity.« less

  20. Antibody Engineering and Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Almagro, Juan Carlos; Gilliland, Gary L; Breden, Felix; Scott, Jamie K; Sok, Devin; Pauthner, Matthias; Reichert, Janice M; Helguera, Gustavo; Andrabi, Raiees; Mabry, Robert; Bléry, Mathieu; Voss, James E; Laurén, Juha; Abuqayyas, Lubna; Barghorn, Stefan; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Crowe, James E; Huston, James S; Johnston, Stephen Albert; Krauland, Eric; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof; Marasco, Wayne A; Parren, Paul WHI; Xu, Kai Y

    2014-01-01

    The 24th Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics meeting brought together a broad range of participants who were updated on the latest advances in antibody research and development. Organized by IBC Life Sciences, the gathering is the annual meeting of The Antibody Society, which serves as the scientific sponsor. Preconference workshops on 3D modeling and delineation of clonal lineages were featured, and the conference included sessions on a wide variety of topics relevant to researchers, including systems biology; antibody deep sequencing and repertoires; the effects of antibody gene variation and usage on antibody response; directed evolution; knowledge-based design; antibodies in a complex environment; polyreactive antibodies and polyspecificity; the interface between antibody therapy and cellular immunity in cancer; antibodies in cardiometabolic medicine; antibody pharmacokinetics, distribution and off-target toxicity; optimizing antibody formats for immunotherapy; polyclonals, oligoclonals and bispecifics; antibody discovery platforms; and antibody-drug conjugates. PMID:24589717

  1. Construction of human antibody gene libraries and selection of antibodies by phage display.

    PubMed

    Schirrmann, Thomas; Hust, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Recombinant antibodies as therapeutics offer new opportunities for the treatment of many tumor diseases. To date, 18 antibody-based drugs are approved for cancer treatment and hundreds of anti-tumor antibodies are under development. The first clinically approved antibodies were of murine origin or human-mouse chimeric. However, since murine antibody domains are immunogenic in human patients and could result in human anti-mouse antibody (HAMA) responses, currently mainly humanized and fully human antibodies are developed for therapeutic applications.Here, in vitro antibody selection technologies directly allow the selection of human antibodies and the corresponding genes from human antibody gene libraries. Antibody phage display is the most common way to generate human antibodies and has already yielded thousands of recombinant antibodies for research, diagnostics and therapy. Here, we describe methods for the construction of human scFv gene libraries and the antibody selection.

  2. Development of antibody-siRNA conjugate targeted to cardiac and skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Sugo, Tsukasa; Terada, Michiko; Oikawa, Tatsuo; Miyata, Kenichi; Nishimura, Satoshi; Kenjo, Eriya; Ogasawara-Shimizu, Mari; Makita, Yukimasa; Imaichi, Sachiko; Murata, Shumpei; Otake, Kentaro; Kikuchi, Kuniko; Teratani, Mika; Masuda, Yasushi; Kamei, Takayuki; Takagahara, Shuichi; Ikeda, Shota; Ohtaki, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Hirokazu

    2016-09-10

    Despite considerable efforts to develop efficient carriers, the major target organ of short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) remains limited to the liver. Expanding the application outside the liver is required to increase the value of siRNAs. Here we report on a novel platform targeted to muscular organs by conjugation of siRNAs with anti-CD71 Fab' fragment. This conjugate showed durable gene-silencing in the heart and skeletal muscle for one month after intravenous administration in normal mice. In particular, 1μg siRNA conjugate showed significant gene-silencing in the gastrocnemius when injected intramuscularly. In a mouse model of peripheral artery disease, the treatment with myostatin-targeting siRNA conjugate by intramuscular injection resulted in significant silencing of myostatin and hypertrophy of the gastrocnemius, which was translated into the recovery of running performance. These data demonstrate the utility of antibody conjugation for siRNA delivery and the therapeutic potential for muscular diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Coronographie interferéntielle pour la mission spatuale DARWIN: expérience de validation en laboratoire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollivier, Marc; Mariotti, Jean-Marie; Brunaud, Jacqueline; Michel, Guy; Bouchareine, Patrick; Léger, Alain; Artzner, Guy; Malbet, Fabien; Puget, Pascal; Coudé du Foresto, Vincent; Mennesson, Bertrand

    2018-04-01

    This paper, "Coronographie interferéntielle pour la mission spatuale DARWIN: expérience de validation en laboratoire," was presented as part of International Conference on Space Optics—ICSO 1997, held in Toulouse, France.

  4. Effects of a premolt calcium and low-energy molt program on laying hen behavior and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratios.

    PubMed

    Dickey, E R; Bregendahl, K; Stalder, K; Fitzgerald, R; Johnson, A K

    2010-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the behaviors, postures, and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratios (H:L) of laying hens housed in a cage system when offered a Ca premolt treatment and low-energy molt diets vs. a traditional feed withdrawal (FW) treatment during and after molt. A total of 144 Hy-Line W-36 hens (85 wk of age), housed 3 hens/cage (413 cm(2)/hen), were used. Hens were allotted to treatments according to a randomized complete block design, with the cage location and initial BW as the blocking criteria. Six treatments were compared in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 2 Ca premolt treatments (fine or coarse) and 3 low-energy molt diets (FW, soybean hulls, or wheat middlings). The 2 Ca premolt treatments differed only in Ca particle size (fine was 0.14 mm and coarse was 2.27 mm mean diameter). Two postures and 5 behaviors were recorded and H:L was measured. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS, with P < 0.05 considered significant. There were no differences in behaviors, postures, or H:L during the premolt baseline period. The Ca premolt treatment had no carryover effects during or after molt for behaviors or postures. During molt, hens in the FW treatment were more active, and they ate and drank less compared with hens fed soybean hulls or wheat middlings, but there were no differences in aggression, nonnutritive pecking, or sitting. Drinking and aggression during and after molt were not different, but hens postmolt engaged in more sitting and feeding and less activity, nonnutritive pecking, and preening compared with during molt. There were no differences in H:L during or after molt. In conclusion, a Ca premolt treatment did not affect the behavior of the laying hen. The low-energy molt diets did not adversely affect behavior compared with FW and did not increase H:L; therefore, they could be useful alternatives for inducing molt in laying hens.

  5. Human monoclonal antibodies: the residual challenge of antibody immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Waldmann, Herman

    2014-01-01

    One of the major reasons for seeking human monoclonal antibodies has been to eliminate immunogenicity seen with rodent antibodies. Thus far, there has yet been no approach which absolutely abolishes that risk for cell-binding antibodies. In this short article, I draw attention to classical work which shows that monomeric immunoglobulins are intrinsically tolerogenic if they can be prevented from creating aggregates or immune complexes. Based on these classical studies two approaches for active tolerization to therapeutic antibodies are described.

  6. Microbials for the production of monoclonal antibodies and antibody fragments.

    PubMed

    Spadiut, Oliver; Capone, Simona; Krainer, Florian; Glieder, Anton; Herwig, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and antibody fragments represent the most important biopharmaceutical products today. Because full length antibodies are glycosylated, mammalian cells, which allow human-like N-glycosylation, are currently used for their production. However, mammalian cells have several drawbacks when it comes to bioprocessing and scale-up, resulting in long processing times and elevated costs. By contrast, antibody fragments, that are not glycosylated but still exhibit antigen binding properties, can be produced in microbial organisms, which are easy to manipulate and cultivate. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the expression systems, strain engineering, and production processes for the three main microbials used in antibody and antibody fragment production, namely Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, and Escherichia coli. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An experimental SMI adaptive antenna array simulator for weak interfering signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dilsavor, Ronald S.; Gupta, Inder J.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental sample matrix inversion (SMI) adaptive antenna array for suppressing weak interfering signals is described. The experimental adaptive array uses a modified SMI algorithm to increase the interference suppression. In the modified SMI algorithm, the sample covariance matrix is redefined to reduce the effect of thermal noise on the weights of an adaptive array. This is accomplished by subtracting a fraction of the smallest eigenvalue of the original covariance matrix from its diagonal entries. The test results obtained using the experimental system are compared with theoretical results. The two show a good agreement.

  8. IBC’s 23rd Annual Antibody Engineering, 10th Annual Antibody Therapeutics International Conferences and the 2012 Annual Meeting of The Antibody Society

    PubMed Central

    Klöhn, Peter-Christian; Wuellner, Ulrich; Zizlsperger, Nora; Zhou, Yu; Tavares, Daniel; Berger, Sven; Zettlitz, Kirstin A.; Proetzel, Gabriele; Yong, May; Begent, Richard H.J.; Reichert, Janice M

    2013-01-01

    The 23rd Annual Antibody Engineering, 10th Annual Antibody Therapeutics international conferences, and the 2012 Annual Meeting of The Antibody Society, organized by IBC Life Sciences with contributions from The Antibody Society and two Scientific Advisory Boards, were held December 3–6, 2012 in San Diego, CA. The meeting drew over 800 participants who attended sessions on a wide variety of topics relevant to antibody research and development. As a prelude to the main events, a pre-conference workshop held on December 2, 2012 focused on intellectual property issues that impact antibody engineering. The Antibody Engineering Conference was composed of six sessions held December 3–5, 2012: (1) From Receptor Biology to Therapy; (2) Antibodies in a Complex Environment; (3) Antibody Targeted CNS Therapy: Beyond the Blood Brain Barrier; (4) Deep Sequencing in B Cell Biology and Antibody Libraries; (5) Systems Medicine in the Development of Antibody Therapies/Systematic Validation of Novel Antibody Targets; and (6) Antibody Activity and Animal Models. The Antibody Therapeutics conference comprised four sessions held December 4–5, 2012: (1) Clinical and Preclinical Updates of Antibody-Drug Conjugates; (2) Multifunctional Antibodies and Antibody Combinations: Clinical Focus; (3) Development Status of Immunomodulatory Therapeutic Antibodies; and (4) Modulating the Half-Life of Antibody Therapeutics. The Antibody Society’s special session on applications for recording and sharing data based on GIATE was held on December 5, 2012, and the conferences concluded with two combined sessions on December 5–6, 2012: (1) Development Status of Early Stage Therapeutic Antibodies; and (2) Immunomodulatory Antibodies for Cancer Therapy. PMID:23575266

  9. Improving Small Interfering RNA Delivery In Vivo Through Lipid Conjugation.

    PubMed

    Osborn, Maire F; Khvorova, Anastasia

    2018-05-10

    RNA interference (RNAi)-based therapeutics are approaching clinical approval for genetically defined diseases. Current clinical success is a result of significant innovations in the development of chemical architectures that support sustained, multi-month efficacy in vivo following a single administration. Conjugate-mediated delivery has established itself as the most promising platform for safe and targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery. Lipophilic conjugates represent a major class of modifications that improve siRNA pharmacokinetics and enable efficacy in a broad range of tissues. Here, we review current literature and define key features and limitations of this approach for in vivo modulation of gene expression.

  10. Specific antibody for pesticide residue determination produced by antibody-pesticide complex

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new method for specific antibody production was developed using antibody (Ab)-pesticide complex as a unique immunogen. Parathion (PA) was the targeted pesticide, and rabbit polyclonal antibody (Pab) and mouse monoclonal antibody (Mab) were used as carrier proteins. The Ab-PA complexes were genera...

  11. Immune Antibody Libraries: Manipulating The Diverse Immune Repertoire for Antibody Discovery.

    PubMed

    Lim, Theam Soon; Chan, Soo Khim

    2016-01-01

    Antibody phage display is highly dependent on the availability of antibody libraries. There are several forms of libraries depending mainly on the origin of the source materials. There are three major classes of libraries, mainly the naïve, immune and synthetic libraries. Immune antibody libraries are designed to isolate specific and high affinity antibodies against disease antigens. The pre-exposure of the host to an infection results in the production of a skewed population of antibodies against the particular infection. This characteristic takes advantage of the in vivo editing machinery to generate bias and specific immune repertoire. The skewed but diverse repertoire of immune libraries has been adapted successfully in the generation of antibodies against a wide range of diseases. We envisage immune antibody libraries to play a greater role in the discovery of antibodies for diseases in the near future. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Evaluation of a computer-assisted, kinetics-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of coronavirus antibodies in cats.

    PubMed Central

    Barlough, J E; Jacobson, R H; Downing, D R; Marcella, K L; Lynch, T J; Scott, F W

    1983-01-01

    A computer-assisted, kinetics-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was adapted for the detection of coronavirus antibodies in feline serum. An alkaline antigen diluent (carbonate-bicarbonate buffer, pH 9.6) used in initial experiments produced diffuse, nonspecific color reactions in both viral and control antigen cuvettes which were correlated, paradoxically, with coronavirus antibody levels in test sera. These interfering reactions were minimized by use of lower-pH antigen diluents such as water and phosphate-buffered saline. Background kinetics-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reactivity directed against a noncoronaviral component of antigen tissue culture fluids could then detected in numerous sera, particularly in samples with lower titers. Much of this reactivity was shown to be associated with bovine gamma globulins in cell culture fluid. It was not serum lot or species specific, since a variety of bovine serum lots as well as individual lots of serum from other mammalian and avian species reacted. Reactivity was markedly reduced when cells for antigen preparation were grown in gamma globulin-free bovine serum. Generation of corrected slope values from the kinetics-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay made it possible to correct for residual background reactivity in individual test sera and thus eliminate a potentially major source of false-positive reactions. Collectively, these studies indicated that the control of nonspecific reactivity in feline coronavirus serology is absolutely essential to obtain useful estimates of specific antibody responses. PMID:6300184

  13. Evaluation of a computer-assisted, kinetics-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of coronavirus antibodies in cats.

    PubMed

    Barlough, J E; Jacobson, R H; Downing, D R; Marcella, K L; Lynch, T J; Scott, F W

    1983-02-01

    A computer-assisted, kinetics-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was adapted for the detection of coronavirus antibodies in feline serum. An alkaline antigen diluent (carbonate-bicarbonate buffer, pH 9.6) used in initial experiments produced diffuse, nonspecific color reactions in both viral and control antigen cuvettes which were correlated, paradoxically, with coronavirus antibody levels in test sera. These interfering reactions were minimized by use of lower-pH antigen diluents such as water and phosphate-buffered saline. Background kinetics-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reactivity directed against a noncoronaviral component of antigen tissue culture fluids could then detected in numerous sera, particularly in samples with lower titers. Much of this reactivity was shown to be associated with bovine gamma globulins in cell culture fluid. It was not serum lot or species specific, since a variety of bovine serum lots as well as individual lots of serum from other mammalian and avian species reacted. Reactivity was markedly reduced when cells for antigen preparation were grown in gamma globulin-free bovine serum. Generation of corrected slope values from the kinetics-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay made it possible to correct for residual background reactivity in individual test sera and thus eliminate a potentially major source of false-positive reactions. Collectively, these studies indicated that the control of nonspecific reactivity in feline coronavirus serology is absolutely essential to obtain useful estimates of specific antibody responses.

  14. Bivalent monoclonal IgY antibody formats by conversion of recombinant antibody fragments.

    PubMed

    Greunke, Kerstin; Spillner, Edzard; Braren, Ingke; Seismann, Henning; Kainz, Sabine; Hahn, Ulrich; Grunwald, Thomas; Bredehorst, Reinhard

    2006-07-13

    Monoclonal IgY have the potential to become unique tools for diagnostic research and therapeutic purposes since avian antibodies provide several advantages due to their phylogenetic difference when compared to mammalian antibodies. The mechanism of avian immunoglobulin gene diversification renders chicken an excellent source for the generation of recombinant scFv as well as Fab antibody libraries of high diversity. One major limitation of these antibody fragments, however, is their monovalent format, impairing the functional affinity of the molecules and, thereby, their applicability in prevalent laboratory methods. In this study, we generated vectors for conversion of avian recombinant antibody fragments into different types of bivalent IgY antibody formats. To combine the properties of established mammalian monoclonal antibodies with those of IgY constant domains, we additionally generated bivalent murine/avian chimeric antibody constructs. When expressed in HEK-293 cells, all constructs yielded bivalent disulfide-linked antibodies, which exhibit a glycosylation pattern similar to that of native IgY as assessed by lectin blot analysis. After purification by one step procedures, the chimeric and the entire avian bivalent antibody formats were analyzed for antigen binding and interaction with secondary reagents. The data demonstrate that all antibody formats provide comparable antigen binding characteristics and the well established properties of avian constant domains.

  15. From rabbit antibody repertoires to rabbit monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Weber, Justus; Peng, Haiyong; Rader, Christoph

    2017-03-24

    In this review, we explain why and how rabbit monoclonal antibodies have become outstanding reagents for laboratory research and increasingly for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Starting with the unique ontogeny of rabbit B cells that affords highly distinctive antibody repertoires rich in in vivo pruned binders of high diversity, affinity and specificity, we describe the generation of rabbit monoclonal antibodies by hybridoma technology, phage display and alternative methods, along with an account of successful humanization strategies.

  16. AbDb: antibody structure database—a database of PDB-derived antibody structures

    PubMed Central

    Ferdous, Saba

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In order to analyse structures of proteins of a particular class, these need to be extracted from Protein Data Bank (PDB) files. In the case of antibodies, there are a number of special considerations: (i) identifying antibodies in the PDB is not trivial, (ii) they may be crystallized with or without antigen, (iii) for analysis purposes, one is normally only interested in the Fv region of the antibody, (iv) structural analysis of epitopes, in particular, requires individual antibody–antigen complexes from a PDB file which may contain multiple copies of the same, or different, antibodies and (v) standard numbering schemes should be applied. Consequently, there is a need for a specialist resource containing pre-numbered non-redundant antibody Fv structures with their cognate antigens. We have created an automatically updated resource, AbDb, which collects the Fv regions from antibody structures using information from our SACS database which summarizes antibody structures from the PDB. PDB files containing multiple structures are split and numbered and each antibody structure is associated with its antigen where available. Antibody structures with only light or heavy chains have also been processed and sequences of antibodies are compared to identify multiple structures of the same antibody. The data may be queried on the basis of PDB code, or the name or species of the antibody or antigen, and the complete datasets may be downloaded. Database URL: www.bioinf.org.uk/abs/abdb/ PMID:29718130

  17. Higher cytotoxicity of divalent antibody-toxins than monovalent antibody-toxins

    SciTech Connect

    Won, JaeSeon; Nam, PilWon; Lee, YongChan

    2009-04-24

    Recombinant antibody-toxins are constructed via the fusion of a 'carcinoma-specific' antibody fragment to a toxin. Due to the high affinity and high selectivity of the antibody fragments, antibody-toxins can bind to surface antigens on cancer cells and kill them without harming normal cells [L.H. Pai, J.K. Batra, D.J. FitzGerald, M.C. Willingham, I. Pastan, Anti-tumor activities of immunotoxins made of monoclonal antibody B3 and various forms of Pseudomonas exotoxin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88 (1991) 3358-3362]. In this study, we constructed the antibody-toxin, Fab-SWn-PE38, with SWn (n = 3, 6, 9) sequences containing n-time repeated (G{sub 4}S) between the Fabmore » fragment and PE38 (38 kDa truncated form of Pseudomonas exotoxin A). The SWn sequence also harbored one cysteine residue that could form a disulfide bridge between two Fab-SWn-PE38 monomers. We assessed the cytotoxicity of the monovalent (Fab-SWn-PE38), and divalent ([Fab-SWn-PE38]{sub 2}) antibody-toxins. The cytotoxicity of the dimer against the CRL1739 cell line was approximately 18.8-fold higher than that of the monomer on the ng/ml scale, which was approximately 37.6-fold higher on the pM scale. These results strongly indicate that divalency provides higher cytotoxicity for an antibody-toxin.« less

  18. Contributions à l'Interférométrie spatiale. Astrométrie globale et Détection de Planètes extra-solaires.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Eric

    2000-03-01

    En 1992, L'Agence Spatiale Européenne chargeait un comité d'experts d'établir les priorités scientifiques de ses futures grandes missions spatiales. En réponse, ce comité recommandait à l'ESA l'initiation d'un programme en interférométrie avec deux objectifs. Le premier est la réalisation d'observations astrométriques avec des précisions de l'ordre de 10 micro-secondes d'arc et le second, la détection de planètes extra-solaires en interférométrie infrarouge. Dans ce mémoire, après un rappel des grands principes de l'interférométrie, je présente les études de concepts d'interféromètres adaptés à chacun des types de mission identifiés précédemment. Dans une première partie, plusieurs configurations d'interféromètres sont présentées, compatibles avec la mission d'astrométrie globale GAIA et permettant la détection directe des franges dans un plan image. Ces configurations font l'objet d'une analyse comparative, suivie d'une proposition d'architecture pour la configuration retenue. Dans une deuxième partie, je présente l'étude, dans la cadre de la mission DARWIN de l'ESA, d'un concept d'interféromètre dédié à la détection de planètes extra-solaires dans le domaine spectral de l'infrarouge thermique. Les principes de l'interférométrie à frange noire sont rappelés, et les performances en termes de temps d'intégration du concept retenu, composé de 6 télescopes collecteurs de 1.5 m de diamètre en orbite à 1 u.a. du Soleil, sont estimées. La dernière partie de ce mémoire est consacrée à l'étude de l'implantation d'un mode imagerie sur le concept d'instrument identifié pour le mode détection de planètes de la mission DARWIN. L'utilisation d'un seul banc de recombinaison des faisceaux pour réaliser les deux missions est proposée, en ayant rajouté les fonctionnalités propres à l'imagerie par synthèse d'ouverture. Cette partie est complétée par une estimation des performances de la mission imagerie.

  19. Infectious Agents in Bovine Red Meat and Milk and Their Potential Role in Cancer and Other Chronic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Zur Hausen, Harald; Bund, Timo; de Villiers, Ethel-Michele

    2017-01-01

    Red meat and dairy products have frequently been suggested to represent risk factors for certain cancers, chronic neurodegenerative diseases, and autoimmune and cardiovascular disorders. This review summarizes the evidence and investigates the possible involvement of infectious factors in these diseases. The isolation of small circular single-stranded DNA molecules from serum and dairy products of Eurasian Aurochs (Bos taurus)-derived cattle, obviously persisting as episomes in infected cells, provides the basis for further investigations. Gene expression of these agents in human cells has been demonstrated, and frequent infection of humans is implicated by the detection of antibodies in a high percentage of healthy individuals. Epidemiological observations suggest their relationship to the development multiple sclerosis, to heterophile antibodies, and to N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) containing cell surface receptors.

  20. Diagnosis and treatment of infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Bailey, R E

    1994-03-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and most commonly affects young adults from 15 to 35 years of age. The diagnosis is made by accurate assessment of clinical, hematologic and serologic manifestations of the illness. Manifestations include the classic triad of fever, pharyngitis and cervical lymphadenopathy; lymphocytosis with a predominance of atypical lymphocytes; a positive heterophil (Monospot) antibody test; and in some cases, serologic evidence of EBV-specific antibodies produced against antigens related to the virus. The most valuable serologic finding is the presence of IgM antibody to EBV viral capsid antigen, which is found during acute primary EBV infection. Infectious mononucleosis is considered a self-limited illness, but it may result in serious complications involving the pulmonary, ophthalmologic, neurologic and hematologic systems. Treatment is focused on managing the symptoms, unless more severe disease involving other organ systems occurs. The most common potentially fatal complication is splenic rupture.

  1. Modeling Antibody Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Moore, Cathy Ronstadt

    1998-01-01

    Understanding antibody structure and function is difficult for many students. The rearrangement of constant and variable regions during antibody differentiation can be effectively simulated using a paper model. Describes a hands-on laboratory exercise which allows students to model antibody diversity using readily available resources. (PVD)

  2. Kotai Antibody Builder: automated high-resolution structural modeling of antibodies.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kazuo; Ikeda, Kazuyoshi; Amada, Karlou; Liang, Shide; Tsuchiya, Yuko; Nakamura, Haruki; Shirai, Hiroki; Standley, Daron M

    2014-11-15

    Kotai Antibody Builder is a Web service for tertiary structural modeling of antibody variable regions. It consists of three main steps: hybrid template selection by sequence alignment and canonical rules, 3D rendering of alignments and CDR-H3 loop modeling. For the last step, in addition to rule-based heuristics used to build the initial model, a refinement option is available that uses fragment assembly followed by knowledge-based scoring. Using targets from the Second Antibody Modeling Assessment, we demonstrate that Kotai Antibody Builder generates models with an overall accuracy equal to that of the best-performing semi-automated predictors using expert knowledge. Kotai Antibody Builder is available at http://kotaiab.org standley@ifrec.osaka-u.ac.jp. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. MicroRNA Superfamilies Descended from miR390 and Their Roles in Secondary Small Interfering RNA Biogenesis in Eudicots[W

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Rui; Meyers, Blake C.; Liu, Zhongchi; Beers, Eric P.; Ye, Songqing; Liu, Zongrang

    2013-01-01

    Trans-acting small interfering RNAs (tasiRNAs) are a major class of small RNAs performing essential biological functions in plants. The first reported tasiRNA pathway, that of miR173-TAS1/2, produces tasiRNAs regulating a set of pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) genes and has been characterized only in Arabidopsis thaliana to date. Here, we demonstrate that the microRNA (miRNA)-trans-acting small interfering RNA gene (TAS)-pentatricopeptide repeat-containing gene (PPR)-small interfering RNA pathway is a highly dynamic and widespread feature of eudicots. Nine eudicot plants, representing six different plant families, have evolved similar tasiRNA pathways to initiate phased small interfering RNA (phasiRNA) production from PPR genes. The PPR phasiRNA production is triggered by different 22-nucleotide miRNAs, including miR7122, miR1509, and fve-PPRtri1/2, and through distinct mechanistic strategies exploiting miRNA direct targeting or indirect targeting through TAS-like genes (TASL), one-hit or two-hit, or even two layers of tasiRNA–TASL interactions. Intriguingly, although those miRNA triggers display high sequence divergence caused by the occurrence of frequent point mutations and splicing shifts, their corresponding MIRNA genes show pronounced identity to the Arabidopsis MIR173, implying a common origin of this group of miRNAs (super-miR7122). Further analyses reveal that super-miR7122 may have evolved from a newly defined miR4376 superfamily, which probably originated from the widely conserved miR390. The elucidation of this evolutionary path expands our understanding of the course of miRNA evolution, especially for relatively conserved miRNA families. PMID:23695981

  4. Monoclonal Antibodies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killington, R. A.; Powell, K. L.

    1984-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have provided an exciting addition to the "armory" of the molecular biologist and immunologist. This article discusses briefly the concept of, techniques available for, production of, and possible uses of monoclonal antibodies. (Author)

  5. Competitive exclusion by autologous antibodies can prevent broad HIV-1 antibodies from arising

    DOE PAGES

    Luo, Shishi; Perelson, Alan S.

    2015-08-31

    The past decade has seen the discovery of numerous broad and potent monoclonal antibodies against HIV type 1 (HIV-1). Eliciting these antibodies via vaccination appears to be remarkably difficult, not least because they arise late in infection and are highly mutated relative to germline antibody sequences. Here, using a computational model, we show that broad antibodies could in fact emerge earlier and be less mutated, but that they may be prevented from doing so as a result of competitive exclusion by the autologous antibody response. We further find that this competitive exclusion is weaker in infections founded by multiple distinctmore » strains, with broadly neutralizing antibodies emerging earlier than in infections founded by a single strain. Our computational model simulates coevolving multitype virus and antibody populations. Broadly neutralizing antibodies may therefore be easier for the adaptive immune system to generate than previously thought. As a result, if less mutated broad antibodies exist, it may be possible to elicit them with a vaccine containing a mixture of diverse virus strains.« less

  6. Viral Epitopes and Monoclonal Antibodies: Isolation of Blocking Antibodies that Inhibit Virus Neutralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Richard J.; Schochetman, Gerald

    1981-07-01

    The inability of pathogenic animal viruses to be completely neutralized by antibodies can lead to chronic viral infections in which infectious virus persists even in the presence of excess neutralizing antibody. A mechanism that results in this nonneutralized fraction of virus was defined by the topographical relationships of viral epitopes identified with monoclonal antibodies wherein monoclonal antibodies bind to virus and sterically block the binding of neutralizing antibodies.

  7. Thyroid Antibodies

    MedlinePlus

    ... been associated with reproductive difficulties, such as miscarriage, pre-eclampsia , premature delivery, and in-vitro fertilization failure Thyroglobulin antibody TgAb Thyroid cancer ; Hashimoto thyroiditis Whenever a thyroglobulin test is performed to see if the antibody is ...

  8. Development of antibody-modified chitosan nanoparticles for the targeted delivery of siRNA across the blood-brain barrier as a strategy for inhibiting HIV replication in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jijin; Al-Bayati, Karam; Ho, Emmanuel A

    2017-08-01

    RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing offers a novel treatment and prevention strategy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. HIV was found to infect and replicate in human brain cells and can cause neuroinfections and neurological deterioration. We designed dual-antibody-modified chitosan/small interfering RNA (siRNA) nanoparticles to deliver siRNA across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) targeting HIV-infected brain astrocytes as a strategy for inhibiting HIV replication. We hypothesized that transferrin antibody and bradykinin B2 antibody could specifically bind to the transferrin receptor (TfR) and bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R), respectively, and deliver siRNA across the BBB into astrocytes as potential targeting ligands. In this study, chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NPs) were prepared by a complex coacervation method in the presence of siRNA, and antibody was chemically conjugated to the nanoparticles. The antibody-modified chitosan nanoparticles (Ab-CS-NPs) were spherical in shape, with an average particle size of 235.7 ± 10.2 nm and a zeta potential of 22.88 ± 1.78 mV. The therapeutic potential of the nanoparticles was evaluated based on their cellular uptake and gene silencing efficiency. Cellular accumulation and gene silencing efficiency of Ab-CS-NPs in astrocytes were significantly improved compared to non-modified CS-NPs and single-antibody-modified CS-NPs. These results suggest that the combination of anti-Tf antibody and anti-B2 antibody significantly increased the knockdown effect of siRNA-loaded nanoparticles. Thus, antibody-mediated dual-targeting nanoparticles are an efficient and promising delivery strategy for inhibiting HIV replication in astrocytes. Graphical abstract Graphic representation of dual-antibody-conjugated chitosan nanoparticles for the targeted delivery of siRNA across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) for inhibiting HIV replication in astrocytes. a Nanoparticle delivery to the BBB and penetration. b Tf

  9. C4d-negative antibody-mediated rejection with high anti-angiotensin II type I receptor antibodies in absence of donor-specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Fuss, Alexander; Hope, Christopher M; Deayton, Susan; Bennett, Greg Donald; Holdsworth, Rhonda; Carroll, Robert P; Coates, P Toby H

    2015-07-01

    Acute antibody-mediated rejection can occur in absence of circulating donor-specific antibodies. Agonistic antibodies targeting the anti-angiotensin II type 1 receptor (anti-AT1 R) are emerging as important non-human leucocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies. Elevated levels of anti-angiotensin II receptor antibodies were first observed in kidney transplant recipients with malignant hypertension and allograft rejection. They have now been studied in three separate kidney transplant populations and associate to frequency of rejection, severity of rejection and graft failure. We report 11 cases of biopsy-proven, Complement 4 fragment d (C4d)-negative, acute rejection occurring without circulating donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies. In eight cases, anti-angiotensin receptor antibodies were retrospectively examined. The remaining three subjects were identified from our centre's newly instituted routine anti-angiotensin receptor antibody screening. All subjects fulfilled Banff 2013 criteria for antibody-mediated rejection and all responded to anti-rejection therapy, which included plasma exchange and angiotensin receptor blocker therapy. These cases support the routine assessment of anti-AT1 R antibodies in kidney transplant recipients to identify subjects at risk. Further studies will need to determine optimal assessment protocol and the effectiveness of pre-emptive treatment with angiotensin receptor blockers. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  10. Antibody Therapeutics in Oncology.

    PubMed

    Wold, Erik D; Smider, Vaughn V; Felding, Brunhilde H

    2016-03-01

    One of the newer classes of targeted cancer therapeutics is monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibody therapeutics are a successful and rapidly expanding drug class due to their high specificity, activity, favourable pharmacokinetics, and standardized manufacturing processes. Antibodies are capable of recruiting the immune system to attack cancer cells through complement-dependent cytotoxicity or antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity. In an ideal scenario the initial tumor cell destruction induced by administration of a therapeutic antibody can result in uptake of tumor associated antigens by antigen-presenting cells, establishing a prolonged memory effect. Mechanisms of direct tumor cell killing by antibodies include antibody recognition of cell surface bound enzymes to neutralize enzyme activity and signaling, or induction of receptor agonist or antagonist activity. Both approaches result in cellular apoptosis. In another and very direct approach, antibodies are used to deliver drugs to target cells and cause cell death. Such antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) direct cytotoxic compounds to tumor cells, after selective binding to cell surface antigens, internalization, and intracellular drug release. Efficacy and safety of ADCs for cancer therapy has recently been greatly advanced based on innovative approaches for site-specific drug conjugation to the antibody structure. This technology enabled rational optimization of function and pharmacokinetics of the resulting conjugates, and is now beginning to yield therapeutics with defined, uniform molecular characteristics, and unprecedented promise to advance cancer treatment.

  11. [Antibodies against cancer].

    PubMed

    Barriuso Feijóo, J; Sundlov, A; González Barón, M

    2004-12-01

    Within the revolution of molecular biology in cancer, it should be pointed out the role of monoclonal antibodies clinically utilized as if they were "magic bullets". From the works of Kohler and Milstein in 1975 the evolution has been fast and its inclusion in daily clinical practice gradual. Among the more significant there is anti-CD20 that has revolutionized the treatment of lymphomas. Currently, antibodies conjugated with isotopes derived from anti-CD20 have been produced. Trastuzumab antibody against HER2/neu has opened new prospects in the treatment of breast cancer. Cetuximab antibody against EGFR has achieved good results in the treatment of chemotherapy-resistent colon cancer. Bevacizumab is perhaps the most promising antibody against solid tumors, having shown effectiveness as first line therapy in metastatic colon cancer in combination with chemotherapy.

  12. Therapeutic implications of small interfering RNA in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Raghunathan, Suchi; Patel, Bhoomika M

    2013-02-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) place a heavy burden on the economies of low- and middle-income countries. Comprehensive action requires combining approaches that seek to reduce the risks throughout the entire population with strategies that target individuals at high risk or with established disease. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) as a functional mediator for regulation of gene expression has been evaluated for potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, heart failure etc. The present review attempts have been made to provide a brief outline of the current understanding of the mechanism of RNAi and the delivery system and describe the therapeutic application of siRNAs and their potential for treating CVDs which are taking a heavy toll on human life. © 2012 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  13. Targeting focal adhesion kinase with small interfering RNA prevents and reverses load-induced cardiac hypertrophy in mice.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Carolina F M Z; Tornatore, Thais F; Theizen, Thais H; Deckmann, Ana C; Pereira, Tiago C; Lopes-Cendes, Iscia; Souza, José Roberto M; Franchini, Kleber G

    2007-12-07

    Hypertrophy is a critical event in the onset of failure in chronically overloaded hearts. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) has attracted particular attention as a mediator of hypertrophy induced by increased load. Here, we demonstrate increased expression and phosphorylation of FAK in the hypertrophic left ventricles (LVs) of aortic-banded mice. We used an RNA interference strategy to examine whether FAK signaling plays a role in the pathophysiology of load-induced LV hypertrophy and failure. Intrajugular delivery of specific small interfering RNA induced prolonged FAK silencing ( approximately 70%) in both normal and hypertrophic LVs. Myocardial FAK silencing was accompanied by prevention, as well as reversal, of load-induced left ventricular hypertrophy. The function of LVs was preserved and the survival rate was higher in banded mice treated with small interfering RNA targeted to FAK, despite the persistent pressure overload. Studies in cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts harvested from LVs confirmed the ability of the systemically administered specific small interfering RNA to silence FAK in both cell types. Further analysis indicated attenuation of cardiac myocyte hypertrophic growth and of the rise in the expression of beta-myosin heavy chain in overloaded LVs. Moreover, FAK silencing was demonstrated to attenuate the rise in the fibrosis, collagen content, and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in overloaded LVs, as well as the rise of matrix metalloproteinase-2 protein expression in fibroblasts harvested from overloaded LVs. This study provides novel evidence that FAK may be involved in multiple aspects of the pathophysiology of cardiac hypertrophy and failure induced by pressure overload.

  14. An innovative and highly drug-tolerant approach for detecting neutralizing antibodies directed to therapeutic antibodies.

    PubMed

    Sloan, John H; Conway, Richard G; Pottanat, Thomas G; Troutt, Jason S; Higgs, Richard E; Konrad, Robert J; Qian, Yue-Wei

    2016-10-01

    Immunogenicity testing of biotherapeutic drugs is a regulatory requirement. Herein, we describe a drug-tolerant assay for detecting neutralizing antibodies against a therapeutic antibody. Excess target of the therapeutic antibody was incorporated into the detection step of an affinity capture elution assay. Signal generated from binding of antidrug antibody (ADA) to the therapeutic antibody was compared with signal from binding of ADA to the therapeutic antibody preincubated with its target. The results demonstrated that the target blocked binding of the therapeutic antibody to neutralizing monkey ADA and to two anti-idiotypic antibodies. This highly drug-tolerant novel approach enables the detection of neutralizing antibodies and allows for one basic assay format to achieve complete characterization of ADA responses.

  15. Expression of Recombinant Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Frenzel, André; Hust, Michael; Schirrmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant antibodies are highly specific detection probes in research, diagnostics, and have emerged over the last two decades as the fastest growing class of therapeutic proteins. Antibody generation has been dramatically accelerated by in vitro selection systems, particularly phage display. An increasing variety of recombinant production systems have been developed, ranging from Gram-negative and positive bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, insect cell lines, mammalian cells to transgenic plants and animals. Currently, almost all therapeutic antibodies are still produced in mammalian cell lines in order to reduce the risk of immunogenicity due to altered, non-human glycosylation patterns. However, recent developments of glycosylation-engineered yeast, insect cell lines, and transgenic plants are promising to obtain antibodies with “human-like” post-translational modifications. Furthermore, smaller antibody fragments including bispecific antibodies without any glycosylation are successfully produced in bacteria and have advanced to clinical testing. The first therapeutic antibody products from a non-mammalian source can be expected in coming next years. In this review, we focus on current antibody production systems including their usability for different applications. PMID:23908655

  16. Advances in Antibody Design

    PubMed Central

    Tiller, Kathryn E.; Tessier, Peter M.

    2017-01-01

    The use of monoclonal antibodies as therapeutics requires optimizing several of their key attributes. These include binding affinity and specificity, folding stability, solubility, pharmacokinetics, effector functions, and compatibility with the attachment of additional antibody domains (bispecific antibodies) and cytotoxic drugs (antibody–drug conjugates). Addressing these and other challenges requires the use of systematic design methods that complement powerful immunization and in vitro screening methods. We review advances in designing the binding loops, scaffolds, domain interfaces, constant regions, post-translational and chemical modifications, and bispecific architectures of antibodies and fragments thereof to improve their bioactivity. We also highlight unmet challenges in antibody design that must be overcome to generate potent antibody therapeutics. PMID:26274600

  17. Automated high throughput microscale antibody purification workflows for accelerating antibody discovery

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Peng; Lee, Sophia; Paluch, Maciej; Kansopon, Joe; Viajar, Sharon; Begum, Zahira; Chiang, Nancy; Nakamura, Gerald; Hass, Philip E.; Wong, Athena W.; Lazar, Greg A.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT To rapidly find “best-in-class” antibody therapeutics, it has become essential to develop high throughput (HTP) processes that allow rapid assessment of antibodies for functional and molecular properties. Consequently, it is critical to have access to sufficient amounts of high quality antibody, to carry out accurate and quantitative characterization. We have developed automated workflows using liquid handling systems to conduct affinity-based purification either in batch or tip column mode. Here, we demonstrate the capability to purify >2000 antibodies per day from microscale (1 mL) cultures. Our optimized, automated process for human IgG1 purification using MabSelect SuRe resin achieves ∼70% recovery over a wide range of antibody loads, up to 500 µg. This HTP process works well for hybridoma-derived antibodies that can be purified by MabSelect SuRe resin. For rat IgG2a, which is often encountered in hybridoma cultures and is challenging to purify via an HTP process, we established automated purification with GammaBind Plus resin. Using these HTP purification processes, we can efficiently recover sufficient amounts of antibodies from mammalian transient or hybridoma cultures with quality comparable to conventional column purification. PMID:29494273

  18. Src promotes delta opioid receptor (DOR) desensitization by interfering with receptor recycling.

    PubMed

    Archer-Lahlou, Elodie; Audet, Nicolas; Amraei, Mohammad Gholi; Huard, Karine; Paquin-Gobeil, Mélanie; Pineyro, Graciela

    2009-01-01

    Abstract An important limitation in the clinical use of opiates is progressive loss of analgesic efficacy over time. Development of analgesic tolerance is tightly linked to receptor desensitization. In the case of delta opioid receptors (DOR), desensitization is especially swift because receptors are rapidly internalized and are poorly recycled to the membrane. In the present study, we investigated whether Src activity contributed to this sorting pattern and to functional desensitization of DORs. A first series of experiments demonstrated that agonist binding activates Src and destabilizes a constitutive complex formed by the spontaneous association of DORs with the kinase. Src contribution to DOR desensitization was then established by showing that pre-treatment with Src inhibitor PP2 (20 microM; 1 hr) or transfection of a dominant negative Src mutant preserved DOR signalling following sustained exposure to an agonist. This protection was afforded without interfering with endocytosis, but suboptimal internalization interfered with PP2 ability to preserve DOR signalling, suggesting a post-endocytic site of action for the kinase. This assumption was confirmed by demonstrating that Src inhibition by PP2 or its silencing by siRNA increased membrane recovery of internalized DORs and was further corroborated by showing that inhibition of recycling by monensin or dominant negative Rab11 (Rab11S25N) abolished the ability of Src blockers to prevent desensitization. Finally, Src inhibitors accelerated recovery of DOR-Galphal3 coupling after desensitization. Taken together, these results indicate that Src dynamically regulates DOR recycling and by doing so contributes to desensitization of these receptors.

  19. Infectious mononucleosis: return to play.

    PubMed

    Auwaerter, Paul G

    2004-07-01

    Infectious mononucleosis most commonly affects adolescents and young adults with a febrile illness accompanied by pharyngitis,lymph node enlargement, and transient fatigue. The diagnosis is usually confirmed with demonstration of heterophile antibodies. Typical signs and symptoms are reviewed, along with pitfalls in diagnosis and management. The rare complication of splenic rupture serves to focus recommendations for returning athletes to strenuous physical activities. Because careful prospective studies of infectious mononucleosis in athletes are lacking, review of available literature suggests that clinicians may recommend a return to all sports in those without spleen enlargement 4 weeks after the onset of illness.

  20. Exploring the trans-acting short interfering RNAs (ta-siRNAs) technology for virus control in plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Small ribonucleic acid (RNAs) (~20-24nt) processed from double-stranded RNA in plants can trigger degradation of the target mRNAs in cytoplasm or de novo DNA methylation in nucleus leading to gene silencing. Trans-acting short-interfering RNAs (ta-siRNAs) have been shown to enhance the target mRNA d...

  1. Beyond Antibodies as Binding Partners: The Role of Antibody Mimetics in Bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaowen; Yang, Yu-Ping; Dikici, Emre; Deo, Sapna K; Daunert, Sylvia

    2017-06-12

    The emergence of novel binding proteins or antibody mimetics capable of binding to ligand analytes in a manner analogous to that of the antigen-antibody interaction has spurred increased interest in the biotechnology and bioanalytical communities. The goal is to produce antibody mimetics designed to outperform antibodies with regard to binding affinities, cellular and tumor penetration, large-scale production, and temperature and pH stability. The generation of antibody mimetics with tailored characteristics involves the identification of a naturally occurring protein scaffold as a template that binds to a desired ligand. This scaffold is then engineered to create a superior binder by first creating a library that is then subjected to a series of selection steps. Antibody mimetics have been successfully used in the development of binding assays for the detection of analytes in biological samples, as well as in separation methods, cancer therapy, targeted drug delivery, and in vivo imaging. This review describes recent advances in the field of antibody mimetics and their applications in bioanalytical chemistry, specifically in diagnostics and other analytical methods.

  2. Anti-insulin antibody test

    MedlinePlus

    Insulin antibodies - serum; Insulin Ab test; Insulin resistance - insulin antibodies; Diabetes - insulin antibodies ... You appear to have an allergic response to insulin Insulin no longer seems to control your diabetes

  3. Antibodies Targeting EMT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    breast cancer does not have specific antibody drugs like Herceptin, and there is considerable need for targeted therapeutics and diagnostic...mesenchymal transition” or EMT. This process is important in several cancers , but is particularly associated with “triple-negative” breast cancer ...pathways in cancer cells and make a major impact on breast cancer . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Monoclonal Antibody, Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition, Antibody

  4. Conflicting Selection Pressures Will Constrain Viral Escape from Interfering Particles: Principles for Designing Resistance-Proof Antivirals.

    PubMed

    Rast, Luke I; Rouzine, Igor M; Rozhnova, Ganna; Bishop, Lisa; Weinberger, Ariel D; Weinberger, Leor S

    2016-05-01

    The rapid evolution of RNA-encoded viruses such as HIV presents a major barrier to infectious disease control using conventional pharmaceuticals and vaccines. Previously, it was proposed that defective interfering particles could be developed to indefinitely control the HIV/AIDS pandemic; in individual patients, these engineered molecular parasites were further predicted to be refractory to HIV's mutational escape (i.e., be 'resistance-proof'). However, an outstanding question has been whether these engineered interfering particles-termed Therapeutic Interfering Particles (TIPs)-would remain resistance-proof at the population-scale, where TIP-resistant HIV mutants may transmit more efficiently by reaching higher viral loads in the TIP-treated subpopulation. Here, we develop a multi-scale model to test whether TIPs will maintain indefinite control of HIV at the population-scale, as HIV ('unilaterally') evolves toward TIP resistance by limiting the production of viral proteins available for TIPs to parasitize. Model results capture the existence of two intrinsic evolutionary tradeoffs that collectively prevent the spread of TIP-resistant HIV mutants in a population. First, despite their increased transmission rates in TIP-treated sub-populations, unilateral TIP-resistant mutants are shown to have reduced transmission rates in TIP-untreated sub-populations. Second, these TIP-resistant mutants are shown to have reduced growth rates (i.e., replicative fitness) in both TIP-treated and TIP-untreated individuals. As a result of these tradeoffs, the model finds that TIP-susceptible HIV strains continually outcompete TIP-resistant HIV mutants at both patient and population scales when TIPs are engineered to express >3-fold more genomic RNA than HIV expresses. Thus, the results provide design constraints for engineering population-scale therapies that may be refractory to the acquisition of antiviral resistance.

  5. Antibody profiling sensitivity through increased reporter antibody layering

    DOEpatents

    Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.

    2013-02-26

    A method for analyzing a biological sample by antibody profiling for identifying forensic samples or for detecting the presence of an analyte. In an embodiment of the invention, the analyte is a drug, such as marijuana, Cocaine (crystalline tropane alkaloid), methamphetamine, methyltestosterone, or mesterolone. The method comprises attaching antigens to a surface of a solid support in a preselected pattern to form an array wherein locations of the antigens are known; contacting the array with the biological sample such that a portion of antibodies in the sample reacts with and binds to the antigens in the array to form immune complexes; washing away antibodies that do form immune complexes; and detecting the immune complexes, to form an antibody profile. Forensic samples are identified by comparing a sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source. Further, an assay, such as a test for illegal drug use, can be coupled to a test for identity such that the results of the assay can be positively correlated to the subject's identity.

  6. Antibody profiling sensitivity through increased reporter antibody layering

    SciTech Connect

    Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S

    A method for analyzing a biological sample by antibody profiling for identifying forensic samples or for detecting the presence of an analyte. In an embodiment of the invention, the analyte is a drug, such as marijuana, Cocaine (crystalline tropane alkaloid), methamphetamine, methyltestosterone, or mesterolone. The method comprises attaching antigens to a surface of a solid support in a preselected pattern to form an array wherein locations of the antigens are known; contacting the array with the biological sample such that a portion of antibodies in the sample reacts with and binds to the antigens in the array to form immunemore » complexes; washing away antibodies that do form immune complexes; and detecting the immune complexes, to form an antibody profile. Forensic samples are identified by comparing a sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source. Further, an assay, such as a test for illegal drug use, can be coupled to a test for identity such that the results of the assay can be positively correlated to the subject's identity.« less

  7. Antibody profiling sensitivity through increased reporter antibody layering

    DOEpatents

    Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.

    2017-03-28

    A method for analyzing a biological sample by antibody profiling for identifying forensic samples or for detecting the presence of an analyte. In an embodiment of the invention, the analyte is a drug, such as marijuana, Cocaine (crystalline tropane alkaloid), methamphetamine, methyltestosterone, or mesterolone. The method comprises attaching antigens to a surface of a solid support in a preselected pattern to form an array wherein locations of the antigens are known; contacting the array with the biological sample such that a portion of antibodies in the sample reacts with and binds to the antigens in the array to form immune complexes; washing away antibodies that do form immune complexes; and detecting the immune complexes, to form an antibody profile. Forensic samples are identified by comparing a sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source. Further, an assay, such as a test for illegal drug use, can be coupled to a test for identity such that the results of the assay can be positively correlated to the subject's identity.

  8. Generalized platform for antibody detection using the antibody catalyzed water oxidation pathway.

    PubMed

    Welch, M Elizabeth; Ritzert, Nicole L; Chen, Hongjun; Smith, Norah L; Tague, Michele E; Xu, Youyong; Baird, Barbara A; Abruña, Héctor D; Ober, Christopher K

    2014-02-05

    Infectious diseases, such as influenza, present a prominent global problem including the constant threat of pandemics that initiate in avian or other species and then pass to humans. We report a new sensor that can be specifically functionalized to detect antibodies associated with a wide range of infectious diseases in multiple species. This biosensor is based on electrochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide generated through the intrinsic catalytic activity of all antibodies: the antibody catalyzed water oxidation pathway (ACWOP). Our platform includes a polymer brush-modified surface where specific antibodies bind to conjugated haptens with high affinity and specificity. Hydrogen peroxide provides an electrochemical signal that is mediated by Resorufin/Amplex Red. We characterize the biosensor platform, using model anti-DNP antibodies, with the ultimate goal of designing a versatile device that is inexpensive, portable, reliable, and fast. We demonstrate detection of antibodies at concentrations that fall well within clinically relevant levels.

