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Sample records for hexavalent chromium exposure

  1. Occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2006-02-28

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is amending the existing standard which limits occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)). OSHA has determined based upon the best evidence currently available that at the current permissible exposure limit (PEL) for Cr(VI), workers face a significant risk to material impairment of their health. The evidence in the record for this rulemaking indicates that workers exposed to Cr(VI) are at an increased risk of developing lung cancer. The record also indicates that occupational exposure to Cr(VI) may result in asthma, and damage to the nasal epithelia and skin. The final rule establishes an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) exposure limit of 5 micrograms of Cr(VI) per cubic meter of air (5 [mu]g/cu m). This is a considerable reduction from the previous PEL of 1 milligram per 10 cubic meters of air (1 mg/10 cu m, or 100 [mu]g/cu m) reported as CrO3, which is equivalent to a limit of 52 [mu]g/cu m as Cr(VI). The final rule also contains ancillary provisions for worker protection such as requirements for exposure determination, preferred exposure control methods, including a compliance alternative for a small sector for which the new PEL is infeasible, respiratory protection, protective clothing and equipment, hygiene areas and practices, medical surveillance, recordkeeping, and start-up dates that include four years for the implementation of engineering controls to meet the PEL. The final standard separately regulates general industry, construction, and shipyards in order to tailor requirements to the unique circumstances found in each of these sectors. The PEL established by this rule reduces the significant risk posed to workers by occupational exposure to Cr(VI) to the maximum extent that is technologically and economically feasible.

  2. [Occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium during aircraft painting].

    PubMed

    Gherardi, M; Gatto, M P; Gordiani, A; Paci, E; Proietto, A

    2007-01-01

    Hygienists are interested in hexavalent chromium due to its genotoxic and carcinogenic effect on humans. The use of products containing hexavalent chromium is decreasing in many industrial fields because of the substitution with less-toxic compounds. In the aeronautical industry, however, the chromate are added to primer paint as a corrosion inhibitor of aircrafts surfaces: so hexavalent chromium compounds are available in many primers with a composition ranging from 10% to 13%. The application of these primers by using electrostatic guns potentially exposes painting and coating workers at high concentrations of aerosols containing Cr(VI). The aim of the present study is the evaluation of professional exposure to hexavalent chromium during aircraft painting, by adopting both environmental personal sampling and biological monitoring. To valuate workers exposure levels the personal measurements results have been compared with the exposure limit values (TLV-TWA) and the urinary chromium contents with the biological exposure indices (IBE). Moreover the strategy of coupling environmental sampling with biological monitoring seems to be a useful instrument to measure the validity of the individual protection devices.

  3. Hexavalent chromium exposures during full-aircraft corrosion control.

    PubMed

    Carlton, Gary N

    2003-01-01

    Aluminum alloys used in the construction of modern aircraft are subject to corrosion. The principal means of controlling this corrosion in the U.S. Air Force are organic coatings. The organic coating system consists of a chromate conversion coat, epoxy resin primer, and polyurethane enamel topcoat. Hexavalent chromium (CrVI) is present in the conversion coat in the form of chromic acid and in the primer in the form of strontium chromate. CrVI inhalation exposures can occur when workers spray conversion coat onto bare metal and apply primer to the treated metal surface. In addition, mechanical abrasion of aircraft surfaces can generate particulates that contain chromates from previously applied primers and conversion coats. This study measured CrVI exposures during these corrosion control procedures. Mean time-weighted average (TWA) exposure to chromic acid during conversion coat treatment was 0.48 microg/m(3), below the current American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV(R)) TWA of 50 microg/m(3) for water-soluble CrVI compounds. Mean TWA exposures to strontium chromate were 5.33 microg/m(3) during mechanical abrasion and 83.8 microg/m(3) during primer application. These levels are in excess of the current ACGIH TLV-TWA of 0.5 microg/m(3) for strontium chromate. In the absence of a change from chromated to nonchromated conversion coats and primers, additional control measures are needed to reduce these exposures.

  4. Hexavalent chromium exposure and control in welding tasks.

    PubMed

    Meeker, John D; Susi, Pam; Flynn, Michael R

    2010-11-01

    Studies of exposure to the lung carcinogen hexavalent chromium (CrVI) from welding tasks are limited, especially within the construction industry where overexposure may be common. In addition, despite the OSHA requirement that the use of engineering controls such as local exhaust ventilation (LEV) first be considered before relying on other strategies to reduce worker exposure to CrVI, data on the effectiveness of LEV to reduce CrVI exposures from welding are lacking. The goal of the present study was to characterize breathing zone air concentrations of CrVI during welding tasks and primary contributing factors in four datasets: (1) OSHA compliance data; (2) a publicly available database from The Welding Institute (TWI); (3) field survey data of construction welders collected by the Center for Construction Research and Training (CPWR); and (4) controlled welding trials conducted by CPWR to assess the effectiveness of a portable LEV unit to reduce CrVI exposure. In the OSHA (n = 181) and TWI (n = 124) datasets, which included very few samples from the construction industry, the OSHA permissible exposure level (PEL) for CrVI (5 μg/m(3)) was exceeded in 9% and 13% of samples, respectively. CrVI concentrations measured in the CPWR field surveys (n = 43) were considerably higher, and 25% of samples exceeded the PEL. In the TWI and CPWR datasets, base metal, welding process, and LEV use were important predictors of CrVI concentrations. Only weak-to-moderate correlations were found between total particulate matter and CrVI, suggesting that total particulate matter concentrations are not a good surrogate for CrVI exposure in retrospective studies. Finally, in the controlled welding trials, LEV reduced median CrVI concentrations by 68% (p = 0.02). In conclusion, overexposure to CrVI in stainless steel welding is likely widespread, especially in certain operations such as shielded metal arc welding, which is commonly used in construction. However, exposure could be

  5. Sampling and analysis of hexavalent chromium during exposure to chromic acid mist and welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Blomquist, G; Nilsson, C A; Nygren, O

    1983-12-01

    Sampling and analysis of hexavalent chromium during exposure to chromic acid mist and welding fumes. Scand j work environ & health 9 (1983) 489-495. In view of the serious health effects of hexavalent chromium, the problems involved in its sampling and analysis in workroom air have been the subject of much concern. In this paper, the stability problems arising from the reduction of hexavalent to trivalent chromium during sampling, sample storage, and analysis are discussed. Replacement of sulfuric acid by a sodium acetate buffer (pH 4) as a leaching solution prior to analysis with the diphenylcarbazide (DPC) method is suggested and is demonstrated to be necessary in order to avoid reduction. Field samples were taken from two different industrial processes-manual metal arc welding on stainless steel without shield gas and chromium plating. A comparison was made of the DPC method, acidic dissolution with atomic absorption spectrophotometric (AAS) analysis, and the carbonate method. For chromic acid mist, the DPC method and AAS analysis were shown to give the same results. In the analysis of welding fumes, the modified DPC method gave the same results as the laborious and less sensitive carbonate method.

  6. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Brent C.; Constant, Stephanie L.; Patierno, Steven R.; Jurjus, Rosalyn A.; Ceryak, Susan M.

    2012-02-15

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ► Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ► Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ► Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ► Particulate Cr

  7. Evaluation of chromium in red blood cells as an indicator of exposure to hexavalent chromium: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Devoy, Jérôme; Géhin, Antoine; Müller, Samuel; Melczer, Mathieu; Remy, Aurélie; Antoine, Guillaume; Sponne, Isabelle

    2016-07-25

    Chromium(VI) compounds are classified as carcinogenic to humans. Whereas chromium measurements in urine and whole blood (i.e., including plasma) are indicative of recent exposure, chromium in red blood cells (RBC) is attributable specifically to Cr(VI) exposure. Before recommending Cr in RBC as a biological indicator of Cr(VI) exposure, in-vitro studies must be undertaken to assess its reliability. The present study examines the relationship between the chromium added to a blood sample and that subsequently found in the RBC. After incubation of total blood with chromium, RBC were isolated, counted and their viability assessed. Direct analysis of chromium in RBC was conducted using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Hexavalent, but not trivalent Cr, was seen to accumulate in the RBC and we found a strong correlation between the Cr(VI) concentration added to a blood sample and the amount of Cr in RBC. This relationship appears to be independent of the chemical properties of the human blood samples (e.g., different blood donors or different reducing capacities). Even though in-vivo studies are still needed to integrate our understanding of Cr(VI) toxicokinetics, our findings reinforce the idea that a single determination of the chromium concentration in RBC would enable biomonitoring of critical cases of Cr(VI) exposure.

  8. Chronic occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium causes DNA damage in electroplating workers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Occupational exposure to chromium compounds may result in adverse health effects. This study aims to investigate whether low-level hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) exposure can cause DNA damage in electroplating workers. Methods 157 electroplating workers and 93 control subjects with no history of occupational exposure to chromium were recruited in Hangzhou, China. Chromium levels in erythrocytes were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes was evaluated with the alkaline comet assay by three parameters: Olive tail moment, tail length and percent of DNA in the comet tail (tail DNA%). Urinary 8-OHdG levels were measured by ELISA. Results Chromium concentration in erythrocytes was about two times higher in electroplating workers (median: 4.41 μg/L) than that in control subjects (1.54 μg/L, P < 0.001). The medians (range) of Olive tail moment, tail length and tail DNA% in exposed workers were 1.13 (0.14-6.77), 11.17 (3.46-52.19) and 3.69 (0.65-16.20), and were significantly higher than those in control subjects (0.14 (0.01-0.39), 3.26 (3.00-4.00) and 0.69 (0.04-2.74), P < 0.001). Urinary 8-OHdG concentration was 13.65 (3.08-66.30) μg/g creatinine in exposed workers and 8.31 (2.94-30.83) μg/g creatinine in control subjects (P < 0.001). The differences of urinary 8-OHdG levels, Olive tail moment, tail length and tail DNA% between these two groups remained significant (P < 0.001) even after stratification by potential confounding factors such as age, gender, and smoking status. Chromium exposure was found to be positively associated with chromium levels in erythrocytes, urinary 8-OHdG levels, Olive tail moment, tail length and tail DNA%. Positive dose-response associations were also found between chromium levels in erythrocytes and Olive tail moment, tail length and tail DNA%. Conclusion The findings in this study indicated that there was detectable chromium exposure in electroplating workers

  9. Impairment of Bony Crypt Development Associated With Hexavalent Chromium Exposure During Tooth Eruption.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Luciana M; Lewicki, Marianela; De Lucca, Romina C; Ubios, Ángela M

    2015-12-01

    Improperly treated hexavalent chromium-containing industrial wastes contaminate drinking water, potentially affecting children taking breast milk or baby bottles prepared with infant formula. Thus, the aim of the present work was to determine the effect of this toxic on bone activity in the developing alveolus during tooth eruption of suckling Wistar rats intoxicated with potassium dichromate. Experimental animals received a daily dose of 12.5mg/kg body weight of potassium dichromate by gavage for 10 days; controls received an equivalent volume of saline solution. Histologic and histomorphometric studies of the mandible were performed. The data were statistically analyzed using Student's t test; statistical significance was set at a value of p <0.05. Experimental animals exhibited delayed tooth eruption, decreased periodontal width and bone volume, a lower percentage of bone formation surfaces, and higher percentage of quiescent surfaces (p<0.05) compared to controls. The delay in tooth eruption observed after exposure to hexavalent chromium is the result of a lower rate of bone remodeling in the developing alveolus. The obtained results show the importance of controlling toxic substances in drinking water, since their effects may alter the growth and development of subjects who were exposed during early infancy.

  10. Hexavalent chromium monitor

    DOEpatents

    Tao, Shiquan; Winstead, Christopher B.

    2005-04-12

    A monitor is provided for use in measuring the concentration of hexavalent chromium in a liquid, such as water. The monitor includes a sample cell, a light source, and a photodetector. The sample cell is in the form of a liquid-core waveguide, the sample cell defining an interior core and acting as a receiver for the liquid to be analyzed, the interior surface of the sample cell having a refractive index of less than 1.33. The light source is in communication with a first end of the sample cell for emitting radiation having a wavelength of about and between 350 to 390 nm into the interior core of the waveguide. The photodetector is in communication with a second end of the waveguide for measuring the absorption of the radiation emitted by the light source by the liquid in the sample cell. The monitor may also include a processor electronically coupled to the photodetector for receipt of an absorption signal to determine the concentration of hexavalent chromium in the liquid.

  11. Groundwater contaminant by hexavalent chromium

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, C.

    1995-11-01

    Oxidation of trivalent chromium to hexavalent chromium has been investigated as a function of total manganese in soils as well as various incubation conditions. Chromium and manganese contents were analyzed by atomic absorption (graphite furnace and flame emission respectively) following acid digestion. Total hexavalent chromium generation capacity was determined by addition of 0.001 M CrCL3, incubation, and analysis by s-diphenyl carbazide. Samples were then leached with CaSO{sub 4} and MgSO{sub 4} and incubated in various environments (oven, freeze-drier, field moist, ultrafreeze) to test for geogenic generation of Cr(IV). The degree of geogenic generation of hexavalent chromium was compared with total Mn and Cr content as well as hexavalent generational capacity.

  12. Hexavalent chromium compounds in the workplace: assessing the extent and magnitude of occupational exposure in Italy.

    PubMed

    Scarselli, Alberto; Binazzi, Alessandra; Marzio, Davide Di; Marinaccio, Alessandro; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) compounds have been classified as carcinogenic to humans. This study evaluates the extent and magnitude of occupational exposures to Cr(VI) in Italy. Data were collected from exposure registries of companies compulsorily notified by the National Workers' Compensation Authority. Each measurement was characterized by economic activity sector, work force size, worker personal data, job description, year of measurement, and level of exposure. Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out on the retrieved information. The number of workers potentially exposed was estimated for some industrial sectors. A mixed-effects model was adopted to evaluate the association between exposure variables and exposure concentrations. Over 8400 measurements of Cr(VI) exposures were selected from the database of registries for 1996-2009. Most exposures occurred in the manufacture of fabricated metal products (>50%), and the occupational group most frequently measured was metal finishing-, plating- and coating-machine operators (>52%). Measurements were associated with various Cr(VI) compounds, including chromium trioxide, potassium dichromate, sodium dichromate, strontium chromate, and zinc chromate. Cr(VI) exposure has decreased in more recent years, and the fixed-effects (Cr(VI) compound, activity sector, size and location of the facility, job category, and year of measurement of the final statistical model explained more than 70% of the variance in the observed exposure data. This study summarized data recorded in the Italian occupational exposure database and identified specific exposure patterns to Cr(VI). The mean level of exposure to Cr(VI) was 30.41 μg/m³, and 50,118 workers were estimated at exposure risk in the selected industrial sectors. Systematic recording of occupational exposures is a source of data that allows recognition of high risk situations and improvements in exposure assessment for epidemiologic studies.

  13. Use of behavioral responses of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in identifying sublethal exposure to hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Svecevicius, Gintaras

    2009-05-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted in a flow-through apparatus on 1-year-old rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to evaluate the sensitivity of a number of their behavioral responses to hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)). Test fish were exposed to Cr(6+) concentrations corresponding to 0.001-1 parts of the rainbow trout 96-h LC50 (0.029-28.5 mg Cr/L, respectively) in short-term (15 min) tests. Sensitivity parameter responses could be arranged into the following sequence: latent period of detection response = locomotor activity > gill ventilation frequency > coughing rate. All the rainbow trout responses were sensitive behavioral indicators of sublethal exposure. Behavioral responses meet the criteria as rapid tools for bioassay testing and could be easily standardized using Cr(6+) as a reference toxicant.

  14. Persistent hexavalent chromium exposure impaired the pubertal development and ovarian histoarchitecture in wistar rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Jawahar B; Stanley, Jone A; Sekar, Pasupathi; Princess, Rajendran A; Sebastian, Maria S; Aruldhas, Michael M

    2014-05-01

    Hexavalent chromium (CrVI) is a highly toxic metal and a major environmental pollutant. Several studies indicate that CrVI exposure adversely affects reproductive function. We reported that maternal Cr exposure resulted in Cr accumulation in the reproductive organs of female offsprings. CrVI can cross the placental barrier and also can be passed through breastfeeding. The present investigation aimed to determine the persistent (in utero through puberal period) CrVI exposure-induced toxic effects on the reproductive functions of mother and the offspring. Induction of oxidative stress is one of the plausible mechanisms behind Cr-induced cellular deteriorations. Mother rats exposed to CrVI showed reduced reproductive outcome, while the offsprings showed higher accumulation of Cr in ovary, altered steroid, and peptide hormones. Specific activities of antioxidant enzymes were decreased and associated with increased levels of H2 O2 , and lipid peroxidation. CrVI exposure also damaged the ovarian histoarchitecture in various age groups studied. CrVI exposure also delayed the sexual maturation. Results from the present investigation suggest that CrVI exposure from in utero through puberal period significantly damaged the pubertal development through altered antioxidants, anemia, and altered hormone levels. These changes were associated with damaged ovarian histoarchitecture and extended estrous cycle in developing Wistar rats. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  15. Hexavalent chromium exposures and exposure-control technologies in American enterprise: results of a NIOSH field research study.

    PubMed

    Blade, L M; Yencken, M Story; Wallace, M E; Catalano, J D; Khan, A; Topmiller, J L; Shulman, S A; Martinez, A; Crouch, K G; Bennett, J S

    2007-08-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted 21 field surveys in selected industries to characterize workers' exposures to hexavalent chromium-containing airborne particulate and to evaluate existing technologies for controlling these exposures. Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) is a respiratory irritant and chronic inhalation may cause lung cancer. Primary evaluation methods included collection of full work shift, personal breathing-zone (PBZ) air samples for Cr(VI), measurement of ventilation system parameters, and documentation of processes and work practices. This study emphasized evaluation of engineering exposure control measures, so PBZ exposures were measured on the outside of personal protective equipment, for example, respirators. Field surveys were conducted in two chromium electroplating facilities, including one where full-shift PBZ exposures to Cr(VI) ranged from 3.0 to 16 times the 1 micro g/m(3)NIOSH recommended exposure limit (REL) despite several engineering controls on the plating tanks. At a painting and coating facility that used Cr(VI)-containing products, full-shift exposures of painters and helpers (2.4 to 55 micro g/m(3)) exceeded the REL, but LEV effectiveness was limited. Other operations evaluated included welding in construction; metal cutting operations on chromium-containing materials in ship breaking; chromate-paint removal with abrasive blasting; atomized alloy-spray coating; foundry operations; printing; and the manufacture of refractory brick, colored glass, prefabricated concrete products, and treated wood products. NIOSH researchers concluded that, in many of the evaluated processes, Cr(VI) exposures at or below the current NIOSH REL are achievable. However, for some processes, it is unclear whether controlling exposures to this range is consistently achievable without respirator use. Some operations involving the application of coatings and finishes may be among those most difficult to control to this

  16. Continuing exposure to hexavalent chromium, a known lung carcinogen: an analysis of OSHA compliance inspections, 1990-2000.

