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Sample records for heterosexual men living

  1. 'You are not yourself': exploring masculinities among heterosexual African men living with HIV in London.

    PubMed

    Doyal, Lesley; Anderson, Jane; Paparini, Sara

    2009-05-01

    It is now clear that gender is an essential factor shaping the narratives of men as well as women. However, there have been few studies of the daily lives or sexual activities of heterosexual men. Hence, strategies developed to prevent the spread of the HIV virus are rarely based on detailed knowledge of the men whose behaviours they are intended to change; this is especially evident in the developing world where the epidemic is most severe. Nor do we know very much about those men who have already been diagnosed as HIV positive. Around 13 million men are now living with HIV of whom around 96% are in low or middle income countries. Migrants from developing countries also make up the majority of positive people in a number of developed countries. In the UK, for example, heterosexual activity is now responsible for about half of all new HIV diagnoses with the majority of those involved being of African origin. But almost nothing is known about the ways in which different constructions of masculinity affect their experiences of illness. This study used qualitative methods to explore the experiences of a sample of black African men who defined themselves as heterosexual and were receiving treatment for HIV and/or AIDS in London. It explored their feelings, their needs, their hopes and their desires as they negotiated their lives in the diaspora.

  2. ‘Waiting at the dinner table for scraps’: a qualitative study of the help-seeking experiences of heterosexual men living with HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Loutfy, Mona R; Glazier, Richard H; Strike, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To characterise the help-seeking experiences of heterosexual men living with HIV infection and explain these experiences in relation to the broader social relations and discourses in which they are embedded. Design Qualitative study using focus groups and theoretically informed constructionist grounded theory. Setting With one exception, focus groups were conducted in the offices of community-based AIDS service organisations across Ontario, Canada. Participants 40 HIV-infected heterosexual men aged 18 years or older. Results Heterosexual men living with HIV perceive themselves to be relegated to the margins of a health care and service field that was developed historically within a context that privileges the priorities of gay men and heterosexual women living with the virus. Specifically, gay men are better positioned than heterosexual men when vying for the services and recognition of AIDS service organisations due to their social capital within these agencies, thereby benefiting by virtue of their membership with the group perceived to control the decision-making apparatuses when resource allocation and programme development are at stake. Relative to women, heterosexual men are poorly positioned due to their negative symbolic capital, derived from being perceived as the ‘guilty’ parties in the context of heterosexual HIV transmission. As a result, the material and support needs of women have been prioritised, while those of heterosexual men living with HIV remain largely unaddressed. Conclusions Heterosexual men living with HIV are operating within a health and service field that has not kept pace with their increased representation among the population of persons living with the virus. Researchers, clinicians and policy makers should strive to integrate heterosexual men living with HIV in decision making and community-based research initiatives that build capacity among this group while simultaneously generating a research and policy agenda

  3. Heterosexual practices of women and men living with HIV attending hospital outpatient services (ANRS-VESPA2 survey): a French comparative study with the general population (CSF survey).

    PubMed

    Boyer, V; Vilotitch, A; Panjo, H; Sagaon-Teyssier, L; Marcellin, F; Dray-Spira, R; Spire, B; Bajos, N

    2016-11-01

    HAART has improved the well-being of many people living with HIV (PLWH). This study aimed at (i) comparing heterosexual practices between PLWH and the general population by gender, and (ii) identifying factors associated with sexual practices and at-risk behaviors in the two populations. Self-reported data were collected among PLWH attending hospitals (VESPA2 survey; n = 3022) and the general population (CSF survey; n = 10,280). Significant differences between the two samples were corrected for by implementing propensity score matching on both socio-demographic characteristics and sexual behavior in terms of number of partners. Men not reporting heterosexual intercourse were excluded. After matching, 61% of women (out of 707) and 68% of men (out of 709) were sexually active in both populations. PLWH practiced oral sex less than the general population and used condoms more consistently over the previous 12-month period, irrespective of having multiple sexual partners or not. For women living with HIV: those with several sexual partners and those consuming drugs over the previous 12 months were more likely to practice oral sex; those living in a couple for at least 6 years and migrants were less likely to practice anal intercourse. For men living with HIV: those reporting bisexual relationships and those with multiple sexual partners over the previous 12 months were more likely to practice anal heterosexual intercourse; migrants reported less oral sex, irrespective of HIV status. Error term correlations showed that anal intercourse was not linked to condom use for women or men from either population. Our results show that PLWH had a lower rate of heterosexual practices compared with the general population, and used condoms more often, irrespective of the number of sexual partners and strong cultural background (e.g., for Sub-Saharan African women). Further preventive information needs to be disseminated on the risk of infection transmission through

  4. Heterosexual practices of women and men living with HIV attending hospital outpatient services (ANRS-VESPA2 survey): a French comparative study with the general population (CSF survey).

    PubMed

    Boyer, V; Vilotitch, A; Panjo, H; Sagaon-Teyssier, L; Marcellin, F; Dray-Spira, R; Spire, B; Bajos, N

    2016-11-01

    HAART has improved the well-being of many people living with HIV (PLWH). This study aimed at (i) comparing heterosexual practices between PLWH and the general population by gender, and (ii) identifying factors associated with sexual practices and at-risk behaviors in the two populations. Self-reported data were collected among PLWH attending hospitals (VESPA2 survey; n = 3022) and the general population (CSF survey; n = 10,280). Significant differences between the two samples were corrected for by implementing propensity score matching on both socio-demographic characteristics and sexual behavior in terms of number of partners. Men not reporting heterosexual intercourse were excluded. After matching, 61% of women (out of 707) and 68% of men (out of 709) were sexually active in both populations. PLWH practiced oral sex less than the general population and used condoms more consistently over the previous 12-month period, irrespective of having multiple sexual partners or not. For women living with HIV: those with several sexual partners and those consuming drugs over the previous 12 months were more likely to practice oral sex; those living in a couple for at least 6 years and migrants were less likely to practice anal intercourse. For men living with HIV: those reporting bisexual relationships and those with multiple sexual partners over the previous 12 months were more likely to practice anal heterosexual intercourse; migrants reported less oral sex, irrespective of HIV status. Error term correlations showed that anal intercourse was not linked to condom use for women or men from either population. Our results show that PLWH had a lower rate of heterosexual practices compared with the general population, and used condoms more often, irrespective of the number of sexual partners and strong cultural background (e.g., for Sub-Saharan African women). Further preventive information needs to be disseminated on the risk of infection transmission through

  5. Prevalence and Contexts of Inconsistent Condom Use Among Heterosexual Men and Women Living with HIV in India: Implications for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Newman, Peter A.; Shunmugam, Murali

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This investigation examined sexual behaviors among heterosexual persons living with HIV (PLHIV) in India. Study participants (mostly married) were interviewed during August to November 2006 in five Indian states using a quantitative survey (n = 100 men and 100 women), eight focus groups (n = 58 participants), and in-depth interviews (n = 31). One third of men and one fourth of women reported inconsistent condom use with regular sexual partners. Facilitators of condom use with regular partners included a feeling of personal responsibility to protect the health of the partner, desire to prevent acquisition and/or transmission of sexually transmitted infections, and the belief that condoms are needed for antiretroviral therapy to be effective. Barriers to consistent condom use with regular partners included the belief that condoms are unnecessary in HIV-positive seroconcordant relationships; lack of sexual satisfaction with condoms; the desire to have a child; husband's alcohol use, depression, and anxiety; fear that disclosure of HIV status will bring marital discord and family shame; and inadequate counseling by health care providers. Positive prevention programs should include counseling about benefits of safer sex in HIV-positive seroconcordant relationships, counseling about integrating condom use with sexual satisfaction and intimacy, condom use self-efficacy and negotiation skills-building, family planning counseling, mental health and alcohol dependence treatment, and counseling and skills-building about disclosure. Health care providers must be trained to provide these services. Furthermore, efforts are needed to promote tolerance for family planning choices made by couples and to counter the stigma associated with HIV/AIDS and condoms in the broader society. PMID:20095889

  6. Prevalence and contexts of inconsistent condom use among heterosexual men and women living with HIV in India: implications for prevention.

    PubMed

    Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Newman, Peter A; Shunmugam, Murali; Dubrow, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This investigation examined sexual behaviors among heterosexual persons living with HIV (PLHIV) in India. Study participants (mostly married) were interviewed during August to November 2006 in five Indian states using a quantitative survey (n = 100 men and 100 women), eight focus groups (n = 58 participants), and in-depth interviews (n = 31). One third of men and one fourth of women reported inconsistent condom use with regular sexual partners. Facilitators of condom use with regular partners included a feeling of personal responsibility to protect the health of the partner, desire to prevent acquisition and/or transmission of sexually transmitted infections, and the belief that condoms are needed for antiretroviral therapy to be effective. Barriers to consistent condom use with regular partners included the belief that condoms are unnecessary in HIV-positive seroconcordant relationships; lack of sexual satisfaction with condoms; the desire to have a child; husband's alcohol use, depression, and anxiety; fear that disclosure of HIV status will bring marital discord and family shame; and inadequate counseling by health care providers. Positive prevention programs should include counseling about benefits of safer sex in HIV-positive seroconcordant relationships, counseling about integrating condom use with sexual satisfaction and intimacy, condom use self-efficacy and negotiation skills-building, family planning counseling, mental health and alcohol dependence treatment, and counseling and skills-building about disclosure. Health care providers must be trained to provide these services. Furthermore, efforts are needed to promote tolerance for family planning choices made by couples and to counter the stigma associated with HIV/AIDS and condoms in the broader society.

  7. Understanding heterosexual condom use among homeless men.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joan S; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P; Ewing, Brett; Wertheimer, Samuel

    2013-06-01

    This study uses an event-based approach to examine individual, relationship, and contextual correlates of heterosexual condom use among homeless men. Structured interviews were conducted with a predominantly African American sample of 305 men recruited from meal lines in the Skid Row area of Los Angeles. Men reported on their most recent heterosexual event involving vaginal or anal intercourse. Adjusting for demographic characteristics only, condom use was more likely when men had higher condom use self-efficacy, greater HIV knowledge, or talked to their partner about condoms prior to sex. Condom use was less likely when men held more negative attitudes towards condoms, the partner was considered to be a primary/serious partner, hard drug use preceded sex, or sex occurred in a public setting. Condom attitudes, self-efficacy, partner type, and communication were the strongest predictors of condom use in a multivariate model that included all of the above-mentioned factors. Associations of unprotected sex with hard drug use prior to sex and having sex in public settings could be accounted for by lower condom self-efficacy and/or less positive condom attitudes among men having sex under these conditions. Results suggest that it may be promising to adapt existing, evidence-based IMB interventions for delivery in non-traditional settings that are frequented by men experiencing homelessness to achieve HIV risk reduction and thus reduce a significant point of disparity for the largely African American population of homeless men. PMID:22392155

  8. Racial disparities in sexual risk behaviors and drug use among older gay/bisexual and heterosexual men living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Karolynn; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Karus, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Adults over age 50 comprise 11% of yearly AIDS cases, yet little is known about their sexual risk behaviors and drug use following diagnosis with HIV/AIDS. The present questionnaire study examines potential racial differences in sexual risk and drug use behaviors among 59 HIV-infected gay/bisexual and heterosexual men over age 50 who were recruited from HIV-related organizations in New York City between 1996-1998. The majority (59%) of older men reported unprotected sex since diagnosis, and 36% had done so in the past six months. African-American gay/bisexual men (n=12) were significantly more likely than white gay/bisexual men (n=32) to report unprotected vaginal/anal sex in the past six months (67% versus 22%, p<0.01), since diagnosis (42% versus 9%, p<0.05), and to report a history of intravenous drug use (50% versus 3%, p<0.01), but did not differ from heterosexual African-American men (n=15). No differences were found in reports of unprotected oral sex or recent use of hard drugs (i.e., crack, cocaine, heroin). These findings suggest that interventions targeting older African-American men (both gay/bisexual and heterosexual) with HIV/AIDS are needed to reduce risk behaviors and prevent HIV transmission in this population. PMID:14977281

  9. Shape differences between the faces of homosexual and heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Kleisner, Karel; Havlíček, Jan; Neustupa, Jiří

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that homosexual men differ from heterosexual men in several somatic traits and lay people accurately attribute sexual orientation based on facial images. Thus, we may predict that morphological differences between faces of homosexual and heterosexual individuals can cue to sexual orientation. The main aim of this study was to test for possible differences in facial shape between heterosexual and homosexual men. Further, we tested whether self-reported sexual orientation correlated with sexual orientation and masculinity-femininity attributed from facial images by independent raters. In Study 1, we used geometric morphometrics to test for differences in facial shape between homosexual and heterosexual men. The analysis revealed significant shape differences in faces of heterosexual and homosexual men. Homosexual men showed relatively wider and shorter faces, smaller and shorter noses, and rather massive and more rounded jaws, resulting in a mosaic of both feminine and masculine features. In Study 2, we tested the accuracy of sexual orientation judgment from standardized facial photos which were assessed by 80 independent raters. Binary logistic regression showed no effect of attributed sexual orientation on self-reported sexual orientation. However, homosexual men were rated as more masculine than heterosexual men, which may explain the misjudgment of sexual orientation. Thus, our results showed that differences in facial morphology of homosexual and heterosexual men do not simply mirror variation in femininity, and the stereotypic association of feminine looking men as homosexual may confound judgments of sexual orientation.

  10. A difference in hypothalamic structure between heterosexual and homosexual men.

    PubMed

    LeVay, S

    1991-08-30

    The anterior hypothalamus of the brain participates in the regulation of male-typical sexual behavior. The volumes of four cell groups in this region [interstitial nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus (INAH) 1, 2, 3, and 4] were measured in postmortem tissue from three subject groups: women, men who were presumed to be heterosexual, and homosexual men. No differences were found between the groups in the volumes of INAH 1, 2, or 4. As has been reported previously, INAH 3 was more than twice as large in the heterosexual men as in the women. It was also, however, more than twice as large in the heterosexual men as in the homosexual men. This finding indicates that INAH is dimorphic with sexual orientation, at least in men, and suggests that sexual orientation has a biological substrate.

  11. Recollections of Sexual Socialisation among Marginalised Heterosexual Black Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Eloise; Benoit, Ellen; Graves, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the sexual socialisation process of marginalised, drug-using heterosexual black men, focusing primarily on the sources and content of sexual information. Analysing qualitative interview data, we discovered that the men in our sample both learn about sex and become sexually active at an early age. They most often learn about…

  12. Heterosexual men and women who seek sex through the Internet.

    PubMed

    Bolding, Graham; Davis, Mark; Hart, Graham; Sherr, Lorraine; Elford, Jonathan

    2006-08-01

    Heterosexual women (n = 330), heterosexual men (n = 319) and gay men (n = 331) attending a London HIV-testing clinic in 2002-03 completed a confidential self-administered questionnaire concerning their sexual behaviour and use of the Internet for seeking sexual partners (response rate 70%). One-in-twenty (5%) heterosexual women and one-in-ten (10%) heterosexual men had used the Internet to look for sexual partners in the previous 12 months compared with nearly half (43%) the gay men (P<0.001). Rates of high-risk sexual behaviour with a casual partner were elevated among those who used the Internet to look for sex (compared with those who did not). However, people who looked for sex through the Internet were just as likely to meet their high-risk casual partners offline as online. Our findings suggest that high-risk heterosexual women and men are selectively using the Internet to look for sex rather than the Internet per se leading to riskier sexual behaviour.

  13. Recollections of sexual socialisation among marginalised heterosexual black men

    PubMed Central

    Dunlap, Eloise; Benoit, Ellen; Graves, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the sexual socialisation process of marginalised, drug-using heterosexual black men, focusing primarily on the sources and content of sexual information. Analysing qualitative interview data, we discovered that the men in our sample both learn about sex and become sexually active at an early age. They most often learn about sex from the media and least often learn about sex from family members. The content of sexual information varies in specifics, but overall tends to equate sex with pleasure, encourage sexual activity with multiple partners, and emphasise using protection. Our goal is to use this data to better understand how sexual socialisation contributes to the prevalence of multiple sexual partners and high rates of HIV among heterosexual black men in order to inform future risk-reduction intervention programmes. PMID:24482611

  14. Maintaining a heterosexual identity: sexual meanings among a sample of heterosexually identified men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Reback, Cathy J; Larkins, Sherry

    2010-06-01

    Heterosexually identified men who have sex with men are an understudied group for whom there is little knowledge of the social and sexual meanings of their same-sex encounters. This study employed qualitative methods to better understand the maintenance of a heterosexual identity in the face of discordant sexual behaviors. Open-ended, in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 heterosexually identified men (M age, 39.85 years) who reported at least one sexual encounter with a male in the previous year but not more than one sexual encounter per month with a male. Of the participants, 61.9% were African American/black, 28.6% were currently married, 71.4% reported current substance use, and 57.1% were HIV infected. Participants did not consider their same-sex activities as discrepant with their heterosexual identity as these activities were coded as infrequent, recreational, accidental, or an economic necessity. They avoided intimacy by depersonalizing male sexual partners, limiting gestures (e.g., kissing, hugging, eye contact, conversation), and by distancing themselves from gay-identified venues. Participants transferred responsibility for their same-sex sexual activities by blaming external factors, such as a fight with their wife or substance use, for the sexual encounters. Despite their ability to compartmentalize these sexual encounters, many participants expressed guilt and shame when discussing their same sex experiences. PMID:19030977

  15. Knowing is not enough: a qualitative report on HIV testing among heterosexual African-American men.

    PubMed

    Bond, Keosha T; Frye, Victoria; Taylor, Raekiela; Williams, Kim; Bonner, Sebastian; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Weiss, Linda; Koblin, Beryl A

    2015-01-01

    Despite having higher rates of HIV testing than all other racial groups, African-Americans continue to be disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic in the United States. Knowing one's status is the key step to maintaining behavioral changes that could stop the spread of the virus, yet little is known about the individual- and socio-structural-level barriers associated with HIV testing and communication among heterosexual African-American men. To address this and inform the development of an HIV prevention behavioral intervention for heterosexual African-American men, we conducted computerized, structured interviews with 61 men, focus group interviews with 25 men in 5 different groups, and in-depth qualitative interviews with 30 men living in high HIV prevalence neighborhoods in New York City. Results revealed that HIV testing was frequent among the participants. Even with high rates of testing, the men in the study had low levels of HIV knowledge; perceived little risk of HIV; and misused HIV testing as a prevention method. Factors affecting HIV testing, included stigma, relationship dynamics and communication, and societal influences, suggesting that fear, low perception of risk, and HIV stigma may be the biggest barriers to HIV testing. These results also suggest that interventions directed toward African-American heterosexual men must address the use of "testing as prevention" as well as correct misunderstandings of the window period and the meaning of HIV test results, and interventions should focus on communicating about HIV. PMID:25298014

  16. Knowing is not enough: a qualitative report on HIV testing among heterosexual African-American men

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Keosha T.; Frye, Victoria; Taylor, Raekiela; Williams, Kim; Bonner, Sebastian; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Weiss, Linda; Koblin, Beryl A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite having higher rates of HIV testing than all other racial groups, African-Americans continue to be disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic in the United States. Knowing one’s status is the key step to maintaining behavioral changes that could stop the spread of the virus, yet little is known about the individual- and socio-structural-level barriers associated with HIV testing and communication among heterosexual African-American men. To address this and inform the development of an HIV prevention behavioral intervention for heterosexual African-American men, we conducted computerized, structured interviews with 61 men, focus group interviews with 25 men in 5 different groups, and in-depth qualitative interviews with 30 men living in high HIV prevalence neighborhoods in New York City. Results revealed that HIV testing was frequent among the participants. Even with high rates of testing, the men in the study had low levels of HIV knowledge; perceived little risk of HIV; and misused HIV testing as a prevention method. Factors affecting HIV testing, included stigma, relationship dynamics and communication, and societal influences, suggesting that fear, low perception of risk, and HIV stigma may be the biggest barriers to HIV testing. These results also suggest that interventions directed toward African-American heterosexual men must address the use of “testing as prevention” as well as correct misunderstandings of the window period and the meaning of HIV test results, and interventions should focus on communicating about HIV. PMID:25298014

  17. Knowing is not enough: a qualitative report on HIV testing among heterosexual African-American men.

    PubMed

    Bond, Keosha T; Frye, Victoria; Taylor, Raekiela; Williams, Kim; Bonner, Sebastian; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Weiss, Linda; Koblin, Beryl A

    2015-01-01

    Despite having higher rates of HIV testing than all other racial groups, African-Americans continue to be disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic in the United States. Knowing one's status is the key step to maintaining behavioral changes that could stop the spread of the virus, yet little is known about the individual- and socio-structural-level barriers associated with HIV testing and communication among heterosexual African-American men. To address this and inform the development of an HIV prevention behavioral intervention for heterosexual African-American men, we conducted computerized, structured interviews with 61 men, focus group interviews with 25 men in 5 different groups, and in-depth qualitative interviews with 30 men living in high HIV prevalence neighborhoods in New York City. Results revealed that HIV testing was frequent among the participants. Even with high rates of testing, the men in the study had low levels of HIV knowledge; perceived little risk of HIV; and misused HIV testing as a prevention method. Factors affecting HIV testing, included stigma, relationship dynamics and communication, and societal influences, suggesting that fear, low perception of risk, and HIV stigma may be the biggest barriers to HIV testing. These results also suggest that interventions directed toward African-American heterosexual men must address the use of "testing as prevention" as well as correct misunderstandings of the window period and the meaning of HIV test results, and interventions should focus on communicating about HIV.

  18. Emotional reactions of heterosexual men to gay imagery.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Cj

    2015-01-01

    Studies of homonegativity in the general population typically use scales to examine the attitudes of a heterosexual sample toward gay men and lesbian women. However, these scales fail to address that accepting gay and lesbian people in theory is not tantamount to accepting the sexual practices engaged in by gay and lesbian people. As a result, relying on homonegativity scales and hypothetical scenarios (i.e., asking a participant to imagine a gay man or lesbian woman from personality characteristics provided) may not offer a complete view of the complexities of homonegativity. To explore this possibility, 83 men self-identifying as either largely or exclusively heterosexual rated one of three groups of images (romantic gay, erotic gay, and control) on the basis of five questions related to their emotional responses. A psychometrically sound homonegativity scale was also completed. Results indicated that homonegativity was a significant predictor of decreased happiness, anger, disgust, task enjoyment, and reported liking of the imagery. Furthermore, homonegativity was found to moderate the association between exposure to the romantic images and four of the five emotional responses (happiness, anger, disgust, and liking). Exposure to the set of erotic gay images, however, was associated with negative emotional responses, regardless of participants' self-reported level of homonegativity (i.e., overt homonegativity possessed less moderational power for this type of imagery). These findings suggest that standard scales of homonegative attitudes may be unable to capture the affective negativity that heterosexual men experience when viewing gay male intimacy.

  19. Emotional reactions of heterosexual men to gay imagery.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Cj

    2015-01-01

    Studies of homonegativity in the general population typically use scales to examine the attitudes of a heterosexual sample toward gay men and lesbian women. However, these scales fail to address that accepting gay and lesbian people in theory is not tantamount to accepting the sexual practices engaged in by gay and lesbian people. As a result, relying on homonegativity scales and hypothetical scenarios (i.e., asking a participant to imagine a gay man or lesbian woman from personality characteristics provided) may not offer a complete view of the complexities of homonegativity. To explore this possibility, 83 men self-identifying as either largely or exclusively heterosexual rated one of three groups of images (romantic gay, erotic gay, and control) on the basis of five questions related to their emotional responses. A psychometrically sound homonegativity scale was also completed. Results indicated that homonegativity was a significant predictor of decreased happiness, anger, disgust, task enjoyment, and reported liking of the imagery. Furthermore, homonegativity was found to moderate the association between exposure to the romantic images and four of the five emotional responses (happiness, anger, disgust, and liking). Exposure to the set of erotic gay images, however, was associated with negative emotional responses, regardless of participants' self-reported level of homonegativity (i.e., overt homonegativity possessed less moderational power for this type of imagery). These findings suggest that standard scales of homonegative attitudes may be unable to capture the affective negativity that heterosexual men experience when viewing gay male intimacy. PMID:25153351

  20. Fertility in the mothers of firstborn homosexual and heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ray

    2012-06-01

    This study tested the balancing selection hypothesis, that is, genes predisposing men to homosexuality escape elimination from the population because the decreased fertility of men with the heritable form of homosexuality is offset by an increased fertility among biological relatives who carry the same genetic variants. The index subjects (probands) were 40,197 firstborn heterosexual men and 4,784 firstborn homosexual men retrieved from six archival data sets, all of which had previously been used in published research. The measure of familial (specifically, parental) fertility was the proband's number of younger siblings. The results directly contradicted the prediction of the balancing selection hypothesis. In four of the six samples, the homosexual probands had significantly fewer younger siblings; in the other two samples, the means were not significantly different. It is possible that mothers who produce a homosexual son at their first delivery include a biologically distinct subpopulation of mothers of homosexual sons.

  1. Dating, marriage, and parenthood for HIV-positive heterosexual Puerto Rican men: normalizing perspectives on everyday life with HIV.

    PubMed

    Sastre, Francisco; Sheehan, Diana M; Gonzalez, Arnaldo

    2015-03-01

    HIV-positive men are living long and healthier lives while managing HIV as a chronic illness. Although research has extensively documented the experiences of illness of people living with HIV, dating, marriage, and fatherhood among heterosexual Latino men has not been examined. To address this gap, this study used a qualitative study design to examine patterns and strategies for dating, marriage, and parenthood among 24 HIV-positive heterosexual Puerto Rican men living in Boston. The findings in our study indicate that an HIV diagnosis does not necessarily deter men from having an active sexual life, marrying, or having children. In fact, for some of the men, engaging in these social and life-changing events is part of moving on and normalizing life with HIV; these men planned for, achieved, and interpreted these events in the context of establishing normalcy with HIV. Although the HIV diagnosis discouraged some men from engaging in sexual relations, getting married, or having children, others fulfilled these desires with strategies aimed to reconciling their HIV status in their personal life, including dating or marrying HIV-positive women only. Additional important themes identified in this study include the decision to disclose HIV status to new sexual partners as well as the decision to accept the risk of HIV transmission to a child or partner in order to fulfill desires of fatherhood. Understanding the personal struggles, decision-making patterns, and needs of HIV-positive heterosexual men can aid in designing interventions that support healthy living with HIV.

  2. Straight Talk: HIV Prevention for African-American Heterosexual Men: Theoretical Bases and Intervention Design

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Victoria; Bonner, Sebastian; Williams, Kim; Henny, Kirk; Bond, Keosha; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Smith, Stephen; Koblin, Beryl A.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, racial disparities in HIV/AIDS are stark. Although African Americans comprise an estimated 14% of the U.S. population, they made up 52% of new HIV cases among adults and adolescents diagnosed in 2009. Heterosexual transmission is now the second leading cause of HIV in the United States. African Americans made up a full two-thirds of all heterosexually acquired HIV/AIDS cases between 2005 and 2008. Few demonstrated efficacious HIV prevention interventions designed specifically for adult, African-American heterosexual men exist. Here, we describe the process used to design a theory-based HIV prevention intervention to increase condom use, reduce concurrent partnering, and increase HIV testing among heterosexually active African-American men living in high HIV prevalence areas of New York City. The intervention integrated empowerment, social identity, and rational choices theories and focused on four major content areas: HIV/AIDS testing and education; condom skills training; key relational and behavioral turning points; and masculinity and fatherhood. PMID:23016501

  3. Straight talk: HIV prevention for African-American heterosexual men: theoretical bases and intervention design.

    PubMed

    Frye, Victoria; Bonner, Sebastian; Williams, Kim; Henny, Kirk; Bond, Keosha; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Smith, Stephen; Koblin, Beryl A

    2012-10-01

    In the United States, racial disparities in HIV/AIDS are stark. Although African Americans comprise an estimated 14% of the U.S. population, they made up 52% of new HIV cases among adults and adolescents diagnosed in 2009. Heterosexual transmission is now the second leading cause of HIV in the United States. African Americans made up a full two-thirds of all heterosexually acquired HIV/AIDS cases between 2005 and 2008. Few demonstrated efficacious HIV prevention interventions designed specifically for adult, African-American heterosexual men exist. Here, we describe the process used to design a theory-based HIV prevention intervention to increase condom use, reduce concurrent partnering, and increase HIV testing among heterosexually active African-American men living in high HIV prevalence areas of New York City. The intervention integrated empowerment, social identity, and rational choices theories and focused on four major content areas: HIV/AIDS testing and education; condom skills training; key relational and behavioral turning points; and masculinity and fatherhood.

  4. Racial discrimination and posttraumatic stress symptoms as pathways to sexual HIV risk behaviors among urban Black heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Bowleg, Lisa; Fitz, Caroline C; Burkholder, Gary J; Massie, Jenne S; Wahome, Rahab; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J; Tschann, Jeanne M

    2014-01-01

    In light of evidence that racial discrimination and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are neither rare nor extraordinary for many Black urban men, we examined the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual HIV risk behaviors in a predominantly low-income sample of 526 urban Black heterosexually identified men; 64% of whom were unemployed and 55% of whom reported a history of incarceration. We tested the hypothesis that PTSS would mediate the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual risk. Participants in the predominantly low-income urban sample ranged in age from 18 to 45 (M = 28.80, SD = 7.57). Three multiple regression models were used to test the study's mediational model. As hypothesized, PTSS mediated the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual risk behaviors. Most participants (97%) reported experiences with everyday racial discrimination. Results empirically support the notion of racial discrimination-based traumatic stress as a pathway to Black heterosexual men's increased sexual risk behaviors. Results also highlighted key demographic differences with older men reporting fewer PTSS and sexual risk behaviors compared with younger men. Incarceration was related to both PTSS and sexual risk, underscoring the role that incarceration may play in Black heterosexual men's adverse health outcomes. Our study highlights the need for more qualitative and quantitative research to understand the nature of PTSS in Black heterosexual men and mechanisms such as substance use that may link traumatic experiences and sexual risk. Future research could also assess experiences with childhood sexual abuse, violence, and incarceration to gain a more in-depth understanding of the sources of traumatic stress in Black heterosexual men's lives. We advocate for the development of community-based individual and structural-level interventions to help Black heterosexual men in urban areas develop effective strategies to

  5. Determinants of physical and global functioning in adult HIV-positive heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Shah, Krupa; McMahon, James M; Trabold, Nicole; Aidala, Angela A; Chen, Michael; Pouget, Enrique R; Simmons, Janie; Klostermann, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the psychosocial factors that might impact the functioning ability of heterosexual men living with HIV. We examined positive and negative coping, social support, and HIV stigma as predictors of physical and global functioning in a cross-sectional sample of 317 HIV-infected adult heterosexual male patients recruited from clinical and social service agencies in New York City. Study participants were primarily minority and low income. Sixty-four percent were African-American, 55% were single, and 90% were 40 years of age or older. The majority had long-term HIV (LTHIV), with an average duration of 15 years since diagnosis. After controlling for participant characteristics, structural equation modeling analyses revealed that positive coping and social support had a significant positive direct effect on global functioning, while stigma had a significant negative direct effect on global functioning. The physical functioning model revealed that negative coping and HIV stigma had significant negative direct effects, whereas social support had a significant positive indirect effect. Age and duration of HIV diagnosis were not associated with physical and global functioning. In conclusion, we found that heterosexual men living with LTHIV who have ineffective coping, less social support, and greater stigma have reduced functioning ability. Study findings have implications for developing interventions aimed at increasing and retaining functioning ability with the end goal of improving successful aging in this population.

  6. Gender-related traits in gay men, lesbian women, and heterosexual men and women: the virtual identify of homosexual-heterosexual diagnosticity and gender diagnosticity.

    PubMed

    Lippa, R A

    2000-10-01

    Three studies investigated the relationship between gender-related traits and sexual orientation. Study 1 showed that gay men and lesbians in an unselected sample of 721 college students differed from same-sex heterosexuals most strongly on gender diagnosticity (GD) measures, which assess male- versus female-typicality of interests (effect sizes of 2.70 for men and .96 for women) and least strongly on measures of instrumentality (I) and expressiveness (E). In Study 2, GD measures showed large differences between 95 gay and 136 heterosexual men (effect sizes of 1.61 and 1.83) and between 46 lesbian and 225 heterosexual women (effect sizes of .98 and 1.28), whereas I and E showed much smaller differences. In Study 3, GD showed large differences between 90 gay and 81 heterosexual men (effect sizes of 1.76 and 1.97) and between 82 lesbians and 108 heterosexual women (effect sizes 1.67 and 1.70). whereas I and E showed much smaller differences. Using data from Studies 2 and 3, "gay-heterosexual diagnosticity" measures were computed for men and "lesbian-heterosexual diagnosticity" measures for women, based on occupational and hobby preferences. These measures correlated very strongly with GD measures.

  7. Sex Trade Behavior Among Heterosexually Active Homeless Men

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joan S.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Kennedy, David P.; Golinelli, Daniela; Ewing, Brett

    2013-01-01

    Sex trade behavior is fairly common among homeless adults and may contribute to higher rates of HIV/AIDS in this population. This study provides a detailed examination of the sex trade-related attitudes and behaviors of homeless men by: (1) determining the prevalence of sex trade-related behaviors, including sex with female sex workers (FSWs); (2) identifying risk factors for having sex with FSWs; and (3) comparing men's relationships with FSWs and non-FSWs in terms of relationship qualities and HIV-related risk behaviors, such as condom use. Structured interviews were conducted with a probability sample of 305 heterosexually active homeless men recruited from meal lines in Los Angeles. Recent sex with a FSW was reported by 26% of men, and more likely among those who were older, used crack cocaine, had more sex partners, believed that sometimes men just need to have sex no matter what, and were embedded in networks that were denser and where risky sex was more normative. Compared to non-FSW partners, men with FSW partners felt less emotionally close to them, were more likely to believe the partner had never been tested for HIV, and were more likely to have sex with them under the influence of drugs or alcohol; however, they were not more likely to talk about using condoms or to use condoms with FSWs. Whether the relationship was considered “serious” was a stronger correlate of condom use than whether the partner was a FSW. Implications of these findings for HIV prevention efforts among homeless adults are discussed. PMID:23720137

  8. A Latent Class Analysis of Heterosexual Young Men's Masculinities.

    PubMed

    Casey, Erin A; Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J

    2016-07-01

    Parallel bodies of research have described the diverse and complex ways that men understand and construct their masculine identities (often termed "masculinities") and, separately, how adherence to traditional notions of masculinity places men at risk for negative sexual and health outcomes. The goal of this analysis was to bring together these two streams of inquiry. Using data from a national, online sample of 555 heterosexually active young men, we employed latent class analysis (LCA) to detect patterns of masculine identities based on men's endorsement of behavioral and attitudinal indicators of "dominant" masculinity, including sexual attitudes and behaviors. LCA identified four conceptually distinct masculine identity profiles. Two groups, termed the Normative and Normative/Male Activities groups, respectively, constituted 88 % of the sample and were characterized by low levels of adherence to attitudes, sexual scripts, and behaviors consistent with "dominant" masculinity, but differed in their levels of engagement in male-oriented activities (e.g., sports teams). Only eight percent of the sample comprised a masculinity profile consistent with "traditional" ideas about masculinity; this group was labeled Misogynistic because of high levels of sexual assault and violence toward female partners. The remaining four percent constituted a Sex-Focused group, characterized by high numbers of sexual partners, but relatively low endorsement of other indicators of traditional masculinity. Follow-up analyses showed a small number of differences across groups on sexual and substance use health indicators. Findings have implications for sexual and behavioral health interventions and suggest that very few young men embody or endorse rigidly traditional forms of masculinity.

  9. Age and Embodied Masculinities: Mid-Life Gay and Heterosexual Men Talk about their Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Lodge, Amy C.; Umberson, Debra

    2013-01-01

    This article integrates critical gerontology and masculinities theories to examine how midlife gay and heterosexual men experience their bodies in relation to cultural discourses of aging. Analyses of in-depth interviews with 15 gay and 15 heterosexual men ages 40–60 reveal that while both groups of men describe their bodies as deteriorating or declining in terms of functionality and are often distressed by these changes, midlife gay men also articulate a concern with a perceived decline in bodily appearance. Both gay and heterosexual midlife men frame their bodies as fundamentally different from women’s, possibly in an attempt to protect a masculine identity in response to the threat that aging bodies pose to that identity. We argue that midlife men’s embodied experiences are shaped by a discourse of midlife decline as well as inequalities between gay and heterosexual men. We also discuss the implications of embodiment for midlife men’s well-being. PMID:23849420

  10. Effects of attractiveness and status in dating desire in homosexual and heterosexual men and women.

    PubMed

    Ha, Thao; van den Berg, Judith E M; Engels, Rutger C M E; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna

    2012-06-01

    The present study examined partner preferences of homosexual and heterosexual men and woman, focusing on attractiveness and status. Homosexual (N=591 men; M age=28.87 years, SD=10.21; N=249 women; M age=33.36 years, SD=13.12) and heterosexual participants (N=346 men; M age=39.74 years, SD=14.26; N=400 women; M age=35.93 years, SD=13.72) rated the importance of attractiveness and social status of potential partners and then, in a vignette test, expressed their desire to date hypothetical potential partners based on photographs that varied in attractiveness and status-related profiles. With ratings, heterosexual men valued attractiveness the most, followed by homosexual men, heterosexual women, and homosexual women. Heterosexual women rated social status as most important. When status profiles were manipulated and accompanied with photographs of faces, the pattern of differences between homosexuals and heterosexuals supported the self-reported results. Overall, homosexual men and women have similar mate preferences to heterosexual men and women by showing more dating desire for attractive and high social status persons. Compared to attractiveness, status played a smaller role in dating desire.

  11. Heterosexuals attitudes toward bisexual men and women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Herek, Gregory M

    2002-11-01

    This paper examines heterosexual adults attitudes toward bisexual men and women using data from a 1999 national RDD survey (N = 1,335). Ratings on 101-point feeling thermometers were lower (less favorable) for bisexual men and bisexual women than for all other groups assessed--including religious, racial, ethnic, and political groups--except injecting drug users. More negative attitudes toward bisexuals were associated with higher age, less education, lower annual income, residence in the South and rural areas, higher religiosity, political conservatism, traditional values concerning gender and sexual behavior, authoritarianism, and lack of contact with gay men or lesbians. White heterosexual women expressed significantly more favorable attitudes than other women and all men. A gender difference was observed in attitudes toward bisexuals and homosexuals: Heterosexual women rated bisexuals significantly less favorably than they rated homosexuals, regardless of gender, whereas heterosexual men rated male targets less favorably than female targets, regardless of whether the target was bisexual or homosexual. PMID:12545409

  12. Perceived Similarity With Gay Men Mediates the Effect of Antifemininity on Heterosexual Men's Antigay Prejudice.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Carmen; Vázquez, Carolina; Falomir-Pichastor, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that heterosexual men's motivation to differentiate themselves from gay men mediates the relationship between the antifemininity norm of masculinity and antigay prejudice. We assessed masculinity through three concepts: status, thoughness, and antifemininity. Participants then reported their perceived similarity with gay men and their antigay prejudice. The results showed that antifemininity was the best predictor of both perceived similarity and antigay prejudice: The more people endorsed the antifemininity norm, the more they perceived themselves as dissimilar from gay men and showed antigay prejudice. More important, perceived similarity mediated the effect of antifemininity on antigay prejudice. These findings provide direct evidence for the link between masculinity and the motivation to differentiate oneself from gay men, and they suggest that antigay prejudice accomplishes the identity function of maintaining unambiguous gender boundaries.

  13. Dating, Marriage, and Parenthood for HIV-Positive Heterosexual Puerto Rican Men: Normalizing Perspectives on Everyday Life With HIV

    PubMed Central

    Sastre, Francisco; Sheehan, Diana M.; Gonzalez, Arnaldo

    2014-01-01

    HIV-positive men are living long and healthier lives while managing HIV as a chronic illness. Although research has extensively documented the experiences of illness of people living with HIV, dating, marriage, and fatherhood among heterosexual Latino men has not been examined. To address this gap, this study used a qualitative study design to examine patterns and strategies for dating, marriage, and parenthood among 24 HIV-positive heterosexual Puerto Rican men living in Boston. The findings in our study indicate that an HIV diagnosis does not necessarily deter men from having an active sexual life, marrying, or having children. In fact, for some of the men, engaging in these social and life-changing events is part of moving on and normalizing life with HIV; these men planned for, achieved, and interpreted these events in the context of establishing normalcy with HIV. Although the HIV diagnosis discouraged some men from engaging in sexual relations, getting married, or having children, others fulfilled these desires with strategies aimed to reconciling their HIV status in their personal life, including dating or marrying HIV-positive women only. Additional important themes identified in this study include the decision to disclose HIV status to new sexual partners as well as the decision to accept the risk of HIV transmission to a child or partner in order to fulfill desires of fatherhood. Understanding the personal struggles, decision-making patterns, and needs of HIV-positive heterosexual men can aid in designing interventions that support healthy living with HIV. PMID:24794822

  14. Dating, marriage, and parenthood for HIV-positive heterosexual Puerto Rican men: normalizing perspectives on everyday life with HIV.

    PubMed

    Sastre, Francisco; Sheehan, Diana M; Gonzalez, Arnaldo

    2015-03-01

    HIV-positive men are living long and healthier lives while managing HIV as a chronic illness. Although research has extensively documented the experiences of illness of people living with HIV, dating, marriage, and fatherhood among heterosexual Latino men has not been examined. To address this gap, this study used a qualitative study design to examine patterns and strategies for dating, marriage, and parenthood among 24 HIV-positive heterosexual Puerto Rican men living in Boston. The findings in our study indicate that an HIV diagnosis does not necessarily deter men from having an active sexual life, marrying, or having children. In fact, for some of the men, engaging in these social and life-changing events is part of moving on and normalizing life with HIV; these men planned for, achieved, and interpreted these events in the context of establishing normalcy with HIV. Although the HIV diagnosis discouraged some men from engaging in sexual relations, getting married, or having children, others fulfilled these desires with strategies aimed to reconciling their HIV status in their personal life, including dating or marrying HIV-positive women only. Additional important themes identified in this study include the decision to disclose HIV status to new sexual partners as well as the decision to accept the risk of HIV transmission to a child or partner in order to fulfill desires of fatherhood. Understanding the personal struggles, decision-making patterns, and needs of HIV-positive heterosexual men can aid in designing interventions that support healthy living with HIV. PMID:24794822

  15. Effect of Psychopathy on Physical Aggression Toward Gay and Heterosexual Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrott, Dominic J.; Zeichner, Amos

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of psychopathy on antigay aggression. Participants were 84 heterosexual men who competed in an aggression paradigm in which electric shocks were received from and administered to a randomly determined fictitious opponent (heterosexual male, gay male) during a competitive reaction time…

  16. Do Lesbians Differ from Heterosexual Men and Women in Levinsonian Phases of Adult Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler-Scruggs, Kathy S.

    2008-01-01

    Research conducted on heterosexual women has been generalized to lesbians. However, the question remains whether lesbians differ in their adult development from heterosexual men and women. This article reviews results of 10 one-on-one life story interviews conducted with self-identified lesbians between the ages of 35 and 45. Information from…

  17. Partner notification among men who have sex with men and heterosexuals with STI/HIV: different outcomes and challenges.

    PubMed

    van Aar, Fleur; van Weert, Yolanda; Spijker, Ralph; Götz, Hannelore; Op de Coul, Eline

    2015-07-01

    Partner notification effectiveness among index clients diagnosed with HIV, syphilis and/or gonorrhoea at sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics was evaluated between 2010 and 2012. We explored percentages of identifiable, notified and tested partners by sexual preference and gender. Partner notification trends were studied using the national STI database. Men who have sex with men (n = 304), heterosexual men (n = 33) and women (n = 35) reported, respectively, 6.7, 3.8 and 2.3 partners per index. Percentages of identifiable partners differed between groups (men who have sex with men: 46%, heterosexual men: 63%, women: 87%, p < 0.001). The percentage of notified partners (of those identifiable) was lowest for heterosexual men (76%; men who have sex with men: 92%; women: 83%; p < 0.001). STI positivity rates among notified partners were high: 33%-50% depending on sexual preference. Among men who have sex with men, having HIV was associated with not notifying all identifiable partners. Percentages of notified clients at STI clinics increased between 2010 and 2012: from 13% to 19% among men who have sex with men, from 13% to 18% among heterosexual men and from 8% to 11% among women (p < 0.001 for all groups). The percentage of STI/HIV detected through partner notification increased among men who have sex with men (from 22% to 30%) and women (from 25% to 29%; p < 0.001). Unidentifiable partners among men who have sex with men, lower partner notification effectiveness for HIV and the relative large proportion of heterosexual men not notifying their partners appear to be important partner notification challenges.

  18. 'The full has never been told': building a theory of sexual health for heterosexual Black men of Caribbean descent.

    PubMed

    Crowell, Candice N; Delgado-Romero, Edward A; Mosley, Della V; Huynh, Sophia

    2016-08-01

    Research on Black sexual health often fails to represent the heterogeneity of Black ethnic groups. For people of Caribbean descent in the USA, ethnicity is a salient cultural factor that influences definitions and experiences of sexual health. Most research on people of Caribbean descent focuses on the relatively high rate of STIs, but sexual health is defined more broadly than STI prevalence. Psychological and emotional indicators and the voice of participants are important to consider when exploring the sexual health of a minority culture. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore how heterosexual Black men of Caribbean descent define and understand sexual health for themselves. Eleven men who self-identified as Black, Caribbean and heterosexual participated in three focus groups and were asked to define sexual health, critique behaviours expertly identified as healthy and address what encourages and discourages sexual health in their lives. Findings point to six dimensions of sexual health for heterosexual Black men of Caribbean descent. These include: heterosexually privileged, protective, contextual, interpersonal, cultural and pleasurable dimensions. There were some notable departures from current expert definitions of sexual health. Recommendations for further theory development are provided.

  19. Do metropolitan HIV epidemic histories and programs for people who inject drugs and men who have sex with men predict AIDS incidence and mortality among heterosexuals?

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Samuel R.; West, Brooke S.; Tempalski, Barbara; Morton, Cory M.; Cleland, Charles M.; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Hall, H. Irene; Cooper, Hannah LF.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We focus on a little-researched issue—how HIV epidemics and programs in key populations in metropolitan areas affect epidemics in other key populations. We consider: 1) How are earlier epidemics among people who inject drugs (PWID) and men who have sex with men (MSM) related to later AIDS incidence and mortality among heterosexuals?; 2) Were prevention programs targeting PWID or MSM associated with lower AIDS incidence and mortality among heterosexuals?; and 3) Was the size of the potential bridge population of non-injecting drug users (NIDUs) in a metropolitan area associated with later AIDS incidence and mortality among heterosexuals? Methods Using data for 96 large US metropolitan areas, Poisson regression assessed associations of population prevalences of HIV-infected PWID and MSM (1992); NIDU population prevalence (1992–1994); drug use treatment coverage for PWID (1993); HIV counseling and testing coverage for MSM and for PWID (1992); and syringe exchange presence (2000) with CDC data on AIDS incidence and mortality among heterosexuals in 2006 – 2008, with appropriate socioeconomic controls. Results Population density of HIV+ PWID and of NIDUs were positively related, and prevention programs for PWID negatively related, to later AIDS incidence among heterosexuals and later mortality among heterosexuals living with AIDS. HIV+ MSM population density and prevention programs for MSM were not associated with these outcomes. Conclusions Efforts to reduce HIV transmission among PWID and NIDUs may reduce AIDS and AIDS-related mortality among heterosexuals. More research is needed at metropolitan area, network and individual levels into HIV bridging across key populations and how interventions in one key population affect HIV epidemics in other key populations. PMID:24529517

  20. HIV Type 1 Transmission Networks Among Men Having Sex with Men and Heterosexuals in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; Hassan, Amin; Hamers, Raph L.; Mutua, Gaudensia; Anzala, Omu; Mandaliya, Kishor; Cane, Patricia; Berkley, James A.; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Wallis, Carole; Graham, Susan M.; Price, Matthew A.; Coutinho, Roel A.; Sanders, Eduard J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We performed a molecular phylogenetic study on HIV-1 polymerase sequences of men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexual patient samples in Kenya to characterize any observed HIV-1 transmission networks. HIV-1 polymerase sequences were obtained from samples in Nairobi and coastal Kenya from 84 MSM, 226 other men, and 364 women from 2005 to 2010. Using Bayesian phylogenetics, we tested whether sequences clustered by sexual orientation and geographic location. In addition, we used trait diffusion analyses to identify significant epidemiological links and to quantify the number of transmissions between risk groups. Finally, we compared 84 MSM sequences with all HIV-1 sequences available online at GenBank. Significant clustering of sequences from MSM at both coastal Kenya and Nairobi was found, with evidence of HIV-1 transmission between both locations. Although a transmission pair between a coastal MSM and woman was confirmed, no significant HIV-1 transmission was evident between MSM and the comparison population for the predominant subtype A (60%). However, a weak but significant link was evident when studying all subtypes together. GenBank comparison did not reveal other important transmission links. Our data suggest infrequent intermingling of MSM and heterosexual HIV-1 epidemics in Kenya. PMID:23947948

  1. Examination of muscularity and body fat depictions in magazines that target heterosexual and gay men.

    PubMed

    Lanzieri, Nicholas; Cook, Brian J

    2013-03-01

    Previous content analyses of magazine images have typically examined within genres but failed to include comparisons between publications intended for various populations. The purpose of this study was to examine depictions of muscularity and thinness of male images in several widely distributed magazines that target male audiences from a variety of genres. Twenty-three magazine titles with the highest circulation rates that targeted heterosexual men, gay men, and general audiences were selected for image analyses. We found that magazines that target gay male audiences depicted images of men who were thinner in comparison to magazines targeting heterosexual men. Both gay and heterosexual magazines depicted male images with greater muscularity than magazines intended for general audiences. Differences in male image depictions in magazines may contribute to the promotion of an unattainable body ideal in some subgroups of gay culture.

  2. Rethinking Gender, Heterosexual Men, and Women's Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Susie; Dworkin, Shari L.

    2010-01-01

    Most HIV prevention literature portrays women as especially vulnerable to HIV infection because of biological susceptibility and men's sexual power and privilege. Conversely, heterosexual men are perceived as active transmitters of HIV but not active agents in prevention. Although the women's vulnerability paradigm was a radical revision of earlier views of women in the epidemic, mounting challenges undermine its current usefulness. We review the etiology and successes of the paradigm as well as its accruing limitations. We also call for an expanded model that acknowledges biology, gender inequality, and gendered power relations but also directly examines social structure, gender, and HIV risk for heterosexual women and men. PMID:20075321

  3. The Association between Sexual Aggression and HIV Risk Behavior in Heterosexual Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Zoe D.; Janssen, Erick; Heiman, Julia R.

    2010-01-01

    Perpetrating sexual coercion and rape can be conceptualized as a form of sexual risk taking. In this study, the authors evaluated the relationship between sexual aggression and other risky sexual behaviors (e.g., intercourse without a condom) using an online convenience sample of 1,240 heterosexual men. Sexually aggressive men engaged in more…

  4. Racial discrimination, social support, and sexual HIV risk among Black heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Bowleg, Lisa; Burkholder, Gary J; Massie, Jenné S; Wahome, Rahab; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J; Tschann, Jeanne M

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies document the adverse impact of racial discrimination on African Americans' health outcomes, but few have focused on HIV risk. We examined the relationship between racial discrimination and sexual risk in a sample of 526 Black heterosexual men and tested the hypothesis that social support would moderate this relationship. Participants in the predominantly low-income urban sample ranged in age from 18 to 45. High social support had a buffering impact on the relationship between racial discrimination and sexual risk. Among men reporting high racial discrimination, those with more social support reported less sexual risk than men with low social support. Men who reported high racial discrimination and low social support reported more sexual risk than men in any of the other groups. The study highlights social support as an important but understudied protective factor that may reduce sexual risk for Black heterosexual men who report high levels of racial discrimination.

  5. The Use of the Internet to Meet Sexual Partners: A Comparison of Non-Heterosexually-Identified Men with Heterosexually-Identified Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Seal, David Wyatt; Benotsch, Eric G.; Green, Marisa; Snipes, Daniel J.; Bull, Sheana S.; Cejka, Anna; Lance, Shannon Perschbacher; Nettles, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, we conducted online interviews with 65 self-identified adult heterosexual men and women and gay/bisexual men to explore perceptions and experiences with meeting people online. Reasons for meeting people online, desired partner characteristics, and the process of connecting for sex paralleled those observed in real-life; but the Internet allowed people to identify more partners and specific partner characteristics. “Background checks” of online partners, even though often believed to be false, increased familiarity and trust leading to reduced perceived need for condom use. Participants said online condom use negotiation was easier, but usually occurred in face-to-face contexts in practice. (99) PMID:25767648

  6. Condom Use among Heterosexual Immigrant Latino Men in the Southeastern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knipper, Emily; Rhodes, Scott D.; Lindstrom, Kristen; Bloom, Fred R.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Montano, Jaime

    2007-01-01

    Latinos in the United States have been disproportionately affected by the intersecting epidemics of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). We examined correlates of condom use among adult heterosexual Latino men who are members of a large multicounty soccer league in rural North Carolina. Of 222 participants, the mean (plus or minus SD) age…

  7. Heterosexual behaviours among men who sell sex to men in coastal Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Adrian D.; Muhaari, Allan D.; Agwanda, Carole; Kowuor, Dickens; van der Elst, Elise; Davies, Alun; Graham, Susan M.; Jaffe, Harold W.; Sanders, Eduard J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective African men who have sex with men often sell sex to men, and MSM who sell sex (MSM-SW) often also have female partners. We compared sexual risk behaviour of MSM-SW who were sexually active with female partners (bisexual MSW) to MSM-SW with only male partners (exclusive MSW). Design Descriptive behavioural study Methods A novel, validated daily event and partner diary self-completed by 82 MSM who sold sex over a follow-up period of 42 days with weekly review. Cumulative individual counts of sex and condomless sex were compiled by partner characteristics. The incidence of specific partnerships and sex acts were compared within and between bisexual and exclusive MSW. Results Most (59%) MSM-SW reported female partners during follow-up. The majority of both male and female partners were cash-paying clients originating locally. Bisexual MSW reported a similar rate of condomless sex with male and female partners, but significantly fewer male partners than exclusive MSW. Bisexual MSW had lower HIV prevalence, were more likely to only report insertive anal sex roles, and reported lower frequencies of condomless receptive anal sex than exclusive MSW. Conclusion Bisexually active male sex workers in coastal Kenya create HIV and other sexually transmitted infection transmission pathways to partners and clients in both MSM and heterosexual networks, but differed from exclusive MSW in having lower HIV acquisition and transmission risks. Epidemiological projection methods are liable to overestimate bridging potential of MSM-SW and MSM populations without account for systematic differences in risk within these populations. PMID:26565965

  8. Fraternal birth order and ratio of heterosexual/homosexual feelings in women and men.

    PubMed

    McConaghy, Nathaniel; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Stevens, Carol; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Buhrich, Neil; Vollmer-Conna, Ute

    2006-01-01

    Studies of the 2-3% of persons who identify as homosexual found men but not women had more older brothers than persons who identify as heterosexual. The present study investigated the birth order in the approximately 20% of men and women who anonymously report some homosexual feelings, few of whom identify as homosexual. The number of older brothers and sisters was investigated in seven cohorts: 319 male twins; and 49, 54, and 61 female and 66, 116, and 50 male medical students. Both women and men who anonymously reported homosexual feelings had a greater mean number of older brothers and sisters than did those who reported no homosexual feelings. The difference was stronger in relation to brothers than sisters. The birth order effect was not related to the strength of the subjects' degree of homosexual compared with heterosexual feelings. Its presence in women could not be accounted for by the widely accepted hypothesis that the birth order effect is due to a maternal immune reaction provoked only by male fetuses. The lack of relationship between the strength of the effect and degree of homosexual feelings in the men and women suggests the influence of birth order on homosexual feelings was not due to a biological, but a social process in the subjects studied. Investigating the neglected significant percentage of predominantly heterosexual men and women who anonymously report some homosexual feelings may aid in understanding the factors influencing sexual orientation, and identity.

  9. Sexual Scripts and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Black Heterosexual Men: Development of the Sexual Scripts Scale

    PubMed Central

    Bowleg, Lisa; Burkholder, Gary J.; Noar, Seth M.; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J.; Tschann, Jeanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual scripts are widely shared gender and culture-specific guides for sexual behavior with important implications for HIV prevention. Although several qualitative studies document how sexual scripts may influence sexual risk behaviors, quantitative investigations of sexual scripts in the context of sexual risk are rare. This mixed methods study involved the qualitative development and quantitative testing of the Sexual Scripts Scale (SSS). Study 1 included qualitative semi-structured interviews with 30 Black heterosexual men about sexual experiences with main and casual sex partners to develop the SSS. Study 2 included a quantitative test of the SSS with 526 predominantly low-income Black heterosexual men. A factor analysis of the SSS resulted in a 34-item, seven-factor solution that explained 68% of the variance. The subscales and coefficient alphas were: Romantic Intimacy Scripts (α = .86), Condom Scripts (α = .82), Alcohol Scripts (α = .83), Sexual Initiation Scripts (α = .79), Media Sexual Socialization Scripts (α = .84), Marijuana Scripts (α = .85), and Sexual Experimentation Scripts (α = .84). Among men who reported a main partner (n = 401), higher Alcohol Scripts, Media Sexual Socialization Scripts, and Marijuana Scripts scores, and lower Condom Scripts scores were related to more sexual risk behavior. Among men who reported at least one casual partner (n = 238), higher Romantic Intimacy Scripts, Sexual Initiation Scripts, and Media Sexual Socialization Scripts, and lower Condom Scripts scores were related to higher sexual risk. The SSS may have considerable utility for future research on Black heterosexual men’s HIV risk. PMID:24311105

  10. Heterogenous Couples in Heterosexual Marriages: Gay Men and Straight Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozett, Frederick W.

    1982-01-01

    Focuses on the spousal relationship of gay men who had been married. Describes the man's disclosure of his homosexuality, the wife's response, and the interactional effects on the marriage relationship. Suggests the wife appeared to be an enabler of his transition to a homosexual life-style. (Author/JAC)

  11. Gym exercising patterns, lifestyle and high-risk sexual behaviour in men who have sex with men and in heterosexual men

    PubMed Central

    Mor, Z; Parfionov, K; Davidovitch, N; Grotto, I

    2014-01-01

    Objective Lifestyle may be associated with risk behaviours. This study compares gym exercise and sexual risk behaviour between men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexual men. The research was based on the assumption that men who become muscular and physically attractive increase their number of sex partners and consequently their risk of HIV or other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Setting Five gyms in central Tel Aviv, Israel. Participants In 2012, a sample of 182 (48%) MSM and 197 (52%) heterosexual men who train in gyms completed anonymous questionnaires regarding their training, health and sexual behaviours. Outcomes Participants in this cross-sectional study who exercised more than the median number of anaerobic training hours were defined as performing intensive anaerobic training (IAT), and those who had performed more than one act of unprotected anal/vaginal intercourse in the preceding 6 months with a partner whose HIV status was unknown were defined as high risk. Results MSM showed a stronger desire to become muscular than heterosexual men, were more likely to perform IAT, and used protein powders or anabolic steroids. They reported that improving their body shape and increasing their self-confidence were their main reasons for training, whereas heterosexual men indicated weight loss and health improvement as the main reasons for training. MSM engaged in riskier sexual behaviour than heterosexual men. Of all the high-risk men, 61.9% (N=70) performed IAT, while 38.1% (N=43) performed moderate anaerobic training (p<0.01). The association between IAT and sexual risk was stronger in MSM than in heterosexual men (p<0.01 vs p=0.05, respectively). The interaction between MSM and IAT in high-risk participants was multiplicative. Conclusions MSM practised more IAT than heterosexual men, and their interaction between IAT and sexual risk was multiplicative. The MSM community could benefit from a holistic approach to sexual health and its association

  12. Neural correlates of sexual arousal in heterosexual and homosexual women and men.

    PubMed

    Sylva, David; Safron, Adam; Rosenthal, A M; Reber, Paul J; Parrish, Todd B; Bailey, J Michael

    2013-09-01

    Most men have a category-specific pattern of genital and subjective sexual arousal, responding much more strongly to erotic stimuli depicting their preferred sex than to erotic stimuli depicting their nonpreferred sex. In contrast, women tend to have a less specific arousal pattern. To better understand this sex difference, we used neuroimaging to explore its neural correlates. Heterosexual and homosexual women viewed erotic photographs of either men or women. Evoked neural activity was monitored via fMRI and compared with responses to the same stimuli in heterosexual and homosexual men. Overall, a network of limbic (as well as the anterior cingulate) and visual processing regions showed significantly less category-specific activity in women than men. This was primarily driven by weaker overall activations to preferred-sex stimuli in women, though there was also some evidence of stronger limbic activations to nonpreferred-sex stimuli in women. Primary results were similar for heterosexual and homosexual participants. Women did show some evidence of category-specific responses in the visual processing regions, although even in these regions they exhibited less differential activity than men. In the anterior cingulate, a region with high concentrations of sex-hormone receptors, subjective and neural category specificity measures correlated positively for women but negatively for men, suggesting a possible sex difference in the role of the anterior cingulate. Overall, results suggest that men tend to show more differentiated neural responses than do women to erotic photographs of one sex compared to the other sex, though women may not be entirely indifferent to which sex is depicted.

  13. Reasons for Living in Homosexual and Heterosexual Older Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Jameson K.; Ellis, Jon B.

    Suicide rates among older adolescents is a major concern for researchers. A homosexual lifestyle, with its additional stresses, may erode one's adaptive characteristics. This study sought to identify and compare suicidal behavior and adaptive characteristics in homosexual and heterosexual adolescents. Sixty-two individuals were divided into two…

  14. The experience of relapse to unsafe sexual behavior among HIV-positive, heterosexual, minority men.

    PubMed

    Sherman, D W; Kirton, C A

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the phenomenon of relapse to unsafe sexual behavior in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive, heterosexual, minority men. In-depth interviews were conducted by using a purposive sample of 18 HIV-positive, heterosexual, minority men who were recruited from an outpatient acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) clinic in upstate New York and a community-based HIV/AIDS service organization in New York City. All participants expressed concern about the seriousness and health threat of unsafe sexual behaviors. The perceived benefits and barriers to unsafe sexual practices were identified. Content analysis revealed the following themes related to relapse to unsafe sexual behavior: drug and alcohol use, state of mind, "looking good" and "helping" fallacies, male-female relationship issues, influence of friends, weighing the risks, sexual preparation, uncontrollable sexual urges, and the symbolic meaning of condoms. Clinical implications related to health assessment, interventions, and health education and prevention programs for HIV-positive heterosexual, minority men and their sexual partners are presented.

  15. Oxytocin's impact on social face processing is stronger in homosexual than heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Thienel, Matthias; Heinrichs, Markus; Fischer, Stefan; Ott, Volker; Born, Jan; Hallschmid, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Oxytocin is an evolutionarily highly preserved neuropeptide that contributes to the regulation of social interactions including the processing of facial stimuli. We hypothesized that its improving effect on social approach behavior depends on perceived sexual features and, consequently, on sexual orientation. In 19 homosexual and 18 heterosexual healthy young men, we investigated the acute effect of intranasal oxytocin (24IU) and placebo, respectively, on the processing of social stimuli as assessed by ratings of trustworthiness, attractiveness and approachability for male and female faces. Faces were each presented with a neutral, a happy, and an angry expression, respectively. In heterosexual subjects, the effect of oxytocin administration was restricted to a decrease in ratings of trustworthiness for angry female faces (p<0.02). In contrast, in homosexual men oxytocin administration robustly increased ratings of attractiveness and approachability for male faces regardless of the facial expression (all p ≤ 0.05), as well as ratings of approachability for happy female faces (p<0.01). Results indicate that homosexual in comparison to heterosexual men display higher sensitivity to oxytocin's enhancing impact on social approach tendencies, suggesting that differences in sexual orientation imply differential oxytocinergic signaling.

  16. Marketing HIV prevention for heterosexually identified Latino men who have sex with men and women: the Hombres Sanos campaign.

    PubMed

    Fernández Cerdeño, Araceli; Martínez-Donate, Ana P; Zellner, Jennifer A; Sañudo, Fernando; Carrillo, Héctor; Engelberg, Moshe; Sipan, Carol; Hovell, Melbourne

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development process of Hombres Sanos, a social marketing campaign to promote HIV testing and condom use for heterosexually identified Latino men who have sex with men and women. The steps included qualitative formative research and a social marketing analytic framework to understand our target audience better, identify incentives and barriers to risk reduction, guide product development, define an optimal promotional campaign, and inform the selection of campaign platforms. A better grasp of the authors' target beneficiaries' needs and values led to an innovative dual strategy for audience segmentation and targeting. The campaign had consumer-centered, culturally sensitive, and theory-driven communication materials. The authors found communication materials and events to be appealing and effective. The campaign was well received among the wider community, and evaluation showed promising results among Latino men in general and among heterosexually identified Latino men who have sex with men and women in particular. The authors provide a step-by-step overview of the project's formative research, including research methods and findings, and how these were translated into a social marketing campaign. In addition, the authors discuss the challenges encountered in this process and the potential of social marketing to reduce HIV risk among Latinos.

  17. Pilot evaluation of the Making Employment Needs [MEN] count intervention: addressing behavioral and structural HIV risks in heterosexual black men.