  9. Efficient generation of monoclonal antibodies from single rhesus macaque antibody secreting cells.

    PubMed

    Meng, Weixu; Li, Leike; Xiong, Wei; Fan, Xuejun; Deng, Hui; Bett, Andrew J; Chen, Zhifeng; Tang, Aimin; Cox, Kara S; Joyce, Joseph G; Freed, Daniel C; Thoryk, Elizabeth; Fu, Tong-Ming; Casimiro, Danilo R; Zhang, Ningyan; A Vora, Kalpit; An, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are used as a preclinical model for vaccine development, and the antibody profiles to experimental vaccines in NHPs can provide critical information for both vaccine design and translation to clinical efficacy. However, an efficient protocol for generating monoclonal antibodies from single antibody secreting cells of NHPs is currently lacking. In this study we established a robust protocol for cloning immunoglobulin (IG) variable domain genes from single rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) antibody secreting cells. A sorting strategy was developed using a panel of molecular markers (CD3, CD19, CD20, surface IgG, intracellular IgG, CD27, Ki67 and CD38) to identify the kinetics of B cell response after vaccination. Specific primers for the rhesus macaque IG genes were designed and validated using cDNA isolated from macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Cloning efficiency was averaged at 90% for variable heavy (VH) and light (VL) domains, and 78.5% of the clones (n = 335) were matched VH and VL pairs. Sequence analysis revealed that diverse IGHV subgroups (for VH) and IGKV and IGLV subgroups (for VL) were represented in the cloned antibodies. The protocol was tested in a study using an experimental dengue vaccine candidate. About 26.6% of the monoclonal antibodies cloned from the vaccinated rhesus macaques react with the dengue vaccine antigens. These results validate the protocol for cloning monoclonal antibodies in response to vaccination from single macaque antibody secreting cells, which have general applicability for determining monoclonal antibody profiles in response to other immunogens or vaccine studies of interest in NHPs.

  10. Humanized Antibodies for Antiviral Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Co, Man Sung; Deschamps, Marguerite; Whitley, Richard J.; Queen, Cary

    1991-04-01

    Antibody therapy holds great promise for the treatment of cancer, autoimmune disorders, and viral infections. Murine monoclonal antibodies are relatively easy to produce but are severely restricted for therapeutic use by their immunogenicity in humans. Production of human monoclonal antibodies has been problematic. Humanized antibodies can be generated by introducing the six hypervariable regions from the heavy and light chains of a murine antibody into a human framework sequence and combining it with human constant regions. We humanized, with the aid of computer modeling, two murine monoclonal antibodies against herpes simplex virus gB and gD glycoproteins. The binding, virus neutralization, and cell protection results all indicate that both humanized antibodies have retained the binding activities and the biological properties of the murine monoclonal antibodies.

  11. A self-interfering clock as a "which path" witness.

    PubMed

    Margalit, Yair; Zhou, Zhifan; Machluf, Shimon; Rohrlich, Daniel; Japha, Yonathan; Folman, Ron

    2015-09-11

    In Einstein's general theory of relativity, time depends locally on gravity; in standard quantum theory, time is global-all clocks "tick" uniformly. We demonstrate a new tool for investigating time in the overlap of these two theories: a self-interfering clock, comprising two atomic spin states. We prepare the clock in a spatial superposition of quantum wave packets, which evolve coherently along two paths into a stable interference pattern. If we make the clock wave packets "tick" at different rates, to simulate a gravitational time lag, the clock time along each path yields "which path" information, degrading the pattern's visibility. In contrast, in standard interferometry, time cannot yield "which path" information. This proof-of-principle experiment may have implications for the study of time and general relativity and their impact on fundamental effects such as decoherence and the emergence of a classical world. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Complement-fixing antibodies against denatured HLA and MICA antigens are associated with antibody mediated rejection.

    PubMed

    Cai, Junchao; Terasaki, Paul I; Zhu, Dong; Lachmann, Nils; Schönemann, Constanze; Everly, Matthew J; Qing, Xin

    2016-02-01

    We have found antibodies against denatured HLA class I antigens in the serum of allograft recipients which were not significantly associated with graft failure. It is unknown whether transplant recipients also have denatured HLA class II and MICA antibodies. The effects of denatured HLA class I, class II, and MICA antibodies on long-term graft outcome were further investigated based on their ability to fix complement c1q. In this 4-year retrospective cohort study, post-transplant sera from 975 kidney transplant recipients were tested for antibodies against denatured HLA/MICA antigens and these antibodies were further classified based on their ability to fix c1q. Thirty percent of patients had antibodies against denatured HLA class I, II, or MICA antigens. Among them, 8.5% and 21.5% of all patients had c1q-fixing and non c1q-fixing antibodies respectively. There was no significant difference on graft survival between patients with or without antibodies against denatured HLA/MICA. However, when these antibodies were further classified according to their ability to fix c1q, patients with c1q-fixing antibodies had a significantly lower graft survival rate than patients without antibodies or patients with non c1q-fixing antibodies (p=0.008). In 169 patients who lost renal grafts, 44% of them had c1q-fixing antibodies against denatured HLA/MICA antigens, which was significantly higher than that in patients with functioning renal transplants (25%, p<0.0001). C1q-fixing antibodies were more significantly associated with graft failure caused by AMR (72.73%) or mixed AMR/CMR (61.9%) as compared to failure due to CMR (35.3%) or other causes (39.2%) (p=0.026). Transplant recipients had antibodies against denatured HLA class I, II, and MICA antigens. However, only c1q-fixing antibodies were associated with graft failure which was related to antibody mediated rejection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Monoclonal antibody form and function: manufacturing the right antibodies for treating drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Eric; Owens, S Michael; Henry, Ralph L

    2006-05-26

    Drug abuse continues to be a major national and worldwide problem, and effective treatment strategies are badly needed. Antibodies are promising therapies for the treatment of medical problems caused by drug abuse, with several candidates in preclinical and early clinical trials. Monoclonal antibodies can be designed that have customized affinity and specificity against drugs of abuse, and because antibodies can be designed in various forms, in vivo pharmacokinetic characteristics can be tailored to suit specific clinical applications (eg, long-acting for relapse prevention, or short-acting for overdose). Passive immunization with antibodies against drugs of abuse has several advantages over active immunization, but because large doses of monoclonal antibodies may be needed for each patient, efficient antibody production technology is essential. In this minireview we discuss some of the antibody forms that may be effective clinical treatments for drug abuse, as well as several current and emerging production systems that could bridge the gap from discovery to patient use.

  14. Whole-Chain Tick Saliva Proteins Presented on Hepatitis B Virus Capsid-Like Particles Induce High-Titered Antibodies with Neutralizing Potential

    PubMed Central

    Kolb, Philipp; Wallich, Reinhard; Nassal, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Ticks are vectors for various, including pathogenic, microbes. Tick saliva contains multiple anti-host defense factors that enable ticks their bloodmeals yet also facilitate microbe transmission. Lyme disease-causing borreliae profit specifically from the broadly conserved tick histamine release factor (tHRF), and from cysteine-rich glycoproteins represented by Salp15 from Ixodes scapularis and Iric-1 from Ixodes ricinus ticks which they recruit to their outer surface protein C (OspC). Hence these tick proteins are attractive targets for anti-tick vaccines that simultaneously impair borrelia transmission. Main obstacles are the tick proteins´ immunosuppressive activities, and for Salp15 orthologs, the lack of efficient recombinant expression systems. Here, we exploited the immune-enhancing properties of hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc) derived capsid-like particles (CLPs) to generate, in E. coli, nanoparticulate vaccines presenting tHRF and, as surrogates for the barely soluble wild-type proteins, cysteine-free Salp15 and Iric-1 variants. The latter CLPs were exclusively accessible in the less sterically constrained SplitCore system. Mice immunized with tHRF CLPs mounted a strong anti-tHRF antibody response. CLPs presenting cysteine-free Salp15 and Iric-1 induced antibodies to wild-type, including glycosylated, Salp15 and Iric-1. The broadly distributed epitopes included the OspC interaction sites. In vitro, the anti-Salp15 antibodies interfered with OspC binding and enhanced human complement-mediated killing of Salp15 decorated borreliae. A mixture of all three CLPs induced high titered antibodies against all three targets, suggesting the feasibility of combination vaccines. These data warrant in vivo validation of the new candidate vaccines´ protective potential against tick infestation and Borrelia transmission. PMID:26352137

  15. Immune complexes with cationic antibodies deposit in glomeruli more effectively than cationic antibodies alone.

    PubMed

    Mannik, M; Gauthier, V J; Stapleton, S A; Agodoa, L Y

    1987-06-15

    In previously published studies, highly cationized antibodies alone and in immune complexes bound to glomeruli by charge-charge interaction, but only immune complexes persisted in glomeruli. Because normal IgG does not deposit in glomeruli, studies were conducted to determine whether cationized antibodies can be prepared which deposit in glomeruli when bound to antigen but not when free in circulation. A series of cationized rabbit antiHSA was prepared with the number of added amino groups ranging from 13.3 to 60.2 per antibody molecule. Antibodies alone or in preformed soluble immune complexes, prepared at fivefold or 50-fold antigen excess, were administered to mice. With the injection of a fixed dose of 100 micrograms per mouse, antibodies alone did not deposit in glomeruli with less than 29.6 added amino groups by immunofluorescence microscopy. In contrast, 100 micrograms of antibodies with 23.5 added amino groups in immune complexes, made at fivefold antigen excess, formed immune deposits in glomeruli. With selected preparations of cationized, radiolabeled antibodies, deposition in glomeruli was quantified by isolation of mouse glomeruli. These quantitative data were in good agreement with the results of immunofluorescence microscopy. Immune complexes made at 50-fold antigen excess, containing only small-latticed immune complexes with no more than two antibody molecules per complex, deposited in glomeruli similar to antibodies alone. Selected cationized antibodies alone or in immune complexes were administered to mice in varying doses. In these experiments, glomerular deposition of immune complexes, made at fivefold antigen excess, was detected with five- to 10-fold smaller doses than the deposition of the same antibodies alone. These studies demonstrate that antibody molecules in immune complexes are more likely to deposit in glomeruli by charge-charge interactions than antibodies alone.

  16. Specificity of anti-phospholipid antibodies in infectious mononucleosis: a role for anti-cofactor protein antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Sorice, M; Pittoni, V; Griggi, T; Losardo, A; Leri, O; Magno, M S; Misasi, R; Valesini, G

    2000-01-01

    The antigen specificity of anti-phospholipid antibodies in infectious mononucleosis (IM) was studied using ELISA for the detection of anti-β2-glycoprotein I (β2-GPI), anti-annexin V, anti-protein S and anti-prothrombin antibodies and TLC immunostaining for the detection of anti-phospholipid antibodies. This technique enabled us to look at antibodies reacting to ‘pure’ phospholipid antigens in the absence of protein contamination. Sera from 46 patients with IM, 18 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 21 with primary anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome (PAPS), 50 with Helicobacter pylori infection and 30 healthy blood donors were tested. This study highlights anti-phospholipid antibodies in patients with IM as specific ‘pure’ anti-cardiolipin antibodies, while in PAPS and SLE patients anti-phosphatidylserine and anti-phosphatidylethanolamine antibodies were also found. This investigation also shows that the anti-cardiolipin antibodies found in IM can be present with anti-cofactor protein antibodies. The higher prevalence of anti-cofactor antibodies found in IM sera than in Helicobacter pylori sera may be due to the immunostimulatory effect and/or the polyclonal activation often observed in course of Epstein–Barr virus infection. However, anti-β2-GPI and, to a lesser extent, anti-prothrombin antibodies occur with a significantly lower prevalence in IM than in PAPS patients. This finding suggests that these antibodies should be regarded as the expression of the broad autoimmune syndrome involving the phospholipid-binding plasma proteins. PMID:10792380

  17. Commercial antibodies and their validation

    PubMed Central

    Voskuil, JLA

    2014-01-01

    Despite an impressive growth in the business of research antibodies a general lack of trust in commercial antibodies remains in place. A variety of issues, each one potentially causing an antibody to fail, underpin the frustrations that scientists endure. Lots of money goes to waste in buying and trying one failing antibody after the other without realizing all the pitfalls that come with the product: Antibodies can get inactivated, both the biological material and the assay itself can potentially be flawed, a single antibody featuring in many different catalogues can be deemed as a set of different products, and a bad choice of antibody type, wrong dilutions, and lack of proper validation can all jeopardize the intended experiments. Antibodies endorsed by scientific research papers do not always meet the scientist’s requirements either due to flawed specifications, or due to batch-to-batch variations. Antibodies can be found with Quality Control data obtained from previous batches that no longer represent the batch on sale. In addition, one cannot assume that every antibody is fit for every application. The best chance of success is to try an antibody that already was confirmed to perform correctly in the required platform. PMID:25324967

  18. Therapeutic Antibodies by Phage Display.

    PubMed

    Shim, Hyunbo

    2016-01-01

    Antibody phage display is a major technological platform for the generation of fully human antibodies for therapeutic purposes. The in vitro binder selection by phage display allows researchers to have more extensive control over binding parameters and facilitates the isolation of clinical candidate antibodies with desired binding and/or functional profiles. Since the invention of antibody phage display in late 1980s, significant technological advancements in the design, construction, and selection of the antibody libraries have been made, and several fully human antibodies generated by phage display are currently approved or in various clinical development stages. In this review, the background and details of antibody phage display technology, and representative antibody libraries with natural or synthetic sequence diversity and different construction strategies are described. The generation, optimization, functional and biophysical properties, and preclinical and clinical developments of some of the phage display-derived therapeutic antibodies approved for use in patients or in late-stage clinical trials are also discussed. With evolving novel disease targets and therapeutic strategies, antibody phage display is expected to continue to play a central role in the development of the next generation of therapeutic antibodies. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics 2016: The Antibody Society's annual meeting, December 11-15, 2016, San Diego, CA.

    PubMed

    Larrick, James W; Alfenito, Mark R; Scott, Jamie K; Parren, Paul W H I; Burton, Dennis R; Bradbury, Andrew R M; Lemere, Cynthia A; Messer, Anne; Huston, James S; Carter, Paul J; Veldman, Trudi; Chester, Kerry A; Schuurman, Janine; Adams, Gregory P; Reichert, Janice M

    Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics, the largest meeting devoted to antibody science and technology and the annual meeting of The Antibody Society, will be held in San Diego, CA on December 11-15, 2016. Each of 14 sessions will include six presentations by leading industry and academic experts. In this meeting preview, the session chairs discuss the relevance of their topics to current and future antibody therapeutics development. Session topics include bispecifics and designer polyclonal antibodies; antibodies for neurodegenerative diseases; the interface between passive and active immunotherapy; antibodies for non-cancer indications; novel antibody display, selection and screening technologies; novel checkpoint modulators / immuno-oncology; engineering antibodies for T-cell therapy; novel engineering strategies to enhance antibody functions; and the biological Impact of Fc receptor engagement. The meeting will open with keynote speakers Dennis R. Burton (The Scripps Research Institute), who will review progress toward a neutralizing antibody-based HIV vaccine; Olivera J. Finn, (University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine), who will discuss prophylactic cancer vaccines as a source of therapeutic antibodies; and Paul Richardson (Dana-Farber Cancer Institute), who will provide a clinical update on daratumumab for multiple myeloma. In a featured presentation, a representative of the World Health Organization's INN expert group will provide a perspective on antibody naming. "Antibodies to watch in 2017" and progress on The Antibody Society's 2016 initiatives will be presented during the Society's special session. In addition, two pre-conference workshops covering ways to accelerate antibody drugs to the clinic and the applications of next-generation sequencing in antibody discovery and engineering will be held on Sunday December 11, 2016.

  20. Nanoparticles for targeted delivery of therapeutics and small interfering RNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Varshosaz, Jaleh; Farzan, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the 5th most common malignancy which is responsible for more than half million annual mortalities; also, it is the third leading cause of cancer related death. Unfavorable systemic side-effects of chemotherapeutic agents and susceptibility to the degradation of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which can knock down a specific gene involved in the disease, have hampered their clinical application. So, it could be beneficial to develop an efficient carrier for the stabilization and specific delivery of drugs and siRNA to cells. Targeted nanoparticles have gained considerable attention as an efficient drug and gene delivery system, which is due to their capability in achieving the highest accumulation of cytotoxic agents in tumor tissue, modifiable drug pharmacokinetic- and bio-distribution, improved effectiveness of treatment, and limited side-effects. Recent studies have shed more light on the advantages of novel drug loaded carrier systems vs free drugs. Most of the animal studies have reported improvement in treatment efficacy and survival rate using novel carrier systems. Targeted delivery may be achieved passively or actively. In passive targeting, no ligand as homing device is used, while targeting is achieved by incorporating the therapeutic agent into a macromolecule or nanoparticle that passively reaches the target organ. However, in active targeting, the therapeutic agent or carrier system is conjugated to a tissue or cell-specific receptor which is over-expressed in a special malignancy using a ligand called a homing device. This review covers a broad spectrum of targeted nanoparticles as therapeutic and non-viral siRNA delivery systems, which are developed for enhanced cellular uptake and targeted gene silencing in vitro and in vivo and their characteristics and opportunities for the clinical applications of drugs and therapeutic siRNA are discussed in this article. Asialoglycoprotein receptors, low-density lipoprotein

  1. Identification of antigen-specific human monoclonal antibodies using high-throughput sequencing of the antibody repertoire.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ju; Li, Ruihua; Liu, Kun; Li, Liangliang; Zai, Xiaodong; Chi, Xiangyang; Fu, Ling; Xu, Junjie; Chen, Wei

    2016-04-22

    High-throughput sequencing of the antibody repertoire provides a large number of antibody variable region sequences that can be used to generate human monoclonal antibodies. However, current screening methods for identifying antigen-specific antibodies are inefficient. In the present study, we developed an antibody clone screening strategy based on clone dynamics and relative frequency, and used it to identify antigen-specific human monoclonal antibodies. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that at least 52% of putative positive immunoglobulin heavy chains composed antigen-specific antibodies. Combining information on dynamics and relative frequency improved identification of positive clones and elimination of negative clones. and increase the credibility of putative positive clones. Therefore the screening strategy could simplify the subsequent experimental screening and may facilitate the generation of antigen-specific antibodies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Metabolomics reveals distinct, antibody-independent, molecular signatures of MS, AQP4-antibody and MOG-antibody disease.

    PubMed

    Jurynczyk, Maciej; Probert, Fay; Yeo, Tianrong; Tackley, George; Claridge, Tim D W; Cavey, Ana; Woodhall, Mark R; Arora, Siddharth; Winkler, Torsten; Schiffer, Eric; Vincent, Angela; DeLuca, Gabriele; Sibson, Nicola R; Isabel Leite, M; Waters, Patrick; Anthony, Daniel C; Palace, Jacqueline

    2017-12-06

    The overlapping clinical features of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-antibody (Ab) neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-Ab disease mean that detection of disease specific serum antibodies is the gold standard in diagnostics. However, antibody levels are not prognostic and may become undetectable after treatment or during remission. Therefore, there is still a need to discover antibody-independent biomarkers. We sought to discover whether plasma metabolic profiling could provide biomarkers of these three diseases and explore if the metabolic differences are independent of antibody titre. Plasma samples from 108 patients (34 RRMS, 54 AQP4-Ab NMOSD, and 20 MOG-Ab disease) were analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy followed by lipoprotein profiling. Orthogonal partial-least squares discriminatory analysis (OPLS-DA) was used to identify significant differences in the plasma metabolite concentrations and produce models (mathematical algorithms) capable of identifying these diseases. In all instances, the models were highly discriminatory, with a distinct metabolite pattern identified for each disease. In addition, OPLS-DA identified AQP4-Ab NMOSD patient samples with low/undetectable antibody levels with an accuracy of 92%. The AQP4-Ab NMOSD metabolic profile was characterised by decreased levels of scyllo-inositol and small high density lipoprotein particles along with an increase in large low density lipoprotein particles relative to both RRMS and MOG-Ab disease. RRMS plasma exhibited increased histidine and glucose, along with decreased lactate, alanine, and large high density lipoproteins while MOG-Ab disease plasma was defined by increases in formate and leucine coupled with decreased myo-inositol. Despite overlap in clinical measures in these three diseases, the distinct plasma metabolic patterns support their distinct serological profiles and confirm that these

  3. IBC's 23rd Annual Antibody Engineering, 10th Annual Antibody Therapeutics international conferences and the 2012 Annual Meeting of The Antibody Society: December 3-6, 2012, San Diego, CA.

    PubMed

    Klöhn, Peter-Christian; Wuellner, Ulrich; Zizlsperger, Nora; Zhou, Yu; Tavares, Daniel; Berger, Sven; Zettlitz, Kirstin A; Proetzel, Gabriele; Yong, May; Begent, Richard H J; Reichert, Janice M

    2013-01-01

    The 23rd Annual Antibody Engineering, 10th Annual Antibody Therapeutics international conferences, and the 2012 Annual Meeting of The Antibody Society, organized by IBC Life Sciences with contributions from The Antibody Society and two Scientific Advisory Boards, were held December 3-6, 2012 in San Diego, CA. The meeting drew over 800 participants who attended sessions on a wide variety of topics relevant to antibody research and development. As a prelude to the main events, a pre-conference workshop held on December 2, 2012 focused on intellectual property issues that impact antibody engineering. The Antibody Engineering Conference was composed of six sessions held December 3-5, 2012: (1) From Receptor Biology to Therapy; (2) Antibodies in a Complex Environment; (3) Antibody Targeted CNS Therapy: Beyond the Blood Brain Barrier; (4) Deep Sequencing in B Cell Biology and Antibody Libraries; (5) Systems Medicine in the Development of Antibody Therapies/Systematic Validation of Novel Antibody Targets; and (6) Antibody Activity and Animal Models. The Antibody Therapeutics conference comprised four sessions held December 4-5, 2012: (1) Clinical and Preclinical Updates of Antibody-Drug Conjugates; (2) Multifunctional Antibodies and Antibody Combinations: Clinical Focus; (3) Development Status of Immunomodulatory Therapeutic Antibodies; and (4) Modulating the Half-Life of Antibody Therapeutics. The Antibody Society's special session on applications for recording and sharing data based on GIATE was held on December 5, 2012, and the conferences concluded with two combined sessions on December 5-6, 2012: (1) Development Status of Early Stage Therapeutic Antibodies; and (2) Immunomodulatory Antibodies for Cancer Therapy.

  4. Generation of HER2 monoclonal antibodies using epitopes of a rabbit polyclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Hu, Francis Jingxin; Uhlen, Mathias; Rockberg, Johan

    2014-01-25

    One of the issues in using polyclonal antibodies is the limited amount of reagent available from an immunisation, leading to batch-to-batch variation and difficulties in obtaining the same antibody performance when the same antigen is re-immunised into several separate animals. This led to the development of hybridoma technology allowing, at least theoretically, for an unlimited production of a specific binder. Nevertheless, polyclonal antibodies are widely used in research and diagnostics and there exists a need for robust methods to convert a polyclonal antibody with good binding performance into a renewable monoclonal with identical or similar binding specificity. Here we have used precise information regarding the functional recognition sequence (epitope) of a rabbit polyclonal antibody with attractive binding characteristics as the basis for generation of a renewable mouse monoclonal antibody. First, the original protein fragment antigen was used for immunisation and generation of mouse hybridoma, without obtaining binders to the same epitope region. Instead a peptide designed using the functional epitope and structural information was synthesised and used for hybridoma production. Several of the monoclonal antibodies generated were found to have similar binding characteristics to those of the original polyclonal antibody. These monoclonal antibodies detected native HER2 on cell lines and were also able to stain HER2 in immunohistochemistry using xenografted mice, as well as human normal and cancer tissues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Thermodynamics of antibody-antigen interaction revealed by mutation analysis of antibody variable regions.

    PubMed

    Akiba, Hiroki; Tsumoto, Kouhei

    2015-07-01

    Antibodies (immunoglobulins) bind specific molecules (i.e. antigens) with high affinity and specificity. In order to understand their mechanisms of recognition, interaction analysis based on thermodynamic and kinetic parameters, as well as structure determination is crucial. In this review, we focus on mutational analysis which gives information about the role of each amino acid residue in antibody-antigen interaction. Taking anti-hen egg lysozyme antibodies and several anti-small molecule antibodies, the energetic contribution of hot-spot and non-hot-spot residues is discussed in terms of thermodynamics. Here, thermodynamics of the contribution from aromatic, charged and hydrogen bond-forming amino acids are discussed, and their different characteristics have been elucidated. The information gives fundamental understanding of the antibody-antigen interaction. Furthermore, the consequences of antibody engineering are analysed from thermodynamic viewpoints: humanization to reduce immunogenicity and rational design to improve affinity. Amino acid residues outside hot-spots in the interface play important roles in these cases, and thus thermodynamic and kinetic parameters give much information about the antigen recognition. Thermodynamic analysis of mutant antibodies thus should lead to advanced strategies to design and select antibodies with high affinity. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  6. The interfacial character of antibody paratopes: analysis of antibody-antigen structures.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh N; Pradhan, Mohan R; Verma, Chandra; Zhong, Pingyu

    2017-10-01

    In this study, computational methods are applied to investigate the general properties of antigen engaging residues of a paratope from a non-redundant dataset of 403 antibody-antigen complexes to dissect the contribution of hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic, van der Waals contacts and ionic interactions, as well as role of water molecules in the antigen-antibody interface. Consistent with previous reports using smaller datasets, we found that Tyr, Trp, Ser, Asn, Asp, Thr, Arg, Gly, His contribute substantially to the interactions between antibody and antigen. Furthermore, antibody-antigen interactions can be mediated by interfacial waters. However, there is no reported comprehensive analysis for a large number of structured waters that engage in higher ordered structures at the antibody-antigen interface. From our dataset, we have found the presence of interfacial waters in 242 complexes. We present evidence that suggests a compelling role of these interfacial waters in interactions of antibodies with a range of antigens differing in shape complementarity. Finally, we carry out 296 835 pairwise 3D structure comparisons of 771 structures of contact residues of antibodies with their interfacial water molecules from our dataset using CLICK method. A heuristic clustering algorithm is used to obtain unique structural similarities, and found to separate into 368 different clusters. These clusters are used to identify structural motifs of contact residues of antibodies for epitope binding. This clustering database of contact residues is freely accessible at http://mspc.bii.a-star.edu.sg/minhn/pclick.html. minhn@bii.a-star.edu.sg, chandra@bii.a-star.edu.sg or zhong_pingyu@immunol.a-star.edu.sg. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Antibody-gold cluster conjugates

    DOEpatents

    Hainfeld, J.F.

    1988-06-28

    Antibody- or antibody fragment-gold cluster conjugates are shown wherein the conjugate size can be about 5.0 nm. Methods and reagents are disclosed in which antibodies or Fab' fragments thereof are covalently bound to a stable cluster of gold atoms. 2 figs.

  8. Antibody to CCDC104 is associated with a paraneoplastic antibody to CDR2 (anti-Yo).

    PubMed

    Totland, Cecilie; Bredholt, Geir; Haugen, Mette; Haukanes, Bjørn Ivar; Vedeler, Christian A

    2010-02-01

    Patients with cancer may develop paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) in which onconeural antibodies are important diagnostic findings. As the functional role of onconeural antibodies is largely unknown, insight gained by identifying associated antibodies may help to clarify the pathogenesis of the PNS. In this study, we identified patients with Yo antibodies who also had antibodies to an uncharacterized protein called coiled-coil domain-containing protein 104 (CCDC104). We found a significant association between CCDC104 and Yo antibodies (4 of 38, 10.5%), but not other onconeural antibodies (0 of 158) (P = 0.007, Fisher's exact test). The prevalence of CCDC104 antibodies was approximately similar in patients with cancer (8 of 756, 1.1%) and in healthy blood donors (2 of 300, 0.7%). CCDC104 antibodies were not associated with PNS, as this was found in only two of the ten CCDC104-positive patients. The CCDC104 protein, whose function is unknown, is expressed in various human tissues, including the brain, and is localized mainly to the nucleus, but is also found in the cytoplasm. The association between Yo and CCDC104 antibodies may indicate functional similarities.

  9. Detection of anthrax protective antigen (PA) using europium labeled anti-PA monoclonal antibody and time-resolved fluorescence ◊

    PubMed Central

    Stoddard, Robyn A.; Quinn, Conrad P.; Schiffer, Jarad M.; Boyer, Anne E.; Goldstein, Jason; Bagarozzi, Dennis A.; Soroka, Stephen D.; Dauphin, Leslie A.; Hoffmaster, Alex R.

    2015-01-01

    Inhalation anthrax is a rare but acute infectious disease following adsorption of Bacillus anthracis spores through the lungs. The disease has a high fatality rate if untreated, but early and correct diagnosis has a significant impact on case patient recovery. The early symptoms of inhalation anthrax are, however, non-specific and current anthrax diagnostics are primarily dependent upon culture and confirmatory real-time PCR. Consequently, there may be a significant delay in diagnosis and targeted treatment. Rapid, culture-independent diagnostic tests are therefore needed, particularly in the context of a large scale emergency response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of monoclonal antibodies to detect anthrax toxin proteins that are secreted early in the course of B. anthracis infection using a time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) immunoassay. We selected monoclonal antibodies that could detect protective antigen (PA), as PA83 and also PA63 and LF in the lethal toxin complex. The assay reliable detection limit (RDL) was 6.63 × 10−6 μM (0.551 ng/ml) for PA83 and 2.51 × 10−5 μM (1.58 ng/ml) for PA63. Despite variable precision and accuracy of the assay, PA was detected in 9 out of 10 sera samples from anthrax confirmed case patients with cutaneous (n=7), inhalation (n=2), and gastrointestinal (n=1) disease. Anthrax Immune Globulin (AIG), which has been used in treatment of clinical anthrax, interfered with detection of PA. This study demonstrates a culture-independent method of diagnosing anthrax through use of monoclonal antibodies to detect PA and LF in the lethal toxin complex. PMID:24857756

  10. Antibody-Mediated Internalization of Infectious HIV-1 Virions Differs among Antibody Isotypes and Subclasses.

    PubMed

    Tay, Matthew Zirui; Liu, Pinghuang; Williams, LaTonya D; McRaven, Michael D; Sawant, Sheetal; Gurley, Thaddeus C; Xu, Thomas T; Dennison, S Moses; Liao, Hua-Xin; Chenine, Agnès-Laurence; Alam, S Munir; Moody, M Anthony; Hope, Thomas J; Haynes, Barton F; Tomaras, Georgia D

    2016-08-01

    Emerging data support a role for antibody Fc-mediated antiviral activity in vaccine efficacy and in the control of HIV-1 replication by broadly neutralizing antibodies. Antibody-mediated virus internalization is an Fc-mediated function that may act at the portal of entry whereby effector cells may be triggered by pre-existing antibodies to prevent HIV-1 acquisition. Understanding the capacity of HIV-1 antibodies in mediating internalization of HIV-1 virions by primary monocytes is critical to understanding their full antiviral potency. Antibody isotypes/subclasses differ in functional profile, with consequences for their antiviral activity. For instance, in the RV144 vaccine trial that achieved partial efficacy, Env IgA correlated with increased risk of HIV-1 infection (i.e. decreased vaccine efficacy), whereas V1-V2 IgG3 correlated with decreased risk of HIV-1 infection (i.e. increased vaccine efficacy). Thus, understanding the different functional attributes of HIV-1 specific IgG1, IgG3 and IgA antibodies will help define the mechanisms of immune protection. Here, we utilized an in vitro flow cytometric method utilizing primary monocytes as phagocytes and infectious HIV-1 virions as targets to determine the capacity of Env IgA (IgA1, IgA2), IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies to mediate HIV-1 infectious virion internalization. Importantly, both broadly neutralizing antibodies (i.e. PG9, 2G12, CH31, VRC01 IgG) and non-broadly neutralizing antibodies (i.e. 7B2 mAb, mucosal HIV-1+ IgG) mediated internalization of HIV-1 virions. Furthermore, we found that Env IgG3 of multiple specificities (i.e. CD4bs, V1-V2 and gp41) mediated increased infectious virion internalization over Env IgG1 of the same specificity, while Env IgA mediated decreased infectious virion internalization compared to IgG1. These data demonstrate that antibody-mediated internalization of HIV-1 virions depends on antibody specificity and isotype. Evaluation of the phagocytic potency of vaccine

  11. Antibody-Mediated Internalization of Infectious HIV-1 Virions Differs among Antibody Isotypes and Subclasses

    PubMed Central

    McRaven, Michael D; Sawant, Sheetal; Gurley, Thaddeus C; Xu, Thomas T.; Dennison, S. Moses; Liao, Hua-Xin; Chenine, Agnès-Laurence; Alam, S. Munir; Haynes, Barton F.; Tomaras, Georgia D.

    2016-01-01

    Emerging data support a role for antibody Fc-mediated antiviral activity in vaccine efficacy and in the control of HIV-1 replication by broadly neutralizing antibodies. Antibody-mediated virus internalization is an Fc-mediated function that may act at the portal of entry whereby effector cells may be triggered by pre-existing antibodies to prevent HIV-1 acquisition. Understanding the capacity of HIV-1 antibodies in mediating internalization of HIV-1 virions by primary monocytes is critical to understanding their full antiviral potency. Antibody isotypes/subclasses differ in functional profile, with consequences for their antiviral activity. For instance, in the RV144 vaccine trial that achieved partial efficacy, Env IgA correlated with increased risk of HIV-1 infection (i.e. decreased vaccine efficacy), whereas V1-V2 IgG3 correlated with decreased risk of HIV-1 infection (i.e. increased vaccine efficacy). Thus, understanding the different functional attributes of HIV-1 specific IgG1, IgG3 and IgA antibodies will help define the mechanisms of immune protection. Here, we utilized an in vitro flow cytometric method utilizing primary monocytes as phagocytes and infectious HIV-1 virions as targets to determine the capacity of Env IgA (IgA1, IgA2), IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies to mediate HIV-1 infectious virion internalization. Importantly, both broadly neutralizing antibodies (i.e. PG9, 2G12, CH31, VRC01 IgG) and non-broadly neutralizing antibodies (i.e. 7B2 mAb, mucosal HIV-1+ IgG) mediated internalization of HIV-1 virions. Furthermore, we found that Env IgG3 of multiple specificities (i.e. CD4bs, V1-V2 and gp41) mediated increased infectious virion internalization over Env IgG1 of the same specificity, while Env IgA mediated decreased infectious virion internalization compared to IgG1. These data demonstrate that antibody-mediated internalization of HIV-1 virions depends on antibody specificity and isotype. Evaluation of the phagocytic potency of vaccine

  12. Anti-sulfotyrosine antibodies

    DOEpatents

    Bertozzi, Carolyn R [Berkeley, CA; Kehoe, John [Saint Davids, PA; Bradbury, Andrew M [Santa Fe, NM

    2009-09-15

    The invention provides anti-sulfotyrosine specific antibodies capable of detecting and isolating polypeptides that are tyrosine-sulfated. The sulfotyrosine antibodies and antibody fragments of the invention may be used to discriminate between the non-sulfated and sulfated forms of such proteins, using any number of immunological assays, such ELISAs, immunoblots, Western Blots, immunoprecipitations, and the like. Using a phage-display system, single chain antibodies (scFvs) were generated and screened against tyrosine-sulfated synthetic peptide antigens, resulting in the isolation of scFvs that specifically recognize sulfotyrosine-containing peptides and/or demonstrate sulfotyrosine-specific binding in tyrosine sulfated proteins. The VH and VL genes from one such sulfotyrosine-specific scFv were employed to generate a full length, sulfotyrosine-specific immunoglobulin.

  13. Removing interfering clutter associated with radar pulses that an airborne radar receives from a radar transponder

    DOEpatents

    Ormesher, Richard C.; Axline, Robert M.

    2008-12-02

    Interfering clutter in radar pulses received by an airborne radar system from a radar transponder can be suppressed by developing a representation of the incoming echo-voltage time-series that permits the clutter associated with predetermined parts of the time-series to be estimated. These estimates can be used to estimate and suppress the clutter associated with other parts of the time-series.

  14. Affinity ranking of antibodies using flow cytometry: application in antibody phage display-based target discovery.

    PubMed

    Geuijen, Cecilia A W; Clijsters-van der Horst, Marieke; Cox, Freek; Rood, Pauline M L; Throsby, Mark; Jongeneelen, Mandy A C; Backus, Harold H J; van Deventer, Els; Kruisbeek, Ada M; Goudsmit, Jaap; de Kruif, John

    2005-07-01

    Application of antibody phage display to the identification of cell surface antigens with restricted expression patterns is often complicated by the inability to demonstrate specific binding to a certain cell type. The specificity of an antibody can only be properly assessed when the antibody is of sufficient high affinity to detect low-density antigens on cell surfaces. Therefore, a robust and simple assay for the prediction of relative antibody affinities was developed and compared to data obtained using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology. A panel of eight anti-CD46 antibody fragments with different affinities was selected from phage display libraries and reformatted into complete human IgG1 molecules. SPR was used to determine K(D) values for these antibodies. The association and dissociation of the antibodies for binding to CD46 expressed on cell surfaces were analysed using FACS-based assays. We show that ranking of the antibodies based on FACS data correlates well with ranking based on K(D) values as measured by SPR and can therefore be used to discriminate between high- and low-affinity antibodies. Finally, we show that a low-affinity antibody may only detect high expression levels of a surface marker while failing to detect lower expression levels of this molecule, which may lead to a false interpretation of antibody specificity.

  15. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies in clinic.

    PubMed

    Wootla, Bharath; Denic, Aleksandar; Rodriguez, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Immunoglobulins (Ig) or antibodies are heavy plasma proteins, with sugar chains added to amino-acid residues by N-linked glycosylation and occasionally by O-linked glycosylation. The versatility of antibodies is demonstrated by the various functions that they mediate such as neutralization, agglutination, fixation with activation of complement and activation of effector cells. Naturally occurring antibodies protect the organism against harmful pathogens, viruses and infections. In addition, almost any organic chemical induces antibody production of antibodies that would bind specifically to the chemical. These antibodies are often produced from multiple B cell clones and referred to as polyclonal antibodies. In recent years, scientists have exploited the highly evolved machinery of the immune system to produce structurally and functionally complex molecules such as antibodies from a single B clone, heralding the era of monoclonal antibodies. Most of the antibodies currently in the clinic, target components of the immune system, are not curative and seek to alleviate symptoms rather than cure disease. Our group used a novel strategy to identify reparative human monoclonal antibodies distinct from conventional antibodies. In this chapter, we discuss the therapeutic relevance of both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies in clinic.

  16. Quantitation of a slide test (Monotest) for infectious mononucleosis

    PubMed Central

    Carter, P. Kenneth; Schoen, Irwin; Miyahira, Teru

    1970-01-01

    A slide test for infectious mononucleosis using formalinized horse erythrocytes (Monotest2) was quantitated and compared with standard differential heterophile (Davidsohn) titres performed on the same specimens. The Monotest titre parallels the standard presumptive heterophile (antisheep cell) titre in the degree of elevation, with a ratio of Monotest to heterophile titre of approximately 1 to 56. The simplicity of the quantitative slide test recommends it as a routine test for infectious mononucleosis. PMID:5530641

  17. Re-engineering therapeutic antibodies for Alzheimer's disease as blood-brain barrier penetrating bi-specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Pardridge, William M

    2016-12-01

    Therapeutic antibodies are large molecule drugs that do not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Therefore, drug development of therapeutic antibodies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) requires that these molecules be re-engineered to enable BBB delivery. This is possible by joining the therapeutic antibody with a transporter antibody, resulting in the engineering of a BBB-penetrating bispecific antibody (BSA). Areas covered: The manuscript covers transporter antibodies that cross the BBB via receptor-mediated transport systems on the BBB, such as the insulin receptor or transferrin receptor. Furthermore, it highlights therapeutic antibodies for AD that target the Abeta amyloid peptide, beta secretase-1, or the metabotropic glutamate receptor-1. BSAs are comprised of both the transporter antibody and the therapeutic antibody, as well as IgG constant region, which can induce immune tolerance or trigger transport via Fc receptors. Expert opinion: Multiple types of BSA molecular designs have been used to engineer BBB-penetrating BSAs, which differ in valency and spatial orientation of the transporter and therapeutic domains of the BSA. The plasma pharmacokinetics and dosing regimens of BSAs differ from that of conventional therapeutic antibodies. BBB-penetrating BSAs may be engineered in the future as new treatments of AD, as well as other neural disorders.

  18. Antibody-mediated immune suppression is improved when blends of anti-RBC monoclonal antibodies are used in mice.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Lidice; Amash, Alaa; Marjoram, Danielle; Lazarus, Alan H

    2016-08-25

    Although the prevention of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn is highly effective using polyclonal anti-D, a recombinant alternative is long overdue. Unfortunately, anti-D monoclonal antibodies have been, at best, disappointing. To determine the primary attribute defining an optimal antibody, we assessed suppression of murine red blood cell (RBC) immunization by single-monoclonal antibodies vs defined blends of subtype-matched antibodies. Allogeneic RBCs expressing the HOD antigen (hen egg lysozyme [HEL]-ovalbumin-human transmembrane Duffy(b)) were transfused into naïve mice alone or together with selected combinations of HEL-specific antibodies, and the resulting suppressive effect was assessed by evaluating the antibody response. Polyclonal HEL antibodies dramatically inhibited the antibody response to the HOD antigen, whereas single-monoclonal HEL antibodies were less effective despite the use of saturating doses. A blend of monoclonal HEL-specific antibodies reactive with different HEL epitopes significantly increased the suppressive effect, whereas a blend of monoclonal antibodies that block each other's binding to the HEL protein did not increase suppression. In conclusion, these data show that polyclonal antibodies are superior to monoclonal antibodies at suppressing the immune response to the HOD cells, a feature that can be completely recapitulated using monoclonal antibodies to different epitopes. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  19. Infectious Mononucleosis

    PubMed Central

    Joncas, J.

    1967-01-01

    A short review of past and recent works pertinent to the etiology and pathogenesis of infectious mononucleosis is presented. Epidemiological studies have led to the elaboration of hypotheses concerning the etiology, the length of the incubation period and the mode of transmission of the disease. An unusual type of infectious mononucleosis of rickettsial origin has been reported by Japanese workers. Studies of accidental and experimental transmission suggest that more than one agent may give rise to the same disease. Isolation attempts in tissue cultures have been unrewarding except for the uncovering of possible agents by interference and immunofluorescence. The atypical lymphocyte is the site of increased RNA and DNA synthesis. It does not seem to be involved in antibody synthesis. The heterophile agglutinins and other mononucleosis-associated antibodies apparently account for only part of the excess 19S antibody material found in mononucleosis sera. The origin and function of these antibodies and of the atypical lymphocyte are the subject of speculation. The final elucidation of the pathogenesis of the disease and the confirmation of the reviewed hypotheses are all dependent on the eventual discovery of the elusive etiological agent(s) of infectious mononucleosis. PMID:5336955

  20. [Construction of human phage antibody library and screening for human monoclonal antibodies of amylin].

    PubMed

    Gong, Qian; Li, Chang-ying; Chang, Ji-wu; Zhu, Tie-hong

    2012-06-01

    To screen monoclonal antibodies to amylin from a constructed human phage antibody library and identify their antigenic specificity and combining activities. The heavy chain Fd fragment and light chain of human immunoglobulin genes were amplified from peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy donors using RT-PCR, and then inserted into phagemid pComb3XSS to generate a human phage antibody library. The insertion of light chain or heavy chain Fd genes were identified by PCR after the digestion of Sac I, Xba I, Xho Iand Spe I. One of positive clones was analyzed by DNA sequencing. The specific anti-amylin clones were screened from antibody library against human amylin antigens and then the positive clones were determined by Phage-ELISA analysis. A Fab phage antibody library with 0.8×10(8); members was constructed with the efficacy of about 70%. DNA sequence analysis indicated V(H); gene belonged to V(H);3 gene family and V(λ); gene belonged to the V(λ); gene family. Using human amylin as panning antigen, specific anti-amylin Fab antibodies were enriched by screening the library for three times. Phage-ELISA assay showed the positive clones had very good specificity to amylin antigen. The successful construction of a phage antibody library and the identification of anti-amylin Fab antibodies provide a basis for further study and preparation of human anti-amylin antibodies.

  1. Individual-specific antibody identification methods

    DOEpatents

    Francoeur, Ann -Michele

    1989-11-14

    An identification method, applicable to the identification of animals or inanimate objects, is described. The method takes advantage of a hithertofore unknown set of individual-specific, or IS antibodies, that are part of the unique antibody repertoire present in animals, by reacting an effective amount of IS antibodies with a particular panel, or n-dimensional array (where n is typically one or two) consisting of an effective amount of many different antigens (typically greater than one thousand), to give antibody-antigen complexes. The profile or pattern formed by the antigen-antibody complexes, termed an antibody fingerprint, when revealed by an effective amount of an appropriate detector molecule, is uniquely representative of a particular individual. The method can similarly by used to distinguish genetically, or otherwise similar individuals, or their body parts containing IS antibodies. Identification of inanimate objects, particularly security documents, is similarly affected by associating with the documents, an effective amount of a particular individual's IS antibodies, or conversely, a particular panel of antigens, and forming antibody-antigen complexes with a particular panel of antigens, or a particular individual's IS antibodies, respectively. One embodiment of the instant identification method, termed the blocked fingerprint assay, has applications in the area of allergy testing, autoimmune diagnostics and therapeutics, and the detection of environmental antigens such as pathogens, chemicals, and toxins.

  2. Vector design for liver specific expression of multiple interfering RNAs that target hepatitis B virus transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Lindsey L.; Esser, Jonathan M.; Pachuk, Catherine J.; Steel, Laura F.

    2008-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a process that can target intracellular RNAs for degradation in a highly sequence specific manner, making it a powerful tool that is being pursued in both research and therapeutic applications. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a serious public health problem in need of better treatment options, and aspects of its life cycle make it an excellent target for RNAi-based therapeutics. We have designed a vector that expresses interfering RNAs that target HBV transcripts, including both viral RNA replicative intermediates and mRNAs encoding viral proteins. Our vector design incorporates many features of endogenous microRNA (miRNA) gene organization that are proving useful for the development of reagents for RNAi. In particular, our vector contains an RNA pol II driven gene cassette that leads to tissue specific expression and efficient processing of multiple interfering RNAs from a single transcript, without the co-expression of any protein product. This vector shows potent silencing of HBV targets in cell culture models of HBV infection. The vector design will be applicable to silencing of additional cellular or disease-related genes. PMID:18499277

  3. Anti-idiotypic antibodies to poliovirus antibodies in commercial immunoglobulin preparations, human serum, and milk.

    PubMed

    Hahn-Zoric, M; Carlsson, B; Jeansson, S; Ekre, H P; Osterhaus, A D; Roberton, D; Hanson, L A

    1993-05-01

    Our previous studies have suggested that fetal antibody production can be induced by maternal antiidiotypic antibodies transferred to the fetus via the placenta. We tested commercial Ig, sera, and milk for the presence of anti-idiotypic antibodies to poliovirus type 1, using affinity chromatography combined with ELISA systems and virus neutralization techniques. Our results indicate that commercial Ig, serum, and milk samples contain antibodies recognizing idiotypic determinants on antibodies to poliovirus. Several lines of evidence support this conclusion. Thus, in an ELISA with poliovirus as a solid phase, binding of specific antibodies could be inhibited by addition of an eluate from the Ig preparation containing anti-idiotypic antibodies against poliovirus type 1. Also, antiidiotypic antibodies from pooled human Ig, serum, and colostrum samples against poliovirus bound directly to solid-phase-attached MAb against poliovirus type 1. In addition, in a competitive inhibition ELISA, where antiidiotypic antibodies isolated from the Ig preparation competed with the poliovirus antigen for binding to monoclonal or polyclonal idiotypic antibodies on the solid phase, inhibition of antigen binding was seen at low antigen concentrations. When single-donor serum or milk was used, this inhibition was even more pronounced and could be demonstrated at almost all antigen concentrations. The finding that anti-idiotypes are present in maternal serum and milk imply, in agreement with our previous studies, that anti-idiotypes may actively induce a specific immune response in the fetus without previous exposure to the antigen by being transferred across the placenta or by being passively transferred to the newborn via mother's milk.

  4. A self-interfering clock as a “which path” witness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margalit, Yair; Zhou, Zhifan; Machluf, Shimon; Rohrlich, Daniel; Japha, Yonathan; Folman, Ron

    2015-09-01

    In Einstein’s general theory of relativity, time depends locally on gravity; in standard quantum theory, time is global—all clocks “tick” uniformly. We demonstrate a new tool for investigating time in the overlap of these two theories: a self-interfering clock, comprising two atomic spin states. We prepare the clock in a spatial superposition of quantum wave packets, which evolve coherently along two paths into a stable interference pattern. If we make the clock wave packets “tick” at different rates, to simulate a gravitational time lag, the clock time along each path yields “which path” information, degrading the pattern’s visibility. In contrast, in standard interferometry, time cannot yield “which path” information. This proof-of-principle experiment may have implications for the study of time and general relativity and their impact on fundamental effects such as decoherence and the emergence of a classical world.

  5. Sensing spontaneous collapse and decoherence with interfering Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrinski, Björn; Hornberger, Klaus; Nimmrichter, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    We study how matter-wave interferometry with Bose-Einstein condensates is affected by hypothetical collapse models and by environmental decoherence processes. Motivated by recent atom fountain experiments with macroscopic arm separations, we focus on the observable signatures of first-order and higher-order coherence for different two-mode superposition states, and on their scaling with particle number. This can be used not only to assess the impact of environmental decoherence on many-body coherence, but also to quantify the extent to which macrorealistic collapse models are ruled out by such experiments. We find that interference fringes of phase-coherently split condensates are most strongly affected by decoherence, whereas the quantum signatures of independent interfering condensates are more immune against macrorealistic collapse. A many-body enhanced decoherence effect beyond the level of a single atom can be probed if higher-order correlations are resolved in the interferogram.

  6. Hybridization-based antibody cDNA recovery for the production of recombinant antibodies identified by repertoire sequencing.

    PubMed

    Valdés-Alemán, Javier; Téllez-Sosa, Juan; Ovilla-Muñoz, Marbella; Godoy-Lozano, Elizabeth; Velázquez-Ramírez, Daniel; Valdovinos-Torres, Humberto; Gómez-Barreto, Rosa E; Martinez-Barnetche, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing of the antibody repertoire is enabling a thorough analysis of B cell diversity and clonal selection, which may improve the novel antibody discovery process. Theoretically, an adequate bioinformatic analysis could allow identification of candidate antigen-specific antibodies, requiring their recombinant production for experimental validation of their specificity. Gene synthesis is commonly used for the generation of recombinant antibodies identified in silico. Novel strategies that bypass gene synthesis could offer more accessible antibody identification and validation alternatives. We developed a hybridization-based recovery strategy that targets the complementarity-determining region 3 (CDRH3) for the enrichment of cDNA of candidate antigen-specific antibody sequences. Ten clonal groups of interest were identified through bioinformatic analysis of the heavy chain antibody repertoire of mice immunized with hen egg white lysozyme (HEL). cDNA from eight of the targeted clonal groups was recovered efficiently, leading to the generation of recombinant antibodies. One representative heavy chain sequence from each clonal group recovered was paired with previously reported anti-HEL light chains to generate full antibodies, later tested for HEL-binding capacity. The recovery process proposed represents a simple and scalable molecular strategy that could enhance antibody identification and specificity assessment, enabling a more cost-efficient generation of recombinant antibodies.