    PubMed

    Lurie, Peter; Wolfe, Sidney M

    2002-11-01

    Hexavalent chromium is widely recognized to be a lung carcinogen. However, the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has failed to reduce the permissible exposure limit (PEL), despite having acknowledged in 1994 that the current limit is too high. In 1993, Public Citizen and the Paper, Allied-Industrial, Chemical and Energy Workers International Union (PACE) petitioned to lower the PEL from the current 100 microg/m(3) to 0.5 microg/m(3) as an 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA). To assess industry compliance with the current PEL, and to determine the feasibility of achieving the proposed lower limit of 0.5 microg/m(3), we conducted a secondary data analysis of OSHA's Integrated Management Information System (IMIS) database. This database contains 813 measurements of hexavalent chromium exposure from inspections performed during the years 1990-2000. There was a statistically significant decline in the annual number of measurements over the study period from 127 in 1990 to 67 in 2000 (F = 0.0009; linear regression). The median TWA measurement was 10 microg/m(3) (range: 0.01-13,960 microg/m(3)) and the median ceiling measurement was 40.5 microg/m(3) (range: 0.25-25,000 microg/m(3)). Neither median TWA nor median ceiling exposures (if hexavalent chromium was detected) declined significantly during the study period (F = 0.065 and 0.57, respectively). Overall, 13.7% of TWA measurements were at or below the Public Citizen/PACE proposed standard; 65.0% were between the Public Citizen/PACE proposal and the current OSHA PEL; and 21.3% exceeded the OSHA PEL. Compared to OSHA measurements, state measurements were less likely to detect hexavalent chromium (40.2% vs. 52.1%; P = 0.0007; chi-square) and less likely to issue any citation (9.3% vs. 19.1%; P = 0.0003), including citations for overexposure if the exposure exceeded the PEL (54.8% vs. 78.8%; P = 0.012). U.S. workers continue to be exposed to dangerously high hexavalent chromium levels, but low exposure

  17. Assessment of the mode of action for hexavalent chromium-induced lung cancer following inhalation exposures.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Deborah M; Suh, Mina; Campleman, Sharan L; Thompson, Chad M

    2014-11-05

    Inhalation of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is associated with increased lung cancer risk among workers in several industries, most notably chromate production workers exposed to high concentrations of Cr(VI) (≥100 μg/m(3)), for which clear exposure-response relationships and respiratory irritation and tissue damage have been reported. Data from this industry are used to assess lung cancer risk associated with environmental and current occupational exposures, occurring at concentrations that are significantly lower. There is considerable uncertainty in the low dose extrapolation of historical occupational epidemiology data to assess risk at current exposures because no published or well recognized mode of action (MOA) for Cr(VI)-induced lung tumors exists. We conducted a MOA analysis for Cr(VI)-induced lung cancer evaluating toxicokinetic and toxicological data in humans and rodents and mechanistic data to assess plausibility, dose-response, and temporal concordance for potential MOAs. Toxicokinetic data support that extracellular reduction of Cr(VI), which limits intracellular absorption of Cr(VI) and Cr(VI)-induced toxicity, can be overwhelmed at high exposure levels. In vivo genotoxicity and mutagenicity data are mostly negative and do not support a mutagenic MOA. Further, both chronic bioassays and the epidemiologic literature support that lung cancer occurs at exposures that cause tissue damage. Based on this MOA analysis, the overall weight of evidence supports a MOA involving deposition and accumulation of particulate chromium in the bifurcations of the lung resulting in exceedance of clearance mechanisms and cellular absorption of Cr(VI). Once inside the cell, reduction of Cr(VI) results in oxidative stress and the formation of Cr ligands. Subsequent protein and DNA damage lead to tissue irritation, inflammation, and cytotoxicity. These effects, concomitant with increased cell proliferation, result in changes to DNA sequences and/or methylation status

  18. Hexavalent and trivalent chromium in leather: What should be done?

    PubMed

    Moretto, Angelo

    2015-11-01

    Trivalent chromium compounds are used for leather tanning, and chromium may be released during use of leather goods. In certain instances, small amounts of hexavalent chromium can be formed and released. Both trivalent and hexavalent chromium can elicit allergic skin reaction in chromium sensitised subjects, the latter being significantly more potent. Induction of sensitisation only occurs after exposure to hexavalent chromium. A minority of subjects are sensitised to chromium, and in a fraction of these subjects allergic skin reaction have been described after wearing leather shoes or, less frequently, other leather goods. The evidence that in all these cases the reaction is related to hexavalent chromium is not always strong. The content of hexavalent chromium in leather is regulated in European Union, but rate of release rather than content is relevant for allergic skin reaction. The role of trivalent chromium appear much less relevant if at all. Modern tanning procedure do not pose significant risk due to either hexavalent or trivalent chromium. Dismissing bad quality and worn-off leather goods is relevant in reducing or eliminating the skin reaction. It should also be pointed out that shoe components or substances other than chromium in leather may cause allergic/irritative skin reactions.

  19. Reproductive outcomes after non-occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium, Willits California, 1983-2014.

    PubMed

    Remy, Linda L; Byers, Vera; Clay, Ted

    2017-03-06

    From 1963-1995, a factory in Willits, Mendocino County, CA used toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) without adequate measures to protect the population. We use longitudinal hospital data to compare reproductive outcomes for two generations in Willits and two generations in the Rest of County (ROC). This is the first study to quantify the reproductive impact of Cr(VI) in a non-occupational population. We searched California hospital discharge data (1983-2014) to find Mendocino County residents born 1950 or later. ZIP-code 95490 identifies Willits residents, with all others living in ROC. We used the Multi-Level Clinical Classification Software (CCS) to classify health outcomes. First, we calculated the crude birth rate using an external census denominator. The next two models used self-contained denominators to assess health of infants and two generations of pregnant women. Finally, we focused on non-pregnant females and, for comparison, males. Here we added admissions for people who moved, linked and summarized admissions to the person level, and calculated rates per census population. We found 29311 newborn records in ROC and 5036 from Willits. At start of period, Willits birth rate was low and did not recover until 12 years after Plant closure. While the Plant was open, respiratory conditions, perinatal jaundice, and birth defect rates were higher for Willits infants compared to ROC, but improved post-closure. Risk for abnormal birthweight and term was high and remained high over the study period. During the period under study, we identified 31444 admissions of pregnant ROC women and 5558 from Willits. Willits women had significantly higher risk of pregnancy loss compared to ROC, whether stratified by generation, age group, or pre- and post-closure. Regardless of when exposed, Willits women continued to have significantly higher rates of in-hospital terminations, as animal studies of Cr(VI) exposure predict. In life course models, non-pregnant Willits women

  20. Lethal and sub-lethal effects on the Asian common toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus from exposure to hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Vindhya A K; Weerasena, Jagathpriya; Lakraj, G Pemantha; Perera, Inoka C; Dangalle, Chandima D; Handunnetti, Shiroma; Premawansa, Sunil; Wijesinghe, Mayuri R

    2016-08-01

    Chromium discharged in industrial effluents frequently occurs as an environmental pollutant, but the lethal and sub-lethal effects the heavy metal might cause in animals exposed to it have been insufficiently investigated. Selecting the amphibian Duttaphrynus melanostictus, we carried out laboratory tests to investigate the effects of short and long term exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in both tadpoles and adult toads. The concentrations used were 0.002, 0.02, 0.2, 1.0 and 2.0mg/L, the first three corresponding to field levels. In vitro exposures were also carried out using toad erythrocytes and Cr(VI) concentrations of 0.0015, 0.003, 0.015, 0.03, 0.15mg/L. Mortality, growth retardation, developmental delays and structural aberrations were noted in the metal-treated tadpoles, with increasing incidence corresponding to increase in Cr(VI) level and duration of exposure. Many of the sub-lethal effects were evident with long term exposure to environmentally relevant levels of the toxicant. Changes in selected blood parameters and erythrocyte morphometry were also detected in Cr(VI) exposed toads, indicating anaemic and leucopenic conditions. In the genotoxicity study, DNA damage indicated by comet assay and increased micronuclei frequency, occurred at the low Cr(VI) concentrations tested. The multiple deleterious effects of exposure to chromium signal the need for monitoring and controlling the discharge of chromium to the environment. The dose-dependency and genotoxic effects observed in this widely distributed Asian toad indicates its suitability for monitoring heavy metal pollution in aquatic systems.

  1. Effect of acute hexavalent chromium exposure on pituitary-thyroid axis of a freshwater fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch).

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ashish K; Mohanty, Banalata

    2015-01-01

    Acute exposure to hexavalent chromium (10 mg L(-1) , 20 mg L(-1) , and 40 mg L(-1) potassium dichromate for 96 h) dose-dependently affected the pituitary-thyroid axis of teleost, Channa punctatus. Significant hypertrophy of the thyroid follicle was observed in 20 mg L(-1) and 40 mg L(-1) groups; the follicular epithelium was however hypertrophied only in 40 mg L(-1) group. The colloid depletion in the lumen of thyroid follicle was evident in 20 mg L(-1) and 40 mg L(-1) groups. Serum thyroid hormones (thyroxine/T4 and triiodothyronine/T3) level increased significantly at both the higher doses. Increased immunointensity and significant hypertrophy of the pituitary thyrotrophs (anti TSHβ-immunoreactive cells) was observed in both 20 mg L(-1) and 40 mg L(-1) chromium-exposed fish. The increased thyroid hormones secretion observed in this study might be an adaptive response of the pituitary-thyroid axis under acute chromium-induced stress condition to maintain homeostasis. The long-term Cr(VI) exposures, however, may lead to attenuation/exhaustion of the pituitary-thyroid axis and pose serious threat to fish health and affect their population.

  2. Airborne exposure to inhalable hexavalent chromium in welders and other occupations: Estimates from the German MEGA database.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Beate; Kendzia, Benjamin; Hauptmann, Kristin; Van Gelder, Rainer; Stamm, Roger; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Zschiesche, Wolfgang; Behrens, Thomas; Weiss, Tobias; Siemiatycki, Jack; Lavoué, Jerome; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brüning, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to estimate occupational exposure to inhalable hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) using the exposure database MEGA. The database has been compiling Cr(VI) concentrations and ancillary data about measurements at German workplaces. We analysed 3659 personal measurements of inhalable Cr(VI) collected between 1994 and 2009. Cr(VI) was determined spectrophotometrically at 540 nm after reaction with diphenylcarbazide. We assigned the measurements to pre-defined at-risk occupations using the information provided about the workplaces. Two-thirds of the measurements were below the limit of quantification (LOQ) and multiply imputed according to the distribution above LOQ. The 75th percentile value was 5.2 μg/m(3) and the 95th percentile was 57.2 μg/m(3). We predicted the geometric mean for 2h sampling in the year 2000, and the time trend of Cr(VI) exposure in these settings with and without adjustment for the duration of measurements. The largest dataset was available for welding (N = 1898), which could be further detailed according to technique. The geometric means were above 5 μg/m(3) in the following situations: spray painting, shielded metal arc welding, and flux-cored arc welding if applied to stainless steel. The geometric means were between 1 μg/m(3) and 5 μg/m(3) for gas metal arc welding of stainless steel, cutting, hard-chromium plating, metal spraying and in the chemical chromium industry. The exposure profiles described here are useful for epidemiologic and industrial health purposes. Exposure to Cr(VI) varies not only between occupations, but also within occupations as shown for welders. In epidemiologic studies, it would be desirable to collect exposure-specific information in addition to the job title. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Removal of hexavalent chromium using distillery sludge.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, K; Manonmani, S; Pattabhi, S

    2003-09-01

    Batch mode experiments were conducted to study the removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous and industrial effluent using distillery sludge. Effects of pH, contact time, initial concentration and adsorbent dosage on the adsorption of Cr(VI) were studied. The data obeyed Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The Langmuir adsorption capacity was found to be 5.7 mg/g. Freundlich constants K(f) and n were 2.05 [mg/g(L/mg)(n)] and 3.9, respectively. Desorption studies indicated the removal of 82% of the hexavalent chromium. The efficiency of adsorbent towards the removal of chromium was also tested using chromium-plating wastewater.

  4. FANCD2 monoubiquitination and activation by hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] exposure

    PubMed Central

    Vilcheck, Susan K.; Ceryak, Susan; O’Brien, Travis J.; Patierno, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital abnormalities, progressive bone marrow failure, and cancer susceptibility. FA cells are hypersensitive to DNA crosslinking agents. FA is a genetically heterogeneous disease with at least 11 complementation groups. The eight cloned FA proteins interact in a common pathway with established DNA-damage-response proteins, including BRCA1 and ATM. Six FA proteins (A, C, E, F, G, and L) regulate the monoubiquitination of FANCD2 after DNA damage by crosslinking agents, which targets FANCD2 to BRCA1 nuclear foci containing BRCA2 (FANCD1) and RAD51. Some forms of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] are implicated as respiratory carcinogens and induce several types of DNA lesions, including DNA interstrand crosslinks. We have shown that FA-A fibroblasts are hypersensitive to both Cr(VI)-induced apoptosis and clonogenic lethality. Here we show that Cr(VI) treatment induced monoubiquitination of FANCD2 in normal human fibroblasts, providing the first molecular evidence of Cr(VI)-induced activation of the FA pathway. FA-A fibroblasts demonstrated no FANCD2 monoubiquitination, in keeping with the requirement of FA-A for this modification. We also found that Cr(VI) treatment induced significantly more S-phase-dependent DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), as measured by γ-H2AX expression, in FA-A fibroblasts compared to normal cells. However, and notably, DSBs were repaired equally in both normal and FA-A fibroblasts during recovery from Cr(VI) treatment. While previous research on FA has defined the genetic causes of this disease, it is critical in terms of individual risk assessment to address how cells from FA patients respond to genotoxic insult. PMID:16893675

  5. Formaldehyde-Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements (FAIRE) Analysis Uncovers Broad Changes in Chromatin Structure Resulting from Hexavalent Chromium Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Ovesen, Jerald L.; Fan, Yunxia; Zhang, Xiang; Chen, Jing; Medvedovic, Mario; Xia, Ying; Puga, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    The ability of chromatin to switch back and forth from open euchromatin to closed heterochromatin is vital for transcriptional regulation and genomic stability, but its dynamic structure is subject to disruption by exposure to environmental agents such as hexavalent chromium. Cr(VI) exposure disrupts chromatin remodeling mechanisms and causes chromosomal damage through formation of free radicals, Cr-DNA adducts, and DNA-Cr-protein cross-links. In addition, acute, high-concentration, and chronic, low-concentration exposures to Cr(VI) lead to significantly different transcriptional and genomic stability outcomes. We used mouse hepatoma Hepa-1c1c7 cells to investigate how transcriptional responses to chromium treatment might correlate with structural chromatin changes. We used Formaldehyde-Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements (FAIRE) analysis coupled with deep sequencing to identify regions of the genome that may switch between open and closed chromatin in response to exposure to varying Cr(VI) concentrations. At either Cr(VI) concentration, chromatin domains surrounding binding sites for AP-1 transcription factors become significantly open, whereas BACH2 and CTCF binding sites are open solely at the low and high concentrations, respectively. Parallel gene expression profiling using RNA-seq indicates that the structural chromatin changes caused by Cr(VI) affect gene expression levels in the target areas that vary depending on Cr(VI) concentration, but show no correlation between global changes in the overall transcriptional response and Cr(VI) concentration. Our results suggest that FAIRE may be a useful technique to map chromatin elements targeted by DNA damaging agents for which there is no prior knowledge of their specificity, and to identify subsequent transcriptomic changes induced by those agents. PMID:24837440

  6. Formaldehyde-Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements (FAIRE) analysis uncovers broad changes in chromatin structure resulting from hexavalent chromium exposure.

    PubMed

    Ovesen, Jerald L; Fan, Yunxia; Zhang, Xiang; Chen, Jing; Medvedovic, Mario; Xia, Ying; Puga, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    The ability of chromatin to switch back and forth from open euchromatin to closed heterochromatin is vital for transcriptional regulation and genomic stability, but its dynamic structure is subject to disruption by exposure to environmental agents such as hexavalent chromium. Cr(VI) exposure disrupts chromatin remodeling mechanisms and causes chromosomal damage through formation of free radicals, Cr-DNA adducts, and DNA-Cr-protein cross-links. In addition, acute, high-concentration, and chronic, low-concentration exposures to Cr(VI) lead to significantly different transcriptional and genomic stability outcomes. We used mouse hepatoma Hepa-1c1c7 cells to investigate how transcriptional responses to chromium treatment might correlate with structural chromatin changes. We used Formaldehyde-Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements (FAIRE) analysis coupled with deep sequencing to identify regions of the genome that may switch between open and closed chromatin in response to exposure to varying Cr(VI) concentrations. At either Cr(VI) concentration, chromatin domains surrounding binding sites for AP-1 transcription factors become significantly open, whereas BACH2 and CTCF binding sites are open solely at the low and high concentrations, respectively. Parallel gene expression profiling using RNA-seq indicates that the structural chromatin changes caused by Cr(VI) affect gene expression levels in the target areas that vary depending on Cr(VI) concentration, but show no correlation between global changes in the overall transcriptional response and Cr(VI) concentration. Our results suggest that FAIRE may be a useful technique to map chromatin elements targeted by DNA damaging agents for which there is no prior knowledge of their specificity, and to identify subsequent transcriptomic changes induced by those agents.

  7. Chromium isotopes as indicators of hexavalent chromium reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Thomas M.

    2012-03-20

    This is the final report for a university research project which advanced development of a new technology for identifying chemical reduction of hexavalent chromium contamination in groundwater systems. Reduction renders mobile and toxic hexavalent chromium immobile and less toxic. The new method uses stable isotope ratio measurements, which are made using multicollector ICP-mass spectrometry. The main objectives of this project were completed during the project period and two peer-reviewed articles were published to disseminate the information gained.

  8. 75 FR 27239 - Revising the Notification Requirements in the Exposure Determination Provisions of the Hexavalent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... Notification Requirements in the Exposure Determination Provisions of the Hexavalent Chromium Standards AGENCY... Hexavalent Chromium (Cr(VI)) standards. DATES: Effective May 14, 2010, the proposed rule published March 16..., Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), Notification of determination results to employees, Occupational safety...

  9. Reduction of hexavalent chromium collected on PVC filters.

    PubMed

    Shin, Y C; Paik, N W

    2000-01-01

    Chromium exists at various valences, including elemental, trivalent, and hexavalent chromium, and undergoes reduction-oxidation reactions in the environment. Since hexavalent chromium is known as a human carcinogen, it is most important to evaluate the oxidation-reduction characteristics of the hexavalent chromium species. Although hexavalent chromium can be reduced to trivalent state, the detailed information on this in workplace environments is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate hexavalent chromium reduction in time in various conditions. A pilot chrome plating operation was prepared and operated in a laboratory for this study. There was evidence that the hexavalent chromium was reduced by time after mist generation. The percentage ratio (with 95% confidence intervals in parentheses) of hexavalent chromium to total chromium was almost 100% (99.1 approximately 102.3) immediately after mist generation, and was reduced to 87.4% (84.8 approximately 89.9) at 1 hour and 81.0% (78.3 approximately 83.5) at 2 hours, respectively. Another test indicated that hexavalent chromium collected on PVC filters was also reduced by time after sampling. Hexavalent chromium was reduced to 90.8% (88.2 approximately 93.3) at 2 hours after sampling. It also was found that hexavalent chromium was reduced during storage in air. It is recommended that air samples of hexavalent chromium be protected against reduction during storage.

  10. Exposure to Hexavalent Chromium Resulted in Significantly Higher Tissue Chromium Burden Compared With Trivalent Chromium Following Similar Oral Doses to Male F344/N Rats and Female B6C3F1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Bradley J.; Stout, Matthew D.; Levine, Keith E.; Kissling, Grace E.; Fennell, Timothy R.; Walden, Ramsey; Abdo, Kamal; Pritchard, John B.; Fernando, Reshan A.; Burka, Leo T.; Hooth, Michelle J.

    2010-01-01

    In National Toxicology Program 2-year studies, hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] administered in drinking water was clearly carcinogenic in male and female rats and mice, resulting in small intestine epithelial neoplasms in mice at a dose equivalent to or within an order of magnitude of human doses that could result from consumption of chromium-contaminated drinking water, assuming that dose scales by body weight3/4 (body weight raised to the 3/4 power). In contrast, exposure to trivalent chromium [Cr(III)] at much higher concentrations may have been carcinogenic in male rats but was not carcinogenic in mice or female rats. As part of these studies, total chromium was measured in tissues and excreta of additional groups of male rats and female mice. These data were used to infer the uptake and distribution of Cr(VI) because Cr(VI) is reduced to Cr(III) in vivo, and no methods are available to speciate tissue chromium. Comparable external doses resulted in much higher tissue chromium concentrations following exposure to Cr(VI) compared with Cr(III), indicating that a portion of the Cr(VI) escaped gastric reduction and was distributed systemically. Linear or supralinear dose responses of total chromium in tissues were observed following exposure to Cr(VI), indicating that these exposures did not saturate gastric reduction capacity. When Cr(VI) exposure was normalized to ingested dose, chromium concentrations in the liver and glandular stomach were higher in mice, whereas kidney concentrations were higher in rats. In vitro studies demonstrated that Cr(VI), but not Cr(III), is a substrate of the sodium/sulfate cotransporter, providing a partial explanation for the greater absorption of Cr(VI). PMID:20843897

  11. Hexavalent Chromium IV-Free Primer Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alldredge, Michael J.; Buck, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    Primer materials provide corrosion protection for metal parts as well as an increased adhesion between metallic substrates and thermal protection systems (TPSs). Current primers for use in cryogenic applications contain hexavalent chromium. This hexavalent chromium provides excellent corrosion protection even in a cryogenic environment, but it is a carcinogen that requires special equipment and waste control procedures to use. The hazardous nature of hexavalent chromium makes it an obsolescence risk in the future. This study included two phases of evaluation. Thirteen primers were initially identified as candidates and twelve of those primers were tested in phase 1. Four of the best performing candidates from phase 1 continued into phase 2 testing. Phase 1 testing consisted mostly of liquid constituent and physical property testing. Cryoflex and salt fog testing were included in phase 1 because of their importance to the overall success of a candidate material. Phase 2 consisted of physical, thermal, and mechanical properties for nominally processed and fabricated specimens.

