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Sample records for heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia

  1. Familial Hypercholesterolaemia

    PubMed Central

    Marais, A David

    2004-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), defined as the heritable occurrence of severe hypercholesterolaemia with cholesterol deposits in tendons and premature heart disease, is caused by at least four genes in sterol and lipoprotein pathways and displays varying gene-dose effects. The genes are the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, apolipoprotein (apo) B, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9, and the autosomal recessive hypercholesterolaemia (ARH) adaptor protein. All of these disorders have in common defective clearance of LDL within a complex system of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and regulation. Normal cellular cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism is reviewed before describing the disorders, their metabolic derangements and their clinical effects. FH is classified as two simplified phenotypes of disease according to the severity of the metabolic derangement. The dominantly inherited heterozygous phenotype comprises defects in the LDL receptor, apoB100, and neural apoptosis regulatory cleavage protein. The homozygous phenotype is co-dominant in defects of the LDL receptor, and occurs also as the ARH of adapter protein mutations. Defective binding of apoB100 does not result in a significant gene dose effect, but enhances the severity of heterozygotes for LDL receptor mutations. The genetic diagnosis of FH has provided greater accuracy in definition and detection of disease and exposes information about migration of populations. All of these disorders pose a high risk of atherosclerosis, especially in the homozygous phenotype. Studies of influences on the phenotype and responses to treatment are also discussed in the context of the metabolic derangements. PMID:18516203

  2. Estimating the prevalence of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Akioyamen, Leo E; Genest, Jacques; Shan, Shubham D; Reel, Rachel L; Albaum, Jordan M; Chu, Anna; Tu, Jack V

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) confers a significant risk for premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the estimated prevalence of FH varies substantially among studies. We aimed to provide a summary estimate of FH prevalence in the general population and assess variations in frequency across different sociodemographic characteristics. Setting, participants and outcome measures We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, the Cochrane Library, PsycINFO and PubMed for peer-reviewed literature using validated strategies. Results were limited to studies published in English between January 1990 and January 2017. Studies were eligible if they determined FH prevalence using clinical criteria or DNA-based analyses. We determined a pooled point prevalence of FH in adults and children and assessed the variation of the pooled frequency by age, sex, geographical location, diagnostic method, study quality and year of publication. Estimates were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Differences by study-level characteristics were investigated through subgroups, meta-regression and sensitivity analyses. Results The pooled prevalence of FH from 19 studies including 2 458 456 unique individuals was 0.40% (95% CI 0.29% to 0.52%) which corresponds to a frequency of 1 in 250 individuals. FH prevalence was found to vary by age and geographical location but not by any other covariates. Results were consistent in sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Our systematic review suggests that FH is a common disorder, affecting 1 in 250 individuals. These findings underscore the need for early detection and management to decrease CVD risk. PMID:28864697

  3. Articular manifestations of familial hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Mathon, G; Gagné, C; Brun, D; Lupien, P J; Moorjani, S

    1985-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia is characterised by a decreased removal of low density lipoproteins and premature coronary artery disease. Tendinous xanthomata are a hallmark of the disease. The affected joints may also be the sites of inflammation and pain. Arthropathy has been associated mainly with the homozygous form of familial hypercholesterolaemia, but it is also known to occur in the heterozygous form. We report on the articular manifestations in 73 patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia. About 40% of these patients had at least one episode of articular symptoms. The observed articular manifestations may be classified into four types: Achilles pain (18%), Achilles tendinitis (11%), oligoarticular arthritis (7%), polyarticular or rheumatic fever-like arthritis (4%). It is concluded that in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia articular manifestations are frequent, diverse, and may be the first symptom of this metabolic disorder. Images PMID:4037885

  4. Familial hypercholesterolaemia in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Bourbon, M; Alves, A C; Medeiros, A M; Silva, S; Soutar, A K

    2008-02-01

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is characterised clinically by an increased level of circulating LDL cholesterol that leads to lipid accumulation in tendons and arteries, premature atherosclerosis and increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Although Portugal should have about 20,000 cases, this disease is severely under-diagnosed in our country, this being the first presentation of Portuguese data on FH. A total of 602 blood samples were collected from 184 index patients and 418 relatives from several centres throughout Portugal. Fifty-three different mutations were found in 83 index patients, 79 heterozygous and 4 with two defective LDLR alleles. Additionally, 4 putative alterations were found in 8 patients but were not considered mutations causing disease, mainly because they did not co-segregate with hypercholesterolaemia in the families. Three unrelated patients were found to be heterozygous for the APOB(3500) mutation and two unrelated patients were found to be heterozygous for a novel mutation in PCSK9, predicted to cause a single amino acid substitution, D374H. Cascade screening increased the number of FH patients identified genetically to 204. The newly identified FH patients are now receiving counselling and treatment based on the genetic diagnosis. The early identification of FH patients can increase their life expectancy and quality of life by preventing the development of premature CHD if patients receive appropriate pharmacological treatment.

  5. Management of patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Željko

    2015-10-01

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is an autosomal inherited disorder characterized by markedly elevated LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and an increased risk of premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Although FH is one of the most common genetic disorders, this disorder remains mostly undetected and its management is often suboptimal. High-intensity statins are standard treatment for patients with FH, but LDL-C levels in most patients treated with statin monotherapy remain above those recommended by guidelines. Combination therapy to lower LDL-C levels further-such as treatment with statins plus ezetimibe-has been successful, and combination of apheresis with high-intensity statin treatment is used in patients with homozygous FH and in those with heterozygous FH who are statin-refractory. Mipomersen, an inhibitor of apolipoprotein B-100 synthesis, and lomitapide, a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitor, reduce LDL-C levels further when added to high-intensity statin treatment in homozygous FH, but both have important adverse effects, such as increasing liver fat content. At present, PCSK9 inhibition (with alirocumab or evolocumab) is well tolerated and reduces LDL-C levels considerably in patients receiving the maximally tolerated statin treatment, and seems the most promising emerging treatment option. Nevertheless, data from outcome trials with hard end points for PCSK9 inhibitors, mipomersen, and lomitapide are still needed before these therapies become standard for patients with FH.

  6. Contrasting patterns of coronary atherosclerosis in normocholesterolaemic smokers and patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Sugrue, D D; Thompson, G R; Oakley, C M; Trayner, I M; Steiner, R E

    1981-01-01

    An angiographic comparison was made of the extent and severity of coronary artery disease in 25 patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia and 25 normocholesterolaemic patients with coronary artery disease in whom heavy cigarette consumption was the chief risk factor. The patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia were younger and included a much higher proportion of women than the smokers. Significantly more patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia had disease of the main stem of the left coronary artery (eight v none, p less than 0.05) and triple-vessel disease (18 v four, p less than 0.05). Disease affecting only distal vessels occurred in five smokers, whereas all the patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia showed a combination of proximal and distal lesions. These findings suggest that cigarette smoking and familial hypercholesterolaemia predispose to different patterns of coronary atheroma. Early coronary angiography with a view to coronary artery bypass surgery seems desirable in symptomatic patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia because of the common association of this disorder with life-threatening left main-stem disease. PMID:6797539

  7. Influence of specific mutations at the LDL-receptor gene locus on the response to simvastatin therapy in Afrikaner patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Jeenah, M; September, W; Graadt van Roggen, F; de Villiers, W; Seftel, H; Marais, D

    1993-01-04

    Simvastatin, an inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase, lowers the plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentration in familial hypercholesterolemic patients. The efficacy of the drug shows considerable inter-individual variation, however. In this study we have assessed the influence of certain LDL-receptor gene mutations on this variation. A group of 20 male and female heterozygotic familial hypercholesterolemic patients, all Afrikaners and each bearing one of two different LDL receptor gene mutations, FH Afrikaner-1 (FH1) and FH Afrikaner-2 (FH2), was treated with simvastatin (40 mg once daily) for 18 months. The average reduction in total plasma cholesterol was 35.3% in the case of the FH2 men but only 23.2% in that of the FH1 men (P = 0.005); the reduction in LDL cholesterol concentrations was also greater in the FH2 group (39% as opposed to 27.1%, P = 0.02). The better response of the FH2 group was also evident when men and women were considered together. Female FH1 patients responded better to simvastatin treatment, however, than did males with the same gene defect. Mutations at the LDL-receptor locus may thus play a significant role in the variable efficacy of the drug. The particular mutations in the males of this group may have contributed up to 35% of the variance in total cholesterol response and 29% of the variance in LDL-cholesterol response to simvastatin treatment.

  8. Therapeutic potential of mipomersen in the management of familial hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Gelsinger, Carmen; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Kassner, Ursula

    2012-07-30

    High levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] are associated with early morbidity and mortality caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD). There are hints that a reduction of LDL-C levels beyond currently advocated targets, and the use of drugs that also have Lp(a)-lowering potential, could provide further clinical benefit. Today, LDL apheresis is the only available treatment option to achieve further lowering of apolipoprotein-B (apo-B)-containing lipoproteins, especially Lp(a). Mipomersen is currently being studied in patients with mild to severe hypercholesterolaemia as add-on therapy to other lipid-lowering therapy, as monotherapy in patients who are intolerant of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) and who are at high risk for CVD. Patients affected by homozygous or heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), which are inherited autosomal co-dominant disorders characterized by a marked elevation of serum LDL-C concentration, remain a clinical challenge, especially when their CVD risk is aggravated by additionally elevated Lp(a) levels. Mipomersen is a 20-mer oligonucleotide [2'-O-(2-methoxy) ethyl-modified oligonucleotide], a second-generation antisense oligonucleotide (AOS), complementary to the coding region for human-specific apo-B-100 messenger RNA (mRNA). Mipomersen inhibits apo-B-100 synthesis and is consequently a new treatment strategy to lower apo-B-containing lipoproteins like LDL-C and Lp(a) in patients at high risk for CVD not on target or intolerant to statins. This article focuses on mipomersen and gives an overview of the current status of mipomersen as a promising treatment option. Recent studies have shown a decrease in LDL-C levels of 22-42.2% and in Lp(a) of 19.6-31.1% from baseline, depending on study design. Dose-dependent reductions of very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and triglyceride levels have also been observed. Although the short-term efficacy and safety of mipomersen

  9. GPs have key role in detecting familial hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Steve; Pedersen, Kristina

    2011-02-01

    Currently the vast majority of people with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) in the U.K. remain undiagnosed, probably 85% of the predicted 120,000 cases. FH is a common inherited disorder of lipid metabolism causing high levels of LDL cholesterol which leads to early CHD. It has an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance so siblings and children of a patient with FH will have a 50% chance of inheriting the condition. FH is present in the heterozygous form in 1 in 500 of the population. The homozygous form is very rare, affecting 1 in 1,000,000. Around half of men with FH, if untreated, will have developed clinically evident CHD by the age of 55 years, and approximately one third of women by the age of 60. A significant reduction in the mortality and morbidity of the disease can be achieved through changes in lifestyle and the use of statins to lower cholesterol. NICE recommends that clinical management of FH patients should primarily be carried out in lipid clinics. When cascade testing from lipid clinics is underway, GPs will be approached by relatives who have been identified as being at 50% risk of having FH, because they have an affected first-degree relative with the disorder. They will then need to take a blood sample for cholesterol measurement, and often will also be asked to provide a sample for DNA testing. A preliminary investigation in the surgery of a family member would involve a full lipid profile to calculate LDL cholesterol. If this is not elevated in an adult, cut-off value 4.9 mmol/L, FH is highly unlikely. Even if an FH patient is young, currently does not have CHD and may have no other CHD risk factors, the Framingham risk charts should not be used. These individuals are at increased CHD risk which warrants treatment with statins. The vascular health check screening programme recommends that where a total cholesterol of > 7.5 mmol/L is found FH should be considered.

  10. Screening for familial hypercholesterolaemia by measurement of apolipoproteins in capillary blood.

    PubMed Central

    Skovby, F; Micic, S; Jepsen, B; Larsen, S O; Hansen, B; Tegllund, L; Pedersen, B N

    1991-01-01

    A total of 3025 families with schoolchildren aged 6-8 years were offered pilot screening for familial hypercholesterolaemia by measurement of the concentrations of apolipoproteins A-1 and B in the children's capillary blood and by analysis of their family histories of early ischaemic heart disease. The concentrations of the apolipoproteins were determined by double rocket immunoelectrophoresis of an eluate of blood spotted on filter paper. Results were available from 2085 children. Because their B:A-1 ratio was above the 97.5 centile and their concentration of B was above the 99th centile, 54 children (2.6%) were selected to have their apolipoprotein concentrations reassessed. The 17 children (0.8%) whose values were persistently above the chosen cut off points, and all of their available first and second degree relatives, had fasting determinations of serum lipid concentrations carried out. Raised serum concentrations of low density lipoprotein cholesterol and an autosomal dominant pattern of hypercholesterolaemia were found in 12 children and 10 families, respectively, suggesting a higher incidence of familial hypercholesterolaemia than the reported 1:500. Further investigations among family members disclosed hypercholesterolaemia in 29 relatives. A family history of early ischaemic heart disease was elicited by questionnaire, and was positive in only five of the 12 schoolchildren with hypercholesterolaemia. We conclude that analysis of apolipoproteins from capillary blood spotted on filter paper is suitable for screening for familial hypercholesterolaemia, and that this method is more efficient than screening based on family history. PMID:1863097

  11. Familial Hypercholesterolaemia in the Era of Genetic Testing.

    PubMed

    Hughes, D P; Viljoen, A; Wierzbicki, A S

    2016-05-01

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a relatively common autosomal dominant genetic condition leading to premature ischaemic vascular disease and mortality if left untreated. Currently, a universal consensus on the diagnostic criteria of FH does not exist but the diagnosis of FH largely relies on the evaluation of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, a careful documentation of family history, and the identification of clinical features. Diagnosis based purely on lipid levels remains common but there are several limitations to this method of diagnosis both practically and in the proportion of false-negatives and false-positives detected, resulting in substantial under-diagnosis of FH. In some countries, diagnostic algorithms are supplemented with genetic testing of the index case as well as genetic and lipid testing of relatives of the index case. Such "cascade" screening of families following identification of index cases appears to not only improve the rate of diagnosis but is also cost-effective. Currently, we observe a great variation in the excess mortality among patients with FH, which likely reflects a combination of additional genetic and environmental effects on risk overlaid on the risk associated with FH. Current accepted drug therapies for FH include statins and PSCK9 inhibitors. Further work is required to evaluate the cardiovascular disease risk in patients with genetically diagnosed FH and to determine whether a risk-based approach to the treatment of FH is appropriate.

  12. Low dose colestipol in adolescents with familial hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Tonstad, S; Sivertsen, M; Aksnes, L; Ose, L

    1996-01-01

    The effects of orange flavoured colestipol granules, 10 g/day, in 37 boys and 29 girls aged 10-16 years with familial hypercholesterolaemia were examined first in an eight week double blind, placebo controlled protocol, then in open treatment for 44-52 weeks. All patients were on a low fat diet. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were reduced by 19.5% by colestipol v 1.0% by placebo. Levels of serum folate, vitamin E, and carotenoids were reduced in the colestipol group, but not the vitamin E/cholesterol and carotenoid/cholesterol ratios or serum concentrations of vitamins A and D. After one year of colestipol, two thirds of the participants remained in the study, of whom half took > or = 80% of the prescribed dose. Those who took > or = 80% of the dose had a greater decrease in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels than those who took < 80%. No adverse effects on weight gain or linear growth velocity were observed. Although low dose colestipol effectively reduces low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, only a minority of adolescents adhered to the new formulation for one year. Folate and possibly vitamin D supplementation is recommended. PMID:8660081

  13. Familial hypercholesterolaemia: a model of care for Australasia.

    PubMed

    Watts, Gerald F; Sullivan, David R; Poplawski, Nicola; van Bockxmeer, Frank; Hamilton-Craig, Ian; Clifton, Peter M; O'Brien, Richard; Bishop, Warrick; George, Peter; Barter, Phillip J; Bates, Timothy; Burnett, John R; Coakley, John; Davidson, Patricia; Emery, Jon; Martin, Andrew; Farid, Waleed; Freeman, Lucinda; Geelhoed, Elizabeth; Juniper, Amanda; Kidd, Alexa; Kostner, Karam; Krass, Ines; Livingston, Michael; Maxwell, Suzy; O'Leary, Peter; Owaimrin, Amal; Redgrave, Trevor G; Reid, Nicola; Southwell, Lynda; Suthers, Graeme; Tonkin, Andrew; Towler, Simon; Trent, Ronald

    2011-10-01

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a dominantly inherited disorder present from birth that causes marked elevation in plasma cholesterol and premature coronary heart disease. There are at least 45,000 people with FH in Australia and New Zealand, but the vast majority remains undetected and those diagnosed with the condition are inadequately treated. To bridge this major gap in coronary prevention the FH Australasia Network (Australian Atherosclerosis Society) has developed a consensus model of care (MoC) for FH. The MoC is based on clinical experience, expert opinion, published evidence and consultations with a wide spectrum of stakeholders, and has been developed for use primarily by specialist centres intending starting a clinical service for FH. This MoC aims to provide a standardised, high-quality and cost-effective system of care that is likely to have the highest impact on patient outcomes. The MoC for FH is presented as a series of recommendations and algorithms focusing on the standards required for the detection, diagnosis, assessment and management of FH in adults and children. The process involved in cascade screening and risk notification, the backbone for detecting new cases of FH, is detailed. Guidance on treatment is based on risk stratifying patients, management of non-cholesterol risk factors, safe and effective use of statins, and a rational approach to follow-up of patients. Clinical and laboratory recommendations are given for genetic testing. An integrative system for providing best clinical care is described. This MoC for FH is not prescriptive and needs to be complemented by good clinical judgment and adjusted for local needs and resources. After initial implementation, the MoC will require critical evaluation, development and appropriate modification. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia: Spanish adaptation of the position paper from the Consensus Panel on Familial Hypercholesterolaemia of the European Atherosclerosis Society. Consensus document of the Spanish Society of Arteriosclerosis (SEA) and Familial Hypercholesterolaemia Foundation (FHF)].

    PubMed

    Ascaso, Juan F; Mata, Pedro; Arbona, Cristina; Civeira, Fernando; Valdivielso, Pedro; Masana, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH) is a rare life-threatening disease characterized by markedly elevated circulating levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and accelerated, premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD). The Consensus Panel on Familial Hypercholesterolaemia of the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) has recently published a clinical guide to diagnose and manage HoFH (Eur Heart J. 2014;35:2146-57). Both the Spanish Society of Atherosclerosis (SEA) and Familial Hypercholesterolaemia Foundation (FHF) consider this European Consensus document of great value and utility. However, there are particularities in our country which advise to have a Spanish adaptation of the European HoFH document in order to approximate this clinical guide to our environment. In Spain, chronic treatment with statins, ezetimibe and resins (colesevelam) has a reduced contribution in the National Health System (NHS) and is one of the few European countries where LDL apheresis is included in the Basic Service Portfolio coverage. This Spanish document also includes clinical experience in the management of these patients in our country. The Drafting Committee emphasizes the need for early identification of HoFH patients, prompt referral to specialized units, and an early and appropriate treatment. These recommendations will provide a guidance for HoFH patient management in Spain. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Lipoprotein(a) levels are associated with aortic valve calcification in asymptomatic patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Vongpromek, R; Bos, S; Ten Kate, G-J R; Yahya, R; Verhoeven, A J M; de Feyter, P J; Kronenberg, F; Roeters van Lennep, J E; Sijbrands, E J G; Mulder, M T

    2015-08-01

    Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is an independent risk factor for aortic valve stenosis and aortic valve calcification (AVC) in the general population. In this study, we determined the association between AVC and both plasma Lp(a) levels and apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] kringle IV repeat polymorphisms in asymptomatic statin-treated patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). A total of 129 asymptomatic heterozygous FH patients (age 40-69 years) were included in this study. AVC was detected using computed tomography scanning. Lp(a) concentration and apo(a) kringle IV repeat number were measured using immunoturbidimetry and immunoblotting, respectively. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to assess the association between Lp(a) concentration and the presence of AVC. Aortic valve calcification was present in 38.2% of patients, including three with extensive AVC (>400 Agatston units). Lp(a) concentration was significantly correlated with gender, number of apo(a) kringle IV repeats and the presence and severity of AVC, but not with coronary artery calcification (CAC). AVC was significantly associated with plasma Lp(a) level, age, body mass index, blood pressure, duration of statin use, cholesterol-year score and CAC score. After adjustment for all significant covariables, plasma Lp(a) concentration remained a significant predictor of AVC, with an odds ratio per 10-mg dL(-1) increase in Lp(a) concentration of 1.11 (95% confidence interval 1.01-1.20, P = 0.03). In asymptomatic statin-treated FH patients, plasma Lp(a) concentration is an independent risk indicator for AVC. © 2014 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  16. Relevance of ancestral surname identification in pedigrees of Afrikaner families with familial hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Torrington, M; Brink, P A

    1990-03-17

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is more prevalent among Afrikaans-speaking individuals in South Africa then elsewhere. Founder effects have been suggested as an explanation. A study was undertaken that demonstrated ancestral links for a low-density lipoprotein receptor allele, haplotype No. 2, in the two lines of descent identified and 2 other known pedigrees with the same haplotype. Probable founder members for this haplotype are identified. These differ from the founder members assumed to be responsible for a majority of FH. A minor founder effect is suggested. Explanations are given for the apparent lesser prevalence of the second haplotype associated with FH.

  17. Treatment of homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia in paediatric patients: A monocentric experience.

    PubMed

    Buonuomo, Paola S; Macchiaiolo, Marina; Leone, Giovanna; Valente, Paola; Mastrogiorgio, Gerarda; Gnazzo, Maria; Rana, Ippolita; Gonfiantini, Michaela V; Gagliardi, Maria G; Romano, Francesca; Bartuli, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Background Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia is a rare life-threatening disease characterized by markedly elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations and accelerated atherosclerosis. The presence of double gene defects in the LDL-Receptor, either the same defect (homozygous) or two different LDL-raising mutations (compound heterozygotes) or other variants, identify the homozygous phenotype (HopFH). Apheresis is a procedure in which plasma is separated from red blood cells before the physical removal of LDL-C or the LDL-C is directly removed from whole blood. It is currently the treatment of choice for patients with HopFH whose LDL-C levels are not able to be reduced to target levels with conventional lipid-lowering drug therapy. Design The aim of this study is to report a cohort of six paediatric patients and to evaluate the long term efficacy of combined medical therapy and LDL-apheresis on LDL-C reduction. Methods We collected data from six children with confirmed diagnosis of HopFH (two females and four males; age range at diagnosis 3-8 years, mean 6 ± 1 years) from a single clinical hospital in Italy from 2007 to 2017. Results Clinical manifestations and outcomes may greatly vary in children with HopFH. Medical therapy and LDL-apheresis for the severe form should be started promptly in order to prevent cardiovascular disease. Conclusions Lipoprotein apheresis is a very important tool in managing patients with HopFH at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Based on our experience and the literature data, the method is feasible in very young children, efficient regarding biological results and cardiac events, and safe with minor side-effects and technical problems. We advise treating homozygous and compound heterozygous children as soon as possible.

  18. Coronary heart disease mortality in treated familial hypercholesterolaemia: Update of the UK Simon Broome FH register.

    PubMed

    Humphries, S E; Cooper, J A; Seed, M; Capps, N; Durrington, P N; Jones, B; McDowell, I F W; Soran, H; Neil, H A W

    2018-05-01

    Patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) have an elevated risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Here we compare changes in CHD mortality in patients with heterozygous (FH) pre 1992, before lipid-lowering therapy with statins was used routinely, and in the periods 1992-2008 and 2008-2016. 1903 Definite (DFH) and 1650 Possible (PFH) patients (51% women) aged 20-79 years, recruited from 21 lipid clinics in the United Kingdom and followed prospectively between 1980 and 2016 for 67,060 person-years. The CHD standardised mortality ratio (SMR) compared to the population in England and Wales was calculated (with 95% Confidence intervals). There were 585 deaths, including 252 from CHD. Overall, the observed 2.4-fold excess coronary mortality for treated DFH post-1991 was significantly higher than the 1.78 excess for PFH (35% 95% CI 3%-76%). In patients with DFH and established coronary disease, there was a significant excess coronary mortality in all time periods, but in men it was reduced from a 4.83-fold excess (2.32-8.89) pre-1992 to 4.66 (3.46-6.14) in 1992-2008 and 2.51 (1.01-5.17) post-2008, while in women the corresponding values were 7.23 (2.65-15.73), 4.42 (2.70-6.82) and 6.34 (2.06-14.81). Primary prevention in men with DFH resulted in a progressive reduction in coronary mortality over the three time-periods, with no excess mortality evident post-2008 (0.89 (0.29-2.08)), although in women the excess persisted (post-2008 3.65 (1.75-6.72)). The results confirm the benefit of statin treatment in reducing CHD mortality, but suggest that FH patients with pre-existing CHD and women with FH may not be treated adequately. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Predominance of a 6 bp deletion in exon 2 of the LDL receptor gene in Africans with familial hypercholesterolaemia

    PubMed Central

    Thiart, R.; Scholtz, C.; Vergotine, J.; Hoogendijk, C.; de Villiers, J N. P; Nissen, H.; Brusgaard, K.; Gaffney, D.; Hoffs, M.; Vermaak, W; Kotze, M.

    2000-01-01

    In South Africa, the high prevalence of familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) among Afrikaners, Jews, and Indians as a result of founder genes is in striking contrast to its reported virtual absence in the black population in general. In this study, the molecular basis of primary hypercholesterolaemia was studied in 16 Africans diagnosed with FH. DNA analysis using three screening methods resulted in the identification of seven different mutations in the coding region of the low density lipoprotein (LDLR) gene in 10 of the patients analysed. These included a 6 bp deletion (GCGATG) accounting for 28% of defective alleles, and six point mutations (D151H, R232W, R385Q, E387K, P678L, and R793Q) detected in single families. The Sotho patient with missense mutation R232W was also heterozygous for a de novo splicing defect 313+1G→A. Several silent mutations/polymorphisms were detected in the LDLR and apolipoprotein B genes, including a base change (g→t) at nucleotide position −175 in the FP2 LDLR regulatory element. This promoter variant was detected at a significantly higher (p<0.05) frequency in FH patients compared to controls and occurred in cis with mutation E387K in one family. Analysis of four intragenic LDLR gene polymorphisms showed that the same chromosomal background was identified at this locus in the four FH patients with the 6 bp deletion. Detection of the 6 bp deletion in Xhosa, Pedi, and Tswana FH patients suggests that it is an ancient mutation predating tribal separation approximately 3000 years ago.


Keywords: apolipoprotein B; hypercholesterolaemia; low density lipoprotein receptor; mutation PMID:10882754

  20. Screening for hypercholesterolaemia versus case finding for familial hypercholesterolaemia: a systematic review and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Marks, D; Wonderling, D; Thorogood, M; Lambert, H; Humphries, S E; Neil, H A

    2000-01-01

    In the majority of people with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) the disorder is caused by a mutation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene that impairs its proper function, resulting in very high levels of plasma cholesterol. Such levels result in early and severe atherosclerosis, and hence substantial excess mortality from coronary heart disease. Most people with FH are undiagnosed or only diagnosed after their first coronary event, but early detection and treatment with hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme (HMG CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) can reduce morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of FH in the UK population is estimated to be 1 in 500, which means that approximately 110,000 people are affected. To evaluate whether screening for FH is appropriate. To determine which system of screening is most acceptable and cost-effective. To assess the deleterious psychosocial effects of genetic and clinical screening for an asymptomatic treatable inherited condition. To assess whether the risks of screening outweigh potential benefits. Relevant papers were identified through a search of the electronic databases. Additional papers referenced in the search material were identified and collected. Known researchers in the field were contacted and asked to supply information on unpublished or ongoing studies. INCLUSION/EXCLUSION CRITERIA: SCREENING AND TREATMENT: The review included studies of the mortality and morbidity associated with FH, the effectiveness and cost of treatment (ignoring pre-statin therapies in adults), and of the effectiveness or cost of possible screening strategies for FH. PSYCHOSOCIAL EFFECTS OF SCREENING: The search for papers on the psychological and social effects of screening for a treatable inherited condition was limited to the last 5 years because recent developments in genetic testing have changed the nature and implications of such screening tests. Papers focusing on genetic testing for FH and breast cancer were included. Papers

  1. Improved survival of patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia treated with plasma exchange.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, G R; Miller, J P; Breslow, J L

    1985-01-01

    Plasma exchange was undertaken in five patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia at intervals of two weeks for a mean of 8.4 years. These patients had survived an average of 5.5 years longer than their five respective homozygous siblings (p = 0.3), each of whom must have had a matching genetic defect but who died untreated. The 37% decrease in peak serum cholesterol concentrations maintained by plasma exchange presumably reduced progression of atherosclerosis in the treated patients and thus lessened their risk of premature death. PMID:3935235

  2. Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia: new insights and guidance for clinicians to improve detection and clinical management. A position paper from the Consensus Panel on Familial Hypercholesterolaemia of the European Atherosclerosis Society

    PubMed Central

    Cuchel, Marina; Bruckert, Eric; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Raal, Frederick J.; Santos, Raul D.; Hegele, Robert A.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Descamps, Olivier S.; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Watts, Gerald F.; Averna, Maurizio; Boileau, Catherine; Borén, Jan; Catapano, Alberico L.; Defesche, Joep C.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Humphries, Steve E.; Kovanen, Petri T.; Masana, Luis; Pajukanta, Päivi; Parhofer, Klaus G.; Ray, Kausik K.; Stalenhoef, Anton F. H.; Stroes, Erik; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Wiegman, Albert; Wiklund, Olov; Chapman, M. John; Cuchel, Marina; Bruckert, Eric; Chapman, M. John; Descamps, Olivier S.; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Hegele, Robert A.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Raal, Frederick J.; Santos, Raul D.; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Watts, Gerald F.; Chapman, M. John; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Averna, Maurizio; Boileau, Catherine; Borén, Jan; Catapano, Alberico L.; Defesche, Joep C.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Humphries, Steve E.; Kovanen, Petri T.; Masana, Luis; Pajukanta, Päivi; Parhofer, Klaus G.; Ray, Kausik K.; Stalenhoef, Anton F. H.; Stroes, Erik; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Wiegman, Albert; Wiklund, Olov

    2014-01-01

    Aims Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH) is a rare life-threatening condition characterized by markedly elevated circulating levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and accelerated, premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD). Given recent insights into the heterogeneity of genetic defects and clinical phenotype of HoFH, and the availability of new therapeutic options, this Consensus Panel on Familial Hypercholesterolaemia of the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) critically reviewed available data with the aim of providing clinical guidance for the recognition and management of HoFH. Methods and results Early diagnosis of HoFH and prompt initiation of diet and lipid-lowering therapy are critical. Genetic testing may provide a definitive diagnosis, but if unavailable, markedly elevated LDL-C levels together with cutaneous or tendon xanthomas before 10 years, or untreated elevated LDL-C levels consistent with heterozygous FH in both parents, are suggestive of HoFH. We recommend that patients with suspected HoFH are promptly referred to specialist centres for a comprehensive ACVD evaluation and clinical management. Lifestyle intervention and maximal statin therapy are the mainstays of treatment, ideally started in the first year of life or at an initial diagnosis, often with ezetimibe and other lipid-modifying therapy. As patients rarely achieve LDL-C targets, adjunctive lipoprotein apheresis is recommended where available, preferably started by age 5 and no later than 8 years. The number of therapeutic approaches has increased following approval of lomitapide and mipomersen for HoFH. Given the severity of ACVD, we recommend regular follow-up, including Doppler echocardiographic evaluation of the heart and aorta annually, stress testing and, if available, computed tomography coronary angiography every 5 years, or less if deemed necessary. Conclusion This EAS Consensus Panel highlights the need for early identification of Ho

  3. Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia: new insights and guidance for clinicians to improve detection and clinical management. A position paper from the Consensus Panel on Familial Hypercholesterolaemia of the European Atherosclerosis Society.

    PubMed

    Cuchel, Marina; Bruckert, Eric; Ginsberg, Henry N; Raal, Frederick J; Santos, Raul D; Hegele, Robert A; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Descamps, Olivier S; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Watts, Gerald F; Averna, Maurizio; Boileau, Catherine; Borén, Jan; Catapano, Alberico L; Defesche, Joep C; Hovingh, G Kees; Humphries, Steve E; Kovanen, Petri T; Masana, Luis; Pajukanta, Päivi; Parhofer, Klaus G; Ray, Kausik K; Stalenhoef, Anton F H; Stroes, Erik; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Wiegman, Albert; Wiklund, Olov; Chapman, M John

    2014-08-21

    Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH) is a rare life-threatening condition characterized by markedly elevated circulating levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and accelerated, premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD). Given recent insights into the heterogeneity of genetic defects and clinical phenotype of HoFH, and the availability of new therapeutic options, this Consensus Panel on Familial Hypercholesterolaemia of the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) critically reviewed available data with the aim of providing clinical guidance for the recognition and management of HoFH. Early diagnosis of HoFH and prompt initiation of diet and lipid-lowering therapy are critical. Genetic testing may provide a definitive diagnosis, but if unavailable, markedly elevated LDL-C levels together with cutaneous or tendon xanthomas before 10 years, or untreated elevated LDL-C levels consistent with heterozygous FH in both parents, are suggestive of HoFH. We recommend that patients with suspected HoFH are promptly referred to specialist centres for a comprehensive ACVD evaluation and clinical management. Lifestyle intervention and maximal statin therapy are the mainstays of treatment, ideally started in the first year of life or at an initial diagnosis, often with ezetimibe and other lipid-modifying therapy. As patients rarely achieve LDL-C targets, adjunctive lipoprotein apheresis is recommended where available, preferably started by age 5 and no later than 8 years. The number of therapeutic approaches has increased following approval of lomitapide and mipomersen for HoFH. Given the severity of ACVD, we recommend regular follow-up, including Doppler echocardiographic evaluation of the heart and aorta annually, stress testing and, if available, computed tomography coronary angiography every 5 years, or less if deemed necessary. This EAS Consensus Panel highlights the need for early identification of HoFH patients, prompt referral to

  4. Clinical experience of scoring criteria for Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (FH) genetic testing in Wales.

    PubMed

    Haralambos, K; Whatley, S D; Edwards, R; Gingell, R; Townsend, D; Ashfield-Watt, P; Lansberg, P; Datta, D B N; McDowell, I F W

    2015-05-01

    Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is caused by mutations in genes of the Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) receptor pathway. A definitive diagnosis of FH can be made by the demonstration of a pathogenic mutation. The Wales FH service has developed scoring criteria to guide selection of patients for DNA testing, for those referred to clinics with hypercholesterolaemia. The criteria are based on a modification of the Dutch Lipid Clinic scoring criteria and utilise a combination of lipid values, physical signs, personal and family history of premature cardiovascular disease. They are intended to provide clinical guidance and enable resources to be targeted in a cost effective manner. 623 patients who presented to lipid clinics across Wales had DNA testing following application of these criteria. The proportion of patients with a pathogenic mutation ranged from 4% in those scoring 5 or less up to 85% in those scoring 15 or more. LDL-cholesterol was the strongest discriminatory factor. Scores gained from physical signs, family history, coronary heart disease, and triglycerides also showed a gradient in mutation pick-up rate according to the score. These criteria provide a useful tool to guide selection of patients for DNA testing when applied by health professionals who have clinical experience of FH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Common founder mutation in the LDL receptor gene causing familial hypercholesterolaemia in the Icelandic population.

    PubMed

    Gudnason, V; Sigurdsson, G; Nissen, H; Humphries, S E

    1997-01-01

    Haplotype analysis in 18 apparently unrelated families with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) in Iceland has identified at least five different chromosomes cosegregating with hypercholesterolaemia. The most common haplotype was identified in 11 of the 18 families, indicating a responsible for FH in the Icelandic population. By using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and direct sequencing of amplified DNA, we identified a novel mutation (a T to a C) in the second nucleotide in the 5' part of intron 4 in the LDL receptor gene. This mutation was present in approximately 60% of the FH families (10/18), supporting the prediction of a common founder. These families could be traced to a common ancestor in half of the cases by going back no further than the eighteenth century. The mutation was predicted to affect correct splicing of exon 4, and analysis at the cellular level demonstrated an abnormal mRNA containing intron 4 sequence in lymphoblastoid cells from a patient carrying this mutation. Translation of the mRNA would lead to a premature stop codon and a truncated nonfunctional protein of 285 amino acids. The novel sequence change created a new restriction site for the restriction endonuclease NlaIII, and using this assay, 29 unrelated individuals with possible FH attending a lipid clinic for treatment were examined for this mutation. Two individuals in this group of patients were found to be carriers of this mutation, supporting the suggestion of a founder mutation. Using this assay for the detection of FH in the Icelandic population should identify > 60% of these individuals.

  6. Pooling and expanding registries of familial hypercholesterolaemia to assess gaps in care and improve disease management and outcomes: Rationale and design of the global EAS Familial Hypercholesterolaemia Studies Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Vallejo-Vaz, Antonio J; Akram, Asif; Kondapally Seshasai, Sreenivasa Rao; Cole, Della; Watts, Gerald F; Hovingh, G Kees; Kastelein, John J P; Mata, Pedro; Raal, Frederick J; Santos, Raul D; Soran, Handrean; Freiberger, Tomas; Abifadel, Marianne; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Alnouri, Fahad; Alonso, Rodrigo; Al-Rasadi, Khalid; Banach, Maciej; Bogsrud, Martin P; Bourbon, Mafalda; Bruckert, Eric; Car, Josip; Ceska, Richard; Corral, Pablo; Descamps, Olivier; Dieplinger, Hans; Do, Can T; Durst, Ronen; Ezhov, Marat V; Fras, Zlatko; Gaita, Dan; Gaspar, Isabel M; Genest, Jaques; Harada-Shiba, Mariko; Jiang, Lixin; Kayikcioglu, Meral; Lam, Carolyn S P; Latkovskis, Gustavs; Laufs, Ulrich; Liberopoulos, Evangelos; Lin, Jie; Lin, Nan; Maher, Vincent; Majano, Nelson; Marais, A David; März, Winfried; Mirrakhimov, Erkin; Miserez, André R; Mitchenko, Olena; Nawawi, Hapizah; Nilsson, Lennart; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Paragh, György; Petrulioniene, Zaneta; Pojskic, Belma; Reiner, Željko; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Santos, Lourdes E; Schunkert, Heribert; Shehab, Abdullah; Slimane, M Naceur; Stoll, Mario; Su, Ta-Chen; Susekov, Andrey; Tilney, Myra; Tomlinson, Brian; Tselepis, Alexandros D; Vohnout, Branislav; Widén, Elisabeth; Yamashita, Shizuya; Catapano, Alberico L; Ray, Kausik K

    2016-12-01

    The potential for global collaborations to better inform public health policy regarding major non-communicable diseases has been successfully demonstrated by several large-scale international consortia. However, the true public health impact of familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), a common genetic disorder associated with premature cardiovascular disease, is yet to be reliably ascertained using similar approaches. The European Atherosclerosis Society FH Studies Collaboration (EAS FHSC) is a new initiative of international stakeholders which will help establish a global FH registry to generate large-scale, robust data on the burden of FH worldwide. The EAS FHSC will maximise the potential exploitation of currently available and future FH data (retrospective and prospective) by bringing together regional/national/international data sources with access to individuals with a clinical and/or genetic diagnosis of heterozygous or homozygous FH. A novel bespoke electronic platform and FH Data Warehouse will be developed to allow secure data sharing, validation, cleaning, pooling, harmonisation and analysis irrespective of the source or format. Standard statistical procedures will allow us to investigate cross-sectional associations, patterns of real-world practice, trends over time, and analyse risk and outcomes (e.g. cardiovascular outcomes, all-cause death), accounting for potential confounders and subgroup effects. The EAS FHSC represents an excellent opportunity to integrate individual efforts across the world to tackle the global burden of FH. The information garnered from the registry will help reduce gaps in knowledge, inform best practices, assist in clinical trials design, support clinical guidelines and policies development, and ultimately improve the care of FH patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolaemia by targeted next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Maglio, C; Mancina, R M; Motta, B M; Stef, M; Pirazzi, C; Palacios, L; Askaryar, N; Borén, J; Wiklund, O; Romeo, S

    2014-01-01

    Maglio C., Mancina R. M., Motta B. M., Stef M., Pirazzi C., Palacios L., Askaryar N., Borén J., Wiklund O., Romeo S. (University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; University Magna Graecia of Catanzaro, Italy; University of Milan, Italy; Progenika Biopharma SA, Derio, Spain). Genetic diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolaemia by targeted next-generation sequencing. Objectives The aim of this study was to combine clinical criteria and next-generation sequencing (pyrosequencing) to establish a diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). Design, setting and subjects A total of 77 subjects with a Dutch Lipid Clinic Network score of ≥3 (possible, probable or definite FH clinical diagnosis) were recruited from the Lipid Clinic at Sahlgrenska Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden. Next-generation sequencing was performed in all subjects using SEQPRO LIPO RS, a kit that detects mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), apolipoprotein B (APOB), proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and LDLR adapter protein 1 (LDLRAP1) genes; copy-number variations in the LDLR gene were also examined. Results A total of 26 mutations were detected in 50 subjects (65% success rate). Amongst these, 23 mutations were in the LDLR gene, two in the APOB gene and one in the PCSK9 gene. Four mutations with unknown pathogenicity were detected in LDLR. Of these, three mutations (Gly505Asp, Ile585Thr and Gln660Arg) have been previously reported in subjects with FH, but their pathogenicity has not been proved. The fourth, a mutation in LDLR affecting a splicing site (exon 6–intron 6) has not previously been reported; it was found to segregate with high cholesterol levels in the family of the proband. Conclusions Using a combination of clinical criteria and targeted next-generation sequencing, we have achieved FH diagnosis with a high success rate. Furthermore, we identified a new splicing-site mutation in the LDLR gene. PMID:24785115

  8. Panvascular Disease in Familial Hypercholesterolaemia Treated with Endovascular Simultaneous Bilateral Carotid Stenting.

    PubMed

    Alurkar, Anand; Karanam, Lakshmi Sudha Prasanna; Shah, Shripal; Mare, Pandurang

    2016-10-01

    Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a monogenic autosomal dominant disorder affecting 1 in 500 individuals. We report a case of 32-year-old female with FH, previously not on any treatment, who presented with recurrent bilateral Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA) territory strokes and dyspnoea on exertion due to severe panvascualar disease involving descending aorta, innominate, subclavian, common carotid, internal carotid and coronary vessels. Her complete clinical work up was done and was started on lipid lowering drug treatment and low calorie diet. She underwent simultaneous bilateral carotid stenting followed by coronary artery bypass surgery at a later date. In the present scenario we want to emphasize the importance of early detection and treatment of individuals with FH, failing of which results in premature and accelerated atherosclerosis causing multisystemic vascular disease with significant morbidity and mortality. Screening of first degree relatives is important owing to the autosomal dominant inheritance pattern of the FH.

  9. Panvascular Disease in Familial Hypercholesterolaemia Treated with Endovascular Simultaneous Bilateral Carotid Stenting

    PubMed Central

    Alurkar, Anand; Shah, Shripal; Mare, Pandurang

    2016-01-01

    Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a monogenic autosomal dominant disorder affecting 1 in 500 individuals. We report a case of 32-year-old female with FH, previously not on any treatment, who presented with recurrent bilateral Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA) territory strokes and dyspnoea on exertion due to severe panvascualar disease involving descending aorta, innominate, subclavian, common carotid, internal carotid and coronary vessels. Her complete clinical work up was done and was started on lipid lowering drug treatment and low calorie diet. She underwent simultaneous bilateral carotid stenting followed by coronary artery bypass surgery at a later date. In the present scenario we want to emphasize the importance of early detection and treatment of individuals with FH, failing of which results in premature and accelerated atherosclerosis causing multisystemic vascular disease with significant morbidity and mortality. Screening of first degree relatives is important owing to the autosomal dominant inheritance pattern of the FH. PMID:27891422

  10. A framework for bridging the gap in the care of familial hypercholesterolaemia in the community: pragmatic and economic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Purchase, Sharon; Vickery, Alistair; Garton-Smith, Jacquie; O'Leary, Peter; Sullivan, David; Slattery, Mark; Playford, David; Watts, Gerald

    2014-12-01

    To analyze various business models for improving the diagnosis and treatment of familial hypercholesterolaemia. Five different strategies were analyzed and data were collected through documentary analysis and structured interviews. Interviewees included professionals from universities, Western Australia Department of Health, private medical practitioners and not-for-profit organizations. Two business models are recommended: alliance with general practitioners and primary health care organizations and a joint venture model between private cardiology clinics and lipid disorder clinics in the public sector. Primary care providers are in a good position to co-ordinate across the multi-disciplinary health services required to treat familial hypercholesterolaemia within the population. Devolution of knowledge on treatment of familial hypercholesterolaemia from centralized specialist hospital clinics to primary care services is required to improve the rate of detection of this condition in the community. An International Classification of Disease (ICD)-10 and/or a Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG) code is required to codify, catalogue and document new cases and treatment, as well as to facilitate research and re-imbursement strategies. Primary Health Care Organizations can usefully facilitate the transfer of knowledge on best standard of care to general practice, but the best model of care will require close integration of care with specialist and academic centres.

  11. Selection of individuals for genetic testing for familial hypercholesterolaemia: development and external validation of a prediction model for the presence of a mutation causing familial hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Besseling, Joost; Reitsma, Johannes B; Gaudet, Daniel; Brisson, Diane; Kastelein, John J P; Hovingh, G Kees; Hutten, Barbara A

    2017-02-21

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disease that warrants early diagnosis to prevent premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, genetic testing to make a definite diagnosis is costly, and careful selection of eligible subjects is important. Unfortunately, accuracy of current diagnostic criteria is poor, especially in young individuals. We therefore developed and validated a model to predict the presence of an FH causing mutation in persons referred by general practitioners. All participants in the Dutch FH screening programme from 1994 to 2014 were included in the development cohort. The validation cohort consisted of consecutive patients, suspected for FH, attending the outpatient lipid clinic in Saguenay (Quebec) from 1993 to 2014. Cross-sectional data were available on medical history, lipid profile, and DNA analysis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used for model development. The primary outcome was the presence of a deleterious FH mutation. The development cohort comprised 26 167 FH patients and 37 939 unaffected relatives. Our final model included age; sex; levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides; history and age of CVD; use of statins; smoking; alcohol; and presence of hypertension. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 85.4% (95% CI: 85.0-85.9). The calibration slope was 1.02 (where 1.00 is optimal). In the validation cohort (1436 FH patients and 1767 unaffected persons), the AUC was 95.4% (95% CI: 94.7-96.1%) and the calibration slope 1.06. Our model showed good discrimination and calibration. We specifically expect our model to be of added value for young persons set against current diagnostic criteria, since LDL-C and age are now used as continuous predictors. The equation will be available as an online calculator to estimate the probability of the presence of an FH mutation in individual patients. This tool

  12. Heterozygous RTEL1 mutations are associated with familial pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Kannengiesser, Caroline; Borie, Raphael; Ménard, Christelle; Réocreux, Marion; Nitschké, Patrick; Gazal, Steven; Mal, Hervé; Taillé, Camille; Cadranel, Jacques; Nunes, Hilario; Valeyre, Dominique; Cordier, Jean François; Callebaut, Isabelle; Boileau, Catherine; Cottin, Vincent; Grandchamp, Bernard; Revy, Patrick; Crestani, Bruno

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a fatal disease with progressive loss of respiratory function. Defective telomere maintenance leading to telomere shortening is a cause of pulmonary fibrosis, as mutations in the telomerase component genes TERT (reverse transcriptase) and TERC (RNA component) are found in 15% of familial pulmonary fibrosis (FPF) cases. However, so far, about 85% of FPF remain genetically uncharacterised.Here, in order to identify new genetic causes of FPF, we performed whole-exome sequencing, with a candidate-gene approach, of 47 affected subjects from 35 families with FPF without TERT and TERC mutations.We identified heterozygous mutations in regulator of telomere elongation helicase 1 (RTEL1) in four families. RTEL1 is a DNA helicase with roles in DNA replication, genome stability, DNA repair and telomere maintenance. The heterozygous RTEL1 mutations segregated as an autosomal dominant trait in FPF, and were predicted by structural analyses to severely affect the function and/or stability of RTEL1. In agreement with this, RTEL1-mutated patients exhibited short telomeres in comparison with age-matched controls.Our results provide evidence that heterozygous RTEL1 mutations are responsible for FPF and, thereby, extend the clinical spectrum of RTEL1 deficiency. Thus, RTEL1 enlarges the number of telomere-associated genes implicated in FPF. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  13. Improving identification and management of familial hypercholesterolaemia in primary care: Pre- and post-intervention study.

    PubMed

    Weng, Stephen; Kai, Joe; Tranter, Jennifer; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Qureshi, Nadeem

    2018-04-30

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a major cause of premature heart disease but remains unrecognised in most patients. This study investigated if a systematic primary care-based approach to identify and manage possible FH improves recommended best clinical practice. Pre- and post-intervention study in six UK general practices (population 45,033), which invited patients with total cholesterol >7.5 mmol/L to be assessed for possible FH. Compliance with national guideline recommendations to identify and manage possible FH (repeat cholesterol; assess family history of heart disease; identify secondary causes and clinical features; reduce total & LDL-cholesterol; statin prescribing; lifestyle advice) was assessed by calculating the absolute difference in measures of care pre- and six months post-intervention. The intervention improved best clinical practice in 118 patients consenting to assessment (of 831 eligible patients): repeat cholesterol test (+75.4%, 95% CI 66.9-82.3); family history of heart disease assessed (+35.6%, 95% CI 27.0-44.2); diagnosis of secondary causes (+7.7%, 95% CI 4.1-13.9), examining clinical features (+6.0%, 95% CI 2.9-11.7). For 32 patients diagnosed with possible FH using Simon-Broome criteria, statin prescription significantly improved (18.8%, 95% CI 8.9-35.3), with non-significant mean reductions in cholesterol post-intervention (total: -0.16 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.78-0.46; LDL: -0.12 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.81-0.57). Within six months, this simple primary care intervention improved both identification and management of patients with possible FH, in line with national evidence-based guidelines. Replicating and sustaining this approach across the country could lead to substantial improvement in health outcomes for these individuals with very high cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: an underrecognized cause of early cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Yuan, George; Wang, Jian; Hegele, Robert A

    2006-04-11

    Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) is a monogenic disorder that affects about 1 in 500 people, with a higher prevalence in certain subpopulations such as people of Quebecois, Christian Lebanese and Dutch South Afrikaner extraction. HeFH is characterized by cholesterol deposits affecting the corneas, eyelids and extensor tendons; elevated plasma concentrations of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol; and accelerated vascular disease, especially coronary artery disease (CAD). Although HeFH is genetically heterogeneous, it is most often caused by heterozygous mutations in the LDLR gene encoding the LDL receptor. We describe a man who was diagnosed with HeFH after he had a myocardial infarction at 33 years of age. By DNA sequence analysis, he was found to have a heterozygous splicing mutation in his LDLR gene. This discovery expanded the growing mutational spectrum in patients with HeFH in Ontario. Given that HeFH is a treatable cause of early vascular disease, it is important that this condition be recognized, diagnosed and treated in affected patients; but as yet, there is no consensus on the best approach. Diagnostic criteria based on family history and clinical presentation have been proposed for patients with suspected HeFH. Biochemical or molecular screening might be considered to detect new cases of HeFH in populations with a relatively high HeFH prevalence and a relatively small number of possible causative mutations. So far, however, the most cost-effective and efficient systematic strategy to detect previously undiagnosed cases of HeFH is still cascade testing: clinical and biochemical screening of close relatives of the proband patient diagnosed with HeFH. Pharmacologic treatment of HeFH is cost-effective.

  15. Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: an underrecognized cause of early cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, George; Wang, Jian; Hegele, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) is a monogenic disorder that affects about 1 in 500 people, with a higher prevalence in certain subpopulations such as people of Quebecois, Christian Lebanese and Dutch South Afrikaner extraction. HeFH is characterized by cholesterol deposits affecting the corneas, eyelids and extensor tendons; elevated plasma concentrations of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol; and accelerated vascular disease, especially coronary artery disease (CAD). Although HeFH is genetically heterogeneous, it is most often caused by heterozygous mutations in the LDLR gene encoding the LDL receptor. We describe a man who was diagnosed with HeFH after he had a myocardial infarction at 33 years of age. By DNA sequence analysis, he was found to have a heterozygous splicing mutation in his LDLR gene. This discovery expanded the growing mutational spectrum in patients with HeFH in Ontario. Given that HeFH is a treatable cause of early vascular disease, it is important that this condition be recognized, diagnosed and treated in affected patients; but as yet, there is no consensus on the best approach. Diagnostic criteria based on family history and clinical presentation have been proposed for patients with suspected HeFH. Biochemical or molecular screening might be considered to detect new cases of HeFH in populations with a relatively high HeFH prevalence and a relatively small number of possible causative mutations. So far, however, the most cost-effective and efficient systematic strategy to detect previously undiagnosed cases of HeFH is still cascade testing: clinical and biochemical screening of close relatives of the proband patient diagnosed with HeFH. Pharmacologic treatment of HeFH is cost-effective. PMID:16606962

  16. Parent-child genetic testing for familial hypercholesterolaemia in an Australian context.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jing; Martin, Andrew C; Bates, Timothy R; Hooper, Amanda J; Bell, Damon A; Burnett, John R; Norman, Richard; Watts, Gerald F

    2018-04-06

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of parent-child testing for familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) employing genetic testing and the likely additional cost of treating each child. Parent-child testing for gene variants causative of FH was carried out according to Australian guidelines. The number of new cases detected, the low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol that best predicted a mutation and the proportional reduction in LDL-cholesterol following statin treatment was evaluated. Treatment costs were calculated as the cost per mmol/L reduction in LDL-cholesterol. A total of 126 adult patients, known to have a pathogenic mutation causative of FH, and their children were studied. From 244 children identified, 148 (60.7%) were genetically screened; 84 children were identified as mutative positive (M+) and 64 as mutative negative. Six of the M+ children were already on statin treatment; 40 were subsequently treated with low-dose statins, with LDL-cholesterol falling significantly by 38% (P < 0.001). The estimated cost per mmol/L reduction of LDL-cholesterol of a child receiving statins from ages 10 to 18 years is AU$1361, which can potentially be cost-effective. An LDL-cholesterol threshold of 3.5 mmol/L had a sensitivity of 92.8% and specificity of 96.6% for the detection of a mutation. Genetic testing of children of affected parents with FH is an effective means of detecting new cases of FH. Cascade testing can enable early statin therapy with significant reductions in LDL-cholesterol concentration. © 2018 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  17. Knowledge and Awareness of Familial Hypercholesterolaemia among Registered Medical Practitioners in Tamil Nadu: Are They Suboptimal?

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Shanthi; Pang, Jing; Watts, Gerald F

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is the most common monogenic disorder causing premature Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). However, the majority of people with FH are undiagnosed and under treated. Aim To determine awareness, knowledge and practices of registered medical practitioners regarding FH in India. Materials and Methods Physicians from a southern state of India (Tamil Nadu) who see the general cases were requested to complete a structured online survey questionnaire based on the outcomes on screening, diagnostic and service aspects of FH. Results A total of 133 physicians were surveyed, 27.9% perceived themselves to have above average familiarity with FH and 71.4% correctly described FH. 41.4% of physicians were unaware and unsure whether they had FH patients under their care. The awareness of specific aspects of FH were as follows: heritability 35.3%, prevalence 31.6%, typical lipid profile 34.6%, CVD relating to FH13.5%, genetic testing 33.1%, cascade screening 41.4%, preventive, management and referral services for FH 12.8%, 49.6% of them thought that the age for screening young people for FH should be 13 to 18 years. 84.2% selected GP’s as the most effective health care provider for the early detection and care of FH as being useful. 69.2% selected interpretive commenting on lipid profile to highlight patients at risk of FH. 91.7% and 19.5% of physicians identified statins as monotherapy and statin with ezetimibe as combination therapy for FH, respectively. Conclusion The study identified substantial deficit in the awareness and knowledge of FH among primary care physicians in Tamil Nadu. Extensive and continuous medical education programs are required to close the gap in coronary prevention. PMID:27437273

  18. Target achievement and cardiovascular event rates with Lomitapide in homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Blom, Dirk J; Cuchel, Marina; Ager, Miranda; Phillips, Helen

    2018-06-20

    Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH) is characterized by a markedly increased risk of premature cardiovascular (CV) events and cardiac death. Lomitapide reduces low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels; however, the probable impact on LDL-C goals and CV events is unknown. We used data collected in the first 26 weeks of the lomitapide pivotal phase 3 study (NCT00730236) to evaluate achievement of European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) LDL-C targets. We used publicly available data reporting major adverse CV events (MACE) rates from other cohorts of HoFH patients to compare event rates for an equivalent number of patient years of exposure (98) in the lomitapide extension trial (NCT00943306). Twenty-nine patients were included in the phase 3 study. During the first 26 weeks, 15 (51%) and eight (28%) reached LDL-C targets of 100 mg/dL and 70 mg/dL, respectively, at least once. Fourteen (74%) and 11 (58%) of the 19 patients who remained in the extension study after week 126 reached LDL-C targets of 100 mg/dL and 70 mg/dL at least once during the entire study period. Only two MACE were reported in the lomitapide trials (one cardiac death and one coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)) - equivalent to 1.7 events per 1000 patient months of treatment. MACE rates were 21.7, 9.5 and 1.8 per 1000 patient-months respectively in cohorts of HoFH patients pre- and post-mipomersen, and receiving evolocumab. On treatment LDL-C levels were 166, 331 and 286 mg/dL for lomitapide, mipomersen and evolocumab, respectively. Approximately three quarters and half of patients who took lomitapide for at least 2 years reached LDL-C goals of 100 mg/dL and 70 mg/dL, respectively. There were fewer major CV events per 1000 patient months of treatment in patients taking lomitapide, mipomersen or evolocumab than reported in the mipomersen cohort prior to starting mipomersen. These results support the hypothesis that novel lipid-lowering therapies may reduce CV events in

  19. Novel treatment options for the management of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Polychronopoulos, Georgios; Tziomalos, Konstantinos

    2017-12-01

    Even though statins represent the mainstay of treatment of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), their low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering efficacy is finite and most patients with FH will not achieve LDL-C targets with statin monotherapy. Addition of ezetimibe with or without bile acid sequestrants will also not lead to treatment goals in many of these patients, particularly in those with established cardiovascular disease. In this selected subgroup of the FH population, proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors provide substantial reductions in LDL-C levels, reduce cardiovascular morbidity and appear to be safe. Mipomersen, an antisense single-strand oligonucleotide that inhibits the production of apoB by binding to the mRNA that encodes the synthesis of apoB, and lomitapide, an inhibitor of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, also reduce LDL-C levels but are currently indicated only for the management of homozygous FH. Areas covered: In the present review, the role of PCSK9 inhibitors, mipomersen and lomitapide in the management of FH is briefly discussed. Other LDL-C-lowering agents under evaluation include inclisiran, a small interference RNA molecule that induces long-term inhibition of PSCK9 synthesis, anacetrapib, a cholesterol ester-transfer protein inhibitor, ETC-1002 (bempedoic acid), an inhibitor of adenosine triphosphate citrate lyase, and gemcabene, which reduces hepatic apolipoprotein C-III mRNA. The safety and efficacy of these agents are also reviewed. Expert Commentary: Even though several novel treatment options for heterozygous FH are under development, it remains to be shown whether these treatments will also reduce cardiovascular morbidity in these high-risk patients.

  20. Stress testing response in women heterozygous for familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Damaskos, Dimitris S; Anagnostopoulou, Katherine K; Salpea, Klelia D; Dritsas, Athanasios; Giannakopoulou, Vasiliki; Vasiliadis, Ioannis K; Cokkinos, Dennis V

    2007-10-31

    We evaluated 62 exercise treadmill tests (ETTs) in equal numbers of heterozygous for familial hypercholesterolemia (hFH) and healthy (HLY) women, matched for age, baseline systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) and baseline heart rate (HR), using the Bruce protocol. Both groups had similar rate pressure product (RPP) and workload in metabolic equivalents (METs) (27,563+/-3124 vs. 29,090+/-4077, p=0.103 and 11.2+/-1.7 vs. 11.5+/-1.8, p=0.473, respectively). Women with hFH had lower delta (difference of peak to baseline) and peak exercise systolic and diastolic BP (systolic: 48+/-12 vs. 58+/-17 mmHg, p=0.010 and 167+/-19 vs. 177+/-17 mmHg, p=0.042, respectively; diastolic: 11+/-7 vs. 15+/-7 mmHg, p=0.028 and 85+/-7 vs. 91+/-7 mmHg, p<0.001, respectively). Furthermore, women with hFH had higher delta percentage (%) of HR, compared to HLY; (106+/-25 vs. 95+/-20, p=0.047). In conclusion, hFH women possibly have an inadequate rise in systolic BP during ETT. Diastolic BP increased more in the HLY than in the hFH group, but still remained within normal limits. These findings may reflect preclinical changes of atherosclerosis in hFH women, however further research should be undertaken.

  1. Reduced contribution of endothelin to the regulation of systemic and pulmonary vascular tone in severe familial hypercholesterolaemia

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Shawn B; de Beer, Vincent J; Tharp, Darla L; van Deel, Elza D; Bowles, Douglas K; Duncker, Dirk J; Laughlin, M Harold; Merkus, Daphne

    2014-01-01

    Vascular dysfunction has been associated with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), a severe form of hyperlipidaemia. We recently demonstrated that swine with FH exhibit reduced exercise-induced systemic, but not pulmonary, vasodilatation involving reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Since NO normally limits endothelin (ET) action, we examined the hypothesis that reduced systemic vasodilatation during exercise in FH swine results from increased ET-mediated vasoconstriction. Systemic and pulmonary vascular responses to exercise were examined in chronically instrumented normal and FH swine in the absence and presence of the ETA/B receptor antagonist tezosentan. Intrinsic reactivity to ET was further assessed in skeletal muscle arterioles. FH swine exhibited ∼9-fold elevation in total plasma cholesterol versus normal swine. Similar to our recent findings, systemic, not pulmonary, vasodilatation during exercise was reduced in FH swine. Blockade of ET receptors caused marked systemic vasodilatation at rest and during exercise in normal swine that was significantly reduced in FH swine. The reduced role of ET in FH swine in vivo was not the result of decreased arteriolar ET responsiveness, as responsiveness was increased in isolated arterioles. Smooth muscle ET receptor protein content was unaltered by FH. However, circulating plasma ET levels were reduced in FH swine. ET receptor antagonism caused pulmonary vasodilatation at rest and during exercise in normal, but not FH, swine. Therefore, contrary to our hypothesis, FH swine exhibit a generalised reduction in the role of ET in regulating vascular tone in vivo probably resulting from reduced ET production. This may represent a unique vascular consequence of severe familial hypercholesterolaemia. PMID:24421352

  2. Improved access to life insurance after genetic diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolaemia: cross-sectional postal questionnaire study

    PubMed Central

    Huijgen, Roeland; Homsma, Sietske JM; Hutten, Barbara A; Kindt, Iris; Vissers, Maud N; Kastelein, John JP; van Rijckevorsel, Jan LA

    2012-01-01

    A decade ago, in the initial stage of genetic testing for familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) in The Netherlands, it was reported that such screening decreased access to affordable life insurance for mutation carriers. In 2003, in order to improve access to insurance for FH mutation carriers, insurers agreed to underwrite according to a set of guidelines. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed whether access to insurance has improved since the advent of these guidelines. We approached 2825 subjects that had participated in the genetic testing for FH between 1998 and 2003. We compared unconditional acceptance rates before and after FH diagnosis and before and after the guidelines were issued by means of logistic regression analysis. Our study outcome pertains to 414 FH patients who applied for life insurance. Unconditional acceptance of a policy before DNA diagnosis and before the issue of guidelines occurred in 182 out of 255 (71%) cases, versus 27 out of 35 (77%) cases after DNA diagnosis, but before the issue of guidelines. De facto, 107 out of 124 (86%) patients received unconditional acceptance after DNA diagnosis and after the issue of guidelines (P for trend=0.002). Access to life insurance improved for FH patients after molecular diagnosis and it improved even further after the guidelines were issued. Therefore, we argue that limited access to life insurance on the basis of ‘DNA discrimination' is no longer a valid argument against genetic cascade testing for FH, at least not in our country. PMID:22293687

  3. Strategies to reduce line infections in a small child with homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia who cannot yet receive LDL apheresis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Misan; Barr, Janet; Kribs, Stewart; Filler, Guido

    2017-09-01

    Patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia are optimally treated with low-density lipoprotein apheresis. Young patients who do not meet a weight threshold (25 kg) receive regular plasmapheresis. This approach may remove excessive immunoglobulins and vascular access set-up can be challenging. We report the case of a 4 year-old child who exhibited repeated septic infections (5 in 6 months) and had recurrent access issues before two interventions were implemented: (1) the percutaneous central venous line was modified to two implanted paediatric ports, and (2) the patient started receiving two bags of Octaplasma at the end of each plasmapheresis treatment to account for the excessive loss of immunoglobulins. For the paediatric plasmapheresis access port, a 19-gauge Huber needle had to be used for the arterial port to prevent the collapse of the extension. These two simple changes have left the patient infection-free for 9 months. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Daily life, experience and needs of persons suffering from homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia: insights from a patient survey.

    PubMed

    Bruckert, Eric; Saheb, Samir; Bonté, Juliette Roth; Coudray-Omnès, Carole

    2014-09-01

    Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH) is a rare and severe hereditary lipid disorder that is typically associated with high serum levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Excessive exposure to high levels of LDL-C puts affected individuals at very high risk of premature onset coronary heart disease, and this considerably limits life expectancy. Although the clinical features and treatment of HoFH have been extensively researched, societal and socio-psychological impacts of the disease have not been reported to date. The current study was conducted to investigate the burden of disease and treatment from the patient's perspective by means of semi-structured interviews with 24 HoFH patients. The findings of the survey indicate that HoFH represents a considerable burden for patients, not only due to physical signs and limitations caused by the disease but also a number of psychosocial factors, treatment-related issues and impact on their education and employment situation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Diagnostic performance of various familial hypercholesterolaemia diagnostic criteria compared to Dutch lipid clinic criteria in an Asian population.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Razak, Suraya; Rahmat, Radzi; Mohd Kasim, Alicezah; Rahman, Thuhairah Abdul; Muid, Suhaila; Nasir, Nadzimah Mohd; Ibrahim, Zubin; Kasim, Sazzli; Ismail, Zaliha; Abdul Ghani, Rohana; Sanusi, Abdul Rais; Rosman, Azhari; Nawawi, Hapizah

    2017-10-16

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a genetic disorder with a high risk of developing premature coronary artery disease that should be diagnosed as early as possible. Several clinical diagnostic criteria for FH are available, with the Dutch Lipid Clinic Criteria (DLCC) being widely used. Information regarding diagnostic performances of the other criteria against the DLCC is scarce. We aimed to examine the diagnostic performance of the Simon-Broom (SB) Register criteria, the US Make Early Diagnosis to Prevent Early Deaths (US MEDPED) and the Japanese FH Management Criteria (JFHMC) compared to the DLCC. Seven hundered fifty five individuals from specialist clinics and community health screenings with LDL-c level ≥ 4.0 mmol/L were selected and diagnosed as FH using the DLCC, the SB Register criteria, the US MEDPED and the JFHMC. The sensitivity, specificity, efficiency, positive and negative predictive values of individuals screened with the SB register criteria, US MEDPED and JFHMC were assessed against the DLCC. We found the SB register criteria identified more individuals with FH compared to the US MEDPED and the JFHMC (212 vs. 105 vs. 195; p < 0.001) when assessed against the DLCC. The SB Register criteria, the US MEDPED and the JFHMC had low sensitivity (51.1% vs. 25.3% vs. 47.0% respectively). The SB Register criteria showed better diagnostic performance than the other criteria with 98.8% specificity, 28.6% efficiency value, 98.1% and 62.3% for positive and negative predictive values respectively. The SB Register criteria appears to be more useful in identifying positive cases leading to genetic testing compared to the JFHMC and US MEDPED in this Asian population. However, further research looking into a suitable diagnosis criterion with high likelihood of positive genetic findings is required in the Asian population including in Malaysia.

  6. Lipoprotein profile assessed by 2D-1H-NMR and subclinical atherosclerosis in children with familial hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Borjabad, Cèlia; Ibarretxe, Daiana; Girona, Josefa; Ferré, Raimon; Feliu, Albert; Amigó, Núria; Guijarro, Eugenio; Masana, Luis; Plana, Núria

    2018-03-01

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is underdiagnosed in children. In addition to lipid concentrations, lipoprotein particle quantity and quality could influence cardiovascular risk. We aimed to perform a comprehensive plasma lipid study, including lipoprotein particle number and size assessment by two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-1H-NMR), in children with FH compared to non-affected children and to evaluate the clinical value of these factors as subclinical atherosclerosis biomarkers. One hundred eighty-three children participating in the broad "Hypercholesterolemia Early Detection Programme" (Decopin Project) were recruited. They were categorized as FH, if they had either a positive genetic test or clinical certainty, or as control children (CCh). Medical history, anthropometry and clinical variables were recorded. Standard biochemical measurements were performed. The lipoprotein profile was studied by 2D-1H-NMR. Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) was assessed by sonography in 177 children. FH children had a significant 36% increase in LDL particles. The small LDL fraction was increased by 33% compared to CCh. The relative relationship between large, medium and small LDL and the mean LDL particle size was similar between FH children and CCh. The total and small LDL particle numbers were directly associated with and contributed to the determination of the mean cIMT according to bivariate and multivariate analyses in FH children. The higher cholesterol levels of FH children are due to an overall increased number of all LDL particle subclasses, including a notable 33% increase in small LDL. Total and small LDL particle number shows a good correlation with cIMT in FH children. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of circulating miRNAs in patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia treated by LDL/Lp(a) apheresis.

    PubMed

    Dlouha, Dana; Blaha, Milan; Blaha, Vladimir; Fatorova, Ilona; Hubacek, Jaroslav A; Stavek, Petr; Lanska, Vera; Parikova, Alena; Pitha, Jan

    2017-11-01

    LDL/Lp(a) apheresis therapy is a well-established method of aggressively lowering LDL and Lp(a). Recently, miRNAs have been discussed as markers of vascular status including atherosclerosis. MiRNAs inhibit post-transcriptional processes through RNA duplex formation resulting in gene silencing or regulation of gene expression. We measured a profile of 175 plasma-circulating miRNAs using pre-defined Serum/Plasma Focus Human microRNA PCR Panels in pooled samples of 11 subjects with familial hypercholesterolaemia under long-term apheresis treatment. Subsequently we analysed expressions of ten pre-selected miRNAs potentially involved in lipid homeostasis in the same group of subjects. We compared plasma-circulating miRNA levels isolated from peripheral blood collected immediately before and after apheresis. The greatest differences in plasma levels were found in miR-451a, miR-16, miR-19a/b, miR-223 and miR-185. In subsequent individual miRNA assay we detected a significant increase in miR-33b levels after apheresis (P < 0.05). Additionally, correlations between plasma lipids and miR-33a (P < 0.04) and miR-122 (P < 0.01) have been determined. Moreover, miR-122 levels in LDLR homozygotes were higher compared to heterozygotes after, but not before, apheresis treatment (P < 0.04). LDL/Lp(a) apheresis has an impact on miRNAs associated with lipid homeostasis and vascular status. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Emerging Treatments for Heterozygous and Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Baum, Seth J; Soffer, Daniel; Barton Duell, P

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal co-dominant disorder marked by extremely high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and concomitant premature vascular disease. FH is caused by mutations that most commonly affect three genes integrally involved in the LDL receptor's ability to clear LDL particles from the circulation. Primary intervention efforts to lower LDL cholesterol have centered on therapies that upregulate the LDL receptor. Unfortunately, most patients are insufficiently responsive to traditional LDL-lowering medications. This article focuses primarily on the clinical management of homozygous FH.

  9. Analysis of the Afrikaner mutation in exon 9 of the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene in a large Dutch kindred suffering from familial hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Defesche, J C; Lansberg, P J; Reymer, P W; Lamping, R J; Kastelein, J J

    1993-02-01

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is the most common genetic metabolic disorder, affecting about 1 in 500 persons in the general population. With novel techniques, it is possible to identify the molecular defects underlying FH in the gene coding for the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, thereby confirming the diagnosis of FH. In this study we present a large family with a specific mutation in exon 9 of the LDL-receptor gene (an Afrikaner mutation) and we demonstrate that by a large-scale case-finding study in this family, carriers of such a mutation can be detected. Of 63 family members, 13 were shown to be at risk for cardiovascular disease as judged by their lipoprotein profile or the presence of the Afrikaner mutation. Two persons were detected, affected with a dyslipidaemia other than FH. Medical management was initiated in order to reduce the high cardiovascular risk associated with this disorder.

  10. Design of the Familial Hypercholesterolaemia Australasia Network Registry: Creating Opportunities for Greater International Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Bellgard, Matthew I; Walker, Caroline E; Napier, Kathryn R; Lamont, Leanne; Hunter, Adam A; Render, Lee; Radochonski, Maciej; Pang, Jing; Pedrotti, Annette; Sullivan, David R; Kostner, Karam; Bishop, Warrick; George, Peter M; O'Brien, Richard C; Clifton, Peter M; Bockxmeer, Frank M Van; Nicholls, Stephen J; Hamilton-Craig, Ian; Dawkins, Hugh Js; Watts, Gerald F

    2017-10-01

    Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) is the most common and serious monogenic disorder of lipoprotein metabolism that leads to premature coronary heart disease. There are over 65,000 people estimated to have FH in Australia, but many remain undiagnosed. Patients with FH are often under-treated, but with early detection, cascade family testing and adequate treatment, patient outcomes can improve. Patient registries are key tools for providing new information on FH and enhancing care worldwide. The development and design of the FH Australasia Network Registry is a crucial component in the comprehensive model of care for FH, which aims to provide a standardized, high-quality and cost-effective system of care that is likely to have the highest impact on patient outcomes. Informed by stakeholder engagement, the FH Australasia Network Registry was collaboratively developed by government, patient and clinical networks and research groups. The open-source, web-based Rare Disease Registry Framework was the architecture chosen for this registry owing to its open-source standards, modular design, interoperability, scalability and security features; all these are key components required to meet the ever changing clinical demands across regions. This paper provides a high level blueprint for other countries and jurisdictions to help inform and map out the critical features of an FH registry to meet their particular health system needs.

  11. Use of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol gene score to distinguish patients with polygenic and monogenic familial hypercholesterolaemia: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Talmud, Philippa J; Shah, Sonia; Whittall, Ros; Futema, Marta; Howard, Philip; Cooper, Jackie A; Harrison, Seamus C; Li, Kawah; Drenos, Fotios; Karpe, Frederik; Neil, H Andrew W; Descamps, Olivier S; Langenberg, Claudia; Lench, Nicholas; Kivimaki, Mika; Whittaker, John; Hingorani, Aroon D; Kumari, Meena; Humphries, Steve E

    2013-04-13

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia is a common autosomal-dominant disorder caused by mutations in three known genes. DNA-based cascade testing is recommended by UK guidelines to identify affected relatives; however, about 60% of patients are mutation-negative. We assessed the hypothesis that familial hypercholesterolaemia can also be caused by an accumulation of common small-effect LDL-C-raising alleles. In November, 2011, we assembled a sample of patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia from three UK-based sources and compared them with a healthy control sample from the UK Whitehall II (WHII) study. We also studied patients from a Belgian lipid clinic (Hôpital de Jolimont, Haine St-Paul, Belgium) for validation analyses. We genotyped participants for 12 common LDL-C-raising alleles identified by the Global Lipid Genetics Consortium and constructed a weighted LDL-C-raising gene score. We compared the gene score distribution among patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia with no confirmed mutation, those with an identified mutation, and controls from WHII. We recruited 321 mutation-negative UK patients (451 Belgian), 319 mutation-positive UK patients (273 Belgian), and 3020 controls from WHII. The mean weighted LDL-C gene score of the WHII participants (0.90 [SD 0.23]) was strongly associated with LDL-C concentration (p=1.4 x 10(-77); R(2)=0.11). Mutation-negative UK patients had a significantly higher mean weighted LDL-C score (1.0 [SD 0.21]) than did WHII controls (p=4.5 x 10(-16)), as did the mutation-negative Belgian patients (0.99 [0.19]; p=5.2 x 10(-20)). The score was also higher in UK (0.95 [0.20]; p=1.6 x 10(-5)) and Belgian (0.92 [0.20]; p=0.04) mutation-positive patients than in WHII controls. 167 (52%) of 321 mutation-negative UK patients had a score within the top three deciles of the WHII weighted LDL-C gene score distribution, and only 35 (11%) fell within the lowest three deciles. In a substantial proportion of patients with

  12. Measurement of intima-media thickness of common carotid arteries using ultrasound in patients with familial and non-familial hypercholesterolaemia and correlation of intima-media thickness to obesity.

    PubMed

    Nafikudin, M; Nawawi, H; Muid, S; Annuar, R; Yusoff, K; Khalid, B A

    2003-12-01

    Ultrasonographic measurements of the intima-media thickness (IMT) of common carotid arteries (CCA) were taken in 50 patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) and 57 patients with non-familial hypercholesterolemia (NFH). The lipid profile, body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) of each patient were recorded. In FH patients, the IMT was significantly higher in overweight and elevated WHR subgroups compared to the normal with significant correlations between BMI and WHR to the IMT. In NFH patients, the IMT was significantly higher in the elevated WHR compared to the normal subgroup but the correlations between either BMI or WHR to IMT were insignificant. These suggest that the environmentally modified anthropometric indices may have an effect on atherosclerosis in genetically determined hypercholesterolaemia in FH patients.