  7. Antibodies against mumps virus component proteins.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Keita; Iwata, Satoshi; Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2012-08-01

    The neutralization (NT) test is regarded as the most reliable method for detection of protective antibodies, but is labor-intensive and time consuming. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA) is frequently used in sero-epidemiological studies because of its simplicity and ease of use. In this study, immunofluorescent (IF) antibodies against nucleocapsid (N), fusion (F), and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) proteins were investigated in comparison with NT and EIA antibodies. The antibody against N protein was dominant in serum samples obtained from patients with a previous history of mumps infection. Titers of antibodies against F and HN proteins were very low. Many serum samples were positive for EIA but negative for NT, and no significant correlation was noted between NT and EIA antibodies. Among the three component proteins, correlation of EIA and IF antibodies with N protein was relatively good. After vaccination with mumps vaccine, EIA positivity was closely related to the IF antibodies against N protein, and after vaccination NT-positive sera became positive for IF antibodies against F and HN proteins. IF antibodies against F and HN proteins were considered to have a strong association with NT antibodies, and those against N protein were considered to have a strong association with EIA antibodies.

  8. Baseline values of immunologic parameters in the lizard Salvator merianae (Teiidae, Squamata)

    PubMed Central

    Mestre, Ana Paula; Amavet, Patricia Susana; Siroski, Pablo Ariel

    2017-01-01

    The genus Salvator is widely distributed throughout South America. In Argentina, the species most abundant widely distributed is Salvator merianae. Particularly in Santa Fe province, the area occupied by populations of these lizards overlaps with areas where agriculture was extended. With the aim of established baseline values for four immunologic biomarkers widely used, 36 tegu lizards were evaluated tacking into account different age classes and both sexes. Total leukocyte counts were not different between age classes. Of the leucocytes count, eosinophils levels were higher in neonates compared with juvenile and adults; nevertheless, the heterophils group was the most prevalent leukocyte in the peripheral blood in all age classes. Lymphocytes, monocytes, heterophils, azurophils and basophils levels did not differ with age. Natural antibodies titres were higher in the adults compared with neonates and juveniles lizards. Lastly, complement system activity was low in neonates compared with juveniles and adults. Statistical analysis within each age group showed that gender was not a factor in the outcomes. Based on the results, we concluded that S. merianae demonstrated age (but not gender) related differences in the immune parameters analyzed. Having established baseline values for these four widely-used immunologic biomarkers, ongoing studies will seek to optimize the use of the S. merianae model in future research. PMID:28652981

  9. Baseline values of immunologic parameters in the lizard Salvator merianae (Teiidae, Squamata).

    PubMed

    Mestre, Ana Paula; Amavet, Patricia Susana; Siroski, Pablo Ariel

    2017-01-01

    The genus Salvator is widely distributed throughout South America. In Argentina, the species most abundant widely distributed is Salvator merianae . Particularly in Santa Fe province, the area occupied by populations of these lizards overlaps with areas where agriculture was extended. With the aim of established baseline values for four immunologic biomarkers widely used, 36 tegu lizards were evaluated tacking into account different age classes and both sexes. Total leukocyte counts were not different between age classes. Of the leucocytes count, eosinophils levels were higher in neonates compared with juvenile and adults; nevertheless, the heterophils group was the most prevalent leukocyte in the peripheral blood in all age classes. Lymphocytes, monocytes, heterophils, azurophils and basophils levels did not differ with age. Natural antibodies titres were higher in the adults compared with neonates and juveniles lizards. Lastly, complement system activity was low in neonates compared with juveniles and adults. Statistical analysis within each age group showed that gender was not a factor in the outcomes. Based on the results, we concluded that S. merianae demonstrated age (but not gender) related differences in the immune parameters analyzed. Having established baseline values for these four widely-used immunologic biomarkers, ongoing studies will seek to optimize the use of the S. merianae model in future research.

  10. Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Bravender, Terrill

    2010-08-01

    Infectious mononucleosis (IM) is a clinical syndrome that is common in adolescents and young adults and is characterized by fever, lymphadenopathy, pharyngitis, and fatigue. IM is most commonly associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in which case laboratory findings include a lymphocytosis with an elevated number of atypical lymphocytes seen on peripheral smear and a heterophile or EBV-specific antibody response. Approximately 10% of those with IM will not be acutely infected with EBV. Many of these individuals will have their symptoms attributed to cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. This chapter reviews the history, diagnosis, clinical management, and potential complications of both EBV- and CMV-associated IM in adolescents and young adults.

  11. Periodic usage of low-protein methionine-fortified diets in broiler chickens under high ambient temperature conditions: effects on performance, slaughter traits, leukocyte profiles and antibody response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Ghasemi, Rohollah; Torki, Mehran

    2014-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effects of adding methionine supplements to low-protein diets and subsequent re-feeding with a normal diet on the productive performance, slaughter parameters, leukocyte profiles and antibody response in broiler chickens reared under heat stress conditions. During the whole experimental period (6-49 days), the birds were raised in battery cages located in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. A total of 360 6-day-old male chickens were divided into six treatments in six replicates with ten chicks each. Six isoenergetic diets, with similar total sulfur amino acids levels, were formulated to provide 100 and 100 (control), 85 and 100 (85S), 70 and 100 (70S), 85 and 85 (85SG), 70 and 85 (70S85G), and 70 and 70 % (70SG) of National Research Council recommended levels for crude protein during the starter (6-21 day) and grower (22-42 day) periods, respectively. Subsequently, all groups received a diet containing the same nutrients during the finisher period (43-49 day). The results showed that, under heat stress conditions, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio and performance index from day 6 to 49, breast and thigh yields and antibody titer against Newcastle disease in the birds fed diets 85S, 70S and 85SG were similar to those of birds fed control diet, whereas feeding diets 70S85G and 70SG significantly decreased the values of above-mentioned parameters. Additionally, diets 85S, 70S and 85SG significantly decreased mortality rate and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio compared with the control diet. In conclusion, the results indicate that supplementation of methionine to diets 85S, 70S and 85SG, and then re-feeding with a conventional diet is an effective tool to maintain productive performance and to improve health indices and heat resistance in broilers under high ambient temperature conditions.

  12. Designing two-in-one antibodies.

    PubMed

    Valladares, Ignacio Garcia; Espinoza, Luis R

    2009-09-01

    Evaluation of: Bostrom J, Shang-Fan Y, Kan D et al.: Variants of the antibody Herceptin that interact with HER2 and VEGF at the antigen binding site. Science 323, 1610-1614 (2009). The longstanding held notion that one antibody equals one antigen and, hence, one function has been challenged in recent years. Improved technology in antibody production, especially the accumulation of sequence data of immunoglobulin genes and the advent of PCR have made it possible to clone antibody gene repertoires. The current paper provides further challenge to the notion of one antibody = one antigen by developing 'two-in-one' antibodies with an antigen-binding site that binds two distinct proteins with high affinity. A therapeutic variant antibody of Herceptin (Genentech, CA, USA) was isolated that binds the human EGF receptor (HER)2 and also to VEGF. This development may represent a breakthrough discovery and may have significant implications in the therapy of malignant, infectious, allergic and autoimmune disorders.

  13. Lack of antibodies to NMDAR or VGKC-complex in GAD and cardiolipin antibody-positive refractory epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Liimatainen, Suvi; Peltola, Jukka; Hietaharju, Aki; Sabater, Lidia; Lang, Bethan

    2014-03-01

    Over the last few years autoantibodies against neuronal proteins have been identified in several forms of autoimmune encephalitis and epilepsy. NMDA receptor (NMDAR) and voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex antibodies are mainly associated with limbic encephalitis (LE) whereas glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA) and anticardiolipin (ACL) antibodies are more commonly detected in patients with chronic epilepsy. Clinical features vary between these antibodies suggesting the specificity of different neuronal antibodies in seizures. Serum samples of 14 GADA positive and 24 ACL positive patients with refractory epilepsy were analyzed for the presence of VGKC or NMDAR antibodies. No positive VGKC or NMDAR antibodies were found in these patients. The results confirm the different significance of these neuronal antibodies in seizure disorders. Different autoantibodies have different significance in seizures and probably have different pathophysiological mechanisms of actions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against ricin's enzymatic subunit interfere with protein disulfide isomerase-mediated reduction of ricin holotoxin in vitro.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Joanne M; Mantis, Nicholas J

    2013-09-30

    The penultimate event in the intoxication of mammalian cells by ricin toxin is the reduction, in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), of the intermolecular disulfide bond that links ricin's enzymatic (RTA) and binding (RTB) subunits. In this report we adapted an in vitro protein disulfide isomerase (PDI)-mediated reduction assay to test the hypothesis that the RTA-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) IB2 interferes with the liberation of RTA from RTB. IB2 recognizes an epitope located near the interface between RTA and RTB and, like a number of other RTA-specific neutralizing mAbs, is proposed to neutralize ricin intracellularly. In this study, we found that IB2 virtually eliminated the reduction of ricin holotoxin into RTA and RTB in vitro. Surprisingly, three other neutralizing mAbs (GD12, R70 and SyH7) that bind epitopes at considerable distance from ricin's disulfide bond were as effective (or nearly as effective) as IB2 in interfering with PDI-mediated liberation of RTA from RTB. By contrast, two non-neutralizing RTA-specific mAbs, FGA12 and SB1, did not affect PDI-mediated reduction of ricin. These data reveal a possible mechanism by which RTA-specific antibodies may neutralize ricin intracellularly, provided they are capable of trafficking in association with ricin from the cell surface to the ER. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Similar Idiotypes in Antibody-Forming Cells and in Cells Synthesizing Immunoglobulins Without Detectable Antibody Function

    PubMed Central

    Cazenave, P. -A.; Ternynck, T.; Avrameas, S.

    1974-01-01

    The occurrence of immunoglobulins with and without antibody specificity and with and without idiotypic specificity was studied, by use of enzyme-labeled antigen and antibodies, in lymph node cells of rabbits immunized with horse-radish peroxidase and hen ovalbumin. Some cells, containing immunoglobulins without detectable antibody function, were shown to contain idiotypes similar to those found in antibody-producing cells. PMID:4140504

  16. Lichen planus, liver kidney microsomal (LKM1) antibodies and hepatitis C virus antibodies.

    PubMed

    Divano, M C; Parodi, A; Rebora, A

    1992-01-01

    No anti-liver kidney microsomal (LKM1) antibodies were detected in 46 patients with LP, 16 of whom had also a chronic liver disease (CLD). In contrast, anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies were found in 10% of patients with LP and in 50% of those with LP and CLD. Anti-HCV antibodies may be considered as a false-positive reaction in 56% of cases, especially when anti-LKM1 antibodies are present. Our findings do not support such a hypothesis, but suggest that CLD in LP patients is, at least in Italy, mostly a postviral chronic active hepatitis.

  17. Microangiopathic antiphospholipid antibody syndrome due to anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin complex IgM antibody.

    PubMed

    Senda, Yumi; Ohta, Kazuhide; Yokoyama, Tadafumi; Shimizu, Masaki; Furuichi, Kengo; Wada, Takashi; Yachie, Akihiro

    2017-03-01

    Herein we describe a case of microangiopathic antiphospholipid syndrome (MAPS) due to anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin complex (aPS/PT) IgM antibody successfully treated with rituximab. A significant correlation was observed between the clinical course and the aPS/PT IgM antibody titer, which can rise earlier before the appearance of clinical symptoms. Rituximab can be safely and effectively used for MAPS. Although detection of only aPS/PT IgM antibody is rare, aPS/PT IgM antibody might be associated with the pathogenesis of MAPS and might be a useful marker of disease activity. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  18. Construction of human antibody gene libraries and selection of antibodies by phage display.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, André; Kügler, Jonas; Wilke, Sonja; Schirrmann, Thomas; Hust, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Antibody phage display is the most commonly used in vitro selection technology and has yielded thousands of useful antibodies for research, diagnostics, and therapy.The prerequisite for successful generation and development of human recombinant antibodies using phage display is the construction of a high-quality antibody gene library. Here, we describe the methods for the construction of human immune and naive scFv gene libraries.The success also depends on the panning strategy for the selection of binders from these libraries. In this article, we describe a panning strategy that is high-throughput compatible and allows parallel selection in microtiter plates.

  19. [Antibody therapy for Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Tabira, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Shin-Ei; Jin, Haifeng

    2011-11-01

    In order to avoid Abeta-induced autoimmune encephalitis, several monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies are in clinical trials. These are bapineuzumab, solanezumab, ponezumab, gantenerumab, BAN2401, gammaguard and octagam. Since each antibody has a different antigen epitope of Abeta, anti-amyloid activities are different. It is unknown which antibody is effective for Alzheimer disease, and we must wait for the result of clinical trials. Some patients who developed tissue amyloid plaque immuno-reactive (TAPIR) antibody showed slower decline after AN-1792 vaccination. We developed TAPIR-like monoclonal antibody, which was found to react with Abeta oligomers preferentially.

  20. The indirect fluorescent antibody technique as a method for detecting antibodies in aborted fetuses.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, R B; Wilkie, B N

    1979-01-01

    In this investigation the indirect fluorescent antibody technique was used to titrate antibodies in bovine sera to parainfluenza 3, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus. These results were compared to those determined on the same samples by hemagglutination inhibition for parainfluenza 3 virus and serum neutralization for bovine virus diarrhea and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus. The results of the serological methods agreed closely. The indirect fluorescent antibody technique is a rapid and sensitive method for detecting antibodies and the procedure lends itself to use in diagnostic laboratories. In addition to the above viruses the presence or absence of antibodies to bovine coronavirus and bovine adenovirus 3 were determined by the indirect fluorescent antibody technique in thoracic fluids from 100 aborted fetuses and 50 nonaborted fetuses. Results on these samples were not compared to hemagglutination inhibition or serum neutralization as the condition of fluid samples from aborted fetuses renders interpretation of such tests unreliable. Antibodies to one or more viruses were detected in 30 of the 100 aborted fetuses and in seven of the 50 nonaborted fetuses. Antibodies to more than one agent were detected in eleven of the 100 aborted and in one of the 50 nonaborted fetuses. Reasons for this occurrence and application of the test in determination of causes of abortion are discussed. PMID:226243

  1. Multi-Donor Longitudinal Antibody Repertoire Sequencing Reveals the Existence of Public Antibody Clonotypes in HIV-1 Infection.

    PubMed

    Setliff, Ian; McDonnell, Wyatt J; Raju, Nagarajan; Bombardi, Robin G; Murji, Amyn A; Scheepers, Cathrine; Ziki, Rutendo; Mynhardt, Charissa; Shepherd, Bryan E; Mamchak, Alusha A; Garrett, Nigel; Karim, Salim Abdool; Mallal, Simon A; Crowe, James E; Morris, Lynn; Georgiev, Ivelin S

    2018-06-13

    Characterization of single antibody lineages within infected individuals has provided insights into the development of Env-specific antibodies. However, a systems-level understanding of the humoral response against HIV-1 is limited. Here, we interrogated the antibody repertoires of multiple HIV-infected donors from an infection-naive state through acute and chronic infection using next-generation sequencing. This analysis revealed the existence of "public" antibody clonotypes that were shared among multiple HIV-infected individuals. The HIV-1 reactivity for representative antibodies from an identified public clonotype shared by three donors was confirmed. Furthermore, a meta-analysis of publicly available antibody repertoire sequencing datasets revealed antibodies with high sequence identity to known HIV-reactive antibodies, even in repertoires that were reported to be HIV naive. The discovery of public antibody clonotypes in HIV-infected individuals represents an avenue of significant potential for better understanding antibody responses to HIV-1 infection, as well as for clonotype-specific vaccine development. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Future of antibody purification.

    PubMed

    Low, Duncan; O'Leary, Rhona; Pujar, Narahari S

    2007-03-15

    Antibody purification seems to be safely ensconced in a platform, now well-established by way of multiple commercialized antibody processes. However, natural evolution compels us to peer into the future. This is driven not only by a large, projected increase in the number of antibody therapies, but also by dramatic improvements in upstream productivity, and process economics. Although disruptive technologies have yet escaped downstream processes, evolution of the so-called platform is already evident in antibody processes in late-stage development. Here we perform a wide survey of technologies that are competing to be part of that platform, and provide our [inherently dangerous] assessment of those that have the most promise.

  3. Antibody engineering & therapeutics, the annual meeting of the antibody society December 7–10, 2015, San Diego, CA, USA

    PubMed Central

    Pauthner, Matthias; Yeung, Jenny; Ullman, Chris; Bakker, Joost; Wurch, Thierry; Reichert, Janice M.; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof; Bradbury, Andrew R.M.; Carter, Paul J.; Melis, Joost P.M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The 26th Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics meeting, the annual meeting of The Antibody Society united over 800 participants from all over the world in San Diego from 6–10 December 2015. The latest innovations and advances in antibody research and development were discussed, covering a myriad of antibody-related topics by more than 100 speakers, who were carefully selected by The Antibody Society. As a prelude, attendees could join the pre-conference training course focusing, among others, on the engineering and enhancement of antibodies and antibody-like scaffolds, bispecific antibody engineering and adaptation to generate chimeric antigen receptor constructs. The main event covered 4 d of scientific sessions that included antibody effector functions, reproducibility of research and diagnostic antibodies, new developments in antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), preclinical and clinical ADC data, new technologies and applications for bispecific antibodies, antibody therapeutics for non-cancer and orphan indications, antibodies to harness the cellular immune system, building comprehensive IgVH-gene repertoires through discovering, confirming and cataloging new germline IgVH genes, and overcoming resistance to clinical immunotherapy. The Antibody Society's special session focused on “Antibodies to watch” in 2016. Another special session put the spotlight on the limitations of the new definitions for the assignment of antibody international nonproprietary names introduced by the World Health Organization. The convention concluded with workshops on computational antibody design and on the promise and challenges of using next-generation sequencing for antibody discovery and engineering from synthetic and in vivo libraries. PMID:26909869

  4. Antibody production using a ciliate generates unusual antibody glycoforms displaying enhanced cell-killing activity

    PubMed Central

    Calow, Jenny; Bockau, Ulrike; Struwe, Weston B.; Nowaczyk, Marc M.; Loser, Karin; Crispin, Max

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antibody glycosylation is a key parameter in the optimization of antibody therapeutics. Here, we describe the production of the anti-cancer monoclonal antibody rituximab in the unicellular ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. The resulting antibody demonstrated enhanced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, which we attribute to unusual N-linked glycosylation. Detailed chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis revealed afucosylated, oligomannose-type glycans, which, as a whole, displayed isomeric structures that deviate from the typical human counterparts, but whose branches were equivalent to fragments of metabolic intermediates observed in human glycoproteins. From the analysis of deposited crystal structures, we predict that the ciliate glycans adopt protein-carbohydrate interactions with the Fc domain that closely mimic those of native complex-type glycans. In addition, terminal glucose structures were identified that match biosynthetic precursors of human glycosylation. Our results suggest that ciliate-based expression systems offer a route to large-scale production of monoclonal antibodies exhibiting glycosylation that imparts enhanced cell killing activity. PMID:27594301

  5. [Screening serum response special antibodies of U251 cell line from surface display phage antibody library].

    PubMed

    Yu, Min; Tan, De-Yong; Qian, Wei; Lai, Jian-Hua; Sun, Gui-Lin

    2004-05-01

    U251 cell is a sensitive cell line to serum, which stops at G0 phase of cell cycle in no-serum medium, and recovers growth when the serum is added into no-serum medium. The cell can express corresponding proteins in different phase of cell cycle. Therefore it is very signification for the study of cell cycle regulation mechanism that explores these proteins. In this paper, the mouse antibody phage display library was added into the bottle in which the serum starvation U251 cells had been cultured, and the special antibody phages were absorbed. Then the absorbed antibody phages were amplified by adding E. coli TG1 and helper phage M13K07. Amplified antibody phages were added into bottle in which the serum cultured cell after serum starvation (follow named as serum recovered cells) were incubated, so that the cell absorbed the no-special antibody phages for the serum starvation cell and the special antibody phages were in supernatant. The remaining no-special antibody phages in the supernatant were discarded by repeating above program 3-4 times. The pure special antibody phages were gotten, and amplified by adding the host cell E. coli TG1 and helper phage M13K07. Then the host bacterium infected special antibody phage was spread on the plate medium with ampicillin, and the monoclonal antibody phages were gotten. Using same as above program, the monoclonal antibody phages absorbed specially for serum recovered U251 cells were obtained when the serum recovered cells instead of serum starvation cells and serum starvation cells instead of serum recovered cells. In this study, ninety-six positive monoclonal antibody phages that absorbed specially the serum starvation cells and eighty-two positive monoclonal antibody phages that absorbed specially the serum recovered cells were obtained. By using cell immunochemistry assay, two special signification antibodies were obtained. one (No.11) was the strong response in serum starvation cells, the other (No.2) was the strong

  6. Antibody immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapy for influenza virus infection: Utilization of monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies?

    PubMed

    Berry, Cassandra M

    2018-03-04

    Control programs for emerging influenza are in urgent need of novel therapeutic strategies to mitigate potentially devastating threats from pathogenic strains with pandemic potential. Current vaccines and antivirals have inherent limitations in efficacy, especially with rapid evolutionary changes of influenza viruses. Antibody-based antiviral protection harnesses the natural power of the immune system. Antibodies present prophylactic and therapeutic intervention options for prevention and control of influenza, especially for at-risk populations. Specific monoclonal antibodies are well defined in purity and initial efficacy but polyclonal antibodies are easier to scale-up and cost-effective with long-term efficacy, using batches with broadly neutralizing properties against influenza variants. This review presents the pros and cons of monoclonal versus polyclonal antibody therapy for influenza.

  7. Removal of interfering nucleotides from brain extracts containing substance p. Effect of drugs on brain concentrations of substance p

    PubMed Central

    Laszlo, I.

    1963-01-01

    Several methods for removing interfering nucleotides, adenosine-5'-monophosphate and adenosine 5'-triphosphate from brain extracts have been studied. An enzymic method, using adenylic acid deaminase, has been found suitable. This deaminates adenosine monophosphate to 5'-inosinic acid, an inactive compound which does not influence the estimations of substance P. Owing to the adenosine triphosphatase content of the enzyme extract, adenosine triphosphate was also inactivated. For the estimation of adenosine monophosphate-deaminase activity, a simple colorimetric method is described which measures the ammonia liberated from adenosine monophosphate. Substance P in mouse brain extracts was estimated after treatment of the animals with various drugs, and after the enzymic removal of interfering nucleotides from the brain extracts. The drugs had no effect on the substance P content of mouse brain. The effect of drugs on the contractions of the guinea-pig ileum induced by substance P was also investigated, and the effect of drugs on the estimations of substance P in brain extracts is discussed. PMID:14066136

  8. [Preparation of anti-hCG single domain antibody by antibody grafting technique using an antigen-binding peptide].

    PubMed

    Peng, Jing; Wang, Qiong; Cheng, Xiaoling; Liu, Mengwen; Wang, Mei; Xin, Huawei

    2018-04-25

    We used the antibody grafting technology to prepare anti-hCG single-domain antibodies on the basis of antigen-binding peptide to simplify the single-domain antibody preparation process and improving the biochemical stability of peptide. By using a universal single-domain antibody backbone (cAbBCII10), CDR1 or CDR3 was replaced by the hCG-binding peptide, and the grafted antibody gene sequences were synthesized and cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET30a(+) in fusion with a C-terminal sfGFP gene, i.e. pET30a-(His6)-cAbBCII10-CDR1/hCGBP1-sfGFP and pET30a-(His6)-cAbBCII10-CDR3/hCGBP3-sfGFP. The recombinant plasmids were transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3), and the fusion proteins were induced by IPTG. Highly soluble recombinant fusion proteins were obtained and purified by Ni-NTA affinity column. SDS-PAGE confirmed the purified protein as the target protein. The antigen-antibody binding assay showed that both the CDR1 and CDR3 grafted antibodies have hCG-binding activities. While the titers of the two grafted antibodies were similar, the binding affinity of CDR3 grafted antibody was higher than that of CDR1 grafted protein (about 2-3 times). The grafted antibodies retained the relatively high biochemical stability of the single-domain antibody backbone and were relatively thermostable and alkaline tolerant. The obtained antibodies also had a relatively high antigen-binding specificity to hCG. This study provided a reliable experimental basis for further optimization of anti-hCG single domain antibody by antibody grafting technology using antigen-binding peptide.

  9. Quality of glucose measurement with blood glucose meters at the point-of-care: relevance of interfering factors.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Lutz

    2010-11-01

    A good understanding of the relevance of interfering factors having an impact on blood glucose (BG) measurement is needed to obtain the required quality. This depends on the application in which meters designed for self-monitoring of BG (SMBG) are used. By means of a literature search all publications (from January 1, 1980 to August 10, 2009) were identified that report about the influence of potentially interfering substances/factors on the measurement quality of BG meters. Certain substances (e.g., maltose) can have a profound and misleading impact on the BG measurement result when the enzymatic reaction embedded on the given test strips cross-reacts. Also, a number of other drugs (e.g., acetaminophen) and factors (like temperature and altitude) affect the reliability of BG measurement massively. However, the susceptibility of the BG meter (depending on the enzyme technology of the test strips) differs significantly. In daily practice the factors that have a relevant impact on the reliability of BG measurements with modern BG meters are rarely met. Clearly this also depends on the intended use (SMBG in patient hands vs. point-of-care testing in hospitals). To avoid misleading measurement results requires adequate training of all people involved.

  10. Similar Idiotypic Specificities in Immunoglobulin Fractions with Different Antibody Functions or Even without Detectable Antibody Function

    PubMed Central

    Oudin, J.; Cazenave, P. A.

    1971-01-01

    Idiotypy has been studied in antibodies against a protein antigen: hen ovalbumin. Various fractions of antisera to hen ovalbumin have been compared from the standpoint of the idiotypic specificities found on the immunoglobulins that they contain. Idiotypic specificities were found to be common to (a) antibodies that were not eluted from the same immunoadsorbent by the same MgCl2 concentration, but by four different concentrations. (b) Antibodies that were precipitable only by hen ovalbumin, only by hen and turkey ovalbumin, or also by duck ovalbumin. (c) Antibodies that were precipitated or not precipitated by the homologous ovalbumin, and proteins apparently devoid of antiovalbumin antibody function. These findings are discussed from the standpoint of (i) the differences in function between the various fractions with the same idiotypic specificities, and (ii) what may be common in the cellular origin of immunoglobulins with a common idiotypic specificity, and what may be different in immunoglobulins with different antibody functions or without antibody function. The same idiotypic specificities have been found in certain IgG and IgM antiovalbumin antibodies. Images PMID:4109410

  11. Natural Killer Cell Mediated Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity in Tumor Immunotherapy with Therapeutic Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Ursula J. E.; Schlegel, Patrick; Lang, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade several therapeutic antibodies have been Federal Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMEA) approved. Although their mechanisms of action in vivo is not fully elucidated, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) mediated by natural killer (NK) cells is presumed to be a key effector function. A substantial role of ADCC has been demonstrated in vitro and in mouse tumor models. However, a direct in vivo effect of ADCC in tumor reactivity in humans remains to be shown. Several studies revealed a predictive value of FcγRIIIa-V158F polymorphism in monoclonal antibody treatment, indicating a potential effect of ADCC on outcome for certain indications. Furthermore, the use of therapeutic antibodies after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an interesting option. Studying the role of the FcγRIIIa-V158F polymorphism and the influence of Killer-cell Immunoglobuline-like Receptor (KIR) receptor ligand incompatibility on ADCC in this approach may contribute to future transplantation strategies. Despite the success of approved second-generation antibodies in the treatment of several malignancies, efforts are made to further augment ADCC in vivo by antibody engineering. Here, we review currently used therapeutic antibodies for which ADCC has been suggested as effector function. PMID:23543707

  12. CRYSTALLINE PNEUMOCOCCUS ANTIBODY

    PubMed Central

    Northrop, John H.; Goebel, Walther F.

    1949-01-01

    1. The immune precipitate formed by antipneumococcus horse serum and the specific polysaccharide is not hydrolyzed by trypsin as is the diphtheria toxin-antitoxin complex, and purified pneumococcus antibody cannot be isolated by the method used for the isolation and crystallization of diphtheria antitoxin. 2. Type I pneumococcus antibody, completely precipitable by Type I polysaccharide, may be obtained from immune horse serum globulin by precipitation of the inert proteins with acid potassium phthalate. 3. The antibody obtained in this way may be fractionated by precipitation with ammonium sulfate into three main parts. One is insoluble in neutral salts but soluble from pH 4.5 to 3.0 and from pH 9.5 to 10.5. This is the largest fraction. A second fraction is soluble in 0.05 to 0.2 saturated ammonium sulfate and the third fraction is soluble in 0.2 saturated ammonium sulfate and precipitated by 0.35 saturated ammonium sulfate. The second fraction can be further separated by precipitation with 0.17 saturated ammonium sulfate to yield a small amount of protein which is soluble in 0.17 saturated ammonium sulfate but insoluble in 0.25 saturated ammonium sulfate. This fraction crystallizes in poorly formed, rounded rosettes. 4. The crystallization does not improve the purity of the antibody and is accompanied by the formation of an insoluble protein as in the case of diphtheria antitoxin. 5. None of the fractions obtained is even approximately homogeneous as determined by solubility measurements. 6. Purified antibody has also been obtained by dissociating the antigen-antibody complex. 7. The protective value of the fractions is quite different; that of the dissociated antibody being the highest and that of the insoluble fraction, the lowest. 8. All the fractions are immunologically specific since they do not precipitate with Type II polysaccharide nor protect against Type II pneumococci. 9. All the fractions give a positive precipitin reaction with antihorse rabbit

  13. Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies against Ricin’s Enzymatic Subunit Interfere with Protein Disulfide Isomerase-Mediated Reduction of Ricin Holotoxin In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    O’Hara, Joanne M.; Mantis, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    The penultimate event in the intoxication of mammalian cells by ricin toxin is the reduction, in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), of the intermolecular disulfide bond that links ricin’s enzymatic (RTA) and binding (RTB) subunits. In this report we adapted an in vitro protein disulfide isomerase (PDI)-mediated reduction assay to test the hypothesis that the RTA-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) IB2 interferes with the liberation of RTA from RTB. IB2 recognizes an epitope located near the interface between RTA and RTB and, like a number of other RTA-specific neutralizing mAbs, is proposed to neutralize ricin intracellularly. In this study, we found that IB2 virtually eliminated the reduction of ricin holotoxin into RTA and RTB in vitro. Surprisingly, three other neutralizing mAbs (GD12, R70 and SyH7) that bind epitopes at considerable distance from ricin’s disulfide bond were as effective (or nearly as effective) as IB2 in interfering with PDI-mediated liberation of RTA from RTB. By contrast, two non-neutralizing RTA-specific mAbs, FGA12 and SB1, did not affect PDI-mediated reduction of ricin. These data reveal a possible mechanism by which RTA-specific antibodies may neutralize ricin intracellularly, provided they are capable of trafficking in association with ricin from the cell surface to the ER. PMID:23774033

  14. Impact of Uniform Methods on Interlaboratory Antibody Titration Variability: Antibody Titration and Uniform Methods.

    PubMed

    Bachegowda, Lohith S; Cheng, Yan H; Long, Thomas; Shaz, Beth H

    2017-01-01

    -Substantial variability between different antibody titration methods prompted development and introduction of uniform methods in 2008. -To determine whether uniform methods consistently decrease interlaboratory variation in proficiency testing. -Proficiency testing data for antibody titration between 2009 and 2013 were obtained from the College of American Pathologists. Each laboratory was supplied plasma and red cells to determine anti-A and anti-D antibody titers by their standard method: gel or tube by uniform or other methods at different testing phases (immediate spin and/or room temperature [anti-A], and/or anti-human globulin [AHG: anti-A and anti-D]) with different additives. Interlaboratory variations were compared by analyzing the distribution of titer results by method and phase. -A median of 574 and 1100 responses were reported for anti-A and anti-D antibody titers, respectively, during a 5-year period. The 3 most frequent (median) methods performed for anti-A antibody were uniform tube room temperature (147.5; range, 119-159), uniform tube AHG (143.5; range, 134-150), and other tube AHG (97; range, 82-116); for anti-D antibody, the methods were other tube (451; range, 431-465), uniform tube (404; range, 382-462), and uniform gel (137; range, 121-153). Of the larger reported methods, uniform gel AHG phase for anti-A and anti-D antibodies had the most participants with the same result (mode). For anti-A antibody, 0 of 8 (uniform versus other tube room temperature) and 1 of 8 (uniform versus other tube AHG), and for anti-D antibody, 0 of 8 (uniform versus other tube) and 0 of 8 (uniform versus other gel) proficiency tests showed significant titer variability reduction. -Uniform methods harmonize laboratory techniques but rarely reduce interlaboratory titer variance in comparison with other methods.

  15. A novel antibody engineering strategy for making monovalent bispecific heterodimeric IgG antibodies by electrostatic steering mechanism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Leng, Esther C; Gunasekaran, Kannan; Pentony, Martin; Shen, Min; Howard, Monique; Stoops, Janelle; Manchulenko, Kathy; Razinkov, Vladimir; Liu, Hua; Fanslow, William; Hu, Zhonghua; Sun, Nancy; Hasegawa, Haruki; Clark, Rutilio; Foltz, Ian N; Yan, Wei

    2015-03-20

    Producing pure and well behaved bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) on a large scale for preclinical and clinical testing is a challenging task. Here, we describe a new strategy for making monovalent bispecific heterodimeric IgG antibodies in mammalian cells. We applied an electrostatic steering mechanism to engineer antibody light chain-heavy chain (LC-HC) interface residues in such a way that each LC strongly favors its cognate HC when two different HCs and two different LCs are co-expressed in the same cell to assemble a functional bispecific antibody. We produced heterodimeric IgGs from transiently and stably transfected mammalian cells. The engineered heterodimeric IgG molecules maintain the overall IgG structure with correct LC-HC pairings, bind to two different antigens with comparable affinity when compared with their parental antibodies, and retain the functionality of parental antibodies in biological assays. In addition, the bispecific heterodimeric IgG derived from anti-HER2 and anti-EGF receptor (EGFR) antibody was shown to induce a higher level of receptor internalization than the combination of two parental antibodies. Mouse xenograft BxPC-3, Panc-1, and Calu-3 human tumor models showed that the heterodimeric IgGs strongly inhibited tumor growth. The described approach can be used to generate tools from two pre-existent antibodies and explore the potential of bispecific antibodies. The asymmetrically engineered Fc variants for antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity enhancement could be embedded in monovalent bispecific heterodimeric IgG to make best-in-class therapeutic antibodies. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Anti-DNA antibodies--quintessential biomarkers of SLE.

    PubMed

    Pisetsky, David S

    2016-02-01

    Antibodies that recognize and bind to DNA (anti-DNA antibodies) are serological hallmarks of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and key markers for diagnosis and disease activity. In addition to common use in the clinic, anti-DNA antibody testing now also determines eligibility for clinical trials, raising important questions about the nature of the antibody-antigen interaction. At present, no 'gold standard' for serological assessment exists, and anti-DNA antibody binding can be measured with a variety of assay formats, which differ in the nature of the DNA substrates and in the conditions for binding and detection of antibodies. A mechanism called monogamous bivalency--in which high avidity results from simultaneous interaction of IgG Fab sites with a single polynucleotide chain--determines anti-DNA antibody binding; this mechanism might affect antibody detection in different assay formats. Although anti-DNA antibodies can promote pathogenesis by depositing in the kidney or driving cytokine production, they are not all alike, pathologically, and anti-DNA antibody expression does not necessarily correlate with active disease. Levels of anti-DNA antibodies in patients with SLE can vary over time, distinguishing anti-DNA antibodies from other pathogenic antinuclear antibodies. Elucidation of the binding specificities and the pathogenic roles of anti-DNA antibodies in SLE should enable improvements in the design of informative assays for both clinical and research purposes.

  17. Methods of identification employing antibody profiles

    DOEpatents

    Francoeur, Ann-Michele

    1993-12-14

    An identification method, applicable to the identification of animals or inanimate objects, is described. The method takes advantage of the set of individual-specific antibodies that are part of the unique antibody repertoire present in animals, by reacting an effective amount of such antibodies with a particular panel, of n-dimensional array (where n is typically one or two) consisting of an effective amount of many different antigens (typically greater than one thousand), to give antibody-antigen complexes. The profile or pattern formed by the antigen-antibody complexes, termed an antibody fingerprint, when revealed by an effective amount of an appropriate detector molecule, is uniquely representative of a particular individual. The method can similarly be used to distinguish genetically, or otherwise similar individuals, or their body parts containing individual-specific antibodies.

  18. CiteAb: a searchable antibody database that ranks antibodies by the number of times they have been cited

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Research antibodies are used by thousands of scientists working in diverse disciplines, but it is common to hear concerns about antibody quality. This means that researchers need to carefully choose the antibodies they use to avoid wasting time and money. A well accepted way of selecting a research antibody is to identify one which has been used previously, where the associated data has been peer-reviewed and the results published. Description CiteAb is a searchable database which ranks antibodies by the number of times they have been cited. This allows researchers to easily find antibodies that have been used in peer-reviewed publications and the accompanying citations are listed, so users can check the data contained within the publications. This makes CiteAb a useful resource for identifying antibodies for experiments and also for finding information to demonstrate antibody validation. The database currently contains 1,400,000 antibodies which are from 90 suppliers, including 87 commercial companies and 3 academic resources. Associated with these antibodies are 140,000 publications which provide 306,000 antibody citations. In addition to searching, users can also browse through the antibodies and add their own publications to the CiteAb database. Conclusions CiteAb provides a new way for researchers to find research antibodies that have been used successfully in peer-reviewed publications. It aims to assist these researchers and will hopefully help promote progress in many areas of life science research. PMID:24528853

  19. Antibody Engineering for Pursuing a Healthier Future

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Abdullah F. U. H.; Wang, Rongzhi; Ling, Sumei; Wang, Shihua

    2017-01-01

    Since the development of antibody-production techniques, a number of immunoglobulins have been developed on a large scale using conventional methods. Hybridoma technology opened a new horizon in the production of antibodies against target antigens of infectious pathogens, malignant diseases including autoimmune disorders, and numerous potent toxins. However, these clinical humanized or chimeric murine antibodies have several limitations and complexities. Therefore, to overcome these difficulties, recent advances in genetic engineering techniques and phage display technique have allowed the production of highly specific recombinant antibodies. These engineered antibodies have been constructed in the hunt for novel therapeutic drugs equipped with enhanced immunoprotective abilities, such as engaging immune effector functions, effective development of fusion proteins, efficient tumor and tissue penetration, and high-affinity antibodies directed against conserved targets. Advanced antibody engineering techniques have extensive applications in the fields of immunology, biotechnology, diagnostics, and therapeutic medicines. However, there is limited knowledge regarding dynamic antibody development approaches. Therefore, this review extends beyond our understanding of conventional polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Furthermore, recent advances in antibody engineering techniques together with antibody fragments, display technologies, immunomodulation, and broad applications of antibodies are discussed to enhance innovative antibody production in pursuit of a healthier future for humans. PMID:28400756

  20. Panel reactive antibody positivity and associated HLA antibodies in Turkish renal transplant candidates.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Fatma Nurhan; Sezer, Siren; Akcay, Ali; Arat, Zubeyde; Turan, Munire; Gulmus, Sale; Kulah, Eyup; Haberal, Mehmet

    2004-01-01

    Pre- and post-renal transplantation panel reactive antibody (PRA) screening is associated with increased incidence of hyperacute or acute graft rejection and graft loss. This study was designed to find any relationship PRA sensitization and associated human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-specific antibodies in Turkish renal transplant candidates. We included 340 patients who were in the renal transplantation waiting list in the study. We determined PRA sensitization ratio and the associated anti-HLA IgG antibody distribution of the patient group. The PRA testing was currently performed and levels above 30% were accepted to be positive. The PRA class I positivity was determined in 24 (7%) and class II in 34 (10%) of the patients. The most frequent HLA antibodies for class I were B56, A2, A34, A1, A23, A24 and B61; and for class II were DR11, DR14, DQ7, DR10, DQ5, DR1 and DR7, respectively. From these, the increase of the numbers of anti-HLA class II antibodies was significantly correlated with the increase of PRA sensitization ratio. In conclusion, the identification of the associated HLA-specific antibodies and correlation with the Turkish population HLA antigen distribution will identify the high-risk patients who are candidates for transplantation.

  1. Application of cyclodextrins in antibody microparticles: potentials for antibody protection in spray drying.

    PubMed

    Ramezani, Vahid; Vatanara, Alireza; Seyedabadi, Mohammad; Nabi Meibodi, Mohsen; Fanaei, Hamed

    2017-07-01

    Dry powder formulations are extensively used to improve the stability of antibodies. Spray drying is one of important methods for protein drying. This study investigated the effects of trehalose, hydroxypropyl beta cyclodextrin (HPBCD) and beta cyclodextrin (BCD) on the stability and particle properties of spray-dried IgG. D-optimal design was employed for both experimental design and analysis and optimization of the variables. The size and aerodynamic behavior of particles were determined using laser light scattering and glass twin impinger, respectively. In addition, stability, ratio of beta sheets and morphology of antibody were analyzed using size exclusion chromatography, IR spectroscopy and electron microscopy, respectively. Particle properties and antibody stability were significantly improved in the presence of HPBCD. In addition, particle aerodynamic behavior, in terms of fine-particle fraction (FPF), enhanced up to 52.23%. Furthermore, antibody was better preserved not only during spray drying, but also during long-term storage. In contrast, application of BCD resulted in the formation of larger particles. Although trehalose caused inappropriate aerodynamic property, it efficiently decreased antibody aggregation. HPBCD is an efficient excipient for the development of inhalable protein formulations. In this regard, optimal particle property and antibody stability was obtained with proper combination of cyclodextrins and simple sugars, such as trehalose.

  2. Crystal Structure of HIV-1 Primary Receptor CD4 i Complex with a Potent Antiviral Antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, M.M.; Hong, X.; Seaman, M.S.

    2010-06-18

    Ibalizumab is a humanized, anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody. It potently blocks HIV-1 infection and targets an epitope in the second domain of CD4 without interfering with immune functions mediated by interaction of CD4 with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. We report here the crystal structure of ibalizumab Fab fragment in complex with the first two domains (D1-D2) of CD4 at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution. Ibalizumab grips CD4 primarily by the BC-loop (residues 121125) of D2, sitting on the opposite side of gp120 and MHC-II binding sites. No major conformational change in CD4 accompanies binding to ibalizumab. Both monovalent and bivalentmore » forms of ibalizumab effectively block viral infection, suggesting that it does not need to crosslink CD4 to exert antiviral activity. While gp120-induced structural rearrangements in CD4 are probably minimal, CD4 structural rigidity is dispensable for ibalizumab inhibition. These results could guide CD4-based immunogen design and lead to a better understanding of HIV-1 entry.« less

  3. Detection of anti-lactoferrin antibodies and anti-myeloperoxidase antibodies in autoimmune hepatitis: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Liming; Zhang, Yuhong; Peng, Weihua; Chen, Juanjuan; Li, Hua; Ming, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Anti-lactoferrin antibodies (ALA) and anti-myeloperoxidase antibodies (AMPA) are specific serological markers for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). The project aimed to detect ALA and AMPA and explore their clinical significances in AIH patients. 59 AIH patients, 217 non AIH patients, and 50 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. ALA and AMPA were detected by ELISA. Antineutropil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and anti-smooth muscle antibodies (ASMA) were examined by indirect immunofluorescence. Antimitochondrial antibody M2 subtype (AMA-M2), anti-liver kidney microsomal antibody Type 1 (LKM1), anti-liver cytosol antibody Type 1 (LC1), and anti-soluble liver antigen/liver-pancreas antibodies (SLA/LP) were tested by immunoblot. The positivity for ALA was 18.6% in AIH group, only one patient in non-AIH group was positive for ALA; the positivity for AMPA was 59.3% in AIH group, with significant differences (P < 0.01) compared with other groups. The specificities for ALA and AMPA were 99.63% and 97.75%; the sensitivities were 18.64% and 59.32%; and the accuracy rates were 84.97% and 90.80%, respectively. A certain correlation was observed between ALA and SLA/LP, AMPA and ANCA, ASMA in AIH group. ALA and AMPA were associated with AIH, and had high clinical diagnostic value. Co-detection with other relative autoantibodies could play an important role in differential diagnosis of AIH.

  4. Development and validation of receptor occupancy pharmacodynamic assays used in the clinical development of the monoclonal antibody vedolizumab.

    PubMed

    Wyant, Tim; Estevam, Jose; Yang, Lili; Rosario, Maria

    2016-03-01

    Vedolizumab is a monoclonal antibody approved for use in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. By specifically binding to α4 β7 integrin, vedolizumab prevents trafficking of lymphocytes to the gut, thereby interfering with disease pathology. During the clinical development program, the pharmacodynamic effect of vedolizumab was evaluated by 2 flow cytometry receptor occupancy assays: act-1 (ACT-1) and mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1). Here we describe the development and validation of these assays. The ACT-1 assay is a receptor occupancy free-site assay that uses a monoclonal antibody with the same binding epitope as vedolizumab to detect free (unbound) sites on α4 β7 integrin. The MAdCAM-1 assay used a soluble version of the natural ligand for α4 β7 integrin to detect free sites. The assays were validated using a fit-for-purpose approach throughout the clinical development of vedolizumab. Both the ACT-1 assay and the MAdCAM-1 assay demonstrated acceptable reproducibility and repeatability. The assays were sufficiently stable to allow for clinical use. During clinical testing the assays demonstrated that vedolizumab was able to saturate peripheral cells at all doses tested. Two pharmacodynamic receptor occupancy assays were developed and validated to assess the effect of vedolizumab on peripheral blood cells. The results of these assays demonstrated the practical use of flow cytometry to examine pharmacodynamic response in clinical trials. © 2015 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  5. Construction of Rabbit Immune Antibody Libraries.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Thu Ha; Lee, Jong Seo; Shim, Hyunbo

    2018-01-01

    Rabbits have distinct advantages over mice as a source of target-specific antibodies. They produce higher affinity antibodies than mice, and may elicit strong immune response against antigens or epitopes that are poorly immunogenic or tolerated in mice. However, a great majority of currently available monoclonal antibodies are of murine origin because of the wider availability of murine fusion partner cell lines and well-established tools and protocols for fusion and cloning of mouse hybridoma. Phage-display selection of antibody libraries is an alternative method to hybridoma technology for the generation of target-specific monoclonal antibodies. High-affinity monoclonal antibodies from nonmurine species can readily be obtained by constructing immune antibody libraries from B cells of the immunized animal and screening the library by phage display. In this article, we describe the construction of a rabbit immune Fab library for the facile isolation of rabbit monoclonal antibodies. After immunization, B-cell cDNA is obtained from the spleen of the animal, from which antibody variable domain repertoires are amplified and assembled into a Fab repertoire by PCR. The Fab genes are then cloned into a phagemid vector and transformed to E. coli, from which a phage-displayed immune Fab library is rescued. Such a library can be biopanned against the immunization antigen for rapid identification of high-affinity, target-specific rabbit monoclonal antibodies.

  6. Antibody distance from the cell membrane regulates antibody effector mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Cleary, Kirstie L.S.; Chan, H.T. Claude; James, Sonja; Glennie, Martin J.; Cragg, Mark S.

    2017-01-01

    Immunotherapy using monoclonal antibodies (mAb) such as rituximab is an established means of treating haematological malignancies. Antibodies can elicit a number of mechanisms to delete target cells, including complement dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP). The inherent properties of the target molecule help define which of these mechanisms are more important for efficacy. However, why mAb binding to different epitopes within the same target elicits different levels of therapeutic activity, is often unclear. To specifically address whether distance from the target cell membrane influences the aforementioned effector mechanisms, a panel of fusion proteins consisting of a CD20 or CD52 epitope attached to various CD137 scaffold molecules were generated. The CD137 scaffold was modified through the removal or addition of cysteine-rich extracellular domains, to produce a panel of chimeric molecules which held the target epitope at different distances along the protein. It was shown that CDC and ADCC favoured a membrane proximal epitope, whilst ADCP favoured an epitope positioned further away. These findings were then confirmed using reagents targeting the membrane proximal or distal domains of CD137 itself before investigating these properties in vivo where a clear difference in the splenic clearance of transfected tumour cells was observed. Together, this work demonstrates how altering the position of the antibody epitope is able to change the effector mechanisms engaged and facilitates the selection of mAbs designed to delete target cells through specific effector mechanisms and provide more effective therapeutic agents. PMID:28404636

  7. Neuronal uptake of anti-Hu antibody, but not anti-Ri antibody, leads to cell death in brain slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, John E; Clawson, Susan A; Hill, Kenneth E; Wood, Blair; Clardy, Stacey L; Tsunoda, Ikuo; Jaskowski, Troy D; Carlson, Noel G

    2014-09-17

    Anti-Hu and anti-Ri antibodies are paraneoplastic immunoglobulin (Ig)G autoantibodies which recognize cytoplasmic and nuclear antigens present in all neurons. Although both antibodies produce similar immunohistological labeling, they recognize different neuronal proteins. Both antibodies are associated with syndromes of central nervous system dysfunction. However, the neurological deficits associated with anti-Hu antibody are associated with neuronal death and are usually irreversible, whereas neurological deficits in patients with anti-Ri antibody may diminish following tumor removal or immunosuppression. To study the effect of anti-Hu and anti-Ri antibodies on neurons, we incubated rat hippocampal and cerebellar slice cultures with anti-Hu or anti-Ri sera from multiple patients. Cultures were evaluated in real time for neuronal antibody uptake and during prolonged incubation for neuronal death. To test the specificity of anti-Hu antibody cytotoxic effect, anti-Hu serum IgG was incubated with rat brain slice cultures prior to and after adsorption with its target Hu antigen, HuD. We demonstrated that: 1) both anti-Hu and anti-Ri antibodies were rapidly taken up by neurons throughout both cerebellum and hippocampus; 2) antibody uptake occurred in living neurons and was not an artifact of antibody diffusion into dead cells; 3) intracellular binding of anti-Hu antibody produced neuronal cell death, whereas uptake of anti-Ri antibody did not affect cell viability during the period of study; and 4) adsorption of anti-Hu antisera against HuD greatly reduced intraneuronal IgG accumulation and abolished cytotoxicity, confirming specificity of antibody-mediated neuronal death. Both anti-Hu and anti-Ri antibodies were readily taken up by viable neurons in slice cultures, but the two antibodies differed markedly in terms of their effects on neuronal viability. The ability of anti-Hu antibodies to cause neuronal death could account for the irreversible nature of paraneoplastic

  8. [A New Simple Technique for Producing Labeled Monoclonal Antibodies for Antibody Pair Screening in Sandwich-ELISA].

    PubMed

    Zaripov, M M; Afanasieva, G V; Glukhova, X A; Trizna, Y A; Glukhov, A S; Beletsky, I P; Prusakova, O V

    2015-01-01

    A simple and fast method for obtaining biotin-labeled monoclonal antibodies was developed usingcontent of hybridoma culture supernatant sufficient to select antibody pairs in sandwich ELISA. The method consists in chemical biotinylation of antigen-bound antibodies in a well of ELISA plate. Using as an example target Vaccinia virus A27L protein it was shown that the yield of biotinylated reactant is enough to set comprehensive sandwich ELISA for a moderate size panel of up to 25 monoclonal antibodies with an aim to determine candidate pairs. The technique is a cheap and effective solution since it avoids obtaining preparative amounts of antibodies.