  12. Lactational hexavalent chromium exposure-induced oxidative stress in rat uterus is associated with delayed puberty and impaired gonadotropin levels.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Jawahar B; Stanley, Jone A; Roopha, Dailiah P; Vengatesh, Ganapathy; Anbalagan, Jaganathan; Banu, Sakhila K; Aruldhas, Michael M

    2011-02-01

    Hexavalent chromium (CrVI) is a transition element utilized in many fields of modern industries. CrVI is a reproductive metal toxicant that can traverse the placental barrier and cause a wide range of fetal effects. Therefore, the present study was carried out to determine the CrVI-induced utero-toxicity. In the present study, lactating rats received drinking water containing CrVI (50 mg/L and 200 mg/L) from postnatal days (PND) 1-21. During PND 1-21, the pups received CrVI via the mother's milk. Pups from both control and treatment groups were continued on regular diet and water from PND-21 onwards and euthanized on PND-45 and -65. Specific activities antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were estimated. Hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and serum gonadotropins viz. Luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were also assayed. Specific activities of SOD, CAT, GPX, GR and GST and serum testosterone and progesterone were significantly decreased, while H₂O₂, LPO and serum FSH was increased in 50-parts per million (ppm) and 200 ppm-treated rats in an age-dependent manner. These results suggest that lactational CrVI exposure induces oxidative stress in rat uterus by decreasing antioxidant enzymes, which were associated with delayed puberty and altered steroids and gonadotrophin levels.

  13. Improved Atmospheric Sampling of Hexavalent Chromium

    PubMed Central

    Torkmahalleh, Mehdi Amouei; Yu, Chang-Ho; Lin, Lin; Fan, Zhihua (Tina); Swift, Julie L.; Bonanno, Linda; Rasmussen, Don H.; Holsen, Thomas M.; Hopke, Philip K.

    2015-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) are the primary chromium oxidation states found in ambient atmospheric particulate matter. While Cr(III) is relatively nontoxic, Cr(VI) is toxic and exposure to Cr(VI) may lead to cancer, nasal damage, asthma, bronchitis, and pneumonitis. Accurate measurement of the ambient Cr(VI) concentrations is an environmental challenge since Cr(VI) can be reduced to Cr(III) and vice versa during sampling. In the present study, a new Cr(VI) sampler (Clarkson sampler) was designed, constructed, and field tested to improve the sampling of Cr(VI) in ambient air. The new Clarkson Cr(VI) sampler was based on the concept that deliquescence during sampling leads to aqueous phase reactions. Thus, the relative humidity of the sampled air was reduced below the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) of the ambient particles. The new sampler was operated to collect Total Suspended Particles (TSP), and compared side-by-side with the current National Air Toxics Trends Stations (NATTS) Cr(VI) sampler that is utilized in the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) air toxics monitoring program. Side-by-side field testing of the samplers occurred in Elizabeth, NJ during the winter and summer of 2012. The average recovery values of Cr(VI) spikes after 24 hour sampling intervals during summer and winter sampling were 57 and 72%, respectively, for the Clarkson sampler, while the corresponding average values for NATTS samplers were 46% for both summer and winter sampling, respectively. Preventing the ambient aerosol collected on the filters from deliquescing is a key to improving the sampling of Cr(VI). PMID:24344574

  14. An Evaluation of Welding Processes to Reduce Hexavalent Chromium Exposures and Reduce Costs by Using Better Welding Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    A group of stainless steel arc welding processes was compared for emission rates of fume and hexavalent chromium, and costs per meter length of weld. The objective was to identify those with minimal emissions and also compare relative labor and consumables costs. The selection included flux-cored arc welding (FCAW), shielded-metal arc welding (SMAW), and multiple gas metal arc welding (GMAW) processes. Using a conical chamber, fumes were collected, and fume generation rates and hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) were measured. GMAW processes used were short-circuit (SC) and pulsed-spray modes. Flux-cored welding used gas shielding. Costs were estimated per meter of a 6.3-mm thick horizontal butt weld. Emission rates of Cr6+ were lowest for GMAW processes and highest for SMAW; several GMAW processes had less than 2% of the SMAW generation rate. Labor and consumable costs for the processes studied were again highest for SMAW, with those of several GMAW types about half that cost. The results show that use of any of the GMAW processes (and flux-cored welding) could substantially reduce fume and Cr6+ emissions, and greatly reduce costs relative to SMAW. PMID:25574138

  15. An evaluation of welding processes to reduce hexavalent chromium exposures and reduce costs by using better welding techniques.

    PubMed

    Keane, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    A group of stainless steel arc welding processes was compared for emission rates of fume and hexavalent chromium, and costs per meter length of weld. The objective was to identify those with minimal emissions and also compare relative labor and consumables costs. The selection included flux-cored arc welding (FCAW), shielded-metal arc welding (SMAW), and multiple gas metal arc welding (GMAW) processes. Using a conical chamber, fumes were collected, and fume generation rates and hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)) were measured. GMAW processes used were short-circuit (SC) and pulsed-spray modes. Flux-cored welding used gas shielding. Costs were estimated per meter of a 6.3-mm thick horizontal butt weld. Emission rates of Cr(6+) were lowest for GMAW processes and highest for SMAW; several GMAW processes had less than 2% of the SMAW generation rate. Labor and consumable costs for the processes studied were again highest for SMAW, with those of several GMAW types about half that cost. The results show that use of any of the GMAW processes (and flux-cored welding) could substantially reduce fume and Cr(6+) emissions, and greatly reduce costs relative to SMAW.

  16. 48 CFR 252.223-7008 - Prohibition of Hexavalent Chromium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Chromium. 252.223-7008 Section 252.223-7008 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.223-7008 Prohibition of Hexavalent Chromium. As prescribed in 223.7306, use the following clause: Prohibition of Hexavalent Chromium (JUN 2013) (a) Definitions. As used...

  17. 48 CFR 252.223-7008 - Prohibition of Hexavalent Chromium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Chromium. 252.223-7008 Section 252.223-7008 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.223-7008 Prohibition of Hexavalent Chromium. As prescribed in 223.7306, use the following clause: Prohibition of Hexavalent Chromium (MAY 2011) (a) Definitions. As used...

  18. 48 CFR 252.223-7008 - Prohibition of Hexavalent Chromium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Chromium. 252.223-7008 Section 252.223-7008 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.223-7008 Prohibition of Hexavalent Chromium. As prescribed in 223.7306, use the following clause: Prohibition of Hexavalent Chromium (MAY 2011) (a) Definitions. As used...

  19. Assessing model uncertainty using hexavalent chromium and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Introduction: The National Research Council recommended quantitative evaluation of uncertainty in effect estimates for risk assessment. This analysis considers uncertainty across model forms and model parameterizations with hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] and lung cancer mortality as an example. The objective of this analysis is to characterize model uncertainty by evaluating the variance in estimates across several epidemiologic analyses.Methods: This analysis compared 7 publications analyzing two different chromate production sites in Ohio and Maryland. The Ohio cohort consisted of 482 workers employed from 1940-72, while the Maryland site employed 2,357 workers from 1950-74. Cox and Poisson models were the only model forms considered by study authors to assess the effect of Cr(VI) on lung cancer mortality. All models adjusted for smoking and included a 5-year exposure lag, however other latency periods and model covariates such as age and race were considered. Published effect estimates were standardized to the same units and normalized by their variances to produce a standardized metric to compare variability in estimates across and within model forms. A total of 7 similarly parameterized analyses were considered across model forms, and 23 analyses with alternative parameterizations were considered within model form (14 Cox; 9 Poisson). Results: Across Cox and Poisson model forms, adjusted cumulative exposure coefficients for 7 similar analyses ranged from 2.47

  20. Hexavalent Chromium and Isocyanate Exposures during Military Aircraft Painting under Crossflow Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, James S.; Marlow, David A.; Nourian, Fariba; Breay, James; Hammond, Duane

    2016-01-01

    Exposure control systems performance was investigated in an aircraft painting hangar. The ability of the ventilation system and respiratory protection program to limit worker exposures was examined through air sampling during painting of F/A-18C/D strike fighter aircraft, in four field surveys. Air velocities were measured across the supply filter, exhaust filter, and hangar midplane under crossflow ventilation. Air sampling conducted during painting process phases (wipe-down, primer spraying, and topcoat spraying) encompassed volatile organic compounds, total particulate matter, Cr[VI], metals, nitroethane, and hexamethylene diisocyanate, for two worker groups: sprayers and sprayer helpers (“hosemen”). One of six methyl ethyl ketone and two of six methyl isobutyl ketone samples exceeded the short term exposure limits of 300 and 75 ppm, with means 57 ppm and 63 ppm, respectively. All 12 Cr[VI] 8-hr time-weighted averages exceeded the recommended exposure limit of 1 µg/m3, 11 out of 12 exceeded the permissible exposure limit of 5 µg/m3, and 7 out of 12 exceeded the threshold limit value of 10 µg/m3, with means 38 µg/m3 for sprayers and 8.3 µg/m3 for hosemen. Hexamethylene diisocyanate means were 5.95 µg/m3 for sprayers and 0.645 µg/m3 for hosemen. Total reactive isocyanate group—the total of monomer and oligomer as NCO group mass—showed six of 15 personal samples exceeded the United Kingdom Health and Safety Executive workplace exposure limit of 20 µg/m3, with means 50.9 µg/m3 for sprayers and 7.29 µg/m3 for hosemen. Several exposure limits were exceeded, reinforcing continued use of personal protective equipment. The supply rate, 94.4 m3/s (200,000 cfm), produced a velocity of 8.58 m/s (157 fpm) at the supply filter, while the exhaust rate, 68.7 m3/s (146,000 cfm), drew 1.34 m/s (264 fpm) at the exhaust filter. Midway between supply and exhaust locations, the velocity was 0.528 m/s (104 fpm). Supply rate exceeding exhaust rate created re

  1. Hexavalent chromium and isocyanate exposures during military aircraft painting under crossflow ventilation.

    PubMed

    Bennett, James S; Marlow, David A; Nourian, Fariba; Breay, James; Hammond, Duane

    2016-01-01

    Exposure control systems performance was investigated in an aircraft painting hangar. The ability of the ventilation system and respiratory protection program to limit worker exposures was examined through air sampling during painting of F/A-18C/D strike fighter aircraft, in four field surveys. Air velocities were measured across the supply filter, exhaust filter, and hangar midplane under crossflow ventilation. Air sampling conducted during painting process phases (wipe-down, primer spraying, and topcoat spraying) encompassed volatile organic compounds, total particulate matter, Cr[VI], metals, nitroethane, and hexamethylene diisocyanate, for two worker groups: sprayers and sprayer helpers ("hosemen"). One of six methyl ethyl ketone and two of six methyl isobutyl ketone samples exceeded the short term exposure limits of 300 and 75 ppm, with means 57 ppm and 63 ppm, respectively. All 12 Cr[VI] 8-hr time-weighted averages exceeded the recommended exposure limit of 1 µg/m3, 11 out of 12 exceeded the permissible exposure limit of 5 µg/m3, and 7 out of 12 exceeded the threshold limit value of 10 µg/m3, with means 38 µg/m3 for sprayers and 8.3 µg/m3 for hosemen. Hexamethylene diisocyanate means were 5.95 µg/m3 for sprayers and 0.645 µg/m3 for hosemen. Total reactive isocyanate group--the total of monomer and oligomer as NCO group mass--showed 6 of 15 personal samples exceeded the United Kingdom Health and Safety Executive workplace exposure limit of 20 µg/m3, with means 50.9 µg/m3 for sprayers and 7.29 µg/m3 for hosemen. Several exposure limits were exceeded, reinforcing continued use of personal protective equipment. The supply rate, 94.4 m3/s (200,000 cfm), produced a velocity of 8.58 m/s (157 fpm) at the supply filter, while the exhaust rate, 68.7 m3/s (146,000 cfm), drew 1.34 m/s (264 fpm) at the exhaust filter. Midway between supply and exhaust locations, the velocity was 0.528 m/s (104 fpm). Supply rate exceeding exhaust rate created re

  2. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexavalent Chromium (2010 External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

  1. The removal of hexavalent chromium from water by ferrous sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.J.J.; Vesilind, P.A.

    1995-12-31

    The redox reaction of hexavalent chromium and ferrous sulfate is investigated in his study. Hexavalent chromium, a highly toxic and mobile anion, could exist in raw water used as a public water supply due to the industrial chromium contamination of natural water or due to natural oxidation of trivalent chromium. Ferrous sulfate is one of the widely used coagulants in water treatment plants and has good reducing ability. Because of its reducing capacity, ferrous sulfate can be applied to remove hexavalent chromium from water. The required contact time to reach equilibrium, the effectiveness of Cr(VI) reduction at different initial pH, and the required ferrous sulfate dosage for complete reduction are investigated. The redox reaction can be completed within 10 minutes, allowing 30 mg/L of hexavalent chromium to react with stoichiometric dosage of ferrous sulfate in deionized water, regardless of the initial pH. The pH of the solution is depressed during the progress of the reaction due to the hydrolysis of the produced Fe(III) and Cr(III) ions from the reaction. Dissolved oxygen in water is found to interfere with the redox reaction by consuming ferrous ions when the initial pH of solutions is high. In deionized water, complete Cr(VI) reduction can be achieved by applying excess ferrous sulfate under the condition of this study. It is also achievable when the raw water from Durham Water Treatment Plant is used as the reaction medium, without additional dosage of ferrous sulfate. Based on the results, simultaneous removal of hexavalent chromium in water treatment by applying ferrous sulfate as the coagulant is theoretically feasible.

  2. 75 FR 27188 - Revising the Notification Requirements in the Exposure Determination Provisions of the Hexavalent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... Notification Requirements in the Exposure Determination Provisions of the Hexavalent Chromium Standards AGENCY... Chromium (Cr(VI)). In the March 17, 2010, DFR document, OSHA stated that the DFR would become effective on... the Chromium VI (Cr(VI)) standards are approved by OMB (Information Collection Request (ICR),...

  3. Particulate and soluble hexavalent chromium are cytotoxic and genotoxic to Steller sea lion lung cells.

    PubMed

    Wise, Sandra S; Shaffiey, Fariba; LaCerte, Carolyne; Goertz, Caroline E C; Dunn, J Lawrence; Gulland, Frances M D; Aboueissa, AbouEl-Makarim; Zheng, Tongzhang; Wise, John Pierce

    2009-03-09

    Hexavalent chromium is an environmental contaminant. Within the environment, marine waters are a common site for hexavalent chromium deposition. We have recently reported significantly high levels of chromium in skin tissue from North Atlantic right whales. These findings demonstrate that marine species are being exposed to chromium. It is possible that such exposures may be playing a role in population declines evident among certain marine mammals, such as the Steller sea lion. We developed a Steller sea lion lung cell line from Steller sea lion lung tissue. Hexavalent chromium was cytotoxic to these primary lung fibroblasts as 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 25microM sodium chromate induced 104, 99, 92, 58 and 11% relative survival, respectively. It was also genotoxic as 0, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10microM sodium chromate damaged chromosomes in 6, 11, 21, 36, and 39% of metaphases and damaged 6, 12, 27, 49 and 57 total aberrations in 100 metaphases, respectively. We also considered the toxicity of particulate hexavalent chromium, as it is the more potent carcinogen in humans. We found that 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10microg/cm(2) particulate chromate induced 95, 88, 91, 70, and 52% relative cell survival, respectively. These concentrations were genotoxic and damaged chromosomes in 9, 13, 18, and 23% of metaphases and induced 9, 15, 20 and 30 total aberrations per 100 metaphases, respectively. These data indicate that if sufficiently exposed, chromium may adversely affect the struggling Steller sea lion population. It would be prudent to investigate the effects chromium has in other Steller sea lion organs in order to derive a better understanding of how chromium in the marine environment may be affecting the declining Steller sea lion population.

  4. Evaluation of the genetic alterations in direct and indirect exposures of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in leather tanning industry workers North Arcot District, South India.

    PubMed

    Balachandar, Vellingiri; Arun, Meyyazhagan; Mohana Devi, Subramaniam; Velmurugan, Palanivel; Manikantan, Pappusamy; Karthick Kumar, Alagamuthu; Sasikala, Keshavarao; Venkatesan, Chinnakulandai

    2010-10-01

    The focal aim of the present study was to identify the genetic alterations occurring in the tannery workers and surrounding inhabitants chronically exposed to hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)]. A total of 108 samples which includes 72 exposed subjects [36 directly exposed (DE) subjects and 36 indirectly exposed (IE) subjects] and 36 controls were recruited for this study. The exposed subjects and controls were selected based on the Cr level present in air and their urine. Directly exposed subjects were categorized based on their work duration in the tannery industries, whereas the indirectly exposed subjects were categorized based on their year of residence in the place adjacent to tannery industries for more than 3 decades. Controls were normal and healthy. Age was matched for the exposed subjects and controls. The exposed subjects as well as the controls were categorized based on their age (group I, <40 years; group II, >41 years). Cell cultures were established from blood samples (5 ml from each subject) collected from the subjects (exposed subjects and controls) after obtaining informed consent. G-banding (Giemsa staining) of the cultures, micronucleus (MN) assay and comet assay were used to identify the genetic alterations of individuals exposed to Cr(VI) in comparison with the controls. A higher degree of total CA [12 ± 8.49 (21-25 years)] and MN [18.69 ± 7.39 (11-15 years)] was found in DE subjects compared to other groups. In IE subjects, elevated levels of CA [5.67 ± 1.15 (51-60 years)] and MN [25 ± 9.89 (71-80 years)] were observed. As expected, controls exhibited minimal number of alterations. The overall CA frequency due to Cr exposure was significantly different from that of the controls for both chromatid and chromosome type aberrations (P < 0.05 by ANOVA). The MN/1,000 binucleated cells were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the peripheral lymphocytes of DE and IE subjects in comparison with controls. The mean tail length of comet assay for DE, IE

  5. Comparative proteomics reveal the impact of OmcA/MtrC deletion on Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 in response to hexavalent chromium exposure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Chen, Juan; Hu, Wen-Jun; Liu, Ji-Yun; Zheng, Hai-Lei; Zhao, Feng

    2014-12-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a priority pollutant causing serious environmental issues. Microbial reduction provides an alternative strategy for Cr(VI) remediation. The dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, was employed to study Cr(VI) reduction and toxicity in this work. To understand the effect of membrane cytochromes on Cr(VI) response, a comparative protein profile analysis from S. oneidensis MR-1 wild type and its mutant of deleting OmcA and MtrC (△omcA/mtrC) was conducted using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) technology. The 2-DE patterns were compared, and the proteins with abundant changes of up to twofold in the Cr(VI) treatment were detected. Using mass spectrometry, 38 and 45 differentially abundant proteins were identified in the wild type and the mutant, respectively. Among them, 25 proteins were shared by the two strains. The biological functions of these identified proteins were analyzed. Results showed that Cr(VI) exposure decreased the abundance of proteins involved in transcription, translation, pyruvate metabolism, energy production, and function of cellular membrane in both strains. There were also significant differences in protein expressions between the two strains under Cr(VI) treatment. Our results suggest that OmcA/MtrC deletion might result in the Cr(VI) toxicity to outer membrane and decrease assimilation of lactate, vitamin B12, and cystine. When carbohydrate metabolism was inhibited by Cr(VI), leucine and sulfur metabolism may act as the important compensatory mechanisms in the mutant. Furthermore, the mutant may regulate electron transfer in the inner membrane and periplasm to compensate for the deletion of OmcA and MtrC in Cr(VI) reduction.

  6. Consideration of non-linear, non-threshold and threshold approaches for assessing the carcinogenicity of oral exposure to hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Haney, J

    2015-12-01

    A non-linear approach, consistent with available mode of action (MOA) data, is most scientifically defensible for assessing the carcinogenicity of oral exposure to hexavalent chromium (CrVI). Accordingly, the current paper builds upon previous studies (Haney, 2015a, 2015b) to first develop a non-linear, non-threshold approach as well as a non-linear threshold approach for assessing the oral carcinogenicity of CrVI, and then utilizes available MOA analyses and information for selection of the most scientifically-supported approach. More specifically, a non-linear, non-threshold dose-response function was developed that adequately describes the non-linearity predicted for potential human excess risk versus oral dose due to the sub-linear relationship between oral dose and internal dose (added mg Cr/kg target tissue) across environmentally-relevant doses of regulatory interest. Additionally, benchmark dose modeling was used to derive a reference dose (RfD of 0.003 mg/kg-day) with cytotoxicity-induced regenerative hyperplasia as a key precursor event to carcinogenesis in the mouse small intestine. This RfD value shows remarkable agreement with that published previously (0.006 mg/kg-day) based on a more scientifically-sophisticated, physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling approach (Thompson et al., 2013b). The RfD approach is the most scientifically-defensible approach based on the weight-of-evidence of available MOA information and analyses conducted for the most scientifically-supported MOA.