    PubMed

    Raj, Anita; Dasgupta, Anindita; Goldson, Irvienne; Lafontant, Dumas; Freeman, Elmer; Silverman, Jay G

    2014-02-01

    Few community-based HIV interventions exist for Black men at heterosexual risk for HIV. None focus on structural HIV risks such as unemployment and unstable housing. This study involved a pilot evaluation of the MEN (Making Employment Needs) Count HIV intervention, a three session peer counselor-delivered program of HIV risk reduction and gender-equity counseling, and employment and housing case management. A single-arm intervention trial of MEN Count was conducted with Black men recruited from a community men's clinic and social services program. Eligible men were those who reported two or more sex partners in the past six months and current unemployment and/or recent homelessness. Most participants (68%) had a history of incarceration. Participants (N = 50) were surveyed on outcomes at baseline (Time 1), posttest (Time 2; 60-90 days after baseline), and two-month follow-up (Time 3). The majority of participants were retained in the program (86%) and the final follow-up survey (76%). McNemar tests revealed significant reductions in the past 30-day unprotected sex from Time 1 (74%) to Time 2 (47%) and to Time 3 (47%), and in homelessness from Time 1 (58%) to Time 3 (32%). Significant increases in employment from Time 1 (8%) to Time 2 (29%) and Time 3 (32%) were also seen. Participants completed a brief participant satisfaction survey at posttest. Most (n=28, 65%) rated the program as excellent, and an additional 10 (23%) rated it as good. Although there was no significant reduction in multiple sex partners, a trend was observed from Time 1 (56%) to Time 2 (44%) and Time 3 (42%). Findings suggest that the MEN Count model is a feasible and promising HIV prevention program for Black men at heterosexual risk for HIV. Larger scale implementation and more rigorous evaluation of MEN Count are needed to confirm the study findings. PMID:23767788

  18. Preference for attractiveness and thinness in a partner: influence of internalization of the thin ideal and shape/weight dissatisfaction in heterosexual women, heterosexual men, lesbians, and gay men.

    PubMed

    Legenbauer, Tanja; Vocks, Silja; Schäfer, Corinna; Schütt-Strömel, Sabine; Hiller, Wolfgang; Wagner, Christof; Vögele, Claus

    2009-06-01

    This study assesses whether characteristics of one's own body image influences preferences of attractiveness in a partner. The role of gender and sexual orientation is also considered. Heterosexual women (n=67), lesbian women (n=73), heterosexual men (n=61) and gay men (n=82) participated in an internet survey assessing attitudes towards the body and preferences of attractiveness in a partner. Men in particular were found to prefer attractive partners, regardless of sexual orientation. Weight/shape dissatisfaction was found to be a negative predictor for heterosexual men and women. For gay men, preferences were better explained by internalization and weight/shape dissatisfaction. No such associations were found in the lesbian group. Levels of weight/shape dissatisfaction and internalization of socio-cultural slenderness ideals influence expectations of thinness and attractiveness in a partner with this effect being modified by gender and sexual orientation.

  19. Preference for attractiveness and thinness in a partner: influence of internalization of the thin ideal and shape/weight dissatisfaction in heterosexual women, heterosexual men, lesbians, and gay men.

    PubMed

    Legenbauer, Tanja; Vocks, Silja; Schäfer, Corinna; Schütt-Strömel, Sabine; Hiller, Wolfgang; Wagner, Christof; Vögele, Claus

    2009-06-01

    This study assesses whether characteristics of one's own body image influences preferences of attractiveness in a partner. The role of gender and sexual orientation is also considered. Heterosexual women (n=67), lesbian women (n=73), heterosexual men (n=61) and gay men (n=82) participated in an internet survey assessing attitudes towards the body and preferences of attractiveness in a partner. Men in particular were found to prefer attractive partners, regardless of sexual orientation. Weight/shape dissatisfaction was found to be a negative predictor for heterosexual men and women. For gay men, preferences were better explained by internalization and weight/shape dissatisfaction. No such associations were found in the lesbian group. Levels of weight/shape dissatisfaction and internalization of socio-cultural slenderness ideals influence expectations of thinness and attractiveness in a partner with this effect being modified by gender and sexual orientation. PMID:19443281

  20. High rates of late HIV diagnosis among people who inject drugs compared to men who have sex with men and heterosexual men and women in Australia.

    PubMed

    Wand, Handan; Guy, Rebecca; Law, Matthew; Wilson, David P; Maher, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to estimate temporal trends in the proportion of HIV diagnoses which could be characterized as recent infections in Australia for men who have sex with men (MSM), people who inject drugs (PWID), and heterosexual men and women using modified back-projection methodology based on data sources from HIV/AIDS Surveillance database. The proportion of HIV diagnoses among MSM that can be classified as recent infections increased in MSM, heterosexual men and women consistently. However, after initial increases during 1996-2000, the proportion of overall recent infections estimated among PWID declined by 50% in 2007 compared to 2000 (from 23 to 11%). These data suggest that late HIV diagnoses were more common among PWID compared to other groups. Ongoing prevention efforts need to be coupled with targeted testing and treatment efforts to increase the diagnosis of recent infection in PWID and reduce apparent inequities in access to screening. PMID:22218722

  1. Unprotected sex among heterosexually active homeless men: results from a multi-level dyadic analysis.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David P; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Brown, Ryan; Tucker, Joan S; Golinelli, Daniela

    2013-06-01

    HIV is a serious public health problem for homeless populations. Homeless men who have sex with women have received less attention in the HIV risk literature than other homeless populations. This research uses multi-level modeling to investigate the context of unprotected sex among heterosexually active homeless men in the Skid Row area of Los Angeles. Based on interviews with 305 randomly selected men who discussed 665 of their recent female sexual relationships, this project investigates the correlates of unprotected sex during the past 6 months at the partnership, individual, and social network levels. Several different measures of relationship closeness and lack of communication about HIV/condoms were associated with unprotected sex. Controlling for relationship factors, men's negative attitudes towards condoms, mental health, and higher number of male sex partners also were associated with having unprotected sex with female partners. We discuss the implications of these findings for health interventions. PMID:23212852

  2. Patterns of Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Heterosexually Active Men.

    PubMed

    Casey, Erin A; Querna, Katherine; Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is linked to sexual risk exposure among women. However, less is known about the intersection of IPV perpetration and sexual risk behavior among men. This study used data from a diverse, community sample of 334 heterosexually active young men, aged 18 to 25, across the United States to examine whether and how men with distinct IPV-related behavior patterns differed in sexual risk-related behavior and attitudes. Participants were recruited and surveyed online, and grouped conceptually based on the types of IPV perpetration behavior(s) used in a current or recent romantic relationship. Groups were then compared on relevant sexual risk variables. Men reporting both physical abuse and sexual coercion against intimate partners reported significantly higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher rates of nonmonogamy, greater endorsement of nonmonogamy, and less frequent condom use relative to nonabusive men or those reporting controlling behavior only. This group also had higher sexually transmitted infection (STI) exposure compared to men who used controlling behavior only and men who used sexual coercion only. Findings suggest that interventions with men who use physical and sexual violence need to account for not only the physical and psychological harm of this behavior but also the sexual risk to which men may expose their partners.

  3. Patterns of Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Heterosexually Active Men

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Erin A.; Querna, Katherine; Masters, N. Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Morrison, Diane M.; Hoppe, Marilyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is linked to sexual risk exposure among women. However, less is known about the intersection of IPV perpetration and sexual risk behavior among men. This study used data from a diverse, community sample of 334 heterosexually active young men, aged 18 to 25, across the United States to examine whether and how men with distinct IPV-related behavior patterns differed in sexual risk–related behavior and attitudes. Participants were recruited and surveyed online, and grouped conceptually based on the types of IPV perpetration behavior(s) used in a current or recent romantic relationship. Groups were then compared on relevant sexual risk variables. Men reporting both physical abuse and sexual coercion against intimate partners reported significantly higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher rates of nonmonogamy, greater endorsement of nonmonogamy, and less frequent condom use relative to nonabusive men or those reporting controlling behavior only. This group also had higher sexually transmitted infection (STI) exposure compared to men who used controlling behavior only and men who used sexual coercion only. Findings suggest that interventions with men who use physical and sexual violence need to account for not only the physical and psychological harm of this behavior but also the sexual risk to which men may expose their partners. PMID:26158212

  4. Gender Atypicality and Anxiety Response to Social Interaction Stress in Homosexual and Heterosexual Men.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Roi; Cohen, Hagit; Diamond, Gary M

    2016-04-01

    Gender non-conforming behavior and a homosexual sexual orientation have both been linked to higher levels of anxiety. This study examined the independent and interactive effects of gender atypicality and sexual orientation on levels of state anxiety immediately following a stressful social interaction task among a sample of homosexual and heterosexual Israeli men (n = 36). Gender atypicality was measured via both self-report and observer ratings. State anxiety was measured via both self-report immediately subsequent to the stressful social interaction task and pre- to post task changes in salivary cortisol. Results showed that self-reported gender atypicality and heterosexual sexual orientation predicted higher levels of self-reported social interaction anxiety, but not changes in cortisol. There were no sexual orientation by gender behavior interactions and there were no significant effects for observer rated gender atypicality. These findings suggest that gender atypicality, not homosexuality, place individuals at risk for increased anxiety.

  5. Condoms and Contexts: Profiles of Sexual Risk and Safety Among Young Heterosexually Active Men

    PubMed Central

    Masters, N. Tatiana; Casey, Erin; Beadnell, Blair; Morrison, Diane M.; Hoppe, Marilyn J.; Wells, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Heterosexual men’s sexual safety behavior is important to controlling the U.S. epidemic of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. While sexual safety is often treated as a single behavior, such as condom use, it can also be conceptualized as resulting from multiple factors. Doing so can help us achieve more nuanced understandings of sexual risk and safety within partner-related contexts. We used Latent Class Analysis with data collected online from 18-25 year old heterosexually active U.S. men (n = 432) to empirically derive a typology of the patterns of sexual safety strategies they employ. Indicators were sexual risk reduction strategies used in the past year with the most recent female sex partner: Condom use, discussing sexual histories, STI testing, agreeing to be monogamous, and discussing birth control. We identified four subgroups: Risk Takers (12%), Condom Reliers (25%), Multistrategists (28%), and Relationship Reliers (35%). Partner-related context factors – number of past-year sex partners, relationship commitment, and sexual concurrency – predicted subgroup membership. Findings support tailoring STI prevention to men’s sexual risk-safety subgroups. Interventions should certainly continue to encourage condom use, but should also include information on how partner-related context factors and alternate sexual safety strategies can help men reduce risk for themselves and their partners. PMID:25256019

  6. Interest in Babies Negatively Predicts Testosterone Responses to Sexual Visual Stimuli Among Heterosexual Young Men.

    PubMed

    Zilioli, Samuele; Ponzi, Davide; Henry, Andrea; Kubicki, Konrad; Nickels, Nora; Wilson, M Claire; Maestripieri, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Men's testosterone may be an important physiological mechanism mediating motivational and behavioral aspects of the mating/parenting trade-off not only over time but also in terms of stable differences between mating-oriented and parenting-oriented individuals. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that self-reported interest in babies is inversely related to testosterone reactivity to cues of short-term mating among heterosexual young men. Among 100 participants, interest in babies was related to a slow life-history strategy, as assessed by the Mini-K questionnaire, and negatively related to testosterone responses to an erotic video. Interest in babies was not associated with baseline testosterone levels or with testosterone reactivity to nonsexual social stimuli. These results provide the first evidence that differential testosterone reactivity to sexual stimuli may be an important aspect of individual differences in life-history strategies among human males.

  7. Interest in Babies Negatively Predicts Testosterone Responses to Sexual Visual Stimuli Among Heterosexual Young Men.

    PubMed

    Zilioli, Samuele; Ponzi, Davide; Henry, Andrea; Kubicki, Konrad; Nickels, Nora; Wilson, M Claire; Maestripieri, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Men's testosterone may be an important physiological mechanism mediating motivational and behavioral aspects of the mating/parenting trade-off not only over time but also in terms of stable differences between mating-oriented and parenting-oriented individuals. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that self-reported interest in babies is inversely related to testosterone reactivity to cues of short-term mating among heterosexual young men. Among 100 participants, interest in babies was related to a slow life-history strategy, as assessed by the Mini-K questionnaire, and negatively related to testosterone responses to an erotic video. Interest in babies was not associated with baseline testosterone levels or with testosterone reactivity to nonsexual social stimuli. These results provide the first evidence that differential testosterone reactivity to sexual stimuli may be an important aspect of individual differences in life-history strategies among human males. PMID:26626441

  8. Increasing condom use in heterosexual men: development of a theory-based interactive digital intervention.

    PubMed

    Webster, R; Michie, S; Estcourt, C; Gerressu, M; Bailey, J V

    2016-09-01

    Increasing condom use to prevent sexually transmitted infections is a key public health goal. Interventions are more likely to be effective if they are theory- and evidence-based. The Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) provides a framework for intervention development. To provide an example of how the BCW was used to develop an intervention to increase condom use in heterosexual men (the MenSS website), the steps of the BCW intervention development process were followed, incorporating evidence from the research literature and views of experts and the target population. Capability (e.g. knowledge) and motivation (e.g. beliefs about pleasure) were identified as important targets of the intervention. We devised ways to address each intervention target, including selecting interactive features and behaviour change techniques. The BCW provides a useful framework for integrating sources of evidence to inform intervention content and deciding which influences on behaviour to target. PMID:27528531

  9. Condom-associated erection problems: behavioural responses and attributions in young, heterosexual men

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Brandon J.; Sanders, Stephanie A.; Crosby, Richard A.; Ingelhart, Kara N.; Janssen, Erick

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have associated men who experience condom-associated erection problems (CAEP) with incomplete condom use and/or foregoing using condoms altogether. However, how men respond to CAEP and what they attribute CAEP to, remains unclear. Understanding young men's CAEP responses and attributions could help improve sexually transmissible infections (STI)/HIV prevention programs and interventions. Methods Behavioural responses to, and attributions for, CAEP during application (CAEP-Application) and/or during penile-vaginal intercourse (CAEP-PVI) were reported using an online questionnaire by 295 young, heterosexual men (aged 18–24 years) who were recruited via social media websites and university Listservs across major cities in the Midwestern USA. Results Behavioural responses to CAEP-Application included receiving oral or manual stimulation, stimulating a partner, self-stimulation, foregoing condom use and applying the condom after starting intercourse. Attributions for CAEP-Application included: distraction, fit and feel problems, application taking too long and having consumed too much alcohol. Behavioural responses to CAEP-PVI included increasing the intensity of intercourse, removing the condom to receive oral or manual stimulation and removing condom and continuing intercourse. Attributions for CAEP-PVI included: lack of sensation, taking too long to orgasm, not being ‘turned on’ enough, fit and feel problems and partner-related factors. Conclusions Men who report CAEP respond with both STI/HIV risk-reducing and potentially risk-increasing behaviours (e.g. forgoing condom use). Men attribute their experiences to a wide range of individual- and partner-level factors. Addressing men's CAEP behavioural responses and attributions may increase the efficacious value of condom programs and STI/HIV prevention interventions – particularly among men who experience CAEP. PMID:26166025

  10. Antiretroviral Prophylaxis for HIV-1 Prevention among Heterosexual Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Baeten, Jared M.; Donnell, Deborah; Ndase, Patrick; Mugo, Nelly R.; Campbell, James D.; Wangisi, Jonathan; Tappero, Jordan W.; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Cohen, Craig R.; Katabira, Elly; Ronald, Allan; Tumwesigye, Elioda; Were, Edwin; Fife, Kenneth H.; Kiarie, James; Farquhar, Carey; John-Stewart, Grace; Kakia, Aloysious; Odoyo, Josephine; Mucunguzi, Akasiima; Nakku-Joloba, Edith; Twesigye, Rogers; Ngure, Kenneth; Apaka, Cosmas; Tamooh, Harrison; Gabona, Fridah; Mujugira, Andrew; Panteleeff, Dana; Thomas, Katherine K.; Kidoguchi, Lara; Krows, Meighan; Revall, Jennifer; Morrison, Susan; Haugen, Harald; Emmanuel-Ogier, Mira; Ondrejcek, Lisa; Coombs, Robert W.; Frenkel, Lisa; Hendrix, Craig; Bumpus, Namandjé N.; Bangsberg, David; Haberer, Jessica E.; Stevens, Wendy S.; Lingappa, Jairam R.; Celum, Connie

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) reduces the incidence of acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in men who have sex with men and is a promising approach for preventing HIV-1 in heterosexual populations. Methods We conducted a randomized, three-arm trial of oral antiretroviral PrEP among heterosexual couples from Kenya and Uganda in which one member was HIV-1 seronegative and the other HIV-1 seropositive. Seronegative partners were randomly assigned to once-daily tenofovir (TDF), combination emtricitabine/tenofovir (FTC/TDF), or matching placebo and followed monthly for up to 36 months. At enrollment, HIV-1 seropositive partners were not eligible for antiretroviral therapy under national guidelines. All couples received standard HIV-1 treatment and prevention services, including individual and couples risk-reduction counseling and condoms. Results 4758 couples were enrolled; for 62%, the HIV-1 seronegative partner was male. For HIV-1 seropositive participants, the median CD4 count was 495 cells/μL (interquartile range 375–662). Of 82 post-randomization HIV-1 infections, 17 were among those assigned TDF (incidence 0.65 per 100 person-years), 13 among those assigned FTC/TDF (incidence 0.50 per 100 person-years), and 52 among those assigned placebo (incidence 1.99 per 100 person-years), indicating a 67% relative reduction in HIV-1 incidence for TDF (95% CI 44 to 81, p<0.001) and 75% for FTC/TDF (95% CI 55 to 87, p<0.001). HIV-1 protective effects of FTC/TDF and TDF were not significantly different (p=0.23), and both study medications significantly reduced HIV-1 incidence in both men and women. The rate of serious medical events was similar across the study arms. Conclusions Oral TDF and FTC/TDF provided substantial protection against HIV-1 acquisition in heterosexual men and women, with comparable efficacy of TDF and FTC/TDF. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00557245) PMID

  11. Unprotected Sexual Behavior Among Heterosexual HIV-Positive Injection Drug Using Men: Associations by Partner Type and Partner Serostatus

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Yuko; Metsch, Lisa R.; Garfein, Richard; Tobin, Karin; Knight, Kelly; Latka, Mary H.

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have examined sexual risk behaviors of HIV-positive, heterosexual, injection drug using (IDU) men. We investigated such behaviors and associations with risk among sexually active, HIV-positive IDU men who reported only female sex partners in the 3 months prior to baseline interview. We examined associations separately for four non-exclusive groups of men by crossing partner type (main or casual) and partner serostatus (HIV-positive or HIV-negative/unknown). Of 732 male participants, 469 (64%) were sexually active with only female partners. Of these 469 men, 155 (33%) reported sex with HIV-positive main partners, 127 (27%) with HIV-negative or unknown serostatus main partners, 145 (31%) with HIV-positive casual partners, and 192 (41%) with HIV-negative/unknown serostatus casual partners. Significant multivariate associations for unprotected sex with HIV-negative or unknown serostatus main partners were less self-efficacy to use condoms, weaker partner norms supporting condoms, and more negative condom beliefs. Similar correlates were found for unprotected sex with HIV-positive main and casual partners. In addition, alcohol or drug use during sex was a significant correlate of unprotected sex with HIV-positive main partners, while depression was significant for HIV-positive casual partners. For unprotected sex with HIV-negative/unknown status casual partners, self-efficacy for condom use, sex trade, and education were significant multivariate correlates. A combination of broad and tailored intervention strategies based on the relationship pattern of men's lives may provide the most benefit for reducing unprotected sex with female partners. PMID:16736116

  12. Incorporation of Estimated Community Viral Load Before HIV Diagnosis for Enhancing Epidemiologic Investigations: A Comparison Between Men Who Have Sex With Men and Heterosexual Men in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ngai Sze; Wong, Ka Hing; Wong, Philip K H; Lee, Shui Shan

    2015-10-01

    Currently, no studies have specifically incorporated population-level viral load measures for analyzing temporal trends of HIV infection in the Asia Pacific. With the use of longitudinal data from 950 HIV-infected heterosexual male and 1331 men who have sex with men managed at a major HIV clinic in Hong Kong between 1985 and 2012, viral load changes at population levels were compared. We back-calculated seroconversion year of each diagnosed patient and estimated the population-level viral load under the framework recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Full community viral load, a newly designed measure incorporating diagnosed and undiagnosed HIV-infected patients, was 3 to 8 times higher than community viral load derived from diagnosed patients only. The growth curve of full community viral load was 5 years ahead of other viral load measures, the shape of which lent support to the phenomenon of local transmission of men who have sex with men but not among heterosexual male in the predominantly Chinese HIV community in Hong Kong.

  13. Fatherhood and Men's Lives at Middle Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggebeen, David J.; Dew, Jeffrey; Knoester, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This article uses data on 2,024 men who were followed through the third wave of the National Survey of Families and Households to examine the implications of fatherhood experiences for men's involvement in altruistic social activities at middle age. We find that middle-aged men (ages 45-65) who at some point in their lives become fathers are…

  14. Heterosexual Men's Ratings of Sexual Attractiveness of Adolescent Girls: A Cross-Cultural Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Paul; Lowe, Rob; Petrova, Hristina

    2015-11-01

    Following an identical procedure to the one we previously reported (O'Donnell, Lowe, Brotherton, & Bennett, 2014), we examined ratings of sexual attraction to photographs of (the same) adolescent girls (Tanner stages 3-4) labelled as either 14-15 years or 16-17 years old, women, and men. Ratings were made by Bulgarian heterosexual men by pressing buttons on a response box which recorded the ratings made and the time in milliseconds taken to respond. Despite the age of sexual consent in Bulgaria being 14 years, the pattern of findings did not differ from those found in the UK, where the age of consent is 16 years. That is, mean ratings of the sexual attractiveness of the girls labelled as younger were lower than those of the (same) girls labelled as older, and those of the women. In addition, correlations revealed significantly longer responding times when younger girls (and men) were rated as more highly sexually attractive. These associations were reversed in response to the photographs of women. We take these findings to indicate an inhibitory effect arising from generalized sexual norms relating to the inappropriateness of sexual attraction to young girls; the greater the attraction, the higher the inhibition. This second replication of our initial findings suggests a robust effect that may be of benefit in exploration of pedophile or sex offender groups.

  15. “What Does it Take to be a Man? What is a Real Man?”: Ideologies of masculinity and HIV sexual risk among Black heterosexual men

    PubMed Central

    Bowleg, Lisa; Teti, Michelle; Massie, Jenné S.; Patel, Aditi; Malebranche, David J.; Tschann, Jeanne M.

    2011-01-01

    Research documents the link between traditional ideologies of masculinity and sexual risk among multi-ethnic male adolescents and White male college students, but similar research with Black heterosexual men is scarce. This exploratory study addressed this gap through six focus groups with 41 Black, low to middle income heterosexual men aged 19 to 51 years in Philadelphia, PA. Analyses highlighted two explicit ideologies of masculinity: that Black men should have sex with multiple women, often concurrently; and that Black men should not be gay or bisexual. Analyses also identified two implicit masculinity ideologies: the perception that Black heterosexual men cannot decline sex, even risky sex; and that women are primarily responsible for condom use. The study’s implications for HIV prevention with Black heterosexual men are discussed. PMID:21390949

  16. Does attractiveness influence condom use intentions in heterosexual men? An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Eleftheriou, Anastasia; Bullock, Seth; Graham, Cynthia A; Stone, Nicole; Ingham, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Judgements of attractiveness have been shown to influence the character of social interactions. The present study sought to better understand the relationship between perceived attractiveness, perceived sexual health status and condom use intentions in a heterosexual male population. Setting The study employed an electronic questionnaire to collect all data, during face-to-face sessions. Participants 51 heterosexual, English-speaking men aged between 18 and 69 years. Outcome measures Men were asked to rate the attractiveness of 20 women on the basis of facial photographs, to estimate the likelihood that each woman had a sexually transmitted infection (STI) and to indicate their willingness to have sex with or without a condom with each woman. Results The more attractive a woman was judged to be on average, the more likely participants would be willing to have sex with her (p<0.0001) and the less likely they were to intend to use a condom during sex (p<0.0001). Multivariate analysis revealed that higher condom use intentions towards a particular woman were associated with lower ratings of her attractiveness (p<0.0005), higher ratings of her STI likelihood (p<0.0001), the participant being in an exclusive relationship (p=0.002), having a less satisfactory sex life (p=0.015), lower age (p=0.001), higher number of sexual partners (p=0.001), higher age at first intercourse (p=0.002), higher rates of condomless sex in the last 12 months (p<0.043) and lower confidence in their ability to assess whether or not a woman had an STI (p=0.001). The more attractive a participant judged himself to be, the more he believed that other men like him would engage in condomless sex (p=0.001) and the less likely he was to intend to use a condom himself (p=0.02). Conclusions Male perceptions of attractiveness influence their condom use intentions; such risk biases could profitably be discussed during sex education sessions and in condom use promotion interventions. PMID

  17. Sexual scripts among young heterosexually active men and women: Continuity and change

    PubMed Central

    Masters, N. Tatiana; Casey, Erin; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Morrison, Diane M.

    2012-01-01

    While gendered sexual scripts are hegemonic at the cultural level, research suggests they may be less so at dyadic and individual levels. Understanding “disjunctures” between sexual scripts at different levels holds promise for illuminating mechanisms through which sexual scripts can change. Through interviews with 44 heterosexually active men and women aged 18-25, we delineated ways young people grappled with culture-level scripts for sexuality and relationships. Findings suggest that although most participants’ culture-level gender scripts for behavior in sexual relationships were congruent with descriptions of traditional masculine and feminine sexuality, there was heterogeneity in how or whether these scripts were incorporated into individual relationships. Specifically, we found three styles of working with sexual scripts: Conforming, in which personal gender scripts for sexual behavior overlapped with traditional scripts; exception-finding, in which interviewees accepted culture-level gender scripts as a reality, but created exceptions to gender rules for themselves; and transforming, in which participants either attempted to remake culture-level gender scripts, or interpreted their own non-traditional styles as equally normative. Changing sexual scripts can potentially contribute to decreased gender inequity in the sexual realm and to increased opportunities for sexual satisfaction, safety, and wellbeing, particularly for women, but for men as well. PMID:22489683

  18. Sex ratio of older siblings in heterosexual and homosexual, right-handed and non-right-handed men.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ray

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated why older brothers, which increase the odds of homosexuality in later-born males who are right-handed, have no effect or the opposite effect on later-born males who are non-right-handed. The specific question was whether the different results for the non-right-handed men have to do with the heterosexual non-right-handers or the homosexual non-right-handers. The human sex ratio at birth (106 males per 100 females) was used as a gold standard for determining which groups differ from the general population and in which direction. All usable data from previous studies were combined to obtain the largest possible sample (N = 8,201). The observed ratio of older brothers to older sisters was 105 for the heterosexual right-handers, 128 for the homosexual right-handers, 127 for the heterosexual non-right-handers, and 96 for the homosexual non-right-handers. The ratios for the homosexual right-handers and the heterosexual non-right-handers differed significantly from the expected value. These results suggest that both heterosexual and homosexual non-right-handers contribute to the older brothers x handedness x sexual orientation interaction.

  19. External Genital Human Papillomavirus Prevalence and Associated Factors Among Heterosexual Men on 5 Continents

    PubMed Central

    Giuliano, Anna R.; Goldstone, Stephen; Palefsky, Joel M.; Moreira, Edson D.; Penny, Mary E.; Aranda, Carlos; Jessen, Heiko; Moi, Harald; Ferris, Daron G.; Liaw, Kai-Li; Marshall, J. Brooke; Vuocolo, Scott; Barr, Eliav; Haupt, Richard M.; Garner, Elizabeth I.O.; Guris, Dalya

    2011-01-01

    Background. We examined the baseline prevalence of penile, scrotal, and perineal/perianal human papillomavirus (HPV) in heterosexual men (HM). We also evaluated baseline characteristics of HM to assess factors associated with prevalent HPV detection. Methods. We tested serum samples from 3463 HM aged 16–24 years with 1–5 lifetime female sexual partners for antibodies to HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18. We collected baseline swab specimens for the detection of DNA of HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, and 59 from 3 areas: penile, scrotal, and perineal/perianal. Risk factors for prevalent HPV DNA detection were evaluated. Results. The prevalence of any tested HPV type was 18.7% at the penis, 13.1% at the scrotum, 7.9% at the perineal/perianal region, and 21.0% at any site. Having >3 lifetime female sexual partners had the greatest impact on HPV prevalence: odds ratio (OR) 3.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1–4.9) for HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18; and OR 4.5 (95% CI 3.3–6.1) for all HPV types tested. HPV DNA detection was highest in Africa. Neither condom usage nor circumcision was associated with HPV DNA prevalence. Conclusion. Genital-HPV DNA detection is common in young, sexually active HM. We found HPV to be most prevalent in African men and least prevalent in men from the Asia-Pacific region. Increased numbers of sexual partners was an important risk factor for HPV DNA prevalence. PMID:21148497

  20. HIV risk behavior and access to services: what predicts HIV testing among heterosexually active homeless men?

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Suzanne L; Rhoades, Harmony; Tucker, Joan S; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P; Zhou, Annie; Ewing, Brett

    2012-06-01

    HIV is a serious epidemic among homeless persons, where rates of infection are estimated to be three times higher than in the general population. HIV testing is an effective tool for reducing HIV transmission and for combating poor HIV/AIDS health outcomes that disproportionately affect homeless persons, however, little is known about the HIV testing behavior of homeless men. This study examined the association between individual (HIV risk) and structural (service access) factors and past year HIV testing. Participants were a representative sample of 305 heterosexually active homeless men interviewed from meal programs in the Skid Row region of Los Angeles. Logistic regression examined the association between past year HIV testing and demographic characteristics, HIV risk behavior, and access to other services in the Skid Row area in the past 30 days. Despite high rates of past year HIV testing, study participants also reported high rates of HIV risk behavior, suggesting there is still significant unmet need for HIV prevention among homeless men. Having recently used medical/dental services in the Skid Row area (OR: 1.91; CI: 1.09, 3.35), and being a military veteran (OR: 2.10; CI: 1.01-4.37) were significantly associated with HIV testing service utilization. HIV testing was not associated with HIV risk behavior, but rather with access to services and veteran status, the latter of which prior research has linked to increased service access. We suggest that programs encouraging general medical service access may be important for disseminating HIV testing services to this high-risk, vulnerable population. PMID:22676465

  1. Psychophysiological response patterns and risky sexual behavior in heterosexual and homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Erick; Goodrich, David; Petrocelli, John V; Bancroft, John

    2009-08-01

    The past few years have seen an increased awareness of the relevance of studying the role of sexual response, emotion, and traits such as sensation seeking and the propensity for sexual inhibition in risky sexual behavior. The current study examined the association between self-reported sexual risk taking and psychophysiological response patterns in 76 heterosexual and homosexual men. Measures included genital, electrodermal, startle eyeblink, and cardiovascular responses, and stimuli included threatening (depicting coercive sexual interactions) and nonthreatening (depicting consensual sexual interactions) sexual film excerpts. Sexual risk taking was hypothesized to be associated with decreased inhibition of sexual arousal and hyporeactive affective and autonomic responses to threatening sexual stimuli. Controlling for age and number of sexual partners in the past year, sexual risk taking (number of partners during the past 3 years with whom no condoms were used) was found to be associated with stronger genital responses and smaller eyeblink responses to both threatening and nonthreatening sexual stimuli. Correlations between genital and subjective sexual arousal were relatively low. Sexual risk taking was related to sensation seeking but not to the propensity for sexual inhibition. The findings suggest that risky sexual behavior may involve a role for psychophysiological mechanisms that are specific to sex as well as for ones that are associated with more general approach/avoidance response tendencies.

  2. Reactions of Heterosexual African-American Men to Women’s Condom Negotiation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Otto-Salaj, Laura L.; Traxel, Nicole; Brondino, Michael J.; Reed, Barbara; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Stevenson, L. Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    This study describes responses of 172 single heterosexual African American men, ages 18–35, to condom negotiation attempts. Strategies used included reward, coercive, legitimate, expert, referent, and informational strategies, based on Raven’s (1992) influence model. The purpose was: 1) to identify strategies influencing participant acquiescence to request, and 2) to identify predictors of participant compliance/refusal to comply with negotiation attempts. Participants viewed six videotape segments showing an actress, portrayed in silhouette, speaking to the viewer as a ‘steady partner’. After each segment, participants completed measures of: request compliance, positive and negative affect, and attributions concerning the model and themselves. No significant differences were found in men’s ratings across all vignettes. However, differences in response existed across subgroups of individuals, suggesting that while the strategy used had little impact on participant response, the act of suggesting condom use produced responses that differed across participant subgroups. Subgroups differed on levels of AIDS risk knowledge, STD history, and experience with sexual coercion. Also, the “least-willing-to-use” subgroup was highest in anger/rejection and least likely to make attributions of caring for partner. Effective negotiation of condom use with a male sexual partner may not be determined as much by specific strategy used as by partner characteristics. PMID:19760529

  3. Maintaining distinctions under threat: heterosexual men endorse the biological theory of sexuality when equality is the norm.

    PubMed

    Falomir-Pichastor, Juan M; Hegarty, Peter

    2014-12-01

    According to social identity theory, group members sometimes react to threats to their group's distinctiveness by asserting the distinctiveness of their group. In four studies (n = 261) we tested the hypothesis that heterosexual men with a greater propensity to be threatened by homosexuality would react to egalitarian norms by endorsing biological theories of sexuality. Heterosexual men, but not women, with narrow prototypes of their gender in-group endorsed biological theories the most (Study 1). Heterosexual men with higher gender self-esteem, with heterosexist attitudes, who endorsed traditional gender roles, and with narrow prototypes of their gender in-group, endorsed the biological theories more when egalitarian norms rather than anti-egalitarian norms (Studies 2 and 3) or pro-minority ideologies that emphasized group differences (Study 4) were made salient. These findings show group-level reactive distinctiveness among members of a high-status group in a context of threat to the unique privileges that they once enjoyed. PMID:24131397

  4. Maintaining distinctions under threat: heterosexual men endorse the biological theory of sexuality when equality is the norm.

    PubMed

    Falomir-Pichastor, Juan M; Hegarty, Peter

    2014-12-01

    According to social identity theory, group members sometimes react to threats to their group's distinctiveness by asserting the distinctiveness of their group. In four studies (n = 261) we tested the hypothesis that heterosexual men with a greater propensity to be threatened by homosexuality would react to egalitarian norms by endorsing biological theories of sexuality. Heterosexual men, but not women, with narrow prototypes of their gender in-group endorsed biological theories the most (Study 1). Heterosexual men with higher gender self-esteem, with heterosexist attitudes, who endorsed traditional gender roles, and with narrow prototypes of their gender in-group, endorsed the biological theories more when egalitarian norms rather than anti-egalitarian norms (Studies 2 and 3) or pro-minority ideologies that emphasized group differences (Study 4) were made salient. These findings show group-level reactive distinctiveness among members of a high-status group in a context of threat to the unique privileges that they once enjoyed.

  5. Late presentation to HIV/AIDS care in Brazil among men who self-identify as heterosexual

    PubMed Central

    MacCarthy, Sarah; Brignol, Sandra; Reddy, Manasa; Nunn, Amy; Dourado, Inês

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with late presentation to HIV/AIDS services among heterosexual men. METHODS Men infected by HIV who self-identified as heterosexual (n = 543) were included in the study. Descriptive, biivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the factors associated with late presentation (defined as individuals whose first CD4 count was <350 cells/mm3) in the study population. RESULTS The prevalence of late presentation was 69.8%. The multivariate logistic analysis showed testing initiated by the provider (ORadjusted 3.75; 95%CI 2.45–5.63) increased the odds of late presentation. History of drug use (ORadjusted 0.59; 95%CI 0.38–0.91), history of having sexually transmitted infections (ORadjusted 0.64; 95%CI 0.42–0.97), and having less education (ORadjusted 0.63; 95%CI 0.41–0.97) were associated with a decreased odds of LP. CONCLUSIONS Provider initiated testing was the only variable to increase the odds of late presentation. Since the patients in this sample all self-identified as heterosexual, it appears that providers are not requesting they be tested for HIV until the patients are already presenting symptoms of AIDS. The high prevalence of late presentation provides additional evidence to shift towards routine testing and linkage to care, rather than risk-based strategies that may not effectively or efficiently engage individuals infected with HIV. PMID:27556968

  6. Turn it off! the effects of exposure to male-male erotic imagery on heterosexuals' attitudes toward gay men.

    PubMed

    Golom, Frank D; Mohr, Jonathan J

    2011-01-01

    Despite the recent proliferation of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) thematic content in U.S. media, there have been relatively few empirical investigations examining its impact on heterosexuals' attitudes toward LGB individuals. This study examined the effect of one type of content, male-male homoerotic imagery, on male and female heterosexuals' attitudes toward, stereotypes about, and affective reactions to gay men. One hundred ninety-eight undergraduate students were assigned to either a male-male or male-female erotica condition, and their corresponding attitudes toward gay men were assessed. Results revealed that the effect of erotic imagery (male-male vs. male-female) on participants' stereotype and affect scores differed for men and women at varying levels of sexual anxiety. The implications of these findings are discussed in light of the literature on exposure to erotic imagery and attitudes toward gay men. In particular, the study highlights the need for additional research that acknowledges within-gender heterogeneity with respect to antigay attitude valence, extremity, and function. PMID:21253924

  7. Turn it off! the effects of exposure to male-male erotic imagery on heterosexuals' attitudes toward gay men.

    PubMed

    Golom, Frank D; Mohr, Jonathan J

    2011-01-01

    Despite the recent proliferation of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) thematic content in U.S. media, there have been relatively few empirical investigations examining its impact on heterosexuals' attitudes toward LGB individuals. This study examined the effect of one type of content, male-male homoerotic imagery, on male and female heterosexuals' attitudes toward, stereotypes about, and affective reactions to gay men. One hundred ninety-eight undergraduate students were assigned to either a male-male or male-female erotica condition, and their corresponding attitudes toward gay men were assessed. Results revealed that the effect of erotic imagery (male-male vs. male-female) on participants' stereotype and affect scores differed for men and women at varying levels of sexual anxiety. The implications of these findings are discussed in light of the literature on exposure to erotic imagery and attitudes toward gay men. In particular, the study highlights the need for additional research that acknowledges within-gender heterogeneity with respect to antigay attitude valence, extremity, and function.

  8. Homophily, Close Friendship, and Life Satisfaction among Gay, Lesbian, Heterosexual, and Bisexual Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Brian Joseph; Frederick, David; Harari, Lexi; Grov, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Friends play important roles throughout our lives by providing expressive, instrumental, and companionate support. We examined sexual orientation, gender, and age differences in the number of friends people can rely on for expressive, instrumental, and companionate support. Additionally, we examined the extent to which people relied on same-gender versus cross-gender friends for these types of support. Participants (N = 25,185) completed a survey via a popular news website. Sexual orientation differences in number of same-gender and cross-gender friends were generally small or non-existent, and satisfaction with friends was equally important to overall life satisfaction for all groups. However, the extent to which people’s friendship patterns demonstrated gender-based homophily varied by sexual orientation, gender, and age. Young adult gay and bisexual men, and to some extent bisexual women and older bisexual men, did not conform to gendered expectations that people affiliate primarily with their own gender. PMID:26087008

  9. Homophily, Close Friendship, and Life Satisfaction among Gay, Lesbian, Heterosexual, and Bisexual Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Brian Joseph; Frederick, David; Harari, Lexi; Grov, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Friends play important roles throughout our lives by providing expressive, instrumental, and companionate support. We examined sexual orientation, gender, and age differences in the number of friends people can rely on for expressive, instrumental, and companionate support. Additionally, we examined the extent to which people relied on same-gender versus cross-gender friends for these types of support. Participants (N = 25,185) completed a survey via a popular news website. Sexual orientation differences in number of same-gender and cross-gender friends were generally small or non-existent, and satisfaction with friends was equally important to overall life satisfaction for all groups. However, the extent to which people's friendship patterns demonstrated gender-based homophily varied by sexual orientation, gender, and age. Young adult gay and bisexual men, and to some extent bisexual women and older bisexual men, did not conform to gendered expectations that people affiliate primarily with their own gender. PMID:26087008

  10. Homophily, Close Friendship, and Life Satisfaction among Gay, Lesbian, Heterosexual, and Bisexual Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Brian Joseph; Frederick, David; Harari, Lexi; Grov, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Friends play important roles throughout our lives by providing expressive, instrumental, and companionate support. We examined sexual orientation, gender, and age differences in the number of friends people can rely on for expressive, instrumental, and companionate support. Additionally, we examined the extent to which people relied on same-gender versus cross-gender friends for these types of support. Participants (N = 25,185) completed a survey via a popular news website. Sexual orientation differences in number of same-gender and cross-gender friends were generally small or non-existent, and satisfaction with friends was equally important to overall life satisfaction for all groups. However, the extent to which people's friendship patterns demonstrated gender-based homophily varied by sexual orientation, gender, and age. Young adult gay and bisexual men, and to some extent bisexual women and older bisexual men, did not conform to gendered expectations that people affiliate primarily with their own gender.

  11. Heterosexual men's anger in response to male homosexuality: effects of erotic and non-erotic depictions of male-male intimacy and sexual prejudice.

    PubMed

    Hudepohl, Adam D; Parrott, Dominic J; Zeichner, Amos

    2010-01-01

    The present study compared effects of erotic and non-erotic depictions of male-male intimacy on the experience of anger in heterosexual men. Data came from three independent laboratory studies designed to elicit anger in response to erotic or non-erotic depictions of male-male and male-female intimacy. All participants completed a measure of sexual prejudice and anger was assessed before and after viewing the erotic or non-erotic video. Among high-prejudiced men, viewing erotic and non-erotic intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing comparable behavior between a male-female dyad. In contrast, among low-prejudiced men, viewing erotic, but not non-erotic, intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing comparable behavior between a male-female dyad. Implications for understanding heterosexual men's anger, and aggression, toward gay men were discussed. PMID:20818528

  12. Heterosexual men's anger in response to male homosexuality: effects of erotic and non-erotic depictions of male-male intimacy and sexual prejudice.

    PubMed

    Hudepohl, Adam D; Parrott, Dominic J; Zeichner, Amos

    2010-01-01

    The present study compared effects of erotic and non-erotic depictions of male-male intimacy on the experience of anger in heterosexual men. Data came from three independent laboratory studies designed to elicit anger in response to erotic or non-erotic depictions of male-male and male-female intimacy. All participants completed a measure of sexual prejudice and anger was assessed before and after viewing the erotic or non-erotic video. Among high-prejudiced men, viewing erotic and non-erotic intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing comparable behavior between a male-female dyad. In contrast, among low-prejudiced men, viewing erotic, but not non-erotic, intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing comparable behavior between a male-female dyad. Implications for understanding heterosexual men's anger, and aggression, toward gay men were discussed.

  13. “It’s an Uphill Battle Everyday”: Intersectionality, Low-Income Black Heterosexual Men, and Implications for HIV Prevention Research and Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Bowleg, Lisa; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J.; Tschann, Jeanne M.

    2012-01-01

    This interview study, the initial qualitative phase of a larger mixed methods HIV prevention study focused on Black heterosexual men, used intersectionality as a theoretical framework to explore: (1) How a sample of Black heterosexual men describe and experience the multiple intersections of race, gender, and SES; and (2) How these descriptions reflected interlocking systems of social inequality for Black men at the social-structural level. Participants were 30 predominantly low-income self-identified Black heterosexual men between the ages of 18 and 44. Analyses highlighted four themes that demonstrate how participants’ individual-level experiences as Black men reflect macro social-structural inequality: (1) racial discrimination and microaggressions; (2) unemployment; (3) incarceration; and (4) police surveillance and harassment. We discuss the study’s findings within the context of social-structural factors that disproportionately and adversely impact Black men. We also highlight the implications of the intersectionality perspective for HIV prevention research and interventions for Black heterosexual men. PMID:23482810

  14. Childhood Gender Nonconformity and Body Dissatisfaction in Gay and Heterosexual Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Scott M.; Singh, Devendra; Randall, Patrick K.

    2000-01-01

    Employed a measure of recalled childhood gender nonconformity to examine gender role behaviors in association with body dissatisfaction among ethnically diverse, homosexual and heterosexual, predominantly college-aged males. Gay males reported more body dissatisfaction and recalled more childhood gender atypical behaviors. Group differences in…

  15. Sexual Revictimization and Mental Health: A Comparison of Lesbians, Gay Men, and Heterosexual Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Lehavot, Keren; Beadnell, Blair

    2011-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has several deleterious effects on health and well-being, including increased risk for rape in adulthood. Such revictimization experiences are linked to negative mental health outcomes. The vast majority of literature on prevalence and impact of sexual revictimization has focused on heterosexual women. In an effort to…

  16. Straight Talk: HIV Prevention for African-American Heterosexual Men--Theoretical Bases and Intervention Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Victoria; Bonner, Sebastian; Williams, Kim; Henny, Kirk; Bond, Keosha; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Smith, Stephen; Koblin, Beryl A.

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, racial disparities in HIV/AIDS are stark. Although African Americans comprise an estimated 14% of the U.S. population, they made up 52% of new HIV cases among adults and adolescents diagnosed in 2009. Heterosexual transmission is now the second leading cause of HIV in the United States. African Americans made up a full…

  17. Lessons From the Viagra Study: Methodological Challenges in Recruitment of Older and Minority Heterosexual Men for Research on Sexual Practices and Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sande Gracia; Patsdaughter, Carol A.; Martinez Cardenas, Vicente Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Although all sexually active persons may be at potential risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), there is a common misperception that older heterosexual adults are not at risk (Smith & Christakis, 2009). HIV is a continuing concern in persons ages 50 and older (Goodroad, 2003; Savasta, 2004). Therefore, research with this population is warranted. However, little literature addresses the recruitment of middle aged and older heterosexual men, particularly minority men, into research studies on sexual behaviors and practices. The purpose of this article is to discuss challenges that arose during the recruitment and data collection stages of a study on health and sexual practices of older heterosexual men using prescribed erectile dysfunction (ED) drugs, and the strategies that were used to meet these challenges. Lessons learned from this study will be discussed, as well as implications for HIV/STD researchers and clinicians. PMID:21216626

  18. Masturbation and Pornography Use Among Coupled Heterosexual Men With Decreased Sexual Desire: How Many Roles of Masturbation?

    PubMed

    Carvalheira, Ana; Træen, Bente; Stulhofer, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    The relation between masturbation and sexual desire has not been systematically studied. The present study assessed the association between masturbation and pornography use and the predictors and correlates of frequent masturbation (several times a week or more often) among coupled heterosexual men who reported decreased sexual desire. Analyses were carried out on a subset of 596 men with decreased sexual desire (mean age = 40.2 years) who were recruited as part of a large online study on male sexual health in 3 European countries. A majority of the participants (67%) reported masturbating at least once a week. Among men who masturbated frequently, 70% used pornography at least once a week. A multivariate assessment showed that sexual boredom, frequent pornography use, and low relationship intimacy significantly increased the odds of reporting frequent masturbation among coupled men with decreased sexual desire. These findings point to a pattern of pornography-related masturbation that can be dissociated from partnered sexual desire and can fulfill diverse purposes. Clinical implications include the importance of exploring specific patterns of masturbation and pornography use in the evaluation of coupled men with decreased sexual desire.

  19. Prejudice-Related Events and Traumatic Stress Among Heterosexuals and Lesbians, Gay Men and Bisexuals

    PubMed Central

    Alessi, Edward J.; Martin, James I.; Gyamerah, Akua; Meyer, Ilan H.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined associations between prejudice events and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among 382 lesbians, gays, and bisexuals (LGB) and 126 heterosexuals. Using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, we assessed PTSD but relaxed Criterion A1, that is, allowed prejudice events that did not involve threat to life or physical integrity to also qualify as traumatic. First, we tested whether exposure to prejudice events differed with respect to sexual orientation and race. White LGBs were more likely than White heterosexuals to encounter a prejudice event, but Black and Latino LGBs were no more likely than White LGBs to experience a prejudice event. Second, we used qualitative analysis to examine the prejudice events that precipitated relaxed Criterion A1 PTSD among 8 participants. Two specific themes emerged: the need to make major changes and compromised sense of safety and security following exposure to the prejudice event. PMID:24348008

  20. Sexual and affective responses to same- and opposite-sex stimuli in heterosexual and homosexual men: assessment and manipulation of visual attention.

    PubMed

    Samson, Lelia; Janssen, Erick

    2014-07-01

    Affective and cognitive factors play an important role in the activation and regulation of men's sexual arousal. Barlow (1986) argued that initial affective reactions determine the allocation of attention to sexual stimuli. We applied Barlow's model to our understanding of the role of sexual arousal in sexual orientation, where sexual arousal patterns have consistently been found to be congruent with self-reported orientation in men, but not in women. Visual attention of 28 heterosexual and 22 homosexual men to same- and opposite-sex erotic stimuli was assessed and experimentally-directed by means of a newly developed software application, while genital (penile rigidity) and affective responses (self-reported and physiological) were measured. In line with previous research, we found "category specificity" in men's sexual arousal, in that sexual responses were strongest to orientation-congruent stimuli. Also, both homosexual and heterosexual men experienced stronger sexual responses to conditions in which their attention was directed to sexual versus nonsexual content of orientation-congruent stimuli. Only homosexual men manifested higher sexual responses when their visual attention was directed towards the sexual content of orientation-incongruent stimuli. Heterosexual men experienced weaker positive and stronger negative affective responses to orientation-incongruent content, suggestive of potential avoidance or inhibitory mechanisms.

  1. The use of erection enhancing medication and party drugs among men living with HIV in Europe.

    PubMed

    De Ryck, Iris; Van Laeken, David; Noestlinger, Christiana; Platteau, Tom; Colebunders, Robert

    2013-08-01

    Studies have shown more erectile dysfunction (ED) in men living with HIV (MLHIV), relative to age matched HIV-negative men. Erection enhancing medication (EEM) is more frequently used by HIV-positive men than in the general male population. Increased sexually transmitted infection has been described in HIV-positive men with ED using EEM. This study investigated the use of EEM and party drugs (methyleendioxymethamfetamine (XTC), gammahydroxybutyrate (GHB) "fluid XTC" and alkyl nitrites "poppers") among MLHIV. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed consecutively to all patients attending 17 European HIV treatment centers. The sample included 1118 HIV-positive men, among whom 74.5% men having sex with men (MSM). The use of EEM was more frequent in MSM than in heterosexual men (odds ratio (OR) 3.33, p<0.001) and was associated with increased sexual risk behavior (OR 3.27, p<0.001). Nonmedically indicated use of EEM was linked to increased use of party drugs (OR 2.30, p=0.01). Physicians taking care of MLHIV need to be aware of the high prevalence of (nonmedical) use of EEM and party drugs. Medical provision of EEM should be combined with a discussion on safer sex behavior and the risk related to concomitant use of party drugs and illegal EEM.

  2. Prejudice Events and Traumatic Stress among Heterosexuals and Lesbians, Gay Men and Bisexuals

    PubMed Central

    Alessi, Edward J.; Martin, James I.; Gyamerah, Akua; Meyer, Ilan H.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined associations between prejudice events and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among 382 lesbians, gays, and bisexuals (LGB) and 126 heterosexuals. Using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, we assessed PTSD with a relaxed Criterion A1; that is, we allowed events that did not involve threat to life or physical integrity to also qualify as traumatic. We first assessed whether exposure to prejudice-related qualifying events differed with respect to participants’ sexual orientation and race. We found that White LGBs were more likely than White heterosexuals to encounter a prejudice-related qualifying event, and among LGBs, Black and Latino LGBs were no more likely than White LGBs to experience this type of event. We then used qualitative analysis of participants’ brief narratives to examine prejudice events that precipitated Relaxed Criterion A1 PTSD among 8 participants. Two themes emerged: (a) the need to make major changes and (b) compromised sense of safety and security following exposure to the prejudice event. PMID:24415898

  3. Behavioral health and social normative influence: correlates of concurrent sexual partnering among heterosexually-active homeless men.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Suzanne L; Rhoades, Harmony; Hsu, Hsun-Ta; Golinelli, Daniela; Tucker, Joan S; Kennedy, David P; Green, Harold D; Ewing, Brett

    2012-10-01

    Sexual concurrency poses significant HIV/STI transmission risk. The correlates of concurrency have not been examined among homeless men. A representative sample of 305 heterosexually active homeless men utilizing meal programs in the Skid Row area of Los Angeles reported on their mental health, substance use, and social network characteristics. Nearly 40% of men reported concurrency with one of their four most recent sex partners. Results indicated that HIV seropositivity (OR = 4.39, CI: 1.10, 17.46; P = 0.04), PTSD (OR = 2.29, CI: 1.05, 5.01; P = 0.04), hard drug use (OR = 2.45, CI: 1.07, 5.58; P = 0.03), and the perception that network alters engage in risky sex (OR = 3.72, CI: 1.49, 9.30; P = 0.01) were associated with increased odds of concurrency. Programs aimed at reducing HIV/STI transmission in this vulnerable population must take into account the roles that behavioral health and social networks may play in sexual concurrency. PMID:22001933

  4. Effects of Traditional Gender Role Norms and Religious Fundamentalism on Self-Identified Heterosexual Men's Attitudes, Anger, and Aggression Toward Gay Men and Lesbians.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Wilson; Parrott, Dominic J; Peterson, John L

    2011-10-01

    Sexual prejudice and antigay anger were examined as mediators of the associations between traditional male gender norms, religious fundamentalism, and aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Participants were 201 self-identified heterosexual men recruited from the community to complete computer-administered measures of adherence to traditional male gender norms (i.e., status, toughness, antifemininity), religious fundamentalism, sexual prejudice, and frequency of aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Additionally, participants completed a structured interview designed to assess anger in response to a vignette depicting a male-male intimate relationship (i.e., partners saying "I love you," holding hands, kissing). Results showed that sexual prejudice and antigay anger partially mediated the effect of antifemininity on aggression and fully mediated the effect of religious fundamentalism on aggression. Sexual prejudice alone fully mediated the effect of status on aggression and neither sexual prejudice nor antigay anger mediated the effect of toughness on aggression. Further, results suggested that religious fundamentalism is a multifaceted construct of which some aspects increase risk for aggression toward gay men and lesbians, whereas other aspects decrease this risk. These data provide multivariate evidence from a nonprobability, community-based sample that extreme internalization of dominant cultural values can set the stage for violence toward marginalized groups. Implications for intervention programming and future research are reviewed. PMID:22081759

  5. Effects of Traditional Gender Role Norms and Religious Fundamentalism on Self-Identified Heterosexual Men's Attitudes, Anger, and Aggression Toward Gay Men and Lesbians

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Wilson; Parrott, Dominic J.; Peterson, John L.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual prejudice and antigay anger were examined as mediators of the associations between traditional male gender norms, religious fundamentalism, and aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Participants were 201 self-identified heterosexual men recruited from the community to complete computer-administered measures of adherence to traditional male gender norms (i.e., status, toughness, antifemininity), religious fundamentalism, sexual prejudice, and frequency of aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Additionally, participants completed a structured interview designed to assess anger in response to a vignette depicting a male-male intimate relationship (i.e., partners saying “I love you,” holding hands, kissing). Results showed that sexual prejudice and antigay anger partially mediated the effect of antifemininity on aggression and fully mediated the effect of religious fundamentalism on aggression. Sexual prejudice alone fully mediated the effect of status on aggression and neither sexual prejudice nor antigay anger mediated the effect of toughness on aggression. Further, results suggested that religious fundamentalism is a multifaceted construct of which some aspects increase risk for aggression toward gay men and lesbians, whereas other aspects decrease this risk. These data provide multivariate evidence from a nonprobability, community-based sample that extreme internalization of dominant cultural values can set the stage for violence toward marginalized groups. Implications for intervention programming and future research are reviewed. PMID:22081759

  6. Racial differences in sexual prejudice and its correlates among heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Daboin, Irene; Peterson, John L; Parrott, Dominic J

    2015-04-01

    Previous research has consistently found sexual prejudice to be a predictor of antigay aggression and has also revealed specific correlates and antecedents of sexual prejudice. However, extant literature reveals mixed findings about potential racial group differences in sexual prejudice, and few studies have examined racial differences in the correlates of sexual prejudice. The aims of this descriptive study were to determine whether there are (a) racial group differences in reports of sexual prejudice and (b) racial group differences in previously identified correlates of sexual prejudice. Participants were 195 heterosexual males, ages 18 to 30 (98 Blacks and 97 Whites), recruited from a large metropolitan city in the southeastern United States. Based on cultural differences in the influence of religion and in attitudes about male sexuality, it was hypothesized that Black participants would report higher sexual prejudice than White participants. Additionally, based on cultural differences in racial views on masculinity and in sociocultural experiences of male gender roles, it was hypothesized that Blacks would report greater endorsement of religious fundamentalism and the traditional male role norm of status than Whites. Results confirmed all of the hypothesized racial differences and revealed additional differences, including a differential effect of the traditional male role norm of status on sexual prejudice, which explains, at least in part, the racial differences found in sexual prejudice. These findings may reflect underlying cultural differences between Black and White males and may aid in the development of future efforts to reduce sexual prejudice and consequently antigay aggression toward sexual minorities.

  7. Social dominance orientation predicts heterosexual men's adverse reactions to romantic rejection.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ashleigh J; Dubbs, Shelli L; Barlow, Fiona Kate

    2015-05-01

    We examined the role of social dominance orientation (SDO) as a predictor of men's reactions to romantic rejection and attitudes toward female sexuality. In Study 1 (n = 158), we found that men who scored higher in SDO were more likely to blame women for romantic rejection, and report having responded to women's past rejection with persistence and manipulation (e.g., convincing her to "give him another chance"), as well as with aggression and threats of violence. In Study 2 (n = 398), we replicated these findings, and further found that men higher in SDO were more likely to endorse rape myths (e.g., believing that sometimes a woman's barriers need to be "broken down" in order to attain sex), and to want to lower the legal age of sexual consent in women. Two mediators explained this relationship, hostile sexism and the belief that insubordinate women need to be disciplined. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.

  8. Bisexual and gay men in heterosexual marriage: conflicts and resolutions in therapy.

    PubMed

    Coleman, E

    This paper describes 31 men who at the time of entering therapy were married and expressed concern about their same-sex feelings and activity. Each of these man was treated in a "bisexuality group" designed to help him to be more comfortable and accepting of his same-sex feelings and to explore ways of incorporating same-sex and opposite-sex feelings into his life. Following treatment, 11 of the 31 men (36%) decided to end their marriage; twenty men (64%) decided to remain married. In a follow up study, there was a further attrition of marriages so that 14 remain married. The paper further describes attitudes and behavior prior to therapy, immediately following therapy, and at the time of follow up (up to three years). Factors that seem to be important ingredients of of successful adjustment are discussed.

  9. Relationship Advice Columns from Two Popular Magazines: Implications for Therapy with Women, Men and Heterosexual Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Lori R.; Kellaway, Julie A.

    2004-01-01

    The relationship advice columns for two popular magazines (one targeted to female and the other to male readers) were discussed within the conceptual frameworks of centerfold syndrome and appearance obsession. Centerfold syndrome is a theory that describes the way men view women and sexuality. The female counterpart is appearance obsession which…

  10. HETEROSEXUAL PARTNERSHIPS AND THE NEED FOR HIV PREVENTION AND TESTING FOR MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN AND WOMEN IN CHINA: A QUALITATIVE STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sijia; Song, Dandan; Huang, Wen; He, Huan; Wang, Min; Manning, David; Zaller, Nickolas; Zhang, Hongbo; Operario, Don

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that approximately 30% of men who have sex with men (MSM) in China have concurrent female partners. Men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) might “bridge” HIV transmission to their female sex partners. This study aimed to explore (a) motivations for why MSMW in China engage in relationships and sexual behaviors with female partners; (b) patterns of sexual behaviors and condom use between MSMW and their female partners; and (c) barriers to and strategies for encouraging MSMW and their female partners to undergo HIV testing. The authors conducted in-depth interviews with 30 MSMW in two urban cities in China, Guangzhou and Chengdu, and used thematic analysis methods to code and interpret the data. MSMW described family, social, and workplace pressures to have a female partner, and expressed futility about their ability to form stable same-sex relationships. Although participants reported concern about the risk of personally acquiring and transmitting HIV or other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to their female partners, they described the challenges to using condoms with female partners. HIV-positive participants described how stigma restricted their ability to disclose their HIV status to female partners, and HIV-negative participants displayed less immediate concern about the need for female partners to undergo HIV testing. Participants described a range of possible strategies to encourage HIV testing among female partners. These findings highlight the urgent need for HIV risk reduction and testing interventions for Chinese MSMW in the context of heterosexual partnerships, and they also under-score the additional need for privacy and cultural sensitivity when designing future studies. PMID:25915698

  11. Acute Effects of Intoxication and Arousal on Approach/Avoidance Biases Toward Sexual Risk Stimuli in Heterosexual Men.

    PubMed

    Simons, Jeffrey S; Maisto, Stephen A; Wray, Tyler B; Emery, Noah N

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the effects of alcohol intoxication and physiological arousal on cognitive biases toward erotic stimuli and condoms. Ninety-seven heterosexual men were randomized to 1 of 6 independent conditions in a 2 (high arousal or control) × 3 (alcohol target BAC = 0.08, placebo, or juice control) design and then completed a variant of the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT). The AAT assessed reaction times toward approaching and avoiding erotic stimuli and condoms with a joystick. Consistent with hypotheses, the alcohol condition exhibited an approach bias toward erotic stimuli, whereas the control and placebo groups exhibited an approach bias toward condom stimuli. Similarly, the participants in the high arousal condition exhibited an approach bias toward erotic stimuli and the low arousal control condition exhibited an approach bias toward condoms. The results suggest that acute changes in intoxication and physiological arousal independently foster biased responding toward sexual stimuli and these biases are associated with sexual risk intentions. PMID:25808719

  12. The role of the illusion in the construction of erotic desire: narratives from heterosexual men who have occasional sex with transgender women.

    PubMed

    Reback, Cathy J; Kaplan, Rachel L; Bettcher, Talia M; Larkins, Sherry

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about men's sexual desire for and erotic attraction to male-to-female transgender women. To better understand how erotic desire is constructed, this study examined the narratives of a sample of heterosexual men who had had an occasional sexual encounter with a transgender woman. Open-ended qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 heterosexual men who reported at least one sexual encounter with a transgender woman in the previous 12 months. Using principles of Grounded Theory, three themes emerged: (1) the erotic desire that transpired from a transgender woman's construction of her femininity, (2) the sexual act that dictated the specific navigation of a transgender woman's penis and (3) the sexual dissonance that resulted from being a heterosexually identified man having sex with a partner who had a penis. These themes reflected how the participants defined and negotiated their sexual encounters, both psychologically through their understanding of sex with a transgender woman with a penis, and physically through the navigation of specific sex acts. The role of the 'illusion' was central to the meaning and construction of erotic desire. These narratives provided another framework for continuing discourse on the complexity of erotic desire. PMID:26967172

  13. Personas to Guide Understanding Traditions of Gay Men Living With HIV Who Smoke.

    PubMed

    Phillips, J Craig; Rowsell, Derek J; Boomer, Jack; Kwon, Jae-Yung; Currie, Leanne M

    2016-01-01

    Gay men living with HIV (GMLWH) who smoke are less responsive to generalized smoking reduction and cessation (SRC) programs than heterosexual persons. This study explored perspectives of GMLWH during the design of a web-based SRC intervention. Participatory design techniques were used to guide the creation of personas that are composite representations of a person who would use the web-based SRC intervention. Researcher-participants (n = 13) created all data. Data analysis involved thematic coding drawing from an ethnographic perspective. Thematic analysis revealed seven intersecting themes related to SRC among participants, and an overarching theme navigating life. Concepts drawn from our ethnographic approach highlight cultural differences between GMLWH and mainstream society. Personas offer a mechanism for interpreting experiences and traditions of GMLWH. SRC interventions with GMLWH must address their social realities that include tools for navigating life, disease, and social identity.

  14. Working "upstream": why we shouldn't use heterosexual women as health promotion change agents in HIV-prevention interventions aimed at heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Drake, Carly; Gahagan, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The use of cognitive-behavioral interventions that aim to improve men's health-seeking behaviors via women-a trend that grows increasingly troublesome as gender inequality persists-cannot address the deep-seated social, economic, and political inequalities contributing to the spread of HIV/AIDS, such as sexism and poverty. Such methods often rely on generalizations about men and women and regard female empowerment as a key goal, despite employing shaky definitions of the concept. Here we use the principles of health promotion, particularly determinants of health, to reflect upon and critique current interventions and present alternative programming models that engage both men and women in changing men's health-seeking behaviors and working "upstream" rather than "downstream" of the epidemic. PMID:25611811

  15. Testosterone Therapy May Boost Older Men's Sex Lives

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159622.html Testosterone Therapy May Boost Older Men's Sex Lives Gel hormone treatment led to improved libido ... experienced a moderate but significant improvement in their sex drive, sexual activity and erectile function compared to ...

  16. A randomized controlled trial of a culturally congruent intervention to increase condom use and HIV testing among heterosexually active immigrant Latino men.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; McCoy, Thomas P; Vissman, Aaron T; DiClemente, Ralph J; Duck, Stacy; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Foley, Kristie Long; Alonzo, Jorge; Bloom, Fred R; Eng, Eugenia

    2011-11-01

    This randomized controlled trial tested the efficacy of an HIV prevention intervention to increase condom use and HIV testing among Spanish-speaking, heterosexually active immigrant Latino men. A community-based participatory research partnership developed the intervention and selected the study design. Following baseline data collection, 142 immigrant Latino men were randomized to the HIV prevention intervention or the cancer education intervention. Three-month follow-up data were collected from 139 participants, for a 98% retention rate. Mean age of participants was 31.6 years and 60% reported being from Mexico. Adjusting for baseline behaviors, relative to their peers in the cancer education comparison, participants in the HIV prevention intervention were more likely to report consistent condom use and receiving an HIV test. Community-based interventions for immigrant Latino men that are built on state of the art prevention science and developed in partnership with community members can greatly enhance preventive behaviors and may reduce HIV infection.