  9. DARPA Antibody Technology Program. Standardized Test Bed for Antibody Characterization: Characterization of an MS2 ScFv Antibody Produced by Illumina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    platforms. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Antibody Antibody Technology Program (ATP) Quality Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA ) Biosurveillance Single-chain...2.6 Thermal Stress Test............................................................................................4 2.7 ELISA ...3.5 ELISA Results .................................................................................................11 3.6 SPR Results

  10. RosettaAntibodyDesign (RAbD): A general framework for computational antibody design.

    PubMed

    Adolf-Bryfogle, Jared; Kalyuzhniy, Oleks; Kubitz, Michael; Weitzner, Brian D; Hu, Xiaozhen; Adachi, Yumiko; Schief, William R; Dunbrack, Roland L

    2018-04-01

    A structural-bioinformatics-based computational methodology and framework have been developed for the design of antibodies to targets of interest. RosettaAntibodyDesign (RAbD) samples the diverse sequence, structure, and binding space of an antibody to an antigen in highly customizable protocols for the design of antibodies in a broad range of applications. The program samples antibody sequences and structures by grafting structures from a widely accepted set of the canonical clusters of CDRs (North et al., J. Mol. Biol., 406:228-256, 2011). It then performs sequence design according to amino acid sequence profiles of each cluster, and samples CDR backbones using a flexible-backbone design protocol incorporating cluster-based CDR constraints. Starting from an existing experimental or computationally modeled antigen-antibody structure, RAbD can be used to redesign a single CDR or multiple CDRs with loops of different length, conformation, and sequence. We rigorously benchmarked RAbD on a set of 60 diverse antibody-antigen complexes, using two design strategies-optimizing total Rosetta energy and optimizing interface energy alone. We utilized two novel metrics for measuring success in computational protein design. The design risk ratio (DRR) is equal to the frequency of recovery of native CDR lengths and clusters divided by the frequency of sampling of those features during the Monte Carlo design procedure. Ratios greater than 1.0 indicate that the design process is picking out the native more frequently than expected from their sampled rate. We achieved DRRs for the non-H3 CDRs of between 2.4 and 4.0. The antigen risk ratio (ARR) is the ratio of frequencies of the native amino acid types, CDR lengths, and clusters in the output decoys for simulations performed in the presence and absence of the antigen. For CDRs, we achieved cluster ARRs as high as 2.5 for L1 and 1.5 for H2. For sequence design simulations without CDR grafting, the overall recovery for the native

  11. Recombinant antibodies and their use in biosensors.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiangqun; Shen, Zhihong; Mernaugh, Ray

    2012-04-01

    Inexpensive, noninvasive immunoassays can be used to quickly detect disease in humans. Immunoassay sensitivity and specificity are decidedly dependent upon high-affinity, antigen-specific antibodies. Antibodies are produced biologically. As such, antibody quality and suitability for use in immunoassays cannot be readily determined or controlled by human intervention. However, the process through which high-quality antibodies can be obtained has been shortened and streamlined by use of genetic engineering and recombinant antibody techniques. Antibodies that traditionally take several months or more to produce when animals are used can now be developed in a few weeks as recombinant antibodies produced in bacteria, yeast, or other cell types. Typically most immunoassays use two or more antibodies or antibody fragments to detect antigens that are indicators of disease. However, a label-free biosensor, for example, a quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) needs one antibody only. As such, the cost and time needed to design and develop an immunoassay can be substantially reduced if recombinant antibodies and biosensors are used rather than traditional antibody and assay (e.g. enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay, ELISA) methods. Unlike traditional antibodies, recombinant antibodies can be genetically engineered to self-assemble on biosensor surfaces, at high density, and correctly oriented to enhance antigen-binding activity and to increase assay sensitivity, specificity, and stability. Additionally, biosensor surface chemistry and physical and electronic properties can be modified to further increase immunoassay performance above and beyond that obtained by use of traditional methods. This review describes some of the techniques investigators have used to develop highly specific and sensitive, recombinant antibody-based biosensors for detection of antigens in simple or complex biological samples.

  12. Modification of Antibody Function by Mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Dasch, James R; Dasch, Amy L

    2017-09-01

    The ability to "fine-tune" recombinant antibodies by mutagenesis separates recombinant antibodies from hybridoma-derived antibodies because the latter are locked with respect to their properties. Recombinant antibodies can be modified to suit the application: Changes in isotype, format (e.g., scFv, Fab, bispecific antibodies), and specificity can be made once the heavy- and light-chain sequences are available. After immunoglobulin heavy and light chains for a particular antibody have been cloned, the binding site-namely, the complementarity determining regions (CDR)-can be manipulated by mutagenesis to obtain antibody variants with improved properties. The method described here is relatively simple, uses commercially available reagents, and is effective. Using the pComb3H vector, a commercial mutagenesis kit, PfuTurbo polymerase (Agilent), and two mutagenic primers, a library of phage with mutagenized heavy and light CDR3 can be obtained. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  13. Antiparietal cell antibody test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gastric ulcer - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Pernicious anemia - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Vitamin B12 - anti- ... may use this test to help diagnose pernicious anemia. Pernicious anemia is a decrease in red blood ...

  14. Tetanus Neurotoxin Neutralizing Antibodies Screened from a Human Immune scFv Antibody Phage Display Library.

    PubMed

    Wang, Han; Yu, Rui; Fang, Ting; Yu, Ting; Chi, Xiangyang; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Liu, Shuling; Fu, Ling; Yu, Changming; Chen, Wei

    2016-09-11

    Tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) produced by Clostridium tetani is one of the most poisonous protein substances. Neutralizing antibodies against TeNT can effectively prevent and cure toxicosis. Using purified Hc fragments of TeNT (TeNT-Hc) as an antigen, three specific neutralizing antibody clones recognizing different epitopes were selected from a human immune scFv antibody phage display library. The three antibodies (2-7G, 2-2D, and S-4-7H) can effectively inhibit the binding between TeNT-Hc and differentiated PC-12 cells in vitro. Moreover, 2-7G inhibited TeNT-Hc binding to the receptor via carbohydrate-binding sites of the W pocket while 2-2D and S-4-7H inhibited binding of the R pocket. Although no single mAb completely protected mice from the toxin, they could both prolong survival when challenged with 20 LD50s (50% of the lethal dose) of TeNT. When used together, the mAbs completely neutralized 1000 LD50s/mg Ab, indicating their high neutralizing potency in vivo. Antibodies recognizing different carbohydrate-binding pockets could have higher synergistic toxin neutralization activities than those that recognize the same pockets. These results could lead to further production of neutralizing antibody drugs against TeNT and indicate that using TeNT-Hc as an antigen for screening human antibodies for TeNT intoxication therapy from human immune antibody library was convenient and effective.

  15. Interfering RNA with multi-targets for efficient gene suppression in HCC cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Tiejun; Zhu, York Yuanyuan; Ji, Yi; Zhou, Songfeng

    2018-06-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) technology has been widely used in therapeutics development, especially multiple targeted RNAi strategy, which is a better method for multiple gene suppression. In the study, interfering RNAs (iRNAs) were designed for carrying two or three different siRNA sequences in different secondary structure formats (loop or cloverleaf). By using these types of iRNAs, co-inhibition of survivin and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) was investigated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, and we obtained promising gene silencing effects without showing undesirable interferon response. Furthermore, suppression effects on proliferation, invasion, and induced apoptosis in HCC cells were validated. The results suggest that long iRNAs with secondary structure may be a preferred strategy for multigenic disease therapy, especially for cancer and viral gene therapy and their iRNA drug development.

  16. Dengue-Immune Humans Have Higher Levels of Complement-Independent Enhancing Antibody than Complement-Dependent Neutralizing Antibody.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Atsushi; Konishi, Eiji

    2017-09-25

    Dengue is the most important arboviral disease worldwide. We previously reported that most inhabitants of dengue-endemic countries who are naturally immune to the disease have infection-enhancing antibodies whose in vitro activity does not decrease in the presence of complement (complement-independent enhancing antibodies, or CiEAb). Here, we compared levels of CiEAb and complement-dependent neutralizing antibodies (CdNAb) in dengue-immune humans. A typical antibody dose-response pattern obtained in our assay system to measure the balance between neutralizing and enhancing antibodies showed both neutralizing and enhancing activities depending on serum dilution factor. The addition of complement to the assay system increased the activity of neutralizing antibodies at lower dilutions, indicating the presence of CdNAb. In contrast, similar dose-response curves were obtained with and without complement at higher dilutions, indicating higher levels of CiEAb than CdNAb. For experimental support for the higher CiEAb levels, a cocktail of mouse monoclonal antibodies against dengue virus type 1 was prepared. The antibody dose-response curves obtained in this assay, with or without complement, were similar to those obtained with human serum samples when a high proportion of D1-V-3H12 (an antibody exhibiting only enhancing activity and thus a model for CiEAb) was used in the cocktail. This study revealed higher-level induction of CiEAb than CdNAb in humans naturally infected with dengue viruses.

  17. Human anti-CD30 recombinant antibodies by guided phage antibody selection using cell panning

    PubMed Central

    Klimka, A; Matthey, B; Roovers, R C; Barth, S; Arends, J-W; Engert, A; Hoogenboom, H R

    2000-01-01

    In various clinical studies, Hodgkin’s patients have been treated with anti-CD30 immunotherapeutic agents and have shown promising responses. One of the problems that appeared from these studies is the development of an immune response against the non-human therapeutics, which limits repeated administration and reduces efficacy. We have set out to make a recombinant, human anti-CD30 single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody, which may serve as a targeting moiety with reduced immunogenicity and more rapid tumour penetration in similar clinical applications. Rather than selecting a naive phage antibody library on recombinant CD30 antigen, we used guided selection of a murine antibody in combination with panning on the CD30-positive cell line L540. The murine monoclonal antibody Ki-4 was chosen as starting antibody, because it inhibits the shedding of the extracellular part of the CD30 antigen. This makes the antibody better suited for CD30-targeting than most other anti-CD30 antibodies. We have previously isolated the murine Ki-4 scFv by selecting a mini-library of hybridoma-derived phage scFv-antibodies via panning on L540 cells. Here, we report that phage display technology was successfully used to obtain a human Ki-4 scFv version by guided selection. The murine variable heavy (VH) and light (VL) chain genes of the Ki-4 scFv were sequentially replaced by human V gene repertoires, while retaining only the major determinant for epitope-specificity: the heavy-chain complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) of murine Ki-4. After two rounds of chain shuffling and selection by panning on L540 cells, a fully human anti-CD30 scFv was selected. It competes with the parental monoclonal antibody Ki-4 for binding to CD30, inhibits the shedding of the extracellular part of the CD30 receptor from L540 cells and is thus a promising candidate for the generation of anti-CD30 immunotherapeutics. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10901379

  18. Antibodies to watch in 2014.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Janice M

    2014-01-01

    Since 2010, mAbs has documented the biopharmaceutical industry's progress in transitioning antibody therapeutics to first Phase 3 clinical studies and regulatory review, and its success at gaining first marketing approvals for antibody-based products. This installment of the "Antibodies to watch" series outlines events anticipated to occur between December 2013 and the end of 2014, including first regulatory actions on marketing applications for vedolizumab, siltuximab, and ramucirumab, as well as the Fc fusion proteins Factor IX-Fc and Factor VIII-Fc; and the submission of first marketing applications for up to five therapeutics (secukinumab, ch14.18, onartuzumab, necitumumab, gevokizumab). Antibody therapeutics in Phase 3 studies are described, with an emphasis on those with study completion dates in 2014, including antibodies targeting interleukin-17a or the interleukin-17a receptor (secukinumab, ixekizumab, brodalumab), proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (alirocumab, evolocumab, bococizumab), and programmed death 1 receptor (lambrolizumab, nivolumab). Five antibodies with US Food and Drug Administration's Breakthrough Therapy designation (obinutuzumab, ofatumumab, lambrolizumab, bimagrumab, daratumumab) are also discussed.

  19. Antibodies to watch in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Janice M

    2014-01-01

    Since 2010, mAbs has documented the biopharmaceutical industry’s progress in transitioning antibody therapeutics to first Phase 3 clinical studies and regulatory review, and its success at gaining first marketing approvals for antibody-based products. This installment of the “Antibodies to watch” series outlines events anticipated to occur between December 2013 and the end of 2014, including first regulatory actions on marketing applications for vedolizumab, siltuximab, and ramucirumab, as well as the Fc fusion proteins Factor IX-Fc and Factor VIII-Fc; and the submission of first marketing applications for up to five therapeutics (secukinumab, ch14.18, onartuzumab, necitumumab, gevokizumab). Antibody therapeutics in Phase 3 studies are described, with an emphasis on those with study completion dates in 2014, including antibodies targeting interleukin-17a or the interleukin-17a receptor (secukinumab, ixekizumab, brodalumab), proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (alirocumab, evolocumab, bococizumab), and programmed death 1 receptor (lambrolizumab, nivolumab). Five antibodies with US Food and Drug Administration’s Breakthrough Therapy designation (obinutuzumab, ofatumumab, lambrolizumab, bimagrumab, daratumumab) are also discussed. PMID:24284914

  20. Avian Diagnostic and Therapeutic Antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, David Sherman

    2012-12-31

    A number of infectious agents have the potential of causing significant clinical symptomology and even death, but dispite this, the number of incidence remain below the level that supports producing a vaccine. Therapeutic antibodies provide a viable treatment option for many of these diseases. We proposed that antibodies derived from West Nile Virus (WNV) immunized geese would be able to treat WNV infection in mammals and potential humans. We demonstrated that WNV specific goose antibodies are indeed successful in treating WNV infection both prophylactically and therapeutically in a golden hamster model. We demonstrated that the goose derived antibodies are non-reactogenic,more » i.e. do not cause an inflammatory response with multiple exposures in mammals. We also developed both a specific pathogen free facility to house the geese during the antibody production phase and a patent-pending purification process to purify the antibodies to greater than 99% purity. Therefore, the success of these study will allow a cost effective rapidly producible therapeutic toward clinical testing with the necessary infrastructure and processes developed and in place.« less

  1. Pathogenesis and mechanisms of antibody-mediated hemolysis

    PubMed Central

    Flegel, Willy A

    2015-01-01

    Background The clinical consequences of antibodies to red blood cells (RBC) have been studied for a century. Most clinically relevant antibodies can be detected by sensitive in vitro assays. Several mechanisms of antibody-mediated hemolysis are well understood. Such hemolysis following transfusion is reliably avoided in a donor/recipient pair, if one individual is negative for the cognate antigen to which the other has the antibody. Study design and results Mechanisms of antibody-mediated hemolysis were reviewed based on a presentation at the Strategies to Address Hemolytic Complications of Immune Globulin Infusions Workshop addressing intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and ABO antibodies. The presented topics included the rates of intravascular and extravascular hemolysis; IgM and IgG isoagglutinins; auto- and alloantibodies; antibody specificity; A, B, A,B and A1 antigens; A1 versus A2 phenotypes; monocytes/macrophages, other immune cells and complement; monocyte monolayer assay (MMA); antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC); and transfusion reactions due to ABO and other antibodies. Conclusion Several clinically relevant questions remained unresolved, and diagnostic tools were lacking to routinely and reliably predict the clinical consequences of RBC antibodies. Most hemolytic transfusion reactions associated with IVIG were due to ABO antibodies. Reducing the titers of such antibodies in IVIG may lower the frequency of this kind of adverse event. The only way to stop these events is to have no anti-A or anti-B antibodies in the IVIG products. PMID:26174897

  2. Uses of monoclonal antibody 8H9

    DOEpatents

    Cheung, Nai-Kong V.

    2013-04-09

    This invention provides a composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a suitable carrier. This invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. This invention also provides an antibody other than the monoclonal antibody 8H9 comprising the complementary determining regions of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof, capable of binding to the same antigen as the monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention provides a substance capable of competitively inhibiting the binding of monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention also provides an isolated scFv of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof. This invention also provides the 8H9 antigen. This invention also provides different uses of the monoclonal antibody 8H9 or its derivative.

  3. Uses of monoclonal antibody 8H9

    DOEpatents

    Cheung, Nai-Kong V.

    2010-06-22

    This invention provides a composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a suitable carrier. This invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. This invention also provides an antibody other than the monoclonal antibody 8H9 comprising the complementary determining regions of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof, capable of binding to the same antigen as the monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention provides a substance capable of competitively inhibiting the binding of monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention also provides an isolated scFv of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof. This invention also provides the 8H9 antigen. This invention also provides different uses of the monoclonal antibody 8H9 or its derivative.

  4. Quantitative assessment of antibody internalization with novel monoclonal antibodies against Alexa fluorophores.

    PubMed

    Liao-Chan, Sindy; Daine-Matsuoka, Barbara; Heald, Nathan; Wong, Tiffany; Lin, Tracey; Cai, Allen G; Lai, Michelle; D'Alessio, Joseph A; Theunissen, Jan-Willem

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies against cell surface antigens may be internalized through their specific interactions with these proteins and in some cases may induce or perturb antigen internalization. The anti-cancer efficacy of antibody-drug conjugates is thought to rely on their uptake by cancer cells expressing the surface antigen. Numerous techniques, including microscopy and flow cytometry, have been used to identify antibodies with desired cellular uptake rates. To enable quantitative measurements of internalization of labeled antibodies, an assay based on internalized and quenched fluorescence was developed. For this approach, we generated novel anti-Alexa Fluor monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that effectively and specifically quench cell surface-bound Alexa Fluor 488 or Alexa Fluor 594 fluorescence. Utilizing Alexa Fluor-labeled mAbs against the EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase, we showed that the anti-Alexa Fluor reagents could be used to monitor internalization quantitatively over time. The anti-Alexa Fluor mAbs were also validated in a proof of concept dual-label internalization assay with simultaneous exposure of cells to two different mAbs. Importantly, the unique anti-Alexa Fluor mAbs described here may also enable other single- and dual-label experiments, including label detection and signal enhancement in macromolecules, trafficking of proteins and microorganisms, and cell migration and morphology.

  5. Functional Nanostructures for Effective Delivery of Small Interfering RNA Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Cheol Am; Nam, Yoon Sung

    2014-01-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) has proved to be a powerful tool for target-specific gene silencing via RNA interference (RNAi). Its ability to control targeted gene expression gives new hope to gene therapy as a treatment for cancers and genetic diseases. However, siRNA shows poor pharmacological properties, such as low serum stability, off-targeting, and innate immune responses, which present a significant challenge for clinical applications. In addition, siRNA cannot cross the cell membrane for RNAi activity because of its anionic property and stiff structure. Therefore, the development of a safe, stable, and efficient system for the delivery of siRNA therapeutics into the cytoplasm of targeted cells is crucial. Several nanoparticle platforms for siRNA delivery have been developed to overcome the major hurdles facing the therapeutic uses of siRNA. This review covers a broad spectrum of non-viral siRNA delivery systems developed for enhanced cellular uptake and targeted gene silencing in vitro and in vivo and discusses their characteristics and opportunities for clinical applications of therapeutic siRNA. PMID:25285170

  6. Short interfering RNA confers intracellular antiviral immunity in human cells.

    PubMed

    Gitlin, Leonid; Karelsky, Sveta; Andino, Raul

    2002-07-25

    Gene silencing mediated by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is a sequence-specific, highly conserved mechanism in eukaryotes. In plants, it serves as an antiviral defence mechanism. Animal cells also possess this machinery but its specific function is unclear. Here we demonstrate that dsRNA can effectively protect human cells against infection by a rapidly replicating and highly cytolytic RNA virus. Pre-treatment of human and mouse cells with double-stranded, short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to the poliovirus genome markedly reduces the titre of virus progeny and promotes clearance of the virus from most of the infected cells. The antiviral effect is sequence-specific and is not attributable to either classical antisense mechanisms or to interferon and the interferon response effectors protein kinase R (PKR) and RNaseL. Protection is the result of direct targeting of the viral genome by siRNA, as sequence analysis of escape virus (resistant to siRNAs) reveals one nucleotide substitution in the middle of the targeted sequence. Thus, siRNAs elicit specific intracellular antiviral resistance that may provide a therapeutic strategy against human viruses.

  7. A mathematical solution for the parameters of three interfering resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, X.; Shen, C. P.

    2018-04-01

    The multiple-solution problem in determining the parameters of three interfering resonances from a fit to an experimentally measured distribution is considered from a mathematical viewpoint. It is shown that there are four numerical solutions for a fit with three coherent Breit-Wigner functions. Although explicit analytical formulae cannot be derived in this case, we provide some constraint equations between the four solutions. For the cases of nonrelativistic and relativistic Breit-Wigner forms of amplitude functions, a numerical method is provided to derive the other solutions from that already obtained, based on the obtained constraint equations. In real experimental measurements with more complicated amplitude forms similar to Breit-Wigner functions, the same method can be deduced and performed to get numerical solutions. The good agreement between the solutions found using this mathematical method and those directly from the fit verifies the correctness of the constraint equations and mathematical methodology used. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (11575017, 11761141009), the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2015CB856701) and the CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP)

  8. Sign phase transition in the problem of interfering directed paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, C. L.; Laumann, C. R.; Spivak, B.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of interfering directed paths in disordered media. At long distance, the average sign of the sum over paths may tend to zero (sign disordered) or remain finite (sign ordered) depending on dimensionality and the concentration of negative scattering sites x . We show that in two dimensions the sign-ordered phase is unstable even for arbitrarily small x by identifying rare destabilizing events. In three dimensions, we present strong evidence that there is a sign phase transition at a finite xc>0 . These results have consequences for several different physical systems. In two-dimensional insulators at low temperature, the variable-range-hopping magnetoresistance is always negative, while in three dimensions, it changes sign at the point of the sign phase transition. We also show that in the sign-disordered regime a small magnetic field may enhance superconductivity in a random system of D -wave superconducting grains embedded in a metallic matrix. Finally, the existence of the sign phase transition in three dimensions implies new features in the spin-glass phase diagram at high temperature.

  9. Limited value of testing for intrinsic factor antibodies with negative gastric parietal cell antibodies in pernicious anaemia.

    PubMed

    Khan, S; Del-Duca, C; Fenton, E; Holding, S; Hirst, J; Doré, P C; Sewell, W A C

    2009-05-01

    The appropriate testing strategy for diagnosing pernicious anaemia using gastric parietal cell (GPC) and/or intrinsic factor antibodies (IFA) is controversial. Intrinsic factor antibodies are found in only about 70% of cases. Indirect immunofluorescence screening for gastric parietal cell antibodies is more sensitive, labour intensive, and less specific. The frequency of antibody positivity (IFA and/or GPC) was retrospectively examined in patients tested for both autoantibodies over a three-year period. It was investigated whether B12 levels were related to antibody status. These findings were validated in a prospective study of IFA in 91 GPC negative patients with low B12 levels. Of 847 samples identified in the retrospective study, 4 (0.47%) were positive for only intrinsic factor antibodies, 731 (86.3%) positive for GPC alone, and 112 (13.2%) for both. Student t test on log-transformed data showed B12 levels had no bearing on autoantibody status. 91 consecutive patients with low B12 levels were tested for both autoantibodies; all were negative for gastric parietal cell antibodies. Only one sample was positive for intrinsic factor antibody using the porcine intrinsic factor assay, but was negative by a human recombinant intrinsic factor-based ELISA. This study provides evidence that testing for gastric parietal cell antibodies is an appropriate screening test for pernicious anaemia, with intrinsic factor antibodies reserved for confirmatory testing or in patients with other autoantibodies that mask the GPC pattern; B12 levels are not related to autoantibody status.

  10. Antibodies directed against receptor tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    FAUVEL, Bénédicte; Yasri, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 30 therapeutic monoclonal antibodies have already been approved for cancers and inflammatory diseases, and monoclonal antibodies continue to be one of the fastest growing classes of therapeutic molecules. Because aberrant signaling by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) is a commonly observed factor in cancer, most of the subclasses of RTKs are being extensively studied as potential targets for treating malignancies. The first two RTKs that have been targeted by antibody therapy, with five currently marketed antibodies, are the growth factor receptors EGFR and HER2. However, due to systemic side effects, refractory patients and the development of drug resistance, these treatments are being challenged by emerging therapeutics. This review examines current monoclonal antibody therapies against RTKs. After an analysis of agents that have already been approved, we present an analysis of antibodies in clinical development that target RTKs. Finally, we highlight promising RTKs that are emerging as new oncological targets for antibody-based therapy. PMID:24859229

  11. Human antibodies to bovine alpha-globulin.

    PubMed

    Foucard, T; Bennich, H; Johansson, S G; Lundkvist, U

    1975-01-01

    Antibodies to bovine gamma-globulin (anti-BGG antibodies) were detectable by a radio-immunoassay in 70% of healthy blood donors but, generally, the titres were low. Significantly increased concentrations of anti-BGG antibodies were found in patients lacking IgA but not in patients with allergic disorders. The anti-BGG antibodies were shown to give rise to falsely high IgE values in the radio-immunosorbent test for IgE determination (RIST) when a sheep anti-IgE antiserum was used. Furthermore, falsely positive results can sometimes be caused by such antibodies in the determination of cow-dander- or cow's-milk-specific IgE by the radio-allergosorbent test (RAST). When a rabbit anti-IgE antiserum was used instead of the sheep anti-IgE, normal IgE levels and negative RAST results were obtained. The difference is explained by the higher degree of cross-reactivity between the anti-BGG antibodies and sheep alpha-globulin than between anti-BGG antibodies and rabbit alpha-globulin.

  12. A Quantitative Method for Comparing the Brightness of Antibody-dye Reagents and Estimating Antibodies Bound per Cell.

    PubMed

    Kantor, Aaron B; Moore, Wayne A; Meehan, Stephen; Parks, David R

    2016-07-01

    We present a quantitative method for comparing the brightness of antibody-dye reagents and estimating antibodies bound per cell. The method is based on complementary binding of test and fill reagents to antibody capture microspheres. Several aliquots of antibody capture beads are stained with varying amounts of the test conjugate. The remaining binding sites on the beads are then filled with a second conjugate containing a different fluorophore. Finally, the fluorescence of the test conjugate compared to the fill conjugate is used to measure the relative brightness of the test conjugate. The fundamental assumption of the test-fill method is that if it takes X molecules of one test antibody to lower the fill signal by Y units, it will take the same X molecules of any other test antibody to give the same effect. We apply a quadratic fit to evaluate the test-fill signal relationship across different amounts of test reagent. If the fit is close to linear, we consider the test reagent to be suitable for quantitative evaluation of antibody binding. To calibrate the antibodies bound per bead, a PE conjugate with 1 PE molecule per antibody is used as a test reagent and the fluorescence scale is calibrated with Quantibrite PE beads. When the fluorescence per antibody molecule has been determined for a particular conjugate, that conjugate can be used for measurement of antibodies bound per cell. This provides comparisons of the brightness of different conjugates when conducted on an instrument whose statistical photoelectron (Spe) scales are known. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. [Neuroimmunological diseases associated with VGKC complex antibodies].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Osamu

    2013-05-01

    Antibodies to voltage-gated potassium channels(VGKC) were first identified by radioimmunoassay of radioisotope labeled alpha-dendrotoxin-VGKCs solubilized from rabbit brain. These antibodies were found only in a proportion of patients with acquired neuromyotonia (Isaacs' syndrome). VGKC antibodies were also detected in Morvan's syndrome and in a form of autoimmune limbic encephalitis. Recent studies indicated that the "VGKC" antibodies are mainly directed toward associated proteins(for example LGI-1, Caspr-2) that complex with the VGKCs themselves. The "VGKC" antibodies are now usually known as VGKC-complex antibodies. In general, LGI-1 antibodies are most common in limbic encephalitis with SIADH. Caspr-2 antibodies are present in the majority of patients with Morvan's syndrome. These patients develop combinations of CNS symptoms, autonomic dysfunction, and peripheral nerve hyperexcitability.

  14. Uses of monoclonal antibody 8H9

    DOEpatents

    Cheung, Nai-Kong V

    2013-08-06

    This invention provides a composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a suitable carrier. This invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. This invention also provides an antibody other than the monoclonal antibody 8H9 comprising the complementary determining regions of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof, capable of binding to the same antigen as the monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention provides a substance capable of competitively inhibiting the binding of monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention also provides an isolated scFv of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof. This invention also provides the 8H9 antigen. This invention also provides a method of inhibiting the growth of tumor cells comprising contacting said tumor cells with an appropriate amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof.

  15. Uses of monoclonal antibody 8H9

    DOEpatents

    Cheung, Nai-Kong V.

    2010-06-15

    This invention provides a composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a suitable carrier. This invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. This invention also provides an antibody other than the monoclonal antibody 8H9 comprising the complementary determining regions of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof, capable of binding to the same antigen as the monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention provides a substance capable of competitively inhibiting the binding of monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention also provides an isolated scFv of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof. This invention also provides the 8H9 antigen. This invention also provides a method of inhibiting the growth of tumor cells comprising contacting said tumor cells with an appropriate amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof.

  16. HETEROGENETIC ANTIBODIES IN ACUTE HEPATITIS

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Monroe D.; Murphy, William D.; Hanford, V. Lee

    1944-01-01

    A heterogenetic antibody showing fixation of complement with human liver and agglutination of sheep erythrocytes was found in certain cases of acute infective hepatitis. The antigen concerned in these reactions was apparently heat stable and alcohol soluble. Differences from other heterogenetic antigen-antibody systems have been noted. The possible relation of the heterogenetic antibody to liver damage was considered. PMID:19871386

  17. Blood Group Antibodies in Obstetrics

    PubMed Central

    Neurath, Doris; Nimrod, Carl

    1991-01-01

    A retrospective survey of the frequency, nature, and effect of blood group antibodies on obstetrical outcome was conducted over 4 years in a large community hospital. A total of 189 antibodies were identified in 165 patients. Twenty clinically significant outcomes occurred, including three stillbirths. All clinically significant cases of hemolytic disease of the newborn were caused by Rh antibodies. PMID:21229104

  18. Identification of anti-CD98 antibody mimotopes for inducing antibodies with antitumor activity by mimotope immunization.

    PubMed

    Saito, Misa; Kondo, Masahiro; Ohshima, Motohiro; Deguchi, Kazuki; Hayashi, Hideki; Inoue, Kazuyuki; Tsuji, Daiki; Masuko, Takashi; Itoh, Kunihiko

    2014-04-01

    A mimotope is an antibody-epitope-mimicking peptide retrieved from a phage display random peptide library. Immunization with antitumor antibody-derived mimotopes is promising for inducing antitumor immunity in hosts. In this study, we isolated linear and constrained mimotopes from HBJ127, a tumor-suppressing anti-CD98 heavy chain mAb, and determined their abilities for induction of antitumor activity equal to that of the parent antibody. We detected elevated levels of antipeptide responses, but failed to detect reactivity against native CD98-expressing HeLa cells in sera of immunized mice. Phage display panning and selection of mimotope-immunized mouse spleen-derived antibody Fab library showed that HeLa cell-reactive Fabs were successfully retrieved from the library. This finding indicates that native antigen-reactive Fab clones represented an undetectable minor population in mimotope-induced antibody repertoire. Functional and structural analysis of retrieved Fab clones revealed that they were almost identical to the parent antibody. From these results, we confirmed that mimotope immunization was promising for retrieving antitumor antibodies equivalent to the parent antibody, although the co-administration of adjuvant compounds such as T-cell epitope peptides and Toll-like receptor 4 agonist peptides is likely to be necessary for inducing stronger antitumor immunity than mimotope injection alone. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  19. Antibodies Targeting EMT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    of breast cancer does not have specific antibody drugs like Herceptin, and there is considerable need for targeted therapeutics and diagnostic...epithelial to mesenchymal transition” or EMT. This process is important in several cancers , but is particularly associated with “triple-negative” breast ...pathways in cancer cells and make a major impact on breast cancer . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Monoclonal Antibody, Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition

  20. Antibodies against viruses: passive and active immunization

    PubMed Central

    Law, Mansun; Hangartner, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Summary of recent advances Antibodies, through passive or active immunization, play a central role in prophylaxis against many infectious agents. While neutralization is a primary function of antibodies in protection against most viruses, the relative contribution of Fc-dependent and complement-dependent antiviral activities of antibodies was found to vary between different viruses in recent studies. The multiple hit model explains how antibodies neutralize viruses and recent data on the stoichiometry of antibody neutralization suggest that the organization of viral surface proteins on viruses, in addition to virus size, influences the level of antibody occupancy required for neutralization. These new findings will improve our strategies in therapeutic antibody engineering and rational vaccine design. PMID:18577455

  1. Comparison of Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity and Virus Neutralization by HIV-1 Env-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    von Bredow, Benjamin; Arias, Juan F.; Heyer, Lisa N.; Moldt, Brian; Le, Khoa; Robinson, James E.; Burton, Dennis R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein have been studied extensively for their ability to block viral infectivity, little data are currently available on nonneutralizing functions of these antibodies, such as their ability to eliminate virus-infected cells by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). HIV-1 Env-specific antibodies of diverse specificities, including potent broadly neutralizing and nonneutralizing antibodies, were therefore tested for ADCC against cells infected with a lab-adapted HIV-1 isolate (HIV-1NL4-3), a primary HIV-1 isolate (HIV-1JR-FL), and a simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) adapted for pathogenic infection of rhesus macaques (SHIVAD8-EO). In accordance with the sensitivity of these viruses to neutralization, HIV-1NL4-3-infected cells were considerably more sensitive to ADCC, both in terms of the number of antibodies and magnitude of responses, than cells infected with HIV-1JR-FL or SHIVAD8-EO. ADCC activity generally correlated with antibody binding to Env on the surfaces of virus-infected cells and with viral neutralization; however, neutralization was not always predictive of ADCC, as instances of ADCC in the absence of detectable neutralization, and vice versa, were observed. These results reveal incomplete overlap in the specificities of antibodies that mediate these antiviral activities and provide insights into the relationship between ADCC and neutralization important for the development of antibody-based vaccines and therapies for combating HIV-1 infection. IMPORTANCE This study provides fundamental insights into the relationship between antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and virus neutralization that may help to guide the development of antibody-based vaccines and immunotherapies for the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection. PMID:27122574

  2. Comparison of Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity and Virus Neutralization by HIV-1 Env-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    von Bredow, Benjamin; Arias, Juan F; Heyer, Lisa N; Moldt, Brian; Le, Khoa; Robinson, James E; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Burton, Dennis R; Evans, David T

    2016-07-01

    Although antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein have been studied extensively for their ability to block viral infectivity, little data are currently available on nonneutralizing functions of these antibodies, such as their ability to eliminate virus-infected cells by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). HIV-1 Env-specific antibodies of diverse specificities, including potent broadly neutralizing and nonneutralizing antibodies, were therefore tested for ADCC against cells infected with a lab-adapted HIV-1 isolate (HIV-1NL4-3), a primary HIV-1 isolate (HIV-1JR-FL), and a simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) adapted for pathogenic infection of rhesus macaques (SHIVAD8-EO). In accordance with the sensitivity of these viruses to neutralization, HIV-1NL4-3-infected cells were considerably more sensitive to ADCC, both in terms of the number of antibodies and magnitude of responses, than cells infected with HIV-1JR-FL or SHIVAD8-EO ADCC activity generally correlated with antibody binding to Env on the surfaces of virus-infected cells and with viral neutralization; however, neutralization was not always predictive of ADCC, as instances of ADCC in the absence of detectable neutralization, and vice versa, were observed. These results reveal incomplete overlap in the specificities of antibodies that mediate these antiviral activities and provide insights into the relationship between ADCC and neutralization important for the development of antibody-based vaccines and therapies for combating HIV-1 infection. This study provides fundamental insights into the relationship between antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and virus neutralization that may help to guide the development of antibody-based vaccines and immunotherapies for the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Spectroscopic quantification of extremely rare molecular species in the presence of interfering optical absorption

    DOEpatents

    Ognibene, Ted; Bench, Graham; McCartt, Alan Daniel; Turteltaub, Kenneth; Rella, Chris W.; Tan, Sze; Hoffnagle, John A.; Crosson, Eric

    2017-05-09

    Optical spectrometer apparatus, systems, and methods for analysis of carbon-14 including a resonant optical cavity configured to accept a sample gas including carbon-14, an optical source configured to deliver optical radiation to the resonant optical cavity, an optical detector configured to detect optical radiation emitted from the resonant cavity and to provide a detector signal; and a processor configured to compute a carbon-14 concentration from the detector signal, wherein computing the carbon-14 concentration from the detector signal includes fitting a spectroscopic model to a measured spectrogram, wherein the spectroscopic model accounts for contributions from one or more interfering species that spectroscopically interfere with carbon-14.

  4. Comparisons of the effect of naturally acquired maternal pertussis antibodies and antenatal vaccination induced maternal tetanus antibodies on infant's antibody secreting lymphocyte responses and circulating plasma antibody levels

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Shaikh Meshbahuddin; Alam, Md. Jahangir; Afsar, Md. Nure Alam; Huda, M. Nazmul; Kabir, Yearul; Qadri, Firdausi; Raqib, Rubhana; Stephensen, Charles B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The goal of this study was to explore the effects of trans-placental tetanus toxoid (TT) and pertussis (PT) antibodies on an infant's response to vaccination in the context of antenatal immunization with tetanus but not with pertussis. 38 mothers received a single dose of TT vaccine during pregnancy. Infants received tetanus and pertussis vaccines at 6, 10 and 14 wk of age. TT and PT anti-IgG secretion by infant lymphocytes was measured at 15 wk. Plasma antibodies were measured at 6 wk (pre-vaccination), 15 wk and 1 y of age. Prior to vaccination, TT and PT antibody were detected in 94.6% and 15.2% of infants. At 15 wk anti-TT-IgG and anti-PT-IgG in plasma was increased by 7–9 fold over pre-vaccination levels, while at 1 y plasma anti-TT-IgG was decreased by approximately 5-fold from the peak and had returned to near the pre-vaccination level. At 1 y plasma anti-PT-IgG was decreased by 2-fold 1 yfrom the 15 wk level. However, 89.5% and 82.3% of infants at 1 y had protective levels of anti-TT and anti-PT IgG, respectively. Pre-vaccination plasma IgG levels were associated with lower vaccine-specific IgG secretion by infant lymphocytes at 15 wk (p < 0.10). This apparent inhibition was seen for anti-TT-IgG at both 15 wk (p < 0.05) and t 1 y (p < 0.10) of age. In summary, we report an apparent inhibitory effect of passively derived maternal antibody on an infants' own antibody response to the same vaccine. However, since the cut-off values for protective titers are low, infants had protective antibody levels throughout infancy. PMID:27176823

  5. Direct Ca2+-dependent Heterophilic Interaction between Desmosomal Cadherins, Desmoglein and Desmocollin, Contributes to Cell–Cell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Chitaev, Nikolai A.; Troyanovsky, Sergey M.

    1997-01-01

    Human fibrosarcoma cells, HT-1080, feature extensive adherens junctions, lack mature desmosomes, and express a single known desmosomal protein, Desmoglein 2 (Dsg2). Transfection of these cells with bovine Desmocollin 1a (Dsc1a) caused dramatic changes in the subcellular distribution of endogenous Dsg2. Both cadherins clustered in the areas of the adherens junctions, whereas only a minor portion of Dsg2 was seen in these areas in the parental cells. Deletion mapping showed that intact extracellular cadherin-like repeats of Dsc1a (Arg1-Thr170) are required for the translocation of Dsg2. Deletion of the intracellular C-domain that mediates the interaction of Dsc1a with plakoglobin, or the CSI region that is involved in the binding to desmoplakin, had no effect. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments of cell lysates stably expressing Dsc1a with anti-Dsc or -Dsg antibodies demonstrate that the desmosomal cadherins, Dsg2 and Dsc1a, are involved in a direct Ca2+-dependent interaction. This conclusion was further supported by the results of solid phase binding experiments. These showed that the Dsc1a fragment containing cadherin-like repeats 1 and 2 binds directly to the extracellular portion of Dsg in a Ca2+-dependent manner. The contribution of the Dsg/ Dsc interaction to cell–cell adhesion was tested by coculturing HT-1080 cells expressing Dsc1a with HT-1080 cells lacking Dsc but expressing myc-tagged plakoglobin (MPg). In the latter cells, MPg and the endogenous Dsg form stable complexes. The observed specific coimmunoprecipitation of MPg by anti-Dsc antibodies in coculture indicates that an intercellular interaction between Dsc1 and Dsg is involved in cell–cell adhesion. PMID:9214392

  6. Monoclonal antibodies with group specificity toward sulfonamides: Selection of hapten and antibody selectivity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although many antibodies to sulfonamides have been generated, immunoassays based on the current available antibodies for large multi-sulfonamide screening programs have properties dependent on the immunizing hapten structure and have always suffered from high selectivity for individual sulfonamides....

  7. Monoclonal antibody against Porphyromonas (Bacteroides) endodontalis lipopolysaccharide and application of the antibody for direct identification of the species.

    PubMed

    Hanazawa, S; Sagiya, T; Kitami, H; Ohta, K; Nishikawa, H; Kitano, S

    1991-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a monoclonal antibody that recognizes the shared antigen of Porphyromonas endodontalis so that we could use the antibody in direct identification and detection of P. endodontalis in infectious material from apical periodontal patients. We established a hybridoma cell line producing monoclonal antibody (BEB5) specific for P. endodontalis. BEB5 antibody reacted with all of the P. endodontalis strains tested, but not with any of the other black-pigmented Porphyromonas and Bacteroides spp. The antibody reacted specifically with the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of three P. endodontalis strains of different serotypes (O1K1, O1K2, and O1K-). Western blotting (immunoblotting) analysis confirmed the specificity of the antibody to these LPSs, because the antibody recognized the typical "repetitive ladder" pattern characteristic of LPS on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoretic gels. These observations demonstrate that P. endodontalis LPS is the shared antigen of this species. The antibody can specifically identify P. endodontalis on nitrocellulose membrane blots of bacterial colonies grown on agar. The antibody is also capable of directly detecting the presence of P. endodontalis in infectious material by immunoslot blot assay. These results indicate that LPS is the shared antigen of P. endodontalis and that BEB5 antibody against LPS is a useful one for direct identification and detection of the organisms in samples from apical periodontal patients.

  8. [Biotechnological advances in monoclonal antibody therapy: the RANK ligand inhibitor antibody].

    PubMed

    Kiss, Emese; Kuluncsics, Zénó; Kiss, Zoltán; Poór, Gyula

    2010-12-26

    Biological drugs have been used since the middle of the last century in medicine. Nowadays we are witnesses of the intensive development and wider administration of these drugs in clinical practice. Around 250 biological drugs are available and more than 350 million patients have been treated since their marketed authorization. Among the biologics there are protein based macromolecules, which mass production can be performed with the help of biotechnology. This term referring to the use of living organisms for production of molecules, was introduced by the Hungarian engineer, Károly Ereky. The present review focuses on the research, production and development of monoclonal antibodies manufactured by biotechnology. Some steps of this development have changed our immunological knowledge and the outcome of several diseases. The development of antibodies was highly recognized by two Nobel prizes. Authors detail the structure and functions of immunoglobulins, and their development, including fully human monoclonal antibodies. The RANKL inhibitor denosumab, a fully human IgG2 monoclonal antibody belongs to this latter group and it is available for treatment of osteoporosis. Authors also summarize the basic process of bone metabolism and the benefits of RANK ligand inhibition.

  9. Anti‑livin antibodies in Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Baumann-Antczak, Aleksandra; Kosowicz, Jerzy; Zamysłowska, Hanna; Ruchała, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Livin belongs to the family of apoptosis inhibitors. High livin expression is observed in malignancies of the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, breast, and kidneys, but it is not present in differentiated adult tissues. In some malignant processes, anti‑livin antibodies are present. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of anti‑livin antibodies in Hashimoto thyroiditis, a disease characterized by rapid and widespread thyrocyte apoptosis. The study comprised 65 women with Hashimoto thyroiditis and the control group of 40 healthy women. In the majority of the patients, clinical manifestations of hypothyroidism were observed; all patients had high levels of serum antithyroid peroxidase antibodies. A solid‑phase radioimmunoassay in livin‑coated polyethylene tubes using 125I-labeled protein A was used to determine anti-livin antibodies. Significant amounts of anti-livin antibodies were reported in 18 patients (26.8%); 3 patients (4.6%) had borderline antibody levels; while in controls only 1 patient was positive (2.5%, P <0.0001). In Hashimoto thyroiditis, an autoimmune process is more general and involves numerous autoantibodies including an antibody against apoptosis inhibitor - livin. Anti‑livin antibodies cannot serve only as a marker of malignancy because they are also present in autoimmune processes.

  10. A database analysis method identifies an endogenous trans-acting short-interfering RNA that targets the Arabidopsis ARF2, ARF3, and ARF4 genes

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Leor; Carles, Cristel C.; Osmont, Karen S.; Fletcher, Jennifer C.

    2005-01-01

    Two classes of small RNAs, microRNAs and short-interfering RNA (siRNAs), have been extensively studied in plants and animals. In Arabidopsis, the capacity to uncover previously uncharacterized small RNAs by means of conventional strategies seems to be reaching its limits. To discover new plant small RNAs, we developed a protocol to mine an Arabidopsis nonannotated, noncoding EST database. Using this approach, we identified an endogenous small RNA, trans-acting short-interfering RNA–auxin response factor (tasiR-ARF), that shares a 21- and 22-nt region of sequence similarity with members of the ARF gene family. tasiR-ARF has characteristics of both short-interfering RNA and microRNA, recently defined as tasiRNA. Accumulation of trans-acting siRNA depends on DICER-LIKE1 and RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE6 but not RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE2. We demonstrate that tasiR-ARF targets three ARF genes, ARF2, ARF3/ETT, and ARF4, and that both the tasiR-ARF precursor and its target genes are evolutionarily conserved. The identification of tasiRNA-ARF as a low-abundance, previously uncharacterized small RNA species proves our method to be a useful tool to uncover additional small regulatory RNAs. PMID:15980147

  11. Coming-of-Age of Antibodies in Cancer Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Ayyar, B Vijayalakshmi; Arora, Sushrut; O'Kennedy, Richard

    2016-12-01

    Antibody-based therapies have garnered considerable success in recent years. This is due to the availability of strategies to successfully engineer antibodies into humanized forms, better understanding of the biological processes involved in cancer development, the availability of novel recombinant antibody formats, better antibody selection platforms, and improved antibody conjugation methodologies. Such achievements have led to an explosion in the generation of antibodies and antibody-associated constructs for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. In this review, we critically assess recent trends in the development and applications of bispecific antibodies (bsAbs), antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) as cancer therapeutics. We also highlight recent US FDA approvals and clinical trials of antibody-based cancer therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors determining antibody distribution in tumors.

    PubMed

    Thurber, Greg M; Schmidt, Michael M; Wittrup, K Dane

    2008-02-01

    The development of antibody therapies for cancer is increasing rapidly, primarily owing to their specificity. Antibody distribution in tumors is often extremely uneven, however, leading to some malignant cells being exposed to saturating concentrations of antibody, whereas others are completely untargeted. This is detrimental because large regions of cells escape therapy, whereas other regions might be exposed to suboptimal concentrations that promote a selection of resistant mutants. The distribution of antibody depends on a variety of factors, including dose, affinity, antigens per cell and molecular size. Because these parameters are often known or easily estimated, a quick calculation based on simple modeling considerations can predict the uniformity of targeting within a tumor. Such analyses should enable experimental researchers to identify in a straightforward way the limitations in achieving evenly distributed antibody, and design and test improved antibody therapeutics more rationally.

  13. Factors determining antibody distribution in tumors

    PubMed Central

    Thurber, Greg M.; Schmidt, Michael M.; Wittrup, K. Dane

    2009-01-01

    The development of antibody therapies for cancer is increasing rapidly, primarily owing to their specificity. Antibody distribution in tumors is often extremely uneven, however, leading to some malignant cells being exposed to saturating concentrations of antibody, whereas others are completely untargeted. This is detrimental because large regions of cells escape therapy, whereas other regions might be exposed to suboptimal concentrations that promote a selection of resistant mutants. The distribution of antibody depends on a variety of factors, including dose, affinity, antigens per cell and molecular size. Because these parameters are often known or easily estimated, a quick calculation based on simple modeling considerations can predict the uniformity of targeting within a tumor. Such analyses should enable experimental researchers to identify in a straightforward way the limitations in achieving evenly distributed antibody, and design and test improved antibody therapeutics more rationally. PMID:18179828

  14. Uses of monoclonal antibody 8H9

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, Nai-Kong V.

    This invention provides a composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a suitable carrier. This invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. This invention also provides an antibody other than the monoclonal antibody 8H9 comprising the complementary determining regions of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof, capable of binding to the same antigen as the monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention provides a substance capable of competitively inhibiting the binding of monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention also providesmore » an isolated scFv of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof. This invention also provides the 8H9 antigen. This invention also provides a method of inhibiting the growth of tumor cells comprising contacting said tumor cells with an appropriate amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof.« less

  15. Presence of anti-phosphatidylserine-prothrombin complex antibodies and anti-moesin antibodies in patients with polyarteritis nodosa.

    PubMed

    Okano, Tatsuro; Takeuchi, Sora; Soma, Yoshinao; Suzuki, Koya; Tsukita, Sachiko; Ishizu, Akihiro; Suzuki, Kazuo; Kawakami, Tamihiro

    2017-01-01

    We measured both serum anti-phosphatidylserine-prothrombin complex (anti-PSPT) antibodies and anti-moesin antibodies, as well as various cytokines (interleukin [IL]-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, γ-interferon, tumor necrosis factor-α) levels in polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) patients with cutaneous manifestations. All patients showed the presence of a histological necrotizing vasculitis in the skin specimen. They were treated with i.v. cyclophosphamide pulse therapy (IV-CY) and prednisolone therapy or steroid pulse therapy. The immunological assessments were performed on sera collected prior to and after treatment with IV-CY or steroid pulse therapy. We found a significant positive correlation between serum anti-moesin antibodies and both clinical Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Scores and Vasculitis Damage Index. Anti-PSPT antibody and IL-2 levels after treatment in PAN patients were significantly lower than before treatment. In contrast, anti-moesin antibody levels were higher following IV-CY or steroid pulse therapy compared with the pretreatment levels. In the treatment-resistant PAN patients (n = 8), anti-PSPT antibody levels after treatment were significantly lower than before treatment. In contrast, anti-moesin antibody levels after treatment in the patients were significantly higher compared with the pretreatment levels. Immunohistochemical staining revealed moesin overexpression in mainly fibrinoid necrosis of the affected arteries in the PAN patients. We suggest that measurement of serum anti-PSPT antibody levels could serve as a marker for PAN and aid in earlier diagnosis of PAN. We also propose that elevated serum anti-moesin antibodies could play some role of the exacerbation in patients with PAN. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  16. [ELISA in the determination of antiphosphatidylserine antibodies].