  7. Hexavalent chromium induces chromosome instability in human urothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wise, Sandra S; Holmes, Amie L; Liou, Louis; Adam, Rosalyn M; Wise, John Pierce

    2016-04-01

    Numerous metals are well-known human bladder carcinogens. Despite the significant occupational and public health concern of metals and bladder cancer, the carcinogenic mechanisms remain largely unknown. Chromium, in particular, is a metal of concern as incidences of bladder cancer have been found elevated in chromate workers, and there is an increasing concern for patients with metal hip implants. However, the impact of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) on bladder cells has not been studied. We compared chromate toxicity in two bladder cell lines; primary human urothelial cells and hTERT-immortalized human urothelial cells. Cr(VI) induced a concentration- and time-dependent increase in chromosome damage in both cell lines, with the hTERT-immortalized cells exhibiting more chromosome damage than the primary cells. Chronic exposure to Cr(VI) also induced a concentration-dependent increase in aneuploid metaphases in both cell lines which was not observed after a 24h exposure. Aneuploidy induction was higher in the hTERT-immortalized cells. When we correct for uptake, Cr(VI) induces a similar amount of chromosome damage and aneuploidy suggesting that the differences in Cr(VI) sensitivity between the two cells lines were due to differences in uptake. The increase in chromosome instability after chronic chromate treatment suggests this may be a mechanism for chromate-induced bladder cancer, specifically, and may be a mechanism for metal-induced bladder cancer, in general.

  8. Hexavalent Chromium Induces Chromosome Instability in Human Urothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Sandra S.; Holmes, Amie L.; Liou, Louis; Adam, Rosalyn M.; Wise, John Pierce

    2016-01-01

    Numerous metals are well-known human bladder carcinogens. Despite the significant occupational and public health concern of metals and bladder cancer, the carcinogenic mechanisms remain largely unknown. Chromium, in particular, is a metal of concern as incidences of bladder cancer have been found elevated in chromate workers, and there is an increasing concern for patients with metal hip implants. However, the impact of Cr(VI) on bladder cells has not been studied. We compared chromate toxicity in two bladder cell lines; primary human urothelial cells and hTERT-immortalized human urothelial cells. Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) induced a concentration- and time-dependent increase in chromosome damage in both cell lines, with the hTERT-immortalized cells exhibiting more chromosome damage than the primary cells. Chronic exposure to Cr(VI) also induced a concentration-dependent increase in aneuploid metaphases in both cell lines which was not observed after a 24 h exposure. Aneuploidy induction was higher in the hTERT-immortalized cells. When we correct for uptake, Cr(VI) induces a similar amount of chromosome damage and aneuploidy suggesting that the differences in Cr(VI) sensitivity between the two cells lines were due to differences in uptake. The increase in chromosome instability after chronic chromate treatment suggests this may be a mechanism for chromate-induced bladder cancer specifically and may be a mechanism for metal-induced bladder cancer in general. PMID:26908176

  9. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM (INTERAGENCY SCIENCE CONSULTATION DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On Septemeber 30, 2010, the draft Toxicological Review of Hexavalent Chromium and the charge to external peer reviewers were released for external peer review and public comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agenc...

  10. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM (INTERAGENCY SCIENCE CONSULTATION DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On Septemeber 30, 2010, the draft Toxicological Review of Hexavalent Chromium and the charge to external peer reviewers were released for external peer review and public comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agenc...

  11. 48 CFR 252.223-7008 - Prohibition of Hexava-lent Chromium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Chromium. 252.223-7008 Section 252.223-7008 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.223-7008 Prohibition of Hexava-lent Chromium. As prescribed in 223.7306, use the following clause: Prohibition of Hexavalent Chromium (JUN 2013) (a) Definitions. As used...

  12. Development of an inhalation unit risk factor for hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Haney, Joseph T; Erraguntla, Neeraja; Sielken, Robert L; Valdez-Flores, Ciriaco

    2014-03-01

    A unit risk factor (URF) was developed for hexavalent chromium (CrVI). The URF is based on excess lung cancer mortality in two key epidemiological studies of chromate production workers. The Crump et al. (2003) study concerns the Painesville, OH worker cohort, while Gibb et al. (2000) regards the Baltimore, MD cohort. A supporting assessment was also performed for a cohort from four low-dose chromate plants (Leverkusen and Uerdingen, Germany, Corpus Christi, TX, Castle Hayne, NC). For the Crump et al. (2003) study, grouped observed and expected number of lung cancer mortalities along with cumulative CrVI exposures were used to obtain the maximum likelihood estimate and asymptotic variance of the slope (β) for the linear multiplicative relative risk model using Poisson regression modeling. For the Gibb et al. (2000) study, Cox proportional hazards modeling was performed with optimal exposure lag and adjusting for the effect of covariates (e.g., smoking) to estimate β values. Life-table analyses were used to develop URFs for each of the two key studies, as well as for supporting and related studies. The two key study URFs were combined using weighting factors relevant to confidence to derive the final URF for CrVI of 2.3E-03 per μgCrVI/m(3). Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Adsorption of hexavalent chromium onto sisal pulp/polypyrrole composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Y. Y.; Wei, C.; Gong, Y. Y.; Du, L. L.

    2017-02-01

    Sisal pulp/polypyrrole composites(SP/PPy) utilized for the removal of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from wastewater, were prepared via in-situ chemical oxidation polymerization approach. The structure and morphology of the SP/PPy were analyzed by polarizing optical microscopy (POM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM)), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the results indicated SP could be efficient dispersion of PPy. The hexavalent chromium adsorption results indicate adsorption capacity of the SP/PPy were dependent on the initial pH, with an optimum pH of 2.0. The sorption kinetic data fitted well to the pseudo-second order model and isotherm data fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacity determined from the Langmuir isotherm is 336.70 mg/g at 25° C.

  14. Hexavalent chromium in the ground and surface waters near Telluride, Colorado; preliminary data report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grove, David B.; Miller, R.L.; Konikow, L.F.; O'Boyle, P. S.

    1979-01-01

    Data showing results of 38 groundwater and 25 surface-water samples analyzed for hexavalent chromium are presented. Most samples were taken within the Telluride, Colo., city limits during October 1978. Twenty-four of the 38 groundwater samples (63%) contained more than 50 micrograms per liter of hexavalent chromium. Excluding the mill tailings pond 6 of the 23 surface-water samples (26%) contained more than 50 micrograms per liter of hexavalent chromium. Hexavalent chromium concentrations in groundwaters ranged from 0 to 2700 micrograms per liter and in surface waters from 0 to 160 micrograms per liter. (USGS)

  15. Particulate hexavalent chromium is cytotoxic and genotoxic to the North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) lung and skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Li Chen, Tânia; Wise, Sandra S; Kraus, Scott; Shaffiey, Fariba; Levine, Kaitlynn M; Thompson, W Douglas; Romano, Tracy; O'Hara, Todd; Wise, John Pierce

    2009-06-01

    Hexavalent chromium compounds are present in the atmosphere and oceans and are established mutagens and carcinogens in human and terrestrial mammals. However, the adverse effects of these toxicants in marine mammals are uncertain. Previously, we reported that North Atlantic right whales, one of the most endangered great whales, have tissue chromium levels that are high, levels that may pose a risk to the whale's health. Furthermore, the study suggested that inhalation may be an important exposure route. Exposure to chromium through inhalation is mainly because of particulate compounds. However, the toxicity of particulate chromium compounds in marine mammal cells is unknown. Accordingly, in this study, we tested the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of particulate hexavalent chromium in primary cultured lung and skin fibroblasts from the endangered North Atlantic right whale. Cytotoxicity was measured by clonogenic survival assay, and genotoxicity was measured as production of chromosome aberrations. Particulate hexavalent chromium induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner in both right whale lung and skin fibroblasts. Lung fibroblasts were more resistant to chromium cytotoxicity, but presented with more chromosome damage than skin fibroblasts. These data further support the hypothesis that chromium may be a health concern for the endangered North Atlantic right whale.

  16. FORMATION AND DESTRUCTION OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM IN A LABORATORY SWIRL FLAME INCINERATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The partitioning of chromium (Cr) in combustion systems was investigated theoretically and experimentally. Theoretical predictions were based on chemical equilibrium and suggested that hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] was favored by the presence of chlorine (Cl) and diminished by the...

  17. FORMATION AND DESTRUCTION OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM IN A LABORATORY SWIRL FLAME INCINERATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The partitioning of chromium (Cr) in combustion systems was investigated theoretically and experimentally. Theoretical predictions were based on chemical equilibrium and suggested that hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] was favored by the presence of chlorine (Cl) and diminished by the...

  18. Co-removal of hexavalent chromium during copper precipitation.

    PubMed

    Sun, J; Huang, J C

    2002-01-01

    In our recent study using the nucleated precipitation technology to treat plating wastewater, it was found that about one half of hexavalent chromium was co-removed with copper, nickel and zinc. Since hexavalent chromium could not react with either hydroxide or carbonate to from precipitates, this study was undertaken to evaluate the mechanism(s) involved in the chromium co-removal. Batch tests were conducted with synthetic solutions containing either only copper or both copper and hexavalent chromium. Metal precipitation was induced by adding Na2CO3 to different pH, and the quantitative removal of copper and chromium was determined. Besides, the [Cr]/[Cu] molar ratio of produced precipitates were also assessed in conjunction with the EDAX analysis to determine their compositions. Experimental results indicate that for pure copper solution, precipitation begins at pH 6.0, and completes at pH 7.0. The chemical forms of the precipitates are copper carbonates [CuCO3 x Cu(OH)2 and CuCO3 x 2Cu(OH)2]. On the other hand, in a bi-metal solution of copper plus chromium, precipitation of copper begins at about pH 5.0, and copper precipitation is always accompanied by some chromium removal. From the removal stoichiometry of the two metals, it is found that at low pH, the co-removal is a result of "co-precipitation" which results in the formation of CuCrO4 crystallites. Once such crystallites are formed, they provide a heterogeneous environment which enhances an early formation of copper carbonate at a lower pH (below 5.5). It is further found that once copper carbonate precipitates are produced, the remaining soluble will precipitate in such form, and at this stage further removal of copper is no longer accompanied by additional chromium removal. The test data also reflect that the produced copper carbonates are positively charged, as verified by zeta potential measurement, at pH below 7.5. Thus they are able to adsorb some anionic chromium (existing as chromate) through

  19. Hexavalent chromium is cytotoxic and genotoxic to the North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) lung and testes fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Wise, John Pierce; Wise, Sandra S; Kraus, Scott; Shaffiey, Fariba; Grau, Marijke; Chen, Tania Li; Perkins, Christopher; Thompson, W Douglas; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhang, Yawei; Romano, Tracy; O'Hara, Todd

    2008-01-31

    Although hexavalent chromium is a known genotoxic agent in human and terrestrial mammals and is present in seawater and air, its effects on marine mammals including the endangered North Atlantic right whale are unknown and untested. The present study investigated the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of hexavalent chromium in primary cultured North Atlantic right whale lung and testes fibroblasts and levels of total chromium in skin biopsies from North Atlantic right whales. Cytotoxicity was measured by clonogenic survival assay. Genotoxicity was measured as production of chromosome aberrations. Tissue chromium levels were determined from skin biopsies of healthy free-ranging whales in the Bay of Fundy using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Hexavalent chromium-induced concentration-dependent increases in right whale lung and testes fibroblast cytotoxicity with the testes more sensitive to the cytotoxic effects. It also induced concentration-dependent increases in chromosomal aberrations in both cell types with no significant difference in sensitivity. Skin biopsy data indicate that North Atlantic right whales are exposed to chromium and accumulate a range of 4.9-10 microg Cr/g tissue with a mean of 7.1 microg/g. Hexavalent chromium is cytotoxic and genotoxic to North Atlantic right whale cells. The whales have tissue chromium levels that are concerning. These data support a hypothesis that chromium may be a concern for the health of the North Atlantic right whales. Considering these data with chromium chemistry, whale physiology and atmospheric chromium levels further suggest that inhalation may be an important exposure route.

  20. Reduction of hexavalent chromium by the thermophilic methanogen Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus

    DOE PAGES

    Singh, Rajesh; Dong, Hailiang; Liu, Deng; ...

    2014-10-22

    Despite the significant progress on iron reduction by thermophilic microorganisms, studies on their ability to reduce toxic metals are still limited, despite their common co-existence in high temperature environments (up to 70°C). In this study, Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, an obligate thermophilic methanogen, was used to reduce hexavalent chromium. Experiments were conducted in a growth medium with H2/CO2 as substrate with various Cr6+ concentrations (0.2, 0.4, 1, 3, and 5 mM) in the form of potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7). Time-course measurements of aqueous Cr6+ concentrations with the 1, 5-diphenylcarbazide colorimetric method showed complete reduction of the 0.2 and 0.4 mM Cr6+ solutions bymore » this methanogen. However, much lower reduction extents of 43.6%, 13.0%, and 3.7% were observed at higher Cr6+ concentrations of 1, 3 and 5 mM, respectively. These lower extents of bioreduction suggest a toxic effect of aqueous Cr6+ to cells at this concentration range. At these higher Cr6+ concentrations, methanogenesis was inhibited and cell growth was impaired as evidenced by decreased total cellular protein production and live/dead cell ratio. Likewise, Cr6+ bioreduction rates decreased with increased initial concentrations of Cr6+ from 13.3 to1.9 μM h₋1. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy revealed a progressive reduction of soluble Cr6+ to insoluble Cr3+ precipitates, which was confirmed as amorphous chromium hydroxide by X-ray diffraction and selected area electron diffraction pattern. However, a small fraction of reduced Cr occurred as aqueous Cr3+. Scanning and transmission electron microscope observations of M. thermautotrophicus cells after Cr6+ exposure suggest both extra- and intracellular chromium reduction mechanisms. Results of this study demonstrate the ability of M. thermautotrophicus cells to reduce toxic Cr6+ to less toxic Cr3+ and its potential application in metal bioremediation, especially at high temperature

  1. Reduction of hexavalent chromium by the thermophilic methanogen Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Rajesh; Dong, Hailiang; Liu, Deng; Zhao, Linduo; Marts, Amy R.; Farquhar, Erik; Tierney, David L.; Almquist, Catherine B.; Briggs, Brandon R.

    2014-10-22

    Despite the significant progress on iron reduction by thermophilic microorganisms, studies on their ability to reduce toxic metals are still limited, despite their common co-existence in high temperature environments (up to 70°C). In this study, Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, an obligate thermophilic methanogen, was used to reduce hexavalent chromium. Experiments were conducted in a growth medium with H2/CO2 as substrate with various Cr6+ concentrations (0.2, 0.4, 1, 3, and 5 mM) in the form of potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7). Time-course measurements of aqueous Cr6+ concentrations with the 1, 5-diphenylcarbazide colorimetric method showed complete reduction of the 0.2 and 0.4 mM Cr6+ solutions by this methanogen. However, much lower reduction extents of 43.6%, 13.0%, and 3.7% were observed at higher Cr6+ concentrations of 1, 3 and 5 mM, respectively. These lower extents of bioreduction suggest a toxic effect of aqueous Cr6+ to cells at this concentration range. At these higher Cr6+ concentrations, methanogenesis was inhibited and cell growth was impaired as evidenced by decreased total cellular protein production and live/dead cell ratio. Likewise, Cr6+ bioreduction rates decreased with increased initial concentrations of Cr6+ from 13.3 to1.9 μM h₋1. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy revealed a progressive reduction of soluble Cr6+ to insoluble Cr3+ precipitates, which was confirmed as amorphous chromium hydroxide by X-ray diffraction and selected area electron diffraction pattern. However, a small fraction of reduced Cr occurred as aqueous Cr3+. Scanning and transmission electron microscope observations of M. thermautotrophicus cells after Cr6+ exposure suggest both extra- and intracellular chromium reduction mechanisms. Results of

  2. Reduction of hexavalent chromium by the thermophilic methanogen Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rajesh; Dong, Hailiang; Liu, Deng; Zhao, Linduo; Marts, Amy R.; Farquhar, Erik; Tierney, David L.; Almquist, Catherine B.; Briggs, Brandon R.

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant progress on iron reduction by thermophilic microorganisms, studies on their ability to reduce toxic metals are still limited, despite their common co-existence in high temperature environments (up to 70 °C). In this study, Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, an obligate thermophilic methanogen, was used to reduce hexavalent chromium. Experiments were conducted in a growth medium with H2/CO2 as substrate with various Cr6+ concentrations (0.2, 0.4, 1, 3, and 5 mM) in the form of potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7). Time-course measurements of aqueous Cr6+ concentrations using 1,5-diphenylcarbazide colorimetric method showed complete reduction of the 0.2 and 0.4 mM Cr6+ solutions by this methanogen. However, much lower reduction extents of 43.6%, 13.0%, and 3.7% were observed at higher Cr6+ concentrations of 1, 3 and 5 mM, respectively. These lower extents of bioreduction suggest a toxic effect of aqueous Cr6+ to cells at this concentration range. At these higher Cr6+ concentrations, methanogenesis was inhibited and cell growth was impaired as evidenced by decreased total cellular protein production and live/dead cell ratio. Likewise, Cr6+ bioreduction rates decreased with increased initial concentrations of Cr6+ from 13.3 to 1.9 μM h-1. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy revealed a progressive reduction of soluble Cr6+ to insoluble Cr3+ precipitates, which was confirmed as amorphous chromium hydroxide by selected area electron diffraction pattern. However, a small fraction of reduced Cr occurred as aqueous Cr3+. Scanning and transmission electron microscope observations of M. thermautotrophicus cells after Cr6+ exposure suggest both extra- and intracellular chromium reduction mechanisms. Results of this study demonstrate the ability of M. thermautotrophicus cells to reduce toxic Cr6+ to less toxic Cr3+ and its potential application in metal bioremediation, especially at high temperature subsurface radioactive waste disposal

  3. Reduction of hexavalent chromium by the thermophilic methanogen Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajesh; Dong, Hailiang; Liu, Deng; Zhao, Linduo; Marts, Amy R.; Farquhar, Erik; Tierney, David L.; Almquist, Catherine B.; Briggs, Brandon R.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significant progress on iron reduction by thermophilic microorganisms, studies on their ability to reduce toxic metals are still limited, despite their common co-existence in high temperature environments (up to 70°C). In this study, Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, an obligate thermophilic methanogen, was used to reduce hexavalent chromium. Experiments were conducted in a growth medium with H2/CO2 as substrate with various Cr6+ concentrations (0.2, 0.4, 1, 3, and 5 mM) in the form of potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7). Time-course measurements of aqueous Cr6+ concentrations with the 1, 5-diphenylcarbazide colorimetric method showed complete reduction of the 0.2 and 0.4 mM Cr6+ solutions by this methanogen. However, much lower reduction extents of 43.6%, 13.0%, and 3.7% were observed at higher Cr6+ concentrations of 1, 3 and 5 mM, respectively. These lower extents of bioreduction suggest a toxic effect of aqueous Cr6+ to cells at this concentration range. At these higher Cr6+ concentrations, methanogenesis was inhibited and cell growth was impaired as evidenced by decreased total cellular protein production and live/dead cell ratio. Likewise, Cr6+ bioreduction rates decreased with increased initial concentrations of Cr6+ from 13.3 to1.9 µM h−1. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy revealed a progressive reduction of soluble Cr6+ to insoluble Cr3+ precipitates, which was confirmed as amorphous chromium hydroxide by X-ray diffraction and selected area electron diffraction pattern. However, a small fraction of reduced Cr occurred as aqueous Cr3+. Scanning and transmission electron microscope observations of M. thermautotrophicus cells after Cr6+ exposure suggest both extra- and intracellular chromium reduction mechanisms. Results of this study demonstrate the ability of M. thermautotrophicus cells to reduce toxic Cr6+ to less toxic Cr3+ and its potential application in metal bioremediation, especially at high temperature

  4. Reduction of hexavalent chromium by the thermophilic methanogen Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajesh; Dong, Hailiang; Liu, Deng; Zhao, Linduo; Marts, Amy R; Farquhar, Erik; Tierney, David L; Almquist, Catherine B; Briggs, Brandon R

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significant progress on iron reduction by thermophilic microorganisms, studies on their ability to reduce toxic metals are still limited, despite their common co-existence in high temperature environments (up to 70°C). In this study, Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, an obligate thermophilic methanogen, was used to reduce hexavalent chromium. Experiments were conducted in a growth medium with H2/CO2 as substrate with various Cr(6+) concentrations (0.2, 0.4, 1, 3, and 5 mM) in the form of potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7). Time-course measurements of aqueous Cr(6+) concentrations with the 1, 5-diphenylcarbazide colorimetric method showed complete reduction of the 0.2 and 0.4 mM Cr(6+) solutions by this methanogen. However, much lower reduction extents of 43.6%, 13.0%, and 3.7% were observed at higher Cr(6+) concentrations of 1, 3 and 5 mM, respectively. These lower extents of bioreduction suggest a toxic effect of aqueous Cr(6+) to cells at this concentration range. At these higher Cr(6+) concentrations, methanogenesis was inhibited and cell growth was impaired as evidenced by decreased total cellular protein production and live/dead cell ratio. Likewise, Cr(6+) bioreduction rates decreased with increased initial concentrations of Cr(6+) from 13.3 to1.9 µM h(-1). X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy revealed a progressive reduction of soluble Cr(6+) to insoluble Cr(3+) precipitates, which was confirmed as amorphous chromium hydroxide by X-ray diffraction and selected area electron diffraction pattern. However, a small fraction of reduced Cr occurred as aqueous Cr(3+). Scanning and transmission electron microscope observations of M. thermautotrophicus cells after Cr(6+) exposure suggest both extra- and intracellular chromium reduction mechanisms. Results of this study demonstrate the ability of M. thermautotrophicus cells to reduce toxic Cr(6+) to less toxic Cr(3+) and its potential application in metal bioremediation, especially

  5. Urinary chromium concentrations in humans following ingestion of safe doses of hexavalent and trivalent chromium: Implications for biomonitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, B.L.; Scott, P.K.; Norton, R.L.