  17. The views of general practitioners and practice nurses towards the barriers and facilitators of proactive, internet-based chlamydia screening for reaching young heterosexual men

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis is a common bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI), which disproportionately affects young people under 25 years. Commonly, more women are offered screening than men. This study obtained the views of general practitioners and practice nurses towards Internet-based screening and assessed levels of support for the development of proactive screening targeting young heterosexual men via the Internet. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews with 10 general practitioners and 8 practice nurses, across Central Scotland. Topics covered: experience of screening heterosexual men for chlamydia, views on the use of the Internet as a way to reach young men for chlamydia screening, beliefs about the potential barriers and facilitators to Internet-based screening. Transcripts from audio recordings were analysed with Framework Analysis, using QSR NVivo10. Results Experiences of chlamydia screening were almost exclusively with women, driven by the nature of consultations and ease of raising sexual health issues with female patients; few practice nurses reported seeing men during consultations. All participants spoke in favour of Internet-based screening for young men. Participants reported ease of access and convenience as potential facilitators of an Internet-based approach but anonymity and confidentiality could be potential barriers and facilitators to the success of an Internet approach to screening. Concerns over practical issues as well as those pertaining to gender and socio-cultural issues were raised. Conclusions Awareness of key barriers and facilitators, such as confidentiality, practicality and socio-cultural influences, will inform the development of an Internet-based approach to screening. However, this approach may have its limits in terms of being able to tackle wider social and cultural barriers, along with shifts in young people’s and health professionals’ attitudes towards screening. Nevertheless, employing

  18. Barbershop Talk With Brothers: using community-based participatory research to develop and pilot test a program to reduce HIV risk among Black heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Tracey E; Fraser-White, Marilyn; Williams, Kim M; Pinto, Angelo; Agbetor, Francis; Camilien, Brignel; Henny, Kirk; Browne, Ruth C; Gousse, Yolene; Taylor, Tonya; Brown, Humberto; Taylor, Raekiela; Joseph, Michael A

    2014-10-01

    There is a need for feasible, evidence-based interventions that support HIV risk reduction among heterosexual Black men. In this article, we describe the process for development of the Barbershop Talk With Brothers (BTWB) program and evaluation. The BTWB program is a theoretically grounded and community-based HIV prevention program that seeks to improve individual skills and motivation to decrease sexual risk, and that builds men's interest in and capacity for improving their community's health. Formative data collection included barbershop observations and barber focus groups, brief behavioral risk assessments of men in barbershops, and focus groups and individual interviews. Based on this information and in consultation with our steering committee, we developed the BTWB program and accompanying program evaluation. From April through November 2011, 80 men were recruited and completed a baseline assessment of a pilot test of the program; 78 men completed the program and 71 completed a 3-month assessment. The pilot evaluation procedures were feasible to implement, and assessments of pre- and post-test measures indicate that key behavioral outcomes and proposed mediators of those outcomes changed in hypothesized directions. Specifically, attitudes and self-efficacy toward consistent condom use improved, and respondents reported lower levels of sexual risk behavior from baseline to follow-up (all p < 0.05). Perceptions of community empowerment also increased (p = 0.06). While HIV stigma decreased, this difference did not reach statistical significance. Our approach to community-engaged program development resulted in an acceptable, feasible approach to reaching and educating heterosexual Black men about HIV prevention in community settings.

  19. A systematic review of behavioral interventions to prevent HIV infection and transmission among heterosexual, adult men in low-and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Loraine; Mathews, Catherine; Zembe, Yanga

    2013-02-01

    Prevention of new HIV infections needs to move to the forefront in the fight against HIV and AIDS. In the current economic crisis, low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) should invest limited resources to amass reliable evidence-based information about behavioral prevention efforts, and on behaviors that are driving the epidemic among people who are engaging in those behaviors. This paper aims to provide a systematic review and synthesis of behavioral interventions among a group of people in high HIV-burden countries: heterosexual men in LMICs. The review includes articles published between January 2001 and May 2010 that evaluated behavioral prevention interventions among heterosexual males aged 18+ years in LMICs. The studies were evaluated using the quality assessment tool for quantitative studies developed by the Effective Public Health Practice Project. The review identified 19 articles that met the review's inclusion criteria. Most studies were conducted in South Africa (n=6); two each in Uganda and Thailand; and one in each of Angola, Brazil, Bulgaria, India, Nigeria, the Philippines, Russia, Ukraine and Zimbabwe. Eight of 19 interventions increased condom use among their respective populations. Those interventions that sought to reduce the number of sexual partners had little effect, and those that addressed alcohol consumption and intimate partner violence had mixed effects. There was no evidence for any specific format of intervention that impacted best on any of the targeted risk behaviors. The paucity of evaluated interventions for heterosexual men in LMICs suggests that adult men in these countries remain underrepresented in HIV prevention efforts. PMID:23111548

  20. Compensated Sex and Sexual Risk: Sexual, Social and Economic Interactions between Homosexually- and Heterosexually-Identified Men of Low Income in Two Cities of Peru

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Dávila, Percy; Salazar, Ximena; Cáceres, Carlos F.; Maiorana, Andre; Kegeles, Susan; Coates, Thomas J.; Martinez, Josefa

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the complex dynamics of the sexual, economic and social interactions between a group of feminized homosexual men and men who have sex with men and self-identify as heterosexual (‘mostaceros’), in lower-income peripheral urban areas of Lima and Trujillo, Peru. The study examined sexual risk between these two groups of men, and the significance of the economic exchanges involved in their sexual interactions. Using a Grounded Theory approach, 23 individual interviews and 7 focus groups were analyzed. The results reveal that cultural, economic and gender factors mold sexual and social relations among a group of men who have sex with men in Peru. Compensated sex is part of the behaviors of these men, reflecting a complicated construction of sexuality based on traditional conceptions of gender roles, sexual identity and masculinity. Several factors (e.g. difficulty in negotiating condom use, low self-esteem, low risk perception, alcohol and drug consumption), in the context of compensated sex, play a role in risk-taking for HIV infection. PMID:19890491

  1. Experiences of Older Men Living Alone: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Bergland, Astri Marie Glosli; Tveit, Bodil; Gonzalez, Marianne Thorsen

    2016-01-01

    More and more old people live alone, and living alone is reported to be a key risk factor for experiencing loneliness and developing poor health. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of living alone for older men. Systematic text condensation and hermeneutic interpretation were used in analysis of the data. Four themes emerged: lonely at times, missing and longing for a shared life, keeping active, and some kind of freedom. The findings revealed that inner and outer resources come into play and have influence on the processes of managing and solving the situation of living alone. The findings are in accordance with theoretical perspectives on loneliness, aloneness, and solitude. The findings offer nurses in any clinical context valuable information to allow them to address the core emotional and potential mental health issues old men face in coping with the situation of living alone. PMID:26864842

  2. A snapshot of how latino heterosexual men promote sexual health within their social networks: process evaluation findings from an efficacious community-level intervention.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Daniel, Jason; Alonzo, Jorge; Vissman, Aaron T; Duck, Stacy; Downs, Mario; Gilbert, Paul A

    2012-12-01

    Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables (HoMBReS) was a community-level social network intervention designed to increase sexual health among Latino heterosexual men who were members of a multicounty soccer league. Process data were collected each month during 18 months of intervention implementation from each of 15 trained Latino male lay health advisors (known as Navegantes) to explore the activities that Navegantes conducted to increase condom and HIV testing among their social network members. The Navegantes reported conducting 2,364 activities, for a mean of 8.8 activities per Navegante per month. The most common activity was condom distribution. Most activities were conducted with men; about 2% were conducted with women. Among activities conducted with men, half were conducted with soccer teammates and half with nonteammates. Results suggest that Latino men's social networks can be leveraged to promote sexual health within the community. Innovative methods that reach large numbers of community members are needed given the lack of prevention resources for populations disproportionately impacted by HIV and STDs.

  3. Decreased incidence of syphilis in both men and women associated with male circumcision: a prospective study among HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual African couples

    PubMed Central

    Pintye, Jillian; Baeten, Jared M.; Manhart, Lisa; Celum, Connie; Ronald, Allan; Mugo, Nelly; Mujugira, Andrew; Cohen, Craig; Were, Edwin; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Kiarie, James; Heffron, Renee

    2014-01-01

    Background Male circumcision is a primary HIV-1 prevention intervention for men. It is uncertain whether male circumcision reduces the risk of syphilis among men and their female partners. Methods Using data from a prospective study among HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples from Kenya and Uganda, we assessed whether male circumcision was associated with incident syphilis in men and in their female partners. Multivariate Andersen-Gill survival methods were used, adjusted for age, sexual behavior, and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels of the HIV-1 infected partner. Findings 4716 HIV-1 serodiscordant couples (37·5% with an HIV-1 infected male) were followed for a median of 2·75 years. At enrollment, 1575 (53·5%) HIV-1 uninfected and 560 (32·4%) HIV-1 infected men were circumcised; an additional 69 (4·2%) HIV-1 infected and 132 (4·8%) HIV-1 uninfected men became circumcised during study follow up. 221 incident syphilis infections were observed: 46 among HIV-1 infected men (incidence 1·10 per 100 person-years), 76 among HIV-1 uninfected men (1·09 per 100 person-years), 54 among HIV-1 infected women (0·77 per 100 person-years) and 45 among HIV-1 uninfected women (1·11 per 100 person-years). Male circumcision was associated with a 42% reduction in incident syphilis in men (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.58 95% CI 0·37–0·91) including a 62% reduction among HIV-1 infected men (aHR 0·38, 95% CI 0·18–0·81) and a non-significant reduction in incident syphilis among HIV-1 uninfected men (aHR 0·64, 95% CI 0·36–1·11). Among women, circumcision of their male partners was associated with a 59% reduction in incident syphilis (aHR 0.41 95% CI 0.25–0.69), including a 75% reduction among HIV-1 uninfected women (aHR 0·25, 95% CI 0·08–0·76) and a 48% reduction among HIV-1 infected women (aHR 0·52, 95% CI 0·27–0·97). Interpretation In this large prospective cohort study among HIV-1 serodiscordant couples, male circumcision was associated with decreased risk

  4. Heterosexual transmission of HIV.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A M; Laga, M

    1988-01-01

    Recent developments concerning heterosexual transmission of HIV (review of 1988 literature only) suggest improved understanding of the pattern of spread and role of risk behaviors and biological cofactors in its transmission. 3 distinct patterns if HIV infection are known: heterosexual spread in sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean, spread primarily among homosexuals and injecting drug users in Europe, North American and much of Latin America and Australia, and both homosexual and heterosexual transmission in Asia, the Pacific, the Middle East and Eastern Europe, where prevalence is low. In Africa an estimated 80% of cases are acquired heterosexually. Important risk factors are number of sex partners, sex with prostitutes, being a prostitute, being a sex partner of an infected person, and having a history of other sexually transmitted diseases. Prevalence rates have risen rapidly in Zaire and Kenya. In Africa, acquisition of HIV is related to sexual activity only. In contrast, in the U.S., heterosexual cases make up only 4% of all cases, and in Europe only 6%. Data on types of sexual transmission of HIV are mounting, in aggregate suggestive of a marked heterogeneity in infectivity and possibly susceptibility between individuals. Among couples where the man is positive, in some places individuals appear to be highly infective, notably those from Kinshasa, Zaire and Haiti, while other series of discordant couples the receptive partner remained seronegative for several years. Transmission from women to men appears to be less efficient than from men to women, as has been observed with other STDs such as gonorrhea. Biological cofactors implicated in enhanced HIV transmission appear to be advanced CDC Stage IV AIDS disease, with low T-helper lymphocyte counts and high antigenemia; concomitant STDS, especially those with genital ulceration; lack of circumcision; oral contraceptive use; practice of anal intercourse; inconsistent or no use of condoms. Theoretical models for

  5. The preferred traits of mates in a cross-national study of heterosexual and homosexual men and women: an examination of biological and cultural influences.

    PubMed

    Lippa, Richard A

    2007-04-01

    BBC Internet survey participants (119,733 men and 98,462 women) chose from a list of 23 traits those they considered first, second, and third most important in a relationship partner. Across all participants, the traits ranked most important were: intelligence, humor, honesty, kindness, overall good looks, face attractiveness, values, communication skills, and dependability. On average, men ranked good looks and facial attractiveness more important than women did (d = 0.55 and 0.36, respectively), whereas women ranked honesty, humor, kindness, and dependability more important than men did (ds = 0.23, 0.22, 0.18, and 0.15). Sexual orientation differences were smaller than sex differences in trait rankings, but some were meaningful; for example, heterosexual more than homosexual participants assigned importance to religion, fondness for children, and parenting abilities. Multidimensional scaling analyses showed that trait preference profiles clustered by participant sex, not by sexual orientation, and by sex more than by nationality. Sex-by-nation ANOVAs of individuals' trait rankings showed that sex differences in rankings of attractiveness, but not of character traits, were extremely consistent across 53 nations and that nation main effects and sex-by-nation interactions were stronger for character traits than for physical attractiveness. United Nations indices of gender equality correlated, across nations, with men's and women's rankings of character traits but not with their rankings of physical attractiveness. These results suggest that cultural factors had a relatively greater impact on men's and women's rankings of character traits, whereas biological factors had a relatively greater impact on men's and women's rankings of physical attractiveness.

  6. Heterosexual Male Carriers Could Explain Persistence of Homosexuality in Men: Individual-Based Simulations of an X-Linked Inheritance Model.

    PubMed

    Chaladze, Giorgi

    2016-10-01

    Homosexuality has been documented throughout history and is found in almost all human cultures. Twin studies suggest that homosexuality is to some extent heritable. However, from an evolutionary perspective, this poses a problem: Male homosexuals tend to have on average five times fewer children than heterosexual males, so how can a phenomenon associated with low reproductive success be maintained at relatively stable frequencies? Recent findings of increased maternal fecundity of male homosexuals suggest that the genes responsible for homosexuality in males increase fecundity in the females who carry them. Can an increase in maternal fecundity compensate for the fecundity reduction in homosexual men and produce a stable polymorphism? In the current study, this problem was addressed with an individual-based modeling (IBM) approach. IBM suggests that male homosexuality can be maintained in a population at low and stable frequencies if roughly more than half of the females and half of the males are carriers of genes that predispose the male to homosexuality.

  7. A snapshot of how Latino heterosexual men promote sexual health within their social networks: Process evaluation findings from an efficacious community-level intervention

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; Daniel, Jason; Alonzo, Jorge; Vissman, Aaron T.; Duck, Stacy; Downs, Mario; Gilbert, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Background HoMBReS was a community-level social network intervention designed to increase sexual health among Latino heterosexual men who were members of a multi-county soccer league. Methods We used process data collected each month during 18 months of intervention implementation from each of 15 trained Latino male lay health advisors (known as Navegantes) to explore the activities that Navegantes conducted to increase condom and HIV testing among their social network members. Results The Navegantes reported conducting 2,364 activities, for a mean of 8.8 activities per Navegante per month. The most common activity was condom distribution. Most activities were conducted with men; about 2% were conducted with women. Among activities conducted with men, half were conducted with soccer teammates and half with non-teammates. Conclusions Latino men’s social networks can be leveraged to promote sexual health within the community. Innovative methods that reach large numbers of community members are needed given the lack of prevention resources for populations disproportionately impacted by HIV and STDs. PMID:23206201

  8. A randomized controlled trial of a culturally congruent intervention to increase condom use and HIV testing among heterosexually active immigrant Latino men

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Vissman, Aaron T.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Duck, Stacy; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Foley, Kristie Long; Alonzo, Jorge; Bloom, Fred R.; Eng, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial tested the efficacy of an HIV prevention intervention to increase condom use and HIV testing among Spanish-speaking, heterosexually active immigrant Latino men. A community-based participatory research partnership developed the intervention and selected the study design. Following baseline data collection, 142 immigrant Latino men were randomized to the HIV prevention intervention or the cancer education intervention. Three-month follow-up data were collected from 139 participants, for a 98% retention rate. Mean age of participants was 31.6 years and 60% reported being from Mexico. Adjusting for baseline behaviors, relative to their peers in the cancer education comparison, participants in the HIV prevention intervention were more likely to report consistent condom use and receiving an HIV test. Community-based interventions for immigrant Latino men that are built on state of the art prevention science and developed in partnership with community members can greatly enhance preventive behaviors and may reduce HIV infection. PMID:21301948

  9. "Some of My Best Friends": Intergroup Contact, Concealable Stigma, and Heterosexuals' Attitudes toward Gay Men and Lesbians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herek, Gregory M.; Capitanio, John P.

    1996-01-01

    In a 2-wave national telephone survey, a probability sample of English-speaking adults indicated their attitudes toward gay men at Wave 1 (n=538) and toward both gay men and lesbians approximately 1 year later (n=382). Discusses findings of the study and theoretical and policy implications of the results. (KW)

  10. HIV disease progression in 854 women and men infected through injecting drug use and heterosexual sex and followed for up to nine years from seroconversion. Italian Seroconversion Study.

    PubMed Central

    Cozzi Lepri, A.; Pezzotti, P.; Dorrucci, M.; Phillips, A. N.; Rezza, G.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the progression of HIV-1 infection in men and women followed up for up to nine years after an accurately estimated date of seroconversion. DESIGN--Prospective observational study. SETTING--16 HIV outpatient clinics across Italy. SUBJECTS--321 women and 533 men infected with HIV through injecting drug use or heterosexual sex and with accurately estimated dates of seroconversion. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Progression to severe CD4 lymphocytopenia (CD4 lymphocyte count < 200 x 10(6)/l), development of AIDS defining diseases, and death from AIDS. RESULTS--Thirty two women and 67 men developed AIDS at Kaplan-Meier progression rates of 25% (95% confidence interval 13.8% to 35.5%) and 23% (15.6% to 30.4%), respectively, 7 years after seroconversion. In a Cox proportional hazards model the relative hazard was 0.93 (that is, a slightly lower hazard in women) before and 1.10 (0.70 to 1.72) after adjusting for age, HIV exposure group, and year of seroconversion. When CD4 lymphocytopenia and death from AIDS were used as end points the results were similar, with adjusted relative hazards of 0.95 (0.63 to 1.42) and 0.72 (0.48 to 1.79) respectively. In both women and men the risk of developing AIDS before the CD4 lymphocyte count had declined below 200 x 10(6)/l was small (3% in women, 6% in men). The estimated median count at which AIDS developed in women (34 x 10(6)/l; 10 x 10(6) to 44 x 10(6)) was similar to that for men (44 x 10(6)/l; 22 x 10(6) to 60 x 10(6)). CONCLUSION--There seems to be little evidence for appreciable differences in the natural course of HIV infection between men and women followed up from the time of seroconversion. PMID:7819892

  11. HIV-positive men who have sex with men: biography, diversity in lifestyles, common experience of living with HIV. ANRS-EN12 VESPA Study, 2003.

    PubMed

    Lert, France; Sitta, Rémi; Bouhnik, Anne-Deborah; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Spire, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    The conceptualisation of male who have sex with male (MSM) to account for male homosexual behaviour has been developed to facilitate the endorsement of prevention message since the advent of HIV infection. Population studies performed to understand and monitor sexual and preventive behaviour usually recruit respondents through gay-friendly channels such as media, sexual venues or festivals, leading to recruitment bias. Few studies question possible differences according to varying sexual biography and current behaviour within the MSM population. The random sample of HIV+ individuals treated in specialised outpatient clinics (ANRS-EN12-VESPA study, 2003) provides the opportunity to question the MSM conceptualisation regarding sexual biography, social characteristics, current sexual behaviour, use of condom, living with HIV (quality of life, discrimination and participation in NGOs). Among the 2932 respondents, 1309 men reported a lifetime male sexual partner. Information regarding sexual biography (lifetime and current numbers of male and female sexual partners, lifetime number of male and female stable couples) was computed using cluster analysis and identified five profiles: exclusive gay (53.7%), gay with some bisexuality (21.8%), gay with mixed sexual history (8.1%), bisexual (7.8%) and heterosexual with male-to-male sex (8.6%). The profiles matched self-identification better among the most exclusive homosexuals than among men with current bisexuality. These five subgroups differed regarding demographic and social characteristics (except migration status), their period of diagnosis, age and CD4 count at diagnosis. Sexual activity, steady partnership, number of male and female partners, use of sexual venues and illegal substance use were different across subgroups. Reversely, these groups are homogenous regarding experience of discrimination and involvement in People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) activities. These findings among men living with HIV support the MSM

  12. Heterosexual Male Carriers Could Explain Persistence of Homosexuality in Men: Individual-Based Simulations of an X-Linked Inheritance Model.

    PubMed

    Chaladze, Giorgi

    2016-10-01

    Homosexuality has been documented throughout history and is found in almost all human cultures. Twin studies suggest that homosexuality is to some extent heritable. However, from an evolutionary perspective, this poses a problem: Male homosexuals tend to have on average five times fewer children than heterosexual males, so how can a phenomenon associated with low reproductive success be maintained at relatively stable frequencies? Recent findings of increased maternal fecundity of male homosexuals suggest that the genes responsible for homosexuality in males increase fecundity in the females who carry them. Can an increase in maternal fecundity compensate for the fecundity reduction in homosexual men and produce a stable polymorphism? In the current study, this problem was addressed with an individual-based modeling (IBM) approach. IBM suggests that male homosexuality can be maintained in a population at low and stable frequencies if roughly more than half of the females and half of the males are carriers of genes that predispose the male to homosexuality. PMID:27067240

  13. Implicit and explicit measurements of sexual preference in gay and heterosexual men: a comparison of priming techniques and the implicit association task.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Robert J; Wichter, Jan; Gray, Nicola S

    2008-08-01

    The present study examined how well implicit measures were able to predict sexual orientation. Most previous research in the sexual orientation domain has been dependent upon self-report, which requires explicit, conscious awareness of sexual orientation and/or erotic preferences. On the other hand, implicit measurements are thought to be able to reflect immediate automatic reactions that may not be available to introspection. A total of 50 heterosexual and 25 homosexual men completed two implicit measures: the Implicit Association Task (IAT) and the Priming Task (PT). Sexual orientation was determined by self-report. In the PT, participants classified words as either sexually attractive or unattractive. Each word was preceded by a "prime" that was a picture of either a male or a female. The IAT consisted of classifying these same words as sexually attractive or unattractive, and classifying the pictures as either male or female. Both the IAT and the PT had very good ability to predict sexual orientation with Area Under the Curves (AUC) of 0.97 and 0.86, respectively. Unlike many other reports of implicit measures of behavior, the IAT and the PT correlated strongly with each other, and also with the explicit measurements of sexual orientation. It was concluded that these implicit measures can provide a valuable tool for research into sexual orientation and erotic preference that can complement existing measures, such as self-report questionnaires and physiological changes in sexual arousal in response to erotic stimuli. PMID:17333326

  14. ADAPTATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF HoMBReS: A COMMUNITY-LEVEL, EVIDENCE-BASED HIV BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION FOR HETEROSEXUAL LATINO MEN IN THE MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Omar; Roth, Alexis M.; Kelle, Guadalupe; Downs, Mario; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, the midwestern United States has witnessed a dramatic increase in its Latino population. The lack of culturally and linguistically congruent resources coupled with high incidence and prevalence rates of HIV among Latinos living in the Midwest merits attention. HoMBReS: Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables (Men Maintaining Wellbeing and Healthy Relationships) is a community-level social network intervention designed for Latino men. We describe the adaptation and implementation of HoMBReS for Latino men living in Indianapolis, Indiana, the second largest city in the Midwest. Five Navegantes (lay health educators) were trained; they provided a total of 34 educational charlas (small group didactic sessions). A total of 270 Latino men attended the charlas and were offered no-cost screening for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI). Three participants tested HIV positive and 15 screened positive for STI. The charlas coupled with the testing initiative, served as a successful method to increase sexual health knowledge among Latino men and to link newly-diagnosed HIV/STI-positive individuals to treatment and care. The adaptation and implementation of HoMBReS respond to the CDC and NIH call to increase HIV testing and service provision among vulnerable populations. PMID:24450279

  15. "I Don't Shag Dirty Girls": Marginalized Masculinities and the Use of Partner Selection as a Sexual Health Risk Reduction Strategy in Heterosexual Young Men.

    PubMed

    Limmer, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Understanding and addressing the sexual risk taking of young men remains a key research, policy, and practice concern in attempts to improve the emotional and physical sexual health of young men and their sexual partners. This article explores one of the ways in which young men attempt to mitigate sexual risk through the assigning of labels to particular young women and using these as a basis for their decisions in relation to sexual activity, contraception, and condom use. The article uses the lens of hegemonic masculinities theory to increase understanding of the role played by the construction and performance of marginalized masculinities and how these in turn are influenced by social exclusionary processes. The article draws on focus group and interview data from 46 young men aged 15 to 17 years living in the northwest of England, purposively selected on the basis of the prevailing policy definitions of social inclusion and exclusion. The article describes a form of marginalized masculinity pertaining to socially excluded young men, which as a result of limited access to other tenets of hegemonic masculinity, is disproportionately reliant on sexual expertise and voracity alongside overt demonstrations of their superiority over women. It is in this context that young women are assigned the labels of "dirty" or "clean" on the basis of a selection of arbitrary judgments relating to dress, demeanor, area of residence, and perceived sexual activities. The motivations of the young men, the impact on young women, and the policy and practice implications are all discussed.

  16. Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms Among People Living with HIV and Childhood Sexual Abuse: The Role of Shame and Posttraumatic Growth.

    PubMed

    Willie, Tiara C; Overstreet, Nicole M; Peasant, Courtney; Kershaw, Trace; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Hansen, Nathan B

    2016-08-01

    There is a critical need to examine protective and risk factors of anxiety and depressive symptoms among people living with HIV in order to improve quality of life. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the associations between HIV-related shame, sexual abuse-related shame, posttraumatic growth, and anxiety and depressive symptoms among a cohort of 225 heterosexual women and men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Higher sexual abuse-related shame was related to more anxiety and depressive symptoms for heterosexual women. Higher posttraumatic growth predicted less anxiety symptoms for only heterosexual women. Higher posttraumatic growth predicted less depressive symptoms for heterosexual women and MSM, but the magnitude of this effect was stronger for heterosexual women than MSM. Psychosocial interventions may need to be tailored to meet the specific needs of heterosexual women and MSM living with HIV and CSA.

  17. The Healthy Living Project: An Individually Tailored, Multidimensional Intervention for HIV-Infected Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Weinhardt, Lance S.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Kirshenbaum, Sheri B.; Johnson, Mallory O.; Chesney, Margaret A.; Catz, Sheryl L.; Ehrhardt, Anke A.; Remien, Robert H.; Morin, Stephen F.

    2005-01-01

    The NIMH Healthy Living Project (HLP), a randomized behavioral intervention trial for people living with HIV, enrolled 943 individuals, including women, heterosexual men, injection drug users, and men who have sex with men from Los Angeles, Milwaukee, New York, and San Francisco. The intervention, which is based on qualitative formative research…

  18. African female sexuality and the heterosexual form.

    PubMed

    Mcfadden, P

    1994-03-01

    All women find sexuality problematical, especially women living in countries that were colonized or colonized others. The stereotype of repressed sexuality in Victorian England found its antithesis in the stereotype of promiscuous African sexuality which had to be "civilized" and controlled through religion and repression. Colonizing nations have seen the discourse on sexuality move from the private to the public domain, while Africa maintains its silence on the subject. Sexuality is a difficult topic because it embraces the most intimate and individual of our human emotions, thus, it is difficult even to voice sexual preferences to a lifetime partner. In addition, especially in Africa, sexuality is a very gender-specific social construct. Africans foster heterosexuality through socialization from early childhood and discourage any sign of sexual stimulation in their children. After teaching that humans are "naturally" heterosexual, Africans teach their children that marriage is essential for the moral uprightness of society, although most Africans are, in fact, raised in many types of alternative families. Critique of the heterosexual form is literally nonexistent in African feminist genre because African sexuality is really male sexuality. When people assert that an African culture exists, they really mean that patriarchal constructs about maleness and femaleness pervade the continent. Women are not expected to experience sexual satisfaction, and, indeed, the practice of female genital mutilation assures that they will never experience sexual pleasure. This practice assures that female sexuality exists only through men. It represents a misogynist point of view about the female body and is equally repulsive whether it takes the form of "excision" of a part of the clitoris or removal of all of the external genitalia. This practice controls female sexuality by depriving women of the opportunity to masturbate or to engage in homosexual relations. The resulting option

  19. Integrated Strategies for Combination HIV Prevention: Principles and examples for men who have sex with men in the Americas and heterosexual African populations

    PubMed Central

    Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M.; Hughes, James P.; Barnabas, Ruanne; Liu, Albert; Van Rooyen, Heidi; Buchbinder, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Combination HIV prevention is a high priority for increasing the impact of partially efficacious HIV prevention interventions for specific populations and settings. Developing the package requires critical review of local epidemiology of HIV infection regarding populations most impacted and most at risk, drivers of HIV infection, and available interventions to address these risk factors. Interventions should be considered in terms of the evidence basis for efficacy, potential synergies, feasibility of delivery at scale, which is important in order to achieve high coverage and impact, coupled with high acceptability to populations, which will impact uptake, adherence, and retention. Evaluation requires process measures of uptake, adherence, retention, and outcome measures of reduction in HIV infectiousness and acquisition. Three examples of combination prevention concepts are summarized for men who have sex with men (MSM) in the Americas, young women in sub-Saharan Africa, and HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. PMID:23764638

  20. Integrated strategies for combination HIV prevention: principles and examples for men who have sex with men in the Americas and heterosexual African populations.

    PubMed

    Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M; Hughes, James P; Barnabas, Ruanne; Liu, Albert; Van Rooyen, Heidi; Buchbinder, Susan

    2013-07-01

    Combination HIV prevention is of high priority for increasing the impact of partially efficacious HIV prevention interventions for specific populations and settings. Developing the package requires critical review of local epidemiology of HIV infection regarding most-impacted populations and those at high risk of HIV transmission and acquisition, drivers of HIV infection, and available interventions to address these risk factors. Interventions should be considered in terms of the evidence basis for efficacy, potential synergies, and feasibility of delivery at scale, which is important to achieve high coverage and impact, coupled with high acceptability to populations, which will impact uptake, adherence, and retention. Evaluation requires process measures of uptake, adherence, retention, and outcome measures of reduction in HIV infectiousness and acquisition. Three examples of combination prevention concepts are summarized for men who have sex with men in the Americas, young women in sub-Saharan Africa, and HIV serodiscordant couples.

  1. Effect of facial self-resemblance on the startle response and subjective ratings of erotic stimuli in heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Deuter, Christian E; Kuehl, Linn K; Schulz, Andre; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2011-10-01

    Cues of kinship are predicted to increase prosocial behavior due to the benefits of inclusive fitness, but to decrease approach motivation due to the potential costs of inbreeding. Previous studies have shown that facial resemblance, a putative cue of kinship, increases prosocial behavior. However, the effects of facial resemblance on mating preferences are equivocal, with some studies finding that facial resemblance decreases sexual attractiveness ratings, while other studies show that individuals choose mates partly on the basis of similarity. To further investigate this issue, a psychophysiological measure of affective processing, the startle response, was used in this study, assuming that differences in approach motivation to erotic pictures will modulate startle. Male volunteers (n = 30) viewed 30 pictures of erotic female nudes while startle eyeblink responses were elicited by acoustic noise probes. The female nude pictures were digitally altered so that the face either resembled the male participant or another participant, or were not altered. Non-nude neutral pictures were also included. Importantly, the digital alteration was undetected by the participants. Erotic pictures were rated as being pleasant and clearly reduced startle eyeblink magnitude as compared to neutral pictures. Participants showed greater startle inhibition to self-resembling than to other-resembling or non-manipulated female nude pictures, but subjective pleasure and arousal ratings did not differ among the three erotic picture categories. Our data suggest that visual facial resemblance of opposite-sex nudes increases approach motivation in men, and that this effect was not due to their conscious evaluation of the erotic stimuli. PMID:20814814

  2. Outcome Expectancy and Sexual Compulsivity Among Men Who Have Sex with Men Living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Brown, Monique J; Serovich, Julianne M; Kimberly, Judy A

    2016-08-01

    Sexual compulsivity is operationalized by engaging in repetitive sexual acts, having multiple sexual partners and/or the excessive use of pornography. Outcome expectancy refers to the beliefs about the consequences of engaging in a given behavior. Research examining the relationship between outcome expectancy and sexual compulsivity is limited. The aim of this study was to assess the association between outcome expectancy and sexual compulsivity among men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV. Data were obtained from 338 MSM. Simple and multiple linear regression models were used to assess the association between outcome expectancy and sexual compulsivity. After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, and employment status, for every one point increase in outcome expectancies for condom use, HIV disclosure and negotiation of safer sex practices, there was, on average, an approximate one point decrease in sexual compulsivity score. Prevention and intervention programs geared towards reducing sexual compulsivity among MSM should focus on increasing outcome expectancies for condom use, HIV disclosure and negotiation of safer sex practices. PMID:26979416

  3. Minority stress in the lives of men who have sex with men in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    McAdams-Mahmoud, Ayesha; Stephenson, Rob; Rentsch, Christopher; Cooper, Hannah; Arriola, Kimberly Jacob; Jobson, Geoffrey; de Swardt, Glenn; Struthers, Helen; McIntyre, James

    2014-01-01

    The mental health outcomes of men who have sex with men (MSM) living in sub-Saharan Africa are understudied, despite evidence that discrimination and stigma are widespread. This article examines the occurrence and mental health effects of minority stress in a sample of diverse South African MSM. Twenty-two MSM living in Cape Town took part in exploratory qualitative in-depth interviews and completed mental health questionnaires. Results indicate that the majority of participants experienced minority stress, which affected their sexual relationships and coping strategies. Concealment behaviors and perceived discrimination levels were high and were associated with race, religion, SES, and geographical location.

  4. Detection of sexual orientation ("gaydar") by homosexual and heterosexual women.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Minna; Lynch, Aoife; Brewer, Gayle; Bruno, Davide

    2014-02-01

    Although there has been considerable research investigating the ability to identify sexual orientation from static images, or "gaydar," few studies have considered the role of female sexual orientation or sexual interest (for example, sociosexual orientation) in judgment accuracy. In two studies, we investigated the sexuality detection ability, and masculinity and femininity as cues used in judgment. In Study 1, we recruited heterosexual (N = 55) and homosexual (N = 71) women to rate the sexual orientation of homosexual and heterosexual male and female targets (N = 80: 20 heterosexual men, 20 homosexual men, 20 heterosexual women, and 20 homosexual women). We found that detection accuracy was better than chance levels for both male and female targets and that male targets were more likely to be falsely labeled as homosexual than female targets were. Overall, female faces were more accurately identified as heterosexual or homosexual than male faces and homosexual female raters were biased towards labeling targets as homosexual. Sociosexuality did not influence the accuracy with which targets were identified as heterosexual or homosexual. In Study 2, 100 heterosexual and 20 homosexual women rated the stimulus for masculinity and femininity. Heterosexual women were rated as more feminine and less masculine than homosexual women and homosexual men were rated as more feminine and less masculine than heterosexual men. Sexual orientation of the judges did not affect the ratings. The results were discussed with a reference to evolutionary and cultural influences affecting sexual orientation judgment accuracy.

  5. The role of the Black Church in the lives of young Black men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Kelly, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    In the USA, the Black Church is among the most important institutions in the Black community, offering numerous spiritual, social and health benefits. Yet, the presence of homonegativity in many Black Churches may mitigate those effects for gay Black youth. This research examines the role of the Church in the lives of gay and bisexual Black youth to understand how they reconcile any tension between their religious and sexual identities. Through interviews with pastors of Black churches (n = 21) and young Black men who have sex with men (n = 30), we explored homonegativity and young men's experiences within the Black Church. Findings reveal that despite the prevalence of homonegativity within Black churches, religious involvement remains important for young men and many remain involved in non-affirming churches. The importance of the Church for young men stems from their significant involvement as youth and the integration of religion, family and community. Young men may not be able to leave their religious homes as readily as other gay youth given the cultural relevance of the Church. As a result, young men made attempts to conceal their sexuality in church to avoid shame and gossip and find opportunities to balance their sexuality and religiosity.

  6. The role of the Black Church in the lives of young Black men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Kelly, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    In the USA, the Black Church is among the most important institutions in the Black community, offering numerous spiritual, social and health benefits. Yet, the presence of homonegativity in many Black Churches may mitigate those effects for gay Black youth. This research examines the role of the Church in the lives of gay and bisexual Black youth to understand how they reconcile any tension between their religious and sexual identities. Through interviews with pastors of Black churches (n = 21) and young Black men who have sex with men (n = 30), we explored homonegativity and young men's experiences within the Black Church. Findings reveal that despite the prevalence of homonegativity within Black churches, religious involvement remains important for young men and many remain involved in non-affirming churches. The importance of the Church for young men stems from their significant involvement as youth and the integration of religion, family and community. Young men may not be able to leave their religious homes as readily as other gay youth given the cultural relevance of the Church. As a result, young men made attempts to conceal their sexuality in church to avoid shame and gossip and find opportunities to balance their sexuality and religiosity. PMID:26489851

  7. An Examination of the Lived Experiences of Successful African American Men Attending a Historically Black University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Clark R.

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological research explored the lived experiences of successful African American men attending a Historically Black College and University (HBCU) in the Midwest. The guiding questions for the study were (a) What positive characteristics do successful African American men demonstrate at HBCUs that offset major problems, concerns, and…

  8. 'It's my inner strength': spirituality, religion and HIV in the lives of young African American men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Foster, Michael L; Arnold, Emily; Rebchook, Gregory; Kegeles, Susan M

    2011-10-01

    Young black men who have sex with men account for 48% of 13-29-year-old HIV-positive men who have sex with men in the USA. It is important to develop an effective HIV prevention approach that is grounded in the context of young men's lives. Towards this goal, we conducted 31 interviews with 18-30-year-old men who have sex with men in the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Area. This paper examines the roles of religion and spirituality in men who have sex with men's lives, which is central in the lives of many African Americans. Six prominent themes emerged: (1) childhood participation in formal religious institutions, (2) the continued importance of spirituality among men who have sex with men, (3) homophobia and stigmatisation in traditional black churches, (4) tension between being a man who has sex with men and being a Christian, (5) religion and spirituality's impact on men's sense of personal empowerment and coping abilities and (6) treatment of others and building compassion. Findings suggest that integrating spiritual practice into HIV prevention may help programmes be more culturally grounded, thereby attracting more men and resonating with their experiences and values. In addition, faith-based HIV/AIDS ministries that support HIV-positive men who have sex with men may be particularly helpful. Finally, targeting pastors and other church leaders through anti-stigma curricula is crucial.

  9. Living Apart Together” relationships in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Strohm, Charles Q.; Seltzer, Judith A.; Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.

    2009-01-01

    We use two surveys to describe the demographic and attitudinal correlates of being in “Living Apart Together” (LAT), cohabiting, and marital relationships for heterosexuals, lesbians, and gay men. About one third of U.S. adults not married or cohabiting are in LAT relationships – these individuals would be classified as “single” in conventional studies that focus on co-residential unions. Gay men are somewhat more likely than heterosexual men to be in LAT relationships. For heterosexuals and lesbians, LAT relationships are more common among younger people. Heterosexuals in LAT unions are less likely to expect to marry their partners, but more likely to say that couples should be emotionally dependent than are cohabiters. Regardless of sexual orientation, people in LAT relationships perceive similar amounts of emotional support from partners, but less instrumental support than cohabiters perceive. PMID:21566723

  10. Heterosexual experience, marital status, and orientation of homosexual males.

    PubMed

    McConaghy, N

    1978-11-01

    The penile volume responses of homosexual males to pictures of nude women and men were measured and related to the subjects' marital status and experience of heterosexual intercourse. Single subjects with no experience of heterosexual intercourse and married subjects with a history of intercourse with only their wives showed significantly greater response to pictures of men compared to pictures of women than did single subjects with experience of heterosexual intercourse and married subjects with experience of intercourse with women additional to their wives. It was concluded that extensive experience of heterosexual intercourse with one partner did not reduce homosexual responsiveness as measured by subjects' penile response to pictures of nude men and women. It was further concluded that some homosexual males showed physiological evidence of a degree of bisexuality in addition to the behavioral evidence that they sought heterosexual physical relationships.

  11. The Sexual Lives of Men with Mild Learning Disability: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yacoub, Evan; Hall, Ian

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to explore in detail the sexual lives and behaviour of men with mild learning disabilities living both in community and in secure hospital settings. We wanted to generate hypotheses about them and identify potential unmet needs. We used a narrative interview that focused on areas such as relationships, sex education, contraception and the…

  12. Exploring Living-Learning Communities as a Venue for Men's Identity Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessup-Anger, Jody E.; Johnson, Brianne N.; Wawrzynski, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored how male undergraduate students experienced living-learning community environments. Findings revealed that living-learning communities provided men a "safe haven" from rigid gender role expectations, offered a plethora of involvement opportunities, and fostered relationships with faculty and peers. The findings…

  13. Isolated pharyngeal Neisseria gonorrhoeae in heterosexual male contacts.

    PubMed

    Thomson-Glover, Rebecca; Brown, Ruth; Edirisinghe, Damitha N

    2013-12-01

    Pharyngeal infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) in heterosexual men is thought to be of low prevalence and the value of routinely testing this group of patients is uncertain. We present two cases of NG, isolated only in the pharynx, in asymptomatic heterosexual male contacts. The presence of pharyngeal NG was found irrespective of direct oropharyngeal sexual exposure.

  14. The Differentiation of Intrafamilial and Extrafamilial Heterosexual Child Molesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barsetti, Ian; Earls, Christopher M.; Lalumiere, Martin L.; Belanger, Nathalie

    1998-01-01

    Compares the sexual interests of intrafamilial heterosexual child molesters (n=20) and heterosexual nonoffender men (n=18). Stimuli consisted of audiotapes describing various types of sexual contact with adults and children. Nonoffenders preferred adult stimuli while intrafamilial and extrafamilial offenders did not discriminate between the adult…

  15. A Qualitative Examination of Heterosexual Consciousness among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, John A.; Cole, Jennifer C.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how heterosexual college students understand and make meaning of their life experiences and how they incorporate those into their sexual orientation consciousness. We interviewed 14 undergraduate and graduate self-identified heterosexual students, ten women and four men, ranging in age from 20 to 24.…

  16. Education and MMPI Mf Scores in Homosexual and Heterosexual Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manosevitz, Martin

    1971-01-01

    The relationship between MMPI Mf, Hsx, and education was investigated, using heterosexual and homosexual men. Mf was a better discriminator between the homosexual and heterosexual groups than Hsx, and it was less contaminated by educational bias. The relationship between educational level and Mf appears to be more complex than generally assumed.…

  17. Heterosexual attitudes toward same-sex marriage.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, David A; Rieger, Gerulf; Roloff, Michael E

    2010-01-01

    Negative attitudes of heterosexual people toward same-sex marriage relate to the degree to which they are homophobic. However, it has been understudied whether there exists a gender difference in this association. Our results indicated that homophobia was the best predictor of attitudes toward gay male and lesbian marriage, and this was equally true for both heterosexual men and women. However, the attitudinal difference between gay male and lesbian marriage was related to homophobia in men but not in women. That is, for men only, being less homophobic toward lesbians than toward gay men was associated with favoring lesbian over gay men marriage. Considering these results, the role of gender in attitudes toward same-sex marriage seems to be as an important moderator of homophobia.

  18. Men living with long-term conditions: exploring gender and improving social care.

    PubMed

    Abbott, David; Jepson, Marcus; Hastie, Jon

    2016-07-01

    Disabled men have traditionally been seen as incomplete men or as entirely gender-less. Research which has looked at the intersection of disability and male gender has largely treated disabled men as a homogeneous group with little reference to, for example, impairment-related differences. The ongoing move towards self-directed, personalised social care in England suggests that support needs relating to gender may be taken more seriously. A qualitative study with 20 men with Duchenne muscular dystrophy in England in 2013 explored the men's experiences of the organisation and delivery of social care as it pertained to their sense of being men. Our main finding was that social care in its broadest sense did little to support a positive sense of masculinity or male gender. More often than not the organisation and delivery of social care people de-gendered or emasculated many of the men who took part in the study. Our paper speaks to the need to explore impairment-specific issues for disabled men; to deliver a more person-centred approach to social care which recognises the importance of the social and sexual lives of disabled men; and to create ways in which men can support and empower each other to assert essential human rights relating to independence, dignity and liberty.

  19. Health-related characteristics of men who have sex with men: a comparison of those living in "gay ghettos" with those living elsewhere.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, T C; Stall, R; Pollack, L; Paul, J P; Binson, D; Canchola, J; Catania, J A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the limitations of probability samples of men who have sex with men (MSM), limited to single cities and to the areas of highest concentrations of MSM ("gay ghettos"). METHODS: A probability sample of 2881 MSM in 4 American cities completed interviews by telephone. RESULTS: MSM who resided in ghettos differed from other MSM, although in different ways in each city. Non-ghetto-dwelling MSM were less involved in the gay and lesbian community. They were also less likely to have only male sexual partners, to identify as gay, and to have been tested for HIV. CONCLUSIONS: These differences between MSM who live in gay ghettos and those who live elsewhere have clear implications for HIV prevention efforts and health care planning. PMID:11392945

  20. Family and community influences on the social and sexual lives of Latino gay men.

    PubMed

    Guarnero, Peter A

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of family and community on the social and sexual lives of a group of Latino gay men living in a metropolitan area. A secondary analysis of four focus groups with 28 Latino gay men was conducted. Families had a difficult time acknowledging and supporting participants' homosexuality. Participants experienced racism, discrimination, and physical and verbal abuse as a result of their ethnicity and homosexuality. These negative effects contributed to their marginalization and made them vulnerable to depression and suicide. Health care professionals should be aware of the effect of family and culture on the social and sexual lives of Latino gay men so that they can intervene and direct the client to the services needed to manage depression, suicidal ideation, and high-risk sexual behavior.

  1. Conceptions of privacy and the non-disclosure of same-sex behaviour by behaviourally-bisexual men in heterosexual relationships.

    PubMed

    Schrimshaw, Eric W; Downing, Martin J; Cohn, Daniel J; Siegel, Karolynn

    2014-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to why some behaviourally-bisexual men (i.e., men who have sex with both men and women) choose not to disclose their same-sex behaviour. Using Communication Privacy Management (CPM) theory, we report on the ways these men conceptualise their same-sex behaviour as private, and thus feel justified in not disclosing it to family, friends and female partners. In-depth interviews were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of 203 non-disclosing behaviourally-bisexual men in New York City. The men offered a number of privacy rules to justify their non-disclosure, including: (1) their same-sex behaviours were their own business and nobody else's, (2) others had no reason to know, (3) the topic of sexual behaviour was too personal, (4) they were private people in general and (5) it was inappropriate to discuss same-sex behaviour in many contexts. Some privacy rules were used more often to justify non-disclosure to friends and family than to female partners. These findings provide insights into the reasons for non-disclosure among behaviourally-bisexual men, offer support for and extend CPM theory for the management of sexual information and offer insights into the importance of privacy for the design and delivery of health-promotion services for this population.

  2. Can women 'refuse' condoms? Dilemmas of condom negotiation among men living with HIV in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mfecane, Sakhumzi

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes challenges that men living with HIV experience in negotiating condom use with sexual partners. After testing HIV-positive, the men in this study attended support groups of people living with HIV. Here they were taught to behave 'responsibly' by adopting safer sex measures. However, some men faced strong resistance from women concerning condom use, particularly from women with whom they had been sexually involved prior to testing HIV-positive. This paper explores the reasoning behind the rejection of condoms by women, focusing specifically on the nature of relationships, disclosure of HIV status and gender power dynamics. Analysis of the findings, which are taken from an ethnographic study conducted over 14 months, indicates that efforts to initiate condom use allowed women to challenge men's authority in sexual affairs and assert their own (limited) agency - albeit by demanding unprotected sex. However, women's rejection of condoms occurred in a knowledge vacuum about their own HIV risk because male partners had failed to disclose their HIV status prior to initiating condoms. Interventions need to encourage men to disclose their HIV status before they initiate condom use with their sexual partners. Furthermore men need to encourage their partners to be open about their sexual needs.

  3. Body Beautiful, Beautiful Body: The Curricular Encounters of Gay Men Living with HIV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malewski, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Through this article the author extends the study of the curricular body and mothering curriculum initiated by Stephanie Springgay and Deborah Freedman with a study into the embodied experiences of gay men living with HIV. In the first section, the author focuses on difference as embodiment before and after HIV in order to craft analytic frames of…

  4. Addressing Health Disparities among Men: Demographic, Behavioral and Clinical Characteristics of Men who have Sex with Men Living in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Colón-López, Vivian; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Rodríguez-Díaz, Carlos; Suárez, Erick L.; Pérez, Cynthia M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical characteristics associated with HIV among Men who have sex with Men (MSM) and men who have sex with women (MSW) in Puerto Rico. Data from a population-based cross-sectional study in PR (2005–2008) was analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study sample and bivariate analyses were performed to identify differences of sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical characteristics between MSM and MSW. Exact logistic regression models adjusting for age were constructed for each risk behavior associated to MSM in bivariate analysis. Of the 674 men interviewed, 6.1% (n=41) reported ever having sex with men. Age-adjusted logistic regression models indicated that MSM were significantly more likely than MSW to have first sexual intercourse before the age of 15 (POR=2.6; 95%CI= 1.3, 5.3) and have at least 10 lifetime sex partners (POR=2.8; 95%CI= 1.4,5.9). Also, MSM were significantly more likely to report lifetime use of marihuana (POR=2.7; 95%CI= 1.3,5.8), cocaine (POR=2.5; 95%CI= 1.2,5.0), amphetamines (POR=3.8; 95%CI= 1.4,9.2) and sedatives or tranquilizers (POR=3.3; 95%CI= 1.4,7.2). Also, MSM were 13 times more likely to be HIV seropositive as compared to MSW (POR=13.3; 95%CI=1.7,102.0). In this population-based sample of men living in Puerto Rico, self-reported same-sex behavior is strongly associated with HIV, and other behavioral factors associated with HIV. Future targeted research is still necessary for the development of intervention programs among MSM in Puerto Rico. PMID:24288521

  5. Determinants of family planning use among Turkish married men who live in South East Turkey.

    PubMed

    Zeyneloğlu, Simge; Kısa, Sezer Kısa; DelibaŞ, Leyla

    2013-05-01

    This study assesses the determinants of family planning methods use by Turkish married men in South East Anatolia. A descriptive and cross-sectional survey research design was used among 1,352 men aged 20 to 52 years who lived in South East Turkey. A pilot-tested questionnaire was used to collect data. Descriptive statistics, chi-square, and multivariate regression analysis were used. The rate of nonusage of contraceptive methods among the participants was 60.4%. Within the nonusers, 34.9% reported a religious prohibition and 9.4% had misconceptions about family planning. Chi-square analysis determined four factors that were significantly related to the men's usage of contraception. These factors are the following: the men's age, educational level, number of existing children, and their perception of their household income level. These four factors were also subjected to multivariate regression analysis, the results of which were used to compute odds ratios for each value of each factor indicating the likelihood for using contraception by men within each group. Male-specific family planning programs can make an important contribution to the overall efforts to improve the usage of contraceptives by men. It is important to note that family planning services and education programs related to family planning should be appropriate for men.

  6. The Relationship between Alcohol and Individual Differences Variables on Attitudes and Behavioral Skills Relevant To Sexual Health among Heterosexual Young Adult Men

    PubMed Central

    Maisto, Stephen A.; Carey, Michael P.; Carey, Kate B.; Gordon, Christopher M.; Schum, Jennifer L.; Lynch, Kevin G.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the effects of alcohol, alcohol sex expectancies, and sexual sensation seeking on determinants of sexual health behavior according to the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model. The participants were 48 heterosexual young adult males who attended two laboratory sessions. During Session 1, participants completed a set of screening and individual differences measures, and during Session 2 they were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 beverage conditions: control, alcohol (.65 g alcohol/kg body weight), or placebo. Following the experimental manipulation, all participants completed measures regarding attitudes toward condom use, intention to engage in risky sex, and condom use negotiation skills. The results showed that participants who consumed alcohol had poorer negotiation skills and greater intention to engage in risky sex compared to participants who did not drink alcohol. Although alcohol did not affect any dimension of attitude regarding condom use, attitude about condoms’ effects on sex, as well as sexual sensation seeking, were correlated with both intention ratings and skills. Multiple regression models including both attitudes and sensation seeking showed that attitudes accounted for 20% – 25% of variance independent of beverage condition in predicting intention ratings and skills. The findings are consistent with past research showing that alcohol consumption can have detrimental effects on determinants of sexual health behavior and that individual differences factors can enhance the power of models like the IMB to predict such behavior. PMID:15483371

  7. Identity, Physical Space, and Stigma Among African American Men Living with HIV in Chicago and Seattle.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Judith L; Raunig, Manuela; Brunsteter, Halley; Desmond, Michelle; Rao, Deepa

    2015-12-01

    African American men have the highest rates of HIV in the USA, and research has shown that stigma, mistrust of health care, and other psychosocial factors interfere with optimal engagement in care with this population. In order to further understand reducing stigma and other psychosocial issues among African American men, we conducted qualitative interviews and focus groups with African American men in two metropolitan areas in the USA: Chicago and Seattle. We examined transcripts for relationships across variables of stigma, anonymity, self-identity, and space within the context of HIV. Our analysis pointed to similarities between experiences of stigma across the two cities and illustrated the relationships between space, isolation, and preferred anonymity related to living with HIV. The men in our study often preferred that their HIV-linked identities remain invisible and anonymous, associated with perceived and created isolation from physical community spaces. This article suggests that our health care and housing institutions may influence preferences for anonymity. We make recommendations in key areas to create safer spaces for African American men living with HIV and reduce feelings of stigma and isolation.

  8. Identity, Physical Space, and Stigma Among African American Men Living with HIV in Chicago and Seattle.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Judith L; Raunig, Manuela; Brunsteter, Halley; Desmond, Michelle; Rao, Deepa

    2015-12-01

    African American men have the highest rates of HIV in the USA, and research has shown that stigma, mistrust of health care, and other psychosocial factors interfere with optimal engagement in care with this population. In order to further understand reducing stigma and other psychosocial issues among African American men, we conducted qualitative interviews and focus groups with African American men in two metropolitan areas in the USA: Chicago and Seattle. We examined transcripts for relationships across variables of stigma, anonymity, self-identity, and space within the context of HIV. Our analysis pointed to similarities between experiences of stigma across the two cities and illustrated the relationships between space, isolation, and preferred anonymity related to living with HIV. The men in our study often preferred that their HIV-linked identities remain invisible and anonymous, associated with perceived and created isolation from physical community spaces. This article suggests that our health care and housing institutions may influence preferences for anonymity. We make recommendations in key areas to create safer spaces for African American men living with HIV and reduce feelings of stigma and isolation. PMID:26863561

  9. Attitudes toward lesbians, gay men, bisexual women, and bisexual men in Germany.

    PubMed

    Steffens, Melanie C; Wagner, Christof

    2004-05-01

    Attitudes toward lesbians, gay men, bisexual women, and bisexual men were assessed in a national representative sample of 2,006 self-identified heterosexual women and men living in Germany. Replicating previous findings, younger people held more favorable attitudes than older people; women held more favorable attitudes than men; and men held more favorable attitudes toward female than male homosexuality, whereas women did not differentiate. However, women held more favorable attitudes toward homosexuals than toward bisexuals, whereas men did not differentiate. Knowing a homosexual person was an important predictor of attitudes, as was political party preference. Both same-sex and opposite-sex sexual attraction were substantially related with attitudes. Our findings support the notion that attitudes toward lesbians, gay men, bisexual women, and bisexual men are related but distinct constructs. PMID:15326539

  10. AIDS heterosexual predominance in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Garris, I; Rodriguez, E M; De Moya, E A; Guerrero, E; Peña, C; Puello, E; Gomez, E; Monterroso, E R; Weissenbacher, M; Vermund, S H

    1991-01-01

    AIDS surveillance data from the Dominican Republic are described for 1983-89. A positive serologic test for HIV was required, and standard clinical criteria were used for defining AIDS. There were 1,202 AIDS cases (820 men, 372 women, 10 of unknown gender) reported to the Ministry of Health, for a cumulative case rate of 17 per 100,000 persons. Rapid growth of the epidemic is noted, with 43% of the total cases reported in 1989. Heterosexual exposure accounts for 53% (593) of all cases, with a male-to-female ratio of 2.2:1, resembling a World Health Organization Pattern I/II country. Prevalence is highest in and surrounding the urbanized tourist areas of Santo Domingo and Puerto Plata and in districts with a high concentration of sugar plantation barracks, where laborers from Haiti and the Dominican Republic work and live. The distribution of AIDS cases is described by transmission exposure category, age, sex, year of diagnosis, and district. The National AIDS Surveillance Program can be improved by validation of exposure transmission categories through selected case investigation and by better reporting through training of health care providers. Surveillance data will assist in targeting future public health efforts to regions and persons at highest risk.

  11. Predictors of HIV testing among men who have sex with men: a focus on men living outside major urban centres in Canada.

    PubMed

    Holtzman, Susan; Landis, Lisa; Walsh, Zachary; Puterman, Eli; Roberts, Daryle; Saya-Moore, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) represent almost half of new HIV infections in Canada each year. However, the vast majority of research on HIV testing among MSM has been conducted in major urban centres. The present study addressed this gap by investigating HIV testing behaviour and predictors of HIV testing among MSM living outside major urban centres, in the Interior of British Columbia. An anonymous online survey of 153 MSM assessed HIV testing behaviour and psychosocial factors that may impact HIV testing (internalized homophobia, disclosure to healthcare providers (HCPs) of same sex attraction, and gay community involvement). Almost one-quarter (24%) had never been tested and over one-third (35%) had not disclosed same sex attraction to HCPs. Internalized homophobia was associated with a lower likelihood of HIV testing, and this relationship was partially explained by the fact that those high in internalized homophobia were less likely to disclose same sex attraction to their HCPs. Neither formal nor informal involvement in the gay community was related to HIV testing, and both types of involvement were relatively low in our sample. Further research is needed to better understand the distinctive health issues facing MSM living outside major urban centres. PMID:27043184

  12. Predictors of HIV testing among men who have sex with men: a focus on men living outside major urban centres in Canada.

    PubMed

    Holtzman, Susan; Landis, Lisa; Walsh, Zachary; Puterman, Eli; Roberts, Daryle; Saya-Moore, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) represent almost half of new HIV infections in Canada each year. However, the vast majority of research on HIV testing among MSM has been conducted in major urban centres. The present study addressed this gap by investigating HIV testing behaviour and predictors of HIV testing among MSM living outside major urban centres, in the Interior of British Columbia. An anonymous online survey of 153 MSM assessed HIV testing behaviour and psychosocial factors that may impact HIV testing (internalized homophobia, disclosure to healthcare providers (HCPs) of same sex attraction, and gay community involvement). Almost one-quarter (24%) had never been tested and over one-third (35%) had not disclosed same sex attraction to HCPs. Internalized homophobia was associated with a lower likelihood of HIV testing, and this relationship was partially explained by the fact that those high in internalized homophobia were less likely to disclose same sex attraction to their HCPs. Neither formal nor informal involvement in the gay community was related to HIV testing, and both types of involvement were relatively low in our sample. Further research is needed to better understand the distinctive health issues facing MSM living outside major urban centres.

  13. Body Image Disturbance and Health Behaviors among Sexual Minority Men Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Blashill, Aaron J.; Goshe, Brett M.; Robbins, Gregory K.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Safren, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Body image disturbance is a common experience for sexual minority men living with HIV, and is associated with poor self-care behaviors. However, to date, no known cohesive theoretical model has been advanced to understand the possible antecedents and outcomes of body image disturbance in this population. Thus, the goal of the current study was to test a biopsychosocial model of body image and self-care behaviors among sexual minority men living with HIV. Methods Participants were 106 gay and bisexual men living with HIV who completed a battery of self-report measures including assessment of body image disturbance, depression, lipodystrophy, appearance orientation, condom use self-efficacy, antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, and HIV sexual transmission risk behaviors. Bayesian estimation was employed to assess model fit and direct and indirect pathways within the model. Results The data fit the model well, with all theorized pathways being significant. Lipodystrophy severity and appearance orientation were associated with elevated body image disturbance. In turn, body image disturbance was related to poorer ART adherence and increased HIV sexual transmission risk behaviors, through the mechanisms of elevated depressive symptoms and poor condom use self-efficacy. Conclusions Elevated body image disturbance among sexual minority men living with HIV is associated with important biopsychosocial variables, which in turn are related to poorer ART adherence and increased HIV sexual transmission risk behaviors. Integrative psychosocial interventions addressing co-occurring body image disturbance, depression, and HIV self-care behaviors may be a fruitful area of future clinical practice and research. PMID:24977311

  14. What social workers can do about violence: learnings from the lives of 37 men.

    PubMed

    Van Soest, Dorothy

    2004-01-01

    Descriptive results of a study of the lives of 37 men who were executed for capital murder reveal the complex and multi-varied problem of violence at individual, institutional, and societal levels. The role of social workers is discussed in relation to prevention of violent crime rather than focusing on punishment. The study provides support for an anti-death penalty policy stance by the social work profession.

  15. Perceived social support in the lives of gay, bisexual and queer Hispanic college men.

    PubMed

    Rios, Desdamona; Eaton, Asia

    2016-10-01

    In this qualitative study, we examined the sources and nature of social support reported by 24 gay, bisexual and queer Hispanic college men at a small liberal arts college and a large university in the USA. We identified four themes of support across the interviews: Shared experiences (46%), Protector (42%), Support in the air (33%) and Gradual support (29%). Shared experiences included support from those who had previous experience with the lesbian, gay or bisexual community. Protector indicated a type of support that was psychologically, emotionally or physically protective in nature. Participants also reported receiving indirect support such as nonverbal behaviours or indirect gestures of endorsement and caring (support in the air). Participants reported that many of their network members came to support them gradually over time (gradual support). Within each theme we found support from both women and men, who provided support in gender-consistent ways. Our results highlight that despite continued prejudice and discrimination in society, sexual and racial/ethnic minority men have strongholds of support from men and women in their lives that enable them to navigate their development successfully. PMID:26943261

  16. Slowing heterosexual HIV transmission.

    PubMed

    Ronald, A R

    1995-06-01

    HIV-1 is spreading rapidly through heterosexual intercourse in many societies. Slowing the transmission of this virus is the most urgent global public health priority. Our understanding of the biologic differences between societies that account for most vacancies in heterosexual HIV transmission are now understood. Effective interventions to slow transmission must be designed, implemented, and evaluated. Human and fiscal resources must be provided through a shared global effort. The consequences of failing to do so will lead to a world catastrophe of unprecedented magnitude. PMID:7673667

  17. Resilience Processes Demonstrated by Young Gay and Bisexual Men Living with HIV: Implications for Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Douglas; Hosek, Sybil G.; Fernandez, M. Isabel; Rood, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Given the increasing numbers of young gay/bisexual men (YGBM) diagnosed with HIV, it is important to understand the resilience processes enacted by this population in order to develop interventions that support their healthy development. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 54 YGBM (ages 17 to 24; 57% African American, 22% Latino) living with HIV from four geographically diverse clinics in the United States. Resilience processes clustered into four primary thematic areas: (1) engaging in health-promoting cognitive processes; (2) enacting healthy behavioral practices; (3) enlisting social support from others; and (4) empowering other young gay/bisexual men. These data suggest that YGBM living with HIV demonstrate resilience across multiple dimensions, including intrapersonal-level resilience related to individual cognitions and behaviors, as well as interpersonal-level resilience related to seeking support and providing support to others. Implications for the development of culturally-appropriate and strengths-based secondary prevention and other psychosocial interventions for YGBM living with HIV are discussed. PMID:25329778

  18. The MaBwana Black men's study: community and belonging in the lives of African, Caribbean and other Black gay men in Toronto.

    PubMed

    George, Clemon; Adam, Barry A; Read, Stanley E; Husbands, Winston C; Remis, Robert S; Makoroka, Lydia; Rourke, Sean B

    2012-01-01

    In Canada, there is a paucity of research aimed at understanding Black gay men and the antecedents to risk factors for HIV. This study is an attempt to move beyond risk factor analysis and explore the role of sexual and ethnic communities in the lives of these men. The study utilized a community-based research and critical race theory approach. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight key informants to augment our understanding of Black gay men and to facilitate recruitment of participants. In-depth interviews were done with 24 Black gay men. Our data showed that the construction of community for Black gay men is challenged by their social and cultural environment. However, these men use their resilience to navigate gay social networks. Black gay men expressed a sense of abjuration from both gay and Black communities because of homophobia and racism. It is essential for health and social programmers to understand how Black gay men interact with Black and gay communities and the complexities of their interactions in creating outreach educational, preventive and support services.

  19. [Development of the Heterosexual Love Assessment Scale for Alcoholics].

    PubMed

    Sugawarai, Tazuko; Morita, Noriaki; Nakatani, Youji

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a scale for assessing the attributes of the heterosexual love of alcoholics. Using the characteristics and categories related to the heterosexual love of alcoholics found in previous research, we created a "Heterosexual Love Assessment Scale for Alcoholics" and conducted a survey among 110 alcoholics (80 men and 30 women). The following three factors were extracted from the results: "mutual respect", "superficial intimacy", and "fear of being disliked", A high level of reliability was obtained on the scales indicated below (alpha = 63-82), and concurrent validity was confirmed between these and the Adult Attachment Scale (ECR: Experiences in Close Relationships inventory). Further, correlations were found between "mutual respect" and the benefit of heterosexual love in recovery, and between the other two factors and the impediment of heterosexual love, and between the Denial & Awareness Scale (for alcoholic). As this scale can be used to assess the type of heterosexual love of alcoholics, we predict that it will be useful in examining the effects of heterosexual love on recovery and as a tool for offering advice.

