Mize, Krystal D; Shackelford, Todd K
Previous research indicates that the killing method used in homicides may reflect the motivation of the offender and qualities of the victim-offender relationship. The effect of gender and sexual orientation of intimate partner homicide offenders (N = 51,007) was examined with respect to the brutality of killing methods. Guided by previous research and theory, it was hypothesized that homicide brutality will vary with the offender's sexual orientation and gender, such that the percentage of killings coded as brutal will be higher for (a) gay and lesbian relative to heterosexual relations, (b) men relative to women, (c) gay relative to heterosexual men, and (d) lesbian relative to heterosexual women. The rates of intimate partner homicide were also hypothesized to vary with the gender of the partners, such that (a) homicide rates will be higher in gay relative to heterosexual and lesbian couples and (b) homicide rates will be lowest in lesbian couples. The results support all but one prediction derived from the two hypotheses. We predicted that men would kill their partners more brutally than would women, but the results indicate that the opposite is true.
Goldberg, Abbie E; Kinkler, Lori A; Moyer, April M; Weber, Elizabeth
Little research has examined the transition to parenthood among couples who adopt through the child welfare system. The current qualitative study of 84 individuals within 42 couples (17 lesbian, 13 gay, and 12 heterosexual), who were placed with a child via foster care three months earlier, examined perceived changes in their intimate relationship. Findings indicated that, like heterosexual biological-parent couples, some adoptive parents perceived the loss of their partner's undivided attention as stressful to the relationship. Adoption-specific stressors were also identified, including the need to find state-approved child care to facilitate "couple time" and the legal insecurity of foster-to-adopt placements. Although our findings were similar for heterosexual, lesbian, and gay adoptive parents, same-sex couples cited some additional stressors related to their sexual minority status. Findings have implications for individual, couple, and family practitioners who work with lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parents, particularly during their transition to parenthood.
Halstead, Valerie; De Santis, Joseph; Williams, Jessica
Various theoretical frameworks have been utilized while examining the concept of relationship power. In addition, the conceptual definition and operational use are inconsistent throughout literature. A concept analysis was conducted on the basis of the guidelines provided by Walker and Avant. The proposed definition of relationship power is the relative, perceived, and actual ability to influence a relationship partner. Antecedents, attributes, and consequences are presented. Because of the various adverse outcomes related to relationship power (eg, intimate partner violence, depression), an understanding of this concept is essential. Furthermore, a clear understanding is needed to advance nursing knowledge, leading to future research and theory development.
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Kinkler, Lori A.; Moyer, April M.; Weber, Elizabeth
Little research has examined the transition to parenthood among couples who adopt through the child welfare system. The current qualitative study of 84 individuals within 42 couples (17 lesbian, 13 gay, and 12 heterosexual), who were placed with a child via foster care three months earlier, examined perceived changes in their intimate relationship. Findings indicated that, like heterosexual biological-parent couples, some adoptive parents perceived the loss of their partner’s undivided attention as stressful to the relationship. Adoption-specific stressors were also identified, including the need to find state-approved child care to facilitate “couple time” and the legal insecurity of foster-to-adopt placements. Although our findings were similar for heterosexual, lesbian, and gay adoptive parents, same-sex couples cited some additional stressors related to their sexual minority status. Findings have implications for individual, couple, and family practitioners who work with lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parents, particularly during their transition to parenthood. PMID:25177080
Franklin, Cortney A; Menaker, Tasha A
This study used a random community sample of 303 women in romantic relationships to investigate the role of educational and employment status inconsistency and patriarchal family ideology as risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization, while considering demographic factors and relationship context variables. Sequential multivariate logistic regression models demonstrated a decrease in the odds of IPV victimization for Hispanic women and women who were older as compared with their counterparts. In addition, increased relationship distress, family-of-origin violence, and employment status inconsistency significantly increased the odds of IPV. Clinical intervention strategies and future research directions are discussed.
Larance, Lisa Young; Rousson, Ashley
The authors highlight a community's response to women's use of force, detail aspects of intervention strategies, and introduce a conceptual model representing the women's change process. In doing so, they encourage community partnerships, continued intervention innovation, and further research. Their observations suggest an intervention philosophy and approach that women have described as one of personal "renewal." The community's experiences are notable in light of national efforts to effectively meet the needs of female survivors of intimate partner violence who have used force.
Popadiuk, Natalee E.
Five female international students studying at a western Canadian university were interviewed about their experiences of being in a difficult intimate heterosexual relationship. An in-depth interpretive analysis revealed that, according to the participants, these relational struggles influenced their adjustment to the host culture. Implications…
Vasquez Guerrero, Desi Alonzo
This study examines the relationships between hypermasculinity, sexual aggression, intimate partner violence, social support, and child maltreatment risk among heterosexual fathers completing parenting classes. Hypermasculinity scores were found to be significant predictors of study participants' reported verbal, physical, and sexual aggression toward their intimate partners. Only lack of social support, operationalized as the reported frequency of participants' conversations with friends, relatives, or neighbors about their problems, was found to be a significant predictor of child maltreatment risk. Alcohol frequency, education, and monthly income were not found to be unique, significant predictors of any dependent variables. Implications for clinical practice and research as well as limitations to the current study are discussed.
Casey, Erin A; Querna, Katherine; Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J
Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is linked to sexual risk exposure among women. However, less is known about the intersection of IPV perpetration and sexual risk behavior among men. This study used data from a diverse, community sample of 334 heterosexually active young men, aged 18 to 25, across the United States to examine whether and how men with distinct IPV-related behavior patterns differed in sexual risk-related behavior and attitudes. Participants were recruited and surveyed online, and grouped conceptually based on the types of IPV perpetration behavior(s) used in a current or recent romantic relationship. Groups were then compared on relevant sexual risk variables. Men reporting both physical abuse and sexual coercion against intimate partners reported significantly higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher rates of nonmonogamy, greater endorsement of nonmonogamy, and less frequent condom use relative to nonabusive men or those reporting controlling behavior only. This group also had higher sexually transmitted infection (STI) exposure compared to men who used controlling behavior only and men who used sexual coercion only. Findings suggest that interventions with men who use physical and sexual violence need to account for not only the physical and psychological harm of this behavior but also the sexual risk to which men may expose their partners.
Casey, Erin A.; Querna, Katherine; Masters, N. Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Morrison, Diane M.; Hoppe, Marilyn J.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is linked to sexual risk exposure among women. However, less is known about the intersection of IPV perpetration and sexual risk behavior among men. This study used data from a diverse, community sample of 334 heterosexually active young men, aged 18 to 25, across the United States to examine whether and how men with distinct IPV-related behavior patterns differed in sexual risk–related behavior and attitudes. Participants were recruited and surveyed online, and grouped conceptually based on the types of IPV perpetration behavior(s) used in a current or recent romantic relationship. Groups were then compared on relevant sexual risk variables. Men reporting both physical abuse and sexual coercion against intimate partners reported significantly higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher rates of nonmonogamy, greater endorsement of nonmonogamy, and less frequent condom use relative to nonabusive men or those reporting controlling behavior only. This group also had higher sexually transmitted infection (STI) exposure compared to men who used controlling behavior only and men who used sexual coercion only. Findings suggest that interventions with men who use physical and sexual violence need to account for not only the physical and psychological harm of this behavior but also the sexual risk to which men may expose their partners. PMID:26158212
Whisman, Mark A.; Baucom, Donald H.
Relationship functioning and individual mental health and well-being are strongly associated with one another. In this article, we first review the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between relationship discord and various types of psychopathology, We then review findings suggesting that relationship discord is associated with poorer…
Zurbriggen, Eileen L; Gobin, Robyn L; Kaehler, Laura A
Intimate relationships can both affect and be affected by trauma and its sequelae. This special issue highlights research on trauma, attachment, and intimate relationships. Several themes emerged. One theme is the exploration of the associations between a history of trauma and relational variables, with an emphasis on models using these variables as mediators. Given the significance of secure attachment for healthy relationships, it is not surprising that attachment emerges as another theme of this issue. Moreover, a key component of relationships is trust, and so a further theme of this issue is betrayal trauma (J. J. Freyd, 1996 ). As the work included in this special issue makes clear, intimate relationships of all types are important for the psychological health of those exposed to traumatic events. In order to best help trauma survivors and those close to them, it is imperative that research exploring these issues be presented to research communities, clinical practitioners, and the public in general. This special issue serves as one step toward that objective.
Kurdek, L A; Schmitt, J P
The relationship quality of partners in 44 married, 35 heterosexual cohabiting, 50 gay, and 56 lesbian monogamous couples was studied. Each couple lived together and did not have children living with them. Relationship quality was dimensionalized as love for partner, liking of partner, and relationship satisfaction. Cohabiting partners had the lowest Love for Partner and Relationship Satisfaction scores. Differences were also found among partner types on: barriers to leaving the relationship, alternatives to the relationship, a belief that mindreading is expected in the relationship, masculinity, femininity, androgyny, dyadic attachment, shared decision making, and perceived social support from family. The four partner groups did not differ in psychological adjustment. For each type of partner, love for partner was related to many barriers to leaving the relationship and high dyadic attachment; liking of partner was related to few alternatives to the relationship, high dyadic attachment, and high shared decision making; and relationship satisfaction was related to many attractions, few alternatives, few beliefs regarding disagreement is destructive to the relationship, high dyadic attachment, and high shared decision making. Stepwise multiple regression procedures were used to identify the best set of predictors for each partner type. Results are discussed in the context of existing models of relationship quality.
El-Bassel, Nabila; Shaw, Stacey A; Dasgupta, Anindita; Strathdee, Steffanie A
We reviewed papers published during the past 18 months (2012-2013) focusing on micro-social contexts of gender and power inequalities as drivers of HIV risks among people who inject drugs (PWID) in intimate heterosexual relationships. Although there has been a proliferation of social and behavioral research on the micro-social contexts of drug injection in heterosexual intimate relationships, there is still a gap in knowledge of these issues, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Research has identified couple-based approaches for PWID in intimate relationships as an effective HIV prevention strategy to address micro-social contexts driving HIV risks. While HIV incidence has declined in many countries, prevalence remains at troubling levels among PWID and transmission from PWID to their sex partners is increasing in many parts of the world. HIV prevention among drug-using couples must address the importance of the relationship dyad and micro-social contexts.
Bass, Brenda L.; Drake, Teske R.; Linney, Kirsten D.
Unrealistic relationship beliefs have been shown to be related to lower levels of relationship satisfaction. Yet, young adults often hold unrealistic or irrational beliefs about intimate relationships. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an intimate relationships course in reducing young adults' irrational relationship…
Pipes, Randolph B.; LeBov-Keeler, Karen
Identifies possible predictors of psychological abuse in nonmarital heterosexual romantic relationships. Responses from 175 undergraduate women reveal 11% claiming psychological abuse as well as more instances of partner behaviors characteristic of psychological abuse. Abused individuals were more likely to have lower self-esteem, had parents'…
Whisman, Mark A; Johnson, Daniel P; Li, Angela; Robustelli, Briana L
Prior research has shown that poor relationship quality in marriage and other intimate relationships demonstrates cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with a variety of psychiatric disorders in adults. In comparison, there has been less research on the covariation between relationship quality and psychiatric disorders in adolescents, a developmental period that is associated with elevated risk of incidence of several disorders and that is important for the acquisition and maintenance of intimate relationships. The present study was conducted to examine the associations between intimate relationship involvement, intimate relationship quality, and psychiatric disorders in a population-based sample of adolescents. The associations between relationship involvement, positive and negative relationship quality, and 12-month prevalence of mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders were evaluated in adolescents from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement. Participants completed an interview-based assessment of psychiatric disorders and a self-report measure of relationship quality. Results indicated that the prevalence of broad categories of mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders, and several specific disorders were significantly associated with (a) being married, cohabiting, or involved in a serious relationship; and (b) reporting more negative (but not less positive) relationship quality. For several disorders, the association between the disorder and relationship involvement was moderated by age, wherein the strength of the association decreased in magnitude with increasing age. Findings suggest that being in an intimate relationship and reporting higher levels of negative relationship quality are associated with the prevalence of several common psychiatric disorders in adolescents.
van Seters, A P; Slob, A K
Three adult patients with micropenis are described: two genetic females, reared as boys, with congenital adrenocortical hyperplasia (CAH), and one male with anorchia. The patients had a male gender identity/role. All three had established a satisfying heterosexual relationship. For only one of the patients intravaginal intercourse was possible. In one patient (with CAH), penile reconstructive surgery was attempted but failed. Nevertheless, he developed a satisfactory sexual relationship with a woman friend. This report illustrates that for patients with micropenis, penile reconstructive surgery is not obligatory for the establishment of a satisfying sexual relationship.
Hammett, Julia F; Ulloa, Emilio C; Castañeda, Donna M; Hokoda, Audrey
This study examined the association between intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and romantic relationship distress in a sample of 100 heterosexual White and Mexican American couples. Data were collected during the first and during the third year of marriage. In the overall sample, wives' own IPV victimization was associated with wives' increased distress and husbands' IPV victimization was associated with wives' decreased distress. Among Mexican Americans, wives' IPV victimization was related to husbands' increased distress, whereas among White Americans, wives' IPV victimization was related to husbands' decreased distress. These results indicate that the association between IPV victimization and relationship distress may not only differ by gender but also by ethnicity.
Carlson, Wendy; Rose, Amanda J.
Whereas much research addresses relations of youths' heterosexual romantic relationships with sexual and/or delinquent activities, less attention has been paid to youths' more normative, day-to-day activities with romantic partners. This gap in the literature is problematic given that these activities define the substance of the relationships and…
Umberson, Debra; Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Lodge, Amy C.
Knowledge about how gender shapes intimacy is dominated by a heteronormative focus on relationships involving a man and a woman. In this study, the authors shifted the focus to consider gendered meanings and experiences of intimacy in same-sex and different-sex relationships. They merged the gender-as-relational perspective—that gender is co-constructed and enacted within relationships—with theoretical perspectives on emotion work and intimacy to frame an analysis of in-depth interviews with 15 lesbian, 15 gay, and 20 heterosexual couples. They found that emotion work directed toward minimizing and maintaining boundaries between partners is key to understanding intimacy in long-term relationships. Moreover, these dynamics, including the type and division of emotion work, vary for men and women depending on whether they are in a same-sex or different-sex relationship. These findings push thinking about diversity in long-term relationships beyond a focus on gender difference and toward gendered relational contexts. PMID:25814771
Burke, Tricia J; Young, Valerie J
To understand the association between sexual transformations (i.e., changes in sexual behavior for the partner), intimate behaviors, and relationship quality among couples in romantic relationships, this study used Actor Partner Interdependence Models to examine frequency of sexual transformations, feelings about sexual transformations, and intimate behaviors as predictors of relationship satisfaction among 96 couples (N = 192). Sexual transformations were also examined as a moderator of the association between intimate behavior and relationship satisfaction. Results indicated that relationship satisfaction was positively associated with partners' frequent sexual transformations, actors' positive feelings about sexual transformations, and intimate behavior from the partner. Further, in less intimate relationships, relationship satisfaction was greater when partners reported making more sexual transformations.
Grov, Christian; Gillespie, Brian Joseph; Royce, Tracy; Lever, Janet
Some researchers have illustrated how the Internet can provide users with an ideal atmosphere to explore sexuality; however, most have stressed the Internet's negative impact on intimate relationships. Notably, much of this research has focused on the small minority of men who compulsively engage in online sexual activities (OSA), overlooking the majority of men and women who use OSA recreationally (either individually or with a partner). Addressing these limitations, data on heterosexual adults in committed relationships were taken from the 2004 "ELLE/msnbc.com Cyber-sex and Romance Survey" (n = 8,376). In quantitative analyses, men were less likely than women to express concerns and more likely to hold favorable attitudes about their partner's OSA. With regard to the impact of OSA on intimate relationships, men and women did not differ in becoming "more open to new things," and finding it easier "to talk about what [they] want sexually." Negative impacts were also identified, with women more likely to indicate they had less sex as a result of a partner's OSA, and men more likely to indicate they were less aroused by real sex as a result of their own OSA. Generally, qualitative results mirrored quantitative ones. Additionally, qualitative data suggested that moderate or light amounts of OSA yield relationship benefits for both female and male users, including increases in the quality and frequency of sex, and increased intimacy with real partners. In addition, men who used the Internet moderately, and men and women who reported being light users, stated that engaging in tandem OSA fostered better sexual communication with partners. Findings underscore the need to explore further the impact that online sexual activities can have on real-life committed relationships.
Kurdek, Lawrence A
Growth curves for relationship quality over the first 10 years of cohabitation, controlling for separation, were estimated on the basis of survey data obtained over part or all of this time interval. Participants were both partners from 95 lesbian, 92 gay male, and 226 heterosexual couples living without children, and both partners from 312 heterosexual couples living with children. Relative to other partners, those from lesbian couples showed the highest levels of relationship quality averaged over all assessments. Pattern of change in relationship quality varied by type of couple. Partners from lesbian and gay male couples showed no change, those from heterosexual couples without children showed an early phase of accelerated decline followed by a leveling off, and those from heterosexual couples with children showed an early phase of accelerated decline followed by a 2nd phase of accelerated decline.
Seimer, Belinda S
Women in the United States are more likely to be assaulted, injured, raped, or killed by an intimate partner or ex-partner than by any other perpetrator. Adolescents who are exposed to violence in their family of origin are at risk for violence in their own future relationships. This article provides an overview of the subject of intimate violence in adolescent relationships. The author suggests that it is critical for providers to advocate for patients by routinely inquiring about intimate violence at each healthcare visit and assisting the patient to resolution.
Dragiewicz, Molly; Dekeseredy, Walter S
Claims that violence is gender-neutral are increasingly becoming "common sense" in Canada. Antifeminist groups assert that the high rates of woman abuse uncovered by major Canadian national surveys conducted in the early 1990s are greatly exaggerated and that women are as violent as men. The production of degendered rhetoric about "intimate partner violence" contributes to claims that women's and men's violence is symmetrical and mutual. This article critically evaluates common claims about Canadian women's use of nonlethal force in heterosexual intimate relationships in the context of the political struggle over the hegemonic frame for violence and abuse. The extant Canadian research documenting significant sex differences in violence and abuse against adult intimate partners is reviewed.
Carlson, Wendy; Rose, Amanda J
Whereas much research addresses relations of youths' heterosexual romantic relationships with sexual and/or delinquent activities, less attention has been paid to youths' more normative, day-to-day activities with romantic partners. This gap in the literature is problematic given that these activities define the substance of the relationships and likely are connected to relationship satisfaction. In the current study, 223 youths in fifth (28 boys; 32 girls), eighth (31 boys; 40 girls), and eleventh (36 boys; 56 girls) grades reporting current romantic relationships indicated their engagement in activities with romantic partners and relationship satisfaction. Findings revealed important grade differences in activity involvement, with eighth- and eleventh-graders reporting higher engagement than fifth-graders, especially in out-of-school activities. Additionally, engagement in out-of-school activities was most strongly associated with relationship satisfaction for all grades.
Hammond, Matthew D; Overall, Nickola C
Hostile sexism (HS) expresses attitudes that characterize women who challenge men's power as manipulative and subversive. Does endorsing HS negatively bias perceptions of women's behavior and, in turn, create animosity within intimate relationships? Committed heterosexual couples reported on their own behavior and perceptions of their partner's behavior five times across a year (Study 1) and daily for 3 weeks (Study 2). Men who more strongly endorsed HS perceived their partner's behavior as more negative than was justified by their partner's reports. Furthermore, more negative perceptions of the partner's behavior mediated the links between men's HS and feeling more manipulated by their partners, behaving more negatively toward their partners, and lower relationship quality. This indicates that men who endorse HS behave more negatively toward intimate partners and experience lower relationship satisfaction because their antagonistic attitudes toward women in general permeate the way they perceive those partners.
Kuster, Monika; Bernecker, Katharina; Backes, Sabine; Brandstätter, Veronika; Nussbeck, Fridtjof W; Bradbury, Thomas N; Martin, Mike; Sutter-Stickel, Dorothee; Bodenmann, Guy
Avoidance goals heighten the salience of negative social experiences, and in intimate relationships such an orientation may contribute to communication difficulties and the perpetuation of avoidance. We therefore hypothesized that individuals with stronger avoidance goals would be particularly prone to engage in escalating levels of negative communication with their intimate partner, and we tested this prediction by conducting sequential analyses on videotaped observational data (28,470 observations) collected from 365 heterosexual couples engaging in a relationship-related conflict. While less avoidance-oriented spouses showed a decline in their likelihood of negative communication over the course of the 8-min conflict discussion, the likelihood that more avoidance-oriented spouses would display negative communication behaviors remained at a high level. The likelihood of negative communication even increased when avoidance-oriented spouses were confronted with negative communication behavior of their partners. The effects of avoidance orientation were independent of relationship satisfaction and neuroticism. These findings demonstrate that avoidance goals underlie individuals' heightened reactivity to the partner's negative behavior, while also clarifying 1 possible reason why some individuals engage in communication behaviors that may prove maladaptive to their relationship.
Fincham, Frank D; Cui, Ming; Braithwaite, Scott; Pasley, Kay
Prevention of intimate partner violence on college campuses includes programs designed to change attitudes, and hence, a scale that assesses such attitudes is needed. Study 1 (N = 859) cross validates the factor structure of the Intimate Partner Violence Attitude Scale-Revised using exploratory factor analysis and presents initial validity data on the scale. In Study 2 (N = 687), the obtained three-factor structure (Abuse, Control, Violence) is tested using confirmatory factor analysis, and it is shown to be concurrently related to assault in romantic relationships and to predict psychological aggression 14 weeks later. The findings are discussed in the context of how understanding and modifying attitudes assessed by the Intimate Partner Violence Attitude Scale-Revised may improve interventions aimed at reducing intimate partner violence.
Kurdek, Lawrence A.
Examined data on frequency with which relationship conflict is experienced in specific content areas and relationship satisfaction for both partners of 75 gay, 51 lesbian, and 108 heterosexual couples who lived together without children. Couple scores fell into six clusters that represented areas of conflict regarding power, social issues,…
Across South Africa there is a growing body of work that explores gender dynamics in heterosexual relationships between young people aged 15-24 years. This is mainly influenced by the high prevalence of HIV and the incidence of intimate partner violence in this age group. Most studies to date have been based upon non-disabled young people, with limited focus on young disabled people. In an attempt to address this gap, this paper describes findings from a study conducted with 22 Zulu-speaking young people with visual and physical disabilities in KwaZulu-Natal. Throughout the findings, young disabled participants appeared to downplay their disability with respect to intimate relationships and accentuated the interweaving of complementary and contentious discourses of gender and cultural identity. Taking cognisance of the intersectionality of gender and cultural discourses, the paper extend constructs of disabled sexualities beyond an exclusive gaze on disability in the South African context.
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LaFave, Adam D.; Helm, Herbert W., Jr.; Gomez, Omar
This research looked at the relationships and differences between sex and race as it relates to religious fundamentalism, attitudes, and comfortability toward homosexuality. Patterns in previous research have shown that men and women do differ in their attitudes toward homosexuals. This study proposed that heterosexual men will show a…
Dmytro, Dana; Luft, Toupey; Jenkins, Melissa; Hoard, Ryan; Cameron, Catherine Ann
Twenty-four adolescent boys in Grades 9 to 12 in a rural New Brunswick high school engaged in focused discussions that were analyzed using grounded theory to determine their heterosexual dating relationship processes. A theory was created from exchange transcriptions. The core category was "wrestling with gendered expectations,"…
Senn, Theresa E; Carey, Michael P; Vanable, Peter A; Seward, Derek X
Power in intimate relationships is an important predictor of sexual risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to better understand African American men's perceptions of interpersonal power. A total of 20 African American men participated in focus groups to elicit their perceptions of power in intimate relationships; their responses were analyzed using grounded theory. From this analysis, a conceptual framework was developed that, among African American men, power in relationships was largely determined by the contribution of financial resources, and/or withholding sex. These findings were then considered in light of existing social-psychological theories of power in relationships. Future research should consider how to incorporate this understanding of interpersonal power into current theories of sexual risk behavior in order to develop more effective HIV risk reduction programs.
Zamir, Osnat; Lavee, Yoav
The aim of the current study was to test whether women's emotional regulation (ER) capacity moderates the relationship between childhood abuse and both adult intimate partner violence (IPV) and relationship quality. Female graduate students (N = 425), either married or in a long-term cohabitation, participated in an Internet-based survey. Structural equation model (SEM) multiple-group analysis was conducted to estimate whether the link between childhood abuse and marital outcomes varied across high and low levels of ER. The data showed that childhood abuse was associated with higher levels of IPV and lower marital quality. A high level of ER was found to buffer the association between child abuse and IPV. Among women with a low level of ER, childhood abuse had a stronger negative effect on relationship quality than for women with a high level of ER. ER is a protective factor against revictimization in intimate relationships.
Reczek, Corinne; Umberson, Debra
Many studies focus on health behavior within the context of intimate ties. However, this literature is limited by reliance on gender socialization theory and a focus on straight (i.e., heterosexual) marriage. We extend this work with an analysis of relationship dynamics around health behavior in 20 long-term straight marriages as well as 15 gay and 15 lesbian long-term cohabiting partnerships in the United States (N = 100 individual in-depth interviews). We develop the concept of "health behavior work" to align activities done to promote health behavior with theories on unpaid work in the home. Respondents in all couple types describe specialized health behavior work, wherein one partner works to shape the other partner's health behavior. In straight couples, women perform the bulk of specialized health behavior work. Most gay and lesbian respondents-but few straight respondents--also describe cooperative health behavior work, wherein partners mutually influence one another's health behaviors. Findings suggest that the gendered relational context of an intimate partnership shapes the dynamics of and explanations for health behavior work.
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Garcia, Randi
Little work has examined relationship dissolution or divorce in adoptive parents or same-sex parent couples. The current study examined predictors of relationship dissolution across the first 5 years of parenthood among a sample of heterosexual, lesbian, and gay male adoptive couples. Of the 190 couples in the study, 15 (7.9%) dissolved their relationships during the first 5 years of adoptive parenthood. Specifically, 7 of 57 lesbian couples (12.3%), 1 of 49 gay male couples (2.0%), and 7 of 84 heterosexual couples (8.3%) dissolved their unions. Results of our logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds of relationship dissolution were significantly higher for (a) couples who adopted a non-infant (i.e., older) child); (b) participants who reported feeling less prepared for the adoption, three months post-adoptive placement; and (c) couples in which both partners reported very low, or very high, pre-adoption levels of relationship maintenance behaviors. Findings have implications for adoption professionals seeking to support same-sex and heterosexual prospective adopters, as well as societal debates and policy regarding same-sex relationships and parenting. PMID:26053348
Goldberg, Abbie E; Garcia, Randi
Little work has examined relationship dissolution or divorce in adoptive parents or same-sex parent couples. The current study examined predictors of relationship dissolution across the first 5 years of parenthood among a sample of heterosexual, lesbian, and gay male adoptive couples. Of the 190 couples in the study, 15 (7.9%) dissolved their relationships during the first 5 years of adoptive parenthood. Specifically, 7 of 57 lesbian couples (12.3%), 1 of 49 gay male couples (2.0%), and 7 of 84 heterosexual couples (8.3%) dissolved their unions. Results of our logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds of relationship dissolution were significantly higher for (a) couples who adopted a noninfant (i.e., older child); (b) participants who reported feeling less prepared for the adoption, 3 months postadoptive placement; and (c) couples in which both partners reported very low or very high preadoption levels of relationship maintenance behaviors. Findings have implications for adoption professionals seeking to support same-sex and heterosexual prospective adopters, as well as societal debates and policy regarding same-sex relationships and parenting. (PsycINFO Database Record
Okutan, Nur; Buyuksahin Sunal, Ayda; Sakalli Ugurlu, Nuray
The purpose of the present study was twofold: (1) to investigate the effects of sexual orientation (heterosexuals and gay men/lesbians) and gender difference on responses to romantic relationship problems (Exit, Voice, Loyalty, and Neglect [EVLN] responses) and of perceived partner's EVLN responses in Turkey, and (2) to examine whether internalized homophobia was associated with EVLN responses and perceived partner's EVLN responses for gay men and lesbians. Responses to Dissatisfaction Scale-Accommodation Instrument, Internalized Homophobia, and Demographics Information were administered to 187 participants (44 lesbians, 44 gay men, 53 heterosexual women, 46 heterosexual men).The MANCOVA results showed that men reported higher loyalty than women, whereas women presented more exit responses than men. Further, the interactions between gender and sexual orientation on the participants' EVLN responses and on the perceived partner's EVLN responses were significant. With respect to heterosexual women, heterosexual men displayed more loyalty responses. Lesbians had higher scores on loyalty than did heterosexual women. Lesbians also had higher scores on perceived partner's exit response than did heterosexual women and gay men. On the contrary, heterosexual women reported more perceived partner's voice response than lesbians. In addition, lesbians reported higher perceived partner's neglect responses than heterosexual women. Compared to heterosexual women, heterosexual men reported higher perceived partner's exit response. Finally, internalized homophobia was associated with destructive responses for both lesbians and gay men.
Leaper, Campbell; Anderson, Kristin J.
Examines same-gender and cross-gender friendships as potential contexts for development of preferences and skills that may influence the quality of adolescent dating relationships and adult marriages. Considers how children's traditionally gender-segregated peer relationships contribute to miscommunications and power asymmetries in later…
Smith, Anthony; Lyons, Anthony; Ferris, Jason; Richters, Juliet; Pitts, Marian; Shelley, Julia; Simpson, Judy M
Little is known of the extent to which heterosexual couples are satisfied with their current frequency of sex and the degree to which this predicts overall sexual and relationship satisfaction. A population-based survey of 4,290 men and 4,366 women was conducted among Australians aged 16 to 64 years from a range of sociodemographic backgrounds, of whom 3,240 men and 3,304 women were in regular heterosexual relationships. Only 46% of men and 58% of women were satisfied with their current frequency of sex. Dissatisfied men were overwhelmingly likely to desire sex more frequently; among dissatisfied women, only two thirds wanted sex more frequently. Age was a significant factor but only for men, with those aged 35-44 years tending to be least satisfied. Men and women who were dissatisfied with their frequency of sex were also more likely to express overall lower sexual and relationship satisfaction. The authors' findings not only highlight desired frequency of sex as a major factor in satisfaction, but also reveal important gender and other sociodemographic differences that need to be taken into account by researchers and therapists seeking to understand and improve sexual and relationship satisfaction among heterosexual couples. Other issues such as length of time spent having sex and practices engaged in may also be relevant, particularly for women.
Bell, David L; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Ott, Mary A
There is a need to understand better the complex interrelationship between the adoption of masculinity during adolescence and the development of early romantic and sexual relationships. The purpose of this study was to describe features of adolescent masculinity and how it is expressed in the contexts of early to middle adolescent males' romantic and sexual relationships. Thirty-three 14- to 16-year-old males were recruited from an adolescent clinic serving a community with high sexually transmitted infection rates and were asked open-ended questions about their relationships-how they developed, progressed, and ended. Participants described a high degree of relationally oriented beliefs and behaviors related to romantic and sexual relationships, such as a desire for intimacy and trust. The males also described a more limited degree of conventionally masculine beliefs and behaviors. These beliefs and behaviors often coexisted or overlapped. Implications for the clinical care of similar groups of adolescents are described.
Hinchliff, Sharron; Gott, Merryn; Wylie, Kevan
Previous qualitative research on women's sexual problems has documented the ways in which they can impact psychological well-being as well as women's close interpersonal relationships. However, little attention has been paid to the ways that women with sexual problems negotiate sexual contact in the context of a relationship where sexual activity has a central role. This article draws on qualitative data from in-depth interviews with 23 heterosexual women who experienced sexual desire loss or vulvar pain. The data were analyzed within a material-discursive framework and this identified the centrality of relational and broader social factors in women's sexual negotiation. Key findings included: avoiding potentially intimate situations; engaging in intercourse when it was painful or the women had no desire to; and mentally planning and preparing themselves for sex. Other sexual activities were almost always regarded as a prelude to intercourse, yet around half of the sample had adapted their sexual repertoire to compensate for an absence of intercourse. The implications for future research and treatment in the area of women's sexual problems are discussed.
Shannon, Lisa; Logan, T. K.; Cole, Jennifer
The legal status of women's intimate relationships may allow for different experiences with intimate partner violence (IPV) and the protections received from the criminal justice system. There has been limited research examining differences in IPV and protective orders for women in marital and cohabiting intimate relationships. This study examines…
Whitaker, M Pippin
This study explores social-ecological influences on men's control-seeking in intimate relationships with women. Desire for control is central to the battered women's movement and is incorporated into intimate partner violence (IPV) prevention work. Recent IPV scholarship re-focuses on control, but the role of community contexts is underdeveloped. Community contexts have been associated with men's risk for IPV and evidence supports that social ecology facilitates IPV against women. Given the importance of the social ecology to control in IPV, this study examines community contexts that influence men's control-seeking of women partners. The sample comprised 2,342 in-state, male undergraduate students who completed a cross-sectional survey at a public university. Hypotheses were tested using hierarchical linear modeling. Results support a connection between county contexts and men's control-seeking toward women partners. Implications for IPV research and practice are discussed.
Kennedy, Janet Krone; Bolger, Niall; Shrout, Patrick E
We examined the consequences of witnessing interparental psychological aggression in childhood for daily conflict processes in adult intimate relationships. Both partners in 73 heterosexual couples provided daily diary reports of relationship conflict over a 28-day period. Partners' reports of witnessing mother-to-father and father-to-mother psychological aggression were used to predict exposure to daily relationship conflicts and reactivity to those conflicts (as reflected in end-of-day anger). Results showed no evidence of exposure effects: Witnessing interparental psychological aggression was unrelated to the number of conflict days reported by either partner. Reactivity effects emerged for males only, with father's aggression predicting increased reactivity and mother's aggression predicting the opposite. However, we found evidence of direct or unmediated effects of interparental conflict on daily anger for both males and females. Mirroring the reactivity pattern, the same-sex parent's psychological aggression predicted greater daily anger, whereas the opposite-sex parent's aggression predicted less daily anger. These effects emerged independently of Big Five measures of personality; moreover, Big Five measures did not predict outcomes independently of interparental aggression.
Shipley, Ahlishia J'Nae
The pathways through which individuals learn to appraise and behave in intimate relationships greatly influence the quality and stability of their relationships. Research on intimate relationships among college students guided by a socialization framework focusing on learning and ways of viewing relationships is limited. The purpose of the present…
Hadžikapetanović, Halima; Babić, Tajib; Bjelošević, Edin
Aim To determine an impact of parental divorce to depression and intimate relationships of young people during adolescence, and prevalence of symptoms of depression and the level of intimacy in relations to adolescents living in intact families and those from divorced families. Methods This prospective descriptive research was conducted on a sample of 168 examinees of which 64 (38.1%) were students of the University Zenica, and 104 (61.9%) high students schools from Zenica and Maglaj cities during May and June 2011. Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) II, Miller Social Intimacy Scale and sociodemographic questionnaire were used. Results Adolescents from divorced families had statistically significantly higher level of depression (p<0.05), with moderate and severe depression found in 20 (24.69%) adolescents from divorced families as compared with six (6.89%) adolescents from intact families. An analysis of BDI-II scale showed that adolescents from divorced families had statistically significant difference in agitation(p<0.01), difficult concentration, suicidal thoughts, grief and pessimism (p<0.05). Conclusion It is necessary to carry out detailed studies on longterm effects of breakup of families due to divorce, which have negative implications on psychological and social functioning of adolescents and the development of their identity and closeness in intimate relationships, with a legislative introduction of premarital and marriage counseling for parents in the conflict.
Caragata, Eric P; Dutra, Heverton L C; Moreira, Luciano A
Mosquito-transmitted diseases impose a growing burden on human health, and current control strategies have proven insufficient to stem the tide. The bacterium Wolbachia is a novel and promising form of control for mosquito-transmitted disease. It manipulates host biology, restricts infection with dengue and other pathogens, and alters host reproduction to promote rapid spread in the field. In this review, we examine how the intimate and diverse relationships formed between Wolbachia and their mosquito hosts can be exploited for disease control purposes. We consider these relationships in the context of recent developments, including successful field trials with Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes to combat dengue, and new Wolbachia infections in key malaria vectors, which have enhanced the disease control prospects of this unique bacterium.
Schumm, Walter R; Akagi, Cynthia A; Bosch, Kathy R
A modified version of the Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale was administered to 239 women who belonged to 8 different faith communities in Topeka, Kansas in 2001. 12 members of a Metropolitan (gay and lesbian) church identified themselves as lesbians. Lesbian respondents reported significantly higher relationship satisfaction scores than heterosexual women (Cohen's d = 0.69). Controlling for number of children and social desirability reduced the regression coefficient for sexual orientation to a statistically nonsignificant level. Using a matched sample of 12 heterosexual women compared with the lesbians yielded a nonsignificant result (ES = 0.31). Nevertheless, although not statistically significant, comparisons between lesbians and heterosexual women continued to feature effect sizes that represented higher satisfaction for lesbians with no children or with only one child when compared to heterosexual women with no children or only one child. It is apparent that methodology made a difference in the results obtained in this comparative study of lesbian and heterosexual relationships. It was also observed, among members of churches other than the Metropolitan church, that relationship satisfaction was significantly lower (d = 0.22) among females than males, including among wives compared to husbands; significant linear and cubic relationships between a single-item measure of relationship social desirability and relationship satisfaction were also observed.
Rennison, Callie Marie; DeKeseredy, Walter S; Dragiewicz, Molly
Woman abuse varies across intimate relationship categories (e.g., marriage, divorce, separation). However, it is unclear whether relationship status variations in violence against women differ across urban, suburban, and rural areas. We test the hypothesis that rural females, regardless of their intimate partner relationship status, are at higher risk of intimate violence than their urban and suburban counterparts. Results indicate that marital status is an important aspect of the relationship between intimate victimization and geographic area and that rural divorced and separated females are victimized at rates exceeding their urban counterparts.
Wachs, Karen; Cordova, James V
This study tested the theory that mindfulness contributes to greater intimate relationship satisfaction by fostering more relationally skillful emotion repertoires. A sample of married couples was administered measures of mindful awareness, emotion skills, and marital quality. We hypothesized that mindfulness would be associated with both marital quality and partners' emotion skills and that the association between mindfulness and marital quality would be mediated by emotion repertoire skill. Findings suggested that emotion skills and mindfulness are both related to marital adjustment, and that skilled emotion repertoires, specifically those associated with identifying and communicating emotions, as well as the regulation of anger expression, fully mediate the association between mindfulness and marital quality. Theoretical implications are discussed.
Muldoon, Katherine A; Deering, Kathleen N; Feng, Cindy X; Shoveller, Jean A; Shannon, Kate
There is little information on the private lives of women engaged in sex work, particularly how power dynamics within intimate relationships may affect intimate partner violence (IPV). Using baseline data of sex workers enrolled in a longitudinal cohort, "An Evaluation of Sex Workers' Health Access" (AESHA), the present study examined the association between sexual relationship power and IPV among sex workers in non-commercial partnerships in Vancouver, Canada. Pulweritz's Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS) and The World Health Organization (WHO) Intimate Partner Violence against Women Scale (Version9.9) were used. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression techniques were used to investigate the potential confounding effect of sexual relationship power on IPV among sex workers. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. Of 510 sex workers, 257 (50.4%) reported having an non-commercial intimate partner and were included in this analysis. In the past 6 months, 84 (32.7%) sex workers reported IPV (physical, sexual or emotional). The median age was 32 years, 39.3% were of Aboriginal ancestry, and 27.6% were migrants. After controlling for known confounders (e.g., age, Aboriginal ancestry, migrant status, childhood trauma, non-injection drug use), low relationship power was independently associated with 4.19 increased odds (95% CI: 1.93-9.10) and medium relationship power was associated 1.95 increased odds (95% CI: 0.89-4.25) of IPV. This analysis highlights how reduced control over sexual-decision making is plays a critical role in IPV among sex workers, and calls for innovation and inclusive programming tailored to sex workers and their non-commercial intimate partnerships.
Muldoon, Katherine; Deering, Kathleen N.; Feng, Cindy X.; Shoveller, Jean S.; Shannon, Kate
There is little information on the private lives of women engaged in sex work, particularly how power dynamics within intimate relationships may affect intimate partner violence (IPV). Using baseline data of sex workers enrolled in a longitudinal cohort, ‘AESHA’ (An Evaluation of Sex Workers’ Health Access), the present study examined the association between sexual relationship power and IPV among sex workers in non-commercial partnerships in Vancouver, Canada. Pulweritz's Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS) and The World Health Organization (WHO) Intimate Partner Violence Against Women scale (Version9.9) were used. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression techniques were used to investigate the potential confounding effect of sexual relationship power on IPV among sex workers. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. Of 510 sex workers, 257 (50.4%) reported having an non-commercial intimate partner and were included in this analysis. In the past 6 months, 84 (32.7%) sex workers reported IPV (physical, sexual or emotional). The median age was 32 years, 39.3% were of Aboriginal ancestry, and 27.6% were migrants. After controlling for known confounders (e.g., age, Aboriginal ancestry, migrant status, childhood trauma, non-injection drug use), low relationship power was independently associated with 4.19 increased odds (95% CI: 1.93-9.10) and medium relationship power was associated 1.95 increased odds (95% CI:0.89-4.25) of IPV. This analysis highlights how reduced control over sexual-decision making is plays a critical role in IPV among sex workers, and calls for gender-focused and coupled-based interventions tailored to noncommercial intimate partnerships of sex workers. PMID:25402720
Milhausen, Robin R; Buchholz, Andrea C; Opperman, Emily A; Benson, Lindsay E
This study investigated the association between body image and body-image self-consciousness on sexual satisfaction, accounting for relationships between body fat and body image, and between sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction, while controlling for relationship satisfaction. Participants were 143, 18-25 year-old Caucasian men and women in heterosexual monogamous relationships, recruited from the University of Guelph and surrounding community in Ontario, Canada. Various domains of body image, body-image self-consciousness, sexual satisfaction and functioning, and relationship satisfaction data were collected by questionnaires. Body fat was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Among men, body image was positively associated with sexual satisfaction, after controlling for relationship satisfaction. Men with greater body fat were more likely to have poorer behavioral and affective body image. Only body image specific to the sexual encounter influenced sexual functioning. Among women, no domain of body image was associated with sexual satisfaction, after controlling for relationship satisfaction. Women with greater body fat were more likely to have poorer affective and sexual-encounter-specific body image. As percent total fat increased, sexual functioning decreased. Our results suggest a complex pattern of relationships exists among body image and body composition constructs and sexual and relationship variable; and that these relationships are not the same for men and women.
Sorenson, Susan B.; Thomas, Kristie A.
Attitudes toward same-sex intimate relationships and intimate partner violence (IPV) are changing. Little research, however, has examined norms about IPV in same-sex relationships. Using a fractional factorial (experimental vignette) design, we conducted random-digit-dialed interviews in four languages with 3,679 community-residing adults.…
Meier, Ann; Allen, Gina
This article examines differences in young adults' intimate relationships by social class. Lower-class adolescents are more likely to engage in intimate-relationship practices such as cohabitation, early marriage, and sexual activity that may lead to further economic and educational deprivation. Such adolescents have limited access to the special…
Falbo, Toni; Peplau, Letitia Anne
Research with a two-dimensional model of power strategies used in intimate relationships has found that men are more likely to report using direct bilateral strategies, while women are more likely to report using indirect, unilateral strategies. The relationships among sex-role, self-concept, and the power strategies used in intimate relationships…
Filson, Jennifer; Ulloa, Emilio; Runfola, Cristin; Hokoda, Audrey
The current study aimed to test whether relationship power could act as a mediator of the relationship between intimate partner violence and depression. The proposed mediation model was based on the theory of gender and power and on previous research of intimate partner violence and depression. Survey results from a sample of 327 single…
Evans, B A; Kell, P D; Bond, R A; MacRae, K D
The authors investigated the effect of patient-defined non-regular heterosexual relationships upon the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and other genital infections in women and the role of condom use in preventing their spread. Findings are based upon responses to a 1992 sexual behavior questionnaire among 938 consecutive newly attending women presenting at a genitourinary medicine clinic in West London for screening and diagnosis. It was found that women who reported non-regular sex partners were more likely to be single, White, have had coitarche before age 17 years and many more sex partners both during the last year and in their lifetime, and were more likely to practice fellatio, anal sex, and smoke cigarettes. The incidence of STDs and other genital infections was no higher in this group than among women who did not have non-regular partners. Increasing condom use with regular partners correlated with decreasing incidence of gonorrhea, chlamydial infection, and trichomoniasis, but increasing condom use with non-regular partners did not show a similar trend. The authors conclude that regular heterosexual partners play the major role in transmitting bacterial STDs to women.
Carcedo, Rodrigo J; Perlman, Daniel; Orgaz, M Begoña; López, Félix; Fernández-Rouco, Noelia; Faldowski, Richard A
This study investigated the differences in loneliness, sexual satisfaction, and quality of life among three groups of prison inmates: inmates in a heterosexual romantic relationship with a fellow prisoner, inmates with a partner outside the prison, and inmates without a partner. In-person interviews with 70 male and 70 female inmates from the Topas Penitentiary (Spain) were conducted. These inmates lived in the same facility but in gender-segregated modules. After controlling for age, nationality, total time in prison, actual sentence time served, and estimated time to parole, the results showed a lower level of romantic loneliness, and a higher level of sexual satisfaction and global, psychological, and environment quality of life for the group of inmates with a heterosexual partner inside prison. These findings highlight the positive attributes associated with heterosexual romantic relationships between inmates inside the same prison.
Tilley, Donna Scott; Brackley, Margaret
Intimate partner violence is a serious and pervasive problem in U.S. society, with 25% of women and 7.6% of men reporting physical abuse by an intimate partner each year. Understanding the risk factors for development of violence is essential toward the development of interventions to reduce partner violence. Much of the understanding about the development of partner violence is based on research with victims rather than perpetrators. The study was conducted with men convicted of assault on an intimate female partner. Grounded theory was the method used to analyze data from interviews with 16 men participating in a batterers' intervention and prevention program. From the data, the Violent Couples Model was developed. The primary elements of the Violent Couples Model are justifying violence, minimizing violence, childhood exposure to violence, ineffective anger management, childhood experience of violence, and ineffective conflict resolution. Social and familial factors serve as moderating elements. Contextual elements of the model include power and control, social isolation, desensitization, insecure maternal relationships, the view of violence as a private problem, ambivalent intimate relationships, objectification of women, immaturity, lack of awareness about what constitutes violence, mistrust, traditional views of the roles of women, financial issues, and jealousy. Interventions indicated in the model are primary, or preventive, in nature. The model focuses on prevention efforts with the family as a whole, rather than on batterers alone.
Fletcher, Garth J. O.; Kerr, Patrick S. G.
This article reviews the research literature and theory concerned with accuracy of judgments in romantic relationships. We initially propose a model of cognition in (romantic) relationships that distinguishes between 2 forms of accuracy: mean-level bias and tracking accuracy. We then report the results of meta-analyses of research on heterosexual,…
Meier, Ann; Allen, Gina
This article examines differences in young adults' intimate relationships by social class. Lower-class adolescents are more likely to engage in intimate-relationship practices such as cohabitation, early marriage, and sexual activity that may lead to further economic and educational deprivation. Such adolescents have limited access to the special opportunities of emerging adulthood. Social class indirectly shapes the relationships of groups such as prisoners, military personnel, and sexual minorities whose memberships are highly class graded and who are subject to state-controlled relationship constraints. More research is needed on how laws and institutions constrain even the most intimate features of young lives.
Wathen, C Nadine; MacGregor, Jennifer C D; MacQuarrie, Barbara J
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem, and recent attention has focused on its impact on workers and workplaces. We provide findings from a pan-Canadian online survey on the relationships among IPV, work, and health. In total, 8,429 people completed the survey, 95.5% of them in English and 78.4% female. Reflecting the recruitment strategy, most (95.4%) were currently working, and unionized (81.4%). People with any lifetime IPV experience reported significantly poorer general health, mental health, and quality of life; those with both recent IPV and IPV experience over 12 months ago had the poorest health. Among those who had experienced IPV, about half reported that violence occurred at or near the workplace, and these people generally had poorer health outcomes. Employment status moderated the relationship between IPV exposure and health status, with those who were currently working and had experienced IPV having similar health status to those without IPV experience who were not employed. While there were gender differences in IPV experience, in the impacts of IPV at work, and in health status, gender did not moderate any associations. In this very large data set, we found robust relationships among different kinds of IPV exposure (current, recent, and lifetime), health and quality of life, and employment status, including the potentially protective effect of current employment on health for both women and men. Our findings may have implications for strategies to address IPV in workplaces, and should reinforce emerging evidence that IPV is also an occupational health issue.
Jackson, Lois A; Augusta-Scott, Tod; Burwash-Brennan, Marilee; Karabanow, Jeff; Robertson, Karyn; Sowinski, Barbara
This article reports on a qualitative study exploring the intimate (non-work) relationships of women involved in the sex trade. Women working in the sex industry and intimate partners of women in the industry were interviewed in order to understand how intimate relationships are perceived as influencing the women's general health and well-being. The research suggests that intimate relationships can, and do, provide a space for feelings of inclusion and safety that are perceived as positive forces in women's general health and well-being. At the same time, however, feelings and experiences of exclusion (fuelled by the dominant stigmatizing discourse related to prostitution) can enter into intimate relationships, and are perceived as having a negative impact on the women's well-being, particularly their emotional health. Although there are attempts to keep the women's work separate from the intimate relationship, cross-over between the two spheres does occur. The research suggests that health care and service providers need to look beyond the women's working lives, and understand the relationships between work and home, as well as the ways in which intimate relationships can influence women's lives and health through both positive and negative forces.