    PubMed

    Fialová, L; Mikulíková, L; Fisar, Z; Beitlová, D; Malbohan, I

    1996-05-01

    Antiphospholipid antibodies (APA) are a group of antibodies against various phospholipid antigens. In order to extend the spectrum of examined specificities of antiphospholipid antibodies the authors elaborated an ELISA method for assessment of antiphosphatidyl serine antibodies (APSA). As antigen they used phosphatidyl serine isolated from the white matter of cattle brain. The ELISA method was tested by examining APSA in 12 patients with rheumatic diseases, 24 women with reproductive disorders and 50 patients with testicular tumours and the results were compared with examinations of anticardiolipin antibodies. The concurrent presence of both types of antibodies was recorded in 20.8% women with reproductive disorders and in 14% of the patients with testicular tumours. In these groups antiphosphatidyl serine antibodies were found more frequently.

  17. Antibody tumor penetration

    PubMed Central

    Thurber, Greg M.; Schmidt, Michael M.; Wittrup, K. Dane

    2009-01-01

    Antibodies have proven to be effective agents in cancer imaging and therapy. One of the major challenges still facing the field is the heterogeneous distribution of these agents in tumors when administered systemically. Large regions of untargeted cells can therefore escape therapy and potentially select for more resistant cells. We present here a summary of theoretical and experimental approaches to analyze and improve antibody penetration in tumor tissue. PMID:18541331

  18. Antibodies in metabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Bianca

    2011-09-01

    In the past century, incidences of chronic metabolic diseases, such as obesity and type II diabetes, have increased dramatically. Obesity and abnormal insulin level are associated with a wide variety of health problems including a markedly increased risk for type II diabetes, fatty liver, hepato-biliary and gallbladder diseases, cardiovascular pathologies, neurodegenerative disorders, asthma and a variety of cancers. The development of therapeutic antibodies has evolved over the past decades into a mainstay of therapeutic options for patients with inflammatory diseases and cancer, while other indication areas such as metabolic diseases have so far only been rarely addressed. Although therapeutic antibodies might have advantages over current type II diabetes treatments like favorable serum half-life and high specificity, their development is also likely to face obstacles. For example the technical feasibility of antibody generation against G protein coupled receptors and transporters is challenging, patient compliance for a likely needle application might be limited, bioavailability in organs involved in the pathogenesis like the brain might be suboptimal and reimbursement issues for high treatment costs have to be taken into account. The current review focuses on the pathogenesis and standard therapeutic approaches as well as antibodies in development and potential antibody targets for type II diabetes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Principles of antibody-mediated TNF receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Wajant, H

    2015-01-01

    From the beginning of research on receptors of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily (TNFRSF), agonistic antibodies have been used to stimulate TNFRSF receptors in vitro and in vivo. Indeed, CD95, one of the first cloned TNFRSF receptors, was solely identified as the target of cell death-inducing antibodies. Early on, it became evident from in vitro studies that valency and Fcγ receptor (FcγR) binding of antibodies targeting TNFRSF receptors can be of crucial relevance for agonistic activity. TNFRSF receptor-specific antibodies of the IgM subclass and secondary cross-linked or aggregation prone dimeric antibodies typically display superior agonistic activity compared with dimeric antibodies. Likewise, anchoring of antibodies to cell surface-expressed FcγRs potentiate their ability to trigger TNFRSF receptor signaling. However, only recently has the relevance of oligomerization and FcγR binding for the in vivo activity of antibody-induced TNFRSF receptor activation been straightforwardly demonstrated in vivo. This review discusses the crucial role of oligomerization and/or FcγR binding for antibody-mediated TNFRSF receptor stimulation in light of current models of TNFRSF receptor activation and especially the overwhelming relevance of these issues for the rational development of therapeutic TNFRSF receptor-targeting antibodies. PMID:26292758

  20. Antibodies to watch in 2018

    PubMed Central

    Kaplon, Hélène; Reichert, Janice M.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The pace of antibody therapeutics development accelerated in 2017, and this faster pace is projected to continue through 2018. Notably, the annual number of antibody therapeutics granted a first approval in either the European Union (EU) or United States (US) reached double-digits (total of 10) for the first time in 2017. The 10 antibodies granted approvals are: brodalumab, dupilumab, sarilumab, guselkumab, benralizumab, ocrelizumab, inotuzumab ozogamicin, avelumab, duvalumab, and emicizumab. Brodalumab, however, had already been approved in Japan in 2016. As of December 1, 2017, nine antibody therapeutics (ibalizumab, burosumab, tildrakizumab, caplacizumab, erenumab, fremanezumab, galcanezumab, romosozumab, mogamulizumab) were in regulatory review in the EU or US, and regulatory actions on their marketing applications are expected by the end of 2018. Based on company announcements and estimated clinical study primary completion dates, and assuming the study results are positive, marketing applications for at least 12 antibody therapeutics that are now being evaluated in late-stage clinical studies may be submitted by the end of 2018. Of the 12 candidates, 8 are for non-cancer indications (lanadelumab, crizanlizumab, ravulizumab, eptinezumab, risankizumab, satralizumab, brolucizumab, PRO140) and 4 are for cancer (sacituzumab govitecan, moxetumomab pasudotox, cemiplimab, ublituximab). Additional antibody therapeutics to watch in 2018 include 19 mAbs undergoing evaluation in late-stage studies with primary completion dates in late 2017 or during 2018. Of these mAbs, 9 are for non-cancer indications (lampalizumab, roledumab, emapalumab, fasinumab, tanezumab, etrolizumab, NEOD001, gantenerumab, anifrolumab) and 10 are for cancer indications (tremelimumab, isatuximab, BCD-100, carotuximab, camrelizumab, IBI308, glembatumumab vedotin, mirvetuximab soravtansine, oportuzumab monatox, L19IL2/L19TNF). Positive clinical study results may enable marketing application

  1. Antibodies to watch in 2018.

    PubMed

    Kaplon, Hélène; Reichert, Janice M

    The pace of antibody therapeutics development accelerated in 2017, and this faster pace is projected to continue through 2018. Notably, the annual number of antibody therapeutics granted a first approval in either the European Union (EU) or United States (US) reached double-digits (total of 10) for the first time in 2017. The 10 antibodies granted approvals are: brodalumab, dupilumab, sarilumab, guselkumab, benralizumab, ocrelizumab, inotuzumab ozogamicin, avelumab, duvalumab, and emicizumab. Brodalumab, however, had already been approved in Japan in 2016. As of December 1, 2017, nine antibody therapeutics (ibalizumab, burosumab, tildrakizumab, caplacizumab, erenumab, fremanezumab, galcanezumab, romosozumab, mogamulizumab) were in regulatory review in the EU or US, and regulatory actions on their marketing applications are expected by the end of 2018. Based on company announcements and estimated clinical study primary completion dates, and assuming the study results are positive, marketing applications for at least 12 antibody therapeutics that are now being evaluated in late-stage clinical studies may be submitted by the end of 2018. Of the 12 candidates, 8 are for non-cancer indications (lanadelumab, crizanlizumab, ravulizumab, eptinezumab, risankizumab, satralizumab, brolucizumab, PRO140) and 4 are for cancer (sacituzumab govitecan, moxetumomab pasudotox, cemiplimab, ublituximab). Additional antibody therapeutics to watch in 2018 include 19 mAbs undergoing evaluation in late-stage studies with primary completion dates in late 2017 or during 2018. Of these mAbs, 9 are for non-cancer indications (lampalizumab, roledumab, emapalumab, fasinumab, tanezumab, etrolizumab, NEOD001, gantenerumab, anifrolumab) and 10 are for cancer indications (tremelimumab, isatuximab, BCD-100, carotuximab, camrelizumab, IBI308, glembatumumab vedotin, mirvetuximab soravtansine, oportuzumab monatox, L19IL2/L19TNF). Positive clinical study results may enable marketing application

  2. Affinity purification of antibodies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antibodies are provided in a variety of formats that includes antiserum, hybridoma culture supernatant or ascites. They can all be used successfully in crude form for the detection of target antigens by immunoassay. However, it is advantageous to use purified antibody in defined quantity to facil...

  3. Monoclonal antibody against Porphyromonas (Bacteroides) endodontalis lipopolysaccharide and application of the antibody for direct identification of the species.

    PubMed Central

    Hanazawa, S; Sagiya, T; Kitami, H; Ohta, K; Nishikawa, H; Kitano, S

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a monoclonal antibody that recognizes the shared antigen of Porphyromonas endodontalis so that we could use the antibody in direct identification and detection of P. endodontalis in infectious material from apical periodontal patients. We established a hybridoma cell line producing monoclonal antibody (BEB5) specific for P. endodontalis. BEB5 antibody reacted with all of the P. endodontalis strains tested, but not with any of the other black-pigmented Porphyromonas and Bacteroides spp. The antibody reacted specifically with the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of three P. endodontalis strains of different serotypes (O1K1, O1K2, and O1K-). Western blotting (immunoblotting) analysis confirmed the specificity of the antibody to these LPSs, because the antibody recognized the typical "repetitive ladder" pattern characteristic of LPS on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoretic gels. These observations demonstrate that P. endodontalis LPS is the shared antigen of this species. The antibody can specifically identify P. endodontalis on nitrocellulose membrane blots of bacterial colonies grown on agar. The antibody is also capable of directly detecting the presence of P. endodontalis in infectious material by immunoslot blot assay. These results indicate that LPS is the shared antigen of P. endodontalis and that BEB5 antibody against LPS is a useful one for direct identification and detection of the organisms in samples from apical periodontal patients. Images PMID:1774262

  4. Impaired antibody memory to varicella zoster virus in HIV-infected children: low antibody levels and avidity*.

    PubMed

    L'Huillier, A G; Ferry, T; Courvoisier, D S; Aebi, C; Cheseaux, J-J; Kind, C; Rudin, C; Nadal, D; Hirschel, B; Sottas, C; Siegrist, C-A; Posfay-Barbe, K M

    2012-01-01

    HIV-infected children have impaired antibody responses after exposure to certain antigens. Our aim was to determine whether HIV-infected children had lower varicella zoster virus (VZV) antibody levels compared with HIV-infected adults or healthy children and, if so, whether this was attributable to an impaired primary response, accelerated antibody loss, or failure to reactivate the memory VZV response. In a prospective, cross-sectional and retrospective longitudinal study, we compared antibody responses, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), elicited by VZV infection in 97 HIV-infected children and 78 HIV-infected adults treated with antiretroviral therapy, followed over 10 years, and 97 age-matched healthy children. We also tested antibody avidity in HIV-infected and healthy children. Median anti-VZV immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels were lower in HIV-infected children than in adults (264 vs. 1535 IU/L; P<0.001) and levels became more frequently unprotective over time in the children [odds ratio (OR) 17.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.36-72.25; P<0.001]. High HIV viral load was predictive of VZV antibody waning in HIV-infected children. Anti-VZV antibodies did not decline more rapidly in HIV-infected children than in adults. Antibody levels increased with age in healthy (P=0.004) but not in HIV-infected children. Thus, antibody levels were lower in HIV-infected than in healthy children (median 1151 IU/L; P<0.001). Antibody avidity was lower in HIV-infected than healthy children (P<0.001). A direct correlation between anti-VZV IgG level and avidity was present in HIV-infected children (P=0.001), but not in healthy children. Failure to maintain anti-VZV IgG levels in HIV-infected children results from failure to reactivate memory responses. Further studies are required to investigate long-term protection and the potential benefits of immunization. © 2011 British HIV Association.

  5. Passive vaccination with a human monoclonal antibody: generation of antibodies and studies for efficacy in Bacillus anthracis infections.

    PubMed

    vor dem Esche, Ulrich; Huber, Maria; Zgaga-Griesz, Andrea; Grunow, Roland; Beyer, Wolfgang; Hahn, Ulrike; Bessler, Wolfgang G

    2011-07-01

    A major difficulty in creating human monoclonal antibodies is the lack of a suitable myeloma cell line to be used for fusion experiments. In order to create fully human monoclonal antibodies for passive immunization, the human mouse heteromyeloma cell line CB-F7 was evaluated. Using this cell line, we generated human monoclonal antibodies against Bacillus anthracis toxin components. Antibodies against protective antigen (PA) and against lethal factor (LF) were obtained using peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from persons vaccinated with the UK anthrax vaccine. PBL were fused with the cell line CB-F7. We obtained several clones producing PA specific Ig and one clone (hLF1-SAN) producing a monoclonal antibody (hLF1) directed against LF. The LF binding antibody was able to neutralize Anthrax toxin activity in an in vitro neutralization assay, and preliminary in vivo studies in mice also indicated a trend towards protection. We mapped the epitope of the antibody binding to LF by dot blot analysis and ELIFA using 80 synthetic LF peptides of 20 amino acid lengths with an overlapping range of 10 amino acids. Our results suggest the binding of the monoclonal antibody to the peptide regions 121-150 or 451-470 of LF. The Fab-fragment of the antibody hLF1 was cloned in Escherichia coli and could be useful as part of a fully human monoclonal antibody for the treatment of Anthrax infections. In general, our studies show the applicability of the CB-F7 line to create fully human monoclonal antibodies for vaccination. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Preparation of monoclonal antibody of anti-feline calicivirus and establishment of double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detecting method.

    PubMed

    Yuan, B; Ai, C-X; Yuan, L; Gao, W; Hu, J-P; Chen, J; Ren, W-Z

    2014-09-12

    This study aimed to prepare monoclonal antibody of feline calicivirus (FCV) and identify its basic biological characteristics. Saturated ammonium sulfate precipitation, combined differential centrifugation, and cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation were used for the purification of FCV. The purified FCV was used as antigen to immunize BALB/c mice. The hybridoma lines of anti-FCV monoclonal antibodies were established using cell fusion and hybridoma screening techniques. The subtypes of the monoclonal antibody were identified. The results showed that 3 strains of hybridoma cell lines stably secreted anti-FCV monoclonal antibody; they were named as D8, E5, and H4. The D8 and E5 were IgM subtype antibodies, and H4 was IgG2b subtype antibody. The monoclonal antibody obtained shared no cross-reactivity with feline parvovirus, canine parvovirus, and canine distemper virus. According to the different recognition sites of 2 monoclonal antibodies E5 and H4 to the FCV, they were used to coat microtiter plates and prepare 2 enzyme-labeled secondary antibodies to establish double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detecting method.

  7. A new bead-based human platelet antigen antibodies detection assay versus the monoclonal antibody immobilization of platelet antigens assay.

    PubMed

    Porcelijn, Leendert; Huiskes, Elly; Comijs-van Osselen, Ilona; Chhatta, Aniska; Rathore, Vipul; Meyers, Matthew; de Haas, Masja

    2014-06-01

    The performance of a newly developed Luminex bead-based platelet (PLT) antibody detection method (PAKLx) was compared with the monoclonal antibody immobilization of PLT antigens (MAIPA) assay and the LifeScreen Deluxe Luminex bead-based HLA Class I antibody detection method (LMX). Six sera containing anti-human PLT antigen (HPA)-1a (n=2), HPA-1b, HPA-2b, HPA-3a, or HPA-5b were tested in titration. A total of 194 sera, including HPA-1a, -1b, -2a, -2b, -3a, -5a, and -5b antibodies with or without HLA antibodies (n=63); glycoprotein (GP) IV antibodies (n=1); PLT autoantibodies (n=3); HLA antibodies (n=45); and samples with no PLT-reactive antibodies (n=82), were tested in both assays. Comparable levels of sensitivity were obtained for the MAIPA and PAKLx. The PAKLx showed four (6%) false-negative results in 67 sera with HPA or GP-reactive antibodies: anti-HPA-3a (n=1) or anti-HPA-5b (n=3). The PAKLx showed in 10 of the total 194 samples (5%) the presence of antibodies not detected by the MAIPA. This concerned broadly GP-reactive antibodies (n=7), anti-GPIIb/IIIa combined with anti-HPA-3a (n=1), anti-HPA-1a (borderline, n=1), and anti-GPIV (n=1). Testing 175 sera for anti-HLA Class I antibodies in the PAKLx and LMX showed four discrepant results: PAKLx negative and LMX positive, n=3 and n=1, respectively. For the vast majority of the specimens tested (93%) the results of the PAKLx were in concordance with the MAIPA. The PAKLx is a fast, easy to perform, and sensitive PLT antibody screening method. © 2013 AABB.

  8. Affinity-reversed-phase liquid chromatography assay to quantitate recombinant antibodies and antibody fragments in fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Battersby, J E; Snedecor, B; Chen, C; Champion, K M; Riddle, L; Vanderlaan, M

    2001-08-24

    An automated dual-column liquid chromatography assay comprised of affinity and reversed-phase separations that quantifies the majority of antibody-related protein species found in crude cell extracts of recombinant origin is described. Although potentially applicable to any antibody preparation, we here use samples of anti-CD18 (Fab'2LZ) and a full-length antibody, anti-tissue factor (anti-TF), from various stages throughout a biopharmaceutical production process to describe the assay details. The targeted proteins were captured on an affinity column containing an anti-light-chain (kappa) Fab antibody (AME5) immobilized on controlled pore glass. The affinity column was placed in-line with a reversed-phase column and the captured components were transferred by elution with dilute acid and subsequently resolved by eluting the reversed-phase column with a shallow acetonitrile gradient. Characterization of the resolved components showed that most antibody fragment preparations contained a light-chain fragment, free light chain, light-chain dimer and multiple forms of Fab'. Analysis of full-length antibody preparations also resolved these fragments as well as a completely assembled form. Co-eluting with the full-length antibody were high-molecular-mass variants that were missing one or both light chains. Resolved components were quantified by comparison with peak areas of similarly treated standards. By comparing the two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns of an Escherichia coli blank run, a production run and the material affinity captured (AME5) from a production run, it was determined that the AME5 antibody captured isoforms of light chain, light chain covalently attached to heavy chain, and truncated light chain isoforms. These forms comprise the bulk of the soluble product-related fragments found in E. coli cell extracts of recombinantly produced antibody fragments.

  9. Principles and application of antibody libraries for infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Lim, Bee Nar; Tye, Gee Jun; Choong, Yee Siew; Ong, Eugene Boon Beng; Ismail, Asma; Lim, Theam Soon

    2014-12-01

    Antibodies have been used efficiently for the treatment and diagnosis of many diseases. Recombinant antibody technology allows the generation of fully human antibodies. Phage display is the gold standard for the production of human antibodies in vitro. To generate monoclonal antibodies by phage display, the generation of antibody libraries is crucial. Antibody libraries are classified according to the source where the antibody gene sequences were obtained. The most useful library for infectious diseases is the immunized library. Immunized libraries would allow better and selective enrichment of antibodies against disease antigens. The antibodies generated from these libraries can be translated for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. This review focuses on the generation of immunized antibody libraries and the potential applications of the antibodies derived from these libraries.

  10. Antibody response to Ehrlichia risticii and antibody reactivity to the component antigens in horses with induced Potomac horse fever.

    PubMed

    Dutta, S K; Mattingly, B L; Shankarappa, B

    1989-10-01

    The antibody response and the antibody reactivity to component antigens of Ehrlichia risticii were studied in horses with induced Potomac horse fever. These horses had no detectable antibodies to E. risticii in their preinoculation (PrI) sera by indirect fluorescent-antibody assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All the horses exhibited typical disease features following experimental infection and responded with specific antibodies, as measured by ELISA and indirect fluorescent-antibody assay. A primary antibody response was detected in 70% of the horses, while a secondary-type antibody response was detected in 30% of the horses by ELISA. In the primary antibody response, a distinct titer was observed at 2 weeks postinoculation (PI), when the immunoglobulin M (IgM)/IgG ratio was 2 to 5, and the overall antibody titer peaked at 6 to 8 weeks PI. The secondary-type antibody response exhibited a characteristic titer at 1 week PI, the IgM and IgG titers were about equal at 2 weeks PI, and the overall antibody titer peaked at 6 weeks PI. A transient depression in the IgG response at 4 weeks PI was observed in both response types. The antibody was maintained at a high titer for over a year in all horses. Western immunoblot reactivity showed that the antisera collected from these infected horses at 4 to 5 weeks PI recognized some or all of the six major E. risticii component antigens (70, 55, 51, 44, 33, and 28 kilodaltons), all of which were apparent surface components. The 6- to 8-week PI antisera recognized up to 16 component antigens, including 9 major antigens (110, 86, 70, 55, 51, 49, 44, 33, and 28 kilodaltons). However, the PrI sera of these horses showed reactivity at various intensities with one to seven of the component antigens. There was no apparent correlation between this reactivity pattern and the subsequent antibody response types.

  11. Bcl-XL small interfering RNA suppresses the proliferation of 5-fluorouracil-resistant human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongbo; Guo, Wei; Zhang, Lidong; Davis, John J; Teraishi, Fuminori; Wu, Shuhong; Cao, Xiaobo; Daniel, Jonathan; Smythe, W Roy; Fang, Bingliang

    2005-03-01

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is commonly used to treat human colon cancers but resistance to this compound is frequently observed in clinics. To characterize mechanisms of resistance to 5-FU and to develop new strategies for overcoming it, we established two cell lines that were resistant to 5-FU but not other chemotherapeutic agents from parental 5-FU-sensitive cell lines. Western blot analysis revealed that these resistant cells overexpressed the proteins Bcl-XL, Bcl-Xs, and Bik, and further data showed that the cells were resistant to 5-FU-induced DNA damage and cell cycle disorder. However, in parental cells, enforced expression of Bcl-XL protein provided only limited protection from 5-FU-induced apoptosis and overexpression of Bcl-XL protein did not affect 5-FU-induced DNA damage or cell cycle changes; these findings suggested that overexpression of Bcl-XL protein was not the major contributor to 5-FU resistance in any of our cells lines. Even so, knockdown of Bcl-XL protein expression by Bcl-XL-specific small interfering RNA could inhibit proliferation more effectively in 5-FU-resistant cells than in 5-FU-sensitive cells, and the combination of Bcl-XL-specific small interfering RNA and 5-FU had additive effect on the inhibition of 5-FU-resistant cells. These results suggest that down-regulation of Bcl-XL protein expression might provide a new treatment strategy for human 5-FU-resistant colon cancer therapy.

  12. [EIA-IgG antibody measles prevention level estimated from measles neutralizing, particle agglutination and hemagglutination-inhibition antibody titer].

    PubMed

    Takayama, Naohide; Saika, Shizuko; Ichinohe, Sadato

    2009-09-01

    Measles hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titer, widely used in clinical practice to simply and easily determine the measles immunity level has, in recent years, been increasingly replaced by measles IgG-antibody titer determined by enzyme-immunoassay (EIA). HI antibody titer appears to reflect this protective level, because HI measures the antibody against H protein required for the measles virus to adhere to host cells. EIA-IgG antibody titer does not correlate with the protective level, similar to particle agglutination (PA) titer, because EIA measures different antibodies, including those unrelated to measles protection. After determining HI, PA, neutralizing test (NT) results, and EIA-IgG antibody titer for individual specimens, we compared EIA-IgG antibody titer obtained using an EIA-Kit (Denka Seiken) to HI, PA, and NT titer with the following results: (1) Subjects with EIA-IgG titer of > or = 12.0 may be protected against measles: (2) Subjects with EIA-IgG titer of 4.0 to 8.0 appear to be protected insufficiently requiring a booster dose against measles: (3) Subjects with EIA-IgG titer of 8.0 to 12.0 may benefit from booster vaccination.

  13. [Atelocollagen-mediated small interfering RNA delivery for effective gene silencing in rat vein grafts].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xue-feng; Dong, Nian-guo; Sun, Zong-quan; Su, Wei; Shi, Jia-wei

    2009-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of using small interfering RNA targeting TF as a therapy for vein graft failure. External jugular vein to carotid artery interposition vein grafts, which were applied to a low flow condition, were made in 120 Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 260 to 300 g. These rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, 30 rats each group. Group A was atelocollagen-TF Stealth Select RNAi group. Group B was atelocollagen-TF Stealth RNAi group. Group C was atelocollagen group. Group D was control group. Small interfering RNA mixed with atelocollagen was administrated to the external wall of grafted veins. The TF protein expression of vein grafts was analyzed by Western blot at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 d postoperatively, and by immunochemistry at 3 d postoperatively. The proliferation index was determined at 14 d postoperatively. Neointimal hyperplasia was evaluated at 28 d postoperatively. BLOCK-iT fluorescent oligo was used to confirm its stability and successful transfer into the vein graft wall at 3 and 7 d postoperatively for another group (n=12). Fluorescence of BLOCK-iT fluorescent oligo could be detected in the graft wall even at 7 d postoperatively. Knockdown of the TF expression was achieved by perivascular application of siRNA using atelocollagen. Compared with control group, the intima thickness at 28 d after grafting was significantly reduced (P < 0.05). This phenomenon was preceded by significant reduction of cell proliferation in siRNA-treated grafts at 14 d postoperatively (P < 0.05). The expression of TF in vein grafts can be effectively inhibited by specific siRNAs using a atelocollagen-based nonviral delivery approach in vivo, so that the neointimal thickening can be prevented. Transplants;

  14. Generation of “LYmph Node Derived Antibody Libraries” (LYNDAL) for selecting fully human antibody fragments with therapeutic potential

    PubMed Central

    Diebolder, Philipp; Keller, Armin; Haase, Stephanie; Schlegelmilch, Anne; Kiefer, Jonathan D; Karimi, Tamana; Weber, Tobias; Moldenhauer, Gerhard; Kehm, Roland; Eis-Hübinger, Anna M; Jäger, Dirk; Federspil, Philippe A; Herold-Mende, Christel; Dyckhoff, Gerhard; Kontermann, Roland E; Arndt, Michaela AE; Krauss, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The development of efficient strategies for generating fully human monoclonal antibodies with unique functional properties that are exploitable for tailored therapeutic interventions remains a major challenge in the antibody technology field. Here, we present a methodology for recovering such antibodies from antigen-encountered human B cell repertoires. As the source for variable antibody genes, we cloned immunoglobulin G (IgG)-derived B cell repertoires from lymph nodes of 20 individuals undergoing surgery for head and neck cancer. Sequence analysis of unselected “LYmph Node Derived Antibody Libraries” (LYNDAL) revealed a naturally occurring distribution pattern of rearranged antibody sequences, representing all known variable gene families and most functional germline sequences. To demonstrate the feasibility for selecting antibodies with therapeutic potential from these repertoires, seven LYNDAL from donors with high serum titers against herpes simplex virus (HSV) were panned on recombinant glycoprotein B of HSV-1. Screening for specific binders delivered 34 single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) with unique sequences. Sequence analysis revealed extensive somatic hypermutation of enriched clones as a result of affinity maturation. Binding of scFvs to common glycoprotein B variants from HSV-1 and HSV-2 strains was highly specific, and the majority of analyzed antibody fragments bound to the target antigen with nanomolar affinity. From eight scFvs with HSV-neutralizing capacity in vitro, the most potent antibody neutralized 50% HSV-2 at 4.5 nM as a dimeric (scFv)2. We anticipate our approach to be useful for recovering fully human antibodies with therapeutic potential. PMID:24256717

  15. Generation of “LYmph Node Derived Antibody Libraries” (LYNDAL) for selecting fully human antibody fragments with therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Diebolder, Philipp; Keller, Armin; Haase, Stephanie; Schlegelmilch, Anne; Kiefer, Jonathan D; Karimi, Tamana; Weber, Tobias; Moldenhauer, Gerhard; Kehm, Roland; Eis-Hübinger, Anna M; Jäger, Dirk; Federspil, Philippe A; Herold-Mende, Christel; Dyckhoff, Gerhard; Kontermann, Roland E; Arndt, Michaela A E; Krauss, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The development of efficient strategies for generating fully human monoclonal antibodies with unique functional properties that are exploitable for tailored therapeutic interventions remains a major challenge in the antibody technology field. Here, we present a methodology for recovering such antibodies from antigen-encountered human B cell repertoires. As the source for variable antibody genes, we cloned immunoglobulin G (IgG)-derived B cell repertoires from lymph nodes of 20 individuals undergoing surgery for head and neck cancer. Sequence analysis of unselected “LYmph Node Derived Antibody Libraries” (LYNDAL) revealed a naturally occurring distribution pattern of rearranged antibody sequences, representing all known variable gene families and most functional germline sequences. To demonstrate the feasibility for selecting antibodies with therapeutic potential from these repertoires, seven LYNDAL from donors with high serum titers against herpes simplex virus (HSV) were panned on recombinant glycoprotein B of HSV-1. Screening for specific binders delivered 34 single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) with unique sequences. Sequence analysis revealed extensive somatic hypermutation of enriched clones as a result of affinity maturation. Binding of scFvs to common glycoprotein B variants from HSV-1 and HSV-2 strains was highly specific, and the majority of analyzed antibody fragments bound to the target antigen with nanomolar affinity. From eight scFvs with HSV-neutralizing capacity in vitro,the most potent antibody neutralized 50% HSV-2 at 4.5 nM as a dimeric (scFv)2. We anticipate our approach to be useful for recovering fully human antibodies with therapeutic potential.

  16. Therapeutic Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhtiar, Ray

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, the rapid growth of biotechnology-derived techniques has led to a myriad of therapeutic recombinant monoclonal antibodies with significant clinical benefits. Recombinant monoclonal antibodies can be obtained from a number of natural sources such as animal cell cultures using recombinant DNA engineering. In contrast to…

  17. Development of VHH antibodies against dengue virus type 2 NS1 and comparison with monoclonal antibodies for use in immunological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Aneela; Wang, Haiying; Kang, Keren; Xia, Liliang; Wang, Ying; Ye, Wei; Wang, Jufang; Wang, Xiaoning

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of using variable domain heavy-chain antibodies (VHH antibodies) as diagnostic tools for dengue virus (DENV) type 2 NS1 protein was investigated and compared with the use of conventional monoclonal antibodies. After successful expression of DENV type 2 NS1 protein, the genes of VHH antibodies against NS1 protein were biopanned from a non-immune llama library by phage display. VHH antibodies were then expressed and purified from Escherichia coli. Simultaneously, monoclonal antibodies were obtained by the conventional route. Sequence analysis of the VHH antibodies revealed novel and long complementarity determining regions 3 (CDR3). Epitope mapping was performed via a phage display peptide library using purified VHH and monoclonal antibodies as targets. Interestingly, the same region of NS1, which comprises amino acids 224HWPKPHTLW232, was conserved for both kinds of antibodies displaying the consensus motif histidine-tryptophan-tryptophan or tryptophan-proline-tryptophan. The two types of antibodies were used to prepare rapid diagnostic kits based on immunochromatographic assay. The VHH antibody immobilized rapid diagnostic kit showed better sensitivity and specificity than the monoclonal antibody immobilized rapid diagnostic kit, which might be due to the long CDR3 regions of the VHH antibodies and their ability to bind to the pocket and cleft of the targeted antigen. This demonstrates that VHH antibodies are likely to be an option for developing point-of-care tests against DENV infection.

  18. Development of VHH Antibodies against Dengue Virus Type 2 NS1 and Comparison with Monoclonal Antibodies for Use in Immunological Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, Aneela; Wang, Haiying; Kang, Keren; Xia, Liliang; Wang, Ying; Ye, Wei; Wang, Jufang; Wang, Xiaoning

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of using variable domain heavy-chain antibodies (VHH antibodies) as diagnostic tools for dengue virus (DENV) type 2 NS1 protein was investigated and compared with the use of conventional monoclonal antibodies. After successful expression of DENV type 2 NS1 protein, the genes of VHH antibodies against NS1 protein were biopanned from a non-immune llama library by phage display. VHH antibodies were then expressed and purified from Escherichia coli. Simultaneously, monoclonal antibodies were obtained by the conventional route. Sequence analysis of the VHH antibodies revealed novel and long complementarity determining regions 3 (CDR3). Epitope mapping was performed via a phage display peptide library using purified VHH and monoclonal antibodies as targets. Interestingly, the same region of NS1, which comprises amino acids 224HWPKPHTLW232, was conserved for both kinds of antibodies displaying the consensus motif histidine-tryptophan-tryptophan or tryptophan-proline-tryptophan. The two types of antibodies were used to prepare rapid diagnostic kits based on immunochromatographic assay. The VHH antibody immobilized rapid diagnostic kit showed better sensitivity and specificity than the monoclonal antibody immobilized rapid diagnostic kit, which might be due to the long CDR3 regions of the VHH antibodies and their ability to bind to the pocket and cleft of the targeted antigen. This demonstrates that VHH antibodies are likely to be an option for developing point-of-care tests against DENV infection. PMID:24751715

  19. Antibodies Against Three Forms of Urokinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.; Atassi, M. Zouhair

    2007-01-01

    Antibodies that bind to preselected regions of the urokinase molecule have been developed. These antibodies can be used to measure small quantities of each of three molecular forms of urokinase that could be contained in microsamples or conditioned media harvested from cultures of mammalian cells. Previously available antibodies and assay techniques do not yield both clear distinctions among, and measurements of, all three forms. Urokinase is a zymogen that is synthesized in a single-chain form, called ScuPA, which is composed of 411 amino acid residues (see figure). ScuPA has very little enzyme activity, but it can be activated in two ways: (1) by cleavage of the peptide bond lysine 158/isoleucine 159 and the loss of lysine 158 to obtain the high molecular-weight (HMW) form of the enzyme or (2) by cleavage of the bond lysine 135/lysine 136 to obtain the low-molecular-weight (LMW) form of the enzyme. The antibodies in question were produced in mice and rabbits by use of peptides as immunogens. The peptides were selected to obtain antibodies that bind to regions of ScuPA that include the lysine 158/isoleucine 159 and the lysine 135/lysine 136 bonds. The antibodies include monoclonal and polyclonal ones that yield indications as to whether either of these bonds is intact. The polyclonal antibodies include ones that preferentially bind to the HMW or LMW forms of the urokinase molecule. The monoclonal antibodies include ones that discriminate between the ScuPA and the HMW form. A combination of these molecular-specific antibodies will enable simultaneous assays of the ScuPA, HMW, and LMW forms in the same specimen of culture medium.

  20. Polynucleotides encoding anti-sulfotyrosine antibodies

    DOEpatents

    Bertozzi, Carolyn R [Berkeley, CA; Kehoe, John [Saint Davids, PA; Bradbury, Andrew M [Santa Fe, NM

    2011-01-11

    The invention provides anti-sulfotyrosine specific antibodies capable of detecting and isolating polypeptides that are tyrosine-sulfated. The sulfotyrosine antibodies and antibody fragments of the invention may be used to discriminate between the non-sulfated and sulfated forms of such proteins, using any number of immunological assays, such ELISAs, immunoblots, Western Blots, immunoprecipitations, and the like. Using a phage-display system, single chain antibodies (scFvs) were generated and screened against tyrosine-sulfated synthetic peptide antigens, resulting in the isolation of scFvs that specifically recognize sulfotyrosine-containing peptides and/or demonstrate sulfotyrosine-specific binding in tyrosine sulfated proteins. The VH and VL genes from one such sulfotyrosine-specific scFv were employed to generate a full length, sulfotyrosine-specific immunoglobulin.

  1. The INNs and outs of antibody nonproprietary names

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Tim D.; Carter, Paul J.; Plückthun, Andreas; Vásquez, Max; Holgate, Robert G.E.; Hötzel, Isidro; Popplewell, Andrew G.; Parren, Paul W.H.I.; Enzelberger, Markus; Rademaker, Hendrik J.; Clark, Michael R.; Lowe, David C.; Dahiyat, Bassil I.; Smith, Victoria; Lambert, John M.; Wu, Herren; Reilly, Mary; Haurum, John S.; Dübel, Stefan; Huston, James S.; Schirrmann, Thomas; Janssen, Richard A.J.; Steegmaier, Martin; Gross, Jane A.; Bradbury, Andrew R.M.; Burton, Dennis R.; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.; Chester, Kerry A.; Glennie, Martin J.; Davies, Julian; Walker, Adam; Martin, Steve; McCafferty, John; Baker, Matthew P.

    2016-01-01

    An important step in drug development is the assignment of an International Nonproprietary Name (INN) by the World Health Organization (WHO) that provides healthcare professionals with a unique and universally available designated name to identify each pharmaceutical substance. Monoclonal antibody INNs comprise a –mab suffix preceded by a substem indicating the antibody type, e.g., chimeric (-xi-), humanized (-zu-), or human (-u-). The WHO publishes INN definitions that specify how new monoclonal antibody therapeutics are categorized and adapts the definitions to new technologies. However, rapid progress in antibody technologies has blurred the boundaries between existing antibody categories and created a burgeoning array of new antibody formats. Thus, revising the INN system for antibodies is akin to aiming for a rapidly moving target. The WHO recently revised INN definitions for antibodies now to be based on amino acid sequence identity. These new definitions, however, are critically flawed as they are ambiguous and go against decades of scientific literature. A key concern is the imposition of an arbitrary threshold for identity against human germline antibody variable region sequences. This leads to inconsistent classification of somatically mutated human antibodies, humanized antibodies as well as antibodies derived from semi-synthetic/synthetic libraries and transgenic animals. Such sequence-based classification implies clear functional distinction between categories (e.g., immunogenicity). However, there is no scientific evidence to support this. Dialog between the WHO INN Expert Group and key stakeholders is needed to develop a new INN system for antibodies and to avoid confusion and miscommunication between researchers and clinicians prescribing antibodies. PMID:26716992

  2. A Recombinant Secondary Antibody Mimic as a Target-specific Signal Amplifier and an Antibody Immobilizer in Immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Min, Junseon; Song, Eun Kyung; Kim, Hansol; Kim, Kyoung Taek; Park, Tae Joo; Kang, Sebyung

    2016-04-11

    We construct a novel recombinant secondary antibody mimic, GST-ABD, which can bind to the Fc regions of target-bound primary antibodies and acquire multiple HRPs simultaneously. We produce it in tenth of mg quantities with a bacterial overexpression system and simple purification procedures, significantly reducing the manufacturing cost and time without the use of animals. GST-ABD is effectively conjugated with 3 HRPs per molecule on an average and selectively bind to the Fc region of primary antibodies derived from three different species (mouse, rabbit, and rat). HRP-conjugated GST-ABD (HRP-GST-ABD) is successfully used as an alternative to secondary antibodies to amplify target-specific signals in both ELISA and immunohistochemistry regardless of the target molecules and origin of primary antibodies used. GST-ABD also successfully serves as an anchoring adaptor on the surface of GSH-coated plates for immobilizing antigen-capturing antibodies in an orientation-controlled manner for sandwich-type indirect ELISA through simple molecular recognition without any complicated chemical modification.

  3. Potential misinterpretation of the nutritional value of dietary fiber: correcting fiber digestibility values for nondietary gut-interfering material.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Carlos A; Henare, Sharon J; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this review is to identify the origin and implications of a nondietary material present in digesta and feces that interferes with the determination of dietary fiber in gastrointestinal contents. Negative values for ileal and fecal digestibility of dietary fiber are commonly reported in the literature for monogastric animal species, including humans. As negative values are not possible physiologically, this suggests the existence of a nondietary material in the gastrointestinal contents and feces that interferes with the accurate determination of dietary fiber digestibility when conventional methods of fiber determination are applied. To date, little attention has been given to this nondietary interfering material, which appears to be influenced by the type and concentration of fiber in the diet. Interestingly, estimates of dietary fiber digestibility increase substantially when corrected for the nondietary interfering material, which suggests that currently reported values underestimate the digestibility of dietary fiber and may misrepresent where, in the digestive tract, fermentation of fiber occurs. A new perspective of dietary fiber digestion in the gastrointestinal tract is developing, leading to a better understanding of the contribution of dietary fiber to health. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Atypical antibody responses in dengue vaccine recipients.

    PubMed

    Kanesa-Thasan, N; Sun, W; Ludwig, G V; Rossi, C; Putnak, J R; Mangiafico, J A; Innis, B L; Edelman, R

    2003-12-01

    Eight of 69 (12%) healthy adult volunteers vaccinated with monovalent live-attenuated dengue virus (DENV) vaccine candidates had atypical antibody responses, with depressed IgM:IgG antibody ratios and induction of high-titer hemagglutination-inhibiting and neutralizing (NT) antibodies to all four DENV serotypes. These features suggested flavivirus exposure prior to DENV vaccination, yet no volunteer had a history of previous flavivirus infection, flavivirus vaccination, or antibody to flaviviruses evident before DENV vaccination. Moreover, production of antibody to DENV by atypical responders (AR) was not accelerated compared with antibody responses in the 61 flavivirus-naive responders (NR). Further evaluation revealed no differences in sex, age, race, DENV vaccine candidate received, or clinical signs and symptoms following vaccination between AR and NR. However, viremia was delayed at the onset in AR compared with NR. A comparative panel of all AR and five randomly selected NR found flavivirus cross-reactive antibody after vaccination only in AR. Unexpectedly, six of eight AR had NT antibodies to yellow fever virus (YFV) > 1:10 before vaccination while NR had none (P = 0.04). The AR also universally demonstrated YFV NT antibody titers > or = 1:160 after DENV vaccination, whereas four of five NR failed to seroconvert (P = 0.02). Yellow fever virus priming broadens the antibody response to monovalent DENV vaccination. The effect of flavivirus priming on the clinical and immunologic response to tetravalent DENV vaccine remains to be determined.

  5. Systematic coarse-grained modeling of complexation between small interfering RNA and polycations

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Zonghui; Luijten, Erik, E-mail: luijten@northwestern.edu; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208

    All-atom molecular dynamics simulations can provide insight into the properties of polymeric gene-delivery carriers by elucidating their interactions and detailed binding patterns with nucleic acids. However, to explore nanoparticle formation through complexation of these polymers and nucleic acids and study their behavior at experimentally relevant time and length scales, a reliable coarse-grained model is needed. Here, we systematically develop such a model for the complexation of small interfering RNA (siRNA) and grafted polyethyleneimine copolymers, a promising candidate for siRNA delivery. We compare the predictions of this model with all-atom simulations and demonstrate that it is capable of reproducing detailed bindingmore » patterns, charge characteristics, and water release kinetics. Since the coarse-grained model accelerates the simulations by one to two orders of magnitude, it will make it possible to quantitatively investigate nanoparticle formation involving multiple siRNA molecules and cationic copolymers.« less

  6. Adaptive Array for Weak Interfering Signals: Geostationary Satellite Experiments. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steadman, Karl

    1989-01-01

    The performance of an experimental adaptive array is evaluated using signals from an existing geostationary satellite interference environment. To do this, an earth station antenna was built to receive signals from various geostationary satellites. In these experiments the received signals have a frequency of approximately 4 GHz (C-band) and have a bandwidth of over 35 MHz. These signals are downconverted to a 69 MHz intermediate frequency in the experimental system. Using the downconverted signals, the performance of the experimental system for various signal scenarios is evaluated. In this situation, due to the inherent thermal noise, qualitative instead of quantitative test results are presented. It is shown that the experimental system can null up to two interfering signals well below the noise level. However, to avoid the cancellation of the desired signal, the use a steering vector is needed. Various methods to obtain an estimate of the steering vector are proposed.

  7. Antibodies to watch in 2015

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Janice M

    2015-01-01

    The commercial pipeline of recombinant antibody therapeutics is robust and dynamic. As of early December 2014, a total of 6 such products (vedolizumab, siltuximab, ramucirumab, pembrolizumab, nivolumab, blinatumomab) were granted first marketing approvals in 2014. As discussed in this perspective on antibodies in late-stage development, the outlook for additional approvals, potentially still in 2014 and certainly in 2015, is excellent as marketing applications for 6 antibody therapeutics (secukinumab, evolocumab, mepolizumab, dinutuximab, nivolumab, necitumumab) are undergoing a first regulatory review in the EU or US. Of the 39 novel mAbs currently in Phase 3 studies, a marketing application for one (alirocumab) may be submitted in late 2014, and marketing application submissions for at least 4 (reslizumab, ixekizumab, ocrelizumab, obiltoxaximab) are expected in 2015. Other ‘antibodies to watch’ are those in Phase 3 studies with estimated primary completion dates in late 2014 or 2015, which includes 13 for non-cancer indications (brodalumab, bimagrumab, bococizumab, MABp1, gevokizumab, dupilumab, sirukumab, sarilumab, tildrakizumab, guselkumab, epratuzumab, combination of actoxumab + bezlotoxumab, romosozumab) and 2 (racotumomab and clivatuzumab tetraxetan) undergoing evaluation as treatments for cancer. In addition to the novel antibody therapeutics mentioned, biosimilar infliximab and biosimilar trastuzumab are ‘antibodies to watch’ in 2015 because of their potential for entry into the US market and regulatory review, respectively. PMID:25484055

  8. Radiohalogenated half-antibodies and maleimide intermediate therefor

    DOEpatents

    Kassis, Amin I.; Khawli, Leslie A.

    1991-01-01

    N-(m-radiohalophenyl) maleimide can be conjugated with a reduced antibody having a mercapto group to provide a radiolabelled half-antibody having immunological specific binding characteristics of whole antibody.

  9. Dynamique et interférence de paquets d'ondes dans les atomes et dimères d'alcalins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchene, M. A.

    2002-11-01

    (saturation regime, chirped pulse, ...) that allow us to determine the advantages and limits of this technique. In the case of molecules, the interaction of the two-pulse sequence leads to the interference of vibrational wave packets. We analyse and discuss in this case the effects of a thermal distribution of initial states on the temporal coherent control signal. Ce travail porte sur l'étude expérimentale résolue en temps de la dynamique atomique et moléculaire prenant place sur une échelle de temps femtoseconde. Il présente deux orientations distinctes et complémentaires. La première concerne l'étude de la dynamique de paquets d'ondes dans des atomes et dimères d'alcalins (K, K2) par des méthodes pompe-sonde. Dans le cas du potassium atomique le paquet d'ondes est une superposition des états de structure fine de l'état 4p et représente un paquet de spin électronique. Nous observons la dynamique de ce paquet d'ondes au cours du temps et montrons que celle-ci correspond à une inversion du sens d'orientation du spin. Le formalisme théorique des états brillants et noirs est particulièrement adapté à la description de ce type de dynamique. Nous présentons alors une méthode originale qui, tirant avantage du mouvement d'inversion du spin, permet de produire des électrons polarisés en spin à l'échelle femtoseconde. Dans le cas des molécules, le paquet d'ondes créé est une superposition d'états vibrationnels. Nous présentons les résultats d'une étude systématique de la dynamique de paquet d'ondes vibrationnel dans les états électroniques A^1Σ^+_u et 2^1Pi_g. Le signal pompe-sonde dépend alors de la compétition entre les dynamiques associées aux paquets d'ondes créés dans les deux états électroniques. La deuxième partie traite d'expériences d'interférences de paquets d'ondes dans des systèmes similaires (K, Cs, Cs2). Cette technique, complémentaire de la première, consiste à faire interagir une séquence de deux impulsions

  10. Identification of anti-HPA-1a allo-antibodies using IgG platelet antibody detection and crossmatch system assay with Galileo Echo.

    PubMed

    Di Cristofaro, Julie; Frassati, Coralie; Montagnie, Rolande; Basire, Agnes; Merieux, Yves; Picard, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Fetal/neonatal allo-immune thrombocytopenia is the most frequent and the most dangerous clinical condition involving anti-human platelet antigens (HPA)-1a allo-antibodies. Anti-HPA-1a allo-immunization requires rapid and accurate diagnosis to determine appropriate treatment. The Capture-P Ready-Screen assay (C-PRS) is a new qualitative immunoassay to detect IgG anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and anti-HPA allo-antibodies. The aim of this study is to assess the identification of anti-HPA-1a allo-antibodies using the C-PRS assay, associated with HLA class I stripping reagents, on the automated benchtop analyzer Galileo Echo. Forty-nine sera were analyzed: without anti-HLA class I or anti-HPA allo-antibodies, with anti-HLA class I allo-antibodies, with anti-HPA-1a allo-antibodies, among which with anti-HLA class I allo-antibodies. None of the samples without allo-antibodies were reactive. Only anti-HLA antibodies, detected by cytotoxicity-dependent complement and not by Luminex, remained positive before and after stripping reagents. Of the 13 samples, anti-HPA-1a allo-antibodies that were correctly identified before and after incubation with HLA assassin reagent were 70% and 85%, respectively. Anti-glycoprotein auto-antibodies and anti-HLA allo-antibodies do not interfere with the detection of anti-HPA-1a antibodies. This preliminary study indicates that further improvement of the test will be helpful in developing a clinically useful assay in the future.

  11. Radiohalogenated half-antibodies and maleimide intermediate therefor

    DOEpatents

    Kassis, A.I.; Khawli, L.A.

    1991-02-19

    N-(m-radiohalophenyl) maleimide can be conjugated with a reduced antibody having a mercapto group to provide a radiolabeled half-antibody having immunological specific binding characteristics of whole antibody. No Drawings

  12. Impact of antibody subclass and disulfide isoform differences on the biological activity of CD200R and βklotho agonist antibodies.

    PubMed

    Grujic, Ognjen; Stevens, Jennitte; Chou, Robert Y-T; Weiszmann, Jennifer V; Sekirov, Laura; Thomson, Christy; Badh, Anita; Grauer, Stephanie; Chan, Brian; Graham, Kevin; Manchulenko, Kathy; Dillon, Thomas M; Li, Yang; Foltz, Ian N

    2017-05-13

    Agonism of cell surface receptors by monoclonal antibodies is dependent not only on its ability to bind the target, but also to deliver a biological signal through receptors to the cell. Immunoglobulin G2 antibodies (IgG2s) are made up of a mixture of distinct isoforms (IgG2-A, -B and A/B), which differ by the disulfide connectivity at the hinge region. When evaluating panels of agonistic antibodies against CD200 receptor (CD200R) or βklotho receptor (βklotho), we noticed striking activity differences of IgG1 or IgG2 antibodies with the same variable domains. For the CD200R antibody, the IgG2 antibody demonstrated higher activity than the IgG1 or IgG4 antibody. More significantly, for βklotho, agonist antibodies with higher biological activity as either IgG2 or IgG1 were identified. In both cases, ion exchange chromatography was able to isolate the bioactivity to the IgG2-B isoform from the IgG2 parental mixture. The subclass-related increase in agonist activity was not correlated with antibody aggregation or binding affinity, but was driven by enhanced avidity for the CD200R antibody. These results add to the growing body of evidence that show that conformational differences in the antibody hinge region can have a dramatic impact on the antibody activity and must be considered when screening and engineering therapeutic antibody candidates. The results also demonstrate that the IgG1 (IgG2-A like) or the IgG2-B form may provide the most active form of agonist antibodies for different antibodies and targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Antigen-Specific Antibody Glycosylation Is Regulated via Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Mahan, Alison E; Jennewein, Madeleine F; Suscovich, Todd; Dionne, Kendall; Tedesco, Jacquelynne; Chung, Amy W; Streeck, Hendrik; Pau, Maria; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Francis, Don; Fast, Patricia; Laufer, Dagna; Walker, Bruce D; Baden, Lindsey; Barouch, Dan H; Alter, Galit

    2016-03-01

    Antibody effector functions, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, complement deposition, and antibody-dependent phagocytosis, play a critical role in immunity against multiple pathogens, particularly in the absence of neutralizing activity. Two modifications to the IgG constant domain (Fc domain) regulate antibody functionality: changes in antibody subclass and changes in a single N-linked glycan located in the CH2 domain of the IgG Fc. Together, these modifications provide a specific set of instructions to the innate immune system to direct the elimination of antibody-bound antigens. While it is clear that subclass selection is actively regulated during the course of natural infection, it is unclear whether antibody glycosylation can be tuned, in a signal-specific or pathogen-specific manner. Here, we show that antibody glycosylation is determined in an antigen- and pathogen-specific manner during HIV infection. Moreover, while dramatic differences exist in bulk IgG glycosylation among individuals in distinct geographical locations, immunization is able to overcome these differences and elicit antigen-specific antibodies with similar antibody glycosylation patterns. Additionally, distinct vaccine regimens induced different antigen-specific IgG glycosylation profiles, suggesting that antibody glycosylation is not only programmable but can be manipulated via the delivery of distinct inflammatory signals during B cell priming. These data strongly suggest that the immune system naturally drives antibody glycosylation in an antigen-specific manner and highlights a promising means by which next-generation therapeutics and vaccines can harness the antiviral activity of the innate immune system via directed alterations in antibody glycosylation in vivo.  .