  13. Improving detection of familial hypercholesterolaemia in primary care using electronic audit and nurse-led clinics.

    PubMed

    Green, Peter; Neely, Dermot; Humphries, Steve E

    2016-06-01

    In the UK fewer than 15% of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) cases are diagnosed, representing a major gap in coronary heart disease prevention. We wished to support primary care doctors within the Medway Clinical Commissioning Group (CCG) to implement NICE guidance (CG71) and consider the possibility of FH in adults who have raised total cholesterol concentrations, thereby improving the detection of people with FH. Utilizing clinical decision support software (Audit+) we developed an FH Audit Tool and implemented a systematic audit of electronic medical records within GP practices, first identifying all patients diagnosed with FH or possible FH and next electronically flagging patients with a recorded total cholesterol of >7.5 mmol L(-1) or LDL-C > 4.9 mmol L(-1) (in adults), for further assessment. After a 2-year period, a nurse-led clinic was introduced to screen more intensely for new FH index cases. We evaluated if these interventions increased the prevalence of FH closer to the expected prevalence from epidemiological studies. The baseline prevalence of FH within Medway CCG was 0.13% (1 in 750 persons). After 2 years, the recorded prevalence of diagnosed FH increased by 0.09% to 0.22% (1 in 450 persons). The nurse advisor programme ran for 9 months (October 2013-July 2014) and during this time, the recorded prevalence of patients diagnosed with FH increased to 0.28% (1 in 357 persons) and the prevalence of patients 'at risk and unscreened' reduced from 0.58% to 0.14%. Our study shows that two simple interventions increased the detection of FH. This systematic yet simple electronic case-finding programme with nurse-led review allowed the identification of new index cases, more than doubling the recorded prevalence of detected disease to 1 in 357 (0.28%). This study shows that primary care has an important role in identifying patients with this condition. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice published by John Wiley

  14. Improving detection of familial hypercholesterolaemia in primary care using electronic audit and nurse‐led clinics

    PubMed Central

    Neely, Dermot; Humphries, Steve E.; Saunders, Tanya; Gray, Val; Gordon, Louise; Payne, Jules; Carter, Slade; Neuwirth, Clare; Rees, Alan; Gallagher, Hazel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rationale, aims and objectives In the UK fewer than 15% of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) cases are diagnosed, representing a major gap in coronary heart disease prevention. We wished to support primary care doctors within the Medway Clinical Commissioning Group (CCG) to implement NICE guidance (CG71) and consider the possibility of FH in adults who have raised total cholesterol concentrations, thereby improving the detection of people with FH. Methods Utilizing clinical decision support software (Audit+) we developed an FH Audit Tool and implemented a systematic audit of electronic medical records within GP practices, first identifying all patients diagnosed with FH or possible FH and next electronically flagging patients with a recorded total cholesterol of >7.5 mmol L−1 or LDL‐C > 4.9 mmol L−1 (in adults), for further assessment. After a 2‐year period, a nurse‐led clinic was introduced to screen more intensely for new FH index cases. We evaluated if these interventions increased the prevalence of FH closer to the expected prevalence from epidemiological studies. Results The baseline prevalence of FH within Medway CCG was 0.13% (1 in 750 persons). After 2 years, the recorded prevalence of diagnosed FH increased by 0.09% to 0.22% (1 in 450 persons). The nurse advisor programme ran for 9 months (October 2013–July 2014) and during this time, the recorded prevalence of patients diagnosed with FH increased to 0.28% (1 in 357 persons) and the prevalence of patients ‘at risk and unscreened’ reduced from 0.58% to 0.14%. Conclusions Our study shows that two simple interventions increased the detection of FH. This systematic yet simple electronic case‐finding programme with nurse‐led review allowed the identification of new index cases, more than doubling the recorded prevalence of detected disease to 1 in 357 (0.28%). This study shows that primary care has an important role in identifying patients with this condition. PMID

  15. Genetic diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolaemia: the importance of functional analysis of potential splice-site mutations.

    PubMed

    Bourbon, M; Duarte, M A; Alves, A C; Medeiros, A M; Marques, L; Soutar, A K

    2009-05-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) results from defective low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) activity, mainly due to LDLR gene defects. Of the many different LDLR mutations found in patients with FH, about 6% of single base substitutions are located near or within introns, and are predicted to result in exon skipping, retention of an intron, or activation of cryptic sites during mRNA splicing. This paper reports on the Portuguese FH Study, which found 10 such mutations, 6 of them novel. For the mutations that have not been described before or those whose effect on function have not been analysed, their effect on splicing was investigated, using reverse transcriptase PCR analysis of LDLR mRNA from freshly isolated blood mononuclear cells. Two of these variants (c.313+6 T-->C, c.2389G-->T (p.V776L)) caused exon skipping, and one caused retention of an intron (c.1359-5C-->G), whereas two others (c.2140+5 G-->A and c.1061-8T-->C) had no apparent effect. Any effect of c.1185G-->C (p.V374V) on splicing could not be determined because it was on an allele with a promoter mutation (-42C-->G) that was probably not transcribed. Variants in four patients lost to follow-up could not be tested experimentally, but they almost certainly affect splicing because they disrupt the invariant AG or GT in acceptor (c.818-2A-->G) or donor (c.1060+1G-->A, c.1845+1delG and c.2547+1G-->A) spice sites. These findings emphasise that care must be taken before reporting the presence or absence of a splice-site mutation in the LDLR gene for diagnostic purposes. The study also shows that relatively simple, quick and inexpensive RNA assays can evaluate putative splicing mutations that are not always predictable by available software, thereby reducing genetic misdiagnosis of patients with FH.

  16. Mipomersen, an apolipoprotein B synthesis inhibitor, for lowering of LDL cholesterol concentrations in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Raal, Frederick J; Santos, Raul D; Blom, Dirk J; Marais, A David; Charng, Min-Ji; Cromwell, William C; Lachmann, Robin H; Gaudet, Daniel; Tan, Ju L; Chasan-Taber, Scott; Tribble, Diane L; Flaim, Joann D; Crooke, Stanley T

    2010-03-20

    Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia is a rare genetic disorder in which both LDL-receptor alleles are defective, resulting in very high concentrations of LDL cholesterol in plasma and premature coronary artery disease. This study investigated whether an antisense inhibitor of apolipoprotein B synthesis, mipomersen, is effective and safe as an adjunctive agent to lower LDL cholesterol concentrations in patients with this disease. This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study was undertaken in nine lipid clinics in seven countries. Patients aged 12 years and older with clinical diagnosis or genetic confirmation of homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia, who were already receiving the maximum tolerated dose of a lipid-lowering drug, were randomly assigned to mipomersen 200 mg subcutaneously every week or placebo for 26 weeks. Randomisation was computer generated and stratified by weight (<50 kg vs >/=50 kg) in a centralised blocked randomisation, implemented with a computerised interactive voice response system. All clinical, medical, and pharmacy personnel, and patients were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was percentage change in LDL cholesterol concentration from baseline. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00607373. 34 patients were assigned to mipomersen and 17 to placebo; data for all patients were analysed. 45 patients completed the 26-week treatment period (28 mipomersen, 17 placebo). Mean concentrations of LDL cholesterol at baseline were 11.4 mmol/L (SD 3.6) in the mipomersen group and 10.4 mmol/L (3.7) in the placebo group. The mean percentage change in LDL cholesterol concentration was significantly greater with mipomersen (-24.7%, 95% CI -31.6 to -17.7) than with placebo (-3.3%, -12.1 to 5.5; p=0.0003). The most common adverse events were injection-site reactions (26 [76%] patients in mipomersen group vs four [24%] in placebo group). Four (12

  17. A Japanese family with nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism caused by a novel heterozygous thyrotropin receptor gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Akie; Morikawa, Shuntaro; Aoyagi, Hayato; Ishizu, Katsura; Tajima, Toshihiro

    2014-06-01

    Hyperthyroidism caused by activating mutations of the thyrotropin receptor gene (TSHR) is rare in the pediatric population. We found a Japanese family with hyperthyroidism without autoantibody. DNA sequence analysis of TSHR was undertaken in this family. The functional consequences for the Gs-adenylyl cyclase and Gq/11-phospholipase C signaling pathways and cell surface expression of receptors were determined in vitro using transiently transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells. We identified a heterozygous mutation (M453R) in exon 10 of TSHR. In this family, this mutation was found in all individuals who exhibited hyperthyroidism. The results showed that this mutation resulted in constitutive activation of the Gs-adenylyl cyclase system. However, this mutation also caused a reduction in the activation capacity of the Gq/11-phospholipase C pathway, compared with the wild type. We demonstrate that the M453R mutation is the cause of nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism.

  18. Novel USH2A compound heterozygous mutations cause RP/USH2 in a Chinese family.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaowen; Tang, Zhaohui; Li, Chang; Yang, Kangjuan; Gan, Guanqi; Zhang, Zibo; Liu, Jingyu; Jiang, Fagang; Wang, Qing; Liu, Mugen

    2010-03-17

    To identify the disease-causing gene in a four-generation Chinese family affected with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Linkage analysis was performed with a panel of microsatellite markers flanking the candidate genetic loci of RP. These loci included 38 known RP genes. The complete coding region and exon-intron boundaries of Usher syndrome 2A (USH2A) were sequenced with the proband DNA to screen the disease-causing gene mutation. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and direct DNA sequence analysis were done to demonstrate co-segregation of the USH2A mutations with the family disease. One hundred normal controls were used without the mutations. The disease-causing gene in this Chinese family was linked to the USH2A locus on chromosome 1q41. Direct DNA sequence analysis of USH2A identified two novel mutations in the patients: one missense mutation p.G1734R in exon 26 and a splice site mutation, IVS32+1G>A, which was found in the donor site of intron 32 of USH2A. Neither the p.G1734R nor the IVS32+1G>A mutation was found in the unaffected family members or the 100 normal controls. One patient with a homozygous mutation displayed only RP symptoms until now, while three patients with compound heterozygous mutations in the family of study showed both RP and hearing impairment. This study identified two novel mutations: p.G1734R and IVS32+1G>A of USH2A in a four-generation Chinese RP family. In this study, the heterozygous mutation and the homozygous mutation in USH2A may cause Usher syndrome Type II or RP, respectively. These two mutations expand the mutant spectrum of USH2A.

  19. Two middle-age-onset hemochromatosis patients with heterozygous mutations in the hemojuvelin gene in a Chinese family.

    PubMed

    Li, Shufeng; Xue, Jun; Chen, Baojun; Wang, Qiwei; Shi, Minke; Xie, Xiaojing; Zhang, Liang

    2014-04-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis is a disorder characterized by enhanced intestinal absorption of dietary iron. Here, we report a heterozygous genotype at two mutation sites in hemojuvelin (HJV) present in two brothers with middle-age-onset hemochromatosis in a Chinese family. To date, only homozygous or compound heterozygous states of HJV gene have been reported as associated with iron overload. However, the patients here were heterozygous for two mutations in one HJV allele in cis: a premature termination mutation (962G>A and 963C>A; C321X) and a mutation in the signal peptide (18G>C; Q6H). Previously unrecognized environmental or other genetic factors may have interacted with the heterozygous genotype in these patients.

  20. A new compound heterozygous CFTR mutation in a Chinese family with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yingjun; Huang, Xueqiong; Liang, Yujian; Xu, Lingling; Pei, Yuxin; Cheng, Yucai; Zhang, Lidan; Tang, Wen

    2017-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common autosomal recessive disease among Caucasians but is rarer in the Chinese population, because mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. To elucidate the causative role of a novel compound heterozygous mutation of CF. In this study, clinical samples were obtained from two siblings with recurrent airway infections, clubbed fingers, salt-sweat and failure to gain weight in a non-consanguineous Chinese family. Next-generation sequencing was performed on the 27 coding exons of CFTR in both children, with confirmation by Sanger sequencing. Next-generation sequencing showed the same compound heterozygous CFTR mutation (c.865A>T p.Arg289X and c.3651_3652insAAAT p.Tyr1219X) in both children. As this mutation is consistent with the clinical manifestations of CF and no other mutations were detected after scanning the gene sequence, we suggest that the CF phenotype is caused by compound heterozygosity for c.865A>T and c.3651_3652insAAAT. As c865A>T is not currently listed in the "Cystic Fibrosis Mutation Database", this information about CF in a Chinese population is of interest. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Molecular testing for familial hypercholesterolaemia-associated mutations in a UK-based cohort: development of an NGS-based method and comparison with multiplex polymerase chain reaction and oligonucleotide arrays.

    PubMed

    Reiman, Anne; Pandey, Sarojini; Lloyd, Kate L; Dyer, Nigel; Khan, Mike; Crockard, Martin; Latten, Mark J; Watson, Tracey L; Cree, Ian A; Grammatopoulos, Dimitris K

    2016-11-01

    Background Detection of disease-associated mutations in patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia is crucial for early interventions to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease. Screening for these mutations represents a methodological challenge since more than 1200 different causal mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor has been identified. A number of methodological approaches have been developed for screening by clinical diagnostic laboratories. Methods Using primers targeting, the low-density lipoprotein receptor, apolipoprotein B, and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, we developed a novel Ion Torrent-based targeted re-sequencing method. We validated this in a West Midlands-UK small cohort of 58 patients screened in parallel with other mutation-targeting methods, such as multiplex polymerase chain reaction (Elucigene FH20), oligonucleotide arrays (Randox familial hypercholesterolaemia array) or the Illumina next-generation sequencing platform. Results In this small cohort, the next-generation sequencing method achieved excellent analytical performance characteristics and showed 100% and 89% concordance with the Randox array and the Elucigene FH20 assay. Investigation of the discrepant results identified two cases of mutation misclassification of the Elucigene FH20 multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay. A number of novel mutations not previously reported were also identified by the next-generation sequencing method. Conclusions Ion Torrent-based next-generation sequencing can deliver a suitable alternative for the molecular investigation of familial hypercholesterolaemia patients, especially when comprehensive mutation screening for rare or unknown mutations is required.

  2. Circulating miR-33a and miR-33b are up-regulated in familial hypercholesterolaemia in paediatric age.

    PubMed

    Martino, Francesco; Carlomosti, Fabrizio; Avitabile, Daniele; Persico, Luca; Picozza, Mario; Barillà, Francesco; Arca, Marcello; Montali, Anna; Martino, Eliana; Zanoni, Cristina; Parrotto, Sandro; Magenta, Alessandra

    2015-12-01

    Hypercholesterolaemia is one of the major causes of CVD (cardiovascular disease). It is associated with enhanced oxidative stress, leading to increased lipid peroxidation which in turn determines endothelial dysfunction and susceptibility to coronary vasoconstriction and atherosclerosis. Different miRNAs are involved in the pathogenesis of CVD and play an important role in inflammatory process control, therefore, together with atherogenic factors, they can stimulate atherosclerotic degeneration of the vessel walls of arteries. miR-33a and miR-33b play a pivotal role in a variety of biological processes including cholesterol homoeostasis, HDL (high-density lipoprotein)-cholesterol formation, fatty acid oxidation and insulin signalling. Our study aimed to determine whether circulating miR-33a and miR-33b expression was altered in familial hypercholesterolaemic children. Total RNA was extracted from plasma, and miR-33a and miR-33b were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. We found that miR-33a and miR-33b were significantly up-regulated in the plasma of 28 hypercholesterolaemic children compared with 25 healthy subjects (4.49±0.27-fold increase, P<0.001, and 3.21±0.39-fold increase, P<0.05 respectively), and for both miRNAs, a positive correlation with total cholesterol, LDL (low-density lipoprotein)-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio, apolipoprotein B, CRP (C-reactive protein) and glycaemia was found. OLS (ordinary least squares) regression analysis revealed that miR-33a was significantly affected by the presence of FH (familial hypercholesterolaemia), glycaemia and CRP (P<0.001, P<0.05 and P<0.05 respectively). The same analysis showed that miR-33b was significantly related to FH and CRP (P<0.05 and P<0.05 respectively). Although it is only explorative, the present study could be the first to point to the use of miR-33a and miR-33b as early biomarkers for cholesterol levels in childhood, once validated in independent larger cohorts. © 2015

  3. Myocardial layer-specific analysis in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia using speckle tracking echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Leng, Zhaoting; Li, Rongjuan; Li, Yijia; Wang, Lvya; Wang, Yueli; Yang, Ya

    2017-03-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is the most common and serious monogenic disorder of lipid metabolism, causing premature coronary heart disease (CHD) due to accelerated atherosclerosis from birth, and the study of left ventricular (LV) function of this disease is seldom. The purpose of this study was to explore the value of layer-specific strain on assessing the early damage of LV function in asymptomatic and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) well-preserved patients with heterozygous FH (HeFH). A total of 49 patients aged 38.7±8.7 diagnosed with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia and who had undergone transthoracic echocardiography from 2010 to 2016 were included in this study. A total 32 healthy volunteers aged 35.6±10.3 were included as control group. Longitudinal and circumferential strains of the endocardium, myocardium, and epicardium (LSendo, LSmyo, and LSepi and CSendo, CSmyo, and CSepi) were obtained by a software enabling the analysis of strains in three myocardial layers. In longitudinal strain (LS), the LS of endocardium (LSendo) and the LS of myocardium (LSmyo) are significantly reduced in patients with HeFH (P<.001 in both). In circumferential strain (CS), only the CS of endocardium (CSendo) is significantly reduced (P<.001). The degree of reduction in strain is positively correlated with the TC and LDLC. Layer-specific evaluation of the left ventricle has great value in evaluating early impairment of LV in patients with FH. And this relatively novel technique may made it possible to help us understand the process of LV impairment in patients with FH better, thus preventing further damage. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Prevalence and management of familial hypercholesterolaemia in coronary patients: An analysis of EUROASPIRE IV, a study of the European Society of Cardiology.

    PubMed

    De Backer, Guy; Besseling, Joost; Chapman, John; Hovingh, G Kees; Kastelein, John J P; Kotseva, Kornelia; Ray, Kausik; Reiner, Željko; Wood, David; De Bacquer, Dirk

    2015-07-01

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a hereditary disorder predisposing to premature coronary heart disease (CHD) and is until now mainly diagnosed clinically on the basis of a classical phenotype. Its prevalence varies and is estimated around 1 in 200-500; in patients with established CHD the prevalence is less well documented. In EUROASPIRE IV data were collected in coronary patients from 24 European countries by means of a standardized interview, bioclinical examination and venous blood sampling. Potential FH was estimated using an adapted version of the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network Criteria. Among the 7044 patients eligible for analysis, the prevalence of potential FH was 8.3%; 7.5% in men and 11.1% in women. The prevalence was inversely related to age with a putative prevalence of 1:5 in those with CHD <50 yrs of age in both sexes. Even among women aged 70 the prevalence was 1:10. Irrespective of age and gender, prevalence differed substantially between European regions; potential FH patients were more likely to smoke, had higher triglycerides levels and their blood pressure was less well controlled. The use of cardioprotective drugs and the prevalences of diabetes, obesity and central obesity were similar. The prevalence of potential FH in coronary patients is high; the results underscore the need to promote identification of FH in CHD patients and to improve their risk factor profile. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Novel CHST6 compound heterozygous mutations cause macular corneal dystrophy in a Chinese family].

    PubMed

    Qi, Yan-hua; Dang, Xiu-hong; Su, Hong; Zhou, Nan; Liang, Ting; Wang, Zheng; Huang, Shang-zhi

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify mutations of CHST6 gene in a Chinese family with macular corneal dystrophy (MCD) and to investigate the histopathological changes of MCD. Corneal button of the proband was obtained from penetrating keratoplasty for the treatment of severe corneal dystrophy. The sections and ultrathin sections of this specimen were examined under light microscope and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Genomic DNA was extracted from leukocytes in peripheral blood from the family members. The coding region of CHST6 was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR products were analyzed by direct sequencing and restriction enzyme digestion. Histochemical study revealed positive results of colloidal iron stain. TEM revealed enlargement of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and the presence of intracytoplasmic vacuoles. Two mutations, Q298X Y358H, were identified in exon 3 of CHST6. Three patients were compound heterozygotes of these two mutations. The C892T transversion occurred at codon 298 turned the codon of glutamine to a stop codon; the T1072C transversion occurred at codon 358 caused a missense mutation, tyrosine to histidine. All six unaffected family members were heterozygotes. These two mutations were not detected in any of the 100 control subjects. The novel compound heterozygous mutation results in loss of CHST6 function and causes the occurrence of MCD. This is the first report of this gene mutation.

  6. Long-term efficacy and safety of mipomersen in patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia: 2-year interim results of an open-label extension.

    PubMed

    Santos, Raul D; Duell, P Barton; East, Cara; Guyton, John R; Moriarty, Patrick M; Chin, Wai; Mittleman, Robert S

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of extended dosing with mipomersen in patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia (HC) taking maximally tolerated lipid-lowering therapy. A planned interim analysis of an ongoing, open-label extension trial in patients (n = 141) with familial HC receiving a subcutaneous injection of 200 mg mipomersen weekly plus maximally tolerated lipid-lowering therapy for up to 104 weeks. The mean changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) from baseline to weeks 26 (n = 130), 52 (n = 111), 76 (n = 66), and 104 (n = 53) were -28, -27, -27, and -28%; and in apolipoprotein B -29, -28, -30, and -31%, respectively. Reductions in total cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and lipoprotein(a) were comparable with decreases in LDL-C and apolipoprotein B levels. Mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased from baseline by 7 and 6% at weeks 26 and 52, respectively. The long-term safety profile of mipomersen was similar to that reported in the associated randomized placebo-controlled Phase 3 trials. Adverse events included injection site reactions and flu-like symptoms. There was an incremental increase in the median liver fat during the initial 6-12 months that appeared to diminish with continued mipomersen exposure beyond 1 year and returned towards baseline 24 weeks after last drug dose suggestive of adaptation. The median alanine aminotransferase level showed a similar trend over time. Long-term treatment with mipomersen for up to 104 weeks provided sustained reductions in all atherosclerotic lipoproteins measured and a safety profile consistent with prior controlled trials in these high-risk patient populations. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT00694109. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  7. Long-term efficacy and safety of mipomersen in patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia: 2-year interim results of an open-label extension

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Raul D.; Duell, P. Barton; East, Cara; Guyton, John R.; Moriarty, Patrick M.; Chin, Wai; Mittleman, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the efficacy and safety of extended dosing with mipomersen in patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia (HC) taking maximally tolerated lipid-lowering therapy. Methods and results A planned interim analysis of an ongoing, open-label extension trial in patients (n = 141) with familial HC receiving a subcutaneous injection of 200 mg mipomersen weekly plus maximally tolerated lipid-lowering therapy for up to 104 weeks. The mean changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) from baseline to weeks 26 (n = 130), 52 (n = 111), 76 (n = 66), and 104 (n = 53) were −28, −27, −27, and −28%; and in apolipoprotein B −29, −28, −30, and −31%, respectively. Reductions in total cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and lipoprotein(a) were comparable with decreases in LDL-C and apolipoprotein B levels. Mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased from baseline by 7 and 6% at weeks 26 and 52, respectively. The long-term safety profile of mipomersen was similar to that reported in the associated randomized placebo-controlled Phase 3 trials. Adverse events included injection site reactions and flu-like symptoms. There was an incremental increase in the median liver fat during the initial 6–12 months that appeared to diminish with continued mipomersen exposure beyond 1 year and returned towards baseline 24 weeks after last drug dose suggestive of adaptation. The median alanine aminotransferase level showed a similar trend over time. Conclusion Long-term treatment with mipomersen for up to 104 weeks provided sustained reductions in all atherosclerotic lipoproteins measured and a safety profile consistent with prior controlled trials in these high-risk patient populations. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00694109. PMID:24366918

  8. Phenotypic variation among familial hypercholesterolemics heterozygous for either one of two Afrikaner founder LDL receptor mutations.

    PubMed

    Kotze, M J; De Villiers, W J; Steyn, K; Kriek, J A; Marais, A D; Langenhoven, E; Herbert, J S; Graadt Van Roggen, J F; Van der Westhuyzen, D R; Coetzee, G A

    1993-10-01

    Two common founder-related gene mutations that affect the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) are responsible for approximately 80% of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) in South African Afrikaners. The FH Afrikaner-1 (FH1) mutation (Asp206-->Glu) in exon 4 results in defective receptors with approximately 20% of normal activity, whereas the FH Afrikaner-2 (FH2) mutation (Val408-->Met) in exon 9 completely abolishes LDLR activity (< 2% normal activity). We analyzed the contribution of these mutations and other factors on the variation of hypercholesterolemia and clinical features in Afrikaner FH heterozygotes. The type of FH mutation, plasma triglyceride levels, and age of patients each contributed significantly to the variation in hypercholesterolemia, whereas smoking status, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and gender had no influence. Although all FH heterozygotes had frank hypercholesterolemia, patients with the FH1 mutation had significantly lower cholesterol levels than those with the FH2 mutation. FH1 heterozygotes also tended to have milder clinical features. The differences between the two FH groups could not be explained by a difference in the common apolipoprotein E variants. This study demonstrates that mutational heterogeneity in the LDLR gene influences the phenotypic expression of heterozygous FH.

  9. Estimation of the prevalence of familial hypercholesterolaemia in a rural Afrikaner community by direct screening for three Afrikaner founder low density lipoprotein receptor gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Steyn, K; Goldberg, Y P; Kotze, M J; Steyn, M; Swanepoel, A S; Fourie, J M; Coetzee, G A; Van der Westhuyzen, D R

    1996-10-01

    We have determined the prevalence of familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) in a rural Afrikaner community by means of direct DNA screening for three founder-related Afrikaner low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene mutations. A random sample of 1612 persons, aged 15-64 years, was selected as a subsample of 4583 subjects from an Afrikaner community living in the south-western Cape, South Africa. Participants who had a total serum cholesterol (TC) in the high TC category as defined in the consensus recommendations by the Southern African Heart Foundation, were screened for three founder-related LDL receptor gene mutations, causing FH in 90% of Afrikaners. Of the subsample, 201 participants (12.5%) had TC levels above the 80th percentile. In this group the combined prevalence of the three common Afrikaner LDL receptor gene defects (D206E, FH Afrikaner-1; V408M, FH Afrikaner-2; D154N, FH Afrikaner-3) was calculated as 1: 83. When taking into account the reported background prevalence of other FH gene defects of 1:500 in this community, their overall prevalence of FH was estimated to be 1:72. The significant differences found between the FH patients and other high risk patients with raised cholesterol levels were higher TC and LDL cholesterol levels and lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in FH patients. The treatment status of the molecularly identified FH patients and other hypercholesterolaemic persons suggests that this condition is inadequately diagnosed and poorly managed in this study population. An extrapolation to the entire South African population suggests that there are about 112000 FH patients in the country who are under-diagnosed as a group and therefore not receiving the care that would help to reduce the burden of FH-associated ischaemic heart disease in South Africa.

  10. Cost-utility analysis of searching electronic health records and cascade testing to identify and diagnose familial hypercholesterolaemia in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Crosland, Paul; Maconachie, Ross; Buckner, Sara; McGuire, Hugh; Humphries, Steve E; Qureshi, Nadeem

    2018-05-17

    The cost effectiveness of cascade testing for familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is well recognised. Less clear is the cost effectiveness of FH screening when it includes case identification strategies that incorporate routinely available data from primary and secondary care electronic health records. Nine strategies were compared, all using cascade testing in combination with different index case approaches (primary care identification, secondary care identification, and clinical assessment using the Simon Broome (SB) or Dutch Lipid Clinic Network (DLCN) criteria). A decision analytic model was informed by three systematic literature reviews and expert advice provided by a NICE Guideline Committee. The model found that the addition of primary care case identification by database search for patients with recorded total cholesterol >9.3 mmol/L was more cost effective than cascade testing alone. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of clinical assessment using the DLCN criteria was £3254 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) compared with case-finding with no genetic testing. The ICER of clinical assessment using the SB criteria was £13,365 per QALY (compared with primary care identification using the DLCN criteria), indicating that the SB criteria was preferred because it achieved additional health benefits at an acceptable cost. Secondary care identification, with either the SB or DLCN criteria, was not cost effective, alone (dominated and dominated respectively) or combined with primary care identification (£63, 514 per QALY, and £82,388 per QALY respectively). Searching primary care databases for people at high risk of FH followed by cascade testing is likely to be cost-effective. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Heterozygous deletion at the SOX10 gene locus in two patients from a Chinese family with Waardenburg syndrome type II.

    PubMed

    Wenzhi, He; Ruijin, Wen; Jieliang, Li; Xiaoyan, Ma; Haibo, Liu; Xiaoman, Wang; Jiajia, Xian; Shaoying, Li; Shuanglin, Li; Qing, Li

    2015-10-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare disease characterized by sensorineural deafness and pigment disturbance. To date, almost 100 mutations have been reported, but few reports on cases with SOX10 gene deletion. The inheritance pattern of SOX10 gene deletion is still unclear. Our objective was to identify the genetic causes of Waardenburg syndrome type II in a two-generation Chinese family. Clinical evaluations were conducted in both of the patients. Microarray analysis and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) were performed to identify disease-related copy number variants (CNVs). DNA sequencing of the SOX10, MITF and SNAI2 genes was performed to identify the pathogenic mutation responsible for WS2. A 280kb heterozygous deletion at the 22q13.1 chromosome region (including SOX10) was detected in both of the patients. No mutation was found in the patients, unaffected family members and 30 unrelated healthy controls. This report is the first to describe SOX10 heterozygous deletions in Chinese WS2 patients. Our result conform the thesis that heterozygous deletions at SOX10 is an important pathogenicity for WS, and present as autosomal dominant inheritance. Nevertheless, heterozygous deletion of the SOX10 gene would be worth investigating to understand their functions and contributions to neurologic phenotypes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Value of the Definition of Severe Familial Hypercholesterolemia for Stratification of Heterozygous Patients.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Calahorra, Sofia; Sánchez-Hernández, Rosa María; Plana, Núria; Marco-Benedi, Victoria; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Almagro, Fátima; Brea, Angel; Ascaso, Juan Francisco; Lahoz, Carlos; Civeira, Fernando

    2017-03-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is characterized by high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol with co-dominant transmission and high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), although with high variability among subjects. Currently, CVD stratification tools for heterozygous FH (HeFH) are not available. A definition of severe HeFH has been recently proposed by the International Atherosclerosis Society (IAS), but it has not been validated. Our study aims to see clinical characteristics and prevalence of CVD in subjects defined as severe HeFH by IAS criteria. Probable or definite HeFH introduced in the Dyslipidemia Registry of Spanish Arteriosclerosis Society were analyzed by the IAS criteria. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to assess the association of CVD with the IAS criteria. About 1,732 HeFH cases were analyzed. Severe HeFH had higher prevalence of familial history of CVD, personal history of tendon xanthomas, LDL cholesterol, and CVD than nonsevere HeFH. A total of 656 (77.1%) and 441 (50.1%) of men and women, respectively, fulfilled the IAS criteria of severe HeFH. In the univariate analysis, subjects defined as severe HeFH showed odds ratio 3.016 (95% CI 3.136 to 4.257, p <0.001) for CVD. However, when traditional risk factors were included in the multivariate analysis, only the presence of cholesterol >400 mg/dl had a statistically significant association with CVD odds ratio 8.76 (95% CI 3.90 to 19.69, p <0.001). In conclusion, the IAS definition of severe HeFH is not significantly associated with CVD when adjusted for classic risk factors. Risk stratification in HeFH is an important issue, but the proposed criteria do not seem to solve this problem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Novel compound heterozygous mutations in MYO7A gene associated with autosomal recessive sensorineural hearing loss in a Chinese family.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yalin; Xiao, Yun; Zhang, Fengguo; Han, Yuechen; Li, Jianfeng; Xu, Lei; Bai, Xiaohui; Wang, Haibo

    2016-04-01

    Mutations in MYO7A gene have been reported to be associated with Usher Syndrome type 1B (USH1B) and nonsyndromic hearing loss (DFNB2, DFNA11). Most mutations in MYO7A gene caused USH1B, whereas only a few reported mutations led to DFNB2 and DFNA11. The current study was designed to investigate the mutations among a Chinese family with autosomal recessive hearing loss. In this study, we present the clinical, genetic and molecular characteristics of a Chinese family. Targeted capture of 127 known deafness genes and next-generation sequencing were employed to study the genetic causes of two siblings in the Chinese family. Sanger sequencing was employed to examine those variant mutations in the members of this family and other ethnicity-matched controls. We identified the novel compound heterozygous mutant alleles of MYO7A gene: a novel missense mutation c.3671C>A (p.A1224D) and a reported insert mutation c.390_391insC (p.P131PfsX9). Variants were further confirmed by Sanger sequencing. These two compound heterozygous variants were co-segregated with autosomal recessive hearing loss phenotype. The gene mutation analysis and protein sequence alignment further supported that the novel compound heterozygous mutations were pathogenic. The novel compound heterozygous mutations (c.3671C>A and c.390_391insC) in MYO7A gene identified in this study were responsible for the autosomal recessive sensorineural hearing loss of this Chinese family. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Phenotypic comparison of individuals with homozygous or heterozygous mutation of NOTCH3 in a large CADASIL family.

    PubMed

    Abou Al-Shaar, Hussam; Qadi, Najeeb; Al-Hamed, Mohamed H; Meyer, Brian F; Bohlega, Saeed

    2016-08-15

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a hereditary microangiopathy caused by mutations in NOTCH3, very rarely homoallelic. To describe the clinical, radiological, and neuropsychological features in an extended CADASIL family including members with either a homozygous or heterozygous NOTCH3 R1231C mutation. The pedigree included 3 generations of a family with 13 affected individuals. The patients were examined clinically and radiologically. Neuropsychological testing was performed on the proband. Sequencing of the entire coding DNA sequence (CDS) and flanking regions of NOTCH3 was undertaken using PCR amplification and direct Sanger sequencing. Homozygous C3769T mutation, predicting R1231C in exon 22 of NOTCH3 was found in 7 family members. Six other family members harbored the same in the heterozygous state. Homozygous individuals showed a slightly more severe clinical and radiological phenotype of earlier onset compared to their heterozygous counterparts. This study reports the largest number of patients with homozygous NOTCH3 mutation. The phenotype and imaging features of homozygous individuals is within the spectrum of CADASIL, although slightly at the severe end when compared to heterozygotes carrying the same mutation. Both genetic modifiers and environmental factors may play an essential role in modification and alteration of the clinical phenotype and white matter changes among CADASIL patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Detection and management of familial hypercholesterolaemia in primary care in Australia: protocol for a pragmatic cluster intervention study with pre-post intervention comparisons.

    PubMed

    Arnold-Reed, Diane E; Brett, Tom; Troeung, Lakkhina; Vickery, Alistair; Garton-Smith, Jacquie; Bell, Damon; Pang, Jing; Grace, Tegan; Bulsara, Caroline; Li, Ian; Bulsara, Max; Watts, Gerald F

    2017-10-22

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), an autosomal dominant disorder of lipid metabolism, results in accelerated onset of atherosclerosis if left untreated. Lifelong treatment with diet, lifestyle modifications and statins enable a normal lifespan for most patients. Early diagnosis is critical. This protocol trials a primary care-based model of care (MoC) to improve detection and management of FH. Pragmatic cluster intervention study with pre-post intervention comparisons in Australian general practices. At study baseline, current FH detection practice is assessed. Medical records over 2 years are electronically scanned using a data extraction tool (TARB-Ex) to identify patients at increased risk. High-risk patients are clinically reviewed to provide definitive, phenotypic diagnosis using Dutch Lipid Clinic Network Criteria. Once an index family member with FH is identified, the primary care team undertake cascade testing of first-degree relatives to identify other patients with FH. Management guidance based on disease complexity is provided to the primary care team. Study follow-up to 12 months with TARB-Ex rerun to identify total number of new FH cases diagnosed over study period (via TARB-Ex, cascade testing and new cases presenting). At study conclusion, patient and clinical staff perceptions of enablers/barriers and suggested improvements to the approach will be examined. Resources at each stage will be traced to determine the economic implications of implementing the MoC and costed from health system perspective. Primary outcomes: increase in number of index cases clinically identified; reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of treated cases. increase in the number of family cases detected/contacted; cost implications of the MoC. Study approval by The University of Notre Dame Australia Human Research Ethics Committee Protocol ID: 0 16 067F. Registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ID: 12616000630415. Information will be

  16. Interleukin 2 production in a family with systemic lupus erythematosus and a C4Q0 heterozygous inheritance.

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, C; Cabrero, E; Vicario, J L; Martín Villa, M; Rengel, M A; Gomez Campdera, F J; Yebra, M; Fernández-Cruz, E; Arnaiz Villena, A

    1991-01-01

    Interleukin 2 production was studied in a family with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and a C4Q0 heterozygous inheritance. Autoimmune manifestations seemed to be associated with the HLA haplotype containing the C4Q0 allele, which was shared by all four ill family members. Concentrations of interleukin 2, however, did not associate either with the haplotype or with the clinical or serological manifestations, as diminished concentrations of interleukin 2 were found in only two subjects with SLE. Thus the defect in this family seemed to be acquired rather than genetically conditioned. PMID:1888202

  17. Mipomersen: evidence-based review of its potential in the treatment of homozygous and severe heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Parhofer, Klaus G

    2012-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal-dominant inherited disease with a prevalence of one in 500 (heterozygous) to one in 1,000,000 (homozygous). Mutations of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene, the apolipoprotein B100 gene, or the PCSK9 gene may be responsible for the disease. The resulting LDL hypercholesterolemia results in premature atherosclerosis as early as childhood (homozygous FH) or in adulthood (heterozygous FH). Current treatment modalities include lifestyle modification, combination drug therapy (statin-based), and apheresis. Mipomersen is an antisense oligonucleotide which inhibits apolipoprotein B production independent of LDL receptor function and thus works in homozygous FH, heterozygous FH, and other forms of hypercholesterolemia. Mipomersen is given 200 mg/week subcutaneously. Phase III studies indicate that the LDL cholesterol concentration can be reduced by 25%-47%, lipoprotein(a) levels by 20%-40%, and triglyceride concentrations by approximately 10%. In general, mipomersen has no effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. Although there is considerable interindividual variability, the observed lipid effects are largely independent of age, gender, concomitant statin therapy, and underlying dyslipoproteinemia. The most common side effects are injection site reactions (70%-100%), flu-like symptoms (29%-46%), and elevated transaminases associated with an increased liver fat content (6%-15%). Mipomersen may be an interesting addon drug in patients with heterozygous or homozygous FH not reaching treatment goals, either because baseline values are very high or because high-dose statins are not tolerated.

  18. Mipomersen: evidence-based review of its potential in the treatment of homozygous and severe heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Parhofer, Klaus G

    2012-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal-dominant inherited disease with a prevalence of one in 500 (heterozygous) to one in 1,000,000 (homozygous). Mutations of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene, the apolipoprotein B100 gene, or the PCSK9 gene may be responsible for the disease. The resulting LDL hypercholesterolemia results in premature atherosclerosis as early as childhood (homozygous FH) or in adulthood (heterozygous FH). Current treatment modalities include lifestyle modification, combination drug therapy (statin-based), and apheresis. Mipomersen is an antisense oligonucleotide which inhibits apolipoprotein B production independent of LDL receptor function and thus works in homozygous FH, heterozygous FH, and other forms of hypercholesterolemia. Mipomersen is given 200 mg/week subcutaneously. Phase III studies indicate that the LDL cholesterol concentration can be reduced by 25%–47%, lipoprotein(a) levels by 20%–40%, and triglyceride concentrations by approximately 10%. In general, mipomersen has no effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. Although there is considerable interindividual variability, the observed lipid effects are largely independent of age, gender, concomitant statin therapy, and underlying dyslipoproteinemia. The most common side effects are injection site reactions (70%–100%), flu-like symptoms (29%–46%), and elevated transaminases associated with an increased liver fat content (6%–15%). Mipomersen may be an interesting addon drug in patients with heterozygous or homozygous FH not reaching treatment goals, either because baseline values are very high or because high-dose statins are not tolerated. PMID:22701100

  19. A 3-year study of atorvastatin in children and adolescents with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Langslet, Gisle; Breazna, Andrei; Drogari, Euridiki

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of atorvastatin in children/adolescents aged 10-17 years with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) have been demonstrated in trials of up to 1 year in duration. However, the efficacy/safety of >1 year use of atorvastatin in children/adolescents with HeFH, including children from 6 years of age, has not been assessed. To characterize the efficacy and safety of atorvastatin over 3 years and to assess the impact on growth and development in children aged 6-15 years with HeFH. A total of 272 subjects aged 6-15 years with HeFH and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥4.0 mmol/L (154 mg/dL) were enrolled in a 3-year study (NCT00827606). Subjects were initiated on atorvastatin (5 mg or 10 mg) with doses increased to up to 80 mg based on LDL-C levels. Mean percentage reductions from baseline in LDL-C at 36 months/early termination were 43.8% for subjects at Tanner stage (TS) 1 and 39.9% for TS ≥2. There was no evidence of variations in the lipid-lowering efficacy of atorvastatin between the TS groups analyzed (1 vs ≥2) or in subjects aged <10 vs ≥10 years, and the treatment had no adverse effect on growth or maturation. Atorvastatin had a favorable safety and tolerability profile, and only 6 (2.2%) subjects discontinued because of adverse events. Atorvastatin over 3 years was efficacious, had no impact on growth/maturation, and was well tolerated in children and adolescents with HeFH aged 6-15 years. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-negative compound heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: Two lifetime journeys of lipid-lowering therapy.

    PubMed

    Yahya, Reyhana; Mulder, Monique T; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Williams, Monique; Roeters van Lennep, Jeanine E

    We present the case history of 2 patients with low-density lipoprotein receptor-negative compound heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia who did not receive lipoprotein apheresis. We describe the subsequent effect of all lipid-lowering medications during their life course including resins, statins, ezetimibe, nicotinic acid/laropiprant, mipomersen, and lomitapide. These cases tell the story of siblings affected with this rare disease, who are free of symptoms but still are at a very high cardiovascular disease risk, and their treatment from childhood. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Novel compound heterozygous mutations in CNGA1in a Chinese family affected with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa by targeted sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Gan, Dekang; Huang, Xin; Xu, Gezhi

    2016-07-08

    About 37 genes have been reported to be involved in autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa, a hereditary retinal disease. However, causative genes remain unclear in a lot of cases. Two sibs of a Chinese family with ocular disease were diagnosed in Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University. Targeted sequencing performed on proband to screen pathogenic mutations. PCR combined Sanger sequencing then performed on eight family members including two affected and six unaffected individuals to determine whether mutations cosegregate with disease. Two affected members exhibited clinical features that fit the criteria of autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa. Two heterozygous mutations (NM000087, p.Y82X and p.L89fs) in CNGA1 were revealed on proband. Affected members were compound heterozygotes for the two mutations whereas unaffected members either had no mutation or were heterozygote carriers for only one of the two mutations. That is, these mutations cosegregate with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa. Compound heterozygous mutations (NM000087, p.Y82X and p.L89fs) in exon 6 of CNGA1are pathogenic mutations in this Chinese family. Of which, p.Y82X is firstly reported in patient with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa.

  2. Novel compound heterozygous mutations in MYO7A Associated with Usher syndrome 1 in a Chinese family.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xue; Wang, Guo-Jian; Yuan, Yong-Yi; Xin, Feng; Han, Ming-Yu; Lu, Jing-Qiao; Zhao, Hui; Yu, Fei; Xu, Jin-Cao; Zhang, Mei-Guang; Dong, Jiang; Lin, Xi; Dai, Pu

    2014-01-01

    Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, age-dependent retinitis pigmentosa (RP), and occasionally vestibular dysfunction. The most severe form is Usher syndrome type 1 (USH1). Mutations in the MYO7A gene are responsible for USH1 and account for 29-55% of USH1 cases. Here, we characterized a Chinese family (no. 7162) with USH1. Combining the targeted capture of 131 known deafness genes, next-generation sequencing, and bioinformatic analysis, we identified two deleterious compound heterozygous mutations in the MYO7A gene: a reported missense mutation c.73G>A (p.G25R) and a novel nonsense mutation c.462C>A (p.C154X). The two compound variants are absent in 219 ethnicity-matched controls, co-segregates with the USH clinical phenotypes, including hearing loss, vestibular dysfunction, and age-dependent penetrance of progressive RP, in family 7162. Therefore, we concluded that the USH1 in this family was caused by compound heterozygous mutations in MYO7A.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of PCSK9 Inhibitor Therapy in Patients With Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia or Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Kazi, Dhruv S; Moran, Andrew E; Coxson, Pamela G; Penko, Joanne; Ollendorf, Daniel A; Pearson, Steven D; Tice, Jeffrey A; Guzman, David; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten

    2016-08-16

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors were recently approved for lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) or atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and have potential for broad ASCVD prevention. Their long-term cost-effectiveness and effect on total health care spending are uncertain. To estimate the cost-effectiveness of PCSK9 inhibitors and their potential effect on US health care spending. The Cardiovascular Disease Policy Model, a simulation model of US adults aged 35 to 94 years, was used to evaluate cost-effectiveness of PCSK9 inhibitors or ezetimibe in heterozygous FH or ASCVD. The model incorporated 2015 annual PCSK9 inhibitor costs of $14,350 (based on mean wholesale acquisition costs of evolocumab and alirocumab); adopted a health-system perspective, lifetime horizon; and included probabilistic sensitivity analyses to explore uncertainty. Statin therapy compared with addition of ezetimibe or PCSK9 inhibitors. Lifetime major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE: cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or stroke), incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), and total effect on US health care spending over 5 years. Adding PCSK9 inhibitors to statins in heterozygous FH was estimated to prevent 316,300 MACE at a cost of $503,000 per QALY gained compared with adding ezetimibe to statins (80% uncertainty interval [UI], $493,000-$1,737,000). In ASCVD, adding PCSK9 inhibitors to statins was estimated to prevent 4.3 million MACE compared with adding ezetimibe at $414,000 per QALY (80% UI, $277,000-$1,539,000). Reducing annual drug costs to $4536 per patient or less would be needed for PCSK9 inhibitors to be cost-effective at less than $100,000 per QALY. At 2015 prices, PCSK9 inhibitor use in all eligible patients was estimated to reduce cardiovascular care costs by $29 billion over 5 years, but drug costs increased by an estimated $592 billion (a 38

  4. A novel heterozygous germline deletion in MSH2 gene in a five generation Chinese family with Lynch syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Shengran; Ling, Chao; You, Yan; Xu, Lai; Zhong, Min-Er; Xiao, Yi; Qiu, Hui-Zhong; Lu, Jun-Yang; Banerjee, Santasree

    2017-01-01

    Lynch syndrome (LS) is one of the most common familial forms of colorectal cancer predisposing syndrome with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. LS is caused by the germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes including MSH2, MLH1, MSH6 and PMS2. Clinically, LS is characterized by high incidence of early-onset colorectal cancer as well as endometrial, small intestinal and urinary tract cancers, usually occur in the third to fourth decade of the life. Here we describe a five generation Chinese family with LS clinically diagnosed according to the Amsterdam II criteria. Immuno-histochemical staining of MSH2 and MSH6 shows only foci nuclear positive on the surface of the tumor with strong expression of MLH1 and PMS2 with diffuse immunoreactivity. In order to dig into the molecular basis of this LS pedigree, we collected the proband's blood sample, extracted the genomic DNA and applied the genetic screening. As a result, we identified a novel heterozygous deletion in MSH2 gene by targeted next generation sequencing, which is also proved to be co-segregated among other affected family members by following validation. To our knowledge, this novel heterozygous deletion (c.1676_1679 delTAAA) in MSH2 gene causes frameshift mutation (p.Asn560Lysfs*29) and leads to the formation of a truncated MSH2 protein which is confirmed to be a deleterious mutation according to the variant interpretation guidelines of American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG). Identification of novel DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutations can definitely benefit to the clinical diagnosis and management. PMID:28903413

  5. [Identification of novel compound heterozygous mutations of USH2A gene in a family with Usher syndrome type II].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Haiou; Ge, Chuanqin; Wang, Yiwang; Tang, Genyun; Quan, Qingli

    2015-06-01

    To identify potential mutations in a Chinese family with Usher syndrome type II. Genomic DNA was obtained from two affected and four unaffected members of the family and subjected to amplification of the entire coding sequence and splicing sites of USH2A gene. Mutation detection was conducted by direct sequencing of the PCR products. A total of 100 normal unrelated individuals were used as controls. The patients were identified to be a compound heterozygote for two mutations: c.8272G>T (p.E2758X) in exon 42 from his mother and c.12376-12378ACT>TAA(p.T4126X) in exon 63 of the USH2A gene from his father. Both mutations were not found in either of the two unaffected family members or 100 unrelated controls, and had completely co-segregated with the disease phenotype in the family. Neither mutation has been reported in the HGMD database. The novel compound heterozygous mutations c.8272G>T and c.12376-12378ACT>TAA within the USH2A gene may be responsible for the disease. This result may provide new clues for molecular diagnosis of this disease.

  6. Identification of two novel compound heterozygous mutations of ADGRV1 in a Chinese family with Usher syndrome type IIC.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nian; Wang, Juan; Liu, Shuting; Liu, Mugen; Jiang, Fagang

    2018-08-01

    To describe the clinical and genetic findings in a Chinese family with three sibs diagnosed with Usher syndrome type IIC. Four members received ophthalmic and otologic tests to ascertain the clinical characteristics. According to the clinical phenotype, we focused attention on a total of 658 genes associated with them. We screened the possible pathogenic mutation sites, used Sanger to exclude the false positive and verified whether there were co-segregated among the family members. Typical fundus features found in the proband supported the diagnosis of retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Audiometric test indicated moderate to severe sensorineural hearing impairment while the vestibular function was normal. Whole-exome sequencing identified the presence of two novel compound heterozygous mutations in ADGRV1, a known gene responsible for Usher syndrome type IIC. Mutationc.15008delG/p.Gly5003AlafsTer13 was inherited from the mother while c.18383_18386dupACAG/p.His6130GlnfsTer84 was inherited from the father, and they were co-segregated with the disease phenotype in the family. The mutations found in our study not only broaden the mutation spectrum of ADGRV1, but also provide assistances for future genetic diagnosis and treatment for Usher syndrome patients.

  7. Novel compound heterozygous mutations in MYO7A in a Chinese family with Usher syndrome type 1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Li, Pengcheng; Liu, Ying; Li, Weirong; Wong, Fulton; Du, Rong; Wang, Lei; Li, Chang; Jiang, Fagang; Tang, Zhaohui; Liu, Mugen

    2013-01-01

    To identify the disease-causing mutation(s) in a Chinese family with autosomal recessive Usher syndrome type 1 (USH1). An ophthalmic examination and an audiometric test were conducted to ascertain the phenotype of two affected siblings. The microsatellite marker D11S937, which is close to the candidate gene MYO7A (USH1B locus), was selected for genotyping. From the DNA of the proband, all coding exons and exon-intron boundaries of MYO7A were sequenced to identify the disease-causing mutation(s). Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was performed to exclude the alternative conclusion that the mutations are non-pathogenic rare polymorphisms. Based on severe hearing impairment, unintelligible speech, and retinitis pigmentosa, a clinical diagnosis of Usher syndrome type 1 was made. The genotyping results did not exclude the USH1B locus, which suggested that the MYO7A gene was likely the gene associated with the disease-causing mutation(s) in the family. With direct DNA sequencing of MYO7A, two novel compound heterozygous mutations (c.3742G>A and c.6051+1G>A) of MYO7A were identified in the proband. DNA sequence analysis and RFLP analysis of other family members showed that the mutations cosegregated with the disease. Unaffected members, including the parents, uncle, and sister of the proband, carry only one of the two mutations. The mutations were not present in the controls (100 normal Chinese subjects=200 chromosomes) according to the RFLP analysis. In this study, we identified two novel mutations, c.3742G>A (p.E1248K) and c.6051+1G>A (donor splice site mutation in intron 44), of MYO7A in a Chinese non-consanguineous family with USH1. The mutations cosegregated with the disease and most likely cause the phenotype in the two affected siblings who carry these mutations compound heterozygously. Our finding expands the mutational spectrum of MYO7A.

  8. Novel compound heterozygous mutations in MYO7A in a Chinese family with Usher syndrome type 1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fei; Li, Pengcheng; Liu, Ying; Li, Weirong; Wong, Fulton; Du, Rong; Wang, Lei; Li, Chang; Jiang, Fagang; Tang, Zhaohui

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To identify the disease-causing mutation(s) in a Chinese family with autosomal recessive Usher syndrome type 1 (USH1). Methods An ophthalmic examination and an audiometric test were conducted to ascertain the phenotype of two affected siblings. The microsatellite marker D11S937, which is close to the candidate gene MYO7A (USH1B locus), was selected for genotyping. From the DNA of the proband, all coding exons and exon-intron boundaries of MYO7A were sequenced to identify the disease-causing mutation(s). Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was performed to exclude the alternative conclusion that the mutations are non-pathogenic rare polymorphisms. Results Based on severe hearing impairment, unintelligible speech, and retinitis pigmentosa, a clinical diagnosis of Usher syndrome type 1 was made. The genotyping results did not exclude the USH1B locus, which suggested that the MYO7A gene was likely the gene associated with the disease-causing mutation(s) in the family. With direct DNA sequencing of MYO7A, two novel compound heterozygous mutations (c.3742G>A and c.6051+1G>A) of MYO7A were identified in the proband. DNA sequence analysis and RFLP analysis of other family members showed that the mutations cosegregated with the disease. Unaffected members, including the parents, uncle, and sister of the proband, carry only one of the two mutations. The mutations were not present in the controls (100 normal Chinese subjects=200 chromosomes) according to the RFLP analysis. Conclusions In this study, we identified two novel mutations, c.3742G>A (p.E1248K) and c.6051+1G>A (donor splice site mutation in intron 44), of MYO7A in a Chinese non-consanguineous family with USH1. The mutations cosegregated with the disease and most likely cause the phenotype in the two affected siblings who carry these mutations compound heterozygously. Our finding expands the mutational spectrum of MYO7A. PMID:23559863

  9. Compound heterozygous MYO7A mutations segregating Usher syndrome type 2 in a Han family.

    PubMed

    Zong, Ling; Chen, Kaitian; Wu, Xuan; Liu, Min; Jiang, Hongyan

    2016-11-01

    Identification of rare deafness genes for inherited congenital sensorineural hearing impairment remains difficult, because a large variety of genes are implicated. In this study we applied targeted capture and next-generation sequencing to uncover the underlying gene in a three-generation Han family segregating recessive inherited hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa. After excluding mutations in common deafness genes GJB2, SLC26A4 and the mitochondrial gene, genomic DNA of the proband of a Han family was subjected to targeted next-generation sequencing. The candidate mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing and subsequently analyzed with in silico tools. An unreported splice site mutation c.3924+1G > C compound with c.6028G > A in the MYO7A gene were detected to cosegregate with the phenotype in this pedigree. Both mutations, located in the evolutionarily conserved FERM domain in myosin VIIA, were predicted to be pathogenic. In this family, profound sensorineural hearing impairment and retinitis pigmentosa without vestibular disorder, constituted the typical Usher syndrome type 2. Identification of novel mutation in compound heterozygosity in MYO7A gene revealed the genetic origin of Usher syndrome type 2 in this Han family. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Circulating miR-200c is up-regulated in paediatric patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia and correlates with miR-33a/b levels: implication of a ZEB1-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    D'Agostino, Marco; Martino, Francesco; Sileno, Sara; Barillà, Francesco; Beji, Sara; Marchetti, Lorenza; Gangi, Fabio Maria; Persico, Luca; Picozza, Mario; Montali, Anna; Martino, Eliana; Zanoni, Cristina; Avitabile, Daniele; Parrotto, Sandro; Capogrossi, Maurizio Colognesi; Magenta, Alessandra

    2017-09-15

    Hypercholesterolaemia provokes reactive oxygen species (ROS) increase and is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) development. We previously showed that circulating miR-33a/b expression levels were up-regulated in children with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). miR-33a/b control cholesterol homoeostasis and recently miR-33b has been demonstrated to directly target the transcription factor zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1). The latter acts in a negative feedback loop with the miR-200 family. Our previous studies showed that the ROS-dependent miR-200c up-regulation induces endothelial dysfunction and provokes a ZEB1-dependent apoptosis and senescence. In the present study, we aimed to verify whether circulating miR-200c was induced in FH children, and whether a correlation existed with miR-33a/b Total RNA was extracted from plasma of 28 FH children and 25 age-matched healthy subjects (HS) and miR-200c levels were measured. We found that miR-200c was up-regulated in FH compared with HS (4.00 ± 0.48-fold increase, P <0.05) and exhibited a positive correlation with miR-33a/b. miR-200c did not correlate with plasma lipids, but correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels and glycaemia (GLI). Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analysis revealed that miR-200c was significantly affected by GLI and by miR-33a ( P <0.01; P <0.001 respectively). Moreover, we found that miR-33 overexpression, in different cell lines, decreased ZEB1 expression and up-regulated both the intracellular and the extracellular miR-200c expression levels. In conclusion, circulating miR-200c is up-regulated in FH, probably due to oxidative stress and inflammation and via a miR-33a/b -ZEB1-dependent mechanism. The present study could provide the first evidence to point to the use of miR-33a/b and miR-200c , as early biomarkers of CVD, in paediatric FH. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  11. A heterozygous putative null mutation in ROM1 without a mutation in peripherin/RDS in a family with retinitis pigmentosa

    SciTech Connect

    Sakuma, Hitoshi; Inana, G.; Murakami, Akira

    1995-05-20

    ROM1 is a 351-amino-acid, 37-kDa outer segment membrane protein of rod photoreceptors. ROM1 is related to peripherin/RDS, another outer segment membrane protein found in both rods and cones. The precise function of ROM1 or peripherin/RDS is not known, but they have been suggested to play important roles in the function and/or structure of the rod photoreceptor outer segment disks. A recent report implicated ROM1 in disease by suggesting that RP can be caused by a heterozygous null mutation in ROM1 but only in combination with another heterozygous mutation in peripherin/RDS. Screening of the ROM1 gene using polymerase chain reaction amplification,more » denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and direct DNA sequencing identified the same heterozygous putative null mutation in a family with RP.« less

  12. Evolocumab for Treating Primary Hypercholesterolaemia and Mixed Dyslipidaemia: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Christopher; Tappenden, Paul; Rafia, Rachid; Hamilton, Jean; Chambers, Duncan; Clowes, Mark; Durrington, Paul; Qureshi, Nadeem; Wierzbicki, Anthony S

    2016-11-16

    As part of its Single Technology Appraisal (STA) process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer of evolocumab (Amgen) to submit evidence on the clinical and cost effectiveness of evolocumab. The appraisal assessed evolocumab as monotherapy or in combination with a statin (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor) with or without ezetimibe, or in combination with ezetimibe (without statin therapy), in adult patients with primary hypercholesterolaemia (which includes mixed dyslipidaemia), for whom statins do not provide optimal control of their low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and/or for whom statins are contraindicated or not tolerated. The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG). The ERG produced a critical review of the evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of the technology, based on the company's submission to NICE. The evidence was derived mainly from four randomised controlled trials comparing evolocumab either with ezetimibe or placebo in adults with primary familial or non-familial hypercholesterolaemia, who were either able to take statins or who were statin-intolerant. The clinical effectiveness review found that evolocumab is efficacious at lowering LDL-C but that there was uncertainty regarding its impact on cardiovascular disease outcomes. In response to the ERG's critique of the submitted health economic model, the company submitted an amended model, which also included a Patient Access Scheme (PAS). Based on this, the deterministic incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for evolocumab against ezetimibe were above £74,000 and £45,000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained within the non-familial primary and secondary prevention population, respectively, whilst the ICERs within the heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia population were

  13. Effect of LDL cholesterol, statins and presence of mutations on the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Climent, Elisenda; Pérez-Calahorra, Sofía; Marco-Benedí, Victoria; Plana, Nuria; Sánchez, Rosa; Ros, Emilio; Ascaso, Juan F; Puzo, Jose; Almagro, Fátima; Lahoz, Carlos; Civeira, Fernando; Pedro-Botet, Juan

    2017-07-17

    Patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) have been reported to be less vulnerable to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), although the mechanism is unknown. The aims of the present study were to assess the effects of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentration and the presence of FH-causing mutations on T2DM prevalence in HeFH. Data were collected from the Dyslipidemia Registry of the Spanish Arteriosclerosis Society. Inclusion criteria were definite or probable HeFH in patients aged ≥18 years. T2DM prevalence in HeFH patients was compared with data of the general population. 1732 patients were included. The prevalence of T2DM was lower in patients with HeFH compared with the general population (5.94% vs 9.44%; OR: 0.606, 95% CI 0.486-0.755, p < 0.001). Risk factors for developing T2DM were male sex, age, body mass index, hypertension, baseline triglyceride levels and years on statin therapy. The prevalence of T2DM in HeFH patients was 40% lower than that observed in the general population. Gene mutations and LDL cholesterol concentrations were not risk factors associated with the prevalence of T2DM in patients with HeFH. The prevalence of T2DM in patients with HeFH was 40% lower than in the general population matched for age and sex.

  14. Heterozygous deletion of FOXA2 segregates with disease in a family with heterotaxy, panhypopituitarism, and biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ellen A; Grochowski, Christopher M; Falsey, Alexandra M; Rajagopalan, Ramakrishnan; Wendel, Danielle; Devoto, Marcella; Krantz, Ian D; Loomes, Kathleen M; Spinner, Nancy B

    2015-06-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is a pediatric cholangiopathy with unknown etiology occurring in isolated and syndromic forms. Laterality defects affecting the cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems are the most common features present in syndromic BA. Most cases are sporadic, although reports of familial cases have led to the hypothesis of genetic susceptibility in some patients. We identified a child with BA, malrotation, and interrupted inferior vena cava whose father presented with situs inversus, polysplenia, panhypopituitarism, and mildly dysmorphic facial features. Chromosomal microarray analysis demonstrated a 277 kb heterozygous deletion on chromosome 20, which included a single gene, FOXA2, in the proband and her father. This deletion was confirmed to be de novo in the father. The proband and her father share a common diagnosis of heterotaxy, but they also each presented with a variety of other issues. Further genetic screening revealed that the proband carried an additional protein-altering polymorphism (rs1904589; p.His165Arg) in the NODAL gene that is not present in the father, and this variant has been shown to decrease expression of the gene. As FOXA2 can be a regulator of NODAL expression, we propose that haploinsufficiency for FOXA2 combined with a decreased expression of NODAL is the likely cause for syndromic BA in this proband. © 2015 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  15. Heterozygous Deletion of FOXA2 Segregates with Disease in a Family with Heterotaxy, Panhypopituitarism, and Biliary Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Ellen A.; Grochowski, Christopher M.; Falsey, Alexandra M.; Rajagopalan, Ramakrishnan; Wendel, Danielle; Devoto, Marcella; Krantz, Ian D.; Loomes, Kathleen M.; Spinner, Nancy B.

    2015-01-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is a pediatric cholangiopathy with unknown etiology occurring in isolated and syndromic forms. Laterality defects affecting the cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems are the most common features present in syndromic BA. Most cases are sporadic, although reports of familial cases have led to the hypothesis of genetic susceptibility in some patients. We identified a child with BA, malrotation, and interrupted inferior vena cava whose father presented with situs inversus, polysplenia, panhypopituitarism, and mildly dysmorphic facial features. Chromosomal microarray analysis demonstrated a 277kb heterozygous deletion on chromosome 20 which included a single gene, FOXA2, in the proband and her father. This deletion was confirmed to be de novo in the father. The proband and her father share a common diagnosis of heterotaxy, but they also each presented with a variety of other issues. Further genetic screening revealed that the proband carried an additional protein-altering polymorphism (rs1904589; p.His165Arg) in the NODAL gene that is not present in the father, and this variant has been shown to decrease expression of the gene. As FOXA2 can be a regulator of NODAL expression, we propose that haploinsufficiency for FOXA2 combined with a decreased expression of NODAL is the likely cause for syndromic BA in this proband. PMID:25765999

  16. Three cases of congenital dysfibrinogenemia in unrelated Chinese families: heterozygous missense mutation in fibrinogen alpha chain Argl6His

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Meiling; Deng, Donghong; Xiang, Liqun; Cheng, Peng; Liao, Lin; Deng, Xuelian; Yan, Jie; Lin, Faquan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Congenital dysfibrinogenemia (CD) is a qualitative fibrinogen disorder caused by an abnormal fibrinogen molecule structure, leading to dysfunctional blood coagulation. This study describes 3 cases of dysfibrinogenemia identified in the unrelated Chinese pedigrees. Routine coagulation screening tests were performed on the probands and their families. The antigens and functionality of fibrinogen was measured using an immunoturbidimetry assay and the Clauss method, respectively. To identify the genetic mutation responsible for these dysfibrinogens, genomic DNA extracted from the blood was analyzed using PCR amplification and direct sequencing. The presence of the mutant chains was determined using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectroscopy. Purified plasma fibrinogen of 3 probands was analyzed using SDS–PAGE, fibrinogen clottability, fibrin polymerization, fibrinopeptide release, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The 3 probands had a long thrombin time. Levels of functional fibrinogen were found to be very low, while the fibrinogen antigen was within the normal range. DNA sequencing revealed a heterozygous Arg16His substitution in the fibrinogen Aα chain (FGA). The mutant chains were found to be expressed using MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy. SDS–PAGE did not reveal any difference in the molecular weights of 3 polypeptide chains between normal and abnormal fibrinogens. Fibrinogen clottability showed a slower fibrin clot formation than the healthy control. Fibrin polymerization, after addition of thrombin, showed a prolonged lag phase and decreased final turbidity. The kinetics of fibrinopeptides release revealed a decreased amount of the released fibrinopeptide A. SEM of the patient's fibrin clot was found to be abnormal. Results indicate that the 3 probands with dysfibrinogenemia were caused by mutations of Aα chain Arg16His. Mutation of this fibrinogen induced dysfunction of plasma fibrinogen. PMID

  17. Anxiety, depression, and health-related quality of life in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Akioyamen, Leo E; Genest, Jacques; Shan, Shubham D; Inibhunu, Happy; Chu, Anna; Tu, Jack V

    2018-06-01

    Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a common genetic disease predisposing affected individuals to a high risk of cardiovascular disease. Yet, considerable uncertainty exists regarding its impact on psychosocial wellbeing. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between FH and symptoms of anxiety and depression, and health-related quality of life (HRQL). We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, the Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, and PubMed for peer-reviewed literature published in English between January 1, 1990 and January 1, 2018. Quantitative and qualitative studies were eligible if they included patients with confirmed FH and evaluated its association with symptoms of anxiety or depression, or HRQL. We performed a narrative synthesis of studies, including thematic analysis of qualitative studies, and where data permitted, random-effects meta-analysis reporting standardized mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals. We found 10 eligible studies measuring HRQL, depression and anxiety. Random-effects meta-analysis of 4 (n = 4293) and 5 studies (n = 5098), respectively, showed that patients with FH had slightly lower symptoms of anxiety (SMD: -0.29 [95% CI: -0.53, -0.04]) and mental HRQL (SMD: -0.10 [95% -0.20, -0.00]) relative to general population controls. No significant differences existed in depressive symptoms (SMD: 0.04 [95% CI: -0.12, 0.19]) or physical HRQL scores (SMD: 0.02 [95% CI: -0.09, 0.12]). Our systematic review suggests that patients with FH may report small but measurable differences in anxiety symptoms and mental HRQL. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutraceuticals in hypercholesterolaemia: an overview.

    PubMed

    Santini, Antonello; Novellino, Ettore

    2017-06-01

    Growing attention is now being given to the possible preventive/alternative ways to avoid illness onset. Changes in lifestyle and food habits are taking over from the conventional pharmaceutical-based approach, especially for chronic pathologies. Nutraceuticals have been proposed as key tools for the prevention and cure of some pathological conditions. This is leading research to develop new formulations based on these pharma-foods addressed in a specific way to prevent and cure health issues, which, in turn, will have an effect on therapy-related costs sustained by any National Health Organization. According to existing regulations, nutraceuticals cannot be categorized as either food or drugs but, by definition, often inhabit a grey area in between the two, being assimilated into food supplements, notwithstanding the beneficial properties that they can provide for some pathological conditions. A nutraceuticals-based approach for health management, in particular for some pathological conditions, has resulted in a worldwide growing 'nutraceutical' revolution. An outstanding example is the approach to the 'metabolic syndrome', which includes overweight, obesity and cardiovascular-related diseases, causing a sort of cascade of chronic health conditions, which is becoming a norm in modern life. Hypercholesterolaemia is one of these. It represents an example of a pathology that can be linked to both a poor lifestyle and dietary habits. The nutraceutical approach to hypercholesterolaemia is described in the present review as a possible alternative to the conventional drug-based therapy. This article is part of a themed section on Principles of Pharmacological Research of Nutraceuticals. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v174.11/issuetoc. © 2016 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society.

  19. Nutraceuticals in hypercholesterolaemia: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Santini, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Growing attention is now being given to the possible preventive/alternative ways to avoid illness onset. Changes in lifestyle and food habits are taking over from the conventional pharmaceutical‐based approach, especially for chronic pathologies. Nutraceuticals have been proposed as key tools for the prevention and cure of some pathological conditions. This is leading research to develop new formulations based on these pharma‐foods addressed in a specific way to prevent and cure health issues, which, in turn, will have an effect on therapy‐related costs sustained by any National Health Organization. According to existing regulations, nutraceuticals cannot be categorized as either food or drugs but, by definition, often inhabit a grey area in between the two, being assimilated into food supplements, notwithstanding the beneficial properties that they can provide for some pathological conditions. A nutraceuticals‐based approach for health management, in particular for some pathological conditions, has resulted in a worldwide growing ‘nutraceutical’ revolution. An outstanding example is the approach to the ‘metabolic syndrome’, which includes overweight, obesity and cardiovascular‐related diseases, causing a sort of cascade of chronic health conditions, which is becoming a norm in modern life. Hypercholesterolaemia is one of these. It represents an example of a pathology that can be linked to both a poor lifestyle and dietary habits. The nutraceutical approach to hypercholesterolaemia is described in the present review as a possible alternative to the conventional drug‐based therapy. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Principles of Pharmacological Research of Nutraceuticals. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v174.11/issuetoc PMID:27685833

  20. An enquiry based on a standardised questionnaire into knowledge, awareness and preferences concerning the care of familial hypercholesterolaemia among primary care physicians in the Asia-Pacific region: the “Ten Countries Study”

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Jing; Hu, Miao; Lin, Jie; Miida, Takashi; Nawawi, Hapizah M; Park, Jeong Euy; Wu, Xue; Ramli, Anis S; Kim, Ngoc Thanh; Kwok, See; Gonzalez-Santos, Lourdes E; Su, Ta-Chen; Truong, Thanh Huong; Soran, Handrean; Yamashita, Shizuya; Tomlinson, Brian; Watts, Gerald F

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine physicians’ knowledge, awareness and preferences regarding the care of familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) in the Asia-Pacific region. Setting A formal questionnaire was anonymously completed by physicians from different countries/regions in the Asia-Pacific. The survey sought responses relating to general familiarity, awareness of management guidelines, identification (clinical characteristics and lipid profile), prevalence and inheritance, extent of elevation in risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and practice on screening and treatment. Participants Practising community physicians from Australia, Japan, Malaysia, South Korea, Philippines, Hong Kong, China, Vietnam and Taiwan were recruited to complete the questionnaire, with the UK as the international benchmark. Primary outcome An assessment and comparison of the knowledge, awareness and preferences of FH among physicians in 10 different countries/regions. Results 1078 physicians completed the questionnaire from the Asia-Pacific region; only 34% considered themselves to be familiar with FH. 72% correctly described FH and 65% identified the typical lipid profile, with a higher proportion of physicians from Japan and China selecting the correct FH definition and lipid profile compared with those from Vietnam and Philippines. However, less than half of the physician were aware of national or international management guidelines; this was significantly worse than physicians from the UK (35% vs 61%, p<0.001). Knowledge of prevalence (24%), inheritability (41%) and CVD risk (9%) of FH were also suboptimal. The majority of the physicians considered laboratory interpretative commenting as being useful (81%) and statin therapy as an appropriate cholesterol-lowering therapy (89%) for FH management. Conclusions The study identified important gaps, which are readily addressable, in the awareness and knowledge of FH among physicians in the region. Implementation of country-specific guidelines and

  1. An enquiry based on a standardised questionnaire into knowledge, awareness and preferences concerning the care of familial hypercholesterolaemia among primary care physicians in the Asia-Pacific region: the "Ten Countries Study".

    PubMed

    Pang, Jing; Hu, Miao; Lin, Jie; Miida, Takashi; Nawawi, Hapizah M; Park, Jeong Euy; Wu, Xue; Ramli, Anis S; Kim, Ngoc Thanh; Kwok, See; Gonzalez-Santos, Lourdes E; Su, Ta-Chen; Truong, Thanh Huong; Soran, Handrean; Yamashita, Shizuya; Tomlinson, Brian; Watts, Gerald F

    2017-10-25

    To determine physicians' knowledge, awareness and preferences regarding the care of familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) in the Asia-Pacific region. A formal questionnaire was anonymously completed by physicians from different countries/regions in the Asia-Pacific. The survey sought responses relating to general familiarity, awareness of management guidelines, identification (clinical characteristics and lipid profile), prevalence and inheritance, extent of elevation in risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and practice on screening and treatment. Practising community physicians from Australia, Japan, Malaysia, South Korea, Philippines, Hong Kong, China, Vietnam and Taiwan were recruited to complete the questionnaire, with the UK as the international benchmark. An assessment and comparison of the knowledge, awareness and preferences of FH among physicians in 10 different countries/regions. 1078 physicians completed the questionnaire from the Asia-Pacific region; only 34% considered themselves to be familiar with FH. 72% correctly described FH and 65% identified the typical lipid profile, with a higher proportion of physicians from Japan and China selecting the correct FH definition and lipid profile compared with those from Vietnam and Philippines. However, less than half of the physician were aware of national or international management guidelines; this was significantly worse than physicians from the UK (35% vs 61%, p<0.001). Knowledge of prevalence (24%), inheritability (41%) and CVD risk (9%) of FH were also suboptimal. The majority of the physicians considered laboratory interpretative commenting as being useful (81%) and statin therapy as an appropriate cholesterol-lowering therapy (89%) for FH management. The study identified important gaps, which are readily addressable, in the awareness and knowledge of FH among physicians in the region. Implementation of country-specific guidelines and extensive work in FH education and awareness programmes are imperative

  2. Mature proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, coronary atheroma burden, and vessel remodeling in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Yu; Harada-Shiba, Mariko; Nakao, Kazuhiro; Nakashima, Takahiro; Kawakami, Shoji; Fujino, Masashi; Kanaya, Tomoaki; Nagai, Toshiyuki; Tahara, Yoshio; Asaumi, Yasuhide; Hori, Mika; Ogura, Masatsune; Goto, Yoichi; Noguchi, Teruo; Yasuda, Satoshi

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), an important contributor to low-density lipoprotein metabolism in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH), exhibits direct proatherogenic effects. PCSK9 circulates as mature and furin-cleaved forms, which differ in its biological activity. However, it remains to be elucidated whether each PCSK9 subtype has different atherogenic properties. To investigate the association of each PCSK9 subtype with coronary atherosclerosis in HeFH. About 204 nonculprit segments in 138 HeFH subjects with coronary artery disease were evaluated by using intravascular ultrasound. Mature, furin-cleaved PCSK9 and total concentration of PCSK9 subtypes were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (BML Inc., Tokyo, Japan). The relationship of these PCSK9 values with intravascular ultrasound measures was investigated. Mature PCSK9 level was positively associated with percent atheroma volume (PAV: r = 0.78, P = .003). Despite extensive atheroma under a higher mature PCSK9 level, vessel volume did not change across any mature PCSK9 levels (r = 0.05, P = .78). These responses resulted in smaller lumen volume, which was negatively correlated to mature PCSK9 level (r = 0.65, P = .009). By contrast, there were no significant relationships of PAV with furin-cleaved (r = 0.12, P = .45) and total PCSK9 (r = 0.37, P = .25) levels. On multivariate analysis, mature PCSK9 level independently contributed to PAV (odds ratio: 1.45, 95% confidence interval: 1.11-1.67, P = .01). Even in subjects with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level <2.6 mmol/L, greater PAV was still observed in association with an elevated mature PCSK9 level (P = .003). Mature PCSK9 associated with atheroma volume and impaired vessel remodeling in HeFH patients with coronary artery disease. These findings suggest the potential role of mature PCSK9 in propagation of coronary atherosclerosis in HeFH. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid

  3. Effect of a low-fat diet enriched either with rapeseed oil or sunflower oil on plasma lipoproteins in children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolaemia. Results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Negele, L; Schneider, B; Ristl, R; Stulnig, T M; Willfort-Ehringer, A; Helk, O; Widhalm, K

    2015-03-01

    There is convincing evidence that unsaturated fatty acids exert favourable effects on plasma cholesterol levels. However, it is not clear which type of oil has the most pronounced effect, especially not in paediatric patients. The aim was to compare two low-fat diet regimes enriched with either monounsaturated fatty acids by rapeseed oil (RO) or polyunsaturated fatty acids by sunflower oil (SO) in children affected with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). Twenty-one children aged 6-18 years affected with FH were enrolled in this randomized and double-blind pilot trial. The subjects and their families were trained to adhere to a low-fat/low-cholesterol diet. All visible fats were to be replaced by either RO or SO (14-27 g/day) for 13 weeks. Dietary adherence was controlled by repeated 4-day dietary records; plasma lipids, lipoproteins and risk markers were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Out of 21 subjects, 16 could be followed-up after 6 months. Both fat-modified diets resulted in significant reduction in total cholesterol concentrations of 9.4% (RO P<0.005 vs SO P<0.05) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations of 12.7% (P<0.005) for RO and 11.3% (P<0.05) for SO. The reduction of the LDL/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio (RO 9% vs SO 3.5%) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (RO 16.8% vs SO 1.7%) were not statistically significant, respectively. In most participating families, a change in eating habits could be observed. A fat-modified diet enriched with RO seems to have very similar effects on cholesterol levels as with SO. However, our study suggests that RO has possibly more favourable effects concerning cardiovascular risk profile. Both diets appear to be feasible and were well accepted among our subjects. Although these results are promising, larger trials will be required to validate our findings.

  4. Identification of a novel heterozygous missense mutation in the CACNA1F gene in a chinese family with retinitis pigmentosa by next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi; Cheng, Jingliang; Yang, Weichan; Tania, Mousumi; Wang, Hui; Khan, Md Asaduzzaman; Duan, Chengxia; Zhu, Li; Chen, Rui; Lv, Hongbin; Fu, Junjiang

    2015-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited retinal degenerative disease, which is clinically and genetically heterogeneous, and the inheritance pattern is complex. In this study, we have intended to study the possible association of certain genes with X-linked RP (XLRP) in a Chinese family. A Chinese family with RP was recruited, and a total of seven individuals were enrolled in this genetic study. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral leukocytes, and used for the next generation sequencing (NGS). The affected individual presented the clinical signs of XLRP. A heterozygous missense mutation (c.1555C>T, p.R519W) was identified by NGS in exon 13 of the CACNA1F gene on X chromosome, and was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. It showed perfect cosegregation with the disease in the family. The mutation at this position in the CACNA1F gene of RP was found novel by database searching. By using NGS, we have found a novel heterozygous missense mutation (c.1555C>T, p.R519W) in CACNA1F gene, which is probably associated with XLRP. The findings might provide new insights into the cause and diagnosis of RP, and have implications for genetic counseling and clinical management in this family.