  20. Anti-normative lifestyles in cardiac rehabilitation: Underprivileged men's post-heart incident lives.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Alex; Savage, Mathieu; Stuart, Stephen

    2014-09-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are leading causes of premature mortality and disability. Although health institutions have developed and promoted cardiac rehabilitation programs, they have not attained their desired outcomes, especially among the most vulnerable groups of the population. This study qualitatively examines socially and materially deprived men's (n = 20) noncompliance with cardiovascular health guidelines following a medical intervention to the heart. By drawing on Pierre Bourdieu's sociocultural theory of practice, results indicate that precarious living conditions obstruct long-term physical recovery and illness prevention by underemphasizing the value of "health capital" and reducing the capacity to sustain lifestyle change. This study calls into question health policies that have little to no consideration of embodied practical knowledge and lived experiences. PMID:24287298

  1. ‘It’s my inner strength’: Spirituality, religion and HIV in the lives of young African American men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Michael L.; Arnold, Emily; Rebchook, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) account for 48% of 13–29 year old HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA. It is important to develop an effective HIV prevention approach that is grounded in the context of young men’s lives. Towards this goal, we conducted 31 interviews with 18–30 year old YBMSM in the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Area. This paper examines the roles of religion and spirituality in YBMSM’s lives, which is central in the lives of many African Americans. Six prominent themes emerged: (1) childhood participation in formal religious institutions; (2) the continued importance of spirituality among YBMSM; (3) homophobia and stigmatisation in traditional black churches; (4) tension between being an MSM and Christian; (5) religion and spirituality’s impact on men’s sense of personal empowerment and coping abilities; and (6) treatment of others and building compassion. Findings suggest that integrating spiritual practice into HIV prevention may help programmes be more culturally grounded, thereby attracting more men and resonating with their experiences and values. In addition, faith-based HIV/AIDS ministries that support HIV-positive YBMSM may be particularly helpful. Finally, targeting pastors and other church leaders through anti-stigma curricula is crucial. PMID:21824017

  2. Becoming "Undetectable": Longitudinal Narratives of Gay Men's Sex Lives After a Recent HIV Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Grace, Daniel; Chown, Sarah A; Kwag, Michael; Steinberg, Malcolm; Lim, Elgin; Gilbert, Mark

    2015-08-01

    We explore gay men's sex life narratives following their diagnosis with an acute or recent HIV infection. All participants received an acute (n = 13) or recent (n = 12) HIV diagnosis and completed a series of self-administered questionnaires and in-depth qualitative interviews over a one-year period or longer. Over the course of four qualitative interviews, participants frequently spoke of the role of medications (e.g., decisions to start treatment) and changing viral loads (e.g., discourses of becoming "undetectable") in relation to their sex lives since being diagnosed with HIV. Many men talked about milestones relating to initiating medication and viral load as informing their shifting sexual behaviors and identities as HIV-positive--or "undetectable"--gay men. The narratives of our participants provide insight regarding complex negotiations and processes of decision-making over time related to sex, counseling needs, treatment initiation, viral load, and the significance of undetectability as an emergent identity. PMID:26241383

  3. [Coping experiences in the work environment of men living with HIV/AIDS].

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Julyana Gomes; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz; Araujo, Maria Fátima Maciel; Costa, Enia; de Lima, Ivana Cristina Vieira

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the coping mechanisms of men living with HIV/AIDS in terms of their work environment. A qualitative study was carried out at a specialized outpatient clinic in Fortaleza-Ceará between March and June 2010, involving eleven men infected with the virus. Semi-structured and audio-recorded interviews were used. The statements were categorized through content analysis into the following categories: absence from work due to the infection; subterfuges used to hide the disease; disrespect for confidentiality in the work environment; suffering associated with the fear of rejection and prejudice; ways of coping after diagnosis of the disease; and the importance of work for personal accomplishment. In conclusion, men infected with HIV face counterproductive situations in the work environment, mainly evidenced by fear of discovery of the infection and prejudice. Associated with coping, absences for health monitoring purposes interfered with performance at work and increased the risk of losing their job. PMID:22773495

  4. Reports of Parental Maltreatment during Childhood in a United States Population-Based Survey of Homosexual, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corliss, Heather L.; Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined childhood maltreatment among 2917 heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual adults. Homosexual/bisexual men reported higher rates than heterosexual men of childhood emotional and physical maltreatment by their mothers and major physical maltreatment by their fathers. Homosexual/bisexual women reported higher rates of major physical…

  5. Changes in Diversity Course Student Prejudice and Attitudes toward Heterosexual Privilege and Gay Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Kim A.; Stewart, Briana

    2010-01-01

    This study examined diversity course influence on student prejudice against lesbians and gay men, awareness of heterosexual privilege, and support for gay marriage. The study included heterosexual female students in psychology of women, introduction to women's studies, and nondiversity psychology courses. Students in diversity courses expressed…

  6. The Effects of Premarital Heterosexual and Homosexual Experience on Dating and Marriage Desirability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John D.; Jacoby, Arthur P.

    1989-01-01

    Surveyed 365 college students to investigate their attitudes toward the effects of past sexual behavior, both heterosexual and homosexual, on one's acceptability as a dating or marriage partner. Results showed that both men and women prefer partners without previous coital or oral heterosexual experience, and both strongly rejected those with any…

  7. Tobacco, Marijuana Use and Sensation-seeking: Comparisons Across Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Heterosexual Groups

    PubMed Central

    Trocki, Karen F.; Drabble, Laurie A.; Midanik, Lorraine T.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined patterns of smoked substances (cigarettes and marijuana) among heterosexuals, gays, lesbians, and bisexuals based on data from the 2000 National Alcohol Survey (NAS), a population-based telephone survey of adults in the United States. We also examined the effect of bar patronage and sensation-seeking/impulsivity (SSImp) on tobacco and marijuana use. Sexual orientation was defined as: lesbian or gay self-identified, bisexual self-identified, heterosexual self-identified with same-sex partners in the last five years, and exclusively heterosexual (heterosexual self-identified, reporting no same sex partners). Findings indicate that bisexual women and heterosexual women reporting same-sex partners had higher rates of cigarette smoking than exclusively heterosexual women. Bisexual women, lesbians and heterosexual women with same-sex partners also used marijuana at significantly higher rates than exclusively heterosexual women. Marijuana use was significantly greater and tobacco use was elevated among gay men compared to heterosexual men. SSImp was associated with greater use of both of these substances across nearly all groups. Bar patronage and SSImp did not buffer the relationship between sexual identity and smoking either cigarettes or marijuana. These findings suggest that marijuana and tobacco use differ by sexual identity, particularly among women, and underscore the importance of developing prevention and treatment services that are appropriate for sexual minorities. PMID:20025368

  8. Alternative therapies: a common practice among men and women living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Vosvick, Mark; Power, Rachel; Koopman, Cheryl; Ashton, Eric; Bachmann, Michael H; Israelski, Dennis; Spiegel, David

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and factors associated with alternative therapy use in an ethnically diverse, gender-balanced sample of persons living with HIV/AIDS. More than two thirds (67%) of the participants who were taking HIV-related medications were also taking an alternative supplement. Half of the sample (50%) reported that they took one or more multivitamins, 17% reported using mineral supplements, 12% reported using Chinese herbs, and 12% reported using botanicals. Substantial proportions of the sample also reported using acupuncture (31%), massage (23%), and meditation (28%) to specifically treat HIV-related symptoms. Women were four times more likely to use alternative therapies than men. Also, Caucasians were nearly four times more likely to use alternative treatments compared to other ethnic groups. The results of this study indicate a strong need to assess individual patients' use of alternative treatment approaches as well as to further investigate their efficacy among HIV-positive patients.

  9. Lung cancer mortality among men living near an arsenic-emitting smelter.

    PubMed

    Pershagen, G

    1985-10-01

    Etiologic factors for lung cancer were studied by the case-control technique among 636 men, including 212 with pulmonary carcinoma, who had died between 1961 and 1979 in a county in northern Sweden. Data on smoking habits, occupation, and residence were obtained from a next of kin to each study subject. Validation against data from other sources indicated that the exposure information was of high quality. A relative risk of 2.0 for lung cancer was seen among men who had lived within approximately 20 km from a large copper smelter. The increased risk, which is statistically significant (p less than 0.05), could not be explained by smoking habits or occupational background. Smelter workers and miners had relative risks for lung cancer of 3.0 and 4.1, respectively. No firm conclusions can be drawn on the cause of excess lung cancer risk in the smelter area, but it seems plausible that the very substantial emissions to air from the smelter, especially of arsenic, may have played a role.

  10. Reproductive desires of men and women living with HIV: implications for family planning counselling.

    PubMed

    van Zyl, Cornelia; Visser, Maretha J

    2015-09-01

    The reproductive desires of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) of low socioeconomic standing attending public health facilities in South Africa were studied. HIV-positive men, pregnant and non-pregnant women were recruited from two clinics at a large public hospital in Tshwane, South Africa. Individual interviews were used to explore the reproductive desires of HIV-positive participants. HIV counsellors' perceptions of their clients' reproductive desires were explored during focus group discussions. Parenthood proved to be an important factor to all participants in continuation of the family and establishing their gender identities, despite the possible risk of HIV transmission and community stigmatization. Different cultural procreation rules for men and women and stigmatizing attitudes towards PLHIV affected their reproductive decision making. Women had the dilemma of choosing which community expectations they wanted to fulfil. Community stigmatization towards PLHIV was visible in the negative attitudes of some HIV counsellors regarding HIV and procreation. Because the reproductive desires of PLHIV are currently not given high priority in HIV prevention and family planning in the public health sector in South Africa, the prevention of HIV transmission may be jeopardized. These results necessitate the integration of HIV and sexual and reproductive health counselling on a primary health care level.

  11. Understanding the Irony: Canadian Gay Men Living with HIV/AIDS, Their Catholic Devotion, and Greater Well-being.

    PubMed

    Liboro, Renato M; Walsh, Richard T G

    2016-04-01

    Nine Canadian Catholic HIV-positive gay men were interviewed to obtain a better understanding of why and how they were able to persevere in their faith despite their religion's teachings against homosexuality and contributions to the stigmatization of HIV/AIDS. By examining the lived experiences and personal perspectives of the participants, the study aimed to explore and elucidate the significant role of Catholicism and the Catholic Church both as a continued source of marginalization and oppression, as well as strength and support, for Canadian gay men living with HIV/AIDS today. PMID:26160146

  12. PEP and TasP Awareness among Italian MSM, PLWHA, and High-Risk Heterosexuals and Demographic, Behavioral, and Social Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Zani, Bruna; Pietrantoni, Luca; Scudiero, Diego; Perone, Patrizia; Cosmaro, Lella; Cerioli, Alessandra; Oldrini, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) has been proposed as a strategy to prevent the acquisition of HIV infection after certain high-risk exposures, and treatment as prevention (TasP) is also being advocated as a means to reduce sexual transmission of HIV. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of PEP and TasP awareness and their demographic, behavioral, and social correlates in Italy. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,028 high-risk heterosexual men and women, 1,874 non-HIV positive MSM (men who have sex with men), and 694 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The majority of the participants was aware of PEP and unaware of TasP. MSM were less knowledgeable about PEP and TasP than were PLWHA and more knowledgeable about PEP and TasP than were high-risk heterosexual participants. The variables most consistently associated with PEP and TasP awareness were contact with HIV/AIDS organizations, HIV testing, and HIV stigma. A positive relationship between unprotected sexual intercourse and PEP and TasP awareness was found among high risk heterosexual participants, while this association was not significant among MSM and PLWHA. Because PEP and TasP are currently recommended, effective educational and dissemination strategies are needed to increase the level of knowledge about PEP and TasP. PMID:27294777

  13. PEP and TasP Awareness among Italian MSM, PLWHA, and High-Risk Heterosexuals and Demographic, Behavioral, and Social Correlates.

    PubMed

    Prati, Gabriele; Zani, Bruna; Pietrantoni, Luca; Scudiero, Diego; Perone, Patrizia; Cosmaro, Lella; Cerioli, Alessandra; Oldrini, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) has been proposed as a strategy to prevent the acquisition of HIV infection after certain high-risk exposures, and treatment as prevention (TasP) is also being advocated as a means to reduce sexual transmission of HIV. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of PEP and TasP awareness and their demographic, behavioral, and social correlates in Italy. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,028 high-risk heterosexual men and women, 1,874 non-HIV positive MSM (men who have sex with men), and 694 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The majority of the participants was aware of PEP and unaware of TasP. MSM were less knowledgeable about PEP and TasP than were PLWHA and more knowledgeable about PEP and TasP than were high-risk heterosexual participants. The variables most consistently associated with PEP and TasP awareness were contact with HIV/AIDS organizations, HIV testing, and HIV stigma. A positive relationship between unprotected sexual intercourse and PEP and TasP awareness was found among high risk heterosexual participants, while this association was not significant among MSM and PLWHA. Because PEP and TasP are currently recommended, effective educational and dissemination strategies are needed to increase the level of knowledge about PEP and TasP. PMID:27294777

  14. Voices of the American Civil War: Stories of Men, Women, and Children Who Lived through the War between the States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haven, Kendall

    Collected in this book are 27 accounts of men, women, and children from the northern and southern United States who lived, fought, and survived the U.S. Civil War. The book leads students on a journey through the Civil War era, offering a well-rounded understanding of this four year period. All characters in the book are real, and the stories are…

  15. "Keep Pressing On": Spiritual Epistemology and Its Role in the Collegiate Lives of Black Gay and Bisexual Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Means, Darris R.; Jaeger, Audrey J.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study explores how the spiritual epistemology of Black, gay and bisexual, cisgender men in college changed during their spiritual journeys and how participants used spirituality in their collegiate lives. External forces, such as family members, religious text, and church settings, initially shaped many participants' spirituality,…

  16. Disparities in Health Risk Behavior and Psychological Distress Among Gay Versus Heterosexual Male Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Kamen, Charles; Palesh, Oxana; Gerry, Arianna Aldridge; Andrykowski, Michael A; Heckler, Charles; Mohile, Supriya; Morrow, Gary R; Bowen, Deborah; Mustian, Karen

    2014-06-01

    Gay men have been found to have higher rates of cancer diagnoses than heterosexual men and poorer outcomes postcancer diagnosis. The two aims of this study were to examine rates of cancer diagnosis in a national sample of gay and heterosexual men, and to examine disparities in health risk behavior between gay and heterosexual men and gay and heterosexual cancer survivors. The current study utilized data from a total sample of 14,354 men, including 373 gay men, collected as part of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey conducted in 2009 in the states of Arizona, California, Massachusetts, Ohio, and Wisconsin. This study replicated the finding that prevalence of self-reported cancer diagnoses differed significantly between gay and heterosexual men, with gay men 82% more likely to report a lifetime history of cancer diagnosis (p<0.05); however, this disparity became nonsignificant after controlling for a weakened immune system proxy variable (p=0.06). Gay men were more likely than heterosexual men to report health risk behaviors, including less time spent exercising, more psychological distress, more current alcohol use, more current smoking, and a lifetime history of smoking. Some of these disparities in health risk behavior persisted for gay cancer survivors postcancer diagnosis. This study offers a perspective on behavioral risk factors previously shown to be higher among gay men that may continue postcancer diagnosis. Future research should test the degree to which these disparities are caused by minority stress, as previous studies have indicated that increased health risk behaviors among sexual minority populations may result from exposure to chronic stress and discrimination. Developing behavior change interventions to address these risk behaviors is vital for improving cancer outcomes among gay men. PMID:26789618

  17. Disparities in Health Risk Behavior and Psychological Distress Among Gay Versus Heterosexual Male Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Kamen, Charles; Palesh, Oxana; Gerry, Arianna Aldridge; Andrykowski, Michael A; Heckler, Charles; Mohile, Supriya; Morrow, Gary R; Bowen, Deborah; Mustian, Karen

    2014-06-01

    Gay men have been found to have higher rates of cancer diagnoses than heterosexual men and poorer outcomes postcancer diagnosis. The two aims of this study were to examine rates of cancer diagnosis in a national sample of gay and heterosexual men, and to examine disparities in health risk behavior between gay and heterosexual men and gay and heterosexual cancer survivors. The current study utilized data from a total sample of 14,354 men, including 373 gay men, collected as part of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey conducted in 2009 in the states of Arizona, California, Massachusetts, Ohio, and Wisconsin. This study replicated the finding that prevalence of self-reported cancer diagnoses differed significantly between gay and heterosexual men, with gay men 82% more likely to report a lifetime history of cancer diagnosis (p<0.05); however, this disparity became nonsignificant after controlling for a weakened immune system proxy variable (p=0.06). Gay men were more likely than heterosexual men to report health risk behaviors, including less time spent exercising, more psychological distress, more current alcohol use, more current smoking, and a lifetime history of smoking. Some of these disparities in health risk behavior persisted for gay cancer survivors postcancer diagnosis. This study offers a perspective on behavioral risk factors previously shown to be higher among gay men that may continue postcancer diagnosis. Future research should test the degree to which these disparities are caused by minority stress, as previous studies have indicated that increased health risk behaviors among sexual minority populations may result from exposure to chronic stress and discrimination. Developing behavior change interventions to address these risk behaviors is vital for improving cancer outcomes among gay men.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of screening for anal cancer using regular digital ano-rectal examinations in men who have sex with men living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Jason J; Fairley, Christopher K; Carroll, Susan; Walker, Sandra; Chen, Marcus; Read, Tim; Grulich, Andrew; Bradshaw, Catriona; Kaldor, John; Clarke, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Anal cancer in men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV is an important issue but there are no consistent guidelines for how to screen for this cancer. In settings where screening with anal cytology is unavailable, regular anal examinations have been proposed in some guidelines but their cost-effectiveness is unknown. Methods Our objective was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of regular anal examinations to screen for anal cancer in HIV-positive MSM living in Australia using a probabilistic Markov model. Data sources were based on the medical literature and a clinical trial of HIV-positive MSM receiving an annual anal examination in Australia. The main outcome measures for calculating effectiveness were undiscounted and discounted (at 3%) lifetime costs, life years gained, quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Results Base-case analysis estimated the average cost of screening for and management of anal cancer ranged from $195 for no screening to $1,915 for lifetime annual screening of men aged ≥ 50. Screening of men aged ≥ 50 generated ICERs of $29,760 per QALY gained (for screening every four years), $32,222 (every three years) and $45,484 (every two years). Uncertainty for ICERs was mostly influenced by the cost (financially and decrease in quality of life) from a false-positive result, progression rate of anal cancer, specificity of the anal examination, the probability of detection outside a screening program and the discount rate. Conclusions Screening for anal cancer by incorporating regular anal examinations into routine HIV care for MSM aged ≥ 50 is most likely to be cost-effective by conventional standards. Given that anal pap smears are not widely available yet in many clinical settings, regular anal exams for MSM living with HIV to detect anal cancer earlier should be implemented. PMID:26942721

  19. A Multilevel Analysis of Neighborhood Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Transactional Sex with Casual Partners Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men Living in Metro Detroit.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, José; Eaton, Lisa; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-01-01

    The role of structural factors when evaluating the vulnerability of human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) risks among young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men is an important area of focus for HIV prevention. Using cross-sectional data from young men living in Metro Detroit (N = 319; aged 18-29 years; 50% black, 25% white, 15% Latino, 9% other race/ethnicity; 9% HIV-positive), we examined whether transactional sex with casual partners was associated with neighborhood-level socioeconomic disadvantage and individual-level factors (race/ethnicity and sexual identity, socioeconomic status, HIV/STI diagnoses, and substance use). Youth living in greater socioeconomic disadvantage reported more transactional sex (b = 0.11; SE = 0.04; p ≤ 0.01). This relationship was mitigated once individual-level correlates were entered into the model. Multilevel efforts to counteract socioeconomic deficits through community and individual level strategies may alleviate youth's exposure to transactional sex and reduce their vulnerability to HIV/STI risks.

  20. A Multilevel Analysis of Neighborhood Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Transactional Sex with Casual Partners Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men Living in Metro Detroit.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, José; Eaton, Lisa; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-01-01

    The role of structural factors when evaluating the vulnerability of human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) risks among young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men is an important area of focus for HIV prevention. Using cross-sectional data from young men living in Metro Detroit (N = 319; aged 18-29 years; 50% black, 25% white, 15% Latino, 9% other race/ethnicity; 9% HIV-positive), we examined whether transactional sex with casual partners was associated with neighborhood-level socioeconomic disadvantage and individual-level factors (race/ethnicity and sexual identity, socioeconomic status, HIV/STI diagnoses, and substance use). Youth living in greater socioeconomic disadvantage reported more transactional sex (b = 0.11; SE = 0.04; p ≤ 0.01). This relationship was mitigated once individual-level correlates were entered into the model. Multilevel efforts to counteract socioeconomic deficits through community and individual level strategies may alleviate youth's exposure to transactional sex and reduce their vulnerability to HIV/STI risks. PMID:27337624

  1. Sexual Functioning in Men Living with a Spinal Cord Injury–A Narrative Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Sunilkumar, MM; Boston, Patricia; Rajagopal, MR

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sexual dysfunction is a major concern for Indian men living with a spinal cord injury Objectives: To examine the literature related to sexuality traumatic cord injury and its impact on sexual functioning. Materials and Methods: Databases using Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) 2000–2012, Medline 1989–2012, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA) 1989–2012 and Google Scholar were the search engines used used for literature review. Results: The search yielded a total of 457 articles and only 75 of them were found relevant. The minimum number of articles required to meet the inclusion criteria for this review was 25–30 articles. Out of the 75 articles, 33 were considered relevant or related to the topic of sexual functioning, spinal cord injury, and paraplegia. Six areas were identified: Sexual stigmatization, physiological barriers to sexual satisfaction, clinical aspects of sexual functioning, biomedical approaches to sexual dysfunction, partner satisfaction, and lack of accessibility to sexual education. Conclusion: Spinal cord injury and sexual functioning affects a large segment of the male Indian population, yet most current research focuses on quantitative measurement with the emphasis on ejaculatory dysfunction, orgasm impairment, incontinence, and other physiological dysfunction. Further research is needed to address the subjective accounts of patients themselves with respect to the emotional and social impact of sexual disability. This would help to identify the best possible outcomes for both treatment and rehabilitation. PMID:26600694

  2. Fertility Desires among Men and Women Living with HIV/AIDS in Nairobi Slums: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Wekesa, Eliud; Coast, Ernestina

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Fertility desires require new understanding in a context of expanding access to antiretroviral therapy for people living with HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper studies the fertility desires and their rationales, of slum-dwelling Kenyan men and women living with HIV/AIDS who know their serostatus, but have different antiretroviral therapy treatment statuses. It addresses two research questions: How do people living with HIV/AIDS consider their future fertility? What factors contribute to an explanation of fertility desires among people living with HIV/AIDS. Methods A mixed methods study (survey [n = 513] and in-depth interviews [n = 41]) with adults living with HIV/AIDS living in Nairobi slums was conducted in 2010. Regression analyses assess independent relationships between fertility desires and socio-demographic factors. Analyses of in-depth interviews are used to interpret the statistical analyses of fertility desires. Results Our analyses show that fertility desires are complex and ambivalent, reflecting tensions between familial and societal pressures to have children versus pressures for HIV (re-)infection prevention. More than a third (34%) of men and women living with HIV expressed future fertility desires; however, this is significantly lower than in the general population. Factors independently associated with desiring a child among people living with HIV/AIDS were age, sex, number of surviving children, social support and household wealth of the respondent. Discussion Increasing access to ART is changing the context of future childbearing for people living with HIV/AIDS. Prevailing values mean that, for many people living with HIV/AIDS, having children is seen as necessary for a “normal” and healthy adult life. However, the social rewards of childbearing conflict with moral imperatives of HIV prevention, presenting dilemmas about the “proper” reproductive behaviour of people living with HIV/AIDS. The health policy and

  3. Living with a `women's disease': risk appraisal and management among men with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Solimeo, Samantha L.

    2011-01-01

    Background There is clear evidence that men suffer from osteoporosis (OP) in increasing numbers, but that men commonly remain underdiagnosed, undertreated and experience poorer outcomes than do women. The widespread sociocultural association of OP with postmenopausal women reflects their greater risk for developing the disorder, but the sexing of OP as a women's disease disadvantages at-risk men. Methods This paper reports on qualitative data gathered from 23 community-residing men who have an OP diagnosis. Results Interviews with men reveal that the sexing of OP as a female disease may affect men's risk appraisal. Men clearly associate OP risk factors with women and accordingly may feel protected from the disorder. Subsequent to diagnosis, men's OP-related risk management strategies reveal that men's gender identity constrains their ability to enact risk-reducing behavior. Conclusions Men may internalize the association of OP with women and incorporate it into a sense of perceived invulnerability to the condition, which, in turn, contributes to delayed diagnosis and treatment. Limited male-specific treatment and support options as well as social expectations of male gender performance play roles in men's health behavior. PMID:22125585

  4. Age preferences in dating advertisements by homosexuals and heterosexuals: from sociobiological to sociological explanations.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Kathryn

    2013-02-01

    Current sociobiological thought suggests that significant components of mate selection are based on indicators that correlate with the ability to produce and support offspring. Theorists have suggested that men tend to be attracted to and marry younger women, while women tend to be attracted to and marry older men. This behavior is referred to as age hypergamy. I complicate this picture by using gay men as a population in which to explore alternative components of mate selection as reflected in our behavior. Analyses of 120 dating advertisements from gay men and heterosexual men and women indicated that there exists a good measure of hypergamic age preference that is comparable to the heterosexual population and that relates to subjects' gender presentation. Data suggest that the biological-reproductive theory of age hypergamy is incomplete and support a cultural reproduction model of gender role behavior and preference in both heterosexuals and homosexuals. PMID:23179236

  5. The Study of Cellular and Molecular Physiological Characteristics of Sperm in Men Living in the Aral Sea Region

    PubMed Central

    Kultanov, Berikbay Z.; Dosmagambetova, Raushan S.; Ivasenko, Svetlana A.; Tatina, Yelena S.; Kelmyalene, Assel A.; Assenova, Lyazzat H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Extreme environmental situation in the Aral crisis has caused a massive chemical pollution of the territory for decades with high doses of pesticides, herbicides. Discharge of industrial waste into the rivers that feed the Aral Sea has lead to the development of various pathological processes in the human body, as well as disruption of reproductive function in young men. AIM: To evaluate the performance of molecular cellular changes in the sperm of men under the influence of dust and salt aerosols in Aral Sea region. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Clinical and laboratory studies were conducted in men 5 settlements (Aralsk-city, v. Aiteke-Bi, v. Zhalagash, v. Zhusaly, v. Shieli). We have studied male ejaculate obtained after 4-5 days of abstinence, and placed it in a warm tube with a glass stopper. On the investigation proceeded ejaculate within 20-30 minutes after its preparation, during which time he was subjected to liquefaction. Isolation and quantification of ASF, RNA, DNA, and determining the fraction of histones in sperm was performed by the method of Markusheva and Savina. RESULTS: It was found that the value of ASF in the semen of men living in the zone of ecological disaster higher compared with the values of parameters in men living in the area of environmental crisis, and this trend is observed in all age groups. The study of circulating extracellular DNA and RNA in the sperm of men registered their decline with a corresponding increase of acid precursors that can be attributed to the degradation of nucleic acids under the influence of negative factors in the complex area of ecological trouble. Also, according to a study in men residing in the areas of environmental catastrophe at the age of 18-29 years, found an increased content of the H1 histone H2A lower total fraction, H3, H4 - and a sharp increase in histone H2B content - histones. CONCLUSIONS: Men living in environmentally disadvantaged areas of Kyzylorda region under the influence of dust and

  6. Liminal identities: Caribbean men who have sex with men in London, UK.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Moji; Elam, Gillian; Gerver, Sarah; Solarin, Ijeoma; Fenton, Kevin; Easterbrook, Phillippa

    2009-04-01

    Accounts by 10 Caribbean men who have sex with men living in the UK reveal them to be liminal beings with unstable and unresolved identities. They are between social states: aware they are not heterosexual and not publicly recognised, or in some cases self-accepted, as homosexual. Caribbean-born respondents especially suffer from homophobia, expressing regret and disappointment at their sexuality. They may also experience cognitive dissonance - as they are aware of their conflict with the heteronormative order - they cannot resolve. Religion contributes to homophobia and cognitive dissonance particularly for Caribbean-born men, some of whom may believe a fundamental conflict exists between Christianity and homosexuality. Heterosexism and homophobia contribute to and reinforce their liminal state, by preventing transition to publicly recognised homosexual status. Respondents may engage in private and public, internal and external, overt and covert policing of their and other gay men's behaviour: through strategic pretence at heterosexuality and/or condemnation of men engaging in behaviour identifiable as stereotypically homosexual, for example. Narratives point to the need to complexify the conventional understanding of Jamaican heterosexism to explain reported variations in the degree of anti-homosexual hostility in the country.

  7. Migration and HIV risk: Life histories of Mexican-born men living with HIV in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Lilli; Valera, Erik; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B.; Barrington, Clare

    2015-01-01

    Latino men in the Southeastern USA are disproportionately affected by HIV, but little is known about how the migration process influences HIV-related risk. In North Carolina (NC), a relatively new immigrant destination, Latino men are predominantly young and from Mexico. We conducted 31 iterative life history interviews with 15 Mexican-born men living with HIV. We used holistic content narrative analysis methods to examine HIV vulnerability in the context of migration and to identify important turning points. Major themes included the prominence of traumatic early life experiences, migration as an ongoing process rather than a finite event, and HIV diagnosis as a final turning point in migration trajectories. Findings provide a nuanced understanding of HIV vulnerability throughout the migration process and have implications including the need for bi-national HIV prevention approaches, improved outreach around early testing and linkage to care, and attention to mental health. PMID:24866206

  8. Theorizing Alternative Pathways through Adulthood: Unequal Social Arrangements in the Lives of Young Disadvantaged Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Kevin; Jones, Nikki

    2014-01-01

    This chapter introduces the innovative field-based studies on disadvantaged men that are featured in this volume. Together, these studies of disadvantaged men from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds and both urban and nonurban settings complement and extend recent discussions of emerging adulthood, which typically conceptualizes the transition…

  9. The lived experience of self-transcendence in gay men with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Coward, D D; Lewis, F M

    1993-10-01

    This phenomenologic study described the structure of self-transcendence in eight gay men with AIDS. The men provided oral or written descriptions of experiences associated with feelings of increased interconnectedness with others, sense of well-being, and meaning and purpose in life. The data were analyzed using Colaizzi's phenomenologic technique. The men experienced self-transcendence in the three ways described by Frankl. Reaching out for help and helping others alleviated the men's sense of aloneness and isolation. Their acceptance of the closeness of death led to a sense of urgency to create a legacy and to participate only in activities that had meaning for them. Knowledge of these views and behaviors may help nurses to create a therapeutic exchange in which self-transcendent views are fostered in other gay men with AIDS. PMID:8265440

  10. Body ideals for heterosexual romantic partners: gender and sociocultural influences.

    PubMed

    Murnen, Sarah K; Poinsatte, Katherine; Huntsman, Karen; Goldfarb, Jesse; Glaser, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, heterosexual college women (N=327) and men (N=160) were asked about their body type preferences for (hypothetical) romantic partners. Participants chose a particular silhouette value as ideal for a romantic partner, and rated how important it was to them for their partner to have this ideal body type. Men placed more importance on the body silhouette they chose for a partner than women did, and men's importance ratings were positively associated with the rated sexual permissiveness of their peer group and their total media use. Consuming sports media and watching reality television were the best media predictors of men's judgments about women's bodies. Less variability was explained in women's preferences for men partners' bodies, but endorsing adversarial sexual attitudes was positively related to judging the ideals chosen for men's bodies as important. Results were interpreted within both evolutionary and sociocultural theoretical frameworks. PMID:25462878

  11. Body ideals for heterosexual romantic partners: gender and sociocultural influences.

    PubMed

    Murnen, Sarah K; Poinsatte, Katherine; Huntsman, Karen; Goldfarb, Jesse; Glaser, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, heterosexual college women (N=327) and men (N=160) were asked about their body type preferences for (hypothetical) romantic partners. Participants chose a particular silhouette value as ideal for a romantic partner, and rated how important it was to them for their partner to have this ideal body type. Men placed more importance on the body silhouette they chose for a partner than women did, and men's importance ratings were positively associated with the rated sexual permissiveness of their peer group and their total media use. Consuming sports media and watching reality television were the best media predictors of men's judgments about women's bodies. Less variability was explained in women's preferences for men partners' bodies, but endorsing adversarial sexual attitudes was positively related to judging the ideals chosen for men's bodies as important. Results were interpreted within both evolutionary and sociocultural theoretical frameworks.

  12. Feasibility, Acceptability, and Preliminary Efficacy of a Live-Chat Social Media Intervention to Reduce HIV Risk Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Pachankis, John E.; Gamarel, Kristi E.; Surace, Anthony; Golub, Sarit A.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Given the popularity of social media among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), and in light of YMSM’s elevated and increasing HIV rates, we tested the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of a live chat intervention delivered on Facebook in reducing condomless anal sex and substance use within a group of high risk YMSM in a pre-post design with no control group. Participants (N = 41; 18–29 years old) completed up to eight one-hour motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral skills-based online live chat intervention sessions, and reported on demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics at baseline and immediately post-intervention. Analyses indicated that participation in the intervention (n = 31) was associated with reductions of days of drug and alcohol use in the past month and instances of anal sex without a condom (including under the influence of substances), as well as increases in knowledge of HIV-related risks at 3-month follow-up. This pilot study argues for the potential of this social media-delivered intervention to reduce HIV risk among a most vulnerable group in the United States, in a manner that was highly acceptable to receive and feasible to execute. A future randomized controlled trial could generate an intervention blueprint for providers to support YMSM’s wellbeing by reaching them regardless of their geographical location, at a low cost. PMID:25256808

  13. Feasibility, Acceptability, and Preliminary Efficacy of a Live-Chat Social Media Intervention to Reduce HIV Risk Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    PubMed

    Lelutiu-Weinberger, Corina; Pachankis, John E; Gamarel, Kristi E; Surace, Anthony; Golub, Sarit A; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2015-07-01

    Given the popularity of social media among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), and in light of YMSM's elevated and increasing HIV rates, we tested the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of a live chat intervention delivered on Facebook in reducing condomless anal sex and substance use within a group of high risk YMSM in a pre-post design with no control group. Participants (N = 41; 18-29 years old) completed up to eight one-hour motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral skills-based online live chat intervention sessions, and reported on demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics at baseline and immediately post-intervention. Analyses indicated that participation in the intervention (n = 31) was associated with reductions of days of drug and alcohol use in the past month and instances of anal sex without a condom (including under the influence of substances), as well as increases in knowledge of HIV-related risks at 3-month follow-up. This pilot study argues for the potential of this social media-delivered intervention to reduce HIV risk among a most vulnerable group in the United States, in a manner that was highly acceptable to receive and feasible to execute. A future randomized controlled trial could generate an intervention blueprint for providers to support YMSM's wellbeing by reaching them regardless of their geographical location, at a low cost.

  14. Feasibility, Acceptability, and Preliminary Efficacy of a Live-Chat Social Media Intervention to Reduce HIV Risk Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    PubMed

    Lelutiu-Weinberger, Corina; Pachankis, John E; Gamarel, Kristi E; Surace, Anthony; Golub, Sarit A; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2015-07-01

    Given the popularity of social media among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), and in light of YMSM's elevated and increasing HIV rates, we tested the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of a live chat intervention delivered on Facebook in reducing condomless anal sex and substance use within a group of high risk YMSM in a pre-post design with no control group. Participants (N = 41; 18-29 years old) completed up to eight one-hour motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral skills-based online live chat intervention sessions, and reported on demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics at baseline and immediately post-intervention. Analyses indicated that participation in the intervention (n = 31) was associated with reductions of days of drug and alcohol use in the past month and instances of anal sex without a condom (including under the influence of substances), as well as increases in knowledge of HIV-related risks at 3-month follow-up. This pilot study argues for the potential of this social media-delivered intervention to reduce HIV risk among a most vulnerable group in the United States, in a manner that was highly acceptable to receive and feasible to execute. A future randomized controlled trial could generate an intervention blueprint for providers to support YMSM's wellbeing by reaching them regardless of their geographical location, at a low cost. PMID:25256808

  15. The professional lives of women in gastroenterology: a Canadian comparison study with men.

    PubMed

    Heathcote, J; Cauch-Dudek, K; Rhyne, D

    1997-08-01

    Women are underrepresented in gastroenterology. A questionnaire examined the training and career experiences of female members of the Canadian Association for Gastroenterology (CAG) and their male counterparts. A pretested questionnaire was mailed to the 50 female CAG and 100 age-matched male members. Descriptive analyses were performed with the SAS statistical program. Questionnaires were returned by 38 of the women (76%) and 70 of the men (70%). All held full-time positions. Whereas 21.6% of the women respondents were pediatricians, all but 2.9% of the men had adult practices. The women were more likely to never marry (21.1% vs. 8.6% of men), and their personal income was significantly less than that of men. The men reported more problems juggling their work and private life, whereas problems with childcare and free time were reported more often by the women with children. The women perceived they had greater problems than men in pursuing an academic career, but grant support, academic rank, and administrative responsibilities were actually similar for both. Gender equality of opportunity was found in Canadian gastroenterology through a willingness on the part of women to compromise. Fewer women married and had families, and they earned less money than the men.

  16. Dispelling "heterosexual African AIDS" in Namibia: same-sex sexuality in the township of Katutura.

    PubMed

    Lorway, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This paper questions international public health theories that characterize AIDS in Africa as an unambiguous heterosexual epidemic. It does so by describing the daily sexual lives of a community of Namibian youth who engage in same-sex sexual practices. The author outlines how the ongoing vilification of "homosexuals" by ruling State officials serves as a stigmatizing backdrop against which young people experience and practice their sexuality. Drawing upon 20 months of ethnographic research, the paper discusses the HIV sexual risk perceptions and practices of young men, highlighting the complexities in sexual subjectivity that form within the cultural politics of competing masculinities, state-sponsored anti-homosexual rhetoric and transnational queer rights protest. Bounded and monolithic notions of gender and sexual identity do not lend themselves to HIV risk and vulnerability analysis in this community. PMID:16923647

  17. Dispelling "heterosexual African AIDS" in Namibia: same-sex sexuality in the township of Katutura.

    PubMed

    Lorway, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This paper questions international public health theories that characterize AIDS in Africa as an unambiguous heterosexual epidemic. It does so by describing the daily sexual lives of a community of Namibian youth who engage in same-sex sexual practices. The author outlines how the ongoing vilification of "homosexuals" by ruling State officials serves as a stigmatizing backdrop against which young people experience and practice their sexuality. Drawing upon 20 months of ethnographic research, the paper discusses the HIV sexual risk perceptions and practices of young men, highlighting the complexities in sexual subjectivity that form within the cultural politics of competing masculinities, state-sponsored anti-homosexual rhetoric and transnational queer rights protest. Bounded and monolithic notions of gender and sexual identity do not lend themselves to HIV risk and vulnerability analysis in this community.

  18. Social, legal, and institutional context of heterosexual aggression by college women.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter B; Savage, Jane S

    2005-04-01

    This review concerns women's heterosexual aggression. Social context considers prevalence and incidence, gender roles and social norms, reactions to receiving aggression, and alcohol and drugs. Legal context focuses on state law and institutional context focuses on college and university codes of conduct. Primary findings: women engage in the full range of sexually aggressive behaviors attributed to men; the language of many legal codes place women's heterosexually aggressive behaviors below the threshold for rape even when it involves physical force or the use of a weapon; many men, similar to many women, do not report receiving sexual aggression and may not define themselves as victims; regardless of reporting status or self-perception, some men do suffer physical and psychological symptoms as a result of receiving sexual aggression from women; and women's heterosexual aggression may be more socially acceptable than men's. PMID:15753197

  19. Upset Over Sexual versus Emotional Infidelity Among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Adults.

    PubMed

    Frederick, David A; Fales, Melissa R

    2016-01-01

    One hypothesis derived from evolutionary perspectives is that men are more upset than women by sexual infidelity and women are more upset than men by emotional infidelity. The proposed explanation is that men, in contrast to women, face the risk of unwittingly investing in genetically unrelated offspring. Most studies, however, have relied on small college or community samples of heterosexual participants. We examined upset over sexual versus emotional jealousy among 63,894 gay, lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual participants. Participants imagined which would upset them more: their partners having sex with someone else (but not falling in love with them) or their partners falling in love with someone else (but not having sex with them). Consistent with this evolutionary perspective, heterosexual men were more likely than heterosexual women to be upset by sexual infidelity (54 vs. 35 %) and less likely than heterosexual women to be upset by emotional infidelity (46 vs. 65 %). This gender difference emerged across age groups, income levels, history of being cheated on, history of being unfaithful, relationship type, and length. The gender difference, however, was limited to heterosexual participants. Bisexual men and women did not differ significantly from each other in upset over sexual infidelity (30 vs. 27 %), regardless of whether they were currently dating a man (35 vs. 29 %) or woman (28 vs. 20 %). Gay men and lesbian women also did not differ (32 vs. 34 %). The findings present strong evidence that a gender difference exists in a broad sample of U.S. adults, but only among heterosexuals.

  20. Upset Over Sexual versus Emotional Infidelity Among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Adults.

    PubMed

    Frederick, David A; Fales, Melissa R

    2016-01-01

    One hypothesis derived from evolutionary perspectives is that men are more upset than women by sexual infidelity and women are more upset than men by emotional infidelity. The proposed explanation is that men, in contrast to women, face the risk of unwittingly investing in genetically unrelated offspring. Most studies, however, have relied on small college or community samples of heterosexual participants. We examined upset over sexual versus emotional jealousy among 63,894 gay, lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual participants. Participants imagined which would upset them more: their partners having sex with someone else (but not falling in love with them) or their partners falling in love with someone else (but not having sex with them). Consistent with this evolutionary perspective, heterosexual men were more likely than heterosexual women to be upset by sexual infidelity (54 vs. 35 %) and less likely than heterosexual women to be upset by emotional infidelity (46 vs. 65 %). This gender difference emerged across age groups, income levels, history of being cheated on, history of being unfaithful, relationship type, and length. The gender difference, however, was limited to heterosexual participants. Bisexual men and women did not differ significantly from each other in upset over sexual infidelity (30 vs. 27 %), regardless of whether they were currently dating a man (35 vs. 29 %) or woman (28 vs. 20 %). Gay men and lesbian women also did not differ (32 vs. 34 %). The findings present strong evidence that a gender difference exists in a broad sample of U.S. adults, but only among heterosexuals. PMID:25518816

  1. Why is the history of heterosexuality essential? Beliefs about the history of sexuality and their relationship to sexual prejudice.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Katherine; Hegarty, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Heterosexual people with more positive attitudes to lesbians and gay men generally believe that homosexuality is immutable, is not a discrete social category, and that homosexuality exists in all cultures and time periods. Equivalent beliefs about heterosexuality and beliefs about components of sexuality have been less often researched. 136 people with diverse sexualities described heterosexuality as more universal across history and culture than homosexuality (Study 1). 69 heterosexual-identified participants similarly believed that love, identity, behavior, and desire were more historically invariant aspects of heterosexuality than of homosexuality (Study 2). Less prejudiced participants thought all components of homosexuality--except for identity--were more historically invariant. Teasing apart beliefs about the history of components of heterosexuality and homosexuality suggests that there is no "essential" relationship between sexual prejudice and the tension between essentialist and constructivist views about the history of sexual identity.

  2. The Relationship between Gender and Heterosexual Attitudes toward Homosexuality at a Conservative Christian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFave, Adam D.; Helm, Herbert W., Jr.; Gomez, Omar

    2014-01-01

    This research looked at the relationships and differences between sex and race as it relates to religious fundamentalism, attitudes, and comfortability toward homosexuality. Patterns in previous research have shown that men and women do differ in their attitudes toward homosexuals. This study proposed that heterosexual men will show a…

  3. Heterosexual Privilege Awareness, Prejudice, and Support of Gay Marriage among Diversity Course Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Kim; Stewart, Briana

    2010-01-01

    Although most research investigating diversity courses focuses on attitudes toward racial minorities and women, these courses may also influence student attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. The current study assessed student awareness of heterosexual privilege, prejudice against lesbians and gay men, and support for same-sex marriage. Students…

  4. Alcohol use predicts elevation in inflammatory marker soluble CD14 in men living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Monnig, Mollie A; Kahler, Christopher W; Cioe, Patricia A; Tucker, Lynne; Monti, Peter M; Mayer, Kenneth H; Ramratnam, Bharat

    2016-11-01

    Independently, HIV infection and heavy alcohol use increase microbial translocation (MT) of gut products into systemic circulation. MT and consequent immune response have been linked to chronic inflammation and a host of negative health outcomes in individuals living with HIV. However, previous research has not systematically investigated the immune correlates of heavy drinking specifically within the HIV-positive population. This pilot study investigated MT and immune activation as a function of alcohol use in 21 HIV-positive men who met NIAAA criteria for heavy drinking. Participants averaged 46.7 ± 8.5 (mean ± standard deviation) years of age, 12.2 ± 9.2 years since HIV diagnosis, 337 ± 158 CD4 nadir, and 643 ± 245 current CD4 count. All participants were virologically suppressed on antiretroviral therapy. Data on alcohol use and immune function were collected at baseline and three-month follow-up. Plasma concentrations of markers of MT and immune activation (lipopolysaccharide (LPS), soluble CD14 (sCD14), endotoxin core antibody immunoglobulin M (EndoCAb)) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Generalized estimating equation models tested alcohol use variables as predictors of LPS, sCD14, and EndoCAb levels. Greater quantity and frequency of drinking significantly predicted higher sCD14 levels (p's < .01). Conversely, longer duration of abstinence from alcohol significantly predicted lower sCD14 levels (p < .001). These results remained significant after controlling for age, HIV duration, smoking status, current CD4 count, CD4 nadir, and antiretroviral drug type. In addition, participants with ≥50% relative reduction in drinks per week showed a significant decrease (p < .05) in sCD14 from baseline to three-month follow-up. This pilot study provides preliminary evidence that heavy drinking may increase a key inflammatory marker in HIV-infected individuals with suppressed infection.

  5. Religion and spirituality among bisexual Black men in the USA

    PubMed Central

    JEFFRIES, WILLIAM L.; DODGE, BRIAN; SANDFORT, THEO G. M.

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, religion has been a major source of institutional support and well-being for Black people in the USA. However, when juxtaposed against sexuality, religion's positive effect upon the lives of non-heterosexual individuals is questionable. Research suggests that non-heterosexuals often abandon structured religion for spirituality due to the homonegativity perpetuated through religious institutions. Although studies have examined religion and spirituality among gays and lesbians, few have examined their roles in the lives of bisexuals. In this study, we analyzed qualitative interviews from 28 bisexual Black men who resided in New York City. In addition to church attendance, participants expressed belonging to religious communities through activities such as music ministry. Despite rejection because of their bisexuality, some participants saw other religious individuals as being accepting of them. Others discussed the church as a place where non-heterosexuals interacted, often for meeting sexual partners. Participants evoked beliefs in God in coping with adverse life experiences; some linked faith to family and sexual responsibilities. Drawing upon relevant literature, we discuss the implications of religion and spirituality for the quality of life of bisexual Black men in the USA. PMID:18568870

  6. Even for Men At High Risk, Healthy Living May Help Prevent Colon Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Great Britain's age threshold for free screening. Mathematical models revealed that nearly a quarter of men between ... material," and questioned the reliability of the mathematical model the team used for their investigation. "I would ...

  7. Theorizing alternative pathways through adulthood: unequal social arrangements in the lives of young disadvantaged men.

    PubMed

    Roy, Kevin; Jones, Nikki

    2014-03-01

    This chapter introduces the innovative field-based studies on disadvantaged men that are featured in this volume. Together, these studies of disadvantaged men from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds and both urban and nonurban settings complement and extend recent discussions of emerging adulthood, which typically conceptualizes the transition to adulthood as a normative and linear process. The authors offer that the research presented here provides a more accurate rendering of the transition to adulthood for young disadvantaged men. For disadvantaged young men, the transition to adulthood is often complex and nonlinear, and features a diversity of pathways that are often overlooked in contemporary research on transitions to adulthood. The chapter ends with a call for research and theory that better reflects the precarious nature of pathways to adulthood for disadvantaged men in urban and nonurban settings. Researchers are encouraged to draw on findings from field-based studies to inform policies and practices directed at minimizing the marginalization of disadvantaged men from mainstream society. PMID:24677645

  8. Sexual discordance and sexual partnering among heterosexual women.

    PubMed

    Nield, Jennifer; Magnusson, Brianna; Brooks, Christopher; Chapman, Derek; Lapane, Kate L

    2015-05-01

    This study examined characteristics of self-identified heterosexual women who were concordant or discordant in their sexual behavior and the association of discordance and sexual partnering among those aged 15-44 years from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (n = 7,353). Sexual concordance was defined as reporting a heterosexual identity and no female partners in the past year; discordance was reporting a heterosexual identity and having at least one female partner in the past year. Sexual partnering was defined as being concurrent, serially monogamous or monogamous with a male partner in the previous year. Polytomous logistic regression models evaluated the association between sexual discordance and sexual partnering. Among self-identified heterosexual, sexually active women, 11.2 % reported ever having had a same sex partner. Heterosexually discordant women who had both male and female partners in the previous year were 5.5 times as likely to report having a concurrent relationship (95 % CI 2.77-11.09) and 2.4 times as likely to report engaging in serially monogamous relationships (95 % CI 1.19-4.97) with male partners. Discordance between heterosexual identity and same sex behavior is a factor in risky behaviors. Women who have sex with women and men may act as bridges for the transmission of STDs, particularly to their female partners. Sexual education should include information inclusive of non-heteronormative behaviors and identities to provide sexual minorities with the tools and information they need. Clinical guidelines should ensure that all women are offered counseling and screening for reproductive and sexual health.

  9. Where You Live Matters: Structural Correlates of HIV Risk Behavior Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men in Metro Detroit.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, José A; Eaton, Lisa; Andrzejewski, Jack; Loveluck, Jimena; VanHemert, William; Pingel, Emily S

    2015-12-01

    Structural characteristics are linked to HIV/STI risks, yet few studies have examined the mechanisms through which structural characteristics influence the HIV/STI risk of young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Using data from a cross-sectional survey of YMSM (ages 18-29) living in Detroit Metro (N = 328; 9 % HIV-positive; 49 % Black, 27 % White, 15 % Latino, 9 % Other race), we used multilevel modeling to examine the association between community-level characteristics (e.g., socioeconomic disadvantage; distance to LGBT-affirming institutions) and YMSM's HIV testing behavior and likelihood of engaging in unprotected anal intercourse with serodiscordant partner(s). We accounted for individual-level factors (race/ethnicity, poverty, homelessness, alcohol and marijuana use) and contextual factors (community acceptance and stigma regarding same-sex sexuality). YMSM in neighborhoods with greater disadvantage and nearer to an AIDS Service Organization were more likely to have tested for HIV and less likely to report serodiscordant partners. Community acceptance was associated with having tested for HIV. Efforts to address YMSM's exposure to structural barriers in Detroit Metro are needed to inform HIV prevention strategies from a socioecological perspective.

  10. The Prevalence of Lisping in Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Borsel, John; De Bruyn, Els; Lefebvre, Evelien; Sokoloff, Anouschka; De Ley, Sophia; Baudonck, Nele

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the stereotype that gay men lisp. Two clinicians who were unaware of the specific purpose of the study and the populations involved judged randomized audio-recordings of 175 gay males, 100 heterosexual males and 100 heterosexual females for the presence of lisping during reading of a standardized text. In the gay males a…

  11. HIV seropositivity and sexuality: cessation of sexual relations among men and women living with HIV in five countries

    PubMed Central

    Bernier, Adeline; Lefèvre, Marie; Henry, Emilie; Verdes, Ludmila; Acosta, Maria-Elena; Benmoussa, Amal; Mukumbi, Henri; Cissé, Mamadou; Otis, Joanne; Préau, Marie

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The sexuality of people living with HIV (PLHIV) is a key issue in the fight against HIV, as it influences both the dynamic of the epidemic and the quality of life of PLHIV. The present study examined the factors associated with cessation of sexual relations after HIV diagnosis among men and women in five countries: Mali, Morocco, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Romania and Ecuador. A community-based cross-sectional study was implemented by a mixed consortium [researchers/community-based organizations (CBO)]. Trained CBO members interviewed 1500 PLHIV in contact with CBOs using a 125-item questionnaire. A weighted multivariate logistic regression and a separate gender analysis were performed. Among the 1413 participants, 471 (33%) declared that they stopped having sexual relations after their HIV diagnosis, including 318 women (42%) and 153 men (23%) (p < .001). Concerning women, variables associated with the cessation of sexual relations in the final multivariate model were mainly related with relational factors and the possibility of getting social support (e.g., needing help to disclose HIV serostatus, feeling lonely every day, not finding support in CBOs, not being in a couple). Men's sexual activity was more associated with their representations and their perception of the infection (e.g., thinking they will have their HIV infection for the rest of their life, perceiving the HIV infection as a mystery, perceiving the infection as serious). Furthermore, the following variables were associated with both men and women sexual behaviours: being older, having suffered from serious social consequences after serostatus disclosure and not being able to regularly discuss about HIV with their steady partner. Results suggested clear differences between men and women regarding cessation of sexual relations and highlighted the importance of implementing gender-based tailored interventions that promote safe and satisfying sexuality, as it is known to have a

  12. Beyond the Model Minority Myth: Interrogating the Lived Experiences of Korean American Gay Men in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strayhorn, Terrell L.

    2014-01-01

    Scholars have examined the experiences of GLBT students in college and found that gay students often report encountering unwelcoming campus environments, physical or verbal assault, and homophobia. Rarely, however, have the experiences of Asian Pacific Islander (API) or more specifically South Korean gay men been accounted for in the literature. A…

  13. Empathic accuracy for happiness in the daily lives of older couples: Fluid cognitive performance predicts pattern accuracy among men.

    PubMed

    Hülür, Gizem; Hoppmann, Christiane A; Rauers, Antje; Schade, Hannah; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2016-08-01

    Correctly identifying other's emotional states is a central cognitive component of empathy. We examined the role of fluid cognitive performance for empathic accuracy for happiness in the daily lives of 86 older couples (mean relationship length = 45 years; mean age = 75 years) on up to 42 occasions over 7 consecutive days. Men performing better on the Digit Symbol test were more accurate in identifying ups and downs of their partner's happiness. A similar association was not found for women. We discuss the potential role of fluid cognitive performance and other individual, partner, and situation characteristics for empathic accuracy. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27362351

  14. Birth order among homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Kenneth J; Blanchard, Ray; Siegelman, Marvin

    2003-02-01

    Nicolosi and Byrd in 2002 summarized empirical research on birth order and sexual orientation in men, which research has documented that homosexual men have a later birth order than heterosexual men. They did not, however, note a more refined analysis of an earlier null finding by Siegelman. This 1998 reanalysis by Blanchard, Zucker, Siegelman, Dickey, and Klassen also confirmed the later birth order of homosexual men.

  15. Heterosexual Interests of Suburban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broderick, Carlfred B.

    1971-01-01

    Extensive cross sectional data suggest a real continuity between prepubertal attitudes and experience and those of adolescence. The preteen years (10-13) represent a period of preparation for later heterosexual involvement. These findings suggest need to modify traditional points of view regarding patterns of sociosexual development. (Author/CJ)

  16. Heterosexual Allies: A Descriptive Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Susan B.; Davis, Denise S.

    2010-01-01

    Forty-six heterosexual members of a college-based gay/straight alliance organization were surveyed to investigate characteristics of students who commit to acting as allies in reducing sexual prejudice. Assessment focused on the students' history of intergroup contact and exposure to sexual prejudice prior to joining the gay/straight alliance,…

  17. Childhood sexual identity, childhood religiosity, and "homophobia" as influences in the development of transsexualism, homosexuality, and heterosexuality.

    PubMed

    Hellman, R E; Green, R; Gray, J L; Williams, K

    1981-08-01

    We have studied the interaction between boyhood cross-gender behavior, "homophobia," and religiosity in men raised as Catholics who, during adulthood, considered themselves transsexual, homosexual, or heterosexual. The sample consisted of 43 transsexual, 78 homosexual, and 43 heterosexual subjects matched for age, race, educational level, and economic status. The transsexual men recalled the most "feminine" behavior during boyhood, followed by the homosexual men. The heterosexual group was most "homophobic," followed by the transsexuals. "Homophobia" positively correlated with religiosity among adult transsexuals and heterosexuals. Transsexuals, recalling childhood, perceived their parents as being more religious than did the homosexuals. At intermediate levels of "femininity," greater "homophobia" scores were associated with more transsexual characteristics. These data support the thesis that early developmental aspects of sexual identity, and later concerns over homosexuality that are partly of a religious derivative, may contribute to a transsexual outcome.

  18. Mostly heterosexual and mostly gay/lesbian: evidence for new sexual orientation identities.

    PubMed

    Vrangalova, Zhana; Savin-Williams, Ritch C

    2012-02-01

    A sample of 1,784 individuals responded to an online survey advertised on the Facebook social networking website. We explored the sexual orientation continuum by focusing on three components: self-reported sexual orientation identity, sexual attraction, and sexual partners. Results supported a 5-category classification of identity (heterosexual, mostly heterosexual, bisexual, mostly gay/lesbian, gay/lesbian) in that two added identity labels (mostly heterosexual and mostly gay/lesbian) were frequently chosen by participants and/or showed unique patterns of attraction and partners, distinct from their adjacent identities (heterosexual and bisexual, and bisexual and gay/lesbian, respectively). Those who reported an exclusive label (heterosexual, gay/lesbian) were not necessarily exclusive in other components; a significant minority of heterosexuals and the majority of gays/lesbians reported some attraction and/or partners toward their nonpreferred sex. The five identity groups differed in attraction and partners in a manner consistent with a continuous, rather than a categorical, distribution of sexual orientation. Findings also supported a sexual orientation continuum as consisting of two, rather than one, distinct dimensions (same- and other-sex sexuality). Having more same-sex sexuality did not necessarily imply having less other-sex sexuality, and vice versa. More men than women were at the exclusive ends of the continuum; however, men were not bimodally distributed in that a significant minority reported nonexclusivity in their sexuality. PMID:22327566

  19. Men Do Matter: Ethnographic Insights on the Socially Supportive Role of the African American Uncle in the Lives of Inner-City African American Male Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the role of the African American uncle as a vital yet overlooked form of social support and social capital in the lives of adolescent African American male sons living in single-female-headed households. Research rarely examines the affective roles and functions of men in Black families; moreover, poor urban Black male youth…

  20. Views and Attitudes Towards Sexual Functioning in Men Living with Spinal Cord Injury in Kerala, South India

    PubMed Central

    Sunilkumar, MM; Boston, Patricia; Rajagopal, MR

    2015-01-01

    Context: Sexual dysfunction is a major concern for Indian men living with a spinal cord injury. Few first-hand reports exist about the experience of living with an altered sense of sexual identity and the inability to express sexual concerns. Aims: In this qualitative study, the authors explore views and attitudes towards sexual functioning in men living with a spinal cord injury in Kerala, India. Materials and Methods: Semi-structured and open-ended interviews were conducted with seven participants according to IE Seidman's phenomenological approach. Thematic analysis followed the analytic process outlined by Moustakas (1990). Results: Identification of seven interconnected themes included: Recalling an active sexual life, disconnection with sexual identity, incongruence between emotional and physical capability, spousal isolation, social readjustment of spouse, physical barriers to sexual functioning, coping, and reintegration. Conclusions: Patient's descriptions of suffering demonstrate complexities of experience in sexual functioning. All patients were sexually active prior to the injury. This was now lost causing anxiety, distress, and sadness. A huge gap existed between sexual desire and physical capability. The patient and spouse were now isolated emotionally, socially, and physically. Physical barriers included urinary incontinence and indwelling catheters. While several self-evolved coping strategies were identified, support from palliative care services was not evident. Two important gaps exist in research and practice: (1) Attention to sexual issues and whole-person care. (2) Attention to quality of sexual life. Future qualitative studies on sexual dysfunction could provide a useful adjunct to current literature which is predominantly biomedical in its approach. PMID:25709179

  1. 'As a man I felt small': a qualitative study of Ugandan men's experiences of living with a wife suffering from obstetric fistula.

    PubMed

    Barageine, Justus Kafunjo; Faxelid, Elisabeth; Byamugisha, Josaphat K; Rubenson, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    The effects of obstetric fistula surpass the individual woman and affect husbands, relatives, peers and the community at large. Few studies have documented the experiences of men who live with wives suffering from fistula. In this study, our objective was to understand how fistula affects these men's lives. We conducted 16 in-depth interviews with men in central and western Uganda. We used thematic narrative analysis and discuss our findings based on Connell's theory of hegemonic masculinity. Findings show that the men's experiences conflicted with Ugandan norms of hegemonic masculinity. However, men had to find other ways of explaining their identity, such as portraying themselves as small men but still be responsible, caring husbands and fathers. The few individuals who married a second wife remained married to the wife with the fistula. These men viewed marriage as a lifetime promise before God and a responsibility that should not end because of a fistula. Poverty, love, care for children and social norms in a patriarchal society compelled the men to persevere in their relationship amidst many challenges.

  2. Gay Xhosa men's experiences of ulwaluko (traditional male initiation).

    PubMed

    Ntozini, Anathi; Ngqangweni, Hlonelwa

    2016-11-01

    This paper explores the lives of gay men undergoing traditional initiation in the Eastern Cape. Nine participants aged between 18 and 26 reported their reasons for becoming traditionally circumcised, which included personal validation of cultural manhood, the desire to conform to societal norms and expectations, and pressure from family members to 'convert' them to heterosexuality. While homosexuality remains a target for vilification and abuse both in Southern Africa and across the African continent, practices such as ulwaluko (traditional male initiation) must surely be among the most threatening to a young gay Xhosa man's self-esteem. PMID:27232591

  3. Machismo and Mexican American men: an empirical understanding using a gay sample.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Fernando; Rigali-Oiler, Marybeth; Arciniega, G Miguel; Tracey, Terence J G

    2011-07-01

    Machismo continues to be a defining aspect of Mexican American men that informs a wide array of psychological and behavioral dimensions. Although strides have been made in this area of research, understanding of the role of this construct in the lives of gay men remains incomplete. Our purpose in this study was to gain a deeper understanding of machismo using a sample of Mexican American gay men. This study examined for the first time whether a 2-factor model of machismo previously validated with heterosexual, Mexican American men generalized to a sample of 152 gay men of similar ethnic background. Relations between machismo, sexual risk, and internalized homophobia were also explored. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the 2-factor model with the current sample. Results also indicated machismo as predicting internalized homophobia and as an index of risky sex. Limitations are presented and implications are discussed.

  4. Stereotypes of Older Lesbians and Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sara L.; Canetto, Silvia Sara

    2009-01-01

    This study examined stereotypes of older lesbians and gay men. Key findings are that older lesbians and gay men were perceived as similar to older heterosexual women and men with regard to aging stereotypes, such as being judicious. At the same time, sexual minorities were targets of unique stereotypes. Consistent with the implicit inversion…

  5. Epidemiological and molecular characteristics of HIV-1 infection among female commercial sex workers, men who have sex with men and people living with AIDS in Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Aguayo, Nicolas; Laguna-Torres, Victor Alberto; Villafane, Margarita; Barboza, Alma; Sosa, Liliana; Chauca, Gloria; Carrion, Gladys; Coenca, Beatriz; Perez, Juan; Galeano, Adolfo; Bautista, Christian T; Sanchez, Jose L; Carr, Jean K; Kochel, Tadeusz

    2008-01-01

    An HIV seroprevalence and molecular study was conducted among 935 subjects: 723 female commercial sex workers, 92 men who have sex with men and 120 HIV-positive volunteers. The reported injection drug use rates were 0.7% in female commercial sex workers and 3% in men who have sex with men. Sexually transmitted infections were reported in 265 (37%) of the female commercial sex workers and 38 (41%) of the men who have sex with men. A total of 20 (2.8%) female commercial sex workers and 12 (13%) men who have sex with men became HIV infected during the study period. A history of sexually transmitted infection increased the risk of subsequent HIV infection twofold (adjusted odds ratio of 2.5) among the female commercial sex workers, while cocaine use had an adjusted odds ratios of 6.61 among men who have sex with men. From 130 samples, and based on heteroduplex mobility assaying for the env gene, with sequencing of part of pol and/or full genomes, subtype B was the predominant subtype identified (66%); followed by subtype F (22%) and subtype C (4%). Recombinant CRF12-BF strains were identified in 6% and CRF17_BF was identified in 2%.

  6. Dietary intervention with cooking instructions and self-monitoring of the diet in free-living hypertensive men.

    PubMed

    Kitaoka, Kaori; Nagaoka, Junko; Matsuoka, Tomomi; Shigemura, Chieko; Harada, Kiyomi; Aoi, Wataru; Wada, Sayori; Asano, Hiroaki; Sakane, Naoki; Higashi, Akane

    2013-01-01

    The control of blood pressure (BP) is important in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a dietary educational program for free-living, high-normal, and stage 1 or 2 hypertensive men. The participants were volunteers aged 40-75 years who agreed to the intervention. They were divided into two groups: 39 men for the intervention group and 32 men for the control group. BP, urinary sodium and potassium excretion, dietary and lifestyle data, and nonfasting venous blood sample were collected at baseline and after the intervention period. The intervention was designed to decrease sodium level with an emphasis on a decrease in the consumption of salted foods and to increase potassium level with an emphasis on an increase in the consumption of fruit and vegetables through cooking instructions and self-monitoring of the diet. At the baseline, there were no significant differences observed between the groups, except the diastolic BP. In the intervention group, a greater decrease in the urinary sodium-to-potassium excretion ratio was observed, compared with the control group (net difference 0.6, P = .029). The systolic and diastolic BP (mm Hg) decreased in the intervention group (149.0-143.0, P = .073; 93.0-87.0, P = .002), but no changes were observed in the control group (145.0-143.0, P = .231; 84.9-85.3, P = .381). In the intervention group, the urinary sodium-to-potassium excretion ratio was significantly improved by focusing on cooking instructions and self-monitoring of the diet.

  7. Prevalence of and Barriers to Dual-Contraceptive Methods Use among Married Men and Women Living with HIV in India

    PubMed Central

    Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Kershaw, Trace; Shunmugam, Murali; Newman, Peter A.; Cornman, Deborah H.; Dubrow, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To describe the prevalence and correlates of dual-contraceptive methods use (condoms and an effective pregnancy prevention method) and barriers to their use among married persons living with HIV (PLHIV) in India. Methods. We conducted a quantitative survey (93 men, 97 women), 25 in-depth interviews, seven focus groups, and five key informant interviews. Results. Prevalence of dual- contraceptive method use increased from 5% before HIV diagnosis to 23% after diagnosis (P < 0.001). Condoms were the most common contraceptive method, with prevalence increasing from 13% before diagnosis to 92% after diagnosis (P < 0.001). Barriers to using noncondom contraceptives were lack of discussion about noncondom contraceptives by health care providers, lack of acceptability of noncondom contraceptives among PLHIV, and lack of involvement of husbands in family planning counseling. Conclusion. There is a need for interventions, including training of health care providers, to increase dual-contraceptive methods use among married PLHIV. PMID:22013377

  8. Validity of combining heart rate and uniaxial acceleration to measure free-living physical activity energy expenditure in young men.