Brown, Geraldine; Brady, Geraldine; Letherby, Gayle
In 2009 the National Society for the Protection of Cruelty to Children published "Partner Exploitation and Violence in Teenage Intimate Relationships". This publication reports on the first major study in the United Kingdom to systematically document the incidence rates and dynamics of intimate partner violence in the lives of young…
Schiff, Miriam; Gilbert, Louisa; El-Bassel, Nabila
This study examines the positive aspects of intimate relationships perceived by drug-involved women victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). The article examines the association of psychological distress, childhood abuse, and severity of IPV with the different positive aspects the women indicated. Most analyses were conducted on a subsample of…
Woodyatt, Cory R; Stephenson, Rob
Intimate partner violence research has focused almost exclusively on physical and sexual intimate partner violence in opposite-sex relationships, paying little attention to the intimate partner violence experienced by men in same-sex relationships. Emerging research focusing on intimate partner violence among male-male couples has focused largely on physical and sexual violence, with little consideration of the unique forms of emotional violence experienced by gay men. Ten focus-group discussions with gay and bisexual men were conducted to examine perceived typologies, antecedents and experiences of emotional violence that occur between male partners. Participants described emotional violence as the most threatening form of intimate partner violence, driven largely by factors including power differentials, gender roles and internalised homophobia. Results indicate that gay and bisexual men perceive emotional intimate partner violence to be commonplace. A better understanding of emotional violence within male-male relationships is vital to inform intimate partner violence prevention efforts and the more accurate measurement of intimate partner violence for gay men.
Mark, Kristen P; Herbenick, Debby
Previous research has consistently found that attraction is important in the formation of relationships though research on attraction in long-term relationships is less well understood. This article examined the predictive value of self-reported attraction to partner and change in attraction to partner on sexual and relationship satisfaction in 176 women in committed heterosexual relationships using online survey methodology. Participants' age ranged from 21 to 56 (M = 34.5) years and their relationship length ranged from 5 to 35 (M = 11.75) years. Hierarchical multiple regression results indicated that change in attraction to partner was the most salient predictor of sexual satisfaction, with current attraction to partner also related to women's sexual satisfaction, accounting for 20 % of the variance. Current attraction to partner was the only significant predictor of women's relationship satisfaction, accounting for 22 % of the variance. Additionally, attraction variables accounted for variance above and beyond the impact of relationship and sexual satisfaction. These findings suggest that self-reported attraction to partner is an important contributor to women's satisfaction outcomes in long-term relationships. Further studies in the area of attraction to partner that include couple dynamics and longitudinal data are encouraged and implications for therapists, clinicians, and educators are discussed.
Lichtenberg, Peter A.; Strzepek, Deborah M.
Describes assessment technique used by interdisciplinary staff on coed Alzheimer's disease unit to help determine patients' competencies to participate in intimate relationships. Two case studies are presented to highlight how assessment led to treatment decisions. (Author/NB)
Norris, Sarah M; Huss, Matthew T; Palarea, Russell E
As the literature on stalking has grown, several studies have proposed a relationship between stalking and intimate partner violence (IPV). This study examines a clinical sample of intimate partner batterers to assess the stalking-related behaviors committed against the participants' intimate partners. The study examined the levels of severity between stalking-related behaviors and IPV, as well as identified differences between batterers who exhibited stalking-related behaviors and those who did not. A significant relationship between stalking-related behavior and IPV was found, with more severe stalking related to higher levels of IPV and more extreme psychopathology.
Citarella, Ashley I.; Mueller, John A.
The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between feminist identity and psychological maltreatment in intimate relationships among college students. Existing research and theories have raised questions about the relationship between these constructs, but no studies have yet explored the relationship between them. The…
Hammond, Matthew D; Overall, Nickola C; Cross, Emily J
The current research demonstrated that women's adoption of benevolent sexism is influenced by their perceptions of their intimate partners' agreement with benevolent sexism. In 2 dyadic longitudinal studies, committed heterosexual couples reported on their own sexism and perceptions of their partner's sexism twice across 9 months (Study 1) and 5 times across 1 year (Study 2). Women who perceived that their male partner more strongly endorsed benevolent sexism held greater and more stable benevolent sexism across time, whereas lower perceptions of partners' benevolent sexism predicted declines in women's benevolent sexism across time. Changes in men's endorsement of sexism were unrelated to perceptions of their partner's sexist attitudes. The naturalistic change in sexist attitudes shown in Studies 1 and 2 was supported by experimental evidence in Studies 3 and 4: Manipulations designed to increase perceptions of partner's benevolent sexism led women (but not men) to report greater benevolent sexism. Studies 3 and 4 also provided evidence that perceptions of partner's benevolent sexism fosters perceived regard and relationship security in women, but not men, and these relationship factors enhance attitude alignment. Discriminant analyses demonstrated that these effects were specific to women's perceptions of partner's, rather than societal, levels of sexism. In sum, these studies illustrate that women endorse benevolent sexism when they perceive that the reverence and security that benevolent sexism promises women are accessible in their relationships.
Risser, J M H; Padgett, P; Wolverton, M; Risser, W L
US blacks carry a disproportionate risk of heterosexually transmitted HIV. This study aimed to evaluate the association between self-reported heterosexual anal intercourse and HIV. Using respondent-driven sampling (RDS), we recruited and interviewed 909 blacks from areas of high poverty and HIV prevalence in Houston, Texas, and who reported heterosexual sex in the last year. All individuals were tested for HIV. Weighted prevalence values were calculated to account for non-random recruitment associated with RDS. The weighted population prevalence of HIV infection was 2.4% and 2.5% among men and women, respectively. Education, employment status, income and crack cocaine use were not associated with HIV infection. Lifetime injection drug use (odds ratio [OR] 3.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31-8.33%) and heterosexual anal intercourse (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.02-5.73%) were associated with HIV infection. Individuals who reported both injection drug use and heterosexual anal intercourse had 6.21 increased odds of HIV (95% CI 2.47-15.61%). Our results suggest that heterosexual anal sex may be a vector for HIV transmission, especially in the context of injection drug use. Prevention strategies directed at curbing the HIV epidemic among black heterosexuals require that we correctly identify the risks so that appropriate interventions can be developed.
This article analyzing national data (N=7,408) examines the connection between men's and women's relative economic contributions in families and the risk of husband-to-wife physical violence and emotional abuse. Family violence researchers have conceptualized the association between economic variables and the risk of intimate partner violence with…
McMahon, James M.; Chimenti, Ruth; Trabold, Nicole; Fedor, Theresa; Mittal, Mona; Tortu, Stephanie
Heterosexual transmission of HIV often occurs in the context of intimate sexual partnerships. There is mounting evidence that couple-based HIV prevention interventions may be more effective than individual-based interventions for promoting risk reduction within such relationships. Yet, concerns have been raised about the safety of couple-based prevention approaches, especially with regard to the risk of intimate partner violence against women. While several international studies have examined the potential for adverse consequences associated with couple-based interventions, with inconsistent results, there is little data from U.S. studies to shed light on this issue. The current study analyzed data from a randomized trial conducted in New York City with 330 heterosexual couples to examine whether participation in couple-based or relationship-focused HIV counseling and testing (HIV-CT) interventions resulted in an increased likelihood of post-intervention break-ups, relationship conflicts, or emotional, physical or sexual abuse, compared to standard individual HIV-CT. Multinomial logistic regression was used to model the odds of experiencing change in partner violence from baseline to follow-up by treatment condition. A high prevalence of partner-perpetrated violence was reported by both male and female partners across treatment conditions, but there was no conclusive evidence of an increase in relationship dissolution or partner violence subsequent to participation in either the couple-based HIV-CT intervention or relationship-focused HIV-CT intervention compared to controls. Qualitative data collected from the same participants support this interpretation. HIV prevention interventions involving persons in primary sexual partnerships should be sensitive to relationship dynamics and the potential for conflict and take precautions to protect the safety of both male and female participants. PMID:26319710
Antle, Becky F.; Karam, Eli; Christensen, Dana N.; Barbee, Anita P.; Sar, Bibhuti K.
This research evaluated the impact of the Within My Reach healthy relationship education program on intimate partner violence for 419 high-risk adults in an urban area. Key outcomes such as relationship knowledge, communication/conflict resolution skills, relationship quality, and physical and emotional abuse were evaluated through survey research…
Gerlock, April A; Grimesey, Jackie; Sayre, George
The protracted conflict in Iraq and Afghanistan and an all-volunteer military has resulted in multiple war zone deployments for many service members. While quick redeployment turnaround has left little time for readjustment for either the service member or family, dealing with the long-term sequelae of combat exposure often leaves families and intimate partners ill-prepared for years after deployments. Using a modified grounded theory approach, digitally recorded couple interviews of 23 couples were purposefully selected from a larger sample of 441 couples to better understand the impact of war zone deployment on the couple. The veteran sample was recruited from a randomly selected cohort of men in treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Overall, it was found when veterans experiencing deployment-related PTSD reenter or start new intimate relationships they may bring with them a unique cluster of interrelated issues which include PTSD symptoms, physical impairment, high rates of alcohol and/or drug abuse, and psychological and physical aggression. These factors contributed to a dynamic of exacerbating conflict. How these couples approached relationship qualities of mutuality, balanced locus of control and weakness tolerance across six axes of caregiving, disability, responsibility, trauma, communication, and community impacted the couple's capacity to communicate and resolve conflict. This dyadic relationship model is used to help inform implications for clinical practice.
Papp, Lauren M.
The longitudinal course and quality of intimate relationships were tested in relation to maternal depressive symptoms in a sample of 1,275 families from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Assessments of mothers’ intimate relationship status, intimate relationship quality, and depressive symptoms were obtained on 11 occasions from the birth of a child through age 15. Consistent with predictions, results from hierarchical linear models indicated that maternal depressive symptoms over time were associated with a lower probability of being married and lower levels of relationship quality. The strength of the association between relationship quality and depression was stronger than the linkage between relationship course and depression. Sociodemographic characteristics (e.g., mother age, child gender, ethnicity) were more predictive of trajectories of relationship course than relationship quality. Findings are discussed in terms of efforts to prevent and treat the longitudinal interplay between poor intimate relationship functioning and partners’ psychopathology and its implications for the overall health and well-being of parents, couples, and children. PMID:20397990
Woolhouse, Hannah; McDonald, Ellie; Brown, Stephanie J
Women navigate many social changes when they become a mother, often including considerable changes to intimate and sexual relationships. This paper draws on data collected in an Australian multicentre prospective nulliparous pregnancy cohort study and a nested qualitative substudy exploring women's experiences of sex and intimacy after the birth of their first child. In all, 1507 women were recruited in early pregnancy (mean gestation 15 weeks) and completed self-administered questionnaires at 3, 6 and 12 months and 4.5 years postpartum. Eighteen participants were interviewed 2.5-3.5 years after the birth of their first child regarding sex and intimacy after having a baby. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using interpretive phenomenological analysis. Cohort data reveal a considerable drop in both emotional satisfaction and physical pleasure in intimate relationships after birth, with emotional satisfaction continuing to fall up until 4.5 years postpartum. Less than one-quarter of participants reported that their general practitioner had asked directly about sexual health or relationship problems in the first 3 months postpartum (23% and 18%, respectively). In contrast, 13% of women reported that a maternal and child health nurse had asked directly about sexual problems since the birth, and 31% had asked directly about relationship problems. In-depth interviews revealed that relationships with intimate partners were important issues for women following childbirth, and women were seeking reassurance from health professionals that their changing experiences of sex and intimacy after childbirth were 'normal'. Some women felt they had 'fallen through the gaps' and there was not an opportunity provided by health professionals for them to discuss changes affecting their sexual and intimate relationships. The findings suggest that intimate relationships are significantly strained in the years following childbirth and women want more information from
Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Kleinman, Brighid M.; Kaczynski, Karen J.; Carver, Charles S.
Self-report scales assessing relationship-specific incentive and threat sensitivity were created. Initial tests of factor structure and associations with relationship quality were conducted in a sample of persons in intimate relationships (Study 1). Associations with conceptually related measures were examined to determine convergent and…
Colman, R.A.; Widom, C.S.
Objective:: The present study extends prior research on childhood maltreatment and social functioning by examining the impact of early childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect on rates of involvement in adult intimate relationships and relationship functioning. Method:: Substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect from 1967 to 1971…
Clark, Sherri Lawson; Burton, Linda M.; Flippen, Chenoa A.
Using longitudinal ethnographic data from the Three-City Study, the authors examined the relationship between 16 low-income Puerto Rican mothers' housing dependencies and their intimate partner relations. This study traced mothers' dependent housing arrangements and entree to marital or cohabiting relationships from their teens through their…
Ard, Kevin L; Makadon, Harvey J
The medical community's efforts to address intimate partner violence (IPV) have often neglected members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) population. Heterosexual women are primarily targeted for IPV screening and intervention despite the similar prevalence of IPV in LGBT individuals and its detrimental health effects. Here, we highlight the burden of IPV in LGBT relationships, discuss how LGBT and heterosexual IPV differ, and outline steps clinicians can take to address IPV in their LGBT patients.
Greenhalgh, Clare; Evangeli, Michael; Frize, Graham; Foster, Caroline; Fidler, Sarah
Due to developments in anti-retroviral treatment, an increasing number of children with perinatally acquired HIV are now surviving into late adolescence and young adulthood. This cohort is facing normative challenges in terms of their intimate relationships as well as challenges that face all individuals with HIV regardless of the route of transmission (for example, concerns about disclosure). There may be additional issues specific to having grown up with HIV that affect intimate relationships, for example, the awareness of being HIV positive before the onset of intimate relationships and the way that identity is shaped by having lived with HIV from a young age. To date there has been some limited research on the experience of intimate relationships in perinatally infected adolescents but none in young adults. This exploratory study examined, in depth, experiences of intimate relationships in perinatally acquired young adults and how they perceived having grown up with HIV to have affected such relationships. Seven participants (five females, two males) aged 18-23 years, were interviewed, with the data analysed according to the principles of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Three themes emerged that related to partners' perceptions of HIV: (1) HIV being viewed by partners as being linked to AIDS and sexual transmission, (2) discrepancy between young people and their partners' views of HIV, (3) partner views of risk of HIV transmission. There were strong links between participants' personal experiences of HIV-related challenges, for example, disclosure and HIV-related stigma, and their thinking about the perceptions of partners. These findings have important implications for supporting young people in disclosing their HIV status to intimate partners in appropriate ways. Suggestions for future research are offered.
Koeppel, Maria D H; Bouffard, Leana
Research has consistently found rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) in nonheterosexual relationships to be comparable or higher than rates of IPV in heterosexual relationship. Less is understood about the relationship between child abuse, sexual orientation, and IPV victimization. The role of sexual orientation in the relationship between child abuse and IPV victimization is important to consider given research has found higher rates of childhood abuse among nonheterosexual individuals. In addition, the relationship between child abuse victimization and IPV victimization in adulthood has also been documented. This research extends the literature on IPV by comparing child abuse victimization as a predictor for IPV between heterosexual and nonheterosexual IPV victims. Using the National Violence Against Women Survey, this study used logistic regression models to find partial support for the hypothesis that nonheterosexuals who experience child abuse will be more likely to be IPV victims as adults than similarly situated heterosexuals.
Gilbert, Richard L; Murphy, Nora A; Ávalos, M Clementina
The present study compared communication patterns and satisfaction levels between three-dimensional (3D) and real-life intimate relationships using a sample of 71 participants who were concurrently involved in an intimate relationship within Second Life and a separate real-life romantic relationship. Participants indicated that the quality of their communication was significantly better in their Second-Life relationship and that they experienced higher levels of satisfaction with their virtual partners. The more positive or idealized view of the 3D relationships may have been due to higher levels of focused interaction and reduced stressors in the virtual world and the greater length, and associated problems, in participant's real-life relationships. In addition, the presence of a concurrent relationship within Second Life could have negatively affected participant's judgments of their real-life relationships. These data offer the first detailed assessment of communication patterns and satisfaction levels in intimate relationships across the real and 3D virtual realms as the number of users and romantic partners in immersive virtual environments continue to grow.
Papp, Lauren M; Danielewicz, Jennifer; Cayemberg, Crystal
Extending previous research on positive and negative correlates of Facebook use for individuals' outcomes, this study examined male and female dating partners' (n=58 couples) Facebook use and portrayals of their intimate relationship on the Facebook profile. Confirming hypotheses from compatibility theories of mate selection, partners demonstrated similar Facebook intensity (e.g., usage, connection to Facebook), and were highly likely to portray their relationship on their Facebook profiles in similar ways (i.e., display partnered status and show their partner in profile picture). These Facebook profile choices played a role in the overall functioning of the relationship, with males' indications of a partnered status linked with higher levels of their own and their partners' (marginal) relationship satisfaction, and females' displays of their partner in their profile picture linked with higher levels of their own and their partners' relationship satisfaction. Finally, male and female reports of having had disagreements over the Facebook relationship status was associated with lower level of females' but not males' relationship satisfaction, after accounting for global verbal conflict. Thus, the findings point to the unique contribution of Facebook disagreements to intimate relationship functioning. Results from this study encourage continued examination of technology use and behaviors in contexts of intimate relationships.
Maister, Lara; Tsakiris, Manos
Our relationships with romantic partners are often some of the closest and most important relationships that we experience in our adult lives. Interpersonal closeness in romantic relationships is characterised by an increased overlap between cognitive representations of oneself and one's partner. Importantly, this type of self-other overlap also occurs in the bodily domain, whereby we can represent another's embodied experiences in the same way as we represent our own. However, as yet this bodily self-other overlap has only been investigated in individuals unfamiliar to each other. Here, we investigate bodily self-other overlap between romantic partners, using automatic imitation as an example case of bodily overlap in the motor domain. We found that participants automatically imitated romantic partners significantly more than close others with whom they had a platonic relationship. Furthermore, imitation in these relationships was related to key aspects of relationship quality, as indicated by adult attachment style.
Teitelman, Anne M.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Morales-Aleman, Mercedes M.; Sullivan, Cris M.
This study examined the association between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, and condom use among African American and Hispanic urban girls. In this sample of 56 sexually active girls, 50% did not use condoms consistently and therefore were at higher risk for acquiring HIV or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Teens who…
Bradbury, Thomas N.; Lavner, Justin A.
Improving intimate relationships with preventive and educational interventions has proven to be more difficult than originally conceived, and earlier models and approaches may be reaching their limits. Basic concerns remain about the long-term effectiveness of these interventions, whether they are reaching and benefiting couples most likely to…
Herrington, Rachael L.; Mitchell, Alexandra E.; Castellani, Angela M.; Joseph, Jana I.; Snyder, Douglas K.; Gleaves, David H.
Previous research has identified 2 broad components of distress in intimate relationships: overt conflict, or "disharmony", and emotional distance, or "disaffection". Using confirmatory factor analysis, the authors derived 2 broadband scales of disharmony and disaffection from the Marital Satisfaction Inventory-Revised (D. K. Snyder, 1997),…
Taft, Casey T.; Watkins, Laura E.; Stafford, Jane; Street, Amy E.; Monson, Candice M.
Objective: The authors conducted a meta-analysis of empirical studies investigating associations between indices of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and intimate relationship problems to empirically synthesize this literature. Method: A literature search using PsycINFO, Medline, Published International Literature on Traumatic Stress (PILOTS),…
In this article, the author presents a theoretical scheme focusing on the relation between closeness and distance in intimate relationships. This challenges a commonly held notion, which maintains that the two constructs are opposite poles on a single continuum. The authors present an alternative conceptualization employing dialectical and…
Rushbrooke, Elizabeth; Murray, Craig; Townsend, Samantha
Background: People with intellectual disabilities face attitudinal and service barriers when attempting to form intimate relationships. To date, their experiences and views are under-represented in the existing evidence base. Method: The aim of this study was to carry out an interpretative phenomenological analysis exploring the experience of…
Israel, Emily; Stover, Carla
The issue of the father-child relationship has been greatly ignored in the domestic violence research literature. This study investigated whether intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrated by biological fathers resulted in higher levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms and behavior problems than violence perpetrated by nonbiological fathers and…
Pope, Amber Leighann
Diverse types of intimate committed relationships, namely cohabiting same-sex and opposite-sex partnerships, are increasingly prevalent in the United States (Bumpass & Lu, 2000; Garber, 2005; U.S. Census Bureau, 2000). Given the rise in the number of individuals participating in intimate committed relationships outside of the marital context,…
Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Copp, Jennifer E.
Examining longitudinal data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) (n = 927), we assessed associations between physical victimization by an intimate partner, indicators of poor relationship quality, and depressive symptoms among young adult men and women in casually dating, exclusively dating, cohabiting, and marital relationships. In zero-order models, we found that physical victimization increased depressive symptoms. In multivariate models, victimization was a risk factor for depressive symptoms with the inclusion of prior depressive symptoms, family factors reflecting the intergenerational transmission of violence, sociodemographic background, and relationship characteristics including union status. Yet with the additional inclusion of indicators of poor relational quality, victimization was not a significant predictor of depressive symptoms. Arguing and poor communication influenced victimization and depressive symptoms. The associations between victimization and depressive symptoms did not differ by gender, nor were the effects of poor relationship quality on depressive symptoms conditional on gender. Thus, depressive symptoms are similarly responsive to intimate partner victimization, and for both women and men these associations were not significant with the inclusion of indicators of poor relationship quality. Findings underscored that victimization often occurs within relationship contexts characterized by a range of negative dynamics; thus multifaceted relationship-centered prevention and intervention efforts are likely to be more useful than those focusing only on negative messages about the use of aggression with an intimate partner. PMID:25131276
Vyncke, Johanna D; Julien, Danielle
Lesbian couples differ from heterosexual couples in that they must develop their relationship within an environment that is generally unsympathetic to homosexuality, a fact that could accentuate the importance of family support. Furthermore, the disclosure of their sexual orientation by lesbian couples could also affect the support given by family members. The present study examines the effect of coming-out and family support on the relationship adjustment of lesbian mothers whose children were born within a heterosexual context. It was expected that family support would mediate the relationship between coming-out and relationship adjustment. Fifty-five lesbian mothers currently in a relationship answered questions about their perception of family support, on their coming-out behaviour and their relationship adjustment. Results revealed a positive relationship between coming-out and family support, and between family support and relationship adjustment, however no association was found between coming-out and relationship adjustment. The mediation model was therefore not confirmed. Finally, the authors discuss the implications of these results.
Knapp, Ashlee E; Knapp, Darin J; Brown, Cameron C; Larson, Jeffry H
Trauma from female incestuous child sexual abuse may result in negative psychological consequences affecting adult relationships. This study explored relational consequences of incestuous child sexual abuse, focusing on conflict resolution styles, relationship satisfaction, and relationship stability. Using the RELATionship Evaluation dataset, 457 heterosexual couples in which female partners experienced incestuous child sexual abuse were compared to a group of 1,827 couples with no sexual abuse history. Analyses tested differences in the frequencies of reported conflict resolution styles for incestuous child sexual abuse and non-incestuous child sexual abuse groups, the mediating effects of conflict resolution styles on the relationship between incestuous child sexual abuse, and self- and partner-reported relationship satisfaction and stability. Significant differences in the reports of types of conflict resolution styles were found for incestuous child sexual abuse versus non-incestuous child sexual abuse groups. Incestuous child sexual abuse and conflict resolution styles were negatively related to relationship satisfaction and stability and there was a significant indirect effect between female incestuous child sexual abuse, female volatility, and relationship instability. Clinical applications for couple relationships are discussed.
Clark, Sherri Lawson; Burton, Linda M.; Flippen, Chenoa A.
Using longitudinal ethnographic data from the Three-City Study, we examined the relationship between sixteen low-income Puerto Rican mothers’ housing dependencies and their intimate partner relations. We traced mothers’ dependent housing arrangements and entrée to marital or cohabiting relationships from their teens through their procurement of independent housing while entering and maintaining intimate partner unions as adults. Findings indicated that various trigger factors led women out of their natal homes and into expedited cohabitation with romantic partners which frequently resulted in unstable unions in which mothers had little power and autonomy. As mothers became eligible for housing subsidies they obtained housing independent from their male partners, potentially increasing the propensity for greater relationship power. Housing independence, however, was not without problems. Spillover effects, such as shadowing partners, threatened housing stability and mothers’ independence. The relevance of these findings for future research is discussed. PMID:21785522
He, Shanshan; Tsang, Sandra; Li, Caina
The Sexual Coercion in Intimate Relationships Scale (SCIRS; 34 items) assesses the severity of sexual coercion (SC) in committed intimate relationships, but it does not validly screen out valid target cases or accurately assess prevalence. This study aims to revise the SCIRS to facilitate research in China. There were 927 college students in active dating relationships, from 5 large Chinese cities, who participated in the study. The results showed that the revised SCIRS (33 items) measured 3 constructs-Emotional Manipulation (17 items), Defection Threat (7 items), and Violence Threat (7 items)-and that the reliability and validity properties were satisfactory. The advantages of the revision and the limitations of this study are discussed.
Koopman, Cheryl; Ismailji, Tasneem; Palesh, Oxana; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Narayanan, Amrita; Saltzman, Kasey M.; Holmes, Danielle; McGarvey, Elizabeth L.
This study investigates whether depression in women who experienced intimate partner violence is associated with having also experienced childhood sexual and physical abuse, psychological abuse by an intimate partner, recent involvement with the abusive partner, and bodily pain. Fifty-seven women who had left a violent relationship with an…
Impett, Emily A; Gable, Shelly L; Peplau, Letitia Anne
This research provided the first empirical investigation of how approach and avoidance motives for sacrifice in intimate relationships are associated with personal well-being and relationship quality. In Study 1, the nature of everyday sacrifices made by dating partners was examined, and a measure of approach and avoidance motives for sacrifice was developed. In Study 2, which was a 2-week daily experience study of college students in dating relationships, specific predictions from the theoretical model were tested and both longitudinal and dyadic components were included. Whereas approach motives for sacrifice were positively associated with personal well-being and relationship quality, avoidance motives for sacrifice were negatively associated with personal well-being and relationship quality. Sacrificing for avoidance motives was particularly detrimental to the maintenance of relationships over time. Perceptions of a partner's motives for sacrifice were also associated with well-being and relationship quality. Implications for the conceptualization of relationship maintenance processes along these 2 dimensions are discussed.
Summary A cancer diagnosis imposes significant emotional distress on a substantial proportion of patients and their partners, posing many challenges for both members of a couple. Facing a breast cancer diagnosis, couples may experience psychosocial distress, which might also affect their individual and dyadic functioning. Coping with cancer from a couple-based perspective as a dyadic stressor can profoundly influence psychosocial adjustment as well as individual and dyadic functioning of patients and spouses. Dyadic coping allows a better matching of needs, sharing of worries, and mutual support, resulting in higher relationship satisfaction. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the issues faced by women diagnosed with breast cancer and their spouses, with particular emphasis on interventions for couples coping with cancer. The effectiveness of couple-based interventions is summarized with a critical discussion. For further research, a better understanding of the challenges couples coping with cancer may face and more insights on how to improve interventions for couples might facilitate improvements in the quality of cancer care. PMID:26195938
Sullivan, Tami P; McPartland, Tara; Price, Carolina; Cruza-Guet, Maria Cristina; Swan, Suzanne C
Research examining predictors or correlates of mental health problems among women who experience or use aggression in intimate relationships typically assesses factors that confer risk. Such research has primarily examined intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization or aggression frequency or severity as central risk factors for mental health problems. In the general population, one factor demonstrating a protective effect on mental health problems is self-efficacy. Research on self-efficacy among women who experience or use aggression in intimate relationships is nearly absent. The purpose of this study was to determine if self-efficacy specific to a woman's ability to manage various relationship problems (i.e., relationship self-efficacy [RSE]) played a protective role against the severity of posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms among 354 community-residing women who were victimized and used aggression (bidirectional IPV). Regression analyses found that RSE uniquely predicted each mental health outcome above and beyond what was accounted for by the frequency of physical, sexual, and psychological victimization and aggression. Further, RSE fully mediated the relationships between psychological victimization and each mental health outcome. If replicated, and in circumstances where it is determined safe to do so, findings suggest RSE as a promising avenue for future research to improve the health and well-being of women in bidirectionally aggressive relationships.
Ramanaik, Satyanarayana; Thompson, Laura H; du Plessis, Elsabé; Pelto, Pertti; Annigeri, Vinod; Doddamane, Mahesh; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Shaw, Souradet Y; Deering, Kathleen; Khan, Shamshad; Halli, Shiva S; Lorway, Robert
Global literature on female sex workers suggests that being in an intimate relationship is associated with barriers to practising safe sex behaviours. Condom use within intimate relationships is often seen as a sign of infidelity and fosters mistrust which could affect longevity, trust and intimacy within partnerships. Using qualitative data from Devadasi sex workers and their intimate male partners in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India, we examined both partners' perspectives to understand the quality and dynamics of these relationships and the factors that influence condom use in intimate relationships. Our thematic analysis of individual interviews conducted in May 2011 with 20 couples suggests that many Devadasi sex workers and their intimate partners define their relationships as 'like marriage' which reduced their motivation to use condoms. Evidence from this study suggests that active participation in sex workers' collectives (sanghas) can increase condom use, education and family planning services, among other things, and could be helpful for both Devadasis and their intimate partners to better understand and accept safer sexual practices. Our work has direct implications for designing couple-based health interventions for traditional Devadasi sex workers and their intimate partners in India.
Dunn, Hailee K; Clark, Melissa A; Pearlman, Deborah N
This study uses a feminist theoretical framework to extend the literature on the relationship between sexual history, bullying victimization, and poor mental health outcomes. First, we examined whether an association between the sexual double standard and bullying victimization would apply to sexual minority youth the same way it applies to heterosexual youth. A second aim was to assess whether sexual minority boys, typically stereotyped as effeminate, would report the highest odds of bullying victimization. A third and final aim of our study was to look at the joint effect of sex and sexual intercourse on depression and suicidal ideation. Our analytic sample (N = 9,300) was from the 2009, 2011, and 2013 Rhode Island Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. Findings demonstrated that heterosexual girls who engaged in sexual intercourse had significantly higher adjusted odds of bullying victimization than heterosexual boys who engaged in the same behavior. Similar results were not found for sexual minority adolescents, suggesting the sexual double standard may not apply to sexual minority adolescents in the same way it applies to heterosexual adolescents. Consistent with our second hypothesis, sexual minority boys reported the highest odds of being recently bullied compared with heterosexual boys. Among students who were recently bullied, sexual minority girls displayed the highest adjusted odds of recent depression and suicidal ideation. Our study demonstrated that using a feminist theoretical framework broadens our understanding of why girls and sexual minority boys are particularly vulnerable to bullying victimization and the sequel of depression and suicidal ideation.
Antonelli, Paolo; Dèttore, Davide; Lasagni, Irene; Snyder, Douglas K; Balderrama-Durbin, Christina
Assessing couple relationships across diverse languages and cultures has important implications for both clinical intervention and prevention. This is especially true for nontraditional relationships potentially subject to various expressions of negative societal evaluation or bias. Few empirically validated measures of relationship functioning have been developed for cross-cultural applications, and none have been examined for their psychometric sufficiency for evaluating same-sex couples across different languages and cultures. The current study examined the psychometric properties of an Italian translation of the Marital Satisfaction Inventory - Revised (MSI-R), a 150-item 13-scale measure of couple relationship functioning, for its use in assessing the intimate relationships of gay and lesbian couples in Italy. Results for these couples were compared to data from heterosexual married and unmarried cohabiting couples from the same geographical region, as well as to previously published data for gay, lesbian, and unmarried heterosexual couples from the United States. Findings suggest that, despite unique societal pressures confronting Italian same-sex couples, these relationships appear resilient and fare well both overall and in specific domains of functioning compared to heterosexual couples both in Italy and the United States.
Kernic, M A; Wolf, M E; Holt, V L
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the history of hospitalization among women involved in violent intimate relationships. METHODS: In this 1-year retrospective cohort study, female residents of King County, Washington, who were aged 18 to 44 years and who had filed for a protection order were compared with nonabused women in the same age group. Outcome measures included overall and diagnosis-specific hospital admission rates and relative risk of hospitalization associated with abuse. RESULTS: Women known to be exposed to a violent intimate relationship were significantly more likely to be hospitalized with any diagnosis (age-specific relative risks [RRs] ranging from 1.2 to 2.1), psychiatric diagnoses (RR = 3.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.8, 4.6), injury and poisoning diagnoses (RR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2, 2.8), digestive system diseases (RR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.3, 2.9), and diagnoses of assault (RR = 4.9, 95% CI = 1.1, 22.1) or attempted suicide (RR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.6, 9.2) in the year before filing a protection order. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed an increased relative risk of both overall and diagnosis-specific hospitalizations among abused women. Intimate partner violence has a significant impact on women's health and use of health care. PMID:10983199
Mayock, Paula; Cronly, Jennifer; Clatts, Michael C
This paper examines young women's initiation to heroin use in the context of an intimate relationship based on data from a small-scale ethno-epidemiology of heroin use in Ireland, 2007-2009. The epidemiological sample included 120 young people, and life history interviews were conducted with a sub-sample of 40 youth aged 16-25 years. A detailed analysis of the "risk environment" of young women's heroin initiation highlights a complex interplay between women's agency and intimate partner influence. It is argued that dichotomous representations of women as victims or emancipated consumers do not adequately capture the complexity of women's initiation journeys. The study's limitations are noted and implications for drug use prevention and harm reduction strategies are discussed.
Waller, Martha W; Iritani, Bonita J; Christ, Sharon L; Clark, Heddy Kovach; Moracco, Kathryn E; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Flewelling, Robert L
Greater access to alcohol has been widely found to be associated with many negative outcomes including violence perpetration. This study examines the relationship between alcohol outlet density, alcohol use, and intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization among young women in the United States. A direct association between alcohol outlet density in one's neighborhood and the likelihood of IPV victimization was examined. Data were from Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), which followed a nationally representative sample of adolescents into adulthood. Participants were young adult females age 18 to 26 at Wave III. Of the 4,571 female respondents who reported a current heterosexual relationship and had IPV data, 13.2% reported having been the victim of physical violence only and 6.5% experienced sexual only or physical and sexual violence in the relationship during the past year. In the regression models tested, there was no significant direct association between neighborhood alcohol outlet density and IPV victimization nor was there an association between outlet density and drinking behaviors, thus eliminating the possibility of an indirect association. Results of fully adjusted models indicate females who drank heavily, whether infrequently or frequently, were at significant risk for experiencing sexual only IPV or sexual and physical IPV. Asians and Native Americans were at significantly greater odds of experiencing sexual only or sexual and physical IPV compared with non-Hispanic Whites, while non-Hispanic Blacks were at significantly greater odds for physical only IPV. We conclude that a continuous measure of alcohol outlet density was not associated with IPV in models controlling for individual and other neighborhood characteristics. Young women who drink heavily, whether infrequently or frequently, have greater odds of experiencing sexual only or sexual and physical compared to abstainers. Similar to previous study
Gotta, Gabrielle; Green, Robert-Jay; Rothblum, Esther; Solomon, Sondra; Balsam, Kimberly; Schwartz, Pepper
This study examined the differences among lesbians, gay men, and heterosexuals at two points in time (1975 and 2000) using responses of 6,864 participants from two archival data sets. Groups were compared on variables representing equality of behaviors between partners in seven realms: traditionally "feminine" housework, traditionally "masculine" housework, finances, support, communication, requesting/refusing sex, and decision-making. In addition, the current study compared monogamy agreements and monogamy behaviors reported by the two cohorts of couple types. Overall, the results indicate that on the equality variables, there have been many statistically significant behavioral shifts among the different sexual orientations across 25 years. In addition, all couple types reported substantially greater rates of monogamy in the year 2000 than in 1975. The present study has important clinical implications for therapists working with couples because it provides new baseline evidence regarding how couples now interact with one another (especially about monogamy) and how this has shifted over time. In addition, it elucidates the differences that still exist between different couple types, which could serve to inform couple therapists as they strive to become more culturally competent working with same-sex couples.
Ben-Ari, Adital; Lavee, Yoav
This study investigates how ambivalence over emotional expressiveness (AEE) relates to various aspects of intimate relationships, including perception of the relationship, marital satisfaction, and dyadic closeness. Whereas most commonly AEE has been treated as an individual attribute, we suggest looking at a combined measure of the AEE of both spouses as a dyadic attribute. We examine the contribution of each spouse's level of AEE as well as joint couple AEE to explain variations in the marital relationship. Data were collected from both spouses of 226 Israeli couples. Findings indicated that the AEE of individuals was more predictive of lower relationship quality than neuroticism and that dyadic AEE explains relationship quality more than the AEE of individual partners. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
Craft, Shonda M; Serovich, Julianne M
This exploratory study examined the prevalence of intimate partner violence in a sample of gay men who are HIV positive. The concept of intergenerational transmission of violence, from family systems theory, provided the basis of this examination. It was hypothesized that men who had witnessed or experienced violence in their families of origin would be more likely to perpetrate or experience violence in their intimate relationships. Perpetration and receipt of abuse were assessed to provide a more comprehensive examination of these relationships. The results of this study indicated that psychological abuse was the most commonly reported form of violence in these relationships. The results also provided partial support for the hypothesized relationship between family-of-origin violence and subsequent violence in an intimate relationship. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed.
Gevers, Anik; Jewkes, Rachel; Mathews, Cathy; Flisher, Alan
Intimate or dating relationships play an important role in young people's psychosocial development and well-being. Yet, we know relatively little about how teenagers conceptualise and experience them. Research knowledge about young people's intimate relationships is largely gleaned from studies whose primary focus has been on adolescent sexuality and violence. This study explored intimate relationships using qualitative data from 12 focus-group discussions and 25 in-depth individual interviews with Grade 8 (mean age = 14.6 years) and Grade 11 (mean age = 17.2 years) young people recruited from Cape Town schools. Although there is overlap between these findings and previous research, this study delved into the microdynamics of teenagers' relationship practices and conceptualisations. Their discussions provide insight into a nebulous dating landscape that is highly gendered and greatly influenced by peer relations. There was a heterogeneity of experience with relationships and sex. Implications for intervention development are discussed.
This study examines the associations between young adults' perceptions of their parents' intimate relationship and the quality of their parenting as predictors of their children's expectations about intimacy in their own future relationships. A sample of 111 young adults completed questionnaires assessing their perceptions regarding their parents' intimate relationship and parenting quality, their own attachment styles, and their own expectations regarding intimate relationships. A correlational analysis revealed a positive link between the parents' relationship and parenting quality, and between parenting quality and expectations about intimacy, which supports the attachment theory. A cluster analysis identified three distinct groups of parental profiles interrelated with attachment styles that had varying effects on their children's expectations about intimacy. These findings emphasize the unique characteristics of parental relations in the family of origin relations, which have an enduring effect on the interpersonal styles of adult children, providing additional support to an integrated, intergenerational approach to family dynamics.
Karakurt, Günnur; Keiley, Margaret; Posada, German
Dating violence among college aged couples has become a growing concern with increasing prevalence. The current study investigated the interplay among witnessing violence during childhood (both parental conflict and parent to child aggression), attachment insecurity, egalitarian attitude within the relationship, and dating aggression. Participants of this study included 87 couples. Results from the structural equation model indicated that the proposed model provided a good fit to the with a χ2 to df ratio of 1.84. In particular, both female and male participants who reported higher levels of attachment insecurity were more likely to be victim of dating aggression in their relationships. Furthermore, female participants who reported having witnessed parental conflict were more likely to be victimized by their partners. In conclusion, this study provides a comprehensive understanding of intimate relationship violence with dyadic data showing, for both genders, attachment insecurity is a crucial factor in both victimization and perpetration of aggression.
Moore, Darren D; Cooper, Clinton E
This study explores the experiences of 20 men who have had bariatric surgery, focusing on their couple or marital relationships. The researcher concentrates on men's perspectives regarding relationship satisfaction, sexual intimacy, and social support after surgical intervention. Phenomenology and family systems theory were used to guide the study from which emerged three themes: (a) Unintended consequences (unpredicted problems occurring within intimate relationships); (b) Intimacy as bittersweet (experiencing increasing levels of intimacy, while still desiring more); and (c) Inconsistent social support (experiencing instances where social support is provided, while simultaneously experiencing other areas where social support is not provided). The study includes a rich description of the data, critical analysis, and discussion of clinical implications for therapists and other healthcare professionals.
Gustafsson, Hanna C; Cox, Martha J; Blair, Clancy
The current study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV), maternal parenting behaviors, and child effortful control in a diverse sample of 705 families living in predominantly low-income, rural communities. Using structural equation modeling, the authors simultaneously tested whether observed sensitive parenting and/or harsh-intrusive parenting over the toddler years mediated the relationship between early IPV and later effortful control. Results suggest that parenting behaviors fully mediate this relationship. Although higher levels of IPV were associated with both higher levels of harsh-intrusive parenting and lower levels of sensitive supportive parenting, only sensitive supportive parenting was associated with later effortful control when both parenting indices were considered in the same model.
Karakurt, Günnur; Keiley, Margaret; Posada, German
Dating violence among college aged couples has become a growing concern with increasing prevalence. The current study investigated the interplay among witnessing violence during childhood (both parental conflict and parent to child aggression), attachment insecurity, egalitarian attitude within the relationship, and dating aggression. Participants of this study included 87 couples. Results from the structural equation model indicated that the proposed model provided a good fit to the with a χ2 to df ratio of 1.84. In particular, both female and male participants who reported higher levels of attachment insecurity were more likely to be victim of dating aggression in their relationships. Furthermore, female participants who reported having witnessed parental conflict were more likely to be victimized by their partners. In conclusion, this study provides a comprehensive understanding of intimate relationship violence with dyadic data showing, for both genders, attachment insecurity is a crucial factor in both victimization and perpetration of aggression. PMID:24039343
Bancroft, John; Long, J Scott; McCabe, Janice
In the United States, considerable attention has been directed to sexual behaviors of black and white adolescents, particularly age at first sexual experience and the prevalence of teenage pregnancies. More limited attention has been paid to comparing established sexual relationships in these two racial groups. In this study, we used a national probability sample to compare black (n = 251) and white (n = 544) American women, aged 20-65 years, who were in an established heterosexual relationship of at least 6 months duration. We focused on two aspects of their sexual well-being; how a woman evaluated (1) her sexual relationship and (2) her own sexuality. A range of possible determinants of sexual well-being, including demographic factors, physical and mental health, and aspects of the women's recent sexual experiences, were also assessed using Telephone-Audio-Computer-Assisted Self-Interviewing (T-ACASI). We found no significant difference between black and white women in their evaluation of their sexual relationships nor in the independent variables that were correlated with this evaluation. Black women, however, evaluated their own sexuality more positively than white women. In examining the correlates of this evaluation, a woman's rating of her own sexual attractiveness proved to be the strongest predictor, with black women rating themselves significantly more sexually attractive than did the white women. Overall, these findings were consistent with previous findings that, compared to white women, black women in the United States have higher self-esteem and tend towards more independence and individualism.
Afiyanti, Yati; Milanti, Ariesta
Cervical cancer often leads to sexuality and intimacy concerns for the affected woman within a marital relationship.This study aimed to explore physical sexual concerns and their impact on the intimate partner relationships experienced by cervical cancer survivors. Using a descriptive phenomenological approach, data were collected through in-depth interviews with Indonesian women survivors of cervical cancer. Two themes and five sub-themes were constructed from the thematic analysis. The first theme was the physical sexual concerns following cervical cancer treatment, with the subthemes: red spotting and massive vaginal discharge after having sexual intercourse; narrower, smaller and less lubricated vagina; pain during sexual intercourse; feeling of shortened vagina as if it had been cut. The second theme of impact of sexual concerns on intimate partner had five subthemes of: looking for reasons to refuse sexual intercourse; prejudice towards the spouse; feeling forced to fulfil husband's sexual needs; accepting spouse's anger; willingness to let the spouse marry another woman. The findings provide nurses with a greater understanding on how women adapt to their altered sexuality and intimacy with their partner following cancer treatments.
Hayden, Kelly; Graham, Melissa; Lamaro, Greer
Issue addressed: Unwanted sexual attention and unhealthy intimate relationships have the potential to have serious negative health consequences. To date, there has been scant focus on these issues among university students in Australia. The aim of the current study was to describe the extent of unwanted sexual attention and unhealthy intimate relationships experienced in their lifetime by female university students aged 18-25 years.Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken involving 465 female students aged 18-25 years. Students were recruited through one faculty within a Victorian university and invited to complete an anonymous online questionnaire.Results: Sixty-seven per cent (n = 312) of female students reported experiencing unwanted sexual attention in their lifetime. The most common form of unwanted sexual attention was kissing or touching over clothes (98%; n = 306). Over 43% (n = 124) of the female students reported that the experience of unwanted sexual experience occurred after their protests were ignored. Thirty per cent (n = 135) of the female students reported experiencing at least one element of an unhealthy intimate relationship.Conclusions: The high rates of unwanted sexual attention and unhealthy intimate relationships among female university students is of concern given the negative impact such events can have on individual's physical, emotional and social well being.So what?: Public health and health promotion action is required to prevent female students from experiencing unwanted sexual attention and unhealthy intimate relationships, and to address the negative health and well being consequences.
Mustonen, Ulla; Huurre, Taina; Kiviruusu, Olli; Haukkala, Ari; Aro, Hillevi
The purpose of this 16-year prospective follow-up study was to investigate the association between parental divorce in childhood and intimate relationship quality in adulthood. The mediating role of psychosocial resources (parent-child relationships at 16 years, self-esteem and social support at 32 years) in this association was also studied. All 16 year olds of one Finnish city completed questionnaires at school and were followed up by postal questionnaires at 32 years of age (n = 1,471). Results showed that women and men from divorced families were more often divorced or separated at the age of 32 years than those from nondivorced families. However, parental divorce was associated with poorer intimate relationship quality only among women. Women from divorced families also had poorer relationships with their father and mother in adolescence, and they had lower self-esteem and satisfaction with social support in adulthood than women from intact families. No such associations were found among men. The impact of parental divorce on intimate relationship quality among women was partially mediated by mother-daughter relationship, self-esteem, and satisfaction with social support. The mediating role of mother-daughter relationship was not direct, however, but was mediated via self-esteem and satisfaction with social support. Our findings indicate that parental divorce affects daughters more than sons. In the context of parental divorce, the mother-daughter relationship in adolescence is important for the development of later psychosocial resources and, via them, for intimate relationship quality.
Giunti, Daniel; Fioravanti, Giulia
In Italy, homosexual people are not allowed to perform donor insemination/surrogacy or adoption, thus they become parents mainly in the context of previous heterosexual relationships. The current study examines the experiences of 34 gay fathers and 32 lesbian mothers with children from a heterosexual relationship. Data on homosexuality awareness, reasons for marriage and parenthood, and the coming-out process to children were collected. Most participants reported not being aware of their homosexuality when they married and became parents. The most common reasons for marriage were "love" and "social expectancy," whereas parenthood was motivated mainly by the "desire for children and family." Most participants came out to at least one child and reported a positive reaction. The most cited benefit of coming out was "openness/not hiding anymore." The results suggest that the lives of gay and lesbian parents are shaped by their sexual minority status as well as by societal heterosexism.
Sato-DiLorenzo, Aya; Sharps, Phyllis W
This study investigated the relationship between dangerousness in intimate partner relationships and victims' mental health and/or health behavior problems. Health records of 387 women residents in a domestic violence shelter in an urban city on the East coast were reviewed. Of these, 177 women were eligible for this study. Dangerousness was determined by Danger Assessment Score (DA). Higher DA scores were significantly associated with mental health symptoms and health behaviors, including anxiety (p = 0.0024), depression (p = 0.017), difficulty concentrating (p = 0.001), memory loss (p = 0.008), suicidal attempts (p = 0.013), weight gain (p = 0.014), past history of smoking (p = 0.027), and past history of illicit drug use (p = 0.047).
Arriaga, Ximena B; Schkeryantz, Emily L
Aggression in intimate relationships is pervasive, has been implicated in personal distress, and yet may not be perceived as harmful. Two studies (cross-sectional, longitudinal) examined whether being the target of psychologically aggressive behavior by a partner is uniquely associated with personal distress, beyond the effects of general couple functioning, perpetrating aggression, or experiencing physical aggression. New instances of psychological aggression by a partner predicted increases in personal distress. Study 2 also examined participants' perceptions of what causes them stress. Although psychological aggression by a partner predicted personal distress, participants did not perceive their relationship as a source of stress. This suggests a pattern of "invisible harm" in which individuals victimized by psychological aggression may not recognize the harm they are experiencing.
Mark, Kristen P; Murray, Sarah H
The authors examined desire discrepancy and its effect on sexual and relationship satisfaction in a sample of 133 heterosexual couples attending a midsize university. Couples were required to be in a relationship for at least 1 year (M = 4.32 years, SD = 3.13 years); 23.7% of the couples were cohabitating. Hierarchical multiple regression results indicated that higher desire discrepancy scores significantly predicted women's (but not men's) lower sexual satisfaction after controlling for relationship satisfaction. Higher desire discrepancy scores significantly predicted men's (but not women's) lower relationship satisfaction after controlling for sexual satisfaction. The authors assessed gender differences using a mixed model with the dyad and gender as factors and satisfaction as the outcome. Although gender difference patterns appeared in the regression models, the differences were nonsignificant within each couple in the extent to which desire discrepancy affected sexual and relationship satisfaction. These findings suggest moving away from focusing on only one partner with low desire and shifting attention to the dyad's interaction. Also, the way in which desire discrepancy affects sexual and relationship satisfaction deserves consideration. Therapeutic implications and study limitations are discussed.