  5. Identification of a Novel Heterozygous Missense Mutation in the CACNA1F Gene in a Chinese Family with Retinitis Pigmentosa by Next Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Tania, Mousumi; Wang, Hui; Khan, Md. Asaduzzaman; Duan, Chengxia; Zhu, Li; Chen, Rui; Lv, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    Background. Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited retinal degenerative disease, which is clinically and genetically heterogeneous, and the inheritance pattern is complex. In this study, we have intended to study the possible association of certain genes with X-linked RP (XLRP) in a Chinese family. Methods. A Chinese family with RP was recruited, and a total of seven individuals were enrolled in this genetic study. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral leukocytes, and used for the next generation sequencing (NGS). Results. The affected individual presented the clinical signs of XLRP. A heterozygous missense mutation (c.1555C>T, p.R519W) was identified by NGS in exon 13 of the CACNA1F gene on X chromosome, and was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. It showed perfect cosegregation with the disease in the family. The mutation at this position in the CACNA1F gene of RP was found novel by database searching. Conclusion. By using NGS, we have found a novel heterozygous missense mutation (c.1555C>T, p.R519W) in CACNA1F gene, which is probably associated with XLRP. The findings might provide new insights into the cause and diagnosis of RP, and have implications for genetic counseling and clinical management in this family. PMID:26075273

  6. Targeted next-generation sequencing reveals that a compound heterozygous mutation in phosphodiesterase 6a gene leads to retinitis pigmentosa in a Chinese family.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shanshan; Li, Jie; Li, Shujin; Yang, Yeming; Yang, Mu; Yang, Zhenglin; Zhu, Xianjun; Zhang, Lin

    2018-04-25

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a genetically heterogeneous disease with over 70 causative genes identified to date. However, approximately 40% of RP cases remain genetically unsolved, suggesting that many novel disease-causing mutations are yet to be identified. The purpose of this study is to identify the causative mutations of a Chinese RP family. Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) for a total of 163 genes which involved in inherited retinal disorders were used to screen the possible causative mutations. Sanger sequencing was used to verify the mutations. As results, we identified two heterozygous mutations: a splicing site mutation c.1407 + 1G>C and a nonsense mutation c. 1957C>T (p.R653X) in phosphodiesterase 6A (PDE6A) gene in the RP patient. These two mutations are inherited from his father and mother, respectively. Furthermore, these mutations are unique in our in-house database and are rare in human genome databases, implicating that these two mutations are pathological. By using targeted NGS method, we identified a compound heterozygous mutation in PDE6A gene that is associated with RP in a Chinese family.

  7. Heterozygous SSBP1 start loss mutation co-segregates with hearing loss and the m.1555A>G mtDNA variant in a large multigenerational family.

    PubMed

    Kullar, Peter J; Gomez-Duran, Aurora; Gammage, Payam A; Garone, Caterina; Minczuk, Michal; Golder, Zoe; Wilson, Janet; Montoya, Julio; Häkli, Sanna; Kärppä, Mikko; Horvath, Rita; Majamaa, Kari; Chinnery, Patrick F

    2018-01-01

    The m.1555A>G mtDNA variant causes maternally inherited deafness, but the reasons for the highly variable clinical penetrance are not known. Exome sequencing identified a heterozygous start loss mutation in SSBP1, encoding the single stranded binding protein 1 (SSBP1), segregating with hearing loss in a multi-generational family transmitting m.1555A>G, associated with mtDNA depletion and multiple deletions in skeletal muscle. The SSBP1 mutation reduced steady state SSBP1 levels leading to a perturbation of mtDNA metabolism, likely compounding the intra-mitochondrial translation defect due to m.1555A>G in a tissue-specific manner. This family demonstrates the importance of rare trans-acting genetic nuclear modifiers in the clinical expression of mtDNA disease. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  8. A novel loss-of-function heterozygous BRCA2 c.8946_8947delAG mutation found in a Chinese woman with family history of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Yang, Jichun; Jian, Wenjing; Wang, Xianming; Xiao, Deyong; Xia, Wenjun; Xiong, Likuan; Ma, Duan

    2017-04-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent female malignancy worldwide. Among them, some cases have hereditary susceptibility in two leading genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. Heterozygous germ line mutations in them are related with increased risk of breast, ovarian and other cancer, following autosomal dominant inheritance mode. For purpose of early finding, early diagnosis and early treatment, mutation detecting of BRCA1/2 genes was performed in unselected 300 breast or ovarian patients and unaffected women using next-generation sequencing and then confirmed by Sanger sequencing. A non-previously reported heterozygous mutation c.8946_8947delAG (p.D2983FfsX34) of BRCA2 gene was identified in an unaffected Chinese woman with family history of breast cancer (her breast cancer mother, also carrying this mutation). The BRCA2-truncated protein resulted from the frame shift mutation was found to lose two putative nuclear localization signals and a Rad51-binding motif in the extreme C-terminal region by bioinformatic prediction. And then in vitro experiments showed that nearly all the mutant protein was unable to translocate to the nucleus to perform DNA repair activity. This novel mutant BRCA2 protein is dysfunction. We classify the mutation into disease causing and conclude that it is the risk factor for breast cancer in this family. So, conducting the same mutation test and providing genetic counseling for this family is practically meaningful and significant. Meanwhile, the identification of this new mutation enriches the Breast Cancer Information Core database, especially in China.

  9. R353Q polymorphism in the factor VII gene and cardiovascular risk in Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder characterized by a high risk of cardiovascular disease. Certain polymorphisms of the factor VII gene have been associated with the development of coronary artery disease and there is a known association between factor VII levels and polymorphic variants in this gene. To date, no study has evaluated the association between factor VII and coronary artery disease in patients with FH. Results This case-control study comprised 720 patients (546 with FH and 174 controls). We determined the prevalence and allele frequencies of the R353Q polymorphism of factor VII, the plasma levels of factor VII antigen (FVII Ag) and whether they could be predictive factors for cardiovascular risk. 75% (410) of the patients with FH were RR, 23% (127) RQ and 1.6% (9) QQ; in the control group 75.3% (131) were RR, 21.3% (37) RQ and 3.4% (6) QQ (p = 0.32). No statistically significant associations were observed in the distribution of genotypes and allele frequencies between case (FH) and control groups. Nor did we find differences when we evaluated the relationship between the R353Q polymorphism and cardiovascular risk (including coronary disease, ischemic stroke and peripheral arterial disease), either in the univariate analysis or after adjustment for sex, age, arterial hypertension, body mass index, xanthomas, diabetes, smoking, HDLc and LDLc and lipid-lowering treatment. The FVII Ag concentrations behaved in a similar fashion, with no differences for the interaction between controls and those with FH (RR vs. RQ/QQ; p = 0.96). In the subgroup of patients with FH no association was found among cardiovascular disease, genotype and FVII Ag levels (RR vs. RQ/QQ; p = 0.97). Conclusions Our study did not find a direct relationship between cardiovascular risk in patients with Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia, the R353Q polymorphism of factor VII and FVII Ag levels. PMID:21477332

  10. R353Q polymorphism in the factor VII gene and cardiovascular risk in Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Criado-García, Juan; Fuentes, Francisco; Cruz-Teno, Cristina; García-Rios, Antonio; Jiménez-Morales, Anabel; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Mata, Pedro; Alonso, Rodrigo; López-Miranda, José; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco

    2011-04-09

    Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder characterized by a high risk of cardiovascular disease. Certain polymorphisms of the factor VII gene have been associated with the development of coronary artery disease and there is a known association between factor VII levels and polymorphic variants in this gene. To date, no study has evaluated the association between factor VII and coronary artery disease in patients with FH. This case-control study comprised 720 patients (546 with FH and 174 controls). We determined the prevalence and allele frequencies of the R353Q polymorphism of factor VII, the plasma levels of factor VII antigen (FVII Ag) and whether they could be predictive factors for cardiovascular risk. 75% (410) of the patients with FH were RR, 23% (127) RQ and 1.6% (9) QQ; in the control group 75.3% (131) were RR, 21.3% (37) RQ and 3.4% (6) QQ (p = 0.32). No statistically significant associations were observed in the distribution of genotypes and allele frequencies between case (FH) and control groups. Nor did we find differences when we evaluated the relationship between the R353Q polymorphism and cardiovascular risk (including coronary disease, ischemic stroke and peripheral arterial disease), either in the univariate analysis or after adjustment for sex, age, arterial hypertension, body mass index, xanthomas, diabetes, smoking, HDLc and LDLc and lipid-lowering treatment. The FVII Ag concentrations behaved in a similar fashion, with no differences for the interaction between controls and those with FH (RR vs. RQ/QQ; p = 0.96). In the subgroup of patients with FH no association was found among cardiovascular disease, genotype and FVII Ag levels (RR vs. RQ/QQ; p = 0.97). Our study did not find a direct relationship between cardiovascular risk in patients with Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia, the R353Q polymorphism of factor VII and FVII Ag levels.

  11. Hereditary Xerocytosis due to Mutations in PIEZO1 Gene Associated with Heterozygous Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency and Beta-Thalassemia Trait in Two Unrelated Families.

    PubMed

    Fermo, Elisa; Vercellati, Cristina; Marcello, Anna Paola; Zaninoni, Anna; van Wijk, Richard; Mirra, Nadia; Curcio, Cristina; Cortelezzi, Agostino; Zanella, Alberto; Barcellini, Wilma; Bianchi, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary xerocytosis (HX) is a rare disorder caused by defects of RBC permeability, associated with haemolytic anaemia of variable degree and iron overload. It is sometimes misdiagnosed as hereditary spherocytosis or other congenital haemolytic anaemia. Splenectomy is contraindicated due to increased risk of thromboembolic complications. We report the clinical, haematological, and molecular characteristics of four patients from two unrelated Italian families affected by HX, associated with beta-thalassemia trait and heterozygous pyruvate kinase deficiency, respectively. Two patients had been splenectomised and displayed thrombotic episodes. All patients had iron overload in the absence of transfusion, two of them requiring iron chelation. The diagnosis of HX was confirmed by LoRRca Osmoscan analysis showing a left-shifted curve. PIEZO1 gene sequencing revealed the presence of mutation p.E2496ELE, showing that this is one of the most frequent mutations in this disease. The concomitant defects did not aggravate the clinical phenotype; however, in one patient, the initial diagnosis of pyruvate kinase deficiency delayed the correct diagnosis of HX for many years and resulted in splenectomy followed by thrombotic complications. The study underlines the importance of a precise diagnosis in HX, particularly in view of splenectomy, and the need of a molecular confirmation of suspected RBC enzymopathy.

  12. Hereditary Xerocytosis due to Mutations in PIEZO1 Gene Associated with Heterozygous Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency and Beta-Thalassemia Trait in Two Unrelated Families

    PubMed Central

    Vercellati, Cristina; Marcello, Anna Paola; Zaninoni, Anna; van Wijk, Richard; Mirra, Nadia; Curcio, Cristina; Cortelezzi, Agostino; Zanella, Alberto; Barcellini, Wilma; Bianchi, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary xerocytosis (HX) is a rare disorder caused by defects of RBC permeability, associated with haemolytic anaemia of variable degree and iron overload. It is sometimes misdiagnosed as hereditary spherocytosis or other congenital haemolytic anaemia. Splenectomy is contraindicated due to increased risk of thromboembolic complications. We report the clinical, haematological, and molecular characteristics of four patients from two unrelated Italian families affected by HX, associated with beta-thalassemia trait and heterozygous pyruvate kinase deficiency, respectively. Two patients had been splenectomised and displayed thrombotic episodes. All patients had iron overload in the absence of transfusion, two of them requiring iron chelation. The diagnosis of HX was confirmed by LoRRca Osmoscan analysis showing a left-shifted curve. PIEZO1 gene sequencing revealed the presence of mutation p.E2496ELE, showing that this is one of the most frequent mutations in this disease. The concomitant defects did not aggravate the clinical phenotype; however, in one patient, the initial diagnosis of pyruvate kinase deficiency delayed the correct diagnosis of HX for many years and resulted in splenectomy followed by thrombotic complications. The study underlines the importance of a precise diagnosis in HX, particularly in view of splenectomy, and the need of a molecular confirmation of suspected RBC enzymopathy. PMID:28367341

  13. Familial hypofibrinogenaemia associated with heterozygous substitution of a conserved arginine residue; Bbeta255 Arg-->His (Fibrinogen Merivale).

    PubMed

    Maghzal, Ghassan J; Brennan, Stephen O; Fellowes, Andrew P; Spearing, Ruth; George, Peter M

    2003-02-21

    Sequencing of all three fibrinogen genes from an individual with hypofibrinogenaemia led to the identification of two new point mutations in the Bbeta gene. Family studies showed the mutations Bbeta255 Arg-->His (Fibrinogen Merivale) and Bbeta148 Lys-->Asn (Fibrinogen Merivale II) were on different alleles and that only the Bbeta255 Arg-->His mutation segregated with hypofibrinogenaemia. Three simple heterozygotes for this mutation had mean fibrinogen concentrations of 1.4 mg/ml, while heterozygotes for the Bbeta148 Lys-->Asn mutation had normal fibrinogen concentrations. ESI MS analysis of endoproteinase Asp-N digests of Bbeta chains showed that the Bbeta255 Arg-->His substitution was not expressed in plasma, confirming it as the cause of the hypofibrinogenaemia. The Bbeta148 Lys-->Asn chains, on the other hand, were equally expressed with wild-type Bbeta chains in simple heterozygotes. Genotype analysis failed to detect either substitution in 182 healthy controls. Arg(255) is located in the first strand of the five-stranded sheet that forms the main feature of the betaD domain and appears to form an essential H bond with Gly(414). Both the Arg and Gly are absolutely conserved, not only in all known Bbeta chains, but also in all homologous alphaE and gamma chains and in all fibrinogen-related proteins. Protein instability from loss of this contact could easily explain the association of this mutation with hypofibrinogenaemia.

  14. Effect of plant sterols on the lipid profile of patients with hypercholesterolaemia. Randomised, experimental study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies have been conducted on supplementing the daily diet with plant sterol ester-enriched milk derivatives in order to reduce LDL-cholesterol levels and, consequently, cardiovascular risk. However, clinical practice guidelines on hypercholesterolaemia state that there is not sufficient evidence to recommend their use in subjects with hypercholesterolaemia. The main objective of this study is to determine the efficacy of the intake of 2 g of plant sterol esters a day in lowering LDL-cholesterol levels in patients diagnosed with hypercholesterolaemia. The specific objectives are: 1) to quantify the efficacy of the daily intake of plant sterol esters in lowering LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol and cardiovascular risk in patients with hypercholesterolaemia; 2) to evaluate the occurrence of adverse effects of the daily intake of plant sterol esters; 3) to identify the factors that determine a greater reduction in lipid levels in subjects receiving plant sterol ester supplements. Methods/Design Randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled experimental trial carried out at family doctors' surgeries at three health centres in the Health Area of Albacete (Spain). The study subjects will be adults diagnosed with "limit" or "defined" hypercholesterolaemia and who have LDL cholesterol levels of 130 mg/dl or over. A dairy product in the form of liquid yoghurt containing 2 g of plant sterol ester per container will be administered daily after the main meal, for a period of 24 months. The control group will receive a daily unit of yogurt not supplemented with plant sterol esters that has a similar appearance to the enriched yoghurt. The primary variable is the change in lipid profile at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. The secondary variables are: change in cardiovascular risk, adherence to the dairy product, adverse effects, adherence to dietary recommendations, frequency of food consumption, basic physical examination data, health problems, lipid

  15. Prediction of subtle left ventricular systolic dysfunction in homozygous and heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: Genetic analyses and speckle tracking echocardiography study.

    PubMed

    Saracoglu, Erhan; Kılıç, Salih; Vuruşkan, Ertan; Düzen, Irfan; Çekici, Yusuf; Kuzu, Zülfiye; Yıldırım, Arafat; Küçükosmanoğlu, Mehmet; Çetin, Mustafa

    2018-06-05

    Few studies have shown the direct effect of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) on myocardial systolic function. Studies focused on heterozygote FH patients but not homozygote ones, and they did not perform genetic analyses. We aimed to evaluate all types of patients with FH using the potentially more sensitive speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) technique to identify early left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Genetic analyses of patients with FH were conducted for LDL-receptor, PCSK9, and ApoB100. Nine homozygote, two compound heterozygote, and 82 heterozygote FH patients and 85 healthy subjects were prospectively studied. Longitudinal and circumferential strain measurements and conventional echocardiography findings were obtained. LV ejection fractions were similar for all (homozygote, heterozygote, and control) groups. The LV average longitudinal strain (aLS) and average circumferential strain (aCS) levels were significantly reduced in the homozygote and heterozygote groups when compared with the controls (for aLS, P = .008 (<.001); for aCS, P =< .001). A significant inverse correlation was found between LDL-C levels and LS (P < .001, r = .728) and CS (P < .001, r = .642) for all FH patients. This study demonstrates the potential of using systolic strain values obtained using 2D STE for determining lipotoxicity in the myocardium owing to hypercholesterolemia. Our study found that cardiac functions of homozygote patients who had the highest cholesterol levels were disrupted at very early ages. Therefore, starting lipid reduction treatment and early reverse LV remodelling therapy at early ages may be beneficial for high-risk patients. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The potential of mipomersen, an ApoB synthesis inhibitor, to reduce necessity for LDL-apheresis in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia and coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Anja; Parhofer, Klaus G

    2013-04-01

    LDL-apheresis is a treatment option for familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) with country-specific thresholds for LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) for initiation. Apheresis also reduces lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] and may be used to lower Lp(a) in high-risk patients. Mipomersen, an apolipoproteinB-synthesis-inhibitor, reduces LDL-C and Lp(a). We hypothesized that mipomersen may prevent the necessity for apheresis by reducing the both below thresholds. Data from a study in 123 patients with heterozygous FH and coronary artery disease on maximally tolerated lipid-lowering therapy were used to evaluate in what percentage adding mipomersen resulted in lipid-levels below apheresis-thresholds. Different thresholds were tested: LDL-C ≥ 2.59 mmol/l, ≥ 3.36 mmol/l, ≥ 4.14 mmol/l, Lp(a) ≥ 60 mg/dl. Mipomersen decreased LDL-C by 28% (baseline 153 mg/dl), Lp(a) by 21% (baseline 45 mg/dl) (placebo no effect). Mipomersen reduced the percentage of patients with LDL-C ≥ 4.14 mmol/l from 39 to 2%, with LDL ≥ 3.36 mmol/l from 62 to 16%, with LDL ≥ 2.59 mmol/l from 98 to 54%, and with Lp(a) ≥ 60 mg/dl from 39 to 23%. When added to maximally tolerated lipid-lowering therapy, mipomersen may reduce the necessity for apheresis in many of these patients. In Germany, the threshold for apheresis for LDL typically is 2.59 mmol/l, for Lp(a) 60 mg/dl. Almost 50% of the patients could avoid apheresis with the addition of mipomersen. Further studies are warranted to evaluate whether patients who qualify for apheresis could be adequately controlled with mipomersen.

  17. Budget Impact Analysis of PCSK9 Inhibitors for the Management of Adult Patients with Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia or Clinical Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Mallya, Usha G; Boklage, Susan H; Koren, Andrew; Delea, Thomas E; Mullins, C Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the budget impact of introducing the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors (PCSK9i) alirocumab and evolocumab to market for the treatment of adults with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia or clinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular (CV) disease requiring additional lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). A 3-year model estimated the costs of lipid-modifying therapy (LMT) and CV events to a hypothetical US health plan of 1 million members, comparing two scenarios-with and without the availability of PCSK9i as add-on therapy to statins. Proportions of patients with uncontrolled LDL-C despite receiving statins, and at risk of CV events, were estimated from real-world data. Total undiscounted annual LMT costs (2017 prices, including PCSK9i costs of $14,563.50), dispensing and healthcare costs, including the costs of CV events, were estimated for all prevalent patients in the target population, based on baseline risk factors. Maximum PCSK9i utilization of 1-5% over 3 years according to risk group (following the same pattern as current ezetimibe use), and 5-10% as a secondary scenario, were assumed. Total healthcare budget impacts per target patient (and per member) per month for years 1, 2 and 3 were $3.62($0.10), $7.22($0.20) and $10.79($0.30), respectively, assuming 1-5% maximum PCSK9i utilization, and $15.81($0.44), $31.52($0.88) and $47.12($1.31), respectively, assuming 5-10% utilization. Results were sensitive to changes in model timeframe, years to maximum PCSK9i utilization and PCSK9i costs. The budget impact of PCSK9i as add-on therapy to statins for patients with hypercholesterolemia is relatively low compared with published estimates for other specialty biologics. Drug cost rebates and discounts are likely to further reduce budget impact.

  18. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 mass and activity in children with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia and unaffected siblings: effect of pravastatin.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Sung Kee; Hutten, Barbara A; Vissers, Maud N; Wiegman, Albert; Kastelein, John J P; Tsimikas, Sotirios

    2011-01-01

    Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease and a target of treatment. Lp-PLA(2) levels in children have not been previously reported. The effect of statin therapy on Lp-PLA(2) mass and activity in children with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is also not known. Lp-PLA(2) mass and activity levels were measured at baseline and after 2 years in 178 children with FH randomized to pravastatin or placebo and in 78 unaffected and untreated siblings. At the end of the randomized period, all FH children were then placed on pravastatin for an additional 2 years, and Lp-PLA(2) mass and activity levels were correlated with changes in carotid intima-media thickness during 4 years of follow-up. Baseline levels of Lp-PLA(2) mass and activity were significantly greater in children with FH compared with unaffected siblings (mass: 240.3 ± 41.6 vs 222.1 ± 36.5 ng/mL, P = .002; activity: 205.7 ± 41.6 vs 124.3±23.0 nmol/min/mL, P < .0001). In the randomized FH cohort, after 2 years treatment, Lp-PLA(2) mass (217.8 ± 35.0 vs 231.5 ± 34.8 ng/mL, P = .001) and activity (178.8 ± 37.3 vs 206.2 ± 33.5 nmol/min/mL, P < .0001) were significantly reduced by pravastatin compared with placebo. Change in Lp-PLA(2) activity was related to change in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (pravastatin: r = 0.53, P < .0001, placebo: r = 0.23, P < .001) but change in Lp-PLA(2) mass was not related to change in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Baseline levels of Lp-PLA(2) mass and activity were not significantly associated with carotid intima-media thickness at baseline or at 4 years. Lp-PLA(2) mass and activity are significantly elevated in children with heterozygous FH compared with unaffected siblings and are significantly reduced by pravastatin therapy. Copyright © 2011 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Trace metal excretion in patients with homozygous hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Jackson, G E; Blewet, R; Rodgers, A L; Wood, L; Jacobs, P

    1999-07-01

    In patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia regular therapeutic apheresis is acknowledged to have long-term benefit. A previously unrecognised complication of such intervention is the development of anaemia that reflects a sub-optimal dietary iron intake coupled with accelerated loss of this trace metal in the fluid discarded after each procedure. Additional contributions result from enhanced urinary excretion as a result of chelation to citrate used as an anticoagulant and frequent blood sampling. The underlying pathophysiologic process appears to be reduced deformability. We now document similar and significant losses of zinc, copper and chromium in these circumstances. In the case of the latter three elements, no associated clinical syndromes have thus far been identified, probably because deficiency states are less well-recognised than that due to iron loss and, additionally, because critical reductions are avoided by their replenishment during a normal food intake. These studies are, nevertheless, relevant since they are the basis for recommending prophylactic supplementation during this form of management.

  20. Other autoinflammatory disease genes in an FMF-prevalent population: a homozygous MVK mutation and a novel heterozygous TNFRSF1A mutation in two different Turkish families with clinical FMF.

    PubMed

    Karacan, İlker; Uğurlu, Serdal; Tolun, Aslıhan; Tahir Turanlı, Eda; Ozdogan, Huri

    2017-01-01

    No MEFV mutations are detected in approximately 10% of the patients with clinical FMF in populations where the disease is highly prevalent. Causative mutations were searched in other genes in two such families with "MEFV negative clinical FMF". Father and daughter of family A had attacks of fever, abdominal pain and AA amyloidosis. The two sibs of family B complained of febrile episodes with abdominal pain and arthritis. The patients were clinically investigated. Exome analysis in the daughter in family A and linkage analysis and candidate gene sequencing for the members of family B were performed. All patients were re-evaluated in the light of the genetic findings. In the daughter in family A, filtering of the exome file for variants in 25 autoimmune/inflammatory disease-related genes revealed two heterozygous missense variants in TNFRSF1A, novel p.Cys72Phe and frequent p.Arg121Gln. In family B, novel, homozygous missense p.Cys161Arg in MVK was identified. A clinical re-evaluation of the patients revealed a phenotype consistent with FMF rather than TRAPS in family A and an overlap of FMF with HIDS in family B. In high risk populations of FMF a proportion of patients without MEFV mutations may carry causative mutations in other genes, and the clinical findings may not be fully consistent with the phenotype expected of the mutation identified but rather resemble FMF or an overlap syndrome.

  1. [Severe hypercholesterolaemia--when to use the proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 protease inhibitors (PCSK9 inhibitors)? Polish Society of Cardiology experts' group statement].

    PubMed

    Cybulska, Barbara; Gaciong, Zbigniew; Hoffman, Piotr; Jankowski, Piotr; Kłosiewicz-Latoszek, Longina; Kaźmierczak, Jarosław; Mitręga, Katarzyna; Opolski, Grzegorz; Pająk, Andrzej; Ponikowski, Piotr; Rynkiewicz, Andrzej; Stępińska, Janina; Średniawa, Beata; Kalarus, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    The severe hypercholesterolaemia can be recognised when low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) serum levels are equal to or above 5 mmol/L (≥ 190 mg/dL). The prevalence of LDL-C ≥ 5 mmol/L is 3.8% in Polish population aged 18-79 years. Among these adults there are patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). According to meta-analysis of 6 Polish population surveys prevalence of heterozygous FH (HeFH) diagnosed using Dutch Lipid Clinic criteria is 0.4% (95% Cl 0.28-0.53%) in men and women aged 20-74 years, i.e. one in every 250 people. As HeFH is a wellknown cause of premature coronary heart disease the rigorous treatment targets for LDL-C have been established in clinical guidelines. Their achievements, even with a high dose of high efficacy statin therapy is difficult or even impossible. New strong hypolipidaemic drugs i.e. PCSK9 inhibitors have been initiated against this chalange. Both drugs, evolocumab and alirocumab, have been extensively studied in numerous phase 2 and phase 3 trials. Fewer studies with bococizumab are available until now. The PCSK9 inhibitors, as monotherapy as well in combination with statins were associated with mean LDL-C reduction about 60%. It means that the majority of patients (70-90%) with severe hypercholesterolaemia (including HeFH), treated with statins, after addition of PCSK9 inhibitors were able to achieve an LDL-C < 2.5 mmol/L (< 100 mg/dL) or < 1.8 mmol/L (< 70 mg/dL) level. Another group of patients who may benefit from PCSK9 inhibitors include those who need lipid lowering therapy, but who are statin intolerant, especially because of statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS). In our statement we have accepted the diagnosis of SAMS proposed recently by European Atherosclerosis Society. Today the longest clinical trial with evolocumab (11 months) was the open OSLER study, and with alirocumab ODYSSEY LONG TERM (78 weeks). In the first one the reduction of cardiovascular events by 53% (95% Cl 22-72%) was observed

  2. Variable expressivity of the phenotype in two families with brachydactyly type E, craniofacial dysmorphism, short stature and delayed bone age caused by novel heterozygous mutations in the PTHLH gene.

    PubMed

    Jamsheer, Aleksander; Sowińska-Seidler, Anna; Olech, Ewelina M; Socha, Magdalena; Kozłowski, Kazimierz; Pyrkosz, Antoni; Trzeciak, Tomasz; Materna-Kiryluk, Anna; Latos-Bieleńska, Anna

    2016-05-01

    Brachydactyly refers to shortening of digits due to hypoplasia or aplasia of bones forming the hands and/or feet. Isolated brachydactyly type E (BDE), which is characterized by shortened metacarpals and/or metatarsals, results in a small proportion of patients from HOXD13 or PTHLH mutations, although in the majority of cases molecular lesion remains unknown. BDE, like other brachydactylies, shows clinical heterogeneity with highly variable intrafamilial and interindividual expressivity. In this study, we investigated two Polish cases (one familial and one sporadic) presenting with BDE and additional symptoms due to novel PTHLH mutations. Apart from BDE, the affected family showed short stature, mild craniofacial dysmorphism and delayed bone age. Sanger sequencing of PTHLH revealed a novel heterozygous frameshift mutation c.258delC(p.N87Tfs*18) in two affected individuals and one relative manifesting mild brachydactyly. The sporadic patient, in addition to BDE, presented with craniofacial dysmorphism, normal stature and bone age, and was demonstrated to carry a de novo heterozygous c.166C>T(p.R56*) mutation. Our paper reports on the two novel truncating PTHLH variants, resulting in variable combination of BDE and other symptoms. Data shown here expand the knowledge on the phenotypic presentation of PTHLH mutations, highlighting significant clinical variability and incomplete penetrance of the PTHLH-related symptoms.

  3. Ezetimibe Use and LDL-C Goal Achievement: A Retrospective Database Analysis of Patients with Clinical Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease or Probable Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Menzin, Joseph; Aggarwal, Jyoti; Boatman, Brian; Yu, Jeffrey; Stern, Kevin; Harrison, David J; Patel, Jeetvan G

    2017-12-01

    Ezetimibe is recommended by clinical practice guidelines as a second-line therapy for lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, but little is known about its use and effectiveness in real-world populations. To understand the real-world impact of adding or switching to ezetimibe on LDL-C goal achievement in patients with clinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and/or heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH). Patients aged ≥ 18 years with an LDL-C measurement available between January 1, 2013, and June 30, 2014, were identified using the Inovalon MORE 2 database; this included commercial, health insurance exchange, Medicare Advantage, and managed Medicaid patients. The index date was the date of the first LDL-C measurement. Patients were required to have evidence of clinical ASCVD or probable HeFH based on ICD-9-CM codes and ≥ 1 outpatient pharmacy claim for a statin in the 1-year pre-index period, as well as continuous medical and pharmacy coverage for 1 year pre- and post-index. Patients who added ezetimibe to existing statin therapy or switched to ezetimibe within 90 days post-index LDL-C measurement were identified in order to replicate the typical time a clinician takes to assess the use of ezetimibe. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who met the LDL-C goal of < 70 mg/dL within the follow-up period. LDL-C goal achievement was evaluated by baseline LDL-C level groupings: < 70 mg/dL, 70-99 mg/dL, 100-129 mg/dL, or ≥ 130 mg/dL; and across 4 patient diagnosis categories: all patients, ASCVD only, probable HeFH only, and ASCVD and probable HeFH. Descriptive analyses were reported. Categorical variables were summarized as the number of and corresponding percentage of patients. Continuous variables were presented as the mean and SD of the number of observations and median and range where appropriate. Of 125,330 patients who met selection criteria, mean age was 70.1 (SD = 9.9) years and mean LDL

  4. Novel compound heterozygous mutations in the GPR98 (USH2C) gene identified by whole exome sequencing in a Moroccan deaf family.

    PubMed

    Bousfiha, Amale; Bakhchane, Amina; Charoute, Hicham; Detsouli, Mustapha; Rouba, Hassan; Charif, Majida; Lenaers, Guy; Barakat, Abdelhamid

    2017-10-01

    In the present work, we identified two novel compound heterozygote mutations in the GPR98 (G protein-coupled receptor 98) gene causing Usher syndrome. Whole-exome sequencing was performed to study the genetic causes of Usher syndrome in a Moroccan family with three affected siblings. We identify two novel compound heterozygote mutations (c.1054C > A, c.16544delT) in the GPR98 gene in the three affected siblings carrying post-linguale bilateral moderate hearing loss with normal vestibular functions and before installing visual disturbances. This is the first time that mutations in the GPR98 gene are described in the Moroccan deaf patients.

  5. Apolipoprotein B synthesis inhibition with mipomersen in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess efficacy and safety as add-on therapy in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Stein, Evan A; Dufour, Robert; Gagne, Claude; Gaudet, Daniel; East, Cara; Donovan, Joanne M; Chin, Wai; Tribble, Diane L; McGowan, Mary

    2012-11-06

    Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) is a common genetic disorder leading to premature coronary artery disease. Despite statins and additional lipid-lowering therapies, many HeFH patients fail to achieve low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals. We evaluated mipomersen, an apolipoprotein B synthesis inhibitor, to further lower LDL-C in HeFH patients with coronary artery disease. This double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial randomized patients with HeFH and coronary artery disease on maximally tolerated statin and LDL-C ≥2.6 mmol/L (≥100 mg/dL) to weekly subcutaneous mipomersen 200 mg or placebo (2:1) for 26 weeks. The primary end point was percent change in LDL-C from baseline at week 28. Safety assessments included adverse events, laboratory tests, and magnetic resonance imaging assessment of hepatic fat. Of 124 randomized patients (41 placebo, 83 mipomersen), 114 (41 placebo, 73 mipomersen) completed treatment. Mean (95% confidence interval) LDL-C decreased significantly with mipomersen (-28.0% [-34.0% to -22.1%] compared with 5.2% [-0.5% to 10.9%] increase with placebo; P<0.001). Mipomersen significantly reduced apolipoprotein B (-26.3%), total cholesterol (-19.4%), and lipoprotein(a) (-21.1%) compared with placebo (all P<0.001). No significant change occurred in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Adverse events included injection site reactions and influenza-like symptoms. Five mipomersen patients (6%) had 2 consecutive alanine aminotransferase values ≥3 times the upper limit of normal at least 7 days apart; none were associated with significant bilirubin increases. Hepatic fat content increased a median of 4.9% with mipomersen versus 0.4% with placebo (P<0.001). Mipomersen is an effective therapy to further reduce apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins, including LDL and lipoprotein(a), in HeFH patients with coronary artery disease on statins and other lipid-lowering therapy. The significance of hepatic fat and

  6. Statins affect ocular microcirculation in patients with hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Terai, Naim; Spoerl, Eberhard; Fischer, Sabine; Hornykewycz, Karin; Haustein, Michael; Haentzschel, Janek; Pillunat, Lutz E

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the effect of statins on ocular microcirculation in patients with hypercholesterolaemia. Ten patients with hypercholesterolaemia were included in this study. The diameter of retinal vessels was measured continuously with the retinal vessel analyser (RVA) before and 4 weeks after statin therapy. After baseline assessment, a monochromatic luminance flicker was applied to evoke retinal vasodilation. Flicker response was then analysed after 50, 150 and 250 seconds after baseline measurement. Additionally, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride levels were obtained to find a possible correlation between retinal vessel diameter changes and lipid metabolism before and after statin therapy. The mean diameter of the arterioles before statin therapy at baseline was 106.3 ± 1.5 μm and the mean diameter of the venules at baseline was 127.3 ± 2.5 μm. The mean diameter of the arterioles 4 weeks before statin therapy was 107.3 ± 1.8 μm after 50 seconds, 107.9 ± 1.8 μm after 150 seconds and 108.0 ± 1.8 μm after 250 seconds (p = 0.01). The mean diameter of the venules 4 weeks before statin therapy was 128.0 ± 2.6 μm after 50 seconds, 128.2 ± 2.5 μm after 150 seconds and 128.2 ± 2.3 μm after 250 seconds (p = 0.01). The mean diameter of the arterioles 4 weeks after statin therapy at baseline was 107.1 ± 1.6 μm and the mean diameter of the venules at baseline was 127.7 ± 2.3 μm which was significantly different from measurements before statin therapy (p = 0.004). The diameter of the arterioles 4 weeks after statin therapy increased to 109.2 ± 2.1 μm after 50 seconds, to 110.6 ± 2.6 μm after 150 seconds and to 111.8 ± 2.3 μm after 250 seconds with statistical significance at all time points (p = 0.001). The mean diameter of the venules after statin therapy increased to 130.6 ± 2.7 μm after 50 seconds, to 132.1 ± 2.6 μm after 150 seconds and to 133.5 ± 3.0 μm after 250 seconds with

  7. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and interleukin-6 levels reflect endothelial dysfunction in patients with primary hypercholesterolaemia treated with atorvastatin.

    PubMed

    Nawawi, H; Osman, N S; Annuar, R; Khalid, B A K; Yusoff, K

    2003-08-01

    Adhesion molecules and cytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of intimal injury in atherosclerosis but their relationship with endothelial function remains unclear. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of atorvastatin on soluble adhesion molecules, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and brachial artery endothelial-dependent flow mediated dilatation (FMD) in patients with familial (FH) and non-familial hypercholesterolaemia (NFH). A total of 74 patients (27 FH and 47 NFH) were recruited. Fasting lipid profiles, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular-cellular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), E-selectin, IL-6 and FMD were measured at baseline, 2 weeks, 3 and 9 months post-atorvastatin treatment (FH--80 mg/day, NFH--10 mg/day). In both groups, compared to baseline, sICAM-1 levels were significantly reduced at 2 weeks, further reduced at 3 months and maintained at 9 months (P<0.0001). The IL-6 levels were significantly reduced at 3 months and 9 months compared to baseline for FH (P<0.005) and NFH (P<0.0001). In both groups, the FMD at 2 weeks was higher than baseline (P<0.005), with progressive improvement up to 9 months. FMD was negatively correlated with sICAM-1 and IL-6. In conclusion, both low and high doses of atorvastatin lead to early progressive improvement in endothelial function in patients with primary hypercholesterolaemia. sICAM-1 and IL-6 levels reflect endothelial dysfunction in these patients.

  8. Heterozygous TGFBR2 mutations in Marfan syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mizuguchi, Takeshi; Collod-Beroud, Gwenaëlle; Akiyama, Takushi; Abifadel, Marianne; Harada, Naoki; Morisaki, Takayuki; Allard, Delphine; Varret, Mathilde; Claustres, Mireille; Morisaki, Hiroko; Ihara, Makoto; Kinoshita, Akira; Yoshiura, Koh-ichiro; Junien, Claudine; Kajii, Tadashi; Jondeau, Guillaume; Ohta, Tohru; Kishino, Tatsuya; Furukawa, Yoichi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Niikawa, Norio; Boileau, Catherine; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2004-01-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an extracellular matrix disorder with cardinal manifestations in the eye, skeleton, and cardiovascular systems and associated with defects in the fibrillin gene (FBN1) at 15q21.1 1. We previously mapped the second locus for MFS (MFS type 2, MFS2, OMIM *154705), at 3p24.2-p25 in a large French family (MS1)2. Identification of a 3p24.1 chromosomal breakpoint disrupting the TGF-beta receptor 2 gene (TGFBR2) in a Japanese MFS patient led us to consider TGFBR2 as the MSF2 gene. We found a Q508Q mutation of TGFBR2 that resulted in abnormal splicing and segregated with MFS2 in MS1. Three other missense mutations were found in four unrelated probands and were shown by luciferase-assays to lead to loss of function of the TGF-β signaling activity on extracellular matrix formation. These results show that heterozygous mutations in TGFBR2, a putative tumor suppressor gene implicated in several malignancies, are also associated with inherited connective-tissue disorders. PMID:15235604

  9. Heterozygous Hb Hope [beta136(H14)Gly --> Asp] in association with heterozygous beta0-thalassemia with apparent homozygous expression, in a Spanish patient.

    PubMed

    Beneitez, David; Carrera, Alícia; Duran-Suárez, Joan Ramón; Paz, Victoria; León, Antonio; García Talavera, Juan

    2006-01-01

    Hb Hope [beta136(H14)Gly --> Asp (GGT --> GAT)] has been found alone or in combination with other globin gene mutations in several African-American families, as well as in Japanese, Thai, Laotian, Cuban and Mauritanian families. We report the hematological and molecular characteristics of a heterozygous association of Hb Hope with beta0-thalassemia (thal) in a Spanish patient, in whom the level of expression of abnormal hemoglobin (Hb) by cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electrophoresis suggested initially a homozygous expression of the abnormal Hb, although sequencing of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified beta-globin gene demonstrated a heterozygous genotype for Hb Hope. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of a case of Hb Hope in a Spanish family.

  10. Hypercholesterolaemia exacerbates ventricular remodelling after myocardial infarction in the rat: role of angiotensin II type 1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mączewski, M; Mączewska, J; Duda, M

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Diet-induced hypercholesterolaemia exacerbates post-myocardial infarction (MI) ventricular remodelling and heart failure, but the mechanism of this phenomenon remains unknown. This study examined whether worsening of post-MI ventricular remodelling induced by dietary hypercholesterolaemia was related to upregulation of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor in the rat heart. Experimental approach: MI was induced surgically in rats fed normal or high cholesterol diet. Both groups of rats were then assigned to control, atorvastatin, losartan or atorvastatin+losartan-treated subgroups and followed for 8 weeks. Left ventricular (LV) function was assessed with echocardiography. In isolated hearts, LV pressures were measured with a latex balloon and a tip catheter. AT1-receptor density was assessed in LV membranes with radioligand-binding assays. Key results: High cholesterol diet exacerbated LV dilation and dysfunction in post-MI hearts. Atorvastatin or losartan prevented these hypercholesterolaemia-induced effects, whereas their combination was not more effective than each drug alone. AT1 receptors were upregulated 8 weeks after MI, this was further increased by hypercholesterolaemia and restored to baseline levels by atorvastatin. Conclusions and implications: Hypercholesterolaemia exacerbated LV remodelling and dysfunction in post-MI rat hearts and upregulated cardiac AT1 receptors. All these effects were effectively prevented by atorvastatin. Thus, the pleiotropic statin effects may include interference with the renin-angiotensin system through downregulation of AT1 receptors. PMID:18536757

  11. Low density lipoprotein receptor founder mutations in Afrikaner familial hypercholesterolaemic patients: a comparison of two geographical areas.

    PubMed

    Graadt van Roggen, F; van der Westhuyzen, D R; Marais, A D; Gevers, W; Coetzee, G A

    1991-12-01

    Afrikaners with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) were screened for the presence of three point mutations in the low density lipoprotein receptor gene that were previously described as being relatively common in this population. The prevalence and distribution of the mutations were compared in 27 unrelated homozygous and 79 unrelated heterozygous FH Afrikaner patients from two regions in South Africa, the Transvaal and Cape Provinces. The relative distribution of the three mutations was similar in the two regions, with the FH1 mutation being the most prevalent (66%), followed by the FH2 mutation (27%) and the FH3 mutation (7%). Interestingly, defects other than the three common mutations are more common in the Cape than in the Transvaal; thus the three known mutations account for 98% of FH alleles in the Transvaal and only 74% in the Cape Province. None of the patients carried the recently described familial defective apolipoprotein B100 mutation. These results establish that three "founder" mutant genes occur amongst the Afrikaner and are responsible for the overall high prevalence of FH in this population.

  12. Effect of pravastatin on responsiveness to N-monomethyl-L-arginine in patients with hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Bayerle-Eder, Michaela; Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, Gabriele; Sieder, Anna; Polska, Elzbieta; Roden, Michael; Stulnig, Thomas; Bischof, Martin G; Waldhäusl, Werner; Schmetterer, Leopold; Wolzt, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Improvement of endothelial function in hypercholesterolaemia is attributed to lipid lowering and to pleiotropic effects of statin therapy. We investigated whether responsiveness to inhibition of constitutive NO formation with N-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) is improved after 7 and 28 days of pravastatin. Twelve female and four male subjects with mild or moderate primary hypercholesterolaemia were randomized to pravastatin (20 mg per oral (p.o.) n=8) or placebo (n=8) in a double blind parallel group design. Vascular responsiveness was studied by intravenous bolus infusions of L-NMMA (cumulative doses of 3 and 6 mg/kg). Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and pulse rate (PR) were measured noninvasively, pulsatile choroidal blood flow was assessed with laser interferometric measurement of fundus pulsation amplitudes (FPA) and renal plasma flow (RPF) was measured by the PAH clearance method. Pravastatin lowered plasma cholesterol levels by 16 and 24% after 7 and 28 days of treatment, respectively (P<0.01). L-NMMA caused comparable changes in MAP, PR and RPF between groups. L-NMMA reduced FPA to a similar extent in both groups before and after 7 days of treatment, but the response to L-NMMA was significantly enhanced after 28 days of pravastatin (21%; P<0.001 vs baseline) and greater than after placebo (15%; P<0.01 vs pravastatin). Pravastatin enhances responsiveness to L-NMMA in the ocular microvasculature. Improved responsiveness is associated with changes in total cholesterol levels.

  13. Identification of compound heterozygous patients with primary hyperoxaluria type 1: clinical evaluations and in silico investigations.

    PubMed

    Kanoun, Houda; Jarraya, Faiçal; Maalej, Bayen; Lahiani, Amina; Mahfoudh, Hichem; Makni, Fatma; Hachicha, Jamil; Fakhfakh, Faiza

    2017-10-02

    Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder of glyoxylate metabolism in which excessive oxalates are formed by the liver and excreted by the kidneys. Calcium oxalate crystallizes in the urine, leading to urolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis, and consequent renal failure if treatment is not initiated promptly. Mutations in the AGXT gene which encodes the hepatic peroxisomal enzyme alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase are responsible of PH1. In the present work, we aimed to analyze AGXT gene and in silico investigations performed in four patients with PH1 among two non consanguineous families. Exhaustive gene sequencing was performed after PCR amplification of coding exons and introns boundaries. Bioinformatic tools were used to predict the impact of AGXT variants on gene expression as well as on the protein structure and function. Direct sequencing of all exons of AGXT gene revealed the emergence of multiple mutations in compound heterozygous state in the two studied families. Two patients were compound heterozygous for the c.731 T > C, c.32C > T, c.1020A > G and c.33_34insC and presented clinically with recurrent urinary tract infection, multiple urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis under the age of 1 year and a persistent hyperoxaluria at the age of diagnosis. The two other patients presenting a less severe phenotypes were heterozygous for c.731 T > C and homozygous for the c.32C > T and c.1020A > G or compound heterozygous for c.26C > A and c.65A > G variants. In Summary, we provided relevance regarding the compound heterozygous mutations in non consanguineous PH1 families with variable severity.

  14. The influence of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on the aorta elastin metabolism in diet-induced hypercholesterolaemia in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Wojakowski, W; Gminski, J; Siemianowicz, K; Goss, M; Machalski, M

    2001-03-01

    Aortic elastin turnover is significantly accelerated in atherosclerosis, partly because of activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system caused by hypercholesterolaemia. We postulated that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) prevent the aortic elastin loss in experimental hypercholesterolaemia. Two doses of ACE-I (captopril, enalapril and quinapril) were used: a dose equivalent to that applied to human subjects and a dose 10 times higher. We found that the increase in serum and aortic elastolytic activity in cholesterol-fed rabbits was prevented by high-dose captopril. The elastin content in aorta homogenates from cholesterol-fed rabbits was significantly decreased. The higher dose of captopril, but no other ACE-I, prevented this decrease in aortic elastin content. In cholesterol-fed rabbits the elastin-bound calcium content was significantly elevated. The higher doses of captopril and enalapril lowered the elastin-bound calcium content. In serum and aortic homogenates of cholesterol-fed rabbits, ACE activity was elevated by 15% and 77%, respectively. Both doses of captopril, enalapril and quinapril prevented this cholesterol-induced increase in serum and aortic ACE activity. We conclude that: 1) administration of captopril at doses 10 times higher than those used in humans prevents hypercholesterolaemia increased aortic elastin loss. 2) higher doses of captopril and enalapril prevent the hypercholesterolaemia-induced increase in aortic elastin-bound calcium.

  15. Atypical Progeroid Syndrome due to Heterozygous Missense LMNA Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Abhimanyu; Subramanyam, Lalitha; Agarwal, Anil K.; Simha, Vinaya; Levine, Benjamin; D'Apice, Maria Rosaria; Novelli, Giuseppe; Crow, Yanick

    2009-01-01

    Context: Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) and mandibuloacral dysplasia are well-recognized allelic autosomal dominant and recessive progeroid disorders, respectively, due to mutations in lamin A/C (LMNA) gene. Heterozygous LMNA mutations have also been reported in a small number of patients with a less well-characterized atypical progeroid syndrome (APS). Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the underlying genetic and molecular basis of the phenotype of patients presenting with APS. Results: We report 11 patients with APS from nine families, many with novel heterozygous missense LMNA mutations, such as, P4R, E111K, D136H, E159K, and C588R. These and previously reported patients now reveal a spectrum of clinical features including progeroid manifestations such as short stature, beaked nose, premature graying, partial alopecia, high-pitched voice, skin atrophy over the hands and feet, partial and generalized lipodystrophy with metabolic complications, and skeletal anomalies such as mandibular hypoplasia and mild acroosteolysis. Skin fibroblasts from these patients when assessed for lamin A/C expression using epifluorescence microscopy revealed variable nuclear morphological abnormalities similar to those observed in patients with HGPS. However, these nuclear abnormalities in APS patients could not be rescued with 48 h treatment with farnesyl transferase inhibitors, geranylgeranyl transferase inhibitors or trichostatin-A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor. Immunoblots of cell lysates from fibroblasts did not reveal prelamin A accumulation in any of these patients. Conclusions: APS patients have a few overlapping but some distinct clinical features as compared with HGPS and mandibuloacral dysplasia. The pathogenesis of clinical manifestations in APS patients seems not to be related to accumulation of mutant farnesylated prelamin A. PMID:19875478

  16. The Nance-Horan syndrome: a rare X-linked ocular-dental trait with expression in heterozygous females.

    PubMed

    Bixler, D; Higgins, M; Hartsfield, J

    1984-07-01

    This report describes two families with the Nance-Horan syndrome, an X-linked trait featuring lenticular cataracts and anomalies of tooth shape and number. Previous reports have described blindness in affected males but posterior sutural cataracts with normal vision as the primary ocular expression in heterozygous females. In one of these two families, the affected female is not only blind in one eye but reportedly had supernumerary central incisors (mesiodens) removed. This constitutes the most severe ocular and dental expression of this gene in heterozygous females yet reported.

  17. Safety of coadministration of ezetimibe and statins in patients with hypercholesterolaemia: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Luo, L; Yuan, X; Huang, W; Ren, F; Zhu, H; Zheng, Y; Tang, L

    2015-05-01

    Hypercholesterolaemia is a pivotal risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease and is treated with many effective lipid-lowering agents. Statins are often used alone or in combination with ezetimibe. Combination therapy is more effective because of its complementary approach, which has major benefits for patients with unmanageable lipid levels. Extensive application of combination therapy has resulted in an increased incidence of side-effects, which has raised our concern. To evaluate the evidence associated with the safety of coadministration of ezetimibe with statins. Three electronic databases were searched (PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library) from January 2002 to October 2014. Two independent reviewers critically identify randomised controlled trials (RCT), extracted the data and assessed trial quality. A total ot 20 RCT met inclusion criteria, including 14,856 patients. A fixed-effects model was used for meta-analysis to assess the safety of combination therapy. Coadministration of ezetimibe and statins did not result in significant increases in total adverse events (30% vs 29%, P = 0.34), serious adverse events (2% vs 1.6%, P = 0.81), treatment discontinuations (3.5% vs 2.9%, P = 0.22), gastrointestinal adverse events (5% vs 4%, P = 0.08), allergic reactions or rashes (0.9% vs 1.3%, P = 0.33), creatine kinase > 10 × upper limit of normal (ULN) (0.2% vs 0.2%, P = 0.86), alanine aminotransferase > 3 × ULN (0.5% vs 0.4%, P = 0.96) and aspartate aminotransferase > 3 × ULN (0.4% vs 0.4%, P = 0.58). The incidence of adverse events was similar between ezetimibe-statin combination therapy and statin monotherapy; thus, we recommend combination therapy for patients with hypercholesterolaemia at high risk for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  18. Homozygous and compound heterozygous mutations in the FBN1 gene: unexpected findings in molecular diagnosis of Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arnaud, Pauline; Hanna, Nadine; Aubart, Mélodie; Leheup, Bruno; Dupuis-Girod, Sophie; Naudion, Sophie; Lacombe, Didier; Milleron, Olivier; Odent, Sylvie; Faivre, Laurence; Bal, Laurence; Edouard, Thomas; Collod-Beroud, Gwenaëlle; Langeois, Maud; Spentchian, Myrtille; Gouya, Laurent; Jondeau, Guillaume; Boileau, Catherine

    2017-02-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal-dominant connective tissue disorder usually associated with heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding fibrillin-1 (FBN1). Homozygous and compound heterozygous cases are rare events and have been associated with a clinical severe presentation. Report unexpected findings of homozygosity and compound heterozygosity in the course of molecular diagnosis of heterozygous MFS and compare the findings with published cases. In the context of molecular diagnosis of heterozygous MFS, systematic sequencing of the FBN1 gene was performed in 2500 probands referred nationwide. 1400 probands carried a heterozygous mutation in this gene. Unexpectedly, among them four homozygous cases (0.29%) and five compound heterozygous cases (0.36%) were identified (total: 0.64%). Interestingly, none of these cases carried two premature termination codon mutations in the FBN1 gene. Clinical features for these carriers and their families were gathered and compared. There was a large spectrum of severity of the disease in probands carrying two mutated FBN1 alleles, but none of them presented extremely severe manifestations of MFS in any system compared with carriers of only one mutated FBN1 allele. This observation is not in line with the severe clinical features reported in the literature for four homozygous and three compound heterozygous probands. Homozygotes and compound heterozygotes were unexpectedly identified in the course of molecular diagnosis of MFS. Contrary to previous reports, the presence of two mutated alleles was not associated with severe forms of MFS. Although homozygosity and compound heterozygosity are rarely found in molecular diagnosis, they should not be overlooked, especially among consanguineous families. However, no predictive evaluation of severity should be provided. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. The Tromsø heart study: coffee consumption and serum lipid concentrations in men with hypercholesterolaemia: an randomised intervention study.

    PubMed Central

    Førde, O H; Knutsen, S F; Arnesen, E; Thelle, D S

    1985-01-01

    In a 10 week trial to assess the effects of coffee consumption and coffee brewing methods on serum cholesterol concentrations 33 men with hypercholesterolaemia were randomly assigned to: continue with their usual coffee intake; stop drinking coffee altogether; or stop drinking coffee for five weeks, thereafter drinking either boiled or filter coffee. Cholesterol concentrations fell significantly in all subjects abstaining for the first five weeks compared with subjects not giving up and continued to fall in those abstaining for 10 weeks. Cholesterol concentrations rose again in subjects returning to boiled coffee but remained the same in those returning to filter coffee. Abstention from heavy coffee drinking is an efficient way of reducing serum cholesterol concentrations in men with hypercholesterolaemia. The extent to which the brewing method affects this relation requires further study. Images p895-a PMID:3919832

  20. Effect of hypercholesterolaemia on myocardial function, ischaemia–reperfusion injury and cardioprotection by preconditioning, postconditioning and remote conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Iliodromitis, Efstathios K; Lazou, Antigone; Görbe, Anikó; Giricz, Zoltán; Schulz, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    Hypercholesterolaemia is considered to be a principle risk factor for cardiovascular disease, having direct negative effects on the myocardium itself, in addition to the development of atherosclerosis. Since hypercholesterolaemia affects the global cardiac gene expression profile, among many other factors, it results in increased myocardial oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation triggered apoptosis, all of which may account for myocardial dysfunction and increased susceptibility of the myocardium to infarction. In addition, numerous experimental and clinical studies have revealed that hyperlcholesterolaemia may interfere with the cardioprotective potential of conditioning mechanisms. Although not fully elucidated, the underlying mechanisms for the lost cardioprotection in hypercholesterolaemic animals have been reported to involve dysregulation of the endothelial NOS‐cGMP, reperfusion injury salvage kinase, peroxynitrite‐MMP2 signalling pathways, modulation of ATP‐sensitive potassium channels and apoptotic pathways. In this review article, we summarize the current knowledge on the effect of hypercholesterolaemia on the non‐ischaemic and ischaemic heart as well as on the cardioprotection induced by drugs or ischaemic preconditioning, postconditioning and remote conditioning. Future perspectives concerning the mechanisms and the design of preclinical and clinical trials are highlighted. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Redox Biology and Oxidative Stress in Health and Disease. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v174.12/issuetoc PMID:28060997

  1. Immune dysregulation in human subjects with heterozygous germline mutations in CTLA4

    PubMed Central

    Deenick, Elissa K.; Niemela, Julie E.; Avery, Danielle T.; Schickel, Jean-Nicolas; Tran, Dat Q.; Stoddard, Jennifer; Zhang, Yu; Frucht, David M.; Dumitriu, Bogdan; Scheinberg, Phillip; Folio, Les R.; Frein, Cathleen A.; Price, Susan; Koh, Christopher; Heller, Theo; Seroogy, Christine M.; Huttenlocher, Anna; Rao, V. Koneti; Su, Helen C.; Kleiner, David; Notarangelo, Luigi D.; Rampertaap, Yajesh; Olivier, Kenneth N.; McElwee, Joshua; Hughes, Jason; Pittaluga, Stefania; Oliveira, Joao B.; Meffre, Eric; Fleisher, Thomas A.; Holland, Steven M.; Lenardo, Michael J.; Tangye, Stuart G.; Uzel, Gulbu

    2015-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen–4 (CTLA-4) is an inhibitory receptor found on immune cells. The consequences of mutations in CTLA4 in humans are unknown. We identified germline heterozygous mutations in CTLA4 in subjects with severe immune dysregulation from four unrelated families. Whereas Ctla4 heterozygous mice have no obvious phenotype, human CTLA4 haploinsufficiency caused dysregulation of FoxP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, hyperactivation of effector T cells, and lymphocytic infiltration of target organs. Patients also exhibited progressive loss of circulating B cells, associated with an increase of predominantly autoreactive CD21lo B cells and accumulation of B cells in nonlymphoid organs. Inherited human CTLA4 haploinsufficiency demonstrates a critical quantitative role for CTLA-4 in governing T and B lymphocyte homeostasis. PMID:25213377

  2. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy in heterozygous female patients: women are not just carriers.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Charles Marques; Simão, Gustavo Novelino; Santos, Antonio Carlos; Marques, Wilson

    2012-07-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a recessive X-linked disorder associated with marked phenotypic variability. Female carriers are commonly thought to be normal or only mildly affected, but their disease still needs to be better described and systematized. To review and systematize the clinical features of heterozygous women followed in a Neurogenetics Clinic. We reviewed the clinical, biochemical, and neuroradiological data of all women known to have X-ADL. The nine women identified were classified into three groups: with severe and aggressive diseases; with slowly progressive, spastic paraplegia; and with mildly decreased vibratory sensation, brisk reflexes, and no complaints. Many of these women did not have a known family history of X-ALD. Heterozygous women with X-ADL have a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from mild to severe phenotypes.

  3. Heterozygous ABCC8 mutations are a cause of MODY.

    PubMed

    Bowman, P; Flanagan, S E; Edghill, E L; Damhuis, A; Shepherd, M H; Paisey, R; Hattersley, A T; Ellard, S

    2012-01-01

    The ABCC8 gene encodes the sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) subunit of the pancreatic beta cell ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channel. Inactivating mutations cause congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) and activating mutations cause transient neonatal diabetes (TNDM) or permanent neonatal diabetes (PNDM) that can usually be treated with sulfonylureas. Sulfonylurea sensitivity is also a feature of HNF1A and HNF4A MODY, but patients referred for genetic testing with clinical features of these types of diabetes do not always have mutations in the HNF1A/4A genes. Our aim was to establish whether mutations in the ABCC8 gene cause MODY that is responsive to sulfonylurea therapy. We sequenced the ABCC8 gene in 85 patients with a BMI <30 kg/m², no family history of neonatal diabetes and who were deemed sensitive to sulfonylureas by the referring clinician or were sulfonylurea-treated. All had tested negative for mutations in the HNF1A and HNF4A genes. ABCC8 mutations were found in seven of the 85 (8%) probands. Four patients were heterozygous for previously reported mutations and four novel mutations, E100K, G214R, Q485R and N1245D, were identified. Only four probands fulfilled MODY criteria, with two diagnosed after 25 years and one patient, who had no family history of diabetes, as a result of a proven de novo mutation. ABCC8 mutations can cause MODY in patients whose clinical features are similar to those with HNF1A/4A MODY. Therefore, sequencing of ABCC8 in addition to the known MODY genes should be considered if such features are present, to facilitate optimal clinical management of these patients.

  4. Apocynin alleviated hepatic oxidative burden and reduced liver injury in hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Lu, Long-Sheng; Wu, Chau-Chung; Hung, Li-Man; Chiang, Meng-Tsan; Lin, Ching-Ting; Lin, Chii-Wann; Su, Ming-Jai

    2007-05-01

    This study addressed the effects of apocynin, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase inhibitor, on hepatic oxidative burden and liver injury during diet-induced hypercholesterolaemia. Male Wistar rats were fed a 4% cholesterol-enriched diet for 3 weeks. Apocynin was administered in drinking water concurrently. The high-cholesterol diet (HC) significantly increased the serum level of cholesterol and hepatic cholesterol ester deposition, and these parameters were similar between the HC and high-cholesterol diet plus apocynin (HCA) groups. The HC group showed abnormal liver function tests [alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (Alk-P)] as well as increased Evans blue extravasation and macrophages infiltration. Apocynin treatment could suppress these inflammation-related parameters. In vivo measurement of NADPH-derived cellular autofluorescence suggested that HC increased oxidative stress in hepatocytes. Biochemical analysis of redox status including thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione, and oxidized glutathione also confirmed the phenomenon. Apocynin treatment was able to alleviate these indices of oxidative burden owing to HC. Furthermore, apocynin-abrogated HC induced gp91(phox) expression, suggesting the involvement of NADPH oxidase in the pathogenesis. We concluded that apocynin suppressed NADPH oxidase activation and subsequent liver injuries owing to high-cholesterol intake in rats. The impacts of cholesterol metabolism disorders on pathogenesis and progression of steatohepatitis warrant further clinical investigation.

  5. Idiopathic Short Stature due to Novel Heterozygous Mutation of the Aggrecan Gene

    PubMed Central

    Quintos, Jose Bernardo; Guo, Michael H.; Dauber, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background Recently, whole exome sequencing identified heterozygous defects in the Aggrecan gene (ACAN) in three families with short stature and advanced bone age. Objective We report a novel frameshift mutation in ACAN in a family with dominantly inherited short stature, advanced bone age, and premature growth cessation. This is the first case of targeted sequencing of ACAN in this phenotype and confirms that ACAN sequencing is warranted in patients with this rare constellation of findings. Results We present a 5 1/2 year old male with a family history of short stature in 3 generations. The maternal grandfather stands 144.5 cm (Ht SDS -4.7), mother 147.7 cm (Ht SDS -2.6), and index case 99.2 cm (Ht SDS -2.7). Our prepubertal patient has significant bone age advancement (bone age 8 years at chronologic age 5 1/2 years) resulting in a poor predicted adult height of 142 cm (Ht SDS -5.1). DNA sequencing identified a novel heterozygous variant in ACAN, which encodes aggrecan, a proteoglycan in the extracellular matrix of growth plate and other cartilaginous tissues. The mutation (p.Gly1797Glyfs*52) results in premature truncation and presumed loss of protein function. Conclusion Mutations in aggrecan gene should be included in the differential diagnosis of the child with idiopathic short stature or familial short stature and bone age advancement. PMID:25741789

  6. Novel compound heterozygous mutations in SERPINH1 cause rare autosomal recessive osteogenesis imperfecta type X.

    PubMed

    Song, Y; Zhao, D; Xu, X; Lv, F; Li, L; Jiang, Y; Wang, O; Xia, W; Xing, X; Li, M

    2018-03-09

    We identified novel compound heterozygous mutations in SERPINH1 in a Chinese boy suffering from recurrent fractures, femoral deformities, and growth retardation, which resulted in extremely rare autosomal recessive OI type X. Long-term treatment of BPs was effective in increasing BMD Z-score, reducing fracture incidence and reshaping vertebrae compression. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable bone disorder characterized by low bone mineral density, recurrent fractures, and progressive bone deformities. Mutation in serpin peptidase inhibitor clade H, member 1 (SERPINH1), which encodes heat shock protein 47 (HSP47), leads to rare autosomal recessive OI type X. We aimed to detect the phenotype and the pathogenic mutation of OI type X in a boy from a non-consanguineous Chinese family. We investigated the pathogenic mutations and analyzed their relationship with the phenotype in the patient using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and Sanger sequencing. Moreover, the efficacy of long-term bisphosphonate treatment in this patient was evaluated. The patient suffered from multiple fractures, low bone mass, and bone deformities in the femur, without dentinogenesis imperfecta or hearing loss. Compound heterozygous variants were found in SERPINH1 as follows: c.149 T>G in exon 2 and c.1214G>A in exon 5. His parents were heterozygous carriers of each of these mutations, respectively. Bisphosphonates could be helpful in increasing BMD Z-score, reducing bone fracture risk and reshaping the compressed vertebral bodies of this patient. We reported novel compound heterozygous mutations in SERPINH1 in a Chinese OI patient for the first time, which expanded the spectrum of phenotype and genotype of extremely rare OI type X.

  7. Decreased prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia and stabilisation of obesity trends in 5-year-old children: possible effects of changed public health policies.

    PubMed

    Sedej, Katarina; Kotnik, Primož; Avbelj Stefanija, Magdalena; Grošelj, Urh; Širca Čampa, Andreja; Lusa, Lara; Battelino, Tadej; Bratina, Nataša

    2014-02-01

    Overweight/obesity in children is a worldwide public health problem. Together with hypercholesterolaemia they are associated with early atherosclerotic complications. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anthropometric characteristics and total cholesterol (TC) levels in a population of 5-year-old children, to determine trends in the prevalence of overweight/obesity and hypercholesterolaemia in 5-year-old children over a period of 8 years (2001-2009) and to assess the impact of modified national nutritional guidelines for kindergartens implemented in 2005. Cross-sectional studies of overweight/obesity prevalence in the years 2001, 2003-2005 and 2009, and hypercholesterolaemia in years 2001 and 2009, in 5-year-old children. Altogether, 12 832 (6308 girls/6524 boys) children were included. Overweight/obesity was defined by IOTF criteria. Hypercholesterolaemia was defined by TC level >5 mmol/l. Multivariable logistic regression models were used. NO CORRELATION BETWEEN BMI VALUES AND TC LEVELS WAS FOUND. OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY PREVALENCE WERE STABILISED FROM 2001 TO 2009 (ODDS RATIO (OR) (95% CI): 1.13 (0.99-1.3) and 1.13 (0.89-1.42) respectively). Girls were more frequently overweight/obese than boys (OR (95% CI): 0.71 (0.65-0.79) and 0.75 (0.64-0.89) respectively). Prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia significantly decreased from 2001 to 2009 (OR (95% CI): 0.47 (0.41-0.55)). It was less frequent in boys than in girls (OR (95% CI): O.7 (0.61-0.8)). This is the first study to describe a negative trend in the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia in pre-pubertal children. In addition, the prevalence of overweight/obesity in these children has been stabilised. Nationwide changes in public health policies could have influenced these observations.

  8. FAK-heterozygous mice display enhanced tumour angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kostourou, Vassiliki; Lechertier, Tanguy; Reynolds, Louise E; Lees, Delphine M; Baker, Marianne; Jones, Dylan T; Tavora, Bernardo; Ramjaun, Antoine R; Birdsey, Graeme M; Robinson, Stephen D; Parsons, Maddy; Randi, Anna M; Hart, Ian R; Hodivala-Dilke, Kairbaan

    2013-01-01

    Genetic ablation of endothelial focal adhesion kinase (FAK) can inhibit pathological angiogenesis, suggesting that loss of endothelial FAK is sufficient to reduce neovascularization. Here we show that reduced stromal FAK expression in FAK-heterozygous mice unexpectedly enhances both B16F0 and CMT19T tumour growth and angiogenesis. We further demonstrate that cell proliferation and microvessel sprouting, but not migration, are increased in serum-stimulated FAK-heterozygous endothelial cells. FAK-heterozygous endothelial cells display an imbalance in FAK phosphorylation at pY397 and pY861 without changes in Pyk2 or Erk1/2 activity. By contrast, serum-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt is enhanced in FAK-heterozygous endothelial cells and these cells are more sensitive to Akt inhibition. Additionally, low doses of a pharmacological FAK inhibitor, although too low to affect FAK autophosphorylation in vitro, can enhance angiogenesis ex vivo and tumour growth in vivo. Our results highlight a potential novel role for FAK as a nonlinear, dose-dependent regulator of angiogenesis where heterozygous levels of FAK enhance angiogenesis.

  9. FAK-heterozygous mice display enhanced tumour angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kostourou, Vassiliki; Lechertier, Tanguy; Reynolds, Louise E.; Lees, Delphine M.; Baker, Marianne; Jones, Dylan T.; Tavora, Bernardo; Ramjaun, Antoine R.; Birdsey, Graeme M.; Robinson, Stephen D.; Parsons, Maddy; Randi, Anna M.; Hart, Ian R; Hodivala-Dilke, Kairbaan

    2013-01-01

    Genetic ablation of endothelial Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) can inhibit pathological angiogenesis, suggesting that loss of endothelial FAK is sufficient to reduce neovascularisation. Here we show that reduced stromal-FAK expression in FAK-heterozygous mice unexpectedly enhances both B16F0 and CMT19T tumour growth and angiogenesis. We further demonstrate that cell proliferation and microvessel sprouting, but not migration, are increased in serum-stimulated FAK-heterozygous endothelial cells. FAK-heterozygous endothelial cells display an imbalance in FAK phosphorylation at pY397 and pY861 without changes in Pyk2 or Erk1/2 activity. By contrast, serum-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt is enhanced in FAK-heterozygous endothelial cells and these cells are more sensitive to Akt inhibition. Additionally, low doses of a pharmacological FAK inhibitor, although too low to affect FAK autophosphorylation in vitro, can enhance angiogenesis ex vivo and tumor growth in vivo. Our results highlight a potential novel role for FAK as a non-linear, dose-dependent regulator of angiogenesis where heterozygous levels of FAK enhance angiogenesis. PMID:23799510

  10. Deficiency of the oxygen sensor prolyl hydroxylase 1 attenuates hypercholesterolaemia, atherosclerosis, and hyperglycaemia.

    PubMed

    Marsch, Elke; Demandt, Jasper A F; Theelen, Thomas L; Tullemans, Bibian M E; Wouters, Kristiaan; Boon, Mariëtte R; van Dijk, Theo H; Gijbels, Marion J; Dubois, Ludwig J; Meex, Steven J R; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Hung, Gene; Fisher, Edward A; Biessen, Erik A L; Daemen, Mat J A P; Rensen, Patrick C N; Carmeliet, Peter; Groen, Albert K; Sluimer, Judith C

    2016-10-14

    Normalization of hypercholesterolaemia, inflammation, hyperglycaemia, and obesity are main desired targets to prevent cardiovascular clinical events. Here we present a novel regulator of cholesterol metabolism, which simultaneously impacts on glucose intolerance and inflammation. Mice deficient for oxygen sensor HIF-prolyl hydroxylase 1 (PHD1) were backcrossed onto an atherogenic low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) knockout background and atherosclerosis was studied upon 8 weeks of western-type diet. PHD1 -/- LDLR -/- mice presented a sharp reduction in VLDL and LDL plasma cholesterol levels. In line, atherosclerotic plaque development, as measured by plaque area, necrotic core expansion and plaque stage was hampered in PHD1 -/- LDLR -/- mice. Mechanistically, cholesterol-lowering in PHD1 deficient mice was a result of enhanced cholesterol excretion from blood to intestines and ultimately faeces. Additionally, flow cytometry of whole blood of these mice revealed significantly reduced counts of leucocytes and particularly of Ly6C high pro-inflammatory monocytes. In addition, when studying PHD1 -/- in diet-induced obesity (14 weeks high-fat diet) mice were less glucose intolerant when compared with WT littermate controls. Overall, PHD1 knockout mice display a metabolic phenotype that generally is deemed protective for cardiovascular disease. Future studies should focus on the efficacy, safety, and gender-specific effects of PHD1 inhibition in humans, and unravel the molecular actors responsible for PHD1-driven, likely intestinal, and regulation of cholesterol metabolism. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Early-Onset X-Linked Retinitis Pigmentosa in a Heterozygous Female Harboring an Intronic Donor Splice Site Mutation in the Retinitis Pigmentosa GTPase Regulator Gene.

    PubMed

    Shifera, Amde Selassie; Kay, Christine Nichols

    2015-01-01

    To report a heterozygous female presenting with an early-onset and severe form of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP). This is a case series presenting the clinical findings in a heterozygous female with XLRP and two of her family members. Fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence, ocular coherence tomography, and visual perimetry are presented. The proband reported here is a heterozygous female who presented at the age of 8 years with an early onset and aggressive form of XLRP. The patient belongs to a four-generation family with a total of three affected females and four affected males. The patient was initially diagnosed with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) at the age of 4 years. Genetic testing identified a heterozygous donor splice site mutation in intron 1 (IVS1 + 1G > A) of the retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator gene. The father of the proband was diagnosed with RP when he was a young child. The sister of the proband, evaluated at the age of 6 years, showed macular pigmentary changes. Although carriers of XLRP are usually asymptomatic or have a mild disease of late onset, the proband presented here exhibited an early-onset, aggressive form of the disease. It is not clear why some carrier females manifest a severe phenotype. A better understanding of the genetic processes involved in the penetrance and expressivity of XLRP in heterozygous females could assist in providing the appropriate counseling to affected families.

  12. Short Stature, Accelerated Bone Maturation, and Early Growth Cessation Due to Heterozygous Aggrecan Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Ola; Guo, Michael H.; Dunbar, Nancy; Popovic, Jadranka; Flynn, Daniel; Jacobsen, Christina; Lui, Julian C.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Baron, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Context: Many children with idiopathic short stature have a delayed bone age. Idiopathic short stature with advanced bone age is far less common. Objective: The aim was to identify underlying genetic causes of short stature with advanced bone age. Setting and Design: We used whole-exome sequencing to study three families with autosomal-dominant short stature, advanced bone age, and premature growth cessation. Results: Affected individuals presented with short stature [adult heights −2.3 to −4.2 standard deviation scores (SDS)] with histories of early growth cessation or childhood short stature (height SDS −1.9 to −3.5 SDS), advancement of bone age, and normal endocrine evaluations. Whole-exome sequencing identified novel heterozygous variants in ACAN, which encodes aggrecan, a proteoglycan in the extracellular matrix of growth plate and other cartilaginous tissues. The variants were present in all affected, but in no unaffected, family members. In Family 1, a novel frameshift mutation in exon 3 (c.272delA) was identified, which is predicted to cause early truncation of the aggrecan protein. In Family 2, a base-pair substitution was found in a highly conserved location within a splice donor site (c.2026+1G>A), which is also likely to alter the amino acid sequence of a large portion of the protein. In Family 3, a missense variant (c.7064T>C) in exon 14 affects a highly conserved residue (L2355P) and is strongly predicted to perturb protein function. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that heterozygous mutations in ACAN can cause a mild skeletal dysplasia, which presents clinically as short stature with advanced bone age. The accelerating effect on skeletal maturation has not previously been noted in the few prior reports of human ACAN mutations. Our findings thus expand the spectrum of ACAN defects and provide a new molecular genetic etiology for the unusual child who presents with short stature and accelerated skeletal maturation. PMID:24762113

  13. Heterozygous RFX6 protein truncating variants are associated with MODY with reduced penetrance.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kashyap A; Kettunen, Jarno; Laakso, Markku; Stančáková, Alena; Laver, Thomas W; Colclough, Kevin; Johnson, Matthew B; Abramowicz, Marc; Groop, Leif; Miettinen, Päivi J; Shepherd, Maggie H; Flanagan, Sarah E; Ellard, Sian; Inagaki, Nobuya; Hattersley, Andrew T; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Cnop, Miriam; Weedon, Michael N

    2017-10-12

    Finding new causes of monogenic diabetes helps understand glycaemic regulation in humans. To find novel genetic causes of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), we sequenced MODY cases with unknown aetiology and compared variant frequencies to large public databases. From 36 European patients, we identify two probands with novel RFX6 heterozygous nonsense variants. RFX6 protein truncating variants are enriched in the MODY discovery cohort compared to the European control population within ExAC (odds ratio = 131, P = 1 × 10 -4 ). We find similar results in non-Finnish European (n = 348, odds ratio = 43, P = 5 × 10 -5 ) and Finnish (n = 80, odds ratio = 22, P = 1 × 10 -6 ) replication cohorts. RFX6 heterozygotes have reduced penetrance of diabetes compared to common HNF1A and HNF4A-MODY mutations (27, 70 and 55% at 25 years of age, respectively). The hyperglycaemia results from beta-cell dysfunction and is associated with lower fasting and stimulated gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) levels. Our study demonstrates that heterozygous RFX6 protein truncating variants are associated with MODY with reduced penetrance.Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is the most common subtype of familial diabetes. Here, Patel et al. use targeted DNA sequencing of MODY patients and large-scale publically available data to show that RFX6 heterozygous protein truncating variants cause reduced penetrance MODY.

  14. Heterozygous RTEL1 variants in bone marrow failure and myeloid neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Judith C. W.; Gutierrez-Rodrigues, Fernanda; Cooper, James; Jiang, Jie; Gandhi, Shreyans; Kajigaya, Sachiko; Feng, Xingmin; Ibanez, Maria del Pilar F.; Donaires, Flávia S.; Lopes da Silva, João P.; Li, Zejuan; Das, Soma; Ibanez, Maria; Smith, Alexander E.; Lea, Nicholas; Best, Steven; Ireland, Robin; Kulasekararaj, Austin G.; McLornan, Donal P.; Pagliuca, Anthony; Callebaut, Isabelle; Young, Neal S.; Calado, Rodrigo T.; Townsley, Danielle M.

    2018-01-01

    Biallelic germline mutations in RTEL1 (regulator of telomere elongation helicase 1) result in pathologic telomere erosion and cause dyskeratosis congenita. However, the role of RTEL1 mutations in other bone marrow failure (BMF) syndromes and myeloid neoplasms, and the contribution of monoallelic RTEL1 mutations to disease development are not well defined. We screened 516 patients for germline mutations in telomere-associated genes by next-generation sequencing in 2 independent cohorts; one constituting unselected patients with idiopathic BMF, unexplained cytopenia, or myeloid neoplasms (n = 457) and a second cohort comprising selected patients on the basis of the suspicion of constitutional/familial BMF (n = 59). Twenty-three RTEL1 variants were identified in 27 unrelated patients from both cohorts: 7 variants were likely pathogenic, 13 were of uncertain significance, and 3 were likely benign. Likely pathogenic RTEL1 variants were identified in 9 unrelated patients (7 heterozygous and 2 biallelic). Most patients were suspected to have constitutional BMF, which included aplastic anemia (AA), unexplained cytopenia, hypoplastic myelodysplastic syndrome, and macrocytosis with hypocellular bone marrow. In the other 18 patients, RTEL1 variants were likely benign or of uncertain significance. Telomeres were short in 21 patients (78%), and 3′ telomeric overhangs were significantly eroded in 4. In summary, heterozygous RTEL1 variants were associated with marrow failure, and telomere length measurement alone may not identify patients with telomere dysfunction carrying RTEL1 variants. Pathogenicity assessment of heterozygous RTEL1 variants relied on a combination of clinical, computational, and functional data required to avoid misinterpretation of common variants. PMID:29344583

  15. Heterozygous RTEL1 variants in bone marrow failure and myeloid neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Judith C W; Gutierrez-Rodrigues, Fernanda; Cooper, James; Jiang, Jie; Gandhi, Shreyans; Kajigaya, Sachiko; Feng, Xingmin; Ibanez, Maria Del Pilar F; Donaires, Flávia S; Lopes da Silva, João P; Li, Zejuan; Das, Soma; Ibanez, Maria; Smith, Alexander E; Lea, Nicholas; Best, Steven; Ireland, Robin; Kulasekararaj, Austin G; McLornan, Donal P; Pagliuca, Anthony; Callebaut, Isabelle; Young, Neal S; Calado, Rodrigo T; Townsley, Danielle M; Mufti, Ghulam J

    2018-01-09

    Biallelic germline mutations in RTEL1 (regulator of telomere elongation helicase 1) result in pathologic telomere erosion and cause dyskeratosis congenita. However, the role of RTEL1 mutations in other bone marrow failure (BMF) syndromes and myeloid neoplasms, and the contribution of monoallelic RTEL1 mutations to disease development are not well defined. We screened 516 patients for germline mutations in telomere-associated genes by next-generation sequencing in 2 independent cohorts; one constituting unselected patients with idiopathic BMF, unexplained cytopenia, or myeloid neoplasms (n = 457) and a second cohort comprising selected patients on the basis of the suspicion of constitutional/familial BMF (n = 59). Twenty-three RTEL1 variants were identified in 27 unrelated patients from both cohorts: 7 variants were likely pathogenic, 13 were of uncertain significance, and 3 were likely benign. Likely pathogenic RTEL1 variants were identified in 9 unrelated patients (7 heterozygous and 2 biallelic). Most patients were suspected to have constitutional BMF, which included aplastic anemia (AA), unexplained cytopenia, hypoplastic myelodysplastic syndrome, and macrocytosis with hypocellular bone marrow. In the other 18 patients, RTEL1 variants were likely benign or of uncertain significance. Telomeres were short in 21 patients (78%), and 3' telomeric overhangs were significantly eroded in 4. In summary, heterozygous RTEL1 variants were associated with marrow failure, and telomere length measurement alone may not identify patients with telomere dysfunction carrying RTEL1 variants. Pathogenicity assessment of heterozygous RTEL1 variants relied on a combination of clinical, computational, and functional data required to avoid misinterpretation of common variants.