  14. Relationship between natural and heme-mediated antibody polyreactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Hadzhieva, Maya; Vassilev, Tchavdar; Bayry, Jagadeesh

    Polyreactive antibodies represent a considerable fraction of the immune repertoires. Some antibodies acquire polyreactivity post-translationally after interaction with various redox-active substances, including heme. Recently we have demonstrated that heme binding to a naturally polyreactive antibody (SPE7) results in a considerable broadening of the repertoire of recognized antigens. A question remains whether the presence of certain level of natural polyreactivity of antibodies is a prerequisite for heme-induced further extension of antigen binding potential. Here we used a second monoclonal antibody (Hg32) with unknown specificity and absence of intrinsic polyreactivity as a model to study the potential of heme to induce polyreactivitymore » of antibodies. We demonstrated that exposure to heme greatly extends the antigen binding potential of Hg32, suggesting that the intrinsic binding promiscuity is not a prerequisite for the induction of polyreactivity by heme. In addition we compared the kinetics and thermodynamics of the interaction of heme-exposed antibodies with a panel of unrelated antigens. These analyses revealed that the two heme-sensitive antibodies adopt different mechanisms of binding to the same set of antigens. This study contributes to understanding the phenomenon of induced antibody polyreactivity. The data may also be of importance for understanding of physiological and pathological roles of polyreactive antibodies. - Highlights: • Exposure of certain monoclonal IgE antibodies to heme results in gain of antigen binding polyreactivity. • Natural polyreactivity of antibodies is dispensable for acquisition of polyreactivity through interaction with heme. • Heme-induced monoclonal IgE antibodies differ in their thermodynamic mechanisms of antigen recognition.« less

  15. Synthetic antibodies: concepts, potential and practical considerations.

    PubMed

    Miersch, S; Sidhu, S S

    2012-08-01

    The last 100 years of enquiry into the fundamental basis of humoral immunity has resulted in the identification of antibodies as key molecular sentinels responsible for the in vivo surveillance, neutralization and clearance of foreign substances. Intense efforts aimed at understanding and exploiting their exquisite molecular specificity have positioned antibodies as a cornerstone supporting basic research, diagnostics and therapeutic applications [1]. More recently, efforts have aimed to circumvent the limitations of developing antibodies in animals by developing wholly in vitro techniques for designing antibodies of tailored specificity. This has been realized with the advent of synthetic antibody libraries that possess diversity outside the scope of natural immune repertoires and are thus capable of yielding specificities not otherwise attainable. This review examines the convergence of technologies that have contributed to the development of combinatorial phage-displayed antibody libraries. It further explores the practical concepts that underlie phage display, antibody diversity and the methods used in the generation of and selection from phage-displayed synthetic antibody libraries, highlighting specific applications in which design approaches gave rise to specificities that could not easily be obtained with libraries based upon natural immune repertories. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Art of Making Antibodies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headon, Denis R.

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information for teachers on the nature and production of antibodies. Points out that the production of monoclonal antibodies blends the malignant with the beneficial to create a medical tool of exciting potential. (JN)

  17. FcγRII-binding Centyrins mediate agonism and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis when fused to an anti-OX40 antibody

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Di; Whitaker, Brian; Derebe, Mehabaw G.; Chiu, Mark L.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Immunostimulatory antibodies against the tumor necrosis factor receptors (TNFR) are emerging as promising cancer immunotherapies. The agonism activity of such antibodies depends on crosslinking to Fc gamma RIIB receptor (FcγRIIB) to enable the antibody multimerization that drives TNFR activation. Previously, Fc engineering was used to enhance the binding of such antibodies to Fcγ receptors. Here, we report the identification of Centyrins as alternative scaffold proteins with binding affinities to homologous FcγRIIB and FcγRIIA, but not to other types of Fcγ receptors. One Centyrin, S29, was engineered at distinct positions of an anti-OX40 SF2 antibody to generate bispecific and tetravalent molecules named as mAbtyrins. Regardless of the position of S29 on the SF2 antibody, SF2-S29 mAbtyrins could bind FcγRIIB and FcγRIIA specifically while maintaining binding to OX40 receptors. In a NFκB reporter assay, attachment of S29 Centyrin molecules at the C-termini, but not the N-termini, resulted in SF2 antibodies with increased agonism owing to FcγRIIB crosslinking. The mAbtyrins also showed agonism in T-cell activation assays with immobilized FcγRIIB and FcγRIIA, but this activity was confined to mAbtyrins with S29 specifically at the C-termini of antibody heavy chains. Furthermore, regardless of the position of the molecule, S29 Centyrin could equip an otherwise Fc-silent antibody with antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis activity without affecting the antibody's intrinsic antibody-dependent cell-meditated cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity. In summary, the appropriate adoption FcγRII-binding Centyrins as functional modules represents a novel strategy to engineer therapeutic antibodies with improved functionalities. PMID:29359992

  18. Cytokine Signaling in Splenic Leukocytes from Vaccinated and Non-Vaccinated Chickens after Intravenous Infection with Salmonella Enteritidis

    PubMed Central

    Matulova, Marta; Stepanova, Hana; Sisak, Frantisek; Havlickova, Hana; Faldynova, Marcela; Kyrova, Kamila; Volf, Jiri; Rychlik, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    In order to design a new Salmonella enterica vaccine, one needs to understand how naive and immune chickens interact differently when exposed to S. enterica. In this study we therefore determined the immune response of vaccinated and non-vaccinated chickens after intravenous infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis). Using flow cytometry we showed that 4 days post infection (DPI), counts of CD4 and B-lymphocytes did not change, CD8 and γδ T-lymphocytes decreased and macrophages and heterophils increased in the spleen. When vaccinated and non-vaccinated chickens were compared, only macrophages and heterophils were found in significantly higher counts in the spleens of the non-vaccinated chickens. The non-vaccinated chickens also expressed higher anti-LPS antibodies than the vaccinated chickens. The expression of interleukin (IL)1β, IL6, IL8, IL18, LITAF, IFNγ and iNOS did not exhibit any clear pattern in the cells sorted from the spleens of vaccinated or non-vaccinated chickens. Only IL17 and IL22 showed a differential expression in the CD4 T-lymphocytes of the vaccinated and non-vaccinated chickens at 4 DPI, both being expressed at a higher level in the non-vaccinated chickens. Due to a similar IFNγ expression in the CD4 T-lymphocytes in both the vaccinated and non-vaccinated chickens, and a variable IL17 expression oscillating around IFNγ expression levels, the IL17∶IFNγ ratio in CD4 T-lymphocytes was found to be central for the outcome of the immune response. When IL17 was expressed at higher levels than IFNγ in the non-vaccinated chickens, the Th17 immune response with a higher macrophage and heterophil infiltration in the spleen dominated. However, when the expression of IL17 was lower than that of IFNγ as in the vaccinated chickens, the Th1 response with a higher resistance to S. Enteritidis infection dominated. PMID:22384225

  19. Optimizing antibody expression: The nuts and bolts.

    PubMed

    Ayyar, B Vijayalakshmi; Arora, Sushrut; Ravi, Shiva Shankar

    2017-03-01

    Antibodies are extensively utilized entities in biomedical research, and in the development of diagnostics and therapeutics. Many of these applications require high amounts of antibodies. However, meeting this ever-increasing demand of antibodies in the global market is one of the outstanding challenges. The need to maintain a balance between demand and supply of antibodies has led the researchers to discover better means and methods for optimizing their expression. These strategies aim to increase the volumetric productivity of the antibodies along with the reduction of associated manufacturing costs. Recent years have witnessed major advances in recombinant protein technology, owing to the introduction of novel cloning strategies, gene manipulation techniques, and an array of cell and vector engineering techniques, together with the progress in fermentation technologies. These innovations were also highly beneficial for antibody expression. Antibody expression depends upon the complex interplay of multiple factors that may require fine tuning at diverse levels to achieve maximum yields. However, each antibody is unique and requires individual consideration and customization for optimizing the associated expression parameters. This review provides a comprehensive overview of several state-of-the-art approaches, such as host selection, strain engineering, codon optimization, gene optimization, vector modification and process optimization that are deemed suitable for enhancing antibody expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. RosettaAntibodyDesign (RAbD): A general framework for computational antibody design

    PubMed Central

    Adolf-Bryfogle, Jared; Kalyuzhniy, Oleks; Kubitz, Michael; Hu, Xiaozhen; Adachi, Yumiko; Schief, William R.

    2018-01-01

    A structural-bioinformatics-based computational methodology and framework have been developed for the design of antibodies to targets of interest. RosettaAntibodyDesign (RAbD) samples the diverse sequence, structure, and binding space of an antibody to an antigen in highly customizable protocols for the design of antibodies in a broad range of applications. The program samples antibody sequences and structures by grafting structures from a widely accepted set of the canonical clusters of CDRs (North et al., J. Mol. Biol., 406:228–256, 2011). It then performs sequence design according to amino acid sequence profiles of each cluster, and samples CDR backbones using a flexible-backbone design protocol incorporating cluster-based CDR constraints. Starting from an existing experimental or computationally modeled antigen-antibody structure, RAbD can be used to redesign a single CDR or multiple CDRs with loops of different length, conformation, and sequence. We rigorously benchmarked RAbD on a set of 60 diverse antibody–antigen complexes, using two design strategies—optimizing total Rosetta energy and optimizing interface energy alone. We utilized two novel metrics for measuring success in computational protein design. The design risk ratio (DRR) is equal to the frequency of recovery of native CDR lengths and clusters divided by the frequency of sampling of those features during the Monte Carlo design procedure. Ratios greater than 1.0 indicate that the design process is picking out the native more frequently than expected from their sampled rate. We achieved DRRs for the non-H3 CDRs of between 2.4 and 4.0. The antigen risk ratio (ARR) is the ratio of frequencies of the native amino acid types, CDR lengths, and clusters in the output decoys for simulations performed in the presence and absence of the antigen. For CDRs, we achieved cluster ARRs as high as 2.5 for L1 and 1.5 for H2. For sequence design simulations without CDR grafting, the overall recovery for the

  1. Survivors Remorse: antibody-mediated protection against HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Lewis, George K; Pazgier, Marzena; DeVico, Anthony L

    2017-01-01

    It is clear that antibodies can play a pivotal role in preventing the transmission of HIV-1 and large efforts to identify an effective antibody-based vaccine to quell the epidemic. Shortly after HIV-1 was discovered as the cause of AIDS, the search for epitopes recognized by neutralizing antibodies became the driving strategy for an antibody-based vaccine. Neutralization escape variants were discovered shortly thereafter, and, after almost three decades of investigation, it is now known that autologous neutralizing antibody responses and their selection of neutralization resistant HIV-1 variants can lead to broadly neutralizing antibodies in some infected individuals. This observation drives an intensive effort to identify a vaccine to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies. In contrast, there has been less systematic study of antibody specificities that must rely mainly or exclusively on other protective mechanisms, although non-human primate (NHP) studies as well as the RV144 vaccine trial indicate that non-neutralizing antibodies can contribute to protection. Here we propose a novel strategy to identify new epitope targets recognized by these antibodies for which viral escape is unlikely or impossible. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Metasurface with interfering Fano resonance: manipulating transmission wave with high efficiency.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhaoxian; Song, Kun; Yin, Jianbo; Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2017-06-15

    We proposed a novel strategy to design a deep subwavelength metasurface with full 2π transmission phase modulation and high transmission efficiency by applying resonators with interfering Fano resonance. Theoretical investigation demonstrates that the transmission efficiency of the resonators depends on the direct transmission coefficient, direct reflection coefficient, and Q factor. When an impedance layer is added in the resonators, the direct transmission and direct reflection coefficients can be facilely manipulated so that the span of the transmission phase around the resonance frequency can be extended to 2π. As a result, we can continuously adjust the transmission phase from 0 to 2π through changing the geometric parameters of the resonators and construct a deep subwavelength metasurface with the resonators to manipulate the transmission wave with high efficiency. We also find that a layer of grating can be used as the impedance layer to change direct transmission and direct reflection in the actual design of the metasurface. The proposed strategy may provide effective guidance to design a deep subwavelength metasurface for controlling a transmitted wave with high efficiency.

  3. Phase Separation in Solutions of Monoclonal Antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedek, George; Wang, Ying; Lomakin, Aleksey; Latypov, Ramil

    2012-02-01

    We report the observation of liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) in a solution of humanized monoclonal antibodies, IgG2, and the effects of human serum albumin, a major blood protein, on this phase separation. We find a significant reduction of phase separation temperature in the presence of albumin, and a preferential partitioning of the albumin into the antibody-rich phase. We provide a general thermodynamic analysis of the antibody-albumin mixture phase diagram and relate its features to the magnitude of the effective inter-protein interactions. Our analysis suggests that additives (HSA in this report), which have moderate attraction with antibody molecules, may be used to forestall undesirable protein condensation in antibody solutions. Our findings are relevant to understanding the stability of pharmaceutical solutions of antibodies and the mechanisms of cryoglobulinemia.

  4. Fully human monoclonal antibodies from antibody secreting cells after vaccination with Pneumovax®23 are serotype specific and facilitate opsonophagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kenneth; Muther, Jennifer J; Duke, Angie L; McKee, Emily; Zheng, Nai-Ying; Wilson, Patrick C; James, Judith A

    2013-05-01

    B lymphocyte memory generates antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) that represent a source of protective antibodies that may be exploited for therapeutics. Here we vaccinated four donors with Pneumovax®23 and produced human monoclonal antibodies (hmAbs) from ASCs. We have cloned 137 hmAbs and the specificities of these antibodies encompass 19 of the 23 serotypes in the vaccine, as well as cell wall polysaccharide (CWPS). Although the majority of the antibodies are serotype specific, 12% cross-react with two serotypes. The Pneumovax®23 ASC antibody sequences are highly mutated and clonal, indicating an anamnestic response, even though this was a primary vaccination. Hmabs from 64% of the clonal families facilitate opsonophagocytosis. Although 9% of the total antibodies bind to CWPS impurity in the vaccine, none of these clonal families showed opsonophagocytic activity. Overall, these studies have allowed us to address unanswered questions in the field of human immune responses to polysaccharide vaccines, including the cross-reactivity of individual antibodies between serotypes and the percentage of antibodies that are protective after vaccination with Pneumovax®23. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Télèmetre utilisant une diode laser à balayage continu en fréquence et un double interférométre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafidi, Abdeslam; Pfeiffer, Pierre; Meyrueis, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    This paper, "Télèmetre utilisant une diode laser à balayage continu en fréquence et un double interférométre," was presented as part of International Conference on Space Optics—ICSO 1997, held in Toulouse, France.

  6. [Advances in the study of natural small molecular antibody].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Da-peng

    2012-10-01

    Small molecule antibodies are naturally existed and well functioned but not structurally related to the conventional antibodies. They are only composed of heavy protein chains or light chains, much smaller than common antibody. The first small molecule antibody, called Nanobody was engineered from heavy-chain antibodies found in camelids. Cartilaginous fishes also have heavy-chain antibodies (IgNAR, "immunoglobulin new antigen receptor"), from which single-domain antibodies called Vnar fragments can be obtained. In addition, free light chain (FLC) antibodies in human bodies are being developed as therapeutic and diagnostic agents. Comparing to intact antibodies, common advantages of small molecule antibodies are with better solubility, tissue penetration, stability towards heat and enzymes, and comparatively low production costs. This article reviews the structural characteristics and mechanism of action of the Nanobody, IgNAR and FLC.

  7. Neutralising Antibodies against Ricin Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Prigent, Julie; Panigai, Laetitia; Lamourette, Patricia; Sauvaire, Didier; Devilliers, Karine; Plaisance, Marc; Volland, Hervé; Créminon, Christophe; Simon, Stéphanie

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have listed the potential bioweapon ricin as a Category B Agent. Ricin is a so-called A/B toxin produced by plants and is one of the deadliest molecules known. It is easy to prepare and no curative treatment is available. An immunotherapeutic approach could be of interest to attenuate or neutralise the effects of the toxin. We sought to characterise neutralising monoclonal antibodies against ricin and to develop an effective therapy. For this purpose, mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were produced against the two chains of ricin toxin (RTA and RTB). Seven mAbs were selected for their capacity to neutralise the cytotoxic effects of ricin in vitro. Three of these, two anti-RTB (RB34 and RB37) and one anti-RTA (RA36), when used in combination improved neutralising capacity in vitro with an IC50 of 31 ng/ml. Passive administration of association of these three mixed mAbs (4.7 µg) protected mice from intranasal challenges with ricin (5 LD50). Among those three antibodies, anti-RTB antibodies protected mice more efficiently than the anti-RTA antibody. The combination of the three antibodies protected mice up to 7.5 hours after ricin challenge. The strong in vivo neutralising capacity of this three mAbs combination makes it potentially useful for immunotherapeutic purposes in the case of ricin poisoning or possibly for prevention. PMID:21633505

  8. Production Of Human Antibodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammons, David W.; Neil, Garry A.

    1993-01-01

    Process for making human monoclonal antibodies based on combination of techniques. Antibodies made active against specific antigen. Process involves in vivo immunization of human B lymphocyte cells in mice. B cells of interest enriched in vitro before fusion. Method potentially applicable to any antigen. Does not rely on use of Epstein-Barr virus at any step. Human lymphocytes taken from any source.

  9. Utilization of Multi-Immunization and Multiple Selection Strategies for Isolation of Hapten-Specific Antibodies from Recombinant Antibody Phage Display Libraries.

    PubMed

    Tullila, Antti; Nevanen, Tarja K

    2017-05-31

    Phage display technology provides a powerful tool for the development of novel recombinant antibodies. In this work, we optimized and streamlined the recombinant antibody discovery process for haptens as an example. A multi-immunization approach was used in order to avoid the need for construction of multiple antibody libraries. Selection methods were developed to utilize the full potential of the recombinant antibody library by applying four different elution conditions simultaneously. High-throughput immunoassays were used to analyse the binding properties of the individual antibody clones. Different carrier proteins were used in the immunization, selection, and screening phases to avoid enrichment of the antibodies for the carrier protein epitopes. Novel recombinant antibodies against mycophenolic acid and ochratoxin A, with affinities up to 39 nM and 34 nM, respectively, were isolated from a multi-immunized fragment antigen-binding (Fab) library.

  10. Utilization of Multi-Immunization and Multiple Selection Strategies for Isolation of Hapten-Specific Antibodies from Recombinant Antibody Phage Display Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Tullila, Antti; Nevanen, Tarja K.

    2017-01-01

    Phage display technology provides a powerful tool for the development of novel recombinant antibodies. In this work, we optimized and streamlined the recombinant antibody discovery process for haptens as an example. A multi-immunization approach was used in order to avoid the need for construction of multiple antibody libraries. Selection methods were developed to utilize the full potential of the recombinant antibody library by applying four different elution conditions simultaneously. High-throughput immunoassays were used to analyse the binding properties of the individual antibody clones. Different carrier proteins were used in the immunization, selection, and screening phases to avoid enrichment of the antibodies for the carrier protein epitopes. Novel recombinant antibodies against mycophenolic acid and ochratoxin A, with affinities up to 39 nM and 34 nM, respectively, were isolated from a multi-immunized fragment antigen-binding (Fab) library. PMID:28561803

  11. [Non-identified antinuclear antibodies in systemic sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Margot, A; Smet, J; Soyfoo, S

    Systemic sclerosis is a rare auto immune disease characterized by a local or diffuse skin condition and a variable visceral impairment. Anti nuclear antibodies (ANA) can be found in 95 % of patients. The most frequent are the anti topoisomerase 1 or anti Scl 70 and the anti-centromeres. Other antibodies have been reported but they are not conventionally sought in clinical practice. They are referred to as " non identified " ANA. To seek the " non identified " antibodies in patients with scleroderma at Erasme Hospital, to assess their prevalence in this cohort and to correlate their presence with the clinical characteristics. 89 patients out of the cohort of Erasme hospital patients with scleroderma have been looked at. Their clinical and biological data have been identified and a detection of antibodies have been performed by first an immonudot technique and second an EliA technique. 17 out of the 89 patients of our cohort had " non identified " ANA. Among them, antibodies in 11 patients have been identified by the immunodot, among which 7 anti-PmScl 75 and/or 100,3 RNA polymerase III and 1 antifibrillarin. The EliA technique identif ied antibodies in 10 patients among which 5 anti- PmScl, 2 anti RNA polymerase, 2 anti-fibrillarin and 1 anti-centromere. Auto antibodies other than the antitopoisomerase and anti-centromere have been found in patients with scleroderma in our cohort. Certain links exist between the presence of a given antibody and clinical features. We still have to define whether there exist other auto antibodies of which we still are unaware since in some patient no antibodies were detected.

  12. Reconciling the Structural Attributes of Avian Antibodies*

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, Paul J.; Law, Ruby H. P.; Gilgunn, Sarah; Hearty, Stephen; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T.; Lloyd, Gordon; O'Kennedy, Richard J.; Whisstock, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Antibodies are high value therapeutic, diagnostic, biotechnological, and research tools. Combinatorial approaches to antibody discovery have facilitated access to unique antibodies by surpassing the diversity limitations of the natural repertoire, exploitation of immune repertoires from multiple species, and tailoring selections to isolate antibodies with desirable biophysical attributes. The V-gene repertoire of the chicken does not utilize highly diverse sequence and structures, which is in stark contrast to the mechanism employed by humans, mice, and primates. Recent exploitation of the avian immune system has generated high quality, high affinity antibodies to a wide range of antigens for a number of therapeutic, diagnostic and biotechnological applications. Furthermore, extensive examination of the amino acid characteristics of the chicken repertoire has provided significant insight into mechanisms employed by the avian immune system. A paucity of avian antibody crystal structures has limited our understanding of the structural consequences of these uniquely chicken features. This paper presents the crystal structure of two chicken single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies generated from large libraries by phage display against important human antigen targets, which capture two unique CDRL1 canonical classes in the presence and absence of a non-canonical disulfide constrained CDRH3. These structures cast light on the unique structural features of chicken antibodies and contribute further to our collective understanding of the unique mechanisms of diversity and biochemical attributes that render the chicken repertoire of particular value for antibody generation. PMID:24737329

  13. [Myositis-specific antibodies associated with juvenile dermatomyositis].

    PubMed

    Eising, K; Peitz, J; Unterwalder, N; Meisel, C; Horneff, G

    2018-02-06

    Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is a rare autoimmune disease associated with typical skin changes and muscle weakness. Within the framework of the diagnostics, myositis-associated (MAA) and myositis-specific antibodies (MSA) can be detected. These are important for the assessment of the course of the disease and the prognosis. In this study we searched for MAA and MSA by means of a line immunoassay in 12 currently supervised JDM patients in the Rheumatism Center Sankt Augustin. In 10 of the 12 patients a total of 15 myositis antibodies were detected where 3 patients each had Mi2, SRP or NXP2 antibodies, 2 had TIF-1γ antibodies and Jo1 or Mi2β antibodies were found in 1 patient each. Of the patients two had additional PM-Scl antibodies. In the 10 patients with detected antibodies, a good phenotype-serotype correlation was found with deviation from the phenotypes described in the literature in only 3 patients. The frequent detection of certain antibodies and the good correlation with those phenotypes described in the literature, show that the determination of MSA is an important diagnostic tool to assess the course, complications and outcome and to initiate adequate therapy at an early stage.

  14. Detection of LGI1 and CASPR2 antibodies with a commercial cell-based assay in patients with very high VGKC-complex antibody levels.

    PubMed

    Yeo, T; Chen, Z; Chai, J Y H; Tan, K

    2017-07-15

    The presence of VGKC-complex antibodies, without LGI1/CASPR2 antibodies, as a standalone marker for neurological autoimmunity remains controversial. Additionally, the lack of an unequivocal VGKC-complex antibody cut-off level defining neurological autoimmunity makes it important to test for monospecific antibodies. We aim to determine the performance characteristics of a commercial assay (Euroimmun, Lübeck, Germany) for LGI1/CASPR2 antibody detection in patients with very high VGKC-complex antibody levels and report their clinico-serological associations. We identified 8 patients in our cohort with the highest VGKC-complex antibody levels (median 2663.5pM, range 933-6730pM) with VGKC-complex antibody related syndromes (Group A). Two other groups were identified; 1 group with suspected neuronal surface antibody syndromes and negative for VGKC-complex antibodies (Group B, n=8), and another group with cerebellar ataxia and negative for onconeuronal antibodies (Group C, n=8). Seven out of 8 patients (87.5%) in Group A had LGI1 and/or CASPR2 antibodies. One Group B patient had LGI1 antibodies but was negative on re-testing with a live cell assay. No Group C patients had monospecific antibodies. Inter-rater reliability was high; combining Groups A and B patients, the kappa statistic was 0.87 and 1.0 for LGI1 and CASPR2 antibodies respectively. We demonstrated that a high proportion of patients with very high VGKC-complex antibody levels and relevant clinical syndromes have LGI1 and/or CASPR2 antibodies detected by the commercial assay. Our findings lend support to the use of the assay for rapid and reliable detection of LGI1 and CASPR2 antibodies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Postoperative rebound of antiblood type antibodies and antibody-mediated rejection after ABO-incompatible living-related kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Hideki; Kondo, Tsunenori; Shimizu, Tomokazu; Nozaki, Taiji; Tanabe, Kazunari

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine whether postoperative antiblood type antibody rebound is attributed to kidney allograft rejection in ABO blood type-incompatible (ABO-I) living-related kidney transplantation (KTx). A total of 191 ABO-I recipients who received ABO-I living-related KTx between 2001 and 2013 were divided into two groups: Group 1 consisted of low rebound [(≦1:32), N = 170] and Group 2 consisted of high rebound [(≧1:64), N = 21], according to the levels of the rebounded antiblood type antibodies within 1 year after transplantation. No prophylactic treatment for rejection was administered for elevated antiblood type antibodies, regardless of the levels of the rebounded antibodies. Within 1 year after transplantation, T-cell-mediated rejection was observed in 13 of 170 recipients (13/170, 8%) in Group 1 and in 2 of 21 recipients (2/21, 10%) in Group 2 (Groups 1 vs. 2, P = 0.432). Antibody-mediated rejection was observed in 15 of 170 recipients (15/170, 9%) and 2 of 21 recipients (2/21, 10%) in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (P = 0.898). In this study, we found no correlation between the postoperative antiblood type antibody rebound and the incidence of acute rejection. We concluded that no treatment is necessary for rebounded antiblood type antibodies. © 2014 Steunstichting ESOT.

  16. Ligand-targeted delivery of small interfering RNAs to malignant cells and tissues.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Mini; Kularatne, Sumith A; Qi, Longwu; Kleindl, Paul; Leamon, Christopher P; Hansen, Michael J; Low, Philip S

    2009-09-01

    Potential clinical applications of small interfering RNA (siRNA) are hampered primarily by delivery issues. We have successfully addressed the delivery problems associated with off-site targeting of highly toxic chemotherapeutic agents by attaching the drugs to tumor-specific ligands that will carry the attached cargo into the desired cancer cell. Indeed, several such tumor-targeted drugs are currently undergoing human clinical trials. We now show that efficient targeting of siRNA to malignant cells and tissues can be achieved by covalent conjugation of small-molecular-weight, high-affinity ligands, such as folic acid and DUPA (2-[3-(1, 3-dicarboxy propyl)-ureido] pentanedioic acid), to siRNA. The former ligand binds a folate receptor that is overexpressed on a variety of cancers, whereas the latter ligand binds to prostate-specific membrane antigen that is overexpressed specifically on prostate cancers and the neovasculature of all solid tumors. Using these ligands, we show remarkable receptor-mediated targeting of siRNA to cancer tissues in vitro and in vivo.

  17. Combining Phage and Yeast Cell Surface Antibody Display to Identify Novel Cell Type-Selective Internalizing Human Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Bidlingmaier, Scott; Su, Yang; Liu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Using phage antibody display, large libraries can be generated and screened to identify monoclonal antibodies with affinity for target antigens. However, while library size and diversity is an advantage of the phage display method, there is limited ability to quantitatively enrich for specific binding properties such as affinity. One way of overcoming this limitation is to combine the scale of phage display selections with the flexibility and quantitativeness of FACS-based yeast surface display selections. In this chapter we describe protocols for generating yeast surface antibody display libraries using phage antibody display selection outputs as starting material and FACS-based enrichment of target antigen-binding clones from these libraries. These methods should be widely applicable for the identification of monoclonal antibodies with specific binding properties.

  18. [Ma2 antibody and multiple mononeuropathies].

    PubMed

    Ayrignac, X; Castelnovo, G; Landrault, E; Fayolle, H; Pers, Y-M; Honnorat, J; Campello, C; Figarella-Branger, D; Labauge, P

    2008-01-01

    Anti-Ma2 antibodies belong to a family of onconeuronal antibodies that target proteins expressed in brain, testis and several tumors. Previously observed in patients presenting with limbic encephalitis, they seem to be associated with several other paraneoplastic syndromes. We report the case of a 73-year-old woman presenting sensory and motor neuropathy associated with non-small-cell lung cancer who had Ma2-antibodies.

  19. Discovery and characterization of antibody variants using mass spectrometry-based comparative analysis for biosimilar candidates of monoclonal antibody drugs.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenhua; Yang, Bin; Zhou, Dongmei; Xu, Jun; Ke, Zhi; Suen, Wen-Chen

    2016-07-01

    Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is the most commonly used technique for the characterization of antibody variants. MAb-X and mAb-Y are two approved IgG1 subtype monoclonal antibody drugs recombinantly produced in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We report here that two unexpected and rare antibody variants have been discovered during cell culture process development of biosimilars for these two approved drugs through intact mass analysis. We then used comprehensive mass spectrometry-based comparative analysis including reduced light, heavy chains, and domain-specific mass as well as peptide mapping analysis to fully characterize the observed antibody variants. The "middle-up" mass comparative analysis demonstrated that the antibody variant from mAb-X biosimilar candidate was caused by mass variation of antibody crystalline fragment (Fc), whereas a different variant with mass variation in antibody antigen-binding fragment (Fab) from mAb-Y biosimilar candidate was identified. Endoproteinase Lys-C digested peptide mapping and tandem mass spectrometry analysis further revealed that a leucine to glutamine change in N-terminal 402 site of heavy chain was responsible for the generation of mAb-X antibody variant. Lys-C and trypsin coupled non-reduced and reduced peptide mapping comparative analysis showed that the formation of the light-heavy interchain trisulfide bond resulted in the mAb-Y antibody variant. These two cases confirmed that mass spectrometry-based comparative analysis plays a critical role for the characterization of monoclonal antibody variants, and biosimilar developers should start with a comprehensive structural assessment and comparative analysis to decrease the risk of the process development for biosimilars. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Antibody-controlled actuation of DNA-based molecular circuits.

    PubMed

    Engelen, Wouter; Meijer, Lenny H H; Somers, Bram; de Greef, Tom F A; Merkx, Maarten

    2017-02-17

    DNA-based molecular circuits allow autonomous signal processing, but their actuation has relied mostly on RNA/DNA-based inputs, limiting their application in synthetic biology, biomedicine and molecular diagnostics. Here we introduce a generic method to translate the presence of an antibody into a unique DNA strand, enabling the use of antibodies as specific inputs for DNA-based molecular computing. Our approach, antibody-templated strand exchange (ATSE), uses the characteristic bivalent architecture of antibodies to promote DNA-strand exchange reactions both thermodynamically and kinetically. Detailed characterization of the ATSE reaction allowed the establishment of a comprehensive model that describes the kinetics and thermodynamics of ATSE as a function of toehold length, antibody-epitope affinity and concentration. ATSE enables the introduction of complex signal processing in antibody-based diagnostics, as demonstrated here by constructing molecular circuits for multiplex antibody detection, integration of multiple antibody inputs using logic gates and actuation of enzymes and DNAzymes for signal amplification.

  1. Antibody-controlled actuation of DNA-based molecular circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelen, Wouter; Meijer, Lenny H. H.; Somers, Bram; de Greef, Tom F. A.; Merkx, Maarten

    2017-02-01

    DNA-based molecular circuits allow autonomous signal processing, but their actuation has relied mostly on RNA/DNA-based inputs, limiting their application in synthetic biology, biomedicine and molecular diagnostics. Here we introduce a generic method to translate the presence of an antibody into a unique DNA strand, enabling the use of antibodies as specific inputs for DNA-based molecular computing. Our approach, antibody-templated strand exchange (ATSE), uses the characteristic bivalent architecture of antibodies to promote DNA-strand exchange reactions both thermodynamically and kinetically. Detailed characterization of the ATSE reaction allowed the establishment of a comprehensive model that describes the kinetics and thermodynamics of ATSE as a function of toehold length, antibody-epitope affinity and concentration. ATSE enables the introduction of complex signal processing in antibody-based diagnostics, as demonstrated here by constructing molecular circuits for multiplex antibody detection, integration of multiple antibody inputs using logic gates and actuation of enzymes and DNAzymes for signal amplification.

  2. Correlation of antimuscarinic acetylcholine receptor antibody titers and antidesmoglein antibody titers with the severity of disease in patients with pemphigus.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Manimegalai Jeyasekaran Dhanabhakya; Jaisankar, Telanseri Jaykar; Rajappa, Medha; Thappa, Devinder Mohan; Chandrashekar, Laxmisha; Divyapriya, Dakshinamurthy; Munisamy, Malathi; Revathy, Gunaseelan

    2017-05-01

    Acetylcholine receptor (AchR) antibody levels significantly correlate with disease severity at initial pemphigus diagnosis and during follow-up. However, it is not clear if they are just an epiphenomenon or a potential trigger of the known pathogenic process in pemphigus vulgaris. We sought to assess the changes in anti-muscarinic (M3) AchR and anti-desmoglein (Dsg) antibody titers with therapy. This was a hospital-based cohort study involving 45 patients with active pemphigus. Disease was graded clinically using Pemphigus Disease Area Index. Antibody titers were estimated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at baseline, 3 months, and 15 months. All patients with pemphigus had significantly higher anti-M3 AchR titers when compared with a control group. Only 95.5% of patients had anti-Dsg1 antibodies and 84.4% of patients had anti-Dsg3 antibodies. A statistically significant reduction in all 3 antibody titers from baseline to follow-up with treatment was observed. There was a good correlation between all 3 antibody titer and Pemphigus Disease Area Index score at baseline and after therapy and between anti-M3 AchR and anti-Dsg1 antibody titers. Sample size was small and follow-up period was short. Anti-M3 AchR antibodies are strongly associated with pemphigus. They significantly correlate with disease activity and their titers decline with therapy along with anti-Dsg antibodies. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The MicroRNA390/TRANS-ACTING SHORT INTERFERING RNA3 Module Mediates Lateral Root Growth under Salt Stress via the Auxin Pathway.

    PubMed

    He, Fu; Xu, Changzheng; Fu, Xiaokang; Shen, Yun; Guo, Li; Leng, Mi; Luo, Keming

    2018-06-01

    Salt-induced developmental plasticity in a plant root system strongly depends on auxin signaling. However, the molecular events underlying this process are poorly understood. MicroRNA390 ( miR390 ), trans-actin small interfering RNA s ( tasiRNA s), and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORs ( ARFs ) form a regulatory module involved in controlling lateral root (LR) growth. Here, we found that miR390 expression was strongly induced by exposure to salt during LR formation in poplar ( Populus spp.) plants. miR390 overexpression stimulated LR development and increased salt tolerance, whereas miR390 knockdown caused by a short tandem target mimic repressed LR growth and compromised salt resistance. ARF3.1 , ARF3.2 , and ARF4 expression was inhibited significantly by the presence of salt, and transcript abundance was decreased dramatically in the miR390 -overexpressing line but increased in the miR390 -knockdown line. Constitutive expression of ARF4m harboring mutated trans-acting small interfering ARF -binding sites removed the salt resistance of the miR390 overexpressors. miR390 positively regulated auxin signaling in LRs subjected to salt, but ARF4 inhibited auxin signaling. Salinity stabilized the poplar Aux/IAA repressor INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID17.1, and overexpression of an auxin/salt-resistant form of this repressor suppressed LR growth in miR390 -overexpressing and ARF4 -RNA interfering lines in the presence of salt. Thus, the miR390/TAS3/ARFs module is a key regulator, via modulating the auxin pathway, of LR growth in poplar subjected to salt stress. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  4. Imaging of colorectal carcinoma with radiolabeled antibodies.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, D M; Goldenberg, H; Sharkey, R M; Lee, R E; Higgenbotham-Ford, E; Horowitz, J A; Hall, T C; Pinsky, C M; Hansen, H J

    1989-10-01

    Colorectal cancer has been the tumor type most frequently studied with radiolabeled antibodies. Among the various antibodies, a majority of patients with colorectal cancer have received xenogeneic polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies against carcino-embryonic antigen. This review summarizes the current status of colorectal cancer imaging with radiolabeled antibodies, ie, radioimmunodetection (RAID), and examines the published studies involving carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) antibodies and 17-1A, 19-9, and B72.3, and other monoclonal antibodies. In order to better address the issue of the current and future clinical usefulness of this emerging technology, particular attention is given to the protocols, methods, and results of the published studies. Despite differences in study parameters, antibodies and forms, labels, administration routes and doses, and scanning instruments and methods, it has been found that (1) almost no adverse reactions have been evident; (2) antibody fragments are preferred over whole immunoglobulin G reagents because they achieve higher tumor-to-background ratios earlier, thus reducing or precluding the need for dual-isotope subtraction methods or long delays before imaging; (3) use of antibody fragments, including the monovalent Fab' form, permits imaging with short-lived radionuclides of excellent photon properties, such as 123I and 99mTc; (4) circulating antigens against which the imaging antibody is directed can complex with the injected antibody, but such complexes have not prevented successful RAID; (5) patients with high serum titers of the appropriate antigen target usually have higher rates of positive RAID; (6) patients who are seronegative for the tumor antigen being studied can have positive RAID findings, which can represent the detection of occult lesions; (7) single photon emission computed tomography appears to provide better image resolution than planar scanning; (8) regardless of the sensitivity reported in any particular

  5. Antibody class capture assays for varicella-zoster virus.

    PubMed Central

    Forghani, B; Myoraku, C K; Dupuis, K W; Schmidt, N J

    1984-01-01

    Pooled monoclonal antibodies to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) were used as "detector" antibodies in a four-phase enzyme immunofluorescence assay for determination of immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgA, and IgG antibodies to VZV. Polyclonal antisera specific for heavy chains of human IgM, IgA, and IgG were employed as "capture" antibodies on the solid phase. The antibody class capture assay (ACCA) for VZV IgM antibody detected high titers of virus-specific IgM in all patients with varicella and in 5 of 10 zoster patients. VZV IgM antibody was not detected in patients with primary herpes simplex virus infections or in other individuals without active VZV infection, with one exception, a patient with encephalitis who had other serological findings compatible with a reactivated VZV infection. VZV-specific IgA and IgG antibody titers demonstrable by ACCA were compared with those measured by solid-phase indirect enzyme immunofluorescence assay (EIFA). VZV IgA antibody titers detected in patients with varicella and zoster were variable and could not be considered to be reliable markers of active VZV infection. IgA antibody titers detected by ACCA tended to be higher than those demonstrated by solid-phase indirect EIFA in varicella and zoster patients. VZV IgG antibody titers detected by ACCA in patients with varicella, and to a lesser extent in zoster patients, were as high as or higher than those demonstrated by solid-phase indirect EIFA. However, ACCA was totally insensitive in detecting VZV IgG antibody in individuals with past infections with VZV and would not be a suitable approach for determination of immunity status to VZV. PMID:6330163

  6. R1507, an Anti-Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Receptor (IGF-1R) Antibody, and EWS/FLI-1 siRNA in Ewing's Sarcoma: Convergence at the IGF/IGFR/Akt Axis

    PubMed Central

    Rodon, Jordi; Sun, Michael; Kuenkele, Klaus-Peter; Parsons, Henrique A.; Trent, Jonathan C.; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2011-01-01

    A subset of patients with Ewing's sarcoma responds to anti-insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) antibodies. Mechanisms of sensitivity and resistance are unknown. We investigated whether an anti-IGF-1R antibody acts via a pathway that could also be suppressed by small interfering (si) RNA against the EWS/FLI-1 fusion protein, the hallmark of Ewing's sarcoma. The growth of two Ewing's sarcoma cell lines (TC-32 and TC-71) was inhibited by the fully human anti-IGF-1R antibody, R1507 (clonogenic and MTT assays). TC-32 and TC-71 cells express high levels of IGF-2, while RD-ES and A4573 Ewing's cell lines, which were less responsive to R1507 in our assays, express low or undetectable IGF-2, respectively. TC-71 cells also expressed high levels of IGF-1R, and R1507 decreased steady-state levels of this receptor by internalization/degradation, an effect which was associated with a decrease in p-IGF-1R, p-IRS-1, and p-Akt. EWS/FLI-1 siRNA also decreased p-Akt, due to its ability to increase IGF-BP3 levels and subsequently decrease IGF-1 and IGF-2 levels, thus inhibiting signaling through p-IGF-1R. This inhibition correlated with growth suppression and apoptosis. The attenuation of Akt activation was confirmed in TC-71 and HEK-293 (human embryonic kidney) cells by transfecting them with IGF-1R siRNA. We conclude that antibodies and siRNA to IGF-1R, as well as siRNA to EWS/FLI-1, act via intersecting IGF/IGF-1R signals that suppress a common point in this pathway, namely the phosphorylation of Akt. PMID:22022506

  7. Natural antibodies to glycans.

    PubMed

    Bovin, N V

    2013-07-01

    A wide variety of so-called natural antibodies (nAbs), i.e. immunoglobulins generated by B-1 cells, are directed to glycans. nAbs to glycans can be divided in three groups: 1) conservative nAbs, i.e. practically the same in all healthy donors with respect to their epitope specificity and level in blood; 2) allo-antibodies to blood group antigens; 3) plastic antibodies related to the first or the second group but discussed separately because their level changes considerably during diseases and some temporary conditions, in particular inflammation and pregnancy. Antibodies from the third group proved to be prospective markers of a number of diseases, whereas their unusual level (below or above the norm) is not necessarily the consequence of disease/state. Modern microarrays allowed the determination of the human repertoire, which proved to be unexpectedly broad. It was observed that the content of some nAbs reaches about 0.1% of total immunoglobulins. Immunoglobulins of M class dominate for most nAbs, constituting up to 80-90%. Their affinity (to a monovalent glycan, in KD terms) were found to be within the range 10(-4)-10(-6) M. Antibodies to Galβ1-3GlcNAc (Le(C)), 4-HSO3Galβ1-4GalNAc (4'-O-SuLN), Fucα1-3GlcNAc, Fucα1-4GlcNAc, GalNAcα1-3Gal (Adi), Galα1-4Galβ1-4Glc (P(k)), Galα1-4Galβ1-4GlcNAc (P1), GlcNAcα-terminated glycans, and hyaluronic acid should be noted among the nAbs revealed and studied during the last decade. At the same time, a kind of "taboo" is observed for a number of glycans: antibodies to Le(X) and Le(Y), and almost all gangliosides have not been observed in healthy persons. Many of the revealed nAbs were directed to constrained inner (core) part of glycan, directly adjoined to lipid of cell membrane or protein. The biological function of these nAbs remains unclear; for anti-core antibodies, a role of surveillance on appearance of aberrant, especially cancer, antigens is supposed. The first data related to oncodiagnostics based on

  8. Delivery of Small Interfering RNA to Inhibit Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Zebrafish Using Natural Brain Endothelia Cell-Secreted Exosome Nanovesicles for the Treatment of Brain Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tianzhi; Fogarty, Brittany; LaForge, Bret; Aziz, Salma; Pham, Thuy; Lai, Leanne; Bai, Shuhua

    2017-03-01

    Although small interfering RNA (siRNA) holds great therapeutic promise, its delivery to the disease site remains a paramount obstacle. In this study, we tested whether brain endothelial cell-derived exosomes could deliver siRNA across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in zebrafish. Natural exosomes were isolated from brain endothelial bEND.3 cell culture media and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) siRNA was loaded in exosomes with the assistance of a transfection reagent. While fluorescence-activated cell flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry staining studies indicated that wild-type exosomes significantly increased the uptake of fluorescence-labeled siRNA in the autologous brain endothelial cells, decreased fluorescence intensity was observed in the cells treated with the tetraspanin CD63 antibody-blocked exosome-delivered formulation (p < 0.05). In the transport study, exosomes also enhanced the permeability of rhodamine 123 in a co-cultured monolayer of brain endothelial bEND.3 cell and astrocyte. Inhibition at the expression of VEGF RNA and protein levels was observed in glioblastoma-astrocytoma U-87 MG cells treated with exosome-delivered siRNAs. Imaging results showed that exosome delivered more siRNAs across the BBB in Tg(fli1:GFP) zebrafish. In a xenotransplanted brain tumor model, exosome-delivered VEGF siRNAs decreased the fluorescence intensity of labeled cancer cells in the brain of zebrafish. Brain endothelial cell-derived exosomes could be potentially used as a natural carrier for the brain delivery of exogenous siRNA.

  9. Antibody-based vaccine strategies against intracellular pathogens.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Arturo

    2018-04-25

    Historically, antibody-mediated immunity was considered effective against toxins, extracellular pathogens and viruses, while control of intracellular pathogens was the domain of cellular immunity. However, numerous observations in recent decades have conclusively shown that antibody can protect against intracellular pathogens. This paradigmatic shift has tremendous implications for immunology and vaccine design. For immunology the observation that antibody can protect against intracellular pathogens has led to the discovery of new mechanisms of antibody action. For vaccine design the knowledge that humoral immunity can be effective in protection means that the knowledge acquired in more than a century of antibody studies can be applied to make new vaccines against this class of pathogens. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Human tumor xenografts in mouse as a model for evaluating therapeutic efficacy of monoclonal antibodies or antibody-drug conjugate targeting receptor tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Feng, Liang; Wang, Wei; Yao, Hang-Ping; Zhou, Jianwei; Zhang, Ruiwen; Wang, Ming-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Targeting receptor tyrosine kinases by therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and antibody-drug conjugates has met with tremendous success in clinical oncology. Currently, numerous therapeutic monoclonal antibodies are under preclinical development. The potential for moving candidate antibodies into clinical trials relies heavily on therapeutic efficacy validated by human tumor xenografts in mice. Here we describe methods used to determine therapeutic efficacy of monoclonal antibodies or antibody-drug conjugates specific to human receptor tyrosine kinase using human tumor xenografts in mice as the model. The end point of the study is to determine whether treatment of tumor-bearing mice with a monoclonal antibody or antibody-drug conjugates results in significant delay of tumor growth.

  11. Neuronal Surface Antibody-Mediated Autoimmune Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Linnoila, Jenny J.; Rosenfeld, Myrna R.; Dalmau, Josep

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, many autoimmune encephalitides have been identified, with specific clinical syndromes and associated antibodies against neuronal surface antigens. There is compelling evidence that many of these antibodies are pathogenic and most of these encephalitides are highly responsive to immunotherapies. The clinical spectra of some of these antibody-mediated syndromes, especially those reported in only a few patients, are evolving. Others, such as anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis, are well characterized. Diagnosis involves recognizing the specific syndromes and identifying the antibody in a patient’s cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and/or serum. These syndromes are associated with variable abnormalities in CSF, magnetic resonance imaging, and electroencephalography. Treatment is often multidisciplinary and should be focused upon neutralizing the effects of antibodies and eliminating their source. Overlapping disorders have been noted, with some patients having more than one neurologic autoimmune disease. In other patients, viral infections such as herpes simplex virus encephalitis trigger robust antineuronal autoimmune responses. PMID:25369441

  12. [Pathologico-anatomic contribution to antibody detection in immunopathologic diseases].

    PubMed

    Nozicka, Z

    1991-01-01

    Results of twenty years experience with identification of anti organ autoantibodies occurring mainly during autoimmune diseases are presented. Cryostat sections from human cadaver tissue and albino-rat kidneys were used for the detection of the above mentioned antibodies, by method of two-step (indirect) immunofluorescence. The study describes working schedule of a newly established subspeciality of pathological anatomy--the "histoserology". The main aim of the study was investigate the occurrence of autoantibodies and to asses the correlation between these findings and health condition of patients. The following antibodies were evaluated: antibodies against epithelia and colloid of thyroid gland, the antibody against parietal cells of stomach mucosa, antibodies against striated ducts of salivary gland and basal elements in its excretory ducts, the antibody against suprarenal cortical elements, the antibody against parathyreoidea, the antibody against smooth muscle cells, anti brush-border antibody, and the anti-nuclear factor as well as the antibodies against intercellular substance and basement membrane of epidermis. Antibody against thyroid gland coloid appears to be of diagnostic value for recognizing of Hashimoto and focal thyroiditis. The finding of antibody against parietal cells indicates the probability of pernicious trait in diagnostically unclear anaemias. On the other hand the finding of such antibody is not very useful in classification of gastritis and its subtyping. The appearance of the phenomenon of "shaggy rim" during the assay for antinuclear factor seems to be very reliable for verification of systemic lupus. The antibody against salivary gland striated ducts does not give fundamental support for diagnosis of Sjögren's disease. Very interesting immunopathological phenomenon is an occurrence of antibody binding to basal cells of salivary gland excretory ducts. To our knowledge, this phenomenon is rather typical for the antibody against

  13. LGI1 antibody encephalitis and psychosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dahai; Hao, Qinjian; He, Lan; Wang, Qiang

    2018-05-01

    To describe a case of leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1 antibody-encephalitis presenting with psychosis. Case report. A young man with leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1-antibody encephalitis initially presented with acute psychotic symptoms, short-term memory loss and faciobrachial dystonic seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed hippocampal lesions. Electroencephalography revealed frontotemporal slowing of background activity. Increased awareness of leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1-antibody encephalitis may promote early recognition and treatment.