    1996-08-09

    This study evaluates the significance of increased urinary chromium concentrations as a marker of chromium exposure and potential health risk. Six human volunteers ingested trivalent chromium [Cr(III)] and hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] at doses that are known to be safe but higher than typical levels. The following dosing regimen was used: d 1-7, 200 {mu}g/d chromium picolinate; d 8-10, Cr(VI) ingestion at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reference dose (RfD) of 0.005 mg/kg/d; d 11-13, no dose; d 14-16, Cr(III) ingestion at the U.S. EPA RfD of 1.0 mg/kg/d; and 17-18, postdose. Findings are as follows: (1) ingestion of 200 {mu}g/d of chromium picolinate yielded significantly elevated urine concentrations such that each participant routinely exceeded background, (2) ingestion of the Cr(VI) RfD (0.005 mg/kg/d) yielded individual mean urinary chromium levels (1.2-2.3 {mu}g/L) and a pooled mean urinary chromium level (2.4 {mu}g/L) that significantly exceeded background, and (3) ingestion of the Cr(III) RfD yielded no significantly exceeded background, and (3) ingestion of the Cr(III) RfD yielded no significant increase in urinary chromium concentrations, indicating that little, if any, absorption occurred. Our work identified three critical issues that need to be accounted for in any future studies that will use urinary chromium as a marker of exposure. First, a minimum urinary chromium concentration of approximately 2 {mu}g/L should be used as a screening level to critically identify individuals who may have experienced elevated exposures to chromium. Second, if Cr(III) levels in soils are known to be less than 80,000 ppm and the Cr(III) is insoluble, urinary chromium concentrations are not an appropriate marker of exposure. Third, newer forms of chromium supplements that contain organic forms of Cr(III) must be considered potential confounders and their contribution to residential chromium uptake must be carefully evaluated. 19 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. ADVANCES IN HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM REMOVAL AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect

    NESHEM DO; RIDDELLE J

    2012-01-30

    At the Hanford Site, chromium was used as a corrosion inhibitor in the reactor cooling water and was introduced into the groundwater as a result of planned and unplanned discharges from reactors during plutonium production since 1944. Beginning in 1995, groundwater treatment methods were evaluated leading to the use of pump and treat facilities with ion exchange using Dowex 21 K, a regenerable strong base anion exchange resin. This required regeneration of the resin, which is currently performed offsite. Resin was installed in a 4 vessel train, with resin removal required from the lead vessel approximately once a month. In 2007, there were 8 trains (32 vessels) in operation. In 2008, DOE recognized that regulatory agreements would require significant expansion in the groundwater chromium treatment capacity. Previous experience from one of the DOE project managers led to identification of a possible alternative resin, and the contractor was requested to evaluate alternative resins for both cost and programmatic risk reductions. Testing was performed onsite in 2009 and 2010, using a variety of potential resins in two separate facilities with groundwater from specific remediation sites to demonstrate resin performance in the specific groundwater chemistry at each site. The testing demonstrated that a weak base anion single-use resin, ResinTech SIR-700, was effective at removing chromium, had a significantly higher capacity, could be disposed of efficiently on site, and would eliminate the complexities and programmatic risks from sampling, packaging, transportation and return of resin for regeneration. This resin was installed in Hanford's newest groundwater treatment facility, called 100-DX, which began operations in November, 2010, and used in a sister facility, 100-HX, which started up in September of 2011. This increased chromium treatment capacity to 25 trains (100 vessels). The resin is also being tested in existing facilities that utilize Dowex 21 K for

  7. Extraction of hexavalent chromium from groundwater using ion exchange resins

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, D.; Ridley, M.

    1994-04-01

    A bench top experiment was performed to determine the hexavalent chromium (Cr{sup +6}) absorption capacity of three ion exchange resins. The resin types tested were Purolite A300, A500, and A600 which are commercially available. This experiment is part of an effort to better characterize resin efficiencies at removing Cr{sup +6} from ground water extracted from wells at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The information obtained from these laboratory scale tests will aid in the determination of the preferred resin for an onsite ground water treatment facility.

  8. Microbial reduction of hexavalent chromium under vadose zone conditions.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Douglas S; Brockman, Fred J; Bowman, Robert S; Kieft, Thomas L

    2003-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a common contaminant associated with nuclear reactors and fuel processing. Improper disposal at facilities in and and semiarid regions has contaminated underlying vadose zones and aquifers. The objectives of this study were to assess the potential for immobilizing Cr(VI) using a native microbial community to reduce soluble Cr(VI) to insoluble Cr(III) under conditions similar to those in the vadose zone, and to evaluate the potential for enhancing biological Cr(VI) reduction through nutrient addition. Batch microcosm and unsaturated flow column experiments were performed. Native microbial communities in subsurface sediments with no prior Cr(VI) exposure were shown to be capable of Cr(VI) reduction. In both the batch and column experiments, Cr(VI) reduction and loss from the aqueous phase were enhanced by adding high levels of both nitrate (NO3-) and organic C (molasses). Nutrient amendments resulted in up to 87% reduction of the initial 67 mg L(-1) Cr(VI) in an unsaturated batch experiment. Molasses and nitrate additions to 15 cm long unsaturated flow columns receiving 65 mg L(-1) Cr(VI) resulted in microbially mediated reduction and immobilization of 10% of the Cr during a 45-d experiment. All of the immobilized Cr was in the form of Cr(III), as shown by XANES analysis. This suggests that biostimulation of microbial Cr(VI) reduction in vadose zones by nutrient amendment is a promising strategy, and that immobilization of close to 100% of Cr contamination could be achieved in a thick vadose zone with longer flow paths and longer contact times than in this experiment.

  9. [New perspectives in biomonitoring of metallic elements: the example of hexavalent chromium].

    PubMed

    Mutti, A; De Palma, G; Goldoni, M

    2012-01-01

    Plating industry is an important productive sector in all the national territory, because of its contribution to a high number of industrial products and crafts. In the chrome plating sector there is a specific chemical risk due to the exposure to compounds containing hexavalent Chromium [Cr(VI)]. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) has been used to study both acute and long term exposure to Cr(VI) in chrome plating workers. Cr-EBC correlates with specific oxidative stress biomarkers. Moreover, both total Cr and its hexavalent fraction can be measured in EBC, which therefore is a promising biological fluid to assess the absorbed dose at the target organ level, the pulmonary reduction kinetics of Cr(VI) and in general its local pneumotoxic effects. EBC collection and analysis could give additional information to the traditional measures performed during biomonitoring.

  10. Hexavalent chromium effects on carbon assimilation in Selenastrum capricornutum

    SciTech Connect

    Pillard, D.A.; Rocchio, P.M.; Cassidy, K.M.; Stewart, S.M.; Vance, B.D.

    1987-04-01

    One of the difficulties in assessing toxic substances such as metals and complex organic compounds is the duration of the necessary tests. It would be beneficial to have available standardized tests of short duration that would allow a reduction in necessary manpower and overall cost as well as provide a method to evaluate chemicals that are readily degraded (i.e., within a few hours). One method available is the short-term photosynthesis response of algae to a given toxicant. Photosynthesis is not only a critical physiological response but is also one for which standard, accurate methods are available. The /sup 14/C method has been used to study the effects of chromium on algae. More recently, it was proposed that the /sup 14/C method be used to measure short-term photosynthetic response as a standard algal bioassay. The present study was designed to further evaluate, via photosynthetic response, the potential effects of hexavalent chromium on Selenastrum capricornutum.

  11. Genetic Predisposition for Dermal Problems in Hexavalent Chromium Exposed Population

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Priti; Bihari, Vipin; Agarwal, Sudhir K.; Goel, Sudhir K.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effect of genetic susceptibility on hexavalent chromium induced dermal adversities. The health status of population was examined from the areas of Kanpur (India) having the elevated hexavalent chromium levels in groundwater. Blood samples were collected for DNA isolation to conduct polymorphic determination of genes, namely: NQO1 (C609T), hOGG1 (C1245G), GSTT1, and GSTM1 (deletion). Symptomatic exposed subjects (n = 38) were compared with asymptomatic exposed subjects (n = 108) along with asymptomatic controls (n = 148) from a non contaminated reference community. Exposed symptomatic group consisted of 36.8% subjects who were GSTM1 null genotyped as compared to asymptomatic where only 19.4% subjects were null. The exposed subjects with GSTM1 null genotype were more susceptible to dermal adversities in comparison with wild genotyped subjects (OR = 2.42; 95% CI = 1.071–5.451). Age, smoking, gender or duration of residence were not found to have any confounding effect towards this association. Association with other genes was not statistically significant, nonetheless, possible contribution by these genes cannot be ruled out. In conclusion, variation in the polymorphic status of GSTM1 gene may influence dermal outcomes among residents from Cr(VI) contaminated areas. Further studies are therefore, needed to examine these observations among different population groups. PMID:22919465

  12. Hexavalent chromium induced stress and metabolic responses in hybrid willows.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Gu, Ji-Dong; Huang, Shen-Zhuo

    2007-04-01

    Metabolic responses to hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)) stress and the uptake and translocation of Cr(6+ )were investigated using pre-rooted hybrid willows (Salix matsudana Koidz x Salix alba L.) exposed to hydroponic solution spiked with K(2)CrO(4) at 24.0 +/- 1 degrees C for 192 h. Various physiological parameters of the plants were monitored to determine toxicity from Cr(6+ )exposure. At Cr(6+) treatments of 50% higher than that of the non-treated control plants. As Cr concentrations were increased further, a slight increase in the transpiration rate was also observed compared with the controls. Negligible difference in the chlorophyll contents in leaves between the treated and the non-treated control plants was measured, except for willows exposed to 1.05 mg Cr/l. The response of soluble proteins in leaves of willows to Cr treatments was remarkable. Cr-induced toxicity appeared in all treatments resulting in reduced activities of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) compared to the controls. Superoxide dismutases (SOD) activity in the leaf cells showed a positive increase after Cr exposure. Of all selected parameters, soluble proteins in leaves were the most sensitive to Cr(6+ )doses, showing a significant linear correlation negatively (R (2) = 0.931). Uptake of Cr(6+) by willows grown in flasks was found to increase linearly with the added Cr(6+ )(a zero order kinetics), as indicated by the high R (2) (0.9322). Recovery of Cr in different parts of plant materials varied significantly with roots being the dominant site of Cr accumulation. Although the translocation to shoots was detected, the amount of Cr translocated to shoots was considerably small. The capacity of willows to assimilate Cr(6+ )was also evaluated using detached leaves and roots in sealed glass vessels in vivo. Uptake of Cr by roots was mediated possibly through an active transport mechanism, whereas the cuticle of leaves was the major obstacle

  13. Biological groundwater treatment for chromium removal at low hexavalent chromium concentrations.

    PubMed

    Mamais, Daniel; Noutsopoulos, Constantinos; Kavallari, Ioanna; Nyktari, Eleni; Kaldis, Apostolos; Panousi, Eleni; Nikitopoulos, George; Antoniou, Kornilia; Nasioka, Maria

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this work is to develop and evaluate biological groundwater treatment systems that will achieve hexavalent chromium reduction and total chromium removal from groundwater at hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) groundwater concentrations in the 0-200 μg/L range. Three lab-scale units operated, as sequencing batch reactors (SBR) under aerobic, anaerobic and anaerobic-aerobic conditions. All systems received groundwater with a Cr(VI) content of 200 μg/L. In order to support biological growth, groundwater was supplemented with milk, liquid cheese whey or a mixture of sugar and milk to achieve a COD concentration of 200 mg/L. The results demonstrate that a fully anaerobic system or an anaerobic-aerobic system dosed with simple or complex external organic carbon sources can lead to practically complete Cr(VI) reduction to Cr(III). The temperature dependency of maximum Cr(VI) removal rates can be described by the Arrhenius relationship. Total chromium removal in the biological treatment systems was not complete because a significant portion of Cr(III) remained in solution. An integrated system comprising of an anaerobic SBR followed by a sand filter achieved more than 95% total chromium removal thus resulting in average effluent total and dissolved chromium concentrations of 7 μg/L and 3 μg/L, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Genome-wide gene expression effects in B6C3F1 mouse intestinal epithelia following 7 and 90 days of exposure to hexavalent chromium in drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Kopec, Anna K.; Kim, Suntae; Forgacs, Agnes L.; Zacharewski, Timothy R.; Proctor, Deborah M.; Harris, Mark A.; Haws, Laurie C.; Thompson, Chad M.

    2012-02-15

    Chronic administration of high doses of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] as sodium dichromate dihydrate (SDD) elicits alimentary cancers in mice. To further elucidate key events underlying tumor formation, a 90-day drinking water study was conducted in B6C3F1 mice. Differential gene expression was examined in duodenal and jejunal epithelial samples following 7 or 90 days of exposure to 0, 0.3, 4, 14, 60, 170 or 520 mg/L SDD in drinking water. Genome-wide microarray analyses identified 6562 duodenal and 4448 jejunal unique differentially expressed genes at day 8, and 4630 and 4845 unique changes, respectively, in the duodenum and jejunum at day 91. Comparative analysis identified significant overlap in duodenal and jejunal differential gene expression. Automated dose–response modeling identified > 80% of the differentially expressed genes exhibited sigmoidal dose–response curves with EC{sub 50} values ranging from 10 to 100 mg/L SDD. Only 16 genes satisfying the dose-dependent differential expression criteria had EC{sub 50} values < 10 mg/L SDD, 3 of which were regulated by Nrf2, suggesting oxidative stress in response to SDD at low concentrations. Analyses of differentially expressed genes identified over-represented functions associated with oxidative stress, cell cycle, lipid metabolism, and immune responses consistent with the reported effects on redox status and histopathology at corresponding SDD drinking water concentrations. Collectively, these data are consistent with a mode of action involving oxidative stress and cytotoxicity as early key events. This suggests that the tumorigenic effects of chronic Cr(VI) oral exposure likely require chronic tissue damage and compensatory epithelial cell proliferation. Highlights: ► Mouse small intestine gene expression is highly responsive to hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)]. ► Cr(VI) elicits more differential gene expression after 7 days of exposure than 90 days of exposure. ► Oral exposure to Cr(VI) leads to

  15. Comparison of the effects of hexavalent chromium in the alimentary canal of F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice following exposure in drinking water: implications for carcinogenic modes of action.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Chad M; Proctor, Deborah M; Suh, Mina; Haws, Laurie C; Hébert, Charles D; Mann, Jill F; Shertzer, Howard G; Hixon, J Gregory; Harris, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI]) in drinking water is reported to induce oral mucosa tumors in F344 rats and intestinal tumors in B6C3F1 mice. To investigate the modes of action underlying these tumors, 90-day drinking water studies (with interim necropsy at day 8) were conducted with concentrations of 0.1-182 mg/l Cr(VI), administered as 0.3-520 mg/l sodium dichromate dihydrate. Blood and tissue samples were analyzed for chromium content, oxidative stress, iron levels, and gross and microscopic lesions. Results for the F344 rats are described herein and compared with results from B6C3F1 mice published previously. After 90 days of exposure, total chromium concentrations in the rat and mouse oral mucosae were comparable, yet significant dose-dependent decreases in the reduced-to-oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) were observed only in rats. In the duodenum, changes in GSH/GSSG were only observed in mice. Levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine were not increased in the oral or duodenal mucosae of either species. Glutathione levels were increased in the duodenum but decreased in the jejunum of both species, indicating potential differential responses in the intestinal segments. Histiocytic infiltration was observed in the duodenum of both species, yet duodenal cytokines were repressed in mice but increased in rats. Serum and bone marrow iron levels were more decreased in rats than mice. Collectively, these data suggest that Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis in the rodent alimentary canal involves oxidative stress; however, differences in histopathology, cytokines, and iron status suggest potential contributions from other factors as well.

  16. Comparison of the Effects of Hexavalent Chromium in the Alimentary Canal of F344 Rats and B6C3F1 Mice Following Exposure in Drinking Water: Implications for Carcinogenic Modes of Action

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Chad M.; Proctor, Deborah M.; Suh, Mina; Haws, Laurie C.; Hébert, Charles D.; Mann, Jill F.; Shertzer, Howard G.; Hixon, J. Gregory; Harris, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI]) in drinking water is reported to induce oral mucosa tumors in F344 rats and intestinal tumors in B6C3F1 mice. To investigate the modes of action underlying these tumors, 90-day drinking water studies (with interim necropsy at day 8) were conducted with concentrations of 0.1–182 mg/l Cr(VI), administered as 0.3–520 mg/l sodium dichromate dihydrate. Blood and tissue samples were analyzed for chromium content, oxidative stress, iron levels, and gross and microscopic lesions. Results for the F344 rats are described herein and compared with results from B6C3F1 mice published previously. After 90 days of exposure, total chromium concentrations in the rat and mouse oral mucosae were comparable, yet significant dose-dependent decreases in the reduced-to-oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) were observed only in rats. In the duodenum, changes in GSH/GSSG were only observed in mice. Levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine were not increased in the oral or duodenal mucosae of either species. Glutathione levels were increased in the duodenum but decreased in the jejunum of both species, indicating potential differential responses in the intestinal segments. Histiocytic infiltration was observed in the duodenum of both species, yet duodenal cytokines were repressed in mice but increased in rats. Serum and bone marrow iron levels were more decreased in rats than mice. Collectively, these data suggest that Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis in the rodent alimentary canal involves oxidative stress; however, differences in histopathology, cytokines, and iron status suggest potential contributions from other factors as well. PMID:22011396

  17. Evaluation for Early Life Stage Fall Chinook Salmon Exposed to Hexavalent Chromium from a Contaminated Groundwater Source

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Gregory W.; Dauble, Dennis D.; McKinstry, Craig A.

    2007-09-01

    We conducted a laboratory evaluation to assess the risk to early life stage (i.e., eyed egg to swim up) fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) for exposure to hexavalent chromium from a contaminated groundwater source. Local populations of fall Chinook salmon were exposed to Hanford Site source groundwater that was diluted with Columbia River water. Specific endpoints included survival, development rate, and growth. Tissue burdens of fish were also measured to estimate uptake and elimination rates of chromium. Survival, development, and growth of early life stage fall Chinook salmon were not adversely affected by extended exposures (i.e., 98 day) to hexavalent chromium ranging from 0.79 to 260 μg/L. Survival for all treatment levels and controls exceeded 98% at termination of the test. In addition, there were no differences among the mean lengths and weights of fish among all treatment groups. Whole-body concentrations of chromium in early life stage fall Chinook salmon had a typical dose-response pattern; i.e., those subjected to highest exposure concentrations and longest exposure intervals had higher tissue concentrations. Given the spatial extent of chromium concentrations at the Hanford Site, and the dynamics of the groundwater - river water interface, the current cleanup criterion of 10 µg/L chromium appear adequate to protect fall Chinook salmon populations.

  18. Bioremediation of hexavalent chromium by a cyanobacterial mat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Dhara; Vankar, Padma S.; Srivastava, Sarvesh Kumar

    2012-12-01

    The study comprises the use of cyanobacterial mat (collected from tannery effluent site) to remove hexavalent chromium. This mat was consortium of cyanobacteria/blue-green algae such as Chlorella sp., Phormidium sp. and Oscillatoria sp. The adsorption experiments were carried out in batches using chromium concentrations 2-10, 15-30 and 300 ppm at pH 5.5-6.2. The adsorption started within 15 min; however, 96 % reduction in metal concentration was observed within 210 min. The adsorption phenomenon was confirmed by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. This biosorption fitted Freundlich adsorption isotherm very well. It was observed that the best adsorption was at 4 ppm, and at 25 ppm in the chosen concentration ranges. Scanning electron micrograph showed the physiology of mat, indicating sites for metal uptake. The main focus was collection of the cyanobacterial mat from local environments and its chromium removal potential at pH 5.5-6.2.

  19. Eolian transport of geogenic hexavalent chromium to ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, W.W.; Clark, D.; Imes, J.L.; Councell, T.B.

    2010-01-01

    A conceptual model of eolian transport is proposed to address the widely distributed, high concentrations of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) observed in ground water in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Concentrations (30 to more than 1000 μg/L Cr+6) extend over thousands of square kilometers of ground water systems. It is hypothesized that the Cr is derived from weathering of chromium-rich pyroxenes and olivines present in ophiolite sequence of the adjacent Oman (Hajar) Mountains. Cr+3 in the minerals is oxidized to Cr+6 by reduction of manganese and is subsequently sorbed on iron and manganese oxide coatings of particles. When the surfaces of these particles are abraded in this arid environment, they release fine, micrometer-sized, coated particles that are easily transported over large distances by wind and subsequently deposited on the surface. During ground water recharge events, the readily soluble Cr+6 is mobilized by rain water and transported by advective flow into the underlying aquifer. Chromium analyses of ground water, rain, dust, and surface (soil) deposits are consistent with this model, as are electron probe analyses of clasts derived from the eroding Oman ophiolite sequence. Ground water recharge flux is proposed to exercise some control over Cr+6 concentration in the aquifer.