Emery, Clifton R.; Jolley, Jennifer; Wu, Shali
This study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) relationship dissolution and neighborhood concentrated disadvantage, ethnic heterogeneity, residential instability, collective efficacy, and legal cynicism. Data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) Longitudinal survey were used to…
Wei, Christina Cardenas; Brackley, Margaret
Understanding the lived experience of men who have committed violent acts against their intimate partners may provide insight into nursing interventions that may prevent or cease violence against women. Nurses have opportunities to intervene with men who use violence in their intimate relationships who present with a history of maltreatment or trauma as a child or young adult or who have a history of having been exposed to cultures that promoted violence. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the lived, everyday experiences of men who have used violence in their intimate relationships, including the men's values, purposes, and choices they had in life. To answer the research question, "What is the lived experience of men who have used violence in their intimate relationships and who have used alcohol or other drugs?" a descriptive, phenomenological research design was undertaken. Unstructured individual interviews with seven men resulted in the emergence of 16 themes, three of which are described in this paper: being part of a family culture that promoted violence; being part of a non-family culture that promoted violence; and early experiences of maltreatment or trauma. The participants described how their experiences with maltreatment or trauma as children and young adults impacted their mental health as adults and their use of violence in their adult intimate relationships. The participants' experiences provided insight into how nurses can intervene to prevent or stop violence against women and provided implications for future research.
Kogan, Lori R.; Kellaway, Julie A.
The relationship advice columns for two popular magazines (one targeted to female and the other to male readers) were discussed within the conceptual frameworks of centerfold syndrome and appearance obsession. Centerfold syndrome is a theory that describes the way men view women and sexuality. The female counterpart is appearance obsession which…
Weaver, Angela D.; Byers, E. Sandra
Problems related to negative body image are very common among young women. In this study, we examined the relationship between women's body image and their sexual functioning over and above the effects of physical exercise and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 214 university women. Low situational body image dysphoria and low body…
Bhagwanjee, Anil; Govender, Kaymarlin; Reardon, Candice; Johnstone, Leigh; George, Gavin; Gordon, Sarah
Introduction This article explores the complex, dynamic and contextual frameworks within which men working in a mining community and their live-in long-term partners or spouses (termed “couples” in this study) respond to the introduction of HIV into their heterosexual relationships; the way in which partners adopt gendered positions in enabling them to make sense of their illness; how they negotiate their respective masculine and feminine roles in response to the need for HIV-related lifestyle changes; as well as the gendered nature of partner support in relation to antiretroviral therapy (ARV) adherence. Methods We conducted an in-depth qualitative study with a sample of 12 HIV-positive seroconcordant heterosexual couples in a South African mining organization. Transcripts based on semi-structured couple's interviews were analyzed using an inductive emergent thematic analytical method. Results The findings present compelling evidence that the impact of HIV and AIDS is mitigated, in the main, by the nature of the dyadic relationship. Where power and agency were skewed in accordance with traditional gender scripts, the impact of HIV and AIDS was deleterious in terms of negotiating disclosure, meeting expectations of care and support, and promoting treatment adherence. As a corollary, the study also revealed that where the relational dynamic evidenced a more equitable distribution of power, the challenge of negotiating illness was embraced in a way that strengthened the couples’ affiliation in profound ways, manifested not simply in a reduction in risk behaviours, but in both partner's courage to re-visit sensitive issues related to managing their relationship in the context of a debilitating illness. Conclusions Gendered positioning (by self and others) was found to play a crucial role in the way couples experienced HIV and ARV treatment, and underscored the positive role of a couples-counselling approach in the negotiation of the illness experience. However
Balderrama-Durbin, Christina; Snyder, Douglas K; Cigrang, Jeffrey; Talcott, G Wayne; Tatum, JoLyn; Baker, Monty; Cassidy, Daniel; Sonnek, Scott; Heyman, Richard E; Smith Slep, Amy M
Although previous research has shown a negative relation between partner support and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity among military service members following deployment, the mediating mechanisms of this effect remain poorly understood. This study examined willingness to disclose deployment- and combat-related experiences as a mediating mechanism underlying the linkage between intimate partner support and PTSD symptom severity in a sample of 76 U.S. Air Force service members deployed to Iraq in a year-long, high-risk mission. Airmen's reports of overall social support, and partner support specifically, significantly predicted concurrent postdeployment PTSD symptom severity. Subsequent mediation analyses demonstrated that level of disclosure of deployment- and combat-related experiences by service members to their intimate partners accounted for a significant portion of the relation between partner support and postdeployment PTSD symptom severity. The level of Airmen's disclosure was also inversely related to levels of relationship distress. Implications of these findings for prevention and intervention strategies and for further research are discussed.
Lilleston, Pamela S.; Hebert, Luciana E.; Jennings, Jacky M.; Holtgrave, David R.; Ellen, Jonathan M.; Sherman, Susan G.
Sexual concurrency may increase risk for HIV/STIs among youth. Attitudes about gender roles, including power balances within sexual partnerships, could be a driver. We examined this association among Baltimore youth (N=352), aged 15–24. Data were collected from February, 2011 to May, 2013. We examined whether index concurrency in male-reported partnerships (N=221) and sex partner concurrency in female-reported partnerships (N=241) were associated with youth’s attitudes towards relationship power. Males with more equitable beliefs about power were less likely to report index concurrency. Females with more equitable beliefs were more likely to report partner’s concurrency. The relationship was significant in main and casual partnerships among females and main partnerships among males. The strongest associations were detected among middle-SES males and low-SES and African American females. Implementing interventions that recognize the complex relationship between socioeconomic context, partner dynamics, gender, and sexual behavior is an important step towards reducing HIV/STI risk among youth. PMID:26054391
Livingston, Jacques; Fourie, Eduard
Gay men's relationships with their mothers are likely to be more positive than their relationships with their fathers, and fathers are less likely to be told, less likely to be told first, and more likely to react negatively to disclosure than mothers. Drawing on an interpretivist approach, an individual in-depth interview strategy was adopted in the study as a means of gathering data from six Afrikaans-speaking White fathers, between the ages of 53 and 61 years (median: 55.5 years), residing in Gauteng, South Africa. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed for later coding and analysis. Through thematic network analysis, eight organizing themes emerged and were explored. For the purpose of this article only three organizing themes are discussed, namely "subliminal awareness prior to coming out," "epistemic rupture of internal systems of ideas/beliefs," and "acceptance as a complex and ongoing dialectical and reconciliatory process." The themes support the view that most parents are neither totally rejecting nor fully accepting of their gay sons. Although the fathers may have attained a level of "loving denial" in the relationships with their gay sons, most continue to struggle with the meaning and expression of same-sex sexuality. Despite these challenges, it is recognized that the fathers are adapting to changing circumstances and are trying to find ways to tolerate, accommodate, and in some ways accept their gay sons.
Minieri, Alexandra M; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Leukefeld, Carl; Clarke, Jennifer G; Surratt, Hilary L; Frisman, Linda K
The purpose of this study was to examine perceived relationship power as a mediator of the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health issues among incarcerated women with a history of substance use. Cross-sectional data from 304 women as part of the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJ-DATS) were used to evaluate this hypothesis. Regression analyses examined the mediation relationship of perceived relationship power in the association between a history of IPV and mental health issues. Results supported the hypothesis, suggesting that perceived relationship power helps to explain the association between IPV and mental health issues. Implications of the findings for the provision of services to address the needs of these women are discussed, including assessment of perceived relationship power and focusing counseling interventions on women's experiences with power in intimate relationships.
Kelly, Virginia; Warner, Kelly; Trahan, Courtenay; Miscavage, Karen
This study examined the relationship between level of depression and level of psychological abuse in women. In addition, the relationship between the use of self-report and measured report of psychological abuse within an intimate relationship was assessed. One hundred women were surveyed using the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory…
Staley, Cameron; Prause, Nicole
Viewing visual sexual stimuli (VSS) has been documented to have both positive (e.g., increased sexual arousal and sexual behaviors) and negative (e.g., higher anxiety, devaluing of partner attractiveness) effects. Excitation transfer and social comparison theories were used to generate hypotheses that could explain these mixed findings. Forty-four monogamous, heterosexual couples viewed erotic, exciting (non-erotic films), and nature films both alone and together. They rated their feelings of general arousal and relationship satisfaction as well as perceptions of self and partner sexual behaviors and attractiveness. Participants viewing both the erotic and exciting films reported equivalent increases in excitement; however, the erotic film was rated as slightly more generally arousing and increased participant's desire to be close to their partner. Viewing the erotic films also induced greater reports of negative affect, guilt, and anxiety. These findings moderately support a transfer of excitation interpretation. No effects of partner presence or absence while viewing the films was found. Viewing erotic films led to more positive evaluations of one's own sexual behaviors. These findings provide mixed support in regard to self and partner social comparisons. Co-occurring positive and negative emotional reactions were explored as possible explanation to the complex reactions to VSS.
In this article we pay attention to the violence which, due to the fear of social stigma, could be hidden from the public eye for a long time but could have serious health consequences for the individual, family, and society – physical and psychological forms of domestic violence and abuse in male-female intimate relationship. Besides its nature and extent data in general population, we review also the surveys data about its theoretical basis, its risk factors and possible effects on mental and physical health, not only on in conflicts involved partners, but also on family as a whole, and especially on the children that growing up in such a problematic domestic circumstances. PMID:26973948
Hines, Denise A; Saudino, Kimberly J
Although personality is shown to predict negative relationship experiences, few researchers have used a structural model of personality to study the ways that personality contributes to intimate partner aggression (IPA). This study investigates the five-factor model of personality and its associations with both the use and receipt of psychological, physical, and sexual IPA in 179 men and 301 women. Each of the five factors of personality was associated with at least one type of IPA perpetration or victimization. The dimensions of neuroticism and agreeableness were the strongest predictors of IPA particularly for women. Results are discussed in terms of why personality should be considered as a predictor for both the use and receipt of IPA, why sex differences emerged, and future research that should be conducted.
Schmid, Yasmin; Hysek, Cédric M; Preller, Katrin H; Bosch, Oliver G; Bilderbeck, Amy C; Rogers, Robert D; Quednow, Boris B; Liechti, Matthias E
Methylphenidate mainly enhances dopamine neurotransmission whereas 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") mainly enhances serotonin neurotransmission. However, both drugs also induce a weaker increase of cerebral noradrenaline exerting sympathomimetic properties. Dopaminergic psychostimulants are reported to increase sexual drive, while serotonergic drugs typically impair sexual arousal and functions. Additionally, serotonin has also been shown to modulate cognitive perception of romantic relationships. Whether methylphenidate or MDMA alter sexual arousal or cognitive appraisal of intimate relationships is not known. Thus, we evaluated effects of methylphenidate (40 mg) and MDMA (75 mg) on subjective sexual arousal by viewing erotic pictures and on perception of romantic relationships of unknown couples in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 30 healthy adults. Methylphenidate, but not MDMA, increased ratings of sexual arousal for explicit sexual stimuli. The participants also sought to increase the presentation time of implicit sexual stimuli by button press after methylphenidate treatment compared with placebo. Plasma levels of testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone were not associated with sexual arousal ratings. Neither MDMA nor methylphenidate altered appraisal of romantic relationships of others. The findings indicate that pharmacological stimulation of dopaminergic but not of serotonergic neurotransmission enhances sexual drive. Whether sexual perception is altered in subjects misusing methylphenidate e.g., for cognitive enhancement or as treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is of high interest and warrants further investigation.
Goldenberg, Tamar; Stephenson, Rob; Freeland, Ryan; Finneran, Catherine; Hadley, Craig
In countries such as the USA, gay and bisexual men experience high rates of intimate partner violence. However, little is known about the factors that contribute to this form of violence. In this study, we examine gay and bisexual men's perceptions of sources of tension in same-sex male relationships and how these may contribute to intimate partner violence. We conducted seven focus-group discussions with 64 gay and bisexual men in Atlanta, GA. Focus groups examined men's reactions to the short-form revised Conflicts Tactics Scale to determine if each item was considered to be intimate partner violence if it were to occur among gay and bisexual men. Analysts completed a thematic analysis, using elements of grounded theory. The sources of tension that men identified included: gender role conflict, dyadic inequalities (e.g. differences in income, age, education), differences in 'outness' about sexual identity, substance use, jealousy and external homophobic violence. Results suggest that intimate partner violence interventions for gay and bisexual men should address behavioural factors, while also focusing on structural interventions. Interventions that aim to reduce homophobic stigma and redefine male gender roles may help to address some of the tension that contributes to intimate partner violence in same-sex male relationships.
Awosan, Christiana I; Hardy, Kenneth V
Over the past decades, the decline in Black marriages and the upsurge of never-married Blacks have stimulated much theoretical focus, but researchers conducted few studies on never-married heterosexual Black adults' coupling unions. Guided by an integrated framework of Africana womanism and symbolic interactionism, this qualitative hermeneutic phenomenological study used comprehensive individual interviews to explore the experiences of 26 never-married heterosexual Black men and women between the ages 25 and 35 about their attempts to cultivate and maintain intimate romantic relationships as well as their desire for marriage. Findings revealed mixed emotions from participants' lived experiences in developing and sustaining romantic relationships. Clinical implications highlighted the need to effectively attend to Black romantic relationships and experiences in their sociohistorical and sociocultural contexts.
Afifi, Tracie O; Brownridge, Douglas A; MacMillan, Harriet; Sareen, Jitender
It has been suggested that family violence is associated with gambling problems. However, to date, this relationship has not been thoroughly investigated using representative data. The purpose of the current study was to analyze the relationship between gambling problems and the perpetration and victimization of intimate partner violence (including dating and marital violence) and child maltreatment (including minor child assault and severe child abuse) using nationally representative data. Data were drawn from the US National Comorbidity Survey Replication (n=3334; 18years and older). Multiple logistic and multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the relationships between gambling and the perpetration and victimization of dating violence, marital violence, and child maltreatment. The results indicated that problem gambling was associated with increased odds of the perpetration of dating violence (Adjusted Odds Ratios (AORs) ranged from 2.2 to 4.2), while pathological gambling was associated with increased odds of the perpetration of dating violence (AORs ranged from 5.7 to 11.9), severe marital violence (AOR=20.4), and severe child abuse (AOR=13.2). Additionally, dating violence, marital violence, and severe child abuse victimization were associated with increased odds of gambling problems. The results were attenuated when adjusted for lifetime mental disorders. These findings can be used as evidence-based research to inform healthy public gambling polices and inform prevention and intervention efforts.
Samuelson, Kristin W.; Krueger, Casey E.; Wilson, Christina
Recently researchers have begun to explore the extent to which children's cognitive development is influenced by experiences in the family environment. Assessing mother-child dyads exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV), a population at risk for emotional and neurocognitive problems, we examined relationships between maternal emotional…
Emery, Clifton R.
This article used the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) data to examine the relationship between exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) and child behavior problems (externalizing and internalizing), truancy, grade repetition, smoking, drinking, and use of marijuana. Longitudinal data analysis was conducted on 1,816…
Waller, Martha W.; Iritani, Bonita J.; Christ, Sharon L.; Clark, Heddy Kovach; Moracco, Kathryn E.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Flewelling, Robert L.
Greater access to alcohol has been widely found to be associated with many negative outcomes including violence perpetration. This study examines the relationship between alcohol outlet density, alcohol use, and intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization among young women in the United States. A direct association between alcohol outlet density…
Fass, Daniel F.; Benson, Ronald I.; Leggett, Debra G.
This study is an investigation of the occurrence and awareness of violence in intimate partner relationships as reported by college students recruited by e-mail from a small Midwestern university. Students responded to an online survey using a modified version of the Conflict Tactics Scale 2. Data were collected on the occurrences of violent…
Afifi, Tracie O.; MacMillan, Harriet; Cox, Brian J.; Asmundson, Gordon J. G.; Stein, Murray B.; Sareen, Jitender
It is important to understand the epidemiology of intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by both males and females. Data were drawn from the U.S. National Comorbidity Survey Replication. The relationships between physical IPV and child abuse, mental disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts among males and females were examined. The…
Garrity, Mary Kate
This social constructivist/constructionist research explores changes in female therapists' intimate relationships after they began working with survivors of female sexual violence. Discourse analysis found that working with survivors shifted participants' initially naive understanding of female sexual violence, as they developed a critical…
Pitcher, Erich N.
Previous research about college students' social media usage emphasizes social media "practices," often ignoring the "content" that students' post. Increasing knowledge about the language that college students use to describe their intimate relationships can inform student affairs practice. Using a digital ethnographic data…
Piotrowski, Caroline C; Tailor, Ketan; Cormier, Damien C
Although the majority of families that experience intimate partner violence (IPV) have more than one child, most research to date has focused upon a single child within these families. A significant body of research has indicated siblings play an important role in children's adjustment and well-being. To address this gap, the three main goals of the present study were to compare the adjustment of older and younger siblings exposed to IPV, to describe and compare the quality of these sibling relationships from multiple perspectives, and to investigate how sibling adjustment and relationship quality influence children's adjustment. Forty-seven sibling pairs and their mothers were recruited from the community. Mothers self-reported on their violent experiences using the Conflict Tactics Scale, and also estimated the length of time their children were exposed to IPV. Mothers and children completed assessments of child adjustment and the quality of sibling relationships. Observers also assessed the quality of sibling interaction. Results indicated that adjustment between siblings was highly inter-related. On average, mothers reported sibling relationships as less positive but also as less hostile than did siblings themselves. Higher levels of sibling hostility, lower levels of sibling warmth and higher levels of disengagement each significantly predicted child adjustment; however, these effects were predicated upon the adjustment of the other sibling. The sibling relationships of children exposed to IPV made a difference in their individual adjustment, and their adjustment issues influenced how they feel about and interacted with their sibling. Sibling hostility played a stronger role in adjustment issues than sibling warmth. The nature of sibling influences and the direction of future research were discussed.
The study compares Greek Americans to Greeks and to third-generation white Americans in their endorsement of two cognitive schemas guiding intimate relationships. Greek Americans were more rejecting of low self-disclosure in intimate relationships than were Greeks but did not differ from them on how strongly they advocated sacrificing the self for one's partner. By contrast, Greek Americans did not differ from Americans in their rejection of low self-disclosure and more strongly endorsed self-sacrifice in intimate relationships than did Americans. These findings were interpreted as indicating that Greek Americans have acculturated to a more individualistic orientation in terms of self-disclosure while maintaining a collectivistic orientation regarding self-sacrifice in intimate relationships. Respondents' age, cultural group, and whether they were college students or professionals interacted with how strongly individuals rejected low self-disclosure and showed that age and status differences were more pronounced between rather than within the three cultural groups. It revealed that the initial finding, showing that Greeks and Americans differed, was based on the scores of students; professionals, with one exception, did not differ in their disagreement with low self-disclosure, regardless of their age and cultural group. The exception was the older Greek American professional subgroup, whose stronger disagreement with low self-disclosure may be an overreaction to the acculturation process. Age and status differences were not significant in the American group, while there was a pattern in Greece for professionals to reject low self-disclosure more strongly than did students. Women were more rejecting of both low self-disclosure and self-sacrifice in intimate relationships than were men. Older women most strongly disagreed with the self-sacrifice principle and older men adhered to it more strongly with increasing age. Cette étude compare des Américains grecs à des
Bernardi, Jessica; Day, Andrew; Bowen, Erica
This study investigates the association between family relationships, anger, alcohol use, and self-reported intimate partner violence (IPV). Participants were 55 male prisoners who completed a survey about their family relationships, anger, alcohol use, and aggression. Exposure to parental IPV predicted rates of self-reported perpetration of IPV, suggesting the importance of understanding more about the developmental pathways to IPV if effective prevention, intervention, and assessment strategies are to be developed for use with this high-risk population.
Greenhalgh, Clare; Evangeli, Michael; Frize, Graham; Foster, Caroline; Fidler, Sarah
An increasing number of children born with perinatally acquired HIV (PAH) are surviving into late adolescence and early adulthood. At this developmental stage, forming and sustaining intimate relationships is important. Young adults with PAH face both normative challenges and additional, HIV-related, relationship stressors. One key issue is the decision about whether and how to share their HIV status with others. Being able to disclose one's HIV status to sexual partners may reduce the risk of onward HIV transmission but is associated with the fear of rejection. There has been little research on how young people with PAH manage such disclosure-related stressors in intimate relationships. This study examined how disclosure challenges are managed by young adults with PAH in the UK within their intimate relationships. Seven participants (five females and two males) currently or previously in an intimate relationship, aged 18-23 years, were recruited from a UK hospital clinic. The majority of participants were of sub-Saharan African origins. They took part in in-depth interviews, with data analysed according to the principles of interpretative phenomenological analysis. Four themes were elicited: (1) decisions about starting, continuing or resuming relationships shaped by disclosure, (2) disclosing early to avoid the pain of future rejection, (3) using condoms to avoid disclosure and (4) testing likely partner reactions to disclosure. The study revealed the significant extent to which HIV disclosure affected the experience of relationships in this population. Interventions to support adolescents and young adults with PAH to disclose to their partners should be developed alongside guidance for professionals. Future research should include older samples of adults with PAH and studies in sub-Saharan African settings.
Smith, Douglas B; Whiting, Jason B; Karakurt, Gunnur; Oka, Megan; Servino, David
The purpose of this study was to develop a survey measure, appropriate for use in clinical or research settings, to assess respondent's perceptions that their partner will engage in future physical violence, verbal/psychological violence, or controlling behaviors. Data were collected from adults in intimate relationships. Exploratory factor analysis was used to refine the measure and confirmatory factor analysis provided evidence for the fit of the final version of the measure. Scores on the measure indicated less safety for participants in distressed relationships and for participants meeting the study criteria for PTSD. Scores on the measure also indicated significantly decreased safety for participants that reported being the victims of physical violence and participants reporting both victimization and perpetration in their current intimate relationships.
Kurdek, Lawrence A.
Partners from four types of couples without children (gay unmarried, lesbian unmarried, heterosexual unmarried, and heterosexual married, Ns=1,412, 1,310, 1,036, and 1,728, respectively) were compared to partners from heterosexual married couples with children ("N"= 3,116) on mean levels of variables from a model of relationship adjustment as well…
Gehring, Krista S; Vaske, Jamie C
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem in the United States. While our understanding of this form of violence has grown substantially over the past several decades, the majority of research involving victims of IPV has focused almost exclusively on female heterosexual victims. Unfortunately, little attention has been paid to how this form of violence affects specific populations, such as gay and lesbian victims. It is possible that gay and lesbian victims may experience more maladaptive outcomes as a result of unique components of same-sex IPV, their sexual minority status in American society, and the lack of appropriate services tailored to victims of this violence. Using data from the second wave of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, this study contributes to the research on gay and lesbian victims of IPV by investigating same-sex and opposite-sex adolescent victims' experiences with depression, alcohol-related problems, marijuana use, violent delinquency, and property delinquency. Results indicate that opposite-sex victims experienced more depressive symptoms, alcohol problems, and marijuana use than non-victims and engaged in higher levels of violent and property delinquency than non-victims. IPV within the context of same-sex relationships led to more depressive symptoms and greater involvement in violent delinquency, with the impact of IPV on violent delinquency being greater for victims of same-sex IPV compared with opposite-sex IPV. The implications of this study could inform interventions for victims of same-sex IPV and lead to more comprehensive services to address the needs of gay and lesbian victims of this violence.
Torralbas-Fernández, Aida; Calcerrada-Gutiérrez, Marybexy
Unified, prevention- and community-oriented, Cuba's National Health System is well positioned to address social problems such as gender violence against women. It is sometimes taken for granted that family doctors, family nurses and psychologists in the health system should be able to deal with such cases. However, some studies among these professionals have revealed misconceptions about intimate partner violence, an insufficient understanding of its causes, and greater tolerance of psychological violence than of physical and sexual violence. Cuba needs to train family doctors and clinical psychologists who are knowledgeable about the subject so that they can take part in the development and implementation of intersectoral education and prevention policies and programs, provide assistance to women who have been victims of violence, and work together with community members to create support networks that serve as monitoring mechanisms. Primary care is the ideal setting for raising awareness of the need for greater intersectoral action to systematically address violence against women. KEYWORDS Professional training, doctors, clinical psychologists, gender, spousal abuse, domestic violence, family violence, family relationships, Cuba.
Allgeier, Elizabeth R.
Previous research (Bem, 1976) has shown that sex-typed and androgynous persons differ in their behavior in a variety of situations. The present paper describes four studies of the relationship of sex-typing to sexual socialization and to heterosexual attitudes and behavior. This program of research indicates that persons do differ in their sexual…
Kouyoumdjian, Fiona G.; Findlay, Nicole; Schwandt, Michael; Calzavara, Liviana M.
Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant health problem that has been associated with HIV infection in numerous studies. We aimed to systematically review the literature on relationships between IPV and HIV in order to describe the prevalence of IPV in people with HIV, the prevalence of HIV in people experiencing IPV, the association between IPV and HIV, and evidence regarding mechanisms of risk and interventions. Methods Data sources were 10 electronic databases and reference lists. Studies were included if they reported data on the relationship between IPV and HIV. All records were independently reviewed by two authors at the stages of title and abstract review and full text review. Any abstract considered eligible by either reviewer was reviewed in full, and any disagreement regarding eligibility of full texts or data extracted was resolved by discussion. Results 101 articles were included. Experiencing IPV and HIV infection were associated in unadjusted analyses in most studies, as well as in adjusted analyses in many studies. The findings of qualitative and quantitative studies assessing potential mechanisms linking IPV and HIV were variable. Few interventions have been assessed, but two identified in this review were promising in terms of preventing IPV, though not HIV infection. Conclusions Experiencing IPV and HIV infection tend to be associated in unadjusted analyses, suggesting that IPV screening and linkage with relevant programs and services may be valuable. It is unclear whether there is a causal association between experiencing IPV and HIV infection. Research should focus on defining parameters of IPV which are relevant to HIV infection, including type of IPV and period of exposure and risk, on assessing potential mechanisms, and on developing and assessing interventions which build on the strengths of existing studies. PMID:24282566
Marshall, Amy D; Feinberg, Mark E; Jones, Damon E; Chote, Daniel R
Despite substantial rates of parent to child aggression (PCA) and intimate partner aggression (IPA) co-occurrence within families, the co-occurrence of PCA and IPA within incidents of aggression has not previously been examined. To do so, we developed the Children, Intimate Relationships, and Conflictual Life Events (CIRCLE) interview to simultaneously measure incidents of psychological and physical PCA and IPA. The CIRCLE interview was administered quarterly for approximately 1 year to 109 women and 94 men from 111 couples with a first born child approximately 32 months of age at study initiation. Demonstrating the CIRCLE interview's ability to yield new knowledge about the nature of family aggression, we describe the frequency of aggressive incidents, the average number of aggressive behaviors within incidents, the daily occurrence of multiple aggressive incidents, and rates of within-incident PCA and IPA co-occurrence. With the exception of men's physical IPA, aggression scores derived from the CIRCLE interview exhibited a relatively high degree of interpartner reporting concordance, as well as structural validity and convergent validity with common aggression measures. Aggression reports via repeated testing were not influenced by social desirability or attempts to avoid aggression. Participants who perceived enhanced memory for aggression as a function of study participation reported increasing PCA and IPA frequencies over time. In the prediction of child conduct and emotional problems, the CIRCLE interview demonstrated predictive validity and incremental validity over traditional aggression measures. For the first time, within-incident co-occurrence of PCA and IPA was documented and shown to uniquely impact child outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record
Most research on intimate partner violence to date has focused on young men. Although interest and research regarding older abused women has increased in recent years, research on the voices and experiences of older abusive men is still scarce. The purpose of this article is to present a typology of older battering men dwelling in lifelong intimate violence relationships. Fifteen older Israeli abusive men, aged 65 to 84 years, were interviewed in depth. Four types were identified: the "Non-quitter," the "Cover-up"-er, the "In-between"-er, and the "Normalizer." These types were constructed based on four dimensions: the construction of violence over the years, the perception of the spouse over the years, losses accompanying the violent relationship, and the meaning of violence in old age. The four types enable an in-depth look at the experiential world of older abusers and paint a complex picture of various ways in which abusive men live with violence over time.
Yoshihama, Mieko; Horrocks, Julie
This study uses Cox regression with time-varying covariates to examine the relationship between intimate partner violence and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a random sample of Japanese American women and immigrant women from Japan (N = 211). Because applications of survival analysis in trauma research are scarce, this paper presents the utility of this analytical approach by contrasting it with other common methods of analysis (chi-square tests and Cox regression with covariates that do not change over time).
Negri, Ilaria; Pellecchia, Marco; Grève, Pierre; Daffonchio, Daniele; Bandi, Claudio; Alma, Alberto
Wolbachia pipientis is known to infect only arthropods and nematodes (mainly filarial worms). A unique feature shared by the two Phyla is the ability to replace the exoskeleton, a process known as ecdysis. This shared characteristic is thought to reflect a common ancestry. Arthropod moulting is induced by the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and a role for ecdysteroids in nematode ecdysis has also been suggested. Removing Wolbachia from filarial worms impairs the host's development. From analyses of the genome of Wolbachia harbored by the filarial nematode Brugia malayi and that of its host, the bacterium may provide a source of heme, an essential component of cytochrome P450's that are necessary for steroid hormone biosynthetic pathways.In arthropods, Wolbachia is a reproductive manipulator, inducing various phenotypic effects that may be due to differences in host physiology, in particular, endocrine-related processes governing development and reproduction. Insect steroids have well-defined roles in the coordination of multiple developmental processes, and in adults they control important aspects of reproduction, including ovarian development, oogenesis, sexual behavior, and in some taxa vitellogenin biosynthesis.According to some authors ecdysteroids may also act as sex hormones. In insects sex differentiation is generally thought to be a strictly genetic process, in which each cell decides its own sexual fate based on its sex chromosome constitution, but, surprisingly, recent data demonstrate that in Drosophila sex determination is not cell-autonomous, as it happens in mammals. Thus the presence of signals coordinating the development of a gender-specific phenotype cannot be excluded.This could explain why Wolbachia interferes with insect reproduction; and also could explain why Wolbachia interferes with insect development.Thus, is "sex (=reproduction) and stripping (=ecdysis)" the key to the intimate relationship between Wolbachia and its host?
Crane, Cory A; Hawes, Samuel W; Oberleitner, Lindsay M S; Mandel, Dolores; Easton, Caroline J
Forty substance using, male offenders of intimate partner violence completed measures of alcohol use and relationship status acceptance during a pretreatment screening session. They also completed a measure of verbal aggression after each month of a 12-week intervention program. Treatment length, heavy episodic drinking, and relationship status acceptance were used to assess the frequency of verbal aggression at each of the four assessment periods in a repeated measures ANCOVA. Main effects were detected for both alcohol and acceptance variables such that greater verbal aggression was observed among participants with a recent history of heavy episodic drinking and failure to accept the status of the relationship with their female victim. The interaction between time in treatment and relationship status acceptance was significant and showed that participants who accepted their relationship status reported low verbal aggression across measurement occasions while those who did not accept their relationship status reported high initial verbal aggression that decreased over treatment.
Adam, Emma K.; Chyu, Laura; Hoyt, Lindsay; Doane, Leah D.; Boisjoly, Johanne; Duncan, Greg; Chase-Lansdale, Lindsay; McDade, Thomas W.
Purpose To examine the associations between adverse interpersonal relationship histories experienced during adolescence and health in young adulthood in a large, nationally representative sample. Methods Using data from Waves I, II and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, multiple adverse relationship experiences are examined, including high loneliness, low perceived parental support, frequent transitions in romantic relationships (relationship instability), exposure to intimate partner violence, and loss by death of important relationship figures. These histories are assessed, both individually and in a relationship risk index, as predictors of self-reported general health and depressive symptoms at Wave III (ages 18 to 27), controlling for baseline (Wave I) health and for demographic and health behavior covariates. Results Net of baseline health and covariates, each type of relationship risk (experienced between Wave I and Wave III) was related to either depression or general health at Wave III, with the strongest effects seen for exposure to intimate partner violence. In addition, a cumulative relationship risk index examining the extent to which youth experienced high levels of multiple relationship risk factors revealed that each additional adverse relationship experience increased the odds of reporting poor mental and general health at Wave III, with increases occurring in an additive manner. Conclusions Multiple types of adverse relationship experiences predicted increases in poor general health and depressive symptoms from adolescence to early adulthood. Consistent with a cumulative risk hypothesis, the more types of adverse relationship experiences a youth experienced, the worse their young adult health outcomes. PMID:21856520
Taylor, Bruce G; Mumford, Elizabeth A
This article reports results from the National Survey on Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence (STRiV) for 12- to 18-year-old youth (n = 1,804). STRiV provides the first nationally representative household survey focused on adolescent relationship abuse (ARA), covering perpetration and victimization. Among respondents (37%) reporting current- or past-year dating, 69% reported lifetime ARA victimization (63% lifetime ARA perpetration). Although psychological abuse was most common for these youth (more than 60%), the rates of sexual abuse (18%) and physical abuse victimization (18%), as well as 12% reporting perpetrating physical abuse and/or sexual abuse (12%) were substantial as well. Other than differences by age and gender, ARA rates were consistent by race/ethnicity, geographic region, urbanicity, and household characteristics, highlighting the importance of universal prevention programs. Compared with youth aged 15 to 18, those 12 to 14 years old reported lower rates of psychological and sexual ARA victimization. Similarly, we found lower ARA perpetration rates for those 12 to 14. We found no gender differences for ARA victimization but found that girls perpetrated more physical ARA than boys. Girls aged 15 to 18 reported perpetrating moderate threats/physical violence at more than twice the rate of younger girls and 3 times the rate compared with boys aged 15 to 18; girls aged 15 to 18 reported perpetrating more than 4 times the rate of serious psychological abuse than boys 15 to 18. Finally, these data document the significant positive correlation between ARA victimization and perpetration. Findings suggest that when working with youth in prevention services, interventions should not be designed for monolithic groups of "victims" or "perpetrators."
de Visser, Richard; McDonald, Dee
Swinging involves consensual mutual involvement in extra-dyadic sex. Jealousy in swinging couples is an interesting topic for social psychological research, because it is a common and acceptable response to a romantic partner's real or imagined infidelity. This qualitative study examined the management of jealousy among four active heterosexual swinging couples living in southern England. Participants highlighted the importance of discussion and negotiation to develop a shared couple identity and shared rules and boundaries that allowed them to manage jealousy so that they could better enjoy swinging. Rather than seeking to eliminate jealousy, swingers may manage their feelings of jealousy in order to increase sexual excitement and arousal. This study adds to our understanding of jealousy among swingers and the broader issue of jealousy in intimate relationships.
Carbone-Lopez, Kristin; Kruttschnitt, Candace
Research indicates that female offenders are far more likely to have experienced intimate partner violence than women in the general population. Despite extensive research on women's pathways into offending, very little is known about why these women are at increased risk for partner violence. The authors use data from a sample of incarcerated…
Kwesiga, Eileen; Bell, Myrtle P.; Pattie, Marshall; Moe, Angela M.
Studies of intimate partner violence (IPV) and work have been primarily conducted with women in low-wage low-status (LWLS) positions, as much of this research has focused on poverty, welfare, and homelessness. Although women in LWLS positions represent a large percentage of working women in the United States, it is also important to investigate…
Reingle, Jennifer M.; Staras, Stephanie A. S.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Branchini, Jennifer; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.
Intimate partner violence is a significant public health problem, as these behaviors have been associated with a number of negative health outcomes including illicit drug use, physical injury, chronic pain, sexually transmitted diseases, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The current study examined the association between marijuana use…
Molina, Yamile; Marquez, Jacob H.; Logan, Diane E.; Leeson, Carissa J.; Balsam, Kimberly F.; Kaysen, Debra L.
Current intimate relationship characteristics, including gender and number of partner(s), may affect one's visibility as a bisexual individual and the minority stressors they experience, which may in turn influence their health. The current study tested four hypotheses: 1) minority stressors vary by current intimate relationship status; 2) higher minority stressors are associated with higher depressive symptoms and alcohol-related outcomes; 3) depressive symptoms and alcohol-related outcomes vary by current intimate relationship status; and 4) minority stressors will mediate differences in these outcomes. Participants included 470 self-identified bisexual women (65% Caucasian, mean age: 21) from a sample of sexual minority women recruited from different geographic regions in the United States through advertisements on social networking sites and Craigslist. Participants completed a 45 minute survey. Respondents with single partners were first grouped by partner gender (male partner: n=282; female partner: n=56). Second, women were grouped by partner gender/number (single female/male partner: n = 338; women with multiple female and male partners: n=132). Women with single male partners and women with multiple male and female partners exhibited elevated experienced bi-negativity and differences in outness (H1). Experienced and internalized bi-negativity were associated with health outcomes, but not outness (H2). Differences in outcomes emerged by partner number and partner number/gender (H3); these differences were mediated by experienced bi-negativity (H4). These results suggest that experiences of discrimination may underlie differences in health related to bisexual women's relationship structure and highlight the importance of evaluating women's relational context as well as sexual identification in understanding health risk behaviors. PMID:26456995
Edin, Kerstin; Nilsson, Bo
Background Women subjected to intimate partner violence (IPV) experience different forms of abuse. Sexual violence is often under-reported because physically abused women, in particular, might see forced sex as an obligatory part of the sexual interplay. Accordingly, abused women have less sexual autonomy and experience unplanned pregnancies more often than other women. Objective To describe and analyse nine Swedish women's retrospective stories about IPV with a focus on power and coping strategies as intimate partners, particularly regarding experiences of sex, contraception, and becoming pregnant. Design Nine qualitative interviews were carried out with women who had been subjected to very severe violence in their intimate relationships and during at least one pregnancy. The stories were analysed using ‘Narrative method’ with the emphasis on the women's lived experiences. Results Despite the violence and many contradictory and ambivalent feelings, two of the women described having sex as desirable, reciprocal and as a respite from the rest of the relationship. The other seven women gave a negative and totally different picture, and they viewed sex either as obligatory or as a necessity to prevent or soothe aggression or referred to it as rape and as something that was physically forced upon them. The women's descriptions of their pregnancies ranged from being carefully planned and mostly wanted to completely unwelcome and including flawed contraceptive efforts with subsequent abortions. Conclusions Women subjected to IPV have diverse and complex experiences that have effects on all parts of the relationship. Intimacy might for some turn into force and rape, but for others sex does not necessarily exclude pleasure and desire and can be a haven of rest from an otherwise violent relationship. Accordingly, women may tell stories that differ from the ones expected as ‘the typical abuse story’, and this complexity needs to be recognized and dealt with when
Krishnan, Suneeta; Vohra, Divya; de Walque, Damien; Medlin, Carol; Nathan, Rose; Dow, William H.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is widely prevalent in Tanzania. Inequitable gender norms manifest in men's and women's attitudes about power and decision making in intimate relationships and are likely to play an important role in determining the prevalence of IPV. We used data from the RESPECT study, a randomized controlled trial that evaluated an intervention to prevent sexually transmitted infections in a cohort of young Tanzanian men and women, to examine the relationship between couples' attitudes about IPV, relationship power, and sexual decision making, concordance on these issues, and women's reports of IPV over 12 months. Women expressed less equitable attitudes than men at baseline. Over time, participants' attitudes tended to become more equitable and women's reports of IPV declined substantially. Multivariable logistic regression analyses suggested that inequitable attitudes and couple discordance were associated with higher risk of IPV. Our findings point to the need for a better understanding of the role that perceived or actual imbalances in relationship power have in heightening IPV risk. The decline in women's reports of IPV and the trend towards gender-equitable attitudes indicate that concerted efforts to reduce IPV and promote gender equity have the potential to make a positive difference in the relatively short term. PMID:23320151
Mark, Kristen P; Jozkowski, Kristen N
This study aimed to examine in a sample of college-age heterosexual couples the relations between (a) relationship and sexual satisfaction and (b) sexual and nonsexual communication. The authors tested a mediation model whereby couples' relationship satisfaction was hypothesized to predict couples' sexual satisfaction by way of sexual and nonsexual communication levels. Participants were 266 individuals (133 couples) who completed measures of satisfaction and communication independently of their partner. A mediation model, tested with structural equation modeling, showed the degree to which couples were relationally satisfied was positively related to their level of sexual and nonsexual communication, which, in turn, was positively associated with their degree of sexual satisfaction. Results indicate that levels of sexual and nonsexual communication among couples affect the link between relationship and sexual satisfaction. Such findings may have important implications for college-age couples in committed relationships who are looking to improve satisfaction as well as for therapists, counselors, and educators who work with these couples to improve relationship and/or sexual satisfaction.
Frederick, David A; John, H Kate St; Garcia, Justin R; Lloyd, Elisabeth A
There is a notable gap between heterosexual men and women in frequency of orgasm during sex. Little is known, however, about sexual orientation differences in orgasm frequency. We examined how over 30 different traits or behaviors were associated with frequency of orgasm when sexually intimate during the past month. We analyzed a large US sample of adults (N = 52,588) who identified as heterosexual men (n = 26,032), gay men (n = 452), bisexual men (n = 550), lesbian women (n = 340), bisexual women (n = 1112), and heterosexual women (n = 24,102). Heterosexual men were most likely to say they usually-always orgasmed when sexually intimate (95%), followed by gay men (89%), bisexual men (88%), lesbian women (86%), bisexual women (66%), and heterosexual women (65%). Compared to women who orgasmed less frequently, women who orgasmed more frequently were more likely to: receive more oral sex, have longer duration of last sex, be more satisfied with their relationship, ask for what they want in bed, praise their partner for something they did in bed, call/email to tease about doing something sexual, wear sexy lingerie, try new sexual positions, anal stimulation, act out fantasies, incorporate sexy talk, and express love during sex. Women were more likely to orgasm if their last sexual encounter included deep kissing, manual genital stimulation, and/or oral sex in addition to vaginal intercourse. We consider sociocultural and evolutionary explanations for these orgasm gaps. The results suggest a variety of behaviors couples can try to increase orgasm frequency.
Bilderbeck, Amy C.; Wakeley, Judi; Godlewska, Beata R.; McGlone, Francis; Harris, Tirril; Cowen, Phillip J.
Depression frequently involves disrupted inter-personal relationships, while treatment with serotonergic anti-depressants can interfere with libido and sexual function. However, little is known about how serotonin activity influences appraisals of intimate partnerships. Learning more could help to specify how serotonergic mechanisms mediate social isolation in psychiatric illness. Forty-four healthy heterosexual adults, currently in romantic relationships, received 8 days treatment with the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor citalopram (N = 21; 10 male) or placebo (N = 23; 12 male). Participants viewed photographs of unknown, heterosexual couples and made a series of judgements about their relationships. Participants also indicated the importance of relationship features in their own close partnerships, and close partnerships generally. Citalopram reduced the rated quality of couples’ physical relationships and the importance attributed to physical and intimate aspects of participants’ own relationships. In contrast, citalopram also enhanced the evaluated worth of mutual trust in relationships. Amongst males, citalopram was associated with judgements of reduced turbulence and bickering in others’ relationships, and increased male dominance. These data constitute preliminary evidence that enhancing serotonin activity modulates cognitions about sexual activity as part of a re-appraisal of sources of value within close intimate relationships, enhancing the judged importance of longer-term benefits of trust and shared experiences. PMID:23996287
Bilderbeck, Amy C; Wakeley, Judi; Godlewska, Beata R; McGlone, Francis; Harris, Tirril; Cowen, Phillip J; Rogers, Robert D
Depression frequently involves disrupted inter-personal relationships, while treatment with serotonergic anti-depressants can interfere with libido and sexual function. However, little is known about how serotonin activity influences appraisals of intimate partnerships. Learning more could help to specify how serotonergic mechanisms mediate social isolation in psychiatric illness. Forty-four healthy heterosexual adults, currently in romantic relationships, received 8 days treatment with the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor citalopram (N = 21; 10 male) or placebo (N = 23; 12 male). Participants viewed photographs of unknown, heterosexual couples and made a series of judgements about their relationships. Participants also indicated the importance of relationship features in their own close partnerships, and close partnerships generally. Citalopram reduced the rated quality of couples' physical relationships and the importance attributed to physical and intimate aspects of participants' own relationships. In contrast, citalopram also enhanced the evaluated worth of mutual trust in relationships. Amongst males, citalopram was associated with judgements of reduced turbulence and bickering in others' relationships, and increased male dominance. These data constitute preliminary evidence that enhancing serotonin activity modulates cognitions about sexual activity as part of a re-appraisal of sources of value within close intimate relationships, enhancing the judged importance of longer-term benefits of trust and shared experiences.
Dutton, Donald G.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Spidel, Alicia
A review is made of female intimate abuse. It is concluded that females are as abusive as males in intimate relationships according to survey and epidemiological studies. This is especially so for younger "cohort" community samples followed longitudinally. Predictors of intimate violence with women appear to be similar to those of men; including…
Weinstein, Aviv M; Zolek, Rinat; Babkin, Anna; Cohen, Koby; Lejoyeux, Michel
Sexual addiction otherwise known as compulsive sexual behavior is associated with serious psychosocial problems and risk-taking behavior. This study used the Cybersex addiction test, Craving for pornography questionnaire, and a Questionnaire on intimacy among 267 participants (192 males and 75 females) mean age for males 28.16 (SD = 6.8) and for females 25.5 (SD = 5.13) who were recruited from special sites that are dedicated to pornography and cybersex on the Internet. Results of regression analysis indicated that pornography, gender, and cybersex significantly predicted difficulties in intimacy and it accounted for 66.1% of the variance of rating on the intimacy questionnaire. Second, regression analysis also indicated that craving for pornography, gender, and difficulties in forming intimate relationships significantly predicted frequency of cybersex use and it accounted for 83.7% of the variance in ratings of cybersex use. Third, men had higher scores of frequency of using cybersex than women [t(2,224) = 1.97, p < 0.05] and higher scores of craving for pornography than women [t(2,265) = 3.26, p < 0.01] and no higher scores on the questionnaire measuring difficulties in forming intimate relationship than women [t(2,224) = 1, p = 0.32]. These findings support previous evidence for sex differences in compulsive sexual behavior.
Weinstein, Aviv M.; Zolek, Rinat; Babkin, Anna; Cohen, Koby; Lejoyeux, Michel
Sexual addiction otherwise known as compulsive sexual behavior is associated with serious psychosocial problems and risk-taking behavior. This study used the Cybersex addiction test, Craving for pornography questionnaire, and a Questionnaire on intimacy among 267 participants (192 males and 75 females) mean age for males 28.16 (SD = 6.8) and for females 25.5 (SD = 5.13) who were recruited from special sites that are dedicated to pornography and cybersex on the Internet. Results of regression analysis indicated that pornography, gender, and cybersex significantly predicted difficulties in intimacy and it accounted for 66.1% of the variance of rating on the intimacy questionnaire. Second, regression analysis also indicated that craving for pornography, gender, and difficulties in forming intimate relationships significantly predicted frequency of cybersex use and it accounted for 83.7% of the variance in ratings of cybersex use. Third, men had higher scores of frequency of using cybersex than women [t(2,224) = 1.97, p < 0.05] and higher scores of craving for pornography than women [t(2,265) = 3.26, p < 0.01] and no higher scores on the questionnaire measuring difficulties in forming intimate relationship than women [t(2,224) = 1, p = 0.32]. These findings support previous evidence for sex differences in compulsive sexual behavior. PMID:25941496
Lynch, Kellie R; Jewell, Jenna A; Golding, Jonathan M; Kembel, Hannah B
Using a community sample (n = 296), we investigated the associations between sexual behavior norm beliefs, acceptance of partner rape, judgments that non-consensual partner sex is "wrong not rape," and decisions if non-consensual partner sex should be charged as rape. Sexual behavior norm beliefs were associated both directly and indirectly with latter components in the model related to acceptance of non-consensual partner sex judgments and charging rape judgments. In addition, participant gender moderated the model, such that many of the associations between the variables were stronger for males than for females. The results have implications for understanding how individuals label rape between intimate partners.
Breiding, Matthew J; Ziembroski, Jessica S
Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been shown to negatively impact the health of both the adults who experience IPV and the children who are exposed to IPV. Although IPV experienced by women has been linked to children's asthma, this study is the first to examine this question among both women and men, and the first study in the United States to examine this question as part of a population-based data set. In 2005, ten US states/territories administered an IPV module and a children's asthma module within the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Lifetime IPV was assessed by four questions that asked about threatened, attempted, or completed physical violence, as well as unwanted sex, by a current or former intimate partner. The children's asthma module asked respondents to report whether a randomly selected child in their household had ever been diagnosed with asthma and whether the same child currently had asthma. Women who experienced lifetime IPV, in contrast to women who never experienced IPV, were significantly more likely to report that their children had ever had asthma and currently have asthma. Among men, significant differences were not found when comparing men who reported lifetime IPV to those that did not report lifetime IPV. The results highlight the importance of primary prevention of IPV, as reducing the occurrence of IPV could improve not only the long-term health of those who experience IPV but also the health of their children.
Golden, Shelley D; Perreira, Krista M; Durrance, Christine Piette
We evaluate race/ethnicity and nativity-based disparities in three different types of intimate partner violence (IPV) and examine how economic hardship, maternal economic dependency, maternal gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence these disparities. Using nationally representative data from urban mothers of young children who are living with their intimate partners (N = 1,886), we estimate a series of unadjusted and adjusted logit models on mothers' reports of physical assault, emotional abuse, and coercion. When their children were age 3, more than one in five mothers were living with a partner who abused them. The prevalence of any IPV was highest among Hispanic (26%) and foreign-born (35%) mothers. Economic hardship, economic dependency on a romantic partner, and traditional gender beliefs each increased women's risk for exposure to one or more types of IPV, whereas neighborhood conditions were not significantly related to IPV in adjusted models. These factors also explained most of the racial/ethnic and nativity disparities in IPV. Policies and programs that reduce economic hardship among women with young children, promote women's economic independence, and foster gender equity in romantic partnerships can potentially reduce multiple forms of IPV.