  16. Behavioral and Electrophysiological Characterization of Dyt1 Heterozygous Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yokoi, Fumiaki; Chen, Huan-Xin; Dang, Mai Tu; Cheetham, Chad C.; Campbell, Susan L.; Roper, Steven N.; Sweatt, J. David; Li, Yuqing

    2015-01-01

    DYT1 dystonia is an inherited movement disorder caused by mutations in DYT1 (TOR1A), which codes for torsinA. Most of the patients have a trinucleotide deletion (ΔGAG) corresponding to a glutamic acid in the C-terminal region (torsinAΔE). Dyt1 ΔGAG heterozygous knock-in (KI) mice, which mimic ΔGAG mutation in the endogenous gene, exhibit motor deficits and deceased frequency of spontaneous excitatory post-synaptic currents (sEPSCs) and normal theta-burst-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampal CA1 region. Although Dyt1 KI mice show decreased hippocampal torsinA levels, it is not clear whether the decreased torsinA level itself affects the synaptic plasticity or torsinAΔE does it. To analyze the effect of partial torsinA loss on motor behaviors and synaptic transmission, Dyt1 heterozygous knock-out (KO) mice were examined as a model of a frame-shift DYT1 mutation in patients. Consistent with Dyt1 KI mice, Dyt1 heterozygous KO mice showed motor deficits in the beam-walking test. Dyt1 heterozygous KO mice showed decreased hippocampal torsinA levels lower than those in Dyt1 KI mice. Reduced sEPSCs and normal miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents (mEPSCs) were also observed in the acute hippocampal brain slices from Dyt1 heterozygous KO mice, suggesting that the partial loss of torsinA function in Dyt1 KI mice causes action potential-dependent neurotransmitter release deficits. On the other hand, Dyt1 heterozygous KO mice showed enhanced hippocampal LTP, normal input-output relations and paired pulse ratios in the extracellular field recordings. The results suggest that maintaining an appropriate torsinA level is important to sustain normal motor performance, synaptic transmission and plasticity. Developing therapeutics to restore a normal torsinA level may help to prevent and treat the symptoms in DYT1 dystonia. PMID:25799505

  17. Behavioral and electrophysiological characterization of Dyt1 heterozygous knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Fumiaki; Chen, Huan-Xin; Dang, Mai Tu; Cheetham, Chad C; Campbell, Susan L; Roper, Steven N; Sweatt, J David; Li, Yuqing

    2015-01-01

    DYT1 dystonia is an inherited movement disorder caused by mutations in DYT1 (TOR1A), which codes for torsinA. Most of the patients have a trinucleotide deletion (ΔGAG) corresponding to a glutamic acid in the C-terminal region (torsinA(ΔE)). Dyt1 ΔGAG heterozygous knock-in (KI) mice, which mimic ΔGAG mutation in the endogenous gene, exhibit motor deficits and deceased frequency of spontaneous excitatory post-synaptic currents (sEPSCs) and normal theta-burst-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampal CA1 region. Although Dyt1 KI mice show decreased hippocampal torsinA levels, it is not clear whether the decreased torsinA level itself affects the synaptic plasticity or torsinA(ΔE) does it. To analyze the effect of partial torsinA loss on motor behaviors and synaptic transmission, Dyt1 heterozygous knock-out (KO) mice were examined as a model of a frame-shift DYT1 mutation in patients. Consistent with Dyt1 KI mice, Dyt1 heterozygous KO mice showed motor deficits in the beam-walking test. Dyt1 heterozygous KO mice showed decreased hippocampal torsinA levels lower than those in Dyt1 KI mice. Reduced sEPSCs and normal miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents (mEPSCs) were also observed in the acute hippocampal brain slices from Dyt1 heterozygous KO mice, suggesting that the partial loss of torsinA function in Dyt1 KI mice causes action potential-dependent neurotransmitter release deficits. On the other hand, Dyt1 heterozygous KO mice showed enhanced hippocampal LTP, normal input-output relations and paired pulse ratios in the extracellular field recordings. The results suggest that maintaining an appropriate torsinA level is important to sustain normal motor performance, synaptic transmission and plasticity. Developing therapeutics to restore a normal torsinA level may help to prevent and treat the symptoms in DYT1 dystonia.

  18. Heterozygous missense variants of LMX1A lead to nonsyndromic hearing impairment and vestibular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Wesdorp, Mieke; de Koning Gans, Pia A M; Schraders, Margit; Oostrik, Jaap; Huynen, Martijn A; Venselaar, Hanka; Beynon, Andy J; van Gaalen, Judith; Piai, Vitória; Voermans, Nicol; van Rossum, Michelle M; Hartel, Bas P; Lelieveld, Stefan H; Wiel, Laurens; Verbist, Berit; Rotteveel, Liselotte J; van Dooren, Marieke F; Lichtner, Peter; Kunst, Henricus P M; Feenstra, Ilse; Admiraal, Ronald J C; Yntema, Helger G; Hoefsloot, Lies H; Pennings, Ronald J E; Kremer, Hannie

    2018-05-12

    Unraveling the causes and pathomechanisms of progressive disorders is essential for the development of therapeutic strategies. Here, we identified heterozygous pathogenic missense variants of LMX1A in two families of Dutch origin with progressive nonsyndromic hearing impairment (HI), using whole exome sequencing. One variant, c.721G > C (p.Val241Leu), occurred de novo and is predicted to affect the homeodomain of LMX1A, which is essential for DNA binding. The second variant, c.290G > C (p.Cys97Ser), predicted to affect a zinc-binding residue of the second LIM domain that is involved in protein-protein interactions. Bi-allelic deleterious variants of Lmx1a are associated with a complex phenotype in mice, including deafness and vestibular defects, due to arrest of inner ear development. Although Lmx1a mouse mutants demonstrate neurological, skeletal, pigmentation and reproductive system abnormalities, no syndromic features were present in the participating subjects of either family. LMX1A has previously been suggested as a candidate gene for intellectual disability, but our data do not support this, as affected subjects displayed normal cognition. Large variability was observed in the age of onset (a)symmetry, severity and progression rate of HI. About half of the affected individuals displayed vestibular dysfunction and experienced symptoms thereof. The late-onset progressive phenotype and the absence of cochleovestibular malformations on computed tomography scans indicate that heterozygous defects of LMX1A do not result in severe developmental abnormalities in humans. We propose that a single LMX1A wild-type copy is sufficient for normal development but insufficient for maintenance of cochleovestibular function. Alternatively, minor cochleovestibular developmental abnormalities could eventually lead to the progressive phenotype seen in the families.

  19. Overcoming 'ageism' bias in the treatment of hypercholesterolaemia : a review of safety issues with statins in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Terry A

    2006-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a progressive, lifelong condition that is the leading cause of death among middle-aged and elderly individuals aged > or =65 years. Up to 80% of elderly patients are found to have evidence of obstructive coronary heart disease at autopsy. Demographic trends, including the advancing median age and life expectancy of Western societies, suggest that a large share of the burden of atherosclerotic plaque is likely to be borne by elderly individuals. These trends are in part due to increases in a number of chronic diseases associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes, including metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease. Because the elderly have a higher attributable risk of coronary heart disease as a result of hypercholesterolaemia, more coronary deaths and overall events can be prevented via treatment in this age group compared with younger persons with hypercholesterolaemia. The efficacy, safety and tolerability of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) have been confirmed in randomised, controlled, multicentre trials involving large numbers of patients aged > or =65 years. Although muscle symptoms such as myalgia are relatively common adverse events, more severe signs of myolysis such as myopathy and rhabdomyolysis are rare, but their risk is elevated by conditions (e.g. concomitant medications) that increase the systemic exposure of these agents. Statins differ in their susceptibility to increases in systemic exposure, but most statins have been demonstrated to be well tolerated and safe when administered to elderly patients. These favourable clinical findings should help clinicians counter highly prevalent 'ageism' bias in statin prescribing, whereby elderly patients, particularly those at highest cardiovascular risk, are often denied the benefits of statins without any meaningful foundation.

  20. Classical phenotype of Laron syndrome in a girl with a heterozygous mutation and heterozygous polymorphism of the growth hormone receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Shevah, Orit; Galli-Tsinopoulou, Assimina; Rubinstein, Menachem; Nousia-Arvanitakis, Sanda; Laron, Zvi

    2004-03-01

    We describe here a 19 month-old girl with classical Laron syndrome (LS). Molecular analysis of the GH receptor gene in the patient and her parents was performed. The patient was found to be heterozygous for a mutation in exon 4 (R43X) and heterozygous for a polymorphism in exon 6 (Gly168Gly). Her mother was also heterozygous for R43X but homozygous for the polymorphism. In the father, a heterozygous polymorphism was found. Contrary to previous assumptions that only homozygous patients express the typical phenotype, this patient shows all the classical features of LS, despite being a heterozygote for a pathological defect.

  1. Loss of MSH2 and MSH6 due to heterozygous germline defects in MSH3 and MSH6.

    PubMed

    Morak, Monika; Käsbauer, Sarah; Kerscher, Martina; Laner, Andreas; Nissen, Anke M; Benet-Pagès, Anna; Schackert, Hans K; Keller, Gisela; Massdorf, Trisari; Holinski-Feder, Elke

    2017-10-01

    Lynch Syndrome (LS) is the most common dominantly inherited colorectal cancer (CRC) predisposition and is caused by a heterozygous germline defect in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, or PMS2. High microsatellite instability (MSI-H) and loss of MMR protein expression in tumours reflecting a defective MMR are indicators for LS, as well as a positive family history of early onset CRC. MSH2 and MSH6 form a major functional heterodimer, and MSH3 is an alternative binding partner for MSH2. So far, the role of germline MSH3 variants remains unclear, as to our knowledge heterozygous truncating variants are not regarded causative for LS, but were detected in patients with CRC, and recently biallelic MSH3 defects have been identified in two patients with adenomatous polyposis. By gene screening we investigated the role of MSH3 in 11 LS patients with truncating MSH6 germline variants and an unexplained MSH2 protein loss in their corresponding MSI-H tumours. We report the first two LS patients harbouring heterozygous germline variants c.1035del and c.2732T>G in MSH3 coincidentally with truncating variants in MSH6. In the patient with truncating germline variants in MSH3 and MSH6, two additional somatic second hits in both genes abrogate all binding partners for the MSH2 protein which might subsequently be degraded. The clinical relevance of MSH3 germline variants is currently under re-evaluation, and heterozygous MSH3 defects alone do not seem to induce a LS phenotype, but might aggravate the MSH6 phenotype in affected family members.

  2. Novel compound heterozygous Thyroglobulin mutations c.745+1G>A/c.7036+2T>A associated with congenital goiter and hypothyroidism in a Vietnamese family. Identification of a new cryptic 5' splice site in the exon 6.

    PubMed

    Citterio, Cintia E; Morales, Cecilia M; Bouhours-Nouet, Natacha; Machiavelli, Gloria A; Bueno, Elena; Gatelais, Frédérique; Coutant, Regis; González-Sarmiento, Rogelio; Rivolta, Carina M; Targovnik, Héctor M

    2015-03-15

    Several patients were identified with dyshormonogenesis caused by mutations in the thyroglobulin (TG) gene. These defects are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and affected individuals are either homozygous or compound heterozygous for the mutations. The aim of the present study was to identify new TG mutations in a patient of Vietnamese origin affected by congenital hypothyroidism, goiter and low levels of serum TG. DNA sequencing identified the presence of compound heterozygous mutations in the TG gene: the maternal mutation consists of a novel c.745+1G>A (g.IVS6 + 1G>A), whereas the hypothetical paternal mutation consists of a novel c.7036+2T>A (g.IVS40 + 2T>A). The father was not available for segregation analysis. Ex-vivo splicing assays and subsequent RT-PCR analyses were performed on mRNA isolated from the eukaryotic-cells transfected with normal and mutant expression vectors. Minigene analysis of the c.745+1G>A mutant showed that the exon 6 is skipped during pre-mRNA splicing or partially included by use of a cryptic 5' splice site located to 55 nucleotides upstream of the authentic exon 6/intron 6 junction site. The functional analysis of c.7036+2T>A mutation showed a complete skipping of exon 40. The theoretical consequences of splice site mutations, predicted with the bioinformatics tool NNSplice, Fsplice, SPL, SPLM and MaxEntScan programs were investigated and evaluated in relation with the experimental evidence. These analyses predicted that both mutant alleles would result in the abolition of the authentic splice donor sites. The c.745+1G>A mutation originates two putative truncated proteins of 200 and 1142 amino acids, whereas c.7036+2T>A mutation results in a putative truncated protein of 2277 amino acids. In conclusion, we show that the c.745+1G>A mutation promotes the activation of a new cryptic donor splice site in the exon 6 of the TG gene. The functional consequences of these mutations could be structural changes in the protein

  3. Allocation of resources between smoking cessation methods and lovastatin treatment of hypercholesterolaemia: based on cost effectiveness and the social welfare function.

    PubMed

    Plans-Rubió, Pedro

    2004-01-01

    To use the social welfare function to decide on allocation of resources between smoking cessation methods and lovastatin treatment of hypercholesterolaemia for the primary prevention of coronary heart disease. Three smoking cessation therapies (medical advice, nicotine gum and nicotine patch) were considered in smokers, and lovastatin 20, 40 and 80 mg/day was considered in individuals with hypercholesterolaemia (total cholesterol > 7.24 mmol/L [> 270 mg/dL]). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to obtain parameter epsilon determining the exact form of the social welfare function in Catalonia, Spain. The preferable strategy was to give higher priority to the intervention that used one smoking cessation method and lovastatin treatment for hypercholesterolaemia and that was associated with a value of epsilon consistent with the social welfare function. A value of 1.58 (95% CI: 0.75-2.84) was obtained for parameter epsilon of the social welfare function, showing a nonutilitarian form. A higher priority should be given, based on the social welfare function, to the intervention using medical advice for smoking cessation and lovastatin 20-80 mg/day for hypercholesterolaemia, since this approach was associated with epsilon values of 2.8-2.9 in men and 1.8-2.4 in women, while interventions using nicotine substitution therapies were associated with epsilon values of < 0.9 in men and < 0.4 in women. The cost of treating all smokers and individuals with hypercholesterolaemia was 35% lower using medical advice for smoking cessation and lovastatin 20 mg/day, which was associated with epsilon values of 2.9 in men and 2.4 in women, than using a utilitarian solution consisting of nicotine patches for smoking cessation and lovastatin 20 mg/day. These results show that higher priority should be given to lovastatin treatment of hypercholesterolaemia than to nicotine substitution treatments for smoking cessation, based on cost effectiveness and the social welfare function

  4. Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This document contains the fourth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency. "The Family and Delinquency" (LaMar T. Empey) systematically reviews and weighs the evidence to support prominent theories on the origins of…

  5. Novel heterozygous NOTCH3 pathogenic variant found in two Chinese patients with CADASIL.

    PubMed

    Li, Shufeng; Chen, Yifan; Shan, Haitao; Ma, Fang; Shi, Minke; Xue, Jun

    2017-12-01

    NOTCH3 mutations have been described to cause cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). Here, we report 2 CADASIL patients from a Chinese family. Whole genome sequencing was performed on the two CADASIL patients. The novel variant c.128G>C in exon 2 of NOTCH3 was identified and confirmed through PCR-Sanger sequencing (Human Genome Variation Society nomenclature: HGVS: NOTCH3 c.128G>C; p.Cys43Ser). The heterozygous NOTCH3 variant cause a cysteine to serine substitution at codon 43. According to the variant interpretation guideline of American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG), this variant was classified as "pathogenic". Other variants in HTRA1, COL4A1 and COL4A2 were also found, they were classified as "benign". Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Confirmation and refinement of the heterozygous deletion of the small leucine-rich proteoglycans associated with posterior amorphous corneal dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, Aleck E; Gee, Katherine M; Whiting, Martha F; Frausto, Ricardo F; Aldave, Anthony J

    2018-04-19

    To present the clinical and cytogenetic features of a previously unreported family with posterior amorphous corneal dystrophy (PACD) associated with a heterozygous deletion of the small leucine-rich proteoglycan (SRLP) genes on chromosome 12. Clinical characterization was performed using slit lamp biomicroscopic and optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. Genomic DNA was collected from affected and unaffected family members, and a cytogenomic array was used to identify copy number variations (CNV) present in the PACD locus. Three members of a Guatemalan family presented with clinical characteristics consistent with PACD: bilateral posterior stromal lamellar opacification, decreased corneal curvature, and iridocorneal adhesions. OCT imaging demonstrated decreased corneal thickness and hyperreflectivity of the posterior third of the corneal stroma. CNV analysis confirmed the presumed clinical diagnosis of PACD by revealing a 0.304 Mb heterozygous deletion in the PACD locus on chromosome 12 that included the four SLRP genes (KERA, LUM, DCN, and EPYC) deleted in each of the PACD families in which CNV analysis has been reported. This is the first report of the OCT appearance of PACD and the second confirmation of a heterozygous deletion of chromosome 12q21.33 as the cause of PACD, highlighting the utility of array-based cytogenomics to confirm the suspected clinical diagnosis of PACD. As the smallest previously reported pathogenic deletion was 0.701 Mb, the 0.304-Mb deletion we report is the smallest identified to date and reduces the size of the PACD locus to 0.275 Mb.

  7. Heterozygous defects in PAX6 gene and congenital hypopituitarism.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Masaki; Nagasaki, Keisuke; Fujiwara, Ikuma; Ishii, Tomohiro; Amano, Naoko; Asakura, Yumi; Muroya, Koji; Hasegawa, Yukihiro; Adachi, Masanori; Hasegawa, Tomonobu

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of congenital hypopituitarism (CH) attributable to known transcription factor mutations appears to be rare and other causative genes for CH remain to be identified. Due to the sporadic occurrence of CH, de novo chromosomal rearrangements could be one of the molecular mechanisms participating in its etiology, especially in syndromic cases. To identify the role of copy number variations (CNVs) in the etiology of CH and to identify novel genes implicated in CH. We enrolled 88 (syndromic: 30; non-syndromic: 58) Japanese CH patients. We performed an array comparative genomic hybridization screening in the 30 syndromic CH patients. For all the 88 patients, we analyzed PAX6 by PCR-based sequencing. We identified one heterozygous 310-kb deletion of the PAX6 enhancer region in one patient showing isolated GH deficiency (IGHD), cleft palate, and optic disc cupping. We also identified one heterozygous 6.5-Mb deletion encompassing OTX2 in a patient with bilateral anophthalmia and multiple pituitary hormone deficiency. We identified a novel PAX6 mutation, namely p.N116S in one non-syndromic CH patient showing IGHD. The p.N116S PAX6 was associated with an impairment of the transactivation capacities of the PAX6-binding elements. This study showed that heterozygous PAX6 mutations are associated with CH patients. PAX6 mutations may be associated with diverse clinical features ranging from severely impaired ocular and pituitary development to apparently normal phenotype. Overall, this study identified causative CNVs with a possible role in the etiology of CH in <10% of syndromic CH patients. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  8. Assay for identification of heterozygous single-nucleotide polymorphism (Ala67Thr) in human poliovirus receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Shyam Sundar; Sharma, Deepa Kailash; Deshpande, Jagadish M

    2016-07-01

    It is important to understand the role of cell surface receptors in susceptibility to infectious diseases. CD155 a member of the immunoglobulin super family, serves as the poliovirus receptor (PVR). Heterozygous (Ala67Thr) polymorphism in CD155 has been suggested as a risk factor for paralytic outcome of poliovirus infection. The present study pertains to the development of a screening test to detect the single nucleotide (SNP) polymorphism in the CD155 gene. New primers were designed for PCR, sequencing and SNP analysis of Exon2 of CD155 gene. DNAs extracted from either whole blood (n=75) or cells from oral cavity (n=75) were used for standardization and validation of the SNP assay. DNA sequencing was used as the gold standard method. A new SNP assay for detection of heterozygous Ala67Thr genotype was developed and validated by testing 150 DNA samples. Heterozygous CD155 was detected in 27.33 per cent (41/150) of DNA samples tested by both SNP detection assay and sequencing. The SNP detection assay was successfully developed for identification of Ala67Thr polymorphism in human PVR/CD155 gene. The SNP assay will be useful for large scale screening of DNA samples.

  9. Primary microcephaly caused by novel compound heterozygous mutations in ASPM

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Kohmoto, Tomohiro; Naruto, Takuya; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Imoto, Issei

    2018-01-01

    Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (microcephaly primary hereditary, MCPH) is a genetically heterogeneous rare developmental disorder that is characterized by prenatal onset of abnormal brain growth, which leads to intellectual disability of variable severity. We report a 5-year-old male who presented with a severe form of primary microcephaly. Targeted panel sequencing revealed compound heterozygous truncating mutations of the abnormal spindle-like microcephaly-associated (ASPM) gene, which confirmed the MCPH5 diagnosis. A novel NM_018136.4: c.9742_9745del (p.Lys3248Serfs*13) deletion mutation was identified. PMID:29644084

  10. Primary microcephaly caused by novel compound heterozygous mutations in ASPM.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Kohmoto, Tomohiro; Naruto, Takuya; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Imoto, Issei

    2018-01-01

    Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (microcephaly primary hereditary, MCPH) is a genetically heterogeneous rare developmental disorder that is characterized by prenatal onset of abnormal brain growth, which leads to intellectual disability of variable severity. We report a 5-year-old male who presented with a severe form of primary microcephaly. Targeted panel sequencing revealed compound heterozygous truncating mutations of the abnormal spindle-like microcephaly-associated ( ASPM ) gene, which confirmed the MCPH5 diagnosis. A novel NM_018136.4: c.9742_9745del (p.Lys3248Serfs*13) deletion mutation was identified.

  11. [Molecular characterization of heterozygous beta-thalassemia in Lanzarote, Spain].

    PubMed

    Calvo-Villas, José Manuel; de la Iglesia Iñigo, Silvia; Ropero Gradilla, Paloma; Zapata Ramos, María Francisca; Cuesta Tovar, Jorge; Sicilia Guillén, Francisco

    2008-04-05

    The aim of this study was to determine the molecular defects of heterozygous beta thalassaemia and to ascertain their distribution in Lanzarote. Molecular characterization was achieved by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR LightCycler, Roche), PCR-ARMS (PCR-amplification reaction mutations system) and DNA sequencing on an automated DNA sequencer. Two hundred forty-three heterozygous beta thalassaemia carriers were included between July 1991 and February 2007. RT-PCR detected the molecular defect in 81% of the beta thalassaemia chromosomes analyzed [113 codon CD 39 (C --> T); 41 IVS-1-nt-110 (G --> A), 25 IVS 1-nt-1 (G --> A) and 19 IVS 1-nt-6 (T --> C)]. The remaining 12 molecular defects included the deletion 619 bp (7.8%) and the mutations -28 (A --> G), IVS1-nt-2 (T --> G), CD 41/42 (-TTCT), CD 8/9 (+G), CD 51 (-C), CD 22 (G --> T) and CD 24 (T --> A), CD 67 (-TG) and the novel mutation CD 20/21-TGGA. The distribution of the mutations is similar to that found in the Mediterranean area. The increasing migratory flow received in the Canary Islands may explain the emergence of new mutations not reported before in our area.

  12. Macrosomia and Hyperinsulinaemic Hypoglycaemia in Patients with Heterozygous Mutations in the HNF4A Gene

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Timothy; Stals, Karen; Shield, Julian P; Ellard, Sian; Ferrer, Jorge; Hattersley, Andrew T

    2007-01-01

    Background Macrosomia is associated with considerable neonatal and maternal morbidity. Factors that predict macrosomia are poorly understood. The increased rate of macrosomia in the offspring of pregnant women with diabetes and in congenital hyperinsulinaemia is mediated by increased foetal insulin secretion. We assessed the in utero and neonatal role of two key regulators of pancreatic insulin secretion by studying birthweight and the incidence of neonatal hypoglycaemia in patients with heterozygous mutations in the maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) genes HNF4A (encoding HNF-4α) and HNF1A/TCF1 (encoding HNF-1α), and the effect of pancreatic deletion of Hnf4a on foetal and neonatal insulin secretion in mice. Methods and Findings We examined birthweight and hypoglycaemia in 108 patients from families with diabetes due to HNF4A mutations, and 134 patients from families with HNF1A mutations. Birthweight was increased by a median of 790 g in HNF4A-mutation carriers compared to non-mutation family members (p < 0.001); 56% (30/54) of HNF4A-mutation carriers were macrosomic compared with 13% (7/54) of non-mutation family members (p < 0.001). Transient hypoglycaemia was reported in 8/54 infants with heterozygous HNF4A mutations, but was reported in none of 54 non-mutation carriers (p = 0.003). There was documented hyperinsulinaemia in three cases. Birthweight and prevalence of neonatal hypoglycaemia were not increased in HNF1A-mutation carriers. Mice with pancreatic β-cell deletion of Hnf4a had hyperinsulinaemia in utero and hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia at birth. Conclusions HNF4A mutations are associated with a considerable increase in birthweight and macrosomia, and are a novel cause of neonatal hypoglycaemia. This study establishes a key role for HNF4A in determining foetal birthweight, and uncovers an unanticipated feature of the natural history of HNF4A-deficient diabetes, with hyperinsulinaemia at birth evolving to decreased insulin secretion and

  13. Clinical and functional characterization of a patient carrying a compound heterozygous pericentrin mutation and a heterozygous IGF1 receptor mutation.

    PubMed

    Müller, Eva; Dunstheimer, Desiree; Klammt, Jürgen; Friebe, Daniela; Kiess, Wieland; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Kruis, Tassilo; Laue, Sandy; Pfäffle, Roland; Wallborn, Tillmann; Heidemann, Peter H

    2012-01-01

    Intrauterine and postnatal longitudinal growth is controlled by a strong genetic component that regulates a complex network of endocrine factors integrating them with cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptotic processes in target tissues, particularly the growth centers of the long bones. Here we report on a patient born small for gestational age (SGA) with severe, proportionate postnatal growth retardation, discreet signs of skeletal dysplasia, microcephaly and moyamoya disease. Initial genetic evaluation revealed a novel heterozygous IGF1R p.Leu1361Arg mutation affecting a highly conserved residue with the insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor suggestive for a disturbance within the somatotropic axis. However, because the mutation did not co-segregate with the phenotype and functional characterization did not reveal an obvious impairment of the ligand depending major IGF1R signaling capabilities a second-site mutation was assumed. Mutational screening of components of the somatotropic axis, constituents of the IGF signaling system and factors involved in cellular proliferation, which are described or suggested to provoke syndromic dwarfism phenotypes, was performed. Two compound heterozygous PCNT mutations (p.[Arg585X];[Glu1774X]) were identified leading to the specification of the diagnosis to MOPD II. These investigations underline the need for careful assessment of all available information to derive a firm diagnosis from a sequence aberration.

  14. Clinical and Functional Characterization of a Patient Carrying a Compound Heterozygous Pericentrin Mutation and a Heterozygous IGF1 Receptor Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Klammt, Jürgen; Friebe, Daniela; Kiess, Wieland; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Kruis, Tassilo; Laue, Sandy; Pfäffle, Roland; Wallborn, Tillmann; Heidemann, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Intrauterine and postnatal longitudinal growth is controlled by a strong genetic component that regulates a complex network of endocrine factors integrating them with cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptotic processes in target tissues, particularly the growth centers of the long bones. Here we report on a patient born small for gestational age (SGA) with severe, proportionate postnatal growth retardation, discreet signs of skeletal dysplasia, microcephaly and moyamoya disease. Initial genetic evaluation revealed a novel heterozygous IGF1R p.Leu1361Arg mutation affecting a highly conserved residue with the insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor suggestive for a disturbance within the somatotropic axis. However, because the mutation did not co-segregate with the phenotype and functional characterization did not reveal an obvious impairment of the ligand depending major IGF1R signaling capabilities a second-site mutation was assumed. Mutational screening of components of the somatotropic axis, constituents of the IGF signaling system and factors involved in cellular proliferation, which are described or suggested to provoke syndromic dwarfism phenotypes, was performed. Two compound heterozygous PCNT mutations (p.[Arg585X];[Glu1774X]) were identified leading to the specification of the diagnosis to MOPD II. These investigations underline the need for careful assessment of all available information to derive a firm diagnosis from a sequence aberration. PMID:22693602

  15. Juvenile Paget’s Disease With Heterozygous Duplication In TNFRSF11A Encoding RANK

    PubMed Central

    Whyte, Michael P.; Tau, Cristina; McAlister, William H.; Zhang, Xiafang; Novack, Deborah V.; Preliasco, Virginia; Santini-Araujo, Eduardo; Mumm, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Mendelian disorders of RANKL/OPG/RANK signaling feature the extremes of aberrant osteoclastogenesis and cause either osteopetrosis or rapid turnover skeletal disease. The patients with autosomal dominant accelerated bone remodeling have familial expansile osteolysis, early-onset Paget’s disease of bone, expansile skeletal hyperphosphatasia, or panostotic expansile bone disease due to heterozygous 18-, 27-, 15-, and 12-bp insertional duplications, respectively, within exon 1 of TNFRSF11A that encodes the signal peptide of RANK. Juvenile Paget’s disease (JPD), an autosomal recessive disorder, manifests extremely fast skeletal remodeling, and is usually caused by loss-of-function mutations within TNFRSF11B that encodes OPG. These disorders are ultra-rare. A 13-year-old Bolivian girl was referred at age 3 years. One femur was congenitally short and curved. Then, both bowed. Deafness at age 2 years involved missing ossicles and eroded cochleas. Teeth often had absorbed roots, broke, and were lost. Radiographs had revealed acquired tubular bone widening, cortical thickening, and coarse trabeculation. Biochemical markers indicated rapid skeletal turnover. Histopathology showed accelerated remodeling with abundant osteoclasts. JPD was diagnosed. Immobilization from a femur fracture caused severe hypercalcemia that responded rapidly to pamidronate treatment followed by bone turnover marker and radiographic improvement. No TNFRSF11B mutation was found. Instead, a unique heterozygous 15-bp insertional tandem duplication (87dup15) within exon 1 of TNFRSF11A predicted the same pentapeptide extension of RANK that causes expansile skeletal hyperphosphatasia (84dup15). Single nucleotide polymorphisms in TNFRSF11A and TNFRSF11B possibly impacted her phenotype. Our findings: i) reveal that JPD can be associated with an activating mutation within TNFRSF11A, ii) expand the range and overlap of phenotypes among the mendelian disorders of RANK activation, and iii) call for mutation

  16. Irradiated HMEC from A-T Heterozygous Breast Tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, Robert; Bors, Karen; Cruz, Angela; Pettengil, Olive; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Women who are heterozygous for ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) carry a single defective ATM gene in chromosome 11 q22-23, and have been statistically determined with high significance within a defined database to be approximately 5-fold more susceptible for developing breast cancer than their noma1 counterpart. Breast cancer susceptibility of these A-T heterozygotes has been hypothesized to include consequence of response to damage caused by low levels of ionizing radiation. Prophylactic mastectomy specimens were donated by a 41 year-old obligate A-T heterozygote who was located prior to her elective surgery through an existing pedigree. Harvest of that breast tissue provided an isolate of long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC), designated WH612/3. An isolate of presumed normal long-term growth HMEC, designated 48R, was obtained from Dr. Martha Stampfer (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California), and the A-T heterozygous HMEC were transformed with E6 and E7 oncogenes of human papilloma virus Type-16 in the laboratory of Dr. Ray White (Hunt- Cancer Institute, University of Utah) for use in this study. The objective of this study is to study the expression of end points that may bear on cancer outcome following irradiation of HMEC. Specific end points are cell survival, cell cycle, p53 expression, and apoptosis. Survival curves, immunostaining, and flow cytometery are used to examine these end points. Radiation-induced cell killing shows less shoulder development in the survival curve for WH61U3 compared to 48R HMEC, suggesting less repair of damage in the former HMEC. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  17. Whole-exome sequencing and digital PCR identified a novel compound heterozygous mutation in the NPHP1 gene in a case of Joubert syndrome and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Shingo; Sato, Hidenori; Wada, Manabu; Kawanami, Toru; Emi, Mitsuru; Kato, Takeo

    2017-03-27

    Joubert syndrome and related disorders (JSRD) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition with autosomal recessive or X-linked inheritance, which share a distinctive neuroradiological hallmark, the so-called molar tooth sign. JSRD is classified into six clinical subtypes based on associated variable multiorgan involvement. To date, 21 causative genes have been identified in JSRD, which makes genetic diagnosis difficult. We report here a case of a 28-year-old Japanese woman diagnosed with JS with oculorenal defects with a novel compound heterozygous mutation (p.Ser219*/deletion) in the NPHP1 gene. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) of the patient identified the novel nonsense mutation in an apparently homozygous state. However, it was absent in her mother and heterozygous in her father. A read depth-based copy number variation (CNV) detection algorithm using WES data of the family predicted a large heterozygous deletion mutation in the patient and her mother, which was validated by digital polymerase chain reaction, indicating that the patient was compound heterozygous for the paternal nonsense mutation and the maternal deletion mutation spanning the site of the single nucleotide change. It should be noted that analytical pipelines that focus purely on sequence information cannot distinguish homozygosity from hemizygosity because of its inability to detect large deletions. The ability to detect CNVs in addition to single nucleotide variants and small insertion/deletions makes WES an attractive diagnostic tool for genetically heterogeneous disorders.

  18. Double heterozygous mutations of MITF and PAX3 result in Waardenburg syndrome with increased penetrance in pigmentary defects.

    PubMed

    Yang, T; Li, X; Huang, Q; Li, L; Chai, Y; Sun, L; Wang, X; Zhu, Y; Wang, Z; Huang, Z; Li, Y; Wu, H

    2013-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and pigmentary defects of the hair, skin, and iris. Heterozygous mutations of MITF and its transactivator gene PAX3 are associated with Waardenburg syndrome type II (WS2) and type I (WS1), respectively. Most patients with MITF or PAX3 mutations, however, show variable penetrance of WS-associated phenotypes even within families segregating the same mutation, possibly mediated by genetic background or specific modifiers. In this study, we reported a rare Waardenburg syndrome simplex family in which a pair of WS parents gave birth to a child with double heterozygous mutations of MITF and PAX3. Compared to his parents who carried a single mutation in either MITF or PAX3, this child showed increased penetrance of pigmentary defects including white forelock, white eyebrows and eyelashes, and patchy facial depigmentation. This observation suggested that the expression level of MITF is closely correlated to the penetrance of WS, and variants in transcription regulator genes of MITF may modify the relevant clinical phenotypes. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Waardenburg syndrome type 3 (Klein-Waardenburg syndrome) segregating with a heterozygous deletion in the paired box domain of PAX3: a simple variant or a true syndrome?

    PubMed

    Tekin, M; Bodurtha, J N; Nance, W E; Pandya, A

    2001-10-01

    Klein-Waardenburg syndrome or Waardenburg syndrome type 3 (WS-III; MIM 148820) is characterized by the presence of musculoskeletal abnormalities in association with clinical features of Waardenburg syndrome type 1 (WS-I). Since the description of the first patient in 1947 (D. Klein, Arch Klaus Stift Vererb Forsch 1947: 22: 336-342), a few cases have been reported. Only occasional families have demonstrated autosomal-dominant inheritance of WS-III. In a previous report, a missense mutation in the paired domain of the PAX3 gene has been described in a family with dominant segregation of WS-III. In this report, we present a second family (mother and son) with typical clinical findings of WS-III segregating with a heterozygous 13-bp deletion in the paired domain of the PAX3 gene. Although homozygosity or compound heterozygosity has also been documented in patients with severe limb involvement, a consistent genotype-phenotype correlation for limb abnormalities associated with heterozygous PAX3 mutations has not previously been apparent. Heterozygous mutations could either reflect a unique dominant-negative effect or possibly the contribution of other unlinked genetic modifiers in determining the phenotype.

  20. Lower metabolic rate in individuals heterozygous for either a frameshift or a functional missense MC4R variant.

    PubMed

    Krakoff, Jonathan; Ma, Lijun; Kobes, Sayuko; Knowler, William C; Hanson, Robert L; Bogardus, Clifton; Baier, Leslie J

    2008-12-01

    Humans with functional variants in the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) are obese, hyperphagic, and hyperinsulinemic but have been reported to have no difference in energy expenditure. We investigated the association of two MC4R variants, Arg165Gln (R165Q) and A insertion at nucleotide 100 (NT100), with adiposity in 3,074 full-heritage Pima Indians, a subset of whom had metabolic measures including 24-h energy expenditure (n = 252) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) (n = 364). Among the 3,074 subjects, 43 were heterozygous for R165Q and 14 for NT100 (frequency = 0.007 and 0.002). Mean (+/- SD) BMI was higher among subjects with R165Q (39.3 +/- 8.6 kg/m(2)) or NT100 (41.2 +/- 7.8) than subjects without either variant (37.1 +/- 8.4) (P = 0.04 and 0.02, adjusted for age, sex, and birth year and accounting for family membership). The 24-h energy expenditure (four with NT100; three with R165Q) or RMR (six with NT100; two with R165Q) was lower in heterozygous subjects but only met statistical significance when heterozygous subjects were combined and compared with subjects without either variant: least-squares means, 2,163 kcal/24 h (95% CI 2,035-2,291) vs. 2,307 kcal/24 h (2,285-2,328), P = 0.03 for 24-h energy expenditure, and 1,617 kcal/24 h (1,499-1,734) vs. 1,754 kcal/24 h (1,736-1,772), P = 0.02 for RMR; adjusted for age, sex, fat-free mass, and fat mass). For RMR, this difference persisted, even after accounting for family membership. Pima Indians heterozygous for R165Q or NT100 in MC4R have higher BMIs and lower energy expenditure (by approximately 140 kcal/day), indicating that lower energy expenditure was a component of the increased adiposity.

  1. Evidence for Mitotic Recombination in W(ei)/+ Heterozygous Mice

    PubMed Central

    Panthier, J. J.; Guenet, J. L.; Condamine, H.; Jacob, F.

    1990-01-01

    A number of alleles at coat color loci of the house mouse give rise to areas of wild-type pigmentation on the coats of otherwise mutant animals. Such unstable alleles include both recessive and dominant mutations. Among the latter are several alleles at the W locus. In this report, phenotypic reversions of the W(ei) allele at the W locus were studied Mice heterozygous in repulsion for both W(ei) and buff (bf) [i.e. W(ei)+/+bf] were examined for the occurrence of phenotypic reversion events. Buff (bf) is a recessive mutation, which lies 21 cM from W on the telomeric side of chromosome 5 and is responsible for the khaki colored coat of nonagouti buff homozygotes (a/a; bf/bf). Two kinds of fully pigmented reversion spots were recovered on the coats of a/a; W(ei)+/+bf mice: either solid black or khaki colored. Furthermore phenotypic reversions of W(ei)/+ were enhanced significantly following X-irradiation of 9.25-day-old W(ei)/+ embryos (P < 0.04). These observations are consistent with the suggestion of a role for mitotic recombination in the origin of these phenotypic reversions. In addition these results rise the intriguing possibility that some W mutations may enhance mitotic recombination in the house mouse. PMID:2341029

  2. Norepinephrine Transporter Heterozygous Knockout Mice Exhibit Altered Transport and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fentress, HM; Klar, R; Krueger, JK; Sabb, T; Redmon, SN; Wallace, NM; Shirey-Rice, JK; Hahn, MK

    2013-01-01

    The norepinephrine (NE) transporter (NET) regulates synaptic NE availability for noradrenergic signaling in the brain and sympathetic nervous system. Although genetic variation leading to a loss of NET expression has been implicated in psychiatric and cardiovascular disorders, complete NET deficiency has not been found in people, limiting the utility of NET knockout mice as a model for genetically-driven NET dysfunction. Here, we investigate NET expression in NET heterozygous knockout male mice (NET+/−), demonstrating that they display an ~50% reduction in NET protein levels. Surprisingly, these mice display no significant deficit in NET activity, assessed in hippocampal and cortical synaptosomes. We found that this compensation in NET activity was due to enhanced activity of surface-resident transporters, as opposed to surface recruitment of NET protein or compensation through other transport mechanisms, including serotonin, dopamine or organic cation transporters. We hypothesize that loss of NET protein in the NET+/− mouse establishes an activated state of existing, surface NET proteins. NET+/− mice exhibit increased anxiety in the open field and light-dark box and display deficits in reversal learning in the Morris Water Maze. These data suggest recovery of near basal activity in NET+/− mice appears to be insufficient to limit anxiety responses or support cognitive performance that might involve noradrenergic neurotransmission. The NET+/− mice represent a unique model to study the loss and resultant compensatory changes in NET that may be relevant to behavior and physiology in human NET deficiency disorders. PMID:24102798

  3. Putative Digenic Inheritance of Heterozygous RP1L1 and C2orf71 Null Mutations in Syndromic Retinal Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yangfan P.; Bosch, Daniëlle G.M.; Siemiatkowska, Anna M.; Rendtorff, Nanna Dahl; Boonstra, F. Nienke; Möller, Claes; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; Katsanis, Nicholas; Cremers, Frans P.M.

    2018-01-01

    Background Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the most common cause of inherited retinal degeneration and can occur in non-syndromic and syndromic forms. Syndromic RP is accompanied by other symptoms such as intellectual disability, hearing loss, or congenital abnormalities. Both forms are known to exhibit complex genetic interactions that can modulate the penetrance and expressivity of the phenotype. Materials and methods In an individual with atypical RP, hearing loss, ataxia and cerebellar atrophy whole exome sequencing was performed. The candidate pathogenic variants were tested by developing an in vivo zebrafish model and assaying for retinal and cerebellar integrity. Results Exome sequencing revealed a complex heterozygous protein-truncating mutation in RP1L1, p.[(Lys111Glnfs*27; Q2373*)], and a heterozygous nonsense mutation in C2orf71, p.(Ser512*). Mutations in both genes have previously been implicated in autosomal recessive non-syndromic RP, raising the possibility of a digenic model in this family. Functional testing in a zebrafish model for two key phenotypes of the affected person showed that the combinatorial suppression of rp1l1 and c2orf71l induced discrete pathology in terms of reduction of eye size with concomitant loss of rhodopsin in the photoreceptors, and disorganization of the cerebellum. Conclusions We propose that the combination of heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in these genes drives syndromic retinal dystrophy, likely through the genetic interaction of at least two loci. Haploinsufficiency at each of these loci is insufficient to induce overt pathology. PMID:27029556

  4. [Infantile hypophosphatasia caused by a novel compound heterozygous mutation: a case report and pedigree analysis].

    PubMed

    Li, Deng-Feng; Lan, Dan; Zhong, Jing-Zi; Dewan, Roma Kajal; Xie, Yan-Shu; Yang, Ying

    2017-05-01

    This article reported the clinical features of one child with infantile hypophosphatasia (HPP) and his pedigree information. The proband was a 5-month-old boy with multiple skeletal dysplasia (koilosternia, bending deformity of both radii, and knock-knee deformity of both knees), feeding difficulty, reduction in body weight, developmental delay, recurrent pneumonia and respiratory failure, and a significant reduction in blood alkaline phosphatase. Among his parents, sister, uncle, and aunt (other family members did not cooperate with us in the examination), his parents and aunt had a slight reduction in alkaline phosphatase and his aunt had scoliosis; there were no other clinical phenotypes or abnormal laboratory testing results. His ALPL gene mutation came from c.228delG mutation in his mother and c.407G>A compound heterozygous mutation in his father. His aunt carried c.228delG mutation. The c.407G>A mutation had been reported as the pathogenic mutation of HPP, and c.228delG mutation was a novel pathogenic mutation. Hypophosphatasia is caused by ALPL gene mutation, and ALPL gene detection is an effective diagnostic method. This study expands the mutation spectrum of ALPL gene and provides a theoretical basis for genetic diagnosis of this disease.

  5. Human retinoblastoma susceptibility gene: genomic organization and analysis of heterozygous intragenic deletion mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Bookstein, R; Lee, E Y; To, H; Young, L J; Sery, T W; Hayes, R C; Friedmann, T; Lee, W H

    1988-01-01

    A gene in chromosome region 13q14 has been identified as the human retinoblastoma susceptibility (RB) gene on the basis of altered gene expression found in virtually all retinoblastomas. In order to further characterize the RB gene and its structural alterations, we examined genomic clones of the RB gene isolated from both a normal human genomic library and a library made from DNA of the retinoblastoma cell line Y79. First, a restriction and exon map of the RB gene was constructed by aligning overlapping genomic clones, yielding three contiguous regions ("contigs") of 150 kilobases total length separated by two gaps. At least 20 exons were identified in genomic clones, and these were provisionally numbered. Second, two overlapping genomic clones that demonstrated a DNA deletion of exons 2 through 6 from one RB allele were isolated from the Y79 library. To confirm and extend this result, a unique sequence probe from intron 1 was used to detect similar and possibly identical heterozygous deletions in genomic DNA from three retinoblastoma cell lines, thereby explaining the origins of their shortened RB mRNA transcripts. The same probe detected genomic rearrangements in fibroblasts from two hereditary retinoblastoma patients, indicating that intron 1 includes a frequent site for mutations conferring predisposition to retinoblastoma. Third, this probe also detected a polymorphic site for BamHI with allele frequencies near 0.5/0.5. Identification of commonly mutated regions will contribute significantly to genetic diagnosis in retinoblastoma patients and families. Images PMID:2895471

  6. Dental Abnormalities Caused by Novel Compound Heterozygous CTSK Mutations.

    PubMed

    Xue, Y; Wang, L; Xia, D; Li, Q; Gao, S; Dong, M; Cai, T; Shi, S; He, L; Hu, K; Mao, T; Duan, X

    2015-05-01

    Cathepsin K (CTSK) is an important protease responsible for degrading type I collagen, osteopontin, and other bone matrix proteins. The mutations in the CTSK gene can cause pycnodysostosis (OMIM 265800), a rare autosomal recessive bone dysplasia. Patients with pycnodysostosis have been reported to present specific dental abnormalities; however, whether these dental abnormalities are related to dysfunctional CTSK has never been reported. Here we investigated the histologic changes of cementum and alveolar bone in a pycnodysostosis patient, caused by novel compound heterozygous mutations in the CTSK gene (c.87 G>A p.W29X and c.848 A>G p.Y283C). The most impressive manifestations in tooth were extensive periradicular high-density clumps with unclear periodontal space by orthopantomography examination and micro-computed tomography scanning analysis. Hematoxylin/eosin and toluidine blue staining and atomic force microscopy analysis showed that the cementum became significantly thickened, softened, and full of cementocytes. The disorganized bone structure was the main character of alveolar bone. The p.W29X mutation may represent the loss-of-function allele with an earlier termination codon in the precursor CTSK polypeptide. Residue Y283 is highly conserved among papain-like cysteine proteases. Three-dimensional structure modeling analysis found that the loss of the hydroxybenzene residue in the Y283C mutation would interrupt the hydrogen network and possibly affect the self-cleavage of the CTSK enzyme. Furthermore, p.Y283C mutation did not affect the mRNA and protein levels of overexpressed CTSK in COS-7 system but did reduce CTSK enzyme activity. In conclusion, the histologic and ultrastructural changes of cementum and alveolar bone might be affected by CTSK mutation via reduction of its enzyme activity (clinical trial registration: ChiCTR-TNC-10000876). © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  7. Norepinephrine transporter heterozygous knockout mice exhibit altered transport and behavior.

    PubMed

    Fentress, H M; Klar, R; Krueger, J J; Sabb, T; Redmon, S N; Wallace, N M; Shirey-Rice, J K; Hahn, M K

    2013-11-01

    The norepinephrine (NE) transporter (NET) regulates synaptic NE availability for noradrenergic signaling in the brain and sympathetic nervous system. Although genetic variation leading to a loss of NET expression has been implicated in psychiatric and cardiovascular disorders, complete NET deficiency has not been found in people, limiting the utility of NET knockout mice as a model for genetically driven NET dysfunction. Here, we investigate NET expression in NET heterozygous knockout male mice (NET(+/-) ), demonstrating that they display an approximately 50% reduction in NET protein levels. Surprisingly, these mice display no significant deficit in NET activity assessed in hippocampal and cortical synaptosomes. We found that this compensation in NET activity was due to enhanced activity of surface-resident transporters, as opposed to surface recruitment of NET protein or compensation through other transport mechanisms, including serotonin, dopamine or organic cation transporters. We hypothesize that loss of NET protein in the NET(+/-) mouse establishes an activated state of existing surface NET proteins. The NET(+/-) mice exhibit increased anxiety in the open field and light-dark box and display deficits in reversal learning in the Morris water maze. These data suggest that recovery of near basal activity in NET(+/-) mice appears to be insufficient to limit anxiety responses or support cognitive performance that might involve noradrenergic neurotransmission. The NET(+/-) mice represent a unique model to study the loss and resultant compensatory changes in NET that may be relevant to behavior and physiology in human NET deficiency disorders. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  8. Could Heterozygous Beta Thalassemia Provide Protection Against Multiple Sclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Cikrikcioglu, Mehmet Ali; Ozcan, Muhammed Emin; Halac, Gulistan; Gultepe, Ilhami; Celik, Kenan; Sekin, Yahya; Eser, Elif Ece; Burhan, Sebnem; Cetin, Guven; Uysal, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Background Heterozygous beta thalassemia (HBT) has been proposed to increase the risk of developing autoimmune disease. Our aim in this study was to examine the prevalence of HBT among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Material/Methods HBT frequency was investigated in our MS group (243 patients with MS). Hemoglobin electrophoresis (HE) was carried out if MS patients had a mean corpuscular volume of (MCV) <80 fL and a mean corpuscular hemoglobin level of (MCH) <27 pg/L according to a complete blood count (CBC). If MCV was lower than 80 fL, MCH was lower than 27 pg/L, and Hemoglobin A2 equal to or higher than 3.5%, a diagnosis of HBT was established. The frequency of patients with HBT in our MS patient group was statistically compared with the prevalence of HBT in the city of Istanbul, where our MS patients lived. Results The HBT prevalence was 0.823% (2 patients) in the MS patient group. The prevalence of HBT in Istanbul has been reported to be 4.5%. According to the z-test, the HBT prevalence in our MS patient group was significantly lower than that in Istanbul (Z=6.3611, two-sided p value <0.0001, 95% confidence interval of prevalence of HBT in our MS patient group: 0.000998–0.029413). Conclusions Contrary to our hypothesis at the outset of study, the reduced HBT prevalence in the MS group compared to HBT frequency in the city of Istanbul might indicate that HBT is protective against MS. PMID:27941710

  9. Myosin-binding Protein C Compound Heterozygous Variant Effect on the Phenotypic Expression of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Rafael, Julianny Freitas; Cruz, Fernando Eugênio Dos Santos; Carvalho, Antônio Carlos Campos de; Gottlieb, Ilan; Cazelli, José Guilherme; Siciliano, Ana Paula; Dias, Glauber Monteiro

    2017-04-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an autosomal dominant genetic disease caused by mutations in genes encoding sarcomere proteins. It is the major cause of sudden cardiac death in young high-level athletes. Studies have demonstrated a poorer prognosis when associated with specific mutations. The association between HCM genotype and phenotype has been the subject of several studies since the discovery of the genetic nature of the disease. This study shows the effect of a MYBPC3 compound variant on the phenotypic HCM expression. A family in which a young man had a clinical diagnosis of HCM underwent clinical and genetic investigations. The coding regions of the MYH7, MYBPC3 and TNNT2 genes were sequenced and analyzed. The proband present a malignant manifestation of the disease, and is the only one to express HCM in his family. The genetic analysis through direct sequencing of the three main genes related to this disease identified a compound heterozygous variant (p.E542Q and p.D610H) in MYBPC3. A family analysis indicated that the p.E542Q and p.D610H alleles have paternal and maternal origin, respectively. No family member carrier of one of the variant alleles manifested clinical signs of HCM. We suggest that the MYBPC3-biallelic heterozygous expression of p.E542Q and p.D610H may cause the severe disease phenotype seen in the proband. Resumo A cardiomiopatia hipertrófica (CMH) é uma doença autossômica dominante causada por mutações em genes que codificam as proteínas dos sarcômeros. É a principal causa de morte súbita cardíaca em atletas jovens de alto nível. Estudos têm demonstrado um pior prognóstico associado a mutações específicas. A associação entre genótipo e fenótipo em CMH tem sido objeto de diversos estudos desde a descoberta da origem genética dessa doença. Este trabalho apresenta o efeito de uma mutação composta em MYBPC3 na expressão fenotípica da CMH. Uma família na qual um jovem tem o diagnóstico clínico de CMH foi

  10. Electroclinical presentation and genotype-phenotype relationships in patients with Unverricht-Lundborg disease carrying compound heterozygous CSTB point and indel mutations.

    PubMed

    Canafoglia, Laura; Gennaro, Elena; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Boni, Antonella; Beccaria, Francesca; Viri, Maurizio; Michelucci, Roberto; Agazzi, Pamela; Assereto, Stefania; Coviello, Domenico A; Di Stefano, Maria; Rossi Sebastiano, Davide; Franceschetti, Silvana; Zara, Federico

    2012-12-01

    Unverricht-Lundborg disease (EPM1A) is frequently due to an unstable expansion of a dodecamer repeat in the CSTB gene, whereas other types of mutations are rare. EPM1A due to homozygous expansion has a rather stereotyped presentation with prominent action myoclonus. We describe eight patients with five different compound heterozygous CSTB point or indel mutations in order to highlight their particular phenotypical presentations and evaluate their genotype-phenotype relationships. We screened CSTB mutations by means of Southern blotting and the sequencing of the genomic DNA of each proband. CSTB messenger RNA (mRNA) aberrations were characterized by sequencing the complementary DNA (cDNA) of lymphoblastoid cells, and assessing the protein concentrations in the lymphoblasts. The patient evaluations included the use of a simplified myoclonus severity rating scale, multiple neurophysiologic tests, and electroencephalography (EEG)-polygraphic recordings. To highlight the particular clinical features and disease time-course in compound heterozygous patients, we compared some of their characteristics with those observed in a series of 40 patients carrying the common homozygous expansion mutation observed at the C. Besta Foundation, Milan, Italy. The eight compound heterozygous patients belong to six EPM1A families (out of 52; 11.5%) diagnosed at the Laboratory of Genetics of the Galliera Hospitals in Genoa, Italy. They segregated five different heterozygous point or indel mutations in association with the common dodecamer expansion. Four patients from three families had previously reported CSTB mutations (c.67-1G>C and c.168+1_18del); one had a novel nonsense mutation at the first exon (c.133C>T) leading to a premature stop codon predicting a short peptide; the other three patients from two families had a complex novel indel mutation involving the donor splice site of intron 2 (c.168+2_169+21delinsAA) and leading to an aberrant transcript with a partially retained intron

  11. Compound heterozygous HAX1 mutations in a Swedish patient with severe congenital neutropenia and no neurodevelopmental abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Göran; Elinder, Göran; Malmgren, Helena; Trebinska, Alicja; Grzybowska, Ewa; Dahl, Niklas; Nordenskjöld, Magnus; Fadeel, Bengt

    2009-12-01

    Kostmann disease or severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) is an autosomal recessive disorder of neutrophil production. Homozygous HAX1 mutations were recently identified in SCN patients belonging to the original family in northern Sweden described by Kostmann. Moreover, recent studies have suggested an association between neurological dysfunction and HAX1 deficiency. Here we describe a patient with a compound heterozygous HAX1 mutation consisting of a nonsense mutation (c.568C > T, p.Glu190X) and a frame-shift mutation (c.91delG, p.Glu31LysfsX54) resulting in a premature stop codon. The patient has a history of neutropenia and a propensity for infections, but has shown no signs of neurodevelopmental abnormalities.

  12. Heterozygous Mapping Strategy (HetMappS) for High Resolution Genotyping-By-Sequencing Markers: A Case Study in Grapevine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Minghui; Londo, Jason P.; Acharya, Charlotte B.; Mitchell, Sharon E.; Sun, Qi; Reisch, Bruce; Cadle-Davidson, Lance

    2015-01-01

    Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) provides opportunities to generate high-resolution genetic maps at a low genotyping cost, but for highly heterozygous species, missing data and heterozygote undercalling complicate the creation of GBS genetic maps. To overcome these issues, we developed a publicly available, modular approach called HetMappS, which functions independently of parental genotypes and corrects for genotyping errors associated with heterozygosity. For linkage group formation, HetMappS includes both a reference-guided synteny pipeline and a reference-independent de novo pipeline. The de novo pipeline can be utilized for under-characterized or high diversity families that lack an appropriate reference. We applied both HetMappS pipelines in five half-sib F1 families involving genetically diverse Vitis spp. Starting with at least 116,466 putative SNPs per family, the HetMappS pipelines identified 10,440 to 17,267 phased pseudo-testcross (Pt) markers and generated high-confidence maps. Pt marker density exceeded crossover resolution in all cases; up to 5,560 non-redundant markers were used to generate parental maps ranging from 1,047 cM to 1,696 cM. The number of markers used was strongly correlated with family size in both de novo and synteny maps (r = 0.92 and 0.91, respectively). Comparisons between allele and tag frequencies suggested that many markers were in tandem repeats and mapped as single loci, while markers in regions of more than two repeats were removed during map curation. Both pipelines generated similar genetic maps, and genetic order was strongly correlated with the reference genome physical order in all cases. Independently created genetic maps from shared parents exhibited nearly identical results. Flower sex was mapped in three families and correctly localized to the known sex locus in all cases. The HetMappS pipeline could have wide application for genetic mapping in highly heterozygous species, and its modularity provides opportunities to

  13. Probing the Effect of Two Heterozygous Mutations in Codon 723 of SLC26A4 on Deafness Phenotype Based on Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jun; Qian, Xuli; Bao, Jingxiao; Wei, Qinjun; Lu, Yajie; Zheng, Heng; Cao, Xin; Xing, Guangqian

    2015-06-02

    A Chinese family was identified with clinical features of enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome (EVAS). The mutational analysis showed that the proband (III-2) had EVAS with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and carried a rare compound heterozygous mutation of SLC26A4 (IVS7-2A>G, c.2167C>G), which was inherited from the same mutant alleles of IVS7-2A>G heterozygous father and c.2167C>G heterozygous mother. Compared with another confirmed pathogenic biallelic mutation in SLC26A4 (IVS7-2A>G, c.2168A>G), these two biallelic mutations shared one common mutant allele and the same codon of the other mutant allele, but led to different changes of amino acid (p.H723D, p.H723R) and both resulted in the deafness phenotype. Structure-modeling indicated that these two mutant alleles changed the shape of pendrin protein encoded by SLC26A4 with increasing randomness in conformation, and might impair pendrin's ability as an anion transporter. The molecular dynamics simulations also revealed that the stability of mutant pendrins was reduced with increased flexibility of backbone atoms, which was consistent with the structure-modeling results. These evidences indicated that codon 723 was a hot-spot region in SLC26A4 with a significant impact on the structure and function of pendrin, and acted as one of the genetic factors responsible for the development of hearing loss.

  14. High-resolution melting (HRM) re-analysis of a polyposis patients cohort reveals previously undetected heterozygous and mosaic APC gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Out, Astrid A; van Minderhout, Ivonne J H M; van der Stoep, Nienke; van Bommel, Lysette S R; Kluijt, Irma; Aalfs, Cora; Voorendt, Marsha; Vossen, Rolf H A M; Nielsen, Maartje; Vasen, Hans F A; Morreau, Hans; Devilee, Peter; Tops, Carli M J; Hes, Frederik J

    2015-06-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis is most frequently caused by pathogenic variants in either the APC gene or the MUTYH gene. The detection rate of pathogenic variants depends on the severity of the phenotype and sensitivity of the screening method, including sensitivity for mosaic variants. For 171 patients with multiple colorectal polyps without previously detectable pathogenic variant, APC was reanalyzed in leukocyte DNA by one uniform technique: high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis. Serial dilution of heterozygous DNA resulted in a lowest detectable allelic fraction of 6% for the majority of variants. HRM analysis and subsequent sequencing detected pathogenic fully heterozygous APC variants in 10 (6%) of the patients and pathogenic mosaic variants in 2 (1%). All these variants were previously missed by various conventional scanning methods. In parallel, HRM APC scanning was applied to DNA isolated from polyp tissue of two additional patients with apparently sporadic polyposis and without detectable pathogenic APC variant in leukocyte DNA. In both patients a pathogenic mosaic APC variant was present in multiple polyps. The detection of pathogenic APC variants in 7% of the patients, including mosaics, illustrates the usefulness of a complete APC gene reanalysis of previously tested patients, by a supplementary scanning method. HRM is a sensitive and fast pre-screening method for reliable detection of heterozygous and mosaic variants, which can be applied to leukocyte and polyp derived DNA.

  15. HbA1c levels in individuals heterozygous for hemoglobin variants.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Ricardo Silva; Souza, Fábio Oliveira de; Francescantonio, Isabel Cristina Carvalho Medeiros; Soares, Weslley Carvalho; Mesquita, Mauro Meira

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in patients heterozygous for hemoglobin variants and compare the results of this test with those of a control group. This was an experimental study based on the comparison of HbA1c tests in two different populations, with a test group represented by individuals heterozygous for hemoglobin variants (AS and AC) and a control group consisting of people with electrophoretic profile AA. The two populations were required to meet the following inclusion criteria: Normal levels of fasting glucose, hemoglobin, urea and triglycerides, bilirubin > 20 mg/dL and non-use of acetylsalicylic acid. 50 heterozygous subjects and 50 controls were evaluated between August 2013 and May 2014. The comparison of HbA1c levels between heterozygous individuals and control subjects was performed based on standard deviation, mean and G-Test. The study assessed a test group and a control group, both with 39 adults and 11 children. The mean among heterozygous adults for HbA1c was 5.0%, while the control group showed a rate of 5.74%. Heterozygous children presented mean HbA1c at 5.11%, while the controls were at 5.78%. G-Test yielded p=0.93 for children and p=0.89 for adults. Our study evaluated HbA1c using ion exchange chromatography resins, and the patients heterozygous for hemoglobin variants showed no significant difference from the control group.

  16. Comparison of three assembly strategies for a heterozygous seedless grapevine genome assembly.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sagar; Lu, Zhixiu; Jin, Xiaozhu; Swaminathan, Padmapriya; Zeng, Erliang; Fennell, Anne Y

    2018-01-17

    De novo heterozygous assembly is an ongoing challenge requiring improved assembly approaches. In this study, three strategies were used to develop de novo Vitis vinifera 'Sultanina' genome assemblies for comparison with the inbred V. vinifera (PN40024 12X.v2) reference genome and a published Sultanina ALLPATHS-LG assembly (AP). The strategies were: 1) a default PLATANUS assembly (PLAT_d) for direct comparison with AP assembly, 2) an iterative merging strategy using METASSEMBLER to combine PLAT_d and AP assemblies (MERGE) and 3) PLATANUS parameter modifications plus GapCloser (PLAT*_GC). The three new assemblies were greater in size than the AP assembly. PLAT*_GC had the greatest number of scaffolds aligning with a minimum of 95% identity and ≥1000 bp alignment length to V. vinifera (PN40024 12X.v2) reference genome. SNP analysis also identified additional high quality SNPs. A greater number of sequence reads mapped back with zero-mismatch to the PLAT_d, MERGE, and PLAT*_GC (>94%) than was found in the AP assembly (87%) indicating a greater fidelity to the original sequence data in the new assemblies than in AP assembly. A de novo gene prediction conducted using seedless RNA-seq data predicted > 30,000 coding sequences for the three new de novo assemblies, with the greatest number (30,544) in PLAT*_GC and only 26,515 for the AP assembly. Transcription factor analysis indicated good family coverage, but some genes found in the VCOST.v3 annotation were not identified in any of the de novo assemblies, particularly some from  the MYB and ERF families. The PLAT_d and PLAT*_GC had a greater number of synteny blocks with the V. vinifera (PN40024 12X.v2) reference genome than AP or MERGE. PLAT*_GC provided the most contiguous assembly with only 1.2% scaffold N, in contrast to AP (10.7% N), PLAT_d (6.6% N) and Merge (6.4% N). A PLAT*_GC pseudo-chromosome assembly with chromosome alignment to the reference genome V. vinifera, (PN40024 12X.v2) provides new information

  17. Compound heterozygous NEK1 variants in two siblings with oral-facial-digital syndrome type II (Mohr syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Monroe, Glen R; Kappen, Isabelle FPM; Stokman, Marijn F; Terhal, Paulien A; van den Boogaard, Marie-José H; Savelberg, Sanne MC; van der Veken, Lars T; van Es, Robert JJ; Lens, Susanne M; Hengeveld, Rutger C; Creton, Marijn A; Janssen, Nard G; Mink van der Molen, Aebele B; Ebbeling, Michelle B; Giles, Rachel H; Knoers, Nine V; van Haaften, Gijs

    2016-01-01

    The oral-facial-digital (OFD) syndromes comprise a group of related disorders with a combination of oral, facial and digital anomalies. Variants in several ciliary genes have been associated with subtypes of OFD syndrome, yet in most OFD patients the underlying cause remains unknown. We investigated the molecular basis of disease in two brothers with OFD type II, Mohr syndrome, by performing single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-array analysis on the brothers and their healthy parents to identify homozygous regions and candidate genes. Subsequently, we performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) on the family. Using WES, we identified compound heterozygous variants c.[464G>C][1226G>A] in NIMA (Never in Mitosis Gene A)-Related Kinase 1 (NEK1). The novel variant c.464G>C disturbs normal splicing in an essential region of the kinase domain. The nonsense variant c.1226G>A, p.(Trp409*), results in nonsense-associated alternative splicing, removing the first coiled-coil domain of NEK1. Candidate variants were confirmed with Sanger sequencing and alternative splicing assessed with cDNA analysis. Immunocytochemistry was used to assess cilia number and length. Patient-derived fibroblasts showed severely reduced ciliation compared with control fibroblasts (18.0 vs 48.9%, P<0.0001), but showed no significant difference in cilia length. In conclusion, we identified compound heterozygous deleterious variants in NEK1 in two brothers with Mohr syndrome. Ciliation in patient fibroblasts is drastically reduced, consistent with a ciliary defect pathogenesis. Our results establish NEK1 variants involved in the etiology of a subset of patients with OFD syndrome type II and support the consideration of including (routine) NEK1 analysis in patients suspected of OFD. PMID:27530628

  18. Compound heterozygous NEK1 variants in two siblings with oral-facial-digital syndrome type II (Mohr syndrome).

    PubMed

    Monroe, Glen R; Kappen, Isabelle Fpm; Stokman, Marijn F; Terhal, Paulien A; van den Boogaard, Marie-José H; Savelberg, Sanne Mc; van der Veken, Lars T; van Es, Robert Jj; Lens, Susanne M; Hengeveld, Rutger C; Creton, Marijn A; Janssen, Nard G; Mink van der Molen, Aebele B; Ebbeling, Michelle B; Giles, Rachel H; Knoers, Nine V; van Haaften, Gijs

    2016-12-01

    The oral-facial-digital (OFD) syndromes comprise a group of related disorders with a combination of oral, facial and digital anomalies. Variants in several ciliary genes have been associated with subtypes of OFD syndrome, yet in most OFD patients the underlying cause remains unknown. We investigated the molecular basis of disease in two brothers with OFD type II, Mohr syndrome, by performing single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-array analysis on the brothers and their healthy parents to identify homozygous regions and candidate genes. Subsequently, we performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) on the family. Using WES, we identified compound heterozygous variants c.[464G>C];[1226G>A] in NIMA (Never in Mitosis Gene A)-Related Kinase 1 (NEK1). The novel variant c.464G>C disturbs normal splicing in an essential region of the kinase domain. The nonsense variant c.1226G>A, p.(Trp409*), results in nonsense-associated alternative splicing, removing the first coiled-coil domain of NEK1. Candidate variants were confirmed with Sanger sequencing and alternative splicing assessed with cDNA analysis. Immunocytochemistry was used to assess cilia number and length. Patient-derived fibroblasts showed severely reduced ciliation compared with control fibroblasts (18.0 vs 48.9%, P<0.0001), but showed no significant difference in cilia length. In conclusion, we identified compound heterozygous deleterious variants in NEK1 in two brothers with Mohr syndrome. Ciliation in patient fibroblasts is drastically reduced, consistent with a ciliary defect pathogenesis. Our results establish NEK1 variants involved in the etiology of a subset of patients with OFD syndrome type II and support the consideration of including (routine) NEK1 analysis in patients suspected of OFD.

  19. PINK1 heterozygous mutations induce subtle alterations in dopamine-dependent synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Madeo, G.; Schirinzi, T.; Martella, G.; Latagliata, E.C.; Puglisi, F.; Shen, J.; Valente, E.M.; Federici, M.; Mercuri, N.B.; Puglisi-Allegra, S.; Bonsi, P.; Pisani, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene are causative of autosomal recessive, early onset PD. Single heterozygous mutations have been repeatedly detected in a subset of patients as well as in non-affected subjects, and their significance has long been debated. Several neurophysiological studies from non-manifesting PINK1 heterozygotes have shown the existence of neural plasticity abnormalities, indicating the presence of specific endophenotypic traits in the heterozygous state. Methods In the present study, we performed a functional analysis of corticostriatal synaptic plasticity in heterozygous PINK1 knock-out (PINK1+/−) mice by a multidisciplinary approach. Results We found that, despite a normal motor behavior, repetitive activation of cortical inputs to striatal neurons failed to induce long-term potentiation (LTP), whereas long-term depression (LTD) was normal. Although nigral dopaminergic neurons exhibited normal morphological and electrophysiological properties with normal responses to dopamine receptor activation, we measured a significantly lower dopamine release in the striatum of PINK1+/−, compared to control mice, suggesting that a decrease in stimulus-evoked dopamine overflow acts as a major determinant for the LTP deficit. Accordingly, pharmacological agents capable of increasing the availability of dopamine in the synaptic cleft restored a normal LTP in heterozygous mice. Moreover, MAO-B inhibitors rescued a physiological LTP and a normal dopamine release. Conclusions Our results provide novel evidence for striatal plasticity abnormalities even in the heterozygous disease state. These alterations might be considered an endophenotype to this monogenic form of PD, and a valid tool to characterize early disease stage and design possible disease-modifying therapies. PMID:24167038

  20. Characterization of Heterozygous HTRA1 Mutations in Taiwanese Patients With Cerebral Small Vessel Disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Chung; Chung, Chih-Ping; Chao, Nai-Chen; Fuh, Jong-Ling; Chang, Feng-Chi; Soong, Bing-Wing; Liao, Yi-Chu

    2018-07-01

    Homozygous and compound heterozygous mutations in the high temperature requirement serine peptidase A1 gene ( HTRA1 ) cause cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy. However, heterozygous HTRA1 mutations were recently identified to be associated with autosomal dominant cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). The present study aims at investigating the clinical features, frequency, and spectrum of HTRA1 mutations in a Taiwanese cohort with SVD. Mutational analyses of HTRA1 were performed by Sanger sequencing in 222 subjects, selected from a cohort of 337 unrelated patients with SVD after excluding those harboring a NOTCH3 mutation. The influence of these mutations on HTRA1 protease activities was characterized. Seven novel heterozygous mutations in HTRA1 were identified, including p.Gly120Asp, p.Ile179Asn, p.Ala182Profs*33, p.Ile256Thr, p.Gly276Ala, p.Gln289Ter, and p.Asn324Thr, and each was identified in 1 single index patient. All mutations significantly compromise the HTRA1 protease activities. For the 7 index cases and another 2 affected siblings carrying a heterozygous HTRA1 mutation, the common clinical presentations include lacunar infarction, intracerebral hemorrhage, cognitive decline, and spondylosis at the fifth to sixth decade of life. Among the 9 patients, 4 have psychiatric symptoms as delusion, depression, and compulsive behavior, 3 have leukoencephalopathy in anterior temporal poles, and 2 patients have alopecia. Heterozygous HTRA1 mutations account for 2.08% (7 of 337) of SVD in Taiwan. The clinical and neuroradiological features of HTRA1 -related SVD and sporadic SVD are similar. These findings broaden the mutational spectrum of HTRA1 and highlight the pathogenic role of heterozygous HTRA1 mutations in SVD. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Long-term response to growth hormone therapy in a patient with short stature caused by a novel heterozygous mutation in NPR2.

    PubMed

    Vasques, Gabriela A; Hisado-Oliva, Alfonso; Funari, Mariana F A; Lerario, Antonio M; Quedas, Elisangela P S; Solberg, Paulo; Heath, Karen E; Jorge, Alexander A L

    2017-01-01

    Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the natriuretic peptide receptor B gene (NPR2) are responsible for short stature in patients without a distinct phenotype. Some of these patients have been treated with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy with a variable response. The proband was a healthy boy who presented at the age of 5.1 years with familial short stature (height SDS of -3.1). He had a prominent forehead, a depressed nasal bridge, centripetal fat distribution and a high-pitched voice resembling that of children with GH deficiency. His hormonal evaluation showed low insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) but a normal GH peak at a stimulation test. During the first year of rhGH treatment, his growth velocity increased from 3.4 to 10.4 cm/year (height SDS change of +1.1). At the last visit, he was 8.8 years old and still on treatment, his growth velocity was 6.4 cm/year and height SDS was -1.8. We identified through exome sequencing a novel heterozygous loss-of-function NPR2 mutation (c.2905G>C; p.Val969Leu). Cells cotransfected with the p.Val969Leu mutant showed a significant decrease in cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) production compared to the wild type (WT), suggesting a dominant negative effect. This case reveals a novel heterozygous loss-of-function NPR2 mutation responsible for familial short stature and the good response of rhGH therapy in this patient.

  2. Heterozygous Pathogenic Variant in DACT1 Causes an Autosomal-Dominant Syndrome with Features Overlapping Townes–Brocks Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Bryn D.; Metikala, Sanjeeva; Wheeler, Patricia G.; Sherpa, Mingma D.; Houten, Sander M.; Horb, Marko E.; Schadt, Eric E.

    2017-01-01

    A heterozygous nonsense variant was identified in dapper, antagonist of beta-catenin, 1 (DACT1) via whole-exome sequencing in family members with imperforate anus, structural renal abnormalities, genitourinary anomalies, and/or ear anomalies. The DACT1 c.1256G>A;p.Trp419* variant segregated appropriately in the family consistent with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. DACT1 is a member of the Wnt-signaling pathway, and mice homozygous for null alleles display multiple congenital anomalies including absent anus with blind-ending colon and genitourinary malformations. To investigate the DACT1 c.1256G>A variant, HEK293 cells were transfected with mutant DACT1 cDNA plasmid, and immunoblotting revealed stability of the DACT1 p.Trp419* protein. Overexpression of DACT1 c.1256G>A mRNA in Xenopus embryos revealed a specific gastrointestinal phenotype of enlargement of the proctodeum. Together, these findings suggest that the DACT1 c.1256G>A nonsense variant is causative of a specific genetic syndrome with features overlapping Townes–Brocks syndrome. PMID:28054444

  3. Heterozygous Pathogenic Variant in DACT1 Causes an Autosomal-Dominant Syndrome with Features Overlapping Townes-Brocks Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Webb, Bryn D; Metikala, Sanjeeva; Wheeler, Patricia G; Sherpa, Mingma D; Houten, Sander M; Horb, Marko E; Schadt, Eric E

    2017-04-01

    A heterozygous nonsense variant was identified in dapper, antagonist of beta-catenin, 1 (DACT1) via whole-exome sequencing in family members with imperforate anus, structural renal abnormalities, genitourinary anomalies, and/or ear anomalies. The DACT1 c.1256G>A;p.Trp419 * variant segregated appropriately in the family consistent with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. DACT1 is a member of the Wnt-signaling pathway, and mice homozygous for null alleles display multiple congenital anomalies including absent anus with blind-ending colon and genitourinary malformations. To investigate the DACT1 c.1256G>A variant, HEK293 cells were transfected with mutant DACT1 cDNA plasmid, and immunoblotting revealed stability of the DACT1 p.Trp419 * protein. Overexpression of DACT1 c.1256G>A mRNA in Xenopus embryos revealed a specific gastrointestinal phenotype of enlargement of the proctodeum. Together, these findings suggest that the DACT1 c.1256G>A nonsense variant is causative of a specific genetic syndrome with features overlapping Townes-Brocks syndrome. © 2017 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  4. Heterozygous Germline Mutations in the CBL Tumor-Suppressor Gene Cause a Noonan Syndrome-like Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Simone; De Luca, Alessandro; Stellacci, Emilia; Rossi, Cesare; Checquolo, Saula; Lepri, Francesca; Caputo, Viviana; Silvano, Marianna; Buscherini, Francesco; Consoli, Federica; Ferrara, Grazia; Digilio, Maria C.; Cavaliere, Maria L.; van Hagen, Johanna M.; Zampino, Giuseppe; van der Burgt, Ineke; Ferrero, Giovanni B.; Mazzanti, Laura; Screpanti, Isabella; Yntema, Helger G.; Nillesen, Willy M.; Savarirayan, Ravi; Zenker, Martin; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Gelb, Bruce D.; Tartaglia, Marco

    2010-01-01

    RAS signaling plays a key role in controlling appropriate cell responses to extracellular stimuli and participates in early and late developmental processes. Although enhanced flow through this pathway has been established as a major contributor to oncogenesis, recent discoveries have revealed that aberrant RAS activation causes a group of clinically related developmental disorders characterized by facial dysmorphism, a wide spectrum of cardiac disease, reduced growth, variable cognitive deficits, ectodermal and musculoskeletal anomalies, and increased risk for certain malignancies. Here, we report that heterozygous germline mutations in CBL, a tumor-suppressor gene that is mutated in myeloid malignancies and encodes a multivalent adaptor protein with E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, can underlie a phenotype with clinical features fitting or partially overlapping Noonan syndrome (NS), the most common condition of this disease family. Independent CBL mutations were identified in two sporadic cases and two families from among 365 unrelated subjects who had NS or suggestive features and were negative for mutations in previously identified disease genes. Phenotypic heterogeneity and variable expressivity were documented. Mutations were missense changes altering evolutionarily conserved residues located in the RING finger domain or the linker connecting this domain to the N-terminal tyrosine kinase binding domain, a known mutational hot spot in myeloid malignancies. Mutations were shown to affect CBL-mediated receptor ubiquitylation and dysregulate signal flow through RAS. These findings document that germline mutations in CBL alter development to cause a clinically variable condition that resembles NS and that possibly predisposes to malignancies. PMID:20619386

  5. Atypical generalized lipoatrophy and severe insulin resistance due to a heterozygous LMNA p.T10I mutation.

    PubMed

    Mory, Patricia B; Crispim, Felipe; Kasamatsu, Teresa; Gabbay, Monica A L; Dib, Sergio A; Moisés, Regina S

    2008-11-01

    Lipodystrophies are a group of heterogeneous disorders characterized by the loss of adipose tissue and metabolic complications. The main familial forms of lipodystrophy are Congenital Generalized Lipodystrophy and Familial Partial Lipodystrophy (FPLD). FPLD may result from mutations in the LMNA gene. Besides FPLD, mutations in LMNA have been shown to be responsible for other inherited diseases called laminopathies. Here we describe the case of a 15-year-old girl who was referred to our service due to diabetes mellitus and severe hypertriglyceridemia. Physical examination revealed generalized loss of subcutaneous fat, confirmed by DEXA (total body fat 8.6%). As the patient presented with pubertal-onset of generalized lipodystrophy and insulin resistance, molecular analysis of the LMNA gene was performed. We identified a heterozygous substitution in exon 1 (c.29C>T) predicting a p.T10I mutation. In summary, we describe an atypical phenotype of lipodistrophy associated with a de novo appearance of the p.T10I mutation in LMNA gene.