  20. 75 FR 69064 - Draft Toxicological Review of Hexavalent Chromium: In Support of Summary Information on the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of... Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)'' is available primarily via the..., ``Toxicological Review of Hexavalent Chromium: In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated...

  1. Hexavalent Chromium Is Cytotoxic and Genotoxic to American Alligator Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Sandra S.; Wise, Catherine; Xie, Hong; Guillette, Louis J.; Zhu, Cairong; Wise, John Pierce; Wise, John Pierce

    2016-01-01

    Metals are a common pollutant in the aquatic ecosystem. With global climate change, these levels are anticipated to rise as lower pH levels allow sediment bound metals to be released. The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) is an apex predator in the aquatic ecosystem and is considered a keystone species; as such it serves as a suitable monitor for localized pollution. One metal of increasing concern is hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)). It is present in the aquatic environment and is a known human carcinogen and reproductive toxicant. We measured the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Cr(VI) in American alligator cells derived from scute tissue. We found that particulate and soluble Cr(VI) are both cytotoxic and genotoxic to alligator cells in a concentration-dependent manner. These data suggest that alligators may be used as a model for assessing the effects of environmental Cr(VI) contamination as well as for other metals of concern. PMID:26730726

  2. Electrochemical reduction of hexavalent chromium in ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, S.

    1994-12-01

    Electrochemical reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr{sup +6}) to its trivalent state (Cr{sup +3}) is showing promising results in treating ground water at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) Main Site. An electrolytic cell using stainless-steel and brass electrodes has been found to offer the most efficient reduction while yielding the least amount of precipitate. Trials have successfully lowered concentrations of Cr{sup +6} to below 11 parts per billion (micrograms/liter), the California state standard. We ran several trials to determine optimal voltage for running the cell; each trial consisted of applying a voltage between 6V and 48V for ten minutes through samples obtained at Treatment Facility C(TFC). No conclusive data has been obtained yet.

  3. Polyaniline coating with various substrates for hexavalent chromium removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Bin; Xu, Cuixia; Sun, Dezhi; Wang, Qiang; Gu, Hongbo; Zhang, Xin; Weeks, Brandon L.; Hopper, Jack; Ho, Thomas C.; Guo, Zhanhu; Wei, Suying

    2015-04-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) contamination is increasingly serious in surface water and groundwater, therefore, its removal attracts increasing attention due to its highly toxic to human health. The cost effective and sustainable adsorbents are urgently needed for the remediation of Cr(VI) pollution. Polyanline (PANI), a conductive polymer, has demonstrated a great performance on Cr(VI) removal. But the recycling is the challenge for its application due to its small size. The PANI coating with various substrates is an effective approach to solve this problem. The synthesis methods and applications of the PANI coated magnetic Fe3O4, carbon fabric and cellulose composites for the Cr(VI) removal were reviewed. Finally, this review analyzed the Cr(VI) removal mechanisms by the PANI composites considering the substrate and the PANI coating.

  4. Microbial reduction of hexavalent chromium by landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Li, Yarong; Low, Gary K-C; Scott, Jason A; Amal, Rose

    2007-04-02

    The reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in municipal landfill leachates (MLL) and a non-putrescible landfill leachate (NPLL) was investigated. Complete Cr(VI) reduction was achieved within 17 days in a MLL when spiked with 100 mg l(-1) Cr(VI) or less. In the same period, negligible Cr(VI) reduction was observed in NPLL. In MLL, Cr(VI) reduction was demonstrated to be a function of initial Cr(VI) concentration and bacterial biomass and organic matter concentrations. The bacteria were observed to tolerate 250 mg l(-1) Cr(VI) in MLL and had an optimal growth activity at pH 7.4 in a growth medium. The MLL also possessed an ability to sequentially reduce Cr(VI) over three consecutive spiking cycles.

  5. Fabrication of Unique Magnetic Bionanocomposite for Highly Efficient Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yunlei; Qiu, Xun; Chen, Dongyun; Li, Najun; Xu, Qingfeng; Li, Hua; He, Jinghui; Lu, Jianmei

    2016-08-01

    Biotreatment of hexavalent chromium has attracted widespread interest due to its cost effective and environmental friendliness. However, the difficult separation of biomass from aqueous solution and the slow hexavalent chromium bioreduction rate are bottlenecks for biotechnology application. In this approach, a core-shell structured functional polymer coated magnetic nanocomposite was prepared for enriching the hexavalent chromium. Then the nanocomposite was connected to the bacteria via amines on bacterial (Bacillus subtilis ATCC-6633) surface. Under optimal conditions, a series of experiments were launched to degrade hexavalent chromium from the aqueous solution using the as-prepared bionanocomposite. Results showed that B. subtilis@Fe3O4@mSiO2@MANHE (BFSM) can degrade hexavalent chromium from the water more effectively (a respectable degradation efficiency of about 94%) when compared with pristine B. subtilis and Fe3O4@mSiO2@MANHE (FSM). Moreover, the BFSM could be separated from the wastewater by magnetic separation technology conveniently due to the Fe3O4 core of FSM. These results indicate that the application of BFSM is a promising strategy for effective treating wastewater containing hexavalent chromium.

  6. Fabrication of Unique Magnetic Bionanocomposite for Highly Efficient Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Water

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yunlei; Qiu, Xun; Chen, Dongyun; Li, Najun; Xu, Qingfeng; Li, Hua; He, Jinghui; Lu, Jianmei

    2016-01-01

    Biotreatment of hexavalent chromium has attracted widespread interest due to its cost effective and environmental friendliness. However, the difficult separation of biomass from aqueous solution and the slow hexavalent chromium bioreduction rate are bottlenecks for biotechnology application. In this approach, a core-shell structured functional polymer coated magnetic nanocomposite was prepared for enriching the hexavalent chromium. Then the nanocomposite was connected to the bacteria via amines on bacterial (Bacillus subtilis ATCC-6633) surface. Under optimal conditions, a series of experiments were launched to degrade hexavalent chromium from the aqueous solution using the as-prepared bionanocomposite. Results showed that B. subtilis@Fe3O4@mSiO2@MANHE (BFSM) can degrade hexavalent chromium from the water more effectively (a respectable degradation efficiency of about 94%) when compared with pristine B. subtilis and Fe3O4@mSiO2@MANHE (FSM). Moreover, the BFSM could be separated from the wastewater by magnetic separation technology conveniently due to the Fe3O4 core of FSM. These results indicate that the application of BFSM is a promising strategy for effective treating wastewater containing hexavalent chromium. PMID:27502074

  7. Natural and induced reduction of hexavalent chromium in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leita, Liviana; Margon, Alja; Sinicco, Tania; Mondini, Claudio; Valentini, Massimiliano; Cantone, Pierpaolo

    2013-04-01

    Even though naturally elevated levels of chromium can be found naturally in some soils, distressing amounts of the hexavalent form (CrVI) are largely restricted to sites contaminated by anthropogenic activities. In fact, the widespread use of chromium in various industries and the frequently associated inadequate disposal of its by-products and wastes have created serious environmental pollution problems in many parts of the world. CrVI is toxic to plants, animals and humans and exhibits also mutagenic effects. However, being a strong oxidant, CrVI can be readily reduced to the much less harmful trivalent form (CrIII) when suitable electron donors are present in the environment. CrIII is relatively insoluble, less available for biological uptake, and thus definitely less toxic for web-biota. Various electron donors in soil can be involved in CrVI reduction in soil. The efficiency of CrVI reducing abiotic agents such as ferrous iron and sulphur compounds is well documented. Furthermore, CrVI reduction is also known to be significantly enhanced by a wide variety of cell-produced monosaccharides, including glucose. In this study we evaluated the dynamics of hexavalent chromium (CrVI) reduction in contaminated soil amended or not with iron sulphate or/and glucose and assessed the effects of CrVI on native or glucose-induced soil microbial biomass size and activity. CrVI negatively affected both soil microbial activity and the size of the microbial biomass. During the incubation period, the concentration of CrVI in soil decreased over time whether iron sulphate or/and glucose was added or not, but with different reduction rates. Soil therefore displayed a natural attenuation capacity towards chromate reduction. Addition of iron sulphate or/and glucose, however, increased the reduction rate by both abiotic and biotic mechanisms. Our data suggest that glucose is likely to have exerted an indirect role in the increased rate of CrVI reduction by promoting growth of

  8. Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals an altered gene expression pattern as a result of CRISPR/cas9-mediated deletion of Gene 33/Mig6 and chronic exposure to hexavalent chromium in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Soyoung; Zhang, Xiaowen; Li, Cen; Yin, Changhong; Li, Jiangwei; Fallon, John T; Huang, Weihua; Xu, Dazhong

    2017-09-01

    Gene 33 (Mig6, ERRFI1) is an adaptor protein with multiple cellular functions. We recently reported that depletion of this protein promotes lung epithelial cell transformation induced by hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)]. However, the early molecular events that mediate this process are not clear. In the present study, we used single-cell RNA sequencing to compare gene expression profiles between BEAS-2B lung epithelial cells chronically exposed to a sublethal dose of Cr(VI) with or without CRISPR/cas9-mediated deletion of Gene 33. Our data reveal 83 differentially expressed genes. The most notable changes are genes associated with cell adhesion, oxidative stresses, protein ubiquitination, epithelial-mesenchymal transition/metastasis, and WNT signaling. Up-regulation of some neuro-specific genes is also evident, particularly ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1), a deubiquitinase and potential biomarker for lung cancer. Gene 33 deletion and/or Cr(VI) exposure did not cause discernable changes in cell morphology. However, Gene 33 deletion led to a modest but significant reduction of cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle regardless of Cr(VI) exposure. Gene 33 deletion also significantly reduced cell proliferation. Interestingly, Cr(VI) exposure eliminated the difference in cell proliferation between the two genotypes. Gene 33 deletion also significantly elevated cell migration. Our data indicate that combined Gene 33 deletion and chronic Cr(VI) exposure produces a gene expression pattern and a phenotype resemble those of the transformed lung epithelial cells. Given the known association of UCHL1 with lung cancer, we propose that UCHL1 is an important player in the early stage of lung epithelial cell transformation and tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mechanisms of hexavalent chromium resistance and removal by microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Joutey, Nezha Tahri; Sayel, Hanane; Bahafid, Wifak; El Ghachtouli, Naïma

    2015-01-01

    Chromium has been and is extensively used worldwide in multiple industrial processes and is routinely discharged to the environment from such processes. Therefore, this heavy metal is a potential threat to the environment and to public health, primarily because it is non-biodegradable and environmentally persistent. Chromium exists in several oxidation states, the most stable of which are trivalent Cr(Ill) and hexavalent Cr(VI) species. Each species possesses its own individual chemical characteristics and produces its own biological effects. For example, Cr (Ill) is an essential oligoelement for humans, whereas Cr(VI) is carcinogenic and mutagenic. Several chemical methods are used to remove Cr(VI) from contaminated sites. Each of these methods has advantages and disadvantages. Currently, bioremediation is often the preferred method to deal with Cr contaminated sites, because it is eco-friendly, cost-effective and is a "natural" technology. Many yeast, bacterial and fungal species have been assessed for their suitability to reduce or remove Cr(VI) contamination. The mechanisms by which these microorganisms resist and reduce Cr(VI) are variable and are species dependent. There are several Cr-resistance mechanisms that are displayed by microorganisms. These include active efflux of Cr compounds, metabolic reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr (ill), and either intercellular or extracellular prec1p1tation. Microbial Cr (VI) removal typically involves three stages: binding of chromium to the cell surface, translocation of chromium into the cell, and reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr (ill). Cr(VI) reduction by microorganisms may proceed on the cell surface, outside the cell, or intracellularly, either directly via chromate reductase enzymes, or indirectly via metabolite reduction of Cr(VI). The uptake of chromium ions is a biphasic process. The primary step is known as biosorption, a metabolic energyindependent process. Thereafter, bioaccumulation occurs, but is much slower, and is

  10. Hexavalent chromium reduces larval growth and alters gene expression in mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus).

    PubMed

    Roling, Jonathan A; Bain, Lisa J; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge; Bader, Julia; Baldwin, William S

    2006-10-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a common bioavailable metal ion that causes oxidative stress, DNA adducts, and perturbs gene expression. Changes in gene expression are useful biomarkers of toxicant exposure that provide information about an organism's health, adaptability, and toxicant-specific effects. Therefore, we developed a cDNA array for the estuarine sentinel species mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus). Mummichog larvae were exposed to concentrations ranging from 0 to 24 mg/L (462 microM) of Cr(VI) for 30 d, and growth was measured to determine the no-observable-effect concentration (1.5 mg/L) and the lowest-observable-effect concentration (3 mg/L). Body burdens from Cr(VI)-exposed fish showed a dose-dependent increase and were inversely correlated to body weight. Mummichog larvae exposed to Cr(VI) differentially expressed 16 genes in a dose-dependent manner, including GLUT-2, L-FABP, ATPase synthase 8, type II keratin, TBT-binding protein, and complement component C3-2. Many of these genes are involved in energy metabolism or growth, which is consistent with the reduced growth observed. In subsequent experiments, adults were exposed to Cr(VI) for 7 d at 0, 1.5, or 3 mg/L, because adult mummichog are used in monitoring Superfund sites. Hexavalent chromium altered the expression of 10 genes in adult liver, including HGFA, H-FABP, and complement component C3-2. Many of these genes also are involved in energy metabolism. The mummichog arrays provide a potential mechanism for the effects of Cr(VI) on growth. We anticipate using these arrays and the data they provide to monitor effects at polluted sites, to assess the bioavailability of chromium at these sites, and to investigate the efficacy of remediation in chromium-polluted estuaries.

  11. 76 FR 20349 - Draft Toxicological Review of Hexavalent Chromium: In Support of Summary Information on the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of... Chromium: In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)'' is available..., ``Toxicological Review of Hexavalent Chromium: In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated...

  12. Oral Chromium Exposure and Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hong; Brocato, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a known carcinogen when inhaled. However, inhalational exposure to Cr(VI) affects only a small portion of the population, mainly by occupational exposures. In contrast, oral exposure to Cr(VI) is widespread and affects many people throughout the globe. In 2008, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) released a 2-year study demonstrating that ingested Cr(VI) was carcinogenic in rats and mice. The effects of Cr(VI) oral exposure is mitigated by reduction in the gut, however a portion evades the reductive detoxification and reaches target tissues. Once Cr(VI) enters the cell, it ultimately gets reduced to Cr(III), which mediates its toxicity via induction of oxidative stress during the reduction while Cr intermediates react with protein and DNA. Cr(III) can form adducts with DNA that may lead to mutations. This review will discuss the potential adverse effects of oral exposure to Cr(VI) by presenting up-to-date human and animal studies, examining the underlying mechanisms that mediate Cr(VI) toxicity, as well as highlighting opportunities for future research. PMID:26231506

  13. A laminar flow microfluidic fuel cell for detection of hexavalent chromium concentration

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Dingding; Yang, Yang; Li, Jun; Zhu, Xun; Liao, Qiang; Zhang, Biao

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemical hexavalent chromium concentration sensor based on a microfluidic fuel cell is presented. The correlation between current density and chromium concentration is established in this report. Three related operation parameters are investigated, including pH values, temperature, and external resistance on the sensor performance. The results show that the current density increases with increasing temperature and the sensor produces a maximum regression coefficient at the catholyte pH value of 1.0. Moreover, it is found that the external resistance has a great influence on the linearity and current densities of the microfluidic sensor. Owing to the membraneless structure and the steady co-laminar flow inside the microchannel, the microfluidic sensor exhibits short response time to hexavalent chromium concentration. The laminar flow fuel cell sensor provides a new and simple method for detecting hexavalent chromium concentration in the industrial wastewater. PMID:26649130

  14. Hexavalent chromium reduction kinetics in rodent stomach contents.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Deborah M; Suh, Mina; Aylward, Lesa L; Kirman, Christopher R; Harris, Mark A; Thompson, Chad M; Gürleyük, Hakan; Gerads, Russell; Haws, Laurie C; Hays, Sean M

    2012-10-01

    Reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) to trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) in the stomach prior to absorption is a well-recognized detoxification process thought to limit the toxicity of ingested Cr(VI). However, administration of high concentrations of Cr(VI) in drinking water cause mouse small intestinal tumors, and quantitative measures of Cr(VI) reduction rate and capacity for rodent stomach contents are needed for interspecies extrapolation using physiologically-based toxicokinetic (PBTK) models. Ex vivo studies using stomach contents of rats and mice were conducted to quantify Cr(VI) reduction rate and capacity for loading rates (1-400 mg Cr(VI)L(-1) stomach contents) in the range of recent bioassays. Cr(VI) reduction was measured with speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry to quantify dynamic Cr(VI) and Cr(III) concentrations in stomach contents at select time points over 1 h. Cr(VI) reduction followed mixed second-order kinetics, dependent upon concentrations of both Cr(VI) and the native reducing agents. Approximately 16 mg Cr(VI)-equivalents of reducing capacity per L of fed stomach contents (containing gastric secretions, saliva, water and food) was found for both species. The second-order rate constants were 0.2 and 0.3 L mg(-1) h(-1) for mice and rats, respectively. These findings support that, at the doses that caused cancer in the mouse small intestine (≥ 20 mg Cr(VI)L(-1) in drinking water), the reducing capacity of stomach contents was likely exceeded. Thus, for extrapolation of target tissue dose in risk assessment, PBTK models are necessary to account for competing kinetic rates including second order capacity-limited reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biosorption of hexavalent chromium from aqueous medium with Opuntia biomass.

    PubMed

    Fernández-López, José A; Angosto, José M; Avilés, María D

    2014-01-01

    The biosorption of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions by Opuntia cladodes and ectodermis from cactus fruits was investigated. Both types of biomass are considered low-cost, natural, and ecofriendly biosorbents. Batch experiments were carried out to determine Cr(VI) biosorption capacity and the efficiency of the biosorption process under different pH, initial Cr(VI) concentration, and sorbent dosage. The biosorption of Cr(VI) by Opuntia biomass was highly pH dependent, favoring higher metal uptake at low pH. The higher biosorption capacity was exhibited at pH 2. The optimal conditions were obtained at a sorbent dosage of 1 g L(-1) and initial metal concentration of 10 mg L(-1). Biosorption kinetic data were properly fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The rate constant, the initial biosorption rate, and the equilibrium biosorption capacity were determined. The experimental equilibrium data obtained were analyzed using two-parameter isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin). The Langmuir maximum monolayer biosorption capacity (q max) was 18.5 mg g(-1) for cladodes and 16.4 mg g(-1) for ectodermis. The results suggest that Opuntia biomass could be considered a promising low-cost biosorbent for the ecofriendly removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous systems.

  16. Reduction of hexavalent chromium by ascorbic acid in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiang-Rong; Li, Hua-Bin; Li, Xiao-Yan; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2004-11-01

    Hexavalent chromium is a priority pollutant in the USA and many other countries. Reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) is environmentally favorable as the latter species is not toxic to most living organisms and also has a low mobility and bioavailability. Reduction of Cr(VI) by ascorbic acid (vitamin C) as a reductant was studied using potassium dichromate solution as the model pollutant. Effects of concentration of vitamin C, pH, temperature, irradiation and reaction time on the reduction of Cr(VI) were examined. Cr(VI) might be reduced by vitamin C not only in acidic conditions but also in weakly alkaline solutions. The reduction of Cr(VI) by vitamin C might occur not only under irradiation but also in the dark. Vitamin C is an important biological reductant in humans and animals, and not toxic. It is water-soluble and can easily permeate through various types of soils. The results indicate that vitamin C could be used in effective remediation of Cr(VI)-contaminated soils and groundwater in a wide range of pH, with or without sunlight. copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution by iron nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Niu, Shao-Feng; Liu, Yong; Xu, Xin-Hua; Lou, Zhang-Hua

    2005-10-01

    Groundwater remediation by nanoparticles has received increasing interest in recent years. This report presents a thorough evaluation of hexavalent chromium removal in aqueous solutions using iron (Fe(0)) nanoparticles. Cr(VI) is a major pollutant of groundwater. Zero-valent iron, an important natural reductant of Cr(VI), is an option in the remediation of contaminated sites, transforming Cr(VI) to essentially nontoxic Cr(III). At a dose of 0.4 g/L, 100% of Cr(VI) (20 mg/L) was degraded. The Cr(VI) removal efficiency decreased significantly with increasing initial pH. Different Fe(0) type was compared in the same conditions. The reactivity was in the order starch-stabilized Fe(0) nanoparticles>Fe(0) nanoparticles>Fe(0) powder>Fe(0) filings. Electrochemical analysis of the reaction process led to the conclusion that Cr(OH)(3) should be the final product of Cr(VI). Iron nanoparticles are good choice for the remediation of heavy metals in groundwater.