Lalley-Chareczko, Linden; Segal, Andrea; Perlis, Michael L.; Nowakowski, Sara; Tal, Joshua Z.; Grandner, Michael A.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a worldwide health concern and an important risk factor for poor mental/physical health in both women and men. Little is known about whether IPV leads to sleep disturbance. However, sleep problems may be common in the context of IPV and may mediate relationships with mental/physical health. Data from the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were used (N = 34,975). IPV was assessed in female and male participants for any history of being threatened by, physically hurt by, or forced to have sex with an intimate partner (THREAT, HURT, and SEX, respectively), and, further, as being forced to have sex with or physically injured by an intimate partner within the past year (SEXyr and HURTyr, respectively). These survey items were coded yes/no. Sleep disturbance was assessed as difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or sleeping too much at least 6 of the last 14 days. Logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex, race, income, education, and physical/mental health, assessed whether IPV predicted sleep disturbance. Sobel–Goodman tests assessed whether relationships between IPV and physical/mental health were partially mediated by sleep disturbance. All IPV variables were associated with sleep disturbance, even after adjusting for the effects of age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, education, employment, marital status, physical health and mental health. THREAT was associated with sleep disturbance (odds ratio [OR] = 2.798, p < .0001), as was HURT (OR = 2.683, p < .0001), SEX (OR = 3.237, p < .0001), SEXyr (OR = 7.741, p < .0001), and HURTyr (OR = 7.497, p < .0001). In mediation analyses, all IPV variables were associated with mental health (p < .0001), and all were associated with physical health (p < .007) except SEXyr. Sleep disturbance partially mediated all relationships (Sobel p < .0005 for all tests). Mediation was around 30%, ranging from 18% (HURTyr and mental health) to 41% (HURT and physical health
The purpose of this practice note is to explore issues that arise in Manavi's work with South Asian women who use nonfatal force in heterosexual intimate relationships. It provides a nuanced understanding of the contexts within which a South Asian woman uses physical force. It addresses the many barriers a South Asian woman faces in an abusive relationship that ultimately may lead her to use of force. The goal of the practice note is to act as a tool to strengthen advocacy and service provision made available to South Asian female survivors of violence and abuse.
Weiss, Nicole H; Duke, Aaron A; Sullivan, Tami P
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly prevalent among individuals who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) and is associated with aggression in intimate relationships. The present study examined whether alcohol dependence (AD) attenuates the relation between PTSD and IPV-victimized women's use of physical, psychological, and sexual aggression. Participants were recruited from the community and included 147 women who engaged in substance use and experienced IPV (80.3% Black; M age = 38.24 years, SD = 10.62; M income = $14,323, SD = $12,832). Women with (vs. without) AD reported using significantly more physical and psychological aggression (ηp (2) = .12 and .03, respectively). The probable PTSD × AD interaction emerged as a significant correlate of physical and sexual aggression (ηp (2) = .03). Post hoc analyses revealed higher levels of physical aggression among women with probable PTSD and AD and no-PTSD and AD compared to women with probable PTSD and no-AD (Cohen's ds = 1.09 and 0.63, respectively) and women without PTSD and no-AD (Cohen's ds = 0.92 and 0.60, respectively). Further, women with PTSD and AD reported higher levels of sexual aggression than women without PTSD and AD (Cohen's d = 0.80). Findings suggest the utility of identifying and treating PTSD-AD among IPV-victimized women.
Cripe, Swee May; Espinoza, Damarys; Rondon, Marta B.; Jimenez, Maria Luisa; Sanchez, Elena; Ojeda, Nely; Sanchez, Sixto; Williams, Michelle A.
We sought to identify what abused Peruvian women want or need as intervention strategies. We conducted five focus groups with thirty women with prior or current experience with intimate partner violence. Participants noted that abused women need compassionate support, professional counseling, informational and practical (e.g., work skills training, employment, shelter, financial support) interventions. We propose a two-tiered intervention strategy that includes community support groups and individual professional counseling. This strategy is intended to offer broad coverage, meeting the needs of large groups of women who experience abuse, while providing specialized counseling for those requiring intensive support. Respect for each woman’s autonomy in the decision-making process is a priority. Interventions targeted towards women and men should address structural factors that contribute to violence against women. PMID:25741931
Kwesiga, Eileen; Bell, Myrtle P; Pattie, Marshall; Moe, Angela M
Studies of intimate partner violence (IPV) and work have been primarily conducted with women in low-wage low-status (LWLS) positions, as much of this research has focused on poverty, welfare, and homelessness. Although women in LWLS positions represent a large percentage of working women in the United States, it is also important to investigate experiences of women in high-wage high-status (HWHS) positions because a growing number of women are employed within such jobs. We propose gender role theory can be used to explain occurrences of IPV among women in HWHS positions and their utilization of organizational benefits. We suggest those in HWHS positions may be likely to have access to organizational benefits (e.g., medical, vacation, and flexible work schedules) and the ability to utilize the Family and Medical Leave Act. However, prevailing gender roles existing in organizations may render women in HWHS positions unlikely to use benefits or to take leave.
Vogler, Carolyn; Brockmann, Michaela; Wiggins, Richard D
Drawing on British data from two annual sweeps of the ISSP eight years apart in 1994 and 2002, for modules focusing on 'Family and Changing Gender Roles', this paper examines the extent to which changes in women's labour market participation, changing ideologies/discourses of gender and changing forms of intimate relationships are affecting the ways in which couples organize household money, and the implications of such changes for recent theories of intimate relationships. The analysis indicates that by 2002, the type of relationship respondents had established, together with their social class position, were both independently related to the ways in which they managed money, after controlling for socio-economic and cultural or discursive factors. Our findings also provide a degree of support for the thesis of a partial decline in the male breadwinner model of gender, as indicated by small declines in the use of the relatively inegalitarian female whole wage and housekeeping allowance systems which were most likely to be used by married couples and cohabiting fathers, expressing relatively traditional ideologies/discourses of breadwinning - and a slight increase in the use of the partial pool, which was most likely to be used by childless cohabiting couples in which male partners expressed less traditional ideologies of breadwinning and women were in middle-class jobs with incomes high enough to facilitate partially separate finances. We also suggest, however, that in so far as cohabiting couples earning different amounts define equality as contributing equally to household expenditure, it is possible that rather than being associated with shifts to greater equality in access to money for personal spending and saving, the partial pool may be associated with marked inequalities, because it may enable gender inequalities generated in the labour market to be more directly transposed into inequalities within households, despite the decline of traditional discourses of
Groves, Allison K; McNaughton-Reyes, H Luz; Foshee, Vangie A; Moodley, Dhayendre; Maman, Suzanne
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem in South Africa. However, there is limited research on whether and how IPV changes during pregnancy and the postpartum period and on the factors that might affect women's risk during this time. In this study, we describe the mean trajectories of physical and psychological IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period and examine whether relationship power, partner social support, and relationship stress are associated with women's trajectories of IPV. Data come from a longitudinal study with 1,480 women recruited during pregnancy between May 2008 and June 2010 at a public clinic in Durban. Women completed behavioral assessments at their first antenatal visit, at fourteen weeks and at nine months postpartum. Women's experiences of IPV were measured at all three time points and relationship power, partner social support and relationship stress were each measured at the baseline assessment. We used multilevel random coefficients growth modeling to build our models. The mean trajectory for both types of IPV was flat which means that, on average, there was not significant change in levels of IPV over pregnancy and the postpartum period. However, there was significant individual variability in trajectories of IPV over the study period. Women who had higher relationship power had lower levels of physical and psychological IPV over time than women with lower relationship power. Additionally, women with higher relationship stress and lower partner support had higher levels of psychological IPV at pregnancy. Interventions that maximize women's relationship power and partner social support and minimize relationship stress during this transformative time are needed.
Watkins, Laura E; Maldonado, Rosalita C; DiLillo, David
The purpose of this study was to develop and provide initial validation for a measure of adult cyber intimate partner aggression (IPA): the Cyber Aggression in Relationships Scale (CARS). Drawing on recent conceptual models of cyber IPA, items from previous research exploring general cyber aggression and cyber IPA were modified and new items were generated for inclusion in the CARS. Two samples of adults 18 years or older were recruited online. We used item factor analysis to test the factor structure, model fit, and invariance of the measure structure across women and men. Results confirmed that three-factor models for both perpetration and victimization demonstrated good model fit, and that, in general, the CARS measures partner cyber aggression similarly for women and men. The CARS also demonstrated validity through significant associations with in-person IPA, trait anger, and jealousy. Findings suggest the CARS is a useful tool for assessing cyber IPA in both research and clinical settings.
Barter, Christine; Stanley, Nicky
This paper provides a narrative review of the knowledge on inter-personal violence and abuse (IPVA) in adolescents' intimate relationships. It draws on the authors' own research, published reviews, and a rapid review on IPVA victimization and mental health outcomes for adolescents. The research reviewed identified associations between adolescent IPVA and substance misuse, depressive symptoms and PTSD, eating disorders and suicidal thinking, and behaviour in young people. Generally, girls appeared more likely to report severe mental health outcomes than boys. Adolescents rarely disclose IPVA to adults and delivering preventative programmes that promote knowledge and help seeking may offer a means of building on young people's tendency to seek help from friends. These preventative interventions, usually delivered in schools, need to be closely linked to support services for adolescents who disclose abuse. While there are some practice examples of emerging interventions for both victims and perpetrators of adolescent IPVA, there is as yet little robust evidence regarding their effectiveness.
Adams, Adrienne E; Bybee, Deborah; Tolman, Richard M; Sullivan, Cris M; Kennedy, Angie C
Intimate partner violence (IPV) has detrimental consequences for women's mental health. To effectively intervene, it is essential to understand the process through which IPV influences women's mental health. The current study used data from 5 waves of the Women's Employment Study, a prospective study of single mothers receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), to empirically investigate the extent to which job stability mediates the relationship between IPV and adverse mental health outcomes. The findings indicate that IPV significantly negatively affects women's job stability and mental health. Further, job stability is at least partly responsible for the damaging mental health consequences of abuse, and the effects can last up to 3 years after the IPV ends. This study demonstrates the need for interventions that effectively address barriers to employment as a means of enhancing the mental health of low-income women with abusive partners.
Miranda, Jenniffer K; de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes
The aim of the study was to examine whether maternal depression, mothers' and fathers' parenting, child physical punishment and negative life events (NLE) mediate the effect of maternal childhood abuse (CA), intimate partner violence (IPV) and cumulative violence (both CA and IPV) on Spanish children's and adolescents' psychopathology. Furthermore, multiple mediator models examine whether IPV mediates the effect of CA on the contextual and family factors mentioned above. Three hundred and eighteen Spanish outpatients aged 7 to 18 and their parents were assessed using a structured interview and other instruments for measuring the study variables. Structural equation models (SEMs) showed multiple pathways explaining psychopathological problems among offspring of mothers who suffered CA, IPV and both of these violent experiences. In particular, mothers' depression mediated the link between maternal CA, IPV, cumulative violence and children's externalizing, and total behavior problems. Child NLE was an important pathway between maternal CA and total behavior problems, as well as between cumulative violence and both externalizing and total problems. IPV contributed to explaining the link between maternal CA and contextual and family factors, such as child physical punishment and NLE, which were in turn, associated with children's behavior problems. Findings show the complex interconnections between different types of violence and their harmful effects on the mental health of women and their offspring, as well as the need to extend our knowledge on this subject.
Neff, Lisa A; Karney, Benjamin R
Stressors external to the marriage frequently affect the way spouses evaluate their marital quality. To date, however, understanding of the interplay between external stress and internal relationship processes has been limited in two ways. First, research has generally examined only the short-term consequences of stress. Second, the mechanisms through which external stressors influence relationship outcomes are unclear. This study addressed both limitations by examining relationship cognitions that may mediate the effects of external stress throughout 4 years of marriage. Analyses confirmed that stressful experiences were associated with the trajectory of marital quality overtime. Furthermore, both the content and the organization of spouses' specific relationship cognitions mediated this effect. That is, stress negatively influenced the nature of spouses' marital perceptions as well as the way spouses interpreted and processed those perceptions. These findings draw attention to ways that the context of relationships shapes and constrains relationship processes.
Muise, Amy; Stanton, Sarah C E; Kim, James J; Impett, Emily A
Men's sexual overperception bias-where men tend to perceive greater sexual interest in women's behavior than actually exists-is a well-documented finding in previous research. All of the existing research, however, has tested this effect in the context of initial encounters or for fictitious or unknown targets. No research currently exists on how people perceive their romantic partner's sexual desire in the context of ongoing, intimate relationships. In 3 dyadic studies, we provide evidence that men in established romantic relationships err in the direction of the opposite bias and underperceive their romantic partner's sexual desire. We also demonstrate that this underperception bias is functional (particularly for men) in that it is associated with their partner feeling more satisfied and committed to the relationship. In addition, people are particularly likely to underperceive their partner's desire on days when they are motivated to avoid sexual rejection, and men's underperception bias is, in part, accounted for by men's higher general levels of sexual desire than women. The current studies extend previous findings on sexual perceptual biases and demonstrate the important role of context in men's judgments of a partner's sexual interest. (PsycINFO Database Record
Tsai, Laura Cordisco; Cappa, Claudia; Petrowski, Nicole
This study explored the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and family planning among adolescent girls and young women in formal unions in the Philippines. Analyzing a sample (n =1,566) from the 2013 Philippines Demographic and Health Survey, logistic regression models were separately run for current contraception use and unmet need for family planning on recent physical violence (yes/no), recent sexual violence (yes/no), and recent emotional (yes/no). Findings revealed that the odds of using contraception were significantly higher among girls and young women who reported recent physical IPV (OR=1.84; 95% CI=1.13, 2.99; p<0.05) and sexual IPV (OR=2.18; 95% CI=1.17, 4.06; p<0.05). No significant relationship between recent emotional IPV and contraception use was found. Having an unmet need for family planning showed no significant relationship to IPV. The study adds to a growing body of literature revealing a positive association between IPV and contraception use. Findings hold implications for the provision of family planning services for adolescents and young women in response to the recent passage of landmark legislation pertaining to reproductive health in the Philippines, the Responsible Parenthood and Reproductive Health Act.
Shortt, Joann Wu; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Kerr, David C. R.; Owen, Lee D.; Feingold, Alan
The present study examined the stability of young men’s intimate partner violence (IPV) over a 12-year period as a function of relationship continuity or discontinuity. Multiwave measures of IPV (physical and psychological aggression) were obtained from 184 men at risk for delinquency and their women partners. The effects of relationship continuity versus transitions on change in IPV were examined using multilevel analyses. In general, men’s IPV decreased over time. Men’s physical aggression in their early 20s predicted levels of physical aggression about 7 years later, and men’s psychological aggression in their early 20s predicted levels of psychological aggression about 10-12 years later. As hypothesized, higher stability in IPV was found for men who stayed with the same partners, whereas men experiencing relationship transitions showed greater change. The IPV of new partners was linked to the changes in men’s IPV that occurred with repartnering. There was less change in men’s IPV over time as men changed partners less frequently. PMID:21311973
Tsai, Laura Cordisco; Cappa, Claudia; Petrowski, Nicole
This study explored the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and family planning among adolescent girls and young women in formal unions in the Philippines. Analyzing a sample (n =1,566) from the 2013 Philippines Demographic and Health Survey, logistic regression models were separately run for current contraception use and unmet need for family planning on recent physical violence (yes/no), recent sexual violence (yes/no), and recent emotional (yes/no). Findings revealed that the odds of using contraception were significantly higher among girls and young women who reported recent physical IPV (OR=1.84; 95% CI=1.13, 2.99; p<0.05) and sexual IPV (OR=2.18; 95% CI=1.17, 4.06; p<0.05). No significant relationship between recent emotional IPV and contraception use was found. Having an unmet need for family planning showed no significant relationship to IPV. The study adds to a growing body of literature revealing a positive association between IPV and contraception use. Findings hold implications for the provision of family planning services for adolescents and young women in response to the recent passage of landmark legislation pertaining to reproductive health in the Philippines, the Responsible Parenthood and Reproductive Health Act. PMID:27157175
van Rhijn, Tricia M.; Murray, Sarah H.; Mizzi, Robert C.
Through the use of mixed qualitative and quantitative methods, the current study explored the impact of postsecondary study on the intimate relationships and school experiences of partnered mature students. Quantitative regression analyses indicated that parental status, family support, partner support, and sexual desire significantly predicted…
Hines, Denise A; Douglas, Emily M; Berger, Joshua L
Although experts agree that intimate partner violence (IPV) is a multidimensional phenomenon comprised of both physical and non-physical acts, there is no measure of legal and administrative (LA) forms of IPV. LA aggression is when one partner manipulates the legal and other administrative systems to the detriment of his/her partner. Our measure was developed using the qualitative literature on male IPV victims' experiences. We tested the reliability and validity of our LA aggression measure on two samples of men: 611 men who sustained IPV and sought help, and 1,601 men in a population-based sample. Construct validity of the victimization scale was supported through factor analyses, correlations with other forms of IPV victimization, and comparisons of the rates of LA aggression between the two samples; reliability was established through Cronbach's alpha. Evidence for the validity and reliability of the perpetration scale was mixed and therefore needs further analyses and revisions before we can recommend its use in empirical work. There is initial support for the victimization scale as a valid and reliable measure of LA aggression victimization among men, but work is needed using women's victimization's experiences to establish reliability and validity of this measure for women. An LA aggression measure should be developed using LGBTQ victims' experiences, and for couples who are well into the divorce and child custody legal process. Legal personnel and practitioners should be educated on this form of IPV so that they can appropriately work with clients who have been victimized or perpetrate LA aggression.
Udo, Ifeyinwa E; Sharps, Phyllis; Bronner, Yvonne; Hossain, Mian B
Objectives This longitudinal study examined the influence of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) experience of pregnant women participating in the Domestic Violence Enhanced Home Visitation Program on the language and neurological development of infants and toddlers. Methods A total of 210 infants and toddlers born to women reporting low, moderate, and high levels of IPV were included in the analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the bivariate association between maternal IPV and risk of language and neurological delay of infants and toddlers and between covariates and language and neurological delay. Generalized estimating equation models with logit link was used to predict the risk of language and neurological delay of infants and toddlers as a result of maternal IPV. Results Infants and toddlers born to women exposed to moderate levels of IPV had increased odds of language delay compared to infants and toddlers of women who experienced low levels of violence (OR 5.31, 95 % CI 2.94, 9.50, p < 0.001). Infants and toddlers born to women who experienced moderate and high levels of IPV were at higher risk of neurological delay respectively, compared to infants and toddlers of women who experienced low levels of IPV (OR 5.42, 95 % CI 2.99, 9.82, p < 0.001 and OR 2.57, 95 % CI 1.11, 5.61, p = 0.026). Conclusions for Practice Maternal IPV is associated with increased risk of language and neurological delay of infants and toddlers. These findings have implications for health care for women and infants exposed to IPV. Clinicians including pediatricians working with pregnant women should screen for IPV throughout pregnancy to identify women and children at risk. Interventions to reduce maternal IPV and early intervention services for infants and toddlers exposed to IPV are necessary for optimal maternal and child health.
Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.
The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted…
While previous research has focused on the relationship between education and women's empowerment in the public sphere, their empowerment in the private sphere has been less fully developed in empirical studies. Drawing on a theoretical model of change in marital relationships, this article examines how women who participated in an innovative…
Dalla, Rochelle L; Marchetti, Alexandria M; Sechrest, Elizabeth Beth A; White, Jennifer L
In 1992 and 1995, data were collected from 29 Navajo Native American adolescent mothers. In 2007 and 2008, data were collected from 21 of the original 29 (72%). Guided by feminist family theory, this investigation sought to (a) examine Navajo adolescent mothers' intimate partner relationships during the transition to parenthood, (b) identify themes in the young mothers' intimate partnerships across time, and (c) assess participants' psychosocial well-being in adulthood. Four themes emerged in the women's long-term intimate relationships: limited support, substance abuse, infidelity, and intimate partner violence. Implications of the findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Golombok, S; Tasker, F; Murray, C
The aim of the study was to investigate family functioning and the psychological development of children raised in fatherless families from their first year of life. Thirty lesbian mother families and 42 families headed by a single heterosexual mother were compared with 41 two-parent heterosexual families using standardised interview and questionnaire measures of the quality of parenting and the socioemotional development of the child. The results show that children raised in fatherless families from infancy experienced greater warmth and interaction with their mother, and were more securely attached to her, although they perceived themselves to be less cognitively and physically competent than their peers from father-present families. No differences were identified between families headed by lesbian and single heterosexual mothers, except for greater mother-child interaction in lesbian mother families.
Elmquist, JoAnna; Shorey, Ryan C; Labrecque, Lindsay; Ninnemann, Andrew; Zapor, Heather; Febres, Jeniimarie; Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Plasencia, Maribel; Temple, Jeff R; Stuart, Gregory L
Although research has shown links between family-of-origin violence (FOV), intimate partner violence (IPV), and hostility, research has not examined whether hostility mediates the relationship between FOV and IPV. The current study examined whether hostility mediates FOV and IPV perpetration in 302 men arrested for domestic violence. Results demonstrated that hostility fully mediated the relationship between father-to-participant FOV and physical and psychological IPV, and the relationship between mother-to-participant FOV and physical IPV. Results indicated that hostility fully mediated the relationship between experiencing and witnessing FOV and physical IPV (composite FOV), and partially mediated the relationship between composite FOV and psychological aggression.
Johnson, A M; Laga, M
Recent developments concerning heterosexual transmission of HIV (review of 1988 literature only) suggest improved understanding of the pattern of spread and role of risk behaviors and biological cofactors in its transmission. 3 distinct patterns if HIV infection are known: heterosexual spread in sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean, spread primarily among homosexuals and injecting drug users in Europe, North American and much of Latin America and Australia, and both homosexual and heterosexual transmission in Asia, the Pacific, the Middle East and Eastern Europe, where prevalence is low. In Africa an estimated 80% of cases are acquired heterosexually. Important risk factors are number of sex partners, sex with prostitutes, being a prostitute, being a sex partner of an infected person, and having a history of other sexually transmitted diseases. Prevalence rates have risen rapidly in Zaire and Kenya. In Africa, acquisition of HIV is related to sexual activity only. In contrast, in the U.S., heterosexual cases make up only 4% of all cases, and in Europe only 6%. Data on types of sexual transmission of HIV are mounting, in aggregate suggestive of a marked heterogeneity in infectivity and possibly susceptibility between individuals. Among couples where the man is positive, in some places individuals appear to be highly infective, notably those from Kinshasa, Zaire and Haiti, while other series of discordant couples the receptive partner remained seronegative for several years. Transmission from women to men appears to be less efficient than from men to women, as has been observed with other STDs such as gonorrhea. Biological cofactors implicated in enhanced HIV transmission appear to be advanced CDC Stage IV AIDS disease, with low T-helper lymphocyte counts and high antigenemia; concomitant STDS, especially those with genital ulceration; lack of circumcision; oral contraceptive use; practice of anal intercourse; inconsistent or no use of condoms. Theoretical models for
Spiwak, Rae; Afifi, Tracie O; Halli, Shiva; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia; Sareen, Jitender
To investigate the association between physical intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) in two national samples. Data came from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Wave 2 (n=34,653) and the National Family Health Survey-3 (n=124 385). Ever-married women between the ages of 20 and 49 were asked if they had experienced physical violence by their partner in the past year. Outcomes were presence of doctor confirmed HIV and self-reported STI. Age at first intercourse was examined as a mediator of the relationship between IPV and STI. Logistic regression examined associations between IPV, age at first intercourse and STI. Compared to individuals with no physical IPV, risk for STI was higher for individuals who experienced past year IPV living in the United States and India, however once controlling for age at first intercourse, age, education, household wealth/income and past year sexual violence, the relationship between IPV, and STI was significant in the American sample [(AOR)=1.65, 95% (CI)=1.21-2.26], however not for individuals living in India [(AOR)=1.75, 95% (CI)=0.84-3.65]. Individuals with exposure to physical IPV are at increased odds for STI. Age at first intercourse although a marker of risk, may not be an accurate marker of risky sexual behavior in both samples.
Rothing, Ase; Svendsen, Stine Helena Bang
In recent years, equality between homosexual and heterosexual relationships has increasingly been presented as a marker for Norwegian values. Norwegian schooling encourages tolerance toward homosexuals, and the state shows active interest in counteracting bullying against LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) youth by supporting research…
Elkington, Katherine S; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A; Latack, Jessica A; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R; Wainberg, Milton L
The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted in-depth interviews with N=20 youth with mental illness (MI) (55% male, 16-24 years, 75% Latino) from 4 psychiatric outpatient clinics in New York City. We conducted a thematic analysis to investigate shared experiences of MI stigma and its impact on youth's sexual or romantic relationships and associated behaviors. Our analysis revealed four main themes: 1) societal perceptions of those with MI as partners (societal stigma); 2) individual experiences of stigma within relationships (individual level); 3) internalized stigma of self as a partner (social-psychological processes); and 4) managing a stigmatized identity, of which some of the behaviors directly placed them at increased risk for HIV. We found that just under half of the sample (n=9/20) endorsed all themes, including engaging in HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors as a method to manage a stigmatize identity, which suggests that MI stigma and sexual risk may be linked. We discuss differences by gender and diagnosis. Findings provide new information for providers and researchers to address on the role of stigma experiences in the romantic and sexual behavior of youth in psychiatric treatment. Implications for stigma and HIV/STI prevention interventions are discussed.
Stephenson, Kyle R.; Meston, Cindy M.
Introduction Recent studies have shown that sexual functioning and sexually related personal distress are weakly related in women, with only a minority of sexual difficulties resulting in significant levels of distress. However, there has been little systematic research to date on which factors moderate the relationship between sexual functioning and sexual distress. Aim To assess the degree to which relational intimacy and attachment anxiety moderate the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in college-age women. Methods Two hundred women (mean age = 20.25) completed surveys assessing sexual functioning, relational intimacy, attachment anxiety, and sexual distress. Main Outcome Measures Participants completed the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women, the Female Sexual Function Index, the Dimensions of Relationship Quality Scale, and the Revised Experiences in Close Relationships Measure of Adult Romantic Attachment. Results Relational intimacy and attachment anxiety moderated the association between multiple aspects of sexual functioning and sexual distress. For lubrication and sexual pain, functioning was more strongly associated with distress in low-intimacy vs. high-intimacy relationships, but only for women with high levels of attachment anxiety. Results regarding desire were mixed and neither intimacy nor attachment anxiety interacted with subjective arousal or orgasm in predicting distress. Conclusion Both relational intimacy and attachment anxiety are important moderators of the association between sexual functioning and subjective sexual distress in women. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:20701676
Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.
The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths’ experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted in-depth interviews with N=20 youth with mental illness (MI) (55% male, 16-24 years, 75% Latino) from 4 psychiatric outpatient clinics in New York City. We conducted a thematic analysis to investigate shared experiences of MI stigma and its impact on youth’s sexual or romantic relationships and associated behaviors. Our analysis revealed four main themes: 1) societal perceptions of those with MI as partners (societal stigma); 2) individual experiences of stigma within relationships (individual level); 3) internalized stigma of self as a partner (social-psychological processes); and 4) managing a stigmatized identity, of which some of the behaviors directly placed them at increased risk for HIV. We found that just under half of the sample (n=9/20) endorsed all themes, including engaging in HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors as a method to manage a stigmatize identity, which suggests that MI stigma and sexual risk may be linked. We discuss differences by gender and diagnosis. Findings provide new information for providers and researchers to address on the role of stigma experiences in the romantic and sexual behavior of youth in psychiatric treatment. Implications for stigma and HIV/STI prevention interventions are discussed. PMID:25477706
Stanley, Nicky; Barter, Christine; Wood, Marsha; Aghtaie, Nadia; Larkins, Cath; Lanau, Alba; Överlien, Carolina
New technology has made pornography increasingly accessible to young people, and a growing evidence base has identified a relationship between viewing pornography and violent or abusive behavior in young men. This article reports findings from a large survey of 4,564 young people aged 14 to 17 in five European countries which illuminate the relationship between regular viewing of online pornography, sexual coercion and abuse and the sending and receiving of sexual images and messages, known as "sexting." In addition to the survey, which was completed in schools, 91 interviews were undertaken with young people who had direct experience of interpersonal violence and abuse in their own relationships. Rates for regularly viewing online pornography were very much higher among boys and most had chosen to watch pornography. Boys' perpetration of sexual coercion and abuse was significantly associated with regular viewing of online pornography. Viewing online pornography was also associated with a significantly increased probability of having sent sexual images/messages for boys in nearly all countries. In addition, boys who regularly watched online pornography were significantly more likely to hold negative gender attitudes. The qualitative interviews illustrated that, although sexting is normalized and perceived positively by most young people, it has the potential to reproduce sexist features of pornography such as control and humiliation. Sex and relationships education should aim to promote a critical understanding of pornography among young people that recognizes its abusive and gendered values.
Waldinger, Robert J; Schulz, Marc S
Does the warmth of children's family environments predict the quality of their intimate relationships at the other end of the life span? Using data collected prospectively on 81 men from adolescence through the eighth and ninth decades of life, this study tested the hypotheses that warmer relationships with parents in childhood predict greater security of attachment to intimate partners in late life, and that this link is mediated in part by the degree to which individuals in midlife rely on emotion-regulatory styles that facilitate or inhibit close relationship connections. Findings supported this mediational model, showing a positive link between more nurturing family environments in childhood and greater security of attachment to spouses more than 60 years later. This link was partially mediated by reliance on more engaging and less distorting styles of emotion regulation in midlife. The findings underscore the far-reaching influence of childhood environment on well-being in adulthood.
All women find sexuality problematical, especially women living in countries that were colonized or colonized others. The stereotype of repressed sexuality in Victorian England found its antithesis in the stereotype of promiscuous African sexuality which had to be "civilized" and controlled through religion and repression. Colonizing nations have seen the discourse on sexuality move from the private to the public domain, while Africa maintains its silence on the subject. Sexuality is a difficult topic because it embraces the most intimate and individual of our human emotions, thus, it is difficult even to voice sexual preferences to a lifetime partner. In addition, especially in Africa, sexuality is a very gender-specific social construct. Africans foster heterosexuality through socialization from early childhood and discourage any sign of sexual stimulation in their children. After teaching that humans are "naturally" heterosexual, Africans teach their children that marriage is essential for the moral uprightness of society, although most Africans are, in fact, raised in many types of alternative families. Critique of the heterosexual form is literally nonexistent in African feminist genre because African sexuality is really male sexuality. When people assert that an African culture exists, they really mean that patriarchal constructs about maleness and femaleness pervade the continent. Women are not expected to experience sexual satisfaction, and, indeed, the practice of female genital mutilation assures that they will never experience sexual pleasure. This practice assures that female sexuality exists only through men. It represents a misogynist point of view about the female body and is equally repulsive whether it takes the form of "excision" of a part of the clitoris or removal of all of the external genitalia. This practice controls female sexuality by depriving women of the opportunity to masturbate or to engage in homosexual relations. The resulting option
Bodenmann, Guy; Meuwly, Nathalie; Germann, Janine; Nussbeck, Fridtjof W; Heinrichs, Markus; Bradbury, Thomas N
Although evolutionary and social-structural models predict that women will be more supportive than men in relationships, behavioral studies fail to confirm this difference. We predicted instead that gender differences in support will be moderated by stress, and that men will provide lower-quality support primarily when their stress is high. We predicted further that the detrimental effects of stress on men's support will be more evident when men are responding to women's emotionally toned expressions of stress than when men are responding to women's affectively neutral expressions of stress. Stressed and unstressed men and women were observed providing support to a stressed relationship partner. While unstressed, men and women generally provided similar support to the stressed partner. While stressed, men provided lower-quality support than did comparably stressed women, but only in response to emotionally toned expressions of stress. Thus, gender differences in support may arise because women are better able than men to regulate other people's emotional distress while managing stresses of their own.
Overall, Nickola C; McNulty, James K
What constitutes effective communication during conflict? Answering this question requires (a) clarifying whether communication expresses opposition versus cooperation and is direct versus indirect, (b) assessing the mechanisms through which communication effects relationships, and (c) identifying the contextual factors that determine the impact of communication. Recent research incorporating these components illustrates that direct opposition is beneficial when serious problems need to be addressed and partners are able to change, but can be harmful when partners are not confident or secure enough to be responsive. In contrast, cooperative communication involving affection and validation can be harmful when serious problems need to changed, but may be beneficial when problems are minor, cannot be changed, or involve partners whose defensiveness curtails problem solving.
Cochran, Susan D.; Peplau, Letitia Anne
Results challenge the stereotype that whereas women are more concerned with close-knit attachments, men are more eager to maintain personal autonomy. No sex differences were found in attachment values, and women gave significantly more importance than did men to equal sharing and maintaining their personal autonomy. (Author/BL)
Thomas, Geoff; Fletcher, Garth J O
Using a video-review procedure, multiple perceivers carried out mind-reading tasks of multiple targets at different levels of acquaintanceship (50 dating couples, friends of the dating partners, and strangers). As predicted, the authors found that mind-reading accuracy was (a). higher as a function of increased acquaintanceship, (b). relatively unaffected by target effects, (c). influenced by individual differences in perceivers' ability, and (d). higher for female than male perceivers. In addition, superior mind-reading accuracy (for dating couples and friends) was related to higher relationship satisfaction, closeness, and more prior disclosure about the problems discussed, but only under moderating conditions related to sex and relationship length. The authors conclude that the nature of the relationship between the perceiver and the target occupies a pivotal role in determining mind-reading accuracy.
Stewart, Donna E; Vigod, Simone; Riazantseva, Ekaterina
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health and human rights problem that causes physical, sexual and psychological harms to men and women. IPV includes physical aggression, sexual coercion, psychological abuse and/or controlling behaviours perpetrated by a current or previous intimate partner in a heterosexual or same-sex relationship. IPV affects both men and women, but women are disproportionately affected with nearly one third reporting IPV during their lifetime. Physical and sexual harms from IPV include injury, increased risk for sexually transmitted diseases, pregnancy complications and sometimes death. Psychological consequences include depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance abuse, impulsivity and suicidality and non-specific physical complaints thought to be related to the traumatic nature and chronic stress of IPV. Children who witness IPV are also negatively impacted in the short and long term. This paper reviews prevalence, risk factors, adverse effects and current evidence-based mental health treatment advice for IPV victims.
LeBlanc, Manon Mireille; Barling, Julian; Turner, Nick
Using conservation of resources theory, we examined the relationship between intimate partner aggression enacted against heterosexual women and 3 types of work-related outcomes for these women: withdrawal while at work (i.e., cognitive distraction, work neglect), withdrawal from work (i.e., partial absenteeism, intentions to quit), and performance. In Study 1, we compared withdrawal both at and from work across 3 clinically categorized groups of women (n = 50), showing that experiencing physical aggression is related to higher work neglect. We replicated and extended these findings in Study 2 using a community sample of employed women (n = 249) by considering the incremental variance explained by both physical aggression and psychological aggression on these same outcomes. Results showed that physical aggression predicted higher levels of withdrawal both at and from work, with psychological aggression predicting additional variance in partial absenteeism over and above the effects of physical aggression. Study 3 extended the model to include academic performance as an outcome in a sample of female college students (n = 122) in dating relationships. Controlling for the women's conscientiousness, psychological aggression predicted lower academic performance after accounting for the effects of physical aggression. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these results, as well as directions for future research.
Hansrod, Fatima; Spies, Georgina; Seedat, Soraya
HIV has an impact on the presence and severity of both intimate partner violence (IPV) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in infected women. However, the relationship of type and severity of IPV with PTSD in this population has not been adequately explored. We focus on the association between the type and severity of IPV and HIV status and PTSD in a sample of South African women. One hundred and sixty-nine women (114 HIV-positive and 55 HIV-negative controls), matched for geographical area, education, and socio-economic status, were recruited from HIV clinics. Clinical and demographic data were collected, including data on childhood trauma, other traumatic life events, IPV, posttraumatic stress symptoms, problematic alcohol use, and depressive symptoms. HIV-positive women had significantly more depressive symptoms, alcohol abuse, and childhood trauma exposure as well as significantly higher rates of PTSD (25.4%) when compared with uninfected women (10.9%). No significant group differences in the rate, pattern, and severity of physical, sexual, psychological, injury, and negotiation IPV were found. In logistic regression analysis, the rate and severity category of IPV did not significantly predict PTSD in HIV-positive women when childhood trauma and life events were controlled for. Our results indicate the need for screening for alcohol abuse, PTSD and depressive symptoms at HIV wellness, and ARV clinics. The high rates of PTSD in HIV-positive women indicate the need for specialized programs to manage PTSD and minimize negative sequelae in this population. These results also highlight the need for improved screening and prevention of childhood trauma and IPV both in infected and uninfected women.
Jeffrey, Nicole K; Barata, Paula C
This study examined women's subjective experiences with sexual coercion (SC), particularly less forceful forms, in intimate relationships. In-depth interviews with 12 university women highlighted that physical violence need not be present for SC to be harmful, as many experienced guilt, anger, sadness, and self-blame. The severity of SC and the context of women's relationships affected their interpretations, which in turn affected the effects of SC. Many women not only held negative interpretations of their partners' SC but also minimized and justified. Thus, the interviews were also critically analyzed for the possible influence of dominant discourses and gendered power relations.
Sugawarai, Tazuko; Morita, Noriaki; Nakatani, Youji
The purpose of this study was to develop a scale for assessing the attributes of the heterosexual love of alcoholics. Using the characteristics and categories related to the heterosexual love of alcoholics found in previous research, we created a "Heterosexual Love Assessment Scale for Alcoholics" and conducted a survey among 110 alcoholics (80 men and 30 women). The following three factors were extracted from the results: "mutual respect", "superficial intimacy", and "fear of being disliked", A high level of reliability was obtained on the scales indicated below (alpha = 63-82), and concurrent validity was confirmed between these and the Adult Attachment Scale (ECR: Experiences in Close Relationships inventory). Further, correlations were found between "mutual respect" and the benefit of heterosexual love in recovery, and between the other two factors and the impediment of heterosexual love, and between the Denial & Awareness Scale (for alcoholic). As this scale can be used to assess the type of heterosexual love of alcoholics, we predict that it will be useful in examining the effects of heterosexual love on recovery and as a tool for offering advice.
Craft, Shonda M.; Serovich, Julianne M.
This exploratory study examined the prevalence of intimate partner violence in a sample of gay men who are HIV positive. The concept of intergenerational transmission of violence, from family systems theory, provided the basis of this examination. It was hypothesized that men who had witnessed or experienced violence in their families of origin…
Zhang, Lin; Liu, Shen; Li, Yue; Ruan, Lu-Jun
Previous studies about the effects of social rejection on individuals' social behaviors have produced mixed results and tend to study mating behaviors from a static point of view. However, mate selection in essence is a dynamic process, and therefore sociometer theory opens up a new perspective for studying mating and its underlying practices. Based on this theory and using self-perceived mate value in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate choice as a mediating role, this current study examined the effects of heterosexual rejection on mate choice in two experiments. Results showed that heterosexual rejection significantly reduced self-perceived mate value, expectation, and behavioral tendencies, while heterosexual acceptance indistinctively increased these measures. Self-perceived mate value did not serve as a mediator in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate expectation, but it mediated the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mating behavior tendencies toward potential objects. Moreover, individuals evaded both rejection and irrelevant people when suffering from rejection. PMID:26648898
Hotton, Anna L; French, Audrey L; Hosek, Sybil G; Kendrick, Sabrina R; Lemos, Diana; Brothers, Jennifer; Kincaid, Stacey L; Mehta, Supriya D
Few studies have examined risk-reduction alternatives to consistent condom use for HIV prevention among heterosexual young adults. We used qualitative methodology to explore risk reduction strategies and contextual factors influencing attempts to reduce risk in an urban, high morbidity sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic. Focus groups were conducted October-December 2014 with heterosexually identified men (n = 13) and women (n = 20) aged 18-29 seeking STI screening at an urban clinic. Groups were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed for thematic content using Atlas.ti software. Quantitative information included sociodemographics, HIV/STI testing history, and 6-month sexual behaviors. Among 33 predominantly African-American participants with a median age of 22, risk-reduction strategies included monogamy agreements, selective condom use with casual and high-risk partners, and frequent HIV/STI testing, though testing was commonly used as a post-hoc reassurance after risk exposure. Many men and women used implicit risk assessment strategies due to mistrust or difficulty communicating. Concurrency was common but rarely discussed within partnerships. Despite attempts to reduce risk, monogamy agreements were often poorly adhered to and not openly discussed. Alcohol and substance use frequently interfered with safer sexual decisions. Participants were aware of HIV/STI risk and commonly practiced risk-reduction strategies, but acknowledged faulty assumptions and poor adherence. This work provides insights into risk-reduction approaches that are already used and may be strengthened as part of effective HIV/STI prevention interventions.
Nagae, Miyoko; Dancy, Barbara L.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a problem in Japan. The purpose is to describe IPV as perceived by a purposive sample of 11 Japanese adult females who were in a heterosexual marriage at the time of IPV. We used a cross-sectional, retroactive, qualitative description research design with individual, fact-to-face in depth interviews. At the time…
Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig; Ullman, Sarah E
Social support is related to sexual minority status and negative psychological impact among sexual assault survivors. We compared bisexual and heterosexual survivors on how different types of social support are connected to symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. A community sample of bisexual and heterosexual (N = 905) women sexual assault survivors completed three annual surveys. Heterosexual women reported greater perceived social support and fewer negative reactions to disclosure of sexual assault than bisexual women, but there were no differences in frequency of social contact. Perceived social support and frequency of social contact were related to fewer psychological symptoms of PTSD and depression for all women. Heterosexual women had fewer psychological symptoms than bisexual women. Finally, perceived social support mediated the relationship of sexual orientation with depressive symptoms but not with PTSD symptoms. These findings suggest that social support and sexual orientation may explain women's post-assault adjustment.
Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig; Ullman, Sarah E.
Social support is related to sexual minority status and negative psychological impact among sexual assault survivors. We compared bisexual and heterosexual survivors on how different types of social support are connected to symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. A community sample of bisexual and heterosexual (N = 905) women sexual assault survivors completed three annual surveys. Heterosexual women reported greater perceived social support and fewer negative reactions to disclosure of sexual assault than bisexual women, but there were no differences in frequency of social contact. Perceived social support and frequency of social contact were related to fewer psychological symptoms of PTSD and depression for all women. Heterosexual women had fewer psychological symptoms than bisexual women. Finally, perceived social support mediated the relationship of sexual orientation with depressive symptoms but not with PTSD symptoms. These findings suggest that social support and sexual orientation may explain women’s post-assault adjustment. PMID:27453694
Hester, Marianne; Donovan, Catherine
The article draws on recently completed research by the authors, involving a detailed study of love and intimate partner violence in same-sex and heterosexual relationships (funded by the ESRC, award RES-000-23-0650). The research, hitherto the most detailed study of its kind in the United Kingdom, included a national same-sex community survey (n = 800) plus four focus groups and interviews with 67 individuals identifying as lesbian, gay, queer, bisexual, transgender, or heterosexual. The article discusses in particular the development of the same-sex community survey, focusing on the epistemological and methodological implications of using a feminist approach.
Martin, James T; Puts, David A; Breedlove, S Marc
Sexual differentiation leads to the development of distinctive anatomical structures (e.g., gonads and genitalia); it also produces less obvious anatomical shifts in brain, bones, muscles, etc. This study is a retrospective analysis of growth patterns in the hands in relation to sex and sexual orientation. Using data from three published studies, we analyzed four hand traits in adults: hand width, hand length, second digit length, and fourth digit length. Using these measurements, we derived estimates of trait laterality (directional asymmetry or DA) and developmental instability (fluctuating asymmetry or FA). High FA is a putative indicator of interference with the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating development. We focused on how these derived variables were related to sex, sexual orientation, and putative markers of early sex steroid exposure (e.g., the second to fourth digit ratio or 2D:4D). Our data point to three principal conclusions. First, individual differences in DA appeared to be a major source of variation in the 2D:4D ratio. The 2D:4D ratios of heterosexual men differed depending on whether they had leftward or rightward DA in their digits. Homosexual women showed the same pattern. Individuals with leftward DA in both digits had lower 2D:4D ratios than those with rightward DA. This effect was absent in heterosexual women and homosexual men. This led to sex differences in 2D:4D and sexual orientation differences in 2D:4D in the leftward DA group, but not in the rightward DA group. The second conclusion was that DA in digit length and hand width varied with sex; women were more likely to have rightward asymmetry than men. Homosexual men and women were generally sex typical in DA. The third conclusion was that homosexuality is unlikely to be a result of increased developmental instability. Although limited in scope, the present evidence actually suggests that homosexuals have lower FA than heterosexuals, raising the question of whether the
French, Audrey L.; Hosek, Sybil G.; Kendrick, Sabrina R.; Lemos, Diana; Brothers, Jennifer; Kincaid, Stacey L.; Mehta, Supriya D.
Abstract Few studies have examined risk-reduction alternatives to consistent condom use for HIV prevention among heterosexual young adults. We used qualitative methodology to explore risk reduction strategies and contextual factors influencing attempts to reduce risk in an urban, high morbidity sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic. Focus groups were conducted October–December 2014 with heterosexually identified men (n = 13) and women (n = 20) aged 18–29 seeking STI screening at an urban clinic. Groups were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed for thematic content using Atlas.ti software. Quantitative information included sociodemographics, HIV/STI testing history, and 6-month sexual behaviors. Among 33 predominantly African-American participants with a median age of 22, risk-reduction strategies included monogamy agreements, selective condom use with casual and high-risk partners, and frequent HIV/STI testing, though testing was commonly used as a post-hoc reassurance after risk exposure. Many men and women used implicit risk assessment strategies due to mistrust or difficulty communicating. Concurrency was common but rarely discussed within partnerships. Despite attempts to reduce risk, monogamy agreements were often poorly adhered to and not openly discussed. Alcohol and substance use frequently interfered with safer sexual decisions. Participants were aware of HIV/STI risk and commonly practiced risk-reduction strategies, but acknowledged faulty assumptions and poor adherence. This work provides insights into risk-reduction approaches that are already used and may be strengthened as part of effective HIV/STI prevention interventions. PMID:26588197
Teitelman, Anne; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; McDonald, Catherine C.; Brawner, Bridgette M.; Sullivan, Cris M.
Background Little is known about intimate partner violence (IPV) and depression among low income, urban African American and Hispanic adolescent females. Method Interviews with 102 urban African American and Hispanic adolescent females examined physical abuse, emotional/verbal abuse, and threats, and their unique and combined associations with depression. Results One-quarter of the sample experienced all three types of abuse. Non-physical forms of IPV were significantly associated with depression. Conclusions Some urban adolescent females from lower income households experience high rates of IPV. Physical and non-physical forms of IPV are important in understanding and responding to depression in this population. PMID:21617762
Lisco, Claire G.; Leone, Ruschelle M.; Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.
The aim of the present study was to examine the mediational effect of masculine gender role stress on the relation between adherence to dimensions of a hegemonic masculinity and male-to-female intimate partner physical aggression. Men’s history of heavy episodic drinking was also examined as a moderator of the proposed mediation effect. A sample of 392 heterosexual men from the southeastern United States who had been in an intimate relationship within the past year completed measures of hegemonic masculine norms (i.e., status, toughness, and antifemininity), masculine gender role stress, alcohol use patterns, and intimate partner physical aggression. Results indicated that the indirect effects of adherence to the antifemininity and toughness norms on physical aggression toward female intimate partners via masculine gender role stress were significant and marginal, respectively. A significant indirect effect of status was not detected. Moreover, subsequent analyses revealed that the indirect effects of antifemininity and toughness were significant only among men with a history of heavy episodic drinking. These findings suggest that heavy episodic drinking exacerbates a gender-relevant stress pathway for intimate partner aggression among men who adhere to specific norms of masculinity. Overall, results suggest that the proximal effect of heavy episodic drinking focuses men’s attention on gender-based schemas associated with antifemininity and toughness, which facilitates partner-directed aggression as a means to demonstrate these aspects of their masculinity. Implications for the intersection between men’s adherence to specific norms of hegemonic masculinity, cognitive appraisal of gender relevant situations, and characteristic patterns of alcohol consumption are discussed. PMID:26456996
Lisco, Claire G; Leone, Ruschelle M; Gallagher, Kathryn E; Parrott, Dominic J
The aim of the present study was to examine the mediational effect of masculine gender role stress on the relation between adherence to dimensions of a hegemonic masculinity and male-to-female intimate partner physical aggression. Men's history of heavy episodic drinking was also examined as a moderator of the proposed mediation effect. A sample of 392 heterosexual men from the southeastern United States who had been in an intimate relationship within the past year completed measures of hegemonic masculine norms (i.e., status, toughness, and antifemininity), masculine gender role stress, alcohol use patterns, and intimate partner physical aggression. Results indicated that the indirect effects of adherence to the antifemininity and toughness norms on physical aggression toward female intimate partners via masculine gender role stress were significant and marginal, respectively. A significant indirect effect of status was not detected. Moreover, subsequent analyses revealed that the indirect effects of antifemininity and toughness were significant only among men with a history of heavy episodic drinking. These findings suggest that heavy episodic drinking exacerbates a gender-relevant stress pathway for intimate partner aggression among men who adhere to specific norms of masculinity. Overall, results suggest that the proximal effect of heavy episodic drinking focuses men's attention on gender-based schemas associated with antifemininity and toughness, which facilitates partner-directed aggression as a means to demonstrate these aspects of their masculinity. Implications for the intersection between men's adherence to specific norms of hegemonic masculinity, cognitive appraisal of gender relevant situations, and characteristic patterns of alcohol consumption are discussed.