  6. Mixed Sequence Reader: A Program for Analyzing DNA Sequences with Heterozygous Base Calling

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chun-Tien; Tsai, Chi-Neu; Tang, Chuan Yi; Chen, Chun-Houh; Lian, Jang-Hau; Hu, Chi-Yu; Tsai, Chia-Lung; Chao, Angel; Lai, Chyong-Huey; Wang, Tzu-Hao; Lee, Yun-Shien

    2012-01-01

    The direct sequencing of PCR products generates heterozygous base-calling fluorescence chromatograms that are useful for identifying single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertion-deletions (indels), short tandem repeats (STRs), and paralogous genes. Indels and STRs can be easily detected using the currently available Indelligent or ShiftDetector programs, which do not search reference sequences. However, the detection of other genomic variants remains a challenge due to the lack of appropriate tools for heterozygous base-calling fluorescence chromatogram data analysis. In this study, we developed a free web-based program, Mixed Sequence Reader (MSR), which can directly analyze heterozygous base-calling fluorescence chromatogram data in .abi file format using comparisons with reference sequences. The heterozygous sequences are identified as two distinct sequences and aligned with reference sequences. Our results showed that MSR may be used to (i) physically locate indel and STR sequences and determine STR copy number by searching NCBI reference sequences; (ii) predict combinations of microsatellite patterns using the Federal Bureau of Investigation Combined DNA Index System (CODIS); (iii) determine human papilloma virus (HPV) genotypes by searching current viral databases in cases of double infections; (iv) estimate the copy number of paralogous genes, such as β-defensin 4 (DEFB4) and its paralog HSPDP3. PMID:22778697

  7. Age-Dependent Deficits in Fear Learning in Heterozygous BDNF Knock-Out Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endres, Thomas; Lessmann, Volkmar

    2012-01-01

    Beyond its trophic function, the neurotrophin BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) is well known to crucially mediate synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Whereas recent studies suggested that acute BDNF/TrkB signaling regulates amygdala-dependent fear learning, no impairments of cued fear learning were reported in heterozygous BDNF…

  8. HetMappsS: Heterozygous mapping strategy for high resolution Genotyping-by-Sequencing Markers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reduced representation genotyping approaches, such as genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), provide opportunities to generate high-resolution genetic maps at a low per-sample cost. However, missing data and non-uniform sequence coverage can complicate map creation in highly heterozygous species. To facili...

  9. EDNRB mutations cause Waardenburg syndrome type II in the heterozygous state.

    PubMed

    Issa, Sarah; Bondurand, Nadege; Faubert, Emmanuelle; Poisson, Sylvain; Lecerf, Laure; Nitschke, Patrick; Deggouj, Naima; Loundon, Natalie; Jonard, Laurence; David, Albert; Sznajer, Yves; Blanchet, Patricia; Marlin, Sandrine; Pingault, Veronique

    2017-05-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a genetic disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and pigmentation anomalies. The clinical definition of four WS types is based on additional features due to defects in structures mostly arising from the neural crest, with type I and type II being the most frequent. While type I is tightly associated to PAX3 mutations, WS type II (WS2) remains partly enigmatic with mutations in known genes (MITF, SOX10) accounting for only 30% of the cases. We performed exome sequencing in a WS2 index case and identified a heterozygous missense variation in EDNRB. Interestingly, homozygous (and very rare heterozygous) EDNRB mutations are already described in type IV WS (i.e., in association with Hirschsprung disease [HD]) and heterozygous mutations in isolated HD. Screening of a WS2 cohort led to the identification of an overall of six heterozygous EDNRB variations. Clinical phenotypes, pedigrees and molecular segregation investigations unraveled a dominant mode of inheritance with incomplete penetrance. In parallel, cellular and functional studies showed that each of the mutations impairs the subcellular localization of the receptor or induces a defective downstream signaling pathway. Based on our results, we now estimate EDNRB mutations to be responsible for 5%-6% of WS2. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Prenatal diagnosis of fetal glutaric aciduria type 1 with rare compound heterozygous mutations in GCDH gene.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hsiu-Huei; Shaw, Sheng-Wen; Huang, Kuan-Gen

    2018-02-01

    Glutaric aciduria type 1 is a rare disease, with the estimated prevalence about 1 in 100,000 newborns. GCDH gene mutation can lead to glutaric acid and 3- OH glutaric acid accumulation, with clinical manifestation of neuronal damage, brain atrophy, microencephalic macrocephaly, decreased coordination of swallowing, poor muscle coordination, spasticity, and severe dystonic movement disorder. A 22-year-old female, Gravida 4 Para 2, is pregnancy at 13 weeks of gestational age. Her first child is normal, however, the second child was diagnosed as glutaric aciduria type I after birth. She came to our hospital for prenatal genetic counselling of her fetus at 13 weeks of gestational age. We performed GCDH gene mutation analysis of maternal blood showed IVS 3 + 1 G > A heterozygous mutation, GCDH gene mutation analysis of paternal blood showed c. 1240 G > A heterozygous mutation, and the second child has compound heterozygous IVS 3 + 1 G > A and c. 1240 G > A mutations. Later, we performed amniocentesis at 16 weeks of gestational age for chromosome study and GCDH gene mutation analysis for the fetus. The fetal chromosome study showed normal karyotype, however, GCDH gene mutation analysis showed compound heterozygous IVS 3 + 1 G > A and c. 1240 G > A mutations. The couple decided to termination of pregnancy thereafter. Glutaric acidemia type 1 is an autosomal recessive disorder because of pathogenic mutations in the GCDH gene. Early diagnosis and therapy of glutaric acidemia type 1 can reduce the risk of neuronal damage and acute dystonia. We report a case of prenatal diagnosis of fetal glutaric aciduria type 1 with rare compound heterozygous GCDH gene mutation at IVS 3 + 1 G > A and c. 1240 G > A mutations, which provide better genetic counselling for the couples. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Ignoring heterozygous sites biases phylogenomic estimates of divergence times: implications for the evolutionary history of microtus voles.

    PubMed

    Lischer, Heidi E L; Excoffier, Laurent; Heckel, Gerald

    2014-04-01

    Phylogenetic reconstruction of the evolutionary history of closely related organisms may be difficult because of the presence of unsorted lineages and of a relatively high proportion of heterozygous sites that are usually not handled well by phylogenetic programs. Genomic data may provide enough fixed polymorphisms to resolve phylogenetic trees, but the diploid nature of sequence data remains analytically challenging. Here, we performed a phylogenomic reconstruction of the evolutionary history of the common vole (Microtus arvalis) with a focus on the influence of heterozygosity on the estimation of intraspecific divergence times. We used genome-wide sequence information from 15 voles distributed across the European range. We provide a novel approach to integrate heterozygous information in existing phylogenetic programs by repeated random haplotype sampling from sequences with multiple unphased heterozygous sites. We evaluated the impact of the use of full, partial, or no heterozygous information for tree reconstructions on divergence time estimates. All results consistently showed four deep and strongly supported evolutionary lineages in the vole data. These lineages undergoing divergence processes split only at the end or after the last glacial maximum based on calibration with radiocarbon-dated paleontological material. However, the incorporation of information from heterozygous sites had a significant impact on absolute and relative branch length estimations. Ignoring heterozygous information led to an overestimation of divergence times between the evolutionary lineages of M. arvalis. We conclude that the exclusion of heterozygous sites from evolutionary analyses may cause biased and misleading divergence time estimates in closely related taxa.

  12. A novel heterozygous SOX2 mutation causing congenital bilateral anophthalmia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and growth hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Macchiaroli, Annamaria; Kelberman, Daniel; Auriemma, Renata Simona; Drury, Suzanne; Islam, Lily; Giangiobbe, Sara; Ironi, Gabriele; Lench, Nicholas; Sowden, Jane C; Colao, Annamaria; Pivonello, Rosario; Cavallo, Luciano; Gasperi, Maurizio; Faienza, Maria Felicia

    2014-01-25

    Heterozygous de novo mutations in SOX2 have been reported in approximately 10-20% of patients with unilateral or bilateral anophthalmia or microphthalmia. An additional phenotype of hypopituitarism, with anterior pituitary hypoplasia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, has been reported in patients carrying SOX2 alterations. We report a novel heterozygous mutation in the SOX2 gene in a male affected with congenital bilateral anophthalmia, hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism and growth hormone deficiency. The mutation we describe is a cytosine deletion in position 905 (c905delC) which causes frameshift and an aberrant C-terminal domain. Our report highlights the fact that subjects affected with eye anomalies and harboring SOX2 mutations are at high risk for gonadotropin deficiency, which has important implications for their clinical management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Late-onset nonketotic hyperglycinemia with a heterozygous novel point mutation of the GLDC gene.

    PubMed

    Brenton, J Nicholas; Rust, Robert S

    2014-05-01

    Atypical nonketotic hyperglycinemia is characterized by heterogeneous phenotypes that often include nonspecific behavioral problems, cognitive deficits, and developmental delays. We describe a girl with late-onset nonketotic hyperglycinemia presenting at 5 years of age with hypotonia, chorea, ataxia, and alterations in consciousness in the setting of febrile illness. Serum amino acid analysis was mildly elevated; however, urine amino acid analysis was instrumental in demonstrating marked hyperglycinuria. Mutation testing showed a heterozygous novel sequence change/point mutation in the glycine decarboxylase gene. This patient illustrates the importance of obtaining urine amino acids in individuals whose clinical manifestations are suspicious for any form of nonketotic hyperglycinemia, because this testing may provide more prominent evidence of elevations in glycine. She also illustrates the potential for a heterozygous mutation to result in manifestations of an atypical form of nonketotic hyperglycinemia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Utility of whole exome sequencing in the diagnosis of Usher syndrome: Report of novel compound heterozygous MYO7A mutations.

    PubMed

    Ramzan, Khushnooda; Al-Owain, Mohammed; Huma, Rozeena; Al-Hazzaa, Selwa A F; Al-Ageel, Sarah; Imtiaz, Faiqa; Al-Sayed, Moeenaldeen

    2018-05-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS), such as targeted panel sequencing, whole-exome sequencing and whole-genome sequencing has led to an exponential increase of elucidated genetic causes in both rare diseases, and common but heterogeneous disorders. NGS is applied in both research and clinical settings, and the clinical exome sequencing (CES), which provides not only the sequence variation data but also clinical interpretation, aids in reaching a final conclusion with regards to a genetic diagnosis. Usher syndrome is a group of disorders, characterized by bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, with or without vestibular dysfunction and retinitis pigmentosa. The index patient, a 2-year-old child was initially diagnosed with nonsyndromic hearing impairment. Homozygosity mapping followed by CES was utilized as a diagnostic tool to identify the genetic basis of his hearing loss. A paternally inherited novel insertion, c.198_199insA (p.Val67Serfs*73) and a maternally inherited novel deletion, c.1219_1226del (p.Phe407Aspfs*33) in gene MYO7A were found in compound heterozygous state in the index patient. The result expands the mutational spectrum of MYO7A. In addition it helped in early diagnosis of the syndrome, for planning and adjustments for the patient, and as well as for future family planning. This study highlights the clinical effectiveness of CES for Usher syndrome diagnosis in a child presented with congenital hearing loss. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Dent Disease in Chinese Children and Findings from Heterozygous Mothers: Phenotypic Heterogeneity, Fetal Growth, and 10 Novel Mutations.

    PubMed

    Li, Fucheng; Yue, Zhihui; Xu, Tingting; Chen, Minghui; Zhong, Liangying; Liu, Ting; Jing, Xiangyi; Deng, Jia; Hu, Bin; Liu, Yuling; Wang, Haiyan; Lai, Kar N; Sun, Liangzhong; Liu, Jinsong; Maxwell, Patrick H; Wang, Yiming

    2016-07-01

    To characterize the phenotypes of Dent disease in Chinese children and their heterozygous mothers and to establish genetic diagnoses. Using a modified protocol, we screened 1288 individuals with proteinuria. A diagnosis of Dent disease was established in 19 boys from 16 families by the presence of loss of function/deleterious mutations in CLCN5 or OCRL1. We also analyzed 16 available patients' mothers and examined their pregnancy records. We detected 14 loss of function/deleterious mutations of CLCN5 in 15 boys and 2 mutations of OCRL1 in 4 boys. Of the patients, 16 of 19 had been wrongly diagnosed with other diseases and 11 of 19 had incorrect or unnecessary treatment. None of the patients, but 6 of 14 mothers, had nephrocalcinosis or nephrolithiasis at diagnosis. Of the patients, 8 of 14 with Dent disease 1 were large for gestational age (>90th percentile); 8 of 15 (53.3%) had rickets. We also present predicted structural changes for 4 mutant proteins. Pediatric Dent disease often is misdiagnosed; genetic testing achieves a correct diagnosis. Nephrocalcinosis or nephrolithiasis may not be sensitive diagnostic criteria. We identified 10 novel mutations in CLCN5 and OCRL1. The possibility that altered CLCN5 function could affect fetal growth and a possible link between a high rate of rickets and low calcium intake are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Compound heterozygous PNPLA6 mutations cause Boucher-Neuhäuser syndrome with late-onset ataxia.

    PubMed

    Deik, A; Johannes, B; Rucker, J C; Sánchez, E; Brodie, S E; Deegan, E; Landy, K; Kajiwara, Y; Scelsa, S; Saunders-Pullman, R; Paisán-Ruiz, C

    2014-12-01

    PNPLA6 mutations, known to be associated with the development of motor neuron phenotypes, have recently been identified in families with Boucher-Neuhäuser syndrome. Boucher-Neuhäuser is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by the co-occurrence of cerebellar ataxia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and chorioretinal dystrophy. Gait ataxia in Boucher-Neuhäuser usually manifests before early adulthood, although onset in the third or fourth decade has also been reported. However, given the recent identification of PNPLA6 mutations as the cause of this condition, the determining factors of age of symptom onset still need to be established. Here, we have identified a sporadic Boucher-Neuhäuser case with late-onset gait ataxia and relatively milder retinal changes due to compound heterozygous PNPLA6 mutations. Compound heterozygosity was confirmed by cloning and sequencing the patient's genomic DNA from coding exons 26-29. Furthermore, both mutations (one novel and one known) fell in the phospholipase esterase domain, where most pathogenic mutations seem to cluster. Taken together, we herein confirm PNPLA6 mutations as the leading cause of Boucher-Neuhäuser syndrome and suggest inquiring about a history of hypogonadism or visual changes in patients presenting with late-onset gait ataxia. We also advocate for neuroophthalmologic evaluation in suspected cases.

  17. Clinical Phenotype in a Toddler with a Novel Heterozygous Mutation of the Vitamin D Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Dingle, Elena

    2017-01-01

    We present the clinical phenotype of a toddler who presented with vitamin D-resistant rickets, with one of the highest initial levels of alkaline phosphatase and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels reported in the literature. The toddler had novel compound heterozygous mutations in the ligand-binding site of the vitamin D receptor and had an excellent response to calcitriol (1,25(OH)2D). PMID:28620554

  18. Novel CLCN7 compound heterozygous mutations in intermediate autosomal recessive osteopetrosis

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Nana; Kohmoto, Tomohiro; Naruto, Takuya; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Komori, Takahide; Imoto, Issei

    2017-01-01

    Osteopetrosis is a heritable disorder of the skeleton that is characterized by increased bone density on radiographs caused by defects in osteoclast formation and function. Mutations in >10 genes are identified as causative for this clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease in humans. We report two novel missense variations in a compound heterozygous state in the CLCN7 gene, detected through targeted exome sequencing, in a 15-year-old Japanese female with intermediate autosomal recessive osteopetrosis. PMID:28819563

  19. Novel CLCN7 compound heterozygous mutations in intermediate autosomal recessive osteopetrosis.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Nana; Kohmoto, Tomohiro; Naruto, Takuya; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Komori, Takahide; Imoto, Issei

    2017-01-01

    Osteopetrosis is a heritable disorder of the skeleton that is characterized by increased bone density on radiographs caused by defects in osteoclast formation and function. Mutations in >10 genes are identified as causative for this clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease in humans. We report two novel missense variations in a compound heterozygous state in the CLCN7 gene, detected through targeted exome sequencing, in a 15-year-old Japanese female with intermediate autosomal recessive osteopetrosis.

  20. Clinical Phenotype in a Toddler with a Novel Heterozygous Mutation of the Vitamin D Receptor.

    PubMed

    Brar, Preneet Cheema; Dingle, Elena; Pappas, John; Raisingani, Manish

    2017-01-01

    We present the clinical phenotype of a toddler who presented with vitamin D-resistant rickets, with one of the highest initial levels of alkaline phosphatase and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels reported in the literature. The toddler had novel compound heterozygous mutations in the ligand-binding site of the vitamin D receptor and had an excellent response to calcitriol (1,25(OH)2D).

  1. The risk for developing cancer in Israeli ATM, BLM, and FANCC heterozygous mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Laitman, Yael; Boker-Keinan, Lital; Berkenstadt, Michal; Liphsitz, Irena; Weissglas-Volkov, Daphna; Ries-Levavi, Liat; Sarouk, Ifat; Pras, Elon; Friedman, Eitan

    2016-03-01

    Cancer risks in heterozygous mutation carriers of the ATM, BLM, and FANCC genes are controversial. To shed light on this issue, cancer rates were evaluated by cross referencing asymptomatic Israeli heterozygous mutation carriers in the ATM, BLM, and FANCC genes with cancer diagnoses registered at the Israeli National Cancer Registry (INCR). Comparison of observed to expected Standardized Incidence Rates (SIR) was performed. Overall, 474 individuals participated in the study: 378 females; 25 Arab and 31 Jewish ATM carriers, 152 BLM carriers, and 170 FANCC carriers (all Ashkenazim). Age range at genotyping was 19-53 years (mean + SD 30.6 + 5 years). In addition, 96 males were included; 5, 34, and 57 ATM, BLM, and FANCC mutation carriers, respectively. Over 5-16 years from genotyping (4721 person/years), 15 new cancers were diagnosed in mutation carriers: 5 breast, 4 cervical, 3 melanomas, and one each bone sarcoma, pancreatic, and colorectal cancer. No single cancer diagnosis was more prevalent then expected in all groups combined or per gene analyzed. Specifically breast cancer SIR was 0.02-0.77. We conclude that Israeli ATM, BLM, and FANCC heterozygous mutation carriers are not at an increased risk for developing cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk of asthma in heterozygous carriers for cystic fibrosis: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Anne Orholm; Qayum, Sadaf; Bouchelouche, Pierre Nourdine; Laursen, Lars Christian; Dahl, Ronald; Dahl, Morten

    2016-09-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have a higher prevalence of asthma than the background population, however, it is unclear whether heterozygous CF carriers are susceptible to asthma. Given this, a meta-analysis is necessary to determine the veracity of the association of CF heterozygosity with asthma. We screened the medical literature from 1966 to 2015 and performed a meta-analysis to determine the risk of asthma in CF heterozygotes vs. non-carriers. Aggregating data from 15 studies, the odds ratio for asthma in CF heterozygotes compared with non-carriers was significantly elevated at 1.61 (95% CI: 1.18-2.21). When analyzing the studies considered of high quality in which asthma was diagnosed by a physician, the patients were >18years, or study size was ≥500, the trend remained the same, that heterozygous carriers of CF had elevated risk for asthma. The results show that heterozygous carriers for CF have a higher risk of asthma than non-carriers. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Neurochemical and behavioral characterization of neuronal glutamate transporter EAAT3 heterozygous mice.

    PubMed

    González, Luis F; Henríquez-Belmar, Francisca; Delgado-Acevedo, Claudia; Cisternas-Olmedo, Marisol; Arriagada, Gloria; Sotomayor-Zárate, Ramón; Murphy, Dennis L; Moya, Pablo R

    2017-09-19

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe neuropsychiatric condition affecting 1-3% of the worldwide population. OCD has a strong genetic component, and the SLC1A1 gene that encodes neuronal glutamate transporter EAAT3 is a strong candidate for this disorder. To evaluate the impact of reduced EAAT3 expression in vivo, we studied male EAAT3 heterozygous and wild-type littermate mice using a battery of behavioral paradigms relevant to anxiety (open field test, elevated plus maze) and compulsivity (marble burying), as well as locomotor activity induced by amphetamine. Using high-performance liquid chromatography, we also determined tissue neurotransmitter levels in cortex, striatum and thalamus-brain areas that are relevant to OCD. Compared to wild-type littermates, EAAT3 heterozygous male mice have unaltered baseline anxiety-like, compulsive-like behavior and locomotor activity. Administration of acute amphetamine (5 mg/kg intraperitoneally) increased locomotion with no differences across genotypes. Tissue levels of glutamate, GABA, dopamine and serotonin did not vary between EAAT3 heterozygous and wild-type mice. Our results indicate that reduced EAAT3 expression does not impact neurotransmitter content in the corticostriatal circuit nor alter anxiety or compulsive-like behaviors.

  4. Altered social cognition in male BDNF heterozygous mice and following chronic methamphetamine exposure.

    PubMed

    Manning, Elizabeth E; van den Buuse, Maarten

    2016-05-15

    Growing clinical evidence suggests that persistent psychosis which occurs in methamphetamine users is closely related to schizophrenia. However, preclinical studies in animal models have focussed on psychosis-related behaviours following methamphetamine, and less work has been done to assess endophenotypes relevant to other deficits observed in schizophrenia. Altered social behaviour is a feature of both the negative symptoms and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, and significantly impacts patient functioning. We recently found that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) heterozygous mice show disrupted sensitization to methamphetamine, supporting other work suggesting an important role of this neurotrophin in the pathophysiology of psychosis and the neuronal response to stimulant drugs. In the current study, we assessed social and cognitive behaviours in methamphetamine-treated BDNF heterozygous mice and wildtype littermate controls. Following chronic methamphetamine exposure male wildtype mice showed a 50% reduction in social novelty preference. Vehicle-treated male BDNF heterozygous mice showed a similar impairment in social novelty preference, with a trend for no further disruption by methamphetamine exposure. Female mice were unaffected in this task, and no groups showed any changes in sociability or short-term spatial memory. These findings suggest that chronic methamphetamine alters behaviour relevant to disruption of social cognition in schizophrenia, supporting other studies which demonstrate a close resemblance between persistent methamphetamine psychosis and schizophrenia. Together these findings suggest that dynamic regulation of BDNF signalling is necessary to mediate the effects of methamphetamine on behaviours relevant to schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Impaired fear extinction learning in adult heterozygous BDNF knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Psotta, Laura; Lessmann, Volkmar; Endres, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a crucial regulator of neuroplasticity, which underlies learning and memory processes in different brain areas. To investigate the role of BDNF in the extinction of amygdala-dependent cued fear memories, we analyzed fear extinction learning in heterozygous BDNF knock-out mice, which possess a reduction of endogenous BDNF protein levels to ~50% of wild-type animals. Since BDNF expression has been shown to decline with aging of animals, we tested the performance in extinction learning of these mice at 2 months (young adults) and 7 months (older adults) of age. The present study shows that older adult heterozygous BDNF knock-out mice, which have a chronic 50% lack of BDNF, also possess a deficit in the acquisition of extinction memory, while extinction learning remains unaffected in young adult heterozygous BDNF knock-out mice. This deficit in extinction learning is accompanied by a reduction of BDNF protein in the hippocampus, amygdala and the prefrontal cortex. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Novel compound heterozygous mutations in the OTOF Gene identified by whole-exome sequencing in auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Tang, Fengzhu; Ma, Dengke; Wang, Yulan; Qiu, Yuecai; Liu, Fei; Wang, Qingqing; Lu, Qiutian; Shi, Min; Xu, Liang; Liu, Min; Liang, Jianping

    2017-03-23

    Many hearing-loss diseases are demonstrated to have Mendelian inheritance caused by mutations in single gene. However, many deaf individuals have diseases that remain genetically unexplained. Auditory neuropathy is a sensorineural deafness in which sounds are able to be transferred into the inner ear normally but the transmission of the signals from inner ear to auditory nerve and brain is injured, also known as auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD). The pathogenic mutations of the genes responsible for the Chinese ANSD population remain poorly understood. A total of 127 patients with non-syndromic hearing loss (NSHL) were enrolled in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. A hereditary deafness gene mutation screening was performed to identify the mutation sites in four deafness-related genes (GJB2, GJB3, 12S rRNA, and SLC26A4). In addition, whole-exome sequencing (WES) was applied to explore unappreciated mutation sites in the cases with the singularity of its phenotype. Well-characterized mutations were found in only 8.7% (11/127) of the patients. Interestingly, two mutations in the OTOF gene were identified in two affected siblings with ANSD from a Chinese family, including one nonsense mutation c.1273C > T (p.R425X) and one missense mutation c.4994 T > C (p.L1665P). Furthermore, we employed Sanger sequencing to confirm the mutations in each subject. Two compound heterozygous mutations in the OTOF gene were observed in the two affected siblings, whereas the two parents and unaffected sister were heterozygous carriers of c.1273C > T (father and sister) and c.4994 T > C (mother). The nonsense mutation p.R425X, contributes to a premature stop codon, may result in a truncated polypeptide, which strongly suggests its pathogenicity for ANSD. The missense mutation p.L1665P results in a single amino acid substitution in a highly conserved region. Two mutations in the OTOF gene in the Chinese deaf population were recognized for the first time. These

  7. Heterozygous Mutations in BMP6 Pro-peptide Lead to Inappropriate Hepcidin Synthesis and Moderate Iron Overload in Humans.

    PubMed

    Daher, Raed; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Houamel, Dounia; Lefebvre, Thibaud; Bardou-Jacquet, Edouard; Ducrot, Nicolas; de Kerguenec, Caroline; Jouanolle, Anne-Marie; Robreau, Anne-Marie; Oudin, Claire; Le Gac, Gerald; Moulouel, Boualem; Loustaud-Ratti, Veronique; Bedossa, Pierre; Valla, Dominique; Gouya, Laurent; Beaumont, Carole; Brissot, Pierre; Puy, Hervé; Karim, Zoubida; Tchernitchko, Dimitri

    2016-03-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis is a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders characterized by parenchymal iron overload. It is caused by defective expression of liver hepcidin, the main regulator of iron homeostasis. Iron stimulates the gene encoding hepcidin (HAMP) via the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)6 signaling to SMAD. Although several genetic factors have been found to cause late-onset hemochromatosis, many patients have unexplained signs of iron overload. We investigated BMP6 function in these individuals. We sequenced the BMP6 gene in 70 consecutive patients with a moderate increase in serum ferritin and liver iron levels who did not carry genetic variants associated with hemochromatosis. We searched for BMP6 mutations in relatives of 5 probands and in 200 healthy individuals (controls), as well as in 2 other independent cohorts of hyperferritinemia patients. We measured serum levels of hepcidin by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and analyzed BMP6 in liver biopsy specimens from patients by immunohistochemistry. The functions of mutant and normal BMP6 were assessed in transfected cells using immunofluorescence, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and immunoblot analyses. We identified 3 heterozygous missense mutations in BMP6 (p.Pro95Ser, p.Leu96Pro, and p.Gln113Glu) in 6 unrelated patients with unexplained iron overload (9% of our cohort). These mutations were detected in less than 1% of controls. p.Leu96Pro also was found in 2 patients from the additional cohorts. Family studies indicated dominant transmission. Serum levels of hepcidin were inappropriately low in patients. A low level of BMP6, compared with controls, was found in a biopsy specimen from 1 patient. In cell lines, the mutated residues in the BMP6 propeptide resulted in defective secretion of BMP6; reduced signaling via SMAD1, SMAD5, and SMAD8; and loss of hepcidin production. We identified 3 heterozygous missense mutations in BMP6 in patients with unexplained iron

  8. Pleiotropic Effect of Lipoprotein-Apheresis on the Soluble Form of Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule (sALCAM) in Familial Hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    von Bauer, Rüdiger; Oikonomou, Dimitrios; Sulaj, Alba; Kopf, Stefan; Fleming, Thomas; Rudofsky, Gottfried; Nawroth, Peter

    2018-06-11

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disorder in which several converging immune responses modulate and induce lipid accumulation in macrophages. Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) has been described as a structural homologue of HDL-receptor and functions as a pattern recognition receptor (PRR), while its soluble form sALCAM is involved in ALCAM-dependent and -independent immune mechanisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aggressive removal of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and lipoprotein(a) (Lp [a]) by lipoprotein-apheresis (LA) on sALCAM and blood viscosity as well as to evaluate its association with lipoproteins and serum markers of inflammation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Placental Glucose and Amino Acid Transport in Calorie-Restricted Wild-Type and Glut3 Null Heterozygous Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Amit; Collis, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) decreased placenta and fetal weights in wild-type (wt) and glucose transporter (Glut) 3 heterozygous null (glut3+/−) mice. Because placental nutrient transport is a primary energy determinant of placentofetal growth, we examined key transport systems. Maternal CR reduced intra- and transplacental glucose and leucine transport but enhanced system A amino acid transport in wt mice. These transport perturbations were accompanied by reduced placental Glut3 and leucine amino acid transporter (LAT) family member 2, no change in Glut1 and LAT family member 1, but increased sodium coupled neutral amino acid transporter (SNAT) and SNAT2 expression. We also noted decreased total and active phosphorylated forms of mammalian target of rapamycin, which is the intracellular nutrient sensor, the downstream total P70S6 kinase, and pS6 ribosomal protein with no change in total and phosphorylated 4E-binding protein 1. To determine the role of placental Glut3 in mediating CR-induced placental transport changes, we next investigated the effect of gestational CR in glut3+/− mice. In glut3+/− mice, a key role of placental Glut3 in mediating transplacental and intraplacental glucose transport was established. In addition, reduced Glut3 results in a compensatory increase of leucine and system A transplacental transport. On the other hand, diminished Glut3-mediated intraplacental glucose transport reduced leucine transport and mammalian target of rapamycin and preserved LAT and enhancing SNAT. CR in glut3+/− mice further reduced transplacental glucose transport and enhanced system A amino acid transport, although the increased leucine transport was lost. In addition, increased Glut3 was seen and preserved Glut1, LAT, and SNAT. These placental changes collectively protect survival of wt and glut3+/− fetuses against maternal CR-imposed reduction of macromolecular nutrients. PMID:22700768

  10. Placental glucose and amino acid transport in calorie-restricted wild-type and Glut3 null heterozygous mice.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Amit; Collis, Laura; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2012-08-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) decreased placenta and fetal weights in wild-type (wt) and glucose transporter (Glut) 3 heterozygous null (glut3(+/-)) mice. Because placental nutrient transport is a primary energy determinant of placentofetal growth, we examined key transport systems. Maternal CR reduced intra- and transplacental glucose and leucine transport but enhanced system A amino acid transport in wt mice. These transport perturbations were accompanied by reduced placental Glut3 and leucine amino acid transporter (LAT) family member 2, no change in Glut1 and LAT family member 1, but increased sodium coupled neutral amino acid transporter (SNAT) and SNAT2 expression. We also noted decreased total and active phosphorylated forms of mammalian target of rapamycin, which is the intracellular nutrient sensor, the downstream total P70S6 kinase, and pS6 ribosomal protein with no change in total and phosphorylated 4E-binding protein 1. To determine the role of placental Glut3 in mediating CR-induced placental transport changes, we next investigated the effect of gestational CR in glut3(+/-) mice. In glut3(+/-) mice, a key role of placental Glut3 in mediating transplacental and intraplacental glucose transport was established. In addition, reduced Glut3 results in a compensatory increase of leucine and system A transplacental transport. On the other hand, diminished Glut3-mediated intraplacental glucose transport reduced leucine transport and mammalian target of rapamycin and preserved LAT and enhancing SNAT. CR in glut3(+/-) mice further reduced transplacental glucose transport and enhanced system A amino acid transport, although the increased leucine transport was lost. In addition, increased Glut3 was seen and preserved Glut1, LAT, and SNAT. These placental changes collectively protect survival of wt and glut3(+/-) fetuses against maternal CR-imposed reduction of macromolecular nutrients.

  11. A case report of heterozygous TINF2 gene mutation associated with pulmonary fibrosis in a patient with dyskeratosis congenita.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongchun; Guo, Yubiao; Ma, Di; Tang, Kejing; Cai, Decheng; Luo, Yifeng; Xie, Canmao

    2018-05-01

    Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is a rare inherited disease characterized by the classical mucocutaneous triad. Pulmonary fibrosis, bone marrow failure, and solid tumors are the main causes of mortality in DC. Pathogenic variants in TERT, TERC, and DKC1 have been identified in individuals with familial pulmonary fibrosis. Mutations in TINF2 gene have been reported to be associated with bone marrow failure in most cases. However, the relationship between TINF2 mutation and pulmonary fibrosis is not yet clear. Here, we report the case of a 32-year-old woman presented with irritating cough for 2 years and progressive breathlessness for 6 months. The patient was diagnosed with DC based on the following clinical evidences. Along with some family members, she had the typical mucocutaneous triad and pulmonary fibrosis. A heterozygous mutation (c.844C>T), located in exon 6 of TINF2 gene, that changed arginine to cysteine (Arg282Cys) was identified in this proband by whole exome sequencing. The patient received corticosteroid therapy but refused to receive lung transplantation. The proband died of respiratory failure 4 months after the diagnosis. The missense mutation was located in the conserved region of TINF2 gene and predicted to be deleterious by altering the protein structure. Lung transplantation should be considered for improved survival of patients with DC, and pulmonary fibrosis. Whole exome and whole genome sequencing should be widely used in the identification of such rare genetic variants for clinical diagnosis. The study of DC with pulmonary fibrosis can provide a more appropriate means of clinical research and therapy to the unfortunate patients who suffer from this rare disorder.

  12. Whole-exome sequencing identifies novel compound heterozygous mutations in USH2A in Spanish patients with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Vidal, Cristina; González-Del Pozo, María; Vela-Boza, Alicia; Santoyo-López, Javier; López-Domingo, Francisco J; Vázquez-Marouschek, Carmen; Dopazo, Joaquin; Borrego, Salud; Antiñolo, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited retinal dystrophy characterized by extreme genetic and clinical heterogeneity. Thus, the diagnosis is not always easily performed due to phenotypic and genetic overlap. Current clinical practices have focused on the systematic evaluation of a set of known genes for each phenotype, but this approach may fail in patients with inaccurate diagnosis or infrequent genetic cause. In the present study, we investigated the genetic cause of autosomal recessive RP (arRP) in a Spanish family in which the causal mutation has not yet been identified with primer extension technology and resequencing. We designed a whole-exome sequencing (WES)-based approach using NimbleGen SeqCap EZ Exome V3 sample preparation kit and the SOLiD 5500×l next-generation sequencing platform. We sequenced the exomes of both unaffected parents and two affected siblings. Exome analysis resulted in the identification of 43,204 variants in the index patient. All variants passing filter criteria were validated with Sanger sequencing to confirm familial segregation and absence in the control population. In silico prediction tools were used to determine mutational impact on protein function and the structure of the identified variants. Novel Usher syndrome type 2A (USH2A) compound heterozygous mutations, c.4325T>C (p.F1442S) and c.15188T>G (p.L5063R), located in exons 20 and 70, respectively, were identified as probable causative mutations for RP in this family. Family segregation of the variants showed the presence of both mutations in all affected members and in two siblings who were apparently asymptomatic at the time of family ascertainment. Clinical reassessment confirmed the diagnosis of RP in these patients. Using WES, we identified two heterozygous novel mutations in USH2A as the most likely disease-causing variants in a Spanish family diagnosed with arRP in which the cause of the disease had not yet been identified with commonly used techniques. Our data

  13. Whole-exome sequencing identifies novel compound heterozygous mutations in USH2A in Spanish patients with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Méndez-Vidal, Cristina; González-del Pozo, María; Vela-Boza, Alicia; Santoyo-López, Javier; López-Domingo, Francisco J.; Vázquez-Marouschek, Carmen; Dopazo, Joaquin; Borrego, Salud

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited retinal dystrophy characterized by extreme genetic and clinical heterogeneity. Thus, the diagnosis is not always easily performed due to phenotypic and genetic overlap. Current clinical practices have focused on the systematic evaluation of a set of known genes for each phenotype, but this approach may fail in patients with inaccurate diagnosis or infrequent genetic cause. In the present study, we investigated the genetic cause of autosomal recessive RP (arRP) in a Spanish family in which the causal mutation has not yet been identified with primer extension technology and resequencing. Methods We designed a whole-exome sequencing (WES)-based approach using NimbleGen SeqCap EZ Exome V3 sample preparation kit and the SOLiD 5500×l next-generation sequencing platform. We sequenced the exomes of both unaffected parents and two affected siblings. Exome analysis resulted in the identification of 43,204 variants in the index patient. All variants passing filter criteria were validated with Sanger sequencing to confirm familial segregation and absence in the control population. In silico prediction tools were used to determine mutational impact on protein function and the structure of the identified variants. Results Novel Usher syndrome type 2A (USH2A) compound heterozygous mutations, c.4325T>C (p.F1442S) and c.15188T>G (p.L5063R), located in exons 20 and 70, respectively, were identified as probable causative mutations for RP in this family. Family segregation of the variants showed the presence of both mutations in all affected members and in two siblings who were apparently asymptomatic at the time of family ascertainment. Clinical reassessment confirmed the diagnosis of RP in these patients. Conclusions Using WES, we identified two heterozygous novel mutations in USH2A as the most likely disease-causing variants in a Spanish family diagnosed with arRP in which the cause of the disease had not yet been identified with

  14. Heterozygous Che-1 KO mice show deficiencies in object recognition memory persistence.

    PubMed

    Zalcman, Gisela; Corbi, Nicoletta; Di Certo, Maria Grazia; Mattei, Elisabetta; Federman, Noel; Romano, Arturo

    2016-10-06

    Transcriptional regulation is a key process in the formation of long-term memories. Che-1 is a protein involved in the regulation of gene transcription that has recently been proved to bind the transcription factor NF-κB, which is known to be involved in many memory-related molecular events. This evidence prompted us to investigate the putative role of Che-1 in memory processes. For this study we newly generated a line of Che-1(+/-) heterozygous mice. Che-1 homozygous KO mouse is lethal during development, but Che-1(+/-) heterozygous mouse is normal in its general anatomical and physiological characteristics. We analyzed the behavioral characteristic and memory performance of Che-1(+/-) mice in two NF-κB dependent types of memory. We found that Che-1(+/-) mice show similar locomotor activity and thigmotactic behavior than wild type (WT) mice in an open field. In a similar way, no differences were found in anxiety-like behavior between Che-1(+/-) and WT mice in an elevated plus maze as well as in fear response in a contextual fear conditioning (CFC) and object exploration in a novel object recognition (NOR) task. No differences were found between WT and Che-1(+/-) mice performance in CFC training and when tested at 24h or 7days after training. Similar performance was found between groups in NOR task, both in training and 24h testing performance. However, we found that object recognition memory persistence at 7days was impaired in Che-1(+/-) heterozygous mice. This is the first evidence showing that Che-1 is involved in memory processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary indicaxanthin from cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L. Mill) fruit prevents eryptosis induced by oxysterols in a hypercholesterolaemia-relevant proportion and adhesion of human erythrocytes to endothelial cell layers.

    PubMed

    Tesoriere, Luisa; Attanzio, Alessandro; Allegra, Mario; Livrea, Maria A

    2015-08-14

    Toxic oxysterols in a hypercholesterolaemia-relevant proportion cause suicidal death of human erythrocytes or eryptosis. This process proceeds through early production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), release of prostaglandin (PGE2) and opening of PGE2-dependent Ca channels, membrane phosphatidylserine (PS) externalisation, and cell shrinkage. The present study was the first to reveal that a bioavailable phytochemical, indicaxanthin (Ind) from cactus pear fruit, in a concentration range (1.0-5.0 μM) consistent with its plasma level after a fruit meal, prevents PS externalisation and cell shrinkage in a dose-dependent manner when incubated with isolated healthy human erythrocytes exposed to an oxysterol mixture for 48 h. Dietary Ind inhibited ROS production, glutathione (GSH) depletion, PGE2 release and Ca2+ entry. Ind alone did not modify the erythrocyte redox environment or affect other parameters. Ex vivo spiking of normal human blood with the oxysterol mixture for 48 h induced eryptosis, resulting in the production of ROS and decreased levels of GSH, which was prevented by concurrent exposure to 5 μm-Ind. The adherence of eryptotic erythrocytes to the endothelium causes vascular tissue injury. Erythrocytes isolated from blood incubated with the oxysterol mixture plus 5 μm-Ind did not adhere to endothelial cell monolayers. Eryptotic erythrocytes may contribute to thrombotic complications in hypercholesterolaemia. Our findings suggest the positive effects of diets containing Ind on erythrocytes in hypercholesterolaemic subjects.

  16. Molecular Pathogenesis of EBV Susceptibility in XLP as Revealed by Analysis of Female Carriers with Heterozygous Expression of SAP

    PubMed Central

    Palendira, Umaimainthan; Low, Carol; Chan, Anna; Hislop, Andrew D.; Ho, Edwin; Phan, Tri Giang; Deenick, Elissa; Cook, Matthew C.; Riminton, D. Sean; Choo, Sharon; Loh, Richard; Alvaro, Frank; Booth, Claire; Gaspar, H. Bobby; Moretta, Alessandro; Khanna, Rajiv; Rickinson, Alan B.; Tangye, Stuart G.

    2011-01-01

    X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in SH2D1A which encodes SAP. SAP functions in signalling pathways elicited by the SLAM family of leukocyte receptors. A defining feature of XLP is exquisite sensitivity to infection with EBV, a B-lymphotropic virus, but not other viruses. Although previous studies have identified defects in lymphocytes from XLP patients, the unique role of SAP in controlling EBV infection remains unresolved. We describe a novel approach to this question using female XLP carriers who, due to random X-inactivation, contain both SAP+ and SAP− cells. This represents the human equivalent of a mixed bone marrow chimera in mice. While memory CD8+ T cells specific for CMV and influenza were distributed across SAP+ and SAP− populations, EBV-specific cells were exclusively SAP+. The preferential recruitment of SAP+ cells by EBV reflected the tropism of EBV for B cells, and the requirement for SAP expression in CD8+ T cells for them to respond to Ag-presentation by B cells, but not other cell types. The inability of SAP− clones to respond to Ag-presenting B cells was overcome by blocking the SLAM receptors NTB-A and 2B4, while ectopic expression of NTB-A on fibroblasts inhibited cytotoxicity of SAP− CD8+ T cells, thereby demonstrating that SLAM receptors acquire inhibitory function in the absence of SAP. The innovative XLP carrier model allowed us to unravel the mechanisms underlying the unique susceptibility of XLP patients to EBV infection in the absence of a relevant animal model. We found that this reflected the nature of the Ag-presenting cell, rather than EBV itself. Our data also identified a pathological signalling pathway that could be targeted to treat patients with severe EBV infection. This system may allow the study of other human diseases where heterozygous gene expression from random X-chromosome inactivation can be exploited. PMID:22069374

  17. Heterozygous loss of TSC2 alters p53 signaling and human stem cell reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Laura C; Westlake, Grant; Snow, John P; Cawthon, Bryan; Armour, Eric; Bowman, Aaron B; Ess, Kevin C

    2017-12-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a pediatric disorder of dysregulated growth and differentiation caused by loss of function mutations in either the TSC1 or TSC2 genes, which regulate mTOR kinase activity. To study aberrations of early development in TSC, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells using dermal fibroblasts obtained from patients with TSC. During validation, we found that stem cells generated from TSC patients had a very high rate of integration of the reprogramming plasmid containing a shRNA against TP53. We also found that loss of one allele of TSC2 in human fibroblasts is sufficient to increase p53 levels and impair stem cell reprogramming. Increased p53 was also observed in TSC2 heterozygous and homozygous mutant human stem cells, suggesting that the interactions between TSC2 and p53 are consistent across cell types and gene dosage. These results support important contributions of TSC2 heterozygous and homozygous mutant cells to the pathogenesis of TSC and the important role of p53 during reprogramming. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. PANRETINAL DEGENERATION ASSOCIATED WITH LONG-TERM HYDROXYCHLOROQUINE USE AND HETEROZYGOUS USH2A MUTATION.

    PubMed

    Katsman, Diana; Sanfilippo, Christian; Sarraf, David

    2017-01-01

    To report a case of bilateral panretinal degeneration in a patient with long-term hydroxychloroquine exposure and positive for a heterozygous mutation in the USH2A gene. Retrospective case report. Multimodal imaging including spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, fundus autofluorescence, and fluorescein angiography was performed and the results are presented. Electroretinography findings are also described. The authors report a 39-year-old patient with a history of hydroxychloroquine therapy for 20 years (cumulative dose of 2,774 g). Multimodal retinal imaging demonstrated bilateral paracentral outer retinal atrophy with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and characteristic of hydroxychloroquine toxicity. Full-field electroretinography showed bilateral panretinal depression of the rod and cone responses. Mutational analysis revealed that the patient was a carrier for an autosomal recessive mutation in the USH2A gene. We report a case of panretinal degeneration but with features characteristic of hydroxychloroquine retinopathy in a patient who was found to be a heterozygous carrier of the USH2A gene, a cause of recessive retinitis pigmentosa without hearing loss. Carrier status for a retinal degenerative mutation may have rendered this patient more susceptible to the retinotoxic effects of long-term hydroxychloroquine therapy.

  19. Heterozygous Mutations Causing Partial Prohormone Convertase 1 Deficiency Contribute to Human Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Creemers, John W.M.; Choquet, Hélène; Stijnen, Pieter; Vatin, Vincent; Pigeyre, Marie; Beckers, Sigri; Meulemans, Sandra; Than, Manuel E.; Yengo, Loïc; Tauber, Maithé; Balkau, Beverley; Elliott, Paul; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Van Hul, Wim; Van Gaal, Luc; Horber, Fritz; Pattou, François; Froguel, Philippe; Meyre, David

    2012-01-01

    Null mutations in the PCSK1 gene, encoding the proprotein convertase 1/3 (PC1/3), cause recessive monogenic early onset obesity. Frequent coding variants that modestly impair PC1/3 function mildly increase the risk for common obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of rare functional PCSK1 mutations to obesity. PCSK1 exons were sequenced in 845 nonconsanguineous extremely obese Europeans. Eight novel nonsynonymous PCSK1 mutations were identified, all heterozygous. Seven mutations had a deleterious effect on either the maturation or the enzymatic activity of PC1/3 in cell lines. Of interest, five of these novel mutations, one of the previously described frequent variants (N221D), and the mutation found in an obese mouse model (N222D), affect residues at or near the structural calcium binding site Ca-1. The prevalence of the newly identified mutations was assessed in 6,233 obese and 6,274 lean European adults and children, which showed that carriers of any of these mutations causing partial PCSK1 deficiency had an 8.7-fold higher risk to be obese than wild-type carriers. These results provide the first evidence of an increased risk of obesity in heterozygous carriers of mutations in the PCSK1 gene. Furthermore, mutations causing partial PCSK1 deficiency are present in 0.83% of extreme obesity phenotypes. PMID:22210313

  20. Heterozygous mutations causing partial prohormone convertase 1 deficiency contribute to human obesity.

    PubMed

    Creemers, John W M; Choquet, Hélène; Stijnen, Pieter; Vatin, Vincent; Pigeyre, Marie; Beckers, Sigri; Meulemans, Sandra; Than, Manuel E; Yengo, Loïc; Tauber, Maithé; Balkau, Beverley; Elliott, Paul; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Van Hul, Wim; Van Gaal, Luc; Horber, Fritz; Pattou, François; Froguel, Philippe; Meyre, David

    2012-02-01

    Null mutations in the PCSK1 gene, encoding the proprotein convertase 1/3 (PC1/3), cause recessive monogenic early onset obesity. Frequent coding variants that modestly impair PC1/3 function mildly increase the risk for common obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of rare functional PCSK1 mutations to obesity. PCSK1 exons were sequenced in 845 nonconsanguineous extremely obese Europeans. Eight novel nonsynonymous PCSK1 mutations were identified, all heterozygous. Seven mutations had a deleterious effect on either the maturation or the enzymatic activity of PC1/3 in cell lines. Of interest, five of these novel mutations, one of the previously described frequent variants (N221D), and the mutation found in an obese mouse model (N222D), affect residues at or near the structural calcium binding site Ca-1. The prevalence of the newly identified mutations was assessed in 6,233 obese and 6,274 lean European adults and children, which showed that carriers of any of these mutations causing partial PCSK1 deficiency had an 8.7-fold higher risk to be obese than wild-type carriers. These results provide the first evidence of an increased risk of obesity in heterozygous carriers of mutations in the PCSK1 gene. Furthermore, mutations causing partial PCSK1 deficiency are present in 0.83% of extreme obesity phenotypes.

  1. G6PD deficiency from lyonization after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from female heterozygous donors.

    PubMed

    Au, W-Y; Pang, A; Lam, K K Y; Song, Y-Q; Lee, W-M; So, J C C; Kwong, Y-L

    2007-10-01

    To determine whether during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), X-chromosome inactivation (lyonization) of donor HSC might change after engraftment in recipients, the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) gene of 180 female donors was genotyped by PCR/allele-specific primer extension, and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry/Sequenom MassARRAY analysis. X-inactivation was determined by semiquantitative PCR for the HUMARA gene before/after HpaII digestion. X-inactivation was preserved in most cases post-HSCT, although altered skewing of lyonization might occur to either of the X-chromosomes. Among pre-HSCT clinicopathologic parameters analyzed, only recipient gender significantly affected skewing. Seven donors with normal G6PD biochemically but heterozygous for G6PD mutants were identified. Owing to lyonization changes, some donor-recipient pairs showed significantly different G6PD levels. In one donor-recipient pair, extreme lyonization affecting the wild-type G6PD allele occurred, causing biochemical G6PD deficiency in the recipient. In HSCT from asymptomatic female donors heterozygous for X-linked recessive disorders, altered lyonization might cause clinical diseases in the recipients.

  2. Novel Compound Heterozygous Mutations Expand the Recognized Phenotypes of FARS2-Linked Disease.

    PubMed

    Walker, Melissa A; Mohler, Kyle P; Hopkins, Kyle W; Oakley, Derek H; Sweetser, David A; Ibba, Michael; Frosch, Matthew P; Thibert, Ronald L

    2016-08-01

    Mutations in mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are an increasingly recognized cause of human diseases, often arising in individuals with compound heterozygous mutations and presenting with system-specific phenotypes, frequently neurologic. FARS2 encodes mitochondrial phenylalanyl transfer ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthetase (mtPheRS), perturbations of which have been reported in 6 cases of an infantile, lethal disease with refractory epilepsy and progressive myoclonus. Here the authors report the case of juvenile onset refractory epilepsy and progressive myoclonus with compound heterozygous FARS2 mutations. The authors describe the clinical course over 6 years of care at their institution and diagnostic studies including electroencephalogram (EEG), brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), serum and cerebrospinal fluid analyses, skeletal muscle biopsy histology, and autopsy gross and histologic findings, which include features shared with Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome, Leigh syndrome, and a previously published case of FARS2 mutation associated infantile onset disease. The authors also present structure-guided analysis of the relevant mutations based on published mitochondrial phenylalanyl transfer RNA synthetase and related protein crystal structures as well as biochemical analysis of the corresponding recombinant mutant proteins. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Primaquine-induced haemolysis in females heterozygous for G6PD deficiency.

    PubMed

    Chu, Cindy S; Bancone, Germana; Nosten, François; White, Nicholas J; Luzzatto, Lucio

    2018-03-02

    Oxidative agents can cause acute haemolytic anaemia in persons with G6PD deficiency. Understanding the relationship between G6PD genotype and the phenotypic expression of the enzyme deficiency is necessary so that severe haemolysis can be avoided. The patterns of oxidative haemolysis have been well described in G6PD deficient hemizygous males and homozygous females; and haemolysis in the proportionally more numerous heterozygous females has been documented mainly following consumption of fava beans and more recently dapsone. It has long been known that 8-aminoquinolines, notably primaquine and tafenoquine, cause acute haemolysis in G6PD deficiency. To support wider use of primaquine in Plasmodium vivax elimination, more data are needed on the haemolytic consequences of 8-aminoquinolines in G6PD heterozygous females. Two recent studies (in 2017) have provided precisely such data; and the need has emerged for the development of point of care quantitative testing of G6PD activity. Another priority is exploring alternative 8-aminoquinoline dosing regimens that are practical and improve safety in G6PD deficient individuals.

  4. Permanent Neonatal Diabetes Caused by Dominant, Recessive, or Compound Heterozygous SUR1 Mutations with Opposite Functional Effects

    PubMed Central

    Ellard, Sian ; Flanagan, Sarah E. ; Girard, Christophe A. ; Patch, Ann-Marie ; Harries, Lorna W. ; Parrish, Andrew ; Edghill, Emma L. ; Mackay, Deborah J. G. ; Proks, Peter ; Shimomura, Kenju ; Haberland, Holger ; Carson, Dennis J. ; Shield, Julian P. H. ; Hattersley, Andrew T. ; Ashcroft, Frances M. 

    2007-01-01

    Heterozygous activating mutations in the KCNJ11 gene encoding the pore-forming Kir6.2 subunit of the pancreatic beta cell KATP channel are the most common cause of permanent neonatal diabetes (PNDM). Patients with PNDM due to a heterozygous activating mutation in the ABCC8 gene encoding the SUR1 regulatory subunit of the KATP channel have recently been reported. We studied a cohort of 59 patients with permanent diabetes who received a diagnosis before 6 mo of age and who did not have a KCNJ11 mutation. ABCC8 gene mutations were identified in 16 of 59 patients and included 8 patients with heterozygous de novo mutations. A recessive mode of inheritance was observed in eight patients with homozygous, mosaic, or compound heterozygous mutations. Functional studies of selected mutations showed a reduced response to ATP consistent with an activating mutation that results in reduced insulin secretion. A novel mutational mechanism was observed in which a heterozygous activating mutation resulted in PNDM only when a second, loss-of-function mutation was also present. PMID:17668386

  5. Effect of mipomersen on LDL-cholesterol in patients with severe LDL-hypercholesterolaemia and atherosclerosis treated by lipoprotein apheresis (The MICA-Study).

    PubMed

    Waldmann, Elisa; Vogt, Anja; Crispin, Alexander; Altenhofer, Julia; Riks, Ina; Parhofer, Klaus G

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of mipomersen in patients with severe LDL-hypercholesterolaemia and atherosclerosis, treated by lipid lowering drugs and regular lipoprotein apheresis. This prospective, randomized, controlled phase II single center trial enrolled 15 patients (9 males, 6 females; 59 ± 9 y, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m 2 ) with established atherosclerosis, LDL-cholesterol ≥130 mg/dL (3.4 mmol/L) despite maximal possible drug therapy, and fulfilling German criteria for regular lipoprotein apheresis. All patients were on stable lipid lowering drug therapy and regular apheresis for >3 months. Patients randomized to treatment (n = 11) self-injected mipomersen 200 mg sc weekly, at day 4 after apheresis, for 26 weeks. Patients randomized to control (n = 4) continued apheresis without injection. The primary endpoint was the change in pre-apheresis LDL-cholesterol. Of the patients randomized to mipomersen, 3 discontinued the drug early (<12 weeks therapy) for side effects. For these, another 3 were recruited and randomized. Further, 4 patients discontinued mipomersen between 12 and 26 weeks for side effects (moderate to severe injection site reactions n = 3 and elevated liver enzymes n = 1). In those treated for >12 weeks, mipomersen reduced pre-apheresis LDL-cholesterol significantly by 22.6 ± 17.0%, from a baseline of 4.8 ± 1.2 mmol/L to 3.7 ± 0.9 mmol/L, while there was no significant change in the control group (+1.6 ± 9.3%), with the difference between the groups being significant (p=0.02). Mipomersen also decreased pre-apheresis lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) concentration from a median baseline of 40.2 mg/dL (32.5,71) by 16% (-19.4,13.6), though without significance (p=0.21). Mipomersen reduces LDL-cholesterol (significantly) and Lp(a) (non-significantly) in patients on maximal lipid-lowering drug therapy and regular apheresis, but is often associated with side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Frequency of intron 1 inversion of factor VIII gene in Chinese hemophilia A patients with case report of a female patient with heterozygous intron 1 inversion].

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhen-yu; Liang, Yan; Yan, Mei; Fan, Lian-kai; Xiao, Bai; Hua, Bao-lai; Liu, Jing-zhong; Zhao, Yong-qiang

    2008-10-21

    To investigate the frequency of intron 1 inversion (inv1) in FVIII gene in Chinese hemophilia A (HA) patients and to investigate the mechanism of pathogenesis. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 158 unrelated HA patients, aged 20 (1 - 73), including one female HA patient, aged 5, and several family members of a patient positive in inv1. One-stage method was used to assay the FVIII activity (FVIII:C). Long distance PCR and multiple PCR in duplex reactions were used to screen for the intron 22 inversion (inv22) and inv1 of the FVIII coding gene (F8). The F8 coding sequence was amplified with PCR and sequenced with an automatic sequencer. Two unrelated patients (pedigrees) were detected as inv1 positive with a positive rate of 1.26%. A rare female HA patient with inv1 was also discovered in a positive family (3 HA cases were found in this family and regarded as one case in calculating the total detection rate). The full length of FVIII was sequenced, and no other mutation was detected. There frequency of FVIII inv1 is low in Chinese HA patients compared with other populations. Female HA patients are heterozygous for FVIII inv1 and that may be resulted from nonrandom inactivation of X chromosome.

  7. Efficient introduction of specific homozygous and heterozygous mutations using CRISPR/Cas9.

    PubMed

    Paquet, Dominik; Kwart, Dylan; Chen, Antonia; Sproul, Andrew; Jacob, Samson; Teo, Shaun; Olsen, Kimberly Moore; Gregg, Andrew; Noggle, Scott; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc

    2016-05-05

    The bacterial CRISPR/Cas9 system allows sequence-specific gene editing in many organisms and holds promise as a tool to generate models of human diseases, for example, in human pluripotent stem cells. CRISPR/Cas9 introduces targeted double-stranded breaks (DSBs) with high efficiency, which are typically repaired by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) resulting in nonspecific insertions, deletions or other mutations (indels). DSBs may also be repaired by homology-directed repair (HDR) using a DNA repair template, such as an introduced single-stranded oligo DNA nucleotide (ssODN), allowing knock-in of specific mutations. Although CRISPR/Cas9 is used extensively to engineer gene knockouts through NHEJ, editing by HDR remains inefficient and can be corrupted by additional indels, preventing its widespread use for modelling genetic disorders through introducing disease-associated mutations. Furthermore, targeted mutational knock-in at single alleles to model diseases caused by heterozygous mutations has not been reported. Here we describe a CRISPR/Cas9-based genome-editing framework that allows selective introduction of mono- and bi-allelic sequence changes with high efficiency and accuracy. We show that HDR accuracy is increased dramatically by incorporating silent CRISPR/Cas-blocking mutations along with pathogenic mutations, and establish a method termed 'CORRECT' for scarless genome editing. By characterizing and exploiting a stereotyped inverse relationship between a mutation's incorporation rate and its distance to the DSB, we achieve predictable control of zygosity. Homozygous introduction requires a guide RNA targeting close to the intended mutation, whereas heterozygous introduction can be accomplished by distance-dependent suboptimal mutation incorporation or by use of mixed repair templates. Using this approach, we generated human induced pluripotent stem cells with heterozygous and homozygous dominant early onset Alzheimer's disease-causing mutations in

  8. A hybrid BAC physical map of potato: a framework for sequencing a heterozygous genome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Potato is the world's third most important food crop, yet cultivar improvement and genomic research in general remain difficult because of the heterozygous and tetraploid nature of its genome. The development of physical map resources that can facilitate genomic analyses in potato has so far been very limited. Here we present the methods of construction and the general statistics of the first two genome-wide BAC physical maps of potato, which were made from the heterozygous diploid clone RH89-039-16 (RH). Results First, a gel electrophoresis-based physical map was made by AFLP fingerprinting of 64478 BAC clones, which were aligned into 4150 contigs with an estimated total length of 1361 Mb. Screening of BAC pools, followed by the KeyMaps in silico anchoring procedure, identified 1725 AFLP markers in the physical map, and 1252 BAC contigs were anchored the ultradense potato genetic map. A second, sequence-tag-based physical map was constructed from 65919 whole genome profiling (WGP) BAC fingerprints and these were aligned into 3601 BAC contigs spanning 1396 Mb. The 39733 BAC clones that overlap between both physical maps provided anchors to 1127 contigs in the WGP physical map, and reduced the number of contigs to around 2800 in each map separately. Both physical maps were 1.64 times longer than the 850 Mb potato genome. Genome heterozygosity and incomplete merging of BAC contigs are two factors that can explain this map inflation. The contig information of both physical maps was united in a single table that describes hybrid potato physical map. Conclusions The AFLP physical map has already been used by the Potato Genome Sequencing Consortium for sequencing 10% of the heterozygous genome of clone RH on a BAC-by-BAC basis. By layering a new WGP physical map on top of the AFLP physical map, a genetically anchored genome-wide framework of 322434 sequence tags has been created. This reference framework can be used for anchoring and ordering of genomic

  9. A novel heterozygous mutation in the Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gómez Rivas, Juan; Carrión, Diego M; Alonso Y Gregorio, Sergio; Álvarez-Maestro, Mario; Tabernero Gómez, Ángel; Cisneros Ledo, Jesus

    2017-09-01

    Our aim is to present a novel mutation of the Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome. We present a case report of a 70-year-old male with three solid nodulary lesions of 4, 2.6, and 3 cm each in the right kidney, and two lesions of 1.5 and 1.3 cm in the left kidney. Needle biopsy was performed. The pathological analysis of right kidney lesions revealed a renal tumor suggestive of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and medullar tumor with zones that suggested oncocytosis. Genetic test results were positive for a novel heterozygous mutation c.1198G>A; p.V400I in exon 11 of the FLCN gene. In patients presenting with bilateral multifocal renal tumors of oncocytic hybrid histology, Birt- Hogg-Dubé syndrome should be the first diagnosis in mind. The mutation found in this patient has not been previously described in the literature in the context of BHD.

  10. Cancer Risk-Assessment of Radiation Damage in Ataxia Telangiectasia Heterozygous Human Breast Epithelial Cell Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applewhite, Lisa C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the study of the markers of cellular changes that are found during the onset of carcinogenesis. Several of the biological factors are markers of stress response, oncoprotein expression, and differentiation factors. Oxidative stress response agents such as heat shock proteins (HSPs) protect cells from oxidative stresses such as ionizing radiation. The onocoprotein HER-2/neu, a specific breast cancer marker, indicates early onset of cancer. Additional structural and morphogenetic markers of differentiation were considered in order to determine initial cellular changes at the initial onset of cancer. As an additional consideration, all-trans retinoic acid (RA), a differentiation agent, was considered because of its known role in regulating normal differentiation and inhibiting tumor proliferation via specific nuclear receptors. This paper discusses study and results of the preliminary analyses of gamma irradiation of AT heterozygous human breast epithelial cells (WH). Comparisons are also made of the effects various RA concentrations post-irradiation.

  11. Deferasirox pharmacokinetics evaluation in a woman with hereditary haemochromatosis and heterozygous β-thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Allegra, Sarah; De Francia, Silvia; Longo, Filomena; Massano, Davide; Cusato, Jessica; Arduino, Arianna; Pirro, Elisa; Piga, Antonio; D'Avolio, Antonio

    2016-12-01

    We present the deferasirox pharmacokinetics evaluation of a female patient on iron chelation, for the interesting findings from her genetic background (hereditary haemochromatosis and heterozygous β-thalassaemia) and clinical history (ileostomy; iron overload from transfusions). Drug plasma concentrations were measured by an HPLC-UV validated method, before and after ileum resection. Area under deferasirox concentration curve over 24h (AUC) values were determined by the mixed log-linear rule, using Kinetica software. AUC was low also with high deferasirox dose as well as tolerability. Non invasive tissue iron quantification by magnetic resonance imaging or superconducting quantum interference device were prevented by a metal hip replacement. Good efficacy and normalisation of iron markers was obtained on long term. Therapeutic drug monitoring in patient in critical conditions may help to understand reasons for non response and set individualised treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Expanded clinical spectrum of spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome and possible manifestation in a heterozygous father.

    PubMed

    Mitter, Diana; Krakow, Deborah; Farrington-Rock, Claire; Meinecke, Peter

    2008-03-15

    We report on a 5-year-old boy with spondylocarpotarsal synostosis (SCT) syndrome who presents with disproportionate short stature, thoracic scoliosis, pes planus, dental enamel hypoplasia, unilateral conductive hearing loss and mild facial dysmorphisms. Radiographs showed abnormal segmentation of the spine with block vertebrae and carpal synostosis. In addition to the typical phenotype of SCT syndrome, he showed pronounced delay of carpal bone age and bilateral epiphyseal dysplasia of the proximal femora. The patient's father has mild short stature and unilateral hip dysplasia. Molecular studies of the filamin B gene (FLNB) revealed a homozygous mutation in the index patient while both parents were heterozygous for the mutation. In this report we expand the phenotype of SCT syndrome in a patient with a causal FLNB mutation. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. A novel heterozygous SOX2 mutation causing anophthalmia/microphthalmia with genital anomalies.

    PubMed

    Pedace, Lucia; Castori, Marco; Binni, Francesco; Pingi, Alberto; Grammatico, Barbara; Scommegna, Salvatore; Majore, Silvia; Grammatico, Paola

    2009-01-01

    Anophthalmia/microphthalmia is a rare developmental craniofacial defect, which recognizes a wide range of causes, including chromosomal abnormalities, single-gene mutations as well as environmental factors. Heterozygous mutations in the SOX2 gene are the most common monogenic form of anophthalmia/microphthalmia, as they are reported in up to 10-15% cases. Here, we describe a sporadic patient showing bilateral anophthalmia/microphthalmia and micropenis caused by a novel mutation (c.59_60insGG) in the SOX2 gene. Morphological and endocrinological evaluations excluded any anomaly of the hypothalamus-pituitary axis. Our finding supports the hypothesis that SOX2 is particularly prone to slipped-strand mispairing, which results in a high frequency of point deletions/insertions.

  14. Modest increased sensitivity to radiation oncogenesis in ATM heterozygous versus wild-type mammalian cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smilenov, L. B.; Brenner, D. J.; Hall, E. J.

    2001-01-01

    Subpopulations that are genetically predisposed to radiation-induced cancer could have significant public health consequences. Individuals homozygous for null mutations at the ataxia telangiectasia gene are indeed highly radiosensitive, but their numbers are very small. Ataxia Telangiectasia heterozygotes (1-2% of the population) have been associated with somewhat increased radiosensitivity for some end points, but none directly related to carcinogenesis. Here, intralitter comparisons between wild-type mouse embryo fibroblasts and mouse embryo fibroblasts carrying ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) null mutation indicate that the heterozygous cells are more sensitive to radiation oncogenesis than their normal, litter-matched, counterparts. From these data we suggest that Ataxia Telangiectasia heterozygotes could indeed represent a societally-significant radiosensitive human subpopulation.

  15. Cytomorphologic signs of severe pernicious anemia obscured in a patient with heterozygous hemoglobin Stanleyville II.

    PubMed

    Draube, Andreas; Chemnitz, Jens M; Wickenhauser, Claudia; Staib, Peter; Hallek, Michael; Kreuzer, Karl-Anton

    2007-10-01

    Here, we report a rare coincidence of heterozygous hemoglobinopathy (Hb) Stanleyville II and severe pernicious anemia due to autoimmune gastritis. Hb Stanleyville II is characterized by a single base exchange (AAC-->AAA) resulting in a substitution Asn --> Lys at position 78 of hemoglobin alpha2-chain. Under normal conditions this hemoglobinopathy does not cause any symptoms even if present as homozygous variant. However, in our case diagnosis of pernicious anemia was hampered by the absence of typical erythrocytic macrocytosis and hyperchromasia. In addition, interpretation of bone marrow smears was difficult as characteristic findings for pernicious anemia were little pronounced. All known reasons for the absence of typical cytomorphologic signs in pernicious anemia as underlying iron deficiency and thalassemia could be excluded.

  16. Sector Retinitis Pigmentosa Associated With Novel Compound Heterozygous Mutations of CDH23.

    PubMed

    Branson, Sara V; McClintic, Jedediah I; Stamper, Tara H; Haldeman-Englert, Chad R; John, Vishak J

    2016-02-01

    Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessive condition characterized by retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and congenital hearing loss, with or without vestibular dysfunction. Allelic variants of CDH23 cause both Usher syndrome type 1D (USH1D) and a form of nonsyndromic hearing loss (DFNB12). The authors describe here a 34-year-old patient with congenital hearing loss and a new diagnosis of sector RP who was found to have two novel compound heterozygous mutations in CDH23, including one missense (c.8530C > A; p.Pro2844Thr) and one splice-site (c.5820 + 5G > A) mutation. This is the first report of sector RP associated with these types of mutations in CDH23. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Lipid profiles and determinants of total cholesterol and hypercholesterolaemia among 25-74 year-old urban and rural citizens of the Yangon Region, Myanmar: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Htet, Aung Soe; Kjøllesdal, Marte Karoline; Aung, Wai Phyo; Moe Myint, Aye Nyein; Aye, Win Thuzar; Wai, Myint Myint; Nu, Than Than; Hla, Ei Mon; Soe, Pyone Pyone; Tun, Nan Wut Yi; Angela, Naw; Khaing, Mya Mya; Htoo, Aung Kyaw; Tun, Soe; Thitsar, Pai; Lwin, Theeoo; Wai, San San; Aung, Thi Thi; Thant, Khin Aye; Aung Po, Wai Wai; Gauzam, Seng Taung; Naing, Tun Tun; Tun, Thet Min; Myint, Khin San; Oo, Kyi Kyi; Mang, Nang Kee Myu; Naing, Soe Moe; Zaw, Ko Ko; Bjertness, Marius Bergsmark; Sherpa, Lhamo Yangchen; Oo, Win Myint; Stigum, Hein; Bjertness, Espen

    2017-11-15

    The first is to estimate the prevalence of dyslipidaemia (hypercholesterolaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) level and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level), as well as the mean levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and HDL, in the urban and rural Yangon Region, Myanmar. The second is to investigate the association between urban-rural location and total cholesterol. Two cross-sectional studies using the WHO STEPS methodology. Both the urban and rural areas of the Yangon Region, Myanmar. A total of 1370 men and women aged 25-74 years participated based on a multistage cluster sampling. Physically and mentally ill people, monks, nuns, soldiers and institutionalised people were excluded. Compared with rural counterparts, urban dwellers had a significantly higher age-standardised prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia (50.7% vs 41.6%; p=0.042) and a low HDL level (60.6% vs 44.4%; p=0.001). No urban-rural differences were found in the prevalence of hypertriglyceridaemia and high LDL. Men had a higher age-standardised prevalence of hypertriglyceridaemia than women (25.1% vs 14.8%; p<0.001), while the opposite pattern was found in the prevalence of a high LDL (11.3% vs 16.3%; p=0.018) and low HDL level (35.3% vs 70.1%; p<0.001).Compared with rural inhabitants, urban dwellers had higher age-standardised mean levels of total cholesterol (5.31 mmol/L, SE: 0.044 vs 5.05 mmol/L, 0.068; p=0.009), triglyceride (1.65 mmol/L, 0.049 vs 1.38 mmol/L, 0.078; p=0.017), LDL (3.44 mmol/L, 0.019 vs 3.16 mmol/L, 0.058; p=0.001) and lower age-standardised mean levels of HDL (1.11 mmol/L, 0.010 vs 1.25 mmol/L, 0.012; p<0.001). In linear regression, the total cholesterol was significantly associated with an urban location among men, but not among women. The mean level of total cholesterol and the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia were alarmingly high in men and women in both the urban and rural areas of Yangon Region, Myanmar

  18. Lipid profiles and determinants of total cholesterol and hypercholesterolaemia among 25–74 year-old urban and rural citizens of the Yangon Region, Myanmar: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Htet, Aung Soe; Aung, Wai Phyo; Moe Myint, Aye Nyein; Aye, Win Thuzar; Wai, Myint Myint; Nu, Than Than; Hla, Ei Mon; Soe, Pyone Pyone; Tun, Nan Wut Yi; Angela, Naw; Khaing, Mya Mya; Htoo, Aung Kyaw; Tun, Soe; Thitsar, Pai; Lwin, Theeoo; Wai, San San; Aung, Thi Thi; Thant, Khin Aye; Aung Po, Wai Wai; Gauzam, Seng Taung; Naing, Tun Tun; Tun, Thet Min; Myint, Khin San; Oo, Kyi Kyi; Mang, Nang Kee Myu; Naing, Soe Moe; Zaw, Ko Ko; Bjertness, Marius Bergsmark; Sherpa, Lhamo Yangchen; Oo, Win Myint; Stigum, Hein; Bjertness, Espen

    2017-01-01

    Objective The first is to estimate the prevalence of dyslipidaemia (hypercholesterolaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) level and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level), as well as the mean levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and HDL, in the urban and rural Yangon Region, Myanmar. The second is to investigate the association between urban-rural location and total cholesterol. Design Two cross-sectional studies using the WHO STEPS methodology. Setting Both the urban and rural areas of the Yangon Region, Myanmar. Participants A total of 1370 men and women aged 25–74 years participated based on a multistage cluster sampling. Physically and mentally ill people, monks, nuns, soldiers and institutionalised people were excluded. Results Compared with rural counterparts, urban dwellers had a significantly higher age-standardised prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia (50.7% vs 41.6%; p=0.042) and a low HDL level (60.6% vs 44.4%; p=0.001). No urban-rural differences were found in the prevalence of hypertriglyceridaemia and high LDL. Men had a higher age-standardised prevalence of hypertriglyceridaemia than women (25.1% vs 14.8%; p<0.001), while the opposite pattern was found in the prevalence of a high LDL (11.3% vs 16.3%; p=0.018) and low HDL level (35.3% vs 70.1%; p<0.001). Compared with rural inhabitants, urban dwellers had higher age-standardised mean levels of total cholesterol (5.31 mmol/L, SE: 0.044 vs 5.05 mmol/L, 0.068; p=0.009), triglyceride (1.65 mmol/L, 0.049 vs 1.38 mmol/L, 0.078; p=0.017), LDL (3.44 mmol/L, 0.019 vs 3.16 mmol/L, 0.058; p=0.001) and lower age-standardised mean levels of HDL (1.11 mmol/L, 0.010 vs 1.25 mmol/L, 0.012; p<0.001). In linear regression, the total cholesterol was significantly associated with an urban location among men, but not among women. Conclusion The mean level of total cholesterol and the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia were alarmingly high in men and women in both

  19. Compound heterozygous TYK2 mutations underlie primary immunodeficiency with T-cell lymphopenia.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Michiko; Hattori, Hiroyoshi; Maeda, Naoko; Akita, Nobuhiro; Muramatsu, Hideki; Moritani, Suzuko; Kawasaki, Tomonori; Maejima, Masami; Ode, Hirotaka; Hachiya, Atsuko; Sugiura, Wataru; Yokomaku, Yoshiyuki; Horibe, Keizo; Iwatani, Yasumasa

    2018-05-03

    Complete tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) deficiency has been previously described in patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases. The patients were infected with various pathogens, including mycobacteria and/or viruses, and one of the patients developed hyper-IgE syndrome. A detailed immunological investigation of these patients revealed impaired responses to type I IFN, IL-10, IL-12 and IL-23, which are associated with increased susceptibility to mycobacterial and/or viral infections. Herein, we report a recessive partial TYK2 deficiency in two siblings who presented with T-cell lymphopenia characterized by low naïve CD4 + T-cell counts and who developed Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated B-cell lymphoma. Targeted exome-sequencing of the siblings' genomes demonstrated that both patients carried novel compound heterozygous mutations (c.209_212delGCTT/c.691C > T, p.Cys70Serfs*21/p.Arg231Trp) in the TYK2. The TYK2 protein levels were reduced by 35% in the T cells of the patient. Unlike the response under complete TYK2 deficiency, the patient's T cells responded normally to type I IFN, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12, whereas the cells displayed an impaired response to IL-23. Furthermore, the level of STAT1 was low in the cells of the patient. These studies reveal a new clinical entity of a primary immunodeficiency with T-cell lymphopenia that is associated with compound heterozygous TYK2 mutations in the patients.