  18. Removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution by iron nanoparticles*

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Shao-feng; Liu, Yong; Xu, Xin-hua; Lou, Zhang-hua

    2005-01-01

    Groundwater remediation by nanoparticles has received increasing interest in recent years. This report presents a thorough evaluation of hexavalent chromium removal in aqueous solutions using iron (Fe0) nanoparticles. Cr(VI) is a major pollutant of groundwater. Zero-valent iron, an important natural reductant of Cr(VI), is an option in the remediation of contaminated sites, transforming Cr(VI) to essentially nontoxic Cr(III). At a dose of 0.4 g/L, 100% of Cr(VI) (20 mg/L) was degraded. The Cr(VI) removal efficiency decreased significantly with increasing initial pH. Different Fe0 type was compared in the same conditions. The reactivity was in the order starch-stabilized Fe0 nanoparticles>Fe0 nanoparticles>Fe0 powder>Fe0 filings. Electrochemical analysis of the reaction process led to the conclusion that Cr(OH)3 should be the final product of Cr(VI). Iron nanoparticles are good choice for the remediation of heavy metals in groundwater. PMID:16187417

  19. Kinetics and modeling of hexavalent chromium reduction in Enterobacter cloacae

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Koji; Kato, Junichi; Yano, Takuo; Ohtake, Hisao )

    1993-01-05

    Kinetics of bacterial reduction of toxic hexavalent chromium (chromate: CrO[sub 4][sup [minus]2]) was investigated using batch and fed-batch cultures of Enterobacter cloacae strain HO1. In fed-batch cultures, the CrO[sub 4][sup [minus]2] feed was controlled on the basis of the rate of pH change. This control strategy has proven to be useful for avoiding toxic CrO[sub 3][sup [minus]2] overload. A simple mathematical model was developed to describe the bacterial process of CrO[sub 4][sup [minus]2] reduction. In this model, two types of bacterial cells were considered: induced, CrO[sub 4][sup [minus]2]-resistant cells and uninduced, sensitive ones. Only resistant cells were assumed to be able to reduce CrO[sub 4][sup [minus]2]. These fundamental ideas were supported by the model predictions which well approximated all experimental data. In a simulation study, the model was also used to optimize fed-batch cultures, instead of lengthy and expensive laboratory experiments.

  20. Hexavalent chromium is cytotoxic and genotoxic to American alligator cells.

    PubMed

    Wise, Sandra S; Wise, Catherine; Xie, Hong; Guillette, Louis J; Zhu, Cairong; Wise, John Pierce; Wise, John Pierce

    2016-02-01

    Metals are a common pollutant in the aquatic ecosystem. With global climate change, these levels are anticipated to rise as lower pH levels allow sediment bound metals to be released. The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) is an apex predator in the aquatic ecosystem and is considered a keystone species; as such it serves as a suitable monitor for localized pollution. One metal of increasing concern is hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)). It is present in the aquatic environment and is a known human carcinogen and reproductive toxicant. We measured the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Cr(VI) in American alligator cells derived from scute tissue. We found that particulate and soluble Cr(VI) are both cytotoxic and genotoxic to alligator cells in a concentration-dependent manner. These data suggest that alligators may be used as a model for assessing the effects of environmental Cr(VI) contamination as well as for other metals of concern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Investigation of hexavalent chromium sorption in serpentine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mpouras, Thanasis; Chrysochoou, Maria; Dermatas, Dimitris

    2017-02-01

    In this study the removal of hexavalent chromium (Cr6 +) by serpentine sediments was investigated in order to delineate Cr6 + sorption behavior in aquifers with ultramafic geologic background. Batch experiments were conducted in order to determine the influence of several parameters on Cr6 + removal, including the pH of the sediment solution, mineralogy, sediment's particle size and Cr6 + initial concentration. The results showed that Cr6 + removal was due to both adsorption and reduction phenomena. Reduction was attributed to the presence of a magnetic fraction in the sediment, mostly related to magnetite, which contributed almost 50% of the total removal in the pH range 3-7. Adsorption behavior was dominated by the finer sediment fraction (d < 0.075 mm). The amount of Cr6 + adsorbed was constant in the pH range 3-7, while it decreased sharply in the range 7-8.5. Cr6 + adsorption was found to increase and decrease proportionally with increasing initial Cr6 + concentration of and particle size, respectively. The linear Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms were used to describe the experimental data, with Freundlich providing a better fit to determine distribution factors for transport modeling.

  2. Biosorption of Hexavalent Chromium from Aqueous Medium with Opuntia Biomass

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The biosorption of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions by Opuntia cladodes and ectodermis from cactus fruits was investigated. Both types of biomass are considered low-cost, natural, and ecofriendly biosorbents. Batch experiments were carried out to determine Cr(VI) biosorption capacity and the efficiency of the biosorption process under different pH, initial Cr(VI) concentration, and sorbent dosage. The biosorption of Cr(VI) by Opuntia biomass was highly pH dependent, favoring higher metal uptake at low pH. The higher biosorption capacity was exhibited at pH 2. The optimal conditions were obtained at a sorbent dosage of 1 g L−1 and initial metal concentration of 10 mg L−1. Biosorption kinetic data were properly fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The rate constant, the initial biosorption rate, and the equilibrium biosorption capacity were determined. The experimental equilibrium data obtained were analyzed using two-parameter isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin). The Langmuir maximum monolayer biosorption capacity (q max) was 18.5 mg g−1 for cladodes and 16.4 mg g−1 for ectodermis. The results suggest that Opuntia biomass could be considered a promising low-cost biosorbent for the ecofriendly removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous systems. PMID:24982975

  3. Genome-wide gene expression effects in B6C3F1 mouse intestinal epithelia following 7 and 90days of exposure to hexavalent chromium in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Kopec, Anna K; Kim, Suntae; Forgacs, Agnes L; Zacharewski, Timothy R; Proctor, Deborah M; Harris, Mark A; Haws, Laurie C; Thompson, Chad M

    2012-02-15

    Chronic administration of high doses of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] as sodium dichromate dihydrate (SDD) elicits alimentary cancers in mice. To further elucidate key events underlying tumor formation, a 90-day drinking water study was conducted in B6C3F1 mice. Differential gene expression was examined in duodenal and jejunal epithelial samples following 7 or 90days of exposure to 0, 0.3, 4, 14, 60, 170 or 520mg/L SDD in drinking water. Genome-wide microarray analyses identified 6562 duodenal and 4448 jejunal unique differentially expressed genes at day 8, and 4630 and 4845 unique changes, respectively, in the duodenum and jejunum at day 91. Comparative analysis identified significant overlap in duodenal and jejunal differential gene expression. Automated dose-response modeling identified >80% of the differentially expressed genes exhibited sigmoidal dose-response curves with EC(50) values ranging from 10 to 100mg/L SDD. Only 16 genes satisfying the dose-dependent differential expression criteria had EC(50) values <10mg/L SDD, 3 of which were regulated by Nrf2, suggesting oxidative stress in response to SDD at low concentrations. Analyses of differentially expressed genes identified over-represented functions associated with oxidative stress, cell cycle, lipid metabolism, and immune responses consistent with the reported effects on redox status and histopathology at corresponding SDD drinking water concentrations. Collectively, these data are consistent with a mode of action involving oxidative stress and cytotoxicity as early key events. This suggests that the tumorigenic effects of chronic Cr(VI) oral exposure likely require chronic tissue damage and compensatory epithelial cell proliferation.

  4. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of hexavalent chromium-induced lung cancer: an updated perspective.

    PubMed

    Urbano, A M; Ferreira, L M R; Alpoim, M C

    2012-03-01

    For over a century, chromium (Cr) has found widespread industrial and commercial use, namely as a pigment, in the production of stainless steel and in chrome plating. The adverse health effects to the skin and respiratory tract of prolonged exposure to Cr have been known or suspected for a long time, but it was much more recently that the toxicity of this element was unequivocally attributed to its hexavalent state. Based on the combined results of extensive epidemiological studies, animal carcinogenicity studies and several types of other relevant data, authoritative regulatory agencies have found sufficient evidence to classify hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] compounds as encountered in the chromate production, chromate pigment production and chromium plating industries as carcinogenic to humans. Crucial for the development of novel strategies to prevent, detect and/or treat Cr(VI)-induced cancers is a detailed knowledge of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying these pathologies. Unfortunately, in spite of a considerable research effort, crucial facets of these mechanisms remain essentially unknown. This review is intended to provide a concise, integrated and critical perspective of the current state of knowledge concerning multiple aspects of Cr(VI) carcinogenesis. It will present recent theories of Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis and will include aspects not traditionally covered in other reviews, such as the possible involvement of the energy metabolism in this process. A brief discussion on the models that have been used in the studies of Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenicity will also be included, due to the impact of this parameter on the relevance of the results obtained.

  5. Oral ingestion of hexavalent chromium through drinking water and cancer mortality in an industrial area of Greece - An ecological study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hexavalent chromium is a known carcinogen when inhaled, but its carcinogenic potential when orally ingested remains controversial. Water contaminated with hexavalent chromium is a worldwide problem, making this a question of significant public health importance. Methods We conducted an ecological mortality study within the Oinofita region of Greece, where water has been contaminated with hexavalent chromium. We calculated gender, age, and period standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for all deaths, cancer deaths, and specific cancer types of Oinofita residents over an 11-year period (1999 - 2009), using the greater prefecture of Voiotia as the standard population. Results A total of 474 deaths were observed. The SMR for all cause mortality was 98 (95% CI 89-107) and for all cancer mortality 114 (95% CI 94-136). The SMR for primary liver cancer was 1104 (95% CI 405-2403, p-value < 0.001). Furthermore, statistically significantly higher SMRs were identified for lung cancer (SMR = 145, 95% CI 100-203, p-value = 0.047) and cancer of the kidney and other genitourinary organs among women (SMR = 368, 95% CI 119-858, p-value = 0.025). Elevated SMRs for several other cancers were also noted (lip, oral cavity and pharynx 344, stomach 121, female breast 134, prostate 128, and leukaemias 168), but these did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions Elevated cancer mortality in the Oinofita area of Greece supports the hypothesis of hexavalent chromium carcinogenicity via the oral ingestion pathway of exposure. Further studies are needed to determine whether this association is causal, and to establish preventive guidelines and public health recommendations. PMID:21609468

  6. Induction of the homologous recombination system by hexavalent chromium in Rhizobium etli.

    PubMed

    Santoyo, Gustavo; Orozco-Mosqueda, Montserrat; Valdez-Martínez, Gabriela; Orozco-Mosqueda, Ma Del Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Induction of homologous recombination in Rhizobium etli to repair the DNA damage caused by hexavalent chromium (Cr) was evaluated. Mutants in recombination genes such as addA, recF, recA, ruvB, recG, and a double mutant ruvBrecG showed different sensitivity levels to Cr. As expected, the recA mutant showed the highest susceptibility, while complementation restored the Cr-resistant phenotype, similar to the wild-type strain. Small plasmid recombination increased up to 30-fold in the presence of Cr (0.05 mM) in the wild-type strain, while no change was observed in the recA mutant. A 20-fold increase in small plasmid recombination was also observed in the addA mutant in the presence of Cr. In addition, the ruvB mutant showed similar increases with Cr exposure to the wild-type strain, suggesting that other genetic elements may substitute its important role during recombination. Interestingly, continuous Cr exposure (0.05 mM) clearly induced the genetic expression of addA, recA, and ruvB genes. Finally, recombination mutants also showed susceptibility to other DNA-damaging agents such as tellurite and selenite. Together, these results confirm the induction and significance of the R. etli homologous recombination system to repair DNA damage caused by hexavalent Cr.

  7. Hexavalent chromium-resistant bacteria isolated from river sediments.

    PubMed Central

    Luli, G W; Talnagi, J W; Strohl, W R; Pfister, R M

    1983-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a known carcinogen and mutagen; however, the actual mechanisms of Cr toxicity are unknown. Two approaches were used to isolate Cr(VI)-resistant bacteria from metal-contaminated river sediments. Diluted sediments were plated directly onto a peptone-yeast extract (PYE) medium containing 0 to 100 micrograms of Cr(VI) ml-1. Approximately 8.4 x 10(5) CFU g-1 were recovered on 0 microgram of Cr(VI) ml-1, whereas 4.0 x 10(2) CFU g-1 were recovered on PYE plus 100 micrograms of Cr(VI) ml-1. Alternatively, continuous culture enrichment techniques were employed using PYE and 100 micrograms Cr(VI) ml-1 input at dilution rates of 0.02 and 0.10 h-1. After six residence periods, 10(9) CFU were recovered on PYE agar containing 0 microgram of Cr(VI) ml-1 and 10(7) CFU on PYE agar plus 100 micrograms of Cr(VI) ml-1. Of 89 isolates obtained by direct plating onto PYE, 47% were resistant to 100 micrograms of Cr(VI) ml-1, and 29% were resistant to 250 micrograms of Cr(VI) ml-1. When the same isolates were plated onto PYE containing Cr(III), 88% were resistant to 100 micrograms ml-1 but only 2% were resistant to 250 micrograms ml-1. Cr, Co, Sb, and Zn were found in significantly higher concentrations at an industry-related contaminated site than at a site 11 km downstream. Total Cr in the sediments at the contaminated site averaged 586 micrograms (dry weight) g-1, and the downstream site averaged 71 micrograms (dry weight) g-1. The Cr recovered from acid-digested Ottawa River sediment samples was predominantly hexavalent. Five acid digestion procedures followed by atomic absorption spectroscopy were compared and found to be 30 to 70% efficient for recovery of Cr relative to neutron activation analysis. A population of aerobic, heterotrophic bacteria was recovered from sediments containing elevated levels of Cr.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6639032

  8. Cancer hazards caused by nickel and chromium exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Norseth, T.

    1980-09-01

    An increased risk of cancer associated with nickel refining and with chromate production has been known for some decades. The occupational exposure pattern of both nickel and chromium is very complex. Nickel subsulfide may be the most potent carcinogen among the different nickel compounds. A correlation between lung cancer and exposure to chromates has been shown in several studies. Hexavalent chromium has been suggested as the causative carcinogen among platers and ferrochromium workers. There is an urgent need for careful dose registration before a quantitative cancer risk analysis can be performed for the nickel and chromium industry.

  9. Selecting Processes to Minimize Hexavalent Chromium from Stainless Steel Welding

    PubMed Central

    KEANE, M.; SIERT, A.; STONE, S.; CHEN, B.; SLAVEN, J.; CUMPSTON, A.; ANTONINI, J.

    2015-01-01

    Eight welding processes/shielding gas combinations were assessed for generation of hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) in stainless steel welding fumes. The processes examined were gas metal arc welding (GMAW) (axial spray, short circuit, and pulsed spray modes), flux cored arc welding (FCAW), and shielded metal arc welding (SMAW). The Cr6+ fractions were measured in the fumes; fume generation rates, Cr6+ generation rates, and Cr6+ generation rates per unit mass of welding wire were determined. A limited controlled comparison study was done in a welding shop including SMAW, FCAW, and three GMAW methods. The processes studied were compared for costs, including relative labor costs. Results indicate the Cr6+ in the fume varied widely, from a low of 2800 to a high of 34,000 ppm. Generation rates of Cr6+ ranged from 69 to 7800 μg/min, and Cr6+ generation rates per unit of wire ranged from 1 to 270 μg/g. The results of field study were similar to the findings in the laboratory. The Cr6+ (ppm) in the fume did not necessarily correlate with the Cr6+ generation rate. Physical properties were similar for the processes, with mass median aerodynamic diameters ranging from 250 to 336 nm, while the FCAW and SMAW fumes were larger (360 and 670 nm, respectively). Conclusion: The pulsed axial spray method was the best choice of the processes studied based on minimal fume generation, minimal Cr6+ generation, and cost per weld. This method is usable in any position, has a high metal deposition rate, and is relatively simple to learn and use. PMID:26690276

  10. Inhalation cancer risk assessment of hexavalent chromium based on updated mortality for Painesville chromate production workers

    PubMed Central

    Proctor, Deborah M; Suh, Mina; Mittal, Liz; Hirsch, Shawn; Valdes Salgado, Raydel; Bartlett, Chris; Van Landingham, Cynthia; Rohr, Annette; Crump, Kenny

    2016-01-01

    The exposure-response for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI))-induced lung cancer among workers of the Painesville Ohio chromate production facility has been used internationally for quantitative risk assessment of environmental and occupational exposures to airborne Cr(VI). We updated the mortality of 714 Painesville workers (including 198 short-term workers) through December 2011, reconstructed exposures, and conducted exposure-response modeling using Poisson and Cox regressions to provide quantitative lung cancer risk estimates. The average length of follow-up was 34.4 years with 24,535 person-years at risk. Lung cancer was significantly increased for the cohort (standardized mortality ratio (SMR)=186; 95% confidence interval (CI) 145–228), for those hired before 1959, those with >30-year tenure, and those with cumulative exposure >1.41 mg/m3-years or highest monthly exposures >0.26 mg/m3. Of the models assessed, the linear Cox model with unlagged cumulative exposure provided the best fit and was preferred. Smoking and age at hire were also significant predictors of lung cancer mortality. Adjusting for these variables, the occupational unit risk was 0.00166 (95% CI 0.000713–0.00349), and the environmental unit risk was 0.00832 (95% CI 0.00359–0.0174), which are 20% and 15% lower, respectively, than values developed in a previous study of this cohort. PMID:26669850

  11. Hexavalent chromium and its effect on health: possible protective role of garlic (Allium sativum Linn).

    PubMed

    Das, Kusal K; Dhundasi, Salim A; Das, Swastika N

    2011-06-17

    Hexavalent chromium or chromium (VI) is a powerful epithelial irritant and a confirmed human carcinogen. This heavy metal is toxic to many plants, aquatic animals, and bacteria. Chromium (VI) which consists of 10%-15% total chromium usage, is principally used for metal plating (H2Cr2O7), as dyes, paint pigments, and leather tanning, etc. Industrial production of chromium (II) and (III) compounds are also available but in small amounts as compared to chromium (VI). Chromium (VI) can act as an oxidant directly on the skin surface or it can be absorbed through the skin, especially if the skin surface is damaged. The prooxidative effects of chromium (VI) inhibit antioxidant enzymes and deplete intracellular glutathione in living systems and act as hematotoxic, immunotoxic, hepatotoxic, pulmonary toxic, and nephrotoxic agents. In this review, we particularly address the hexavalent chromium-induced generation of reactive oxygen species and increased lipid peroxidation in humans and animals, and the possible role of garlic (Allium sativum Linn) as a protective antioxidant.

  12. Genotoxic effects of nickel, trivalent and hexavalent chromium on the Eisenia fetida earthworm.

    PubMed

    Bigorgne, Emilie; Cossu-Leguille, Carole; Bonnard, Marc; Nahmani, Johanne

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine genotoxic effects of nickel (Ni=105 mg kg(-1)), trivalent and hexavalent chromium (Cr=491 mg kg(-1)) on the Eisenia fetida earthworm after 2 and 4d of exposure to two different spiked soils (an artificial (OECD) and a natural one). DNA damages were evaluated on the earthworm's coelomocytes using the comet assay. After an exposure into OECD spiked soils, Ni did not induce genotoxic effect whereas Cr(III) and Cr(VI) revealed to be genotoxic after 2d of exposure. After 4d of exposure, only Cr(VI) still induced significant damages. In natural spiked soils, nickel and Cr(III) revealed to be genotoxic after 2 and 4d of exposure. Concerning Cr(VI) toxicity, all the earthworms died after 1d of exposure. These results underline the importance to take into account the nature and the speciation of metallic pollutants, although the experiment has been performed on spiked soil with higher bioavailibity than in contaminated natural soil.

  13. Reflections on hexavalent chromium: health hazards of an industrial heavyweight.

    PubMed

    Pellerin, C; Booker, S M

    2000-09-01

    Chromium has been used commercially in the United States for more than 100 years in metal alloys and other compounds, as a pigment, and in the tanning and metal plating industries, and many studies have looked at its effects in terms of occupational health. But, although scientists know that Cr(VI) is a human carcinogen and that it can cause other deleterious health effects including kidney and liver damage, certain questions remain about the metal's effects, such as which routes of exposures are dangerous for humans.

  14. Reflections on hexavalent chromium: health hazards of an industrial heavyweight.

    PubMed Central

    Pellerin, C; Booker, S M

    2000-01-01

    Chromium has been used commercially in the United States for more than 100 years in metal alloys and other compounds, as a pigment, and in the tanning and metal plating industries, and many studies have looked at its effects in terms of occupational health. But, although scientists know that Cr(VI) is a human carcinogen and that it can cause other deleterious health effects including kidney and liver damage, certain questions remain about the metal's effects, such as which routes of exposures are dangerous for humans. PMID:11017901

  15. 75 FR 60454 - Draft Toxicological Review of Hexavalent Chromium: In Support of Summary Information on the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of... Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)'' is available primarily via the Internet on the NCEA home page..., ``Toxicological Review of Hexavalent Chromium: In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated...