Fileborn, Bianca; Hinchliff, Sharron; Lyons, Anthony; Heywood, Wendy; Minichiello, Victor; Brown, Graham; Malta, Sue; Barrett, Catherine; Crameri, Pauline
That many older individuals continue to engage in various forms of sexual expression well into later life is now well established in the literature. To date, however, only a small body of qualitative research has examined older men's experiences and understandings of sex in later life. Likewise, the ways in which older men's discussions on sex may be used as an avenue for "doing" masculinity remain underexplored. Older men are particularly interesting in this regard, as they inhabit an increasingly subordinated position in relation to hegemonic masculine ideals because of their age. To what extent might this limit or, alternatively, open up the possibilities for sexual expression and subjectivity in later life? Drawing on a subset of findings from Sex, Age, and Me: A National Study with Australian Women and Men Aged 60 and Older, data from qualitative interviews with 27 Australian men were explored in this article. The first Australian study of its kind, we argue that older men who engage in heterosexual relationships draw on a diverse and complex array of discursive positions regarding sex, relationships, and masculinity in making sense of their experiences of sex in later life. Older men are a heterogeneous group, and their experiences and understandings of sex do not simplistically follow "decline" or "success" narratives of aging. The findings of this research build upon and extend emerging research illustrating the centrality of intimacy to older men's sexual lives, while simultaneously highlighting the ways in which the body and discursive constructions of sex intersect to shape older men's sexual subjectivities.
Mitra, Monika; Mouradian, Vera E
Despite the growing literature on intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization against people with disabilities, few studies have examined IPV against men with disabilities. This study uses population-based data to examine the prevalence of past-year and lifetime IPV against men with disabilities in the United States in comparison with men without disabilities and women with and without disabilities, compare the demographic characteristics of men with disabilities who reported IPV to those of other men, and examine associations of IPV and disability status with mental and physical health and other health risks among men. Results indicate that, adjusting for demographic characteristics, men with disabilities were more likely to report lifetime IPV than men without disabilities and, among those reporting any lifetime IPV, men with disabilities were more likely to report past-year IPV than both nondisabled men and women. With few exceptions, comparisons of health indicators revealed that men with disabilities reporting lifetime IPV were more likely than other men to report poor health status and to report engaging in health risk behaviors. Directions for future research and programmatic and policy implications of these results are discussed.
Dalal, Koustuv; Lawoko, Stephen; Jansson, Bjarne
Abstract: Background: This paper scrutinizes the association between maternal practices to correct child behavior and the mothers' exposure to and attitudes towards intimate partner violence (IPV). Methods: Nationally representative data comprising 14 016 married women were retrieved from the Egyptian Demographic and Health Survey, 2005. Data on practices used to correct child behavior, exposure to IPV, attitudes towards IPV were our primary interest. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test and logistic regression. Results: The majority of the mothers reported use of violent methods, like shouting (90.6%), striking (69.1%) and slapping (39.3%) to correct child behavior. Seven percent of the mothers used only the explanation option. Exposure to physical IPV and tolerant attitudes towards IPV were associated with an augmented risk of using violent methods (shouting, striking or slapping) to correct child behavior. On the other hand non-tolerant attitudes towards IPV were associated with increased likelihood of sole use of the explanation method. Conclusions: We thus recommend the implementation of local parental education programs focusing on communicative skills to reduce IPV and related child abuse. PMID:21483195
Watkins, Laura E; Maldonado, Rosalita C; DiLillo, David
To date, research identifying moderators of the alcohol-intimate partner aggression (IPA) relationship has focused almost exclusively on male-perpetrated aggression, without accounting for the dyadic processes of IPA. The current study examined hazardous alcohol use and impulse control difficulties as predictors of IPA among a sample of 73 heterosexual dating couples. Both actor and partner effects of these risk factors on physical and psychological aggression were examined. Results indicated that impulse control difficulties were an important actor and partner predictor of both physical and psychological aggression. Findings supported the multiple threshold model such that the interaction between impulse control difficulties and hazardous alcohol use significantly predicted physical aggression severity. These results suggest the importance of targeting impulse control difficulties and hazardous alcohol use in IPA treatment, as well as the advantages of examining risk factors of IPA within a dyadic rather than individual framework.
Rurangirwa, Akashi Andrew; Mogren, Ingrid; Ntaganira, Joseph; Krantz, Gunilla
Objectives To investigate the prevalence of four forms of intimate partner violence during pregnancy in Rwandan women, associated sociodemographic and psychosocial factors and relationship to antenatal care service usage. Design This was a cross-sectional population-based study conducted in the Northern province of Rwanda and in Kigali city. Participants and settings A total of 921 women who gave birth within the past 13 months were included. Villages in the study area were selected using a multistage random sampling technique and community health workers helped in identifying eligible participants. Clinical psychologists, nurses or midwives carried out face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess associations. Results The prevalence rates of physical, sexual, psychological violence and controlling behaviour during pregnancy were 10.2% (95% CI 8.3 to 12.2), 9.7% (95% CI 7.8 to 11.6), 17.0% (95% CI 14.6 to 19.4) and 20.0% (95% CI 17.4 to 22.6), respectively. Usage of antenatal care services was less common among women who reported controlling behaviour (OR) 1.93 (95% CI 1.34 to 2.79). No statistically significant associations between physical, psychological and sexual violence and antenatal care usage were found. Low socioeconomic status was associated with physical violence exposure (OR) 2.27 (95% CI 1.29 to 3.98). Also, young age, living in urban areas and poor social support were statistically significant in their associations with violence exposure during pregnancy. Conclusions Intimate partner violence inquiry should be included in the standard antenatal care services package and professionals should be trained in giving support, advice and care to those exposed. Gender-based violence is criminalised behaviour in Rwanda; existing policies and laws must be followed and awareness raised in society for preventive purposes.
Pérez-Jiménez, David; Seal, David Wyatt; Ronis, David L.
Although the sexual transmission of HIV occurs in the context of an intimate relationship, preventive interventions with couples are scarce, particularly those designed for Hispanics. In this article, we present the effect of a pilot intervention directed to prevent HIV/AIDS in heterosexual couples in Puerto Rico. The intervention was theory-based and consisted of five three-hour group sessions. Primary goals included increasing male condom use and the practice of mutual masturbation as a safer sex method, and promoting favorable attitudes toward these behaviors. Twenty-six couples participated in this study. Fifteen were randomly assigned to the intervention group and eleven to a control group. Retention rates at post-intervention and follow-up were 82% for the whole sample. Results showed that there was a significant increase in the use of male condoms with main partners in the intervention group when compared with the control group. Couples in the intervention group also had better scores on secondary outcomes, such as attitudes toward condom use and mutual masturbation, HIV information, sexual decision-making, and social support. We found that these effects persisted over the three month follow up. A significant effect was also observed for the practice of mutual masturbation, but not for sexual negotiation. These results showed that promoting male condom use in dyadic interventions among heterosexual couples in Puerto Rico is feasible. Our findings suggest that because vaginal penetration has been constructed as the sexual script endpoint among many Hispanic couples, promoting other non-penetrative practices, such as mutual masturbation, may be difficult. PMID:25512880
Pérez-Jiménez, David; Seal, David Wyatt; Ronis, David L
Although the sexual transmission of HIV occurs in the context of an intimate relationship, preventive interventions with couples are scarce, particularly those designed for Hispanics. In this article, we present the effect of a pilot intervention directed to prevent HIV/AIDS in heterosexual couples in Puerto Rico. The intervention was theory-based and consisted of five three-hour group sessions. Primary goals included increasing male condom use and the practice of mutual masturbation as a safer sex method, and promoting favorable attitudes toward these behaviors. Twenty-six couples participated in this study. Fifteen were randomly assigned to the intervention group and eleven to a control group. Retention rates at post-intervention and follow-up were 82% for the whole sample. Results showed that there was a significant increase in the use of male condoms with main partners in the intervention group when compared with the control group. Couples in the intervention group also had better scores on secondary outcomes, such as attitudes toward condom use and mutual masturbation, HIV information, sexual decision-making, and social support. We found that these effects persisted over the three month follow up. A significant effect was also observed for the practice of mutual masturbation, but not for sexual negotiation. These results showed that promoting male condom use in dyadic interventions among heterosexual couples in Puerto Rico is feasible. Our findings suggest that because vaginal penetration has been constructed as the sexual script endpoint among many Hispanic couples, promoting other non-penetrative practices, such as mutual masturbation, may be difficult.
Nield, Jennifer; Magnusson, Brianna; Brooks, Christopher; Chapman, Derek; Lapane, Kate L
This study examined characteristics of self-identified heterosexual women who were concordant or discordant in their sexual behavior and the association of discordance and sexual partnering among those aged 15-44 years from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (n = 7,353). Sexual concordance was defined as reporting a heterosexual identity and no female partners in the past year; discordance was reporting a heterosexual identity and having at least one female partner in the past year. Sexual partnering was defined as being concurrent, serially monogamous or monogamous with a male partner in the previous year. Polytomous logistic regression models evaluated the association between sexual discordance and sexual partnering. Among self-identified heterosexual, sexually active women, 11.2 % reported ever having had a same sex partner. Heterosexually discordant women who had both male and female partners in the previous year were 5.5 times as likely to report having a concurrent relationship (95 % CI 2.77-11.09) and 2.4 times as likely to report engaging in serially monogamous relationships (95 % CI 1.19-4.97) with male partners. Discordance between heterosexual identity and same sex behavior is a factor in risky behaviors. Women who have sex with women and men may act as bridges for the transmission of STDs, particularly to their female partners. Sexual education should include information inclusive of non-heteronormative behaviors and identities to provide sexual minorities with the tools and information they need. Clinical guidelines should ensure that all women are offered counseling and screening for reproductive and sexual health.
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines intimate partner violence (IPV) as violence between two people in a close relationship, including current and former spouses and dating partners. IPV occurs on a continuum from a single episode to ongoing battering and can include physical violence, sexual violence, threats, emotional…
Goldstein, Susan B.; Davis, Denise S.
Forty-six heterosexual members of a college-based gay/straight alliance organization were surveyed to investigate characteristics of students who commit to acting as allies in reducing sexual prejudice. Assessment focused on the students' history of intergroup contact and exposure to sexual prejudice prior to joining the gay/straight alliance,…
Carver, Priscilla R.; Egan, Susan K.; Perry, David G.
Many gay, lesbian, and bisexual adults report a period of childhood sexual questioning--an uneasy questioning of their heterosexuality brought on by same-sex attractions and motivating same-sex sexual exploration. This article evaluates hypotheses about the correlates, causes, and consequences of childhood sexual questioning. Participants were 182…
Reiss, Michael J.
Outlines arguments for and against teaching about homosexuality and heterosexuality, concluding that secondary schools should, provided that certain conditions are met. Examines the aims and possible approaches to teaching about sexual orientation; argues that it should enable students to be better informed, to understand others, and to clarify…
Broderick, Carlfred B.
Extensive cross sectional data suggest a real continuity between prepubertal attitudes and experience and those of adolescence. The preteen years (10-13) represent a period of preparation for later heterosexual involvement. These findings suggest need to modify traditional points of view regarding patterns of sociosexual development. (Author/CJ)
Walt, Lisa C; Hunter, Bronwyn; Salina, Doreen; Jason, Leonard
Researchers have suggested that interpersonal relationships, particularly romantic relationships, may influence women's attempts at substance abuse recovery and community re-entry after criminal justice system involvement. The present paper evaluates relational and power theories to conceptualize the influence of romantic partner and romantic relationship qualities on pathways in and out of substance abuse and crime. The paper then combines these conceptualizations with a complementary empirical analysis to describe an ongoing research project that longitudinally investigates these relational and power driven factors on women's substance abuse recovery and community re-entry success among former substance abusing, recently criminally involved women. This paper is designed to encourage the integration of theory and empirical analysis by detailing how each of these concepts are operationalized and measured. Future research and clinical implications are also discussed.
Stanko, E A
Approaches to understanding and potentially intervening in the variations of the risk of lethal and sublethal violence against women are suggested. Batterers vary in their ability to desist techniques of control, patterns of dangerousness, and lethality. Such variations are important to explore because of the extent it offers in maximizing the options for women seeking respite, escape and refuge from such violence. The indisputable evidence that some men abuse and batter when they court women warns of the links between heterosexual intimacy and men's abuse. Alvi and Selvee proved that the seriousness of such abuse and violence rises as the relationship advances from casual to serious dating to cohabitation. Termination of the relationship does not guarantee women's safety; separation, rather than divorce per se, is the critical risk factor in lethal violence. Although some women who leave violent men may acutely feel the threat of lethal violence, its actuality is not predictable, an area being explored by Ellis and DeKeseredy. Knowledge about men's lethality to intimate partners is crucial for improving the services and advocacy for women battered by men. When analyzing mechanisms to support women challenging domestic violence and aid in the reduction of separation femicide Ellis and DeKeseredy propose the enhancement of interventions that increase the confidence of the woman and symbolize our opposition to her abuse. Finally, provision of legal advocacy, facilitative divorce legislation, and assistance for battered women lying on the understanding of all public service personnel who work with intimate violence.
Pnevmatikos, Dimitris; Bardos, Achilles N
The study examined whether the characteristics of the other partner in a dyad could reveal some unique intimate relationships regardless of the commonalties in the intimate relationships adolescents and emerging adults endorse with four important partners (mother, father, female and male peers). Six hundred and thirteen (56.8% female) Greek adolescents and emerging adults participated in the study. Participants endorsed their agreement to nine items addressing issues of intimacy and companionship. The intimate relationships with the four important partners share some common characteristics reflecting the person who endorses the intimate relationships and are also reciprocal, depending on who is the other partner in the dyad. The intimacy participants endorsed with their parents contributed to the intimate relationship with their peers of the same sex with the parent. The way Greek youth is gendered could explain the characteristics of the intimate relationships they endorse with the other partners in the dyads.
Ashare, Rebecca L.; Weinberger, Andrea H.; McKee, Sherry A.; Sullivan, Tami P.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health problem associated with negative health consequences, including higher rates of tobacco smoking. Smoking expectancies are related to motivation to quit and relapse. IPV-exposed women endorse higher rates of PTSD symptoms, which are related to smoking and smoking expectancies. The present study sought to examine the relationship among smoking behavior, smoking expectancies, and PTSD symptoms among IPV-exposed women. Participants were 83 women who reported experiencing IPV within the last month, smoked an average of 12 cigarettes per day, and reported moderate levels of nicotine dependence (FTND mean = 4.4). Participants completed baseline and follow-up interviews. Multiple regression analyses assessed the relationships among smoking expectancies and PTSD symptoms to cigarettes smoked per day and nicotine dependence. Findings demonstrated that Stimulation/State Enhancement expectancies were positively related to cigarettes per day, whereas PTSD arousal symptoms were negatively related to cigarettes per day, p’s < .05. Neither smoking expectancies nor PTSD symptoms were significantly related to nicotine dependence. Supplemental analyses revealed that PTSD re-experiencing symptoms were negatively related and PTSD avoidance/numbing symptoms were positively related to Stimulation/State Enhancement expectancies, p’s < .05. This study extends findings regarding the association between PTSD symptoms and smoking among an understudied population – IPV-exposed women. The relationship between PTSD symptoms and smoking differed across PTSD symptom clusters and expectancy scales, which may have implications for treatment development. The fact that expectancies and PTSD symptoms are related to smoking behavior among IPV-exposed women may be important for enhancing prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:21849230
Nydegger, Liesl A; DiFranceisco, Wayne; Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia
Unequal gender norms and age-disparate sexual relationships can lead to power imbalances and are also associated with intimate partner violence (IPV), sexual coercion and violence, and sexual risk behaviors. The present study examined these variables from both victim and perpetrator perspectives among adolescent gang members. Age-disparate sexual relationships were defined as sex partners 5 or more years older among female participants and 5 or more years younger among male participants. Participants were recruited from a mid-sized Midwestern city and completed a 60-90-min audio computer-assisted self-interview in a community-based setting. Participants in this study included 107 female gang members (68 % African-American, 19 % Latina; mean age, 17.6) and 169 male gang members (62 % African-American, 28 % Latino; mean age, 17.7). As hypothesized, endorsing unequal gender norms toward women was significantly related to IPV victimization among female participants and perpetration among male participants, and engagement in group sex in the past month among both female and male participants (ps < 0.05). Additionally, unequal gender norms were significantly related to male participants' perpetrating rape (p < 0.05). As hypothesized, female gang members who had been in age-disparate sexual relationships were significantly more likely to have experienced more IPV and report being raped and males gang members who had age-disparate sexual relationships were significantly more likely to perpetrate IPV in the past year and perpetrate rape (ps < 0.05). Age-disparate sexual relationships were also significantly related to being gang raped among female gang members and participating in a gang rape among male gang members, and engaging in group sex among both female and male gang members (ps < 0.05). Female participants who had been in age-disparate sexual relationships were more likely to have been pregnant (ps < 0.05). It is essential for researchers and
Sabri, Bushra; Stockman, Jamila K.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; O’Brien, Sharon; Campbell, Doris; Callwood, Gloria B.; Bertrand, Desiree; Sutton, Lorna W.; Hart-Hyndman, Greta
The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with increased risk for lethal violence among ethnically diverse Black women in Baltimore, Maryland (MD) and the US Virgin Islands (USVI). Women with abuse experiences (n=456) were recruited from primary care, prenatal or family planning clinics in Baltimore, MD and St. Thomas and St. Croix, USVI. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with the risk for lethal violence among abused women. Factors independently related to increased risk of lethal violence included fear of abusive partners, PTSD symptoms, and use of legal resources. These factors must be considered in assessing safety needs of Black women in abusive relationships. PMID:25429191
Adler, Adir; Ben-Ari, Adital
The phenomenon of mixed-orientation marriages, in which one of the partners is straight and the other is non-straight, is invisible, yet not insignificant. Focusing on gay and bisexual men who are married to straight women, this article was designed to explore one of the essential themes in their relationship: the dynamics between secrecy and openness regarding the men's sexual orientation and gay practices. Based on the phenomenological paradigm, 38 men and eight women of mixed-orientation marriages in Israel were interviewed and shared their subjective life reality. Six patterns of secrecy and openness were identified, including complete secrecy, conspiracy of silence, initiated concealment (of the husband and wife), disloyalty/violation of the agreement, selective sharing, and complete openness. The findings challenge the idea that secrecy is detrimental and openness is beneficial in the context of mixed-orientation marriages. Findings are discussed within the framework of the dialectical approach.
Stephenson, Rob; Finneran, Catherine; Goldenberg, Tamar; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Senn, Theresa E; Urban, Marguerite; Schwartz, Ann; Sullivan, Patrick
Couples HIV Testing and Counseling (CHTC) has been used as an HIV prevention strategy in Africa for over 20 years where the HIV epidemic is largely concentrated among sexually active heterosexuals. In recent years, CHTC has been adapted for men who have sex with men (MSM) in the US. A central element of the CHTC intervention as adapted for male couples in the US is the discussion of sexual agreements by the dyad during the CHTC session. Given the success of CHTC for heterosexual couples in Africa, it seems appropriate that CHTC could also be provided to heterosexual couples in the US. However, little is known about heterosexual's willingness to utilize CHTC services including discussion of sexual agreements. This small, preliminary qualitative study sheds new light on the potential for CHTC adoption among heterosexuals in the US. Four focus groups were conducted with heterosexual men and women attending a publicly-funded STI clinic, to explore the potential feasibility and acceptability of CHTC with heterosexuals. The results are similar to those seen for MSM: high levels of willingness to use CHTC, perceptions of the advantages of using CHTC, and willingness to discuss sexual agreements; all necessary conditions for the successful roll-out of CHTC. Further work is now needed with larger samples of high-risk heterosexuals to more completely understand the typologies of sexual agreements and the common language used for sexual agreements in heterosexual relationships. These early data show great promise that CHTC can achieve the same levels of willingness, fit, and acceptability among heterosexual couples as currently experienced by male couples in the US.
“Amar te Duele” (“Love Hurts”): Sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, depression symptoms and HIV risk among female sex workers who use drugs and their non-commercial, steady partners in Mexico
Ulibarri, Monica D.; Roesch, Scott; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Staines, Hugo; Amaro, Hortensia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.
A significant body of research among female sex workers (FSWs) has focused on individual-level HIV risk factors. Comparatively little is known about their non-commercial, steady partners who may heavily influence their behavior and HIV risk. This cross-sectional study of 214 FSWs who use drugs and their male steady partners aged ≥18 in two Mexico-U.S. border cities utilized a path-analytic model for dyadic data based upon the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to examine relationships between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence (IPV), depression symptoms, and unprotected sex. FSWs’ relationship power, IPV perpetration and victimization were significantly associated with unprotected sex within the relationship. Male partners’ depression symptoms were significantly associated with unprotected sex within the relationship. Future HIV prevention interventions for FSWs and their male partners should address issues of sexual relationship power, IPV, and mental health both individually and in the context of their relationship. PMID:24743959
"Amar te Duele" ("love hurts"): sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, depression symptoms and HIV risk among female sex workers who use drugs and their non-commercial, steady partners in Mexico.
Ulibarri, Monica D; Roesch, Scott; Rangel, M Gudelia; Staines, Hugo; Amaro, Hortensia; Strathdee, Steffanie A
A significant body of research among female sex workers (FSWs) has focused on individual-level HIV risk factors. Comparatively little is known about their non-commercial, steady partners who may heavily influence their behavior and HIV risk. This cross-sectional study of 214 FSWs who use drugs and their male steady partners aged ≥18 in two Mexico-U.S. border cities utilized a path-analytic model for dyadic data based upon the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to examine relationships between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence (IPV), depression symptoms, and unprotected sex. FSWs' relationship power, IPV perpetration and victimization were significantly associated with unprotected sex within the relationship. Male partners' depression symptoms were significantly associated with unprotected sex within the relationship. Future HIV prevention interventions for FSWs and their male partners should address issues of sexual relationship power, IPV, and mental health both individually and in the context of their relationship.
Stephenson, Rob; Finneran, Catherine
Intimate partner violence (IPV) rates are disproportionately high among sexual minority populations, with increasing evident that gay men experience IPV at the same rates as heterosexual women. This study examines the relationship between self-reported condomless anal intercourse (CAI) and IPV among a sample of 750 gay and bisexual men. Participants answered questions regarding recent receipt and perpetration of IPV using the IPV-GBM Scale (Cronbach Alpha 0.90). Of the sample, 46.1% reported recent receipt of any type of IPV and 33.6% reported recent perpetration of any type of IPV. Overall, 55.1% of participants reported CAI at last sex. Significant associations were determined between several forms of IPV and increased odds of reporting CAI at last sex. These findings suggest that IPV may be a risk factor for CAI among men who have sex with men, and highlight the need to understand the IPV prevention and care needs of this population.
Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro
Prevalence studies on female sexual problems among heterosexual samples have been conducted extensively across different countries. However, relatively little is known regarding prevalence of sexual problems in lesbians. The present study aimed to assess and compare the frequency of self-perceived sexual problems and associated levels of distress in lesbians and heterosexual women. In all, 390 lesbians and 1,009 heterosexual women completed an online survey. The authors assessed the frequency of self-perceived sexual problems in lesbians and heterosexual women, over the past 6 months, as well as the associated levels of distress. Main results suggested that, after controlling for distress levels, sexual pain was the most frequent sexual problem reported by lesbians and heterosexual women. Also, when distress was considered a significant decrease on prevalence rates of sexual problems were found for both lesbians and heterosexual women. Current findings emphasize the role of associated levels of distress to self-perceived sexual problems in women, regardless of sexual orientation. In addition, results suggest that length of relationship play a major role on sexual problems. Overall, data indicated a relatively similar pattern in prevalence of sexual problems in lesbians and heterosexual women.
Widdice, Lea E.; Breland, David J.; Jonte, Janet; Farhat, Sepideh; Ma, Yifei; Leonard, Anthony C.; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara
Purpose Few studies have examined the relationships between sexual or hygienic behaviors and HPV transmission. Our objectives were to (1) describe HPV concordance between the anogenital, oral and palmar areas of monogamous, heterosexual couples and (2) determine sexual behaviors, hygienic practices, sexual histories and characteristics associated with HPV anogenital concordance. Methods Couples were recruited from women who developed an incident HPV infection while enrolled in a longitudinal HPV natural history study that recruited from 2 family-planning clinics. Men were their monogamous partners of at least three months. Samples were tested for HPV-DNA of 37 high- and low-risk genotypes. Questionnaires completed privately assessed health, sexual, hygienic history and behaviors. Results 25 couples enrolled between February 2006 and July 2007; none had received HPV vaccine. The average age was 25 years (SD 6) for men and 23 years (SD 3) for women. HPV-84 was the most commonly shared HPV type in the anogenital and palmar areas. HPV-16 was the only shared oral-HPV type. 68% of couples had type-specific anogenital concordance. Receiving finger-anal sex (p=.05), sharing towels (p=.04), longer time since last intercourse (p=.03 women and .02 men), and men washing their genitals after sex (p=.03) were associated with decreased likelihood of concordance. Persistence of incident HPV types in women was associated with HPV in men (p=.002). Conclusions Our findings show that certain hygienic and sexual behaviors are associated with anogenital concordance between healthy, monogamous, heterosexual couples. Future studies are needed to see if these detections reflect contamination, transient or established infections. PMID:20638007
Hu, Jingchu; Hu, Jize; Huang, Gang; Zheng, Xifu
Low levels of life satisfaction have been linked to low self-esteem and loneliness, but this association has never been tested directly in LGB (lesbian/gay/bisexual) populations. We compared 275 Chinese LGB adults to 275 demographic-matched Chinese heterosexual controls on life satisfaction, self-esteem, and loneliness. LGB adults reported lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of loneliness than heterosexuals, but similar levels of overall life satisfaction. Self-esteem partially mediated (but did not moderate) the relationship between loneliness and life satisfaction in both groups. Hierarchical regressions indicated that demographic variables, loneliness, and self-esteem can predict life satisfaction in both LGB and heterosexual adults, but explained more variance of life satisfaction in the LGB group. Thus self-esteem and loneliness play a more important role in life satisfaction for LGB rather than heterosexual Chinese adults.
Bo Vatnar, Solveig Karin; Bjorkly, Stal
This article reports a study of the possible impact of immigration on interactional aspects of intimate partner violence (IPV) among help-seeking women. Are there differences concerning (a) IPV categories, (b) IPV severity, frequency, duration, regularity, and predictability, (c) guilt and shame, (d) partners' ethnicity, and (e) children being…
Barbaro, Nicole; Shackelford, Todd K
Human life history theory describes how resources are allocated among conflicting life tasks, including trade-offs concerning reproduction. The current research investigates the unique importance of environmental unpredictability in childhood in association with romantic attachment, and explores whether objective or subjective measures of environmental risk are more informative for testing life history hypotheses. We hypothesize that (1) unpredictability in childhood will be associated with greater anxious attachment, (2) anxious attachment will be associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, and (3) anxious attachment will mediate the relationship between unpredictability in childhood and IPV perpetration. In two studies (totaln= 391), participants in a heterosexual, romantic relationship completed self-report measures of childhood experiences, romantic attachment, and IPV perpetration. Study 1 provides support for Hypothesis 1. Hypothesis 1 is replicated only for men, but not women, in Study 2. Results of Study 2 provide support for Hypothesis 2 for men and women, and Hypothesis 3 was supported for men but not women. The findings contribute to the literature addressing the association of environmental risk in childhood on adult romantic relationship outcomes.
Basow, Susan A.; Thompson, Janelle
In this online vignette study, a national sample of domestic violence shelter service providers (N = 282) completed a 10-item questionnaire about a woman experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). Scenarios varied in terms of couple sexual orientation (heterosexual or lesbian) and type of abuse (physical or nonphysical). Results indicate that…
Thomas, Laura; Scott-Tilley, Donna
Research in intimate partner violence has focused on married, cohabiting, adolescents, or college aged women. The experience of intimate partner violence by single women has not been studied separately from other groups of women. An interpretive phenomenological approach was used with feminist inquiry to gain insight into the experience of intimate partner violence by single women. The overarching theme was control and manipulation by the abuser. Subthemes included not feeling safe, poor communication skills, and caretaking. Nurses need to be aware of the occurrence of intimate partner violence in male and female partnered relationships to provide comprehensive and nonjudgmental care.
Prado, Guillermo; Pratt, Indira Abraham; Feaster, Daniel J.; Robinson-Batista, Carleen; Smith, Lila; Charles, Marie; Szapocznik, José
This preliminary study explores differences in adjustment in lesbians and heterosexual women by examining three dimensions: psychological distress, major depression, and social support. Surveys were administered to 48 participants. HIV-positive African American lesbians experienced higher levels of psychological distress, anxiety, and current major depression than did their heterosexual counterparts. Lesbians reported less social support from their immediate family, but not from other sources such as friends, compared to the heterosexual women. Lesbians also reported less satisfaction with their social support network. The results presented here highlight the merit of future research to examine factors associated with the lack of family-based social support in HIV-infected lesbians and the potential of developing interventions that assess relationships with members of the immediate family, explore the possibility of repairing these relationships, and capitalize on social support from friends. PMID:16609748
Campbell, Catherine; Mannell, Jenevieve
How is the agency of women best conceptualised in highly coercive settings? We explore this in the context of international efforts to reduce intimate partner violence (IPV) against women in heterosexual relationships. Articles critique the tendency to think of women's agency and programme endpoints in terms of individual actions, such as reporting violent men or leaving violent relationships, whilst neglecting the interlocking social, economic and cultural contexts that make such actions unlikely or impossible. Three themes cut across the articles. (1) Unhelpful understandings of gender and power implicit in commonly used 'men-women' and 'victim-agent' binaries obscure multi-faceted and hidden forms of women's agency, and the complexity of agency-violence intersections. (2) This neglect of complexity results in a poor fit between policy and interventions to reduce IPV, and women's lives. (3) Such neglect also obscures the multiplicities of women's agency, including the competing challenges they juggle alongside IPV, differing levels of response, and the temporality of agency. We outline a notion of 'distributed agency' as a multi-level, incremental and non-linear process distributed across time, space and social networks, and across a continuum of action ranging from survival to resistance. This understanding of agency implies a different approach to those currently underpinning policies and interventions.
Wupperman, Peggilee; Amble, Paul; Devine, Susan; Zonana, Howard; Fals-Stewart, William; Easton, Caroline
To improve understanding of the complex dynamics in intimate partner violence (IPV) in heterosexual relationships, we explored violence and substance use among the female partners of men entering treatment for both IPV and substance-related problems. All male participants (n = 75) were alcohol dependent and had at least one domestic-violence arrest. Results showed that female partners were as likely as men to engage in substance use the week before treatment; however, according to reports by the men, the female partners were more likely than men to use substances during the last week of treatment, due to a reported increase in use during the men's treatment. Regarding violence, 59 percent of female IPV victims reported engaging in some form of mild violence against their male partners, and 55 percent reported engaging in some form of severe violence. By contrast, only 23 percent of male batterers reported that their female partners had engaged in mild violence, and only 19 percent reported that their partners had engaged in severe violence. Regardless of whether the violence was defensive in nature, the data suggest that women in relationships involving substance abuse and IPV are in need of treatment. Implications of these findings are discussed.
van de Rijt, Arnout; Macy, Michael W.
A division of labor is mediated by exchange of valued goods and services. We use social exchange theory to extend this principal to "labors of love." Sexual activity in a close personal relationship seems outside the domain of bargaining and exchange. Nevertheless, we explore the possibility that this most intimate of human relations is influenced…
Allen, Christopher T.; Swan, Suzanne C.; Raghavan, Chitra
This study of a predominantly Hispanic sample of 92 male and 140 female college students examines both gender symmetry in intimate partner violence (IPV) and inconsistent relationships found in previous studies between sexist attitudes and IPV. Results indicate that although comparable numbers of men and women perpetrate and are victimized in…
Houck, Christopher D.; Brown, Larry K.; Doherty, Glenn; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Fernandez, M. Isabel; Pugatch, David; Schlenger, William E.; Silver, Barbara J.
Objectives. We sought to learn what factors are associated with anal intercourse among adolescents and young adults. We examined demographic, behavioral, relationship context, attitudinal, substance use, and mental health correlates of recent heterosexual anal intercourse among adolescents and young adults who reported engaging in recent unprotected sex. Methods. Among 1348 at-risk adolescents and young adults aged 15 to 21 years in 3 US cities, we assessed sexual risk behavior with each sexual partner in the past 90 days. Data were collected from 2000 to 2001. Results. Recent heterosexual anal intercourse was reported by 16% of respondents. Females who engaged in anal intercourse were more likely to be living with a sexual partner, to have had 2 or more partners, and to have experienced coerced intercourse. For males, only a sexual orientation other than heterosexual was a significant predictor of engaging in heterosexual anal intercourse. Conclusions. Our findings document the prevalence of heterosexual anal intercourse among adolescents and young adults who had recent unprotected sex. Among females, the variables associated with anal intercourse relate to the context and power balance of sexual relationships. Different influences for males and females suggest different foci for interventions. PMID:19008522
Frederick, David A; Fales, Melissa R
One hypothesis derived from evolutionary perspectives is that men are more upset than women by sexual infidelity and women are more upset than men by emotional infidelity. The proposed explanation is that men, in contrast to women, face the risk of unwittingly investing in genetically unrelated offspring. Most studies, however, have relied on small college or community samples of heterosexual participants. We examined upset over sexual versus emotional jealousy among 63,894 gay, lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual participants. Participants imagined which would upset them more: their partners having sex with someone else (but not falling in love with them) or their partners falling in love with someone else (but not having sex with them). Consistent with this evolutionary perspective, heterosexual men were more likely than heterosexual women to be upset by sexual infidelity (54 vs. 35 %) and less likely than heterosexual women to be upset by emotional infidelity (46 vs. 65 %). This gender difference emerged across age groups, income levels, history of being cheated on, history of being unfaithful, relationship type, and length. The gender difference, however, was limited to heterosexual participants. Bisexual men and women did not differ significantly from each other in upset over sexual infidelity (30 vs. 27 %), regardless of whether they were currently dating a man (35 vs. 29 %) or woman (28 vs. 20 %). Gay men and lesbian women also did not differ (32 vs. 34 %). The findings present strong evidence that a gender difference exists in a broad sample of U.S. adults, but only among heterosexuals.
Bourry, N; Chabrot, P; Jeannin, G; Filaire, M; Charpy, C; Bay, J O; Kemeny, J L; Caillaud, D; Escande, G; Boyer, L
Pulmonary artery sarcoma is a rare tumor. We present a case of intimal sarcoma arising from right pulmonary artery and left lower pulmonary vein observed in a 44-year-old man with a non-productive cough. Computed tomographic scans and magnetic resonance imaging showing filling defect enhancement contributed early, suggesting the diagnosis of primary vascular tumor, hypothesis confirmed by pathologist findings.
Mathias, Angela S.; Turrentine, Cathryn G.
Explores the relationship between alcohol consumption and contraceptive methods used by 364 heterosexually active undergraduate students at a large public university. Twenty-six percent of the respondents reported drinking alcohol before their last sexual encounter. Found that men who combined alcohol and sex were less likely to report that their…
Wilkinson, Wayne W
Previous research on attitudes toward gays has mostly focused on heterosexuals' attitudes toward gay men, with little research specifically directed at anti-lesbian attitudes. Using a sample of 269 undergraduate heterosexual women, the present study tested two feminist propositions: Anti-lesbian attitudes would be associated with (1) conservative beliefs regarding the female gender-role and (2) attitudes toward men that support the differential status of women and men in the patriarchy. Findings based on a series of multiple regression analyses support these propositions across three components of anti-lesbian attitudes (contact apprehension, morality beliefs, and stereotypic beliefs). Directions for future research on anti-lesbian attitudes are discussed.
... in approximately 40 to 45 percent of physically violent intimate relationships and increases a woman’s risk for ... might negotiate condom use with partners while avoiding violent reactions. For example, condom requests that describe HIV ...
Frisch, Morten; Hviid, Anders
Children who experience parental divorce are less likely to marry heterosexually than those growing up in intact families; however, little is known about other childhood factors affecting marital choices. We studied childhood correlates of first marriages (heterosexual since 1970, homosexual since 1989) in a national cohort of 2 million 18-49 year-old Danes. In multivariate analyses, persons born in the capital area were significantly less likely to marry heterosexually, but more likely to marry homosexually, than their rural-born peers. Heterosexual marriage was significantly linked to having young parents, small age differences between parents, stable parental relationships, large sibships, and late birth order. For men, homosexual marriage was associated with having older mothers, divorced parents, absent fathers, and being the youngest child. For women, maternal death during adolescence and being the only or youngest child or the only girl in the family increased the likelihood of homosexual marriage. Our study provides population-based, prospective evidence that childhood family experiences are important determinants of heterosexual and homosexual marriage decisions in adulthood.
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Kinkler, Lori A.; Richardson, Hannah B.; Downing, Jordan B.
Little research has attended to the role of gender and sexual orientation in shaping open adoption dynamics. This qualitative, longitudinal study of 45 adoptive couples (15 lesbian, 15 gay, and 15 heterosexual couples) examined adopters' motivations for open adoption, changes in attitudes about openness, and early relationship dynamics. Key…
Yarber, William L.; Yee, Bernadette
A study sought to determine if a relationship existed between heterosexual college students' attitudes toward lesbianism and male homosexuality and their feelings about their own sexuality, including sex guilt. High sex guilt proved to be related to negative attitudes toward homosexuals of both sexes. (Authors/PP)
Backus, Faedra R.; Mahalik, James R.
Our study explored the relationship between feminist identity and women's report of an ideal male partner's conformity to masculine gender role norms. Heterosexual, mostly White, college women (N = 183) completed measures assessing feminist beliefs and the masculinity characteristics of an ideal male partner. Results indicated that feminist…
Ross, Amanda D.; Waehler, Charles A.; Gray, Torie N.
An important original study by Dorland and Fischer noted how the use of inclusive language can affect the therapeutic relationship positively for gay, lesbian, and bisexual clients. In this extension of that study with heterosexual participants ("N" = 179), there seemed to be low, but positive, salience of the language used by the…
Peterson, Zoe D.; Janssen, Erick; Heiman, Julia R.
Perpetrating sexual coercion and rape can be conceptualized as a form of sexual risk taking. In this study, the authors evaluated the relationship between sexual aggression and other risky sexual behaviors (e.g., intercourse without a condom) using an online convenience sample of 1,240 heterosexual men. Sexually aggressive men engaged in more…
Kurdek, Lawrence A.
Both partners from gay and lesbian cohabiting couples without children were compared longitudinally with both partners from heterosexual married couples with children (N at first assessment = 80, 53, and 80 couples, respectively) on variables from 5 domains indicative of relationship health. For 50% of the comparisons, gay and lesbian partners did…
Edwards, Katie M; Banyard, Victoria L; Moschella, Elizabeth A; Seavey, Katherine M
This study qualitatively examined rural emerging adults' ways of thinking (i.e., lay theories) about the causes of intimate partner violence (IPV) and ideas on how to prevent IPV most effectively. Participants were 74 individuals (majority Caucasian, heterosexual, low income) between the ages of 18 and 24 who resided in one of 16 rural communities. Participants' perceptions of the causes of IPV included (a) individual-level pathology, stress, and lack of education; (b) intergenerational transmission of violence and early-life factors; (c) relationship stressors and challenges; and (d) community factors. Furthermore, participants felt that IPV could most effectively be prevented through (a) education and awareness; (b) victim-focused efforts (e.g., teaching self-esteem); and (c) job creation. Overall, participants identified a number of established risk factors for IPV perpetration across the social ecological model, although a number were never or rarely mentioned (e.g., peer group norms, positive bystander action, and collective efficacy). Future research should examine if and how perceptions of the causes of IPV impact IPV prevention engagement and impact. Further, prevention initiatives that take into account understandings of lay theories about IPV may be more impactful in reducing IPV than prevention initiatives that do not.
Li, Ying; Baker, Joseph J; Korostyshevskiy, Valeriy R; Slack, Rebecca S; Plankey, Michael W
Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been significantly associated with HIV among heterosexual individuals. Yet a similar relationship has not been so clearly described among men who have sex with men (MSM). The aim of this study was to investigate the association of IPV with HIV seroprevalence among MSM. Participants consisted of 7,844 MSM clients who visited the Whitman Walker Clinic in Washington DC from 2000 through 2007, the majority of whom were Caucasian with a median age of 30. The univariate analysis showed that self-reported IPV was significantly associated with HIV (OR: 1.67, CI: 1.14-2.45) among the sampled MSM clients. However, when adjusting for sexually transmitted infection (STI) status and self-reported risk behaviors including recreational drug use, condom use, number of male sex partners, and having sex with a positive HIV partner, the association of IPV with HIV was not statistically significant. Results indicated that the strong independent association of recreational drug use with HIV seroprevalence decreased the association of IPV with HIV significantly (with recreational drug use, OR: 1.36, CI: 0.93-2.00 vs. without recreational drug use, OR: 1.51, CI: 1.03-2.22).
Maldonado, Rosalita C; Watkins, Laura E; DiLillo, David
The current study examined three well-established risk factors for intimate partner aggression (IPA) within Finkel and Eckhardt's I(3) model, including two impellance factors-trait anger and childhood physical abuse history-and the disinhibiting factor of alcohol consumption. Participants were 236 male and female college students in a committed heterosexual dating relationship who completed a battery of self-report measures assessing childhood physical abuse, trait anger, alcohol consumption, and IPA perpetration. Results revealed a significant three-way interaction showing that as the disinhibition factor alcohol consumption increased, the interaction of the two impelling factors, trait anger and childhood physical abuse, became increasingly more positive. Individuals who had high levels of childhood physical abuse and alcohol consumption were at greater risk of IPA perpetration when trait anger was high. Consistent with the I(3) model, these findings suggest that trait anger and a history of childhood physical abuse may increase tendencies to aggress against one's partner, whereas alcohol consumption may reduce individuals' abilities to manage these aggressive tendencies. The importance of interplay among these risk factors in elevating IPA risk is discussed, as are the implications for clinicians working with male and female IPA perpetrators.
Raiford, Jerris Laverne; Seth, Puja; Braxton, Nikia D; DiClemente, Ralph J
Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been associated with adverse physical, psychoemotional, and sexual health, and African American women are at higher risk for experiencing IPV. Considering African American women predominantly have African American male partners, it is essential to identify factors associated with IPV perpetration among African American men. The present study examined attitudes toward IPV, ineffective couple conflict resolution, exposure to neighborhood violence, and the interplay of these factors as predictors of IPV perpetration. A community sample of 80 single, heterosexual, African American men between 18 and 29 years completed measures assessing sociodemographics, attitudes towards IPV, perceived ineffective couple conflict resolution, exposure to neighborhood violence, and IPV perpetration during the past 3 months. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses, with age, education, and public assistance as covariates, were conducted on 65 men who reported being in a main relationship. Couple conflict resolution and exposure to neighborhood violence moderated the relation between attitudes supporting IPV and IPV perpetration. Among men who reported high ineffective couple conflict resolution and high exposure to neighborhood violence, IPV perpetration increased as attitudes supporting IPV increased. The findings indicated that interpersonal- and community-level factors interact with individual level factors to increase the risk of recent IPV perpetration among African American men. While IPV prevention should include individual-level interventions that focus on skills building, these findings also highlight the importance of couple-, community-, and structural-level interventions.
Hoffman, Rose Marie
This article summarizes the work of R. L. Worthington and J. J. Mohr (2002); R. L. Worthington, H. B. Savoy, F. R. Dillon, and E. R. Vernaglia (2002); and J. J. Mohr (2002) on heterosexual identity development that constituted the Major Contribution section of the July 2002 issue of The Counseling Psychologist. The author provides an overview of…
O'Donnell, Lydia; Stueve, Ann; Wilson-Simmons, Renee; Dash, Kim; Agronick, Gail; JeanBaptiste, Varzi
Urban 6th graders (n = 294) participate in a survey assessing early heterosexual risk behaviors as part of the Reach for Health Middle Childhood Study. About half the boys (47%) and 20% of girls report having a girlfriend or boyfriend; 42% of boys and 10% of girls report kissing and hugging for a long time. Stepwise regressions model the…
Kornblith, Erica; Green, Robert-Jay; Casey, Shannon; Tiet, Quyen
The current study investigated social support and relationship status (single, dating-but-not-cohabiting, cohabiting, domestic partnership/civil union, married) as predictors of depressive symptoms among lesbian and heterosexual women. The study aimed to determine whether the documented higher rates of depressive symptoms among lesbians compared to heterosexual women could be accounted for by lesbians' reduced access to, or in many cases exclusion from, legalized relationship statuses. The effect of social support from family and social support from friends on depressive symptoms also was examined. Contrary to expectations, results indicated no difference in levels of depressive symptoms among lesbian compared to heterosexual women in this sample. However, regardless of sexual orientation, married women had lower levels of depressive symptoms than unmarried women. Thus, marriage seems to be associated with less depression in lesbian and heterosexual women alike. The interaction of social support and relationship status added to the prediction of depressive symptoms over and above the predictive power of either variable alone, although this effect was small and should be interpreted with caution.
Hudepohl, Adam D.; Parrott, Dominic J.; Zeichner, Amos
The present study compared effects of erotic and non-erotic depictions of male-male intimacy on the experience of anger in heterosexual men. Data came from three independent laboratory studies designed to elicit anger in response to erotic or non-erotic depictions of male-male and male-female intimacy. All participants completed a measure of sexual prejudice and anger was assessed before and after viewing the erotic or non-erotic video. Among high-prejudiced men, viewing erotic and non-erotic intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing comparable behavior between a male-female dyad. In contrast, among low-prejudiced men, viewing erotic, but not non-erotic, intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing comparable behavior between a male-female dyad. Implications for understanding heterosexual men's anger, and aggression, toward gay men were discussed. PMID:20818528
Peplau, Letitia Anne; Frederick, David A; Yee, Curtis; Maisel, Natalya; Lever, Janet; Ghavami, Negin
Does the prevalence and degree of body dissatisfaction differ among heterosexual and homosexual men and women? Some theorists have suggested that, compared to their heterosexual peers, gay men are at greater risk for body dissatisfaction and lesbians at lower risk. Past studies examining this issue have generally relied on small samples recruited from gay or lesbian groups. Further, these studies have sometimes produced conflicting results, particularly for comparisons of lesbian and heterosexual women. In the present research, we compared body satisfaction and comfort with one's body during sexual activity among lesbian women, gay men, heterosexual women, and heterosexual men through two large online studies (Ns = 2,512 and 54,865). Compared to all other groups, heterosexual men reported more positive evaluations of their appearance, less preoccupation with their weight, more positive effects of their body image on their quality of life and the quality of their sex life, more comfort wearing a swimsuit in public, and greater willingness to reveal aspects of their body to their partner during sexual activity. Few significant differences were found among gay men, lesbian women, and heterosexual women. Many gay men (42%) reported that their feelings about their body had negative effects on the quality of their sex life, as did some lesbian women (27%), heterosexual women (30%), and heterosexual men (22%). Overall, the findings supported the hypothesis that gay men are at greater risk than heterosexual men for experiencing body dissatisfaction. There was little evidence that lesbian women experience greater body satisfaction than heterosexual women.
Kwon, Jae-Yung; Oliffe, John L; Bottorff, Joan L; Kelly, Mary T
The purpose of this research was to explore the role of masculinity and heterosexual gender relations in new and expectant fathers' explanations of their continued smoking. We conducted a secondary analysis of in-depth interviews with 20 fathers. Two themes were identified: (1) reconciling with partners to maintain a smoke-free family home; and (2) smoking to self-regulate emotions and maintain relationships. Fathers' decisions to smoke and changes in smoking behavior were shaped by ideals of masculinity and by partner relationships and family and social contexts, including division of domestic duties and childcare. Recognizing the influence of both masculinity and gender relations could provide new directions for supporting men's smoking cessation efforts during early parenthood.
Influence of Intimate Partner Violence Severity on the Help-Seeking Strategies of Female Victims and the Influence of Social Reactions to Violence Disclosure on the Process of Leaving a Violent Relationship.
Domenech Del Rio, Ines; Sirvent Garcia Del Valle, Elena
This article uses data from the 2015 Spanish Survey on Violence Against Women, a nationally representative survey of 10,171 women aged 16 or above, to analyze the relationship between the severity of intimate partner violence and formal and informal help-seeking strategies, the link between the severity of abuse and the reasons for not seeking formal help, and the influence of social reactions to violence disclosure on the process of leaving a violent relationship. The results show that in Spain, many abused women disclose violence and seek help. However, the severity of the violence strongly determines their help-seeking strategies, especially the search for formal help. Women who experienced less severe incidents tended to minimize their importance and did not seek formal help. For informal help, the differences were smaller, and a high proportion of women talked about the abuse with someone within their social environment, regardless of the severity of the suffered violence. A supportive reaction to violence disclosure had a strong and positive influence on the process of leaving the abusive relationship. The implications of these findings for the design of public policies, education, and awareness-raising campaigns are discussed.
Purnine, D M; Carey, M P; Jorgensen, R S
This article describes the development and evaluation of an instrument that measures preferences for specific sexual behaviors of heterosexual men and women in a dyadic context. In Study 1, 74 statements of preference were reduced to 46 on the basis of reliability and range of responses. Factor analysis revealed that 27 of the 46 items loaded on 6 factors: Erotophilia, Use of Contraception, Conventionality, Use of Erotica, Use of Drugs/Alcohol, and Romanticism. In Study 2, factor analysis of fresh data from a second sample cross-validated these results. To establish construct validity of the revised 27-item Inventory of Dyadic Heterosexual Preferences (IDHP), relationships between each of its 6 scales and 6 criterion measures were examined. These analyses suggested that the last scale is more accurately characterized by the term Romantic Foreplay. We conclude that the IDHP measures 6 distinct domains of sexual preference with a brief, psychometrically sound instrument. Potential applications of the IDHP, suggestions for future research, and strengths and limitations of the current investigation are discussed.