  20. A High Quality Draft Consensus Sequence of the Genome of a Heterozygous Grapevine Variety

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, Dustin A.; Cestaro, Alessandro; Pruss, Dmitry; Pindo, Massimo; FitzGerald, Lisa M.; Vezzulli, Silvia; Reid, Julia; Malacarne, Giulia; Iliev, Diana; Coppola, Giuseppina; Wardell, Bryan; Micheletti, Diego; Macalma, Teresita; Facci, Marco; Mitchell, Jeff T.; Perazzolli, Michele; Eldredge, Glenn; Gatto, Pamela; Oyzerski, Rozan; Moretto, Marco; Gutin, Natalia; Stefanini, Marco; Chen, Yang; Segala, Cinzia; Davenport, Christine; Demattè, Lorenzo; Mraz, Amy; Battilana, Juri; Stormo, Keith; Costa, Fabrizio; Tao, Quanzhou; Si-Ammour, Azeddine; Harkins, Tim; Lackey, Angie; Perbost, Clotilde; Taillon, Bruce; Stella, Alessandra; Solovyev, Victor; Fawcett, Jeffrey A.; Sterck, Lieven; Vandepoele, Klaas; Grando, Stella M.; Toppo, Stefano; Moser, Claudio; Lanchbury, Jerry; Bogden, Robert; Skolnick, Mark; Sgaramella, Vittorio; Bhatnagar, Satish K.; Fontana, Paolo; Gutin, Alexander; Van de Peer, Yves; Salamini, Francesco; Viola, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Background Worldwide, grapes and their derived products have a large market. The cultivated grape species Vitis vinifera has potential to become a model for fruit trees genetics. Like many plant species, it is highly heterozygous, which is an additional challenge to modern whole genome shotgun sequencing. In this paper a high quality draft genome sequence of a cultivated clone of V. vinifera Pinot Noir is presented. Principal Findings We estimate the genome size of V. vinifera to be 504.6 Mb. Genomic sequences corresponding to 477.1 Mb were assembled in 2,093 metacontigs and 435.1 Mb were anchored to the 19 linkage groups (LGs). The number of predicted genes is 29,585, of which 96.1% were assigned to LGs. This assembly of the grape genome provides candidate genes implicated in traits relevant to grapevine cultivation, such as those influencing wine quality, via secondary metabolites, and those connected with the extreme susceptibility of grape to pathogens. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) distribution was consistent with a diffuse haplotype structure across the genome. Of around 2,000,000 SNPs, 1,751,176 were mapped to chromosomes and one or more of them were identified in 86.7% of anchored genes. The relative age of grape duplicated genes was estimated and this made possible to reveal a relatively recent Vitis-specific large scale duplication event concerning at least 10 chromosomes (duplication not reported before). Conclusions Sanger shotgun sequencing and highly efficient sequencing by synthesis (SBS), together with dedicated assembly programs, resolved a complex heterozygous genome. A consensus sequence of the genome and a set of mapped marker loci were generated. Homologous chromosomes of Pinot Noir differ by 11.2% of their DNA (hemizygous DNA plus chromosomal gaps). SNP markers are offered as a tool with the potential of introducing a new era in the molecular breeding of grape. PMID:18094749

  1. Novel compound heterozygous mutations identified by whole exome sequencing in a Japanese patient with geroderma osteodysplastica.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Ryojun; Takagi, Masaki; Shinohara, Hiroyuki; Futagawa, Hiroshi; Narumi, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Nishimura, Gen; Yoshihashi, Hiroshi

    2017-12-01

    Geroderma osteodysplastica (GO) is a subtype of cutis laxa syndrome characterized by congenital wrinkly skin, a prematurely aged face, extremely short stature, and osteoporosis leading to recurrent fractures. GO exhibits an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern and is caused by loss-of-function mutations in GORAB, which encodes a protein important for Golgi-related transport. Using whole exome sequencing, we identified novel compound heterozygous nonsense mutations in the GORAB in a GO patient. The patient was a 14-year-old Japanese boy. Wrinkled skin and joint laxity were present at birth. At 1 year of age, he was clinically diagnosed with cutis laxa syndrome based on recurrent long bone fractures and clinical features, including wrinkled skin, joint laxity, and a distinctive face. He did not show retarded gross motor and cognitive development. At 11 years of age, he was treated with oral bisphosphonate and vitamin D owing to recurrent multiple spontaneous fractures of the vertebral and extremity bones associated with a low bone mineral density (BMD). Bisphosphonate treatment improved his BMD and fracture rate. Whole exome sequencing revealed two novel compound heterozygous nonsense mutations in the GORAB gene (p.Arg60* and p.Gln124*), and the diagnosis of GO was established. GO is a rare connective tissue disorder. Approximately 60 cases have been described to date, and this is the first report of a patient from Japan. Few studies have reported the effects of bisphosphonate treatment in GO patients with recurrent spontaneous fractures. Based on this case study, we hypothesize that oral bisphosphonate and vitamin D are effective and safe treatment options for the management of recurrent fractures in GO patients. It is important to establish a precise diagnosis of GO to prevent recurrent fractures and optimize treatment plans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Unusual cutaneous features associated with a heterozygous gain-of-function mutation in IFIH1: overlap between Aicardi–Goutières and Singleton–Merten syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Bursztejn, A.-C.; Briggs, T.A.; del Toro Duany, Y.; Anderson, B.H.; O’Sullivan, J.; Williams, S.G.; Bodemer, C.; Fraitag, S.; Gebhard, F.; Leheup, B.; Lemelle, I.; Oojageer, A.; Raffo, E.; Schmitt, E.; Rice, G.I.; Hur, S.; Crow, Y.J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cutaneous lesions described as chilblain lupus occur in the context of familial chilblain lupus or Aicardi–Goutières syndrome. To date, seven genes related to Aicardi–Goutières syndrome have been described. The most recently described encodes the cytosolic double-stranded RNA receptor IFIH1 (also known as MDA5), a key component of the antiviral type I interferon-mediated innate immune response. Enhanced type I interferon signalling secondary to gain-of-function mutations in IFIH1 can result in a range of neuroinflammatory phenotypes including classical Aicardi–Goutières syndrome. It is of note that none of the patients with a neurological phenotype so far described with mutations in this gene was reported to demonstrate cutaneous involvement. We present a family segregating a heterozygous pathogenic mutation in IFIH1 showing dermatological involvement as a prominent feature, variably associated with neurological disturbance and premature tooth loss. All three affected individuals exhibited increased expression of interferon-stimulated genes in whole blood, and the mutant protein resulted in enhanced interferon signalling in vitro, both in the basal state and following ligand stimulation. Our results further extend the phenotypic spectrum associated with mutations in IFIH1, indicating that the disease can be confined predominantly to the skin, while also highlighting phenotypic overlap with both Aicardi–Goutières syndrome and Singleton–Merten syndrome. PMID:26284909

  3. Identification of novel mutations of the CHST6 gene in Vietnamese families affected with macular corneal dystrophy in two generations.

    PubMed

    Ha, Nguyen Thanh; Chau, Hoang Minh; Cung, Le Xuan; Thanh, Ton Kim; Fujiki, Keiko; Murakami, Akira; Hiratsuka, Yoshimune; Hasegawa, Nobuko; Kanai, Atsushi

    2003-08-01

    To report the clinical and genetic findings of Vietnamese families affected with macular corneal dystrophy (MCD) in 2 generations. Two families, including 7 patients and 3 unaffected members, were examined clinically. Blood samples were collected. Fifty normal Vietnamese individuals were used as controls. Genomic DNA was extracted from leukocytes. Analysis of the carbohydrate sulfotransferase (CHST6) gene was performed using polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. The typical form of MCD was recognized in family B, in which sequencing of CHST6 gene revealed an nt 1067-1068ins(GGCCGTG) mutation (frameshift after 125V) homozygously in MCD patients and heterozygously in the unaffected members. Family N also showed clinical features of MCD, moderate in the mother but severe in the affected son. Sequencing revealed a single heterozygous Arg211Gln in the mother, compound heterozygous Arg211Gln+ Gln82Stop in the affected son, and heterozygous Arg211Gln mutation in the unaffected members. The identified mutations in these pedigrees were excluded from normal controls. The novel frameshift and compound heterozygous mutations might be responsible for MCD in the families studied. The phenotypic variation between affected parents and offspring was unclear. In family N, severe MCD phenotype seen in the affected son may be due the fact that he had an early stop codon mutation (Gln82Stop).

  4. Targeted next-generation sequencing analysis identifies novel mutations in families with severe familial exudative vitreoretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Yan; Zhuang, Hong; Wu, Ji-Hong; Li, Jian-Kang; Hu, Fang-Yuan; Zheng, Yu; Tellier, Laurent Christian Asker M; Zhang, Sheng-Hai; Gao, Feng-Juan; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Xu, Ge-Zhi

    2017-01-01

    Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disease, characterized by failure of vascular development of the peripheral retina. The symptoms of FEVR vary widely among patients in the same family, and even between the two eyes of a given patient. This study was designed to identify the genetic defect in a patient cohort of ten Chinese families with a definitive diagnosis of FEVR. To identify the causative gene, next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based target capture sequencing was performed. Segregation analysis of the candidate variant was performed in additional family members by using Sanger sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR). Of the cohort of ten FEVR families, six pathogenic variants were identified, including four novel and two known heterozygous mutations. Of the variants identified, four were missense variants, and two were novel heterozygous deletion mutations [ LRP5 , c.4053 DelC (p.Ile1351IlefsX88); TSPAN12 , EX8Del]. The two novel heterozygous deletion mutations were not observed in the control subjects and could give rise to a relatively severe FEVR phenotype, which could be explained by the protein function prediction. We identified two novel heterozygous deletion mutations [ LRP5 , c.4053 DelC (p.Ile1351IlefsX88); TSPAN12 , EX8Del] using targeted NGS as a causative mutation for FEVR. These genetic deletion variations exhibit a severe form of FEVR, with tractional retinal detachments compared with other known point mutations. The data further enrich the mutation spectrum of FEVR and enhance our understanding of genotype-phenotype correlations to provide useful information for disease diagnosis, prognosis, and effective genetic counseling.

  5. Targeted next-generation sequencing analysis identifies novel mutations in families with severe familial exudative vitreoretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiao-Yan; Zhuang, Hong; Wu, Ji-Hong; Li, Jian-Kang; Hu, Fang-Yuan; Zheng, Yu; Tellier, Laurent Christian Asker M.; Zhang, Sheng-Hai; Gao, Feng-Juan; Zhang, Jian-Guo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disease, characterized by failure of vascular development of the peripheral retina. The symptoms of FEVR vary widely among patients in the same family, and even between the two eyes of a given patient. This study was designed to identify the genetic defect in a patient cohort of ten Chinese families with a definitive diagnosis of FEVR. Methods To identify the causative gene, next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based target capture sequencing was performed. Segregation analysis of the candidate variant was performed in additional family members by using Sanger sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR). Results Of the cohort of ten FEVR families, six pathogenic variants were identified, including four novel and two known heterozygous mutations. Of the variants identified, four were missense variants, and two were novel heterozygous deletion mutations [LRP5, c.4053 DelC (p.Ile1351IlefsX88); TSPAN12, EX8Del]. The two novel heterozygous deletion mutations were not observed in the control subjects and could give rise to a relatively severe FEVR phenotype, which could be explained by the protein function prediction. Conclusions We identified two novel heterozygous deletion mutations [LRP5, c.4053 DelC (p.Ile1351IlefsX88); TSPAN12, EX8Del] using targeted NGS as a causative mutation for FEVR. These genetic deletion variations exhibit a severe form of FEVR, with tractional retinal detachments compared with other known point mutations. The data further enrich the mutation spectrum of FEVR and enhance our understanding of genotype–phenotype correlations to provide useful information for disease diagnosis, prognosis, and effective genetic counseling. PMID:28867931

  6. Broad phenotypes in heterozygous NR5A1 46,XY patients with a disorder of sex development: an oligogenic origin?

    PubMed

    Camats, Núria; Fernández-Cancio, Mónica; Audí, Laura; Schaller, André; Flück, Christa E

    2018-06-11

    SF-1/NR5A1 is a transcriptional regulator of adrenal and gonadal development. NR5A1 disease-causing variants cause disorders of sex development (DSD) and adrenal failure, but most affected individuals show a broad DSD/reproductive phenotype only. Most NR5A1 variants show in vitro pathogenic effects, but not when tested in heterozygote state together with wild-type NR5A1 as usually seen in patients. Thus, the genotype-phenotype correlation for NR5A1 variants remains an unsolved question. We analyzed heterozygous 46,XY SF-1/NR5A1 patients by whole exome sequencing and used an algorithm for data analysis based on selected project-specific DSD- and SF-1-related genes. The variants detected were evaluated for their significance in literature, databases and checked in silico using webtools. We identified 19 potentially deleterious variants (one to seven per patient) in 18 genes in four 46,XY DSD subjects carrying heterozygous NR5A1 disease-causing variants. We constructed a scheme of all these hits within the landscape of currently known genes involved in male sex determination and differentiation. Our results suggest that the broad phenotype in these heterozygous NR5A1 46,XY DSD subjects may well be explained by an oligogenic mode of inheritance, in which multiple hits, individually non-deleterious, may contribute to a DSD phenotype unique to each heterozygous SF-1/NR5A1 individual.

  7. Heterozygous mapping strategy (HetMapps)for high resolution genotyping-by-sequencing markers: a case study in grapevine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) provides opportunities to generate high-resolution genetic maps at a low per-sample genotyping cost, but missing data and under-calling of heterozygotes complicate the creation of GBS linkage maps for highly heterozygous species. To overcome these issues, we developed ...

  8. The heterozygous A53T mutation in the alpha-synuclein gene in a Chinese Han patient with Parkinson disease: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wei-Xi; Sun, Yi-Min; Guan, Rong-Yuan; Luo, Su-Shan; Chen, Chen; An, Yu; Wang, Jian; Wu, Jian-Jun

    2016-10-01

    The missense mutation A53T of alpha-synuclein gene (SNCA) was reported to be a rare but definite cause of sporadic and familial Parkinson disease (PD). It seemed to be restricted geographically in Greece and Italy. We aimed to identify the SNCA mutations in a Chinese PD cohort. Ninety-one early onset PD patients or familial PD probands were collected consecutively for the screening of PD-related genes. The genetic analysis was carried out by target sequencing of the exons and the corresponding flanking regions of the PD-related genes using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer and further confirmed by Sanger sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism. Dosage mutations of exons in these genes were carried out by multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification. Among the 91 patients, we found only one heterozygous mutation of SNCA A53T, in a 23-year-old male patient with negative family history. The [(11)C]-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl) tropan (CFT) PET and PD-related spatial covariance pattern (PDRP) via [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucos (FDG) PET confirmed a typical pattern of PD. After examining his parents, we found his mother was an asymptomatic carrier, with declined hand dexterity detected by quantitative motor tests. Reduced dopamine transporter uptake of his mother was identified by CFT PET, and abnormal PDRP pattern was found by FDG PET. Our investigation expanded the clinical and genetic spectrum of Chinese PD patients, and we suggested SNCA mutations to be screened in familial and early onset Chinese PD patients.

  9. Emerging biologic therapies for hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Pucci, Giacomo; Cicero, Arrigo F; Borghi, Claudio; Schillaci, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) is one of the most well-established risk factors for CV disease. Indeed, therapies that decrease LDL-C are proven to effectively reduce the risk of atherosclerotic CV disease. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that target proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) have recently gained traction as a promising therapeutic strategy. Areas covered: In this review, the authors discuss the effectiveness of mAbs against PCSK9 in lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and other atherogenic lipid fractions. The discontinuation in the development of bococizumab due to efficacy and safety concerns, and the initial promising data about inclisiran, a long-acting small inhibiting RNA molecule against PCSK9 synthesis, is also discussed. Expert opinion: Initial data about cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in large scale, long-term studies suggest a possible further therapeutic pathway for LDL-C reduction, and currently support the notion that further LDL-C reduction, obtained with PCSK9 inhibition on top of best available therapy, provides increased CV protection in subjects at very high CV risk. The development and marketing of mAbs against PCSK9 could help to redefine current therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and risk, through the reduction of LDL-C concentrations. The cost-effectiveness of these emerging drugs is yet to be established.

  10. Pregnancy-associated osteoporosis with a heterozygous deactivating LDL receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) mutation and a homozygous methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Cook, Fiona J; Mumm, Steven; Whyte, Michael P; Wenkert, Deborah

    2014-04-01

    Pregnancy-associated osteoporosis (PAO) is a rare, idiopathic disorder that usually presents with vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) within 6 months of a first pregnancy and delivery. Spontaneous improvement is typical. There is no known genetic basis for PAO. A 26-year-old primagravida with a neonatal history of unilateral blindness attributable to hyperplastic primary vitreous sustained postpartum VCFs consistent with PAO. Her low bone mineral density (BMD) seemed to respond to vitamin D and calcium therapy, with no fractures after her next successful pregnancy. Investigation of subsequent fetal losses revealed homozygosity for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism associated both with fetal loss and with osteoporosis (OP). Because her neonatal unilateral blindness and OP were suggestive of loss-of-function mutation(s) in the gene that encodes LDL receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5), LRP5 exon and splice site sequencing was also performed. This revealed a unique heterozygous 12-bp deletion in exon 21 (c.4454_4465del, p.1485_1488del SSSS) in the patient, her mother and sons, but not her father or brother. Her mother had a normal BMD, no history of fractures, PAO, ophthalmopathy, or fetal loss. Her two sons had no ophthalmopathy and no skeletal issues. Her osteoporotic father (with a family history of blindness) and brother had low BMDs first documented at ages ∼40 and 32 years, respectively. Serum biochemical and bone turnover studies were unremarkable in all subjects. We postulate that our patient's heterozygous LRP5 mutation together with her homozygous MTHFR polymorphism likely predisposed her to low peak BMD. However, OP did not cosegregate in her family with the LRP5 mutation, the homozygous MTHFR polymorphism, or even the combination of the two, implicating additional genetic or nongenetic factors in her PAO. Nevertheless, exploration for potential genetic contributions to PAO may explain part of the pathogenesis of this

  11. Mice heterozygous for the ATM gene are more sensitive to heavy ions exposure than are wildtypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worgul, B.; Smilenov, L.; Brenner, D.; Vazquez, M.; Hall, E.

    Previous studies have shown that the eyes of atm heterozygous mice exposed to Low LET radiation (X-rays) are more susceptible to the development of cataracts than are those of wildtype mice. The findings, as well as others, run counter to the assumption underpinning current radiation safety guidelines, that individuals are all equally sensitive to the biological effects of radiation. A question, highly relevant to human space activities is whether or not, in similar fashion there may exist a genetic predisposition to High LET radiation damage. Again the lens and, its primary radiopathy, cataract, were used to assay for the effects of ATM deficiency in a late-responding tissue. Together with those of wildtypes, the eyes of AT heterozygous knockout mice were exposed to 325 mGy of 1 GEV/amu 56Fe ions at the AGS facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The fluence was equivalent to 1 ion per nuclear area. As was the case in the earlier X-ray studies all irradiations were done on the 28th day after birth. Controls consisted of wildtype irradiated as well as unirradiated wildtype and heterozygotes. Ten mice from each group were examined weekly by conventional slitlamp biomicroscopy for a total of 35 weeks. The time required for prevalence to reach 50% (T50) as an endpoint for each stage indicated that not only cataract onset but also progression were accelerated in the mice haplo-deficient for the atm gene. For example the T50 for definitive cataract onset (stage 1) in the atm heterozygotes was 10 weeks whereas 17 weeks were required for the wildtypes. Similarly at the conclusion of the experiment (35 weeks), 40% of the lenses of allele-deficient mice had progressed to stage 3 (near fully opaque and obviously visually debilitating), while only one lens (5%) from the wildtype irradiated eyes achieved that stage. The data show that heterozygosity for the atm gene predisposes the eye to the cataractogenic influence of heavy ions and suggest that AT heterozygotes in the

  12. Heterozygous inactivation of tsc2 enhances tumorigenesis in p53 mutant zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seok-Hyung; Kowalski, Marie L.; Carson, Robert P.; Bridges, L. Richard; Ess, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a multi-organ disorder caused by mutations of the TSC1 or TSC2 genes. A key function of these genes is to inhibit mTORC1 (mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1) kinase signaling. Cells deficient for TSC1 or TSC2 have increased mTORC1 signaling and give rise to benign tumors, although, as a rule, true malignancies are rarely seen. In contrast, other disorders with increased mTOR signaling typically have overt malignancies. A better understanding of genetic mechanisms that govern the transformation of benign cells to malignant ones is crucial to understand cancer pathogenesis. We generated a zebrafish model of TSC and cancer progression by placing a heterozygous mutation of the tsc2 gene in a p53 mutant background. Unlike tsc2 heterozygous mutant zebrafish, which never exhibited cancers, compound tsc2;p53 mutants had malignant tumors in multiple organs. Tumorigenesis was enhanced compared with p53 mutant zebrafish. p53 mutants also had increased mTORC1 signaling that was further enhanced in tsc2;p53 compound mutants. We found increased expression of Hif1-α, Hif2-α and Vegf-c in tsc2;p53 compound mutant zebrafish compared with p53 mutant zebrafish. Expression of these proteins probably underlies the increased angiogenesis seen in compound mutant zebrafish compared with p53 mutants and might further drive cancer progression. Treatment of p53 and compound mutant zebrafish with the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin caused rapid shrinkage of tumor size and decreased caliber of tumor-associated blood vessels. This is the first report using an animal model to show interactions between tsc2, mTORC1 and p53 during tumorigenesis. These results might explain why individuals with TSC rarely have malignant tumors, but also suggest that cancer arising in individuals without TSC might be influenced by the status of TSC1 and/or TSC2 mutations and be potentially treatable with mTORC1 inhibitors. PMID:23580196

  13. Myocardial 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy in patients with homozygous and heterozygous parkin mutations.

    PubMed

    De Rosa, Anna; Pellegrino, Teresa; Pappatà, Sabina; Pellecchia, Maria Teresa; Peluso, Silvio; Saccà, Francesco; Barone, Paolo; Cuocolo, Alberto; De Michele, Giuseppe

    2017-02-01

    PARK2 is an autosomal recessive parkinsonism caused by parkin gene mutations. Several Parkinson's Disease (PD) cases harbor single parkin mutations, raising a debate about the pathogenic meaning of heterozygous mutations. Here, we evaluate cardiac autonomic innervation in patients with either two or one parkin mutations compared to patients with idiopathic PD (IPD). Myocardial 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy was performed in six PD patients with single parkin mutations (HET), four with two mutations (PARK2), and eight with IPD. In comparison to control group, IPD patients showed lower early and late heart-to-mediastinum (H/M) ratios and higher washout rates, whereas HET patients had only lower early H/M ratio, and PARK2 patients were not different for any parameter. At individual level, MIBG findings were abnormal in 7/8 IPD, in 4/6 HET and in 1/4 PARK2 patients. Preserved cardiac 123 I-MIBG uptake confirms that PARK2 pathogenic mechanism, at least partially, differs from that responsible for IPD. HET subjects show intermediate findings, suggesting possible heterogeneity.

  14. Thiamine responsive megaloblastic anemia: a novel SLC19A2 compound heterozygous mutation in two siblings.

    PubMed

    Mozzillo, Enza; Melis, Daniela; Falco, Mariateresa; Fattorusso, Valentina; Taurisano, Roberta; Flanagan, Sarah E; Ellard, Sian; Franzese, Adriana

    2013-08-01

    Thiamine responsive megaloblastic anemia (TRMA) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by loss of function mutations in the SLC19A2 gene. TRMA is characterized by anemia, deafness, and diabetes. In some cases, optic atrophy or more rarely retinitis pigmentosa is noted. We now report two sisters, the eldest of which presented to a different hospital during childhood with sensorineural deafness, which was treated with a hearing prosthesis, insulin requiring diabetes, retinitis pigmentosa, optic atrophy, and macrocytic anemia. These features initially suggested a clinical diagnosis of Wolfram syndrome (WS). Therapy with thiamine was initiated which resulted in the resolution of the anemia. The younger sister, who was affected with sensorineural deafness, was referred to our hospital for non-autoimmune diabetes. She was found to have macrocytosis and ocular abnormalities. Because a diagnosis of TRMA was suspected, therapy with insulin and thiamine was started. Sequencing analysis of the SLC19A2 gene identified a compound heterozygous mutation p.Y81X/p.L457X (c.242insA/c.1370delT) in both sisters. Non-autoimmune diabetes associated with deafness and macrocytosis, without anemia, suggests a diagnosis of TRMA. Patients clinically diagnosed with WS with anemia and/or macrocytosis should be reevaluated for TRMA. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Effects of LSD on grooming behavior in serotonin transporter heterozygous (Sert⁺/⁻) mice.

    PubMed

    Kyzar, Evan J; Stewart, Adam Michael; Kalueff, Allan V

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) plays a crucial role in the brain, modulating mood, cognition and reward. The serotonin transporter (SERT) is responsible for the reuptake of 5-HT from the synaptic cleft and regulates serotonin signaling in the brain. In humans, SERT genetic variance is linked to the pathogenesis of various psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Rodent self-grooming is a complex, evolutionarily conserved patterned behavior relevant to stress, ASD and OCD. Genetic ablation of mouse Sert causes various behavioral deficits, including increased anxiety and grooming behavior. The hallucinogenic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a potent serotonergic agonist known to modulate human and animal behavior. Here, we examined heterozygous Sert(+/-) mouse behavior following acute administration of LSD (0.32 mg/kg). Overall, Sert(+/-) mice displayed a longer duration of self-grooming behavior regardless of LSD treatment. In contrast, LSD increased serotonin-sensitive behaviors, such as head twitching, tremors and backwards gait behaviors in both Sert(+/+) and Sert(+/-) mice. There were no significant interactions between LSD treatment and Sert gene dosage in any of the behavioral domains measured. These results suggest that Sert(+/-) mice may respond to the behavioral effects of LSD in a similar manner to wild-type mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Heterozygous Inverdale ewes show increased ovulation rate sensitivity to pre-mating nutrition.

    PubMed

    Demmers, K J; Smaill, B; Davis, G H; Dodds, K G; Juengel, J L

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether ewes heterozygous (I+) for the Inverdale mutation of the bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP15) gene with high natural ovulation rate (OR) show similar sensitivity to nutritional manipulation as non-carriers (++). Increasing pre-mating nutrition results in OR increases in sheep, but whether this effect occurs in ewes with naturally high OR is unknown. Over 2 years, I+ or ++ ewes were given high (ad libitum) or control (maintenance) pasture allowances for 6 weeks prior to mating at a synchronised oestrus, with OR measured 8 days later. The high group increased in weight compared with controls (+5.84kg; P<0.01), accompanied by increased OR (+19%; P<0.01). As well as having higher OR (+45%; P<0.01), I+ ewes responded to increased feed with a larger proportional increase in OR (+27%; P<0.01) compared with the response in ++ ewes (+11%; P<0.05), suggesting an interaction between BMP15 levels and nutritional signals in the follicle to control OR. Although litter size increases only tended to significance (+12%; P=0.06), extra feed resulted in over 50% of I+ ewes giving birth to more than three lambs, compared with 20-31% of I+ ewes on maintenance rations. This information can guide feed management of prolific Inverdale ewes prior to breeding.

  17. Nonhomologous Synapsis and Reduced Crossing over in a Heterozygous Paracentric Inversion in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Dresser, M. E.; Ewing, D. J.; Harwell, S. N.; Coody, D.; Conrad, M. N.

    1994-01-01

    Homologous chromosome synapsis (``homosynapsis'') and crossing over are well-conserved aspects of meiotic chromosome behavior. The long-standing assumption that these two processes are causally related has been challenged recently by observations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of significant levels of crossing over (1) between small sequences at nonhomologous locations and (2) in mutants where synapsis is abnormal or absent. In order to avoid problems of local sequence effects and of mutation pleiotropy, we have perturbed synapsis by making a set of isogenic strains that are heterozygous and homozygous for a large chromosomal paracentric inversion covering a well marked genetic interval and then measured recombination. We find that reciprocal recombination in the marked interval in heterozygotes is reduced variably across the interval, on average to ~55% of that in the homozygotes, and that positive interference still modulates crossing over. Cytologically, stable synapsis across the interval is apparently heterologous rather than homologous, consistent with the interpretation that stable homosynapsis is required to initiate or consummate a large fraction of the crossing over observed in wild-type strains. When crossing over does occur in heterozygotes, dicentric and acentric chromosomes are formed and can be visualized and quantitated on blots though not demonstrated in viable spores. We find that there is no loss of dicentric chromosomes during the two meiotic divisions and that the acentric chromosome is recovered at only 1/3 to 1/2 of the expected level. PMID:7851761

  18. Mice heterozygous for cathepsin D deficiency exhibit mania-related behavior and stress-induced depression.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; Lu, Yi; Han, Yong; Li, Xia; Lou, Huifang; Zhu, Liya; Zhen, Xuechu; Duan, Shumin

    2015-12-03

    Mutations in cathepsin D (CTSD), an aspartic protease in the endosomal-lysosomal system, underlie congenital neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis (cNCL, also known as CLN10), a devastating neurodegenerative disease. CLN10 patients die within the first few days of life, and in the few patients who live into adulthood psychopathological symptoms have not been reported. Extensive neuropathology and altered neurotransmission have been reported in CTSD-deficient mice; however signs of neuropsychiatric behavior in these mice are not well characterized due to the severe movement disorder and premature death of the animal. In the present study, we show that heterozygous CTSD-deficient (CTSD HET) mice display an overall behavioral profile that is similar to human mania, including hyperlocomotion, d-amphetamine-induced hyperactivity, sleep-disturbance, and reduced anxiety-like behavior. However, under stressful conditions CTSD HET mice manifest depressive-like behavior, including anhedonia, behavioral despair, and enhanced learned helplessness. Chronic administration of lithium chloride or valproic acid, two clinically effective mood stabilizers, reverses the majority of these behavioral abnormalities. In addition, CTSD HET mice display stress-induced hypersecretion of corticosterone. These findings suggest an important role for CTSD in the regulation of mood stabilization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Recombination and synaptic adjustment in oocytes of mice heterozygous for a large paracentric inversion.

    PubMed

    Torgasheva, Anna A; Rubtsov, Nikolai B; Borodin, Pavel M

    2013-03-01

    Homologous chromosome synapsis in inversion heterozygotes results in the formation of inversion loops. These loops might be transformed into straight, non-homologously paired bivalents via synaptic adjustment. Synaptic adjustment was discovered 30 years ago; however, its relationship with recombination has remained unclear. We analysed this relationship in female mouse embryos heterozygous for large paracentric inversion In(1)1Rk using immunolocalisation of the synaptonemal complex (SYCP3) and mature recombination nodules (MLH1) proteins. The frequency of cells containing bivalents with inversion loops decreased from 69 % to 28 % during pachytene. If an MLH1 focus was present in the non-homologously paired inverted region of the straight bivalent, it was always located in the middle of the inversion. Most of the small, incompletely adjusted loops contained MLH1 foci near the points at which pairing partners were switched. This observation indicates that the degree of synaptic adjustment depended on the crossover position. Complete synaptic adjustment was only possible if a crossover (CO) was located exactly in the middle of the inversion. If a CO was located at any other site, this interrupted synaptic adjustment and resulted in inversion loops of different sizes with an MLH1 focus at or near the edge of the remaining loop.

  20. vGLUT2 heterozygous mice show more susceptibility to clonic seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol.

    PubMed

    Schallier, Anneleen; Massie, Ann; Loyens, Ellen; Moechars, Diederik; Drinkenburg, Wilhelmus; Michotte, Yvette; Smolders, Ilse

    2009-01-01

    Glutamate, the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, is well known to be implicated in epileptic seizures. Therefore, impairments in glutamate transport could have an involvement in the mechanism of epileptogenesis. The uptake of glutamate into synaptic vesicles is mediated by vesicular glutamate transporters (vGLUTs). There are three known vGLUT isoforms, vGLUT1-3. In this study, we are particularly interested in the vGLUT2 isoform. We investigated the possible role of vGLUT2 in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure generation. Seizure threshold of PTZ was compared in vGLUT2 heterozygous knock out (HET) and wild type (WT) mice. In comparison with their WT littermates a lower dose of PTZ was needed in the vGLUT2 HET mice until the onset of the first myoclonic jerk. The threshold for PTZ-induced clonic seizure activity was also lower in the vGLUT2 HET mice. These results indicate, for the first time, that vGLUT2 is likely involved in the epileptogenesis of generalized seizures.

  1. Nature vs. nurture: can enrichment rescue the behavioural phenotype of BDNF heterozygous mice?

    PubMed

    Chourbaji, Sabine; Brandwein, Christiane; Vogt, Miriam A; Dormann, Christof; Hellweg, Rainer; Gass, Peter

    2008-10-10

    In earlier experiments we have demonstrated that group-housing in a rather impoverished "standard" environment can be a crucial stress factor in male C57Bl/6 mice. The present study aimed at investigating the effect of combining a probable genetic vulnerability--postulated by the "Neurotrophin Hypothesis of Depression"--with the potentially modulating influence of a stressful environment such as "impoverished" standard housing conditions. For that purpose mice with a partial deletion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were group-housed under standard and enriched housing conditions and analysed in a well-established test battery for emotional behaviours. Standard group-housing affected emotional behaviour in male and female BDNF heterozygous mice, causing an increase in anxiety, changes in exploration as well as nociception. Providing the animals' cages with supplementary enrichment, however, led to a rescue of emotional alterations, which emphasises the significance of external factors and their relevance for a valid investigation of genetic aspects in these mutants as well as others, which may be examined in terms of stress-responsiveness or emotionality.

  2. Long-term behavioral and NMDA receptor effects of young-adult corticosterone treatment in BDNF heterozygous mice.

    PubMed

    Klug, Maren; Hill, Rachel A; Choy, Kwok Ho Christopher; Kyrios, Michael; Hannan, Anthony J; van den Buuse, Maarten

    2012-06-01

    Psychiatric illnesses, such as schizophrenia, are most likely caused by an interaction between genetic predisposition and environmental factors, including stress during development. The neurotrophin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in this illness as BDNF levels are decreased in the brain of patients with schizophrenia. The aim of the present study was to assess the combined effect of reduced BDNF levels and postnatal stress, simulated by chronic young-adult treatment with the stress hormone, corticosterone. From 6 weeks of age, female and male BDNF heterozygous mice and their wild-type controls were chronically treated with corticosterone in their drinking water for 3 weeks. At 11 weeks of age, male, but not female BDNF heterozygous mice treated with corticosterone exhibited a profound memory deficit in the Y-maze. There were no differences between the groups in baseline prepulse inhibition (PPI), a measure of sensorimotor gating, or its disruption by treatment with MK-801. However, an increase in startle caused by MK-801 treatment was absent in male, but not female BDNF heterozygous mice, irrespective of corticosterone treatment. Analysis of protein levels of the NMDA receptor subunits NR1, NR2A, NR2B and NR2C, showed a marked increase of NR2B levels in the dorsal hippocampus of male BDNF heterozygous mice treated with corticosterone. In the ventral hippocampus, significantly reduced levels of NR2A, NR2B and NR2C were observed in male BDNF heterozygous mice. The NMDA receptor effects in hippocampal sub-regions could be related to the spatial memory deficits and the loss of the effect of MK-801 on startle in these mice, respectively. No significant changes in NMDA receptor subunit levels were observed in any of the female groups. Similarly, no significant changes in levels of BDNF or its receptor, TrkB, were found other than the expected reduced levels of BDNF in heterozygous mice. In conclusion, the data show differential interactive

  3. Radiation Dose-effects on Cell Cycle, Apoptosis, and Marker Expression of Ataxia Telangiectasia-Heterozygous Human Breast Epithelial Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, A.; Bors, K.; Jansen, H.; Richmond, R.

    2003-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a radiation-sensitive genetic condition. AT-heterozygous human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) were irradiated using a Cs137 source in order to compare cell cycle, apoptosis, and marker expression responses across 3 radiation doses. No differences in cell cycle and apoptosis were found with any of the radiation doses used (30, 60, and 90 rads) compared with the unirradiated control (0 rad). At the same doses, however, differences were found in marker expression, such as keratin 18 (kl8), keratin 14 (k14), insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR), and connexin 43 (cx43). This may indicate that radiation sensitivity in the heterozygous state may be initiated through signal transduction responses.

  4. Novel compound heterozygous DPH1 mutations in a patient with the unique clinical features of airway obstruction and external genital abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Junya; Oana, Shingo; Sakaguchi, Tomohiro; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Numabe, Hironao; Kawashima, Hisashi; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Miyake, Noriko

    2018-04-01

    The diphthamide biosynthesis 1 (DPH1) gene encodes one of the essential components of the enzyme catalyzing the first step of diphthamide formation on eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (EEF2). Diphthamide is the posttranslationally modified histidine residue on EEF2 that promotes protein chain elongation in the ribosome. DPH1 defects result in a failure of protein synthesis involving EEF2, leading to growth defects, embryonic lethality, and cell death. In humans, DPH1 mutations cause developmental delay with a short stature, dysmorphic features, and sparse hair, and are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner (MIM#616901). To date, only two homozygous missense mutations in DPH1 (c.17T>A, p.Met6Lys and c.701T>C, p.Leu234Pro) have been reported. We used WES to identify novel compound heterozygous mutations in DPH1 (c.289delG, p.Glu97Lysfs*8 and c.491T>C, p.Leu164Pro) in a patient from a nonconsanguineous family presenting with intellectual disability, a short stature, craniofacial abnormalities, and external genital abnormalities. The clinical phenotype of all patients with DPH1 mutations, including the current patient, revealed core features, although the external genital anomaly was newly recognized in our case.

  5. Atm heterozygous mice are more sensitive to radiation-induced cataracts than are their wild-type counterparts

    PubMed Central

    Worgul, Basil V.; Smilenov, Lubomir; Brenner, David J.; Junk, Anna; Zhou, Wei; Hall, Eric J.

    2002-01-01

    It is important to know whether the human population includes genetically predisposed radiosensitive subsets. In vitro studies have shown that cells from individuals homozygous for ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) are much more radiosensitive than cells from unaffected individuals. Although cells heterozygous for the ATM gene (ATM+/−) may be slightly more radiosensitive in vitro, it remained to be determined whether the greater susceptibility of ATM+/− cells translates into an increased sensitivity for late effects in vivo, though there is a suggestion that radiotherapy patients that are heterozygous for the ATM gene may be more at risk of developing late normal tissue damage. We chose cataractogenesis in the lens as a means to assay for the effects of ATM deficiency in a late-responding tissue. One eye of wild-type, Atm heterozygous and homozygous knockout mice was exposed to 0.5-, 1.0-, 2.0-, or 4.0-Gy x rays. The animals were followed weekly for cataract development by conventional slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Cataract development in the animals of all three groups was strongly dependent on dose. The lenses of homozygous mice were the first to opacify at any given dose. Most important in the present context is that cataracts appeared earlier in the heterozygous versus wild-type animals. The data suggest that ATM heterozygotes in the human population may also be radiosensitive. This may influence the choice of individuals destined to be exposed to higher than normal doses of radiation, such as astronauts, and may also suggest that radiotherapy patients who are ATM heterozygotes could be predisposed to increased late normal tissue damage. PMID:12119422

  6. Atm heterozygous mice are more sensitive to radiation-induced cataracts than are their wild-type counterparts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worgul, Basil V.; Smilenov, Lubomir; Brenner, David J.; Junk, Anna; Zhou, Wei; Hall, Eric J.

    2002-01-01

    It is important to know whether the human population includes genetically predisposed radiosensitive subsets. In vitro studies have shown that cells from individuals homozygous for ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) are much more radiosensitive than cells from unaffected individuals. Although cells heterozygous for the ATM gene (ATM(+/-)) may be slightly more radiosensitive in vitro, it remained to be determined whether the greater susceptibility of ATM(+/-) cells translates into an increased sensitivity for late effects in vivo, though there is a suggestion that radiotherapy patients that are heterozygous for the ATM gene may be more at risk of developing late normal tissue damage. We chose cataractogenesis in the lens as a means to assay for the effects of ATM deficiency in a late-responding tissue. One eye of wild-type, Atm heterozygous and homozygous knockout mice was exposed to 0.5-, 1.0-, 2.0-, or 4.0-Gy x rays. The animals were followed weekly for cataract development by conventional slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Cataract development in the animals of all three groups was strongly dependent on dose. The lenses of homozygous mice were the first to opacify at any given dose. Most important in the present context is that cataracts appeared earlier in the heterozygous versus wild-type animals. The data suggest that ATM heterozygotes in the human population may also be radiosensitive. This may influence the choice of individuals destined to be exposed to higher than normal doses of radiation, such as astronauts, and may also suggest that radiotherapy patients who are ATM heterozygotes could be predisposed to increased late normal tissue damage.

  7. Production of heterozygous alpha 1,3-galactosyltransferase (GGTA1) knock-out transgenic miniature pigs expressing human CD39.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kimyung; Shim, Joohyun; Ko, Nayoung; Eom, Heejong; Kim, Jiho; Lee, Jeong-Woong; Jin, Dong-Il; Kim, Hyunil

    2017-04-01

    Production of transgenic pigs for use as xenotransplant donors is a solution to the severe shortage of human organs for transplantation. The first barrier to successful xenotransplantation is hyperacute rejection, a rapid, massive humoral immune response directed against the pig carbohydrate GGTA1 epitope. Platelet activation, adherence, and clumping, all major features of thrombotic microangiopathy, are inevitable results of immune-mediated transplant rejection. Human CD39 rapidly hydrolyzes ATP and ADP to AMP; AMP is hydrolyzed by ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73) to adenosine, an anti-thrombotic and cardiovascular protective mediator. In this study, we developed a vector-based strategy for ablation of GGTA1 function and concurrent expression of human CD39 (hCD39). An hCD39 expression cassette was constructed to target exon 4 of GGTA1. We established heterozygous GGTA1 knock-out cell lines expressing hCD39 from pig ear fibroblasts for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). We also described production of heterozygous GGTA1 knock-out piglets expressing hCD39 and analyzed expression and function of the transgene. Human CD39 was expressed in heart, kidney and aorta. Human CD39 knock-in heterozygous ear fibroblast from transgenic cloned pigs, but not in non-transgenic pig's cells. Expression of GGTA1 gene was lower in the knock-in heterozygous ear fibroblast from transgenic pigs compared to the non-transgenic pig's cell. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from the transgenic pigs were more resistant to lysis by pooled complement-preserved normal human serum than that from wild type (WT) pig. Accordingly, GGTA1 mutated piglets expressing hCD39 will provide a new organ source for xenotransplantation research.

  8. Small Families

    MedlinePlus

    ... Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families ...

  9. Linkage study of the low-density lipoprotein-receptor gene and cholesterol levels in an Afrikaner family. Quantitative genetics and identification of a minor founder effect.

    PubMed

    Brink, P A; Brink, L T; Torrington, M; Bester, A J

    1990-03-17

    Overlap of clinical and biochemical characteristics between hypercholesterolaemia in members of the general population and familial hypercholesterolaemic (FH) individuals may lead to misdiagnosis. Quantitative analysis of family data may circumvent this problem. A way of looking for an association between plasma cholesterol levels and restriction fragment length polymorphism markers (RFLP) on the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene by using reference cholesterol distributions was explored. Linkage, with a logarithm of the odds (LOD) score of 6.8 at theta 0, was detected between cholesterol levels and the LDL receptor in an extended Afrikaner family. Two RFLP-haplotypes, one previously found in a majority of Afrikaner FH homozygotes, and a second, Stu I-, BstE II+, Pvu II+, Nco I+, were associated with high cholesterol levels in this pedigree.

  10. Chronic Toxoplasma gondii in Nurr1-Null Heterozygous Mice Exacerbates Elevated Open Field Activity

    PubMed Central

    Eells, Jeffrey B.; Varela-Stokes, Andrea; Guo-Ross, Shirley X.; Kummari, Evangel; Smith, Holly M.; Cox, Erin; Lindsay, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Latent infection with Toxoplasma gondii is common in humans (approximately 30% of the global population) and is a significant risk factor for schizophrenia. Since prevalence of T. gondii infection is far greater than prevalence of schizophrenia (0.5-1%), genetic risk factors are likely also necessary to contribute to schizophrenia. To test this concept in an animal model, Nurr1-null heterozygous (+/-) mice and wild-type (+/+) mice were evaluate using an emergence test, activity in an open field and with a novel object, response to bobcat urine and prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI) prior to and 6 weeks after infection with T. gondii. In the emergence test, T. gondii infection significantly decreased the amount of time spent in the cylinder. Toxoplasma gondii infection significantly elevated open field activity in both +/+ and +/- mice but this increase was significantly exacerbated in +/- mice. T. gondii infection reduced PPI in male +/- mice but this was not statistically significant. Aversion to bobcat urine was abolished by T. gondii infection in +/+ mice. In female +/- mice, aversion to bobcat urine remained after T. gondii infection while the male +/- mice showed no aversion to bobcat urine. Antibody titers of infected mice were a critical variable associated with changes in open field activity, such that an inverted U shaped relationship existed between antibody titers and the percent change in open field activity with a significant increase in activity at low and medium antibody titers but no effect at high antibody titers. These data demonstrate that the Nurr1 +/- genotype predisposes mice to T. gondii-induced alterations in behaviors that involve dopamine neurotransmission and are associated with symptoms of schizophrenia. We propose that these alterations in murine behavior were due to further exacerbation of the altered dopamine neurotransmission in Nurr1 +/- mice. PMID:25855987

  11. Chronic Toxoplasma gondii in Nurr1-null heterozygous mice exacerbates elevated open field activity.

    PubMed

    Eells, Jeffrey B; Varela-Stokes, Andrea; Guo-Ross, Shirley X; Kummari, Evangel; Smith, Holly M; Cox, Erin; Lindsay, David S

    2015-01-01

    Latent infection with Toxoplasma gondii is common in humans (approximately 30% of the global population) and is a significant risk factor for schizophrenia. Since prevalence of T. gondii infection is far greater than prevalence of schizophrenia (0.5-1%), genetic risk factors are likely also necessary to contribute to schizophrenia. To test this concept in an animal model, Nurr1-null heterozygous (+/-) mice and wild-type (+/+) mice were evaluate using an emergence test, activity in an open field and with a novel object, response to bobcat urine and prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI) prior to and 6 weeks after infection with T. gondii. In the emergence test, T. gondii infection significantly decreased the amount of time spent in the cylinder. Toxoplasma gondii infection significantly elevated open field activity in both +/+ and +/- mice but this increase was significantly exacerbated in +/- mice. T. gondii infection reduced PPI in male +/- mice but this was not statistically significant. Aversion to bobcat urine was abolished by T. gondii infection in +/+ mice. In female +/- mice, aversion to bobcat urine remained after T. gondii infection while the male +/- mice showed no aversion to bobcat urine. Antibody titers of infected mice were a critical variable associated with changes in open field activity, such that an inverted U shaped relationship existed between antibody titers and the percent change in open field activity with a significant increase in activity at low and medium antibody titers but no effect at high antibody titers. These data demonstrate that the Nurr1 +/- genotype predisposes mice to T. gondii-induced alterations in behaviors that involve dopamine neurotransmission and are associated with symptoms of schizophrenia. We propose that these alterations in murine behavior were due to further exacerbation of the altered dopamine neurotransmission in Nurr1 +/- mice.

  12. [Hereditary heterozygous factor VII deficiency in patients undergoing surgery : Clinical relevance].

    PubMed

    Woehrle, D; Martinez, M; Bolliger, D

    2016-10-01

    A hereditary deficiency in coagulation factor VII (FVII) may affect the international normalized ratio (INR) value. However, FVII deficiency is occasionally associated with a tendency to bleed spontaneously. We hypothesized that perioperative substitution with coagulation factor concentrates might not be indicated in most patients. In this retrospective data analysis, we included all patients with hereditary heterozygous FVII deficiency who underwent surgical procedures at the University Hospital Basel between December 2010 and November 2015. In addition, by searching the literature, we identified publications reporting patients with FVII deficiency undergoing surgical procedures without perioperative substitution. We identified 22 patients undergoing 46 surgical procedures, resulting in a prevalence of 1:1500-2000. Coagulation factor concentrates were administered during the perioperative period in 15 procedures (33 %), whereas in the other 31 procedures (66 %), FVII deficiency was not substituted. No postoperative bleeding or thromboembolic events were reported. In addition, we found no differences in pre- and postoperative hemoglobin and coagulation parameters, with the exception of an improved postoperative INR value in the substituted group. In the literature review, we identified five publications, including 125 patients with FVII deficiency, undergoing 213 surgical procedures with no perioperative substitution. Preoperative substitution using coagulation factor concentrates does not seem to be mandatory in patients with an FVII level ≥15 %. For decision-making on preoperative substitution, patient history of an increased tendency to bleed may be more important than the FVII level or increased INR value.

  13. CREG1 heterozygous mice are susceptible to high fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiaoxiang; Yan, Chenghui; Liu, Meili; Zhang, Quanyu; Liu, Dan; Liu, Yanxia; Li, Shaohua; Han, Yaling

    2017-01-01

    Cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes 1 (CREG1) is a small glycoprotein whose physiological function is unknown. In cell culture studies, CREG1 promotes cellular differentiation and maturation. To elucidate its physiological functions, we deleted the Creg1 gene in mice and found that loss of CREG1 leads to early embryonic death, suggesting that it is essential for early development. In the analysis of Creg1 heterozygous mice, we unexpectedly observed that they developed obesity as they get older. In this study, we further studied this phenotype by feeding wild type (WT) and Creg1 heterozygote (Creg1+/-) mice a high fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks. Our data showed that Creg1+/- mice exhibited a more prominent obesity phenotype with no change in food intake compared with WT controls when challenged with HFD. Creg1 haploinsufficiency also exacerbated HFD-induced liver steatosis, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. In addition, HFD markedly increased pro-inflammatory cytokines in plasma and epididymal adipose tissue in Creg1+/- mice as compared with WT controls. The activation level of NF-κB, a major regulator of inflammatory response, in epididymal adipose tissue was also elevated in parallel with the cytokines in Creg1+/- mice. These pro-inflammatory responses elicited by CREG1 reduction were confirmed in 3T3-L1-derived adipocytes with CREG1 depletion by siRNA transfection. Given that adipose tissue inflammation has been shown to play a key role in obesity-induced insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, our results suggest that Creg1 haploinsufficiency confers increased susceptibility of adipose tissue to inflammation, leading to aggravated obesity and insulin resistance when challenged with HFD. This study uncovered a novel function of CREG1 in metabolic disorders.

  14. Cysteamine treatment ameliorates alterations in GAD67 expression and spatial memory in heterozygous reeler mice

    PubMed Central

    Kutiyanawalla, Ammar; Promsote, Wanwisa; Terry, Alvin; Pillai, Anilkumar

    2011-01-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling through its receptor, TrkB is known to regulate GABAergic function and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 67 expression in neurons. Alterations in BDNF signaling have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and as a result, they are a potential therapeutic target. Interestingly, heterozygous reeler mice (HRM) have decreased GAD67 expression in the frontal cortex and hippocampus and they exhibit many behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities similar to schizophrenia. In the present study, we evaluated the potential of cysteamine, a neuroprotective compound to improve the deficits in GAD67 expression and cognitive function in HRM. We found that cysteamine administration (150 mg/kg/day, through drinking water) for 30 days significantly ameliorated the decreases in GAD67, mature BDNF and full-length TrkB protein levels found in frontal cortex and hippocampus of HRM. A significant attenuation of the increased levels of truncated BDNF in frontal cortex and hippocampus, as well as truncated TrkB in frontal cortex of HRM was also observed following cysteamine treatment. In behavioral studies, HRM were impaired in a Y-maze spatial recognition memory task, but not in a spontaneous alternation task or a sensorimotor, prepulse inhibition (PPI) procedure. Cysteamine improved Y-maze spatial recognition in HRM to the level of wide-type controls and it improved PPI in both wild-type and HRM. Finally, mice deficient in TrkB, showed a reduced response to cysteamine in GAD67 expression suggesting that TrkB signaling plays an important role in GAD67 regulation by cysteamine. PMID:21777509

  15. De novo Uroplakin IIIa heterozygous mutations cause human renal adysplasia leading to severe kidney failure.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Dagan; Bitner-Glindzicz, Maria; Malcolm, Sue; Hu, Chih-Chi A; Allison, Jennifer; Winyard, Paul J D; Gullett, Ambrose M; Thomas, David F M; Belk, Rachel A; Feather, Sally A; Sun, Tung-Tien; Woolf, Adrian S

    2005-07-01

    Human renal adysplasia usually occurs sporadically, and bilateral disease is the most common cause of childhood end-stage renal failure, a condition that is lethal without intervention using dialysis or transplantation. De novo heterozygous mutations in Uroplakin IIIa (UPIIIa) are reported in four of 17 children with kidney failure caused by renal adysplasia in the absence of an overt urinary tract obstruction. One girl and one boy in unrelated kindreds had a missense mutation at a CpG dinucleotide in the cytoplasmic domain of UPIIIa (Pro273Leu), both of whom had severe vesicoureteric reflux, and the girl had persistent cloaca; two other patients had de novo mutations in the 3' UTR (963 T-->G; 1003 T-->C), and they had renal adysplasia in the absence of any other anomaly. The mutations were absent in all sets of parents and in siblings, none of whom had radiologic evidence of renal adysplasia, and mutations were absent in two panels of 192 ethnically matched control chromosomes. UPIIIa was expressed in nascent urothelia in ureter and renal pelvis of human embryos, and it is suggested that perturbed urothelial differentiation may generate human kidney malformations, perhaps by altering differentiation of adjacent smooth muscle cells such that the metanephros is exposed to a functional obstruction of urine flow. With advances in renal replacement therapy, children with renal failure, who would otherwise have died, are surviving to adulthood. Therefore, although the mechanisms of action of the UPIIIa mutations have yet to be determined, these findings have important implications regarding genetic counseling of affected individuals who reach reproductive age.

  16. [A clinical and hereditary analysis of novel complex heterozygous KCNJ1 mutation in a Bartter syndrome type Ⅱ patient].

    PubMed

    Li, X Y; Jiang, Y; Xu, L J; Duan, L; Peng, X Y; Chen, L M; Xia, W B; Xing, X P

    2017-10-01

    Bartter syndrome (BS) is a hereditary condition transmitted as an autosomal recessive (Bartter type 1 to 4) or dominant trait (Bartter type 5). The disease associates hypokalemic alkalosis with varying degrees of hypercalciuria. Here we presented a case (BS type Ⅱ) of a 17 years old female presented with polyhydramnios, polyuria, nephrocalcinosis and hypokalemia, which was alleviated after treatment with celecoxib and vitamin D(3). DNA sequencing identified compound heterozygous KCNJ 1 gene mutations, c. 931C >T (p.R311W) and c. 445-446insCCTGAACAC (p.V149Afs, 150X), with the latter a novel mutation. Her father and mother were heterozygous carriers of c. 931C >T (p.R311W) and c. 445-446insCCTGAACAC (p.V149Afs, 150X), respectively. In conclusion, this case of BS type Ⅱ is caused by a novel compound heterozygous KCNJ 1 mutation. Further studies are needed to verify the effect of celecoxib in BS patients.

  17. [A novel compound heterozygous mutation in ABCA3 gene in a child with diffuse parenchymal lung disease].

    PubMed

    Bao, Y M; Liu, X L; Liu, X L; Chen, J H; Zheng, Y J

    2017-11-02

    Objective: To summarize the clinical characteristics of the diffuse parenchymal lung diseases in a child caused by a novel compound heterozygous ABCA3 mutation and explore the association between the phenotype and ABCA3 mutation. Method: The clinical material of a patient diagnosed with diffuse parenchymal lung disease with ABCA3 mutation in December 2016 in Shenzhen Children's Hospital was analyzed. The information about ABCA3 gene mutation updated before April, 2017 was searched and collected from the gene databases (including 1000Genomes, HGMD, EXAC) and the literatures (including Wanfang Chinese database and Pubmed). Result: The girl was one year and nine months old. She presented with chronic cough, tachypnea, cyanosis and failure to thrive since she was one year and three months old. Her condition gradually deteriorated after she was empirically treated. Physical examination showed malnutrition, tachypnea and clubbed-fingers. Her high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) revealed diffused ground-glass opacities, thickened interlobular septum, and multiple subpleural small air-filled lung cysts. The second generation sequencing study identified a novel compound heterozygous mutation (c.1755delC+c.2890G>A) in her ABCA3 gene, which derived respectively from her parents and has not been reported in the database and the literatures mentioned above. Conclusion: c.1755delC+c.2890G>A is a new kind of compound heterozygous mutation in ABCA3, which can cause children's diffuse parenchymal lung disease. Its phenotype is related to its genotype.

  18. Prospective study on the potential of RAAS blockade to halt renal disease in Alport syndrome patients with heterozygous mutations.

    PubMed

    Stock, Johanna; Kuenanz, Johannes; Glonke, Niklas; Sonntag, Joseph; Frese, Jenny; Tönshoff, Burkhard; Höcker, Britta; Hoppe, Bernd; Feldkötter, Markus; Pape, Lars; Lerch, Christian; Wygoda, Simone; Weber, Manfred; Müller, Gerhard-Anton; Gross, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Patients with autosomal or X-linked Alport syndrome (AS) with heterozygous mutations in type IV collagen genes have a 1-20 % risk of progressing to end-stage renal disease during their lifetime. We evaluated the long-term renal outcome of patients at risk of progressive disease (chronic kidney disease stages 1-4) with/without nephroprotective therapy. This was a prospective, non-interventional, observational study which included data from a 4-year follow-up of AS patients with heterozygous mutations whose datasets had been included in an analysis of the 2010 database of the European Alport Registry. Using Kaplan-Meier estimates and logrank tests, we prospectively analyzed the updated datasets of 52 of these patients and 13 new datasets (patients added to the Registry after 2011). The effects of therapy, extrarenal symptoms and inheritance pattern on renal outcome were analyzed. The mean prospective follow-up was 46 ± 10 months, and the mean time on therapy was 8.4 ± 4.4 (median 7; range 2-18) years. The time from the appearance of the first symptom to diagnosis was 8.1 ± 14.2 (range 0-52) years. At the time of starting therapy, 5.4 % of patients had an estimated glomerular filtration rate of <60 ml/min, 67.6 % had proteinuria and 27.0 % had microalbuminuria. Therapeutic strategies included angiotensin-converting enzymer inhibitors (97.1 %), angiotensin receptor antagonists (1 patient), dual therapy (11.8 %) and statins (8.8 %). Among patients included in the prospective dataset, prevented the need for dialysis. Among new patients, no patient at risk for renal failure progressed to the next disease stage after 4 years follow-up; three patients even regressed to a lower stage during therapy. Treatment with blockers of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system prevents progressive renal failure in AS patients with heterozygous mutations in the genes causing AS. Considerable numbers of aging AS patients on dialysis may have heterozygous mutations in these

  19. An Insertional Translocation in Neurospora That Generates Duplications Heterozygous for Mating Type

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, David D.

    1972-01-01

    In strain T(I→II)39311 a long interstitial segment is transposed from IL to IIR, where it is inserted in reversed order with respect to the centromere. In crosses of T x T essentially all asci have eight viable, black spores, and all progeny are phenotypically normal. When T(I→II)39311 is crossed by Normal sequence (N), the expected duplication class is viable while the corresponding deficiency is lethal; 44% of the asci have 8 Black (viable) spores and 0 White (inviable) spores, 41% have 4 Black: 4 White, and 10% have 6 Black: 2 White. These are the ascus types expected from normal centromere disjunction without crossing over (8B:0W and 4B:4W equally probable), and with crossing over between centromere and break point (6B:2W). On germination, 8B:0W asci give rise to only parental types—4 T and 4 N; 4B:4W asci usually give four duplication (Dup) progeny; and 6B:2W asci usually give 2 T, 2 N, 2 Dup. Thus one third of all viable, black ascospores contain duplications.—Recessive markers in the donor chromosome which contributes the translocated segment can be mapped by duplication coverage. Ratios of 2 Dominant: 1 Recessive vs. 1 Dominant: 2 Recessive distinguish location in or outside the transposed segment. Eleven loci including mating type have been shown to lie within the segment, and markers at four loci have been transferred into the segment by meiotic recombination. The frequency of marker transfer indicates that the inserted segment usually pairs with its homologue. Ascus types that would result from single exchanges within the insertion are infrequent, as expected if asci containing dicentric bridges usually do not survive.—Duplication ascospores germinate to produce distinctive inhibited colonies. Later these "escape" to grow like wild type, and genes that were initially heterozygous in the duplication segregate when escape occurs. As with duplications from pericentric inversion In(IL→IR)H4250 (Newmeyer and Taylor 1967), the initial inhibition is

  20. A post-transcriptional compensatory pathway in heterozygous ventricular myosin light chain 2-deficient mice results in lack of gene dosage effect during normal cardiac growth or hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Minamisawa, S; Gu, Y; Ross, J; Chien, K R; Chen, J

    1999-04-09

    Our previous study of homozygous mutants of the ventricular specific isoform of myosin light chain 2 (mlc-2v) demonstrated that mlc-2v plays an essential role in murine heart development (Chen, J., Kubalak, S. W., Minamisawa, S., Price, R. L., Becker, K. D., Hickey, R., Ross, J., Jr., and Chien, K. R. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 1252-1256). As gene dosage of some myofibrillar proteins can affect muscle function, we have analyzed heterozygous mutants in depth. Ventricles of heterozygous mutants displayed a 50% reduction in mlc-2v mRNA, yet expressed normal levels of protein both under basal conditions and following induction of cardiac hypertrophy by aortic constriction. Heterozygous mutants exhibited cardiac function comparable to that of wild-type littermate controls both prior to and following aortic constriction. There were no significant differences in contractility and responses to calcium between wild-type and heterozygous unloaded cardiomyocytes. We conclude that heterozygous mutants show neither a molecular nor a physiological cardiac phenotype either at base line or following hypertrophic stimuli. These results suggest that post-transcriptional compensatory mechanisms play a major role in maintaining the level of MLC-2v protein in murine hearts. In addition, as our mlc-2v knockout mutants were created by a knock-in of Cre recombinase into the endogenous mlc-2v locus, this study demonstrates that heterozygous mlc-2v cre knock-in mice are appropriate for ventricular specific gene targeting.

  1. [NOTCH3 gene mutations in two Chinese families featuring cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarct and leucoencephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiying; Li, Wenwen; Zhou, Yafang; Yi, Fang; Wang, Jianfeng; Hu, Yacen; Yao, Lingyan; Zhou, Lin; Xu, Hongwei

    2017-12-10

    To analyze potential mutations of the NOTCH3 gene in two Chinese families featuring cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarct and leucoencephalopathy (CADASIL). The two probands and related family members and 100 healthy controls were recruited. Potential mutations of the NOTCH3 gene were screened by PCR and direct sequencing. PolyPhen-2 and SIFT software were used to predict the protein function. The conditions of both probands were adult-onset, with main clinical features including recurrent transient ischemic attacks and/or strokes, cognitive impairment. MRI findings suggested multiple cerebral infarcts and severe leukoencephalopathy. A heterozygous mutation c.328C>T (p.Arg110Cys), which was located in exon 3 of the NOTCH3 gene and known as a causative mutation, was identified in proband 1. A novel heterozygous mutation c.1013 G>C (p.Cys338Ser) located in exon 6 of the NOTCH3 gene was identified in the proband 2, which was not reported previously. The same mutations were not detected among the 100 unrelated healthy controls. Function analysis suggested that heterozygous mutation c.1013G>C can severely affect the functions of NOTCH3 protein. Two heterozygous missense mutations in the NOTCH3 gene have been identified in two families affected with CADASIL. The novel heterozygous Cys338Ser mutation in exon 6 of the NOTCH3 gene probably underlies the CADASIL.

  2. A new compound heterozygous frameshift mutation in the type II 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3{beta}-HSD gene causes salt-wasting 3{beta}-HSD deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L.; Sakkal-Alkaddour, S.; Chang, Ying T.

    1996-01-01

    We report a new compound heterozygous frameshift mutation in the type II 3{Beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3{beta}-HSD) gene in a Pakistanian female child with the salt-wasting form of 3{Beta}-HSD deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The etiology for her congenital adrenal hyperplasia was not defined. Although the family history suggested possible 3{beta}-HSd deficiency disorder, suppressed adrenal function caused by excess glucocorticoid therapy in this child at 7 yr of age did not allow hormonal diagnosis. To confirm 3{beta}-HSD deficiency, we sequenced the type II 3{beta}-HSD gene in the patient, her family, and the parents of her deceased paternal cousins. The type II 3{beta}-HSD genemore » region of a putative promotor, exons I, II, III, and IV, and exon-intron boundaries were amplified by PCR and sequenced in all subjects. The DNA sequence of the child revealed a single nucleotide deletion at codon 318 [ACA(Thr){r_arrow}AA] in exon IV in one allele, and two nucleotide deletions at codon 273 [AAA(Lys){r_arrow}A] in exon IV in the other allele. The remaining gene sequences were normal. The codon 318 mutation was found in one allele from the father, brother, and parents of the deceased paternal cousins. The codon 273 mutation was found in one allele of the mother and a sister. These findings confirmed inherited 3{beta}-HSD deficiency in the child caused by the compound heterozygous type II 3{beta}-HSD gene mutation. Both codons at codons 279 and 367, respectively, are predicted to result in an altered and truncated type II 3{beta}-HSD protein, thereby causing salt-wasting 3{beta}-HSD deficiency in the patient. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.« less

  3. Novel mutations in GALNT3 causing hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis.

    PubMed

    Yancovitch, Alan; Hershkovitz, Dov; Indelman, Margareta; Galloway, Peter; Whiteford, Margo; Sprecher, Eli; Kılıç, Esra

    2011-09-01

    Hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis (HFTC) is known to be caused by mutations in at least three genes: FGF23, GALNT3 and KL. Two families with two affected members suffering from HFTC were scrutinized for mutations in these candidate genes. We identified in both families homozygous missense mutations affecting highly conserved amino acids in GALNT3. One of the mutations is a novel mutation, whereas the second mutation was reported before in a compound heterozygous state. Our data expand the spectrum of known mutations in GALNT3 and contribute to a better understanding of the phenotypic manifestations of mutations in this gene.

  4. Mosaic synaptopathy and functional defects in Cav1.4 heterozygous mice and human carriers of CSNB2

    PubMed Central

    Michalakis, Stylianos; Shaltiel, Lior; Sothilingam, Vithiyanjali; Koch, Susanne; Schludi, Verena; Krause, Stefanie; Zeitz, Christina; Audo, Isabelle; Lancelot, Marie-Elise; Hamel, Christian; Meunier, Isabelle; Preising, Markus N.; Friedburg, Christoph; Lorenz, Birgit; Zabouri, Nawal; Haverkamp, Silke; Garrido, Marina Garcia; Tanimoto, Naoyuki; Seeliger, Mathias W.; Biel, Martin; Wahl-Schott, Christian A.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in CACNA1F encoding the α1-subunit of the retinal Cav1.4 L-type calcium channel have been linked to Cav1.4 channelopathies including incomplete congenital stationary night blindness type 2A (CSNB2), Åland Island eye disease (AIED) and cone-rod dystrophy type 3 (CORDX3). Since CACNA1F is located on the X chromosome, Cav1.4 channelopathies are typically affecting male patients via X-chromosomal recessive inheritance. Occasionally, clinical symptoms have been observed in female carriers, too. It is currently unknown how these mutations lead to symptoms in carriers and how the retinal network in these females is affected. To investigate these clinically important issues, we compared retinal phenotypes in Cav1.4-deficient and Cav1.4 heterozygous mice and in human female carrier patients. Heterozygous Cacna1f carrier mice have a retinal mosaic consistent with differential X-chromosomal inactivation, characterized by adjacent vertical columns of affected and non-affected wild-type-like retinal network. Vertical columns in heterozygous mice are well comparable to either the wild-type retinal network of normal mice or to the retina of homozygous mice. Affected retinal columns display pronounced rod and cone photoreceptor synaptopathy and cone degeneration. These changes lead to vastly impaired vision-guided navigation under dark and normal light conditions and reduced retinal electroretinography (ERG) responses in Cacna1f carrier mice. Similar abnormal ERG responses were found in five human CACNA1F carriers, four of which had novel mutations. In conclusion, our data on Cav1.4 deficient mice and human female carriers of mutations in CACNA1F are consistent with a phenotype of mosaic CSNB2. PMID:24163243

  5. Determination of optimal cutoff value to accurately identify glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient heterozygous female neonates.

    PubMed

    Miao, Jing-Kun; Chen, Qi-Xiong; Bao, Li-Ming; Huang, Yi; Zhang, Juan; Wan, Ke-Xing; Yi, Jing; Wang, Shi-Yi; Zou, Lin; Li, Ting-Yu

    2013-09-23

    Conventional screening tests to assess G6PD deficiency use a low cutoff value of 2.10 U/gHb which may not be adequate for detecting females with heterozygous deficiency. The aim of present study was to determine an appropriate cutoff value with increased sensitivity in identifying G6PD-deficient heterozygous females. G6PD activity analysis was performed on 51,747 neonates using semi-quantitative fluorescent spot test. Neonates suspected with G6PD deficiency were further analyzed using quantitatively enzymatic assay and for common G6PD mutations. The cutoff values of G6PD activity were estimated using the receiver operating characteristic curve. Our results demonstrated that using 2.10 U/g Hb as a cutoff, the sensitivity of the assay to detect female neonates with G6PD heterozygous deficiency was 83.3%, as compared with 97.6% using 2.55 U/g Hb as a cutoff. The high cutoff identified 21% (8/38) of the female neonates with partial G6PD deficiency which were not detected with 2.10 U/g Hb. Our study found that high cutoffs, 2.35 and 2.55 U/g Hb, would increase assay's sensitivity to identify male and female G6PD deficiency neonates, respectively. We established a reliable cutoff value of G6PD activity with increased sensitivity in identifying female newborns with partial G6PD deficiency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. X-linked G6PD deficiency protects hemizygous males but not heterozygous females against severe malaria.

    PubMed

    Guindo, Aldiouma; Fairhurst, Rick M; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Wellems, Thomas E; Diallo, Dapa A

    2007-03-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is important in the control of oxidant stress in erythrocytes, the host cells for Plasmodium falciparum. Mutations in this enzyme produce X-linked deficiency states associated with protection against malaria, notably in Africa where the A- form of G6PD deficiency is widespread. Some reports have proposed that heterozygous females with mosaic populations of normal and deficient erythrocytes (due to random X chromosome inactivation) have malaria resistance similar to or greater than hemizygous males with populations of uniformly deficient erythrocytes. These proposals are paradoxical, and they are not consistent with currently hypothesized mechanisms of protection. We conducted large case-control studies of the A- form of G6PD deficiency in cases of severe or uncomplicated malaria among two ethnic populations of rural Mali, West Africa, where malaria is hyperendemic. Our results indicate that the uniform state of G6PD deficiency in hemizygous male children conferred significant protection against severe, life-threatening malaria, and that it may have likewise protected homozygous female children. No such protection was evident from the mosaic state of G6PD deficiency in heterozygous females. We also found no significant differences in the parasite densities of males and females with differences in G6PD status. Pooled odds ratios from meta-analysis of our data and data from a previous study confirmed highly significant protection against severe malaria in hemizygous males but not in heterozygous females. Among the different forms of severe malaria, protection was principally evident against cerebral malaria, the most frequent form of life-threatening malaria in these studies. The A- form of G6PD deficiency in Africa is under strong natural selection from the preferential protection it provides to hemizygous males against life-threatening malaria. Little or no such protection is present among heterozygous females. Although these

  7. X-Linked G6PD Deficiency Protects Hemizygous Males but Not Heterozygous Females against Severe Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Doumbo, Ogobara K; Wellems, Thomas E; Diallo, Dapa A

    2007-01-01

    Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is important in the control of oxidant stress in erythrocytes, the host cells for Plasmodium falciparum. Mutations in this enzyme produce X-linked deficiency states associated with protection against malaria, notably in Africa where the A− form of G6PD deficiency is widespread. Some reports have proposed that heterozygous females with mosaic populations of normal and deficient erythrocytes (due to random X chromosome inactivation) have malaria resistance similar to or greater than hemizygous males with populations of uniformly deficient erythrocytes. These proposals are paradoxical, and they are not consistent with currently hypothesized mechanisms of protection. Methods and Findings We conducted large case-control studies of the A− form of G6PD deficiency in cases of severe or uncomplicated malaria among two ethnic populations of rural Mali, West Africa, where malaria is hyperendemic. Our results indicate that the uniform state of G6PD deficiency in hemizygous male children conferred significant protection against severe, life-threatening malaria, and that it may have likewise protected homozygous female children. No such protection was evident from the mosaic state of G6PD deficiency in heterozygous females. We also found no significant differences in the parasite densities of males and females with differences in G6PD status. Pooled odds ratios from meta-analysis of our data and data from a previous study confirmed highly significant protection against severe malaria in hemizygous males but not in heterozygous females. Among the different forms of severe malaria, protection was principally evident against cerebral malaria, the most frequent form of life-threatening malaria in these studies. Conclusions The A− form of G6PD deficiency in Africa is under strong natural selection from the preferential protection it provides to hemizygous males against life-threatening malaria. Little or no such protection is

  8. Parieto-occipital lobe epilepsy caused by a POLG1 compound heterozygous A467T/W748S genotype.

    PubMed

    Roshal, David; Glosser, David; Zangaladze, Andro

    2011-06-01

    We describe a 16-year-old woman with a rare POLG1 A467T/W748S genotype, with a wide range of neurological manifestations, including focal parieto-occipital lobe seizures, migraine headaches, cerebellar ataxia, sensory-motor axonal neuropathy, and impairment of visual perception and cognitive function. Treatment of epilepsy in patients with a POLG1 compound heterozygous A467T/W748S genotype is very challenging; the epilepsy may preferentially respond to sodium channel blockers. The POLG1-related syndrome has a variable clinical course, and disease morbidity and mortality may be correlated with the genotype. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A homozygous nonsense CEP250 mutation combined with a heterozygous nonsense C2orf71 mutation is associated with atypical Usher syndrome.

    PubMed

    Khateb, Samer; Zelinger, Lina; Mizrahi-Meissonnier, Liliana; Ayuso, Carmen; Koenekoop, Robert K; Laxer, Uri; Gross, Menachem; Banin, Eyal; Sharon, Dror

    2014-07-01

    Usher syndrome (USH) is a heterogeneous group of inherited retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) caused by mutations in at least 12 genes. Our aim is to identify additional USH-related genes. Clinical examination included visual acuity test, funduscopy and electroretinography. Genetic analysis included homozygosity mapping and whole exome sequencing (WES). A combination of homozygosity mapping and WES in a large consanguineous family of Iranian Jewish origin revealed nonsense mutations in two ciliary genes: c.3289C>T (p.Q1097*) in C2orf71 and c.3463C>T (p.R1155*) in centrosome-associated protein CEP250 (C-Nap1). The latter has not been associated with any inherited disease and the c.3463C>T mutation was absent in control chromosomes. Patients who were double homozygotes had SNHL accompanied by early-onset and severe RP, while patients who were homozygous for the CEP250 mutation and carried a single mutant C2orf71 allele had SNHL with mild retinal degeneration. No ciliary structural abnormalities in the respiratory system were evident by electron microscopy analysis. CEP250 expression analysis of the mutant allele revealed the generation of a truncated protein lacking the NEK2-phosphorylation region. A homozygous nonsense CEP250 mutation, in combination with a heterozygous C2orf71 nonsense mutation, causes an atypical form of USH, characterised by early-onset SNHL and a relatively mild RP. The severe retinal involvement in the double homozygotes indicates an additive effect caused by nonsense mutations in genes encoding ciliary proteins. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Novel Compound Heterozygous CLCNKB Gene Mutations (c.1755A>G/ c.848_850delTCT) Cause Classic Bartter Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunli; Chen, Ying; Zheng, Bixia; Zhu, Mengshu; Fan, Jia; Wang, Juejin; Jia, Zhanjun; Huang, Songming; Zhang, Aihua

    2018-02-14

    Inactivated variants in CLCNKB gene encoding the basolateral chloride channel ClC-Kb cause classic Bartter syndrome characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis and hyperreninemic hyperaldosteronism. Here we identified two cBS siblings presenting hypokalemia in a Chinese family due to novel compound heterozygous CLCNKB mutations (c.848_850delTCT/c.1755A>G). Compound heterozygosity was confirmed by amplifying and sequencing the patient's genomic DNA. The synonymous mutation c.1755A>G (Thr585Thr) was located at +2bp from the 5' splice donor site in exon 15, further transcript analysis demonstrated that this single nucleotide mutation causes exclusion of exon 15 in the cDNA from the proband and his mother. Furthermore, we investigated the expression and protein trafficking change of c.848_850delTCT (TCT) and exon 15 deletion(E15)mutation in vitro. The E15 mutation markedly decreased the expression of ClC-Kb and resulted in a low-molecular-weight band (~55kD) trapping in the endoplasmic reticulum, while the TCT mutant only decreased the total and plasma membrane ClC-Kb protein expression but did not affect the subcellular localization. Finally, we studied the physiological functions of mutations by using whole-cell patch clamp and found that E15 or TCT mutation decreased the current of ClC-Kb/barttin channel. These results suggested that the compound defective mutations of CLCNKB gene are the molecular mechanism of the two cBS siblings.

  11. [Analysis of clinical phenotype and genetic mutations of a pedigree of familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis].

    PubMed

    Sun, Shuwen; Guo, Xia; Zhu, Yiping; Yang, Xue; Li, Qiang; Gao, Ju

    2014-10-01

    To analyze mutations in a pedigree of familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHLH) from Sichuan and provide genetic counseling for the family. Clinical data of a case with FHLH diagnosed at West China Second Hospital was retrospectively analyzed. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of the proband and his family members. Eight candidate genes for primary HLH were amplified with PCR and analyzed by direct sequencing. The proband was diagnosed as HLH based on clinical manifestations of recurrent fever for 2 months, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, pancytopenia, hyperferritinemia, and decreased fibrinogen and hemophagocytosis in bone marrow. Genetic testing for primary HLH was carried out considering the relapse of illness after hormone therapy for 8 weeks and the family history. The results of gene sequencing showed that the proband has carried compound heterozygous mutations in PRF1 gene (c.1349C> T in exon 3 and c.445G> A in exon 2). His father has carried a heterozygous mutation (c.445G> A in exon 2) and nonsense mutation (c.900C> T in exon 3), and his mother carried a heterozygous mutation (c.1349C> T in exon 3). Both c.1349C> T and c.445G> A have been previously reported as pathogenic mutations. The family has been diagnosed as familial HLH type 2 based on clinical and laboratory examinations and molecular genetic testing. Gene sequencing has indicated that is was a recessive type familial HLH.

  12. A novel mutation in PAX3 associated with Waardenburg syndrome type I in a Chinese family.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yun; Luo, Jianfen; Zhang, Fengguo; Li, Jianfeng; Han, Yuechen; Zhang, Daogong; Wang, Mingming; Ma, Yalin; Xu, Lei; Bai, Xiaohui; Wang, Haibo

    2016-01-01

    The novel compound heterozygous mutation in PAX3 was the key genetic reason for WS1 in this family, which was useful to the molecular diagnosis of WS1. Screening the pathogenic mutations in a four generation Chinese family with Waardenburg syndrome type I (WS1). WS1 was diagnosed in a 4-year-old boy according to the Waardenburg syndrome Consortium criteria. The detailed family history revealed four affected members in the family. Routine clinical, audiological examination, and ophthalmologic evaluation were performed on four affected and 10 healthy members in this family. The genetic analysis was conducted, including the targeted next-generation sequencing of 127 known deafness genes combined with Sanger sequencing, TA clone and bioinformatic analysis. A novel compound heterozygous mutation c.[169_170insC;172_174delAAG] (p.His57ProfsX55) was identified in PAX3, which was co-segregated with WS1 in the Chinese family. This mutation was absent in the unaffected family members and 200 ethnicity-matched controls. The phylogenetic analysis and three-dimensional (3D) modeling of Pax3 protein further confirmed that the novel compound heterozygous mutation was pathogenic.

  13. Novel Compound Heterozygous Spatacsin Mutations in a Greek Kindred with Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia SPG11 and Dementia.

    PubMed

    Fraidakis, Matthew J; Brunetti, Maura; Blackstone, Craig; Filippi, Massimo; Chiò, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    SPG11 belongs to the autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP) and presents during childhood or puberty with a complex clinical phenotype encompassing learning difficulties, ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, amyotrophy, and mental retardation. We hereby present the case of a 30-year-old female patient with complex autosomal recessive HSP with thinning of the corpus callosum (TCC) and dementia that was compound heterozygous with two novel mutations in the SPG11 gene. Sequence analysis of the SPG11 gene revealed two novel mutations in a compound heterozygous state in the index patient (c.2431C>T/p.Gln811Ter and c.6755_6756insT/p.Glu2252Aspfs*88). MRI showed abnormal TCC, white matter (WM) hyperintensities periventricularly, and the 'ears of the lynx' sign. Diffusion tensor imaging showed a mild-to-moderate decrease in fractional anisotropy and an increase in mean diffusivity in WM compared to age-matched controls, while magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed abnormal findings in affected WM with a decrease in N-acetyl-aspartate in WM regions of interest. This is the first SPG11 kindred from the Greek population to be reported in the medical literature. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Disruption of hippocampus-regulated behavioural and cognitive processes by heterozygous constitutive deletion of SynGAP.