  14. Immunosuppression and induction of anergy by CTLA4Ig in vitro: effects on cellular and antibody responses of lymphocytes from rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, K R; Linsley, P S; Drachman, D B

    1995-11-01

    The pathogenic antibody response to acetylcholine receptor (AChR) in experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) is T cell dependent. Therefore, it should be possible to design specific immunotherapeutic approaches to treat EAMG (and human MG) by interfering with AChR-specific helper T cells. Productive T cell activation by antigen requires at least two signals: one signal delivered through the T cell receptor by antigen and a second costimulatory signal delivered through the CD28 receptor via the B7 counterreceptor expressed on antigen-presenting cells. Here we show that interference with the B7 costimulatory signal, using a soluble CD28 analogue, CTLA4Ig, resulted in a profound decrease in IL2 production and significantly decreased lymphoproliferative responses and antibody responses by primed lymph node cells from rats with EAMG, when stimulated with AChR in vitro. Nonclonal AChR-specific T cell lines, when stimulated with AChR in the presence of CTLA4Ig, were also inhibited in their ability to proliferate and to produce the cytokines IL2 and IFN-gamma. They remained deficient in their ability to produce IL2 when restimulated with AChR plus fresh antigen-presenting cells and showed variable inhibition of proliferation. The induction of hyporesponsiveness was accompanied by the expression of functional IL2 receptors, as shown by vigorous proliferative responses to addition of exogenous IL2. These results indicate that specific antigen stimulation in the presence of CTLA4Ig can induce certain features typical of anergy. CTLA4Ig provides a promising approach for the immunomodulation of MG and other antibody-mediated autoimmune diseases.

  15. The therapeutic monoclonal antibody market

    PubMed Central

    Ecker, Dawn M; Jones, Susan Dana; Levine, Howard L

    2015-01-01

    Since the commercialization of the first therapeutic monoclonal antibody product in 1986, this class of biopharmaceutical products has grown significantly so that, as of November 10, 2014, forty-seven monoclonal antibody products have been approved in the US or Europe for the treatment of a variety of diseases, and many of these products have also been approved for other global markets. At the current approval rate of ∼ four new products per year, ∼70 monoclonal antibody products will be on the market by 2020, and combined world-wide sales will be nearly $125 billion. PMID:25529996

  16. [International classification of various types of monoclonal antibodies].

    PubMed

    Scheen, A J

    2009-01-01

    Significant advances in the development of monoclonal antibodies ("mabs") have been acknowledged during the last two decades. Successive developments led to the marketing of murine antibodies ("o-mab" first, followed by chimeric antibodies ("xi-mab"), humanised antibodies ("zu-mab") and, finally, human monoclonal antibodies ("u-mab"). In order to facilitate the distinction between the various monoclonal antibodies used in clinical practice, an international nomenclature has been proposed with the use of a specific suffix corresponding to the origine/source of "mabs" preceded by an infix referring to the medicine's target. The efforts in developing new types of monoclonal antibodies aimed at improving their pharmacokinetics (longer half-life), pharmacodynamics (better efficacy because of stronger affinity to human receptor), and safety profile (less antigenic and immunogenic reactions). These progresses could be obtained thanks to the remarkable development of molecular biotechnology.

  17. Antibody-Based Preventive and Therapeutic Strategies Against HIV.

    PubMed

    Fabra-Garcia, Amanda; Beltran, Carolina; Sanchez-Merino, Victor; Yuste, Eloisa

    2016-01-01

    Over the years, numerous studies have been carried out demonstrating the role of antibodies in HIV control leading to the development of antibody-based therapeutic and prophylactic strategies. The objective of this review is to provide updated information on the role of antibodies in the prevention and control of HIV infection and the strategies against HIV that have been designed based on this information. Passive transfer of anti-HIV antibodies in animal models has proven the efficacy of certain antibodies in the prevention and treatment of infection. The capacity of antibodies to control the virus was first attributed to their neutralizing capacity. However, we now know that there are other Fc-mediated antibody activities associated with virus protection. When it comes to better understanding protection against HIV, we ought to pay particular attention to mucosal immune responses. The evidence accumulated so far indicates that an effective vaccine against HIV should generate both mucosal IgAs and systemic IgGs. Due to the problematic induction of protective anti-HIV antibodies, several groups have developed alternative approaches based on antibody delivery via gene therapy vectors. Experiments in animal models with these vectors have shown impressive protection levels and this strategy is now being clinically trialed. Taking into account all the information included in this review, it seems evident that anti-HIV-1 antibodies play an important role in virus control and prevention. This review aims to give an overview of the strategies used and the advances in antibody-based preventive and therapeutic strategies against HIV-1.

  18. Role for antibodies in altering behavior and movement.

    PubMed

    Libbey, Jane E; Fujinami, Robert S

    2010-08-01

    At the past meeting of INSAR, the role of autoimmunity was discussed in an educational session. This article summarizes this discussion. In immune-mediated diseases, antibodies can contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease and are sometimes the force that drives the disease process. This concept has not been established for autism. In autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), antibodies are found to react with double-stranded DNA. These antibodies also cross-react with N-methyl-D aspartate receptors. Many SLE patients suffer neurologic syndromes of the central nervous system (CNS). Similarly individuals infected with Group A streptococcus (GAS) have antibodies against the GAS carbohydrate, which cross-react with tubulin and lysoganglioside GM1 on neurons. During the acute stage of infection, GAS-infected patients develop Syndenham chorea where the disease process is driven in part by these cross-reactive antibodies. As the antibody levels decrease, the clinical features of Syndenham chorea resolve. In these two immune-mediated diseases, antibodies clearly play a role in the pathogenesis of the diseases. There are reports that mothers of individuals with autism have antibodies that react with brain proteins and when these antibodies are passively transferred to pregnant non-human primates or rodents the offspring has behavioral and nervous system changes. It is still not clear whether the antibodies found in mothers of individuals with autism actually play a role in the disease. More studies need to be performed to identify the proteins recognized by the antibodies and to determine how these could affect development, behavior and changes within the CNS.

  19. Working towards a consensus for antibody validation.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Peter D; Min, Danxi; Leung, Mei Y

    2014-01-01

    Commercial research antibodies are the most commonly used product in the life science tools market, and their applications represent a significant investment of time and resources for researchers. Frequently however, the quality of antibodies does not meet the expectations of consumers, causing loss of valuable time and money. This can delay research efforts and scientific discovery, or even lead to false, irreproducible results to be published in the scientific literature. This raises the question of whether there should be universal standards for validating antibodies.   During the 1 (st) International Antibody Validation Forum, hosted by St John's Laboratory Ltd on October 15 (th) 2014 at Queen Mary University of London, scientists from academia and industry presented data highlighting quality issues arising from lack of antibody validation. While the forum identified significant current problems in the antibody market, it also discussed future opportunities for improved quality and transparency by encouraging data disclosure and data sharing. This article highlights the key issues and conclusions reached at the forum.

  20. Combinatorial Libraries of Arrayable Single-Chain Antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benhar, Itai

    Antibodies that bind their respective targets with high affinity and specificity have proven to be essential reagents for biological research. Antibody phage display has become the leading tool for the rapid isolation of single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies in vitro for research applications, but there is usually a gap between scFv isolation and its application in an array format suitable for high-throughput proteomics. In this chapter, we present our antibody phage display system where antibody isolation and scFv immobilization are facilitated by the design of the phagemid vector used as platform. In our system, the scFvs are fused at their C-termini to a cellulose-binding domain (CBD) and can be immobilized onto cellulose-based filters. This made it possible to develop a unique filter lift screen that allowed the efficient screen for multiple binding specificities, and to directly apply library-derived scFvs in an antibody spotted microarray.

  1. Conference scene: progress with promising human antibodies.

    PubMed

    Larrick, James W

    2012-03-01

    Antibodies and antibody-based therapeutics have become big business, with annual sales over US$50 billion, accounting for >6% of worldwide pharmaceutical revenues. Ten molecules have blockbuster status (>US$1 billion), with six generating more than US$6 billion in sales. In excess of 300 products based on this rapidly maturing technology are in clinical trials. The generation and manufacture of human antibodies is now routine, although the cost of goods remains an issue. Optimizing combinations of antibodies with other therapeutics (e.g., chemotherapy) is a major short-term goal, while target validation and product differentiation remain significant hurdles if growth is to continue. Some of the notable highlights of the recent 16th International Conference on Human Antibodies and Hybridomas meeting in Cannes, France are described below. The conference was sponsored by the international journal Human Antibodies, in association with the Integrative Medical Sciences Association (IMSA). The Program Chairman was Professor Mark Glassy, IMSA, San Diego, CA, USA.

  2. P-fimbriae in the presence of anti-PapA antibodies: new insight of antibodies action against pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortezaei, Narges; Singh, Bhupender; Bullitt, Esther; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Andersson, Magnus

    2013-12-01

    Uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli establish urinary tract infections by attaching to host epithelial cells using adhesive organelles called fimbriae. Fimbriae are helix-like structures with a remarkable adaptability, offering safeguarding for bacteria exposed to changing fluid forces in the urinary tract. We challenged this property of P-fimbriae by cross-linking their subunits with shaft-specific antibodies and measuring the corresponding force response at a single organelle level. Our data show compromised extension and rewinding of P-fimbriae in the presence of antibodies and reduced fimbrial elasticity, which are important properties of fimbriae contributing to the ability of bacteria to cause urinary tract infections. The reduced elasticity found by cross-linking fimbrial subunits could thus be another assignment for antibodies; in addition to marking bacteria as foreign, antibodies physically compromise fimbrial function. We suggest that our assay and results will be a starting point for further investigations aimed at inhibiting sustained bacterial adhesion by antibodies.

  3. Monoclonal antibodies for the measurement of class-specific antibody responses in the green turtle, Chelonia mydas.

    PubMed

    Herbst, L H; Klein, P A

    1995-06-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) were developed against the known immunoglobulin classes of the green turtle, Chelonia mydas. Plasma protein fractions enriched for 5.7S IgY, 7S IgY, and IgM turtle immunoglobulins were used to immunize Balb/c mice for hybridoma production and for hybridoma screening. Fifteen hybridomas produced Mabs with specificity for turtle immunoglobulins and for affinity purified dinitrophenol (DNP) specific turtle antibodies. Three Mabs specific for either turtle 5.7S IgY heavy chain (HL814), 7S IgY heavy chain (HL857), or IgM heavy chain (HL846) were purified and used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure antibody responses in two turtles immunized with 2,4-dinitrophenylated bovine serum albumin (DNP-BSA) over a 10 month period. In both turtles the 7S IgY antibody response developed within 5 weeks of the first inoculation and remained high over the following 9 months. The 5.7S IgY antibody response was detected in one turtle at 3-4 months and in the other at 8 months, and reached high levels in both individuals by 10 months. The IgM responses were difficult to interpret. One turtle had pre-inoculation anti-DNP IgM antibody in its plasma and the other developed only a weak, transient response at about 4 months. The class-specific antibody activity in immune turtle plasma could be strongly inhibited by soluble DNP or by rabbit anti-DNP specific antiserum, showing that these antibody responses were directed predominantly to the DNP hapten on the DNP-BSA antigen. Antibody responses to the BSA carrier could not be detected in either turtle over the course of the immunization. Mab HL814, specific for an epitope on the 5.7S green turtle immunoglobulin heavy chain, will be useful for characterizing the molecular relationships of 5.7S, 7S and IgM heavy chains and the role of 5.7S antibody in humoral immunity in this species. All anti-turtle Ig Mabs were screened against the plasma globulins of Loggerhead (Caretta caretta), Olive

  4. Antisperm antibodies and fertility association.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, B; Cardona-Maya, W

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the relation between antisperm antibodies (ASA) and human fertility by reviewing the scientific literature of the last 45 years. We carried out a review of scientific literature about antisperm antibodies and infertility published in spanish or english in databases as Pubmed, Medline, Scielo, some books and another gray literature include information related to this review and that is published in the last 45 years. Infertile couples suffer infertility by immunological mechanisms mainly by the presence of antisperm antibodies ASA in blood, semen or cervicovaginal secretions; the formation of ASA in men and women may be associated with disturbance in immunomodulatory mechanisms that result in functional impairment of sperm and thus its inability to fertilize the oocyte. Immunological infertility caused by ASA is the result of interference of these antibodies in various stages of fertilization process, inhibiting the ability of interaction between sperm and oocyte. Copyright © 2012 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. LC-MS/MS strategies for therapeutic antibodies and investigation into the quantitative impact of antidrug-antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ewles, Matthew; Mannu, Ranbir; Fox, Chris; Stanta, Johannes; Evans, Graeme; Goodwin, Lee; Duffy, James; Bell, Len; Estdale, Sian; Firth, David

    2016-12-01

    We aimed to establish novel, high-throughput LC-MS/MS strategies for quantification of monoclonal antibodies in human serum and examine the potential impact of antidrug antibodies. We present two strategies using a thermally stable immobilized trypsin. The first strategy uses whole serum digestion and the second introduces Protein G enrichment to improve the selectivity. The impact of anti-trastuzumab antibodies on the methods was tested. Whole serum digestion has been validated for trastuzumab (LLOQ 0.25 µg/ml). Protein G enrichment has been validated for trastuzumab (LLOQ 0.1 µg/ml), bevacizumab (LLOQ 0.1 µg/ml) and adalimumab (LLOQ 0.25 µg/ml). We have shown the potential for anti-drug antibodies to impact on the quantification and we have subsequently established a strategy to overcome this impact where total quantification is desired.

  6. Mechanisms of Action of Therapeutic Antibodies for Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Redman, JM; Hill, EM; AlDeghaither, D; Weiner, LM

    2015-01-01

    The therapeutic utility of antibodies and their derivatives is achieved by various means. The FDA has approved several targeted antibodies that disrupt signaling of various growth factor receptors for the treatment of a number of cancers. Rituximab, and other anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies are active in B cell malignancies. As more experience has been gained with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, the multifactorial nature of their anti-tumor mechanisms has emerged. Other targeted antibodies function to dampen inhibitory checkpoints. These checkpoint inhibitors have recently achieved dramatic results in several cancers, including melanoma. These and related antibodies continue to be investigated in the clinical and pre-clinical settings. Novel antibody structures that target two or more antigens have also made their way into clinical use. Tumor targeted antibodies can also be conjugated to chemo- or radiotherapeutic agents, or catalytic toxins, as a means to deliver toxic payloads to cancer cells. Here we provide a review of these mechanisms and a discussion of their relevance to current and future clinical applications. PMID:25911943

  7. Fast detection of air contaminants using immunobiological methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Katrin; Bolwien, Carsten; Sulz, Gerd; Koch, Wolfgang; Dunkhorst, Wilhelm; Lödding, Hubert; Schwarz, Katharina; Holländer, Andreas; Klockenbring, Torsten; Barth, Stefan; Seidel, Björn; Hofbauer, Wolfgang; Rennebarth, Torsten; Renzl, Anna

    2009-05-01

    The fast and direct identification of possibly pathogenic microorganisms in air is gaining increasing interest due to their threat for public health, e.g. in clinical environments or in clean rooms of food or pharmaceutical industries. We present a new detection method allowing the direct recognition of relevant germs or bacteria via fluorescence-labeled antibodies within less than one hour. In detail, an air-sampling unit passes particles in the relevant size range to a substrate which contains antibodies with fluorescence labels for the detection of a specific microorganism. After the removal of the excess antibodies the optical detection unit comprising reflected-light and epifluorescence microscopy can identify the microorganisms by fast image processing on a single-particle level. First measurements with the system to identify various test particles as well as interfering influences have been performed, in particular with respect to autofluorescence of dust particles. Specific antibodies for the detection of Aspergillus fumigatus spores have been established. The biological test system consists of protein A-coated polymer particles which are detected by a fluorescence-labeled IgG. Furthermore the influence of interfering particles such as dust or debris is discussed.

  8. Antibody to intermediate filaments of the cytoskeleton.

    PubMed Central

    Osung, O A; Chandra, M; Holborow, E J

    1982-01-01

    IgM antibodies against cultures of intermediate filaments (IMF) of the cytoskeleton were demonstrated by immunofluorescence in the sera of 94 (80%) of 118 patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis. These antibodies reacted with IMF in cultures of both human fetal fibroblasts and laryngeal carcinoma (HEp2) cells. Of 10 patients from whom paired synovial fluids were also available 8 had anti-IMF antibodies in both serum and fluid. In seronegative RA the incidence of anti-IMF was 40%, in ankylosing spondylitis 25%, in osteoarthrosis 16%, and in normal subjects 14%. Only a minority of RA sera positive for anti-IMF antibodies were also positive for smooth muscle antibody. Absorption experiments suggest that in RA anti-IMF is directed at the intermediate filament protein, vimentin. Images PMID:7039524

  9. [Detection and analysis of anti-Rh blood group antibodies].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuan-jun; Wu, Yong; Chen, Bao-chan; Liu, Yan

    2008-06-01

    To study the prevalence and distribution of anti-Rh blood group antibodies in Chinese population and its clinical significance. Irregular antibodies were screened and identified by Microcolum Gel Coomb's test. For those identified as positive anti-Rh samples, monoclonal antibodies (anti-D, -C, -c, -E and -e) were used to identify the specific antigen and confirm the accuracy of the irregular antibody tests. The titers, Ig-types and 37 Degrees Celsius-reactivity were tested to confirm its clinical significance. For evaluation of the origin of irregular antibodies, histories of pregnancy and transfusion were reviewed. For the newborns who had positive antibodies, their mothers were tested simultaneously to confirm the origin of the antibodies. 47 out of 54 000 (0.087%) patients were identified as positive with Rh blood group antibodies.Of them, 27 cases had history of pregnancy, 13 had transfusion and 1 had the histories of both. 6 newborns had antibodies derived form their mothers. The specificity of the antibody was as follows: 29 with anti-E (61.70%), 8 with anti-D (17.02%), anti-cE 5(10.64%), 4 with anti-c (8.51%) and 1 with anti-C (2.13%). All the 47 Rh blood group antibodies were IgG or IgG+IgM, and were reactive to red blood cells with corresponding antigens at 37 Degrees Celsius, with a highest titer of 1:4 096. The prevalence of Rh antibodies is lower in Chinese population as compared with that in White population.Of all the antibodies, anti-E is most frequently identified and anti-D was declining. Alloimmunization by pregnancy and transfusion is the major cause of Rh antibody production. Rh blood group antibodies derived from mothers are the major cause of Non-ABO-HDN.

  10. Covalent antibody display—an in vitro antibody-DNA library selection system

    PubMed Central

    Reiersen, Herald; Løbersli, Inger; Løset, Geir Å.; Hvattum, Else; Simonsen, Bjørg; Stacy, John E.; McGregor, Duncan; FitzGerald, Kevin; Welschof, Martin; Brekke, Ole H.; Marvik, Ole J.

    2005-01-01

    The endonuclease P2A initiates the DNA replication of the bacteriophage P2 by making a covalent bond with its own phosphate backbone. This enzyme has now been exploited as a new in vitro display tool for antibody fragments. We have constructed genetic fusions of P2A with single-chain antibodies (scFvs). Linear DNA of these fusion proteins were processed in an in vitro coupled transcription–translation mixture of Escherichia coli S30 lysate. Complexes of scFv–P2A fusion proteins covalently bound to their own DNA were isolated after panning on immobilized antigen, and the enriched DNAs were recovered by PCR and prepared for the subsequent cycles of panning. We have demonstrated the enrichment of scFvs from spiked libraries and the specific selection of different anti-tetanus toxoid scFvs from a V-gene library with 50 million different members prepared from human lymphocytes. This covalent antibody display technology offers a complete in vitro selection system based exclusively on DNA–protein complexes. PMID:15653626

  11. Randomized Cross-Sectional Study to Compare HIV-1 Specific Antibody and Cytokine Concentrations in Female Genital Secretions Obtained by Menstrual Cup and Cervicovaginal Lavage.

    PubMed

    Archary, Derseree; Liebenberg, Lenine J; Werner, Lise; Tulsi, Sahil; Majola, Nelisile; Naicker, Nivashnee; Dlamini, Sarah; Hope, Thomas J; Samsunder, Natasha; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Morris, Lynn; Passmore, Jo-Ann S; Garrett, Nigel J

    2015-01-01

    Optimizing methods for genital specimen collection to accurately characterize mucosal immune responses is a priority for the HIV prevention field. The menstrual cup (MC) has been proposed as an alternative to other methods including cervicovaginal lavage (CVL), but no study has yet formally compared these two methods. Forty HIV-infected, antiretroviral therapy-naïve women from the CAPRISA 002 acute HIV infection cohort study were randomized to have genital fluid collected using the MC with subsequent CVL, or by CVL alone. Qualitative data, which assessed levels of comfort and acceptability of MC using a 5-point Likert scale, was collected. Luminex multiplex assays were used to measure HIV-specific IgG against multiple gene products and 48 cytokines. The majority (94%) of participants indicated that insertion, wearing and removal of the MC was comfortable. Nineteen MCs with 18 matching, subsequent CVLs and 20 randomized CVLs were available for analysis. Mucosal IgG responses against four HIV-antigens were detected in 99% of MCs compared to only 80% of randomized CVLs (p = 0.029). Higher specific antibody activity and total antibodies were observed in MCs compared to CVL (all p<0.001). In MCs, 42/48 (88%) cytokines were in the detectable range in all participants compared to 27/48 (54%) in CVL (p<0.001). Concentrations of 22/41 cytokines (53.7%) were significantly higher in fluid collected by MC. Both total IgG (r = 0.63; p = 0.005) and cytokine concentrations (r = 0.90; p<0.001) correlated strongly between MC and corresponding post-MC CVL. MC sampling improves the detection of mucosal cytokines and antibodies, particularly those present at low concentrations. MC may therefore represent an ideal tool to assess immunological parameters in genital secretions, without interfering with concurrent collection of conventional CVL samples.

  12. Molecular-specific urokinase antibodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atassi, M. Zouhair (Inventor); Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Antibodies have been developed against the different molecular forms of urokinase using synthetic peptides as immunogens. The peptides were synthesized specifically to represent those regions of the urokinase molecules which are exposed in the three-dimensional configuration of the molecule and are uniquely homologous to urokinase. Antibodies are directed against the lysine 158-isoleucine 159 peptide bond which is cleaved during activation from the single-chain (ScuPA) form to the bioactive double chain (54 KDa and 33 KDa) forms of urokinase and against the lysine 135 lysine 136 bond that is cleaved in the process of removing the alpha-chain from the 54 KDa form to produce the 33 KDa form of urokinase. These antibodies enable the direct measurement of the different molecular forms of urokinase from small samples of conditioned medium harvested from cell cultures.

  13. 8th Annual European Antibody Congress 2012

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Alain; Carter, Paul J.; Gerber, Hans-Peter; Lugovskoy, Alexey A.; Wurch, Thierry; Junutula, Jagath R.; Kontermann, Roland E; Mabry, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The 8th European Antibody Congress (EAC), organized by Terrapin Ltd., was again held in Geneva, Switzerland, following on the tradition established with the 4th EAC. The new agenda format for 2012 included three parallel tracks on: (1) naked antibodies; (2) antibody drug conjugates (ADCs); and (3) bispecific antibodies and alternative scaffolds. The meeting started and closed with three plenary lectures to give common background and to share the final panel discussion and conclusions. The two day event included case studies and networking for nearly 250 delegates who learned of the latest advances and trends in the global development of antibody-based therapeutics. The monoclonal antibody track was focused on understanding the structure-function relationships, optimization of antibody design and developability, and processes that allow better therapeutic candidates to move through the clinic. Discussions on novel target identification and validation were also included. The ADC track was dedicated to evaluation of the ongoing success of the established ADC formats alongside the rise of the next generation drug-conjugates. The bispecific and alternative scaffold track was focused on taking stock of the multitude of bispecific formats being investigated and gaining insight into recent innovations and advancements. Mechanistic understanding, progression into the clinic and the exploration of multispecifics, redirected T cell killing and alternative scaffolds were extensively discussed. In total, nearly 50 speakers provided updates of programs related to antibody research and development on-going in the academic, government and commercial sectors. PMID:23493119

  14. Maternal HIV infection and placental malaria reduce transplacental antibody transfer and tetanus antibody levels in newborns in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Cumberland, Phillippa; Shulman, Caroline E; Maple, P A Chris; Bulmer, Judith N; Dorman, Edgar K; Kawuondo, Ken; Marsh, Kevin; Cutts, Felicity T

    2007-08-15

    In clinical trials, maternal tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccination is effective in protecting newborns against tetanus infection, but inadequate placental transfer of tetanus antibodies may contribute to lower-than-expected rates of protection in routine practice. We studied the effect of placental malaria and maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on placental transfer of antibodies to tetanus. A total of 704 maternal-cord paired serum samples were tested by ELISA for antibodies to tetanus. The HIV status of all women was determined by an immunoglobulin G antibody-capture particle-adherence test, and placental malaria was determined by placental biopsy. Maternal history of TT vaccination was recorded. Tetanus antibody levels were reduced by 52% (95% confidence interval [CI], 30%-67%) in newborns of HIV-infected women and by 48% (95% CI, 26%-62%) in newborns whose mothers had active-chronic or past placental malaria. Thirty-seven mothers (5.3%) and 55 newborns (7.8%) had tetanus antibody levels <0.1 IU/mL (i.e., were seronegative). Mothers' self-reported history of lack of tetanus immunization was the strongest predictor of seronegativity and of tetanus antibody levels in maternal and cord serum. Malarial and HIV infections may hinder efforts to eliminate maternal and neonatal tetanus, making implementation of the current policy for mass vaccination of women of childbearing age an urgent priority.

  15. Review of Adverse Events Associated With False Glucose Readings Measured by GDH-PQQ–Based Glucose Test Strips in the Presence of Interfering Sugars

    PubMed Central

    Frias, Juan P.; Lim, Christine G.; Ellison, John M.; Montandon, Carol M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the implications of falsely elevated glucose readings measured with glucose dehydrogenase pyrroloquinolinequinone (GDH-PQQ) test strips. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a review of the Food and Drug Administration's Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience database and medical literature for adverse events (AEs) associated with falsely elevated glucose readings with GDH-PQQ test strips in the presence of interfering sugars. RESULTS Eighty-two reports were identified: 16 (20%) were associated with death, 46 (56%) with severe hypoglycemia, and 12 (15%) with nonsevere hypoglycemia. In eight reports (10%), the AE was not described. Forty-two events (51%) occurred in the U.S. Although most events occurred in hospitalized patients, at least 14 (17%) occurred in outpatients. Agents most commonly associated with AEs were icodextrin-containing peritoneal dialysate and maltose-containing intravenous immune globulin. CONCLUSIONS GDH-PQQ test strips pose a safety risk to insulin-using patients treated with agents containing or metabolized to interfering sugars. PMID:20351227

  16. [Possibilities of differentiation of antinuclear antibodies].

    PubMed

    Müller, W; Rosenthal, M; Stojan, B

    1975-10-15

    Antinuclear antibodies can give diagnostic informations according to their titre values, the belonging to different classes of immune globulins and on the basis of different patterns of immunofluorescence connection. The determination of granulocyte-specific antibodies which frequently appear in progressive chronic polyarthritis further contributes to the differential-diagnostic classification of diseases of the connective tissue. An antibody against extractable nuclear antigen is specific for the so-called mixed connective tissue disease, an antimitochondrial antibody for the pseudo-LE-syndrome. Moreover, the own examinations resulted in a particularly high and frequent ability of complement fixation of the antinuclear factors in systematic lupus erythematosus and sclerodermy. In contrast to this in the progressive chronic polyarthritis the complement fixation was clearly more insignificant.

  17. Antibodies and antibody-drug conjugates in the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Eichenauer, Dennis A; Engert, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a B cell-derived lymphoid malignancy most often affecting young adults. More than 80% of HL patients achieve long-term remission after appropriate first-line treatment consisting of multiagent chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy (RT). In addition, approximately 50% of patients with disease recurrence remain relapse-free after salvage therapy with high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). However, patients with multiple relapses are mostly in a palliative situation, and novel drugs for this patient group are needed. Furthermore, novel less toxic but equally effective first-line and second-line approaches are required as therapy-related late sequelae represent a relevant cause of morbidity and mortality in HL survivors. Several antibodies and antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) targeting CD30 and CD20 have recently been evaluated in HL. Excellent response rates in heavily pretreated patients were observed with the ADC brentuximab vedotin directed against CD30. Thus, ongoing trials investigate brentuximab vedotin in different additional indications. One example is the first-line treatment of advanced HL where the drug is currently being evaluated in combination with variants of the first-line protocols ABVD (adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine) and escalated BEACOPP (bleomycin, etoposide, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone). Anti-CD20 antibodies given either as single agent or in combination with conventional chemotherapy have also been investigated and still undergo investigation in prospective studies including HL patients. This article reviews the available data on treatment approaches including antibodies and ADC in HL patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Trans-acting small interfering RNA4: key to nutraceutical synthesis in 1 grape development?

    PubMed Central

    Rock, Christopher D.

    2013-01-01

    The facility and versatility of microRNAs (miRNAs) to evolve and change likely underlies how they have become dominant constituents of eukaryotic genomes. In this opinion article I propose that trans-acting small interfering RNA gene 4 (TAS4) evolution may be important for biosynthesis of polyphenolics, arbuscular symbiosis, and bacterial pathogen etiologies. Expression-based and phylogenetic evidence shows that TAS4 targets two novel grape (Vitis vinifera L.) MYB transcription factors (VvMYBA6, VvMYBA7) that spawn phased siRNAs and likely function in nutraceutical bioflavonoid biosynthesis and fruit development. Characterization of the molecular mechanisms of TAS4 control of plant development and integration into biotic and abiotic stress- and nutrient signaling regulatory networks has applicability to molecular breeding and development of strategies for engineering healthier foods. PMID:23993483

  19. Design and manufacture of monoclonal antibodies for radioimmunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hale, G; Berrie, E; Bird, P

    2004-12-01

    antibodies is fundamental to their use for radioimmunotherapy. Besides the right selection of antibody specificity and affinity, recombinant antibodies can be designed to simplify manufacture and minimise unwanted side effects. Although many innovative new technologies have been developed in recent years, antibodies are still most commonly produced from mammalian cells and purified by column chromatography. Purification methods have to be designed and validated to remove potential contaminants, especially retroviruses, which in principle might be present in mammalian cell lines. Adherence to relevant ''Good Manufacturing Practices'' is mandatory in the production of any medicinal product and there are numerous guidelines regarding the manufacture of antibodies. This article outlines some methods used for fermentation, purification and quality control of antibodies intended for radiolabelling.

  20. HIV antibodies for treatment of HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, David M.; Koup, Richard A.; Ferrari, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Summary The bar is high to improve on current combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), now highly effective, safe, and simple. However antibodies that bind the HIV envelope are able to uniquely target the virus as it seeks to enter new target cells, or as it is expressed from previously infected cells. Further, the use of antibodies against HIV as a therapeutic may offer advantages. Antibodies can have long half-lives, and are being considered as partners for long-acting antiretrovirals for use in therapy or prevention of HIV infection. Early studies in animal models and in clinical trials suggest that such antibodies can have antiviral activity but, as with small molecule antiretrovirals, the issues of viral escape and resistance will have to be addressed. Most promising, however, are the unique properties of anti-HIV antibodies: the potential ability to opsonize viral particles, to direct antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against actively infected cells, and ultimately the ability to direct the clearance of HIV-infected cells by effector cells of the immune system. These distinctive activities suggest that HIV antibodies and their derivatives may play an important role in the next frontier of HIV therapeutics, the effort to develop treatments that could lead to an HIV cure. PMID:28133794

  1. The state-of-play and future of antibody therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Elgundi, Zehra; Reslan, Mouhamad; Cruz, Esteban; Sifniotis, Vicki; Kayser, Veysel

    2017-12-01

    It has been over four decades since the development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) using a hybridoma cell line was first reported. Since then more than thirty therapeutic antibodies have been marketed, mostly as oncology, autoimmune and inflammatory therapeutics. While antibodies are very efficient, their cost-effectiveness has always been discussed owing to their high costs, accumulating to more than one billion dollars from preclinical development through to market approval. Because of this, therapeutic antibodies are inaccessible to some patients in both developed and developing countries. The growing interest in biosimilar antibodies as affordable versions of therapeutic antibodies may provide alternative treatment options as well potentially decreasing costs. As certain markets begin to capitalize on this opportunity, regulatory authorities continue to refine the requirements for demonstrating quality, efficacy and safety of biosimilar compared to originator products. In addition to biosimilars, innovations in antibody engineering are providing the opportunity to design biobetter antibodies with improved properties to maximize efficacy. Enhancing effector function, antibody drug conjugates (ADC) or targeting multiple disease pathways via multi-specific antibodies are being explored. The manufacturing process of antibodies is also moving forward with advancements relating to host cell production and purification processes. Studies into the physical and chemical degradation pathways of antibodies are contributing to the design of more stable proteins guided by computational tools. Moreover, the delivery and pharmacokinetics of antibody-based therapeutics are improving as optimized formulations are pursued through the implementation of recent innovations in the field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Antibody Characterization Process | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The goal of the NCI's Antibody Characterization Program (ACP) is to have three monoclonal antibodies produced for each successfully expressed/purified recombinant antigen and one antibody per peptide (1 to 3 peptides per protein). To date, over 4000 clones have been screened before selecting the current 393 antibodies. They are winnowed down based on the projected end use of the antibody.

  3. Interfering lipoproteins in magnetic field-assisted agglutination of superparamagnetic particles immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Cauet, Gilles; Daynès, Aurélien; Temurok, Nevzat

    2016-04-01

    The technology of magnetic field-assisted immuno-agglutination of superparamagnetic particles allows sensitive detection of biomarkers in whole blood. However, we observed non-specific agglutination (NSA), due to interfering plasma proteins, that negatively affects C-reactive protein immunoassay. The objective of the study was to identify the plasma proteins involved and to eliminate these interferences. Plasma was fractionated by size exclusion HPLC and each fraction was tested for non-specific agglutination. In addition, plasma proteins bound to magnetic particles were analyzed by SDS-gel electrophoresis and identified by mass spectrometry. We found that NSA was due to the binding of some lipoproteins to the particles. NSA was observed in the presence of purified LDL and VLDL but not HDL. NSA was mediated by the binding of ApoB100 to magnetic particles through its heparin binding sites. These interferences could be eliminated by addition of heparin or other polyanions like dextran sulfate to the assay buffer. NSA results from the binding of some plasma lipoproteins to magnetic particles. The use of a polyanion to eliminate these interferences allows the formulation of a stable reagent.

  4. Northern Blot Detection of Virus-Derived Small Interfering RNAs in Caenorhabditis elegans Using Nonradioactive Oligo Probes.

    PubMed

    Long, Tianyun; Lu, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Northern blot analysis has been widely used as a tool for detection and characterization of specific RNA molecules. When coupled with radioactive probe northern blot allows for robust detection and characterization of small RNA molecules of trace amount. Here, we describe the detection and size characterization of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) in C. elegans using nonradioactive DNA oligo probes in northern blotting. Our protocol allows for the detection and characterization of not only primary vsiRNAs but also secondary vsiRNAs, a class of single-stranded vsiRNAs that has distinct migration pattern, and can be easily adapted to the detection of vsiRNAs in other organisms.

  5. Antibody-Coupled Magnetic Beads Can Be Reused in Immuno-MRM Assays To Reduce Cost and Extend Antibody Supply.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Whiteaker, Jeffrey R; Voytovich, Uliana J; Ivey, Richard G; Paulovich, Amanda G

    2015-10-02

    Immunoaffinity enrichment of peptides coupled to targeted, multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (immuno-MRM) enables precise quantification of peptides. Affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies are routinely used as affinity reagents in immuno-MRM assays, but they are not renewable, limiting the number of experiments that can be performed. In this technical note, we describe a workflow to regenerate anti-peptide polyclonal antibodies coupled to magnetic beads for enrichments in multiplex immuno-MRM assays. A multiplexed panel of 44 antibodies (targeting 60 peptides) is used to show that peptide analytes can be effectively stripped off of antibodies using acid washing without compromising assay performance. The performance of the multiplexed panel (determined by correlation, agreement, and precision of reused assays) is reproducible (R(2) between 0.81 and 0.99) and consistent (median CVs 8-15%) for at least 10 times of washing and reuse. Application of this workflow to immuno-MRM studies greatly reduces per sample assay cost and increases the number of samples that can be interrogated with a limited supply of polyclonal antibody reagent. This allows more characterization for promising and desirable targets prior to committing funds and efforts to conversion to a renewable monoclonal antibody.

  6. Modeling and docking antibody structures with Rosetta

    PubMed Central

    Weitzner, Brian D.; Jeliazkov, Jeliazko R.; Lyskov, Sergey; Marze, Nicholas; Kuroda, Daisuke; Frick, Rahel; Adolf-Bryfogle, Jared; Biswas, Naireeta; Dunbrack, Roland L.; Gray, Jeffrey J.

    2017-01-01

    We describe Rosetta-based computational protocols for predicting the three-dimensional structure of an antibody from sequence (RosettaAntibody) and then docking the antibody to protein antigens (SnugDock). Antibody modeling leverages canonical loop conformations to graft large segments from experimentally-determined structures as well as (1) energetic calculations to minimize loops, (2) docking methodology to refine the VL–VH relative orientation, and (3) de novo prediction of the elusive complementarity determining region (CDR) H3 loop. To alleviate model uncertainty, antibody–antigen docking resamples CDR loop conformations and can use multiple models to represent an ensemble of conformations for the antibody, the antigen or both. These protocols can be run fully-automated via the ROSIE web server (http://rosie.rosettacommons.org/) or manually on a computer with user control of individual steps. For best results, the protocol requires roughly 1,000 CPU-hours for antibody modeling and 250 CPU-hours for antibody–antigen docking. Tasks can be completed in under a day by using public supercomputers. PMID:28125104

  7. Boosting antibody developability through rational sequence optimization.

    PubMed

    Seeliger, Daniel; Schulz, Patrick; Litzenburger, Tobias; Spitz, Julia; Hoerer, Stefan; Blech, Michaela; Enenkel, Barbara; Studts, Joey M; Garidel, Patrick; Karow, Anne R

    2015-01-01

    The application of monoclonal antibodies as commercial therapeutics poses substantial demands on stability and properties of an antibody. Therapeutic molecules that exhibit favorable properties increase the success rate in development. However, it is not yet fully understood how the protein sequences of an antibody translates into favorable in vitro molecule properties. In this work, computational design strategies based on heuristic sequence analysis were used to systematically modify an antibody that exhibited a tendency to precipitation in vitro. The resulting series of closely related antibodies showed improved stability as assessed by biophysical methods and long-term stability experiments. As a notable observation, expression levels also improved in comparison with the wild-type candidate. The methods employed to optimize the protein sequences, as well as the biophysical data used to determine the effect on stability under conditions commonly used in the formulation of therapeutic proteins, are described. Together, the experimental and computational data led to consistent conclusions regarding the effect of the introduced mutations. Our approach exemplifies how computational methods can be used to guide antibody optimization for increased stability.

  8. Modern affinity reagents: Recombinant antibodies and aptamers.

    PubMed

    Groff, Katherine; Brown, Jeffrey; Clippinger, Amy J

    2015-12-01

    Affinity reagents are essential tools in both basic and applied research; however, there is a growing concern about the reproducibility of animal-derived monoclonal antibodies. The need for higher quality affinity reagents has prompted the development of methods that provide scientific, economic, and time-saving advantages and do not require the use of animals. This review describes two types of affinity reagents, recombinant antibodies and aptamers, which are non-animal technologies that can replace the use of animal-derived monoclonal antibodies. Recombinant antibodies are protein-based reagents, while aptamers are nucleic-acid-based. In light of the scientific advantages of these technologies, this review also discusses ways to gain momentum in the use of modern affinity reagents, including an update to the 1999 National Academy of Sciences monoclonal antibody production report and federal incentives for recombinant antibody and aptamer efforts. In the long-term, these efforts have the potential to improve the overall quality and decrease the cost of scientific research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Maternal Brain-Reactive Antibodies and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    We have determined that one monoclonal antibody cloned from the memory B cell population of the mother of a child with ASD binds Caspr2. This... child with ASD exhibit antibodies to Caspr2; thus this antibody may contribute to approximately 5% of cases of ASD. We have also determined that the pathogenicity of anti-Caspr2 antibodies is determined, in part, by epitope specificity.

  10. Transferring the Characteristics of Naturally Occurring and Biased Antibody Repertoires to Human Antibody Libraries by Trapping CDRH3 Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Venet, Sophie; Ravn, Ulla; Buatois, Vanessa; Gueneau, Franck; Calloud, Sébastien; Kosco-Vilbois, Marie; Fischer, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Antibody repertoires are characterized by diversity as they vary not only amongst individuals and post antigen exposure but also differ significantly between vertebrate species. Such plasticity can be exploited to generate human antibody libraries featuring hallmarks of these diverse repertoires. In this study, the focus was to capture CDRH3 sequences, as this region generally accounts for most of the interaction energy with antigen. Sequences from human as well as non-human sources were successfully integrated into human antibody libraries. Next generation sequencing of these libraries proved that the CDRH3 lengths and amino acid composition corresponded to the species of origin. Specific CDRH3 sequences, biased towards the recognition of a model antigen either by immunizing mice or by selecting with phage display, were then integrated into another set of libraries. From these antigen biased libraries, highly potent antibodies were more frequently isolated, indicating that the characteristics of an immune repertoire is transferrable via CDRH3 sequences into a human antibody library. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the properties of naturally or experimentally biased repertoires can be effectively harnessed for the generation of targeted human antibody libraries, substantially increasing the probability of isolating antibodies suitable for therapeutic and diagnostic applications. PMID:22937053

  11. Magnetic Purification of Antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhadge, Vijaykumar Laxman

    This work aimed at the development of magnetic nanoparticles for antibody purification and at the evaluation of their performance in Magnetic fishing and in a newly developed hybrid technology Magnetic Aqueous Two Phase Systems. Magnetic materials were produced by coprecipitation and solvothermal approaches. Natural polymers such as dextran, extracellular polysaccharide and gum Arabic were employed for coating of iron oxide magnetic supports. Polymer coated magnetic supports were then modified with synthetic antibody specific ligands,namely boronic acid, a triazine ligand (named 22/8) and an Ugi ligand (named A2C7I1). To optimize the efficacy of magnetic nanoparticles for antibody magnetic fishing, various solutions of pure and crude antibody solutions along with BSA as a non-specific binding protein were tested. The selectivity of magnetic nanoparticle for antibody, IgG, was found effective with boronic acid and ligand 22/8. Magnetic supports were then studied for their performance in high gradient magnetic separator for effective separation capability as well as higher volume handling capability. The magnetic materials were also supplemented to aqueous two phase systems, devising a new purification technology. For this purpose, magnetic particles modified with boronic acid were more effective. This alternative strategy reduced the time of operation,maximized separation capability (yield and purity), while reducing the amount of salt required. Boronic acid coated magnetic particles bound 170 +/- 10 mg hIgG/g MP and eluted 160 +/- 5 mg hIgG/g MP, while binding only 15 +/- 5 mg BSA/g MP. The affinity constant for the interaction between hIgG and APBA_MP was estimated as 4.9 x 105 M-1 (Ka) with a theoretical maximum capacity of 492 mg hIgG adsorbed/g MP (Qmax). APBA_MPs were also tested for antibody purification directly from CHO cell supernatants. The particles were able to bind 98% of IgG loaded and to recover 95% of pure IgG (purity greater than 98%) at extremely

  12. Phage display-derived human antibodies in clinical development and therapy.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, André; Schirrmann, Thomas; Hust, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Over the last 3 decades, monoclonal antibodies have become the most important class of therapeutic biologicals on the market. Development of therapeutic antibodies was accelerated by recombinant DNA technologies, which allowed the humanization of murine monoclonal antibodies to make them more similar to those of the human body and suitable for a broad range of chronic diseases like cancer and autoimmune diseases. In the early 1990s in vitro antibody selection technologies were developed that enabled the discovery of "fully" human antibodies with potentially superior clinical efficacy and lowest immunogenicity. Antibody phage display is the first and most widely used of the in vitro selection technologies. It has proven to be a robust, versatile platform technology for the discovery of human antibodies and a powerful engineering tool to improve antibody properties. As of the beginning of 2016, 6 human antibodies discovered or further developed by phage display were approved for therapy. In 2002, adalimumab (Humira®) became the first phage display-derived antibody granted a marketing approval. Humira® was also the first approved human antibody, and it is currently the best-selling antibody drug on the market. Numerous phage display-derived antibodies are currently under advanced clinical investigation, and, despite the availability of other technologies such as human antibody-producing transgenic mice, phage display has not lost its importance for the discovery and engineering of therapeutic antibodies. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview about phage display-derived antibodies that are approved for therapy or in clinical development. A selection of these antibodies is described in more detail to demonstrate different aspects of the phage display technology and its development over the last 25 years.

  13. Assessing antibody microarrays for space missions: effect of long-term storage, gamma radiation, and temperature shifts on printed and fluorescently labeled antibodies.

    PubMed

    de Diego-Castilla, Graciela; Cruz-Gil, Patricia; Mateo-Martí, Eva; Fernández-Calvo, Patricia; Rivas, Luis A; Parro, Víctor

    2011-10-01

    Antibody microarrays are becoming frequently used tools for analytical purposes. A key factor for optimal performance is the stability of the immobilized (capturing) antibodies as well as those that have been fluorescently labeled to achieve the immunological test (tracers). This is especially critical for long-distance transport, field testing, or planetary exploration. A number of different environmental stresses may affect the antibody integrity, such as dryness, sudden temperature shift cycles, or, as in the case of space science, exposure to large quantities of the highly penetrating gamma radiation. Here, we report on the effect of certain stabilizing solutions for long-term storage of printed antibody microarrays under different conditions. We tested the effect of gamma radiation on printed and freeze- or vacuum-dried fluorescent antibodies at working concentrations (tracer antibodies), as well as the effect of multiple cycles of sudden and prolonged temperature shifts on the stability of fluorescently labeled tracer antibody cocktails. Our results show that (i) antibody microarrays are stable at room temperature when printed on stabilizing spotting solutions for at least 6 months, (ii) lyophilized and vacuum-dried fluorescently labeled tracer antibodies are stable for more than 9 months of sudden temperature shift cycles (-20°C to 25°C and 50°C), and (iii) both printed and freeze- or vacuum-dried fluorescent tracer antibodies are stable after several-fold excess of the dose of gamma radiation expected during a mission to Mars. Although different antibodies may exhibit different susceptibilities, we conclude that, in general, antibodies are suitable for use in planetary exploration purposes if they are properly treated and stored with the use of stabilizing substances.

  14. High-throughput sequencing of natively paired antibody chains provides evidence for original antigenic sin shaping the antibody response to influenza vaccination.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yann-Chong; Blum, Lisa K; Kongpachith, Sarah; Ju, Chia-Hsin; Cai, Xiaoyong; Lindstrom, Tamsin M; Sokolove, Jeremy; Robinson, William H

    2014-03-01

    We developed a DNA barcoding method to enable high-throughput sequencing of the cognate heavy- and light-chain pairs of the antibodies expressed by individual B cells. We used this approach to elucidate the plasmablast antibody response to influenza vaccination. We show that >75% of the rationally selected plasmablast antibodies bind and neutralize influenza, and that antibodies from clonal families, defined by sharing both heavy-chain VJ and light-chain VJ sequence usage, do so most effectively. Vaccine-induced heavy-chain VJ regions contained on average >20 nucleotide mutations as compared to their predicted germline gene sequences, and some vaccine-induced antibodies exhibited higher binding affinities for hemagglutinins derived from prior years' seasonal influenza as compared to their affinities for the immunization strains. Our results show that influenza vaccination induces the recall of memory B cells that express antibodies that previously underwent affinity maturation against prior years' seasonal influenza, suggesting that 'original antigenic sin' shapes the antibody response to influenza vaccination. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Impact of wastewater derived dissolved interfering compounds on growth, enzymatic activity and trace organic contaminant removal of white rot fungi - A critical review.

    PubMed

    Asif, Muhammad B; Hai, Faisal I; Hou, Jingwei; Price, William E; Nghiem, Long D

    2017-10-01

    White-rot fungi (WRF) and their ligninolytic enzymes have been investigated for the removal of a broad spectrum of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) mostly from synthetic wastewater in lab-scale experiments. Only a few studies have reported the efficiency of such systems for the removal of TrOCs from real wastewater. Wastewater derived organic and inorganic compounds can inhibit: (i) WRF growth and their enzyme production capacity; (ii) enzymatic activity of ligninolytic enzymes; and (iii) catalytic efficiency of both WRF and enzymes. It is observed that essential metals such as Cu, Mn and Co at trace concertation (up to 1 mM) can improve the growth of WRF species, whereas non-essential metal such as Pb, Cd and Hg at 1 mM concentration can inhibit WRF growth and their enzyme production. In the case of purified enzymes, most of the tested metals at 1-5 mM concentration do not significantly inhibit the activity of laccases. Organic interfering compounds such as oxalic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) at 1 mM concentration are potent inhibitors of WRF and their extracellular enzymes. However, inhibitory effects induced by interfering compounds are strongly influenced by the type of WRF species as well as experimental conditions (e.g., incubation time and TrOC type). In this review, mechanisms and factors governing the interactions of interfering compounds with WRF and their ligninolytic enzymes are reviewed and elucidated. In addition, the performance of WRF and their ligninolytic enzymes for the removal of TrOCs from synthetic and real wastewater is critically summarized. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of medium concentration on antibody production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J.

    1984-01-01

    Antibody production by two different cell lines was measured as the media were supplemented with varied amounts of glucose and fetal bovine serum. Both cell lines elaborated antidinitrophenyl hapten antibodies. Two basic media were used: RPMI 1640 and Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium. The production of antibodies was followed from 0 to 180 h and was assayed by radioimmunoassay.

  17. Monoclonal IgA Antibodies for Aflatoxin Immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Ertekin, Özlem; Pirinçci, Şerife Şeyda; Öztürk, Selma

    2016-01-01

    Antibody based techniques are widely used for the detection of aflatoxins which are potent toxins with a high rate of occurrence in many crops. We developed a murine monoclonal antibody of immunoglobulin A (IgA) isotype with a strong binding affinity to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), aflatoxin G2 (AFG2) and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). The antibody was effectively used in immunoaffinity column (IAC) and ELISA kit development. The performance of the IACs was compatible with AOAC performance standards for affinity columns (Test Method: AOAC 991.31). The total binding capacity of the IACs containing our antibody was 111 ng, 70 ng, 114 ng and 73 ng for AFB1, AFB2, and AFG1 andAFG2, respectively. Furthermore, the recovery rates of 5 ng of each AF derivative loaded to the IACs were determined as 104.9%, 82.4%, 85.5% and 70.7% for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2, respectively. As for the ELISA kit developed using non-oriented, purified IgA antibody, we observed a detection range of 2–50 µg/L with 40 min total test time. The monoclonal antibody developed in this research is hitherto the first presentation of quadruple antigen binding IgA monoclonal antibodies in mycotoxin analysis and also the first study of their utilization in ELISA and IACs. IgA antibodies are valuable alternatives for immunoassay development, in terms of both sensitivity and ease of preparation, since they do not require any orientation effort. PMID:27187470

  18. Basics of Antibody Phage Display Technology.

    PubMed

    Ledsgaard, Line; Kilstrup, Mogens; Karatt-Vellatt, Aneesh; McCafferty, John; Laustsen, Andreas H

    2018-06-09

    Antibody discovery has become increasingly important in almost all areas of modern medicine. Different antibody discovery approaches exist, but one that has gained increasing interest in the field of toxinology and antivenom research is phage display technology. In this review, the lifecycle of the M13 phage and the basics of phage display technology are presented together with important factors influencing the success rates of phage display experiments. Moreover, the pros and cons of different antigen display methods and the use of naïve versus immunized phage display antibody libraries is discussed, and selected examples from the field of antivenom research are highlighted. This review thus provides in-depth knowledge on the principles and use of phage display technology with a special focus on discovery of antibodies that target animal toxins.