Purnine, D M; Carey, M P; Jorgensen, R S
Few investigations of sexual attitudes have restricted their focus to individuals' preferences for specific behaviors within a heterosexual relationship. None have examined gender differences in a broad and multidimensional array of such behavioral particulars. As part of an effort to develop a measure of preferred scripts in heterosexual couples, 258 men and women reported how much they agreed or disagreed with 74 statements of preference. A reduced and factor analyzed questionnaire included 38 items and was administered to a second sample (N = 228). Results offer qualified support that, compared to women, men are more erotophilic and show a stronger preference for incorporating erotic materials as well as drugs and alcohol into sexual relations with their partner. These results were more robust in the second sample, in which almost half of the subjects were tested in same-sex groups. Across both samples, women showed stronger preferences for activities reflecting romanticism. No gender differences were evident in sexual conventionality or in preference regarding the general use of contraceptives. However, results suggest that both sexes respond more favorably to a partner-focused or unspecified contraceptive method than to a self-focused method.
Haberer, Jessica; Celum, Connie; Mugo, Nelly; Ware, Norma C.; Cohen, Craig R.; Tappero, Jordan W.; Kiarie, James; Ronald, Allan; Mujugira, Andrew; Tumwesigye, Elioda; Were, Edwin; Irungu, Elizabeth; Baeten, Jared M.
Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with higher HIV incidence, reduced condom use, and poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy and other medications. IPV may also affect adherence to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Methods: We analyzed data from 1785 HIV-uninfected women enrolled in a clinical trial of PrEP among African HIV serodiscordant couples. Experience of verbal, physical, or economic IPV was assessed at monthly visits by face-to-face interviews. Low PrEP adherence was defined as clinic-based pill count coverage <80% or plasma tenofovir levels <40 ng/mL. The association between IPV and low adherence was analyzed using generalized estimating equations, adjusting for potential confounders. In-depth interview transcripts were examined to explain how IPV could impact adherence. Results: Sixteen percent of women reported IPV during a median of 34.8 months of follow-up (interquartile range 27.0–35.0). Overall, 7% of visits had pill count coverage <80%, and 32% had plasma tenofovir <40 ng/mL. Women reporting IPV in the past 3 months had increased risk of low adherence by pill count (adjusted risk ratio 1.49, 95% confidence interval: 1.17 to 1.89) and by plasma tenofovir (adjusted risk ratio 1.51, 95% confidence interval: 1.06 to 2.15). Verbal, economic, and physical IPV were all associated with low adherence. However, the impact of IPV diminished and was not statistically significant 3 months after the reported exposure. In qualitative interviews, women identified several ways in which IPV affected adherence, including stress and forgetting, leaving home without pills, and partners throwing pills away. Conclusions: Women who reported recent IPV in the Partners PrEP Study were at increased risk of low PrEP adherence. Strategies to mitigate PrEP nonadherence in the context of IPV should be evaluated. PMID:27243900
Barr, Ashley B.; Simons, Ronald L.; Stewart, Eric A.
Since its publication, Elijah Anderson’s (1999) code of the street thesis has found support in studies connecting disadvantage to the internalization of street-oriented values and an associated lifestyle of violent/deviant behavior. This primary emphasis on deviance in public arenas has precluded researchers from examining the implications of the code of the street for less public arenas, like intimate relationships. In an effort to understand if and how the endorsement of the street code may infiltrate such relationships, the present study examines the associations between the code of the street and relationship satisfaction and commitment among young adults involved in heterosexual romantic relationships. Using a dyadic approach, we find that street code orientation, in general, negatively predicts satisfaction and commitment, in part due to increased relationship hostility/conflict associated with the internalization of the code. Gender differences in these associations are considered and discussed at length. PMID:23504000
Hull, Kathleen E.; Ortyl, Timothy A.
Recent decades have brought significant social changes in the industrialized West that may influence young adults’ attitudes about intimate relationships, including changes in gender expectations and behaviors and changes in sexual attitudes and practices. We used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (N=14,121) to compare men to women, and sexual minorities to heterosexuals, on ratings of the importance of love, faithfulness, commitment, financial security, and racial homogamy for successful relationships. We found that nearly all young adults adhere to dominant relationship values inherent in the romantic love ideology; however, we found modest but significant differences by gender and sexual identity in relationship values. Significant interactions demonstrated that gender and sexual identity intersect to uniquely influence relationship views. PMID:23710079
Schwab Reese, Laura M.; Harland, Karisa; Smithart, Kelsey
Abstract Intimate partner aggression is a leading cause of injury among women of child-bearing age. Research suggests that pregnancy and the postpartum period are times of increased vulnerability to aggression. Since rural women are at an increased risk of intimate partner aggression, research is needed to examine the role of pregnancy and the presence of children on intimate partner aggression among this vulnerable population. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between young children and intimate partner aggression victimization and perpetration among a rural sample. This analysis utilized data from biologic females of child-bearing age from the Keokuk County Rural Health Study, a cohort study of over 1,000 rural families conducted from 1994 to 2011. Crude and adjusted logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between having a young child and experiencing four forms of intimate partner aggression: verbal aggression perpetration, verbal aggression victimization, physical aggression perpetration, and physical aggression victimization. Having young children was significantly associated with increased odds of perpetrating verbal aggression but not victimization of verbal aggression or perpetration and victimization of physical aggression. This significant relationship persisted after adjustment for education, employment, or location of residence but not age or marital status. The increased odds of perpetrating verbal aggression among mothers in a rural area highlight the need for interventions designed for rural parents. One method of reducing intimate partner aggression may be to incorporate intimate partner aggression prevention activities into existing child abuse intervention activities. PMID:27626037
Carter, Rona; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Matusko, Niki; Jackson, James S
Research has accumulated to demonstrate that depressive symptoms are associated with heterosexual romantic involvement during adolescence, but relatively little work has linked this body of literature to the existing literature on associations between early pubertal timing and adolescent depressive symptoms. This study extends prior research by examining whether early menarche and heterosexual romantic involvement interact to predict depressive symptoms in a national sample of Black adolescent girls (N = 607; M age = 15 years; 32 % Caribbean Black and 68 % African American). We further examined whether the adverse effects of heterosexual romantic involvement and early menarche would be mediated by perceived social support from mothers, fathers, and peers. Path analysis results indicated that girls who report current involvement in a heterosexual romantic relationship also reported high levels of perceived peer support than girls with no romantic involvement. High levels of perceived peer support, in turn, predicted low levels of depressive symptoms. Romantically involved girls with an early menarche also reported significantly less depressive symptoms than girls not romantically involved with an early menarche. Neither perceived maternal support nor perceived paternal support mediated associations between heterosexual romantic involvement, menarche, and depressive symptoms. The findings suggest that individual and social factors can impede heterosexual romantic involvement effects on depressive symptoms in Black adolescent girls.
Dobash, R Emerson; Dobash, Russell P
The focus is on cognitions of men who murder an intimate partner and includes thinking prior to and after the murder. Based on the Murder in Britain Study, the qualitative accounts of various professionals included in the case-files of 104 men convicted of murdering a woman partner are used to examine beliefs about intimate relationships, orientations toward violence and previous violence to the victim, as well as subsequent denials, rationalizations, and justifications. We conclude that these and other cognitions are important elements of intimate partner murder and must be challenged and changed in efforts to eliminate nonlethal abuse and murder.
Intimate Partner Violence, Relationship Power Inequity and the Role of Sexual and Social Risk Factors in the Production of Violence among Young Women Who Have Multiple Sexual Partners in a Peri-Urban Setting in South Africa
Zembe, Yanga Z.; Townsend, Loraine; Thorson, Anna; Silberschmidt, Margrethe; Ekstrom, Anna Mia
Introduction This paper aims to assess the extent and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV), explore relationship power inequity and the role of sexual and social risk factors in the production of violence among young women aged 16–24 reporting more than one partner in the past three months in a peri-urban setting in the Western Cape, South Africa. Recent estimates suggest that every six hours a woman is killed by an intimate partner in South Africa, making IPV a leading public health problem in the country. While there is mounting evidence that levels of IPV are high in peri-urban settings in South Africa, not much is known about how it manifests among women who engage in concomitantly high HIV risk behaviours such as multiple sexual partnering, transactional sex and age mixing. We know even less about how such women negotiate power and control if exposed to violence in such sexual networks. Methods Two hundred and fifty nine women with multiple sexual partners, residing in a predominantly Black peri-urban community in the Western Cape, South Africa, were recruited into a bio-behavioural survey using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS). After the survey, focus group discussions and individual interviews were conducted among young women and men to understand the underlying factors informing their risk behaviours and experiences of violence. Findings 86% of the young women experienced IPV in the past 12 months. Sexual IPV was significantly correlated with sex with a man who was 5 years or older than the index female partner (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0–3.2) and transactional sex with most recent casual partner (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1–3.8). Predictably, women experienced high levels of relationship power inequity. However, they also identified areas in their controlling relationships where they shared decision making power. Discussion Levels of IPV among young women with multiple sexual partners were much higher than what is reported among women in the general
Moskowitz, David A; Rieger, Gerulf; Roloff, Michael E
Negative attitudes of heterosexual people toward same-sex marriage relate to the degree to which they are homophobic. However, it has been understudied whether there exists a gender difference in this association. Our results indicated that homophobia was the best predictor of attitudes toward gay male and lesbian marriage, and this was equally true for both heterosexual men and women. However, the attitudinal difference between gay male and lesbian marriage was related to homophobia in men but not in women. That is, for men only, being less homophobic toward lesbians than toward gay men was associated with favoring lesbian over gay men marriage. Considering these results, the role of gender in attitudes toward same-sex marriage seems to be as an important moderator of homophobia.
Sweeney, Kristin K; Goldberg, Abbie E; Garcia, Randi L
The current study is the first to examine parental gatekeeping in both same-sex (57 female, 51 male) and heterosexual (n = 82) couples, all of whom became parents via adoption. Aspects of the individual, the couple, and the work context, measured preadoption, were examined as predictors of gatekeeping. Gatekeeping refers to attitudes and behaviors aimed at regulating and limiting the involvement of the other parent in housework and child care and was measured 2 years postadoption. Findings revealed that women in heterosexual relationships reported higher gatekeeping compared with all other groups, and men in same-sex relationships reported higher gatekeeping compared with women in same-sex relationships and men in heterosexual relationships. Across the full sample, lower job autonomy predicted higher gatekeeping in both housework and child care, whereas greater relationship ambivalence, greater perceived parenting skill, and lower perceived partner parenting skill predicted higher gatekeeping in child care. Findings provide insight into how gatekeeping behaviors and beliefs are enacted in diverse types of couples and suggest that work factors should be taken into account when conducting research on, and seeking to improve, coparenting relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record
Syvertsen, Jennifer L.; Robertson, Angela M.; Rolon, Maria Luisa; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M. Gudelia
Partner communication about HIV sexual risk behaviors represents a key area of epidemiologic and social importance in terms of infection acquisition and potential for tailored interventions. Nevertheless, disclosing sexual risk behaviors often presents myriad challenges for marginalized couples who engage in stigmatized behaviors. Using qualitative data from a social epidemiology study of risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers and their intimate, non-commercial male partners along the Mexico-U.S. border, we examined both partners’ perspectives on sex work and the ways in which couples discussed associated HIV/STI risks in their relationship. Our thematic analysis of individual and joint interviews conducted in 2010 and 2011 with 44 couples suggested that broader contexts of social and economic inequalities profoundly shaped partner perspectives of sex work. Although couples accepted sex work as an economic contribution to the relationship in light of limited alternatives and drug addiction, it exacted an emotional toll on both partners. Couples employed multiple strategies to cope with sex work, including psychologically disconnecting from their situation, telling “little lies,” avoiding the topic, and to a lesser extent, superficially discussing their risks. While such strategies served to protect both partners’ emotional health by upholding illusions of fidelity and avoiding potential conflict, non-disclosure of risk behaviors may exacerbate the potential for HIV/STI acquisition. Our work has direct implications for designing multi-level, couple-based health interventions. PMID:23631772
Handelzalts, Jonathan E; Fisher, Shimrit; Naot, Rachel
This study examines the relationship between the psychoanalytic concept of object relations and real life behavior of being in an intimate relationship among heterosexual women. In a multi-method approach we used two different measures; the self-report Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory (BORRTI; Bell, Billington & Becker, 1986) and the performance based Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Social Cognition & Object Relations Scale- Global Rating Method SCORS-G (Westen, 1995) to measure the object relations of 60 women. The Alienation subscale of the BORRTI and understanding of social causality subscale of the SCORS-G explained 34.8% of variance of the intimate relationship variable. Thus, women involved in a romantic relationship reported lower rates of alienation on the BORRTI and produced TAT narratives that were more adaptive with regard to understanding of social causality as measured by the SCORS-G than those not currently in a relationship. Results are discussed with reference to the relationship between object relations and real life measures of healthy individuals and in light of the need for a multi-method approach of assessment.
Vincent, Wilson; Parrott, Dominic J; Peterson, John L
Sexual prejudice and antigay anger were examined as mediators of the associations between traditional male gender norms, religious fundamentalism, and aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Participants were 201 self-identified heterosexual men recruited from the community to complete computer-administered measures of adherence to traditional male gender norms (i.e., status, toughness, antifemininity), religious fundamentalism, sexual prejudice, and frequency of aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Additionally, participants completed a structured interview designed to assess anger in response to a vignette depicting a male-male intimate relationship (i.e., partners saying "I love you," holding hands, kissing). Results showed that sexual prejudice and antigay anger partially mediated the effect of antifemininity on aggression and fully mediated the effect of religious fundamentalism on aggression. Sexual prejudice alone fully mediated the effect of status on aggression and neither sexual prejudice nor antigay anger mediated the effect of toughness on aggression. Further, results suggested that religious fundamentalism is a multifaceted construct of which some aspects increase risk for aggression toward gay men and lesbians, whereas other aspects decrease this risk. These data provide multivariate evidence from a nonprobability, community-based sample that extreme internalization of dominant cultural values can set the stage for violence toward marginalized groups. Implications for intervention programming and future research are reviewed.
Vincent, Wilson; Parrott, Dominic J.; Peterson, John L.
Sexual prejudice and antigay anger were examined as mediators of the associations between traditional male gender norms, religious fundamentalism, and aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Participants were 201 self-identified heterosexual men recruited from the community to complete computer-administered measures of adherence to traditional male gender norms (i.e., status, toughness, antifemininity), religious fundamentalism, sexual prejudice, and frequency of aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Additionally, participants completed a structured interview designed to assess anger in response to a vignette depicting a male-male intimate relationship (i.e., partners saying “I love you,” holding hands, kissing). Results showed that sexual prejudice and antigay anger partially mediated the effect of antifemininity on aggression and fully mediated the effect of religious fundamentalism on aggression. Sexual prejudice alone fully mediated the effect of status on aggression and neither sexual prejudice nor antigay anger mediated the effect of toughness on aggression. Further, results suggested that religious fundamentalism is a multifaceted construct of which some aspects increase risk for aggression toward gay men and lesbians, whereas other aspects decrease this risk. These data provide multivariate evidence from a nonprobability, community-based sample that extreme internalization of dominant cultural values can set the stage for violence toward marginalized groups. Implications for intervention programming and future research are reviewed. PMID:22081759
Grange, Christina M.; Brubaker, Sarah Jane; Corneille, Maya A.
This qualitative study examined the sexual socialization experienced by emerging adult, African American women, ages 18 to 26 years, who received services at a sexually transmitted infection clinic. Data obtained from in-depth interviews revealed that women received information about sex and relationships from three primary sources: women of the…
Dessel, Adrienne B; Woodford, Michael R; Routenberg, Robbie; Breijak, Duane P
Heterosexism contributes to an unsafe campus climate for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) college students. Intergroup dialogue courses about sexual orientation seek to build awareness, cross-group relationships, and commitment to social action to address anti-LGB prejudice and discrimination. Although dialogue courses are growing in popularity, few courses address sexual orientation. To advance knowledge of these dialogues, this qualitative study explores heterosexual students' motivations and expectations, challenges, and learning outcomes related to their participation in intergroup dialogue courses on sexual orientation. Core themes include desire to learn about the LGB community, concerns about offending classmates, anxiety around LGB stigma, conflict with classmates around controversial topics, affirming LGB people, and learning about heterosexism, privilege, and intersectionality of identity. Implications for intergroup dialogue pedagogy and research are discussed.
Vigoya, Mara Viveros
This paper examines the way in which erotic-affective exchanges in interracial relationships have been analysed in Latin America. It considers how race, gender and class operate within a market of values such that erotic, affective and economic status are shaped by racial, gender and class hierarchies. In this paper I analyse historical and social arrangements that embody the region's political economy of race and sex. Such a perspective allows me to address the simultaneous co-existence of socio-racial exclusion and inclusion and the repressive and productive effects of power, attraction and anxiety as aspects of lived experiences in relation to sexuality. From there, I outline an analytical framework that references an erotic or pleasure-based market in which capital and other resources are exchanged from a structural perspective stressing relationship alliances. I conclude by identifying the scope and limits of such an approach.
Nagae, Miyoko; Dancy, Barbara L
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a problem in Japan. The purpose is to describe IPV as perceived by a purposive sample of 11 Japanese adult females who were in a heterosexual marriage at the time of IPV. We used a cross-sectional, retroactive, qualitative description research design with individual, fact-to-face in depth interviews. At the time of the interview, the women had a mean age of 38 years and at the time of the IPV, a mean age of 28 years. Data were analyzed using the directed qualitative content analysis method. The results revealed that all women experienced physical and emotional abuse and 82% experienced sexual abuse. Communication between spouses was characterized as unilateral, with husbands initiating and dominating the conversation. The women identified the culture of the Japanese patriarchal system as directly influencing IPV. The implication is health professionals should actively advocate for effective legislation and policies to address IPV.
The article explores some of the ways heterosexual women are portrayed as perpetrators of intimate partner domestic violence (IPV) in police domestic violence records in England and is the first study in the United Kingdom to examine the issue of gender and domestic violence perpetrators in any detail and over time. The article is based on a study of 128 IPV cases tracked longitudinally over 6 years, including 32 cases where women were the sole perpetrators and a further 32 cases where women were "dual" perpetrators alongside men. Women were 3 times more likely than men to be arrested when they were construed as the perpetrator. However, Pence and Dasgupta's category of "pathological violence" appeared more useful as an analytical category in the construction of women as "perpetrators" and men as "victims" than the notion of "battering."
Chen, Ping-Hsin; Jacobs, Abbie; Rovi, Susan L D
Nationally, the rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) among lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) individuals are similar to or greater than rates for heterosexuals. Many have experienced psychological and physical abuse as sexual minorities, making it difficult for them to seek help for IPV. Physician behavior, such as not assuming that all patients are heterosexual, being nonjudgmental, and using inclusive language, can empower LGBT patients to disclose IPV. Also, physicians should ascertain the degree to which the patient is out. The threat of being outed can be an aspect of the power and control exerted by an abusive partner and a significant barrier to seeking help. Physicians should screen for IPV and intervene in a similar manner with LGBT and non-LGBT patients, but they should be aware of potential limitations in resources for LGBT patients, such as shelters. As sexual minorities experiencing IPV, LGBT individuals are at greater risk of depression and substance abuse than are non-LGBT individuals. Minority stress, resulting from stigmatization and discrimination, can be exacerbated by IPV. Physicians should learn about legal issues for LGBT individuals and the availability of community or advocacy programs for LGBT perpetrators or victims of IPV.
Alvira-Hammond, Marta; Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.
Although intimate partner aggression crosses social class boundaries, education and income are important predictors. Yet given that emerging adulthood is a transitional period, completed education and employment, as single measures, are not ideal indicators of socioeconomic status for young people. We examined associations between self-reports of gainful activity, defined as enrollment in school or full-time employment, and intimate partner aggression among young adults in dating, cohabiting, or married relationships (N=648). Both men and women's participation in gainful activity was negatively associated with aggression. We found that when neither partner was gainfully active, individuals reported higher frequency of physical aggression. In cases of gainful activity asymmetry, the gender of the gainfully active partner did not predict intimate partner aggression. Additionally, we found no evidence that the association between gainful activity and frequency of intimate partner aggression differed by union type. PMID:25309829
Harville, Emily W.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Tesfai, Helen; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre
Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been associated with stress, but few studies have examined the effect of natural disaster on IPV. In this study, the authors examine the relationship between experience of Hurricane Katrina and reported relationship aggression and violence in a cohort of 123 postpartum women. Hurricane experience is measured…
Engh, Mari Haugaa
Sport is a social institution that perpetuates gendered ideologies in the wider society through appealing to discourses of the naturalness of men's privilege and domination in society. Heteronormativity regulates the roles, behaviours, appearances and sexualities of, and relationships between and among, women and men. Moreover, heteronormative discourses normalise a particular relationship between sex, gender and sexuality that posits woman/feminine/heterosexual (and man/masculine/heterosexual) as a natural order from which variance is considered a punishable deviance. This paper outlines the effects of heteronormative discourses in the lives of women footballers in South Africa, through drawing on interviews with a wide range of women footballers. The paper shows how heteronormative discourses nurture homophobic attitudes that serve to regulate the appearances and performances of South African women.
Bigner, J J; Jacobsen, R B
Responses of 33 homosexual (gay) fathers were compared with those of 33 heterosexual (nongay) fathers on the Iowa Parent Behavior Inventory, an empirical measure of dimensions of parenting behavior. Gay fathers did not differ significantly from nongay fathers in their reported degree of involvement nor in intimacy level with children. Gay fathers tended to be more strict, more responsive to children's needs, and to provide reasons for appropriate behavior to children more consistently than nongay fathers. Several explanations are explored for these similarities and differences in parenting styles.
Bowleg, Lisa; Fitz, Caroline C; Burkholder, Gary J; Massie, Jenne S; Wahome, Rahab; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J; Tschann, Jeanne M
In light of evidence that racial discrimination and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are neither rare nor extraordinary for many Black urban men, we examined the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual HIV risk behaviors in a predominantly low-income sample of 526 urban Black heterosexually identified men; 64% of whom were unemployed and 55% of whom reported a history of incarceration. We tested the hypothesis that PTSS would mediate the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual risk. Participants in the predominantly low-income urban sample ranged in age from 18 to 45 (M = 28.80, SD = 7.57). Three multiple regression models were used to test the study's mediational model. As hypothesized, PTSS mediated the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual risk behaviors. Most participants (97%) reported experiences with everyday racial discrimination. Results empirically support the notion of racial discrimination-based traumatic stress as a pathway to Black heterosexual men's increased sexual risk behaviors. Results also highlighted key demographic differences with older men reporting fewer PTSS and sexual risk behaviors compared with younger men. Incarceration was related to both PTSS and sexual risk, underscoring the role that incarceration may play in Black heterosexual men's adverse health outcomes. Our study highlights the need for more qualitative and quantitative research to understand the nature of PTSS in Black heterosexual men and mechanisms such as substance use that may link traumatic experiences and sexual risk. Future research could also assess experiences with childhood sexual abuse, violence, and incarceration to gain a more in-depth understanding of the sources of traumatic stress in Black heterosexual men's lives. We advocate for the development of community-based individual and structural-level interventions to help Black heterosexual men in urban areas develop effective strategies to
Smith, Carolyn A; Greenman, Sarah J; Thornberry, Terence P; Henry, Kimberly L; Ireland, Timothy O
The prevention of intimate partner violence is a desirable individual and public health goal for society. The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive assessment of adolescent risk factors for partner violence in order to inform the development of evidence-based prevention strategies. We utilize data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a two decade long prospective study of a representative community sample of 1000 participants that has extensive measures of adolescent characteristics, contexts, and behaviors that are potential precursors of partner violence. Using a developmental psychopathology framework, we assess self-reported partner violence perpetration in emerging adulthood (ages 20-22) and in adulthood (ages 29-30) utilizing the Conflict Tactics Scale. Our results indicate that risk factors for intimate partner violence span several developmental domains and are substantially similar for both genders. Internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors as well as early intimate relationships are especially salient for both genders. Additionally, cumulative risk across a number of developmental domains places adolescents at particularly high risk of perpetrating partner violence. Implications for prevention include extending existing prevention programs that focus on high risk groups with multiple risks for developmental disruption, as well as focusing on preventing or mitigating identified risk factors across both genders.
ChenFeng, Jessica; Kim, Lana; Wu, Yuwei; Knudson-Martin, Carmen
Asian Americans juggle the intersections of multiple social identities and societal discourses as they respond to experiences of immigration, marginalization, and patriarchy, integrate collectivist and individualistic family values, and form families and intimate relationships. In this study we examine what we have learned as we apply Socio-Emotional Relationship Therapy (SERT) with heterosexual couples of Asian heritage. SERT begins with sociocultural attunement and the assumption that relationships should mutually support each partner. Drawing on case examples, we illustrate how we practice sociocultural attunement as couples respond to the relational processes that comprise the Circle of Care (mutual influence, vulnerability, attunement, and shared relational responsibility). We emphasize three key socioemotional themes that intersect with gender: (1) intangible loss; (2) quiet fortitude/not burdening others; and (3) duty to the family.
Power, Charmaine; Koch, Tina; Kralik, Debbie; Jackson, Debra
Intimate Partner Violence remains a significant problem globally despite health promotion aimed at raising awareness. In particular, there is a current trend for many young women to view some abusive/violent behaviours as acceptable in their relationships. Intimate Partner Violence has serious implications for its short and long term impacts on the health of women and children. Health workers may find working with women a challenging and sometimes frustrating experience. A way forward is to develop clearer understandings of the complexities of Intimate Partner Violence and to better understand women's investments in romantic relationships. In this paper a secondary analysis of data from a narrative study of women's recovery from IPV relationships is presented in order to illustrate discourses that inform underpinnings of romantic relationships. Transcriptions of audio-taped interviews were analysed using a feminist post-structural approach in order to make visible the ways in which the women negotiated their identities in the discourses of femininity. A critical review of current literature was also undertaken to develop the construct of romantic love. Women revealed that cues for Intimate Partner Violence were present early in the relationship but were not recognised at the time. Two positions within the discourse of romantic love were identified that underpinned their desires to establish and invest in the relationship despite the presence of cues for Intimate Partner Violence. These were 'Desperate for a man' and interpreting jealousy as a sign of love. Romantic love may be desirable for the sharing of warmth, safety and protection, and yet can mask behaviours that are cues for domestic violence. Understanding the complex nature of the ways that women's desires are located in the discourse of romantic love has implications for all nurses working to prevent and reduce the incidence of Intimate Partner Violence.
Pitman, G E
ABSTRACT Body dissatisfaction in lesbians is a subject which has traditionally been ignored in the psychological literature on body image and eating disorders. Early feminist theorists and researchers argued that body dissatisfaction in women developed as a way of dealing with the oppression and misogyny they are faced with on a daily basis. However, these theories failed to take issues of race, class, and sexual orientation into account, thereby excluding the experiences of a diversity of women. This article focuses specifically on the lesbian experience and explores how cultural messages about thinness, femininity, and heterosexuality shape lesbians' feelings about their sexuality and about their bodies. Through the inevitable process of internalizing homophobia and fat hatred, both of which are institutionalized ways of keeping heterosexuality and female oppression in place, lesbians may begin to believe that there is something inherently wrong with them and with their bodies. This article explores how the impact of racism, classism, sexism, and homophobia on women may provide a more comprehensive understanding of the cultural forces behind women's dissatisfaction with their bodies.
Barsetti, Ian; Earls, Christopher M.; Lalumiere, Martin L.; Belanger, Nathalie
Compares the sexual interests of intrafamilial heterosexual child molesters (n=20) and heterosexual nonoffender men (n=18). Stimuli consisted of audiotapes describing various types of sexual contact with adults and children. Nonoffenders preferred adult stimuli while intrafamilial and extrafamilial offenders did not discriminate between the adult…
Mueller, John A.; Cole, Jennifer C.
The purpose of this study was to explore how heterosexual college students understand and make meaning of their life experiences and how they incorporate those into their sexual orientation consciousness. We interviewed 14 undergraduate and graduate self-identified heterosexual students, ten women and four men, ranging in age from 20 to 24.…
Cerny, Jerome A; Janssen, Erick
The purpose of this study was to determine if self-identified bisexual, heterosexual, and homosexual men show differential genital and subjective arousal patterns to video presentations of bisexual, heterosexual, male homosexual, and lesbian sexual interactions. It was predicted that, relative to heterosexual and homosexual stimuli, bisexual men would show the highest levels of sexual arousal to bisexual erotic material, while this stimulus would induce relatively low levels of response in heterosexual and homosexual men. A sample of 59 men (19 homosexual, 13 bisexual, and 27 heterosexual) were presented with a series of 4-min sexual videos while their genital and subjective sexual responses were measured continuously. Bisexual men did not differ significantly in their responses to male homosexual stimuli (depicting men engaging in sex) from homosexual men, and they did not differ significantly in their responses to heterosexual (depicting two women, without same-sex contact, engaged in sex with a man) and lesbian (depicting women engaging in sex) stimuli from heterosexual men. However, bisexual men displayed significantly higher levels of both genital and subjective sexual arousal to a bisexual stimulus (depicting a man engaged in sex with both a man and a woman) than either homosexual or heterosexual men. The findings of this study indicate that bisexuality in men is associated with a unique and specific pattern of sexual arousal.
Smith, Lance Christian
There is a paucity of literature that examines the narratives of heterosexuals who struggle against the discourse of heteronormativity. There is even less literature that discusses how the discourse of heteronormativity may play out between egalitarian heterosexual counselors and clients who identify as sexual minorities. Employing the qualitative…
Martin, Karin A.
In recent years, social scientists have identified not just heterosexism and homophobia as social problems, but also heteronormativity--the mundane, everyday ways that heterosexuality is privileged and taken for granted as normal and natural. There is little empirical research, however, on how heterosexuality is reproduced and then normalized for…
This article examines sociocultural expectations of sexual behavior and the reasons why not using condoms may be logical to married heterosexual couples in India. Married women who report monogamous sexual relationships with their husbands are a high-risk group for HIV infection in India. Based on the public health model and a population-based…
Montesi, Jennifer L; Conner, Bradley T; Gordon, Elizabeth A; Fauber, Robert L; Kim, Kevin H; Heimberg, Richard G
This study was conducted to better understand why socially anxious individuals experience less sexual satisfaction in their intimate partnerships than nonanxious individuals, a relationship that has been well documented in previous research. Effective communication between partners is an important predictor of relationship satisfaction. Sexual communication, an important aspect of communication between romantic partners, is especially sensitive for couples given the vulnerability inherent in being open about sexual issues. Because socially anxious individuals characteristically report fear of evaluation or scrutiny by others, we hypothesized that the process of building intimacy by sharing personal information about oneself with one's partner, including when this information relates to one's sexuality and/or the sexual domain of the relationship, would be particularly difficult for socially anxious individuals. The present study examined fear of intimacy and sexual communication as potential mediators of the relationship between higher social anxiety and lower sexual satisfaction. Self-report data were collected from 115 undergraduate students and their partners in monogamous, heterosexual, committed relationships of at least 3 months duration. Multilevel path modeling revealed that higher social anxiety predicted higher fear of intimacy, which predicted lower satisfaction with open sexual communication, which, in turn, predicted lower sexual satisfaction. Additionally, there was evidence of mediation as there were significant indirect effects of the antecedent variables on sexual satisfaction. The path model had excellent fit. Implications for social anxiety, intimate relationships, and couples therapy are discussed.
DiStefano, Anthony S
Using qualitative interviews (n = 39) and participant observation (n = 54), this study documents perceptions and experiences of violence between lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex intimate partners in Japan, thereby providing exploratory, formative data on a previously unexamined issue. Results indicate that intimate partner violence (IPV) is experienced physically, sexually, and psychologically in all sexual minority groups. Participants perceived the violence to be: a) very similar to heterosexual IPV against women; b) more likely perpetrated and experienced by lesbians, bisexual women, and transgender persons compared to gay and bisexual men and intersex persons; c) the cause of several negative physical and mental health outcomes; and d) largely unrecognized in both sexual minority communities and broader Japanese society.
Moyano, Nieves; Byers, E Sandra; Sierra, Juan Carlos
This study examined the relationship between various subtypes of positive and negative sexual cognitions (NSC) based on their content (intimate, exploratory, sadomasochistic, impersonal) and sexual functioning, including aspects of sexual response (desire), sexual motivation (sexual excitation and sexual inhibition), and cognitive-affective domains (satisfaction). Participants were 789 Spanish adults (322 men and 467 women) who were in a heterosexual relationship of at least 6 months duration. Overall, the men reported more frequent exploratory and impersonal positive sexual cognitions than did the women. The men and women did not differ in the frequency of their positive intimate and sadomasochistic cognitions or in any of their NSC. Using canonical correlation, the results revealed that, after controlling for the overall frequency of NSC, the men and women who reported a higher frequency of all subtypes of positive sexual cognitions reported more dyadic and solitary sexual desire, more propensity to get sexually excited, and less sexual inhibition. A second canonical variate was identified for both the men and the women that revealed different patterns of association between the subtypes of cognitions and specific areas of sexual functioning, highlighting the role of positive, intimate cognitions for dyadic aspects of sexual functioning. The subtypes of NSC were not associated with poorer sexual functioning for either men or women, perhaps because they, on average, occurred infrequently. The findings were discussed in terms of the relationship between the specific content of sexual cognitions and the sexual functioning of men and women.
Mills, B; Robb, T; Larson, D F
Intimal hyperplasia is the leading cause of long-term failure in coronary artery bypass vein grafting, coronary artery stenting, angioplasty, arteriovenous fistula for dialysis, and allograft transplantation. Intimal hyperplasia is a product of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, migration through the internal elastic lamina, and deposition of extracellular matrix proteins driven by growth factors in the vasculature. This vascular pathology results in a progressive diminution of the vessel lumen and serves as a site for thrombosis and atherosclerotic lesions. A key cell type in the initiation of intimal hyperplasia is the vascular endothelial cell, which appears to have down-stream effects on the vascular smooth muscle proliferation and migration. Currently, the only means available for prevention of intimal hyperplasia is through inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) with the immunosuppressant rapamycin. mTOR integrates up-stream signals from growth factors such as IL-2 and senses the cellular nutrient and energy levels and redox status. This presentation will discuss the potential means of preserving the vascular endothelial cell and, thereby, reducing the development of intimal hyperplasia in our open-heart surgical patients.
DiNenno, Elizabeth A; Oster, Alexandra M; Sionean, Catlainn; Denning, Paul; Lansky, Amy
Objectives: During the past decade, the number and proportion of reported HIV cases in the United States acquired through heterosexual contact has increased markedly. CDC employs the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System (NHBS) to monitor risk behaviors and HIV prevalence in high-risk populations. To identify a target population for conducting NHBS among heterosexuals at increased risk for HIV (NHBS-HET), CDC designed, implemented and evaluated a pilot study. Methods: The pilot study was conducted in 25 US metropolitan statistical areas in 2006-7. We recruited men and women who reported sex with at least one opposite-sex partner during the past year for a behavioral survey and HIV test. We investigated the relationship between newly diagnosed HIV infection and individual risk behaviors, sexual network characteristics, and social-structural characteristics to arrive at a definition of a heterosexual at increased risk of HIV. Results: Of 14,750 participants in the analysis, 207 (1.4%) had newly diagnosed HIV infection. Using low socioeconomic status (SES) as a criterion for defining a heterosexual at increased risk for HIV resulted in optimal rates of HIV prevalence, specificity, sensitivity and practicality. Conclusions: Results from the NHBS pilot study underscore the key role of social factors as determinants of HIV infection risk among U.S. heterosexuals, and low SES was incorporated into the definition of a heterosexual at increased risk for HIV in NHBS-HET cycles. Future cycles of NHBS-HET will help tailor prevention programs for those populations most at risk of HIV in the US. PMID:23049666
Santana, M Christina; Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R; La Marche, Ana; Silverman, Jay G
This study sought to assess the association between traditional masculine gender role ideologies and sexual risk and intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration behaviors in young men's heterosexual relationships. Sexually active men age 18-35 years attending an urban community health center in Boston were invited to join a study on men's sexual risk; participants (N=307) completed a brief self-administered survey on sexual risk (unprotected sex, forced unprotected sex, multiple sex partners) and IPV perpetration (physical, sexual and injury from/need for medical services due to IPV) behaviors, as well as demographics. Current analyses included men reporting sex with a main female partner in the past 3 months (n=283). Logistic regression analyses adjusted for demographics were used to assess significant associations between male gender role ideologies and the sexual risk and IPV perpetration behaviors. Participants were predominantly Hispanic (74.9%) and Black (21.9%); 55.5% were not born in the continental U.S.; 65% had been in the relationship for more than 1 year. Men reporting more traditional ideologies were significantly more likely to report unprotected vaginal sex in the past 3 months (OR(adj) = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.2-4.6) and IPV perpetration in the past year (OR(adj) = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.2-3.6). Findings indicate that masculine gender role ideologies are linked with young men's unprotected vaginal sex and IPV perpetration in relationships, suggesting that such ideologies may be a useful point of sexual risk reduction and IPV prevention intervention with this population.
Rahman, Mosfequr; Sasagawa, Toshiyuki; Fujii, Ryota; Tomizawa, Hideki; Makinoda, Satoru
This study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and unintended pregnancy using data from women reporting IPV in the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey. The analysis included 4,695 married women, aged 15 to 40 years, who had at least one birth in the last 5 years. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression…
Scott, Katreena; Straus, Murray
Although countering denial, minimization, and externalization of blame is a key component of most interventions for individuals who have been abusive in their intimate relationships, these attributions have only seldom been the focus of empirical investigation. Using a sample of 139 male and female university students, this study examined the…
... perpetrators had a relationship with the victim that changed categories over time between the experience of the ... 476–499. Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J. (2010). Controversies involving gender and intimate partner violence in the United States. Sex Roles , 62 , 179–193. Logan, T.K., & Cole, J. ( ...
Martin, Brittny A.; Cui, Ming; Ueno, Koji; Fincham, Frank D.
This study, using a nationally representative sample, investigated intimate partner violence (IPV) in interracial and monoracial relationships. Regression analyses indicated that interracial couples demonstrated a higher level of mutual IPV than monoracial White couples but a level similar to monoracial Black couples. There were significant gender…
Loneliness and aggressive behaviour. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 2, 243–252. Chief of Naval Operations. (2006, December 29). Office of...A. W., & Russell , M. L. (2006). Variables associated with intimate partner violence in a deploying military sample. Military Medicine, 171, 627–631
Cheng, Tyrone C.
This longitudinal study examined the temporal-ordered causal relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV), five mental disorders (depression, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic attack, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]), alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/ dependence, treatment seeking (from physician, counselor, and…
Wilkins, Amy C.
In this article, I argue that intimate stories are an important resource for the achievement of intersectional identities. Drawing on in-depth interviews with black college students at two predominantly white universities, I examine the stories black college women tell about interracial relationships between black men and white women. I argue that…
Simmons, Catherine A.; Lehmann, Peter; Dia, David A.
Exploring the relationship between parenting and women's use of violence the current study surveyed 106 mothers arrested for intimate partner violence (IPV) related crimes on parenting styles and attitudes toward when using violence against their partner is justified. Findings indicate parenting styles indicative of low belief in using physical…
Background Latin America has among the highest rates of intimate partner violence. While there is increasing evidence that intimate partner violence is associated with mental health problems, there is little such research for developing countries. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between Bolivian women’s experiences with physical, psychological, and sexual intimate partner violence and mental health outcomes. Methods This study analyzes data from the 2008 Bolivia Demographic and Health Survey. 10,119 married or cohabiting women ages 15–49 are included in the analysis. Probit regression models are used to assess the association between intimate partner violence and mental health, after controlling for other demographic factors and partner characteristics. The questionnaire uses selected questions from the SRQ-20 to measure symptoms of mental health problems. Results Intimate partner violence is common in Bolivia, with 47% of women experiencing some type of spousal abuse in the 12 months before the survey. Women exposed to physical spousal violence in the past year are more likely to experience symptoms of depression, anxiety, psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, and psychotic disorders, after controlling for other demographic and partner characteristics. Women who experienced sexual abuse by a partner are most likely to suffer from all mental health issues. Psychological abuse is also associated with an increased risk of experiencing symptoms of depression, anxiety, and psychogenic seizures. Women who experienced only psychological abuse report mental health problems similar to those who were physically abused. Conclusion This study demonstrates an urgent need for research on the prevalence and health consequences of psychological abuse in developing countries. Our findings highlight the need for mental health services for victims of intimate partner violence. Because physical and psychological violence are often experienced concurrently
HUGHES, TONDA L.; JOHNSON, TIMOTHY P.; STEFFEN, ALANA D.; WILSNACK, SHARON C.; EVERETT, BETHANY
Purpose Substantial research documents sexual-orientation-related mental health disparities, but relatively few studies have explored underlying causes of these disparities. The goals of this paper were to (1) understand how differences in sexual identity and victimization experiences influence risk of hazardous drinking and depression, and (2) describe variations across sexual minority subgroups. Methods We pooled data from the 2001 National Study of Health and Life Experiences of Women (NSHLEW) and the 2001 Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women (CHLEW) study to compare rates of victimization, hazardous drinking, and depression between heterosexual women and sexual minority women (SMW), and to test the relationship between number of victimization experiences and the study outcomes in each of five sexual identity subgroups. Results Rates of each of the major study variables varied substantially by sexual identity, with bisexual and mostly heterosexual women showing significantly higher risk than heterosexual women on one or both of the study outcomes. Number of victimization experiences explained some, but not all, of the risk of hazardous drinking and depression among SMW. Conclusions Although victimization plays an important role, sexual-minority-specific stressors, such as stigma and discrimination, likely also helps explain substance use and mental health disparities among SMW. PMID:26789712
Tanha, Marieh; Beck, Connie J. A.; Figueredo, Aurelio Jose; Raghavan, Chitra
Research argues that coercive control (CC) is a special case of intimate partner violence (IPV). The present study hypothesized that instead CC is the "motivator" for other types of IPV, with control of the victim as the goal. When CC fails, physical types of IPV are used. This hypothesized relationship was tested using a large matched sample of…
Bigner, J J; Jacobsen, R B
Responses of 33 gay fathers were compared with those of 33 heterosexual fathers on the Value of Children scale, an empirical measure of the reasons for wanting to become a parent. Responses of gay fathers did not differ significantly from heterosexual fathers on the majority of the items of the inventory, but differences were found on two subscales, Tradition-Continuity-Security and Social Status. Item analysis of responses shows that gay fathers may have particularly significant reasons motivating them to become parents.
The essay explores interrelations between Lesbian Theory and Queer Straight Theory. It provides a brief genealogy and an interrogation of the "discourse of queer heterosexuality." I argue that Queer Straight Theory is certainly indebted to lesbian (and) feminist critiques of institutional heterosexuality and their denaturalizations of straight and lesbian sexualities. Lesbian and Queer Straight Theories remain in disagreement, however, about notions of power and identity that shape their theoretical and political stances.
Alvarez, Carmen; Bauermeister, José A; Villarruel, Antonia M
We examined verbal sexual health communication, pleasure discussions, and physical sexual communication in relation to condom use by young adult, heterosexual Latinos (ages 18-30 years). Participants (N = 220, 51% female) were recruited in a Midwestern state. Verbal sexual health communication was positively associated with consistent condom use among men (odds ratio [OR] = 2.66, p < .05) and women (OR = 3.12, p < .05). For men, pleasure discussions were negatively associated with consistent condom use (OR = 0.21, p < .05). For women, verbal sexual health communication was positively associated with condom use at last sex (OR = 2.75, p < .05), whereas physical sexual communication was negatively associated with condom use at last sex (OR = .29, p < .05). Various aspects of sexual communication may be important in HIV-prevention programs with young Latinos. Physical sexual communication and pleasure discussions, in particular, warrant further exploration given negative relationships with condom use.
Comiford, Ashley L.; Sanderson, Wayne T.; Chesnut, Lorie; Brown, Sabrina
Abstract: Background: Suicide is the 10th leading cause of death in the United States. Furthermore, intimate partner problems are amid the top precipitating circumstances among suicide decedents. The aim of this study was to determine circumstantial associations of intimate partner problem-related suicides in suicide decedents in Kentucky. Methods: All suicides that were reported to the Kentucky Violent Death Reporting System between 2005 and 2012 were eligible for this study. Multiple logistic regression was used to explore predictors (precipitating health-related problems, life stressors, and criminal/legal issues) of intimate partner problem-related suicides. Results: Of the 4,754 suicides, included in this study, approximately 17% had intimate partner problems prior to suicide. In the adjusted analysis, mental health issues, alcohol problems, history of suicides attempts, suicides precipitated by another crime, and other legal problems increased the odds of having an intimate partner-related suicide. However, having physical health problems, prior to the suicide, decreased the odds of intimate partner-related suicide. Conclusions: These results provide insight for the development of suicide interventions for individuals with intimate partner problems by targeting risk factors that are prevalent among this population. Moreover, these results may help marriage/relationship and/or family/divorce court representatives identify individuals with intimate partner problems more at risk for suicide and alleviate the influence these suicide risk factors have on individuals experiencing Intimate partner problems. PMID:27092956
Gage, Anastasia J; Hutchinson, Paul L
This study sought to determine how power and control in intimate relationships influenced women's exposure to sexual violence. Multilevel modeling was used to determine the risk of partner sexual violence in the past 12 months among 2240 women aged 15-49 years who were currently married or cohabiting. The data were drawn from the 2000 Haiti Demographic and Health Survey. Strong positive effects on intimate partner sexual violence were found for husband's jealousy and perpetration of controlling behavior and women's endorsement of traditional norms concerning a husband's rights to beat his wife. Female dominance in decision making about purchases for daily household needs was positively associated with intimate partner sexual violence but its effects were mediated by relationship quality. The effect of wife's education on intimate partner violence was nonlinear. The analysis also showed that high community female headship rates were independently associated with higher risks of partner sexual violence. The findings highlight the importance of adopting a multidimensional approach to the measurement of power in sexual relationships and the need for programs to work at multiple levels to address gender-based norms and the structural factors that put women at increased risk of sexual violence.
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.
Little research has explored parental engagement in schools in the context of adoptive parent families or same-sex parent families. The current cross-sectional study explored predictors of parents’ self-reported school involvement, relationships with teachers, and school satisfaction, in a sample of 103 female same-sex, male same-sex, and heterosexual adoptive parent couples (196 parents) of kindergarten-age children. Parents who reported more contact by teachers about positive or neutral topics (e.g., their child’s good grades) reported more involvement and greater satisfaction with schools, regardless of family type. Parents who reported more contact by teachers about negative topics (e.g., their child’s behavior problems) reported better relationships with teachers but lower school satisfaction, regardless of family type. Regarding the broader school context, across all family types, parents who felt more accepted by other parents reported more involvement and better parent–teacher relationships; socializing with other parents was related to greater involvement. Regarding the adoption-specific variables, parents who perceived their children’s schools as more culturally sensitive were more involved and satisfied with the school, regardless of family type. Perceived cultural sensitivity mattered more for heterosexual adoptive parents’ relationships with their teachers than it did for same-sex adoptive parents. Finally, heterosexual adoptive parents who perceived high levels of adoption stigma in their children’s schools were less involved than those who perceived low levels of stigma, whereas same-sex adoptive parents who perceived high levels of stigma were more involved than those who perceived low levels of stigma. Our findings have implications for school professionals, such as school psychologists, who work with diverse families. PMID:25267169
Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z
Little research has explored parental engagement in schools in the context of adoptive parent families or same-sex parent families. The current cross-sectional study explored predictors of parents' self-reported school involvement, relationships with teachers, and school satisfaction, in a sample of 103 female same-sex, male same-sex, and heterosexual adoptive parent couples (196 parents) of kindergarten-age children. Parents who reported more contact by teachers about positive or neutral topics (e.g., their child's good grades) reported more involvement and greater satisfaction with schools, regardless of family type. Parents who reported more contact by teachers about negative topics (e.g., their child's behavior problems) reported better relationships with teachers but lower school satisfaction, regardless of family type. Regarding the broader school context, across all family types, parents who felt more accepted by other parents reported more involvement and better parent-teacher relationships; socializing with other parents was related to greater involvement. Regarding the adoption-specific variables, parents who perceived their children's schools as more culturally sensitive were more involved and satisfied with the school, regardless of family type. Perceived cultural sensitivity mattered more for heterosexual adoptive parents' relationships with their teachers than it did for same-sex adoptive parents. Finally, heterosexual adoptive parents who perceived high levels of adoption stigma in their children's schools were less involved than those who perceived low levels of stigma, whereas same-sex adoptive parents who perceived high levels of stigma were more involved than those who perceived low levels of stigma. Our findings have implications for school professionals, such as school psychologists, who work with diverse families.
Friedman, Carly K; Morgan, Elizabeth M
The present study provides a comparative analysis of sexual-minority and heterosexual emerging adult women's experiences seeking support for sexual issues from parents and friends. Participants included 229 college women (88 sexual-minority women; 141 heterosexual women), ranging from 18 to 25 years of age, who provided written responses to an inquiry about a time they went to friends and parents for support for a issue related to their sexuality. Responses indicated that the majority of participants had sought support from either a parent or a friend and that mothers and female friends were more likely involved than fathers or male friends, respectively. Sexual issues that participants reported discussing with parents and friends were inductively grouped into five categories: dating and romantic relationships, sexual behavior, sexual health, identity negotiation, and discrimination and violence. Issues that were discussed differed based on sexual orientation identity and the source of support (parent or friend); they did not differ by age. Participants generally perceived parents and friends' responses as helpful, though sexual-minority participants perceived both parents and friends' responses as less helpful than did heterosexual participants. Overall, results suggest both similarities and differences between sexual-minority and heterosexual young women's experiences seeking support for sexual issues from parents and friends.