    PubMed

    Muhia, Mary; Yee, Benjamin K; Feldon, Joram; Markopoulos, Foivos; Knuesel, Irene

    2010-02-01

    The brain-specific Ras/Rap-GTPase activating protein (SynGAP) is a prime candidate linking N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors to the regulation of the ERK/MAP kinase signalling cascade, suggested to be essential for experience-dependent synaptic plasticity. Here, we evaluated the behavioural phenotype of SynGAP heterozygous knockout mice (SG(+/-)), expressing roughly half the normal levels of SynGAP. In the cognitive domain, SG(+/-) mice demonstrated severe working and reference memory deficits in the radial arm maze task, a mild impairment early in the transfer test of the water maze task, and a deficiency in spontaneous alternation in an elevated T-maze. In the non-cognitive domain, SG(+/-) mice were hyperactive in the open field and appeared less anxious in the elevated plus maze test. In contrast, object recognition memory performance was not impaired in SG(+/-) mice. The reduction in SynGAP thus resulted in multiple behavioural traits suggestive of aberrant cognitive and non-cognitive processes normally mediated by the hippocampus. Immunohistochemical evaluation further revealed a significant reduction in calbindin-positive interneurons in the hippocampus and doublecortin-positive neurons in the dentate gyrus of adult SG(+/-) mice. Heterozygous constitutive deletion of SynGAP is therefore associated with notable behavioural as well as morphological phenotypes indicative of hippocampal dysfunction. Any suggestion of a possible causal link between them however remains a matter for further investigation.

  15. Combined pituitary hormone deficiency with unique pituitary dysplasia and morning glory syndrome related to a heterozygous PROKR2 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Asakura, Yumi; Muroya, Koji; Hanakawa, Junko; Sato, Takeshi; Aida, Noriko; Narumi, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Adachi, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recent reports have indicated the role of the prokineticin receptor 2 gene (PROKR2) in the etiology of congenital hypopituitarism, including septo-optic dysplasia and Kallmann syndrome. In the present study, using next-generation targeted sequencing, we identified a novel heterozygous PROKR2 variant (c.742C>T; p.R248W) in a female patient who had combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD), morning glory syndrome and a severely malformed pituitary gland. No other mutation was present in 27 genes related to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, pituitary hormone deficiency and optic nerve malformation. The substituted amino acid was located on the third intracellular loop of the PROKR2 protein, which is a G protein-coupled receptor. Computational analyses with two programs (SIFT and PolyPhen-2) showed that the substitution was deleterious to PROKR2 function. The p.R248W mutation was transmitted from the patient’s mother, who had a slightly delayed menarche. Collectively, we provide further genetic evidence linking heterozygous PROKR2 mutations and the development of CPHD. PMID:25678757

  16. Combined pituitary hormone deficiency with unique pituitary dysplasia and morning glory syndrome related to a heterozygous PROKR2 mutation.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Yumi; Muroya, Koji; Hanakawa, Junko; Sato, Takeshi; Aida, Noriko; Narumi, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Adachi, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Recent reports have indicated the role of the prokineticin receptor 2 gene (PROKR2) in the etiology of congenital hypopituitarism, including septo-optic dysplasia and Kallmann syndrome. In the present study, using next-generation targeted sequencing, we identified a novel heterozygous PROKR2 variant (c.742C>T; p.R248W) in a female patient who had combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD), morning glory syndrome and a severely malformed pituitary gland. No other mutation was present in 27 genes related to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, pituitary hormone deficiency and optic nerve malformation. The substituted amino acid was located on the third intracellular loop of the PROKR2 protein, which is a G protein-coupled receptor. Computational analyses with two programs (SIFT and PolyPhen-2) showed that the substitution was deleterious to PROKR2 function. The p.R248W mutation was transmitted from the patient's mother, who had a slightly delayed menarche. Collectively, we provide further genetic evidence linking heterozygous PROKR2 mutations and the development of CPHD.

  17. [Acute abdominal pain due to splenic infarction in a patient with heterozygous sickle cell disease exposed to high altitude].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Semba, Edgar; Garavito Rentería, Jorge; Jiménez Bustamante, Jorge; Arteaga Caro, Ronal; García Del Aguila, José Luis; Chávez Gil, Vannya

    2006-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathy S, Depranocytosis or Sickle Cell Disease is the most common hemoglobinopathy in the world. In its heterozygous form (Sickle Cell Trait), it affects 8% of the black population in the U.S. and 25% of the black population in Africa, and is found less frequently in the Mediterranean area, India, Middle East and Latin America. The basic alteration is a substitution of glutamic acid by valin in the sixth position of the beta globin chain, which causes polymerization at low oxygen tension thereby distorting the structure of erythrocytes and increasing blood viscosity, which, in turn, generates obstructions of the capillary arterial blood flow to different areas of the body thus causing microinfarctions. Although Splenic Infarction is rare, it is recognized as a serious complication of Heterozygous Sickle Cell Disease (Sickle Cell Trait). We present the case of a 21 year-old mestizo male patient who came in with an acute case of abdominal pain after arriving to work in the Casapalca mining city (located in the Peruvian Andes at 4200 m.a.s.l.) and was referred to our Hospital in Lima for exams. We present the case because it is an unusual cause of acute abdominal pain, and because this condition is rare in Peru and there are few publications about it.

  18. Lifetime exercise intolerance with lactic acidosis as key manifestation of novel compound heterozygous ACAD9 mutations causing complex I deficiency.

    PubMed

    Schrank, Bertold; Schoser, Benedikt; Klopstock, Thomas; Schneiderat, Peter; Horvath, Rita; Abicht, Angela; Holinski-Feder, Elke; Augustis, Sarunas

    2017-05-01

    We report a 36-year-old female having lifetime exercise intolerance and lactic acidosis with nausea associated with novel compound heterozygous Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 9 gene (ACAD9) mutations (p.Ala390Thr and p.Arg518Cys). ACAD9 is an assembly factor for the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I. ACAD9 mutations are recognized as frequent causes of complex I deficiency. Our patient presented with exercise intolerance, rapid fatigue, and nausea since early childhood. Mild physical workload provoked the occurrence of nausea and vomiting repeatedly. Her neurological examination, laboratory findings and muscle biopsy demonstrated no abnormalities. A bicycle spiroergometry provoked significant lactic acidosis during and following exercise pointing towards a mitochondrial disorder. Subsequently, the analysis of respiratory chain enzyme activities in muscle revealed severe isolated complex I deficiency. Candidate gene sequencing revealed two novel heterozygous ACAD9 mutations. This patient report expands the mutational and phenotypic spectrum of diseases associated with mutations in ACAD9. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and malaria: cytochemical detection of heterozygous G6PD deficiency in women.

    PubMed

    Peters, Anna L; Van Noorden, Cornelis J F

    2009-11-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a X-chromosomally transmitted disorder of the erythrocyte that affects 400 million people worldwide. Diagnosis of heterozygously-deficient women is complicated: as a result of lyonization, these women have a normal and a G6PD-deficient population of erythrocytes. The cytochemical assay is the only reliable assay to discriminate between heterozygously-deficient women and non-deficient women or homozygously-deficient women. G6PD deficiency is mainly found in areas where malaria is or has been endemic. In these areas, malaria is treated with drugs that can cause (severe) hemolysis in G6PD-deficient individuals. A cheap and reliable test is necessary for diagnosing the deficiency to prevent hemolytic disorders when treating malaria. In this review, it is concluded that the use of two different tests for diagnosing men and women is the ideal approach to detect G6PD deficiency. The fluorescent spot test is inexpensive and easy to perform but only reliable for discriminating hemizygous G6PD-deficient men from non-deficient men. For women, the cytochemical assay is recommended. However, this assay is more expensive and difficult to perform and should be simplified into a kit for use in developing countries.

  20. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of RNG105 (Caprin1) heterozygous mice: Reduced social interaction and attenuated response to novelty

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Rie; Takao, Keizo; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Shiina, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    RNG105 (also known as Caprin1) is a major RNA-binding protein in neuronal RNA granules, and is responsible for mRNA transport to dendrites and neuronal network formation. A recent study reported that a heterozygous mutation in the Rng105 gene was found in an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patient, but it remains unclear whether there is a causal relation between RNG105 deficiency and ASD. Here, we subjected Rng105+/− mice to a comprehensive behavioral test battery, and revealed the influence of RNG105 deficiency on mouse behavior. Rng105+/− mice exhibited a reduced sociality in a home cage and a weak preference for social novelty. Consistently, the Rng105+/− mice also showed a weak preference for novel objects and novel place patterns. Furthermore, although the Rng105+/− mice exhibited normal memory acquisition, they tended to have relative difficulty in reversal learning in the spatial reference tasks. These findings suggest that the RNG105 heterozygous knockout leads to a reduction in sociality, response to novelty and flexibility in learning, which are implicated in ASD-like behavior. PMID:26865403

  1. Simultaneous occurrence of hereditary C6 and C2 deficiency in a French-Canadian family.

    PubMed

    Delâge, J M; Lehner-Netsch, G; Lafleur, R; Simard, J; Brun, G; Prochazka, E

    1979-06-01

    The sera of four sisters were found to lack the sixth component of complement (C6) and the serum of one was also partially deficient in the second component (C2). Two other blood relatives were found to be heterozygous for both deficiencies, while only one sibling had normal values. The father of these eight siblings was heterozygous for C2D and C6D and in the third generation, six children were heterozygous for C6 deficiency was treated for chronic active brucel-transmitted; the C6 deficiency was not linked to the HLA system, while the C2-deficiency segregated with the haplotype A10,B18. The proband, homozygous for C6 deficiency was treated for chronic active Brucellosis and in another sibling with C6 deficiency, toxoplasmosis was diagnosed. Neither bleeding disorders nor a tendency to collagen diseases have been observed and the opsonic activity was normal in the sera of all family members.

  2. Simultaneous occurrence of hereditary C6 and C2 deficiency in a French-Canadian family.

    PubMed Central

    Delâge, J M; Lehner-Netsch, G; Lafleur, R; Simard, J; Brun, G; Prochazka, E

    1979-01-01

    The sera of four sisters were found to lack the sixth component of complement (C6) and the serum of one was also partially deficient in the second component (C2). Two other blood relatives were found to be heterozygous for both deficiencies, while only one sibling had normal values. The father of these eight siblings was heterozygous for C2D and C6D and in the third generation, six children were heterozygous for C6 deficiency was treated for chronic active brucel-transmitted; the C6 deficiency was not linked to the HLA system, while the C2-deficiency segregated with the haplotype A10,B18. The proband, homozygous for C6 deficiency was treated for chronic active Brucellosis and in another sibling with C6 deficiency, toxoplasmosis was diagnosed. Neither bleeding disorders nor a tendency to collagen diseases have been observed and the opsonic activity was normal in the sera of all family members. PMID:468307

  3. Heterozygous deletion of the LRFN2 gene is associated with working memory deficits

    PubMed Central

    Thevenon, Julien; Souchay, Céline; Seabold, Gail K; Dygai-Cochet, Inna; Callier, Patrick; Gay, Sébastien; Corbin, Lucie; Duplomb, Laurence; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Masurel-Paulet, Alice; El Chehadeh, Salima; Avila, Magali; Minot, Delphine; Guedj, Eric; Chancenotte, Sophie; Bonnet, Marlène; Lehalle, Daphne; Wang, Ya-Xian; Kuentz, Paul; Huet, Frédéric; Mosca-Boidron, Anne-Laure; Marle, Nathalie; Petralia, Ronald S; Faivre, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Learning disabilities (LDs) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of diseases. Array-CGH and high-throughput sequencing have dramatically expanded the number of genes implicated in isolated intellectual disabilities and LDs, highlighting the implication of neuron-specific post-mitotic transcription factors and synaptic proteins as candidate genes. We report a unique family diagnosed with autosomal dominant learning disability and a 6p21 microdeletion segregating in three patients. The 870 kb microdeletion encompassed the brain-expressed gene LRFN2, which encodes for a synaptic cell adhesion molecule. Neuropsychological assessment identified selective working memory deficits, with borderline intellectual functioning. Further investigations identified a defect in executive function, and auditory-verbal processes. These data were consistent with brain MRI and FDG-PET functional brain imaging, which, when compared with controls, revealed abnormal brain volume and hypometabolism of gray matter structures implicated in working memory. We performed electron microscopy immunogold labeling demonstrating the localization of LRFN2 at synapses of cerebellar and hippocampal rat neurons, often associated with the NR1 subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). Altogether, the combined approaches imply a role for LRFN2 in LD, specifically for working memory processes and executive function. In conclusion, the identification of familial cases of clinically homogeneous endophenotypes of LD might help in both the management of patients and genetic counseling for families. PMID:26486473

  4. Family Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    Family therapy Overview Family therapy is a type of psychological counseling (psychotherapy) that can help family members improve communication and resolve conflicts. Family therapy is usually provided by a psychologist, ...

  5. Myosin storage myopathy associated with a heterozygous missense mutation in MYH7.

    PubMed

    Tajsharghi, Homa; Thornell, Lars-Eric; Lindberg, Christopher; Lindvall, Björn; Henriksson, Karl-Gösta; Oldfors, Anders

    2003-10-01

    Myosin constitutes the major part of the thick filaments in the contractile apparatus of striated muscle. MYH7 encodes the slow/beta-cardiac myosin heavy chain (MyHC), which is the main MyHC isoform in slow, oxidative, type 1 muscle fibers of skeletal muscle. It is also the major MyHC isoform of cardiac ventricles. Numerous missense mutations in the globular head of slow/beta-cardiac MyHC are associated with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We identified a missense mutation, Arg1845Trp, in the rod region of slow/beta-cardiac MyHC in patients with a skeletal myopathy from two different families. The myopathy was characterized by muscle weakness and wasting with onset in childhood and slow progression, but no overt cardiomyopathy. Slow, oxidative, type 1 muscle fibers showed large inclusions consisting of slow/beta-cardiac MyHC. The features were similar to a previously described entity: hyaline body myopathy. Our findings indicate that the mutated residue of slow/beta-cardiac MyHC is essential for the assembly of thick filaments in skeletal muscle. We propose the term myosin storage myopathy for this disease.

  6. A heterozygous 21-bp deletion in CAPN3 causes dominantly inherited limb girdle muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Vissing, John; Barresi, Rita; Witting, Nanna; Van Ghelue, Marijke; Gammelgaard, Lise; Bindoff, Laurence A; Straub, Volker; Lochmüller, Hanns; Hudson, Judith; Wahl, Christoph M; Arnardottir, Snjolaug; Dahlbom, Kathe; Jonsrud, Christoffer; Duno, Morten

    2016-08-01

    Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A is the most common limb girdle muscular dystrophy form worldwide. Although strict recessive inheritance is assumed, patients carrying a single mutation in the calpain 3 gene (CAPN3) are reported. Such findings are commonly attributed to incomplete mutation screening. In this investigation, we report 37 individuals (age range: 21-85 years, 21 females and 16 males) from 10 families in whom only one mutation in CAPN3 could be identified; a 21-bp, in-frame deletion (c.643_663del21). This mutation co-segregated with evidence of muscle disease and autosomal dominant transmission in several generations. Evidence of muscle disease was indicated by muscle pain, muscle weakness and wasting, significant fat replacement of muscles on imaging, myopathic changes on muscle biopsy and loss of calpain 3 protein on western blotting. Thirty-one of 34 patients had elevated creatine kinase or myoglobin. Muscle weakness was generally milder than observed in limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A, but affected the same muscle groups (proximal leg, lumbar paraspinal and medial gastrocnemius muscles). In some cases, the weakness was severely disabling. The 21-bp deletion did not affect mRNA maturation. Calpain 3 expression in muscle, assessed by western blot, was below 15% of normal levels in the nine mutation carriers in whom this could be tested. Haplotype analysis in four families from three different countries suggests that the 21-bp deletion is a founder mutation. This study provides strong evidence that heterozygosity for the c.643_663del21 deletion in CAPN3 results in a dominantly inherited muscle disease. The normal expression of mutated mRNA and the severe loss of calpain 3 on western blotting, suggest a dominant negative effect with a loss-of-function mechanism affecting the calpain 3 homodimer. This renders patients deficient in calpain 3 as in limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A, albeit in a milder form in most cases. Based on findings

  7. Aneuploidy in the embryonic progeny of females heterozygous for the Robertsonian chromosome (9.12) in genetically wild Peru-Coppock mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Harris, M J; Wallace, M E; Evans, E P

    1986-01-01

    The spontaneous appearance of a Robertsonian translocation in a laboratory colony of genetically wild Peru-Coppock mice gave the opportunity to study potential meiotic nondisjunction soon after the formation of the new chromosome and also in a hitherto untested combination of genotype and environment Metaphase II scores from the progenitor male had indicated a nondisjunction rate of approximately 10%, a figure that was confirmed by the finding of an estimated 12-16% total trisomic and probable monosomic zygotes in chromosomal studies of Day 9 embryos from heterozygous females. The chromosome studies also showed the presence of a significant excess of normal embryos that were heterozygous for the Robertsonian chromosome.

  8. Novel compound heterozygous SPTA1 mutations in a patient with hereditary elliptocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Shiyue; Qin, Jinqiu; Wei, Aiqiu; Li, Xiaohong; Qin, Yuanyuan; Liao, Lin; Lin, Faquan

    2018-01-01

    Hereditaryelliptocytosis (HE) is a hereditary hemolytic disease, characterized by the presence of many elliptical erythrocytes in the peripheral blood that is caused by abnormal cytoskeletal proteins in the erythrocyte membrane. In the present study, a novel, causal HE mutation was reported. Routine blood examinations were performed on the proband and their family, and the fluorescence intensity of eosin-5-maleimide (EMA)-labeled erythrocytes was determined via flow cytometry. Subsequently, DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of the proband and their family members, and amplified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The Sanger sequencing approach was used to determine and identify gene mutations, which were verified by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. To exclude genetic polymorphisms, newly identified mutations were subjected to large-scale gene screening using high-resolution melt analysis. Protein expression levels in the erythrocyte membrane of the proband were determined via SDS-PAGE, which demonstrated that, compared with healthy controls, the proband exhibited a reduction in EMA-labeled erythrocytes. In addition, DNA analysis demonstrated that the proband carried three mutations in the spectrin α chain erythrocytic 1 (SPTA1) gene: c.161A>C, c.5572C>G and 6531-12C>T. The corresponding mutant polypeptides were also analyzed by MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the proband exhibited normal levels of erythrocyte membrane proteins. In the present study, a novel HE case with a His54Pro mutation in the SPTA1 gene was reported. The results suggested that the His54Pro mutation influenced the role of erythrocyte membrane proteins without reducing its level of expression. PMID:29484404

  9. Explosive mutation accumulation triggered by heterozygous human Pol ε proofreading-deficiency is driven by suppression of mismatch repair.

    PubMed

    Hodel, Karl P; de Borja, Richard; Henninger, Erin E; Campbell, Brittany B; Ungerleider, Nathan; Light, Nicholas; Wu, Tong; LeCompte, Kimberly G; Goksenin, A Yasemin; Bunnell, Bruce A; Tabori, Uri; Shlien, Adam; Pursell, Zachary F

    2018-02-28

    Tumors defective for DNA polymerase (Pol) ε proofreading have the highest tumor mutation burden identified. A major unanswered question is whether loss of Pol ε proofreading by itself is sufficient to drive this mutagenesis, or whether additional factors are necessary. To address this, we used a combination of next generation sequencing and in vitro biochemistry on human cell lines engineered to have defects in Pol ε proofreading and mismatch repair. Absent mismatch repair, monoallelic Pol ε proofreading deficiency caused a rapid increase in a unique mutation signature, similar to that observed in tumors from patients with biallelic mismatch repair deficiency and heterozygous Pol ε mutations. Restoring mismatch repair was sufficient to suppress the explosive mutation accumulation. These results strongly suggest that concomitant suppression of mismatch repair, a hallmark of colorectal and other aggressive cancers, is a critical force for driving the explosive mutagenesis seen in tumors expressing exonuclease-deficient Pol ε. © 2018, Hodel et al.

  10. De-Novo Assembly and Analysis of the Heterozygous Triploid Genome of the Wine Spoilage Yeast Dekkera bruxellensis AWRI1499

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Paul J.; Pretorius, Isak S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite its industrial importance, the yeast species Dekkera (Brettanomyces) bruxellensis has remained poorly understood at the genetic level. In this study we describe whole genome sequencing and analysis for a prevalent wine spoilage strain, AWRI1499. The 12.7 Mb assembly, consisting of 324 contigs in 99 scaffolds (super-contigs) at 26-fold coverage, exhibits a relatively high density of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Haplotype sampling for 1.2% of open reading frames suggested that the D. bruxellensis AWRI1499 genome is comprised of a moderately heterozygous diploid genome, in combination with a divergent haploid genome. Gene content analysis revealed enrichment in membrane proteins, particularly transporters, along with oxidoreductase enzymes. Availability of this assembly and annotation provides a resource for further investigation of genomic organization in this species, and functional characterization of genes that may confer important phenotypic traits. PMID:22470482

  11. Autosomal-dominant Leber Congenital Amaurosis Caused by a Heterozygous CRX Mutation in a Father and Son.

    PubMed

    Arcot Sadagopan, Karthikeyan; Battista, Robert; Keep, Rosanne B; Capasso, Jenina E; Levin, Alex V

    2015-06-01

    Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is most often an autosomal recessive disorder. We report a father and son with autosomal dominant LCA due to a mutation in the CRX gene. DNA screening using an allele specific assay of 90 of the most common LCA-causing variations in the coding sequences of AIPL1, CEP290, CRB1, CRX, GUCY2D, RDH12 and RPE65 was performed on the father. Automated DNA sequencing of his son examining exon 3 of the CRX gene was subsequently performed. Both father and son have a heterozygous single base pair deletion of an adenine at codon 153 in the coding sequence of the CRX gene resulting in a frameshift mutation. Mutations involving the CRX gene may demonstrate an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern for LCA.

  12. Explosive mutation accumulation triggered by heterozygous human Pol ε proofreading-deficiency is driven by suppression of mismatch repair

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Brittany B; Ungerleider, Nathan; Light, Nicholas; Wu, Tong; LeCompte, Kimberly G; Goksenin, A Yasemin; Bunnell, Bruce A; Tabori, Uri; Shlien, Adam

    2018-01-01

    Tumors defective for DNA polymerase (Pol) ε proofreading have the highest tumor mutation burden identified. A major unanswered question is whether loss of Pol ε proofreading by itself is sufficient to drive this mutagenesis, or whether additional factors are necessary. To address this, we used a combination of next generation sequencing and in vitro biochemistry on human cell lines engineered to have defects in Pol ε proofreading and mismatch repair. Absent mismatch repair, monoallelic Pol ε proofreading deficiency caused a rapid increase in a unique mutation signature, similar to that observed in tumors from patients with biallelic mismatch repair deficiency and heterozygous Pol ε mutations. Restoring mismatch repair was sufficient to suppress the explosive mutation accumulation. These results strongly suggest that concomitant suppression of mismatch repair, a hallmark of colorectal and other aggressive cancers, is a critical force for driving the explosive mutagenesis seen in tumors expressing exonuclease-deficient Pol ε. PMID:29488881

  13. Altered hippocampal replay is associated with memory impairment in mice heterozygous for the Scn2a gene.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Steven J; Kneller, Emily M; Chen, Shuo; Ogiwara, Ikuo; Montal, Mauricio; Yamakawa, Kazuhiro; McHugh, Thomas J

    2018-06-04

    An accumulating body of experimental evidence has implicated hippocampal replay occurring within sharp wave ripples (SPW-Rs) as crucial for learning and memory in healthy subjects. This raises speculation that neurological disorders impairing memory disrupt either SPW-Rs or their underlying neuronal activity. We report that mice heterozygous for the gene Scn2a, a site of frequent de novo mutations in humans with intellectual disability, displayed impaired spatial memory. While we observed no changes during encoding, to either single place cells or cell assemblies, we identified abnormalities restricted to SPW-R episodes that manifest as decreased cell assembly reactivation strengths and truncated hippocampal replay sequences. Our results suggest that alterations to hippocampal replay content may underlie disease-associated memory deficits.

  14. Thyroid function in mice with compound heterozygous and homozygous disruptions of SRC-1 and TIF-2 coactivators: evidence for haploinsufficiency.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Roy E; Gehin, Martine; Xu, Jianming; Sadow, Peter M; O'Malley, Bert W; Chambon, Pierre; Refetoff, Samuel

    2002-04-01

    Steroid receptor coactivator (SRC)-1 and transcriptional intermediary factor (TIF)-2 are homologous nuclear receptor coactivators. We have investigated their possible redundancy as thyroid hormone (TH) coactivators by measuring thyroid function in compound SRC-1 and TIF-2 knock out (KO) mice. Whereas SRC-1 KO (SRC-1(-/-)) mice are resistant to TH and SRC-1(+/-) are not, we now demonstrate that TIF-2 KO (TIF-2(-/-)) mice have normal thyroid function. Yet double heterozygous, SRC-1(+/-)/TIF-2(+/-) mice manifested resistance to TH of a similar degree as that in mice completely deficient in SRC-1. KO of both SRC-1 and TIF-2 resulted in marked increases of serum TH and thyrotropin concentrations. This work demonstrates gene dosage effect in nuclear coactivators manifesting as haploinsufficiency and functional redundancy of SRC-1 and TIF-2.

  15. Heterozygous M1V variant of ELA-2 gene mutation associated with G-CSF refractory severe congenital neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Setty, Bhuvana A; Yeager, Nicholas D; Bajwa, Rajinder P

    2011-09-01

    Severe congenital neutropenia is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by maturation arrest at the promyelocyte/myelocyte phase in the bone marrow, absolute neutrophil count <0.5 × 10(9) /L and recurrent bacterial infections. Homozygous mutations of either HAX-1 or ELA-2 have been described. We report the case of a premature male infant with congenital neutropenia, associated with multiple infections, refractory to treatment with granulocyte colony stimulating factor who subsequently underwent matched sibling donor stem-cell transplant. He was found to be heterozygous for the M1V variant of the ELA-2 gene that we postulate to be causative for his severe neutropenia Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. A compound heterozygous mutation in SLC34A3 causes hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria in a Chinese patient.

    PubMed

    Chi, Yue; Zhao, Zhen; He, Xiaodong; Sun, Yue; Jiang, Yan; Li, Mei; Wang, Ou; Xing, Xiaoping; Sun, Andrew Y; Zhou, Xueying; Meng, Xunwu; Xia, Weibo

    2014-02-01

    Hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH) is a rare metabolic disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion and characterized by hypophosphatemia, short stature, rickets and/or osteomalacia, and secondary absorptive hypercalciuria. HHRH was recently mapped to chromosome 9q34, which contains the gene SLC34A3 which encodes the renal proximal tubular sodium-phosphate cotransporter NaPi-IIc. Here we describe a 29-year-old man with a history of childhood rickets who presented with increased renal phosphate clearance leading to hypophosphatemia, hypercalciuria, low serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), elevated serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) and recurrent nephrolithiasis. We performed a mutation analysis of SLC34A3 (exons and adjacent introns) of the proband and his parents to determine if there was a genetic contribution. The proband proved to be compound heterozygous for two missense mutations in SLC34A3: one novel mutation in exon 7 c.571G>C (p.G191R) and one previously identified mutation in exon 13 c.1402C>T (p.R468W). His parents were both asymptomatic heterozygous carriers of one of these two mutations. We also performed an oral phosphate loading test and compared serum phosphate, intact PTH, and intact fibroblast growth factor 23 (iFGF23) in this patient versus patients with other forms of hypophosphatemic rickets, the results of which further revealed that the mechanism of hypophosphatemia in HHRH is independent of FGF23. This is the first report of HHRH in the Chinese population. Our findings of the novel mutation in exon 7 add to the list of more than 20 reported mutations of SLC34A3. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical Features and Long-Term Outcome of Nephrotic Syndrome Associated with Heterozygous NPHS1 and NPHS2 Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Caridi, Gianluca; Gigante, Maddalena; Ravani, Pietro; Trivelli, Antonella; Barbano, Giancarlo; Scolari, Francesco; Dagnino, Monica; Murer, Luisa; Murtas, Corrado; Edefonti, Alberto; Allegri, Landino; Amore, Alessandro; Coppo, Rosanna; Emma, Francesco; De Palo, Tommaso; Penza, Rosa; Gesualdo, Loreto; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: Mutations in nephrin (NPHS1) and podocin (NPHS2) genes represent a major cause of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (NS) in children. It is not yet clear whether the presence of a single mutation acts as a modifier of the clinical course of NS. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: We reviewed the clinical features of 40 patients with NS associated with heterozygous mutations or variants in NPHS1 (n = 7) or NPHS2 (n = 33). Long-term renal survival probabilities were compared with those of a concurrent cohort with idiopathic NS. Results: Patients with a single mutation in NPHS1 received a diagnosis before those with potentially nongenetic NS and had a good response to therapies. Renal function was normal in all cases. For NPHS2, six patients had single heterozygous mutations, six had a p.P20L variant, and 21 had a p.R229Q variant. Age at diagnosis and the response to drugs were comparable in all NS subgroups. Overall, they had similar renal survival probabilities as non-NPHS1/NPHS2 cases (log-rank χ2 0.84, P = 0.656) that decreased in presence of resistance to therapy (P < 0.001) and in cases with renal lesions of glomerulosclerosis and IgM deposition (P < 0.001). Cox regression confirmed that the only significant predictor of dialysis was resistance to therapy. Conclusions: Our data indicate that single mutation or variant in NPHS1 and NPHS2 does not modify the outcome of primary NS. These patients should be treated following consolidated schemes and have good chances for a good long-term outcome. PMID:19406966

  18. Draft Sequencing of the Heterozygous Diploid Genome of Satsuma (Citrus unshiu Marc.) Using a Hybrid Assembly Approach

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Tokurou; Tanizawa, Yasuhiro; Mochizuki, Takako; Nagasaki, Hideki; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Kaminuma, Eli; Nakamura, Yasukazu

    2017-01-01

    Satsuma (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is one of the most abundantly produced mandarin varieties of citrus, known for its seedless fruit production and as a breeding parent of citrus. De novo assembly of the heterozygous diploid genome of Satsuma (“Miyagawa Wase”) was conducted by a hybrid assembly approach using short-read sequences, three mate-pair libraries, and a long-read sequence of PacBio by the PLATANUS assembler. The assembled sequence, with a total size of 359.7 Mb at the N50 length of 386,404 bp, consisted of 20,876 scaffolds. Pseudomolecules of Satsuma constructed by aligning the scaffolds to three genetic maps showed genome-wide synteny to the genomes of Clementine, pummelo, and sweet orange. Gene prediction by modeling with MAKER-P proposed 29,024 genes and 37,970 mRNA; additionally, gene prediction analysis found candidates for novel genes in several biosynthesis pathways for gibberellin and violaxanthin catabolism. BUSCO scores for the assembled scaffold and predicted transcripts, and another analysis by BAC end sequence mapping indicated the assembled genome consistency was close to those of the haploid Clementine, pummel, and sweet orange genomes. The number of repeat elements and long terminal repeat retrotransposon were comparable to those of the seven citrus genomes; this suggested no significant failure in the assembly at the repeat region. A resequencing application using the assembled sequence confirmed that both kunenbo-A and Satsuma are offsprings of Kishu, and Satsuma is a back-crossed offspring of Kishu. These results illustrated the performance of the hybrid assembly approach and its ability to construct an accurate heterozygous diploid genome. PMID:29259619

  19. DNA hypermethylation and X chromosome inactivation are major determinants of phenotypic variation in women heterozygous for G6PD mutations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Xiao, Qi-Zhi; Chen, You-Ming; Yi, Sheng; Liu, Dun; Liu, Yan-Hui; Zhang, Cui-Mei; Wei, Xiao-Feng; Zhou, Yu-Qiu; Zhong, Xing-Ming; Zhao, Cun-You; Xiong, Fu; Wei, Xiang-Cai; Xu, Xiang-Min

    2014-12-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked incompletely dominant enzyme deficiency that results from G6PD gene mutations. Women heterozygous for G6PD mutations exhibit variation in the loss of enzyme activity but the cause of this phenotypic variation is unclear. We determined DNA methylation and X-inactivation patterns in 71 G6PD-deficient female heterozygotes and 68 G6PD non-deficient controls with the same missense mutations (G6PD Canton c.1376G>T or Kaiping c.1388G>A) to correlate determinants with variable phenotypes. Specific CpG methylations within the G6PD promoter were significantly higher in G6PD-deficient heterozygotes than in controls. Preferential X-inactivation of the G6PD wild-type allele was determined in heterozygotes. The incidence of preferential X-inactivation was 86.2% in the deficient heterozygote group and 31.7% in the non-deficient heterozygote group. A significant negative correlation was observed between X-inactivation ratios of the wild-type allele and G6PD/6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) ratios in heterozygous G6PD Canton (r=-0.657, p<0.001) or Kaiping (r=-0.668, p<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression indicated that heterozygotes with hypermethylation of specific CpG sites in the G6PD promoter and preferential X-inactivation of the wild-type allele were at risk of enzyme deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Heterozygous Monocarboxylate Transporter 1 (MCT1, SLC16A1) Deficiency as a Cause of Recurrent Ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, Shanti; Lewis, Barry; Greed, Lawrence; Meili, David; Flier, Annegret; Yamamoto, Raina; Bilić, Karmen; Till, Claudia; Sass, Jörn Oliver

    2016-01-01

    We describe two half-siblings with monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1, SLC16A1) deficiency, a defect on ketone body utilization, that has only recently been identified (van Hasselt et al., N Engl J Med, 371:1900-1907, 2014) as a cause for recurrent ketoacidoses. Our index patient is a boy with non-consanguineous parents who had presented acutely with impaired consciousness and severe metabolic ketoacidosis following a 3-day history of gastroenteritis at age 5 years. A 12.5-year-old half-brother who shared the proband's mother also had a previous history of recurrent ketoacidoses. Results of mutation and enzyme activity analyses in proband samples advocated against methylacetoacetyl-coenzyme A thiolase ("beta-ketothiolase") and succinyl-coenzyme A: 3-oxoacyl coenzyme A transferase (SCOT) deficiencies. A single heterozygous c.982C>T transition in the SLC16A1 gene resulting in a stop mutation (p.Arg328Ter) was detected in both boys. It was shared by their healthy mother and by the proband's half-sister, but was absent in the proband's father. MCT1 deficiency may be more prevalent than is apparent, as clinical manifestations can occur both in individuals with bi- and monoallelic mutations. It may be an important differential diagnosis in recurrent ketoacidosis with or without hypoglycemia, particularly in the absence of any specific metabolic profiles in blood and urine. Early diagnosis may enable improved disease management. Careful identification of potential triggers of metabolic decompensations in individuals even with single heterozygous mutations in the SLC16A1 gene is indicated.

  1. Impaired bidirectional NMDA receptor dependent synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus of adult female Fmr1 heterozygous knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Yau, S Y; Bostrom, C A; Chiu, J; Fontaine, C J; Sawchuk, S; Meconi, A; Wortman, R C; Truesdell, E; Truesdell, A; Chiu, C; Hryciw, B N; Eadie, B D; Ghilan, M; Christie, B R

    2016-12-01

    Fragile-X syndrome (FXS) is caused by the transcriptional repression of the Fmr1 gene resulting in loss of the Fragile-X mental retardation protein (FMRP). This leads to cognitive impairment in both male and female patients, however few studies have focused on the impact of FXS in females. Significant cognitive impairment has been reported in approximately 35% of women who exhibit a heterozygous Fmr1 gene mutation, however to date there is a paucity of information regarding the mechanistic underpinnings of these deficits. We, and others, have recently reported that there is significant impairment in N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of male Fmr1 knock out mice. Here we examined if female mice displaying a heterozygous loss of the Fmr1 gene (Fmr1 +/- ) would exhibit similar impairments in DG-dependent spatial memory processing and NMDAR hypofunction. We found that Female Fmr1 +/- mice did not show impaired metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-LTD in the CA1 region, and could perform well on a temporal ordering task that is thought to involve this brain region. In contrast, female Fmr1 +/- mice showed impairments in a pattern separation task thought to involve the DG, and also displayed a significant impairment in both NMDAR-dependent LTD and LTP in this region. The LTP impairment could be rescued by administering the NMDAR co-agonist, glycine. Our data suggests that NMDAR hypofunction in the DG may partly contribute to learning and memory impairment in female Fmr1 +/- mice. Targeting NMDAR-dependent mechanisms may offer hope as a new therapeutic approach for treating female FXS patients with learning and memory impairments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Draft Sequencing of the Heterozygous Diploid Genome of Satsuma (Citrus unshiu Marc.) Using a Hybrid Assembly Approach.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Tokurou; Tanizawa, Yasuhiro; Mochizuki, Takako; Nagasaki, Hideki; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Kaminuma, Eli; Nakamura, Yasukazu

    2017-01-01

    Satsuma ( Citrus unshiu Marc.) is one of the most abundantly produced mandarin varieties of citrus, known for its seedless fruit production and as a breeding parent of citrus. De novo assembly of the heterozygous diploid genome of Satsuma ("Miyagawa Wase") was conducted by a hybrid assembly approach using short-read sequences, three mate-pair libraries, and a long-read sequence of PacBio by the PLATANUS assembler. The assembled sequence, with a total size of 359.7 Mb at the N 50 length of 386,404 bp, consisted of 20,876 scaffolds. Pseudomolecules of Satsuma constructed by aligning the scaffolds to three genetic maps showed genome-wide synteny to the genomes of Clementine, pummelo, and sweet orange. Gene prediction by modeling with MAKER-P proposed 29,024 genes and 37,970 mRNA; additionally, gene prediction analysis found candidates for novel genes in several biosynthesis pathways for gibberellin and violaxanthin catabolism. BUSCO scores for the assembled scaffold and predicted transcripts, and another analysis by BAC end sequence mapping indicated the assembled genome consistency was close to those of the haploid Clementine, pummel, and sweet orange genomes. The number of repeat elements and long terminal repeat retrotransposon were comparable to those of the seven citrus genomes; this suggested no significant failure in the assembly at the repeat region. A resequencing application using the assembled sequence confirmed that both kunenbo-A and Satsuma are offsprings of Kishu, and Satsuma is a back-crossed offspring of Kishu. These results illustrated the performance of the hybrid assembly approach and its ability to construct an accurate heterozygous diploid genome.

  3. Familial discoid lupus erythematosus associated with heterozygote C2 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Belin, D C; Bordwell, B J; Einarson, M E; McLean, R H; Weinstein, A; Yunis, E J; Rothfield, N F

    1980-08-01

    Two siblings with chronic discoid lupus erythematosus and several family members were found with heterozygous C2 deficiency. An association with histocompatibility markers HLA-B18 and HLA-Dw2 was demonstrated, and the slow allotype of factor B was present. Linkage studies in this family suggested a close linkage between the C2 deficiency gene and genes coding for B18, Dw2, and BfS antigens. One HLA-ACB/DBf recombinant was observed showing closer linkage between HLA-D and Bf than between HLA-B and Bf.

  4. [Mutation analysis of FGFR3 gene in a family featuring hereditary dwarfism].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiong; Jiang, Hai-ou; Quan, Qing-li; Li, Jun; He, Ting; Huang, Xue-shuang

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the clinical symptoms and potential mutation in FGFR3 gene for a family featuring hereditary dwarfism in order to attain diagnosis and provide prenatal diagnosis. Five patients and two unaffected relatives from the family, in addition with 100 healthy controls, were recruited. Genome DNA was extracted. Exons 10 and 13 of the FGFR3 gene were amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR products were sequenced in both directions. All patients had similar features including short stature, short limbs, lumbar hyperlordosis but normal craniofacial features. A heterozygous mutation G1620T (N540K) was identified in the cDNA from all patients but not in the unaffected relatives and 100 control subjects. A heterozygous G380R mutation was excluded. The hereditary dwarfism featured by this family has been caused by hypochondroplasia (HCH) due to a N540K mutation in the FGFR3 gene.

  5. Family History

    MedlinePlus

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  6. Family History

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Family Health History Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Family Health History The Basics Family Health History & Chronic Disease Planning ...

  7. The relationship between the enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation and red blood cells deformability in hemizygous and heterozygous glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient individuals.

    PubMed

    Gurbuz, N; Yalcin, O; Aksu, T A; Baskurt, O K

    2004-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity, red blood cell (RBC) lipid peroxidation and deformability were investigated in hemizygous and heterozygous G6PD deficient subjects and compared with normal individuals. None of the subjects were in acute hemolytic crises. G6PD activity was assessed based on the spectrophotometric determination of generated NADPH. Lipid peroxidation was measured as thiobarbutiric acid reactive substances (TBARS). RBC deformability was analyzed by ektacytometry. RBC lipid peroxidation was found to be significantly higher in hemizygous subjects compared to control and heterozygous subjects, while RBC deformability was found to be significantly impaired. However, although lipid peroxidation was higher than control, RBC deformability was not significantly different from control in heterozygous individuals, characterized by significantly lower RBC G6PD activity. There were no significant correlations between these three parameters when the three groups were analyzed separately, but a significant negative correlation was found to exist between G6PD activity and TBARS when the pooled data from the three groups were used for the analysis. This was also true for the relationship between RBC deformability and G6PD activity. It has been concluded that G6PD activity is not a good predictor of oxidative damage resulting in mechanical impairment in heterozygous individuals.

  8. Comparative analyses of lung transcriptomes in patients with alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins and in foxf1 heterozygous knockout mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alveolar Capillary Dysplasia with Misalignment of Pulmonary Veins (ACDMPV) is a developmental disorder of the lungs, primarily affecting their vasculature. FOXF1 haploinsufficiency due to heterozygous genomic deletions and point mutations have been reported in most patients with ACDMPV. The majority...

  9. Mutational analysis and genotype-phenotype relation in familial hypercholesterolemia: The SAFEHEART registry.

    PubMed

    Bourbon, Mafalda; Alves, Ana Catarina; Alonso, Rodrigo; Mata, Nelva; Aguiar, Pedro; Padró, Teresa; Mata, Pedro

    2017-07-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disease of cholesterol metabolism that confers an increased risk of premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Therefore, early identification and treatment of these patients can improve prognosis and reduce the burden of cardiovascular mortality. The aim of this work was to perform the mutational analysis of the SAFEHEART (Spanish Familial Hypercholesterolaemia Cohort Study) registry. The study recruited 2938 individuals with genetic diagnosis of FH belonging to 775 families. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS v23. A total of 194 variants have been detected in this study, 24 of them were never described before. About 88% of the patients have a pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant. Patients with null variants have a more severe phenotype than patients with defective variants, presenting with significantly higher levels of atherogenic particles (total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B). This study shows the molecular characteristics of the FH patients included in the SAFEHEART registry and the relationship with the phenotypic expression. The majority of the genetic variants are considered to be pathogenic or likely pathogenic, which confers a high level of confidence to the entry and follow-up data analysis performed with this registry concerning FH patients' prognosis, treatment and survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Exploring genetic responsibility for the self, family and kin in the case of hereditary raised cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Kate

    2011-06-01

    This paper explores the notion of genetic responsibility, i.e. the responsibility to know and manage one's own genome for oneself and the sake of others, focusing particularly on responsibilities to family and kin. It also considers wider ideas about the emergence of new forms of biological subjectivities with which the concept of genetic responsibility is associated. The paper draws on a UK-based study concerned with lay constructions of familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), a treatable inherited form of high cholesterol, which involved qualitative interviews with 31 people with the condition recruited through a specialist outpatient clinic. The paper is an attempt to open out discussions about the significance of genetic responsibility and biological subjectivity. I argue that in this study, FH was not associated with a notable family narrative of illness or a strongly defined specific disease community, and no clear sense emerged of obligations to kin or others derived through genetic risks or genetic connections. While responsibilities concerned with the welfare of oneself and one's existing offspring were enunciated, obligations to other potential or actual kin, e.g. to tell and encourage kin to manage their risks, were much less clearly defined. Drawing on these findings, I start to address questions about the pervasiveness of genetic responsibility and genetic identity and the contexts in which they might be significant. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of endoplasmic reticulum stressors on maturation and signaling of hemizygous and heterozygous wild-type and mutant forms of KIT.

    PubMed

    Brahimi-Adouane, Sabrina; Bachet, Jean-Baptiste; Tabone-Eglinger, Séverine; Subra, Frédéric; Capron, Claude; Blay, Jean-Yves; Emile, Jean-François

    2013-06-01

    Gain of function mutations of KIT are frequent in some human tumors, and are sensible to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In most tumors, oncogenic mutations are heterozygous, however most in vitro data of KIT activation have been obtained with hemizygous mutation. This study aimed to investigate the maturation and activation of wild-type (WT) and mutant (M) forms of KIT in hemizygous and heterozygous conditions. WT and two types of exon 11 deletions M forms of human KIT were expressed in NIH3T3 cell lines. Membrane expression of KIT was quantified by flow cytometry. Quantification of glycosylated forms of KIT and phosphorylated forms of AKT and ERK were performed by western blot. Simultaneous activation of WT KIT and treatment with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) inhibitors, tunicamycin or brefeldin A induced a complete inhibition of membrane expression of the 145 kDa form of KIT. By contrast activation or ER inhibitors alone, only partly inhibited this form. ER inhibitors also inhibited KIT activation-dependent phosphorylation of AKT and ERK1/2. Brefeldin A induced a complete down regulation of the 145 kDa form in hemizygous M, and induced an intra-cellular accumulation of the 125 kDa form in WT but not in hemizygous M. Heterozygous cells had glycosylation and response to ER inhibitors patterns more similar to WT than to hemizygous M. Phosphorylated AKT was reduced in hemizygous cells in comparison to WT KIT cells and heterozygous cells, and in the presence of brefeldin A in all cell lines. Effects of ER inhibitors are significantly different in hemizygous and heterozygous mutants. Differences in intra-cellular trafficking of KIT forms result in differences in downstream signaling pathways, and activation of PI3K/AKT pathway appears to be tied to the presence of the mature 145 kDa form of KIT at the membrane surface. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The heterozygous N291S mutation in the lipoprotein lipase gene impairs whole-body insulin sensitivity and affects a distinct set of plasma metabolites in humans.

    PubMed

    Berg, Sofia Mikkelsen; Havelund, Jesper; Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Kruse, Vibeke; Pedersen, Andreas James Thestrup; Hansen, Aleksander Bill; Nybo, Mads; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Højlund, Kurt; Færgeman, Nils Joakim

    Mutations in the lipoprotein lipase gene causing decreased lipoprotein lipase activity are associated with surrogate markers of insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome in humans. We investigated the hypothesis that a heterozygous lipoprotein lipase mutation (N291S) induces whole-body insulin resistance and alterations in the plasma metabolome. In 6 carriers of a heterozygous lipoprotein lipase mutation (N291S) and 11 age-matched and weight-matched healthy controls, we examined insulin sensitivity and substrate metabolism by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps combined with indirect calorimetry. Plasma samples were taken before and after the clamp (4 hours of physiological hyperinsulinemia), and metabolites were measured enzymatically or by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Compared with healthy controls, heterozygous carriers of a defective lipoprotein lipase allele had elevated fasting plasma levels triglycerides (P < .006), and markedly impaired insulin-stimulated glucose disposal rates (P < .024) and nonoxidative glucose metabolism (P < .015). Plasma metabolite profiling demonstrated lower circulating levels of pyruvic acid and α-tocopherol in the N291S carriers than in controls both before and after stimulation with insulin (all >1.5-fold change and P < .05). Heterozygous carriers with a defective lipoprotein lipase allele are less insulin sensitive and have increased plasma levels of nonesterified fatty acids and triglycerides. The heterozygous N291S carriers also have a distinct plasma metabolomic signature, which may serve as a diagnostic tool for deficient lipoprotein lipase activity and as a marker of lipid-induced insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Family Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seita, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Family privilege is defined as "strengths and supports gained through primary caring relationships." A generation ago, the typical family included two parents and a bevy of kids living under one roof. Now, every variation of blended caregiving qualifies as family. But over the long arc of human history, a real family was a…

  14. A Novel Heterozygous Mutation in the T-box Protein 4 Gene in an Adult Case of Small Patella Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Oda, Tomoyuki; Matsushita, Masaki; Ono, Yohei; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Sakai, Tadahiro

    2018-01-01

    Small patella syndrome (SPS) is a rare skeletal dysplasia relating to the T-box protein 4 (TBX4) gene, which regulates the development of lower extremities. Patients typically present with recurrent patellar dislocation (RPD) in childhood or adolescence, leading to a diagnosis of SPS and subsequent treatment to improve activity levels. However, those with mild symptoms may not be diagnosed when young and present later after skeletal maturation, which might compromise treatment options. Further understanding of genetic mutations of SPS could possibly help early diagnosis and following adequate surgical treatment. In this case report, we present a surgically treated adult female case of RPD associated with SPS, carrying a novel heterozygous mutation in the TBX4 gene. A 19-year-old female presented with persistent right knee pain after an atraumatic episode ofpatellar dislocation during walking. The patient had a history of recurrent patella instability of the right knee with an onset at the age of 8 years due to a minor trauma. Patellar apprehension sign was positive bilaterally. There was radiological evidence of bilateral small patellae, hypoplastic femoral trochlea, and tibial tuberosity. A direct sequencing of the coding regions in the TBX4 gene had confirmed the diagnosis of SPS. A novel heterozygous mutation (p.L39PfsX35) was found in the patient and her father. Surgical treatment was indicated and the patient underwent an isolated medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction while no distal realignment osteotomy was performed due to hypoplastic tibial tuberosity. Excellent subjective and objective outcomes were obtained at 1 year postoperatively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported SPS case with a novel mutation in the TBX4 gene in an Asian population. While a satisfying short-term outcome was obtained by an isolated MPFL reconstruction, early genetic diagnosis in childhood with adequate surgical treatment (e.g., Roux

  15. High-throughput SNP genotyping in the highly heterozygous genome of Eucalyptus: assay success, polymorphism and transferability across species

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background High-throughput SNP genotyping has become an essential requirement for molecular breeding and population genomics studies in plant species. Large scale SNP developments have been reported for several mainstream crops. A growing interest now exists to expand the speed and resolution of genetic analysis to outbred species with highly heterozygous genomes. When nucleotide diversity is high, a refined diagnosis of the target SNP sequence context is needed to convert queried SNPs into high-quality genotypes using the Golden Gate Genotyping Technology (GGGT). This issue becomes exacerbated when attempting to transfer SNPs across species, a scarcely explored topic in plants, and likely to become significant for population genomics and inter specific breeding applications in less domesticated and less funded plant genera. Results We have successfully developed the first set of 768 SNPs assayed by the GGGT for the highly heterozygous genome of Eucalyptus from a mixed Sanger/454 database with 1,164,695 ESTs and the preliminary 4.5X draft genome sequence for E. grandis. A systematic assessment of in silico SNP filtering requirements showed that stringent constraints on the SNP surrounding sequences have a significant impact on SNP genotyping performance and polymorphism. SNP assay success was high for the 288 SNPs selected with more rigorous in silico constraints; 93% of them provided high quality genotype calls and 71% of them were polymorphic in a diverse panel of 96 individuals of five different species. SNP reliability was high across nine Eucalyptus species belonging to three sections within subgenus Symphomyrtus and still satisfactory across species of two additional subgenera, although polymorphism declined as phylogenetic distance increased. Conclusions This study indicates that the GGGT performs well both within and across species of Eucalyptus notwithstanding its nucleotide diversity ≥2%. The development of a much larger array of informative SNPs across

  16. Family Centers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-30

    34 Family Policy," December 30, 1988 o / (b) DoD Directive 4001.1, "Installation Management ,, September 4, 1986 (c) DoD 4165.63-M, "DoD Housing Management ... managing the competing demands of the military mission and the family . They shall provide the information and family services necessary to support single...effectiveness of Family Centers. The evaluation system shall include: (1) A management information report to allow Family Centers to reflect actual workloads

  17. [Analysis of TGFBI gene mutation in a Chinese family affected with Reis-Bucklers corneal dystrophy].

    PubMed

    Guan, Tao; Zhang, Lingjie; Xu, Dejian; Wu, Haijian; Zheng, Libin

    2017-10-10

    To analyze the clinical features and TGFBI gene mutation in a Chinese family affected with Reis-Bucklers corneal dystrophy. Genomic DNA was extracted from 53 members including 9 patients from the family. The 17 exons and splice region of introns of the TGFBI gene were amplified by PCR and directly sequenced. All family members were subjected to ophthalmologic examination. A heterozygous mutation (R124L) was found in exon 4 of the TGFBI gene among all patients from the family. The same mutation was not found among unaffected family members. The inheritance pattern of the family was identified as autosomal dominant, and the Reis-Bucklers corneal dystrophy in the family was diagnosed as the geographic type. The R124L mutation of the TGFBI gene probably underlies the pathogenesis of Reis-Bucklers corneal dystrophy in this Chinese family. Molecular genetic approach is useful for the proper diagnosis of this type of corneal dystrophy.

  18. Two novel compound heterozygous mutations in the BCKDHB gene that cause the intermittent form of maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yi; Liming, Liu; Jiang, Li

    2015-12-01

    Intermittent maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a potentially life-threatening metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of branched chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKD) complex. In contrast to classic MSUD, children with the intermittent form usually have an atypical clinical manifestation. Here, we describe the presenting symptoms and clinical course of a Chinese boy with intermittent MSUD. Mutation analysis identified two previously unreported mutations in exon 7 of the BCKDHB gene: c.767A > G (p.Y256C) and c.768C > G (p.Y256X); the parents were each heterozygous for one of these mutations. In silico analysis predicted Y256C probably affects protein structure; Y256X leads to a premature stop codon. This case demonstrates intermittent MSUD should be suspected in cases with symptoms of recurrent encephalopathy, especially ataxia or marked drowsiness, which usually present after the neonatal period and in conjunction with infection. symmetrical basal ganglia damage but normal myelination in the posterior limb will assist differential diagnosis; alloisoleucine is a useful diagnostic marker and mutation analysis may be of prognostic value. These novel mutations Y256C and Y256X result in the clinical manifestation of a variant form of MSUD, expanding the mutation spectrum of this disease.

  19. Multiplex primer extension reaction screening and oxidative challenge of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase mutants in hemizygous and heterozygous subjects.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chun Hay; Yung, Edmund; Li, Karen; Li, Chung Leung; Ng, Pak Cheung; Fung, Kwok Pui; Wong, Raymond Pui-On; Chui, Kit Man; Gu, Goldie Jia-Shi; Fok, Tai Fai

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of our study was to provide a simple and reliable assay for identifying the majority of G6PD genetic variants in the Chinese population. We optimized the multiplex primer extension reaction (MPER) assay for simultaneous screening of 14-point mutations in 98 G6PD-deficient subjects. Our data demonstrated that this method is precise, cost-effective and has successfully identified mutations in 97 out of 98 subjects, including all heterozygous mutants. We also detected a relatively high incidence (12.3%) of c.871G > A, and all of them harbored the silent mutation c.1311C > T. Apart from the screening program, the pharmacogenetic relationship between G6PD level and residual reduced glutathione (GSH) level was studied upon oxidative challenge by alpha-naphthol. The GSH levels were correlated with their status of G6PD deficiency, but no significant difference was observed between individual G6PD-deficient groups. Our data demonstrated the potentials of the MPER assay for characterization of G6PD deficiency and other genetic diseases.

  20. The use of high resolution melting analysis to detect Fabry mutations in heterozygous females via dry bloodspots.

    PubMed

    Tai, Chang-Long; Liu, Mei-Ying; Yu, Hsiao-Chi; Chiang, Chiang-Chuan; Chiang, Hung; Suen, Jeng-Hung; Kao, Shu-Min; Huang, Yu-Hsiu; Wu, Tina Jui-Ting; Yang, Chia-Feng; Tsai, Fang-Chih; Lin, Ching-Yuang; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Chen, Hong-Duo; Niu, Dau-Ming

    2012-02-18

    As an X-linked genetic disorder, Fabry disease was first thought to affect males only, and females were generally considered to be asymptomatic carriers. However, recent research suggests that female carriers of Fabry disease may still develop vital organ damage causing severe morbidity and mortality. In the previous newborn screening, from 299,007 newborns, we identified a total of 20 different Fabry mutations and 121 newborns with Fabry mutations. However, we found that most female carriers are not detected by enzyme assays. A streamlined method for high resolution melting (HRM) analysis was designed to screen for GLA gene mutations using a same PCR and melting program. Primer sets were designed to cover the 7 exons and the Chinese common intronic mutation, IVS4+919G>A of GLA gene. The HRM analysis was successful in identifying heterozygous and hemizygous patients with the 20 surveyed mutations. We were also successful in using this method to test dry blood spots of newborns afflicted with Fabry mutations without having to determine DNA concentration before PCR amplification. The results of this study show that HRM could be a reliable and sensitive method for use in the rapid screening of females for GLA mutations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A novel heterozygous intronic mutation in POU1F1 is associated with combined pituitary hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Masaki; Kamasaki, Hotaka; Yagi, Hiroko; Fukuzawa, Ryuji; Narumi, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Tomonobu

    2017-02-27

    POU class 1 homeobox 1 (POU1F1) regulates pituitary cell-specific gene expression of somatotropes, lactotropes, and thyrotropes. In humans, two POU1F1 isoforms (long and short isoform), which are generated by the alternative use of the splice acceptor site for exon 2, have been identified. To date, more than 30 POU1F1 mutations in patients with combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) have been described. All POU1F1 variants reported to date affect both the short and long isoforms of the POU1F1 protein; therefore, it is unclear at present whether a decrease in the function of only one of these two isoforms is sufficient for disease onset in humans. Here, we described a sibling case of CPHD carrying a heterozygous mutation in intron 1 of POU1F1. In vitro experiments showed that this mutation resulted in exon 2-skipping of only in the short isoform of POU1F1, while the long isoform remained intact. This result strongly suggests the possibility, for the first time, that isolated mutations in the short isoform of POU1F1 could be sufficient for induction of POU1F1-related CPHD. This finding improves our understanding of the molecular mechanisms, and developmental course associated with mutations in POU1F1.

  2. Heterozygous variants in ACTL6A, encoding a component of the BAF complex, are associated with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Marom, Ronit; Jain, Mahim; Burrage, Lindsay C; Song, I-Wen; Graham, Brett H; Brown, Chester W; Stevens, Servi J C; Stegmann, Alexander P A; Gunter, Andrew T; Kaplan, Julie D; Gavrilova, Ralitza H; Shinawi, Marwan; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Bae, Yangjin; Tran, Alyssa A; Chen, Yuqing; Lu, James T; Gibbs, Richard A; Eng, Christine; Yang, Yaping; Rousseau, Justine; de Vries, Bert B A; Campeau, Philippe M; Lee, Brendan

    2017-10-01

    Pathogenic variants in genes encoding components of the BRG1-associated factor (BAF) chromatin remodeling complex have been associated with intellectual disability syndromes. We identified heterozygous, novel variants in ACTL6A, a gene encoding a component of the BAF complex, in three subjects with varying degrees of intellectual disability. Two subjects have missense variants affecting highly conserved amino acid residues within the actin-like domain. Missense mutations in the homologous region in yeast actin were previously reported to be dominant lethal and were associated with impaired binding of the human ACTL6A to β-actin and BRG1. A third subject has a splicing variant that creates an in-frame deletion. Our findings suggest that the variants identified in our subjects may have a deleterious effect on the function of the protein by disturbing the integrity of the BAF complex. Thus, ACTL6A gene mutation analysis should be considered in patients with intellectual disability, learning disabilities, or developmental language disorder. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Compound heterozygous deletions in pseudoautosomal region 1 in an infant with mild manifestations of langer mesomelic dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Takayoshi; Shibata, Minoru; Numabe, Hironao; Jinno, Tomoko; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Nishimura, Gen; Nagai, Toshiro; Ogata, Tsutomu; Fukami, Maki

    2014-02-01

    Haploinsufficiency of SHOX on the short arm pseudoautosomal region (PAR1) leads to Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD), and nullizygosity of SHOX results in Langer mesomelic dysplasia (LMD). Molecular defects of LWD/LMD include various microdeletions in PAR1 that involve exons and/or the putative upstream or downstream enhancer regions of SHOX, as well as several intragenic mutations. Here, we report on a Japanese male infant with mild manifestations of LMD and hitherto unreported microdeletions in PAR1. Clinical analysis revealed mesomelic short stature with various radiological findings indicative of LMD. Molecular analyses identified compound heterozygous deletions, that is, a maternally inherited ∼46 kb deletion involving the upstream region and exons 1-5 of SHOX, and a paternally inherited ∼500 kb deletion started from a position ∼300 kb downstream from SHOX. In silico analysis revealed that the downstream deletion did not affect the known putative enhancer regions of SHOX, although it encompassed several non-coding elements which were well conserved among various species with SHOX orthologs. These results provide the possibility of the presence of a novel enhancer for SHOX in the genomic region ∼300 to ∼800 kb downstream of the start codon. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Clonal evolution following chemotherapy-induced stem cell depletion in cats heterozygous for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Abkowitz, J.L.; Ott, R.M.; Holly, R.D.

    The number of hematopoietic stem cells necessary to support normal hematopoiesis is not known but may be small. If so, the depletion or damage of such cells could result in apparent clonal dominance. To test this hypothesis, dimethylbusulfan (2 to 4 mg/kg intravenously (IV) x 3) was given to cats heterozygous for the X-linked enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD). These cats were the daughters of domestic X Geoffroy parents. After the initial drug-induced cytopenias (2 to 4 weeks), peripheral blood counts and the numbers of marrow progenitors detected in culture remained normal, although the percentages of erythroid burst-forming cells (BFU-E) andmore » granulocyte/macrophage colony-forming cells (CFU-GM) in DNA synthesis increased, as determined by the tritiated thymidine suicide technique. In three of six cats treated, a dominance of Geoffroy-type G-6-PD emerged among the progenitor cells, granulocytes, and RBCs. These skewed ratios of domestic to Geoffroy-type G-6-PD have persisted greater than 3 years. No changes in cell cycle kinetics or G-6-PD phenotypes were noted in similar studies in six control cats. These data suggest that clonal evolution may reflect the depletion or damage of normal stem cells and not only the preferential growth and dominance of neoplastic cells.« less

  5. A Case of Beta-propeller Protein-associated Neurodegeneration due to a Heterozygous Deletion of WDR45.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Andreas; Kitzler, Hagen H; Pollack, Tobias; Biskup, Saskia; Krüger, Stefanie; Funke, Claudia; Terrile, Caterina; Haack, Tobias B

    2017-01-01

    Static encephalopathy of childhood with neurodegeneration in adulthood is a phenotypically distinctive, X-linked dominant subtype of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). WDR45 mutations were recently identified as causal. WDR45 encodes a beta-propeller scaffold protein with a putative role in autophagy, and the disease has been renamed beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (BPAN). Here we describe a female patient suffering from a classical BPAN phenotype due to a novel heterozygous deletion of WDR45 . An initial gene panel and Sanger sequencing approach failed to uncover the molecular defect. Based on the typical clinical and neuroimaging phenotype, quantitative polymerase chain reaction of the WDR45 coding regions was undertaken, and this showed a reduction of the gene dosage by 50% compared with controls. An extended search for deletions should be performed in apparently WDR45- negative cases presenting with features of NBIA and should also be considered in young patients with predominant intellectual disabilities and hypertonia/parkinsonism/dystonia.

  6. Identification of FASTKD2 compound heterozygous mutations as the underlying cause of autosomal recessive MELAS-like syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Da Hye; Choi, Young-Chul; Nam, Da Eun; Choi, Sun Seong; Kim, Ji Won; Choi, Byung-Ok; Chung, Ki Wha

    2017-07-01

    Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) is a condition that affects many parts of the body, particularly the brain and muscles. This study examined a Korean MELAS-like syndrome patient with seizure, stroke-like episode, and optic atrophy. Target sequencing of whole mtDNA and 73 nuclear genes identified compound heterozygous mutations p.R205X and p.L255P in the FASTKD2. Each of his unaffected parents has one of the two mutations, and both mutations were not found in 302 controls. FASTKD2 encodes a FAS-activated serine-threonine (FAST) kinase domain 2 which locates in the mitochondrial inner compartment. A FASTKD2 nonsense mutation was once reported as the cause of a recessive infantile mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. The present case showed relatively mild symptoms with a late onset age, compared to a previous patient with FASTKD2 mutation, implicating an inter-allelic clinical heterogeneity. Because this study is the second report of an autosomal recessive mitochondrial encephalomyopathy patient with a FASTKD2 mutation, it will extend the phenotypic spectrum of the FASTKD2 mutation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Comparative molecular dynamics studies of heterozygous open reading frames of DNA polymerase eta (η) in pathogenic yeast Candida albicans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satpati, Suresh; Manohar, Kodavati; Acharya, Narottam; Dixit, Anshuman

    2017-01-01

    Genomic instability in Candida albicans is believed to play a crucial role in fungal pathogenesis. DNA polymerases contribute significantly to stability of any genome. Although Candida Genome database predicts presence of S. cerevisiae DNA polymerase orthologs; functional and structural characterizations of Candida DNA polymerases are still unexplored. DNA polymerase eta (Polη) is unique as it promotes efficient bypass of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. Interestingly, C. albicans is heterozygous in carrying two Polη genes and the nucleotide substitutions were found only in the ORFs. As allelic differences often result in functional differences of the encoded proteins, comparative analyses of structural models and molecular dynamic simulations were performed to characterize these orthologs of DNA Polη. Overall structures of both the ORFs remain conserved except subtle differences in the palm and PAD domains. The complementation analysis showed that both the ORFs equally suppressed UV sensitivity of yeast rad30 deletion strain. Our study has predicted two novel molecular interactions, a highly conserved molecular tetrad of salt bridges and a series of π-π interactions spanning from thumb to PAD. This study suggests these ORFs as the homologues of yeast Polη, and due to its heterogeneity in C. albicans they may play a significant role in pathogenicity.

  8. Hearing dysfunction in heterozygous Mitf(Mi-wh) /+ mice, a model for Waardenburg syndrome type 2 and Tietz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ni, Christina; Zhang, Deming; Beyer, Lisa A; Halsey, Karin E; Fukui, Hideto; Raphael, Yehoash; Dolan, David F; Hornyak, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    The human deafness-pigmentation syndromes, Waardenburg syndrome (WS) type 2a, and Tietz syndrome are characterized by profound deafness but only partial cutaneous pigmentary abnormalities. Both syndromes are caused by mutations in MITF. To illuminate differences between cutaneous and otic melanocytes in these syndromes, their development and survival in heterozygous Microphthalmia-White (Mitf(Mi-wh) /+) mice were studied and hearing function of these mice characterized. Mitf(Mi-wh) /+ mice have a profound hearing deficit, characterized by elevated auditory brainstem response thresholds, reduced distortion product otoacoustic emissions, absent endocochlear potential, loss of outer hair cells, and stria vascularis abnormalities. Mitf(Mi-wh) /+ embryos have fewer melanoblasts during embryonic development than their wild-type littermates. Although cochlear melanocytes are present at birth, they disappear from the Mitf(Mi-wh) /+ cochlea between P1 and P7. These findings may provide insight into the mechanism of melanocyte and hearing loss in human deafness-pigmentation syndromes such as WS and Tietz syndrome and illustrate differences between otic and follicular melanocytes. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Impaired Angiogenesis and Mobilization of Circulating Angiogenic Cells in HIF-1α Heterozygous-Null Mice after Burn Wounding

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xianjie; Liu, Lixin; Wei, Xiaofei; Tan, Yee Sun; Tong, Lana; Chang, Ryan; Ghanamah, Mohammed S.; Reinblatt, Maura; Marti, Guy P.; Harmon, John W.; Semenza, Gregg L.

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that controls vascular responses to hypoxia and ischemia. In this study, mice that were heterozygous for a null allele at the locus encoding the HIF-1α subunit (HET mice) and their wild type (WT) littermates were subjected to thermal injury involving 10% of body surface area. HIF-1α protein levels were increased in burn wounds of WT but not of HET mice on day 2. Serum levels of stromal-derived factor 1α, which binds to CXCR4, were increased on day 2 in WT but not in HET mice. Circulating angiogenic cells were also increased on day 2 in WT but not in HET mice and included CXCR4+Sca1+ cells. Laser Doppler perfusion imaging demonstrated increased blood flow in burn wounds of WT but not HET mice on day 7. Immunohistochemistry on day 7 revealed a reduced number of CD31+ vessels at the healing margin of burn wounds in HET as compared to WT mice. Vessel maturation was also impaired in wounds of HET mice as determined by the number of α-smooth muscle actin-positive vessels on day 21. The remaining wound area on day 14 was significantly increased in HET mice compared to WT littermates. The percentage of healed wounds on day 14 was significantly decreased in HET mice. These data delineate a signaling pathway by which HIF-1 promotes angiogenesis during burn wound healing. PMID:20163569

  10. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mutant rats show selective cognitive changes and vulnerability to chronic corticosterone treatment.

    PubMed

    Gururajan, A; Hill, R A; van den Buuse, M

    2015-01-22

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a widely expressed neurotrophin involved in neurodevelopment, neuroprotection and synaptic plasticity. It is also implicated in a range of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Stress during adolescence/young adulthood can have long-term psychiatric and cognitive consequences, however it is unknown how altered BDNF signaling is involved in such effects. Here we investigated whether a congenital deficit in BDNF availability in rats increases vulnerability to the long-term effects of the stress hormone, corticosterone (CORT). Compared to wildtype (WT) littermates, BDNF heterozygous (HET) rats showed higher body weights and minor developmental changes, such as reduced relative brain and pituitary weight. These animals furthermore showed deficits in short-term spatial memory in the Y-maze and in prepulse inhibition and startle, but not in object-recognition memory. CORT treatment induced impairments in novel-object recognition memory in both genotypes but disrupted fear conditioning extinction learning in BDNF HET rats only. These results show selective behavioral changes in BDNF HET rats, at baseline or after chronic CORT treatment and add to our understanding of the role of BDNF and its interaction with stress. Importantly, this study demonstrates the utility of the BDNF HET rat in investigations into the pathophysiology of various psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cognitive assessment of mice strains heterozygous for cell-adhesion genes reveals strain-specific alterations in timing.

    PubMed

    Gallistel, C R; Tucci, Valter; Nolan, Patrick M; Schachner, Melitta; Jakovcevski, Igor; Kheifets, Aaron; Barboza, Luendro

    2014-03-05

    We used a fully automated system for the behavioural measurement of physiologically meaningful properties of basic mechanisms of cognition to test two strains of heterozygous mutant mice, Bfc (batface) and L1, and their wild-type littermate controls. Both of the target genes are involved in the establishment and maintenance of synapses. We find that the Bfc heterozygotes show reduced precision in their representation of interval duration, whereas the L1 heterozygotes show increased precision. These effects are functionally specific, because many other measures made on the same mice are unaffected, namely: the accuracy of matching temporal investment ratios to income ratios in a matching protocol, the rate of instrumental and classical conditioning, the latency to initiate a cued instrumental response, the trials on task and the impulsivity in a switch paradigm, the accuracy with which mice adjust timed switches to changes in the temporal constraints, the days to acquisition, and mean onset time and onset variability in the circadian anticipation of food availability.

  12. Cognitive assessment of mice strains heterozygous for cell-adhesion genes reveals strain-specific alterations in timing

    PubMed Central

    Gallistel, C. R.; Tucci, Valter; Nolan, Patrick M.; Schachner, Melitta; Jakovcevski, Igor; Kheifets, Aaron; Barboza, Luendro

    2014-01-01

    We used a fully automated system for the behavioural measurement of physiologically meaningful properties of basic mechanisms of cognition to test two strains of heterozygous mutant mice, Bfc (batface) and L1, and their wild-type littermate controls. Both of the target genes are involved in the establishment and maintenance of synapses. We find that the Bfc heterozygotes show reduced precision in their representation of interval duration, whereas the L1 heterozygotes show increased precision. These effects are functionally specific, because many other measures made on the same mice are unaffected, namely: the accuracy of matching temporal investment ratios to income ratios in a matching protocol, the rate of instrumental and classical conditioning, the latency to initiate a cued instrumental response, the trials on task and the impulsivity in a switch paradigm, the accuracy with which mice adjust timed switches to changes in the temporal constraints, the days to acquisition, and mean onset time and onset variability in the circadian anticipation of food availability. PMID:24446498

  13. Family Violence and Family Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Carol P.

    1991-01-01

    The acronym IDEALS summarizes family physicians' obligations when violence is suspected: to identify family violence; document injuries; educate families and ensure safety for victims; access resources and coordinate care; co-operate in the legal process; and provide support for families. Failure to respond reflects personal and professional experience and attitudes, fear of legal involvement, and lack of knowledge. Risks of intervention include physician burnout, physician overfunctioning, escalation of violence, and family disruption. PMID:21228987

  14. Lipoprotein(a) levels in familial hipercholesterolaemia: an important predictor for cardiovascular disease independent of the type of LDL-receptor mutation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To determine the relationship between lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a large cohort of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients. Lipoprotein(a) is considered a cardiovascular risk factor. Nevertheless, the role of Lp(a) as a predictor of CVD in FH has been...

  15. A novel mutation in the MITF may be digenic with GJB2 mutations in a large Chinese family of Waardenburg syndrome type II.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xukun; Zhang, Tianyu; Wang, Zhengmin; Jiang, Yi; Chen, Yan; Wang, Hongyan; Ma, Duan; Wang, Lei; Li, Huawei

    2011-12-20

    Waardenburg syndrome type II (WS2) is associated with syndromic deafness. A subset of WS2, WS2A, accounting for approximately 15% of patients, is attributed to mutations in the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) gene. We examined the genetic basis of WS2 in a large Chinese family. All 9 exons of the MITF gene, the single coding exon (exon 2) of the most common hereditary deafness gene GJB2 and the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) 12S rRNA were sequenced. A novel heterozygous mutation c.[742_743delAAinsT;746_747delCA] in exon 8 of the MITF gene co-segregates with WS2 in the family. The MITF mutation results in a premature termination codon and a truncated MITF protein with only 247 of the 419 wild type amino acids. The deaf proband had this MITF gene heterozygous mutation as well as a c.[109G>A]+[235delC] compound heterozygous pathogenic mutation in the GJB2 gene. No pathogenic mutation was found in mtDNA 12S rRNA in this family. Thus, a novel compound heterozygous mutation, c.[742_743delAAinsT;746_747delCA] in MITF exon 8 was the key genetic reason for WS2 in this family, and a digenic effect of MITF and GJB2 genes may contribute to deafness of the proband. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Rare intracranial cholesterol deposition and a homozygous mutation of LDLR in a familial hypercholesterolemia patient.

    PubMed

    Li, Haoxian; Zhang, Yanghui; Wei, Xianda; Peng, Ying; Yang, Pu; Tan, Hu; Chen, Chen; Pan, Qian; Liang, Desheng; Wu, Lingqian

    2015-09-15

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH MIM# 143890) is one of the most common autosomal inherited diseases. FH is characterized by elevated plasma levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Mutation in the LDLR gene, which encodes the LDL receptor protein, is responsible for most of the morbidity of FH. The incidence of heterozygous FH is about 1/500, whereas the incidence of homozygous FH is only 1/1,000,000 in Caucasian population. In this study, we report a homozygous LDLR mutation (c.298G>A) in a familial hypercholesterolemia patient, who exhibited intracranial cholesterol deposition, which is a rare addition to the common FH phenotypes. The proband's consanguineous parents have the same heterozygous mutation with elevated concentrations of LDL-C but no xanthoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Multigenerational Inheritance of Long QT Syndrome Type 2 in a Japanese Family.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Mari; Ohno, Seiko; Fujii, Yusuke; Ozawa, Junichi; Sonoda, Keiko; Fukuyama, Megumi; Kato, Koichi; Kimura, Hiromi; Itoh, Hideki; Hayashi, Hideki; Horie, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    Congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) is an important cause of sudden cardiac death in young people without any other structural disease. Mutations in the genes encoding the cardiac ion channels or associated proteins have been shown to result in ion channel dysfunction and thereby causing LQTS. We investigated a Japanese family with LQTS for four generations, with the female family members showing severe symptoms. We performed genetic tests for LQTS-related genes and identified a heterozygous KCNH2 mutation (p.K638del). In the family, the KCNH2 mutation had a very high multigenerational inheritance, and female genotype positives showed more severe phenotypes.

  18. Family Issues

    MedlinePlus

    ... mean that everyone gets along all the time. Conflicts are a part of family life. Many things can lead to conflict, such ... Listening to each other and working to resolve conflicts are important in strengthening the family.

  19. Familial gigantism

    PubMed Central

    de Herder, Wouter W.

    2012-01-01

    Familial GH-secreting tumors are seen in association with three separate hereditary clinical syndromes: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, Carney complex, and familial isolated pituitary adenomas. PMID:22584702

  20. Familial Hypercholesterolemia: Advances in Recognition and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Cartier, Jacqueline L; Goldberg, Anne Carol

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal co-dominant genetic disorder characterized by elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and increased risk for premature cardiovascular disease. It is under-diagnosed, yet early detection and treatment are critical to limit premature atherosclerotic disease. High-intensity statins are the mainstay of treatment, which should be started as early as possible in homozygous FH and as soon as the diagnosis of heterozygous FH is made in adults. Combination therapy is often necessary in FH patients and can include the addition of ezetimibe and bile acid sequestrants. Lipoprotein apheresis is used when pharmacotherapy is inadequate, especially for those with homozygous FH and some patients with severe heterozygous FH. Mipomersen and lomitapide are also indicated for patients with homozygous FH. The recently approved PCSK9 inhibitors, alirocumab and evolocumab, are a promising treatment and outcome studies are ongoing. This article reviews the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of FH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. An exon 4 mutation identified in the majority of South African familial hypercholesterolaemics.

    PubMed Central

    Kotze, M J; Warnich, L; Langenhoven, E; du Plessis, L; Retief, A E

    1990-01-01

    The prevalence of familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is significantly higher in the Afrikaans speaking population (Afrikaners) of South Africa than reported in most other populations. A founder gene effect has been proposed to explain the high FH frequency, implying that the same low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene defect is present in the majority of affected Afrikaners. By using DNA amplification and sequence determination, we have detected a point mutation in DNA from two Afrikaner FH homozygotes. A cytosine to guanine base substitution at nucleotide position 681 of the LDL receptor cDNA results in an amino acid change from aspartic acid to glutamic acid at residue 206 in the cysteine rich ligand binding domain of the LDL receptor. Since three previously mapped transport deficient alleles of the LDL receptor were also traced to cysteine rich repeats of the protein, these results suggest that the mutation is responsible for the receptor defective mutation predominantly found in Afrikaner FH homozygotes. The mutation gives rise to an additional DdeI restriction site in DNA of affected subjects and segregation of the mutation with the disease was confirmed in five large Afrikaner FH families. We predict that 65% of affected South African Afrikaners carry this particular base substitution. Amplification of genomic DNA, using the polymerase chain reaction method, and restriction enzyme analysis now permit accurate diagnosis of the mutation in subjects with FH. Images PMID:2352257

  2. Family Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-30

    comander in coordination with installation residents, activities, and family support program managers . Unresourced requirements are forwarded through...members and their families in keeping their personal financial affairs in order. The program provides basic money management and consumer education...Directive 1342.16 (references (d) through (f)). 7. Deployment Support. Helps single and married Military Service members and their families to manage

  3. Family Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainor, Peggy

    2001-01-01

    Describes a Kellogg Family Collaborative project that involves the University of Montana and four tribal colleges in a family-strengths approach to improving student retention and achievement. States that the project is grounded in social work theory and research that recognize and reinforce family and student resilience through promotion of…

  4. Mutations in the novel gene FOPV are associated with familial autosomal dominant and non-familial obliterative portal venopathy.