    PubMed

    Villars, C; Bergouignan, A; Dugas, J; Antoun, E; Schoeller, D A; Roth, H; Maingon, A C; Lefai, E; Blanc, S; Simon, C

    2012-12-01

    Combining accelerometry (ACC) with heart rate (HR) monitoring is thought to improve activity energy expenditure (AEE) estimations compared with ACC alone to evaluate the validity of ACC and HR used alone or combined. The purpose of this study was to estimate AEE in free-living conditions compared with doubly labeled water (DLW). Ten-day free-living AEE was measured by a DLW protocol in 35 18- to 55-yr-old men (11 lean active; 12 lean sedentary; 12 overweight sedentary) wearing an Actiheart (combining ACC and HR) and a RT3 accelerometer. AEE was estimated using group or individual calibration of the HR/AEE relationship, based on an exercise-tolerance test. In a subset (n = 21), AEE changes (ΔAEE) were measured after 1 mo of detraining (active subjects) or an 8-wk training (sedentary subjects). Actiheart-combined ACC/HR estimates were more accurate than estimates from HR or ACC alone. Accuracy of the Actiheart group-calibrated ACC/HR estimates was modest [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.62], with no bias but high root mean square error (RMSE) and limits of agreement (LOA). The mean bias of the estimates was reduced by one-third, like RMSE and LOA, by individual calibration (ICC = 0.81). Contrasting with group-calibrated estimates, the Actiheart individual-calibrated ACC/HR estimates explained 40% of the variance of the DLW-ΔAEE (ICC = 0.63). This study supports a good level of agreement between the Actiheart ACC/HR estimates and DLW-measured AEE in lean and overweight men with varying fitness levels. Individual calibration of the HR/AEE relationship is necessary for AEE estimations at an individual level rather than at group scale and for ΔAEE evaluation.

  9. Views about HIV/STI and health promotion among gay and bisexual Chinese and South Asian men living in Auckland, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Neville, Stephen; Adams, Jeffery

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic minority gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are considered to have a high risk for HIV infection. The aim of this study was to identify some of the ways Chinese and South Asian MSM talk about and understand issues related to HIV/STI and health promotion, as well as highlighting some of this group's health promoting behaviours. A qualitative study using face-to-face interviews with 44 Chinese and South Asian MSM living in Auckland, New Zealand, was undertaken. Following data analysis, four major themes were identified: the importance of condoms, condom use, HIV/STI practices, and HIV health promotion. The results showed that the men interviewed had a good understanding of the benefits of using condoms for anal sex. They also reported strong recall of the local HIV health promotion campaigns which seek to influence men's behaviours through promotion of a single, unequivocal message to always use a condom for anal sex. The men however did not always report consistent condom use, and a range of reasons why this happened were identified. Among the men who discussed testing practices, regular testing was much more likely to have occurred in men who have lived in New Zealand for more than 5 years. These results suggest that future health promotion initiatives should be tailored to ensure the needs of Chinese and South Asian MSM are appropriately addressed when promoting condom use for anal sex.

  10. Views about HIV/STI and health promotion among gay and bisexual Chinese and South Asian men living in Auckland, New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Neville, Stephen; Adams, Jeffery

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic minority gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are considered to have a high risk for HIV infection. The aim of this study was to identify some of the ways Chinese and South Asian MSM talk about and understand issues related to HIV/STI and health promotion, as well as highlighting some of this group's health promoting behaviours. A qualitative study using face-to-face interviews with 44 Chinese and South Asian MSM living in Auckland, New Zealand, was undertaken. Following data analysis, four major themes were identified: the importance of condoms, condom use, HIV/STI practices, and HIV health promotion. The results showed that the men interviewed had a good understanding of the benefits of using condoms for anal sex. They also reported strong recall of the local HIV health promotion campaigns which seek to influence men's behaviours through promotion of a single, unequivocal message to always use a condom for anal sex. The men however did not always report consistent condom use, and a range of reasons why this happened were identified. Among the men who discussed testing practices, regular testing was much more likely to have occurred in men who have lived in New Zealand for more than 5 years. These results suggest that future health promotion initiatives should be tailored to ensure the needs of Chinese and South Asian MSM are appropriately addressed when promoting condom use for anal sex. PMID:27211584

  11. Views about HIV/STI and health promotion among gay and bisexual Chinese and South Asian men living in Auckland, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Neville, Stephen; Adams, Jeffery

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic minority gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are considered to have a high risk for HIV infection. The aim of this study was to identify some of the ways Chinese and South Asian MSM talk about and understand issues related to HIV/STI and health promotion, as well as highlighting some of this group's health promoting behaviours. A qualitative study using face-to-face interviews with 44 Chinese and South Asian MSM living in Auckland, New Zealand, was undertaken. Following data analysis, four major themes were identified: the importance of condoms, condom use, HIV/STI practices, and HIV health promotion. The results showed that the men interviewed had a good understanding of the benefits of using condoms for anal sex. They also reported strong recall of the local HIV health promotion campaigns which seek to influence men's behaviours through promotion of a single, unequivocal message to always use a condom for anal sex. The men however did not always report consistent condom use, and a range of reasons why this happened were identified. Among the men who discussed testing practices, regular testing was much more likely to have occurred in men who have lived in New Zealand for more than 5 years. These results suggest that future health promotion initiatives should be tailored to ensure the needs of Chinese and South Asian MSM are appropriately addressed when promoting condom use for anal sex. PMID:27211584

  12. Extramarital sex among Nigerian men: polygyny and other risk factors.

    PubMed

    Mitsunaga, Tisha M; Powell, Antonia M; Heard, Nathan J; Larsen, Ulla M

    2005-08-01

    The AIDS epidemic in Nigeria is generalized, with infection primarily occurring through heterosexual transmission. It is important to understand patterns of sexual behavior to assess their impact on the epidemic and to design appropriate intervention strategies. This study examined risk factors for extramarital sex among Nigerian men, with a particular focus on polygyny and peri- and postpartum abstinence. Data from the 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey were analyzed for 1153 men and their wives. Eleven percent of men reported extramarital sex in the previous year. Logistic regression models showed that men with 3 or more wives were at the greatest risk for extramarital sex, followed by monogamous men, when compared with men with 2 wives. Other significant predictors included region, religion, wealth, age at sexual debut, and self-perceived risk of HIV infection. Peri- and postpartum abstinence was not significant. Based on these findings, HIV prevention programs should include men with 3 or more wives and those living in the southwest region, in addition to activities targeting men of all ages. Given the heterogeneity within Nigeria, further in-depth studies should be undertaken to explore the relation between number of wives, peri- and postpartum abstinence, and extramarital sex within specific communities.

  13. A group intervention to improve body image satisfaction and dietary habits in gay and bisexual men living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Matthew B; Torino, Jenny A; Swift, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    A healthy diet is essential to maintaining a strong immune system for people living with HIV and AIDS. Prior studies have shown that HIV-positive gay and bisexual men are more susceptible to poor body image, which can negatively impact dietary habits. Interventions that simultaneously address body image and nutrition are therefore critical for this population. This paper describes the curriculum for a 14-week group designed to improve body image satisfaction and dietary habits in gay and bisexual men living with HIV/AIDS.

  14. Dietary patterns and health and nutrition outcomes in men living with HIV infection123

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Kristy M; Mwamburi, D Mkaya; Newby, PK; Wanke, Christine A

    2009-01-01

    Background Nutritional status is an important determinant of HIV outcomes. Objective We assessed the association between dietary patterns identified by cluster analysis and change in body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2), CD4 count, and viral load (VL). Design HIV-positive adult male subjects (n = 348) with a BMI ≥ 20.5 were evaluated by biochemical, body composition, and dietary data. Cluster analysis was performed on 41 designated food groups derived from 3-d food records. Dietary clusters were compared for sociodemographic, nutrient intake, and clinical outcomes. Multivariate linear regression assessed associations between dietary clusters and change in BMI, CD4 count, and VL. Results We observed 3 dietary patterns: juice and soda; fast food and fruit drinks; and fruit, vegetable, and low-fat dairy. Subjects in the fast food and fruit drinks pattern had the lowest fiber intake, highest VL, and lowest CD4 count and had a lower income than did subjects in the other 2 clusters. Subjects in the fruit, vegetable, and low-fat dairy diet pattern had higher intakes of protein, fiber, and micronutrients and the highest BMI and CD4 count. Subjects in the juice and soda pattern had higher energy intakes and lowest BMI. On average, the fast food and fruit drinks cluster and fruit, vegetable, and low-fat dairy cluster gained 0.33 (P = 0.06) and 0.42 (P = 0.02), respectively, more in BMI than the juice and soda cluster across the study interval in a multivariate model. Conclusions In a cohort of HIV-positive men, we identified 3 distinct dietary patterns; each pattern was associated with specific nutrition, demographic, and HIV-related variables. PMID:19064519

  15. On density differences of some parts of body of men living on hypsometrically contrasting tectonic blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    In microgravity conditions in cosmos above the Earth s surface 100 and more km man diminishes density of its bones losing Ca This phenomenon appears instantaneously after arriving man in orbit If an abrupt hundred km vertical change produces very sharp and prompt result then a smaller vertical difference in terrestrial habitation 1 to 5 km but during thousand and thousand years should have some steady and noticeable results Let us compare some characteristics of man living in two tectonic segments the higher eastern and lower western hemispheres in two tectonic sectors the lower Eurasian and higher Asian sectors in two tectonic granules of Africa Pygmy of the Congolese lowlands and Bushman of the South-African highlands Polynesians of Pacific and Indians of America the western hemisphere have on average higher the Rohrer s index the ratio of body weight to the cube of its height than population of the eastern hemisphere A calf of a Polynesian is 25 longer in circumference than that of Hottentot Hand contraction of a Polynesian on average is stronger than that of a Breton fisherman Crania of the Changos - past Indians of the Atakama desert a very low part of the American continent -- are very strong with thick-bones and with cartilage joining skull bones thickness of skull bones is also a characteristic of other Indians So if an astronaut above loses his calcium an Indian below acquires additional calcium for his bones Composition and quantity of human hairs characteristically changes from uplifted to subsided -

  16. Gay Men: Negotiating Procreative, Father, and Family Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Dana; Marsiglio, William

    2007-01-01

    Our qualitative study examines the social psychology of gay men's experiences with their procreative, father, and family identities. In-depth interviews were conducted with 19 childless gay men and 20 gay men in the United States who have fathered using diverse means excluding heterosexual intercourse. By focusing on men aged 19-55 residing…

  17. Sexual and Intimacy Issues for Aging Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Mark; Wierzalis, Edward A.; Barret, Bob; Rankins, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The authors focus on the special issues involved in providing counseling to aging gay men regarding sex and intimacy. Although the stresses of aging experienced by gay men are similar to those of heterosexual men, older gay men face issues of a stigmatized sexual orientation, invisibility, negative stereotypes, and discrimination regarding aging.

  18. Associations of current marital status and living arrangements with HIV and syphilis risk: findings from a community-based sample of men who have sex with men in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Li, Dongliang; Vermund, Sten H; Zhang, Chen; Ruan, Yuhua; Yin, Lu; Liu, Hongjie; Amico, K Rivet; Shao, Yiming; Qian, Han-Zhu

    2016-11-01

    Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionally affected by HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), but little is known about the role of current marital status and living arrangements in shaping their HIV/syphilis risk. A cross-sectional study was conducted among MSM in Beijing, China to assess their sociodemographic/behavioral characteristics between married and single MSM, and test the hypothesis that currently married MSM have a lower odds of being HIV- and/or syphilis-infected. Participants were recruited via short message services, peer referral, internet, and community outreach. Data collection was based on a questionnaire survey and self-report. Infection status was lab-confirmed. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to assess the association of marital status and living arrangement with HIV/syphilis risk. Of the 3588 MSM, infection prevalence was high (HIV = 12.7%; syphilis = 7.5%). Compared to single MSM living with their boyfriends or male sex partners, single/alone MSM and married MSM living with wives were less likely to practice condomless insertive (CIAI) or receptive (CRAI) anal intercourse with men; while married MSM living with boyfriends or male sex partner were more likely to practice CIAI and CRAI, and married MSM were more likely to practice condomless vaginal sex. Compared to men living with boyfriends/sexual partners, significantly reduced odds of being HIV-positive were seen among married MSM who were living alone (aOR: 0.52; 95%CI: 0.28, 0.94) or living with their wives (aOR: 0.53; 95%CI: 0.31, 0.89). Similarly, single MSM living alone (aOR: 0.67; 95%CI: 0.48, 0.95) and married MSM living with their wives were comparatively less likely to be syphilis-infected (aOR: 0.43; 95%CI: 0.23, 0.79). Future efforts should consider characteristics of marital status and living arrangements for designing subgroup-specific risk reduction strategies among Chinese MSM. PMID:27236988

  19. Street Men, Family Men: Race and Men's Extended Family Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkisian, Natalia

    2007-01-01

    Disorganization theories postulate that black men have largely abandoned their familial roles. Using the NSFH data, this article refutes the hypothesis of black men's familial disengagement by focusing on extended family integration. Black men are more likely than white men to live with or near extended kin, as well as to frequently see kin in…

  20. On the validity of popular masculinity rating scales with gay men.

    PubMed

    Alt, Marcus; Lewis, Adam M; Liu, William Ming; Vilain, Eric; Sánchez, Francisco J

    2014-11-01

    During the past decade, greater quantitative attention has been given to how gay men's lives are affected by traditional notions of masculinity. Consequently, it is important that masculinity-related measures that are often used in research are valid for use with gay men. This study examined the factor structures, loadings, and psychometric properties of three commonly used masculinity-related measures: the Gender Role Conflict Scale, the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory, and the Reference Group Identity Dependence Scale. Data were collected via an online survey of 920 self-identified gay men (M(age) = 32.48 years, SD = 11.73). Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that while the goodness of fit statistics did not always indicate the model fit, there were similar endorsements of items across the three masculinity scales and subscale factor loadings consistent with published studies using mostly heterosexual male samples. Implications for future masculinity scale research on gay men are discussed.

  1. Gay officers in their midst: heterosexual police employees' anticipation of the consequences for coworkers who come out.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Mary; Swartwout, Paul

    2012-01-01

    While fear among gay men and lesbians about being out in a masculinist environment is not surprising, this article examines what heterosexuals expect will happen when gay men and lesbians come out. We draw on a unique dataset from a police department in the southwest United States to examine the consequences anticipated by heterosexual police department employees if a gay or lesbian officer's sexual orientation became known in the workplace. We test four main sets of factors: individual-level demographic characteristics and religious background; homophobia; organizational tolerance for discrimination; and intergroup contact theory to explain how heterosexuals expect gay and lesbian coworkers to be treated. Using ordinary least squares regression, we find that characteristics of workplaces, measured by tolerance of discrimination, as well as contact with gay men and lesbians on the job are more significant predictors of anticipated outcomes than are individual-level traits and homophobic attitudes. We conclude by discussing the policy implications of our research. PMID:22966996

  2. Anal Intercourse among Young Heterosexuals in Three US STD Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Gorbach, Pamina M.; Manhart, Lisa E.; Hess, Kristen L.; Stoner, Bradley P.; Martin, David H.; Holmes, King K.

    2016-01-01

    Background To examine factors associated with heterosexual anal intercourse (AI). Methods Between 2001 and 2004, 890 heterosexual adults aged 18-26 attending public STD clinics in Seattle, New Orleans and St Louis were interviewed using CASI and tested for sexually transmitted infections (STI) Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, and genital herpes (HSV-2). Characteristics associated with AI were identified using logistic regression. Results Overall 289 (32%) reported ever having had AI, 201 (26.5%) reported AI with at least one of their last three partners and 17% reported AI with their last partner. Fewer females than males reported condom use at last AI (24% vs. 47%, p<0.001). Ever having AI was associated with sex on the same day as meeting a partner (AOR 3.5 [95% CI 1.94-6.15]), receiving money for sex (AOR 3.3 [1.40-7.75]), and >3 lifetime sex partners (AOR 2.2 [1.17-4.26]) among women, and sex on the same day as meeting a partner (AOR 2.0 [1.28-3.14]) and paying for sex (AOR 1.8 [1.00-3.15]) among men. AI with the last partner was associated with sex toy use (AOR 5.3 [2.35-12.0]) and having concurrent partners (AOR 2.3 [1.18-4.26]) among men, and with sex within a week of meeting (AOR 2.7 [1.21-5.83]), believing the partner was concurrent (AOR 2.6 [1.38-4.83]), and partnership duration >3 months (AOR 3.2 [1.03-10.1]) among women. Prevalent STI was not associated with AI. Conclusions Many young heterosexuals attending STD clinics reported AI, which was associated with other sexual risk behaviors, suggesting a confluence of risks for HIV infection. PMID:19265740

  3. Disturbance of Antioxidant Enzymes and Purine Metabolism in the Ejaculate of Men Living in Disadvantaged Areas of Kyzylorda Region

    PubMed Central

    Kislitskaya, Valentihna N.; Kenzhin, Zhandos D.; Kultanov, Berikbay Zh.; Dosmagambetova, Raushan S.; Turmuhambetova, Anar A.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Objective of the study was to evaluate the state of the main indicators of antioxidant status and enzymes of purine metabolism in the germ cells of men living in the zone of ecological catastrophe Aral Sea region. METHODS: The criterion for inclusion is the stay of an adult in the Aral Sea area is not less than 5 years, employment in occupations with no more than 2 hazard class. Determination of the activity of adenosine deaminase (ADA) was conducted in semen by the method of Nemechek et al., 1993. Determination of the activity of catalase (CAT) was performed according by the method of Korolyuk et al., 1988. RESULTS: Results of the study indicate a change in the activity of catalase and adenosine deaminase, due to increased levels of oxidative stress and the development of the pathological process. CONCLUSIONS: According to the results of study, it was put the influence of negative factors of the Aral Sea region in men’s sperm of reproductive age gives to disability free-radical processes, that proves changing of ferments of ant oxidative protection Catalase and adenosine deaminase (ADA). This disturbance in men’s sperm of reproductive age leading to increased level of oxidative stress and impaired activity of antioxidant enzymes and purine metabolism, responsible for the abnormal transmembrane and intracellular processes, reflecting the degree of imbalance of enzymes. PMID:27275276

  4. Gender differences regarding preferences for specific heterosexual practices.

    PubMed

    Purnine, D M; Carey, M P; Jorgensen, R S

    1994-01-01

    Few investigations of sexual attitudes have restricted their focus to individuals' preferences for specific behaviors within a heterosexual relationship. None have examined gender differences in a broad and multidimensional array of such behavioral particulars. As part of an effort to develop a measure of preferred scripts in heterosexual couples, 258 men and women reported how much they agreed or disagreed with 74 statements of preference. A reduced and factor analyzed questionnaire included 38 items and was administered to a second sample (N = 228). Results offer qualified support that, compared to women, men are more erotophilic and show a stronger preference for incorporating erotic materials as well as drugs and alcohol into sexual relations with their partner. These results were more robust in the second sample, in which almost half of the subjects were tested in same-sex groups. Across both samples, women showed stronger preferences for activities reflecting romanticism. No gender differences were evident in sexual conventionality or in preference regarding the general use of contraceptives. However, results suggest that both sexes respond more favorably to a partner-focused or unspecified contraceptive method than to a self-focused method. PMID:7897676

  5. Association of social determinants of health with self-rated health among Australian gay and bisexual men living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Koelmeyer, Rachel; English, Dallas R; Smith, Anthony; Grierson, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Despite a vast improvement in the survival of people living with HIV (PLHIV) since the introduction of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART), little change in the self-rated health of PLHIV has been observed since the introduction of cART in Australia. Difficulties with attaining employment or achieving financial security have been noted as some of the key challenges still facing PLHIV in the post-cART era. As a result, we investigated the independent association of a number of key social determinants of health with self-rated health among HIV-positive gay and bisexual men in Australia. Data from two recent national, cross-sectional surveys of PLHIV (the HIV Futures 5 and 6 surveys) were used. Logistic regression was used to assess the independent association of ethnicity, region of residence, education level, employment status, after-tax income, experience of HIV-related discrimination, level of social support, relationship status and recent sexual activity with reporting good-excellent self-rated health, after adjusting for clinical factors and other social determinants of health. Multiple imputation was used to estimate missing data for variables with >5% missing data. Of the 1713 HIV-positive gay/bisexual men who responded to the HIV Futures 5 and 6 surveys, information on self-rated health was available for 99.3%. Close to three-quarters of these respondents (72.1%) reported their self-rated health as good or excellent; the remainder (27.9%) reported their self-rated health as poor or fair. In multivariable analysis involving 89.3% of respondents, being employed, reporting recent sexual activity, a greater number of sources of social support and a higher weekly after-tax income were found to be independently associated with reporting good-excellent self-rated health. Despite the inability of this study to detect causal associations, addressing barriers to employment and sexual activity, and mechanisms to increase social support, is likely to have

  6. Heterosexual Seduction in the Urban Night Context: Behaviors and Meanings.

    PubMed

    Brak-Lamy, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an anthropological analysis of heterosexual seduction behaviors of men and women (from 18 to 65 years old, with varying civil status) who attended nightclubs located in the movida areas of Lisbon, Portugal. These behaviors were analyzed according to structure versus communitas theories. Nighttime seduction behaviors were observed and recorded in a field diary, and in-depth semistructured interviews with 60 men and 60 women were conducted. Interviews were analyzed using the thematic content analysis model. Results suggested that the communitas domain was evinced in the various seduction strategies. These courtship behaviors tended to follow a specific pattern: nonverbal seduction, visual seduction, verbal seduction, and acting-consisting of caresses, touches, and kisses. When this escalation process evoked positive responses, it generally culminated in the complete synchrony of movements between the two bodies. The seduction process encompassed both masculine and feminine initiatives: Women engaged primarily in nonverbal and visual seduction, while men appeared to orchestrate verbal courtship and acting. However, sometimes men and women did not want to seduce or be seduced because they were married (especially women) or were with their partners (especially young men) and did not want to endanger the structure domain.

  7. Heterosexual Seduction in the Urban Night Context: Behaviors and Meanings.

    PubMed

    Brak-Lamy, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an anthropological analysis of heterosexual seduction behaviors of men and women (from 18 to 65 years old, with varying civil status) who attended nightclubs located in the movida areas of Lisbon, Portugal. These behaviors were analyzed according to structure versus communitas theories. Nighttime seduction behaviors were observed and recorded in a field diary, and in-depth semistructured interviews with 60 men and 60 women were conducted. Interviews were analyzed using the thematic content analysis model. Results suggested that the communitas domain was evinced in the various seduction strategies. These courtship behaviors tended to follow a specific pattern: nonverbal seduction, visual seduction, verbal seduction, and acting-consisting of caresses, touches, and kisses. When this escalation process evoked positive responses, it generally culminated in the complete synchrony of movements between the two bodies. The seduction process encompassed both masculine and feminine initiatives: Women engaged primarily in nonverbal and visual seduction, while men appeared to orchestrate verbal courtship and acting. However, sometimes men and women did not want to seduce or be seduced because they were married (especially women) or were with their partners (especially young men) and did not want to endanger the structure domain. PMID:24483605

  8. The "Marital" Liaisons of Gay Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harry, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Reports research on the nature of enduring sexual liaisons among homosexual men. Such relationships vary widely and may be subinstitutional adaptions to lack of community support. Gay men committed to the heterosexual world were less likely to enter enduring relationships. Open marriage is the more enduring form of gay male liaisons. (Author)

  9. Prevention options for positives: the effects of a health communication intervention for men who have sex with men living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Lapinski, Maria Knight; Randall, Liisa M; Peterson, Mark; Peterson, Amy; Klein, Katherine A

    2009-09-01

    This article reports the results of a small-scale quasi-experiment that tested the efficacy of the Prevention Options for Positives intervention. The experiment tested for the outcomes of group sessions combined with individual-level counseling (ILC) versus ILC-only for men who have sex with men who are HIV positive. Both arms of the intervention were based on behavior change theory and dealt specifically with communication outcomes. The results indicate that the group- and individual-level interventions combined have a greater impact on risk communication behaviors with main partners than did the ILC-only sessions. group-session/ILC participants were more likely to decide not to have sex if they were drunk or high, and more likely to tell their partner and ask their partner about HIV status than were participants in the ILC groups. Knowledge about HIV was relatively high, and there was little change across groups. The Prevention Options for Positives intervention influenced the relative importance of various referent groups, but normative beliefs were not affected. The implications of these findings for communication practice and research with HIV-positive men who have sex with men are addressed. PMID:19735033

  10. Gender differences in pornography consumption among young heterosexual Danish adults.

    PubMed

    Hald, Gert Martin

    2006-10-01

    The aims of the study were (1) to investigate gender differences in pornography consumption among Danish adults aged 18-30 and (2) to examine gender differences in situational, interpersonal, and behavioral characteristics of pornography consumption. A national survey study was conducted using a representative sample of 688 young heterosexual Danish adult men and women. The study found large gender differences in prevalence rates of pornography consumption and consumption patterns. Compared to women, men were exposed to pornography at a younger age, consumed more pornography as measured by time and frequency, and used pornography more often during sexual activity on their own. Gender differences in the interpersonal context of use were also evident, with women using pornography more often with a regular sexual partner than men. In turn, men were found to use pornography more often on their own or with friends (non-sexual partners) than women. For both men and women, the usual place of use was home and no significant gender difference was found in this regard. Men and women were found to vary in their preferences in pornographic materials, with men both preferring a wider range of hardcore pornography and less softcore pornography than women. Gender differences in sexual behavioral factors were limited to masturbation patterns with men masturbating more than women. Male gender, higher frequency of masturbation, lower age at first exposure, and younger age were found to account for 48.8% of the total variance of pornography consumption. The results were discussed in relation to the sociocultural environment and evolutionary theory. It is argued that gender differences in social acceptability, adherence to gender stereotypes, traditions of gender sexuality, gender norms, and mating strategies are key factors in understanding gender differences in pornography consumption.

  11. Misclassification of men with reported HIV infection in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Čakalo, Jurja-Ivana; Božičević, Ivana; Vitek, Charles; Mandel, Jeffrey S; Salyuk, Tetyana; Rutherford, George W

    2015-10-01

    We analyzed data on reported mode of transmission in case reports of HIV-infections among men in Ukraine. The number of men who were reported to have acquired HIV through heterosexual transmission increased substantially in 2006-2011. However, we estimate that up to 40 % of reported cases of heterosexual transmission among men may actually represent misclassified men who have sex with men or persons who inject drugs. These findings indicate a need to improve the quality of data on reported mode of HIV transmission. Accurate information has important public health implications in planning prevention and treatment services.

  12. “At times, I feel like I’m sinning”: The paradoxical role of non-LGBT-affirming religion in the lives of behaviourally bisexual Latino men

    PubMed Central

    Severson, Nicolette; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Kaufman, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we examine non-LGBT-affirming religiosity among behaviourally bisexual Latino men as it relates to sexual attitudes, experiences, and behaviours. We asked, how does religiosity correspond to masculine identities, sex roles, and condom efficacy? And, how might religiosity influence contexts of health risks? Data was analysed from a mixed-methods study of 142 behaviourally bisexual Latino men, aged 18–60 years. Major findings included positive correlations between religiosity and a) masculine ideologies, b) internalised homonegativity, c) less comfort with receptive sex, d) low condom efficacy, and e) higher levels of loneliness and incidents of discriminatory events. Results are paired with illustrative, descriptive case studies from life history interviews. It is suggested that non-LGBT-affirming religiosity plays a paradoxical role in the lives of behaviourally bisexual Latino men: on one hand, increasing internalised homonegativity and attendant health risks; on the other, providing social support to members of a marginalised population. PMID:24261850

  13. Risk of malnutrition is associated with mental health symptoms in community living elderly men and women: The Tromsø Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Little research has been done on the relationship between malnutrition and mental health in community living elderly individuals. In the present study, we aimed to assess the associations between mental health (particularly anxiety and depression) and both the risk of malnutrition and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) in a large sample of elderly men and women from Tromsø, Norway. Methods In a cross-sectional survey, with 1558 men and 1553 women aged 65 to 87 years, the risk of malnutrition was assessed by the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool ('MUST'), and mental health was measured by the Symptoms Check List 10 (SCL-10). BMI was categorised into six groups (< 20.0, 20.0-22.4, 22.5-24.9, 25.0-27.4, 27.5-29.9, ≥ 30.0 kg/m2). Results The risk of malnutrition (combining medium and high risk) was found in 5.6% of the men and 8.6% of the women. Significant mental health symptoms were reported by 3.9% of the men and 9.1% of the women. In a model adjusted for age, marital status, smoking and education, significant mental health symptoms (SCL-10 score ≥ 1.85) were positively associated with the risk of malnutrition (odds ratio 3.9 [95% CI 1.7-8.6] in men and 2.5 [95%CI 1.3-4.9] in women), the association was positive also for subthreshold mental health symptoms. For individuals with BMI < 20.0 the adjusted odds ratio for significant mental health symptoms was 2.0 [95% CI 1.0-4.0]. Conclusions Impaired mental health was strongly associated with the risk of malnutrition in community living elderly men and women and this association was also significant for subthreshold mental health symptoms. PMID:21762535

  14. The Influence of Substance Use, Social Sexual Environment, Psychosocial Factors, and Partner Characteristics on High-Risk Sexual Behavior Among Young Black and Latino Men Who Have Sex with Men Living with HIV: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Alexandra; Burrell-Piggott, Tiphani; Bleakley, Amy; Birnbaum, Jeffrey; Siegel, Karolynn; Lekas, Helen-Marie; Schrimshaw, Eric; Cohall, Alwyn; Ramjohn, Destiny

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Understanding the sexual risk behaviors of youths living with HIV/AIDS is critical to secondary prevention of HIV. As part of a larger qualitative study of youths living with HIV, in-depth interviews were conducted with 27 African American and Latino, HIV-infected young men who have sex with men, aged 16–24 years, living in New York City. The study explored the role of substance use, the social-sexual-environmental, and psychological contexts in which sexual risk behaviors occurred. Since learning of their HIV infection, the majority of participants had reduced their risky sexual behaviors; however, a subset (26%) of participants continued to have unprotected sex, in most cases with multiple partners. Substance use, the social environmental context of the sexual encounter, the psychological impact of HIV on sexual behavior, and partner characteristics were associated with high-risk sexual behaviors in this group. Among high-risk participants, factors associated with risky sexual behaviors clustered, with 57% reporting two or more factors. More intensive interventions are needed for this subset of youths living with HIV, including assessment and treatment for substance use and mental health issues, strategies for stress reduction, and partner interventions. PMID:21235387

  15. Tal Como Somos/just as we are: an educational film to reduce stigma toward gay and bisexual men, transgender individuals, and persons living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Kuhns, Lisa M; Manjarrez, Dianna

    2014-04-01

    In this article, the authors describe the development and dissemination of a film-based educational intervention to reduce negative attitudes toward gay and bisexual men, transgender women, and people living with HIV/AIDS in Latino communities, with a focus on youth. The intervention, Tal Como Somos/Just as We Are, is based on stigma and attribution theories, extensive formative research, and community input. Evaluation findings among educators and school youth suggest the film has the potential to effectively influence attitudes toward gay and bisexual men, transgender women, and people living with HIV/AIDS. The film and intervention are being disseminated using diffusion of innovations theory through community-based organizations, schools, television broadcasting, and film festivals. PMID:24377496

  16. Tal Como Somos/just as we are: an educational film to reduce stigma toward gay and bisexual men, transgender individuals, and persons living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Kuhns, Lisa M; Manjarrez, Dianna

    2014-04-01

    In this article, the authors describe the development and dissemination of a film-based educational intervention to reduce negative attitudes toward gay and bisexual men, transgender women, and people living with HIV/AIDS in Latino communities, with a focus on youth. The intervention, Tal Como Somos/Just as We Are, is based on stigma and attribution theories, extensive formative research, and community input. Evaluation findings among educators and school youth suggest the film has the potential to effectively influence attitudes toward gay and bisexual men, transgender women, and people living with HIV/AIDS. The film and intervention are being disseminated using diffusion of innovations theory through community-based organizations, schools, television broadcasting, and film festivals.

  17. Trust, Respect and Friendship: The Key Attributes of Significant Others in the Lives of Young Working Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    du Plessis, Karin; Corney, Tim

    2011-01-01

    A sample of 146 male construction industry apprentices (predominantly young men) in Australia self-reported on their significant relationships, as well as the key attributes of these relationships. The findings indicated that the young men shared events, disclosed confidences and looked for help and support from family, romantic partners and close…

  18. Longitudinal Disparities of Hazardous Drinking between Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Individuals from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Dermody, Sarah S.; Marshal, Michael P.; Cheong, JeeWon; Burton, Chad; Hughes, Tonda; Aranda, Frances; Friedman, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual minority (lesbian and gay, bisexual, mostly heterosexual) individuals are at an increased risk for hazardous drinking than heterosexual individuals, but little is known about the nature of the disparities as adolescents reach adulthood. We used four waves of a nationally representative data set, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), to examine disparities of hazardous drinking outcomes between sexual minority and heterosexual men and women from adolescence to young adulthood. Participants were 14 to 18 years old at the first assessment (N = 12,379; 53% female) and 27 to 31 years old at the fourth assessment. At the fourth assessment, 13% self-identified as sexual minority individuals, 16% were Hispanic, and 36% were of minority race, including primarily African Americans (60%) and Asian Americans (18%). There were clear hazardous drinking disparities between sexual minority individuals and heterosexual individuals over time. During adolescence, sexual minority individuals, particularly females, reported higher levels of hazardous drinking. As study participants reached adulthood, the magnitude of the hazardous drinking disparities increased among sexual minorities, sexual minority men in particular. Additional research is needed to better understand the developmental mechanisms that underlie the emerging sexual orientation related disparities of hazardous drinking in young adulthood. PMID:23325141

  19. Sexual Orientation Prototypicality and Well-Being Among Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Adults.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Brian A; Meuwly, Nathalie; Davila, Joanne; Eaton, Nicholas R; Yoneda, Athena

    2015-07-01

    The current study examined the associations between sexual orientation prototypicality--or the extent to which an individual's attractions or sexual behaviors are similar to others in the same sexual orientation category--and several indicators of well-being (depressive symptoms, loneliness, and self-esteem). Data were analyzed from a sample of 586 self-identified heterosexual and sexual minority (lesbian/gay and bisexual) men and women who completed an online survey. We used k-means cluster analysis to assign individuals to sexual orientation clusters (resulting in heterosexual and sexual minority clusters) based on dimensions of same-sex and other-sex attractions (emotional, romantic, and sexual) and sexual behavior. Sexual orientation prototypicality was operationalized as the Euclidean distance between an individual's position in the cluster and their cluster centroid. Lower sexual orientation prototypicality (i.e., greater Euclidean distance from one's cluster centroid) was significantly associated with higher depressive symptoms, higher loneliness, and lower self-esteem for men and women; results did not significantly differ for self-identified heterosexuals versus sexual minorities. Although self-identified sexual orientation and sexual orientation prototypicality were both associated with well-being for women, only sexual orientation prototypicality was associated with well-being for men. Findings suggest that sexual orientation prototypicality may be a better indicator of well-being than sexual orientation for men. Further, sexual orientation prototypicality appears to play a significant role in well-being for women.

  20. 'Coz football is what we all have': masculinities, practice, performance and effervescence in a gender-sensitised weight-loss and healthy living programme for men.

    PubMed

    Bunn, Christopher; Wyke, Sally; Gray, Cindy M; Maclean, Alice; Hunt, Kate

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we use a social practice approach to explore men's experience of Football Fans in Training (FFIT), a group-based weight management programme for men that harnesses men's symbolic attachment to professional football clubs to engage them in lifestyle change. FFIT is delivered by community coaches in clubs' stadia and is gender-sensitised in relation to context, content and style of delivery. Using a 'toolkit' of concepts from the work of Bourdieu, Goffman and Durkheim we analysed data from 13 focus group discussions with participants, and fieldwork notes from programme observations to investigate the appeal and success of FFIT, and how it worked to support change. Our analysis builds on our work on the importance of shared symbolic commitment to the football club and being with 'men like me' to understand how the interaction context facilitated 'effervescent' experiences. These experiences encouraged men to make changes to their diet and physical activity, talk about them, practice performing them and implement them in their lives. Thus a social practice approach illuminated the social processes through which lifestyle change was achieved, and we argue that it can deepen and enrich both intervention design and evaluation. PMID:26864994

  1. 'Coz football is what we all have': masculinities, practice, performance and effervescence in a gender-sensitised weight-loss and healthy living programme for men.

    PubMed

    Bunn, Christopher; Wyke, Sally; Gray, Cindy M; Maclean, Alice; Hunt, Kate

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we use a social practice approach to explore men's experience of Football Fans in Training (FFIT), a group-based weight management programme for men that harnesses men's symbolic attachment to professional football clubs to engage them in lifestyle change. FFIT is delivered by community coaches in clubs' stadia and is gender-sensitised in relation to context, content and style of delivery. Using a 'toolkit' of concepts from the work of Bourdieu, Goffman and Durkheim we analysed data from 13 focus group discussions with participants, and fieldwork notes from programme observations to investigate the appeal and success of FFIT, and how it worked to support change. Our analysis builds on our work on the importance of shared symbolic commitment to the football club and being with 'men like me' to understand how the interaction context facilitated 'effervescent' experiences. These experiences encouraged men to make changes to their diet and physical activity, talk about them, practice performing them and implement them in their lives. Thus a social practice approach illuminated the social processes through which lifestyle change was achieved, and we argue that it can deepen and enrich both intervention design and evaluation.

  2. Sexual Beginners: Accounting for First Sexual Intercourse in Italian Young People's Heterosexual Biographies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrero Camoletto, Raffaella

    2011-01-01

    Based on survey data of 1000 young people aged 18-29 and semi-structured interviews with 51 young people aged 18-34 living in a north-western Italian region, the article explores how they account for their first heterosexual intercourse. Young people describe and make sense of their experiences by referring to sexual scripts; narrative sequences…

  3. Areas of Conflict for Gay, Lesbian, and Heterosexual Couples: What Couples Argue about Influences Relationship Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurdek, Lawrence A.

    1994-01-01

    Examined data on frequency with which relationship conflict is experienced in specific content areas and relationship satisfaction for both partners of 75 gay, 51 lesbian, and 108 heterosexual couples who lived together without children. Couple scores fell into six clusters that represented areas of conflict regarding power, social issues,…

  4. Relationship Agreements and Willingness to Participate in Couples HIV Testing and Counseling Among Heterosexuals in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jeb S; Stephenson, Rob; Wall, Kristin M; Sullivan, Patrick S

    2014-01-01

    Couples HIV testing and counseling (CHTC) has been used for more than 20 years in African settings and more recently among men who have sex with men in the United States, but little is known about willingness of heterosexuals in the U.S. to use CHTC. We conducted an online survey of heterosexuals in sexual relationships to assess willingness to use CHTC and willingness to discuss relationship agreements within a couples counseling session. We found moderate levels of willingness to use CHTC and somewhat higher levels of willingness to discuss relationship agreements in a couples counseling session. The most frequently cited reason people were not willing was that they did not perceive themselves or their partners to be at risk for HIV. These results will be useful in planning for CHTC implementation for heterosexuals in the U.S. PMID:25553143

  5. The Attitudes of Australian Heterosexual University Students toward the Suicide of Gay, Lesbian and Heterosexual Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molloy, Mari; McLaren, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    This study sought to examine the attitudes of heterosexual university students to peer suicide when that peer was gay, lesbian, or heterosexual. University students (n = 206) completed several questionnaires, including The Suicide Attitude Vignette Experience. Results indicated that the suicide act was seen as more justified, acceptable, and…

  6. Differences between matched heterosexual and non-heterosexual college students on defense mechanisms and psychopathological symptoms.

    PubMed

    Biernbaum, Mark A; Ruscio, Michele

    2004-01-01

    Differences between heterosexual and non-heterosexual college students on measures of defense mechanisms and psychopathological symptoms were examined. Fifty-six (28 heterosexual, 28 non-heterosexual) subjects were drawn from a larger study of college student adjustment. Non-heterosexual subjects were matched to a heterosexual peer on several demographic variables as well as on attachment security/insecurity. Differences between the two groups on the Defense Mechanism Inventory and the Brief Symptom Inventory were tested. Contrary to traditional psychoanalytic conceptions of homosexuality, no differences were found between the two groups on any subscale of the Defense Mechanism Inventory, thereby repudiating one important aspect of traditional psychoanalytic theories on the development of homosexuality. Non-heterosexual students reported significantly higher levels of anxiety, depression, somaticization, paranoid ideation, general symptom severity, and suicidal ideation. These students appear to be at increased risk for psychopathology and suicidal ideation, despite similar defense profiles, when compared to matched heterosexual peers. Additional research is needed to determine the origins of this increased risk, and comprehensive and targeted prevention and intervention programs must be established to ameliorate such risks.

  7. Dating violence among gay men in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Liu, Kirin Qilin

    2013-08-01

    This is the first study on the prevalence of dating violence and threats of being forced to "come out of the closet" among Chinese gay men. Data on social demographic information and the experience of dating violence, including types of abuse, threats of "outing," and the gender of abusers were collected from 418 gay men and 330 heterosexual men by self-administered questionnaires. Mann-Whitney U test, χ(2) test, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to test group differences. Up to 32.8% of the gay men had experienced one abuse or more. Among those experiencing abuse, 83.9% of the gay men never told anyone about their abuse. The experience of any form of abuse by gay men was 5.07 times higher than the rate of abuse among heterosexual men controlling for age in logistic regression models. In addition, 12.4% of the gay men have experienced the threat of being outed. Overall, dating violence is more prevalent in gay men than in heterosexuals. Efforts to prevent dating violence, especially among gay men, should be made in China.

  8. Community and Individual Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Rice, Eric; Schrager, Sheree M.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Richardson, Jean; Kipke, Michele D.

    2012-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) have higher rates of cigarette smoking than their heterosexual counterparts, yet few studies have examined factors associated with cigarette smoking among YMSM. The present study sought to understand how different types of gay community connection (i.e., gay community identification and involvement, gay bar…

  9. The inventory of dyadic heterosexual preferences: development and psychometric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Purnine, D M; Carey, M P; Jorgensen, R S

    1996-04-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of an instrument that measures preferences for specific sexual behaviors of heterosexual men and women in a dyadic context. In Study 1, 74 statements of preference were reduced to 46 on the basis of reliability and range of responses. Factor analysis revealed that 27 of the 46 items loaded on 6 factors: Erotophilia, Use of Contraception, Conventionality, Use of Erotica, Use of Drugs/Alcohol, and Romanticism. In Study 2, factor analysis of fresh data from a second sample cross-validated these results. To establish construct validity of the revised 27-item Inventory of Dyadic Heterosexual Preferences (IDHP), relationships between each of its 6 scales and 6 criterion measures were examined. These analyses suggested that the last scale is more accurately characterized by the term Romantic Foreplay. We conclude that the IDHP measures 6 distinct domains of sexual preference with a brief, psychometrically sound instrument. Potential applications of the IDHP, suggestions for future research, and strengths and limitations of the current investigation are discussed. PMID:8871371

  10. Serum CETP and PLTP activity in middle-aged men living in urban or rural area of the Lower Silesia region. PURE Poland sub-study

    PubMed Central

    Wojakowska, Anna; Turczyn, Barbara; Zatońska, Katarzyna; Wołyniec, Maria; Szuba, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The dependence of lipid transfer proteins on significant pro-atherogenic factors is unclear. The aim of the study was to evaluate serum cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) activity in relation to lipid disturbances in men living in an urban or rural area. Material and methods A group of 427 men, volunteers for the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) sub-study – 263 urban inhabitants (aged 51.9 ±6.0) and 164 residents of villages (aged 51.1 ±5.9) – were examined. In the multivariable linear regression model, the following factors were included as potential confounders: age, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption, hs-C-reactive protein reaction (hs-CRP) and co-existence of chronic diseases. Results In multiple linear regression models, site of residence (urban or rural area) was the most important independent and consistent predictor of CETP and PLTP activity; β coefficients (95% CI) for CETP (0.18) and PLTP (–0.29) were significant at levels of p < 0.001. Three-way analysis of variance showed no effect of smoking or moderate alcohol consumption on lipid transfer proteins; however, CETP activity showed an interaction effect between these risk factors. In the group of all men, CETP activity was significantly and positively correlated with total cholesterol (r = 0.24), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = 0.18), and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = 0.21), whereas PLTP activity was correlated with BMI (r = 0.12). Body mass index in rural men was higher than in the urban male population. Conclusions Increased PLTP activity, recognized as a pro-atherogenic factor, and decreased CETP activity, known as a protective factor, both observed in men living in rural areas, are probably conditioned by nutritional and/or genetic factors. PMID:27478449

  11. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Resilience in a National Community-Based Cohort of Australian Gay Men Living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Anthony; Heywood, Wendy; Rozbroj, Tomas

    2016-08-01

    HIV-positive gay men may experience multiple sources of adversity and stress, related both to their HIV diagnosis and sexual identity. Most of these men, however, do not experience mental health problems. Little is known about factors that help them achieve resilience in the face of life challenges. This study examined psychosocial factors associated with resilience in a national community-based sample of 357 Australian HIV-positive gay men. Resilience was measured using the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. Higher levels of resilience were linked with experiencing low or no internalized HIV-related stigma, having no previous history of mental health problems, and a number of socioeconomic indicators. In addition to providing a more complete picture of the mental health of HIV-positive gay men, findings from this study can be used to inform strength-based approaches to mental health prevention and support.

  12. Correlates of homophobia, transphobia, and internalized homophobia in gay or lesbian and heterosexual samples.

    PubMed

    Warriner, Katrina; Nagoshi, Craig T; Nagoshi, Julie L

    2013-01-01

    This research assessed the correlates of homophobia and transphobia in heterosexual and homosexual individuals, based on a theory of different sources of perceived symbolic threat to social status. Compared to 310 heterosexual college students, a sample of 30 gay male and 30 lesbian college students scored lower on homophobia, transphobia, and religious fundamentalism. Mean gender differences were smaller for gay men and lesbians for homophobia, aggressiveness, benevolent sexism, masculinity, and femininity. Fundamentalism, right-wing authoritarianism, and hostile and benevolent sexism were correlated only with homophobia in lesbians, whereas fundamentalism and authoritarianism were correlated only with transphobia in gay men. Correlates of internalized homophobia were different than those found for homophobia and transphobia, which was discussed in terms of gender differences in threats to status based on sexual orientation versus gender identity.

  13. Pheromonal influences on sociosexual behavior in men.

    PubMed

    Cutler, W B; Friedmann, E; McCoy, N L

    1998-02-01

    This study tested whether synthesized human male pheromones increase the sociosexual behavior of men. Thirty-eight heterosexual men, ages 26-42, completed a 2-week baseline period and 6-week placebo-controlled, double-blind trial testing a pheromone "designed to improve the romance in their lives." Each subject kept daily behavioral records for 6 sociosexual behaviors: petting/affection/kissing, formal dates, informal dates, sleeping next to a romantic partner, sexual intercourse, and self-stimulation to ejaculation (masturbation) and FAXed them each week. Significantly more pheromone than placebo users increased above baseline in sexual intercourse and sleeping with a romantic partner. There was a tendency for more pheromone than placebo users to increase above baseline in petting/affection/kissing, and informal dates, but not in self-stimulation to ejaculation or in formal dates. A significantly larger proportion of pheromone than placebo users increased in > or = 2 and > or = 3 of the 5 sociosexual behaviors involving a female partner. Thus, there was a significant increase in male sociosexual behaviors in which a woman's sexual interest and cooperation plays a role but not in male masturbation which involves only the man. These initial data need replication but suggest that human male pheromones affected the sexual attractiveness of men to women. PMID:9494686

  14. Gambling in the Landscape of Adversity in Youth: Reflections from Men Who Live with Poverty and Homelessness

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton-Wright, Sarah; Woodhall-Melnik, Julia; Guilcher, Sara J. T.; Schuler, Andrée; Wendaferew, Aklilu; Hwang, Stephen W.; Matheson, Flora I.

    2016-01-01

    Most of the research on gambling behaviour among youth has been quantitative and focused on measuring prevalence. As a result, little is known about the contextual experiences of youth gambling, particularly among those most vulnerable. In this paper, we explore the previous experiences of youth gambling in a sample of adult men experiencing housing instability and problem gambling. We present findings from a qualitative study on problem gambling and housing instability conducted in Toronto, Canada. Thirty men with histories of problem or pathological gambling and housing instability or homelessness were interviewed. Two thirds of these men reported that they began gambling in youth. Five representative cases were selected and the main themes discussed. We found that gambling began in early life while the men, as youth, were also experiencing adversity (e.g., physical, emotional and/or sexual abuse, neglect, housing instability, homelessness, substance addiction and poverty). Men reported they had access to gambling activity through their family and wider networks of school, community and the streets. Gambling provided a way to gain acceptance, escape from emotional pain, and/or earn money. For these men problematic gambling behaviour that began in youth, continued into adulthood. PMID:27589784

  15. Gambling in the Landscape of Adversity in Youth: Reflections from Men Who Live with Poverty and Homelessness.

    PubMed

    Hamilton-Wright, Sarah; Woodhall-Melnik, Julia; Guilcher, Sara J T; Schuler, Andrée; Wendaferew, Aklilu; Hwang, Stephen W; Matheson, Flora I

    2016-01-01

    Most of the research on gambling behaviour among youth has been quantitative and focused on measuring prevalence. As a result, little is known about the contextual experiences of youth gambling, particularly among those most vulnerable. In this paper, we explore the previous experiences of youth gambling in a sample of adult men experiencing housing instability and problem gambling. We present findings from a qualitative study on problem gambling and housing instability conducted in Toronto, Canada. Thirty men with histories of problem or pathological gambling and housing instability or homelessness were interviewed. Two thirds of these men reported that they began gambling in youth. Five representative cases were selected and the main themes discussed. We found that gambling began in early life while the men, as youth, were also experiencing adversity (e.g., physical, emotional and/or sexual abuse, neglect, housing instability, homelessness, substance addiction and poverty). Men reported they had access to gambling activity through their family and wider networks of school, community and the streets. Gambling provided a way to gain acceptance, escape from emotional pain, and/or earn money. For these men problematic gambling behaviour that began in youth, continued into adulthood. PMID:27589784

  16. Men Learning through Life (and Men's Sheds)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golding, Barry

    2015-01-01

    This "Futures" column shares insights about men's learning beyond work, based on several decades of research in men's learning in international community contexts. The article focuses' particularly on men who want and need to learn to re-create and broaden their identities beyond their working lives. This practice, well established in…

  17. Heterosexual gender relations and masculinity in fathers who smoke.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jae-Yung; Oliffe, John L; Bottorff, Joan L; Kelly, Mary T

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the role of masculinity and heterosexual gender relations in new and expectant fathers' explanations of their continued smoking. We conducted a secondary analysis of in-depth interviews with 20 fathers. Two themes were identified: (1) reconciling with partners to maintain a smoke-free family home; and (2) smoking to self-regulate emotions and maintain relationships. Fathers' decisions to smoke and changes in smoking behavior were shaped by ideals of masculinity and by partner relationships and family and social contexts, including division of domestic duties and childcare. Recognizing the influence of both masculinity and gender relations could provide new directions for supporting men's smoking cessation efforts during early parenthood.

  18. Molecular epidemiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, shows distinct heterosexual and homosexual networks.

    PubMed

    Kolader, Marion-Eliëtte; Dukers, Nicole H T M; van der Bij, Akke K; Dierdorp, Mirjam; Fennema, Johan S A; Coutinho, Roel A; Bruisten, Sylvia M

    2006-08-01

    Molecular typing, added to epidemiological data, can better identify transmission patterns of gonorrhea in Western countries, where the incidence has recently been rising. From September 2002 to September 2003, patients with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of gonorrhea at the Clinic for Sexually Transmitted Infections in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, were subjected to a questionnaire pertaining to sexual risk behavior and sexual partners in the 6 months prior to the diagnosis. The Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates were all genotyped using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of the porin and opacity genes. All patients with a completed questionnaire and genotyped isolates were included in the study. We obtained 885 N. gonorrhoeae isolates from 696 patients that revealed 88 clusters and 46 unique genotypes. Patients infected at multiple anatomical sites with one or more strains and patients infected several times during the study period were shown to pursue high-risk sexual behavior and were considered core groups. There were 11 clusters of > or =20 patients; in seven clusters, 81% to 100% of patients were men who have sex with men (MSM), three clusters contained 87 to 100% heterosexual men and women, and one cluster was formed by equal proportions of MSM and heterosexual male and female patients. However, the various clusters differed in characteristics such as types of coinfections, numbers of sexual partners, Internet use to seek sexual partners, and locations of sexual encounters. Molecular epidemiology of gonococcal isolates in Amsterdam revealed core groups and clusters of MSM and heterosexual patients that probably indicate distinct transmission networks.

  19. Unprotected sex among men who have sex with men living with HIV in Brazil: a cross-sectional study in Rio de Janeiro

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many countries are facing concentrated HIV epidemics among vulnerable populations, including men who have sex with men (MSM). Unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) is the main HIV transmission route among them and its understanding in the different cultures and how it relates to HIV transmission, re-infection and development of HIV antiretroviral resistance has important public health implications. Data on UAI among Brazilian MSM are scarce. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and associated factors of UAI among HIV-infected MSM who had sex with seronegative or male partners with an unknown serostatus. Method A cross-sectional study nested in a cohort was conducted in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The one hundred and fifty five MSM included in the study answered an ACASI interview and provided biological samples. Generalized linear models were used to identify variables associated with UAI. Results Overall, UAI with an HIV-negative or unknown serostatus male partner was reported by 40.6% (63/155) of MSM. Lifetime sexual abuse or domestic violence was reported by 35.9%, being more frequent among MSM who reported UAI compared to those who did not (P = 0.001). Use of stimulants before sex was reported by 20% of the MSM, being slightly higher among those who reported UAI (27.0% vs. 15.2%; P = 0.072). Commercial sex was frequent among all MSM (48.4%). After multivariate modeling, the report of sexual abuse or domestic violence (OR = 2.70; 95% CI: 1.08-7.01), commercial sex (OR = 2.28; 95% CI: 1.04- 5.10), the number of male sexual partners (p = 0.039) and exclusively receptive anal intercourse (OR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.06-0.75) remained associated with UAI. CD4 levels, HIV viral load and antiretroviral therapy were not associated with UAI. Conclusion The UAI prevalence found with negative or unknown HIV status partners points out that other interventions are needed as additional prevention tools to vulnerable MSM. The main factors associated

  20. Individual Factors Determining the Food Behaviours of Single Men Living in Apartments in Montreal as Revealed by Photographs and Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquis, Marie; Manceau, Marilyn

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore men's food behaviours using interviews and photographs. The research specifically looks at the importance of certain individual factors as determinants of food behaviours, namely food preferences, lifestyle, ability to cook, involvement with health and nutrition. Each man received two cameras and a guide…

  1. Parent adjustment over time in gay, lesbian, and heterosexual parent families adopting from foster care.

    PubMed

    Lavner, Justin A; Waterman, Jill; Peplau, Letitia Anne

    2014-01-01

    Although increasing numbers of gay and lesbian individuals and couples are adopting children, gay men and lesbian women continue to face increased scrutiny and legal obstacles from the child welfare system. To date, little research has compared the experiences of gay or lesbian and heterosexual adoptive parents over time, limiting conceptual understandings of the similarities they share and the unique challenges that gay and lesbian adoptive parents may face. This study compared the adoption satisfaction, depressive symptoms, parenting stress, and social support at 2, 12, and 24 months postplacement of 82 parents (60 heterosexual, 15 gay, 7 lesbian) adopting children from foster care in Los Angeles County. Few differences were found between heterosexual and gay or lesbian parents at any of the assessments or in their patterns of change over time. On average, parents in both household types reported significant increases in adoption satisfaction and maintained low, nonclinical levels of depressive symptoms and parenting stress over time. Across all family types, greater parenting stress was associated with more depressive symptoms and lower adoption satisfaction. Results indicated many similarities between gay or lesbian and heterosexual adoptive parents, and highlight a need for services to support adoptive parents throughout the transition to parenthood to promote their well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Conceptualizations of heterosexual anal sex and HIV risk in five East African communities.

    PubMed

    Duby, Zoe; Colvin, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Heterosexual anal sex is underresearched and little understood, particularly in the African context. Existing prevalence data indicate that heterosexual anal sex is a widespread practice, yet little is known about the way in which it is conceptualized and understood. Describing findings from qualitative research conducted in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, we shed light on conceptualizations of heterosexual anal sex and its relation to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These findings suggest that penile-anal sex is practiced by men and women in Africa for a range of reasons, including virginity maintenance, contraception, fulfillment of male pleasure, relationship security, menstruation, in the presence of vaginal complications, financial gain, fidelity, and prestige. Despite anal sex being the most efficient way to transmit HIV sexually, there is widespread lack of knowledge about its risks. These findings describe the ways in which anal sex is conceptualized in five East African communities, highlighting how penile-anal intercourse is often not considered "sex" and how the omission of anal sex in safe-sex messaging is interpreted as meaning that anal sex is safe. In light of its frequency and risks, greater attention must be paid to heterosexual anal sex in Africa to ensure a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention.

  3. Differences between Partners from Heterosexual, Gay, and Lesbian Cohabiting Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurdek, Lawrence A.

    2006-01-01

    Partners from four types of couples without children (gay unmarried, lesbian unmarried, heterosexual unmarried, and heterosexual married, Ns=1,412, 1,310, 1,036, and 1,728, respectively) were compared to partners from heterosexual married couples with children ("N"= 3,116) on mean levels of variables from a model of relationship adjustment as well…

  4. A case of Kaposi sarcoma in an immunocompetent, heterosexual Irish man: a discussion of etiology and viral transmission.

    PubMed

    Florek, Aleksandra G; Eilers, David; Armstrong, April W

    2015-10-01

    Four types of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) have been described, all of which are caused by human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8).  The incidence of KS in the United States is highest among HIV-positive homosexual men and elderly men of Eastern European, Jewish, or Mediterranean descent. However, few reports describe KS in HIV-negative, immunocompetent heterosexual men in the United States. HHV-8 is transmitted largely via saliva and close sexual contact, whereas there are only a handful of reports of transmission via blood and blood products. We report a case of an HIV-negative, immunocompetent heterosexual man who acquired KS via blood transfusion. A 77-year-old immunocompetent, monogamously heterosexual, HIV-negative Irish man presented with a biopsy-proven KS lesion on the right thigh. Past surgical history included a coronary artery bypass graft, during which he received a blood transfusion from an unknown donor source.  His ecchymotic KS lesions progressed while on doxycycline, intralesional vinblastine, and topical anti-angiogenic medications.  The patient eventually achieved stabilization of KS lesions with acitretin. Our case report emphasizes the need to characterize the phenotype and transmission route of HHV-8 in heterosexual, immunocompetent patients in geographic regions with low HHV-8 seroprevalence. PMID:26632797

  5. Conceptualizing Heterosexual Identity Development: Issues and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Rose Marie

    2004-01-01

    This article summarizes the work of R. L. Worthington and J. J. Mohr (2002); R. L. Worthington, H. B. Savoy, F. R. Dillon, and E. R. Vernaglia (2002); and J. J. Mohr (2002) on heterosexual identity development that constituted the Major Contribution section of the July 2002 issue of The Counseling Psychologist. The author provides an overview of…

  6. Heterosexual Risk Behaviors Among Urban Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Lydia; Stueve, Ann; Wilson-Simmons, Renee; Dash, Kim; Agronick, Gail; JeanBaptiste, Varzi

    2006-01-01

    Urban 6th graders (n = 294) participate in a survey assessing early heterosexual risk behaviors as part of the Reach for Health Middle Childhood Study. About half the boys (47%) and 20% of girls report having a girlfriend or boyfriend; 42% of boys and 10% of girls report kissing and hugging for a long time. Stepwise regressions model the…

  7. Homotolerance and Heterosexuality as Norwegian Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothing, Ase; Svendsen, Stine Helena Bang

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, equality between homosexual and heterosexual relationships has increasingly been presented as a marker for Norwegian values. Norwegian schooling encourages tolerance toward homosexuals, and the state shows active interest in counteracting bullying against LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) youth by supporting research…

  8. 'He lacks his fatherhood': safer conception technologies and the biological imperative for fatherhood among recently-diagnosed Xhosa-speaking men living with HIV in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Tonya N; Mantell, Joanne E; Nywagi, Ntobeko; Cishe, Nomazizi; Cooper, Diane

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores notions of fatherhood and their linkages to fertility desires and intentions among a treatment-naïve cohort of Xhosa-speaking male key informants living with HIV, aged 20-53 in Cape Town, South Africa. Analysis is based on an initial 27, and 20 follow-up, interviews with men who were part of a study that assessed the acceptability of safer conception and alternative parenting strategies among men and women newly diagnosed with HIV to inform an intervention. Grounded theory analysis revealed themes related to the cultural imperative of biologically-connected fatherhood. Certain safer-conception strategies aimed at minimising the risk of HIV transmission were perceived as threats to paternity. These findings suggest that understanding of social and cultural beliefs related to notions of paternity and fatherhood may inform the implementation of acceptable safer-conception options for HIV-positive men and their infected and uninfected female partners in a high-HIV prevalence, low-resource setting.

  9. "The Things That Are inside of You Are Horrible": Children and Young Men with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Talk about the Impact of Living with a Long-Term Condition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, David; Carpenter, John

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an inherited, progressive and life-limiting neuromuscular disease that affects boys. During their lives, they experience a series of medical and surgical interventions. Research reported in this paper took place in England with 37 young men living with DMD and their families and explored their experiences of…

  10. Effects of Stigmatization on Gay Men Living with HIV/AIDS in a Central-Eastern European Context: A Qualitative Analysis from Hungary

    PubMed Central

    Takács, J.; Kelly, J.A.; P. Tóth, T.; Mocsonaki, L.; Amirkhanian, Y.A.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study highlights the social dynamics affecting people living with HIV (PLH) in Hungary and in the Central-Eastern European region. The study focused on the special needs and concerns of men living with HIV/AIDS as well as changes in their social relationships and institutional support provision, coping strategies and patterns of social functioning, especially in the context of social stigmatization. Consistent with international qualitative research findings in the field of HIV/AIDS prevention, the present study contributes to a fuller understanding of relationship between sexual behavior, HIV/AIDS related risks and risk perceptions as well as homosexuality-and HIV/AIDS stigma-related social exclusion in a previously under-researched socio-cultural setting. The findings of our study point to several barriers to effective HIV prevention, which should be overcome to improve the present situation by lessening the adverse effects of HIV/AIDS-and homosexuality-related stigma within the gay community, the general population and especially among service providers. One of the main barriers is the lack of public health programs specifically targeting MSM in Hungary, where the predominant mode of HIV transmission remains sex between men. PMID:23439743

  11. Relationships between Lifestyle, Living Environments, and Incidence of Hypertension in Japan (in Men): Based on Participant’s Data from the Nationwide Medical Check-Up

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Mayumi; Yamamoto, Mio; Mure, Kanae; Takeshita, Tatsuya; Arita, Mikio

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate factors that contribute to the differences in incidence of hypertension between different regions in Japan, by accounting for not only individual lifestyles, but also their living environments. The target participants of this survey were individuals who received medical treatment for hypertension, as well as hypertension patients who have not received any treatment. The objective variable for analysis was the incidence of hypertension as data aggregated per prefecture. We used data (in men) including obesity, salt intake, vegetable intake, habitual alcohol consumption, habitual smoking, and number of steps walked per day. The variables within living environment included number of rail stations, standard/light vehicle usage, and slope of habitable land. In addition, we analyzed data for the variables related to medical environment including, participation rate in medical check-ups and number of hospitals. We performed multiple stepwise regression analyses to elucidate the correlation of these variables by using hypertension incidence as the objective variable. Hypertension incidence showed a significant negative correlation with walking and medical check-ups, and a significant positive correlation with light-vehicle usage and slope. Between the number of steps and variables related to the living environment, number of rail stations showed a significant positive correlation, while, standard- and light-vehicle usage showed significant negative correlation. Moreover, with stepwise multiple regression analysis, walking showed the strongest effect. The differences in daily walking based on living environment were associated with the disparities in the hypertension incidence in Japan. PMID:27788198

  12. Correlates of Heterosexual Anal Intercourse Among Substance-Using Club-Goers

    PubMed Central

    Kurtz, Steven P.; Surratt, Hilary L.; Inciardi, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Anal sexual intercourse represents the highest transmission risk for infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), yet much of what we know about anal sex is based on men who have sex with men (MSM). Less is known about heterosexual adults who practice anal sex, especially those who may be at risk for HIV such as substance users. The present study examined the demographic, sexual behaviors, substance use, and psychosocial correlates of recent anal intercourse among a heterosexual young adult sample of nightclub goers who also use substances. Data were drawn from an on-going natural history study of participants (n=597) in Miami's club scene who use club drugs, use prescription medications for non-medical reasons, and were regular attendees of nightclubs. Participants who reported anal sex (n=118) were more likely to be male, of moderate income, Latino, trade sex, have unprotected sex, and report victimization. Event-based and qualitative studies are needed to better understand the context in which anal sex occurs. Interventions that target heterosexual populations should include discussion about the risks of anal sex. PMID:20217224

  13. Sexual Mixing in Shanghai: Are Heterosexual Contact Patterns Compatible With an HIV/AIDS Epidemic?

    PubMed Central

    Merli, M. Giovanna; Moody, James; Mendelsohn, Joshua; Gauthier, Robin

    2015-01-01

    China’s HIV prevalence is low, mainly concentrated among female sex workers (FSWs), their clients, men who have sex with men, and the stable partners of members of these high-risk groups. We evaluate the contribution to the spread of HIV of China’s regime of heterosexual relations, of the structure of heterosexual networks, and of the attributes of key population groups with simulations driven by data from a cross-sectional survey of egocentric sexual networks of the general population of Shanghai and from a concurrent respondent-driven sample of FSWs. We find that the heterosexual network generated by our empirically calibrated simulations has low levels of partner change, strong constraints on partner selection by age and education, and a very small connected core, mainly comprising FSWs and their clients and characterized by a fragile transmission structure. This network has a small HIV epidemic potential but is compatible with the transmission of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as syphilis, which are less susceptible to structural breaks in transmission of infection. Our results suggest that policies that force commercial sex underground could have an adverse effect on the spread of HIV and other STIs. PMID:25904346

  14. Correlates of same-sex attractions and behaviors among self-identified heterosexual university students.

    PubMed

    Morales Knight, Luis F; Hope, Debra A

    2012-10-01

    Few studies have focused on intragroup variations in sexual orientation and fewer on self-identified heterosexuals with same-sex attractions, fantasies, and/or behaviors. Self-identified heterosexual students at a large public midwestern university (N = 263) completed measures of sexuality and gender, attitudes toward lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people, religious and political beliefs, emotional well-being, and demographics. The sample included 82 individuals (31%; labeled "H+") who endorsed same-sex attraction, fantasy, and/or behavior and 181 (69%; labeled "H") who did not. Women were more likely to be categorized as H+ than men. H+ participants had more positive attitudes toward lesbians and gay and bisexual men and reported more support for LGB-positive public policies than did H participants. H+ participants reported less literalistic beliefs about religious scripture than did H participants. H and H+ groups did not differ significantly on measures of emotional well-being. Results were discussed in the context of recent literature arguing for a more nuanced and gender-differentiated approach toward assessing sexual orientation, as well as literature on the flexibility of sexual orientation and on heterosexual identity development.