Henderson, Alison W.; Simoni, Jane M.
Sexual satisfaction is an integral component of sexual health and well-being, yet we know little about which factors contribute to it among lesbian/bisexual women. To examine a proposed ecological model of sexual satisfaction, we conducted an internet survey of married heterosexual women and lesbian/bisexual women in committed same-sex relationships. Structural equation modeling included five final latent variables for heterosexual women and seven final latent variables for lesbian/bisexual women. Overall, results indicated that, for both groups of women, a similar constellation of factors (depressive symptoms, relationship satisfaction, sexual functioning, and social support) was related to sexual satisfaction. In lesbian/bisexual women, internalized homophobia was an additional factor. Contrary to expectations, the presence of children in the home and a history of childhood sexual abuse did not contribute significantly to the model for either group. Findings support the idea that gender socialization may influence sexual satisfaction more than socialization around sexual orientation. Additionally, given that for both groups of women relationship satisfaction explained a substantial amount of variance in sexual satisfaction, sexual concerns may be better addressed at the relationship than the individual level. PMID:18574685
Aerts, Saskia; Van Houtte, Mieke; Dewaele, Alexis; Cox, Nele; Vincke, John
This study focuses on differences in sense of belonging between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) and heterosexual students. Data from 1,745 secondary school students were collected with an online survey. Step-wise multiple regression analyses was used to investigate the relationship between sexual orientation and sense of school belonging. The results show that sexual orientation has an impact on sense of belonging for girls, but not for boys. Perceived discrimination and LGB friendliness of the school appeared to be important indicators of sense of belonging for all the respondents, irrespective of their sexual orientation.
To our knowledge, this is the first study that focuses on risk factor of urethral condyloma (UC). The subjects of our study included genital warts patients who had been diagnosed as having condyloma acuminatum of penile skin (CAPS) with/without UC. Relationship with UC of number of life time female partners, co-infection with urethritis, circumcision status, number of CAPS and wart diameter were studied by use of multivariate analysis. Co-infection with urethritis, circumcision status were risk factors of UC in heterosexual young male patients with CAPS. This information will be helpful for providing more professional counseling to patients with genital warts. PMID:27659432
Martin, Brittny A; Cui, Ming; Ueno, Koji; Fincham, Frank D
This study investigated intimate partner violence in interracial and monoracial relationships. Using a nationally representative sample, regression analyses indicated that interracial couples demonstrated a higher level of mutual IPV than monoracial white couples but a level similar to monoracial black couples. There were significant gender differences in IPV, with women reporting lower levels of victimization than men. Regarding relationship status, cohabiting couples demonstrated the highest levels of IPV and dating couples reported the lowest levels. Regarding interactions among couple racial composition, relationship status, and respondents' gender, an interaction between racial composition and relationship status was found. Implications for practitioners and directions for future research are discussed.
Clark, Jennifer B; Riggle, Ellen D B; Rostosky, Sharon S; Rothblum, Esther D; Balsam, Kimberly F
The U.S. Supreme Court decisions in U.S. v. Windsor (570 U.S. 307) and Hollingsworth v. Perry (570 U.S. 399) created a focal point for public discussion of marriage equality for same-sex couples. This article reports the results of an exploratory study of the reactions of individuals currently or previously in same-sex couple relationships and a heterosexual sibling who is currently or previously married (N = 371) to the Supreme Court decisions. Thematic content analysis was used to explore participants' responses to an open-ended question on a survey. Reactions of individuals from same-sex couples revealed the following themes: (1) longitudinal perspectives on the advancement of rights for same-sex couples; (2) emotional responses celebrating the decisions or expressing relief; (3) affirmation of their relationship or rights; (4) practical consequences of the extension of rights; and (5) minority stress related to anticipation of future prejudice or discrimination. Themes in the heterosexual siblings' responses were (1) ally support; (2) flat support without emotion or elaboration; (3) indifference to or ignorance about the decisions; and (4) disapproval of the decisions. These themes are compared and discussed in light of prior research on reactions to marriage restriction debates and marriage (in)equality and family relationships.
Malcolm, James P
There have been few investigations of sexual identity and psychological adjustment among behaviorally-bisexual married men. A critical issue is whether such men experience increased psychological adjustment if they exit their primary heterosexual relationship and assume a gay identity. Two hundred and one ever-married men (n = 201) with same-sex sexual interests and behaviors were administered the Brady and Busse (1994) gay identity development questionnaire (GIQ) and the symptom check list-90 (SCL-90) as part of a larger investigation of sexual identity development. The measurement of homosexual identity formation (HIF) using the original nominal scoring criteria for the GIQ did not adequately detail processes of HIF among respondents, and an alternative scoring system that allowed continuous, rather than stage, measurement of HIF was utilized. Psychological adjustment was found to be significantly correlated with HIF among ever-married gay-identified men. Within bisexual-identified men, no relationships between HIF and psychological adjustment were found. Future studies of HIF should clearly differentiate between gay and bisexual men. The findings suggest significant psychological gains accompany public affirmation of gay identity among self-identified gay men who have been in a previous heterosexual relationship.
Santabarbara, Todd; Erbe, Ryan; Cooper, Scott
Intimate or romantic relationships for young people today play an integral role in their health and quality of life. Between the ages of 11 and 13 students become more interested in the opposite sex and as a result they begin to develop more intimate relationships. Around this age students are learning to deal with these feelings of attraction and…
Corbett, A. Michelle; Dickson-Gómez, Julia; Hilario, Helena; Weeks, Margaret R.
Introduction Research shows that condoms are least likely to be used in primary relationships. A deeper understanding of the expectations women and men hold when entering into these relationships, as well as how decisions related to condom use and other prevention behaviors are made, is essential if we are to curb the spread of HIV. Methodology Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 25 high-risk heterosexual couples, including HIV sero-discordant couples, in Hartford, CT. Qualitative data were coded and analyzed in an iterative inductive and deductive process using Atlas.ti. Results Participants employed non-use of condoms as a strategy to find and maintain a primary relationship, establish trust and increase intimacy. Many did so while recognizing their risk of HIV/STI illustrating the importance of love and the other emotional needs primary relationships satisfy. Second, several couples described practicing negotiated safety or similar strategies as a way to minimize their HIV/STI risk. These strategies varied in potential effectiveness and included sharing sexual and/or drug use history, disclosure of prior HIV test results, and using condoms until it was decided that this was a monogamous relationship, among others. Discussion Findings suggest that men and women may choose not to use condoms as they pursue and attempt to maintain a primary relationship. HIV prevention approaches must recognize the importance of love and the needs primary relationships satisfy if they are to be considered relevant by those at greatest risk. Negotiated safety may be an important risk reduction tool for heterosexuals, particularly those in HIV-affected relationships. PMID:20444176
Green, R; Mandel, J B; Hotvedt, M E; Gray, J; Smith, L
Two types of single-parent households and their effects on children ages 3-11 years were compared. One type comprised 50 homosexual mothers and their 56 children, and the other was a group of 40 heterosexual mothers and their 48 children. There were 30 daughters and 26 sons of homosexual mothers and 28 daughters and 20 sons of heterosexual mothers. The sexual identity and social relationships of the children were assessed in relation to the sexual orientation of the mothers. The samples consisted of families from rural and urban areas in 10 American states. All have lived without adult males (18 years or older) in the household for a minimum of 2 years (average 4). Families with heterosexual mothers were matched to families with homosexual mothers on age and race of mother; length of mother and child separation from father; educational level and income of mother; and number, age, and sex of children. Data are reported from childrens' tests designed to provide information on general intelligence, core-morphologic sexual identity, gender-role preferences, family and peer group relationships, and adjustment to the single-parent family. No significant differences were found between the two types of households for boys and few significant differences for girls. Concerns that being raised by a homosexual mother might produce sexual identity conflict and peer group stigmatization were not supported by the research findings. Data also revealed more similarities than differences in parenting experiences, marital history, and present living situations of the two groups of mothers. The postulated compromised parental fitness of lesbian mothers, commonly asserted in child custody cases, is not supported by these data.
Kubicek, Katrina; McNeeley, Miles; Collins, Shardae
Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) continue to experience higher rates of HIV infection than other populations. Recently, there have been recommendations to consider HIV prevention at the dyadic or couple level. Using a dyadic approach to HIV prevention would also address an unaddressed concern related to intimate partner violence (IPV) among YMSM. Although research on IPV among YMSM is still in its infancy, great strides have been made in the past 10 years to describe the prevalence and related correlates of IPV within older adult same-sex relationships. These studies have found rates of IPV among MSM to be similar to rates among heterosexual women, and to be on the rise. The present study is designed to provide insight into how power is conceptualized within YMSM relationships and the role it may play in relationship challenges. This study draws from qualitative data collected from 11 focus groups with 86 YMSM and 26 individual semi-structured interviews to understand relationship challenges and the experiences of YMSM involved in partner violence. YMSM described relationship power as stemming from numerous sources including sexual positioning, gender roles, education, income, prior relationship experiences, and internalized homophobia. The findings have a number of implications for service providers and program design. Interventionists and other researchers need to consider power dynamics and other contextual elements of IPV before effective interventions can be developed for YMSM and other sexual minority populations.
The anterior hypothalamus of the brain participates in the regulation of male-typical sexual behavior. The volumes of four cell groups in this region [interstitial nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus (INAH) 1, 2, 3, and 4] were measured in postmortem tissue from three subject groups: women, men who were presumed to be heterosexual, and homosexual men. No differences were found between the groups in the volumes of INAH 1, 2, or 4. As has been reported previously, INAH 3 was more than twice as large in the heterosexual men as in the women. It was also, however, more than twice as large in the heterosexual men as in the homosexual men. This finding indicates that INAH is dimorphic with sexual orientation, at least in men, and suggests that sexual orientation has a biological substrate.
Zou, Christopher; Andersen, Judith P
Few studies have examined the rates of childhood victimization among individuals who identify as "mostly heterosexual" (MH) in comparison to other sexual orientation groups. For the present study, we utilized a more comprehensive assessment of adverse childhood experiences to extend prior literature by examining if MH individuals' experience of victimization more closely mirrors that of sexual minority individuals or heterosexuals. Heterosexual (n = 422) and LGB (n = 561) and MH (n = 120) participants were recruited online. Respondents completed surveys about their adverse childhood experiences, both maltreatment by adults (e.g., childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and childhood household dysfunction) and peer victimization (i.e., verbal and physical bullying). Specifically, MH individuals were 1.47 times more likely than heterosexuals to report childhood victimization experiences perpetrated by adults. These elevated rates were similar to LGB individuals. Results suggest that rates of victimization of MH groups are more similar to the rates found among LGBs, and are significantly higher than heterosexual groups. Our results support prior research that indicates that an MH identity falls within the umbrella of a sexual minority, yet little is known about unique challenges that this group may face in comparison to other sexual minority groups.
Phelan, J E
A nonrandom, nonclinical t-test comparison study of 30 homosexual and 30 heterosexual men was conducted to describe their memories of their fathers' behaviors toward them. Previous studies had identified the "classical pattern," that is, the fathers of homosexual men were considered cold, hostile, and distant. Those studies were sparked by Freudian theory which postulated the same. Therefore, a brief revisitation has been conducted. Again, the findings supported the earlier, that is, the homosexual men recalled their fathers as more rejecting and less loving than the heterosexual men.
Elliott, Barbara A
Comments on the article, "Coping with intimate partner violence: Qualitative findings from the study of dynamics of husband to wife abuse," by Foster et al., (see record 2015-24688-001). However, most intimate partner violence relationships do not escalate to these levels, and the partnerships continue over time. Questions remain regarding how we can understand the dynamics of these continuing relationships while also effectively enhancing the safety of these women and offering them support. Fortunately, the research of Foster and colleagues reported in this issue begins to answer some of these questions. The authors of this study describe how women living with violent partners report various coping approaches that help them maintain their circumstances and survive each day. The results of this study describe the useful boundaries of the COPE Inventory in these settings, add insight to our understanding of IPV family dynamics, and provide information to support clinicians who serve these women.
Zeoli, April M; Malinski, Rebecca; Turchan, Brandon
The use of firearms in intimate partner violence (IPV) is widely recognized as an important public health threat. However, what we know about the risks of firearm access on IPV outcomes is limited. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to determine the state of knowledge on 1) the risks of firearm access and use in IPV and 2) the effectiveness of interventions designed specifically to reduce firearm violence in intimate relationships. Only studies published in English in peer-reviewed journals from 1990 through 2014 were included. Results of the review suggest that, when violent intimates have access to firearms, IPV increases in severity and deadliness; however, increases in severity may not be due to firearm use. Additionally, statutes prohibiting persons under domestic violence restraining orders from accessing firearms are associated with reductions in intimate partner homicide, but certain provisions of these laws and their enforcement may impact their effectiveness. Future research should focus on elucidating the link between firearm access and increased IPV severity and on investigating whether and which specific provisions of domestic violence restraining order laws impact the laws' effectiveness. Additionally, more evaluations of initiatives designed to improve the enforcement of domestic violence restraining order firearm prohibitions are needed.
Konishi, Chiaki; Rose, Hilary A.; Homma, Yuko
This study explored the relationships between the existence of and length of time since implementation of school-based Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) and explicit anti-homophobic bullying policies in secondary schools across British Columbia, Canada, with experiences of anti-gay discrimination, suicidal ideation and attempts among lesbian, gay, bisexual (LGB), mostly heterosexual, and exclusively heterosexual students. Analyses of the province-wide random cluster-stratified 2008 B.C. Adolescent Health Survey (n =21,70 8) compared students in schools with GSAs or policies implemented at least 3 years, and less than 3 years, with those in schools without GSAs or anti-homophobia policies, using multinomial logistic regression, separately by gender. LGB students had lower odds of past year discrimination, suicidal thoughts and attempts, mostly when policies and GSAs had been in place for 3+ years; policies had a less consistent effect than GSAs. Heterosexual boys, but not girls, also had lower odds of suicidal ideation and attempts in schools with longer-established anti-homophobic bullying policies and GSAs. Given consistently higher documented risk for suicidal ideation and attempts among LGB and mostly heterosexual adolescents, prevention efforts should be a priority, and school-level interventions, such as GSAs, may be an effective approach to reducing this risk, while also offering prevention benefits for heterosexual boys. PMID:26793284
Saewyc, Elizabeth M; Konishi, Chiaki; Rose, Hilary A; Homma, Yuko
This study explored the relationships between the existence of and length of time since implementation of school-based Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) and explicit anti-homophobic bullying policies in secondary schools across British Columbia, Canada, with experiences of anti-gay discrimination, suicidal ideation and attempts among lesbian, gay, bisexual (LGB), mostly heterosexual, and exclusively heterosexual students. Analyses of the province-wide random cluster-stratified 2008 B.C. Adolescent Health Survey (n =21,70 8) compared students in schools with GSAs or policies implemented at least 3 years, and less than 3 years, with those in schools without GSAs or anti-homophobia policies, using multinomial logistic regression, separately by gender. LGB students had lower odds of past year discrimination, suicidal thoughts and attempts, mostly when policies and GSAs had been in place for 3+ years; policies had a less consistent effect than GSAs. Heterosexual boys, but not girls, also had lower odds of suicidal ideation and attempts in schools with longer-established anti-homophobic bullying policies and GSAs. Given consistently higher documented risk for suicidal ideation and attempts among LGB and mostly heterosexual adolescents, prevention efforts should be a priority, and school-level interventions, such as GSAs, may be an effective approach to reducing this risk, while also offering prevention benefits for heterosexual boys.
Campbell, Doris Williams; Sharps, Phyllis W; Gary, Faye A; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Lopez, Loretta M
Violence against African American women, specifically intimate partner abuse, has a significant impact on their health and well being. Intimate partner femicide and near fatal intimate partner femicide are the major causes of premature death and disabling injuries for African American women. Yet, despite this, there is a paucity of research and interventions specific and culturally relevant for these women. This article focuses on issues relevant to intimate partner violence and abuse against African American women by examining existing empirical studies of prevalence and health outcomes of intimate partner violence against women in general, plus what limited research there is about African American women, specifically. It includes a discussion of specific recommendations for research, practice, education, and policy to reduce and prevent intimate partner violence against African American women.
Harvey, S. Marie; Kraft, Joan Marie; West, Stephen G.; Taylor, Aaron B.; Pappas-DeLuca, Katina A.; Beckman, Linda J.
This study examines an intervention for heterosexual couples to prevent human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infections. It also evaluates the effect of the intervention, which is based on current models of health behavior change, on intermediate outcomes (individual and relationship factors) and consistency of condom use. Eligible…
Leone, Janel M.
This study examined risk of suicidal behavior among low-income, African American women (N = 369) in three types of male intimate relationships--intimate terrorism (IT) (i.e., physical violence used within a general pattern of coercive control), situational couple violence (SCV; i.e., episodic physical violence that is not part of a general pattern…
Levesque, Christine; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Cloutier, Paula; Dandurand, Cathy
Several theoretical models for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) have been proposed. Despite an abundance of theoretical speculation, few empirical studies have examined the impact of intimate relationship functioning on NSSI. The present study examines the influence of romantic attachment and received intimate partner violence (physical,…
Cowdery, Randi S; Scarborough, Norma; Knudson-Martin, Carmen; Seshadri, Gita; Lewis, Monique E; Mahoney, Anne Rankin
When race and gender intersect, understanding gendered power may be complicated. The authors first describe the historical context that serves as important background for understanding gender and power in heterosexual African American relationships. Then they show how family solidarity in the face of social injustices often overrides gender equality as a goal for middle class African American couples with young children. The findings illustrate pragmatic equality within couple relationships and the willful suspension of gender roles for the well-being of the family as a whole. However, gendered power impacts couples in a variety of ways. Sometimes a woman's fear that the man might leave, for example, diminished her power in the relationship. Often a woman accommodated a man's greater power in the family because of her perception that he was often denied power in the larger society. Societal discrimination of women was less visible to couples. Implications for practice are provided.
Parent, Mike C.; Talley, Amelia E.; Schwartz, Esther N.; Hancock, David W.
Openness and self-exploration have been associated with myriad benefits. Within the realm of sexuality, sexual exploration may be 1 facet of openness and self-exploration that yields benefits. Prior literature suggests that such exploration may have benefits for sexual orientation minority persons, though limited research has investigated the benefits of sexual exploration for heterosexuals. The present study used data from 346 adult women (185 exclusively heterosexual, 161 not exclusively heterosexual) to investigate the role of sexual exploration as a mediator between sexual orientation status and positivity toward sex. Results of a structural equation modeling analysis supported mediation of the relationship between sexual orientation and sexual positivity via sexual exploration. Implications for future research and clinical interventions are presented. PMID:26380352
Masters, N. Tatiana; Casey, Erin; Beadnell, Blair; Morrison, Diane M.; Hoppe, Marilyn J.; Wells, Elizabeth A.
Heterosexual men’s sexual safety behavior is important to controlling the U.S. epidemic of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. While sexual safety is often treated as a single behavior, such as condom use, it can also be conceptualized as resulting from multiple factors. Doing so can help us achieve more nuanced understandings of sexual risk and safety within partner-related contexts. We used Latent Class Analysis with data collected online from 18-25 year old heterosexually active U.S. men (n = 432) to empirically derive a typology of the patterns of sexual safety strategies they employ. Indicators were sexual risk reduction strategies used in the past year with the most recent female sex partner: Condom use, discussing sexual histories, STI testing, agreeing to be monogamous, and discussing birth control. We identified four subgroups: Risk Takers (12%), Condom Reliers (25%), Multistrategists (28%), and Relationship Reliers (35%). Partner-related context factors – number of past-year sex partners, relationship commitment, and sexual concurrency – predicted subgroup membership. Findings support tailoring STI prevention to men’s sexual risk-safety subgroups. Interventions should certainly continue to encourage condom use, but should also include information on how partner-related context factors and alternate sexual safety strategies can help men reduce risk for themselves and their partners. PMID:25256019
Masters, N Tatiana; Casey, Erin; Beadnell, Blair; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J; Wells, Elizabeth A
Heterosexual men's sexual safety behavior is important to controlling the U.S. epidemic of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). While sexual safety is often treated as a single behavior, such as condom use, it can also be conceptualized as resulting from multiple factors. Doing so can help us achieve more nuanced understandings of sexual risk and safety within partner-related contexts. We used latent class analysis with data collected online from 18- to 25-year-old heterosexually active U.S. men (n = 432) to empirically derive a typology of the patterns of sexual safety strategies they employed. Indicators were sexual risk-reduction strategies used in the past year with the most recent female sex partner: condom use, discussing sexual histories, STI testing, agreeing to be monogamous, and discussing birth control. We identified four subgroups: Risk Takers (12%), Condom Reliers (25%), Multistrategists (28%), and Relationship Reliers (35%). Partner-related context factors--number of past-year sex partners, relationship commitment, and sexual concurrency--predicted subgroup membership. Findings support tailoring STI prevention to men's sexual risk-safety subgroups. Interventions should certainly continue to encourage condom use but should also include information on how partner-related context factors and alternate sexual safety strategies can help men reduce risk for themselves and their partners.
Pérez-Jiménez, David; Seal, David W; Serrano-García, Irma
Although HIV prevention interventions for women are efficacious, long-term behavior change maintenance within power-imbalanced heterosexual relationships has been difficult. To explore the feasibility, content, and format of an HIV intervention for Latino couples, the authors conducted 13 focus groups with HIV/AIDS researchers, service providers, and heterosexual men and women in Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and Mexico. Reasons that participants thought that men should be involved in prevention efforts included promotion of shared responsibility, creation of a safe environment for open conversation about sex, and increased sexual negotiation skills. Perceived barriers to men's involvement included cultural taboos, sexual conservatism associated with Catholicism and machismo, and power-imbalanced relationships. Participants stressed the need for recruitment of men within naturally occurring settings or by influential community leaders. Participants indicated that couples-level interventions would be successful if they used strong coed facilitators, included both unigender and mixed-gender discussion opportunities, and addressed personally meaningful topics. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Pérez-Jiménez, David; Seal, David W.; Serrano-García, Irma
Although HIV prevention interventions for women are efficacious, long-term behavior change maintenance within power-imbalanced heterosexual relationships has been difficult. To explore the feasibility, content, and format of an HIV intervention for Latino couples, the authors conducted 13 focus groups with HIV/AIDS researchers, service providers, and heterosexual men and women in Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and Mexico. Reasons that participants thought that men should be involved in prevention efforts included promotion of shared responsibility, creation of a safe environment for open conversation about sex, and increased sexual negotiation skills. Perceived barriers to men’s involvement included cultural taboos, sexual conservatism associated with Catholicism and machismo, and power-imbalanced relationships. Participants stressed the need for recruitment of men within naturally occurring settings or by influential community leaders. Participants indicated that couples-level interventions would be successful if they used strong coed facilitators, included both unigender and mixed-gender discussion opportunities, and addressed personally meaningful topics. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:19209976
Savin-Williams, Ritch C.; Vrangalova, Zhana
We reviewed empirical evidence regarding whether mostly heterosexual exists as a sexual orientation distinct from two adjacent groups on a sexual continuum--exclusively heterosexual and substantially bisexual. We addressed the question: Do mostly heterosexuals show a unique profile of sexual and romantic characteristics that distinguishes them as…
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.
This study examines predictors of social support and mental health among 36 lesbian and 39 heterosexual couples who were waiting to adopt. Lesbian preadoptive partners perceived less support from family than heterosexual partners but similar levels of support from friends. Lesbian and heterosexual partners reported similar levels of well-being.…
Scheidl, Stefan; Taghavi, Shahrokh; Reiter, Ursula; Tröster, Natascha; Kovacs, Gabor; Rienmüller, Rainer; Lang, Susanna; Klepetko, Walter; Olschewski, Horst
Pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma is a rare tumor of the cardiovascular system. Intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary valve itself has not been described. Embolization into pulmonary arteries originating from the pulmonary valve intimal sarcoma can mimic chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and mislead the diagnosis. We present and discuss a patient initially diagnosed as chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, treated by pulmonary endarterectomy. After 24 months, a tumor of the pulmonary valve was detected by echocardiography. The patient underwent removal and replacement of the pulmonary valve. Histology revealed pulmonary valve intimal sarcoma.
Pomerantz, Sherry C.; Vergare, Michael J.
As the human immunodeficiency virus spreads beyond homosexuals and intravenous drug users into the heterosexual community, there is heightened interest in the sexual behavior of sexually active young adults. There is little information on young adult black males, who may be at increased risk, since blacks in this country are contracting Acquired…
Snowden, Robert J; Gray, Nicola S
Patterns of genital arousal to sexual stimuli are somewhat different between men and women. Heterosexual males and homosexual males show clear category specific arousal that is consistent with their self-reported sexual preference. However, heterosexual women do not show this category specificity. In the present study, we attempted to measure a person's automatic appraisals of stimuli with respect to the concept of sex via the use of implicit measures (the Implicit Association Test and the priming task). In three experiments, we showed that heterosexual females did not show a sex-related category specific response in favor of male versus female stimuli. However, this lack of specificity was not due to a lack of sex-related appraisals, but by equal appraisals of both male and female stimuli. On the other hand, heterosexual men, homosexual men, and homosexual women all showed automatic sex-related appraisals of stimuli that were category specific and in line with their self-reported sexual preference. The study shows difference in the pattern of sexual interest between genders at the earliest stages of the evaluation of a stimulus.
Hirsch, Jameson K.; Ellis, Jon B.
Suicide rates among older adolescents is a major concern for researchers. A homosexual lifestyle, with its additional stresses, may erode one's adaptive characteristics. This study sought to identify and compare suicidal behavior and adaptive characteristics in homosexual and heterosexual adolescents. Sixty-two individuals were divided into two…
Walls, N. Eugene; Griffin, Rachel; Arnold-Renicker, Heather; Burson, Michael; Johnston, Clare; Moorman, Nichole; Nelsen, Jenny; Schutte, Elsa Campos
This study uses qualitative data from student Web logs (blogs) that were required for a graduate social work course addressing issues of privilege to examine the learning journey trajectory for students in a master's of social work program who participated in a single-identity caucus examining heterosexual privilege. The study includes reflections…
Woodford, Michael R.; Silverschanz, Perry; Swank, Eric; Scherrer, Kristin S.; Raiz, Lisa
This study identifies the predictors of U.S. heterosexual undergraduate and graduate college students' attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people as a group rather than toward individual identities. Findings suggest that affirming LGBT attitudes are most strongly associated with liberal political ideology and whether…
Background Although intimate partner sexual aggression has been shown to be associated with adverse mental health outcomes, there is scant information about sexual aggression in Chinese intimate relationships in general and about its mental health impact in particular. This article aimed to investigate sexual aggression in Chinese intimate relationships, including the use of force or threat of force and non-physical coercive tactics in unwanted sex. Methods The quantitative and qualitative data used in this paper were drawn from a prospective cohort study conducted in Hong Kong between September 2010 and September 2012. A total of 745 Chinese women aged 18 or older who had been in an intimate relationship in the preceding 12 months were recruited from sites in all districts of Hong Kong. Multiple logistic regression analysis, ordinary linear regression, and t-tests were used in quantitative analysis. Directed content analysis was used to analyze the transcripts of 59 women who revealed experiences of intimate partner sexual aggression in individual in-depth interviews. Results Of the 745 Chinese women in the study, 348 (46.7%) had experienced intimate partner physical violence in the past year, and 179 (24%) had experienced intimate partner physical violence and sexual aggression in the past year. Intimate partner sexual aggression significantly predicted PTSD and depressive symptoms after controlling for intimate partner physical violence. Among the 179 women reporting intimate partner physical violence and sexual coercion in the past year, 75 indicated that their partners used force or threat of force to make them have sex, and 104 of them reported that they gave in to sex because of non-physical coercive tactics used by their partners. Qualitative data revealed a variety of non-physical coercive tactics with different degrees of subtlety used to coerce women into unwanted sex with their partners. Chinese women experiencing physically forced sex had
Stockman, Jamila K; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Celentano, David D
Objectives Recent evidence suggests that it is important to consider behavioral-specific sexual violence measures in assessing women’s risk behaviors. This study investigated associations of history and types of sexual coercion on HIV risk behaviors in a nationally representative sample of heterosexually active American women. Methods Analyses were based on 5,857 women aged 18–44 participating in the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth. Types of lifetime sexual coercion included: victim given alcohol or drugs, verbally pressured, threatened with physical injury, and physically injured. Associations with HIV risk behaviors were assessed using logistic regression. Results Of 5,857 heterosexually active women, 16.4% reported multiple sex partners and 15.3% reported substance abuse. A coerced first sexual intercourse experience and coerced sex after sexual debut were independently associated with multiple sex partners and substance abuse; the highest risk was observed for women reporting a coerced first sexual intercourse experience. Among types of sexual coercion, alcohol or drug use at coerced sex was independently associated with multiple sex partners and substance abuse. Conclusions Our findings suggest that public health strategies are needed to address the violent components of heterosexual relationships. Future research should utilize longitudinal and qualitative research to characterize the relationship between continuums of sexual coercion and HIV risk. PMID:19734802
Duggan, Scott J; McCreary, Donald R
This Internet research project examined the relationship between consumption of muscle and fitness magazines and/or various indices of pornography and body satisfaction in gay and heterosexual men. Participants (N = 101) were asked to complete body satisfaction questionnaires that addressed maladaptive eating attitudes, the drive for muscularity, and social physique anxiety. Participants also completed scales measuring self-esteem, depression, and socially desirable responding. Finally, respondents were asked about their consumption of muscle and fitness magazines and pornography. Results indicated that viewing and purchasing of muscle and fitness magazines correlated positively with levels of body dissatisfaction for both gay and heterosexual men. Pornography exposure was positively correlated with social physique anxiety for gay men. The limitations of this study and directions for future research are outlined.
Lundgren, Rebecka; Amin, Avni
Intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual violence (SV) are widespread among adolescents and place them on a lifelong trajectory of violence, either as victims or perpetrators. The aim of this review was to identify effective approaches to prevent adolescent IPV and SV and to identify critical knowledge gaps. The interventions reviewed in this article reflect the global focus on interventions addressing violence perpetrated by men against women in the context of heterosexual relationships. Interventions for girls and boys (10-19 years) were identified through electronic searches for peer-reviewed and gray literature such as reports and research briefs. Studies were excluded if they were published before 1990 or did not disaggregate participants and results by age. Programs were classified as "effective," "emerging," "ineffective," or "unclear" based on the strength of evidence, generalizability of results to developing country settings, and replication beyond the initial pilot. Programs were considered "effective" if they were evaluated with well-designed studies, which controlled for threats to validity through randomization of participants. A review of 142 articles and documents yielded 61 interventions, which aimed to prevent IPV and SV among adolescents. These were categorized as "parenting" (n = 8), "targeted interventions for children and adolescents subjected to maltreatment" (n = 3), "school based" (n = 31; including 10 interventions to prevent sexual assault among university students), "community based" (n = 16), and "economic empowerment" (n = 2). The rigor of the evaluations varies greatly. A good number have relatively weak research designs, short follow-up periods, and low or unreported retention rates. Overall, there is a lack of robust standardized measures for behavioral outcomes. Three promising approaches emerge. First, school-based dating violence interventions show considerable success. However, they have only been implemented in high
Zou, Christopher; Andersen, Judith P.
Few studies have examined the rates of childhood victimization among individuals who identify as “mostly heterosexual” (MH) in comparison to other sexual orientation groups. For the present study, we utilized a more comprehensive assessment of adverse childhood experiences to extend prior literature by examining if MH individuals’ experience of victimization more closely mirrors that of sexual minority individuals or heterosexuals. Heterosexual (n = 422) and LGB (n = 561) and MH (n = 120) participants were recruited online. Respondents completed surveys about their adverse childhood experiences, both maltreatment by adults (e.g., childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and childhood household dysfunction) and peer victimization (i.e., verbal and physical bullying). Specifically, MH individuals were 1.47 times more likely than heterosexuals to report childhood victimization experiences perpetrated by adults. These elevated rates were similar to LGB individuals. Results suggest that rates of victimization of MH groups are more similar to the rates found among LGBs, and are significantly higher than heterosexual groups. Our results support prior research that indicates that an MH identity falls within the umbrella of a sexual minority, yet little is known about unique challenges that this group may face in comparison to other sexual minority groups. PMID:26444428
Schmidt, Megan R; Lisco, Claire G; Parrott, Dominic J; Tharp, Andra T
The present study sought to examine the interactive effects of an external locus of control and interaction in a negative peer group climate on men's perpetration of physical aggression and infliction of injury toward their female intimate partners. Participants were 206 heterosexual males recruited from the metro-Atlanta community who completed self-report measures of external locus of control, involvement in a negative peer group climate, and physical aggression and infliction of injury against intimate partners during the past 12 months. Negative peer group climate was conceptualized as a peer group that displays behavior which may instigate aggressive norms, attitudes, and behaviors. Results indicated that men with an external locus of control were more likely to perpetrate physical aggression toward and inflict injury on their intimate partners if they reported high, but not low, involvement in a negative peer group climate. These results extend current research suggesting external locus of control as a risk factor for intimate partner aggression by highlighting the impact of negative peer groups. Implications and future intervention research are discussed.
Crowell, Katherine A; Galliher, Renee V; Dehlin, John; Bradshaw, William S
A nation-wide sample of 634 previous or current members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS), non-heterosexual adults (ages 18-33), were surveyed to examine how specific aspects of minority stress are individually and collectively associated with depression, and how such associations differ across sex, sexual orientation, and level of affiliation with the LDS church. When five stressors were examined simultaneously, need for others' acceptance (NA) was the strongest predictor of depression, followed by internalized homophobia (IH). All minority stress factors were found to be individually predictive of depression and did not differ across sex or sexual orientation subgroups. Differences were observed, however, when considering current LDS status, such that participants who were no longer affiliated with the LDS church reported stronger relationships between some minority stressors and depression. Implications of religious identity salience as a potential mediator of relationships between specific stressors and depression are discussed.
Sánchez-Fuentes, María del Mar; Santos-Iglesias, Pablo
The study of sexual satisfaction in Spain is scarce and has proceeded atheoretically. This study aimed at examining sexual satisfaction in 197 Spanish heterosexual couples based on the Interpersonal Exchange Model of Sexual Satisfaction. Men and women reported equal satisfaction. Men's sexual satisfaction was predicted by their own relationship satisfaction, balance of sexual rewards and costs, and comparison level of sexual rewards and costs. Women's sexual satisfaction was predicted by their own relationship satisfaction, balance of sexual rewards and costs, comparison level of sexual rewards and costs, equality of sexual costs, and their partner's balance of sexual rewards and costs. These results provide with a better understanding of the mechanisms that explain sexual satisfaction in Spanish couples. Implications for research and therapy are discussed.
Cook, Rebecca J; Dickens, Bernard M
Intimate partner violence (IPV), usually men's violence against women, appears universal. It may be associated with pregnancy, but this may be because pregnant women receive more medical attention. Violence may cause bruises, abrasions, and cuts, but its extremes include hospitalization, death, and suicide. IPV is often disclosed when women are asked why they feel in poor health or depressed. A legal dilemma arises when healthcare providers consider that intervention such as law-enforcement is appropriate, but patients refuse approval. Patients may fatalistically accept violence, or fear loss of support for their children and themselves if their partners are held in custody. Legal reforms, such as punishing spousal rape, may provide some protection of women's autonomy. Ethical dilemmas concern intervention without patients' approval, and whether treating violent injuries without taking preventive action breaches the principle to Do No Harm. Professional advocacy and social action have been urged to expose and reduce IPV.
Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Reczek, Corinne; Umberson, Debra
Research on intimate relationship dynamics around depression has primarily focused on heterosexual couples. This body of work shows that wives are more likely than husbands to offer support to a depressed spouse. Moreover, when wives are depressed, they are more likely than husbands to try and shield their spouse from the stress of their own depression. Yet, previous research has not examined depression and relationship dynamics in gay and lesbian couples. We analyze in-depth interviews with 26 gay and lesbian couples (N = 52 individuals) in which one or both partners reported depression. We find evidence that dominant gender scripts are both upheld and challenged within gay and lesbian couples, providing important insight into how gender operates in relation to depression within same-sex contexts. Our results indicate that most gay and lesbian partners offer support to a depressed partner, yet lesbian couples tend to follow a unique pattern in that they provide support both as the non-depressed and depressed partner. Support around depression is sometimes viewed as improving the relationship, but if the support is intensive or rejected, it is often viewed as contributing to relationship strain. Support is also sometimes withdrawn by the non-depressed partner because of caregiver exhaustion or the perception that the support is unhelpful. This study points to the importance of considering depression within gay and lesbian relational contexts, revealing new ways support sustains and strains intimate partnerships. We emphasize the usefulness of deploying couple-level approaches to better understand depression in sexual minority populations. PMID:26523788
Hays, D; Samuels, A
Twenty-one heterosexual women who were or had been married to bisexual or homosexual men and had children by them responded to a 28-page questionnaire that explored their experiences as wives and mothers. All of the married women expected a lasting, monogamous marriage. Only three had partial knowledge of their husband's sexual orientation before marriage. All of them went through a painful grief reaction when they learned that their husbands had emotional or sexual, or both, attachments to other men. The suffering was aggravated by feeling deceived or stupid for not having guessed the truth. What made it difficult for them to seek support from family and friends was the fear of encountering social disapproval or ostracism. They were afraid for themselves, their husbands, and their children. At the time of the study 11 of the 21 women were still married and living with their husbands, but most of them felt unsure that the marriage would last. Ten were in transition, separated, or divorced. Only three of the still married wives had complete confidence in the future stability of their relationships. These marriages were characterized by good communications, husbands who considered themselves bisexual, and an open marriage contract whereby wives could have heterosexual affairs. Findings cannot be generalized from this small convenience sample, but will hopefully encourage further research. The writers are also soliciting more subjects to enlarge the sample.
Sharps, P W; Campbell, J; Campbell, D; Gary, F; Webster, D
The purpose of this study was to examine alcohol use by victims and perpetrators as a risk factor for intimate partner violence and femicide. A case control design was used to describe alcohol use among Femicide/Attempted Femicide victims (n = 380), Abused Controls (n = 384) and Non-Abused Controls (n = 376), and their intimate partners. Telephone interviews of proxies (family members or friends) of femicide victims and actual survivors of attempted femicide were conducted in 10 cities. The purpose of the interviews was to gather information about relationship violence and alcohol use by femicide victims, attempted femicide survivors, and their perpetrators. Telephone interviews of controls, recruited from the same cities by random digit dialing, were also conducted. Perpetrator problem drinking was associated with an eight fold increase in partner abuse (e beta = 8.24, p < .0001) and a two fold increased risk of femicide/attempted femicide (e beta = 2.39, p = .001), controlling for demographic differences.
Capaldi, Deborah M.; Knoble, Naomi B.; Shortt, Joann Wu; Kim, Hyoun K.
A systematic review of risk factors for intimate partner violence was conducted. Inclusion criteria included publication in a peer-reviewed journal, a representative community sample or a clinical sample with a control-group comparison, a response rate of at least 50%, use of a physical or sexual violence outcome measure, and control of confounding factors in the analyses. A total of 228 articles were included (170 articles with adult and 58 with adolescent samples). Organized by levels of a dynamic developmental systems perspective, risk factors included: (a) contextual characteristics of partners (demographic, neighborhood, community and school factors), (b) developmental characteristics and behaviors of the partners (e.g., family, peer, psychological/behavioral, and cognitive factors), and (c) relationship influences and interactional patterns. Comparisons to a prior review highlight developments in the field in the past 10 years. Recommendations for intervention and policy along with future directions for intimate partner violence (IPV) risk factor research are presented. PMID:22754606
Introduction Research on the intimate partnerships of female sex workers (FSWs) tends to focus on the risks associated with these relationships. This paper takes as its starting point that the situation of FSWs is better understood by including knowledge of the benefits of their intimate partnerships. Specifically, we employ the conceptual framework provided by emergent research examining intimacy as a complex fusion of affective and instrumental dimensions among sex workers. This perspective allows us to frame information about FSWs’ intimate partnerships within a behaviour-structural approach that is helpful for identifying how intimate partnerships can be a source of both benefit as well as increased risk to FSWs. Methods Our results are based on a mixed-methods study carried out in the summer of 2011 in Kibera, Kenya. We conducted face-to-face interviews (n=30) with a non-probability sample of FSWs stratified by age who self-identified as Human Immune Virus positive (HIV+). We asked about participants’ involvement in current and past intimate partnerships, and whether these relationships had a positive or negative impact on their health and well‒being. Results Participants currently in intimate partnerships had fewer clients and thus lower incomes than those without intimate partnerships. Participants presently with partners were also more likely to receive some financial support from partners, to report lower intimate partner violence, and to narrate higher partner emotional support and greater assistance with medications. These participants were also more likely to have disclosed their sex work and HIV+ statuses to their partners. Intimate partnerships, on the other hand, showed increased risk of economic vulnerability and emotional dependence for FSWs. This became especially problematic for those participants in fragile relationships. Despite these variations, none of the differences between the two groups were statistically significant. Conclusions
Stöckl, Heidi; Gardner, Frances
Intimate partner violence during pregnancy is receiving increased attention because of its high prevalence and health effects. Still, little is known about women’s perceptions on how their pregnancy influences the context in which intimate partner violence occurs. We conducted 19 in-depth interviews with women who experienced intimate partner violence around the time of pregnancy. Women clearly perceived pregnancy as a turning point, because it created new expectations and a feeling of being overwhelmed. This led to violence by reducing women’s acceptance of their partner’s unemployment, alcohol abuse and lack of relationship commitment or by increasing women’s vulnerability because they felt too young to raise a child alone. Pregnancy also led to violence by bringing up repressed childhood memories or by taking attention away from their partners. Understanding how pregnancy influences the context in which intimate partner violence occurs is important to provide abused, pregnant women with the services they need. PMID:23905872
Smith, Marilyn; Nunley, Barbara; Martin, Evelyn
Despite physical, emotional, verbal, and sexual abuse from their partner, many women remain in an abusive relationship, often proclaiming to love the one who is hurting them. Nineteen females who had experienced intimate partner violence were interviewed and asked to share their experiences and describe their meaning of love. An analysis of the transcripts was done using qualitative content analysis. With this approach, the contents of the verbal data were summarized and arranged in three major categories: (1) What love is not; (2) Attributes of a loving relationship; and (3) Attachment to the relationship. The findings demonstrate a woman's clear recognition of being in an abusive relationship, yearning to be truly loved, but often finding herself unable to detach from the relationship.
Smith, Carolyn A.; Ireland, Timothy O.; Park, Aely; Elwyn, Laura; Thornberry, Terence P.
This study focuses on intergenerational continuity in violent partner relationships. We investigate whether exposure to caregiver intimate partner violence (IPV) during adolescence leads to increased involvement in IPV during early adulthood (age 21-23) and adulthood (age 29-31). We also investigate whether this relationship differs by gender.…
Fusco, Rachel A.
The number of interracial couples in the U.S. is growing, but they often receive little support. Although previous studies have explored the relationship between low social support and decreased relationship satisfaction in interracial couples, there are few studies on intimate partner violence (IPV) in these couples. To better understand IPV in…
Wilkinson, Wayne W; Sagarin, Brad J
Previous research on heterosexuals' attitudes toward gays is characterized by a focus on negative attitudes and minimal use of behavioral dependent variables. In an attempt to rectify this situation, the present study explored the psychological antecedents of heterosexuals' pro-gay activism behavior in an undergraduate sample using the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991). Findings suggest that intentions predict activism behavior (in the form of signing an online petition supporting the construction of a new lesbian, gay, and bisexual resource center on their campus). In addition, attitudes toward the possible outcomes of the behavior, attitudes toward the behavior itself, and self-identity were found to predict intentions. Directions for future research on pro-gay activism are discussed.
Harris, Christine R
Several theorists have claimed that men are innately more upset by a mate's sexual infidelity and women are more upset by a mate's emotional infidelity because the sexes faced different adaptive problems (for men, cuckoldry; for women, losing a mate's resources). The present work examined this theory of jealousy as a specific innate module in 196 adult men and women of homosexual and heterosexual orientations. As in previous work, heterosexuals' responses to a forced-choice question about hypothetical infidelity yielded a gender difference. However no gender differences were found when participants recalled personal experiences with a mate's actual infidelity. Men and women, regardless of sexual orientation, on average focused more on a mate's emotional infidelity than on a mate's sexual infidelity. Responses to hypothetical infidelity were uncorrelated with reactions to actual infidelity. This finding casts doubt on the validity of the hypothetical measures used in previous research.
Fitzpatrick, R; Hart, G; Boulton, M; McLean, J; Dawson, J
Three hundred and fifty six homosexually active men were recruited in 1988 for a study by interview of sexual behaviour. Thirty two per cent had homosexual passive anal sex in the previous month and 60% in the year before interview. Anal sex and unprotected anal sex were more common with regular than non-regular partners. Heterosexual sex was reported by 4% of men in the last month and 10% for the last year. Sixteen per cent of heterosexually active men reported anal sex with a female partner. Fewer men described themselves as bisexual than would be expected from the sample's recent sexual histories. More attention is needed to the definition and measurement of "bisexuality" to understand its role in HIV transmission. PMID:2807286
Dunlap, Eloise; Benoit, Ellen; Graves, Jennifer L.
This paper describes the sexual socialisation process of marginalised, drug-using heterosexual black men, focusing primarily on the sources and content of sexual information. Analysing qualitative interview data, we discovered that the men in our sample both learn about sex and become sexually active at an early age. They most often learn about sex from the media and least often learn about sex from family members. The content of sexual information varies in specifics, but overall tends to equate sex with pleasure, encourage sexual activity with multiple partners, and emphasise using protection. Our goal is to use this data to better understand how sexual socialisation contributes to the prevalence of multiple sexual partners and high rates of HIV among heterosexual black men in order to inform future risk-reduction intervention programmes. PMID:24482611
Banks, Jamye R.; Fedewa, Alicia L.
Domestic violence is often perceived to occur only in heterosexual relationships. However, domestic violence is also prevalent in same-sex relationships. The majority of the research indicates that counselors perceive same-sex domestic violence differently than heterosexual domestic violence. This literature review synthesizes the research…
Busby, Dean M.; Holman, Thomas B.; Niehuis, Sylvia
The purpose of this research was to understand in greater detail, using 2 samples (Study 1 N = 4,881 heterosexual couples; Study 2 N = 335 heterosexual couples who completed the Relationship Evaluation Questionnaire), how partner or self-enhancement patterns differentially influence relationship outcomes. A multivariate analysis of covariance was…
Javaid, G A
Children reared in homes headed by homosexual and heterosexual mothers were compared with respect to the mothers' and children's attitudes towards marriage, procreation and homosexuality. The mothers did not prefer their children to be homosexual; they desired them to marry and procreate. This was expressed more unambiguously for their sons. The children mirrored these expectations, boys with greater frequency than the girls. Most of the children expressed reservations about having a homosexual mother.
Abrahams, Naeemah; Mathews, Shanaaz; Martin, Lorna J.; Lombard, Carl; Jewkes, Rachel
Background Death is the most extreme consequence of intimate partner violence. Female homicide studies with data on the perpetrator–victim relationship can provide insights. We compare the results of two South African national studies of female homicide with similar sampling done 10 y apart. Methods and Findings We conducted a retrospective national survey using a weighted cluster design of a proportionate random sample of 38 mortuaries to identify homicides committed in 2009. We abstracted victim data from mortuary and autopsy reports, and perpetrator data from police interviews. We compared homicides of women 14 y and older in 2009 with previously published data collected with the same methodology for homicides committed in 1999. The study found that the rate of female homicide per 100,000 female population in 2009 was 12.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.3, 16.5), compared to 24.7 (95% CI: 17.7, 31.6) in 1999. The incidence rate ratio of 0.54 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.84) reflects a significantly lower rate in 2009. The rate of intimate partner femicide was 5.6/100,000 in 2009 versus 8.8/100,000 in 1999, with an incidence rate ratio of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.24, 1.02), indicating no difference between rates. Logistic regression analysis of homicide characteristics showed that the odds ratio of suspected rape among non-intimate femicides in 2009 compared to 1999 was 2.61 (95% CI: 1.23, 4.08) and among intimate partner femicides it was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.50, 1.42). The OR of homicide by gunshot was 0.54 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.99) in 2009 versus 1999. There was a significant drop in convictions of perpetrators of non-intimate femicide in 2009 versus 1999 (OR = 0.32 [95% CI: 0.19, 0.53]). Limitations of the study include the relatively small sample size and having only two time points. Conclusions Female homicide in South Africa was lower in 2009 than 1999, but intimate partner femicide and suspected rape homicide rates were not statistically different. The cause of the difference is
Deshpande, Neha A; Lewis-O’Connor, Annie
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is defined as an actual or threatened abuse by an intimate partner that may be physical, sexual, psychological, or emotional in nature. Each year approximately 1.5 million women in the United States report some form of sexual or physical assault by an intimate partner; it is estimated that approximately 324,000 women are pregnant when violence occurs. Pregnancy may present a unique opportunity to identify and screen for patients experiencing IPV. This article provides health care practitioners and clinicians with the most current valid assessment and screening tools for evaluating pregnant women for IPV. PMID:24920977
Studies of homonegativity in the general population typically use scales to examine the attitudes of a heterosexual sample toward gay men and lesbian women. However, these scales fail to address that accepting gay and lesbian people in theory is not tantamount to accepting the sexual practices engaged in by gay and lesbian people. As a result, relying on homonegativity scales and hypothetical scenarios (i.e., asking a participant to imagine a gay man or lesbian woman from personality characteristics provided) may not offer a complete view of the complexities of homonegativity. To explore this possibility, 83 men self-identifying as either largely or exclusively heterosexual rated one of three groups of images (romantic gay, erotic gay, and control) on the basis of five questions related to their emotional responses. A psychometrically sound homonegativity scale was also completed. Results indicated that homonegativity was a significant predictor of decreased happiness, anger, disgust, task enjoyment, and reported liking of the imagery. Furthermore, homonegativity was found to moderate the association between exposure to the romantic images and four of the five emotional responses (happiness, anger, disgust, and liking). Exposure to the set of erotic gay images, however, was associated with negative emotional responses, regardless of participants' self-reported level of homonegativity (i.e., overt homonegativity possessed less moderational power for this type of imagery). These findings suggest that standard scales of homonegative attitudes may be unable to capture the affective negativity that heterosexual men experience when viewing gay male intimacy.