  19. Antibody-enabled small-molecule drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Alastair D G

    2012-06-29

    Although antibody-based therapeutics have become firmly established as medicines for serious diseases, the value of antibodies as tools in the early stages of small-molecule drug discovery is only beginning to be realized. In particular, antibodies may provide information to reduce risk in small-molecule drug discovery by enabling the validation of targets and by providing insights into the design of small-molecule screening assays. Moreover, antibodies can act as guides in the quest for small molecules that have the ability to modulate protein-protein interactions, which have traditionally only been considered to be tractable targets for biological drugs. The development of small molecules that have similar therapeutic effects to current biologics has the potential to benefit a broader range of patients at earlier stages of disease.

  20. Strong and oriented immobilization of single domain antibodies from crude bacterial lysates for high-throughput compatible cost-effective antibody array generation

    PubMed Central

    Even-Desrumeaux, Klervi; Baty, Daniel; Chames, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Antibodies microarrays are among the novel class of rapidly emerging proteomic technologies that will allow us to efficiently perform specific diagnosis and proteome analysis. Recombinant antibody fragments are especially suited for this approach but their stability is often a limiting factor. Camelids produce functional antibodies devoid of light chains (HCAbs) of which the single N-terminal domain is fully capable of antigen binding. When produced as an independent domain, these so-called single domain antibody fragments (sdAbs) have several advantages for biotechnological applications thanks to their unique properties of size (15 kDa), stability, solubility, and expression yield. These features should allow sdAbs to outperform other antibody formats in a number of applications, notably as capture molecule for antibody arrays. In this study, we have produced antibody microarrays using direct and oriented immobilization of sdAbs produced in crude bacterial lysates to generate proof-of-principle of a high-throughput compatible array design. Several sdAb immobilization strategies have been explored. Immobilization of in vivo biotinylated sdAbs by direct spotting of bacterial lysate on streptavidin and sandwich detection was developed to achieve high sensitivity and specificity, whereas immobilization of “multi-tagged” sdAbs via anti-tag antibodies and direct labeled sample detection strategy was optimized for the design of high-density antibody arrays for high-throughput proteomics and identification of potential biomarkers. PMID:20859568

  1. Rapid Isolation of Antibody from a Synthetic Human Antibody Library by Repeated Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting (FACS)

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Sung Sun; Bang, Hyun Bae; Kim, Young Hwan; Lee, Yong Jae; Jeong, Gu Min; Jeong, Ki Jun

    2014-01-01

    Antibodies and their derivatives are the most important agents in therapeutics and diagnostics. Even after the significant progress in the technology for antibody screening from huge libraries, it takes a long time to isolate an antibody, which prevents a prompt action against the spread of a disease. Here, we report a new strategy for isolating desired antibodies from a combinatorial library in one day by repeated fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). First, we constructed a library of synthetic human antibody in which single-chain variable fragment (scFv) was expressed in the periplasm of Escherichia coli. After labeling the cells with fluorescent antigen probes, the highly fluorescent cells were sorted by using a high-speed cell sorter, and these cells were reused without regeneration in the next round of sorting. After repeating this sorting, the positive clones were completely enriched in several hours. Thus, we screened the library against three viral antigens, including the H1N1 influenza virus, Hepatitis B virus, and Foot-and-mouth disease virus. Finally, the potential antibody candidates, which show KD values between 10 and 100 nM against the target antigens, could be successfully isolated even though the library was relatively small (∼106). These results show that repeated FACS screening without regeneration of the sorted cells can be a powerful method when a rapid response to a spreading disease is required. PMID:25303314

  2. Monoclonal Antibodies against the Drosophila Nervous System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Shinobu C.; Zipursky, Stephen L.; Benzer, Seymour; Ferrus, Alberto; Shotwell, Sandra L.

    1982-12-01

    A panel of 148 monoclonal antibodies directed against Drosophila neural antigens has been prepared by using mice immunized with homogenates of Drosophila tissue. Antibodies were screened immunohistochemically on cryostat sections of fly heads. A large diversity of staining patterns was observed. Some antigens were broadly distributed among tissues; others were highly specific to nerve fibers, neuropil, muscle, the tracheal system, cell nuclei, photoreceptors, or other structures. The antigens for many of the antibodies have been identified on immunoblots. Monoclonal antibodies that identify specific molecules within the nervous system should prove useful in the study of the molecular genetics of neural development.

  3. Antibody engineering of a cytotoxic monoclonal antibody 84 against human embryonic stem cells: Investigating the effects of multivalency on cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Klement, Maximilian; Zheng, Jiyun; Liu, Chengcheng; Tan, Heng-Liang; Wong, Victor Vai Tak; Choo, Andre Boon-Hwa; Lee, Dong-Yup; Ow, Dave Siak-Wei

    2017-02-10

    Antibody fragments have shown targeted specificity to their antigens, but only modest tissue retention times in vivo and in vitro. Multimerization has been used as a protein engineering tool to increase the number of binding units and thereby enhance the efficacy and retention time of antibody fragments. In this work, we explored the effects of valency using a series of self-assembling polypeptides based on the GCN4 leucine zipper multimerization domain fused to a single-chain variable fragment via an antibody upper hinge sequence. Four engineered antibody fragments with a valency from one to four antigen-binding units of a cytotoxic monoclonal antibody 84 against human embryonic stem cells (hESC) were constructed. We hypothesized that higher cytotoxicity would be observed for fragments with increased valency. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the trimeric and tetrameric engineered antibody fragments resulted in the highest degree of cytotoxicity to the undifferentiated hESC, while the engineered antibody fragments were observed to have improved tissue penetration into cell clusters. Thus, a trade off was made for the trimeric versus tetrameric fragment due to improved tissue penetration. These results have direct implications for antibody-mediated removal of undifferentiated hESC during regenerative medicine and cell therapy. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Immunizations with chimeric hepatitis B virus-like particles to induce potential anti-hepatitis C virus neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Vietheer, Patricia T K; Boo, Irene; Drummer, Heidi E; Netter, Hans-Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) are highly immunogenic and proven to induce protective immunity. The small surface antigen (HBsAg-S) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) self-assembles into VLPs and its use as a vaccine results in protective antiviral immunity against HBV infections. Chimeric HBsAg-S proteins carrying foreign epitopes allow particle formation and have the ability to induce anti-foreign humoral and cellular immune responses. The insertion of the hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) sequence derived from the envelope protein 2 (E2) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) into the major antigenic site of HBsAg-S ('a'-determinant) resulted in the formation of highly immunogenic VLPs that retained the antigenicity of the inserted HVR1 sequence. BALB/c mice were immunized with chimeric VLPs, which resulted in antisera with anti-HCV activity. The antisera were able to immunoprecipitate native HCV envelope complexes (E1E2) containing homologous or heterologous HVR1 sequences. HCV E1E2 pseudotyped HIV-1 particles (HCVpp) were used to measure entry into HuH-7 target cells in the presence or absence of antisera that were raised against chimeric VLPs. Anti-HVR1 VLP sera interfered with entry of entry-competent HCVpps containing either homologous or heterologous HVR1 sequences. Also, immunizations with chimeric VLPs induced antisurface antigen (HBsAg) antibodies, indicating that HBV-specific antigenicity and immunogenicity of the 'a'-determinant region is retained. A multivalent vaccine against different pathogens based on the HBsAg delivery platform should be possible. We hypothesize that custom design of VLPs with an appropriate set of HCV-neutralizing epitopes will induce antibodies that would serve to decrease the viral load at the initial infecting inoculum.

  5. Phase Transitions in Antibody Solutions: from Pharmaceuticals to Human Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Lomakin, Aleksey; Benedek, George; Dana Farber Cancer Institute Collaboration; Amgen Inc. Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Antibodies are very important proteins. Natural antibodies play essential role in the immune system of human body. Pharmaceutical antibodies are used as drugs. Antibodies are also indispensable tools in biomedical research and diagnostics. Recently, a number of observations of phase transitions of pharmaceutical antibodies have been reported. These phase transitions are undesirable from the perspective of colloid stability of drug solutions in processing and storage, but can be used for protein purification, X-ray crystallography, and improving pharmokinetics of drugs. Phase transitions of antibodies can also take place in human body, particularly in multiple myeloma patients who overproduce monoclonal antibodies. These antibodies, in some cases, crystallize at body temperature and cause severe complications called cryoglobulinemia. I will present the results of our current studies on phase transitions of both pharmaceutical antibodies and cryoglobulinemia-associated antibodies. These studies have shown that different antibodies have different propensity to undergo phase transitions, but their phase behavior has universal features which are remarkably different from those of spherical proteins. I will discuss how studies of phase behavior can be useful in assessing colloid stability of pharmaceutical antibodies and in early diagnostics of cryoglobulinemia, as well as general implications of the fact that some antibodies can precipitate at physiological conditions.

  6. Phage display-derived human antibodies in clinical development and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Frenzel, André; Schirrmann, Thomas; Hust, Michael

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Over the last 3 decades, monoclonal antibodies have become the most important class of therapeutic biologicals on the market. Development of therapeutic antibodies was accelerated by recombinant DNA technologies, which allowed the humanization of murine monoclonal antibodies to make them more similar to those of the human body and suitable for a broad range of chronic diseases like cancer and autoimmune diseases. In the early 1990s in vitro antibody selection technologies were developed that enabled the discovery of “fully” human antibodies with potentially superior clinical efficacy and lowest immunogenicity. Antibody phage display is the first and most widely used of the in vitro selection technologies. It has proven to be a robust, versatile platform technology for the discovery of human antibodies and a powerful engineering tool to improve antibody properties. As of the beginning of 2016, 6 human antibodies discovered or further developed by phage display were approved for therapy. In 2002, adalimumab (Humira®) became the first phage display-derived antibody granted a marketing approval. Humira® was also the first approved human antibody, and it is currently the best-selling antibody drug on the market. Numerous phage display-derived antibodies are currently under advanced clinical investigation, and, despite the availability of other technologies such as human antibody-producing transgenic mice, phage display has not lost its importance for the discovery and engineering of therapeutic antibodies. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview about phage display-derived antibodies that are approved for therapy or in clinical development. A selection of these antibodies is described in more detail to demonstrate different aspects of the phage display technology and its development over the last 25 years. PMID:27416017

  7. Nystagmus and ataxia associated with antiganglioside antibodies.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seong-Hae; Nam, Jungmoo; Kwon, Min Jeong; Kim, Jong Kuk; Kim, Ji Soo

    2011-12-01

    Antiganglioside antibodies are found in various neurological disorders that constitute a continuum from peripheral neuropathy to encephalitis. However, nystagmus has rarely been described in patients with ataxia associated with antiganglioside antibodies. From January 2008 to July 2009, we identified 3 patients with acute ataxia and nystagmus in 2 University Hospitals of Korea, who were found to have anti-GD1b, anti-GM1, or anti-GQ1b antibodies. In addition to acute ataxia, all 3 patients showed various combinations of nystagmus, which included central positional nystagmus (n = 3), vertical nystagmus (n = 1), and periodic alternating nystagmus (n = 1). The spontaneous and positional nystagmus were mostly detectable only with the elimination of fixation and magnification of the eyes using video goggles. Two patients also exhibited gaze-evoked nystagmus that was noticeable without the aid of video goggles. Patients had serum IgG antibodies to GD1b, GM1, or GQ1b. Cerebrospinal fluid examination, nerve conduction studies, and brain MRI were normal. In all patients, the symptoms and signs resolved over 3-12 months. Various forms of nystagmus with acute ataxia may be a sole or predominant manifestation of disorders related to antiganglioside antibodies. The nystagmus indicates a central pathology involving the cerebellum or brainstem in this antibody-associated disorder. Antiganglioside antibodies should be measured in patients with nystagmus and acute ataxia of undetermined etiology.

  8. Antibody Scientific Committee | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The Antibody Scientific Committee provides scientific insight and guidance to the NCI's Antibody Characterization Program. Specifically, the members of this committee evaluate request from the external scientific community for development and characterization of antibodies by the program. The members of the Antibody Scientific Committee include:

  9. Neural and behavioral suppression of interfering flankers by children with and without autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Faja, Susan; Clarkson, Tessa; Webb, Sara Jane

    2016-01-01

    Electrophysiological responses, accuracy and reaction time were recorded while 7-11-year-olds with typical development (TYP; N=30) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD; N=19) inhibited conflicting information. Relative to the TYP group, children with ASD had larger decrements in accuracy for incongruent trials and were slower. In terms of neural responses, N2 mean amplitude was greater overall for children with ASD relative to TYP children. N2 neural responses related to a behavioral measure of inhibition and cognitive flexibility for TYP children, whereas it related to suppression of interfering information and maintenance of accurate responding for the children with ASD. Results suggest children with ASD recruit more neural resources and perform worse when inhibiting conflicting information relative to TYP peers. PMID:27825750

  10. Gene Suppression of Mouse Testis In Vivo Using Small Interfering RNA Derived from Plasmid Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Takizawa, Takami; Ishikawa, Tomoko; Kosuge, Takuji; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Sato, Yoko; Koji, Takehiko; Araki, Yoshihiko; Takizawa, Toshihiro

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated whether inhibiting gene expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) can be used for an in vivo model using a germ cell-specific gene (Tex101) as a model target in mouse testis. We generated plasmid-based expression vectors of siRNA targeting the Tex101 gene and transfected them into postnatal day 10 mouse testes by in vivo electroporation. After optimizing the electroporation conditions using a vector transfected into the mouse testis, a combination of high- and low-voltage pulses showed excellent transfection efficiency for the vectors with minimal tissue damage, but gene suppression was transient. Gene suppression by in vivo electroporation may be helpful as an alternative approach when designing experiments to unravel the basic role of testicular molecules. PMID:22489107

  11. Anti-troponin I antibodies in renal transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Nunes, José Pedro L; Sampaio, Susana; Cerqueira, Ana; Kaya, Ziya; Oliveira, Nuno Pardal

    2015-02-01

    To characterize the prevalence and clinical correlates of anti-troponin I antibodies in renal transplant patients. A group of 48 consecutive renal transplant patients under immunosuppressive therapy were studied. Anti-troponin I antibodies were measured and clinical data were retrieved. An anti-troponin I antibody titer <1:40 was seen in most patients (30). IgG antibody titers ≥1:80 were seen in eight patients, with a single value of 1:160. Regarding IgM antibodies, in six cases titers ≥1:80 were seen, with one value of 1:320. In only one patient were both anti-troponin I antibody IgG and IgM titers 1:80 or higher. Clinical cardiac disease was seen in nine patients. The presence of an anti-troponin I antibody titer ≥1:80 was not associated with the presence of clinical cardiac disease (p=0.232), but was associated with statin therapy status (p=0.008), being less frequent in patients under statin therapy. Anti-troponin I antibodies are seen in a minority of renal transplant patients, and are not associated with the presence of clinical heart disease, but are associated with lack of statin therapy. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Generation of Murine Monoclonal Antibodies by Hybridoma Technology.

    PubMed

    Holzlöhner, Pamela; Hanack, Katja

    2017-01-02

    Monoclonal antibodies are universal binding molecules and are widely used in biomedicine and research. Nevertheless, the generation of these binding molecules is time-consuming and laborious due to the complicated handling and lack of alternatives. The aim of this protocol is to provide one standard method for the generation of monoclonal antibodies using hybridoma technology. This technology combines two steps. Step 1 is an appropriate immunization of the animal and step 2 is the fusion of B lymphocytes with immortal myeloma cells in order to generate hybrids possessing both parental functions, such as the production of antibody molecules and immortality. The generated hybridoma cells were then recloned and diluted to obtain stable monoclonal cell cultures secreting the desired monoclonal antibody in the culture supernatant. The supernatants were tested in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for antigen specificity. After the selection of appropriate cell clones, the cells were transferred to mass cultivation in order to produce the desired antibody molecule in large amounts. The purification of the antibodies is routinely performed by affinity chromatography. After purification, the antibody molecule can be characterized and validated for the final test application. The whole process takes 8 to 12 months of development, and there is a high risk that the antibody will not work in the desired test system.

  13. Proteins improving recombinant antibody production in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Nishimiya, Daisuke

    2014-02-01

    Mammalian cells have been successfully used for the industrial manufacture of antibodies due to their ability to synthesize antibodies correctly. Nascent polypeptides must be subjected to protein folding and assembly in the ER and the Golgi to be secreted as mature proteins. If these reactions do not proceed appropriately, unfolded or misfolded proteins are degraded by the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. The accumulation of unfolded proteins or intracellular antibody crystals accompanied by this failure triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR), which can considerably attenuate the levels of translation, folding, assembly, and secretion, resulting in reduction of antibody productivity. Accumulating studies by omics-based analysis of recombinant mammalian cells suggest that not only protein secretion processes including protein folding and assembly but also translation are likely to be the rate-limiting factors for increasing antibody production. Here, this review describes the mechanism of antibody folding and assembly and recent advantages which could improve recombinant antibody production in mammalian cells by utilizing proteins such as ER chaperones or UPR-related proteins.

  14. Cloned Defective Interfering Influenza Virus Protects Ferrets from Pandemic 2009 Influenza A Virus and Allows Protective Immunity to Be Established

    PubMed Central

    Dimmock, Nigel J.; Taylor, Irene; Cheung, Linda; Hallis, Bassam; Marriott, Anthony C.; Carroll, Miles W.; Easton, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Influenza A viruses are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the human population, causing epidemics in the winter, and occasional worldwide pandemics. In addition there are periodic outbreaks in domestic poultry, horses, pigs, dogs, and cats. Infections of domestic birds can be fatal for the birds and their human contacts. Control in man operates through vaccines and antivirals, but both have their limitations. In the search for an alternative treatment we have focussed on defective interfering (DI) influenza A virus. Such a DI virus is superficially indistinguishable from a normal virus but has a large deletion in one of the eight RNAs that make up the viral genome. Antiviral activity resides in the deleted RNA. We have cloned one such highly active DI RNA derived from segment 1 (244 DI virus) and shown earlier that intranasal administration protects mice from lethal disease caused by a number of different influenza A viruses. A more cogent model of human influenza is the ferret. Here we found that intranasal treatment with a single dose of 2 or 0.2 µg 244 RNA delivered as A/PR/8/34 virus particles protected ferrets from disease caused by pandemic virus A/California/04/09 (A/Cal; H1N1). Specifically, 244 DI virus significantly reduced fever, weight loss, respiratory symptoms, and infectious load. 244 DI RNA, the active principle, was amplified in nasal washes following infection with A/Cal, consistent with its amelioration of clinical disease. Animals that were treated with 244 DI RNA cleared infectious and DI viruses without delay. Despite the attenuation of infection and disease by DI virus, ferrets formed high levels of A/Cal-specific serum haemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies and were solidly immune to rechallenge with A/Cal. Together with earlier data from mouse studies, we conclude that 244 DI virus is a highly effective antiviral with activity potentially against all influenza A subtypes. PMID:23251341

  15. A novel anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody inhibiting tumor cell growth by recognizing different epitopes from cetuximab.

    PubMed

    Hong, Kwang-Won; Kim, Chang-Goo; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Chang, Ki-Hwan; Shin, Yong Won; Ryoo, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Se-Ho; Kim, Yong-Sung

    2010-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpressed in many epithelial tumors is an attractive target for tumor therapy since numerous blocking agents of EGFR signaling have proven their anti-tumor activity. Here we report a novel monoclonal antibody (mAb), A13, which was generated from mice immunized with human cervical carcinoma A431 cells. In addition to binding to soluble EGFR with affinity of K(D) approximately 5.8nM, mAb A13 specifically bound to a variety of tumor cells and human placenta tissues expressing EGFR. A13 efficiently inhibited both EGF-dependant EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation in cervical and breast tumor cells and also in vitro colony formation of EGFR-overexpressing lung tumors. Competition and sandwich ELISAs, competitive surface plasmon resonance, and domain-level epitope mapping analyses demonstrated that mAb A13 competitively bound to the domain III (amino acids 302-503) of EGFR with EGF, but recognized distinct epitopes from those of cetuximab (Erbitux). Our results demonstrated that anti-EGFR mAb A13 interfered with EGFR proliferation signaling by blocking EGF binding to EGFR with different epitopes from those of cetuximab, suggesting that combination therapies of mAb A13 with cetuximab may prove beneficial for anti-tumor therapy.

  16. Virus-specific antibody secreting cell, memory B-cell, and sero-antibody responses in the human influenza challenge model.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuan-Ying Arthur; Li, Chris Ka-Fai; Clutterbuck, Elizabeth; Chui, Cecilia; Wilkinson, Tom; Gilbert, Anthony; Oxford, John; Lambkin-Williams, Rob; Lin, Tzou-Yien; McMichael, Andrew J; Xu, Xiao-Ning

    2014-05-01

    Antibodies play a major role in the protection against influenza virus in human. However, the antibody level is usually short-lived and the cellular mechanisms underlying influenza virus-specific antibody response to acute infection remain unclear.  We studied the kinetics and magnitude of influenza virus-specific B-cell and serum antibody responses in relation to virus replication during the course of influenza infection in healthy adult volunteers who were previously seronegative and experimentally infected with seasonal influenza H1N1 A/Brisbane/59/07 virus.  Our data demonstrated a robust expansion of the virus-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) and memory B cells in the peripheral blood, which correlated with both the throat viral load and the duration of viral shedding. The ASC response was obviously detected on day 7 post-infection when the virus was completely cleared from nasal samples, and serum hemagglutination-inhibition antibodies were still undetectable. On day 28 postinfection, influenza virus-specific B cells were further identified from the circulating compartment of isotype-switched B cells. Virus-specific ASCs could be the earliest marker of B-cell response to a new flu virus infection, such as H7N9 in humans.

  17. [Limbic encephalitis with antibodies against intracellular antigens].

    PubMed

    Morita, Akihiko; Kamei, Satoshi

    2010-04-01

    Limbic encephalitis is a paraneoplastic syndrome that is often associated with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), breast cancer, testicular tumors, teratoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma and thymoma. The common clinical manifestations of limbic encephalitis are subacute onset, cognitive dysfunction, seizures and psychiatric symptoms. Paraneoplastic neurological disorders are considered to occur because of cytotoxic T cell responses and antibodies against target neuronal proteins that are usually expressed by an underlying tumor. The main intracellular antigens related to limbic encephalitis are Hu, Ma2, and less frequently CV2/CRMP5 and amphiphysin. The anti-Hu antibody, which is involved in cerebellar degeneration and extensive or multifocal encephalomyelitis such as limbic encephalitis is closely associated with a history of smoking and SCLC. The anti-Ma2 antibody is associated with encephalitis of the limbic system, hypothalamus and brain-stem. For this reason, some patients with limbic encephalitis have sleep disorders (including REM sleep abnormalities), severe hypokinesis and gaze palsy in addition to limbic dysfunction. In men aged less than 50 years, anti-Ma2 antibody encephalitis is almost always associated with testicular germ-cell tumors that are occasionally difficult to detect. In older men and women, the most common tumors are non-SCLC and breast cancer. Limbic encephalitis associated with cell-surface antigens (e.g., voltage-gated potassium channels, NMDA receptors) is mediated by antibodies and often improves after a reduction in the antibody titer and after tumor resection. Patients with antibodies against intracellular antigens, except for those with anti-Ma2 antibodies and testicular tumors, are less responsive. Early diagnosis and treatment with immunotherapy, tumor resection or both are important for improving or stabilizing the condition of limbic encephalitis.

  18. History and Practice: Antibodies in Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Hey, Adam

    2015-04-01

    Antibodies and passive antibody therapy in the treatment of infectious diseases is the story of a treatment concept which dates back more than 120 years, to the 1890s, when the use of serum from immunized animals provided the first effective treatment options against infections with Clostridium tetani and Corynebacterium diphtheriae. However, after the discovery of penicillin by Fleming in 1928, and the subsequent introduction of the much cheaper and safer antibiotics in the 1930s, serum therapy was largely abandoned. However, the broad and general use of antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine has resulted in the development of multi-resistant strains of bacteria with limited to no response to existing treatments and the need for alternative treatment options. The combined specificity and flexibility of antibody-based treatments makes them very valuable tools for designing specific antibody treatments to infectious agents. These attributes have already caused a revolution in new antibody-based treatments in oncology and inflammatory diseases, with many approved products. However, only one monoclonal antibody, palivizumab, for the prevention and treatment of respiratory syncytial virus, is approved for infectious diseases. The high cost of monoclonal antibody therapies, the need for parallel development of diagnostics, and the relatively small markets are major barriers for their development in the presence of cheap antibiotics. It is time to take a new and revised look into the future to find appropriate niches in infectious diseases where new antibody-based treatments or combinations with existing antibiotics, could prove their value and serve as stepping stones for broader acceptance of the potential for and value of these treatments.

  19. Recent Trends in Antibody-based Oncologic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sukhwinder; Venktaraman, Ganesh; Jain, Maneesh; Senapati, Shantibhusan; Garg, Pradeep K.; Batra, Surinder K.

    2011-01-01

    Antibodies, with their unmatched ability for selective binding to any target, are considered as potentially the most specific probes for imaging. Their clinical utility, however, has been limited chiefly due to their slow clearance from the circulation, longer retention in non-targeted tissues and the extensive optimization required for each antibody-tracer. The development of newer contrast agents, combined with improved conjugation strategies and novel engineered forms of antibodies (diabodies, minibodies, single chain variable fragments, and nanobodies), have triggered a new wave of antibody-based imaging approaches. Apart from their conventional use with nuclear imaging probes, antibodies and their modified forms are increasingly being employed with non-radioisotopic contrast agents (MRI and ultrasound) as well as newer imaging modalities, such as quantum dots, near infra red (NIR) probes, nanoshells and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The review article provides new developments in the usage of antibodies and their modified forms in conjunction with probes of various imaging modalities such as nuclear imaging, optical imaging, ultrasound, MRI, SERS and nanoshells in preclinical and clinical studies on the diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic responses of cancer. PMID:22104729

  20. [Toxoplasmosis-antibody seroprevalence in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania].

    PubMed

    Fiedler, K; Hülsse, C; Straube, W; Briese, V

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to get a general idea of the antibody prevalence of toxoplasmosis within the different agegroups of the population of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. 4854 serums (collected between 1994 and 1996) from different institutions of the federal state were investigated with the "Toxo-Competitions Test LTXC)" at the Mini-Vidas divice (bio Merieux). An antibody prevalence rate of 59% was found. As expected, with rising age a continuing increase was recognisable. The antibody prevalence rate with the male test persons amounted to 58.5%, with the female test persons to 59.3%, and within the pregnant women 63.2%. Therefore 36.8% of pregnant women have got no toxoplasmosis antibodies, i.e. they are exposed to the danger of a primary infection. Within pregnant women aged between 20 and 40 an increase of antibody prevalence of 1% per year of age was recognisable. There was only a small share of pregnant women (10.5%), but they confirm the facts known from literature. More than 1/3 of our test persons hadn't had toxoplasmosis antibodies. Therefore in order to reduce the danger of a primary infection in pregnant women a screening before pregnancy in recommendable.

  1. Cell type-specific delivery of short interfering RNAs by dye-functionalised theranostic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Press, Adrian T.; Traeger, Anja; Pietsch, Christian; Mosig, Alexander; Wagner, Michael; Clemens, Mark G.; Jbeily, Nayla; Koch, Nicole; Gottschaldt, Michael; Bézière, Nicolas; Ermolayev, Volodymyr; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Popp, Jürgen; Kessels, Michael M.; Qualmann, Britta; Schubert, Ulrich S.; Bauer, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Efficient delivery of short interfering RNAs reflects a prerequisite for the development of RNA interference therapeutics. Here, we describe highly specific nanoparticles, based on near infrared fluorescent polymethine dye-derived targeting moieties coupled to biodegradable polymers. The fluorescent dye, even when coupled to a nanoparticle, mimics a ligand for hepatic parenchymal uptake transporters resulting in hepatobiliary clearance of approximately 95% of the dye within 45 min. Body distribution, hepatocyte uptake and excretion into bile of the dye itself, or dye-coupled nanoparticles can be tracked by intravital microscopy or even non-invasively by multispectral optoacoustic tomography. Efficacy of delivery is demonstrated in vivo using 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase siRNA as an active payload resulting in a reduction of plasma cholesterol levels if siRNA was formulated into dye-functionalised nanoparticles. This suggests that organ-selective uptake of a near infrared dye can be efficiently transferred to theranostic nanoparticles allowing novel possibilities for personalised silencing of disease-associated genes.

  2. Long-term direct visualization of passively transferred fluorophore-conjugated antibodies.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jeffrey R; Carias, Ann M; Bastian, Arangaserry R; Cianci, Gianguido C; Kiser, Patrick F; Veazey, Ronald S; Hope, Thomas J

    2017-11-01

    The use of therapeutic antibodies, delivered by intravenous (IV) instillation, is a rapidly expanding area of biomedical treatment for a variety of conditions. However, little is known about how the antibodies are anatomically distributed following infusion and the underlying mechanism mediating therapeutic antibody distribution to specific anatomical sites remains to be elucidated. Current efforts utilize low resolution and sensitivity methods such as ELISA and indirect labeling imaging techniques, which often leads to high background and difficulty in assessing biodistribution. Here, using the in vivo non-human primate model, we demonstrate that it is possible to utilize the fluorophores Cy5 and Cy3 directly conjugated to antibodies for direct visualization and quantification of passively transferred antibodies in plasma, tissue, and in mucosal secretions. Antibodies were formulated with 1-2 fluorophores per antibody to minimally influence antibody function. Fluorophore conjugated Gamunex-C (pooled human IgG) were tested for binding to protein A, via surface plasmon resonance, and showed similar levels of binding when compared to unlabeled Gamunex-C. In order to assess the effect fluorophore labeling has on turnover and localization, rhesus macaques were IV infused with either labeled or unlabeled Gamunex-C. Plasma, vaginal Weck-Cel fluid, cervicovaginal mucus, and vaginal/rectal tissue biopsies were collected up to 8weeks. Similar turnover and biodistribution was observed between labeled and unlabeled antibodies, showing that the labeling process did not have an obvious deleterious effect on localization or turnover. Cy5 and Cy3 labeled antibodies were readily detected in the same pattern regardless of fluorophore. Tissue distribution was measured in macaque vaginal and rectal biopsies. The labeled antibody in macaque biopsies was found to have similar biodistribution pattern to endogenous antibodies in macaque and human tissues. In the vaginal and rectal mucosa

  3. Macrophages are critical effectors of antibody therapies for cancer.

    PubMed

    Weiskopf, Kipp; Weissman, Irving L

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are innate immune cells that derive from circulating monocytes, reside in all tissues, and participate in many states of pathology. Macrophages play a dichotomous role in cancer, where they promote tumor growth but also serve as critical immune effectors of therapeutic antibodies. Macrophages express all classes of Fcγ receptors, and they have immense potential to destroy tumors via the process of antibody-dependent phagocytosis. A number of studies have demonstrated that macrophage phagocytosis is a major mechanism of action of many antibodies approved to treat cancer. Consequently, a number of approaches to augment macrophage responses to therapeutic antibodies are under investigation, including the exploration of new targets and development of antibodies with enhanced functions. For example, the interaction of CD47 with signal-regulatory protein α (SIRPα) serves as a myeloid-specific immune checkpoint that limits the response of macrophages to antibody therapies, and CD47-blocking agents overcome this barrier to augment phagocytosis. The response of macrophages to antibody therapies can also be enhanced with engineered Fc variants, bispecific antibodies, or antibody-drug conjugates. Macrophages have demonstrated success as effectors of cancer immunotherapy, and further investigation will unlock their full potential for the benefit of patients.

  4. Mining Naïve Rabbit Antibody Repertoires by Phage Display for Monoclonal Antibodies of Therapeutic Utility.

    PubMed

    Peng, Haiyong; Nerreter, Thomas; Chang, Jing; Qi, Junpeng; Li, Xiuling; Karunadharma, Pabalu; Martinez, Gustavo J; Fallahi, Mohammad; Soden, Jo; Freeth, Jim; Beerli, Roger R; Grawunder, Ulf; Hudecek, Michael; Rader, Christoph

    2017-09-15

    Owing to their high affinities and specificities, rabbit monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have demonstrated value and potential primarily as basic research and diagnostic reagents, but, in some cases, also as therapeutics. To accelerate access to rabbit mAbs bypassing immunization, we generated a large naïve rabbit antibody repertoire represented by a phage display library encompassing >10 billion independent antibodies in chimeric rabbit/human Fab format and validated it by next-generation sequencing. Panels of rabbit mAbs selected from this library against two emerging cancer targets, ROR1 and ROR2, revealed high diversity, affinity, and specificity. Moreover, ROR1- and ROR2-targeting rabbit mAbs demonstrated therapeutic utility as components of chimeric antigen receptor-engineered T cells, further corroborating the value of the naïve rabbit antibody library as a rich and virtually unlimited source of rabbit mAbs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nanoparticles for the delivery of therapeutic antibodies: Dogma or promising strategy?

    PubMed

    Sousa, Flávia; Castro, Pedro; Fonte, Pedro; Kennedy, Patrick J; Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa; Sarmento, Bruno

    2017-10-01

    Over the past two decades, therapeutic antibodies have demonstrated promising results in the treatment of a wide array of diseases. However, the application of antibody-based therapy implies multiple administrations and a high cost of antibody production, resulting in costly therapy. Another disadvantage inherent to antibody-based therapy is the limited stability of antibodies and the low level of tissue penetration. The use of nanoparticles as delivery systems for antibodies allows for a reduction in antibody dosing and may represent a suitable alternative to increase antibody stability Areas covered: We discuss different nanocarriers intended for the delivery of antibodies as well as the corresponding encapsulation methods. Recent developments in antibody nanoencapsulation, particularly the possible toxicity issues that may arise from entrapment of antibodies into nanocarriers, are also assessed. In addition, this review will discuss the alterations in antibody structure and bioactivity that occur with nanoencapsulation. Expert opinion: Nanocarriers can protect antibodies from degradation, ensuring superior bioavailability. Encapsulation of therapeutic antibodies may offer some advantages, including potential targeting, reduced immunogenicity and controlled release. Furthermore, antibody nanoencapsulation may aid in the incorporation of the antibodies into the cells, if intracellular components (e.g. intracellular enzymes, oncogenic proteins, transcription factors) are to be targeted.

  6. Cloning the Antibody Response in Humans with Chronic Inflammatory Disease: Immunopanning of Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE) Brain Sections with Antibody Phage Libraries Prepared from SSPE Brain Enriches for Antibody Recognizing Measles Virus Antigens In Situ

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Gregory P.; Williamson, R. Anthony; Burgoon, Mark P.; Ghausi, Omar; Burton, Dennis R.; Gilden, Donald H.

    2000-01-01

    In central nervous system (CNS) infectious and inflammatory diseases of known cause, oligoclonal bands represent antibody directed against the causative agent. To determine whether disease-relevant antibodies can be cloned from diseased brain, we prepared an antibody phage display library from the brain of a human with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), a chronic encephalitis caused by measles virus, and selected the library against SSPE brain sections. Antibodies that were retrieved reacted strongly with measles virus cell extracts by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and were specific for the measles virus nucleocapsid protein. These antibodies immunostained cells in different SSPE brains but not in control brain. Our data provide the first demonstration that diseased brain can be used to select in situ for antibodies directed against the causative agent of disease and point to the potential usefulness of this approach in identifying relevant antibodies in chronic CNS or systemic inflammatory diseases of unknown cause. PMID:10627565

  7. Monoclonal Antibody Therapy for Advanced Neuroblastoma

    Cancer.gov

    NCI is sponsoring two clinical trials of a monoclonal antibody called ch14.18, in combination with other drugs, to see if the antibody may be helpful for children or young adults (up to age 21) with relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma.

  8. The Gathering Storm: Federal Laws That Have a Serious Potential of Interfering with the Mission and Character of Evangelical Christian Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davids, James A.

    2012-01-01

    In the early 1980s, the University of Notre Dame Law School's Center for Constitutional Studies surveyed 801 religiously affiliated colleges to determine which federal laws and regulations had a "serious potential" of interfering with the character and mission of the schools. From the 226 responses, the Center identified 11 issues, three…

  9. Monoclonal antibodies against the rat liver glucocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Okret, S; Wikström, A C; Wrange, O; Andersson, B; Gustafsson, J A

    1984-01-01

    Splenic cells from one BALB/c mouse and one C57/BL mouse, immunized with purified rat liver glucocorticoid receptor (GR), were fused with the mouse myeloma cell line Sp 2/0-Ag 14. Screening for production of anti-GR-antibodies by the hybridomas was carried out with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, using partially purified rat liver GR as antigen. Further screening was by a second-antibody immunoprecipitation assay using [3H]triamcinolone acetonide-GR complex from rat liver cytosol as tracer. Hybridomas from 10 different microplate wells, positive in both assays, were successfully cloned by the limiting dilution method to monoclonality. The different origins of the monoclonal antibodies were confirmed by their various isoelectric points when analyzed by isoelectric focusing. Four of the monoclonal hybridoma cell lines secreted IgM antibodies; two, IgG1; three, IgG2a; and one, IgG2b. The GR-antibody complex was identified in glycerol density gradients by a shift of the 4S GR to an 8.5S or 19S GR-antibody complex when incubated with monoclonal IgG or IgM antibody, respectively. The 10 monoclonal antibodies recognized different determinants on the GR, all situated on that domain of the receptor that is separate from the ligand and DNA-binding domains. Also, the cross-reactivity to the mouse liver GR varied among the monoclonal antibodies. No cross-reactivity was observed to the human lymphocytic GR. NaDodSO4 electrophoresis of a 0.5% pure GR preparation followed by immunoblotting using one of the monoclonal antibodies identified a single peptide with a molecular weight of 94,000, identical to the purified rat liver GR. Images PMID:6200880

  10. Antibody-based bacterial toxin detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menking, Darrell E.; Heitz, Jonathon M.; Anis, Nabil A.; Thompson, Roy G.

    1994-03-01

    Fiber optic evanescent fluorosensors are under investigation in our laboratory for the study of drug-receptor interactions for detection of threat agents and antibody-antigen interactions for detection of biological toxins. In a one step assay, antibodies against Cholera toxin or Staphylococcus Enterotoxin B were noncovalently immobilized on quartz fibers and probed with fluorescein-isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled toxins. In the two-step assay, Cholera toxin or Botulinum toxoid A was immobilized onto the fiber, followed by incubation in an antiserum or partially purified antitoxin IgG. These were then probed with FITC-anti-IgG antibodies. Unlabeled toxins competed with labeled toxins or antitoxin IgG in a dose-dependent manner and the detection of the toxins was in the nanomolar range.

  11. Maternal antibodies against tetanus toxoid do not inhibit potency of antibody responses to autologous antigen in newborn rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Veazey, Ronald S; Lu, Yingjie; Xu, Huanbin; Ziani, Widade; Doyle-Meyers, Lara A; Ratterree, Marion S; Wang, Xiaolei

    2018-02-01

    Our previous study suggested newborns have competent immune systems with the potential to respond to foreign antigens and vaccines. In this study, we examined infant immune responses to tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccination in the presence of maternal antibody to TT. We examined changes in plasma levels of tetanus toxoid-specific IgG1 (anti-TT IgG1) in a total of eight infant rhesus macaques from birth through 6 months of age using a commercial Monkey Anti-TT IgG1 ELISA kit. A significant correlation between anti-TT IgG1 levels in vaccinated dams and their paired newborn infants was detected in control (non-vaccinated) infants as previously reported. Maternal anti-TT IgG1 levels declined rapidly within 1 month of birth in non-vaccinated infants (n=4). In four infants vaccinated with TT at birth, we found two had rapid and robust antibody responses to vaccination. Interestingly, the other two first showed declining TT antibody levels for 2 weeks followed by increasing levels without additional vaccine boosts, indicating all four had good antibody responses to primary TT vaccination at birth, despite the presence of high levels of maternal antibodies to TT in all four infants. Our data indicate that newborn macaques have competent immune systems that are capable of generating their own primary antibody responses to vaccination, at least to tetanus antigens. Maternal antibodies thus do not significantly impair antibody response to the vaccination, even when received on the day of birth in infant rhesus macaques. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Local and global anatomy of antibody-protein antigen recognition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meryl; Zhu, David; Zhu, Jianwei; Nussinov, Ruth; Ma, Buyong

    2018-05-01

    Deciphering antibody-protein antigen recognition is of fundamental and practical significance. We constructed an antibody structural dataset, partitioned it into human and murine subgroups, and compared it with nonantibody protein-protein complexes. We investigated the physicochemical properties of regions on and away from the antibody-antigen interfaces, including net charge, overall antibody charge distributions, and their potential role in antigen interaction. We observed that amino acid preference in antibody-protein antigen recognition is entropy driven, with residues having low side-chain entropy appearing to compensate for the high backbone entropy in interaction with protein antigens. Antibodies prefer charged and polar antigen residues and bridging water molecules. They also prefer positive net charge, presumably to promote interaction with negatively charged protein antigens, which are common in proteomes. Antibody-antigen interfaces have large percentages of Tyr, Ser, and Asp, but little Lys. Electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions in the Ag binding sites might be coupled with Fab domains through organized charge and residue distributions away from the binding interfaces. Here we describe some features of antibody-antigen interfaces and of Fab domains as compared with nonantibody protein-protein interactions. The distributions of interface residues in human and murine antibodies do not differ significantly. Overall, our results provide not only a local but also a global anatomy of antibody structures. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Replacing antibodies with aptamers in lateral flow immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ailiang; Yang, Shuming

    2015-09-15

    Aptamers have been identified against various targets as a type of chemical or nucleic acid ligand by systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) with high sensitivity and specificity. Aptamers show remarkable advantages over antibodies due to the nucleic acid nature and target-induced structure-switching properties and are widely used to design various fluorescent, electrochemical, or colorimetric biosensors. However, the practical applications of aptamer-based sensing and diagnostics are still lagging behind those of antibody-based tests. Lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) represents a well established and appropriate technology among rapid assays because of its low cost and user-friendliness. The antibody-based platform is utilized to detect numerous targets, but it is always hampered by the antibody preparation time, antibody stability, and effect of modification on the antibody. Seeking alternatives to antibodies is an area of active research and is of tremendous importance. Aptamers are receiving increasing attention in lateral flow applications because of a number of important potential performance advantages. We speculate that aptamer-based LFIA may be one of the first platforms for commercial use of aptamer-based diagnosis. This review first gives an introduction to aptamer including the selection process SELEX with its focus on aptamer advantages over antibodies, and then depicts LFIA with its focus on aptamer opportunities in LFIA over antibodies. Furthermore, we summarize the recent advances in the development of aptamer-based lateral flow biosensing assays with the aim to provide a general guide for the design of aptamer-based lateral flow biosensing assays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Baculovirus display of functional antibody Fab fragments.

    PubMed

    Takada, Shinya; Ogawa, Takafumi; Matsui, Kazusa; Suzuki, Tasuku; Katsuda, Tomohisa; Yamaji, Hideki

    2015-08-01

    The generation of a recombinant baculovirus that displays antibody Fab fragments on the surface was investigated. A recombinant baculovirus was engineered so that the heavy chain (Hc; Fd fragment) of a mouse Fab fragment was expressed as a fusion to the N-terminus of baculovirus gp64, while the light chain of the Fab fragment was simultaneously expressed as a secretory protein. Following infection of Sf9 insect cells with the recombinant baculovirus, the culture supernatant was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using antigen-coated microplates and either an anti-mouse IgG or an anti-gp64 antibody. A relatively strong signal was obtained in each case, showing antigen-binding activity in the culture supernatant. In western blot analysis of the culture supernatant using the anti-gp64 antibody, specific protein bands were detected at an electrophoretic mobility that coincided with the molecular weight of the Hc-gp64 fusion protein as well as that of gp64. Flow cytometry using a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated antibody specific to mouse IgG successfully detected the Fab fragments on the surface of the Sf9 cells. These results suggest that immunologically functional antibody Fab fragments can be displayed on the surface of baculovirus particles, and that a fluorescence-activated cell sorter with a fluorescence-labeled antigen can isolate baculoviruses displaying specific Fab fragments. This successful baculovirus display of antibody Fab fragments may offer a novel approach for the efficient selection of specific antibodies.

  15. Development and evaluation of an enzyme-labeled antibody test for the rapid detection of hog cholera antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, G.C.

    1977-01-01

    A rapid enzyme-labeled antibody (ELA) microtechnique for the screening of swine for hog cholera antibodies was developed and evaluated with a blind study, using a 640-sample hog cholera serum bank. The total time to run a group of 22 samples was approximately 1 hour. The ELA test results correlated >99% with hog cholera serum-neutralization test results on the same serums. Test results also indicated that the ELA test shares with the hog cholera serum-neutralization test the problem of cross reactions between the antibodies of hog cholera and bovine viral diarrhea.

  16. Behavioral and Psychological Responses to HIV Antibody Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Paul B.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Considers effects of informing individuals of their antibody status as determined by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody testing. Reviews research examining changes in psychological distress and in behaviors associated with HIV infections among individuals who have undergone antibody testing. Identifies methodological issues in studying…

  17. Improving Antibody-Based Cancer Therapeutics Through Glycan Engineering.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaojie; Marshall, Michael J E; Cragg, Mark S; Crispin, Max

    2017-06-01

    Antibody-based therapeutics has emerged as a major tool in cancer treatment. Guided by the superb specificity of the antibody variable domain, it allows the precise targeting of tumour markers. Recently, eliciting cellular effector functions, mediated by the Fc domain, has gained traction as a means by which to generate more potent antibody therapeutics. Extensive mutagenesis studies of the Fc protein backbone has enabled the generation of Fc variants that more optimally engage the Fcγ receptors known to mediate cellular effector functions such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and cellular phagocytosis. In addition to the protein backbone, the homodimeric Fc domain contains two opposing N-linked glycans, which represent a further point of potential immunomodulation, independent of the Fc protein backbone. For example, a lack of core fucose usually attached to the IgG Fc glycan leads to enhanced ADCC activity, whereas a high level of terminal sialylation is associated with reduced inflammation. Significant growth in knowledge of Fc glycosylation over the last decade, combined with advancement in genetic engineering, has empowered glyco-engineering to fine-tune antibody therapeutics. This has culminated in the approval of two glyco-engineered antibodies for cancer therapy: the anti-CCR4 mogamulizumab approved in 2012 and the anti-CD20 obinutuzumab in 2013. We discuss here the technological platforms for antibody glyco-engineering and review the current clinical landscape of glyco-engineered antibodies.

  18. Mechanism of human antibody-mediated neutralization of Marburg virus.

    PubMed

    Flyak, Andrew I; Ilinykh, Philipp A; Murin, Charles D; Garron, Tania; Shen, Xiaoli; Fusco, Marnie L; Hashiguchi, Takao; Bornholdt, Zachary A; Slaughter, James C; Sapparapu, Gopal; Klages, Curtis; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Ward, Andrew B; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Bukreyev, Alexander; Crowe, James E

    2015-02-26

    The mechanisms by which neutralizing antibodies inhibit Marburg virus (MARV) are not known. We isolated a panel of neutralizing antibodies from a human MARV survivor that bind to MARV glycoprotein (GP) and compete for binding to a single major antigenic site. Remarkably, several of the antibodies also bind to Ebola virus (EBOV) GP. Single-particle EM structures of antibody-GP complexes reveal that all of the neutralizing antibodies bind to MARV GP at or near the predicted region of the receptor-binding site. The presence of the glycan cap or mucin-like domain blocks binding of neutralizing antibodies to EBOV GP, but not to MARV GP. The data suggest that MARV-neutralizing antibodies inhibit virus by binding to infectious virions at the exposed MARV receptor-binding site, revealing a mechanism of filovirus inhibition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. MoFvAb: Modeling the Fv region of antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Bujotzek, Alexander; Fuchs, Angelika; Qu, Changtao; Benz, Jörg; Klostermann, Stefan; Antes, Iris; Georges, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the 3-dimensional structure of the antigen-binding region of antibodies enables numerous useful applications regarding the design and development of antibody-based drugs. We present a knowledge-based antibody structure prediction methodology that incorporates concepts that have arisen from an applied antibody engineering environment. The protocol exploits the rich and continuously growing supply of experimentally derived antibody structures available to predict CDR loop conformations and the packing of heavy and light chain quickly and without user intervention. The homology models are refined by a novel antibody-specific approach to adapt and rearrange sidechains based on their chemical environment. The method achieves very competitive all-atom root mean square deviation values in the order of 1.5 Å on different evaluation datasets consisting of both known and previously unpublished antibody crystal structures. PMID:26176812

  20. In vitro antibody-enzyme conjugates with specific bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Knowles, D M; Sulivan, T J; Parker, C W; Williams, R C

    1973-06-01

    IgG with antibacterial antibody opsonic activity was isolated from rabbit antisera produced by intravenous hyperimmunization with several test strains of pneumococci, Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. Antibody-enzyme conjugates were prepared, using diethylmalonimidate to couple glucose oxidase to IgG antibacterial antibody preparations. Opsonic human IgG obtained from serum of patients with subacute bacterial endocarditis was also conjugated to glucose oxidase. Antibody-enzyme conjugates retained combining specificity for test bacteria as demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence. In vitro test for bactericidal activity of antibody-enzyme conjugates utilized potassium iodide, lactoperoxidase, and glucose as cofactors. Under these conditions glucose oxidase conjugated to antibody generates hydrogen peroxide, and lactoperoxidase enzyme catalyzes the reduction of hydrogen peroxide with simultaneous oxidation of I(-) and halogenation and killing of test bacteria. Potent in vitro bactericidal activity of this system was repeatedly demonstrated for antibody-enzyme conjugates against pneumococci, streptococci, S. aureus, P. mirabilis, and E. coli. However, no bactericidal effect was demonstrable with antibody-enzyme conjugates and two test strains of P. aeruginosa. Bactericidal activity of antibody-enzyme conjugates appeared to parallel original opsonic potency of unconjugated IgG preparations. Antibody-enzyme conjugates at concentrations as low as 0.01 mg/ml were capable of intense bactericidal activity producing substantial drops in surviving bacterial counts within 30-60 min after initiation of assay. These in vitro bactericidal systems indicate that the concept of antibacterial antibody-enzyme conjugates may possibly be adaptable as a mechanism for treatment of patients with leukocyte dysfunction or fulminant bacteremia.