    PubMed

    Besmond, Claude; Valla, Dominique; Hubert, Laurence; Poirier, Karine; Grosse, Brigitte; Guettier, Catherine; Bernard, Olivier; Gonzales, Emmanuel; Jacquemin, Emmanuel

    2018-02-01

    Obliterative portal venopathy (OPV) is characterized by lesions of portal vein intrahepatic branches and is thought to be responsible for many cases of portal hypertension in the absence of cirrhosis or obstruction of large portal or hepatic veins. In most cases the cause of OPV remains unknown. The aim was to identify a candidate gene of OPV. Whole exome sequencing was performed in two families, including 6 patients with OPV. Identified mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing and expression of candidate gene transcript was studied by real time qPCR in human tissues. In both families, no mutations were identified in genes previously reported to be associated with OPV. In each family, we identified a heterozygous mutation (c.1783G>A, p.Gly595Arg and c.4895C>T, p.Thr1632Ile) in a novel gene located on chromosome 4, that we called FOPV (Familial Obliterative Portal Venopathy), and having a cDNA coding for 1793 amino acids. The FOPV mutations segregated with the disease in families and the pattern of inheritance was suggestive of autosomal dominant inherited OPV, with incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. In silico analysis predicted a deleterious effect of each mutant and mutations concerned highly conserved amino acids in mammals. A deleterious heterozygous FOPV missense mutation (c.4244T>C, p.Phe1415Ser) was also identified in a patient with non-familial OPV. Expression study in liver veins showed that FOPV transcript was mainly expressed in intrahepatic portal vein. This report suggests that FOPV mutations may have a pathogenic role in some cases of familial and non-familial OPV. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Genetic counseling in Usher syndrome: linkage and mutational analysis of 10 Colombian families.

    PubMed

    Tamayo, M L; Lopez, G; Gelvez, N; Medina, D; Kimberling, W J; Rodríguez, V; Tamayo, G E; Bernal, J E

    2008-01-01

    Usher Syndrome (US), an autosomal recessive disease, is characterized by retinitis pigmentosa (RP), vestibular dysfunction, and congenital sensorineural deafness. There are three recognized clinical types of the disorder. In order to improve genetic counseling for affected families, we conducted linkage analysis and DNA sequencing in 10 Colombian families with confirmed diagnosis of US (4 type I and 6 type II). Seventy-five percent of the US1 families showed linkage to locus USH1B, while the remaining 25% showed linkage to loci USH1B and USH1C. Among families showing linkage to USH1B we found two different mutations in the MYO7A gene: IVS42-26insTTGAG in exon 43 (heterozygous state) and R634X (CGA-TGA) in exon 16 (homozygous state). All six US2 families showed linkage to locus USH2A. Of them, 4 had c.2299delG mutation (1 homozygote state and 3 heterozygous); in the remaining 2 we did not identify any pathologic DNA variant. USH2A individuals with a 2299delG mutation presented a typical and homogeneous retinal phenotype with bilateral severe hearing loss, except for one individual with a heterozygous 2299delG mutation, whose hearing loss was asymmetric, but more profound than in the other cases. The study of these families adds to the genotype-phenotype characterization of the different types and subtypes of US and facilitates genetic counseling in these families. We would like to emphasize the need to perform DNA studies as a prerequisite for genetic counseling in affected families.

  6. Heterozygous Hfe gene deletion leads to impaired glucose homeostasis, but not liver injury in mice fed a high-calorie diet.

    PubMed

    Britton, Laurence; Jaskowski, Lesley; Bridle, Kim; Santrampurwala, Nishreen; Reiling, Janske; Musgrave, Nick; Subramaniam, V Nathan; Crawford, Darrell

    2016-06-01

    Heterozygous mutations of the Hfe gene have been proposed as cofactors in the development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Homozygous Hfe deletion previously has been shown to lead to dysregulated hepatic lipid metabolism and accentuated liver injury in a dietary mouse model of NAFLD We sought to establish whether heterozygous deletion of Hfe is sufficient to promote liver injury when mice are exposed to a high-calorie diet (HCD). Eight-week-old wild-type and Hfe(+/-) mice received 8 weeks of a control diet or HCD Liver histology and pathways of lipid and iron metabolism were analyzed. Liver histology demonstrated that mice fed a HCD had increased NAFLD activity score (NAS), steatosis, and hepatocyte ballooning. However, liver injury was unaffected by Hfe genotype. Hepatic iron concentration (HIC) was increased in Hfe(+/-) mice of both dietary groups. HCD resulted in a hepcidin-independent reduction in HIC Hfe(+/-) mice demonstrated raised fasting serum glucose concentrations and HOMA-IR score, despite unaltered serum adiponectin concentrations. Downstream regulators of hepatic de novo lipogenesis (pAKT, SREBP-1, Fas, Scd1) and fatty acid oxidation (AdipoR2, Pparα, Cpt1) were largely unaffected by genotype. In summary, heterozygous Hfe gene deletion is associated with impaired iron and glucose metabolism. However, unlike homozygous Hfe deletion, heterozygous gene deletion did not affect lipid metabolism pathways or liver injury in this model. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  7. Comparison of Spectrophotometry, Chromate Inhibition, and Cytofluorometry Versus Gene Sequencing for Detection of Heterozygously Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase-Deficient Females.

    PubMed

    Peters, Anna L; Veldthuis, Martijn; van Leeuwen, Karin; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; Vlaar, Alexander P J; van Bruggen, Robin; de Korte, Dirk; Van Noorden, Cornelis J F; van Zwieten, Rob

    2017-11-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common enzyme deficiency worldwide. Detection of heterozygously deficient females can be difficult as residual activity in G6PD-sufficient red blood cells (RBCs) can mask deficiency. In this study, we compared accuracy of 4 methods for detection of G6PD deficiency in females. Blood samples from females more than 3 months of age were used for spectrophotometric measurement of G6PD activity and for determination of the percentage G6PD-negative RBCs by cytofluorometry. An additional sample from females suspected to have G6PD deficiency based on the spectrophotometric G6PD activity was used for measuring chromate inhibition and sequencing of the G6PD gene. Of 165 included females, 114 were suspected to have heterozygous deficiency. From 75 females, an extra sample was obtained. In this group, mutation analysis detected 27 heterozygously deficient females. The sensitivity of spectrophotometry, cytofluorometry, and chromate inhibition was calculated to be 0.52 (confidence interval [CI]: 0.32-0.71), 0.85 (CI: 0.66-0.96), and 0.96 (CI: 0.71-1.00, respectively, and the specificity was 1.00 (CI: 0.93-1.00), 0.88 (CI: 0.75-0.95), and 0.98 (CI: 0.89-1.00), respectively. Heterozygously G6PD-deficient females with a larger percentage of G6PD-sufficient RBCs are missed by routine methods measuring total G6PD activity. However, the majority of these females can be detected with both chromate inhibition and cytofluorometry.

  8. Improved motor performance in Dyt1 ΔGAG heterozygous knock-in mice by cerebellar Purkinje-cell specific Dyt1 conditional knocking-out.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Fumiaki; Dang, Mai Tu; Li, Yuqing

    2012-05-01

    Early-onset generalized torsion dystonia (dystonia 1) is an inherited movement disorder caused by mutations in DYT1 (TOR1A), which codes for torsinA. Most patients have a 3-base pair deletion (ΔGAG) in one allele of DYT1, corresponding to a loss of a glutamic acid residue (ΔE) in the C-terminal region of the protein. Functional alterations in basal ganglia circuits and the cerebellum have been reported in dystonia. Pharmacological manipulations or mutations in genes that result in functional alterations of the cerebellum have been reported to have dystonic symptoms and have been used as phenotypic rodent models. Additionally, structural lesions in the abnormal cerebellar circuits, such as cerebellectomy, have therapeutic effects in these models. A previous study has shown that the Dyt1 ΔGAG heterozygous knock-in (KI) mice exhibit motor deficits in the beam-walking test. Both Dyt1 ΔGAG heterozygous knock-in (KI) and Dyt1 Purkinje cell-specific knockout (Dyt1 pKO) mice exhibit dendritic alterations of cerebellar Purkinje cells. Here, Dyt1 pKO mice exhibited significantly less slip numbers in the beam-walking test, suggesting better motor performance than control littermates, and normal gait. Furthermore, Dyt1 ΔGAG KI/Dyt1 pKO double mutant mice exhibited significantly lower numbers of slips than Dyt1 ΔGAG heterozygous KI mice, suggesting Purkinje-cell specific knockout of Dyt1 wild-type (WT) allele in Dyt1 ΔGAG heterozygous KI mice rescued the motor deficits. The results suggest that molecular lesions of torsinA in Purkinje cells by gene therapy or intervening in the signaling pathway downstream of the cerebellar Purkinje cells may rescue motor symptoms in dystonia 1. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Improved motor performance in Dyt1 ΔGAG heterozygous knock-in mice by cerebellar Purkinje-cell specific Dyt1 conditional knocking-out

    PubMed Central

    Yokoi, Fumiaki; Dang, Mai Tu; Li, Yuqing

    2012-01-01

    Early-onset generalized torsion dystonia (dystonia 1) is an inherited movement disorder caused by mutations in DYT1 (TOR1A), which codes for torsinA. Most patients have a 3-base pair deletion (ΔGAG) in one allele of DYT1, corresponding to a loss of a glutamic acid residue (ΔE) in the C-terminal region of the protein. Functional alterations in basal ganglia circuits and the cerebellum have been reported in dystonia. Pharmacological manipulations or mutations in genes that result in functional alterations of the cerebellum have been reported to have dystonic symptoms and have been used as phenotypic rodent models. Additionally, structural lesions in the abnormal cerebellar circuits, such as cerebellectomy, have therapeutic effects in these models. A previous study has shown that the Dyt1 ΔGAG heterozygous knock-in (KI) mice exhibit motor deficits in the beam-walking test. Both Dyt1 ΔGAG heterozygous knock-in (KI) and Dyt1 Purkinje cell-specific knockout (Dyt1 pKO) mice exhibit dendritic alterations of cerebellar Purkinje cells. Here, Dyt1 pKO mice exhibited significantly less slip numbers in the beam-walking test, suggesting better motor performance than control littermates, and normal gait. Furthermore, Dyt1 ΔGAG KI/Dyt1 pKO double mutant mice exhibited significantly lower numbers of slips than Dyt1 ΔGAG heterozygous KI mice, suggesting Purkinje-cell specific knockout of Dyt1 wild-type (WT) allele in Dyt1 ΔGAG heterozygous KI mice rescued the motor deficits. The results suggest that molecular lesions of torsinA in Purkinje cells by gene therapy or intervening in the signaling pathway downstream of the cerebellar Purkinje cells may rescue motor symptoms in dystonia 1. PMID:22391119

  10. Atp1a3-deficient heterozygous mice show lower rank in the hierarchy and altered social behavior.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, H; Ikeda, K; Kawakami, K

    2018-06-01

    Atp1a3 is the Na-pump alpha3 subunit gene expressed mainly in neurons of the brain. Atp1a3-deficient heterozygous mice (Atp1a3 +/- ) show altered neurotransmission and deficits of motor function after stress loading. To understand the function of Atp1a3 in a social hierarchy, we evaluated social behaviors (social interaction, aggression, social approach and social dominance) of Atp1a3 +/- and compared the rank and hierarchy structure between Atp1a3 +/- and wild-type mice within a housing cage using the round-robin tube test and barbering observations. Formation of a hierarchy decreases social conflict and promote social stability within the group. The hierarchical rank is a reflection of social dominance within a cage, which is heritable and can be regulated by specific genes in mice. Here we report: (1) The degree of social interaction but not aggression was lower in Atp1a3 +/- than wild-type mice, and Atp1a3 +/- approached Atp1a3 +/- mice more frequently than wild type. (2) The frequency of barbering was lower in the Atp1a3 +/- group than in the wild-type group, while no difference was observed in the mixed-genotype housing condition. (3) Hierarchy formation was not different between Atp1a3 +/- and wild type. (4) Atp1a3 +/- showed a lower rank in the mixed-genotype housing condition than that in the wild type, indicating that Atp1a3 regulates social dominance. In sum, Atp1a3 +/- showed unique social behavior characteristics of lower social interaction and preference to approach the same genotype mice and a lower ranking in the hierarchy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  11. Viable phenotype of ILNEB syndrome without nephrotic impairment in siblings heterozygous for unreported integrin alpha3 mutations.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Elisa Adele; Spaccini, Luigina; Volpi, Ludovica; Negri, Gloria; Cittaro, Davide; Lazarevic, Dejan; Zirpoli, Salvatore; Farolfi, Andrea; Gervasini, Cristina; Cubellis, Maria Vittoria; Larizza, Lidia

    2016-10-07

    Integrin α3 (ITGA3) gene mutations are associated with Interstitial Lung disease, Nephrotic syndrome and Epidermolysis bullosa (ILNEB syndrome). To date only six patients are reported: all carried homozygous ITGA3 mutations and presented a dramatically severe phenotype leading to death before age 2 years, from multi-organ failure due to interstitial lung disease and congenital nephrotic syndrome. The involvement of skin and cutaneous adnexa was variable with sparse hair and nail dysplasia combined or not to skin lesions ranging from skin fragility to epidermolysis bullosa-like blistering. We report on two siblings of 13 and 9 years born to non-consanguineous healthy parents, who display growth delay, severe pulmonary fibrosis with fatigue, dyspnea on exertion and wheezing, atrophic skin with erythematosus lesions, rare eyelashes/eyebrows and pachyonychia. By exome sequencing, we identified two unreported ITGA3 missense mutations, c.373G>A (p.(G125R)) in exon 3 and c.821G>A (p.(R274Q)) in exon 6, affecting highly conserved residues in the integrin α3 extracellular N-terminal β-propeller domain. Homology modelling of α3β1 heterodimer fragment, encompassing the mutation sites, showed that G125 plays a pivotal structural role in the β-propeller, while R274 might prevent the interaction between integrin and urokinase complex. We report a variant of ILNEB syndrome in two siblings differing from the previously reported patients in the lack of nephrotic impairment and survival beyond childhood. Our siblings are the first reported compound heterozygous for ITGA3 mutations; this state as well as the hypomorphic nature of their p.(R274Q) mutation likely account for their survival.

  12. Loss of corticostriatal and thalamostriatal synaptic terminals precedes striatal projection neuron pathology in heterozygous Q140 Huntington's disease mice.

    PubMed

    Deng, Y P; Wong, T; Bricker-Anthony, C; Deng, B; Reiner, A

    2013-12-01

    Motor slowing, forebrain white matter loss, and striatal shrinkage have been reported in premanifest Huntington's disease (HD) prior to overt striatal neuron loss. We carried out detailed LM and EM studies in a genetically precise HD mimic, heterozygous Q140 HD knock-in mice, to examine the possibility that loss of corticostriatal and thalamostriatal terminals prior to striatal neuron loss underlies these premanifest HD abnormalities. In our studies, we used VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 immunolabeling to detect corticostriatal and thalamostriatal (respectively) terminals in dorsolateral (motor) striatum over the first year of life, prior to striatal projection neuron pathology. VGLUT1+ axospinous corticostriatal terminals represented about 55% of all excitatory terminals in striatum, and VGLUT2+ axospinous thalamostriatal terminals represented about 35%, with VGLUT1+ and VGLUT2+ axodendritic terminals accounting for the remainder. In Q140 mice, a significant 40% shortfall in VGLUT2+ axodendritic thalamostriatal terminals and a 20% shortfall in axospinous thalamostriatal terminals were already observed at 1 month of age, but VGLUT1+ terminals were normal in abundance. The 20% deficiency in VGLUT2+ thalamostriatal axospinous terminals persisted at 4 and 12 months in Q140 mice, and an additional 30% loss of VGLUT1+ corticostriatal terminals was observed at 12 months. The early and persistent deficiency in thalamostriatal axospinous terminals in Q140 mice may reflect a development defect, and the impoverishment of this excitatory drive to striatum may help explain early motor defects in Q140 mice and in premanifest HD. The loss of corticostriatal terminals at 1 year in Q140 mice is consistent with prior evidence from other mouse models of corticostriatal disconnection early during progression, and can explain both the measurable bradykinesia and striatal white matter loss in late premanifest HD. © 2013.

  13. Further delineation of COG8-CDG: A case with novel compound heterozygous mutations diagnosed by targeted exome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Aram; Cho, Sung Yoon; Jang, Ja-Hyun; Kim, Jinsup; Kim, Sook Za; Lee, Beom Hee; Yoo, Han-Wook; Jin, Dong-Kyu

    2017-08-01

    Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a rapidly expanding group of inherited metabolic disorders with highly variable clinical presentations caused by deficient glycosylation of proteins and/or lipids. CDG-IIh is a very rare subgroup of CDG caused by mutations in the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex gene, COG8, and so far, only two cases have been reported in the medical literature. Here, we describe an 8-year-old Korean boy with psychomotor retardation, hypotonia, failure to thrive, elevated serum liver enzymes, microcephaly, and talipes equinovarus. A liver biopsy of the patient showed only interface hepatitis with mild lobular activity, and brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed cerebellar atrophy. Compared with the previous two reported cases, our patient showed relatively mild psychomotor retardation without a seizure history. The transferrin isoelectric focusing profiles in the patient showed a CDG type II pattern with increased disialo- and trisialo-transferrin. Targeted exome sequencing was performed to screen all CDG type II-related genes, and two novel frameshift mutations were found: c.171dupG (p.Leu58Alafs*29) and c.1656dupC (p.Ala553Argfs*15) in COG8. The parents were heterozygous carriers of each variant. CDG should be included in the initial differential diagnosis for children with a suspected unknown syndrome or unclassified inherited metabolic disorder or children with diverse clinical presentations, such as psychomotor retardation, hypotonia, skeletal deformity, microcephaly, cerebellar atrophy, and unexplained transient elevated liver enzyme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Severe Early-Onset Combined Immunodeficiency due to Heterozygous Gain-of-Function Mutations in STAT1.

    PubMed

    Baris, Safa; Alroqi, Fayhan; Kiykim, Ayca; Karakoc-Aydiner, Elif; Ogulur, Ismail; Ozen, Ahmet; Charbonnier, Louis-Marie; Bakır, Mustafa; Boztug, Kaan; Chatila, Talal A; Barlan, Isil B

    2016-10-01

    Loss and gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in human signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) lead to distinct phenotypes. Although recurrent infections are common to both types of STAT1 mutations, GOF mutations are distinguished by chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and autoimmunity. However, the clinical spectra of STAT1 GOF mutations continue to expand. We here describe two patients with STAT1 GOF mutations presenting early in life with combined immunodeficiency (CID). Clinical data and laboratory findings including immunophenotyping, level of interferon (IFN)-γ/IL-17(+) T cells, interferon-induced STAT1 phosphorylation, and JAK inhibitor assays were evaluated. Sequencing of STAT1 gene was performed by Sanger sequencer. Patient 1 (P1) had persistent oral candidiasis and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection since 2 months of age and later developed cavitary lung lesions due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Patient 2 (P2) presented with oral candidiasis and recurrent pneumonia at 4 months of age and subsequently developed CMV pneumonitis. Both patients suffered heterozygous missense mutations in STAT1, leading to deleterious amino acid substitutions in the DNA binding domain (P1: c.1154C > T; p.T385M; P2. c.971G > T; p.C324F). Circulating CD4(+) T cells of both patients exhibited increased interferon-γ and decreased IL-17 expression as compared to controls. They also exhibited increased IFN-β and -γ-induced STAT1 phosphorylation that was reversed upon treatment with the JAK kinase inhibitor ruxolitinib. STAT1 GOF mutations may present early in life with CID, consistent with the clinical heterogeneity of the disease. JAK kinase inhibitors may potentially be useful in some patients as adjunct therapy pending definitive treatment with bone marrow transplantation.

  15. A heterozygous IDH1R132H/WT mutation induces genome-wide alterations in DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Christopher G; Barwick, Benjamin G; Jin, Genglin; Rago, Carlo; Kapoor-Vazirani, Priya; Powell, Doris R; Chi, Jen-Tsan; Bigner, Darell D; Vertino, Paula M; Yan, Hai

    2012-12-01

    Monoallelic point mutations of the NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases IDH1 and IDH2 occur frequently in gliomas, acute myeloid leukemias, and chondromas, and display robust association with specific DNA hypermethylation signatures. Here we show that heterozygous expression of the IDH1(R132H) allele is sufficient to induce the genome-wide alterations in DNA methylation characteristic of these tumors. Using a gene-targeting approach, we knocked-in a single copy of the most frequently observed IDH1 mutation, R132H, into a human cancer cell line and profiled changes in DNA methylation at over 27,000 CpG dinucleotides relative to wild-type parental cells. We find that IDH1(R132H/WT) mutation induces widespread alterations in DNA methylation, including hypermethylation of 2010 and hypomethylation of 842 CpG loci. We demonstrate that many of these alterations are consistent with those observed in IDH1-mutant and G-CIMP+ primary gliomas and can segregate IDH wild-type and mutated tumors as well as those exhibiting the G-CIMP phenotype in unsupervised analysis of two primary glioma cohorts. Further, we show that the direction of IDH1(R132H/WT)-mediated DNA methylation change is largely dependent upon preexisting DNA methylation levels, resulting in depletion of moderately methylated loci. Additionally, whereas the levels of multiple histone H3 and H4 methylation modifications were globally increased, consistent with broad inhibition of histone demethylation, hypermethylation at H3K9 in particular accompanied locus-specific DNA hypermethylation at several genes down-regulated in IDH1(R132H/WT) knock-in cells. These data provide insight on epigenetic alterations induced by IDH1 mutations and support a causal role for IDH1(R132H/WT) mutants in driving epigenetic instability in human cancer cells.

  16. Heterozygous Ambra1 Deficiency in Mice: A Genetic Trait with Autism-Like Behavior Restricted to the Female Gender

    PubMed Central

    Dere, Ekrem; Dahm, Liane; Lu, Derek; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Ju, Anes; Tantra, Martesa; Kästner, Anne; Chowdhury, Kamal; Ehrenreich, Hannelore

    2014-01-01

    Autism-spectrum disorders (ASD) are heterogeneous, highly heritable neurodevelopmental conditions affecting around 0.5% of the population across cultures, with a male/female ratio of approximately 4:1. Phenotypically, ASD are characterized by social interaction and communication deficits, restricted interests, repetitive behaviors, and reduced cognitive flexibility. Identified causes converge at the level of the synapse, ranging from mutation of synaptic genes to quantitative alterations in synaptic protein expression, e.g., through compromised transcriptional or translational control. We wondered whether reduced turnover and degradation of synapses, due to deregulated autophagy, would lead to similar phenotypical consequences. Ambra1, strongly expressed in cortex, hippocampus, and striatum, is a positive regulator of Beclin1, a principal player in autophagosome formation. While homozygosity of the Ambra1 null mutation causes embryonic lethality, heterozygous mice with reduced Ambra1 expression are viable, reproduce normally, and lack any immediately obvious phenotype. Surprisingly, comprehensive behavioral characterization of these mice revealed an autism-like phenotype in Ambra1+/− females only, including compromised communication and social interactions, a tendency of enhanced stereotypies/repetitive behaviors, and impaired cognitive flexibility. Reduced ultrasound communication was found in adults as well as pups, which achieved otherwise normal neurodevelopmental milestones. These features were all absent in male Ambra1+/− mice. As a first hint explaining this gender difference, we found a much stronger reduction of Ambra1 protein in the cortex of Ambra1+/− females compared to males. To conclude, Ambra1 deficiency can induce an autism-like phenotype. The restriction to the female gender of autism-generation by a defined genetic trait is unique thus far and warrants further investigation. PMID:24904333

  17. Heterozygous ambra1 deficiency in mice: a genetic trait with autism-like behavior restricted to the female gender.

    PubMed

    Dere, Ekrem; Dahm, Liane; Lu, Derek; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Ju, Anes; Tantra, Martesa; Kästner, Anne; Chowdhury, Kamal; Ehrenreich, Hannelore

    2014-01-01

    Autism-spectrum disorders (ASD) are heterogeneous, highly heritable neurodevelopmental conditions affecting around 0.5% of the population across cultures, with a male/female ratio of approximately 4:1. Phenotypically, ASD are characterized by social interaction and communication deficits, restricted interests, repetitive behaviors, and reduced cognitive flexibility. Identified causes converge at the level of the synapse, ranging from mutation of synaptic genes to quantitative alterations in synaptic protein expression, e.g., through compromised transcriptional or translational control. We wondered whether reduced turnover and degradation of synapses, due to deregulated autophagy, would lead to similar phenotypical consequences. Ambra1, strongly expressed in cortex, hippocampus, and striatum, is a positive regulator of Beclin1, a principal player in autophagosome formation. While homozygosity of the Ambra1 null mutation causes embryonic lethality, heterozygous mice with reduced Ambra1 expression are viable, reproduce normally, and lack any immediately obvious phenotype. Surprisingly, comprehensive behavioral characterization of these mice revealed an autism-like phenotype in Ambra1 (+/-) females only, including compromised communication and social interactions, a tendency of enhanced stereotypies/repetitive behaviors, and impaired cognitive flexibility. Reduced ultrasound communication was found in adults as well as pups, which achieved otherwise normal neurodevelopmental milestones. These features were all absent in male Ambra1 (+/-) mice. As a first hint explaining this gender difference, we found a much stronger reduction of Ambra1 protein in the cortex of Ambra1 (+/-) females compared to males. To conclude, Ambra1 deficiency can induce an autism-like phenotype. The restriction to the female gender of autism-generation by a defined genetic trait is unique thus far and warrants further investigation.

  18. Comparative analyses of lung transcriptomes in patients with alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins and in foxf1 heterozygous knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Sen, Partha; Dharmadhikari, Avinash V; Majewski, Tadeusz; Mohammad, Mahmoud A; Kalin, Tanya V; Zabielska, Joanna; Ren, Xiaomeng; Bray, Molly; Brown, Hannah M; Welty, Stephen; Thevananther, Sundararajah; Langston, Claire; Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Justice, Monica J; Kalinichenko, Vladimir V; Gambin, Anna; Belmont, John; Stankiewicz, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    Alveolar Capillary Dysplasia with Misalignment of Pulmonary Veins (ACDMPV) is a developmental disorder of the lungs, primarily affecting their vasculature. FOXF1 haploinsufficiency due to heterozygous genomic deletions and point mutations have been reported in most patients with ACDMPV. The majority of mice with heterozygous loss-of-function of Foxf1 exhibit neonatal lethality with evidence of pulmonary hemorrhage in some of them. By comparing transcriptomes of human ACDMPV lungs with control lungs using expression arrays, we found that several genes and pathways involved in lung development, angiogenesis, and in pulmonary hypertension development, were deregulated. Similar transcriptional changes were found in lungs of the postnatal day 0.5 Foxf1+/- mice when compared to their wildtype littermate controls; 14 genes, COL15A1, COL18A1, COL6A2, ESM1, FSCN1, GRINA, IGFBP3, IL1B, MALL, NOS3, RASL11B, MATN2, PRKCDBP, and SIRPA, were found common to both ACDMPV and Foxf1 heterozygous lungs. Our results advance knowledge toward understanding of the molecular mechanism of ACDMPV, lung development, and its vasculature pathology. These data may also be useful for understanding etiologies of other lung disorders, e.g. pulmonary hypertension, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or cancer.

  19. G6PD/PK ratio: a reliable parameter to identify glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency associated with microcytic anemia in heterozygous subjects.

    PubMed

    Tagarelli, Antonio; Piro, Anna; Tagarelli, Giuseppe; Bastone, Loredana; Paleari, Renata; Mosca, Andrea

    2004-10-01

    To determine if measuring the ratio of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) to pyruvate kinase (PK) is more reliable than only measuring G6PD activity to identify heterozygous G6PD- individuals with associated microcytic anemia in the Calabrian population, which shows high frequencies of both the thalassaemia (thal) trait and G6PD deficiency. Measurement of G6PD and PK activities was carried out on 205 samples of whole blood from Calabrian subjects of both sexes (age range 10-50 years) using a double starter differential pH-metry technique. The G6PD/PK ratio is able to differentiate G6PD- heterozygous individuals from the normal population. G6PD/PK values also allowed us to easily identify the G6PD- heterozygous subjects with microcytic anaemia. Student's t test shows that G6PD/PK ratio is more reliable in both sample groups, relative to G6PD activity in normal subjects. G6PD/PK ratio is a reliable diagnostic parameter for mass screening for G6PD deficiency.

  20. Disruption of NBS1 gene leads to early embryonic lethality in homozygous null mice and induces specific cancer in heterozygous mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kurimasa, Akihiro; Burma, Sandeep; Henrie, Melinda

    2002-04-15

    Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) is a rare autosomal recessive chromosome instability syndrome characterized by microcephaly, growth retardation, immunodeficiency, and cancer predisposition, with cellular features similar to that of ataxia telangiectasia (AT). NBS results from mutations in the mammalian gene Nbs1 that codes for a 95-kDa protein called nibrin, NBS1, or p95. To establish an animal model for NBS, we attempted to generate NBS1 knockout mice. However, NBS1 gene knockouts were lethal at an early embryonic stage. NBS1 homozygous(-/-) blastocyst cells cultured in vitro showed retarded growth and subsequently underwent growth arrest within 5 days of culture. Apoptosis, assayed by TUNELmore » staining, was observed in NBSI homozygous(-/-) blastocyst cells cultured for four days. NBSI heterozygous(+/-) mice were normal, and exhibited no specific phenotype for at least one year. However, fibroblast cells from NBSI heterozygous(+/-) mice displayed an enhanced frequency of spontaneous transformation to anchorage-independent growth as compared to NBS1 wild-type(+/+) cells. Furthermore, heterozygous(+/-) mice exhibited a high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma after one year compared to wild-type mice, even though no significant differences in the incidence of other tumors such as lung adenocarcinoma and lymphoma were observed. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that NBS1 heterozygosity and reduced NBSI expression induces formation of specific tumors in mice.« less

  1. Jamaican families.

    PubMed

    Miner, Dianne Cooney

    2003-01-01

    The study of the family in the Caribbean originated with European scholars who assumed the universality of the patriarchal nuclear family and the primacy of this structure to the healthy functioning of society. Matrifocal Caribbean families thus were seen as chaotic and disorganized and inadequate to perform the essential tasks of the social system. This article provides a more current discussion of the Jamaican family. It argues that its structure is the result of the agency and adaptation of its members and not the root cause of the increasing marginalization of peoples in the developing world. The article focuses on families living in poverty and how the family structure supports essential family functions, adaptations, and survival.

  2. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Frameshift Mutation in Familial Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson-Zingman, Denice M.; Karst, Margaret L.; Zingman, Leonid V.; Heublein, Denise M.; Darbar, Dawood; Herron, Kathleen J.; Ballew, Jeffrey D.; de Andrade, Mariza; Burnett, John C.; Olson, Timothy M.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Atrial fibrillation is a common arrhythmia that is hereditary in a small subgroup of patients. In a family with 11 clinically affected members, we mapped an atrial fibrillation locus to chromosome 1p36-p35 and identified a heterozygous frameshift mutation in the gene encoding atrial natriuretic peptide. Circulating chimeric atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was detected in high concentration in subjects with the mutation, and shortened atrial action potentials were seen in an isolated heart model, creating a possible substrate for atrial fibrillation. This report implicates perturbation of the atrial natriuretic peptide–cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway in cardiac electrical instability. PMID:18614783

  3. Personalized Stem Cell Therapy to Correct Corneal Defects Due to a Unique Homozygous-Heterozygous Mosaicism of Ectrodactyly-Ectodermal Dysplasia-Clefting Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Barbaro, Vanessa; Nasti, Annamaria Assunta; Raffa, Paolo; Migliorati, Angelo; Nespeca, Patrizia; Ferrari, Stefano; Palumbo, Elisa; Bertolin, Marina; Breda, Claudia; Miceli, Francesco; Russo, Antonella; Caenazzo, Luciana; Ponzin, Diego; Palù, Giorgio; Parolin, Cristina; Di Iorio, Enzo

    2016-08-01

    : Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting (EEC) syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the p63 gene. To date, approximately 40 different p63 mutations have been identified, all heterozygous. No definitive treatments are available to counteract and resolve the progressive corneal degeneration due to a premature aging of limbal epithelial stem cells. Here, we describe a unique case of a young female patient, aged 18 years, with EEC and corneal dysfunction, who was, surprisingly, homozygous for a novel and de novo R311K missense mutation in the p63 gene. A detailed analysis of the degree of somatic mosaicism in leukocytes from peripheral blood and oral mucosal epithelial stem cells (OMESCs) from biopsies of buccal mucosa showed that approximately 80% were homozygous mutant cells and 20% were heterozygous. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses excluded genomic alterations, thus suggesting a de novo mutation followed by an allelic gene conversion of the wild-type allele by de novo mutant allele as a possible mechanism to explain the homozygous condition. R311K-p63 OMESCs were expanded in vitro and heterozygous holoclones selected following clonal analysis. These R311K-p63 OMESCs were able to generate well-organized and stratified epithelia in vitro, resembling the features of healthy tissues. This study supports the rationale for the development of cultured autologous oral mucosal epithelial stem cell sheets obtained by selected heterozygous R311K-p63 stem cells, as an effective and personalized therapy for reconstructing the ocular surface of this unique case of EEC syndrome, thus bypassing gene therapy approaches. This case demonstrates that in a somatic mosaicism context, a novel homozygous mutation in the p63 gene can arise as a consequence of an allelic gene conversion event, subsequent to a de novo mutation. The heterozygous mutant R311K-p63 stem cells can be isolated by means of clonal analysis and given their good regenerative

  4. CNGA3 mutations in two United Arab Emirates families with achromatopsia.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Yachna; Kohl, Susanne; Traboulsi, Elias I

    2008-07-10

    ACHROMATOPSIA RESULTS FROM MUTATIONS IN ONE OF THREE GENES: cyclic nucleotide-gated channel, alpha-3 (CNGA3); cyclic nucleotide-gated channel, beta-3 (CNGB3); and guanine nucleotide-binding protein, alpha-transducing activity polypeptide 2 (GNAT2). We report the responsible mutations in two United Arab Emirates families who have this autosomal recessive disease. Clinical examinations were performed in seven patients from three nuclear families. Molecular genetic testing for common CNGA3 and CNGB3 mutations was undertaken using standard protocols. All patients were extremely light sensitive and had reduced visual acuity and no color perception. Fundus examinations did not show any visible abnormalities. After further pedigree analysis, two of the families were found to be linked through the paternal line. Two mutations in CNGA3 were identified: Arg283Trp and Gly397Val. Family A, the larger pedigree, had one branch in which two sisters and one brother were homozygous for the Gly397Val mutation and another branch in which a brother and sister were compound heterozygous for both aforenamed mutations. Family B, however, only had two brothers who were homozygous for the Arg283Trp mutation. Achromatopsia in these two United Arab Emirates families results from two different mutations in CNGA3. Two branches of the same pedigree had individuals with both homozygous and compound heterozygous disease, demonstrating a complex molecular pathology in this large family.

  5. Prion infectivity in the spleen of a PRNP heterozygous individual with subclinical variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Matthew T.; Diack, Abigail B.; Ritchie, Diane L.; Ironside, James W.; Will, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Blood transfusion has been identified as a source of human-to-human transmission of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. Three cases of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease have been identified following red cell transfusions from donors who subsequently developed variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and an asymptomatic red cell transfusion recipient, who did not die of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, has been identified with prion protein deposition in the spleen and a lymph node, but not the brain. This individual was heterozygous (MV) at codon 129 of the prion protein gene (PRNP), whereas all previous definite and probable cases of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease have been methionine homozygotes (MM). A critical question for public health is whether the prion protein deposition reported in peripheral tissues from this MV individual correlates with infectivity. Additionally it is important to establish whether the PRNP codon 129 genotype has influenced the transmission characteristics of the infectious agent. Brain and spleen from the MV blood recipient were inoculated into murine strains that have consistently demonstrated transmission of the variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease agent. Mice were assessed for clinical and pathological signs of disease and transmission data were compared with other transmission studies in variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, including those on the spleen and brain of the donor to the index case. Transmission of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease was observed from the MV blood recipient spleen, but not from the brain, whereas there was transmission from both spleen and brain tissues from the red blood cell donor. Longer incubation times were observed for the blood donor spleen inoculum compared with the blood donor brain inoculum, suggesting lower titres of infectivity in the spleen. The distribution of vacuolar pathology and abnormal prion protein in infected mice were similar following inoculation with both donor and

  6. Wild-type offspring of heterozygous prolactin receptor-null female mice have maladaptive β-cell responses during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Carol

    2013-03-01

    Abstract  β-Cell mass increases during pregnancy in adaptation to the insulin resistance of pregnancy. This increase is accompanied by an increase in β-cell proliferation, a process that requires intact prolactin receptor (Prlr) signalling. Previously, it was found that during pregnancy, heterozygous prolactin receptor-null (Prlr(+/-)) mice had lower number of β-cells, lower serum insulin and higher blood glucose levels than wild-type (Prlr(+/+)) mice. An unexpected observation was that the glucose homeostasis of the experimental mouse depends on the genotype of her mother, such that within the Prlr(+/+) group, the Prlr(+/+) offspring derived from Prlr(+/+) mothers (Prlr(+/+(+/+))) had higher β-cell mass and lower blood glucose than those derived from Prlr(+/-) mothers (Prlr(+/+(+/-))). Pathways that are known to regulate β-cell proliferation during pregnancy include insulin receptor substrate-2, Akt, menin, the serotonin synthetic enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase-1, Forkhead box M1 and Forkhead box D3. The aim of the present study was to determine whether dysregulation in these signalling molecules in the islets could explain the maternal effect on the phenotype of the offspring. It was found that the pregnancy-induced increases in insulin receptor substrate-2 and Akt expression in the islets were attenuated in the Prlr(+/+(+/-)) mice in comparison to the Prlr(+/+(+/+)) mice. The expression of Forkhead box D3, which plays a permissive role for β-cell proliferation during pregnancy, was also lower in the Prlr(+/+(+/-)) mice. In contrast, the pregnancy-induced increases in phospho-Jak2, tryptophan hydroxylase-1 and FoxM1, as well as the pregnancy-associated reduction in menin expression, were comparable between the two groups. There was also no difference in expression levels of genes that regulate insulin synthesis and secretion (i.e. glucose transporter 2, glucokinase and pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1) between these two groups. Taken together, these

  7. Heterozygous Vangl2Looptail mice reveal novel roles for the planar cell polarity pathway in adult lung homeostasis and repair

    PubMed Central

    Poobalasingam, Thanushiyan; Yates, Laura L.; Walker, Simone A.; Pereira, Miguel; Gross, Nina Y.; Ali, Akmol; Kolatsi-Joannou, Maria; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Pekkanen, Juha; Papakrivopoulou, Eugenia; Long, David A.; Griffiths, Mark; Wagner, Darcy; Königshoff, Melanie; Hind, Matthew; Minelli, Cosetta; Lloyd, Clare M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lung diseases impose a huge economic and health burden worldwide. A key aspect of several adult lung diseases, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including emphysema, is aberrant tissue repair, which leads to an accumulation of damage and impaired respiratory function. Currently, there are few effective treatments available for these diseases and their incidence is rising. The planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway is critical for the embryonic development of many organs, including kidney and lung. We have previously shown that perturbation of the PCP pathway impairs tissue morphogenesis, which disrupts the number and shape of epithelial tubes formed within these organs during embryogenesis. However, very little is known about the role of the PCP pathway beyond birth, partly because of the perinatal lethality of many PCP mouse mutant lines. Here, we investigate heterozygous Looptail (Lp) mice, in which a single copy of the core PCP gene, Vangl2, is disrupted. We show that these mice are viable but display severe airspace enlargement and impaired adult lung function. Underlying these defects, we find that Vangl2Lp/+ lungs exhibit altered distribution of actin microfilaments and abnormal regulation of the actin-modifying protein cofilin. In addition, we show that Vangl2Lp/+ lungs exhibit many of the hallmarks of tissue damage, including an altered macrophage population, abnormal elastin deposition and elevated levels of the elastin-modifying enzyme, Mmp12, all of which are observed in emphysema. In vitro, disruption of VANGL2 impairs directed cell migration and reduces the rate of repair following scratch wounding of human alveolar epithelial cells. Moreover, using population data from a birth cohort of young adults, all aged 31, we found evidence of an interactive effect between VANGL2 and smoking on lung function. Finally, we show that PCP genes VANGL2 and SCRIB are significantly downregulated in lung

  8. Familial dyslipidaemias: an overview of genetics, pathophysiology and management.

    PubMed

    Hachem, Sahar B; Mooradian, Arshag D

    2006-01-01

    Plasma lipid disorders can occur either as a primary event or secondary to an underlying disease or use of medications. Familial dyslipidaemias are traditionally classified according to the electrophoretic profile of lipoproteins. In more recent texts, this phenotypic classification has been replaced with an aetiological classification. Familial dyslipidaemias are generally grouped into disorders leading to hypercholesterolaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, a combination of hyper-cholesterolaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia, or abnormal high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. The management of these disorders requires an understanding of plasma lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Lipid transport and metabolism involves three general pathways: (i) the exogenous pathway, whereby chylomicrons are synthesised by the small intestine, and dietary triglycerides (TGs) and cholesterol are transported to various cells of the body; (ii) the endogenous pathway, whereby very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and TGs are synthesised by the liver for transport to various tissues; and (iii) the reverse cholesterol transport, whereby HDL cholesteryl ester is exchanged for TGs in low-density lipoptrotein (LDL) and VLDL particles through cholesteryl ester transfer protein in a series of steps to remove cholesterol from the peripheral tissues for delivery to the liver and steroidogenic organs. The plasma lipid profile can provide a framework to guide the selection of appropriate diet and drug treatment. Many patients with hyperlipoproteinaemia can be treated effectively with diet. However, dietary regimens are often insufficient to bring lipoprotein levels to within acceptable limits. In this article, we review lipid transport and metabolism, discuss the more common lipid disorders and suggest some management guidelines. The choice of a particular agent depends on the baseline lipid profile achieved after 6-12 weeks of intense lifestyle changes and possible use of

  9. Characterization of six patients who are double heterozygotes for familial hypercholesterolemia and familial defective apo B-100.

    PubMed

    Rubinsztein, D C; Raal, F J; Seftel, H C; Pilcher, G; Coetzee, G A; van der Westhuyzen, D R

    1993-07-01

    Familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 (FDB) and familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) are the common causes of monogenic primary hypercholesterolemia. An individual of mixed English and Afrikaner descent with both FDB and the FH Afrikaner-1 low-density lipoprotein receptor mutation was identified in our laboratory. Subsequent analysis of her extended family revealed the presence of heterozygotes for either FH Afrikaner-1, FH Afrikaner-2, or FDB as well as five additional double heterozygotes for FH Afrikaner-1 and FDB and one "complex" heterozygote with all three mutations. The hypercholesterolemic and clinical features of the pure FDB subjects were similar to those of the pure FH heterozygotes. The double heterozygotes with both FH and FDB have lipid levels and clinical features that are intermediate in severity between heterozygous and homozygous FH.

  10. FAMILY EMPIDIDAE.

    PubMed

    Rafael, José Albertino; Câmara, Josenir Teixeira

    2016-06-14

    Empididae is one of the biggest families of Diptera with around 3,000 known species. The family is poorly known in Colombia, with only six species reported and this work provides information on their distribution. No endemic genera or species have been recorded to date from Colombia.

  11. Family Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Dave; Rees-Jones, Tanny

    1978-01-01

    A Family Workshop is an informal, multidisciplined educational program for adults and children, organized by a team of teachers. This article discusses the Lavender Hill Family Workshop, one of many, which attempts to provide education in various subject areas for adults and for children while also integrating both objectives in order to educate…

  12. FAMILY PYRGOTIDAE.

    PubMed

    Mello, Ramon Luciano; Lamas, Carlos José Einicker

    2016-06-14

    Pyrgotidae is a family of endoparasitics flies of beetles with worldwide distribution. The Neotropical fauna is composed by 59 valid species names disposed in 13 genera. The occurrence of Pyrgota longipes Hendel is the first record of the family in Colombia.

  13. Family Potyviridae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses potyvirus study group has revised the description of the family Potyviridae for inclusion in the ICTV 9th report. Characteristic features of each genus within the family is presented. Revised criteria for demarcation and nomenclature of viral sp...

  14. FAMILY READINESS

    Science.gov Websites

    RESPONSIBILITY CENTCOM COALITION MEDIA SOCIAL MEDIA NEWS ARTICLES PRESS RELEASES IMAGERY VIDEOS TRANSCRIPTS VISITORS AND PERSONNEL FAMILY CENTER FAMILY READINESS CENTCOM WEBMAIL SOCIAL MEDIA SECURITY ACCOUNTABILITY Social Media Follow MacDill AFB on social media to get updates about traffic, gate closures, construction

  15. Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on various aspects of mammal family life ranging from ways different species are born to how different mammals are raised. Learning activities include making butter from cream, creating birth announcements for mammals, and playing a password game on family life. (ML)

  16. A novel heterozygous RIT1 mutation in a patient with Noonan syndrome, leukopenia, and transient myeloproliferation-a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Nemcikova, Michaela; Vejvalkova, Sarka; Fencl, Filip; Sukova, Martina; Krepelova, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is a genetic condition presenting with typical facies, cardiac defects, short stature, variable developmental deficit, cryptorchidism, skeletal, and other abnormalities. Germline mutations in genes involved in the RAS/MAPK signaling have been discovered to underlie NS. Recently, missense mutations in RIT1 have been reported as causative for individuals with clinical signs of NS. We report on a 2.5-year-old boy with NS phenotype with a novel heterozygous change in the RIT1 gene. The patient was born prematurely from pregnancy monitored for polyhydramnios. At 7 months of age, non-immune neutropenia and splenomegaly have been observed. During the severe pneumonia at 10 months, significant progression of hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia with monocytosis (15-29 %), and thrombocytopenia occurred. Bone marrow evaluation showed myeloid hyperplasia and monocytosis, suggestive of myeloproliferative syndrome. Clinical phenotype (facial dysmorphism, soft hair, short neck, broad chest, widely spaced nipples, mild pectus carinatum, deep palmar creases, unilateral cryptorchidism), and moderate pulmonary valve stenosis with mild psychomotor delay were indicative of NS. DNA analysis identified a de novo heterozygous variant c.69A >T, p.(Lys23Asn) in exon 2 of the RIT1 gene, presumed to be causative. We present a patient with a clinical suspicion of NS carrying a novel substitution in RIT1 and hematologic findings not being observed in RIT1 positive patients to date. Thus, the case broadens variability of hematologic symptoms in RIT1 positive NS individuals. • Noonan syndrome is a common genetically heterogeneous disorder of autosomal dominant inheritance characterized by craniofacial dysmorphism, short stature, congenital heart defects, variable cognitive deficit, and other anomalies. What is new: • We report on a 2.5-year-old male patient with clinical signs of NS and hematologic abnormalities, in whom a novel heterozygous substitution in RIT1 with probable

  17. Heterozygous Submicroscopic Inversions Involving Olfactory Receptor–Gene Clusters Mediate the Recurrent t(4;8)(p16;p23) Translocation

    PubMed Central

    Giglio, Sabrina; Calvari, Vladimiro; Gregato, Giuliana; Gimelli, Giorgio; Camanini, Silvia; Giorda, Roberto; Ragusa, Angela; Guerneri, Silvana; Selicorni, Angelo; Stumm, Marcus; Tonnies, Holger; Ventura, Mario; Zollino, Marcella; Neri, Giovanni; Barber, John; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Rocchi, Mariano; Zuffardi, Orsetta

    2002-01-01

    The t(4;8)(p16;p23) translocation, in either the balanced form or the unbalanced form, has been reported several times. Taking into consideration the fact that this translocation may be undetected in routine cytogenetics, we find that it may be the most frequent translocation after t(11q;22q), which is the most common reciprocal translocation in humans. Case subjects with der(4) have the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome, whereas case subjects with der(8) show a milder spectrum of dysmorphic features. Two pairs of the many olfactory receptor (OR)–gene clusters are located close to each other, on both 4p16 and 8p23. Previously, we demonstrated that an inversion polymorphism of the OR region at 8p23 plays a crucial role in the generation of chromosomal imbalances through unusual meiotic exchanges. These findings prompted us to investigate whether OR-related inversion polymorphisms at 4p16 and 8p23 might also be involved in the origin of the t(4;8)(p16;p23) translocation. In seven case subjects (five of whom both represented de novo cases and were of maternal origin), including individuals with unbalanced and balanced translocations, we demonstrated that the breakpoints fell within the 4p and 8p OR-gene clusters. FISH experiments with appropriate bacterial-artificial-chromosome probes detected heterozygous submicroscopic inversions of both 4p and 8p regions in all the five mothers of the de novo case subjects. Heterozygous inversions on 4p16 and 8p23 were detected in 12.5% and 26% of control subjects, respectively, whereas 2.5% of them were scored as doubly heterozygous. These novel data emphasize the importance of segmental duplications and large-scale genomic polymorphisms in the evolution and pathology of the human genome. PMID:12058347

  18. Family Health and Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This document is made up of a selection of some of the papers distributed to participants in courses on "Family Health and Family Planning" which have been organized each year since 1973 by the International Children's Center and the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Six courses, held between 1973 and 1978, brought together a…

  19. Simultaneous Occurence of an Autosomal Dominant Inherited MSX1 Mutation and an X-linked Recessive Inherited EDA Mutation in One Chinese Family with Non-syndromic Oligodontia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao Xia; Wong, Sing Wai; Han, Dong; Feng, Hai Lan

    2015-01-01

    To describe the simultaneous occurence of an autosomal dominant inherited MSX1 mutation and an X-linked recessive inherited EDA mutation in one Chinese family with nonsyndromic oligodontia. Clinical data of characteristics of tooth agenesis were collected. MSX1 and EDA gene mutations were detected in a Chinese family of non-syndromic oligodontia. Mild hypodontia in the parents and severe oligodontia in the son was recorded. A novel missense heterozygous mutation c.517C>A (p.Arg173Ser) was detected in the MSX1 gene in the boy and the father. A homozygous missense mutation c.1001G>A (p.Arg334His) was detected in the EDA gene in the boy and the same mutant occurred heterozygously in the mother. Simultaneous occurence of two different gene mutations with different inheritence patterns, which both caused oligodontia, which occurred in one subject and in one family, was reported.

  20. FAMILY STRATIOMYIDAE.

    PubMed

    Fachin, Diego Aguilar; De Assis-Pujol, Cristiane Vieira

    2016-06-14

    The family Stratiomyidae has more than 2,800 described species, of which 1001 species belongs to the Neotropics. This catalog for Colombia presents 87 species distributed in 32 genera, and ten subfamilies. Merosargus gracilis and the genus Microchrysa, with a single species M. bicolor are recorded for the first time to Colombia. The fauna is very expressive but still poorly known, representing nearly one tenth of the Neotropical diversity of the family in numbers of species, and one fifth of generic diversity.

  1. The risk of familial Mediterranean fever in MEFV heterozygotes: a statistical approach.

    PubMed

    Jéru, Isabelle; Hentgen, Véronique; Cochet, Emmanuelle; Duquesnoy, Philippe; Le Borgne, Gaëlle; Grimprel, Emmanuel; Stojanovic, Katia Stankovic; Karabina, Sonia; Grateau, Gilles; Amselem, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive autoinflammatory disorder due to MEFV mutations and one of the most frequent Mediterranean genetic diseases. The observation of many heterozygous patients in whom a second mutated allele was excluded led to the proposal that heterozygosity could be causal. However, heterozygosity might be coincidental in many patients due to the very high rate of mutations in Mediterranean populations. To better delineate the pathogenicity of heterozygosity in order to improve genetic counselling and disease management. Complementary statistical approaches were used: estimation of FMF prevalence at population levels, genotype comparison in siblings from 63 familial forms, and genotype study in 557 patients from four Mediterranean populations. At the population level, we did not observe any contribution of heterozygosity to disease prevalence. In affected siblings of patients carrying two MEFV mutations, 92% carry two mutated alleles, whereas 4% are heterozygous with typical FMF diagnosis. We demonstrated statistically that patients are more likely to be heterozygous than healthy individuals, as shown by the higher ratio heterozygous carriers/non carriers in patients (p<10(-7)-p<0.003). The risk for heterozygotes to develop FMF was estimated between 2.1 × 10(-3) and 5.8 × 10(-3) and the relative risk, as compared to non carriers, between 6.3 and 8.1. This is the first statistical demonstration that heterozygosity is not responsible for classical Mendelian FMF per se, but constitutes a susceptibility factor for clinically-similar multifactorial forms of the disease. We also provide a first estimate of the risk for heterozygotes to develop FMF.

  2. Normal Functioning Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families ...

  3. Functional characterization of novel ABCB6 mutations and their clinical implications in familial pseudohyperkalemia

    PubMed Central

    Andolfo, Immacolata; Russo, Roberta; Manna, Francesco; De Rosa, Gianluca; Gambale, Antonella; Zouwail, Soha; Detta, Nicola; Pardo, Catia Lo; Alper, Seth L.; Brugnara, Carlo; Sharma, Alok K.; De Franceschi, Lucia; Iolascon, Achille

    2016-01-01

    Isolated familial pseudohyperkalemia is a dominant red cell trait characterized by cold-induced ‘passive leak’ of red cell potassium ions into plasma. The causative gene of this condition is ABCB6, which encodes an erythrocyte membrane ABC transporter protein bearing the Langereis blood group antigen system. In this study analyzing three new families, we report the first functional characterization of ABCB6 mutants, including the homozygous mutation V454A, heterozygous mutation R276W, and compound heterozygous mutations R276W and R723Q (in trans). All these mutations are annotated in public databases, suggesting that familial pseudohyperkalemia could be common in the general population. Indeed, we identified variant R276W in one of 327 random blood donors (0.3%). Four weeks’ storage of heterozygous R276W blood cells resulted in massive loss of potassium compared to that from healthy control red blood cells. Moreover, measurement of cation flux demonstrated greater loss of potassium or rubidium ions from HEK-293 cells expressing ABCB6 mutants than from cells expressing wild-type ABCB6. The R276W/R723Q mutations elicited greater cellular potassium ion efflux than did the other mutants tested. In conclusion, ABCB6 missense mutations in red blood cells from subjects with familial pseudohyperkalemia show elevated potassium ion efflux. The prevalence of such individuals in the blood donor population is moderate. The fact that storage of blood from these subjects leads to significantly increased levels of potassium in the plasma could have serious clinical implications for neonates and infants receiving large-volume transfusions of whole blood. Genetic tests for familial pseudohyperkalemia could be added to blood donor pre-screening. Further study of ABCB6 function and trafficking could be informative for the study of other pathologies of red blood cell hydration. PMID:27151991

  4. Familial Pallister-Hall in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Talsania, Mitali; Sharma, Rohan; Sughrue, Michael E; Scofield, R Hal; Lim, Jonea

    2017-10-01

    Pallister Hall syndrome is autosomal dominant disorder usually diagnosed in infants and children. Current diagnostic criteria include presence of hypothalamic hamartoma, post axial polydactyly and positive family history, but the disease has variable manifestations. Herein we report Pallister Hall syndrome diagnosed in a family where both patients were adults. A 59 year old man developed seizures 4 years prior to our evaluation of him, at which time imaging showed a hypothalamic hamartoma. The seizures were controlled medically. He did well until he had visual changes after a traumatic head injury. Repeat MRI showed slight expansion of the mass with formal visual field testing demonstrating bitemporal hemianopsia. There was no evidence of pituitary dysfunction except for large urine volume. He underwent surgery to debulk the hamartoma and the visual field defects improved. There was no hypopituitarism post-operatively, and the polydyspia resolved. His 29 year old daughter also had seizures and hypothalamic hamartoma. Both patients had had polydactyly with prior surgical correction in childhood. The daughter underwent genetic testing, which revealed a previously undescribed heterozygous single base pair deletion in exon 13 of the GLI3 gene causing a frameshift mutation. Further investigation into family history revealed multiple members in previous generations with polydactyly and/or seizures. Pallister-Hall syndrome is caused by an inherited autosomal dominant or de novo mutation in GLI3 gene. This rare syndrome has not had prevalence defined, however. Generally, diagnoses are made in the pediatric population. Our report adds to the few cases detected in adulthood.

  5. Girl with signs of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease heterozygous for a mutation in exon 2 of the proteolipid protein gene

    SciTech Connect

    Hodes, M.E.; DeMyer, W.E.; Pratt, V.M.

    1995-02-13

    We studied a female infant with clinical signs of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD), who has a familial mutation (C{sup 41}{r_arrow}T) in exon 2 of the proteolipid protein gene (PLP), and selected relatives. While the carrier mother and grandmother of the proposita currently are neurologically normal and show normal T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain, the infant has a neurological picture, MRIs, and brain auditory evoked response (BAER) consistent with that diagnosis. The data here presented show that PMD can occur in females carrying a mutation in the PLP gene. Our experience with the MRIs of this patient, her mothermore » and grandmother, and those of a previously reported family show that molecular genetic analysis and not MRI is the appropriate means for carrier detection. 22 refs., 5 figs.« less

  6. Genetic background has a major effect on the penetrance and severity of craniofacial defects in mice heterozygous for the gene encoding the nucleolar protein Treacle.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Jill; Dixon, Michael James

    2004-04-01

    Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is a craniofacial disorder that results from mutations in TCOF1, which encodes the nucleolar protein Treacle. The severity of the clinical features exhibits wide variation and includes hypoplasia of the mandible and maxilla, abnormalities of the external ears and middle ear ossicles, and cleft palate. To determine the in vivo function of Treacle, we previously generated Tcof1 heterozygous mice on a mixed C57BL/6 and 129 background. These mice exhibited a lethal phenotype, which included abnormal development of the maxilla, absence of the eyes and nasal passages, and neural tube defects. Here, we show that placing the mutation onto different genetic backgrounds has a major effect on the penetrance and severity of the craniofacial and other defects. The offspring exhibit markedly variable strain-dependent phenotypes that range from extremely severe and lethal in a mixed CBA/Ca and 129 background, to apparently normal and viable in a mixed BALB/c and 129 background. In the former case, in addition to a profoundly severe craniofacial phenotype, CBA-derived heterozygous mice also exhibited delayed ossification of the long bones, rib fusions, and digit anomalies. The results of our studies indicate that factors in the different genetic backgrounds contribute extensively to the Tcof1 phenotype. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Specific expression of FOXP2 in cerebellum improves ultrasonic vocalization in heterozygous but not in homozygous Foxp2 (R552H) knock-in pups.

    PubMed

    Fujita-Jimbo, Eriko; Momoi, Takashi

    2014-04-30

    The R553H mutation has been found in the FOXP2 gene of patients with speech-language disorder. Foxp2(R552H) knock-in (KI) mice exhibit poor dendritic development of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum and impaired ultrasonic vocalization (USV), which is related to human speech and language; compared with wild-type mice, heterozygous Foxp2(R552H)-KI pups exhibit the reduced number of whistle-type USVs and the increased short-type ones, while homozygous pups exhibit only click-type USVs but no whistle-type or short-type ones. To make clear the relationship between the role of Foxp2 in the cerebellum and whistle-type USVs activity, we prepared transgenic (Tg) mice specifically expressing human FOXP2-myc in cerebellum (Pcp2-FOXP2-myc-Tg mice) by using purkinje cell protein-2 (Pcp2) promoter. FOXP2-myc expression in the cerebellum increased the relative numbers of whistle-type USVs in the heterozygous Foxp2(R552H)-KI pups and recovered their USVs but did not in the homozygous ones. Foxp2 in the cerebellum may pertain to the brain network engaged in whistle-type USVs activities including modification, but not their production. There may be common molecular contribution of Purkinje cells to human FOXP2-mediated speech-language and mouse Foxp2-mediated USVs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A heterozygous mutation in RPGR associated with X-linked retinitis pigmentosa in a patient with Turner syndrome mosaicism (45,X/46,XX).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi; Yao, Fengxia; Wang, Feng; Li, Hui; Chen, Rui; Sui, Ruifang

    2018-01-01

    Turner syndrome with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is rare, with only three cases reported based on clinical examination alone. We summarized the 4-year follow-up and molecular findings in a 28-year-old patient with Turner syndrome and the typical features of short stature and neck webbing, who also had X-linked RP. Her main complaints were night blindness and progressive loss of vision since the age of 9 years. Ophthalmologic examination, optical coherent tomographic imaging, and visual electrophysiology tests showed classic manifestations of RP. The karyotype of peripheral blood showed mosaicism (45,X [72%]/46,XX[28%]). A novel heterozygous frameshift mutation (c.2403_2406delAGAG, p.T801fsX812) in the RP GTPase regulator (RPGR) gene was detected using next generation sequencing and validated by Sanger sequencing. We believe that this is the first report of X-linked RP in a patient with Turner syndrome associated with mosaicism, and an RPGR heterozygous mutation. We hypothesize that X-linked RP in this woman is not related to Turner syndrome, but may be a manifestation of the lack of a normal paternal X chromosome with intact but mutated RPGR. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Follow-up Findings in a Turkish Girl with Pseudohypoparathyroidism Type Ia Caused by a Novel Heterozygous Mutation in the GNAS Gene.

    PubMed

    Şahin, Sezgin; Hiort, Olaf; Thiele, Susanne; Evliyaoğlu, Olcay; Tüysüz, Beyhan

    2017-03-01

    Pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHP-Ia) is characterized by multihormone resistance and an Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) phenotype. It is caused by heterozygous mutations in GNAS gene. Clinical and biochemical findings of a female PHP-Ia patient were evaluated from age of diagnosis (6.5 years) to 14.5 years of age. The patient had short stature, brachydactyly, and subcutaneous heterotopic ossifications. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels were normal, but parathyroid hormone levels were high. Based on the typical clinical findings of AHO phenotype and biochemical findings, she was diagnosed as having PHP-Ia. A novel heterozygous mutation (c.128T>C) was found in the GNAS gene. Follow-up examinations revealed resistance to thyroid-stimulating hormone and a bioinactive growth hormone. Clinicians should take into consideration PHP-Ia in patients referred with short stature, and patients with an AHO phenotype must be further evaluated for hormone resistance, GNAS gene mutation, Gsα activity. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing bioinactive growth hormone in PHP-Ia.

  10. Targeted exome sequencing identifies novel compound heterozygous mutations in P3H1 in a fetus with osteogenesis imperfecta type VIII.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanru; Mei, Libin; Lv, Weigang; Li, Haoxian; Zhang, Rui; Pan, Qian; Tan, Hu; Guo, Jing; Luo, Xiaomei; Chen, Chen; Liang, Desheng; Wu, Lingqian

    2017-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a highly clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders. It is difficult to identify severe OI in the perinatal period. Here, a Chinese woman with a suspected history of fetal OI was referred to our institution at 19weeks of gestation, due to ultrasound inspection during antenatal screening, which revealed bulbous metaphyses, short humeri, and short thick bent femora in the fetus. Using targeted exome sequencing of 248 genes known to be involved in skeletal system diseases, we identified novel compound heterozygous mutation in the P3H1 gene in the fetus with OI type VIII: c.105_120del (p.D36Rfs*16) and c.2164C>T (p.Q722*). These two mutations were inherited from the father and mother, respectively. The mRNA level of P3H1 wasn't changed suggested that mRNA with this mutation escaped from nonsense-mediated RNA decay. Besides, the level of P3H1 was absence while the CRTAP was mildly decreased. In conclusion, our findings imply this novel compound heterozygous mutation as the molecular pathogenetic in a Chinese fetus with OI type VIII, and demonstrate that targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) is an accurate, rapid, and cost-effective method in the genetic diagnosis of fetal skeletal dysplasia with genetic and clinical heterogeneity, especially for autosomal recessive skeletal disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Exome sequencing identifies novel compound heterozygous IFNA4 and IFNA10 mutations as a cause of impaired function in Crohn’s disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Chuan-Xing; Xiao, Jing-Jing; Xu, Hong-Zhi; Wang, Huan-Huan; Chen, Xu; Liu, Yuan-Sheng; Li, Ping; Shi, Ying; Nie, Yong-Zhan; Li, Shao; Wu, Kai-Chun; Liu, Zhan-Ju; Ren, Jian-Lin; Guleng, Bayasi

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have highlighted the role of genetic predispositions in disease, and several genes had been identified as important in Crohn’s disease (CD). However, many of these genes are likely rare and not associated with susceptibility in Chinese CD patients. We found 294 shared identical variants in the CD patients of which 26 were validated by Sanger sequencing. Two heterozygous IFN variants (IFNA10 c.60 T > A; IFNA4 c.60 A > T) were identified as significantly associated with CD susceptibility. The single-nucleotide changes alter a cysteine situated before the signal peptide cleavage site to a stop code (TGA) in IFNA10 result in the serum levels of IFNA10 were significantly decreased in the CD patients compared to the controls. Furthermore, the IFNA10 and IFNA4 mutants resulted in an impairment of the suppression of HCV RNA replication in HuH7 cells, and the administration of the recombinant IFN subtypes restored DSS-induced colonic inflammation through the upregulation of CD4+ Treg cells. We identified heterozygous IFNA10 and IFNA4 variants as a cause of impaired function and CD susceptibility genes in Chinese patients from multiple center based study. These findings might provide clues in the understanding of the genetic heterogeneity of CD and lead to better screening and improved treatment. PMID:26000985

  12. Hypogonadism in a patient with two novel mutations of the luteinizing hormone β-subunit gene expressed in a compound heterozygous form.

    PubMed

    Basciani, Sabrina; Watanabe, Mikiko; Mariani, Stefania; Passeri, Marina; Persichetti, Agnese; Fiore, Daniela; Scotto d'Abusco, Anna; Caprio, Massimiliano; Lenzi, Andrea; Fabbri, Andrea; Gnessi, Lucio

    2012-09-01

    LH gene mutations are rare; only four mutations have been described. The affected individuals are hypogonadal. We describe the clinical features of a 31-yr-old man who presented with delayed puberty and azoospermia and was found to have hypogonadism associated with an absence of circulating LH. The patient had a 12-bp deletion in exon 2 in the LH β-subunit gene and a mutation of the 5' splice site IVS2+1G→T in the same gene present in a compound heterozygous state. The first mutation predicts a deletion of four leucines of the hydrophobic core of the signal peptide. The second mutation disrupts the splicing of mRNA, generating a gross abnormality in the processing. The patient's heterozygous parents were clinically normal. The phenotype of a 16-yr-old sister of the proband, carrying the same mutations, was characterized by normal pubertal development and oligomenorrhea. This report unravels two novel mutations of the LH gene critical for synthesis and activity of the LH molecule. The insight gained from the study is that normal pubertal maturation in women can occur in a state of LH deficiency, whereas LH is essential for maturation of Leydig cells and thus steroidogenesis, puberty, and spermatogenesis in man. These mutations should be considered in girls and boys with selective deficiency of LH.

  13. Identification of a Novel De Novo Heterozygous Deletion in the SOX10 Gene in Waardenburg Syndrome Type II Using Next-Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Li, Haonan; Jin, Peng; Hao, Qian; Zhu, Wei; Chen, Xia; Wang, Ping

    2017-11-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder associated with pigmentation abnormalities and sensorineural hearing loss. In this study, we investigated the genetic cause of WSII in a patient and evaluated the reliability of the targeted next-generation exome sequencing method for the genetic diagnosis of WS. Clinical evaluations were conducted on the patient and targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to identify the candidate genes responsible for WSII. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were performed to confirm the targeted NGS results. Targeted NGS detected the entire deletion of the coding sequence (CDS) of the SOX10 gene in the WSII patient. MLPA results indicated that all exons of the SOX10 heterozygous deletion were detected; no aberrant copy number in the PAX3 and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) genes was found. Real-time qPCR results identified the mutation as a de novo heterozygous deletion. This is the first report of using a targeted NGS method for WS candidate gene sequencing; its accuracy was verified by using the MLPA and qPCR methods. Our research provides a valuable method for the genetic diagnosis of WS.

  14. Mice heterozygous for the ATM gene are more sensitive to both X-ray and heavy ion exposure than are wildtypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worgul, B. V.; Smilenov, L.; Brenner, D. J.; Vazquez, M.; Hall, E. J.

    Previous studies have shown that the eyes of ATM heterozygous mice exposed to low-LET radiation (X-rays) are significantly more susceptible to the development of cataracts than are those of wildtype mice. The findings, as well as others, run counter to the assumption underpinning current radiation safety guidelines, that individuals are all equally sensitive to the biological effects of radiation. A question, highly relevant to human space activities is whether or not, in similar fashion there may exist a genetic predisposition to high-LET radiation damage. Mice haplodeficient for the ATM gene and wildtypes were exposed to 325 mGy of 1 GeV/amu 56Fe ions at the AGS facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The fluence was equivalent to 1 ion per lens epithelial cell nuclear area. Controls consisted of irradiated wildtype as well as unirradiated wildtype and heterozygous mice. Prevalence analyses for stage 0.5-3.0 cataracts indicated that not only cataract onset but also progression were accelerated in the mice haplo-deficient for the ATM gene. The data show that heterozygosity for the ATM gene predisposes the eye to the cataractogenic influence of heavy ions and suggest that ATM heterozygotes in the human population may also be radiosensitive. This may have to be considered in the selection of individuals who will be exposed to both HZE particles and low-LET radiation as they may be predisposed to increased late normal tissue damage.

  15. Newborn screening of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Guangxi, China: determination of optimal cutoff value to identify heterozygous female neonates.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chunyun; Luo, Shiyu; Li, Qifei; Xie, Bobo; Yang, Qi; Geng, Guoxing; Lin, Caijuan; Su, Jiasun; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Jin; Qin, Zailong; Luo, Jingsi; Chen, Shaoke; Fan, Xin

    2018-01-16

    The aim of this study is to assess the disease incidence and mutation spectrum of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in Guangxi, China, and to determine an optimal cutoff value to identify heterozygous female neonates. A total of 130, 635 neonates were screened from the year of 2013 to 2017. Neonates suspected for G6PD deficiency were further analyzed by quantitatively enzymatic assay and G6PD mutation analysis. The overall incidence of G6PD deficiency was 7.28%. A total of 14 G6PD mutations were identified, and different mutations lead to varying levels of G6PD enzymatic activities. The best cut-off value of G6PD activity in male subjects is 2.2 U/g Hb, same as conventional setting. In female population, however, the cut-off value is found to be 2.8 U/g Hb (sensitivity: 97.5%, specificity: 87.7%, AUC: 0.964) to best discriminate between normal and heterozygotes, and 1.6 U/g Hb (sensitivity: 82.2%, specificity: 85.9%, AUC: 0.871) between heterozygotes and deficient subjects. In conclusion, we have conducted a comprehensive newborn screening of G6PD deficiency in a large cohort of population from Guangxi, China, and first established a reliable cut-off value of G6PD activity to distinguish heterozygous females from either normal or deficient subjects.

  16. Family genome browser: visualizing genomes with pedigree information.

    PubMed

    Juan, Liran; Liu, Yongzhuang; Wang, Yongtian; Teng, Mingxiang; Zang, Tianyi; Wang, Yadong

    2015-07-15

    Families with inherited diseases are widely used in Mendelian/complex disease studies. Owing to the advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies, family genome sequencing becomes more and more prevalent. Visualizing family genomes can greatly facilitate human genetics studies and personalized medicine. However, due to the complex genetic relationships and high similarities among genomes of consanguineous family members, family genomes are difficult to be visualized in traditional genome visualization framework. How to visualize the family genome variants and their functions with integrated pedigree information remains a critical challenge. We developed the Family Genome Browser (FGB) to provide comprehensive analysis and visualization for family genomes. The FGB can visualize family genomes in both individual level and variant level effectively, through integrating genome data with pedigree information. Family genome analysis, including determination of parental origin of the variants, detection of de novo mutations, identification of potential recombination events and identical-by-decent segments, etc., can be performed flexibly. Diverse annotations for the family genome variants, such as dbSNP memberships, linkage disequilibriums, genes, variant effects, potential phenotypes, etc., are illustrated as well. Moreover, the FGB can automatically search de novo mutations and compound heterozygous variants for a selected individual, and guide investigators to find high-risk genes with flexible navigation options. These features enable users to investigate and understand family genomes intuitively and systematically. The FGB is available at http://mlg.hit.edu.cn/FGB/. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Family welfare.

    PubMed

    Sinha, N K

    1992-01-01

    Between 1901-1921, India gained 12.9 million people because mortality remained high. The death rate fell between 1921-1951, but birth rates remained the same. Therefore 110 million people were added--2 times the population increase between 1891-1921. Between 1951-1981, the population increased to 324 million. Socioeconomic development was responsible for most of the downward trend in the birth rate during the 20th century. Even though large families were the norm in early India, religious leaders encouraged small family size. The 1st government family planning clinics in the world opened in Mysore and Bangalore in 1930. Right before Independence, the Bhore Committee made recommendations to reduce population growth such as increasing the age of marriage for girls. Since 1951 there has been a change in measures and policies geared towards population growth with each of the 7 5-Year Plans because policy makers applied what they learned from each previous plan. The 1st 5-Year Plan emphasized the need to understand what factors contribute to population growth. It also integrated family planning services into health services of hospitals and health centers. The government was over zealous in its implementation of the sterilization program (2nd 5-Year Plan, 1956-1961), however, which hurt family planning programs for many years. As of early 1992, sterilization, especially tubectomy, remained the most popular family planning method, however. The 7th 5-Year Plan changed its target of reaching a Net Reproductive Rate of 1 by 2001 to 2006-2011. It set a goal of 100% immunization coverage by 1990 but it did not occur. In 1986, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare planned to make free contraceptives available in urban and rural areas and to involve voluntary organizations. The government needs to instill measures to increase women's status, women's literacy, and age of marriage as well as to eliminate poverty, ensure old age security, and ensure child survival and

  18. Compound Heterozygosity of Dominant and Recessive COL7A Alleles in a Severely Affected Patient with a Family History of Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa: Clinical Findings, Genetic Testing, and Treatment Implications.

    PubMed

    Watson, Kendra D; Schoch, Jennifer J; Beek, Geoffrey J; Hand, Jennifer L

    2017-03-01

    An 8-year-old girl born to a family with more than three generations of dominant dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DDEB) presented with life-threatening confluent skin erosions, mitten hand deformity, and failure to thrive. Reassessment of her family history and genetic testing showed compound heterozygous COL7A mutations, one inherited from her DDEB-affected mother and one from her unaffected, healthy father. This family illustrates the risk of unexpected, severe, autosomal recessive epidermolysis bullosa (EB) in a family with milder, multigenerational autosomal dominant EB. Clinicians should recognize the clinical spectrum of dystrophic EB and recommend genetic consultation when the phenotype conflicts with family history. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Effective treatment by glycolic acid peeling for cutaneous manifestation of familial generalized acanthosis nigricans caused by FGFR3 mutation.

    PubMed

    Ichiyama, S; Funasaka, Y; Otsuka, Y; Takayama, R; Kawana, S; Saeki, H; Kubo, A

    2016-03-01

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN) can occur as a cutaneous manifestation of genetic diseases, one of which is associated with activating mutations of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 gene (FGFR3). We explored familial AN patients with FGFR3 mutations and examined the effectiveness of glycolic acid (GA) peeling in improving their skin manifestations. Sanger sequencing was performed for the genomic DNA extracted from leucocytes of the family members involving familial AN. GA peeling was carried out for the two patients of familial AN once every 2 weeks. Heterozygous c.1949A>C (p.K650T) mutation in FGFR3 was identified for the affected family members examined, whereas the wild-type sequence was found for two unaffected individuals. Hyperpigmentation and coarseness of the skin were improved by GA peeling at regular intervals with few adverse effects. We diagnosed our cases as familial generalized AN caused by heterozygous c.1949A>C (p.K650T) mutation of FGFR3. We propose that GA peeling is a useful and safe therapeutic option to treat familial AN. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  20. Family violence.

    PubMed

    Emery, R E

    1989-02-01

    Researchers and policymakers have begun to recognize the extent and severity of family violence in recent years, particularly its effects on children. Despite a flurry of research, however, there is much disagreement about the definition of violence, its development, the consequences for victims, and the most effective avenues for intervention. Similar conceptual, methodological, and practical problems are faced by those working in the areas of physical child abuse, child sex abuse, and child witnesses to spouse abuse. In further research on these complex problems, researchers are encouraged to use operational definitions that avoid terms like abuse and violence, to focus new efforts on emotional mediators of violent actions, to evaluate the effects of violence on the entire family system, and to redouble efforts to conduct systematic outcome research. Those professionals who are currently responsible for intervention are encouraged to use definitions of and responses to family violence that match those used for assaults between strangers.

  1. FAMILY HYBOTIDAE.

    PubMed

    Ale-Rocha, Rosaly; De Freitas-Silva, Rafael Augusto Pinheiro

    2016-06-14

    Hybotidae is a diverse family of the order Diptera, suborder Brachycera, superfamily Empidoidea. Hybotid flies are generally yellow to black, are morphologically diverse, and are distributed worldwide. The monophyly of the family is based on: palpifer and fore tibial gland present, laterotergite bare and R4+5 unbranched. Hybotids are mainly predators and are usually found on the vegetation, logs and other surfaces, or in flight during displacement and forage. This catalogue, based on the study of specimens and available literature records, summarizes and updates the information on the Colombian fauna of Hybotidae, which includes 19 species distributed in six genera.

  2. Familial Hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Bouhairie, Victoria Enchia; Goldberg, Anne Carol

    2016-03-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia is a common, inherited disorder of cholesterol metabolism that leads to early cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It is underdiagnosed and undertreated. Statins, ezetimibe, bile acid sequestrants, niacin, lomitapide, mipomersen, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis are treatments that can lower LDL cholesterol levels. Early treatment can lead to substantial reduction of cardiovascular events and death in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. It is important to increase awareness of this disorder in physicians and patients to reduce the burden of this disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Bouhairie, Victoria Enchia; Goldberg, Anne Carol

    2015-05-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia is a common, inherited disorder of cholesterol metabolism that leads to early cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It is underdiagnosed and undertreated. Statins, ezetimibe, bile acid sequestrants, niacin, lomitapide, mipomersen, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis are treatments that can lower LDL cholesterol levels. Early treatment can lead to substantial reduction of cardiovascular events and death in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. It is important to increase awareness of this disorder in physicians and patients to reduce the burden of this disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Severe hypertriglyceridemia in a patient heterozygous for a lipoprotein lipase gene allele with two novel missense variants.

    PubMed

    Kassner, Ursula; Salewsky, Bastian; Wühle-Demuth, Marion; Szijarto, Istvan Andras; Grenkowitz, Thomas; Binner, Priska; März, Winfried; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Demuth, Ilja

    2015-09-01

    Rare monogenic hyperchylomicronemia is caused by loss-of-function