Crane, Cory A; Testa, Maria; Derrick, Jaye L; Leonard, Kenneth E
An emerging literature suggests that temporary deficits in the ability to inhibit impulsive urges may be proximally associated with intimate partner aggression. The current study examined the experience of alcohol use and the depletion of self-control in the prediction of relationship functioning. Daily diary data collected from 118 heterosexual couples were analyzed using parallel multi-level Actor-Partner Interdependence Models to assess the effects of heavy episodic drinking and depletion of self-control across partners on outcomes of participant-reported daily arguing with and anger toward an intimate partner. Heavy episodic drinking among actors predicted greater arguing but failed to interact with either actor or partner depletion. We also found that greater arguing was reported on days of high congruent actor and partner depletion. Both actor and partner depletion, as well as their interaction, predicted greater partner-specific anger. The current results highlight the importance of independently assessing partner effects (i.e., depletion of self-control), which interact dynamically with disinhibiting actor effects, in the prediction of daily adverse relationship functioning. Results offer further support for the development of prospective individualized and couples-based interventions for partner conflict.
Gage, Anastasia J
This study examined individual, partner, and community characteristics associated with the occurrence of intimate partner violence among ever-married women of reproductive age, using data from the 2000 Haiti Demographic and Health Survey. Separate logistic regressions were analyzed to assess women's risks of experiencing emotional, physical and sexual violence and multiple forms of intimate partner violence in the past 12 months. Twenty-nine percent of women in the sample experienced some form of intimate partner violence in the past 12 months, with 13 percent having experienced at least two different forms of violence. Significant positive associations with all forms of violence were found for lack of completion of primary school, history of violence exposure in women's families of origin either through witnessing violence between parents while growing up or direct experience of physical violence perpetrated by family members, partner's jealousy, partner's need for control, partner's history of drunkenness, and female-dominated financial decision-making. Significant positive associations were found between men's physical abuse of children at the community level and women's risk of experiencing emotional and physical violence. Neighborhood poverty and male unemployment, number of children living at home, women's attitudinal acceptance of wife beating, and male-dominated financial decision-making were additional risk factors for sexual violence. Women's economic independence was a protective factor for emotional and physical violence, while relationship quality was protective for all forms of violence and multiple victimizations.
Ethiopian immigrant women in Israel are overrepresented as victims of femicide; they are killed at more than 16 times the rate of the general population. This article suggests integrating current theoretical and empirical models to explain Ethiopian femicide, and stresses that considering psychological or sociocultural explanations as risk factors alone is not enough to understand this phenomenon. We distinguish between risk factors and triggers for femicide against Ethiopian women. While sociocultural and even psychological changes are risk factors for femicide, one, two, or three main triggers may activate such potential risk factors, such as the woman's willingness (WW) to leave the intimate relationship, sexual jealousy (SJ), and formal complaints against the abusive partner. The first two triggers are jealousy oriented. To analyze this phenomenon in Israel, we examined all court decisions on intimate partner homicide (IPH) from 1990 to 2010. After reading former studies on IPH and identifying important variables that could explain the phenomenon, we first catalogued the data in every decision and verdict according to main independent variables mentioned in the literature. The study population consists of first-generation immigrants, N = 194: native Israelis (47%), new immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU; 31%), and Ethiopians (16%). Our analysis of court decisions reveals that triggers containing jealousy components are responsible for 83% of femicide cases committed by Ethiopian men, in comparison with native Israelis (77%) and immigrant Russian men (66%) who murdered their intimate partners. In addition, there is a significant correlation among motive (jealousy), method of killing (stabbing), and "overkilling" (excessive force).
Bowen, Erica; Brown, Sarah; Sleath, Emma
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an international issue that social and criminal justice workers will encounter regularly. It has been identified that men can, and do stop using, or desist from, IPV although it is unclear how this process of change develops. This article introduces a conceptual model to outline how the process of desistance evolves and what it encompasses. Using thematic analysis of interview data from partner-violent men, survivors, and treatment facilitators, the resulting model demonstrates that the process of change is a dynamic one where men’s use of, and cessation from, violence needs to be understood within the context of each individual’s life. Three global themes were developed: (a) lifestyle behaviors (violent): what is happening in the men’s lives when they use violence; (b) catalysts for change: the triggers and transitions required to initiate the process of change; and (c) lifestyle behaviors (non-violent): what is different in the men’s lives when they have desisted from IPV. The purpose of this model is to offer a framework for service providers to assist them to manage the process of change in partner-violent men. PMID:25315483
Simmons, Janie; Rajan, Sonali; McMahon, James M.
Background The influence of family members, peers and sexual partners on initiation to injection drug use is well established. Furthermore, research on gender differences in injection initiation has recognized the increased vulnerability of women, in particular, to injection-related health risks, and the gendered nature of the injection initiation experience. Yet more research is needed on the interpersonal and structural dynamics that shape injection initiation within intimate partnerships. Methods This paper draws on narrative data from semi-structured ethnographic interviews with 25, relatively stable, drug-using couples from two New York City neighborhoods. The study was conducted between 2007–2009. Our analyses focus on retrospective accounts of injection initiation from IDUs who were initiated to injection (or initiated their partners) in current or former intimate partnerships. In particular we analyze narratives of injection initiation events where both partners participated as initiates or initiators. Results Transition to injection within intimate partnerships was common, especially for women, and occurred in specific contexts. Structural and interpersonal dynamics, including the ubiquity of drugs in poor communities and the gendered nature of drug acquisition and use strategies, as well as the problem of increased drug tolerance, situational impediments to drug access, and the perceived cost-benefit of injecting, all influenced the process of initiation to injection drug use within couples. The data also suggest that, even when risks associated with injection initiation were understood, both pragmatic and emotional considerations within relationships tended to offset concerns about potential dangers. Conclusion The findings suggest the need for a broad range of interventions (including couples-focused interventions) to minimize rates of injection initiation within intimate partnerships. PMID:22398215
... to 2000, similar declines were observed for overall violent crime (down 47%) and intimate partner violence (down ... violence rate slowed and stabilized while the overall violent crime rate continued to decline. The data in ...
Kriz, Joseph P; Munfakh, Nabil A; King, Gregory S; Carden, Juan O
Pulmonary artery intimal sarcomas are rare and lethal malignant tumors that typically affect larger vessels: the aorta, inferior vena cava, and pulmonary arteries. Since symptoms and imaging of pulmonary arterial intimal sarcomas mimic pulmonary thromboembolism, the differential diagnosis of a patient presenting with chest pain, dyspnea, and filling defect within the pulmonary arteries should include intimal sarcoma. Often right ventricular failure is observed due to pulmonary hypertension caused by the obstructive effect of the tumor and concomitant chronic thromboembolism. We report the case of a 72-year-old African-American male with arterial intimal sarcoma of the left and right pulmonary artery with extension through the right artery into the bronchus and right lung.
Kriz, Joseph P.; Munfakh, Nabil A.; King, Gregory S.; Carden, Juan O.
Pulmonary artery intimal sarcomas are rare and lethal malignant tumors that typically affect larger vessels: the aorta, inferior vena cava, and pulmonary arteries. Since symptoms and imaging of pulmonary arterial intimal sarcomas mimic pulmonary thromboembolism, the differential diagnosis of a patient presenting with chest pain, dyspnea, and filling defect within the pulmonary arteries should include intimal sarcoma. Often right ventricular failure is observed due to pulmonary hypertension caused by the obstructive effect of the tumor and concomitant chronic thromboembolism. We report the case of a 72-year-old African-American male with arterial intimal sarcoma of the left and right pulmonary artery with extension through the right artery into the bronchus and right lung. PMID:27239183
Giordano, Peggy C.; Copp, Jennifer E.; Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.
A common theme in the literature is that intimate partner violence (IPV) is not about anger, but about power and control. While prior research has focused either on respondents' or partners' controlling behaviors, an interactionist perspective provides the basis for hypothesizing that both respondent and partner control will be significantly related to the odds of reporting perpetration, and that emotional processes are a component of IPV experiences. Analyses rely on interview data collected at waves 1 and 5 of a longitudinal study (Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study; n = 928) of adolescent and young adult relationships. Results indicate that after controlling for traditional predictors, both respondent and partner control attempts and measures of anger (including a measure of relationship-based anger) contributed significantly to the odds of reporting perpetration. Further, these patterns did not differ by gender, indicating some areas of similarity in the relationship and emotional processes associated with variations in men and women's IPV reports. PMID:26924886
Levesque, Christine; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Bureau, Jean-François; Cloutier, Paula; Dandurand, Cathy
Several theoretical models for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) have been proposed. Despite an abundance of theoretical speculation, few empirical studies have examined the impact of intimate relationship functioning on NSSI. The present study examines the influence of romantic attachment and received intimate partner violence (physical, psychological and sexual) on recent reports of NSSI behaviors and thoughts. The sample was composed of 537 (79.9% female) primarily Caucasian university students between the ages of 18 and 25 years and currently involved in a romantic relationship. The results reveal that anxiety over abandonment was a significant predictor of NSSI thoughts and behaviors in women and a significant predictor of NSSI thoughts in men. Moreover, the experience of intimate partner violence emerged as a significant predictor of NSSI behaviors in both men and women. Continued empirical investigations into the influence of intimate relationship functioning on NSSI will facilitate the development of psychological interventions for young adults dealing with self-harm.
Cooper, Diane; Moore, Elena; Mantell, Joanne E.
This paper explores marriage attitudes and practices among Xhosa-speaking women living with HIV (WLHIV) in Cape Town, South Africa. It reports on a study that assessed the fertility intentions of a cohort of people living with HIV, aimed at informing an HIV care intervention. It draws on qualitative data generated from 30 successive interviews with WHLIV in wave 1, 23 interviews in wave 2 and 20 follow-up interviews in wave 3. Gender inequality, marriage and HIV are strongly intertwined. Broader layers of South Africa's history, politics and socio-economic and cultural contexts have consequences for the fluidity in intimate relations, marriage and motherhood for WLHIV. Key and conflicting themes emerge that impact on marriage and motherhood. Firstly, marriage is the ‘last on a list of priorities’ for WLHIV, who wish to further their children's education, to work, to earn money, and to achieve this rapidly because of their HIV-positive status. We demonstrate that the pressure women face in marriage to bear children creates a different attitude to and experience of marriage for WLHIV. Some WLHIV wish to avoid marriage due to its accompanying pressure to have children. Other WLHIV experience difficulties securing intimacy. WLHIV may find it easier to seek partners who are also living with HIV. A partner living with HIV is perceived as sharing similar fertility goals. In this study, HIV accentuates existing issues and highlights new ones for WLHIV negotiating intimacy. The findings contribute to the existing knowledge base regarding the fluidity of marriage and fertility intentions within the dynamic context of living with HIV. These are likely to have broader relevance in currently rapidly urbanising and economically developing countries with high HIV prevalence in southern Africa. PMID:25505803
Peter, Tracey; Taylor, Catherine; Ristock, Janice; Edkins, Tamara
School attachment is often regarded as a key measure in gauging the integration and wellbeing of students. Previous research suggests that levels of school attachment are generally lower among sexual minority students, but most studies focus on between-gender comparisons and do not conduct within-gender analyses. Using data from the First National Climate Survey on Homophobia and Transphobia in Canadian schools, this study set out to empirically analyze what, if any, differences exist among lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual female students when assessing the relationship between homophobic and gender-negative language, feelings of safety, harassment/direct victimization, and school climate on school attachment. Bivariate and multivariate findings suggest that there are key differences among female students in terms of school attachment.
Wendt, S J; Solomon, L J
The authors used a questionnaire to assess gender differences in barriers to condom use among 198 female and 89 male heterosexual undergraduate college students. Participants were divided into three groups--consistent users, inconsistent users, and nonusers--based on their reported condom use. Factor analyses on each gender revealed similar barrier factor structures, but the barriers explained more of the variance in condom use among women than among men. Of the 9 or 10 predictors assessed, the low perceived need barrier was the most powerful predictor of condom use for both genders. Male and female participants who were nonusers, in a current monogamous relationship, and using oral contraceptives were more likely to report a low perceived need to use condoms. Implications for future research are discussed.
Martínez, Carmen; Vázquez, Carolina; Falomir-Pichastor, Juan Manuel
This research examined the hypothesis that heterosexual men's motivation to differentiate themselves from gay men mediates the relationship between the antifemininity norm of masculinity and antigay prejudice. We assessed masculinity through three concepts: status, thoughness, and antifemininity. Participants then reported their perceived similarity with gay men and their antigay prejudice. The results showed that antifemininity was the best predictor of both perceived similarity and antigay prejudice: The more people endorsed the antifemininity norm, the more they perceived themselves as dissimilar from gay men and showed antigay prejudice. More important, perceived similarity mediated the effect of antifemininity on antigay prejudice. These findings provide direct evidence for the link between masculinity and the motivation to differentiate oneself from gay men, and they suggest that antigay prejudice accomplishes the identity function of maintaining unambiguous gender boundaries.
Carnaghi, Andrea; Maass, Anne; Fasoli, Fabio
The current studies investigate the effects of homophobic labels on the self-perception of heterosexual males, hypothesizing that when exposed to homophobic epithets, they are motivated to underline their masculinity and claim a distinctly heterosexual identity by taking distance from homosexuals and, to a lesser degree, from women. Heterosexual male participants were subliminally (Study 1) and supraliminally (Study 2) primed either by a homophobic epithet or by a category label, and completed the Traditional Beliefs About Gender and Gender Identity scale. Participants stressed their heterosexual identity, but not their gender distinctiveness, when exposed to homophobic epithets, compared to category labels. Study 2 demonstrated that the relation between the homophobic label and the participants' heterosexual identity was mediated by how negatively they reacted to the antigay label. Heterosexual identity was enhanced in reaction to homophobic labels but not to an equally derogatory label referring to regional identity. Results are discussed within an intergroup framework.
Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro
Personality traits and dysfunctional sexual beliefs have been described as vulnerability factors for sexual dysfunction in women, and have also been proposed as dispositional variables for the activation of incompetence schemas in response to negative sexual events. However, no study has tested the role of personality traits and dysfunctional sexual beliefs in the activation of incompetence schemas. The current study aimed to assess the moderator role of neuroticism, extraversion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs in the association between frequency of unsuccessful sexual episodes and activation of incompetence schemas in heterosexual and lesbian women. An online survey was completed by 1,121 women (831 heterosexual; 290 lesbian). Participants completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), the Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire-Female Version (SDBQ), and the Questionnaire of Cognitive Schemas Activated in Sexual Context (QCSASC). Findings indicate that neuroticism moderates the association between frequency of negative sexual events and activation of incompetence schemas in heterosexual women. Moreover, several sexual beliefs also act as moderators of the relationship between negative sexual episodes and the activation of cognitive schemas in both heterosexual and lesbian women. Overall, findings support the cognitive-emotional model of sexual dysfunctions, emphasizing the role of personality traits and dysfunctional sexual beliefs as facilitators of the activation of incompetence schemas in response to negative events in women.
Mapayi, Boladale; Makanjuola, R O A; Mosaku, S K; Adewuya, O A; Afolabi, O; Aloba, O O; Akinsulore, A
Research into intimate partner violence in the Nigerian environment has been limited. The objective of this study was to determine, amongst a sample of women attending the Enuwa Primary Health Care Center, Ile-Ife, the association between intimate partner violence and anxiety/depression. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted amongst 373 women who attended the antenatal clinic and welfare units of a primary health centre in Ile-Ife using the Composite Abuse Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and a socio-demographic scale as instruments. Slightly over a third (36.7 %) reported intimate partner violence within the past year, 5.6 % had anxiety and 15.5 % were depressed. Anxiety and depression in the respondents were significantly associated with intimate partner violence. Women were ten times more likely to report being depressed and 17 times more likely to report anxiety if they were in violent relationships. This research has shown that the magnitude of intimate partner violence within the study population is comparable to those found in the developing countries. There are significant associations between intimate partner violence, anxiety and depression amongst the study population and this fact undoubtedly has implications for the mental health of the Nigerian woman.
Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; López-Goñi, José Javier
There is a close relationship between substance abuse (alcohol and other drugs) and intimate partner violence. Studies carried out with male offenders and with addicted patients show a high comorbidity rate between these two phenomena. However, few batterer intervention programmes have been implemented to date in the field of drug addiction. This paper proposes, first, the need to detect cases of intimate partner violence that are camouflaged beneath a drug problem. Thus, it is important to determine the prevalence rate of intimate partner aggressors among users of drug-addiction treatment programmes, as well as identifying the specific characteristics of these patients. Second, once aggressors are identified, it would be possible to develop specific programmes for the simultaneous treatment of the two problems (addiction and intimate partner violence). Some studies have already been carried with joint treatments for addiction and intimate partner violence. The results obtained are encouraging, and show that intervention programs with addictions can be a useful framework for applying also, where necessary, specific treatments for those addicted patients with an associated problem of intimate partner violence. Finally, implications for clinical practice and future research in this field are discussed.
Schwartz, Jonathan P; Hage, Sally M; Bush, Imelda; Burns, Lauren Key
Efforts to understand and prevent intimate violence have often focused on the intergenerational transmission of intimate violence. Although witnessing and/or experiencing abuse in the family of origin is well supported in the literature as a key component of the intergenerational transmission of intimate violence, there has been less attention to other family-of-origin factors that contribute to or mediate and/or moderate future intimate violence. Particularly, a focus on the effect of parenting on future intimate violence is needed beyond the effect of modeling abusive behavior. In this article, corporal punishment and poor parenting are reviewed as family-of-origin factors related to future intimate violence. In addition, attachment theory, interpersonal skills, and emotional and behavioral regulation and/or conduct disorder are reviewed as variables that may result and mediate the relationship between family-of-origin factors and future intimate violence. Implications for preventing intimate violence by intervening in the family of origin are also identified.
Reisner, Sari L; Falb, Kathryn L; Wagenen, Aimee Van; Grasso, Chris; Bradford, Judith
This study examined disparities in lifetime substance misuse by sexual orientation among 2,653 patients engaged in care at an urban community health center in Boston, MA, as well as the potential mediating roles of childhood abuse
Evans, Ray B.
Confirmed is Bieber's finding (1962) that childhood parental relationships of homosexual men are less desirable than those of heterosexual men. However, while parental impact on children may be greater than the other way around, child impact on the parent probably determines parental attitudes toward that child. (CJ)
Silverthorne, Z A; Quinsey, V L
The sexual age preferences of 192 adults (equal groups of heterosexual men, heterosexual women, homosexual men, and homosexual women) were examined. Participants rated the sexual attractiveness of pictures of 15 male and 15 female faces arranged into five apparent average age categories ranging from 18 to 60 years. It was predicted that homosexual and heterosexual men would prefer younger partners of their preferred sex than would homosexual and heterosexual women and that age preference would not vary with participant age. Both predictions were supported, although homosexual women preferred older partners than expected. Results suggest that age and sex preferences develop independently.
Strohm, Charles Q.; Seltzer, Judith A.; Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.
We use two surveys to describe the demographic and attitudinal correlates of being in “Living Apart Together” (LAT), cohabiting, and marital relationships for heterosexuals, lesbians, and gay men. About one third of U.S. adults not married or cohabiting are in LAT relationships – these individuals would be classified as “single” in conventional studies that focus on co-residential unions. Gay men are somewhat more likely than heterosexual men to be in LAT relationships. For heterosexuals and lesbians, LAT relationships are more common among younger people. Heterosexuals in LAT unions are less likely to expect to marry their partners, but more likely to say that couples should be emotionally dependent than are cohabiters. Regardless of sexual orientation, people in LAT relationships perceive similar amounts of emotional support from partners, but less instrumental support than cohabiters perceive. PMID:21566723
Hatcher, Abigail M; Colvin, Christopher J; Ndlovu, Nkuli; Dworkin, Shari L
Nearly one-third of South African men report enacting intimate partner violence. Beyond the direct health consequences for women, intimate partner violence is also linked to varied risk behaviours among men who enact it, including alcohol abuse, risky sex, and poor healthcare uptake. Little is known about how to reduce violence perpetration among men. We conducted retrospective, in-depth interviews with men (n = 53) who participated in a rural South African programme that targeted masculinities, HIV risk, and intimate partner violence. We conducted computer-assisted thematic qualitative coding alongside a simple rubric to understand how the programme may lead to changes in men's use of intimate partner violence. Many men described new patterns of reduced alcohol intake and improved partner communication, allowing them to respond in ways that did not lead to the escalation of violence. Sexual decision-making changed via reduced sexual entitlement and increased mutuality about whether to have sex. Men articulated the intertwined nature of each of these topics, suggesting that a syndemic lens may be useful for understanding intimate partner violence. These data suggest that alcohol and sexual relationship skills may be useful levers for future violence prevention efforts, and that intimate partner violence may be a tractable issue as men learn new skills for enacting masculinities in their household and in intimate relationships.
Cerulli, Catherine; Edwardsen, Elizabeth A; Hall, Dale; Chan, Ko Ling; Conner, Kenneth R
New York State law mandates specific intimate partner violence (IPV) documentation under all circumstances meeting the enumerated relationship and crime criteria at the scene of a domestic dispute. Law enforcement compliance with this mandate is unknown. We reviewed law enforcement completion rates of Domestic Violence Incident Reports (DVIRs) and assessed correlations with individual or legal factors. Law enforcement officers filed DVIRs in 54% of the cases (n = 191), more often when injury occurred (p < .01) and the defendant had prior court contact (p < .05). The discussion explores policy implications and potential means to rectify the gap between mandated processes and implementation.
Brown, Cameron C; Carroll, Jason S; Yorgason, Jeremy B; Busby, Dean M; Willoughby, Brian J; Larson, Jeffry H
Using matched, heterosexual couple data from the Relationship Evaluation Questionnaire (RELATE; n = 326 couples), an adapted common-fate approach was used to examine both common and unique attributes of husbands' and wives' acceptance of pornography and sexual satisfaction as well as husbands' and wives' pornography use. It was expected that spouses' unique as well as shared variance of pornography acceptance would be significantly associated with husbands' and wives' levels of personal pornography use and that these use patterns would be significantly associated with husbands' and wives' unique as well as shared variance of sexual satisfaction. It was also expected that pornography use would significantly mediate the relationship between pornography acceptance and sexual satisfaction. Results indicated that the shared variance of pornography acceptance was positively associated with both spouses' pornography use and that spouses' pornography use was negatively associated with their own sexual satisfaction. Wives' pornography use was found to be positively associated with the couple's shared variance of sexual satisfaction, but pornography use did not significantly mediate the relationship between pornography acceptance and sexual satisfaction. These findings emphasize the complexity of pornography use in couple relationships and the importance of studying pornography acceptance and use as a coupling dynamic within marriages rather than just an individual behavior.
Ji, Peter; Fujimoto, Ken
An instrument was developed that measured heterosexual persons' level of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) ally identity. Using a Rasch analysis, 2 dimensions were observed: (a) internal and interpersonal and (b) activity. Persons with high levels of LGBT ally identities endorsed items about having LGBT knowledge, attitudes, and skills; having interpersonal experiences with LGBT communities; and including LGBT ally as part of their identities. The instrument met criteria for the content, substantive, structural, generalizability, and responsiveness validity. The instrument can be used to assist persons to develop their abilities to support and advocate for equality for LGBT communities.
Ellis, D; Dekeseredy, W S
This article aims to build on M. Wilson and M. Daly's male proprietariness thesis by integrating it with a theory of interventions. The challenge thesis contributed by a number of feminists focuses on the concepts of male proprietariness, estrangement, and intimate femicide, with mechanisms identified as exit, voice, and loyalty. An elaborated version of the challenge model shows male intimate partners on a continuum of proprietariness, female intimate partners are located on a continuum of resistance, mechanisms of resistance/change are linked with the choice of different kinds of interventions, harms experienced by estranged wives/cohabitating partners can be located on a continuum of harms, and person/situational factors are included because they help account for variations in male violence via their impact on proprietariness and deviance. Loyalty/love-invoked interventions could more likely reduce intimate femicide among coresiding female intimates. The criminal justice system is usually invoked by voice and these voice-invoked interventions increase the confidence of the battered wife symbolizing society's opposition to women abuse and could most probably end battering. Exit and exit-invoked mechanism are effective in ending battering for most battered women, although they may provoke a more fatal violence among dependent partners. The effectiveness of any of the chosen interventions varies with their appropriateness and timing.
Laier, Christian; Pekal, Jaro; Brand, Matthias
In the context of Internet addiction, cybersex is considered to be an Internet application in which users are at risk for developing addictive usage behavior. Regarding males, experimental research has shown that indicators of sexual arousal and craving in response to Internet pornographic cues are related to severity of cybersex addiction in Internet pornography users (IPU). Since comparable investigations on females do not exist, the aim of this study is to investigate predictors of cybersex addiction in heterosexual women. We examined 51 female IPU and 51 female non-Internet pornography users (NIPU). Using questionnaires, we assessed the severity of cybersex addiction in general, as well as propensity for sexual excitation, general problematic sexual behavior, and severity of psychological symptoms. Additionally, an experimental paradigm, including a subjective arousal rating of 100 pornographic pictures, as well as indicators of craving, was conducted. Results indicated that IPU rated pornographic pictures as more arousing and reported greater craving due to pornographic picture presentation compared with NIPU. Moreover, craving, sexual arousal rating of pictures, sensitivity to sexual excitation, problematic sexual behavior, and severity of psychological symptoms predicted tendencies toward cybersex addiction in IPU. Being in a relationship, number of sexual contacts, satisfaction with sexual contacts, and use of interactive cybersex were not associated with cybersex addiction. These results are in line with those reported for heterosexual males in previous studies. Findings regarding the reinforcing nature of sexual arousal, the mechanisms of learning, and the role of cue reactivity and craving in the development of cybersex addiction in IPU need to be discussed.
Alipour, Abbas; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Hasanzadeh, Jafar; Rajaeefard, Abdorreza; Davarpanah, Mohammad Ali
Background Overall, 60-70% of the hepatitis c virus (HCV) transmission routes is parenteral, and in 30-40% of the cases is unknown (e.g. sexual route). Knowing these routes in HIV infected dyads is very important due to clinical and methodological reasons. Objectives The present study aimed to identify and quantitatively investigate HIV-infected individuals and their main heterosexual partners regarding the risk factors of HCV transmission. Patients and Methods One hundred sixty eight of 984 couples were chosen through random generated numbers using a computer program from behavioral consultation center in Shiraz, Iran. We used actor partner independent model (APIM) and multilevel analysis to assess multiple risk factors for HCV, while partitioning the source of risk at the individual and couple levels. Results Age of the index samples was 38.71 ± 7 years, and 33.2 ± 6.3 for their main heterosexual partners; the mean duration of sexual relationship for couples was 11.9 (median = 8.5) years. Multivariate analysis showed that actor risk factor of intravenous drug using (IDU) (AOR= 13.03; 95% CI: 3.9- 43.82) and actor cofactors of HIV positivity (AOR = 7.1; 95% CI: 1.37- 36.97), razor sharing (AOR = 4.81; 95% CI: 1.84- 12.55), sex (AOR = 8.83; 95% CI: 3.16- 24.87), and condom use in sexual activity with main partner (AOR = 0.15; 95% CI: 0.02- 0.44) were associated with actor HCV positivity. Conclusions Health care providers need to pay special attention to sexual transmission of HCV among HIV-infected individuals, and should recommend control/preventive measures for HCV sexual transmission. PMID:24348647
Shechner, Tomer; Slone, Michelle; Meir, Yael; Kalish, Yuval
Relations between family type and psychological and parental distress and the moderating role of social support were studied for 90 Israeli lesbian mothers, single heterosexual mothers by choice and 2-parent heterosexual mothers who completed measures of psychological distress, well-being, parental distress, and direct and indirect social support. Findings indicated differences on psychological and parental outcome between mothers from the two heterosexual groups. Social support was higher for lesbian than single heterosexual mothers and was correlated with psychological and parental indices. Unique because of the distinctive demographics of Israeli society (especially in relation to Western Europe and North America), this study highlights ways in which social and individual processes affect psychological outcomes among minority groups.
Duby, Zoe; Hartmann, Miriam; Montgomery, Elizabeth T.; Colvin, Christopher J.; Mensch, Barbara; van der Straten, Ariane
Sexual risk-taking is influenced by individual, interpersonal and social factors. This paper presents findings from a qualitative followup study to a clinical trial evaluating biomedical HIV prevention products among African women, explored participants’ perceptions and experiences of heterosexual penile-anal intercourse, as well as the gendered power dynamics and relationship contexts in which this sexual behaviour occurs. In-depth interviews were conducted with 88 women from South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Findings reveal that despite its social stigmatisation, women engage in penile-anal intercourse for reasons including male pleasure, relationship security, hiding infidelity, menstruation, vaginal infections, money and beliefs that it will prevent HIV transmission. In addition, participants described experiences of non-consensual penile-anal intercourse. We used sexual scripting theory as an analytical framework with which to describe the sociocultural and relationship contexts and gendered power dynamics in which these practices occur. These data on the distinct individual, dyadic and social contexts of heterosexual penile-anal intercourse, and the specific factors that may contribute to women’s HIV risk, make a unique contribution to our understanding of heterosexual behaviour in these sub-Saharan countries, thereby helping to inform both current and future HIV prevention efforts for women in the region. PMID:26223703
Overall, Nickola C; Sibley, Chris G; Tan, Rosabel
This study tested whether men's and women's hostile sexism (HS) and benevolent sexism (BS) were associated with resistance to influence in couples' conflict interactions. Ninety-one heterosexual couples were recorded while trying to produce desired changes in each other. Participants reviewed their discussions and rated how open they were to their partner's perspective. Objective coders also rated the extent to which each partner exhibited hostile communication. We tested key principles arising from ambivalent sexism theory (Glick & Fiske, 1996). First, BS is necessary because mutual interdependence reduces the power of HS to influence women within intimate relationships. We found that the more men endorsed HS, the less open and more hostile both partners were, and the less successful their discussions were in producing desired change. Second, BS reduces the threat of women's dyadic power by revering and respecting women's interpersonal roles while restricting women's influence outside the relationship domain. We found that men who expressed higher agreement with BS were more open to their partners' influence and behaved with less hostility, and their discussions were more successful. These relationship benefits illustrate why BS is effective at disarming women's resistance to wider inequalities. These benefits, however, were contingent on men adopting BS attitudes. When women strongly endorsed BS but their male partner did not, women were less open, behaved with greater hostility, and perceived their discussions as less successful. These results indicate that, because BS increases the stakes within the relationship domain, women who endorse BS will react more negatively when their expectations are not realized.
Safron, Adam; Barch, Bennett; Bailey, J Michael; Gitelman, Darren R; Parrish, Todd B; Reber, Paul J
Men exhibit much higher levels of genital and subjective arousal to sexual stimuli containing their preferred sex than they do to stimuli containing only the nonpreferred sex. This study used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how this category-specific pattern would be reflected in the brains of homosexual (n = 11) and heterosexual (n = 11) men. Comparisons of activation to preferred sexual stimuli, nonpreferred sexual stimuli, and sports stimuli revealed large networks correlated with sexual arousal, spanning multiple cortical and subcortical areas. Both homosexual and heterosexual men exhibited category-specific arousal in brain activity. Within the amygdala, greater preference-related activity was observed in homosexual men, but it is unclear whether this is a cause or a consequence of their sexuality. In a subsequent analysis of regions hypothesized to support arousal, both participant groups demonstrated widespread increases in evoked activity for preferred stimuli. Aggregate data from these regions produced significant differences between stimulus types in 16 out of 22 participants. Significant activational differences matched reported sexual orientation in 15 of these 16 participants, representing an advance in psychophysiological measures of arousal.
Williams, John D.; Jacoby, Arthur P.
Surveyed 365 college students to investigate their attitudes toward the effects of past sexual behavior, both heterosexual and homosexual, on one's acceptability as a dating or marriage partner. Results showed that both men and women prefer partners without previous coital or oral heterosexual experience, and both strongly rejected those with any…
Glassenberg, Aaron N; Feinberg, David R; Jones, Benedict C; Little, Anthony C; Debruine, Lisa M
Studies have used manipulated faces to test the preferences of heterosexual individuals for sexually dimorphic facial cues. In contrast to previous studies, which have generally excluded homosexual participants, we directly compared homosexual and heterosexual male and female preferences for manipulated sexual dimorphism in faces (homosexual males: n = 311; heterosexual males: n = 215; homosexual females: n = 159; heterosexual females: n = 218). Prior studies on sexual orientation and preferences for faces that were paired with masculine and feminine behavioral descriptors suggest that homosexual men prefer more masculine men and that homosexual women demonstrate no preference for either masculinity or femininity in women. In our study, we tested for similarities and differences among heterosexual and homosexual males and females with regard to their preferences for a more specific aspect of faces: sexual dimorphism of face shape. Homosexual men demonstrated stronger preferences for masculinity in male faces than did all of the other groups. Homosexual women demonstrated stronger preferences for masculinity in female faces than did heterosexual women. These results suggest attractiveness judgments of same-sex faces made by homosexual individuals are not a mirror image of those made by heterosexual individuals of the opposite sex. Our data suggest that face preferences of homosexual individuals reflect a system of biologically and socially guided preferences at least as complex as those found among heterosexual individuals.
Prokos, Anastasia H.; Keene, Jennifer Reid
Using a subsample ( N = 1,365,145) of the 2000 Census 5% Public Use Microdata Sample, the authors investigate explanations for differing poverty chances of cohabiting gay and lesbian, and married and cohabiting heterosexual families. Gay and lesbian couples fare worse than married couples, but better economically than cohabiting heterosexuals.…
Shelley-Sireci, Lynn M.; Ciano-Boyce, Claudia
Surveyed lesbian adoptive parents, heterosexual adoptive parents, and lesbian parents who had used assisted fertilization, regarding the adoption process. Found that the process was similar for both heterosexual and lesbian parents, but lesbian adoptive parents perceived more discrimination and were more inclined to omit information during the…
Kerr, Dianne L.; Santurri, Laura; Peters, Patricia
Objective: To investigate selected mental health characteristics of lesbians and bisexual undergraduate college women as compared with heterosexual college women. Participants: Self-identified lesbians and bisexual and heterosexual female college students who took part in the American College Health Association National College Health Assessment…
The issue of whether to "come out" in class has a poignant history in the literature by gay, lesbian and bisexual educators on this topic. By comparison few heterosexuals have publicly written about whether they explicitly reveal their heterosexuality to students. This paper contributes to the enduring debate about whether to "come out" in class…
Case, Kim A.; Stewart, Briana
This study examined diversity course influence on student prejudice against lesbians and gay men, awareness of heterosexual privilege, and support for gay marriage. The study included heterosexual female students in psychology of women, introduction to women's studies, and nondiversity psychology courses. Students in diversity courses expressed…
Gilbert, Lucia Albino; Walker, Sarah J.; McKinney, Sherry; Snell, Jessica L.
Investigated whether male sexual drive discourse themes in heterosexual dating could be reproduced in a laboratory and whether those themes could be disrupted via laboratory intervention. Single, heterosexual college students role played various dating scenarios under differing conditions (dominant discourse themes and disrupted dominant discourse…
Wheeler-Scruggs, Kathy S.
Research conducted on heterosexual women has been generalized to lesbians. However, the question remains whether lesbians differ in their adult development from heterosexual men and women. This article reviews results of 10 one-on-one life story interviews conducted with self-identified lesbians between the ages of 35 and 45. Information from…
Parrott, Dominic J.; Zeichner, Amos
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of psychopathy on antigay aggression. Participants were 84 heterosexual men who competed in an aggression paradigm in which electric shocks were received from and administered to a randomly determined fictitious opponent (heterosexual male, gay male) during a competitive reaction time…
Crowne, Sarah Shea; Juon, Hee-Soon; Ensminger, Margaret; Burrell, Lori; McFarlane, Elizabeth; Duggan, Anne
Previous research suggests that experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) may negatively affect employment outcomes. This study explores the relationship between IPV and employment stability both concurrently and longitudinally among a sample of 512 predominantly Asian American and Pacific Islander young women living in Hawaii. Women in this…
Zink, Therese; Jacobson, C. Jeff, Jr.; Pabst, Stephanie; Regan, Saundra; Fisher, Bonnie S.
Little is known about how older women cope in long-term abusive intimate relationships. Understanding their coping strategies may give insight into how to further support their effective coping efforts. Interviews were conducted with 38 women older than age 55 years. Grounded theory analysis demonstrated that women who remained in their abusive…
Staggs, Susan L.; Long, Susan M.; Mason, Gillian E.; Krishnan, Sandhya; Riger, Stephanie
This prospective study used 3 years of longitudinal data to explore relationships among intimate partner violence (IPV), perceived emotional and material social support, employment stability, and job turnover among current and former female welfare recipients in the immediate post-welfare reform era. Higher levels of current IPV and lower levels…
Ely, Gretchen E.; Otis, Melanie D.
The purpose of this article is to describe an exploratory study examining the relationship between intimate partner violence and psychological stressors in a sample of 188 adult abortion patients. Results indicate the almost 15% of respondents report a history of abuse by the coconceiving partner. In addition, women who reported having had one or…
Vaeth, Patrice A. C.; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Caetano, Raul
This paper examines the relationship between intimate partner violence and depression. A multicluster random household sample of U.S. couples was interviewed as part of a five-year national longitudinal study (response rate = 72%). Depression was assessed with the CES-D. The multivariate analyses for men showed that the odds of depression did not…
Lamers-Winkelman, Francien; Willemen, Agnes M.; Visser, Margreet
Objective: This study investigated the relationships among Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) in a high risk clinical sample of Dutch children whose mothers were abused by an intimate partner, and the severity of behavioral and emotional problems and trauma symptoms. Methods: The study population comprised 208 children (M = 7.81 years, SD =…
Victims' responses to violent experiences within intimate relationships are highly diverse and can range from remaining silent, at least temporarily, to disclosing the abuse to informal and formal sources of support. Decisions to remain silent or to reach out for support are influenced by a complex range of factors, including situational…
Renner, Lynette M.; Whitney, Stephen D.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify common and unique risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) among young adults in relationships. Guided by two models of IPV, the same set of risk factors was used to examine outcomes of unidirectional (perpetration or victimization) and bidirectional (reciprocal) IPV separately for males…
Voisin, Dexter R.; Hong, Jun Sung
A growing body of research documents that various forms of violence exposures are interrelated. This paper presents a conceptual model, which accounts for the relationship between youth witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV) at home and their subsequent engagement in bullying behaviors and victimization by peers. A comprehensive search of…
Wymbs, Brian; Molina, Brooke; Pelham, William; Cheong, JeeWon; Gnagy, Elizabeth; Belendiuk, Kat; Walther, Christine; Babinski, Dara; Waschbusch, Dan
Objective: Research has clearly documented the social dysfunction of youth with ADHD. However, little is known about the interpersonal relationships of adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood, including rates of intimate partner violence (IPV). Method: Using data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study, analyses compared the level of IPV…
Mcdermott, Ryon C.; Lopez, Frederick G.
Primary prevention of men's intimate partner violence (IPV) toward women in dating relationships is an important area of psychological inquiry and a significant concern for counselors working with college student populations. Previous research has identified that certain beliefs condoning or accepting physical, sexual, and psychological violence…
Therapists working with intimate relationships are frequently confronted with issues regarding the loss of erotic intimacy, differences in levels of sexual desire, and the existence of intimate relationships outside the primary. Proposes that an approach derived from an integration of narrative therapy and relationship enhancement therapy can be…
Substance use and mental health disorders among heterosexual identified men and women who have same-sex partners or same-sex attraction: results from the national epidemiological survey on alcohol and related conditions.
Gattis, Maurice N; Sacco, Paul; Cunningham-Williams, Renee M
This study examined sexual orientation discordance, a mismatch between self-reported sexual identity and sexual behavior or sexual attraction, by describing the characteristics, substance use disorders, and mental health risks of heterosexual identified individuals who endorsed this pattern of sexual identification, behavior, and attraction. Using data from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), we created three groups based on participants' reported sexual identity and either their sexual behavior or sexual attraction: heterosexual concordant, homosexual concordant, and heterosexual discordant. Bivariate models assessed the relationship of discordant status and demographic correlates, lifetime substance use disorders, and mental health diagnoses. Logistic regression models tested associations between both behavior discordance and attraction discordance and the likelihood of having lifetime disorders of substance use, major depression, and generalized anxiety. Results of this study provided evidence of varying levels of substance use and mental health disorder risk by gender, discordance status, and discordance type. Behavioral discordance was associated with increased risk of mental health and substance use disorder among women (compared to heterosexual concordance). Findings among men were less consistent with heightened risk of alcohol and inhalant use only. Attraction discordance was notably different from behavioral discordance. The odds of substance use and mental health disorders were the same or lower compared with both the heterosexual and homosexual concordance groups. Future research should begin to test theoretical explanations for these differences.
Farr, Rachel H; Patterson, Charlotte J
Coparenting is associated with child behavior in families with heterosexual parents, but less is known about coparenting among lesbian- and gay-parent families. Associations were studied among self-reported divisions of labor, coparenting observations, and child adjustment (Mage = 3 years) among 104 adoptive families headed by lesbian, gay, or heterosexual couples. Lesbian and gay couples reported sharing child care, whereas heterosexual couples reported specialization (i.e., mothers did more child care than fathers). Observations confirmed this pattern-lesbian and gay parents participated more equally than heterosexual parents during family interaction. Lesbian couples showed the most supportive and least undermining behavior, whereas gay couples showed the least supportive behavior, and heterosexual couples the most undermining behavior. Overall, supportive coparenting was associated with better child adjustment.
Masters, N. Tatiana; Casey, Erin; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Morrison, Diane M.
While gendered sexual scripts are hegemonic at the cultural level, research suggests they may be less so at dyadic and individual levels. Understanding “disjunctures” between sexual scripts at different levels holds promise for illuminating mechanisms through which sexual scripts can change. Through interviews with 44 heterosexually active men and women aged 18-25, we delineated ways young people grappled with culture-level scripts for sexuality and relationships. Findings suggest that although most participants’ culture-level gender scripts for behavior in sexual relationships were congruent with descriptions of traditional masculine and feminine sexuality, there was heterogeneity in how or whether these scripts were incorporated into individual relationships. Specifically, we found three styles of working with sexual scripts: Conforming, in which personal gender scripts for sexual behavior overlapped with traditional scripts; exception-finding, in which interviewees accepted culture-level gender scripts as a reality, but created exceptions to gender rules for themselves; and transforming, in which participants either attempted to remake culture-level gender scripts, or interpreted their own non-traditional styles as equally normative. Changing sexual scripts can potentially contribute to decreased gender inequity in the sexual realm and to increased opportunities for sexual satisfaction, safety, and wellbeing, particularly for women, but for men as well. PMID:22489683
Sabri, Bushra; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Dabby, Firoza Chic
This study explored differences in intimate partner homicides (IPHs) among Asian Americans. Data from newspapers and femicide reports by different state coalitions on 125 intimate partner killings occurring between 2000 and 2005 were analyzed. Men were the perpetrators in nearly 9 out of 10 cases of Asian IPHs. Gender differences were found in ages of victims and perpetrators, types of relationship between partners, and methods of killing. Most homicides occurred among South-east Asians, and East Asians had the highest within-group proportion of suicides. The findings call for culturally competent risk assessment and intervention strategies to prevent IPHs among at-risk Asian Americans.
SABRI, BUSHRA; CAMPBELL, JACQUELYN C.; DABBY, FIROZA CHIC
This study explored differences in intimate partner homicides (IPHs) among Asian Americans. Data from newspapers and femicide reports by different state coalitions on 125 intimate partner killings occurring between 2000 and 2005 was analyzed. Men were the perpetrators in nearly nine out of ten cases of Asian IPHs. Gender differences were found in ages of victims and perpetrators, types of relationship between partners, and methods of killing. Most homicides occurred among South-east Asians, and East Asians had the highest within group proportion of suicides. The findings call for culturally competent risk assessment and intervention strategies to prevent IPHs among at-risk Asian Americans. PMID:26391620
Warren, Jocelyn T; Harvey, S Marie; Agnew, Christopher R
HIV prevention strategies among couples include condom use, mutual monogamy, and HIV testing. Research suggests that condom use is more likely with new or casual partners, and tends to decline as relationships become steady over time. Little is known, however, about explicit mutual monogamy agreements and HIV testing within heterosexual couples. This study used data from 434 young heterosexual couples at increased risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to assess (a) couple concordance on perceptions of a monogamy agreement, sustained monogamy, and HIV testing; and (b) the associations of relationship and demographic factors with monogamy agreement, sustained monogamy, and HIV testing. Results indicated only slight to fair agreement within couples on measures of monogamy agreement and sustained monogamy. Overall, 227 couples (52%) concurred that they had an explicit agreement to be monogamous; of those, 162 (71%) had sustained the agreement. Couples with greater health protective communication and commitment were more likely to have a monogamy agreement. Couples of Latino and Hispanic ethnicity and those with children were less likely to have a monogamy agreement. Only commitment was related to sustained monogamy. Having children, greater health protective communication, and perceived vulnerability to HIV and STIs were associated with HIV testing within the couple.
Gomez, Rapson; McLaren, Suzanne
The present study examined measurement invariance of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in community groups of Australian heterosexual men (N = 1106), heterosexual women (N = 2111), gay men (N = 527), and lesbians (N = 712). Confirmatory factor analysis of CES-D item scores supported the theorized oblique 4-factor model. There was support for full measurement invariance across the 4 groups, based on differences in approximate fit indices. In contrast there was support for only partial invariance when the chi-square difference test was applied. Lack of invariance was mostly for depressed affect and somatic symptom items, with noninvariant somatic symptom items showing consistently high factor loadings and thresholds among lesbians compared with the other groups. The findings are discussed in relation to the use of the CES-D, the relevance of different depression symptoms to how depressions is experienced by the different gender and sexual orientation groups, and gender role socialization and minority sexual orientation theories. (PsycINFO Database Record
Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee
Coercive control is a relationship dynamic that is theorized to be key for understanding physical intimate partner violence (IPV). This research examines how coercive control in the context of physical IPV may influence child adjustment. Participants were 107 mothers and their children, aged 7 to 10 years. In each family, mothers reported the occurrence of at least one act of physical IPV in the past 6 months. Mothers reported on physical IPV and coercive control, and mothers and children reported on children's externalizing and internalizing problems. Coercive control in the context of physical IPV related positively with both mothers' and children's reports of child externalizing and internalizing problems, after accounting for the frequency of physical IPV, psychological abuse, and mothers' education. This research suggests that couple relationship dynamics underlying physical IPV are potentially important for understanding how physical IPV leads to child adjustment problems.
Winstead, Barbara A.; Derlega, Valerian J.
Provides a brief summarization of 12 articles focusing on how gender, gender role identity, and attitudes toward gender roles may affect the nature of relationships, and how relationships may affect an individual's gender (including behaviors, attitudes, and self-perceptions). Although the focus is mainly on heterosexual relationships, lesbian/gay…
Scott, Shelby; Babcock, Julia C
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms have been linked to traumatic experiences, including intimate partner violence. However, not all battered women develop PTSD symptoms. The current study tests attachment style as a moderator in the abuse-trauma link among a community sample women in violent and non-violent relationships. Both attachment anxiety and dependency were found to moderate the relation between intimate partner violence and PTSD symptoms. However, attachment closeness did not function as a moderator. Differences in attachment may help to explain why certain victims of domestic abuse may be more susceptible to experiencing PTSD symptoms. Clinically, these findings may aid in the prediction and prevention of PTSD symptoms in women victimized by intimate partner abuse.
National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey CDC’s National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) is an ongoing, nationally-representative telephone survey that collects detailed information ...
Sillito, Carrie LeFevre
Although intimate partner violence has been recognized as both a social problem and health issue, the extent to which it is a health issue for both males and females in the general population is largely unknown. This longitudinal research uses data from the National Survey of Family and Households (1987-2003). Random effects logistic regression…
Frude, Neil; Jandric, Petar
This conversation focuses on a book published in 1983 that examined "animism," the tendency to regard non-living entities as living and sentient. "The Intimate Machine" suggested that animism will be fully exploited by artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics, generating artefacts that will engage the user in…
Fowler, Katherine A.; Westen, Drew
Domestic violence is a serious problem with far-reaching consequences. This study applies a new methodology to derive subtypes of male perpetrators of intimate partner violence. As part of a larger National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded study, a national sample of randomly selected psychologists and psychiatrists describe 188 adult male…
Herreid, Clyde Freeman; DeRei, Kristie
Classroom debates used to be familiar exercises to students schooled in past generations. In this article, the authors describe the technique called "intimate debate". To cooperative learning specialists, the technique is known as "structured debate" or "constructive debate". It is a powerful method for dealing with case topics that involve…
Witte, Tricia H.; Kendra, Rachel
The objective of this study was to determine whether female victims of physical forms of intimate partner violence (IPV) displayed deficits in risk recognition, or the ability to detect danger, in physically violent dating encounters. A total of 182 women watched a video depicting a psychologically and physically aggressive encounter between…