  15. Understanding the Educational Attainment of Sexual Minority Women and Men*

    PubMed Central

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Everett, Bethany

    2015-01-01

    National studies have not analyzed sexual identity disparities in high school completion, college enrollment, or college completion in the United States. Using Add Health data, we document the relationship between adult sexual orientation and each of these outcomes. Many sexual minority respondents experienced disadvantages in adolescent academic achievement, school experiences, and social environments. This translates into educational attainment in complex, gendered ways. We find that the socially privileged completely heterosexual identity predicts higher educational attainment for women, while for men it is often a liability. Mostly heterosexual and gay identities are educationally beneficial for men but not women. There are college completion disparities between gay and mostly heterosexual women and their completely heterosexual counterparts. Bisexual respondents, especially women, have particularly problematic outcomes. Adolescent experiences, attitudes, and social contexts explain some of these differences. From adolescence through college, sexual minority groups, but especially females, need intervention to reduce substantial educational disparities. PMID:26257457

  16. Like a prayer: the role of spirituality and religion for people living with HIV in the UK.

    PubMed

    Ridge, Damien; Williams, Ian; Anderson, Jane; Elford, Jonathan

    2008-04-01

    Over 40,000 people are now living with diagnosed HIV in the UK. There is, however, uncertainty about how people with HIV use religion or spirituality to cope with their infection. Adopting a modified grounded theory approach, we analysed individual and group interviews with the people most affected by HIV in the UK: black African heterosexual men and women and gay men (mostly white). For the majority of black African heterosexual men and women in our study, religion was extremely important. We found that gay men in the study were less religious than black Africans, although many were spiritual in some way. Black African individuals constructed their spiritual narratives as largely Christian or collective, while gay men described more individualistic or 'New Age' approaches. We developed a six-level heuristic device to examine the ways in which prayer and meditation were deployed in narratives to modulate subjective wellbeing. These were: (i) creating a dialogue with an absent counsellor; (ii) constructing a compassionate 'life scheme'; (iii) interrupting rumination; (iv) establishing mindfulness; (v) promoting positive thinking, and (vi) getting results. That people with HIV report specific subjective benefits from prayer or meditation presents a challenge to secular healthcare professionals and sociologists.

  17. Sexual communication and sexual behavior among young adult heterosexual latinos.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Carmen; Bauermeister, José A; Villarruel, Antonia M

    2014-01-01

    We examined verbal sexual health communication, pleasure discussions, and physical sexual communication in relation to condom use by young adult, heterosexual Latinos (ages 18-30 years). Participants (N = 220, 51% female) were recruited in a Midwestern state. Verbal sexual health communication was positively associated with consistent condom use among men (odds ratio [OR] = 2.66, p < .05) and women (OR = 3.12, p < .05). For men, pleasure discussions were negatively associated with consistent condom use (OR = 0.21, p < .05). For women, verbal sexual health communication was positively associated with condom use at last sex (OR = 2.75, p < .05), whereas physical sexual communication was negatively associated with condom use at last sex (OR = .29, p < .05). Various aspects of sexual communication may be important in HIV-prevention programs with young Latinos. Physical sexual communication and pleasure discussions, in particular, warrant further exploration given negative relationships with condom use.

  18. Gender-role's attitude, perceived similarity, and sexual prejudice against gay men.

    PubMed

    Falomir-Pichastor, Juan Manuel; Martínez, Carmen; Paterna, Consuelo

    2010-11-01

    Two hundred and twenty-six heterosexual participants (115 women and 111 men) were asked to indicate their attitude toward gender-roles, their perceived similarities with gay men, and their attitude toward gay men (i.e., sexual prejudice). As expected, male participants showed more sexual prejudice than female participants, and perceived dissimilarities were related to a greater sexual prejudice. Support for gender-roles was related to sexual prejudice for male participants, but not for female participants. More interestingly, the three-way interaction suggested that perceived similarities moderated the link between gender-roles and sexual prejudice among heterosexual men, but not among heterosexual women. Attitude in favor of traditional gender-roles was related to sexual prejudice for male participants who perceived gay men as different, but not for those who perceived gay men as similar. These findings are discussed in terms of the defensive function of men's attitude toward homosexuality as a result of threat to masculinity.

  19. Comparative Development of Heterosexual and Homosexual Behaviors in Free-Ranging Female Japanese Macaques.

    PubMed

    Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Gunst, Noëlle; Vasey, Paul L

    2015-07-01

    We used cross-sectional focal data collected in adolescent and adult females to elucidate the comparative development of heterosexual and homosexual behaviors in female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) living at Arashiyama, Japan, in a group where adult females routinely exhibit sexual interactions with both males and females. Our data fully or partially supported most of our predictions (20 out of 30) related to the "learning hypothesis," which postulated that adolescence would serve to provide young females with a period in which to practice, and gradually acquire, three types of adult female-like heterosexual and homosexual behavioral patterns, namely sexual solicitations, sexual mounts, and spatio-temporal coordination during consortships. However, there were marked differences in the development of heterosexual and homosexual behaviors. The percentage of homosexual mounts was significantly higher in adolescent than in adult females. Of the fully or partially supported predictions, 13 of 15 pertained to heterosexual activity whereas only seven of 15 pertained to homosexual activity. A number of sexual behavioral patterns (e.g., demonstrative solicitations, range of solicitation patterns and mounting postures, and grasping behavior during consortships) emerged earlier and developed faster when directed to females than when directed to males. We explain such differences in terms of risk of male aggression, males' disinterest in adolescent females' sexual solicitations, presence of motivated same-sex sexual partners, social facilitation, and sexual reward.

  20. Barriers and facilitators of HIV prevention with heterosexual Latino couples: beliefs of four stakeholder groups.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Seal, David W; Serrano-García, Irma

    2009-01-01

    Although HIV prevention interventions for women are efficacious, long-term behavior change maintenance within power-imbalanced heterosexual relationships has been difficult. To explore the feasibility, content, and format of an HIV intervention for Latino couples, the authors conducted 13 focus groups with HIV/AIDS researchers, service providers, and heterosexual men and women in Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and Mexico. Reasons that participants thought that men should be involved in prevention efforts included promotion of shared responsibility, creation of a safe environment for open conversation about sex, and increased sexual negotiation skills. Perceived barriers to men's involvement included cultural taboos, sexual conservatism associated with Catholicism and machismo, and power-imbalanced relationships. Participants stressed the need for recruitment of men within naturally occurring settings or by influential community leaders. Participants indicated that couples-level interventions would be successful if they used strong coed facilitators, included both unigender and mixed-gender discussion opportunities, and addressed personally meaningful topics. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  1. Barriers and facilitators of HIV prevention with heterosexual Latino couples: beliefs of four stakeholder groups.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Seal, David W; Serrano-García, Irma

    2009-01-01

    Although HIV prevention interventions for women are efficacious, long-term behavior change maintenance within power-imbalanced heterosexual relationships has been difficult. To explore the feasibility, content, and format of an HIV intervention for Latino couples, the authors conducted 13 focus groups with HIV/AIDS researchers, service providers, and heterosexual men and women in Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and Mexico. Reasons that participants thought that men should be involved in prevention efforts included promotion of shared responsibility, creation of a safe environment for open conversation about sex, and increased sexual negotiation skills. Perceived barriers to men's involvement included cultural taboos, sexual conservatism associated with Catholicism and machismo, and power-imbalanced relationships. Participants stressed the need for recruitment of men within naturally occurring settings or by influential community leaders. Participants indicated that couples-level interventions would be successful if they used strong coed facilitators, included both unigender and mixed-gender discussion opportunities, and addressed personally meaningful topics. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:19209976

  2. Sexual Mixing Patterns and Heterosexual HIV transmission among African Americans in the Southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Irene A; Schoenbach, Victor J; Adimora, Adaora A

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Heterosexually transmitted HIV infection rates are disproportionately high among African Americans. HIV transmission is influenced by sexual network characteristics, including sexual partnership mixing patterns among sub-populations with different prevalences of infection. Study Design We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of previously collected data from a North Carolina population-based case-control study. Respondents were heterosexual black men and women who either: 1) had recently reported heterosexually transmitted HIV infection ("cases") or 2) were randomly selected from the general population ("controls"). Methods Respondents reported their own and their three most recent sex partners' education and involvement in illicit drug use, concurrent sex partners, and incarceration. We examined sexual mixing patterns by comparing the characteristics and behaviors respondents reported for themselves with those they reported for their partners. We estimated Newman's assortativity coefficient (−1.0 to 1.0) as an aggregate, quantitative assessment of mixing patterns. Results Across the four strata (male and female cases, male and female controls), mixing was assortative (0.31–0.45) with respect to illicit drug use and minimally assortative with respect to having concurrent partners (0.14–0.22). Mixing patterns for incarceration were assortative for men (0.18 and 0.41) but not women (0.07 and 0.08). Mixing with respect to education was assortative primarily for male controls (0.33). Conclusion These sexual partnership patterns, driven in part by the social and economic context of life for African Americans, likely contribute to the heterosexually transmitted HIV epidemic. PMID:19506485

  3. [Differences of mortality risk for all causes and for cardiovascular diseases among occupational classes in men living the Northern Italy].

    PubMed

    Ferrario, M; Porati, S; Chiodini, P; Taborelli, S; Toso, C; Borchini, R; Maretti, A; Cesana, G

    2003-01-01

    To assess socio-occupational (SO) class differences in 8-year risk of all-cause and cardiovascular (CVD) death in an North Italian prospective epidemiological study, five cohorts (four population-based and one factory-based) were investigated at baseline from 1986 to 1995. Follow-up procedures allow to sensor 4339 35-74 years old men up to the end of 1998 for all-cause and cardiovascular deaths. Coronary risk factors were measures according to the standardised methods of MONICA Project. Five SO classes were identified according to the method proposed by Erikson, Golthorpe e Portocarero. Results shows an inverse associations between SO classes and death risk for all-cause and cancer. The higher SO classes showed higher risk of cardiovascular death risk. Possible explanations include high level of job stress among employed managers and professionals.

  4. Urinary Perchlorate and Thyroid Hormone Levels in Adolescent and Adult Men and Women Living in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Blount, Benjamin C.; Pirkle, James L.; Osterloh, John D.; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Caldwell, Kathleen L.

    2006-01-01

    Background Perchlorate is commonly found in the environment and known to inhibit thyroid function at high doses. Assessing the potential effect of low-level exposure to perchlorate on thyroid function is an area of ongoing research. Objectives We evaluated the potential relationship between urinary levels of perchlorate and serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and total thyroxine (T4) in 2,299 men and women, ≥ 12 years of age, participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) during 2001–2002. Methods We used multiple regression models of T4 and TSH that included perchlorate and covariates known to be or likely to be associated with T4 or TSH levels: age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, estrogen use, menopausal status, pregnancy status, premenarche status, serum C-reactive protein, serum albumin, serum cotinine, hours of fasting, urinary thiocyanate, urinary nitrate, and selected medication groups. Results Perchlorate was not a significant predictor of T4 or TSH levels in men. For women overall, perchlorate was a significant predictor of both T4 and TSH. For women with urinary iodine < 100 μg/L, perchlorate was a significant negative predictor of T4 (p < 0.0001) and a positive predictor of TSH (p = 0.001). For women with urinary iodine ≥ 100 μg/L, perchlorate was a significant positive predictor of TSH (p = 0.025) but not T4 (p = 0.550). Conclusions These associations of perchlorate with T4 and TSH are coherent in direction and independent of other variables known to affect thyroid function, but are present at perchlorate exposure levels that were unanticipated based on previous studies. PMID:17185277

  5. Heterosexual Transmission of HIV in China

    PubMed Central

    YANG, HONGMEI; LI, XIAOMING; STANTON, BONITA; LIU, HONGJIE; LIU, HUI; WANG, NING; FANG, XIAOYI; LIN, DANHUA; CHEN, XINGUANG

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to address the role of heterosexual transmission of HIV in China. Goal: The goal of this study was to explore the prevalence of unsafe sex and the likelihood of HIV spread heterosexually from core populations to others. Study: The authors conducted a review of behavioral studies. Results: Drug users were more likely to be involved in higher-risk sexual behaviors than were those who abstained from using drugs. Most female drug users (52-98%) reported having engaged in commercial sex. Most female sex workers (FSWs) and individuals with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) had concurrent sexual partners. Many continued to have unprotected sex after noticing STD symptoms in themselves or their sexual partners. From 5% to 26% of rural-to-urban migrants had multiple sexual partners and 10% of males patronized FSWs during migration. Conclusions: Factors such as high rates of FSW patronage, low rates of condom use during commercial sex, having sex with both commercial and noncommercial sexual partners, and high rates of STD infection may promote a heterosexual epidemic in China. PMID:15849527

  6. Heterosexuality/homosexuality: dichotomy or continuum.

    PubMed

    McConaghy, N

    1987-10-01

    A recent reanalysis of Kinsey's data rejected his conclusion that heterosexuality and homosexuality were a continuum. A number of studies have been published over the past decade reporting that 5% or less of adolescents were aware of homosexual feelings, a finding also inconsistent with Kinsey's data. These studies have rejected prenatal hormones and rearing by homosexual parents as influencing sexual orientation. If Kinsey's data are correct and 40% or more of adolescents are aware of homosexual feeling the findings of these studies are invalid. Two replications of an initial study with representative samples of medical students found over 40% of both males and females currently aware of some homosexual feelings, consistent with Kinsey's conclusion. The ratio of reported homosexual to heterosexual feelings correlated with opposite sex-linked behaviors in the male, supporting the validity of the subjects' reports. If subjects representative of other subgroups of the population are investigated with this easily implemented method and report similar data, this theoretically and sociologically significant divergence of belief concerning the incidence of the heterosexual/homosexual balance would be resolved.

  7. An Investigation of Two-Dimensional Ultrasound Carotid Plaque Presence and Intima Media Thickness in Middle-Aged South Asian and European Men Living in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Ghouri, Nazim; Purves, David; Deans, Kevin A.; Logan, Greig; McConnachie, Alex; Wilson, John; Gill, Jason M. R.; Sattar, Naveed

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Ultrasound studies of carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) and plaques are limited in South Asians, a group at elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We determined whether South Asians have a difference in these ultrasound markers compared to Europeans living in the United Kingdom and whether measured risk factor(s) could account for any such differences. Methods One hundred South Asian men, aged 40 to 70 years and 100 European men of similar age and BMI, without diagnosed CVD or diabetes, underwent carotid ultrasound for measurement of cIMT and carotid plaque presence. Physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, anthropometry and blood pressure were assessed, fasted blood taken for measurement of cardiometabolic risk factors and demographic and lifestyle factors recorded. Results Age-adjusted mean (SD) cIMT was similar in South Asians and Europeans (0.64 (0.16) mm v 0.65 (0.12) mm, p = 0.64). Plaque was present in 48 South Asians and 37 Europeans and overall, there was no age-adjusted difference between South Asian and Europeans for plaque score(odds ratio 1.49, 95% CI, 0.86-2.80, p = 0.16), however, South Asians appeared to have more plaques at a younger age than Europeans; at age 40-50 years the odds of South Asians having plaques was 2.63 (95% CI, 1.16-5.93) times that for Europeans. Conclusions cIMT is similar between healthy South Asian and European men. Whilst there was no overall difference in plaque presence in South Asians, there is an indication of greater plaque prevalence at younger ages - an observation requiring further investigation. Prospective studies linking plaques to CVD outcomes in South Asians are needed to investigate whether these measures help improve CVD risk prediction. PMID:25884221

  8. Tal Como Somos/Just As We Are: An Educational Film to Reduce Stigma towards Gay and Bisexual Men, Transgender Individuals & Persons Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Manjarrez, Dianna

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe the development and dissemination of a film-based educational intervention to reduce negative attitudes towards gay and bisexual men and transgender women (GBT) and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Latino communities, with a focus on youth. The intervention, Tal Como Somos/Just as We Are, is based on stigma and attribution theories, extensive formative research, and community input. Evaluation findings among educators and school youth suggest the film has the potential to effectively impact attitudes towards GBT and PLWHA. The film and intervention are being disseminated using diffusion of innovations theory through community-based organizations, schools, television broadcasting and film festivals. PMID:24377496

  9. Loss to follow-up and bias assessment among a cohort of Thai men who have sex with men in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pattanasin, Sarika; Wimonsate, Wipas; Chonwattana, Wannee; Tongtoyai, Jaray; Chaikummao, Supaporn; Sriporn, Anuwat; Sukwicha, Wichuda; Mock, Philip A; Holtz, Timothy H

    2016-03-01

    Minimising loss to follow-up is essential to obtain unbiased results. This study aimed to assess factors associated with loss to follow-up and effects on biasing exposure-outcome associations in a cohort of men who have sex with men in Bangkok. We enrolled sexually-active Thai men who have sex with men, at least 18 years old, in a study with four-monthly follow-up visits. At each visit, men answered HIV risk behaviour questions using audio computer-assisted self-interview. Logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with loss to follow-up and bias between exposures and prevalent HIV infection were estimated using adjusted relative odds ratios. From 2006 to 2010, we enrolled 1744 men who have sex with men; as of April, 2014, 1256 (72%) had completed at least the month-36 visit; loss to follow-up was 9.6%. Factors independently associated with loss to follow-up were age (18-21 years), education (primary level or less, secondary or vocational education), living outside Bangkok and vicinity, sexual orientation (bisexual, heterosexual), previous HIV testing, HIV infection, and behaviour in the past 4 months (recreational drug use, reporting group sex). An effect of loss to follow-up on factors of prevalent HIV infection was found by sexual orientation (transgender) and unprotected anal intercourse (receptive/insertive). These findings highlight the need to strengthen post-HIV test counselling. Directed counselling for HIV care should be given to young men who have sex with men and recreational drug users.

  10. Loss to follow-up and bias assessment among a cohort of Thai men who have sex with men in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pattanasin, Sarika; Wimonsate, Wipas; Chonwattana, Wannee; Tongtoyai, Jaray; Chaikummao, Supaporn; Sriporn, Anuwat; Sukwicha, Wichuda; Mock, Philip A; Holtz, Timothy H

    2016-03-01

    Minimising loss to follow-up is essential to obtain unbiased results. This study aimed to assess factors associated with loss to follow-up and effects on biasing exposure-outcome associations in a cohort of men who have sex with men in Bangkok. We enrolled sexually-active Thai men who have sex with men, at least 18 years old, in a study with four-monthly follow-up visits. At each visit, men answered HIV risk behaviour questions using audio computer-assisted self-interview. Logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with loss to follow-up and bias between exposures and prevalent HIV infection were estimated using adjusted relative odds ratios. From 2006 to 2010, we enrolled 1744 men who have sex with men; as of April, 2014, 1256 (72%) had completed at least the month-36 visit; loss to follow-up was 9.6%. Factors independently associated with loss to follow-up were age (18-21 years), education (primary level or less, secondary or vocational education), living outside Bangkok and vicinity, sexual orientation (bisexual, heterosexual), previous HIV testing, HIV infection, and behaviour in the past 4 months (recreational drug use, reporting group sex). An effect of loss to follow-up on factors of prevalent HIV infection was found by sexual orientation (transgender) and unprotected anal intercourse (receptive/insertive). These findings highlight the need to strengthen post-HIV test counselling. Directed counselling for HIV care should be given to young men who have sex with men and recreational drug users. PMID:25792548

  11. Heterosexual Rejection and Mate Choice: A Sociometer Perspective.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Liu, Shen; Li, Yue; Ruan, Lu-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies about the effects of social rejection on individuals' social behaviors have produced mixed results and tend to study mating behaviors from a static point of view. However, mate selection in essence is a dynamic process, and therefore sociometer theory opens up a new perspective for studying mating and its underlying practices. Based on this theory and using self-perceived mate value in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate choice as a mediating role, this current study examined the effects of heterosexual rejection on mate choice in two experiments. Results showed that heterosexual rejection significantly reduced self-perceived mate value, expectation, and behavioral tendencies, while heterosexual acceptance indistinctively increased these measures. Self-perceived mate value did not serve as a mediator in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate expectation, but it mediated the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mating behavior tendencies toward potential objects. Moreover, individuals evaded both rejection and irrelevant people when suffering from rejection.

  12. Why Parenthood, and Why Now? Gay Men's Motivations for Pursuing Parenthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Downing, Jordan B.; Moyer, April M.

    2012-01-01

    The current qualitative study of 35 preadoptive gay male couples (70 men) examined gay men's motivations to parent and their reasons for pursuing parenthood at the current time. Similar to heterosexual couples, gay men described a range of psychologically oriented reasons as shaping their decision to become parents. Some of these (e.g., desire to…

  13. Risk factors for AIDS among Haitians residing in the US: evidence of heterosexual transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-06

    In a study of Haitians in Miami and New York, Creole-speaking interviewers questioned 55 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (45 men and ten women) and 242 control-persons (164 men and 78 women). One male patient was homosexual, and one female patient had received blood within five years. No one admitted to intravenous drug use, hemophilia, or sexual contact with AIDS patients. Male AIDS patients were significantly more likely than control-men to have entered the US after 1977 and to have had gonorrhea, syphilis, and sexual contact with female prostitutes. Female AIDS patients were more likely to have voodoo-priest friends and to have been offered money for sex. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome was probably contracted through sexual contact with infected heterosexuals.

  14. "I don't blame that guy that gave it to me": contested discourses of victimisation and culpability in the narratives of heterosexual women infected with HIV.

    PubMed

    Persson, Asha

    2014-02-01

    In Australia, most women with HIV were infected through heterosexual sex, echoing global patterns. In media coverage, these women are typically portrayed as having been deceived by men they trusted, or as victims in criminal cases against HIV-positive men from high-prevalence countries. Heterosexuals are clearly overrepresented in such cases, a pattern consistent across high-income countries. It has been suggested that the victim/perpetrator distinction that defines criminal cases and media stories has some resonance among heterosexuals because of gender power dynamics. But less attention has been paid to the ways women themselves make sense of heterosexual transmission of HIV. Drawing on qualitative interviews from two larger studies, this article shows how the victim-culprit binary is challenged by women's own accounts of acquiring HIV. None presented themselves as "victims" in any straightforward sense, or placed the blame squarely on the men, including men who had not disclosed HIV. Instead, their narratives revealed themes of "mutual vulnerability" and far more ambivalent allocations of responsibility. I conclude that the tendency to position women who become infected with HIV in a victim discourse obscures the complex realities of sexual practice and gender that play a part in the epidemic in any cultural context and that have implications for HIV prevention.

  15. A gender discrepancy analysis of heterosexual sexual behaviors in two university samples.

    PubMed

    Jozkowski, Kristen N; Satinsky, Sonya A

    2013-12-01

    The current study aimed to (1) offer a large-scale enumeration of college students' lifetime sexual behaviors and sexual behaviors at last event, and (2) apply a gender discrepancy lens to college students' sexual behaviors in order to examine potential gender differences in heterosexual college students' experiences. Nine-hundred and seventy college students between the ages of 18 and 27 from two large universities in the United States participated in the current study. Participants filled out a paper-pencil questionnaire during the last 30 min of class. Measures of lifetime sexual behaviors and engagement in behaviors at last sexual event were replicated from the National Survey of Sexual Health Behavior. Most college students engaged in some form of sexual behavior (manual, oral, vaginal-penile, anal). Men more frequently reported engaging in receptive sexual behaviors (e.g., receiving oral sex) where as women were more likely to engage in performative sexual behaviors (e.g., performing oral sex). At most recent sexual event, men were more likely than women to report being the sexual initiator. Findings highlight gender differences in sexual behavior and provide a foundation for social norms interventions. Holistic sexual health promotion for young adults includes acknowledging and discouraging sites of disparity in equity and pleasure. Therefore, college-level sexual health educators should pay attention to the potential pleasure gap between men and women in heterosexual encounters, and to see pleasure as an important part of sexual health that should be included in social norms campaigns. PMID:23873260

  16. Barriers and Facilitators of HIV Prevention With Heterosexual Latino Couples: Beliefs of Four Stakeholder Groups

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Seal, David W.; Serrano-García, Irma

    2012-01-01

    Although HIV prevention interventions for women are efficacious, long-term behavior change maintenance within power-imbalanced heterosexual relationships has been difficult. To explore the feasibility, content, and format of an HIV intervention for Latino couples, the authors conducted 13 focus groups with HIV/AIDS researchers, service providers, and heterosexual men and women in Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and Mexico. Reasons that participants thought that men should be involved in prevention efforts included promotion of shared responsibility, creation of a safe environment for open conversation about sex, and increased sexual negotiation skills. Perceived barriers to men’s involvement included cultural taboos, sexual conservatism associated with Catholicism and machismo, and power-imbalanced relationships. Participants stressed the need for recruitment of men within naturally occurring settings or by influential community leaders. Participants indicated that couples-level interventions would be successful if they used strong coed facilitators, included both unigender and mixed-gender discussion opportunities, and addressed personally meaningful topics. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:19209976

  17. A gender discrepancy analysis of heterosexual sexual behaviors in two university samples.

    PubMed

    Jozkowski, Kristen N; Satinsky, Sonya A

    2013-12-01

    The current study aimed to (1) offer a large-scale enumeration of college students' lifetime sexual behaviors and sexual behaviors at last event, and (2) apply a gender discrepancy lens to college students' sexual behaviors in order to examine potential gender differences in heterosexual college students' experiences. Nine-hundred and seventy college students between the ages of 18 and 27 from two large universities in the United States participated in the current study. Participants filled out a paper-pencil questionnaire during the last 30 min of class. Measures of lifetime sexual behaviors and engagement in behaviors at last sexual event were replicated from the National Survey of Sexual Health Behavior. Most college students engaged in some form of sexual behavior (manual, oral, vaginal-penile, anal). Men more frequently reported engaging in receptive sexual behaviors (e.g., receiving oral sex) where as women were more likely to engage in performative sexual behaviors (e.g., performing oral sex). At most recent sexual event, men were more likely than women to report being the sexual initiator. Findings highlight gender differences in sexual behavior and provide a foundation for social norms interventions. Holistic sexual health promotion for young adults includes acknowledging and discouraging sites of disparity in equity and pleasure. Therefore, college-level sexual health educators should pay attention to the potential pleasure gap between men and women in heterosexual encounters, and to see pleasure as an important part of sexual health that should be included in social norms campaigns.

  18. Prevalence, concordance and determinants of human papillomavirus infection among heterosexual partners in a rural region in central Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Although human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in heterosexual couples has been sparsely studied, it is relevant to understand disease burden and transmission mechanisms. The present study determined the prevalence and concordance of type-specific HPV infection as well as the determinants of infection in heterosexual couples in a rural area of Mexico. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 504 clinically healthy heterosexual couples from four municipalities in the State of Mexico, Mexico. HPV testing was performed using biotinylated L1 consensus primers and reverse line blot in cervical samples from women and in genital samples from men. Thirty-seven HPV types were detected, including high-risk oncogenic types and low-risk types. Multivariate logistic regression models were utilized to evaluate factors associated with HPV. Results The prevalence of HPV infection was 20.5% in external male genitals and 13.7% in cervical samples. In 504 sexual couples participating in the study, concordance of HPV status was 79%; 34 partners (6.7%) were concurrently infected, and 21 out of 34 partners where both were HPV positive (61.8%) showed concordance for one or more HPV types. The principal risk factor associated with HPV DNA detection in men as well as women was the presence of HPV DNA in the respective regular sexual partner (OR = 5.15, 95%CI 3.01-8.82). In men, having a history of 10 or more sexual partners over their lifetime (OR 2.5, 95%CI 1.3 - 4.8) and having had sexual relations with prostitutes (OR 1.7, 95%CI 1.01 - 2.8) increased the likelihood of detecting HPV DNA. Conclusions In heterosexual couples in rural regions in Mexico, the prevalence of HPV infection and type-specific concordance is high. High-risk sexual behaviors are strong determinants of HPV infection in men. PMID:20667085

  19. Preschool selection considerations and experiences of school mistreatment among lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parents

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2016-01-01

    The current study is the first to investigate the school selection considerations and school-related experiences of sexual-minority parents with young children. The sample consisted of 210 parents in 105 couples, including 35 lesbian couples, 30 gay male couples, and 40 heterosexual couples, all of whom had adopted a child three years earlier. We found that parents with less income were more likely to consider cost in choosing a preschool, and parents with less education were more likely to consider location. More educated parents tended to emphasize racial diversity and the presence of adoptive families, and, among sexual-minority parents, the presence of other lesbian/gay parents. Sexual-minority parents were more likely to consider racial diversity than heterosexual parents. In reporting on their experiences with schools, heterosexual parents were more likely to perceive mistreatment due to their adoptive status than sexual-minority parents, and sexual-minority parents living in less gay-friendly communities were more likely to perceive mistreatment due to their sexual orientation than sexual-minority parents living in more gay-friendly communities. Our findings have implications for early childhood educators and administrators seeking to create an inclusive learning community for all types of families. PMID:27110062

  20. ‘Friendly allies in raising a child’: a survey of men and women seeking elective co-parenting arrangements via an online connection website

    PubMed Central

    Jadva, V.; Freeman, T.; Tranfield, E.; Golombok, S.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What are the characteristics, motivations and expectations of men and women who search for a co-parent online? SUMMARY ANSWER Male and female prospective co-parents differed in terms of their motivations, choice of co-parent and expectations of co-parenting, while differences according to sexual orientation were less marked. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Very few studies have addressed the experiences of elective co-parents, i.e. men and women who are not in a relationship with each other creating and raising a child together. No study has examined the motivations and experiences of those who seek co-parents online. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE AND DURATION An online survey was completed by 102 participants (61 men, 41 women) who were members of Pride Angel, an online connection website that facilitates contact between people looking for someone with whom to have a child. The survey was live for 7 weeks. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Details of the survey were emailed to all members of Pride Angel. The survey obtained data on participants' demographic characteristics, motivations, choice of co-parent and expectations of co-parenting. Data were analysed to examine differences by gender and by sexual orientation within each gender. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Approximately one-third of men and one half of women seeking co-parenting arrangements were heterosexual. The majority (69, 68%) of participants were single, although significantly more gay and bisexual men (15, 36%) and lesbian and bisexual women (11, 55%) had a partner compared with heterosexual men (4, 20%) and heterosexual women (2, 12%), respectively. Overall, the most important motivation for seeking co-parenting arrangements was in order for both biological parents to be involved in the child's upbringing. Co-parents were looking for someone with a good medical history. Most female co-parents expected the child to live with them, whereas male co-parents either wished the child to reside

  1. Intimacy and Emotion Work in Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Umberson, Debra; Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Lodge, Amy C.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about how gender shapes intimacy is dominated by a heteronormative focus on relationships involving a man and a woman. In this study, the authors shifted the focus to consider gendered meanings and experiences of intimacy in same-sex and different-sex relationships. They merged the gender-as-relational perspective—that gender is co-constructed and enacted within relationships—with theoretical perspectives on emotion work and intimacy to frame an analysis of in-depth interviews with 15 lesbian, 15 gay, and 20 heterosexual couples. They found that emotion work directed toward minimizing and maintaining boundaries between partners is key to understanding intimacy in long-term relationships. Moreover, these dynamics, including the type and division of emotion work, vary for men and women depending on whether they are in a same-sex or different-sex relationship. These findings push thinking about diversity in long-term relationships beyond a focus on gender difference and toward gendered relational contexts. PMID:25814771

  2. Phylogenetic analysis provides evidence of interactions between Italian heterosexual and South American homosexual males as the main source of national HIV-1 subtype C epidemics.

    PubMed

    Lai, Alessia; Bozzi, Giorgio; Franzetti, Marco; Binda, Francesca; Simonetti, Francesco R; Micheli, Valeria; Meraviglia, Paola; Corsi, Paola; Bagnarelli, Patrizia; De Luca, Andrea; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Zazzi, Maurizio; Balotta, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    The HIV-1 clade C is prevalent worldwide and spread from Africa to South East Asia and South America early in the course of the epidemic. As a consequence of migration waves about 13% of the Italian HIV-1 epidemic is sustained by this clade. Two hundred fifty-four C pol sequences from the Italian ARCA database collected during 1997-2011 were analyzed. Epidemiological networks and geographical fluxes were identified through phylogeny using Bayesian approaches. Patients' country of origin was Italy, Africa, South America, and South East Asia for 44.9%, 23.6%, 4.7%, and 1.6%, respectively. Heterosexuals and men having sex with men accounted for 83.2% and 16.8%, respectively. Modality of infection was distributed differently: heterosexuals were largely prevalent among Italians (84.1%) and Africans (95.3%), while men having sex with men predominated among South Americans (66.7%). Eight significant clusters encompassing 111 patients (43.7%) were identified. Comparison between clustering and non-clustering patients indicated significant differences in country of origin, modality of infection and gender. Men having sex with men were associated to a higher probability to be included in networks (70% for men having sex with men vs. 30.3% for heterosexuals). Phylogeography highlighted two significant groups. One contained Indian strains and the second encompassed South Americans and almost all Italian strains. Phylogeography indicated that the spread of C subtype among Italians is related to South American variant. Although Italian patients mainly reported themselves as heterosexuals, homo-bisexual contacts were likely their source of infection. Phylogenetic monitoring is warranted to guide public health interventions aimed at controlling HIV infection.

  3. "If you do nothing about stress, the next thing you know, you're shattered": Perspectives on African American men's stress, coping and health from African American men and key women in their lives.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Katrina R; Griffith, Derek M; Allen, Julie Ober; Thorpe, Roland J; Bruce, Marino A

    2015-08-01

    Stress has been implicated as a key contributor to poor health outcomes; however, few studies have examined how African American men and women explicitly describe the relationships among stress, coping, and African American men's health. In this paper, we explore strategies men use to cope with stress, and beliefs about the consequences of stress for African American men's health behaviors, morbidity and mortality from the perspectives of African American men and women. A phenomenological analytic approach was used to examine focus group data collected from 154 African American men (18 focus groups) and 77 African American women (8 focus groups). Women's perspectives were captured because women often observe men under stress and can provide support to men during stressful times. Our findings indicate that African American men in this study responded to stress by engaging in often identified coping behaviors (i.e., consumption of calorie dense food, exercise, spiritually-related activities). Men in our study, however, did not always view their responses to stress as explicit coping mechanisms. There was also some discordance between men's and women's perceptions of men's coping behaviors as there were occasions where they seemed to interpret the same behavior differently (e.g., resting vs. avoidance). Men and women believed that stress helped to explain why African American men had worse health than other groups. They identified mental, physical and social consequences of stress. We conclude by detailing implications for conceptualizing and measuring coping and we outline key considerations for interventions and further research about stress, coping and health. PMID:26183018

  4. Homosexual men (and lesbian men) in a heterosexual genre: three gangster films from Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Grossman, A

    2000-01-01

    Of the East Asian film genres that have captured the attention of film goers internationally, it should be of little surprise that martial and heroically masculine genres have been the most popular, for violent action translates well into any language. Although it has been no secret that male martiality often leaks into homoerotic desire (on the part of the audience, too), three Hong Kong films from 1998 have finally explicated the generic homosexuality that the action genre has been (defensively) ashamed to admit all along. However, rather than posit this textual homosexuality as transgressive, the generic forces under which these films operate rewrite their homosexualities, both gay and lesbian, into generic modes fashioned around regressive oppositions of gender, and not progressive liberations of sexuality. PMID:11133135

  5. Homosexual men (and lesbian men) in a heterosexual genre: three gangster films from Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Grossman, A

    2000-01-01

    Of the East Asian film genres that have captured the attention of film goers internationally, it should be of little surprise that martial and heroically masculine genres have been the most popular, for violent action translates well into any language. Although it has been no secret that male martiality often leaks into homoerotic desire (on the part of the audience, too), three Hong Kong films from 1998 have finally explicated the generic homosexuality that the action genre has been (defensively) ashamed to admit all along. However, rather than posit this textual homosexuality as transgressive, the generic forces under which these films operate rewrite their homosexualities, both gay and lesbian, into generic modes fashioned around regressive oppositions of gender, and not progressive liberations of sexuality.

  6. Struggling against Heteronormativity: The Narratives of Seventeen Heterosexuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Lance Christian

    2009-01-01

    There is a paucity of literature that examines the narratives of heterosexuals who struggle against the discourse of heteronormativity. There is even less literature that discusses how the discourse of heteronormativity may play out between egalitarian heterosexual counselors and clients who identify as sexual minorities. Employing the qualitative…

  7. Normalizing Heterosexuality: Mothers' Assumptions, Talk, and Strategies with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Karin A.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, social scientists have identified not just heterosexism and homophobia as social problems, but also heteronormativity--the mundane, everyday ways that heterosexuality is privileged and taken for granted as normal and natural. There is little empirical research, however, on how heterosexuality is reproduced and then normalized for…

  8. Body image, compulsory heterosexuality, and internalized homophobia.

    PubMed

    Pitman, G E

    1999-01-01

    ABSTRACT Body dissatisfaction in lesbians is a subject which has traditionally been ignored in the psychological literature on body image and eating disorders. Early feminist theorists and researchers argued that body dissatisfaction in women developed as a way of dealing with the oppression and misogyny they are faced with on a daily basis. However, these theories failed to take issues of race, class, and sexual orientation into account, thereby excluding the experiences of a diversity of women. This article focuses specifically on the lesbian experience and explores how cultural messages about thinness, femininity, and heterosexuality shape lesbians' feelings about their sexuality and about their bodies. Through the inevitable process of internalizing homophobia and fat hatred, both of which are institutionalized ways of keeping heterosexuality and female oppression in place, lesbians may begin to believe that there is something inherently wrong with them and with their bodies. This article explores how the impact of racism, classism, sexism, and homophobia on women may provide a more comprehensive understanding of the cultural forces behind women's dissatisfaction with their bodies.

  9. Selection bias at the heterosexual HIV-1 transmission bottleneck

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Jonathan M.; Schaefer, Malinda; Monaco, Daniela C.; Batorsky, Rebecca; Claiborne, Daniel T.; Prince, Jessica; Deymier, Martin J.; Ende, Zachary S.; Klatt, Nichole R.; DeZiel, Charles E.; Lin, Tien-Ho; Peng, Jian; Seese, Aaron M.; Shapiro, Roger; Frater, John; Ndung’u, Thumbi; Tang, Jianming; Goepfert, Paul; Gilmour, Jill; Price, Matt A.; Kilembe, William; Heckerman, David; Goulder, Philip J.R.; Allen, Todd M.; Allen, Susan; Hunter, Eric

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Introduction Heterosexual HIV-1 transmission is an inefficient process with rates reported at <1% per unprotected sexual exposure. When transmission occurs, systemic infection is typically established by a single genetic variant, taken from the swarm of genetically distinct viruses circulating in the donor. Whether that founder virus represents a chance event or was systematically favored is unclear. Our work has tested a central hypothesis that founder virus selection is biased toward certain genetic characteristics. Rationale If HIV-1 transmission involves selection for viruses with certain favorable characteristics, then such advantages should emerge as statistical biases when viewed across many viral loci in many transmitting partners. We therefore identified 137 Zambian heterosexual transmission pairs, for whom plasma samples were available for both the donor and recipient partner soon after transmission, and compared the viral sequences obtained from each partner to identify features that predicted whether the majority amino acid observed at any particular position in the donor was transmitted. We focused attention on two features: viral genetic characteristics that correlate with viral fitness, and clinical factors that influence transmission. Statistical modeling indicates that the former will be favored for transmission, while the latter will nullify this relative advantage. Results We observed a highly significant selection bias that favors the transmission of amino acids associated with increased fitness. These features included the frequency of the amino acid in the study cohort, the relative advantage of the amino acid with respect to the stability of the protein, and features related to immune escape and compensation. This selection bias was reduced in couples with high risk of transmission. In particular, significantly less selection bias was observed in women and in men with genital inflammation, compared to healthy men, suggesting a more

  10. What Do Men Want?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Michael S.

    1993-01-01

    Definitions of the male role are changing as more men seek fulfillment in family life, redefine success, or attempt to balance family and career. Corporate structure no longer fits the lives of many men, but employers continue to resist change. (SK)

  11. Support for gay men: an Australian study.

    PubMed

    Copolov, Carly; Knowles, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Recently, research in the U.S.A. has shown that women, and young people in particular, have become increasingly supportive of gay men. The current study used a cross-sectional, correlational design to investigate these same issues in Australia. The sample included 575 heterosexual participants, 184 men and 390 women. Because a literature search failed to identify an Australian measure of support for gay men, a Support for Gay Men Scale was developed by the researchers. Multiple regression analyses were used to investigate whether scores on the Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness/Spirituality and the respondents' sex predicted scores on the Support for Gay Men subscales, and the strength of these relationships. Findings reveal that this relatively young university undergraduate Australian sample indicated they strongly supported gay men.

  12. Relationship Status Predicts Lower Restrictive Eating Pathology for Bisexual and Gay Men across 10-year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Tiffany A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cross-sectional studies support that bisexual and gay (BG) men are at increased risk for eating pathology, and romantic relationships may buffer against risk; however, no studies have examined this association longitudinally. The current study examined how romantic relationships impact the trajectory of eating pathology in BG versus heterosexual men. Method BG (n=51) and heterosexual (n=522) men completed surveys of health and eating behaviors at baseline and 10-year follow-up. Results For BG men, being single at baseline prospectively predicted an increase in Drive for Thinness scores over 10-year follow-up. Additionally, for BG men in relationships at baseline, lower relationship satisfaction predicted an increase in Drive for Thinness scores over time. Conversely, these relationship variables did not predict trajectory of eating pathology for heterosexual men. Discussion Implications for theoretical models of risk, including objectification theory and sexual minority stress theory, and prevention, including peer-led cognitive dissonance based interventions, are discussed. PMID:26172055

  13. The eroticism of Internet cruising as a self-contained behaviour: a multivariate analysis of men seeking men demographics and getting off online

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Brandon Andrew; Moskowitz, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on men seeking men and who use the Internet for sexual purposes have focused on the epidemiological outcomes of Internet cruising. Other research has only focused on online sexual behaviours such as cybersex. The present study examines men who find the acts of Internet cruising and emailing to be erotic as self-contained behaviours. We surveyed 499 men who used craigslist.org for sexually-oriented purposes, and ran an ordinary least squares multiple regression model to determine the demographic characteristics of men seeking men who found Internet cruising erotic. Our results showed that younger compared to older men seeking men found the acts erotic. Likewise, men seeking men from mid-sized cities and large cities compared to men from smaller cities found Internet cruising and emailing to be erotic. Most notably, bisexual- and heterosexual-identifying men seeking men compared to gay-identifying men found these acts to be more erotic. Our results suggested that self-contained Internet cruising might provide dual functions. For some men (e.g., heterosexual-identifying men), the behaviour provides a sexual outlet in which fantasy and experimentation may be explored without risking stigmatization. For other men (e.g., those from large cities), the behaviour may be an alternative to offset sexual risk while still being able to ‘get off’. PMID:23565985

  14. The positive outlook study- a randomised controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of an online self-management program targeting psychosocial issues for men living with HIV: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The emergence of HIV as a chronic condition means that people living with HIV are required to take more responsibility for the self-management of their condition, including making physical, emotional and social adjustments. This paper describes the design and evaluation of Positive Outlook, an online program aiming to enhance the self-management skills of gay men living with HIV. Methods/design This study is designed as a randomised controlled trial in which men living with HIV in Australia will be assigned to either an intervention group or usual care control group. The intervention group will participate in the online group program ‘Positive Outlook’. The program is based on self-efficacy theory and uses a self-management approach to enhance skills, confidence and abilities to manage the psychosocial issues associated with HIV in daily life. Participants will access the program for a minimum of 90 minutes per week over seven weeks. Primary outcomes are domain specific self-efficacy, HIV related quality of life, and outcomes of health education. Secondary outcomes include: depression, anxiety and stress; general health and quality of life; adjustment to HIV; and social support. Data collection will take place at baseline, completion of the intervention (or eight weeks post randomisation) and at 12 week follow-up. Discussion Results of the Positive Outlook study will provide information regarding the effectiveness of online group programs improving health related outcomes for men living with HIV. Trial registration ACTRN12612000642886. PMID:24491034

  15. Tobacco Smoking and Its Association with Illicit Drug Use among Young Men Aged 15-24 Years Living in Urban Slums of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Mohammad Alamgir; Goh, Kim-Leng; Kamal, Sunny Mohammad Mostafa; Khan, Md. Mobarak Hossain

    2013-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking (TS) and illicit drug use (IDU) are of public health concerns especially in developing countries, including Bangladesh. This paper aims to (i) identify the determinants of TS and IDU, and (ii) examine the association of TS with IDU among young slum dwellers in Bangladesh. Methodology/Principal Findings Data on a total of 1,576 young slum dwellers aged 15–24 years were extracted for analysis from the 2006 Urban Health Survey (UHS), which covered a nationally representative sample of 13,819 adult men aged 15–59 years from slums, non-slums and district municipalities of six administrative regions in Bangladesh. Methods used include frequency run, Chi-square test of association and multivariable logistic regression. The overall prevalence of TS in the target group was 42.3%, of which 41.4% smoked cigarettes and 3.1% smoked bidis. The regression model for TS showed that age, marital status, education, duration of living in slums, and those with sexually transmitted infections were significantly (p<0.001 to p<0.05) associated with TS. The overall prevalence of IDU was 9.1%, dominated by those who had drug injections (3.2%), and smoked ganja (2.8%) and tari (1.6%). In the regression model for IDU, the significant (p<0.01 to p<0.10) predictors were education, duration of living in slums, and whether infected by sexually transmitted diseases. The multivariable logistic regression (controlling for other variables) revealed significantly (p<0.001) higher likelihood of IDU (OR = 9.59, 95% CI = 5.81–15.82) among users of any form of TS. The likelihood of IDU increased significantly (p<0.001) with increased use of cigarettes. Conclusions/Significance Certain groups of youth are more vulnerable to TS and IDU. Therefore, tobacco and drug control efforts should target these groups to reduce the consequences of risky lifestyles through information, education and communication (IEC) programs. PMID:23935885

  16. Gendered experiences of conflict and co-operation in heterosexual relations of Somalis in exile in Gothenburg, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Aden, A S; Dahlgren, L; Tarsitani, G

    2004-01-01

    Political upheaval and poverty at home has been forcing many Somalis to immigrate. These immigrants do not only leave their physical house, families, relatives, loved ones, friends, but also familiarities, culture, customs, and often they do end up in no man's land being between their own and new home culture. Available reports suggest that there are about 15,000 Somalis in Sweden and their majority came here from late 1989 to 1996. About one third these immigrants live in and around the city of Gothenburg. This paper explores and describes gendered experiences of conflict and co-operation in heterosexual relations of Somalis in exile in Gothenburg, Sweden. A qualitative sociological in-depth interviews with 6 women and 7 men was performed during May 1999 to January 2000. A follow up focus group interviews with 10 people (2 women and 8 men) was also carried on. The results show that both the Somali culture and Muslim religion do not support the children being taught sex education in schools or the names of the sex organs being pronounced other than to be used as metaphors. The girls, unlike their age group males, experience a very painful and terrifying process during childhood in which their self-esteem is downgraded by means of serious degrading traditional active violence such as female genital mutilation and visible virginity control. The narratives tell stories in which Somali women are degraded and expected to obey in situations characterised by their man's arbitrariness. They are subject to a very extensive form of social control, which is especially pronounced on issues regarding sexuality. Their integrity as women is, consequently set aside. When Somali refugees came to Sweden some of them came to adopt much of the modern lifestyle and cultural norm systems, preferable young people and some of the females. Relating to a new culture with its new expectations on the norm obedience also created changes in self-esteem. Exile situation tends to generate

  17. Latino gay and bisexual men's relationships with non-gay-identified men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Reisen, Carol A; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Bianchi, Fernanda T; Poppen, Paul J; Shedlin, Michele G; Penha, Marcelo Montes

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between Latino gay-identified men in metropolitan New York City and their non-gay-identified male partners. Phase 1 consisted of in-depth interviews (N = 33), and Phase 2 consisted of quantitative surveys (N = 120) with Brazilian, Colombian, and Dominican men who have sex with men (MSM). A majority of participants reported having had sex with heterosexually identified men, and in many cases, the relationship was sustained over time. We found mixed results concerning an attitude sometimes attributed to Latinos that sexual orientation is defined by sexual role, with receptive MSM seen as gay and insertive MSM seen as straight. Although there were no significant associations between partner sexual orientation and unprotected anal intercourse, gay men were less likely to take the insertive role in oral or anal sex with straight-identified male partners than with gay partners. PMID:20818527

  18. Health life-styles of lesbian and heterosexual women.

    PubMed

    Buenting, J A

    1992-01-01

    In this exploratory descriptive study, lesbian and heterosexual women's health life-style activities and health histories were investigated. Distribution of 200 written questionnaires by nonprobability snowball sampling obtained a sample of 79 heterosexual and lesbian women. The sample was predominantly white, middle class, and college educated. Responses to questions about participation in mental health counseling, birth control use, and pregnancy history showed significant differences between the groups. Likert scale questions were used to identify degree of participation in various health life-style activities. Alternative diet, use of meditation/relaxation techniques, and recreational drug use had significantly higher means in the lesbian group. Fulfilling family obligations, regular Pap testing, and use of prescription drugs were significantly higher among the heterosexual group. This study represents the author's initial exploration of lesbian health life-styles and describes similarities and differences in the health life-styles of lesbian and heterosexual women.

  19. Heterosexual anal sexuality and anal sex behaviors: a review.

    PubMed

    McBride, Kimberly R; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2010-03-01

    Little research addresses the role of anal sexuality and anal sexual behaviors as a widely practiced but relatively less frequent element of a heterosexual sexual repertoire. However, the importance of anal sex in sexual health is increasingly well-defined by epidemiological and clinical studies. This article reviews existing data on a range of heterosexual anal sex practices and provides conceptual and methodological recommendations for new research.

  20. Heterosexual Rejection and Mate Choice: A Sociometer Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Liu, Shen; Li, Yue; Ruan, Lu-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies about the effects of social rejection on individuals' social behaviors have produced mixed results and tend to study mating behaviors from a static point of view. However, mate selection in essence is a dynamic process, and therefore sociometer theory opens up a new perspective for studying mating and its underlying practices. Based on this theory and using self-perceived mate value in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate choice as a mediating role, this current study examined the effects of heterosexual rejection on mate choice in two experiments. Results showed that heterosexual rejection significantly reduced self-perceived mate value, expectation, and behavioral tendencies, while heterosexual acceptance indistinctively increased these measures. Self-perceived mate value did not serve as a mediator in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate expectation, but it mediated the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mating behavior tendencies toward potential objects. Moreover, individuals evaded both rejection and irrelevant people when suffering from rejection. PMID:26648898

  1. Transmission of Non-B HIV Subtypes in the United Kingdom Is Increasingly Driven by Large Non-Heterosexual Transmission Clusters

    PubMed Central

    Ragonnet-Cronin, Manon; Lycett, Samantha J.; Hodcroft, Emma B.; Hué, Stéphane; Fearnhill, Esther; Brown, Alison E.; Delpech, Valerie; Dunn, David; Leigh Brown, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The United Kingdom human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic was historically dominated by HIV subtype B transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM). Now 50% of diagnoses and prevalent infections are among heterosexual individuals and mainly involve non-B subtypes. Between 2002 and 2010, the prevalence of non-B diagnoses among MSM increased from 5.4% to 17%, and this study focused on the drivers of this change. Methods. Growth between 2007 and 2009 in transmission clusters among 14 000 subtype A1, C, D, and G sequences from the United Kingdom HIV Drug Resistance Database was analysed by risk group. Results. Of 1148 clusters containing at least 2 sequences in 2007, >75% were pairs and >90% were heterosexual. Most clusters (71.4%) did not grow during the study period. Growth was significantly lower for small clusters and higher for clusters of ≥7 sequences, with the highest growth observed for clusters comprising sequences from MSM and people who inject drugs (PWID). Risk group (P < .0001), cluster size (P < .0001), and subtype (P < .01) were predictive of growth in a generalized linear model. Discussion. Despite the increase in non-B subtypes associated with heterosexual transmission, MSM and PWID are at risk for non-B infections. Crossover of subtype C from heterosexuals to MSM has led to the expansion of this subtype within the United Kingdom. PMID:26704616

  2. The relation between women's body esteem and friendships with gay men.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Nancy H; Patterson, Heather M; VanderLaan, Doug P; Vasey, Paul L

    2009-06-01

    Women who associate with gay men are often portrayed as physically unattractive and lacking in both self-confidence and attention from straight men. However, many women report enhanced self-esteem and feelings of attractiveness as a result of attention from their gay friends. It is well established that body esteem can be negatively impacted by certain peer processes, yet there is a dearth of quantitative research on positive peer influences on women's body esteem. We tested two hypotheses: (a) women with gay male friends have poor body esteem and are rejected by heterosexual men, and (b) more contact with gay men is positively related to body esteem. Participants were 154 heterosexual women, who completed measures of their friendships with gay men, straight men and women, body esteem, relationship involvement and break-ups. Results supported the hypothesis that women's body esteem, specifically feelings of sexual attractiveness, is positively associated with friendships with gay men. PMID:19447691

  3. Men's Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... men need to pay more attention to their health. Compared to women, men are more likely to ... regular checkups and medical care There are also health conditions that only affect men, such as prostate ...

  4. Perceived consequences of casual online sexual activities on heterosexual relationships: a u.s. Online survey.

    PubMed

    Grov, Christian; Gillespie, Brian Joseph; Royce, Tracy; Lever, Janet

    2011-04-01

    Some researchers have illustrated how the Internet can provide users with an ideal atmosphere to explore sexuality; however, most have stressed the Internet's negative impact on intimate relationships. Notably, much of this research has focused on the small minority of men who compulsively engage in online sexual activities (OSA), overlooking the majority of men and women who use OSA recreationally (either individually or with a partner). Addressing these limitations, data on heterosexual adults in committed relationships were taken from the 2004 "ELLE/msnbc.com Cyber-sex and Romance Survey" (n = 8,376). In quantitative analyses, men were less likely than women to express concerns and more likely to hold favorable attitudes about their partner's OSA. With regard to the impact of OSA on intimate relationships, men and women did not differ in becoming "more open to new things," and finding it easier "to talk about what [they] want sexually." Negative impacts were also identified, with women more likely to indicate they had less sex as a result of a partner's OSA, and men more likely to indicate they were less aroused by real sex as a result of their own OSA. Generally, qualitative results mirrored quantitative ones. Additionally, qualitative data suggested that moderate or light amounts of OSA yield relationship benefits for both female and male users, including increases in the quality and frequency of sex, and increased intimacy with real partners. In addition, men who used the Internet moderately, and men and women who reported being light users, stated that engaging in tandem OSA fostered better sexual communication with partners. Findings underscore the need to explore further the impact that online sexual activities can have on real-life committed relationships.

  5. Perceived consequences of casual online sexual activities on heterosexual relationships: a u.s. Online survey.

    PubMed

    Grov, Christian; Gillespie, Brian Joseph; Royce, Tracy; Lever, Janet

    2011-04-01

    Some researchers have illustrated how the Internet can provide users with an ideal atmosphere to explore sexuality; however, most have stressed the Internet's negative impact on intimate relationships. Notably, much of this research has focused on the small minority of men who compulsively engage in online sexual activities (OSA), overlooking the majority of men and women who use OSA recreationally (either individually or with a partner). Addressing these limitations, data on heterosexual adults in committed relationships were taken from the 2004 "ELLE/msnbc.com Cyber-sex and Romance Survey" (n = 8,376). In quantitative analyses, men were less likely than women to express concerns and more likely to hold favorable attitudes about their partner's OSA. With regard to the impact of OSA on intimate relationships, men and women did not differ in becoming "more open to new things," and finding it easier "to talk about what [they] want sexually." Negative impacts were also identified, with women more likely to indicate they had less sex as a result of a partner's OSA, and men more likely to indicate they were less aroused by real sex as a result of their own OSA. Generally, qualitative results mirrored quantitative ones. Additionally, qualitative data suggested that moderate or light amounts of OSA yield relationship benefits for both female and male users, including increases in the quality and frequency of sex, and increased intimacy with real partners. In addition, men who used the Internet moderately, and men and women who reported being light users, stated that engaging in tandem OSA fostered better sexual communication with partners. Findings underscore the need to explore further the impact that online sexual activities can have on real-life committed relationships. PMID:20174862

  6. Relationships Between Body Image, Body Composition, Sexual Functioning, and Sexual Satisfaction Among Heterosexual Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Milhausen, Robin R; Buchholz, Andrea C; Opperman, Emily A; Benson, Lindsay E

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the association between body image and body-image self-consciousness on sexual satisfaction, accounting for relationships between body fat and body image, and between sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction, while controlling for relationship satisfaction. Participants were 143, 18-25 year-old Caucasian men and women in heterosexual monogamous relationships, recruited from the University of Guelph and surrounding community in Ontario, Canada. Various domains of body image, body-image self-consciousness, sexual satisfaction and functioning, and relationship satisfaction data were collected by questionnaires. Body fat was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Among men, body image was positively associated with sexual satisfaction, after controlling for relationship satisfaction. Men with greater body fat were more likely to have poorer behavioral and affective body image. Only body image specific to the sexual encounter influenced sexual functioning. Among women, no domain of body image was associated with sexual satisfaction, after controlling for relationship satisfaction. Women with greater body fat were more likely to have poorer affective and sexual-encounter-specific body image. As percent total fat increased, sexual functioning decreased. Our results suggest a complex pattern of relationships exists among body image and body composition constructs and sexual and relationship variable; and that these relationships are not the same for men and women.

  7. Heterosexual daters' sexual initiation behaviors: use of the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Simms, Deanne C; Byers, E Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated sexual initiations within the framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) (Ajzen, 1991; Ajzen & Madden, 1986). Male and female daters in heterosexual dating relationships completed an online survey that assessed their sexual relationship with their partner and the TPB components (perceptions of social norms, attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and intentions). The TPB was supported for both men and women in that, as predicted, the more an individual perceived that important others would approve of them initiating sexual activities with their partner, the more positive their evaluations were of the outcomes of initiating, and the more confident they were in their ability to initiate, the stronger were their initiation intentions. In turn, stronger sexual initiation intentions were associated with more frequent initiation behaviors. Compared to women, men initiated more frequently, had stronger sexual initiation intentions, and perceived more positive social norms regarding initiation; men and women did not differ in their attitudes toward sexual initiation or in their perceived behavioral control. Both men and women who reported initiating more frequently and perceived their partner as initiating more frequently reported greater sexual satisfaction. These results are discussed in terms of the utility of the TPB for understanding sexual initiations and the role of the traditional sexual script in initiation-related cognitions and behavior. PMID:22875717

  8. Sometimes you just have to have a lot of bitter to make it sweet: Substance abuse and partner abuse in the lives of HIV+ men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Andrasik, Michele P; Valentine, Sarah E; Pantalone, David W

    2013-07-01

    Although links between partner abuse (PA) and substance abuse (SA) are well-documented in the literature, we know less about these relations among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). We conducted a qualitative study with this group (N = 28). Participants reported (1) social modeling of SA in childhood and in adult social networks, (2) initial use of substance to cope with child abuse and neglect, and (3) the reinforcement of problematic SA by experiences of PA, whereby SA led to PA, resulting in increased SA. Recommendations for clinicians working with HIV+ MSM are discussed.

  9. Sexual and reproductive health perceptions and practices as revealed in the sexual history narratives of South African men living in a time of HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Stern, Erin; Rau, Asta; Cooper, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The frequent positioning of men's sexual risk-taking as driving the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa has triggered interest in men's sexual and reproductive health (SRH) perceptions, attitudes, and practices. Much research, however, presents men as a homogenous group, and focuses on the quantifiable aspects of male sexual behaviors, providing an inadequate basis for understanding men's SRH needs and addressing the gendered aspects of HIV prevention. This study used sexual history narratives to yield more nuanced and contextualized understandings of male sexuality as it relates to SRH. Fifty sexual life history individual interviews and 10 focus-group discussions (FGDs) with men, as well as 25 sexual life history interviews with women, were conducted with participants purposively sampled from three age categories: (18-24, 25-55, and 55+ years), a wide range of cultural and racial backgrounds, and in urban and rural sites across 5 provinces in South Africa. Interviews and FGDs elicited stories of participant's early knowledge of sex and sexual experimentation and then explored sexual relationships and experiences in adulthood-including engagement with HIV risks and SRH management. The data were analyzed using a thematic approach. Many male participants conformed to dominant norms of masculinity associated with a high risk of sexually transmitted infections including HIV, such as having regular unprotected sex, reluctance to test for HIV, and poor SRH-seeking behaviors. Yet, the narrative accounts reveal instances of men taking steps to protect their own SRH and that of their partners, and the complex ways in which hegemonic gender norms influence men and women's SRH. Ultimately, the study points to the value of sexual biographies for gaining a deeper understanding of male sexuality, and the social structures, meanings, and experiences that underlie it. Such insights are critical to more effectively engaging men in HIV prevention efforts.

  10. Sexual and reproductive health perceptions and practices as revealed in the sexual history narratives of South African men living in a time of HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Erin; Rau, Asta; Cooper, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The frequent positioning of men's sexual risk-taking as driving the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa has triggered interest in men's sexual and reproductive health (SRH) perceptions, attitudes, and practices. Much research, however, presents men as a homogenous group, and focuses on the quantifiable aspects of male sexual behaviors, providing an inadequate basis for understanding men's SRH needs and addressing the gendered aspects of HIV prevention. This study used sexual history narratives to yield more nuanced and contextualized understandings of male sexuality as it relates to SRH. Fifty sexual life history individual interviews and 10 focus-group discussions (FGDs) with men, as well as 25 sexual life history interviews with women, were conducted with participants purposively sampled from three age categories: (18–24, 25–55, and 55+ years), a wide range of cultural and racial backgrounds, and in urban and rural sites across 5 provinces in South Africa. Interviews and FGDs elicited stories of participant's early knowledge of sex and sexual experimentation and then explored sexual relationships and experiences in adulthood—including engagement with HIV risks and SRH management. The data were analyzed using a thematic approach. Many male participants conformed to dominant norms of masculinity associated with a high risk of sexually transmitted infections including HIV, such as having regular unprotected sex, reluctance to test for HIV, and poor SRH-seeking behaviors. Yet, the narrative accounts reveal instances of men taking steps to protect their own SRH and that of their partners, and the complex ways in which hegemonic gender norms influence men and women's SRH. Ultimately, the study points to the value of sexual biographies for gaining a deeper understanding of male sexuality, and the social structures, meanings, and experiences that underlie it. Such insights are critical to more effectively engaging men in HIV prevention efforts. PMID:25495581

  11. Sexual and reproductive health perceptions and practices as revealed in the sexual history narratives of South African men living in a time of HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Stern, Erin; Rau, Asta; Cooper, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The frequent positioning of men's sexual risk-taking as driving the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa has triggered interest in men's sexual and reproductive health (SRH) perceptions, attitudes, and practices. Much research, however, presents men as a homogenous group, and focuses on the quantifiable aspects of male sexual behaviors, providing an inadequate basis for understanding men's SRH needs and addressing the gendered aspects of HIV prevention. This study used sexual history narratives to yield more nuanced and contextualized understandings of male sexuality as it relates to SRH. Fifty sexual life history individual interviews and 10 focus-group discussions (FGDs) with men, as well as 25 sexual life history interviews with women, were conducted with participants purposively sampled from three age categories: (18-24, 25-55, and 55+ years), a wide range of cultural and racial backgrounds, and in urban and rural sites across 5 provinces in South Africa. Interviews and FGDs elicited stories of participant's early knowledge of sex and sexual experimentation and then explored sexual relationships and experiences in adulthood-including engagement with HIV risks and SRH management. The data were analyzed using a thematic approach. Many male participants conformed to dominant norms of masculinity associated with a high risk of sexually transmitted infections including HIV, such as having regular unprotected sex, reluctance to test for HIV, and poor SRH-seeking behaviors. Yet, the narrative accounts reveal instances of men taking steps to protect their own SRH and that of their partners, and the complex ways in which hegemonic gender norms influence men and women's SRH. Ultimately, the study points to the value of sexual biographies for gaining a deeper understanding of male sexuality, and the social structures, meanings, and experiences that underlie it. Such insights are critical to more effectively engaging men in HIV prevention efforts. PMID:25495581

  12. Negotiating homosexual identities: the experiences of men who have sex with men in Guangzhou.

    PubMed

    Li, Haochu Howard; Holroyd, Eleanor; Lau, Joseph T F

    2010-05-01

    This paper reports on an ethnographic study of male homosexuality in contemporary Chinese society. The study focused on how men negotiated with the mainstream Chinese heterosexual society and in so doing constructed their sexual identities. The factors found to inform sexual identity were: the cultural imperative of heterosexual marriage, normative family obligations, desired gender roles, emotional experiences and a need for social belonging. The four types of sexual identities constructed included: establishing a deliberate non-homosexual identity, accumulating an individual homosexual identity, forming a collective homosexual identity and adopting a flexible sexual identity. For the men interviewed, sexual identity was both fluid and fragmented, derived from highly personalised negotiations between individualised needs and social and cultural constructs. The analysis is set against the background of China's rapid and recent economic development, shifting national and international social environments and improved access to the Internet. PMID:20162481

  13. Disclosure and Concealment of Sexual Orientation and the Mental Health of Non-Gay-Identified, Behaviorally-Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Siegel, Karolynn; Downing, Martin J.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although bisexual men report lower levels of mental health relative to gay men, few studies have examined the factors that contribute to bisexual men’s mental health. Bisexual men are less likely to disclose, and more likely to conceal (i.e., a desire to hide), their sexual orientation than gay men. Theory suggests that this may adversely impact their mental health. This report examined the factors associated with disclosure and with concealment of sexual orientation, the association of disclosure and concealment with mental health, and the potential mediators (i.e., internalized homophobia, social support) of this association with mental health. Method An ethnically-diverse sample of 203 non-gay-identified, behaviorally-bisexual men who do not disclose their same-sex behavior to their female partners were recruited in New York City to complete a single set of self-report measures. Results Concealment was associated with higher income, a heterosexual identification, living with a wife or girlfriend, more frequent sex with women, and less frequent sex with men. Greater concealment, but not disclosure to friends and family, was significantly associated with lower levels of mental health. Multiple mediation analyses revealed that both internalized homophobia and general emotional support significantly mediated the association between concealment and mental health. Conclusions The findings demonstrate that concealment and disclosure are independent constructs among bisexual men. Further, they suggest that interventions addressing concerns about concealment, emotional support, and internalized homophobia may be more beneficial for increasing the mental health of bisexual men than those focused on promoting disclosure. PMID:23276123

  14. Non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity in sexual minority and heterosexual young adults.

    PubMed

    Lacefield, Katharine; Negy, Charles

    2012-04-01

    The present study examined 100 lesbian and gay college students and 100 heterosexual students to determine whether group differences exist in frequency of a range of non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity. Non-erotic cognitive distraction is a descriptive term for both self-evaluative cognitions related to physical performance and body image concerns, as well as additional cognitive distractions (e.g., contracting an STI or emotional concerns) during sexual activity. Participants were matched on gender (96 males and 104 females), age, and ethnicity, and completed questionnaires assessing frequency of non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity, as well as measures of additional variables (trait and body image anxiety, attitudes toward sexual minorities, self-esteem, and religiosity). Results indicated that sexual minorities experienced significantly more cognitive distractions related to body image, physical performance, and STIs during sexual activity than heterosexuals. Regarding gender, men reported more distractions related to STIs than women. Interaction effects were observed between sexual orientation and gender for body image-, disease-, and external/emotional-based distractions. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. Non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity in sexual minority and heterosexual young adults.

    PubMed

    Lacefield, Katharine; Negy, Charles

    2012-04-01

    The present study examined 100 lesbian and gay college students and 100 heterosexual students to determine whether group differences exist in frequency of a range of non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity. Non-erotic cognitive distraction is a descriptive term for both self-evaluative cognitions related to physical performance and body image concerns, as well as additional cognitive distractions (e.g., contracting an STI or emotional concerns) during sexual activity. Participants were matched on gender (96 males and 104 females), age, and ethnicity, and completed questionnaires assessing frequency of non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity, as well as measures of additional variables (trait and body image anxiety, attitudes toward sexual minorities, self-esteem, and religiosity). Results indicated that sexual minorities experienced significantly more cognitive distractions related to body image, physical performance, and STIs during sexual activity than heterosexuals. Regarding gender, men reported more distractions related to STIs than women. Interaction effects were observed between sexual orientation and gender for body image-, disease-, and external/emotional-based distractions. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21796485

  16. Performance of the Duke Religion Index and the Spiritual Well-Being Scale in Online Samples of Men who have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Wilkerson, J. Michael; Smolensk, Derek J.; Brady, Sonya S.; Rosser, B. R. Simon

    2012-01-01

    Religiosity is associated with behaviors that reduce the risk of HIV/STI infection among general-population and heterosexual-specific samples. Whether this association is similar for homosexual persons is unknown. Measures of religiosity have not been evaluated psychometrically among men who have sex with men (MSM), a population who, because of stigma, experience religiosity differently than heterosexual persons. We assessed the DUREL and the SWB (short form) in two samples of MSM. Neither instrument produced adequate model fit. To study the association between religiosity and HIV/STI risk behaviors among MSM, scales are needed that measure the religious and spiritual experiences of MSM. PMID:22441843

  17. Increased Drug Use and STI Risk with Injection Drug Use Among HIV-Seronegative Heterosexual Methamphetamine Users†

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, W. Susan; Garfein, Richard S.; Semple, Shirley J.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Zians, James K.; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) use has been found to be associated with increased risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) among men having sex with men, but it is unknown whether those who inject MA are at greater risk for these infections than those who administer MA by other routes. Furthermore, comparable data from heterosexual MA users are lacking. We investigated whether the HIV and STI risks of male and female heterosexual MA users who inject MA differ from those of comparable users who do not inject. Between 2001 and 2005, we interviewed 452 HIV-negative men and women aged 18 and older who had recently used MA and engaged in unprotected sex. Their mean age was 36.6 years; 68% were male; ethnicity was 49.4% Caucasian, 26.8% African-American, and 12.8% Hispanic. Logistic regression identified factors associated with injecting MA. Compared to non-IDU, IDU were more likely to: be Caucasian; be homeless; have used MA for a longer period and used more grams of MA in the last 30 days; have a history of felony conviction; and report a recent STI. HIV and STI prevention interventions should be tailored according to MA users’ method of administration. PMID:20464802

  18. Perceptions of HIV Risk and Explanations of Sexual Risk Behavior Offered by Heterosexual Black Male Barbershop Patrons in Brooklyn, NY

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Tonya N.; Joseph, Michael; Henny, Kirk D.; Pinto, Angelo R.; Agbetor, Francis; Camilien, Brignel; Williams, Kim M.; Browne, Ruth C.; White, Marilyn; Gousse, Yolene; Brown, Humberto; Taylor, Raekiela D.; Wilson, Tracey E.

    2015-01-01

    To describe HIV risk factors among adult heterosexual Black men recruited from four barbershops located in high HIV seroprevalent neighborhoods of Brooklyn, NY. Data on HIV-risk related behaviors and other characteristics were collected from barbershop clients. All participants (n=60) completed brief risk assessments; and a subset (n=22) also completed focus groups and/or individual interviews. Of the subset of 22 men, 68% were US born, 59% had been in jail/prison, 32% were unemployed; and during the 3 months before the interviews, 68% reported at least two partners and 45% reported unprotected vaginal or anal sex with two or more women. Emergent themes included: 1) the psychological function of multiple partnerships; 2) calculated risk taking regarding condom use; 3) the role of emotional attachment and partner trust in condom use; 4) low perceived HIV risk and community awareness; and 5) lack of relationship between HIV testing and safer sex practices. Interventions among heterosexual Black men should focus not only on increasing HIV awareness and reducing sexual risk, but also on contextual and interpersonal factors that influence sexual risk. PMID:25699198

  19. "It Really Is Not Just Gay, but African American Gay": The Impact of Community and Church on the Experiences of Black Lesbians Living in North Central Florida.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Clare F

    2016-09-01

    The experiences of Black lesbians highlight the unique circumstance found at the intersection of sexuality, race, and gender. However, most sexuality research tends to focus on White lesbians and White gay men, and most race research tends to focus on Black heterosexuals. Furthermore, research on the Black gay community tends to focus on those living in the Northeast or on the West Coast, neglecting experiences of those living in the more politically, socially, and religiously conservative South. This article draws on data obtained from semistructured interviews with 12 Black lesbians living in north central Florida, exploring their perspectives as they negotiate a social world of intersecting oppressions. Participants especially highlight how they contextualized their sexuality in racialized terms and negotiated it in racially defined communities. PMID:26861888

  20. Preferences for facial and vocal masculinity in homosexual men: the role of relationship status, sexual restrictiveness, and self-perceived masculinity.

    PubMed

    Valentová, Jaroslava; Roberts, S Craig; Havlícek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Studies on mate preferences usually examine heterosexual attraction; comparatively little is known about preferences of individuals whose sexuality is aimed at the same sex. We examined preferences of two groups of androphilic individuals--homosexual men and heterosexual women--for male facial and vocal level of masculinity. Facial images of 58 men and vocal recordings of 30 men were rated by 51 heterosexual women and 33 homosexual men for their attractiveness and masculinity--femininity. In both groups of raters, ratings of vocal attractiveness and masculinity were positively correlated, but there was no overall preference for facial masculinity. After splitting raters according to their relationship status, sexual restrictiveness, and self-rated masculinity, we found significant preferences for masculine voices only in single homosexual men and coupled heterosexual women, while a preference for feminine male faces was found in coupled homosexual men. Furthermore, homosexual men describing themselves as relatively masculine significantly preferred masculine voices but also more feminine male faces. Our results demonstrate that conditional mate preferences are not restricted to heterosexual interactions, and homosexual men prefer a mixture of masculine and feminine traits in their potential male partners.

  1. Preferences for facial and vocal masculinity in homosexual men: the role of relationship status, sexual restrictiveness, and self-perceived masculinity.

    PubMed

    Valentová, Jaroslava; Roberts, S Craig; Havlícek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Studies on mate preferences usually examine heterosexual attraction; comparatively little is known about preferences of individuals whose sexuality is aimed at the same sex. We examined preferences of two groups of androphilic individuals--homosexual men and heterosexual women--for male facial and vocal level of masculinity. Facial images of 58 men and vocal recordings of 30 men were rated by 51 heterosexual women and 33 homosexual men for their attractiveness and masculinity--femininity. In both groups of raters, ratings of vocal attractiveness and masculinity were positively correlated, but there was no overall preference for facial masculinity. After splitting raters according to their relationship status, sexual restrictiveness, and self-rated masculinity, we found significant preferences for masculine voices only in single homosexual men and coupled heterosexual women, while a preference for feminine male faces was found in coupled homosexual men. Furthermore, homosexual men describing themselves as relatively masculine significantly preferred masculine voices but also more feminine male faces. Our results demonstrate that conditional mate preferences are not restricted to heterosexual interactions, and homosexual men prefer a mixture of masculine and feminine traits in their potential male partners. PMID:23700957

  2. Gendered constructions of the impact of HIV and AIDS in the context of the HIV-positive seroconcordant heterosexual relationship

    PubMed Central

    Bhagwanjee, Anil; Govender, Kaymarlin; Reardon, Candice; Johnstone, Leigh; George, Gavin; Gordon, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This article explores the complex, dynamic and contextual frameworks within which men working in a mining community and their live-in long-term partners or spouses (termed “couples” in this study) respond to the introduction of HIV into their heterosexual relationships; the way in which partners adopt gendered positions in enabling them to make sense of their illness; how they negotiate their respective masculine and feminine roles in response to the need for HIV-related lifestyle changes; as well as the gendered nature of partner support in relation to antiretroviral therapy (ARV) adherence. Methods We conducted an in-depth qualitative study with a sample of 12 HIV-positive seroconcordant heterosexual couples in a South African mining organization. Transcripts based on semi-structured couple's interviews were analyzed using an inductive emergent thematic analytical method. Results The findings present compelling evidence that the impact of HIV and AIDS is mitigated, in the main, by the nature of the dyadic relationship. Where power and agency were skewed in accordance with traditional gender scripts, the impact of HIV and AIDS was deleterious in terms of negotiating disclosure, meeting expectations of care and support, and promoting treatment adherence. As a corollary, the study also revealed that where the relational dynamic evidenced a more equitable distribution of power, the challenge of negotiating illness was embraced in a way that strengthened the couples’ affiliation in profound ways, manifested not simply in a reduction in risk behaviours, but in both partner's courage to re-visit sensitive issues related to managing their relationship in the context of a debilitating illness. Conclusions Gendered positioning (by self and others) was found to play a crucial role in the way couples experienced HIV and ARV treatment, and underscored the positive role of a couples-counselling approach in the negotiation of the illness experience. However

  3. Comparing the Rates of Early Childhood Victimization across Sexual Orientations: Heterosexual, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Mostly Heterosexual.

    PubMed

    Zou, Christopher; Andersen, Judith P

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the rates of childhood victimization among individuals who identify as "mostly heterosexual" (MH) in comparison to other sexual orientation groups. For the present study, we utilized a more comprehensive assessment of adverse childhood experiences to extend prior literature by examining if MH individuals' experience of victimization more closely mirrors that of sexual minority individuals or heterosexuals. Heterosexual (n = 422) and LGB (n = 561) and MH (n = 120) participants were recruited online. Respondents completed surveys about their adverse childhood experiences, both maltreatment by adults (e.g., childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and childhood household dysfunction) and peer victimization (i.e., verbal and physical bullying). Specifically, MH individuals were 1.47 times more likely than heterosexuals to report childhood victimization experiences perpetrated by adults. These elevated rates were similar to LGB individuals. Results suggest that rates of victimization of MH groups are more similar to the rates found among LGBs, and are significantly higher than heterosexual groups. Our results support prior research that indicates that an MH identity falls within the umbrella of a sexual minority, yet little is known about unique challenges that this group may face in comparison to other sexual minority groups.

  4. Aggression Toward Gay Men as Gender Role Enforcement: Effects of Male Role Norms, Sexual Prejudice, and Masculine Gender Role Stress

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Dominic J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress as mediators of the relations between male gender norms and anger and aggression toward gay men. Participants were 150 self-identified heterosexual men who completed measures of adherence to male gender role norms, sexual prejudice, masculine gender role stress, and state anger. Participants then viewed a video depicting intimate relationship behavior between two gay men, reported state anger a second time, and competed in a laboratory aggression task against either a heterosexual or a gay male. Results indicated that adherence to the antifemininity norm exerted an indirect effect, primarily through sexual prejudice, on increases in anger. Adherence to the status and antifemininity norms exerted indirect effects, also through sexual prejudice, on physical aggression toward the gay, but not the heterosexual, male. Findings provide the first multivariate evidence for determinants of aggression toward gay men motivated by gender role enforcement. PMID:19558440

  5. Aggression toward gay men as gender role enforcement: effects of male role norms, sexual prejudice, and masculine gender role stress.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Dominic J

    2009-08-01

    This study examined sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress as mediators of the relations between male gender norms and anger and aggression toward gay men. Participants were 150 self-identified heterosexual men who completed measures of adherence to male gender role norms, sexual prejudice, masculine gender role stress, and state anger. Participants then viewed a video depicting intimate relationship behavior between 2 gay men, reported state anger a second time, and competed in a laboratory aggression task against either a heterosexual or a gay male. Results indicated that adherence to the antifemininity norm exerted an indirect effect, primarily through sexual prejudice, on increases in anger. Adherence to the status and antifemininity norms exerted indirect effects, also through sexual prejudice, on physical aggression toward the gay, but not the heterosexual, male. Findings provide the first multivariate evidence for determinants of aggression toward gay men motivated by gender role enforcement. PMID:19558440

  6. Aggression toward gay men as gender role enforcement: effects of male role norms, sexual prejudice, and masculine gender role stress.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Dominic J

    2009-08-01

    This study examined sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress as mediators of the relations between male gender norms and anger and aggression toward gay men. Participants were 150 self-identified heterosexual men who completed measures of adherence to male gender role norms, sexual prejudice, masculine gender role stress, and state anger. Participants then viewed a video depicting intimate relationship behavior between 2 gay men, reported state anger a second time, and competed in a laboratory aggression task against either a heterosexual or a gay male. Results indicated that adherence to the antifemininity norm exerted an indirect effect, primarily through sexual prejudice, on increases in anger. Adherence to the status and antifemininity norms exerted indirect effects, also through sexual prejudice, on physical aggression toward the gay, but not the heterosexual, male. Findings provide the first multivariate evidence for determinants of aggression toward gay men motivated by gender role enforcement.

  7. Gender inequality dynamics in the prevention of a heterosexual HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Wathuta, Jane

    2016-01-01

    This paper critiques the approach to the elimination of gender inequality as an HIV prevention strategy in the just ended era of the Millennium Development Goals, with the aim of contributing to the formulation of policy guidelines for sub-Saharan Africa in the Sustainable Development Goals. The aim is to underscore the mutual responsibility of women and men in achieving a sustainable HIV response and ending the epidemic. While taking into account the real vulnerability of women, prevention programmes can reflect gender dynamics more accurately so that attention is given to the role of both sexes in propagating - or stemming - a predominantly heterosexual HIV epidemic. More emphasis could be given to the harm caused to both men and women by certain norms related to masculinity and sexuality, and the subsequent need for combined efforts in reducing intimate partner violence and concurrency. The empowerment and engagement of both women and men as agents of change would need to be dealt with more creatively. PMID:27002358

  8. 'When you visit a man you should prepare yourself': male community care worker approaches to working with men living with HIV in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Gittings, Lesley

    2016-08-01

    Caring is typically constructed as a feminised practice, resulting in women shouldering the burden of care-related work. Health-seeking behaviours are also constructed as feminine and men have poorer health outcomes globally. Employing men as carers may not only improve the health of the men they assist but also be transformative with regards to gendered constructions of caring. Using semi-structured interviews and observational home visits, this study explored the techniques that community care workers employ when working with male clients. The empirical analysis draws on the perspectives of eight care workers and three of their male clients from the Cape Town area. Interviews reveal how care workers and clients perform and negotiate masculinities as they navigate hegemonic masculine norms that require men to act tough, suppress emotions and deny weakness and sickness. Both parties bump up against ideals of what it means to be a man as they strive to provide care and receive support. Community care workers avoid rupturing client performances of hegemonic masculinities which inhibit confession and support. To do this, they use techniques of indirectly broaching sensitive subjects, acting in a friendly way and being clear about the intention of their work.

  9. Co-occurring Psychiatric and Drug Use Disorders among Sexual Minority Men with Lifetime Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Gamarel, Kristi E.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Marshall, Brandon D.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Bryant, Kendall; Zaller, Nickolas D.; Operario, Don

    2015-01-01

    Background Emerging evidence indicates multiple health risks associated with harmful alcohol use among sexual minority men in the United States. In particular, sexual minority men with alcohol use disorders (AUD) might have greater co-occurring health problems compared with heterosexual men. We used nationally representative data to compare the prevalence of diagnostic co-occurring psychiatric disorders and drug use disorders (DUD) among sexual minority men with AUD compared with heterosexual males with a lifetime AUD diagnosis. Methods We analyzed data from 6,899 adult males with AUD participating in Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Using multiple logistic regressions, we compared the odds of lifetime diagnosis of mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and drug use disorders in sexual minority and heterosexual adult males with AUD. Results Of participants included in this analysis, 176 (2.6%) self-identified as a sexual minority. In adjusted analyses, sexual minority men with AUD were more likely than heterosexual men with AUD to have any mood disorder (including major depressive episode), any anxiety disorder (including panic disorder without agoraphobia, specific phobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder), and lifetime DUD. Conclusions The elevated co-occurrence of psychiatric disorders and DUD among sexual minority men with AUD suggests that future research is warranted. A better understanding of the etiology of diagnostic co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders among sexual minority men in order to develop effective integrated prevention and treatment programs. PMID:25913886

  10. The Significance of Privacy and Trust in Providing Health-Related Services to Behaviorally Bisexual Men in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Brian; Schnarrs, Phillip W.; Goncalves, Gabriel; Malebranche, David; Martinez, Omar; Reece, Michael; Rhodes, Scott D.; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Nix, Ryan; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that bisexual men face unique health concerns in comparison to their exclusively homosexual and heterosexual counterparts. However, little is known about behaviorally bisexual men's experiences with health services, including ways of providing services that would be most appropriate to meet the health needs of this…

  11. Acceptability of HIV vaccine trials in high-risk heterosexual cohorts in Mombasa, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Jackson, D J; Martin, H L; Bwayo, J J; Nyange, P M; Rakwar, J P; Kashonga, F; Mandaliya, K; Ndinya-Achola, J O; Kreiss, J K

    1995-11-01

    The acceptability of a theoretical human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine trial was investigated in HIV-negative commercial sex workers and trucking company employees in Mombasa, Kenya. The 206 women and 201 men who completed questionnaires were already enrolled in a prospective cohort study of high-risk heterosexuals. 95% of men and 98% of women surveyed agreed that acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a major problem in Kenya; however, only 14% and 6%, respectively, considered themselves at personal risk of infection. Only 4% of male and 1% of female respondents stated they would refuse an HIV vaccine of proven safety and efficacy. However, 91% of women but only 67% of men indicated they would participate in a double-blind, placebo-controlled vaccine trial that involved vaccine-induced HIV seropositivity and prolonged follow-up. The main concerns about participation in such a trial were the positive HIV blood test result and fear of acquiring HIV from the vaccine. 9% of men and 6% of women anticipated they would decrease their condom use as a result of participation in such a trial, and 9% of men and 3% of women thought they would increase their number of sexual partners. Anticipated higher risk behavior was significantly associated with male gender, but not with age, education, history of prostitution or of sex with prostitutes, or current condom use. If and when vaccine trials become possible, this high-risk cohort would comprise an ideal target population; however, concurrent counseling about the need to continue preventive behavioral measures would be a necessity.

  12. Infidelity in heterosexual couples: demographic, interpersonal, and personality-related predictors of extradyadic sex.

    PubMed

    Mark, Kristen P; Janssen, Erick; Milhausen, Robin R

    2011-10-01

    This study aimed to assess the relative importance of demographic, interpersonal, and personality factors in predicting sexual infidelity in heterosexual couples. A total of 506 men (M age = 32.86 years, SD = 10.60) and 412 women (M age = 27.66 years, SD = 8.93), who indicated they were in a monogamous sexual relationship, completed a series of questionnaires, including the Sexual Excitation/Inhibition (SES/SIS) scales and the Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire, and answered questions about, among others, religiosity, education, income, relationship and sexual satisfaction, and sexual compatibility. Almost one-quarter of men (23.2%) and 19.2% of women indicated that they had "cheated" during their current relationship (i.e., engaged in sexual interactions with someone other than their partner that could jeopardize, or hurt, their relationship). Among men, a logistic regression analysis, explaining 17% of the variance, revealed that a higher propensity of sexual excitation (SES) and sexual inhibition due to "the threat of performance concerns" (SIS1), a lower propensity for sexual inhibition due to "the threat of performance consequences" (SIS2), and an increased tendency to engage in regretful sexual behavior during negative affective states were all significant predictors of infidelity. In women, a similar regression analysis explained 21% of the variance in engaging in infidelity. In addition to SIS1 and SIS2, for which the same patterns were found as for men, low relationship happiness and low compatibility in terms of sexual attitudes and values were predictive of infidelity. The findings of this study suggest that, for both men and women, sexual personality characteristics and, for women, relationship factors are more relevant to the prediction of sexual infidelity than demographic variables such as marital status and religiosity.

  13. Social Support and Psychological Well-Being in Lesbian and Heterosexual Preadoptive Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines predictors of social support and mental health among 36 lesbian and 39 heterosexual couples who were waiting to adopt. Lesbian preadoptive partners perceived less support from family than heterosexual partners but similar levels of support from friends. Lesbian and heterosexual partners reported similar levels of well-being.…

  14. Mostly Heterosexual as a Distinct Sexual Orientation Group: A Systematic Review of the Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savin-Williams, Ritch C.; Vrangalova, Zhana

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed empirical evidence regarding whether mostly heterosexual exists as a sexual orientation distinct from two adjacent groups on a sexual continuum--exclusively heterosexual and substantially bisexual. We addressed the question: Do mostly heterosexuals show a unique profile of sexual and romantic characteristics that distinguishes them as…

  15. Light and Heavy Heterosexual Activities of Young Canadian Adolescents: Normative Patterns and Differential Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Trish; Connolly, Jennifer; Cribbie, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to explore patterns of heterosexual activity in early adolescence and to examine the differential pathways to light and heavy heterosexuality. We utilized the National Longitudinal Survey of Canadian Children and Youth (NLSCY) in which heterosexual behaviors, as well as puberty, parenting processes, peer…

  16. “A man’s gonna do what a man wants to do”: African American and Hispanic women’s perceptions about heterosexual relationships: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV prevention efforts have given limited attention to the relational schemas and scripts of adult heterosexual women. These broader schemas and scripts of romantic and other sexual liaisons, partner selection, relationship dynamics, and power negotiations may help to better understand facilitators and barriers to HIV risk-reduction practices. Methods We conducted exploratory qualitative interviews with 60 HIV-uninfected heterosexual African-American women from rural counties in North Carolina and Alabama, and Hispanic women from an urban county in southern Florida. Data were collected for relationship expectations; relationship experiences, and relationship power and decision-making. Interview transcripts underwent computer-assisted thematic analysis. Results Participants had a median age of 34 years (range 18–59), 34% were married or living as married, 39% earned an annual income of $12,000 or less, 12% held less than a high school education, and 54% were employed. Among the Hispanic women, 95% were foreign born. We identified two overarching relationship themes: contradictions between relationship expectations and desires and life circumstances that negated such ideals, and relationship challenges. Within the contradictions theme, we discovered six subthemes: a good man is hard to find; sex can be currency used to secure desired outcomes; compromises and allowances for cheating, irresponsible, and disrespectful behavior; redefining dating; sex just happens; needing relationship validation. The challenges theme centered on two subthemes: uncertainties and miscommunication, and relationship power negotiation. Gender differences in relationship intentions and desires as well as communication styles, the importance of emotional and financial support, and the potential for relationships to provide disappointment were present in all subthemes. In examining HIV risk perceptions, participants largely held that risk for HIV-infection and the need to take

  17. Structural Stigma and Cigarette Smoking in a Prospective Cohort Study of Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Youth

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Jun, Hee-Jin; Corliss, Heather L.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2013-01-01

    Background Sexual minority youth are more likely to smoke cigarettes than heterosexuals but research into the determinants of these disparities is lacking. Purpose To examine whether exposure to structural stigma predicts cigarette smoking in sexual minority youth. Methods Prospective data from adolescents participating in the Growing Up Today Study (2000–2005). Results Among sexual minority youth, living in low structural stigma states (e.g., states with non-discrimination policies inclusive of sexual orientation) was associated with a lower risk of cigarette smoking after adjustment for individual-level risk factors (Relative Risk[RR]=0.97, 95% Confidence Interval[CI]: 0.96, 0.99, p=0.02). This association remained marginally significant after additional controls for potential state-level confounders (RR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.93, 1.00, p=0.06). In contrast, among heterosexual youth, structural stigma was not associated with past-year smoking rates, documenting specificity of these effects to sexual minority youth. Conclusions Structural stigma represents a potential risk factor for cigarette smoking among sexual minority adolescents. PMID:24136092

  18. Heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in northern California: results from a ten-year study.

    PubMed

    Padian, N S; Shiboski, S C; Glass, S O; Vittinghoff, E

    1997-08-15

    To examine rates of and risk factors for heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the authors conducted a prospective study of infected individuals and their heterosexual partners who have been recruited since 1985. Participants were recruited from health care providers, research studies, and health departments throughout Northern California, and they were interviewed and examined at various study clinic sites. A total of 82 infected women and their male partners and 360 infected men and their female partners were enrolled. Over 90% of the couples were monogamous for the year prior to entry into the study; < 3% had a current sexually transmitted disease (STD). The median age of participants was 34 years, and the majority were white. Over 3,000 couple-months of data were available for the follow-up study. Overall, 68 (19%) of the 360 female partners of HIV-infected men (95% confidence interval (CI) 15.0-23.3%) and two (2.4%) of the 82 male partners of HIV-infected women (95% CI 0.3-8.5%) were infected. History of sexually transmitted diseases was most strongly associated with transmission. Male-to-female transmission was approximately eight-times more efficient than female-to-male transmission and male-to-female per contact infectivity was estimated to be 0.0009 (95% CI 0.0005-0.001). Over time, the authors observed increased condom use (p < 0.001) and no new infections. Infectivity for HIV through heterosexual transmission is low, and STDs may be the most important cofactor for transmission. Significant behavior change over time in serodiscordant couples was observed. PMID:9270414

  19. Mapping Graduate Social Work Student Learning Journeys about Heterosexual Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, N. Eugene; Griffin, Rachel; Arnold-Renicker, Heather; Burson, Michael; Johnston, Clare; Moorman, Nichole; Nelsen, Jenny; Schutte, Elsa Campos

    2009-01-01

    This study uses qualitative data from student Web logs (blogs) that were required for a graduate social work course addressing issues of privilege to examine the learning journey trajectory for students in a master's of social work program who participated in a single-identity caucus examining heterosexual privilege. The study includes reflections…

  20. Psychological Abuse among College Women in Exclusive Heterosexual Dating Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pipes, Randolph B.; LeBov-Keeler, Karen

    1997-01-01

    Identifies possible predictors of psychological abuse in nonmarital heterosexual romantic relationships. Responses from 175 undergraduate women reveal 11% claiming psychological abuse as well as more instances of partner behaviors characteristic of psychological abuse. Abused individuals were more likely to have lower self-esteem, had parents'…

  1. Predictors of Heterosexual College Students' Attitudes toward LGBT People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodford, Michael R.; Silverschanz, Perry; Swank, Eric; Scherrer, Kristin S.; Raiz, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This study identifies the predictors of U.S. heterosexual undergraduate and graduate college students' attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people as a group rather than toward individual identities. Findings suggest that affirming LGBT attitudes are most strongly associated with liberal political ideology and whether…

  2. HIV and Elevated Mental Health Problems: Diagnostic, Treatment, and Risk Patterns for Symptoms of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in a National Community-Based Cohort of Gay Men Living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Heywood, Wendy; Lyons, Anthony

    2016-08-01

    People living with HIV (PLHIV) have almost double the risk of depression than the rest of the population, and depression and anxiety among PLHIV have been linked with greater disease progression and other physical health problems. Studies to date, however, have focused almost exclusively on depression or general mental health. Much less research has investigated predictors of anxiety and generalized stress among HIV-positive gay men. This paper reports findings from a national community-based sample of 357 HIV-positive Australians gay men aged 18 years and older. Participants reported elevated rates of depression, anxiety, and generalized stress symptoms. A significant proportion of men with elevated depression and anxiety symptoms were not receiving treatment or had not been diagnosed. Risk factors for elevated mental health concerns included experiences of internalized stigma and discrimination. Anxiety was also associated with lower T-cell CD4 counts. A key protective factor was access to social support. The type of support, in particular emotional support, was found to be more important than the source of support. Our findings suggest that greater emphasis is needed on mental health screening and the provision of emotional support for PLHIV.

  3. 'At times, I feel like I'm sinning': the paradoxical role of non-lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender-affirming religion in the lives of behaviourally-bisexual Latino men.

    PubMed

    Severson, Nicolette; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Kaufman, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we examine non-lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender-affirming religiosity among behaviourally-bisexual Latino men as it relates to sexual attitudes, experiences and behaviours. We asked how does religiosity correspond to masculine identities, sex roles and condom efficacy? And how might religiosity influence contexts of health risks? Data were analysed from a mixed-methods study of 142 behaviourally-bisexual Latino men, aged 18-60 years. Major findings include positive correlations between religiosity and (1) masculine ideologies, (2) internalised homonegativity, (3) less comfort with receptive sex, (4) low condom efficacy and (5) higher levels of loneliness and incidents of discriminatory events. Results are paired with illustrative, descriptive case studies from life history interviews. It is suggested that non-lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender-affirming religiosity plays a paradoxical role in the lives of behaviourally-bisexual Latino men - on one hand, increasing internalised homonegativity and attendant health risks and, on the other, providing social support to members of a marginalised population.

  4. Social Dominance Orientation Relates to Believing Men Should Dominate Sexually, Sexual Self-Efficacy, and Taking Free Female Condoms Among Undergraduate Women and Men

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Sheri R.; Earnshaw, Valerie A.

    2014-01-01

    Gendered-based power affects heterosexual relationships, with beliefs in the U.S. prescribing that men dominate women sexually. We draw on social dominance theory to examine whether women’s and men’s level of support for group-based hierarchy (i.e., social dominance orientation; SDO) helps explain gender-based power beliefs and dynamics in heterosexual relationships. We conducted a laboratory study at a Northeastern U.S. university among 357 women and 126 men undergraduates who reported being heterosexual and sexually active, testing three sets of hypotheses. First, as hypothesized, women endorsed SDO and the belief that men should dominate sexually less than men did. Second, as hypothesized, among women and men, SDO was positively correlated with the belief that men should dominate sexually, and negatively correlated with sexual self-efficacy (confidence in sexual situations) and number of female condoms (a woman-controlled source of protection) taken. Third, structural equation modeling, controlling for age, family income, number of sexual partners in the past month, and perceived HIV/AIDS risk, supported the hypothesis that among women and men, the belief that men should dominate sexually mediates SDO’s association with sexual self-efficacy. The hypothesis that the belief that men should dominate sexually mediates SDO’s association with number of female condoms taken was supported for women only. The hypothesis that sexual self-efficacy mediates SDO’s association with number of female condoms taken was not supported. Results suggest SDO influences power beliefs and dynamics in heterosexual relationships. Although female condoms are an important woman-controlled source of protection, power-related beliefs may pose a challenge to their use. PMID:24482555

  5. EEG responses to visual erotic stimuli in men with normal and paraphilic interests.

    PubMed

    Waismann, Rogeria; Fenwick, Peter B C; Wilson, Glenn D; Hewett, Terry D; Lumsden, John

    2003-04-01

    Contingent negative variation and evoked potentials to visual erotic stimuli were recorded from 8 brain sites in a sample of 62 right-handed men aged 20-50, half of whom declared paraphilic interests and half claimed "normal" heterosexual interests. To quantify erotic preferences, a "variance quotient" (VQ) was calculated from scores on the Wilson Sex Fantasy Questionnaire using the formula VQ = Impersonal + Sadomasochistic fantasies/Intimate + Exploratory fantasies. Stimuli consisted of 57 paraphilic slides (depicting fetishistic and sadomasochistic themes), 57 heterosexual erotic slides (explicit pictures of nude women, coitus, and oral sex), and 57 neutral slides (landscapes and street scenes). The P600 response appeared to be the best indicator of erotic preferences, butthe locus of maximum arousal was different for paraphilic and heterosexual stimuli. The primary brain site for heterosexual arousal was P4 (right parietal), where there was a -.34 (p < .01) correlation between VQ and P600 (i.e., nonvariant males showed greater responses to normal erotic stimuli at this location). For paraphilic stimuli, there was a correlation of .26 (p < .05) between the VQ and P600 response at the F3 (left frontal) site (i.e., paraphilic men showed greater responses to paraphilic stimuli than normal men at this brain location). Dividing the sample into groups of 23 paraphilics and 23 heterosexual controls on the basis of their VQs showed that "normals" differentiated between stimulus types more at the P4 than paraphilics. Theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  6. [Men and family planning].

    PubMed

    Vieira, J G

    1993-01-01

    Family planning programs since their beginnings have focused exclusively on women. The importance of male participation in family planning has not been recognized. Today's society demands greater understanding and empathy between spouses, if they are to meet the new and difficult challenges of modern life. Incorporation of men into family planning programs is needed because of the deteriorating live conditions of a large segment of the population and the accelerating decomposition of social structures. Persuading men to participate in family planning should strengthen the couple and increase the probability that decisions about family size will be responsible. Strategies should be designed to interest men in family planning and increase their awareness of their role in fathering happy children who enter the world in more just and humane conditions. Such strategies must combat sex role socialization that begins in infancy. The assignment of responsibility for family planning to the woman excludes men from what should be a fundamental role.

  7. HIV Risk Among Men Who Have Sex With Men, Women Who Have Sex With Women, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Populations in South Africa: A Mini-Review

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Meredith G. B.; Cloete, Allanise; Zungu, Nompumelelo; Simbayi, Leickness C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The HIV epidemic in South Africa is characterized mainly by heterosexual transmission. Recently, the importance of targeting key populations and marginalized groups, including men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender people, has been added to the national agenda. Objectives: This mini-review explores the current state of empirical research on HIV risk and MSM, women who have sex with women (WSW), lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) populations in South Africa in order to assess the current state of research and identify gaps in the literature. Method: Peer-reviewed empirical social and behavioral articles on HIV prevalence and risk focusing on MSM, WSW, and LGBT populations published since 2006 were included in this mini-review. Results: In total 35 articles were included: 30 on MSM, gay, and/or bisexual male-identified populations, three on WSW, lesbian, and/or bisexual female-identified populations, two on LGB youth, and none on transgender populations. Conclusion: Despite South Africa being the country with the largest number of people living with HIV in the world, there is a limited amount of research in South Africa on HIV and non-normative gender identities and sexualities, especially WSW, lesbian, and/or bisexual female-identified populations, transgender populations, and LGB youth. Research with MSM, WSW, and LGBT populations should be prioritized in South Africa in order to appropriately inform HIV prevention strategies that meet the specific needs of these marginalized groups. PMID:27347271

  8. Understanding the lives of older gay people.

    PubMed

    Kean, Reb

    2006-09-01

    Ten research articles were examined with the aim of increasing our understanding of the lives of older gay people. It is clear from the literature that nurses must not rely on stereotypes of older gay people to inform their professional practice. It is also important for nurses to appreciate that older homosexuals have different health and social care needs from their heterosexual contemporaries.

  9. Comparing the Rates of Early Childhood Victimization across Sexual Orientations: Heterosexual, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Mostly Heterosexual

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Christopher; Andersen, Judith P.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the rates of childhood victimization among individuals who identify as “mostly heterosexual” (MH) in comparison to other sexual orientation groups. For the present study, we utilized a more comprehensive assessment of adverse childhood experiences to extend prior literature by examining if MH individuals’ experience of victimization more closely mirrors that of sexual minority individuals or heterosexuals. Heterosexual (n = 422) and LGB (n = 561) and MH (n = 120) participants were recruited online. Respondents completed surveys about their adverse childhood experiences, both maltreatment by adults (e.g., childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and childhood household dysfunction) and peer victimization (i.e., verbal and physical bullying). Specifically, MH individuals were 1.47 times more likely than heterosexuals to report childhood victimization experiences perpetrated by adults. These elevated rates were similar to LGB individuals. Results suggest that rates of victimization of MH groups are more similar to the rates found among LGBs, and are significantly higher than heterosexual groups. Our results support prior research that indicates that an MH identity falls within the umbrella of a sexual minority, yet little is known about unique challenges that this group may face in comparison to other sexual minority groups. PMID:26444428

  10. Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for prevention of HIV in serodiscordant heterosexual couples in the United States: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    McMahon, James M; Myers, Julie E; Kurth, Ann E; Cohen, Stephanie E; Mannheimer, Sharon B; Simmons, Janie; Pouget, Enrique R; Trabold, Nicole; Haberer, Jessica E

    2014-09-01

    Oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising new biomedical prevention approach in which HIV-negative individuals are provided with daily oral antiretroviral medication for the primary prevention of HIV-1. Several clinical trials have demonstrated efficacy of oral PrEP for HIV prevention among groups at high risk for HIV, with adherence closely associated with level of risk reduction. In the United States (US), three groups have been prioritized for initial implementation of PrEP-injection drug users, men who have sex with men at substantial risk for HIV, and HIV-negative partners within serodiscordant heterosexual couples. Numerous demonstration projects involving PrEP implementation among MSM are underway, but relatively little research has been devoted to study PrEP implementation in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples in the US. Such couples face a unique set of challenges to PrEP implementation at the individual, couple, and provider level with regard to PrEP uptake and maintenance, adherence, safety and toxicity, clinical monitoring, and sexual risk behavior. Oral PrEP also provides new opportunities for serodiscordant couples and healthcare providers for primary prevention and reproductive health. This article provides a review of the critical issues, challenges, and opportunities involved in the implementation of oral PrEP among HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples in the US.

  11. Oral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for Prevention of HIV in Serodiscordant Heterosexual Couples in the United States: Opportunities and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Julie E.; Kurth, Ann E.; Cohen, Stephanie E.; Mannheimer, Sharon B.; Simmons, Janie; Pouget, Enrique R.; Trabold, Nicole; Haberer, Jessica E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising new biomedical prevention approach in which HIV-negative individuals are provided with daily oral antiretroviral medication for the primary prevention of HIV-1. Several clinical trials have demonstrated efficacy of oral PrEP for HIV prevention among groups at high risk for HIV, with adherence closely associated with level of risk reduction. In the United States (US), three groups have been prioritized for initial implementation of PrEP—injection drug users, men who have sex with men at substantial risk for HIV, and HIV-negative partners within serodiscordant heterosexual couples. Numerous demonstration projects involving PrEP implementation among MSM are underway, but relatively little research has been devoted to study PrEP implementation in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples in the US. Such couples face a unique set of challenges to PrEP implementation at the individual, couple, and provider level with regard to PrEP uptake and maintenance, adherence, safety and toxicity, clinical monitoring, and sexual risk behavior. Oral PrEP also provides new opportunities for serodiscordant couples and healthcare providers for primary prevention and reproductive health. This article provides a review of the critical issues, challenges, and opportunities involved in the implementation of oral PrEP among HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples in the US. PMID:25045996

  12. Ratio of anogenital warts between different anatomical sites in homosexual and heterosexual individuals in Australia, 2002-2013: implications for susceptibility of different anatomical sites to genital warts.

    PubMed

    Chow, E P F; Lin, A C; Read, T R H; Bradshaw, C S; Chen, M Y; Fairley, C K

    2015-05-01

    There is little known regarding the transmissibility of human papillomavirus (HPV) between different sites in men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexual individuals. We conducted a retrospective analysis investigating all new patients attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre in Australia between 2002 and 2013. We describe the prevalence and ratio of the first episode of anogenital warts in MSM and heterosexual males and females. The proportion of new MSM clients with anal and penile warts was 4·0% (362/8978) and 1·6% (141/8978), respectively; which gave an anal-to-penile wart ratio of 1:2·6. About 13·7% (1656/12112) of heterosexual males had penile warts and 10·0% (1121/11166) of females had vulval warts, which yielded a penile-to-vulval wart ratio of 1:0·7. Penile-anal transmission has a higher ratio than penile-vulval transmission, suggesting that the anal epithelium may be more susceptible to HPV infection than the vulval epithelium in females; these ratios are important in modelling the control of HPV in MSM.

  13. The prevalence and correlates of syphilis and HIV among homosexual and bisexual men in Shijiazhuang, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shao-Hui; Liu, Shu-Jun; Hu, Ling-Ling; Li, Jie-Fang; Liu, Li-Hua; Wei, Ning

    2016-02-01

    Bisexual men (men who have sex with men and women) are potential epidemiological bridges responsible for the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections from men who have sex with men only to the heterosexual population. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of syphilis and HIV and the factors associated with syphilis infection among men who have sex with men and women and men who have sex with men only from Shijiazhuang, China. In 2011-2013, a cross-sectional cohort of 427 men who have sex with men was recruited by a snowball sampling method and tested for syphilis and HIV. Chi square and logistic regression were performed to identify syphilis risk factors. Among the 427 men who have sex with men, 71 (16.6%) cases were syphilis-positive and 16 cases (3.7%) were HIV-positive. The proportions of men who have sex with men and women and men who have sex with men only in the total sample were 31.4% and 68.6%, respectively. Men who have sex with men and women exhibited double the syphilis prevalence of men who have sex with men only and were more likely to practice insertive anal sex. Higher education level, being married, having more male partners, and both receptive and insertive anal sex roles were associated with syphilis among men who have sex with men and women. Residing in suburban areas, being married, being HIV positive, and an absence of desire to change sexual orientation were associated with syphilis among men who have sex with men only. Therefore, men who have sex with men and women represent an important sub-group in the syphilis epidemic and further interventions should be developed to reduce risk among different sub-sets of men who have sex with men.

  14. Exploring the relationships among food insecurity, alcohol use, and sexual risk taking among men and women living in South African townships.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Lisa A; Cain, Demetria N; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P; Mehlomakulu, Vuyelwa; Simbayi, Leickness C; Mwaba, Kelvin; Kalichman, Seth C

    2014-08-01

    South African townships have among the highest rates of HIV infection in the world. Considerable research on understanding the high rates of HIV transmission in this country has identified alcohol use as a critical factor in driving the HIV epidemic. Although the relationship between alcohol use and sexual risk-taking is well documented, less is known about how other factors, such as food insecurity, might be important in understanding alcohol's role in sexual risk-taking. Furthermore, prior research has highlighted how patterns of alcohol use and sexual risk-taking tend to vary by gender. We examined how food insecurity is related to both alcohol use and sexual risk-taking. We administered anonymous community surveys to men (n = 1,137) and women (n = 458) residing within four contiguous Black African townships outside of Cape Town, South Africa. In multivariate linear regression, we found that food insecurity was related to having higher numbers of male sex partners and condom-protected sex acts among women only. These relationships, however, were fully mediated by women's alcohol use. Among men, we found that food insecurity was negatively related to unprotected sex; that is, men with greater food security reported more unprotected sex acts. Unlike the results found among women, this relationship was not mediated by alcohol use. Food insecurity appears to be an important factor in understanding patterns of sexual risk-taking in regards to gender and alcohol use, and may serve as an important point of intervention for reducing HIV transmission rates. PMID:24806889

  15. Predictors and long-term reproducibility of urinary phthalate metabolites in middle-aged men and women living in urban Shanghai

    PubMed Central

    Starling, Anne P.; Engel, Lawrence S.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Koutros, Stella; Satagopan, Jaya M.; Yang, Gong; Matthews, Charles E.; Cai, Qiuyin; Buckley, Jessie P.; Ji, Bu-Tian; Cai, Hui; Chow, Wong-Ho; Zheng, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Rothman, Nathaniel; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2015-01-01

    Phthalate esters are man-made chemicals commonly used as plasticizers and solvents, and humans may be exposed through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal absorption. Little is known about predictors of phthalate exposure, particularly in Asian countries. Because phthalates are rapidly metabolized and excreted from the body following exposure, it is important to evaluate whether phthalate metabolites measured at a single point in time can reliably rank exposures to phthalates over a period of time. We examined the concentrations and predictors of phthalate metabolite concentrations among 50 middle-aged women and 50 men from two Shanghai cohorts, enrolled in 1997-2000 and 2002-2006, respectively. We assessed the reproducibility of urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites in three spot samples per participant taken several years apart (mean interval between first and third sample was 7.5 years [women] or 2.9 years [men]), using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and intra-class correlation coefficients. We detected ten phthalate metabolites in at least 50% of individuals for two or more samples. Participant sex, age, menopausal status, education, income, body mass index, consumption of bottled water, recent intake of medication, and time of day of collection of the urine sample were associated with concentrations of certain phthalate metabolites. The reproducibility of an individual's urinary concentration of phthalate metabolites across several years was low, with all intra-class correlation coefficients and most Spearman rank correlation coefficients ≤ 0.3. Only mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, a metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, had a Spearman rank correlation coefficient ≥ 0.4 among men, suggesting moderate reproducibility. These findings suggest that a single spot urine sample is not sufficient to rank exposures to phthalates over several years in an adult urban Chinese population. PMID:26255822

  16. Predictors and long-term reproducibility of urinary phthalate metabolites in middle-aged men and women living in urban Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Starling, Anne P; Engel, Lawrence S; Calafat, Antonia M; Koutros, Stella; Satagopan, Jaya M; Yang, Gong; Matthews, Charles E; Cai, Qiuyin; Buckley, Jessie P; Ji, Bu-Tian; Cai, Hui; Chow, Wong-Ho; Zheng, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Rothman, Nathaniel; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2015-11-01

    Phthalate esters are man-made chemicals commonly used as plasticizers and solvents, and humans may be exposed through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal absorption. Little is known about predictors of phthalate exposure, particularly in Asian countries. Because phthalates are rapidly metabolized and excreted from the body following exposure, it is important to evaluate whether phthalate metabolites measured at a single point in time can reliably rank exposures to phthalates over a period of time. We examined the concentrations and predictors of phthalate metabolite concentrations among 50 middle-aged women and 50 men from two Shanghai cohorts, enrolled in 1997-2000 and 2002-2006, respectively. We assessed the reproducibility of urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites in three spot samples per participant taken several years apart (mean interval between first and third sample was 7.5 years [women] or 2.9 years [men]), using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and intra-class correlation coefficients. We detected ten phthalate metabolites in at least 50% of individuals for two or more samples. Participant sex, age, menopausal status, education, income, body mass index, consumption of bottled water, recent intake of medication, and time of day of collection of the urine sample were associated with concentrations of certain phthalate metabolites. The reproducibility of an individual's urinary concentration of phthalate metabolites across several years was low, with all intra-class correlation coefficients and most Spearman rank correlation coefficients ≤0.3. Only mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, a metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, had a Spearman rank correlation coefficient ≥0.4 among men, suggesting moderate reproducibility. These findings suggest that a single spot urine sample is not sufficient to rank exposures to phthalates over several years in an adult urban Chinese population. PMID:26255822

  17. Exploring the relationships among food insecurity, alcohol use, and sexual risk taking among men and women living in South African townships

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Lisa A.; Cain, Demetria N.; Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.; Mehlomakulu, Vuyelwa; Simbayi, Leickness C.; Mwaba, Kelvin; Kalichman, Seth C.

    2014-01-01

    South African townships have among the highest rates of HIV infection in the world. Considerable research on understanding the high rates of HIV transmission in this country has identified alcohol use as a critical factor in driving the HIV epidemic. Although the relationship between alcohol use and sexual risk-taking is well documented, less is known about how other factors, such as food insecurity, might be important in understanding alcohol’s role in sexual risk-taking. Furthermore, prior research has highlighted how patterns of alcohol use and sexual risk-taking tend to vary by gender. We examined how food insecurity is related to both alcohol use and sexual risk-taking. We administered anonymous community surveys to men (n=1137) and women (n=458) residing within four contiguous Black African townships outside of Cape Town, South Africa. In multivariate linear regression, we found that food insecurity was related to having higher numbers of male sex partners and condom-protected sex acts among women only. These relationships, however, were fully mediated by women’s alcohol use. Among men, we found that food insecurity was negatively related to unprotected sex; that is, men with greater food security reported more unprotected sex acts. Unlike the results found among women, this relationship was not mediated by alcohol use. Food insecurity appears to be an important factor in understanding patterns of sexual risk-taking in regards to gender and alcohol use, and may serve as an important point of intervention for reducing HIV transmission rates. PMID:24806889

  18. Men's attraction to women's bodies changes seasonally.

    PubMed

    Pawlowski, Bogusław; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    Humans exhibit seasonal variation in hormone levels, behaviour, and perception. Here we show that men's assessments of women's attractiveness change also seasonally. In five seasons (from winter 2004 to winter 2005) 114 heterosexual men were asked to assess the attractiveness of the same stimuli: photos of a female with three different waist-to-hip ratios; photos of female breasts, and photos of average-looking faces of young women. For each season, the scores given to the stimuli of the same category (body shape, breast, and face) were combined. Friedman's test revealed significant changes for body shape and breast attractiveness assessments across the seasons, but no changes for face ratings. The highest scores for attractiveness were given in winter and the lowest in summer. We suggest that the observed seasonality is related to the well-known 'contrast effect'. More frequent exposure to women's bodies in warmer seasons might increase men's attractiveness criteria for women's body shape and breasts. PMID:18773730

  19. The impact of gout on patient’s lives: a study of African-American and Caucasian men and women with gout

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to examine the impact of gout on quality of life (QOL) and study differences by gender and race. Methods Ten race- and sex-stratified nominal groups were conducted, oversampling for African-Americans and women with gout. Patients presented, discussed, combined and rank-ordered their concerns. Results A total of 62 patients with mean age 65.1 years, 60% men, 64% African-American, participated in 10 nominal groups: African-American men (n = 23; 3 groups); African-American women (n = 18; 3 groups); Caucasian men (n = 15; 3 groups); and Caucasian women (n = 6; 1 group). The most frequently cited high-ranked concerns among the ten nominal groups were: (1) effect of gout flare on daily activities (n = 10 groups); (2) work disability (n = 8 groups); (3) severe pain (n = 8 groups); (4) joint swelling and tenderness (n = 6 groups); (5) food restrictions (n = 6 groups); (6) medication related issues (n = 6 groups); (7) dependency on family and others (n = 5 groups); (8) emotional Impact (n = 5 groups); (9) interference with sexual function (n = 4 groups); (10) difficulty with shoes (n = 4 groups); and (11) sleep disruption (n = 4 groups). Compared with men, women ranked the following concerns high more often: problems with shoes (n = 4 versus n = 0 groups); dependency (n = 3 versus n = 2 groups); and joint/limb deformity (n = 2 versus n = 0 group). Compared with Caucasians, African-Americans ranked the following concerns high more often: dietary restrictions (n = 6 versus n = 0 groups); severe pain (n = 6 versus n = 2 groups); gout bringing the day to a “halt” (n = 2 versus n = 0 group); effect on emotional health (n = 4 versus n = 1 groups); and the need for canes/crutches during flares (n = 2 versus n = 0 group). Conclusions Gout has a significant impact on a patient’s QOL. Important differences in the

  20. Recreational use of erectile dysfunction medications in undergraduate men in the United States: characteristics and associated risk factors.

    PubMed

    Harte, Christopher B; Meston, Cindy M

    2011-06-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that erectile dysfunction medications (EDMs) have become increasingly used as a sexual enhancement aid among men without a medical indication. Recreational EDM use has been associated with increased sexual risk behaviors, an increased risk for STIs, including incident HIV infection, and high rates of concomitant illicit drug use. The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristics and associated risk factors for recreational EDM use among young, healthy, undergraduate men. A cross-sectional sample of 1,944 men were recruited from 497 undergraduate institutions within the Unites States between January 2006 and May 2007. The survey assessed patterns of EDM use, as well as demographic, substance use, and sexual behavior characteristics. Four percent of participants had recreationally used an EDM at some point in their lives, with 1.4% reporting current use. The majority of recreational EDM users reported mixing EDMs with illicit drugs and particularly during risky sexual behaviors. Recreational EDM use was independently associated with increased age, gay, or bisexual sexual orientation, drug abuse, lifetime number of sex partners, and lifetime number of "one-night stands." Recreational EDM users also reported a 2.5-fold rate of erectile difficulties compared to nonusers. Overall, recreational use of EDMs was associated with sexual risk behaviors and substance abuse; however, a relatively small proportion of undergraduates reported using EDMs. Results also suggest that a sizable portion of recreational EDM users are heterosexual men, and that use does not solely occur within the environments of venues that cater to men having sex with men.

  1. Recreational Use of Erectile Dysfunction Medications in Undergraduate Men in the United States: Characteristics and Associated Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Harte, Christopher B.

    2010-01-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that erectile dysfunction medications (EDMs) have become increasingly used as a sexual enhancement aid among men without a medical indication. Recreational EDM use has been associated with increased sexual risk behaviors, an increased risk for STIs, including incident HIV infection, and high rates of concomitant illicit drug use. The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristics and associated risk factors for recreational EDM use among young, healthy, undergraduate men. A cross-sectional sample of 1,944 men were recruited from 497 undergraduate institutions within the Unites States between January 2006 and May 2007. The survey assessed patterns of EDM use, as well as demographic, substance use, and sexual behavior characteristics. Four percent of participants had recreationally used an EDM at some point in their lives, with 1.4% reporting current use. The majority of recreational EDM users reported mixing EDMs with illicit drugs and particularly during risky sexual behaviors. Recreational EDM use was independently associated with increased age, gay, or bisexual sexual orientation, drug abuse, lifetime number of sex partners, and lifetime number of “one-night stands.” Recreational EDM users also reported a 2.5-fold rate of erectile difficulties compared to nonusers. Overall, recreational use of EDMs was associated with sexual risk behaviors and substance abuse; however, a relatively small proportion of undergraduates reported using EDMs. Results also suggest that a sizable portion of recreational EDM users are heterosexual men, and that use does not solely occur within the environments of venues that cater to men having sex with men. PMID:20358273

  2. Can Heterosexist Music Cause Hiring Discrimination Against Sexual Minority Men? Testing the Effects of Prejudicial Media Messages.

    PubMed

    Binder, Kevin; Ward, L Monique

    2016-01-01

    Workplace heterosexism is a pervasive issue affecting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) employees. This study investigated the influence of heterosexist media on hiring decisions by exposing 171 heterosexual undergraduate men to heterosexist rap music, nonheterosexist rap music, or no music and measuring their evaluations of a heterosexual and gay male professorial job applicant immediately afterward. As expected, participants exposed to the heterosexist music provided lower evaluations of the gay applicant than those exposed to no music, for two of the eight dimensions measured. Also, participants exposed to heterosexist messages were less willing to recommend and meet one-on-one with a gay candidate than a heterosexual one. Music condition effects remained, even with demographic factors controlled. These findings suggest that media heterosexism may affect hiring decisions for GBT men and may also influence the treatment of these men in a workplace environment. PMID:26220854

  3. Can Heterosexist Music Cause Hiring Discrimination Against Sexual Minority Men? Testing the Effects of Prejudicial Media Messages.

    PubMed

    Binder, Kevin; Ward, L Monique

    2016-01-01

    Workplace heterosexism is a pervasive issue affecting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) employees. This study investigated the influence of heterosexist media on hiring decisions by exposing 171 heterosexual undergraduate men to heterosexist rap music, nonheterosexist rap music, or no music and measuring their evaluations of a heterosexual and gay male professorial job applicant immediately afterward. As expected, participants exposed to the heterosexist music provided lower evaluations of the gay applicant than those exposed to no music, for two of the eight dimensions measured. Also, participants exposed to heterosexist messages were less willing to recommend and meet one-on-one with a gay candidate than a heterosexual one. Music condition effects remained, even with demographic factors controlled. These findings suggest that media heterosexism may affect hiring decisions for GBT men and may also influence the treatment of these men in a workplace environment.

  4. [Effects of the disclosure of homosexuality on heterosexual undergraduates' behaviors with a same-sex close friend and their attitudes toward homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Wada, Minoru

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated heterosexual undergraduates' behavior with a same-sex close friend and their attitudes toward homosexuality after this friend disclosed his/her sexual orientation. The study also examined whether the heterosexual friend was regarded as a romantic love object or not. Participants were 77 male and 139 female undergraduates. Males decreased their behaviors with their close friend and adopted more positive attitudes toward gay men after they knew their friend's sexual orientation. Females decreased their behavior with their close friend more after learning that they were a romantic love object of their friend, compared to when tehy were not. Also females adopted more positive attitudes toward lesbians only after knowing they were not a romantic love object. These gender differences are discussed.

  5. A cross-sectional assessment of the burden of HIV and associated individual- and structural-level characteristics among men who have sex with men in Swaziland

    PubMed Central

    Baral, Stefan D; Ketende, Sosthenes; Mnisi, Zandile; Mabuza, Xolile; Grosso, Ashley; Sithole, Bhekie; Maziya, Sibusiso; Kerrigan, Deanna L; Green, Jessica L; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Adams, Darrin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Similar to other Southern African countries, Swaziland has been severely affected by HIV, with over a quarter of its reproductive-age adults estimated to be living with the virus, equating to an estimate of 170,000 people living with HIV. The last several years have witnessed an increase in the understanding of the potential vulnerabilities among men who have sex with men (MSM) in neighbouring countries with similarly widespread HIV epidemics. To date, there are no data characterizing the burden of HIV and the HIV prevention, treatment and care needs of MSM in Swaziland. Methods In 2011, 324 men who reported sex with another man in the last 12 months were accrued using respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Participants completed HIV testing using Swazi national guidelines as well as structured survey instruments administered by trained staff, including modules on demographics, individual-level behavioural and biological risk factors, social and structural characteristics and uptake of HIV services. Population and individual weights were computed separately for each variable with a data-smoothing algorithm. The weights were used to estimate RDS-adjusted univariate estimates with 95% bootstrapped confidence intervals (BCIs). Crude and RDS-adjusted bivariate and multivariate analyses were completed with HIV as the dependent variable. Results Overall, HIV prevalence was 17.6% (n=50/284), although it was strongly correlated with age in bivariate- [odds ratio (OR) 1.2, 95% BCI 1.15–1.21] and multivariate-adjusted analyses (adjusted OR 1.24, 95% BCI 1.14–1.35) for each additional year of age. Nearly, 70.8% (n=34/48) were unaware of their status of living with HIV. Condom use with all sexual partners and condom-compatible-lubricant use with men were reported by 1.3% (95% CI 0.0–9.7). Conclusions Although the epidemic in Swaziland is driven by high-risk heterosexual transmission, the burden of HIV and the HIV prevention, treatment and care needs of MSM have

  6. "I didn't think I could get out of the fucking park." Gay men's retrospective accounts of neighborhood space, emerging sexuality and migrations.

    PubMed

    Frye, Victoria; Egan, James E; Van Tieu, Hong; Cerdá, Magdalena; Ompad, Danielle; Koblin, Beryl A

    2014-03-01

    Young, African American and Latino gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately represented among new HIV cases according to the most recent national surveillance statistics. Analysts have noted that these racial/ethnic disparities in HIV among MSM exist within the wider context of sexual, mental and physical health disparities between MSM and heterosexuals. The intercorrelation of these adverse health outcomes among MSM, termed syndemics, has been theorized to be socially produced by a heterosexist social system that marginalizes lesbian, gay, bisexual, MSM and other sexual minorities. African American and Latino MSM experience overlapping systems of oppression that may increase their risk of experiencing syndemic health outcomes. In this paper, using data from twenty in-depth qualitative interviews with MSM living in four New York City (NYC) neighborhoods, we present accounts of neighborhood space, examining how space can both physically constitute and reinforce social systems of stratification and oppression, which in turn produce social disparities in sexual health outcomes. By analyzing accounts of emerging sexuality in neighborhood space, i.e. across time and space, we identify pathways to risk and contribute to our understanding of how neighborhood space is experienced by gay men, adding to our ability to support young men as they emerge in place and to shape the social topography of urban areas.

  7. Facilitating access to sexual health services for men who have sex with men and male-to-female transgender persons in Guatemala City.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Sabrina; Barrington, Clare; Bolaños, Herbert; Arandi, Cesar Galindo; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify barriers to accessing sexual health services among gay, bisexual and heterosexual-identifying men who have sex with men and male-to-female transgender persons in Guatemala City, to inform the development of high quality and population-friendly services. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 29 purposively sampled individuals, including 8 transgender, 16 gay/bisexual and 5 heterosexual-identifying participants. Topical codes were applied to the data using software Atlas.ti™ to compare data between sub-groups. Analysis revealed that public clinics were most commonly used due to their lower cost and greater accessibility, but many participants experienced discrimination, violation of confidentiality and distrust of these services. Transgender and gay/bisexual-identifying participants preferred clinics where they felt a sense of belonging, while heterosexual-identifying participants preferred clinics unassociated with the men who have sex with men community. The most prominent barriers to sexual health services included fear of discrimination, fear of having HIV, cost and lack of social support. Findings highlight the need to strengthen existing public sexually transmitted infection clinics so that they address the multiple layers of stigma and discrimination that men who have sex with men and transgender persons experience.

  8. Mediation effects of problem drinking and marijuana use on HIV sexual risk behaviors among childhood sexually abused South African heterosexual men☆

    PubMed Central

    Icard, Larry D.; Jemmott, John B.; Teitelman, Anne; O'Leary, Ann; Heeren, G. Anita

    2013-01-01

    HIV/AIDS prevalence in South Africa is one of the highest in the world with heterosexual, transmission predominantly promoting the epidemic. The goal of this study is to examine whether, marijuana use and problem drinking mediate the relationship between histories of childhood sexual, abuse (CSA) and HIV risk behaviors among heterosexual men. Participants were 1181 Black men aged, 18–45 from randomly selected neighborhoods in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Audio computer assisted, self-interviewing was used to assess self-reported childhood sexual abuse, problem drinking, and marijuana (dagga) use, and HIV sexual transmission behavior with steady and casual partners. Data were analyzed using multiple meditational modeling. There was more support for problem, drinking than marijuana use as a mediator. Findings suggest that problem drinking and marijuana use, mediate HIV sexual risk behaviors in men with histories of CSA. Focusing on men with histories of CSA, and their use of marijuana and alcohol may be particularly useful for designing strategies to reduce, HIV sexual transmission in South Africa. PMID:24041455

  9. Fraternal Birth Order and Extreme Right-Handedness as Predictors of Sexual Orientation and Gender Nonconformity in Men.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Mariana; Rahman, Qazi

    2015-07-01

    The present study explored whether there were relationships between number of older brothers, handedness, recalled childhood gender nonconformity (CGN), and sexual orientation in men. We used data from previous British studies conducted in our laboratory (N = 1,011 heterosexual men and 921 gay men). These men had completed measures of demographic variables, number and sex of siblings, CGN, and the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. The results did not replicate the fraternal birth order effect. However, gay men had fewer "other siblings" than heterosexual men (even after controlling for the stopping-rule and family size). In a sub-sample (425 gay men and 478 heterosexual men) with data available on both sibling sex composition and handedness scores, gay men were found to show a significantly greater likelihood of extreme right-handedness and non-right-handedness compared to heterosexual men. There were no significant effects of sibling sex composition in this sub-sample. In a further sub-sample (N = 487) with data available on sibling sex composition, handedness, and CGN, we found that men with feminine scores on CGN were more extremely right-handed and had fewer other-siblings compared to masculine scoring men. Mediation analysis revealed that handedness was associated with sexual orientation directly and also indirectly through the mediating factor of CGN. We were unable to replicate the fraternal birth order effect in our archived dataset but there was evidence for a relationship among handedness, sexual orientation, and CGN. These data help narrow down the number of possible neurodevelopmental pathways leading to variations in male sexual orientation.

  10. Biological markers of asexuality: Handedness, birth order, and finger length ratios in self-identified asexual men and women.

    PubMed

    Yule, Morag A; Brotto, Lori A; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2014-02-01

    Human asexuality is defined as a lack of sexual attraction to anyone or anything and it has been suggested that it may be best conceptualized as a sexual orientation. Non-right-handedness, fraternal birth order, and finger length ratio (2D:4D) are early neurodevelopmental markers associated with sexual orientation. We conducted an Internet study investigating the relationship between self-identification as asexual, handedness, number of older siblings, and self-measured finger-lengths in comparison to individuals of other sexual orientation groups. A total of 325 asexuals (60 men and 265 women; M age, 24.8 years), 690 heterosexuals (190 men and 500 women; M age, 23.5 years), and 268 non-heterosexuals (homosexual and bisexual; 64 men and 204 women; M age, 29.0 years) completed online questionnaires. Asexual men and women were 2.4 and 2.5 times, respectively, more likely to be non-right-handed than their heterosexual counterparts and there were significant differences between sexual orientation groups in number of older brothers and older sisters, and this depended on handedness. Asexual and non-heterosexual men were more likely to be later-born than heterosexual men, and asexual women were more likely to be earlier-born than non-heterosexual women. We found no significant differences between sexual orientation groups on measurements of 2D:4D ratio. This is one of the first studies to test and provide preliminary empirical support for an underlying neurodevelopmental basis to account for the lack of sexual attraction characteristic of asexuality.

  11. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in free-living men: comparison of two prudent diets, one based on lactoovovegetarianism and the other allowing lean meat.

    PubMed

    Kestin, M; Rouse, I L; Correll, R A; Nestel, P J

    1989-08-01

    In general, vegetarians have lower serum lipids and blood pressures than omnivores have. We tested the blood pressure and serum lipid lowering effects of two fat-modified diets differing primarily in their source of protein. Twenty-six men were randomized in an incomplete block design to two of three diets: a high-fat diet, a fat-modified lactoovovegetarian diet (LOV) and a diet in which 60% of plant protein in the LOV was replaced with lean meat (LM). Compared with the high-fat diet both prudent diets significantly lowered blood pressure, serum total cholesterol (TC), and LDL cholesterol but significantly increased serum triglycerides. The LOV diet had a significantly greater cholesterol-lowering effect than did the LM diet (10% vs 5% decrease) but blood pressure reductions were similar. The partial substitution of lean meat for plant protein in a fat-modified diet did not negate the overall cardiovascular-risk lowering of the lactoovovegetarian diet.

  12. Fading to increase heterosexual responsiveness in homosexuals1

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, David H.; Agras, W. Stewart

    1973-01-01

    Heterosexual responsiveness, measured by penile responses and reports of behavior, was strengthened in three homosexuals through a fading procedure. Using two slide projectors, colored slides of nude females were superimposed on colored slides of nude males. As the sexual response was emitted, the nude male was faded out and the nude female faded in. Heterosexual arousal decreased when the fading procedure was reversed or stopped and increased once again when fading was resumed. Homosexual arousal remained high during this experiment but had decreased in two subjects at follow-up. The results suggest that fading was responsible for altering stimulus control of sexual arousal and that aversive techniques may not be necessary in the treatment of sexual deviation. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:16795417

  13. Psychological antecedents of heterosexuals' pro-gay activism behavior.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Wayne W; Sagarin, Brad J

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on heterosexuals' attitudes toward gays is characterized by a focus on negative attitudes and minimal use of behavioral dependent variables. In an attempt to rectify this situation, the present study explored the psychological antecedents of heterosexuals' pro-gay activism behavior in an undergraduate sample using the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991). Findings suggest that intentions predict activism behavior (in the form of signing an online petition supporting the construction of a new lesbian, gay, and bisexual resource center on their campus). In addition, attitudes toward the possible outcomes of the behavior, attitudes toward the behavior itself, and self-identity were found to predict intentions. Directions for future research on pro-gay activism are discussed. PMID:20665329

  14. Prevalence and Patterns of Smoking, Alcohol Use, and Illicit Drug Use in Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Newcomb, Michael E.; Ryan, Daniel T.; Greene, George J.; Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are substantially more likely to use illicit drugs and other substances compared to their heterosexual peers. Substance use during adolescence has critical implications for long-term physical and mental health, and among YMSM may lead to HIV infection. The goal of the current study was to describe lifetime and past six month prevalence and patterns of substance use across multiple substances in a community sample of racially-diverse YMSM. Methods Participants were 450 YMSM aged 16–20 living in Chicago and surrounding areas who were recruited beginning December, 2009 using a modified form of respondent driven sampling. Analyses were conducted with multivariate logistic regression and latent class analysis (LCA). Results Prevalence of substance use was high in this sample of majority racial minority YMSM, and only 17.6% reported no substance use during the past six months. Black YMSM had lower prevalence of use of all substances except marijuana compared to White YMSM, while Latino YMSM had lower prevalence of alcohol, marijuana, and club drug use. Bisexual YMSM reported higher prevalence of cigarette smoking, stimulant use, and club drug use compared to gay/mostly gay YMSM but lower numbers of bisexual participants limited the ability to detect statistically significant differences. LCA found that YMSM fell into three general categories of substance users: alcohol and marijuana users, polysubstance users, and low marijuana users. Conclusions Analyses reveal important group differences in prevalence and patterns of substance use in YMSM that have important implications for intervention. PMID:24907774

  15. Lesbian and heterosexual preadoptive couples' openness to transracial adoption.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie E

    2009-01-01

    This study uses data from 147 White preadoptive couples (54 lesbian, 93 heterosexual) to examine adopters' subjective explanations for why they are open or not open to adopting transracially. Participant perceptions of racial-ethnic diversity in their communities and families, perceptions of family support or nonsupport, and attitudes about race were among the factors they cited as influencing their openness. These findings hold important implications for training and service delivery in transracial adoption.

  16. Recent findings about the heterosexual transmission of HIV and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Padian, N S

    1998-02-01

    Study of the heterosexual transmission of HIV has shifted focus from the behavioral and demographic risk factors associated with HIV to the biological and molecular factors. Although factors such as genetic predisposition may be immutable, others such as co-infection with sexually transmitted diseases are modifiable by the use of treatment. The effect of antiretroviral treatment is also promising but deserves more study, as does the use of contraception and microbicides (chemical barriers meant for intravaginal use). PMID:17033359

  17. Social Capital and HIV Risks among Acculturating Asian Indian Men in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharya, Gauri

    2005-01-01

    This community-based, qualitative study explored social capital resources and their influences upon HIV risk behaviors in a sample of 17 heterosexual Asian Indian immigrant men residing in New York City. Our study defined social capital as the resources available to individuals and society through social relationships. At the family, peer, and…

  18. Courtship behaviour in Japanese macaques during heterosexual and homosexual consortships.

    PubMed

    Vasey, P L; Rains, D; VanderLaan, D P; Duckworth, N; Kovacovsky, S D

    2008-07-01

    Female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in the Arashiyama population near Kyoto, Japan, are unusual, in that they exhibit what many would consider to be male-typical sexual characteristics. Specifically, they mount other females within the context of temporary, but exclusive, sexual relationships (i.e., homosexual consortships) and they sometimes exhibit a preference for female sexual partners, even when given the choice of a sexually motivated male alternative. In this study, we examined whether female Japanese macaques also exhibited male-typical patterns of courtship behaviour during homosexual consortships. Data were collected on courtship behaviour during heterosexual and homosexual consortships in free-ranging Japanese macaques from the Arashiyama (Japan) population. We analyzed the occurrence of 12 different courtship behaviours during 3374 heterosexual inter-mount intervals and 1412 homosexual inter-mount intervals. Sex differences between heterosexually consorting males and females existed for only two of the 12 courtship behaviours we investigated: inclined-back presentations and sexual vocalizations. Dominant and subordinate homosexually consorting females were sex-typical in their expression of inclined-back presentations and sexual vocalizations. Consequently, facultative same-sex sexual partner preference, mounting and consortships do not co-occur with male-typical patterns of courtship behaviour in female Japanese macaques.

  19. Gay and lesbian couples in Italy: comparisons with heterosexual couples.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Paolo; Dèttore, Davide; Lasagni, Irene; Snyder, Douglas K; Balderrama-Durbin, Christina

    2014-12-01

    Assessing couple relationships across diverse languages and cultures has important implications for both clinical intervention and prevention. This is especially true for nontraditional relationships potentially subject to various expressions of negative societal evaluation or bias. Few empirically validated measures of relationship functioning have been developed for cross-cultural applications, and none have been examined for their psychometric sufficiency for evaluating same-sex couples across different languages and cultures. The current study examined the psychometric properties of an Italian translation of the Marital Satisfaction Inventory - Revised (MSI-R), a 150-item 13-scale measure of couple relationship functioning, for its use in assessing the intimate relationships of gay and lesbian couples in Italy. Results for these couples were compared to data from heterosexual married and unmarried cohabiting couples from the same geographical region, as well as to previously published data for gay, lesbian, and unmarried heterosexual couples from the United States. Findings suggest that, despite unique societal pressures confronting Italian same-sex couples, these relationships appear resilient and fare well both overall and in specific domains of functioning compared to heterosexual couples both in Italy and the United States.

  20. Gay and lesbian couples in Italy: comparisons with heterosexual couples.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Paolo; Dèttore, Davide; Lasagni, Irene; Snyder, Douglas K; Balderrama-Durbin, Christina

    2014-12-01

    Assessing couple relationships across diverse languages and cultures has important implications for both clinical intervention and prevention. This is especially true for nontraditional relationships potentially subject to various expressions of negative societal evaluation or bias. Few empirically validated measures of relationship functioning have been developed for cross-cultural applications, and none have been examined for their psychometric sufficiency for evaluating same-sex couples across different languages and cultures. The current study examined the psychometric properties of an Italian translation of the Marital Satisfaction Inventory - Revised (MSI-R), a 150-item 13-scale measure of couple relationship functioning, for its use in assessing the intimate relationships of gay and lesbian couples in Italy. Results for these couples were compared to data from heterosexual married and unmarried cohabiting couples from the same geographical region, as well as to previously published data for gay, lesbian, and unmarried heterosexual couples from the United States. Findings suggest that, despite unique societal pressures confronting Italian same-sex couples, these relationships appear resilient and fare well both overall and in specific domains of functioning compared to heterosexual couples both in Italy and the United States. PMID:24867576

  1. Benevolent Sexism and Support of Romantic Partner's Goals: Undermining Women's Competence While Fulfilling Men's Intimacy Needs.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Matthew D; Overall, Nickola C

    2015-09-01

    The current research demonstrates how benevolent sexism functions to undermine women's competence while facilitating men's access to heterosexual intimacy by prompting different support behaviors by men and women. Objective coders rated the support provision exhibited during heterosexual couples' (N = 100) video-recorded discussions of each other's personal goals. Men who endorsed benevolent sexism provided more dependency-oriented support, including directly providing plans and solutions and neglecting the recipient's own abilities, which led to their female partners feeling less competent and less positively regarded. In contrast, women who endorsed benevolent sexism provided greater relationship-oriented support, characterized by affection and emphasizing the positive relationship outcomes associated with their partner's goals, which led their male partners to perceive greater regard and intimacy in their relationship. This study is the first to investigate how benevolent sexism prompts naturalistic support behaviors that can impede women's capacity for independent success while supporting the fulfillment of men's intimacy needs.

  2. Men's constructions of masculinity and male sexuality through talk of buying sex.

    PubMed

    Huysamen, Monique; Boonzaier, Floretta

    2015-01-01

    Commercial sex is an everyday occurrence across a range of contexts in South Africa. In this paper we turn our attention to the often-marginalised role of the buyers of sex by drawing on narrative interviews with male clients of female sex workers recruited through online advertisements in order to explore the ways in which heterosexual men construct, negotiate and perform their masculinity and sexuality through talking about their experiences of paying for sex. We highlight parallels between men's narratives of paying for sex and dominant discourses of gender and heterosexuality. We show how men draw on heteronormative sexual scripts in constructing and making sense of paid sexual encounters and how men are simultaneously able to construct and enact a particular idealised version of masculinity and male sexuality through their talk on paying for sex. Finally, we discuss how online resources could be used more extensively in future research with the male clients of sex workers.

  3. Benevolent Sexism and Support of Romantic Partner's Goals: Undermining Women's Competence While Fulfilling Men's Intimacy Needs.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Matthew D; Overall, Nickola C

    2015-09-01

    The current research demonstrates how benevolent sexism functions to undermine women's competence while facilitating men's access to heterosexual intimacy by prompting different support behaviors by men and women. Objective coders rated the support provision exhibited during heterosexual couples' (N = 100) video-recorded discussions of each other's personal goals. Men who endorsed benevolent sexism provided more dependency-oriented support, including directly providing plans and solutions and neglecting the recipient's own abilities, which led to their female partners feeling less competent and less positively regarded. In contrast, women who endorsed benevolent sexism provided greater relationship-oriented support, characterized by affection and emphasizing the positive relationship outcomes associated with their partner's goals, which led their male partners to perceive greater regard and intimacy in their relationship. This study is the first to investigate how benevolent sexism prompts naturalistic support behaviors that can impede women's capacity for independent success while supporting the fulfillment of men's intimacy needs. PMID:26160333

  4. Quality of life of men with AIDS and the model of social determinants of health1

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha, Gilmara Holanda; Fiuza, Maria Luciana Teles; Gir, Elucir; Aquino, Priscila de Souza; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to analyze the quality of life (QoL) of men with AIDS from the perspective of the model of social determinants of health (MSDH). METHOD: cross-sectional study conducted in an outpatient infectious diseases clinic from a Brazilian university hospital over the course of one year with a sample of 138 patients. A form based on the MSDH was used to collect sociodemographic data addressing individual, proximal, intermediate determinants and the influence of social networks together with an instrument used to assess the QoL of people with HIV/AIDS. The project was approved by the Institutional Review Board (Protocol No. 040.06.12). RESULTS: according to MSDH, most men with AIDS were between 30 and 49 years old (68.1%), mixed race (59.4%), heterosexual (46.4%), single (64.5%), Catholic (68.8%), had a bachelor's degree (39.2%), had no children (61.6%), and had a formal job (71.0%). The perception of QoL in the physical, level of independence, environment, and spirituality domains was intermediate, while QoL was perceived to be superior in the domains of psychological and social relationship. A perception of lower QoL was presented by homosexual (p=0.037) and married men (p=0.077), and those with income below one times the minimum wage (p=0.042). A perception of greater QoL was presented by those without a religion (p=0.005), living with a partner (p=0.049), and those who had a formal job (p=0.045). CONCLUSION: social determinants influence the QoL of men with AIDS. PMID:26039287

  5. Interactive Voice Response Self-Monitoring to Assess Risk Behaviors in Rural Substance Users Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Jalie A.; Blum, Elizabeth R.; Xie, Lili; Roth, David L.; Simpson, Cathy A.

    2011-01-01

    Community-dwelling HIV/AIDS patients in rural Alabama self-monitored (SM) daily HIV risk behaviors using an Interactive Voice Response (IVR) system, which may enhance reporting, reduce monitored behaviors, and extend the reach of care. Sexually active substance users (35 men, 19 women) engaged in IVR SM of sex, substance use, and surrounding contexts for 4–10 weeks. Baseline predictors of IVR utilization were assessed, and longitudinal IVR SM effects on risk behaviors were examined. Frequent (n = 22), infrequent (n = 22), and non-caller (n = 10) groups were analyzed. Non-callers had shorter durations of HIV medical care and lower safer sex self-efficacy and tended to be older heterosexuals. Among callers, frequent callers had lost less social support. Longitudinal logistic regression models indicated reductions in risky sex and drug use with IVR SM over time. IVR systems appear to have utility for risk assessment and reduction for rural populations living with HIV disease. PMID:21311964

  6. Beyond muscles: unexplored parts of men's body image.

    PubMed

    Tiggemann, Marika; Martins, Yolanda; Churchett, Libby

    2008-11-01

    Thus far the study of men's body image has been largely restricted to the dimensions of adiposity and muscularity. The aim of this study was to investigate in a systematic way multiple aspects of men's body images, in particular, head hair, body hair, height and penis size, in addition to body weight and muscularity. Questionnaires were completed online by 200 heterosexual men. It was found that men were dissatisfied with all six aspects of their bodies, and worried primarily about body weight, penis size and height. In addition, aspects of weight, muscularity, height and penis size, but not head or body hair, were related to overall appearance self-esteem. It was concluded that men's body image is both multi-faceted and complex.

  7. Sexual communication self-efficacy, hegemonic masculine norms and condom use among heterosexual couples in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Leddy, Anna; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Dladla, Sibongile; de Bruyn, Guy; Darbes, Lynae

    2016-01-01

    Hegemonic masculine norms (HMN), which promote sexual risk-taking among males and the subordination of women, are believed to play a key role in the HIV epidemic among heterosexual couples in South Africa (SA). Sexual communication self-efficacy (SCSE) (i.e., a couple's confidence in their ability to communicate about HIV prevention) may be a key leverage point for increasing HIV prevention behaviors among this population. We interviewed 163 sexually active heterosexual couples in Soweto, SA to investigate the association between SCSE, HMN, and consistent condom use. We collected information on demographics, relationship dynamics, and sexual activity. We utilized the SCSE scale to measure couples' SCSE, and a subscale of the Gender Equitable Men scale to measure HMN among males. We performed bivariate and multivariable analyses to determine the association of consistent condom use with couples' SCSE as well as the male partner's endorsement of HMN. We found that couples with higher SCSE have greater odds of consistent condom use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.15-1.47). Furthermore, male endorsement of HMN was found to be negatively associated with consistent condom use among couples (AOR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.24-0.89). Joint HIV serostatus was not significantly associated with the outcome. Future interventions that equip heterosexual couples with sexual communication skills, while simultaneously promoting more gender equitable norms, may increase consistent condom use and thereby reduce the transmission of HIV among this at-risk population. PMID:26344386

  8. Diversity of human papillomavirus in the anal canal of men: The HIM study

    PubMed Central

    Sichero, Laura; Nyitray, Alan G.; Nunes, Emily Montosa; Nepal, Bal; Ferreira, Silvaneide; Sobrinho, João S.; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Galan, Lenice; Silva, Roberto C.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.; Villa, Luisa L.

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are associated with development of anogenital lesions in men. There are no reports describing the distribution of non-alpha HPV types in the anal canal of a sexually diverse men group. The HIM (HPV in Men) Study is a multicenter study of the natural history of HPV infection in Brazil, Mexico and USA. At baseline, 12% of anal canal specimens PCR HPV-positive were not typed by the Roche Linear Array and were considered unclassified. Our goal was characterizing HPVs among these unclassified specimens at baseline and assess associations with participant socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics. Unclassified HPVs were typed by sequencing amplified PGMY09/11 products or cloning of PGMY/GP+ nested amplicons followed by sequencing. Further analysis was conducted using FAP primers. Of men with unclassified HPV at the anal canal, most (89.1%) were men who have sex with women (MSW). Readable sequences were produced for 62.8% of unclassified specimens, of which 75.2% were characterized HPV types. A total of 18, 26, and 3 different α-, β- and γ-HPV types were detected, respectively. Compared to older men (45-70 years), α-HPVs were more commonly detected among young men (18-30 years) whereas β-HPVs were more frequent among mid-adult men (31-44 years). β-HPVs were more common among heterosexual men (85.0%) than non-heterosexual men. β2-HPV types composed all β-HPVs detected among non-heterosexual men. The high prevalence of β-HPV in the anal canal of men who do not report receptive anal sex is suggestive of other forms of transmission that do not involve penile-anal intercourse. PMID:25698660

  9. Diversity of human papillomavirus in the anal canal of men: the HIM Study.

    PubMed

    Sichero, L; Nyitray, A G; Nunes, E M; Nepal, B; Ferreira, S; Sobrinho, J S; Baggio, M L; Galan, L; Silva, R C; Lazcano-Ponce, E; Giuliano, A R; Villa, L L

    2015-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are associated with the development of anogenital lesions in men. There are no reports describing the distribution of non-α HPV types in the anal canal of a sexually diverse group of men. The HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study is a multicentre study on the natural history of HPV infection in Brazil, Mexico, and the USA. At baseline, 12% of anal canal PCR HPV-positive specimens were not typed by the Roche Linear Array, and were considered to be unclassified. Our goals were to characterize HPVs among these unclassified specimens at baseline, and to assess associations with participant socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics. Unclassified HPVs were typed by sequencing of amplified PGMY09/11 products or cloning of PGMY/GP + nested amplicons followed by sequencing. Further analysis was conducted with FAP primers. Of men with unclassified HPV in the anal canal, most (89.1%) were men who have sex with women. Readable sequences were produced for 62.8% of unclassified specimens, of which 75.2% were characterized HPV types. Eighteen, 26 and three different α-HPV, β-HPV and γ-HPV types were detected, respectively. α-HPVs were more commonly detected among young men (18-30 years) than among older men (45-70 years), whereas β-HPVs were more frequent among mid-adult men (31-44 years). β-HPVs were more common among heterosexual men (85.0%) than among non-heterosexual men. All β-HPVs detected among non-heterosexual men were β2-HPV types. The high prevalence of β-HPV in the anal canal of men who do not report receptive anal sex is suggestive of other forms of transmission that do not involve penile-anal intercourse.

  10. Latino Gay and Bisexual Men’s Relationships with Non-Gay-Identified Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Reisen, Carol A.; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Bianchi, Fernanda T.; Poppen, Paul J.; Shedlin, Michele G.; Penha, Marcelo Montes

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between Latino gay-identified men in metropolitan New York City and their non-gay-identified male partners. Phase 1 consisted of in-depth interviews (N = 33), and Phase 2 consisted of quantitative surveys (N = 120) with Brazilian, Colombian, and Dominican men who have sex with men (MSM). A majority of participants reported having had sex with heterosexually identified men, and in many cases, the relationship was sustained over time. We found mixed results concerning an attitude sometimes attributed to Latinos that sexual orientation is defined by sexual role, with receptive MSM seen as gay and insertive MSM seen as straight. Although there were no significant associations between partner sexual orientation and unprotected anal intercourse, gay men were less likely to take the insertive role in oral or anal sex with straight-identified male partners than with gay partners. PMID:20818527

  11. Enhancing masculinity by slandering homosexuals: the role of homophobic epithets in heterosexual gender identity.

    PubMed

    Carnaghi, Andrea; Maass, Anne; Fasoli, Fabio

    2011-12-01

    The current studies investigate the effects of homophobic labels on the self-perception of heterosexual males, hypothesizing that when exposed to homophobic epithets, they are motivated to underline their masculinity and claim a distinctly heterosexual identity by taking distance from homosexuals and, to a lesser degree, from women. Heterosexual male participants were subliminally (Study 1) and supraliminally (Study 2) primed either by a homophobic epithet or by a category label, and completed the Traditional Beliefs About Gender and Gender Identity scale. Participants stressed their heterosexual identity, but not their gender distinctiveness, when exposed to homophobic epithets, compared to category labels. Study 2 demonstrated that the relation between the homophobic label and the participants' heterosexual identity was mediated by how negatively they reacted to the antigay label. Heterosexual identity was enhanced in reaction to homophobic labels but not to an equally derogatory label referring to regional identity. Results are discussed within an intergroup framework.

  12. Perspectives on substance use and disclosure among behaviorally bisexual Black men with female primary partners

    PubMed Central

    Koken, Juline A.

    2012-01-01

    Black men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) are believed to be a bridge to HIV infection among heterosexual Black women, and substance use can increase the risk of infection among men. However, empirical evidence on the social context of MSMW’s sexual behavior and substance use is needed. This study examines the perspectives of Black MSMW with female primary partners on the role of substance use in their sexual encounters with men and their reasons for disclosing or not disclosing this behavior to their female partners. Findings can inform culturally relevant HIV prevention interventions for this population. PMID:23216438

  13. Sexual stigma, psychological well-being and social engagement among men who have sex with men in Beirut, Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Glenn J; Aunon, Frances M; Kaplan, Rachel L; Karam, Rita; Khouri, Danielle; Tohme, Johnny; Mokhbat, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to explore sexual identity development among men who have sex with men in Beirut, Lebanon; the stigma experienced by these men; and how their psychological well-being and social engagement are shaped by how they cope with this stigma. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 31 men who have sex with men and content analysis was used to identify emergent themes. While many men reported feeling very comfortable with their sexual orientation and had disclosed their sexual orientation to family, most men struggled at least somewhat with their sexuality, often because of perceived stigma from others and internal religious conflict about the immorality of homosexuality. Most participants described experiencing verbal harassment or ridicule or being treated as different or lesser than in social relationships with friends or family. Mechanisms for coping with stigma included social avoidance (trying to pass as heterosexual and limiting interaction with men who have sex with men to the internet) or withdrawal from relationships in an attempt to limit exposure to stigma. Findings suggest that effective coping with both internal and external sexual stigma is central to the psychological well-being and social engagement of men who have sex with men in Beirut, much as has been found in Western gay communities. PMID:23730919

  14. Deconstructing heterosexism: becoming an LGB affirmative heterosexual couple and family therapist.

    PubMed

    McGeorge, Christi; Stone Carlson, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose a three-step model to help heterosexual therapists become more aware of the influence of their own heteronormative assumptions, heterosexual privileges, and heterosexual identities on the therapy process. This article also provides definitions of concepts central to the practice of affirmative therapy with lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients and strategies that therapists and clients can use to deconstruct heterosexism in the context of therapy. PMID:21198685

  15. Compulsive sexual behavior and psychopathology among treatment-seeking men in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Scanavino, Marco de Tubino; Ventuneac, Ana; Abdo, Carmita Helena Najjar; Tavares, Hermano; do Amaral, Maria Luiza Sant'ana; Messina, Bruna; dos Reis, Sirlene Caramello; Martins, João Paulo Lian Branco; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2013-10-30

    This study examined compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) and psychopathology in a treatment-seeking sample of men in São Paulo, Brazil. Eighty-six men (26% gay, 17% bisexual, 57% heterosexual) who met diagnostic criteria for excessive sexual drive and sexual addiction completed assessments consisting of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders-Clinical Version (segment for Impulse Control Disorder), Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS), and questions about problematic CSB. The average SCS score for our sample was above the cut-off score reported in other studies, and 72% of the sample presented at least one Axis I psychiatric diagnosis. There were no differences among gay, bisexual, and heterosexual men on SCS scores and psychiatric conditions, but gay and bisexual men were more likely than heterosexual men to report casual sex and sex with multiple casual partners as problematic behaviors. SCS scores were associated with psychiatric co-morbidities, mood disorder, and suicide risk, but diagnosis of a mood disorder predicted higher SCS scores in a regression analysis. The study provides important data on the mental health needs of men with CSB in São Paulo, Brazil.

  16. Masculine ideology, norms, and HIV prevention among young Black men

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Naomi M.; Applewhite, Sheldon

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between masculine ideology, adherence to norms, and HIV prevention among young Black heterosexual and gay men on the campus of a historically Black college/university. The data from four focus groups and nine individual interviews (N = 35) were aggregated and two recurring themes emerged: sexual communication, and mate availability. Additional themes related to HIV prevention were stigma, protection, and testing. The importance of investigating masculinity with young men is highlighted and implications for professionals working with college students to prevent the transmission of HIV are included. PMID:25525415

  17. A systematic review of the correlates and management of nonpremature ejaculatory dysfunction in heterosexual men

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: A better understanding of ejaculatory disorders has led to an increasing interest in nonpremature ejaculatory dysfunction (non-PE EjD). Current reviews on the subject use a symptom-based classification to describe ejaculatory dysfunction even when it is a single case report. While these reviews provide important information on the disorder, a clearer picture of the prevalence of non-PE EjD in relation to the community and various pathophysiologic states is needed. Objectives: The objective of this study was to provide a systematic review of studies of non-PE EjD excluding single case reports. Methods: A systematic review of Medline for terms including ejaculation, orgasm or hematospermia. Association with terms delay, pain or headache was made. The search was restricted to male gender and articles written in English. Abstracts were reviewed and those mainly concerned with premature ejaculation were excluded. Results: A total of 333 articles on non-PE EjD were identified. The condition was reported in community-based studies. In certain patient populations, non-PE EjD was commonly reported in association with antidepressant and antipsychotic treatments, in patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, patients with lower urinary tract symptoms particularly in association with medical or surgical treatment, patients with retroperitoneal surgery and in patients with neurological diseases. Few articles were concerned with treatment options. Conclusion: There is a significant prevalence of non-PE EjD in the community and in association with particular disease states or as a side effect of medical or surgical interventions. There is a need to direct efforts to prevent and treat these conditions. PMID:24082920

  18. HIV Risk Behavior and Access to Services: What Predicts HIV Testing among Heterosexually Active Homeless Men?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Rhoades, Harmony; Tucker, Joan S.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P.; Zhou, Annie; Ewing, Brett

    2012-01-01

    HIV is a serious epidemic among homeless persons, where rates of infection are estimated to be three times higher than in the general population. HIV testing is an effective tool for reducing HIV transmission and for combating poor HIV/AIDS health outcomes that disproportionately affect homeless persons, however, little is known about the HIV…

  19. Attitudes toward Gay Men and Lesbian Women among Heterosexual Social Work Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chonody, Jill M.; Woodford, Michael R.; Brennan, David J.; Newman, Bernie; Wang, Donna

    2014-01-01

    This study reports results from a national Internet-based survey administered anonymously to a cross-section of social work faculty in the United States. Drawn from a sampling frame of 700 accredited or in candidacy schools, data were collected between November 2010 and March 2011. We investigate the role of sex, sexual orientation, race,…

  20. Preparatory Behavior for Condom Use among Heterosexual Young Men: A Longitudinal Mediation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, Telma; Alvarez, Maria-João; Barz, Milena; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Motivation is not sufficient to actually use condoms, as self-regulatory processes are needed to translate motivation into action. Buying condoms and carrying them constitute preparatory behaviors that may serve as proximal predictors of action. Whether or not such preparatory behaviors operate as mediators between intention and action…

  1. Can seduction make straight men gay?

    PubMed

    Meijer, H

    1993-01-01

    The article raises the question of changing sexual preference: Can a man whose past sexual practice has been almost exclusively heterosexual change his practice to homosexual after being seduced by another man? To those who believe that homosexual preference is homosexual orientation, an innate biological predisposition, the answer is a resounding "no." Contrary to this response, the author presents three cases in which the men switch from heterosexual to homosexual relationships (exclusively in two cases) by means of a sexual encounter initiated by another man. The author credits part of the change to the gay liberation movement which rescued homosexual desire from the hidden, forbidden, and shameful. The evidence that these men experienced a genuine change in sexual preference, shows that life-long, exclusive homosexuality, as articulated by gay rhetoric, is more a statement about the culture in which it occurs than the "essence" of homosexuality. The author concludes that putting the question of "What do I like?" before the question of "Who am I?" would allow more sexual freedom for those interested in crossing the line that divides sexual preferences.

  2. Mutually gratifying heterosexual relationship with micropenis of husband.

    PubMed

    van Seters, A P; Slob, A K

    1988-01-01

    Three adult patients with micropenis are described: two genetic females, reared as boys, with congenital adrenocortical hyperplasia (CAH), and one male with anorchia. The patients had a male gender identity/role. All three had established a satisfying heterosexual relationship. For only one of the patients intravaginal intercourse was possible. In one patient (with CAH), penile reconstructive surgery was attempted but failed. Nevertheless, he developed a satisfactory sexual relationship with a woman friend. This report illustrates that for patients with micropenis, penile reconstructive surgery is not obligatory for the establishment of a satisfying sexual relationship.

  3. Measuring heterosexual LGBT ally development: a Rasch analysis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Peter; Fujimoto, Ken

    2013-01-01

    An instrument was developed that measured heterosexual persons' level of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) ally identity. Using a Rasch analysis, 2 dimensions were observed: (a) internal and interpersonal and (b) activity. Persons with high levels of LGBT ally identities endorsed items about having LGBT knowledge, attitudes, and skills; having interpersonal experiences with LGBT communities; and including LGBT ally as part of their identities. The instrument met criteria for the content, substantive, structural, generalizability, and responsiveness validity. The instrument can be used to assist persons to develop their abilities to support and advocate for equality for LGBT communities.

  4. Life events and sexual risk among HIV-negative, heterosexual, methamphetamine users.

    PubMed

    Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Zians, Jim; Patterson, Thomas L

    2010-07-01

    Identifying psychosocial factors associated with sexual risk behavior among methamphetamine users is essential to enhancing HIV and sexually transmitted infection prevention. This study examined the relationship between positive and negative life events and sexual risk behavior in a sample of 100 HIV-negative, heterosexually identified, methamphetamine-using men and women. Negative life event categories included death of a significant other, negative health event involving self or significant other, and child custody or visitation issues. Categories of positive life events included birth or pregnancy involving self or significant other, a positive relationship event, and a positive life change. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that negative life events were positively associated with total number of unprotected sex acts, whereas positive life events were not associated with sexual risk taking. Also, amount of methamphetamine used did not moderate the relationship between life events and sexual risk behavior. These data support future research to identify underlying mechanisms that link negative life events to sexual risk taking in this high-risk population.

  5. Perceived parenting skill across the transition to adoptive parenthood among lesbian, gay, and heterosexual couples.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z

    2009-12-01

    Little research has examined change in perceived parenting skill across the transition to parenthood or predictors of change in perceived skill. The current study used an ecological framework to examine predictors of self-perceived parenting skill among 47 lesbian, 31 gay, and 56 heterosexual couples who were adopting their first child. Findings revealed that, on average, all new parents perceived themselves as becoming more skilled, although gay men increased the most and lesbians the least. Participants who were female, reported fewer depressive symptoms, expected to do more child care, and reported higher job autonomy viewed themselves as more skilled pre-adoption. With regard to change, parents who reported more relational conflict and parents who expected to do more child care experienced lesser increases in perceived skill. These findings suggest that regardless of gender, sexual orientation, and route to parenthood, new parents experience similar, positive changes in perceived skill, thereby broadening our understanding of parenting skill in diverse groups. The findings also highlight the importance of examining how gender, sexual orientation, and the family context may shape perceived skill across the transition to parenthood.

  6. Couple-centred testing and counselling for HIV serodiscordant heterosexual couples in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Desgrées-du-Loû, Annabel; Orne-Gliemann, Joanna

    2008-11-01

    In Africa, a large proportion of HIV infections occur within stable relationships, either because of prior infection of one of the partners or because of infidelity. In five African countries at least two-thirds of couples with at least one HIV-positive partner were HIV serodiscordant; in half of them, the woman was the HIV-positive partner. Hence, there is an urgent need to define strategies to prevent HIV transmission within couple relationships. HIV counselling and testing have largely been organised on an individual and sex-specific basis, for pregnant women in programmes for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and in STI consultations and recently male circumcision for men. A couple-centred approach to HIV counselling and testing would facilitate communication about HIV status and adoption of preventive behaviours within couples. This paper reviews what is known about HIV serodiscordance in heterosexual couples in sub-Saharan Africa and what has been published about couple-centred initiatives for HIV counselling and testing since the early 1990s. Despite positive outcomes, couple-oriented programmes have not been implemented on a large scale. In order to stimulate and strengthen HIV prevention efforts, increased attention is required to promote prevention and testing and counselling for couples in stable relationships.

  7. Correlates of trading sex for methamphetamine in a sample of HIV-negative heterosexual methamphetamine users.

    PubMed

    Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Zians, Jim; Patterson, Thomas L

    2011-01-01

    While many studies have examined correlates of trading sex for money, few have examined factors associated with exclusive trading of sex for drugs. We identified sociodemographic, behavioral, and psychological correlates of trading sex for methamphetamine in a sample of HIV-negative heterosexual men and women who were enrolled in a sexual risk reduction intervention in San Diego, California. Of 342 participants, 26% overall (21% of males and 31% of females) reported trading sex for methamphetamine in the past two months. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that recently trading sex for methamphetamine was independently associated with being female, homeless, binging on methamphetamine, sexual victimization in the past two months, engaging in anal sex 24 or more times in the past two months, and higher sexual compulsivity scores. Effective interventions for this high-risk population should consider gender-focused counseling for sexual abuse, motivational enhancement therapy, social-cognitive skills training, as well as enhanced access and utilization of social services, including drug treatment.

  8. The male street prostitute: a vector for transmission of HIV infection into the heterosexual world.

    PubMed

    Morse, E V; Simon, P M; Osofsky, H J; Balson, P M; Gaumer, H R

    1991-01-01

    Two hundred and eleven New Orleans male street prostitutes were interviewed and tested for antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The subjects' lifestyle characteristics and their sex and drug use practices were evaluated to determine the prostitutes' potential to function as a vector for transmission of HIV into populations with currently low infection rates. Information about the customers of the male prostitutes was also obtained from the sample. The period prevalence of HIV in the sample was 175/1000. Many of the male prostitutes reported having wives or girlfriends, some of whom were prostitutes themselves. The prostitutes perceived a majority of their male customers to be heterosexual or bisexual (indicating sexual contact with women as well as men), many (39%) were thought to be married. Results from the study support the argument that male prostitutes serve as a bridge of HIV infection into populations with currently low infection rates through contact with both non-customer sexual partners and customers and thus indirectly to spouses and sexual partners of these individuals. PMID:2017720

  9. Situational factors and thought processes associated with unprotected intercourse in heterosexual students.

    PubMed

    Gold, R S; Karmiloff-Smith, A; Skinner, M J; Morton, J

    1992-01-01

    Heterosexual students were asked to recall two sexual encounters from the preceding six months: one in which they had unprotected intercourse ('unsafe' encounter) and one in which they resisted a strong temptation to have unprotected intercourse ('safe' encounter). The aims were to record justifications for unprotected intercourse that respondents had given themselves during the unsafe encounter and to identify factors that distinguished between the encounters. In respondents recalling an unsafe encounter (n = 284), the most common self-justification reported was that there was no need for concern since measures to avoid pregnancy had been taken. The first factor that emerged from a Factor Analysis of the self-justification data involved using perceptible characteristics to infer that the partner was unlikely to be infected. Among respondents recalling both encounters (n = 173), there was a trend for type of partner to distinguish between the encounters. With this variable controlled (n = 115), desires, knowledge of condom availability, communication about condom use, degree of boredom, and level of intoxication differentiated between the encounters. The results are discussed in relation to those obtained in our earlier study of gay men. PMID:1525202

  10. Fear, fascination and the sperm donor as 'abjection' in interviews with heterosexual recipients of donor insemination.

    PubMed

    Burr, Jennifer

    2009-07-01

    The background to this article is the medical regulation of sperm donation in the UK and the recent policy change so that children born from sperm, eggs or embryos donated after April 2005 have the right to know their donor's identity. I draw upon data from interviews with ten women and seven joint interviews with couples who received donor insemination from an anonymous sperm donor and were the parents of donor insemination children. I explore the symbolic presence of the donor and his potential to disrupt social and physical boundaries using the theoretical conceptions of boundaries and pollution as articulated by Mary Douglas and Julia Kristeva. I present data to argue that the anonymous donor manifests in various figures; the shadowy and ambiguous figure of 'another man'; the intelligent medical student; the donor as a family man, with children of his own who wants to help infertile men father children. In addition participants perceive the donor's physical characteristics, but also see their husband's physical characteristics, in their children. In conclusion I argue that anonymisation preserves features of conventional family life, maintains the idea of exclusivity within the heterosexual relationship and affirms the legal father's insecurity about his infertility.

  11. Perceived Parenting Skill Across the Transition to Adoptive Parenthood Among Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Couples

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2009-01-01

    Little research has examined change in perceived parenting skill across the transition to parenthood or predictors of change in perceived skill. The current study used an ecological framework to examine predictors of self-perceived parenting skill among 47 lesbian, 31 gay, and 56 heterosexual couples who were adopting their first child. Findings revealed that, on average, all new parents perceived themselves as becoming more skilled, although gay men increased the most and lesbians the least. Participants who were male, reported fewer depressive symptoms, expected to do more child care, and reported higher job autonomy viewed themselves as more skilled pre-adoption. With regard to change, parents who reported more relational conflict, and parents who expected to do more child care, experienced lesser increases in perceived skill. These findings suggest that regardless of gender, sexual orientation, and route to parenthood, new parents experience similar, positive changes in perceived skill, thereby broadening our understanding of parenting skill in diverse groups. The findings also highlight the importance of examining how gender, sexual orientation, and the family context may shape perceived skill across the transition to parenthood. PMID:20001145

  12. Changing blood donor screening criteria from permanent deferral for men who have sex with men to individual sexual risk assessment: no evidence of a significant impact on the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Suligoi, Barbara; Pupella, Simonetta; Regine, Vincenza; Raimondo, Mariangela; Velati, Claudio; Grazzini, Giuliano

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2001, the criteria for blood donor eligibility in Italy were modified by a ministerial decree from a permanent deferral for "men who have sex with men" to an individual risk assessment of sexual behaviours. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of this change in donor screening criteria on the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic among blood donors in Italy. Materials and methods We used the data obtained from the Italian blood donor epidemiological surveillance system. We compared data collected in 2009 and 2010, when the individual risk assessment policy was applied, with data collected in 1999 when permanent deferral was applied for men who have sex with men based on a declaration of sexual orientation. We evaluated the change over time in the relative proportion of HIV antibody-positive donors who likely acquired the infection from men who have sex with men vs heterosexual sexual exposure; the relative risk was calculated using 1999 as the reference year. Results In all 3 years, the majority of HIV antibody-positive donors reported sexual exposure as a risk factor for HIV infection; this proportion increased over time, although not statistically significantly. Heterosexuals always accounted for at least 40% of all HIV antibody-positive cases. The rate of HIV antibody-positive donors increased similarly in men who have sex with men and heterosexuals; specifically, the rate of HIV antibody-positive cases per 100,000 donors was more than 2-fold higher among men who have sex with men in 2009–2010 than in 1999 (2009–2010 vs 1999, RR =2.8; P =0.06), and that among heterosexuals was 1.5 fold higher (P =0.18). Discussion When comparing the period before (1999) and after (2009–2010), the implementation of the individual risk assesment policy in 2001, no significant increase in the proportion of men who have sex with men compared to heterosexuals was observed among HIV antibody-positive blood donors, suggesting that the change in donor

  13. Correlates of African American Men's Sexual Schemas

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Dawn A.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; St. Lawrence, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Sexual schemas are cognitive representations of oneself as a sexual being and aid in the processing of sexually relevant information. We examined the relationship between sociosexuality (attitudes about casual sex), masculine ideology (attitudes toward traditional men and male roles), and cultural centrality (strength of identity with racial group) as significant psychosocial and sociocultural predictors in shaping young, heterosexual African American men's sexual schemas. A community sample (n=133) of men in a southeastern city of the United States completed quantitative self-report measures examining their attitudes and behavior related to casual sex, beliefs about masculinity, racial and cultural identity, and self-views of various sexual aspects of themselves. Results indicated that masculine ideology and cultural centrality were both positively related to men's sexual schemas. Cultural centrality explained 12 % of the variance in level of sexual schema, and had the strongest correlation of the predictor variables with sexual schema (r=.36). The need for more attention to the bidirectional relationships between masculinity, racial/cultural identity, and sexual schemas in prevention, intervention, and public health efforts for African American men is discussed. PMID:24031118

  14. Higher Prevalence of Childhood Sexual Abuse among Latino Men Who Have Sex with Men than Non-Latino Men Who Have Sex with Men: Data from the Urban Men's Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arreola, S.G.; Neilands, T.B.; Pollack, L.M.; Paul, J.P.; Catania, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: The prevalence of childhood sexual abuse among Latino adult men who have sex with men who live in the US was estimated because a history of childhood sexual abuse increases HIV sexual risk behaviors and other negative health outcomes in adulthood. Method:: The Urban Men's Health Study is a random-digit telephone probability survey of…

  15. Condom Use Negotiation in Heterosexual African-American Adults: Responses to Types of Social Power-Based Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Otto-Salaj, Laura L.; Reed, Barbara; Brondino, Michael J.; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Stevenson, L. Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    Little research has been performed on how people respond to different strategies to negotiate condom use in sexual situations, and whether certain strategies tend to be perceived as more or less effective in condom use negotiation. This study examined gender differences and preferences in the use of and response to six different styles of condom use negotiation with a hypothetical sexual partner of the opposite gender. Participants were 51 heterosexually-active African-American men and women between the ages of 18 and 35, attending an inner-city community center. Study participants completed a semi-structured qualitative interview in which they were presented with six negotiation strategies —coercive, reward, legitimate, expert, referent, and informational--based on Raven’s 1992 Power/Interaction Model of Interpersonal Influence. Results showed that women participants responded best to referent, reward, and legitimate strategies, and worst to informational tactics. Men participants responded best to reward strategies, and worst to coercion to use condoms. Further, responses given by a subset of both women—and, to a greater extent, men--indicated that use of negotiation tactics involving coercion to use condoms may result in negative or angry reactions. Finally, response to strategies may vary with the value of the relationship as viewed by the target of negotiation. Implications for HIV prevention programs and media campaigns are discussed. PMID:18569536

  16. Perceptions of Threats to Physical Safety, Sexual Autonomy, Values, and of Discrimination Drive LGB Prejudices Toward Heterosexuals.

    PubMed

    Pirlott, Angela G; Rusten, Marta L; Butterfuss, Reese M

    2016-09-01

    Many studies have investigated heterosexuals' prejudices toward nonheterosexuals, yet LGB's prejudices toward heterosexuals remain largely unexplored. Therefore, we sought to determine the threats and opportunities (i.e., affordances) LGB perceive heterosexuals to pose and whether those affordances explain their sexual prejudices toward heterosexuals. Study 1 analyzed LGB's reasons for liking and disliking heterosexuals, which determined whether the threats predicted to be salient for LGB mirrored the affordances they generated. Study 2 measured these perceived affordances and examined the extent to which they drove LGB's prejudices toward heterosexuals. Generally, perceptions of discrimination and unreciprocated sexual interest threats drove anger, physical safety and sexual autonomy threats drove fear, and values threats drove moral disgust toward heterosexuals, although results varied slightly by perceiver and target groups. Goals to alleviate the tensions between heterosexuals and LGB require an understanding of the dynamics between these groups. This research provides preliminary insights into understanding those dynamics.

  17. Perceptions of Threats to Physical Safety, Sexual Autonomy, Values, and of Discrimination Drive LGB Prejudices Toward Heterosexuals.

    PubMed

    Pirlott, Angela G; Rusten, Marta L; Butterfuss, Reese M

    2016-09-01

    Many studies have investigated heterosexuals' prejudices toward nonheterosexuals, yet LGB's prejudices toward heterosexuals remain largely unexplored. Therefore, we sought to determine the threats and opportunities (i.e., affordances) LGB perceive heterosexuals to pose and whether those affordances explain their sexual prejudices toward heterosexuals. Study 1 analyzed LGB's reasons for liking and disliking heterosexuals, which determined whether the threats predicted to be salient for LGB mirrored the affordances they generated. Study 2 measured these perceived affordances and examined the extent to which they drove LGB's prejudices toward heterosexuals. Generally, perceptions of discrimination and unreciprocated sexual interest threats drove anger, physical safety and sexual autonomy threats drove fear, and values threats drove moral disgust toward heterosexuals, although results varied slightly by perceiver and target groups. Goals to alleviate the tensions between heterosexuals and LGB require an understanding of the dynamics between these groups. This research provides preliminary insights into understanding those dynamics. PMID:27340152

  18. Becoming Lesbian Adoptive Parents: An Exploratory Study of Lesbian Adoptive, Lesbian Birth, and Heterosexual Adoptive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley-Sireci, Lynn M.; Ciano-Boyce, Claudia

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed lesbian adoptive parents, heterosexual adoptive parents, and lesbian parents who had used assisted fertilization, regarding the adoption process. Found that the process was similar for both heterosexual and lesbian parents, but lesbian adoptive parents perceived more discrimination and were more inclined to omit information during the…

  19. Poverty among Cohabiting Gay and Lesbian, and Married and Cohabiting Heterosexual Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokos, Anastasia H.; Keene, Jennifer Reid

    2010-01-01

    Using a subsample ( N = 1,365,145) of the 2000 Census 5% Public Use Microdata Sample, the authors investigate explanations for differing poverty chances of cohabiting gay and lesbian, and married and cohabiting heterosexual families. Gay and lesbian couples fare worse than married couples, but better economically than cohabiting heterosexuals.…

  20. Challenging Discourse Themes Reproducing Gender in Heterosexual Dating: An Analog Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Lucia Albino; Walker, Sarah J.; McKinney, Sherry; Snell, Jessica L.

    1999-01-01

    Investigated whether male sexual drive discourse themes in heterosexual dating could be reproduced in a laboratory and whether those themes could be disrupted via laboratory intervention. Single, heterosexual college students role played various dating scenarios under differing conditions (dominant discourse themes and disrupted dominant discourse…

  1. "Undoing" the Self: Should Heterosexual Teachers "Come Out" in the University Classroom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Louisa

    2011-01-01

    The issue of whether to "come out" in class has a poignant history in the literature by gay, lesbian and bisexual educators on this topic. By comparison few heterosexuals have publicly written about whether they explicitly reveal their heterosexuality to students. This paper contributes to the enduring debate about whether to "come out" in class…

  2. A Comparison of Lesbian, Bisexual, and Heterosexual College Undergraduate Women on Selected Mental Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Dianne L.; Santurri, Laura; Peters, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate selected mental health characteristics of lesbians and bisexual undergraduate college women as compared with heterosexual college women. Participants: Self-identified lesbians and bisexual and heterosexual female college students who took part in the American College Health Association National College Health Assessment…

  3. Gender and binegativity: men's and women's attitudes toward male and female bisexuals.

    PubMed

    Yost, Megan R; Thomas, Genéa D

    2012-06-01

    This study assessed the influence of gender on attitudes about bisexuals. A total of 164 heterosexual female and 89 heterosexual male undergraduates completed the Biphobia Scale (Mulick & Wright, 2002), rewritten to refer to bisexual men and bisexual women and thus re-named the Gender-Specific Binegativity Scale. A mixed-design ANOVA revealed an interaction between rater's sex and target's sex: women equally accepted bisexual men and bisexual women, but men were less accepting of bisexual men than bisexual women. A mediation analysis indicated the relationship between rater's sex and greater acceptance of bisexual women was partially explained by eroticization of female same-sex sexuality. Finally, participants also responded to two open-ended items, which provided additional information about the content of binegativity: participants described male bisexuals negatively, as gender-nonconforming, and labeled them "really gay," whereas participants described female bisexuals positively, as sexy, and labeled them "really heterosexual." These findings suggest multiple underlying beliefs about bisexuals that contribute to binegativity, particularly against bisexual men. Results also confirm the importance of considering gender (of both the target and the rater) when assessing sexual prejudice. PMID:21597943

  4. Predictors of Heterosexual Casual Sex Among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Wendy; Giordano, Peggy; Longmore, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Casual sex is often associated with the young adult stage in the life course. Most recent research on the prevalence, motives, and consequences of heterosexual casual sex has relied on samples of college students, yet students are only a small and advantaged subset of the young adult population. The current study drew on the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study, which was collected in 2006–2007 and included young adults (ages 18–24 years) whose trajectories reflected a wider spectrum of educational experiences (N = 1,023). We moved beyond prior work by examining both frequency and type of heterosexual casual sex: lifetime vaginal, lifetime oral, and recent vaginal sex. We found that young adults enrolled or who graduated from 4-year educational institutions reported fewer casual sex partners on all three measures compared to participants with-out a high school degree and those with some college experience. Sexual attitudes were key factors mediating the association between educational status and casual sex behavior. These results indicate that programs aimed at encouraging healthy sexual behavior should target individuals who are at risk of not graduating high school because they are at greatest risk of frequent casual sex partners. PMID:23297151

  5. Coparenting among lesbian, gay, and heterosexual couples: associations with adopted children's outcomes.

    PubMed

    Farr, Rachel H; Patterson, Charlotte J

    2013-01-01

    Coparenting is associated with child behavior in families with heterosexual parents, but less is known about coparenting among lesbian- and gay-parent families. Associations were studied among self-reported divisions of labor, coparenting observations, and child adjustment (Mage  = 3 years) among 104 adoptive families headed by lesbian, gay, or heterosexual couples. Lesbian and gay couples reported sharing child care, whereas heterosexual couples reported specialization (i.e., mothers did more child care than fathers). Observations confirmed this pattern-lesbian and gay parents participated more equally than heterosexual parents during family interaction. Lesbian couples showed the most supportive and least undermining behavior, whereas gay couples showed the least supportive behavior, and heterosexual couples the most undermining behavior. Overall, supportive coparenting was associated with better child adjustment.

  6. Stigma, discrimination, and sexual (dis)satisfaction among people living with HIV: results from the "AIDES et toi" survey.

    PubMed

    Rojas Castro, D; Le Gall, J M; Andreo, C; Spire, B

    2010-08-01

    The effects of HIV-related stigma and discrimination have been studied in several areas, such as access to testing, quality of care quality, and access to work. Nevertheless, the effects of stigma and discrimination on the sexual life of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have not been studied enough. AIDES, a French community-based organization, has developed a biannual survey which assesses several socioeconomical and psychosocial dimensions of the people in contact with this organization. A focus on the results concerning sexual (dis)satisfaction and the factors associated are presented here. A convenience sample of 521 HIV-positive men having sex with men, heterosexual men and women was analyzed. A logistic regression was performed to examine which factors were significantly associated with sexual dissatisfaction. Results showed that being older, not having a full-time job, not having a steady sexual partner, lower frequency of sexual intercourse, discrimination in the sexual relationship setting, and the perception of loneliness were independently associated with sexual dissatisfaction. A quality health approach must include the aspects linked to sexual life and sexual satisfaction. Given the potentially harmful effects that HIV-related stigma and discrimination have on PLWHA's well-being, more specific actions and advocacy in this direction should be developed and implemented.

  7. Men's Self-Definitions of Abusive Childhood Sexual Experiences, and Potentially Related Risky Behavioral and Psychiatric Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, William C.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate how many heterosexual and gay/bisexual men self-define abusive childhood sexual experiences (CSEs) to be childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and to assess whether CSA self-definition is associated with risky behavioral and psychiatric outcomes in adulthood. Methods: In Philadelphia County, 197 (66%) of 298 recruited men…

  8. "Gay Boy Talk" Meets "Girl Talk": HIV Risk Assessment Assumptions in Young Gay Men's Sexual Health Communication with Best Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutchler, Matt G.; McDavitt, Bryce

    2011-01-01

    Young adults, particularly young gay men (YGM), are vulnerable to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Yet, little is known about how YGM discuss sexual health issues with their friends ("gay boy talk"). We conducted semi-structured interviews with YGM and their best friends (11 YGM/YGM dyads and 13 YGM/heterosexual female dyads). In this paper, we…

  9. "They're Just a Good Time and Move On": Fraternity Men Reflect on Their Hookup Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Rebecca D.; Levy, Lauren B.; Alt, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Hookups have largely replaced heterosexual dating on campus, but literature suggests men and women may ascribe different motivations and meanings to hookup experiences. This study, utilizing Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, makes sense of the responses of three fraternity members reflecting upon their sexual and dating experiences. Four…

  10. Same-sex sexual attraction, behavior, and practices of Jewish men in Israel and the association with HIV prevalence.

    PubMed

    Mor, Zohar; Davidovich, Udi

    2016-01-01

    In order to efficiently direct efforts and resources required for the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Israel, it is necessary to define their particular behaviors, estimate their size, and asses the HIV-burden. This cross-sectional study included a sub-sample from a random representative National study performed in Israel, which included Jewish males aged 18-44 who completed online anonymous questionnaires regarding their sexual attraction and practices, commercial sex-work, as well as condom and substances' use. Additionally, participants were asked to identify themselves as gay, bisexual, or heterosexual. National estimates regarding prevalence of risk-behaviors and HIV-infection among MSM were based on the Statistical Abstract of Israel and the National HIV Registry, respectively. Of the total sample of 997 men, 11.9% reported lifetime male sex encounters, while 4.5% and 3.7% self-identified as gay or bisexual, respectively. The estimated population of self-identified Jewish gays/bisexuals aged 18-44 in Israel was 94,176, and in Tel-Aviv 33,839. HIV prevalence among MSM was estimated at 0.7% in Israel and 1.0% in Tel-Aviv. MSM were more likely to live in Tel-Aviv, had higher levels of education, and were scored higher on several determinants of sexual risk in comparison to those attracted to women, including early sexual debut, greater number of sexual partners, ever paid/been paid for sex, sexually coerced, and substance use. In conclusion, MSM were involved in greater risk behaviors than those who only had female sex partners. Most MSM were living in Tel-Aviv and their estimated HIV prevalence was 1.0%. PMID:26883581

  11. An intersectional approach to social determinants of stress for African American men: men's and women's perspectives.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Derek M; Ellis, Katrina R; Allen, Julie Ober

    2013-07-01

    Stress is a key factor that helps explain racial and gender differences in health, but few studies have examined gendered stressors that affect men. This study uses an intersectional approach to examine the sources of stress in African American men's lives from the perspectives of African American men and important women in their lives. Phenomenological analysis was used to examine data from 18 exploratory focus groups with 150 African American men, ages 30 years and older, and eight groups with 77 African American women. The two primary sources of stress identified were seeking to fulfill socially and culturally important gender roles and being an African American man in a racially stratified society. A central focus of African American men's daily lives was trying to navigate chronic stressors at home and at work and a lack of time to fulfill roles and responsibilities in different life domains that are traditionally the responsibility of men. Health was rarely mentioned by men as a source of stress, though women noted that men's aging and weathering bodies were a source of stress for men. Because of the intersection of racism and economic and social stressors, men and women reported that the stress that African American men experienced was shaped by the intersection of race, ethnicity, age, marital status, and other factors that combined in unique ways. The intersection of these identities and characteristics led to stressors that were perceived to be of greater quantity and qualitatively different than the stress experienced by men of other races.

  12. Disparities in Depressive Symptoms Between Heterosexual and Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth in a Dutch Cohort: The TRAILS Study.

    PubMed

    la Roi, Chaïm; Kretschmer, Tina; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Veenstra, René; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-03-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth experience elevated levels of depressive symptoms compared to heterosexual youth. This study examined how differences in depressive symptoms between heterosexual and LGB youth developed from late childhood to early adulthood. The association between sexual orientation and depressive symptoms was estimated from age 11 to 22 using data from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey, a longitudinal Dutch cohort study. Of the 1738 respondents (54.8 % girls) that provided information on sexual orientation, 151 self-identified as LGB. In line with the Minority Stress Framework, it was tested whether self-reported peer victimization and parental rejection mediated the association between sexual orientation and depressive symptoms. Results indicated that LB girls and bisexuals were at increased risk of depressive symptoms already at age 11. The difference increased over time and was related to pubertal development in girls and bisexual individuals. Furthermore, self-reported peer victimization (for both boys and girls), as well as parental rejection (for girls/bisexuals), mediated the association between sexual orientation and depressive symptoms. The authors conclude that already in late childhood, associations between sexual orientation and depressive symptoms are found, partly due to minority stress mechanisms.

  13. Prevalence of non-medical drug use and dependence among homosexually active men and women in the US population

    PubMed Central

    Cochran, Susan D.; Ackerman, Deborah; Mays, Vickie M.; Ross, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to compare patterns of drug use and dependence between homosexually experienced and exclusively heterosexually experienced individuals. Design We used a cross-sectional national household interview survey conducted in the United States. Setting Secondary data analysis of the 1996 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse was employed. Participants Participants were sexually active individuals, aged 18 years and older, who reported the genders of their sexual partners in the past 12 months; included 174 homosexually experienced (98 men, 96 women) and 9714 exclusively heterosexually experienced (3922 men, 5792 women) respondents. Measurements Life-time, past 30 days and daily use of nine classes of drugs. Symptoms of dysfunctional use and dependence. Findings There were consistent patterns of elevated drug use in homosexually experienced individuals for life-time drug use, but these were greatly attenuated for recent use. Homosexually experienced men were more likely to report use of marijuana, cocaine and heroin, and homosexually experienced women more likely to report use of marijuana and analgesics than individuals reporting only opposite-sex partners. Both homosexually active men and women were more likely than exclusively heterosexually active respondents to report at least one symptom indicating dysfunctional drug use across all drug classes, and to meet criteria for marijuana dependence syndrome. The only difference between homosexually experienced men and women was that men were more likely to report any daily drug use. Conclusions These data are consistent with surveys suggesting that there is a moderate elevation of drug, particularly marijuana, use and dependence in gay and bisexual men and women when compared to heterosexual men and women. PMID:15265096

  14. Human papillomavirus and anorectal carcinoma knowledge in men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Christopher W; Eden, Candace

    2011-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a precursor to the development of anorectal carcinoma. Studies have indicated that men who have sex with men (MSM) have significantly higher rates of HPV and HIV than their heterosexual counterparts and are at greater risk for anorectal carcinoma. This article presents findings from a descriptive study to assess knowledge of HPV, anorectal carcinoma, and anorectal screening in a sample of MSM in Orlando, FL. The 89 participants demonstrated knowledge deficits. The average score on knowledge items was only 38% correct. Of the 49 participants who had heard of anal Papanicolau (Pap) smears, only 5 (10.2%) discussed screening with a physician, while 8 (16.3%) had discussed it with a nurse, and 16 (32.7%) with another health care professional. Findings support the need for community outreach efforts to promote knowledge and the need for discussion with providers regarding HPV and anorectal carcinoma in this vulnerable population.

  15. Birth order and sexual orientation in men: evidence for two independent interactions.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, Anthony F; Liu, Jian

    2006-11-01

    Birth order is correlated with male sexual orientation, but the reason(s) for this relationship is unclear. In the present study, data from a Canadian sample of homosexual and heterosexual men (N=604) were used to present evidence of two independent birth order interactions--one with height and the other with parental age--predicting sexual orientation in men. If these findings prove reliable, it raises the possibility that different aetiological factors underlie the birth order/sexual orientation relationship in men.

  16. Relationship Dynamics and Sexual Risk Reduction Strategies Among Heterosexual Young Adults: A Qualitative Study of Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic Attendees at an Urban Chicago Health Center.

    PubMed

    Hotton, Anna L; French, Audrey L; Hosek, Sybil G; Kendrick, Sabrina R; Lemos, Diana; Brothers, Jennifer; Kincaid, Stacey L; Mehta, Supriya D

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have examined risk-reduction alternatives to consistent condom use for HIV prevention among heterosexual young adults. We used qualitative methodology to explore risk reduction strategies and contextual factors influencing attempts to reduce risk in an urban, high morbidity sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic. Focus groups were conducted October-December 2014 with heterosexually identified men (n = 13) and women (n = 20) aged 18-29 seeking STI screening at an urban clinic. Groups were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed for thematic content using Atlas.ti software. Quantitative information included sociodemographics, HIV/STI testing history, and 6-month sexual behaviors. Among 33 predominantly African-American participants with a median age of 22, risk-reduction strategies included monogamy agreements, selective condom use with casual and high-risk partners, and frequent HIV/STI testing, though testing was commonly used as a post-hoc reassurance after risk exposure. Many men and women used implicit risk assessment strategies due to mistrust or difficulty communicating. Concurrency was common but rarely discussed within partnerships. Despite attempts to reduce risk, monogamy agreements were often poorly adhered to and not openly discussed. Alcohol and substance use frequently interfered with safer sexual decisions. Participants were aware of HIV/STI risk and commonly practiced risk-reduction strategies, but acknowledged faulty assumptions and poor adherence. This work provides insights into risk-reduction approaches that are already used and may be strengthened as part of effective HIV/STI prevention interventions.

  17. Socialization Patterns and Their Association with Unprotected Anal Intercourse, HIV, and Syphilis Among High-Risk Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Verre, MC; Peinado, J; Segura, ER; Clark, JC; Gonzales, P; Benites, C; Cabello, R; Sanchez, J; Lama, JR

    2014-01-01

    The association of socialization patterns with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and HIV/STI prevalence remains underexplored in men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in developing country settings. We evaluated the correlation of UAI, HIV, and syphilis with MSM/TW venue attendance and social network size among high-risk MSM and TW in Peru according to self-reported sexual identity. Frequency of venue attendance and MSM/TW social network size were lowest among heterosexual MSM and highest among TW respondents. Attendance (frequent or occasional) at MSM/TW venues was associated with increased odds of insertive UAI among heterosexual participants. Frequent venue attendance was associated with increased odds of receptive UAI among gay/homosexual, bisexual, and TW participants. Further investigation of the differing socialization patterns and associations with HIV/STI transmission within subgroups of Peruvian MSM and TW will enable more effective prevention interventions for these populations. PMID:24788782

  18. Socialization patterns and their associations with unprotected anal intercourse, HIV, and syphilis among high-risk men who have sex with men and transgender women in Peru.

    PubMed

    Verre, Michael C; Peinado, Jesus; Segura, Eddy R; Clark, Jesse; Gonzales, Pedro; Benites, Carlos; Cabello, Robinson; Sanchez, Jorge; Lama, Javier R

    2014-10-01

    The association of socialization patterns with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and HIV/STI prevalence remains underexplored in men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in developing country settings. We evaluated the correlation of UAI, HIV, and syphilis with MSM/TW venue attendance and social network size among high-risk MSM and TW in Peru according to self-reported sexual identity. Frequency of venue attendance and MSM/TW social network size were lowest among heterosexual MSM and highest among TW respondents. Attendance (frequent or occasional) at MSM/TW venues was associated with increased odds of insertive UAI among heterosexual participants. Frequent venue attendance was associated with increased odds of receptive UAI among gay/homosexual, bisexual, and TW participants. Further investigation of the differing socialization patterns and associations with HIV/STI transmission within subgroups of Peruvian MSM and TW will enable more effective prevention interventions for these populations.

  19. HIV Prevalence and Risk among Heterosexual Methamphetamine Injectors in California

    PubMed Central

    Kral, Alex H.; Lorvick, Jennifer; Martinez, Alexis; Lewis, Megan A.; Orr, Alexander; Anderson, Rachel; Flynn, Neil; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.

    2013-01-01

    This CDC-funded study compares HIV prevalence and risk behavior among heterosexual methamphetamine (n=428) and non-methamphetamine (n=878) injectors in California, USA during 2001–2003. While HIV was not highly prevalent among methamphetamine injectors (3%), sexual and injection risk behaviors were highly prevalent (ranging from 21% to 72%). In multivariate analyses, methamphetamine injectors had higher odds than non-methamphetamine injectors of unprotected vaginal intercourse and sex with five or more sexual partners in the past six months, and of distributive and receptive syringe sharing in the past thirty days. There was no significant difference in HIV sero-status by methamphetamine use. Suggestions are made for designing HIV prevention programs. PMID:21391786

  20. Heterosexual students' experiences in sexual orientation intergroup dialogue courses.

    PubMed

    Dessel, Adrienne B; Woodford, Michael R; Routenberg, Robbie; Breijak, Duane P

    2013-01-01

    Heterosexism contributes to an unsafe campus climate for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) college students. Intergroup dialogue courses about sexual orientation seek to build awareness, cross-group relationships, and commitment to social action to address anti-LGB prejudice and discrimination. Although dialogue courses are growing in popularity, few courses address sexual orientation. To advance knowledge of these dialogues, this qualitative study explores heterosexual students' motivations and expectations, challenges, and learning outcomes related to their participation in intergroup dialogue courses on sexual orientation. Core themes include desire to learn about the LGB community, concerns about offending classmates, anxiety around LGB stigma, conflict with classmates around controversial topics, affirming LGB people, and learning about heterosexism, privilege, and intersectionality of identity. Implications for intergroup dialogue pedagogy and research are discussed.