  16. MODELING HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM REDUCTION IN GROUND- WATER IN FIELD-SCALE TRANSPORT AND LABORATORY BATCH EXPERIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A plausible and consistent model is developed to obtain a quantitative description of the gradual disappearance of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) from groundwater in a small-scale field tracer test and in batch kinetic experiments using aquifer sediments under similar chemical cond...

  17. MODELING HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM REDUCTION IN GROUND- WATER IN FIELD-SCALE TRANSPORT AND LABORATORY BATCH EXPERIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A plausible and consistent model is developed to obtain a quantitative description of the gradual disappearance of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) from groundwater in a small-scale field tracer test and in batch kinetic experiments using aquifer sediments under similar chemical cond...

  18. Isolation, identification and characterization of indigenous fungi for bioremediation of hexavalent chromium, nickel and cobalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernahadini, Nelis; Suhandono, Sony; Choesin, Devi N.; Chaerun, Siti K.; Kadarusman, Ade

    2014-03-01

    Waste from nickel mining of Sorowako in South Sulawesi contains hexavalent chromium, nickel and cobalt metals in high concentration and may have a negative impact to the environment. Common waste treatment systems such as chemical treatment using a reducing reagent may still have a negative impact. Bioremediation using fungi or bacteria becomes more popular because it is an environmentally friendly alternative. The purposes of this study are to isolate and identify indigenous fungi that are resistant to heavy metals (hexavalent chromium, nickel, and cobalt) and are capable of reducing the concentration of metals in mining wastes. Ten fungal isolates were successfully isolated from the soils and pond sediments in the area of nickel mining in Sorowako. Selection of superior isolate was carried out by growing all the isolates on PDA medium, which contained all of the three metals. One superior isolate was identified to be able to grow on medium with concentrations of 6400 ppm hexavalent chromium, 200 ppm nickel and 50 ppm cobalt. Molecular identification and phylogenetic studies of the isolate using fungal PCR primers developed to amplify the ITS (internal transcribed spacer) region showed that the isolate sequence was very close to Trichoderma atroviride with 99.8% similarity. Optimum incubation time for the uptake of hexavalent chromium was 3 days, nickel and cobalt was 5 days, respectively, with an optimum pH of 4.

  19. Safety assessment of chromium by exposure from cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Myungsil; Yoon, Eun Kyung; Kim, Ja Young; Son, Bo Kyung; Yang, Seong Jun; Yun, Mi Ok; Choi, Sang Sook; Jang, Dong Deuk; Yoo, Tae Moo

    2009-02-01

    Low level impurities often reside in cosmetic products. The aim of the present study was to estimate the human exposure to chromium from cosmetic products purchased at a local market in South Korea, and to assess the risk on public health. Hexavalent chromium is an impurity substance that contaminates cosmetic products during manufacture. The potential for chromium to induce and elicit allergic contact dermatitis, as well as the degree of chromium exposure from cosmetic products, were assessed. Chromium exposure was estimated using the chromium concentrations found in cosmetic samples taken from the local market along with the expected user pattern data that was taken from the literature. Of the cosmetics we tested and available for purchase on the Korean market, seven had chromium contents above the detection limit of 0.1 ppm (0.1 microg/mL), ranging from 0.2 to 3.15 ppm. In risk assessment, scientifically defensible dose-response relationships must be established for the end points of concern. In the case of chromium contaminated cosmetic products, this includes conducting dose-response assessments for allergic contact dermatitis following dermal exposure. This dose-response information can then be integrated with site-specific exposure assessments to regulate consumer safety by use of these products. We found that dermal exposure to chromium concentrations ranging from 0.0002 to 0.003 microg/cm(2) does not appear to cause concern for eliciting allergic contact dermatitis.

  20. Investigation of Total and Hexavalent Chromium in Filtered and Unfiltered Groundwater Samples at the Tucson International Airport Superfund Site.

    PubMed

    Tillman, Fred D; McCleskey, R Blaine; Hermosillo, Edyth

    2016-10-01

    Potential health effects from hexavalent chromium in groundwater have recently become a concern to regulators at the Tucson International Airport Area Superfund site. In 2016, the U.S. Geological Survey sampled 46 wells in the area to characterize the nature and extent of chromium in groundwater, to understand what proportion of total chromium is in the hexavalent state, and to determine if substantial differences are present between filtered and unfiltered chromium concentrations. Results indicate detectable chromium concentrations in all wells, over 75 % of total chromium is in the hexavalent state in a majority of wells, and filtered and unfiltered results differ substantially in only a few high-turbidity total chromium samples.

  1. Investigation of total and hexavalent chromium in filtered and unfiltered groundwater samples at the Tucson International Airport Superfund Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillman, Fred; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Hermosillo, Edyth

    2016-01-01

    Potential health effects from hexavalent chromium in groundwater have recently become a concern to regulators at the Tucson International Airport Area Superfund site. In 2016, the U.S. Geological Survey sampled 46 wells in the area to characterize the nature and extent of chromium in groundwater, to understand what proportion of total chromium is in the hexavalent state, and to determine if substantial differences are present between filtered and unfiltered chromium concentrations. Results indicate detectable chromium concentrations in all wells, over 75 % of total chromium is in the hexavalent state in a majority of wells, and filtered and unfiltered results differ substantially in only a few high-turbidity total chromium samples.

  2. Reduction of hexavalent chromium in water samples acidified for preservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stollenwerk, K.G.; Grove, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    Reduction of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), in water samples, preserved by standard techniques, was investigated. The standard preservation technique for water samples that are to be analyzed for Cr(VI) consists of filtration through a 0.45-??m membrane, acidification to a pH < 2, and storage in plastic bottles. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of H+ concentration, NO2, temperature, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). The rate of reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) increased with increasing NO2, DOC, H+, and temperature. Reduction of Cr(VI) by organic matter occurred in some samples even though the samples were unacidified. Reduction of Cr(VI) is inhibited to an extent by storing the sample at 4??C. Stability of Cr(VI) in water is variable and depends on the other constituents present in the sample. Water samples collected for the determination of Cr(VI) should be filtered (0.45-??m membrane), refrigerated, and analyzed as quickly as possible. Water samples should not be acidified. Measurement of total Cr in addition to Cr(VI) can serve as a check for Cr(VI) reduction. If total Cr is greater than Cr(VI), the possibility that Cr(VI) reduction has occurred needs to be considered.The rate of reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) increased with increasing NO//2, DOC, H** plus , and temperature. Reduction of Cr(VI) by organic matter occurred in some samples even though the samples were unacidified. Reduction of Cr(VI) is inhibited to an extent by storing the sample at 4 degree C. Stability of Cr(VI) in water is variable and depends on the other constituents present in the sample. Water samples collected for the determination of Cr(VI) should be filtered (0. 45- mu m membrane), refrigerated, and analyzed as quickly as possible. Water samples should not be acidified. Measurement of total Cr in addition to Cr(VI) can serve as a check for Cr(VI) reduction. If total Cr is greater than Cr(VI), the possibility that Cr

  3. Lung injury, inflammation and Akt signaling following inhalation of particulate hexavalent chromium

    SciTech Connect

    Beaver, Laura M.; Stemmy, Erik J.; Constant, Stephanie L.; Schwartz, Arnold; Little, Laura G.; Gigley, Jason P.; Chun, Gina; Sugden, Kent D.

    2009-02-15

    Certain particulate hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] compounds are human respiratory carcinogens that release genotoxic soluble chromate, and are associated with fibrosis, fibrosarcomas, adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas of the lung. We postulate that inflammatory processes and mediators may contribute to the etiology of Cr(VI) carcinogenesis, however the immediate (0-24 h) pathologic injury and immune responses after exposure to particulate chromates have not been adequately investigated. Our aim was to determine the nature of the lung injury, inflammatory response, and survival signaling responses following intranasal exposure of BALB/c mice to particulate basic zinc chromate. Factors associated with lung injury, inflammation and survival signaling were measured in airway lavage fluid and in lung tissue. A single chromate exposure induced an acute immune response in the lung, characterized by a rapid and significant increase in IL-6 and GRO-{alpha} levels, an influx of neutrophils, and a decline in macrophages in lung airways. Histological examination of lung tissue in animals challenged with a single chromate exposure revealed an increase in bronchiolar cell apoptosis and mucosal injury. Furthermore, chromate exposure induced injury and inflammation that progressed to alveolar and interstitial pneumonitis. Finally, a single Cr(VI) challenge resulted in a rapid and persistent increase in the number of airways immunoreactive for phosphorylation of the survival signaling protein Akt, on serine 473. These data illustrate that chromate induces both survival signaling and an inflammatory response in the lung, which we postulate may contribute to early oncogenesis.

  4. LUNG INJURY, INFLAMMATION AND AKT SIGNALING FOLLOWING INHALATION OF PARTICULATE HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM

    PubMed Central

    Beaver, Laura M.; Stemmy, Erik J.; Constant, Stephanie L.; Schwartz, Arnold; Little, Laura G.; Gigley, Jason P.; Chun, Gina; Sugden, Kent D.; Ceryak, Susan M.; Patierno, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    Certain particulate hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] compounds are human respiratory carcinogens that release genotoxic soluble chromate, and are associated with fibrosis, fibrosarcomas, adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas of the lung. We postulate that inflammatory processes and mediators may contribute to the etiology of Cr(VI) carcinogenesis, however the immediate (0–24 hours) pathologic injury and immune responses after exposure to particulate chromates have not been adequately investigated. Our aim was to determine the nature of the lung injury, inflammatory response, and survival signaling responses following intranasal exposure of BALB/c mice to particulate basic zinc chromate. Factors associated with lung injury, inflammation and survival signaling were measured in airway lavage fluid and in lung tissue. A single chromate exposure induced an acute immune response in the lung, characterized by a rapid and significant increase in IL-6 and GRO-α levels, an influx of neutrophils, and a decline in macrophages in lung airways. Histological examination of lung tissue in animals challenged with a single chromate exposure revealed an increase in bronchiolar cell apoptosis and mucosal injury. Furthermore, chromate exposure induced injury and inflammation that progressed to alveolar and interstitial pneumonitis. Finally, a single Cr(VI) challenge resulted in a rapid and persistent increase in the number of airways immunoreactive for phosphorylation of the survival signaling protein Akt, on serine 473. These data illustrate that chromate induces both survival signaling and an inflammatory response in the lung, which we postulate may contribute to early oncogenesis. PMID:19109987

  5. The simultaneous detection of trivalent & hexavalent chromium in exhaled breath condensate: A feasibility study comparing workers and controls.

    PubMed

    Leese, Elizabeth; Morton, Jackie; Gardiner, Philip H E; Carolan, Vikki A

    2017-04-01

    The analytical method outlined in this feasibility study has been used to show that trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) can be detected and measured in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) samples. EBC samples and urine samples were collected from a cohort of 58 workers occupationally exposed to hexavalent chromium compounds and 22 unexposed volunteers (control group). Levels of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) were determined in EBC samples and total chromium levels were determined in urine samples. Pre and post working week samples for both EBC and urine were collected in tandem. Total chromium in urine samples was analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Analysis of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in EBC samples used a hyphenated micro liquid chromatography (μLC) system coupled to an ICP-MS. Separation was achieved using an anion exchange micro-sized column. The results showed that the occupationally exposed workers had significantly higher levels of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in their EBC samples than the control group, as well as higher levels of total chromium in their urine samples. However, for the exposed workers no significant difference was found between pre and post working week EBC samples for either Cr(III) or Cr(VI). This study has established that Cr(III) and Cr(VI) can simultaneously be detected and measured in 'real' EBC samples and will help in understanding inhalation exposure. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Biomarkers of oxidative stress in electroplating workers exposed to hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chih-Hong; Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Lai, Ching-Huang

    2017-01-25

    This study evaluates levels of biomarkers of oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in 105 male workers at 16 electroplating companies who had been exposed to hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)). The study participants were 230 non-smoking male workers, comprising 105 electroplating workers who had been exposed to chromium and 125 control subjects who performed office tasks. Personal air samples, spot urine samples, hair samples, fingernail samples and questionnaires were used to quantify exposure to Cr(VI), oxidative DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, and environmental pollutants. Both the geometric mean personal concentrations of Cr(VI) of the Cr-exposed workers and the total Cr concentrations in the air to which they were exposed significantly exceeded those for the control subjects. The geometric mean concentrations of Cr in urine, hair and fingernails, and the urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the Cr(VI) exposed workers exceeded those in the control subjects. Daily cumulative Cr(VI) exposure and urinary Cr were significantly correlated with urinary 8-OHdG levels following adjustments for covariates. A ten-fold increase in urinary Cr level was associated with a 1.73-fold increase in urinary 8-OHdG level. Daily cumulative Cr(VI) exposure and urinary Cr level were significantly correlated with urinary MDA level following adjustments for covariates. A ten-fold increase in urinary Cr was associated with a 1.45-fold increase in urinary MDA. Exposure to Cr(VI) increased oxidative DNA injury and the oxidative deterioration of lipids in electroplating workers.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 25 January 2017; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.85.

  7. Determination of hexavalent chromium in traditional Chinese medicines by high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Li, Li-Min; Xia, Jing; Cao, Shuai; Hu, Xin; Lian, Hong-Zhen; Ji, Shen

    2015-12-01

    An analytical method that combined high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of hexavalent chromium in traditional Chinese medicines. Hexavalent chromium was extracted using the alkaline solution. The parameters such as the concentration of alkaline and the extraction temperature have been optimized to minimize the interconversion between trivalent chromium and hexavalent chromium. The extracted hexavalent chromium was separated on a weak anion exchange column in isocratic mode, followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry determination. To obtain a better chromatographic resolution and sensitivity, 75 mM NH4 NO3 at pH 7 was selected as the mobile phase. The linearity of the proposed method was investigated in the range of 0.2-5.0 μg L(-1) (r(2) = 0.9999) for hexavalent chromium. The limits of detection and quantitation are 0.1 and 0.3 μg L(-1) , respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of hexavalent chromium in Chloriti lapis and Lumbricus with satisfactory recoveries of 95.8-112.8%.

  8. Natural Attenuation of Hexavalent Chromium in Groundwater and Soils

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Concerns about the impact of chromium on human health and the environment require an evaluation of the potential risk of chromium entering the groundwater flow system and being transported beyond compliance boundaries.

  9. INJECTION OF A FERROUS SULFATE/SODIUM DITHIONITE REDUCTANT FOR IN-SITU TREATMENT OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    An in situ pilot study was conducted to evaluate the performance of a ferrous iron-based reductant solution in treating hexavalent chromium within a saturated zone source area at a former industrial site in Charleston, South Carolina (USA). The hexavalent source area, consisting...

  10. INJECTION OF A FERROUS SULFATE/SODIUM DITHIONITE REDUCTANT FOR IN-SITU TREATMENT OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    An in situ pilot study was conducted to evaluate the performance of a ferrous iron-based reductant solution in treating hexavalent chromium within a saturated zone source area at a former industrial site in Charleston, South Carolina (USA). The hexavalent source area, consisting...

  11. USE OF TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION EVALUATION METHODS TO CHARACTERIZE IDENTIFY, AND CONFIRM HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM TOXICITY IN AN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) was conducted on effluent from a major industrial discharger. Initial monitoring showed slight chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia; later sample showed substantial toxicity to C. dubia. Chemical analysis detected hexavalent chromium ...

  12. On the removal of hexavalent chromium from a Class F fly ash.

    PubMed

    Huggins, F E; Rezaee, M; Honaker, R Q; Hower, J C

    2016-05-01

    Coarse and fine samples of a Class F fly ash obtained from commercial combustion of Illinois bituminous coal have been exposed to two long-term leaching tests designed to simulate conditions in waste impoundments. ICP-AES analysis indicated that the coarse and fine fly ash samples contained 135 and 171mg/kg Cr, respectively. Measurements by XAFS spectroscopy showed that the ash samples originally contained 5 and 8% of the chromium, respectively, in the hexavalent oxidation state, Cr(VI). After exposure to water for more than four months, the percentage of chromium as Cr(VI) in the fly-ash decreased significantly for the coarse and fine fly-ash in both tests. Combining the XAFS data with ICP-AES data on the concentration of chromium in the leachates indicated that, after the nineteen-week-long, more aggressive, kinetic test on the coarse fly ash, approximately 60% of the Cr(VI) had been leached, 20% had been reduced to Cr(III) and retained in the ash, and 20% remained as Cr(VI) in the ash. In contrast, during the six-month-long baseline test, very little Cr was actually leached from either the coarse or the fine fly-ash (<0.1mg/kg); rather, about 66% and 20%, respectively, of the original Cr(VI) in the coarse and fine fly-ash was retained in the ash in that form, while the remainder, 34% and 80%, respectively, was reduced and retained in the ash as Cr(III). The results are interpreted as indicating that Cr(VI) present in Class F fly-ash can be reduced to Cr(III) when in contact with water and that such chemical reduction can compete with physical removal of Cr(VI) from the ash by aqueous leaching. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Genesis and transport of hexavalent chromium in the system ophiolitic rocks - groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchegolikhina, Anastasia; Guadagnini, Laura; Guadagnini, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Our study aims at contributing to the quantification and characterization of chromium transport processes from host rocks and soil matrices to groundwater. We focus on dissolved hexavalent chromium detected in groundwaters of geological regions with ophiolitic rocks (ophiolites and serpentinites) inclusions due to its critical ecological impact. (Oze et al., 2004). Despite the large number of analyses on the occurrence of high concentrations of hazardous hexavalent chromium ions in natural waters, only few studies were performed with the objective of identifying and investigating the geochemical reactions which could occur in the natural system rock - groundwater - dissolved chromium (Fantoni et al., 2002, Stephen and James, 2004, Lelli et al., 2013). In this context, there is a need for integration of results obtained from diverse studies in various regions and settings to improve our knowledge repository. Our theoretical analyses are grounded and driven by practical scenarios detected in subsurface reservoirs exploited for civil and industrial use located in the Emilia-Romagna region (Italy). Available experimental datasets are complemented with data from other international regional-scale settings (Altay mountains region, Russia). Modeling of chromium transformation and migration particularly includes characterization of the multispecies geochemical system. A key aspect of our study is the analysis of the complex competitive sorption processes governing heavy metal evolution in groundwater. The results of the research allow assessing the critical qualitative features of the mechanisms of hexavalent chromium ion mobilization from host rocks and soils and the ensuing transformation and migration to groundwater under the influence of diverse environmental factors. The study is then complemented by the quantification of the main sources of uncertainty associated with prediction of heavy metal contamination levels in the groundwater system explored. Fantoni, D

  14. Selected science: an industry campaign to undermine an OSHA hexavalent chromium standard.

    PubMed

    Michaels, David; Monforton, Celeste; Lurie, Peter

    2006-02-23

    While exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) has been associated with increased lung cancer risk for more than 50 years, the chemical is not currently regulated by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) on the basis of its carcinogenicity. The agency was petitioned in 1993 and sued in 1997 and 2002 to lower the workplace Cr(VI) exposure limit, resulting in a court order to issue a final standard by February 2006. Faced with the threat of stronger regulation, the chromium industry initiated an effort to challenge the scientific evidence supporting a more protective standard. This effort included the use of "product defense" consultants to conduct post hoc analyses of a publicly-funded study to challenge results viewed unfavorably by the industry. The industry also commissioned a study of the mortality experience of workers at four low-exposure chromium plants, but did not make the results available to OSHA in a timely manner, despite multiple agency requests for precisely these sorts of data. The commissioned study found a statistically significant elevation in lung cancer risk among Cr(VI)-exposed workers at levels far below the current standard. This finding changed when the multi-plant cohort was divided into two statistically underpowered components and then published separately. The findings of the first paper published have been used by the chromium industry to attempt to slow OSHA's standard setting process. The second paper was withheld from OSHA until it was accepted for publication in a scientific journal, after the rulemaking record had closed. Studies funded by private sponsors that seek to influence public regulatory proceedings should be subject to the same access and reporting provisions as those applied to publicly funded science. Parties in regulatory proceedings should be required to disclose whether the studies were performed by researchers who had the right to present their findings without the sponsor's consent or

  15. Selected science: an industry campaign to undermine an OSHA hexavalent chromium standard

    PubMed Central

    Michaels, David; Monforton, Celeste; Lurie, Peter

    2006-01-01

    While exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) has been associated with increased lung cancer risk for more than 50 years, the chemical is not currently regulated by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) on the basis of its carcinogenicity. The agency was petitioned in 1993 and sued in 1997 and 2002 to lower the workplace Cr(VI) exposure limit, resulting in a court order to issue a final standard by February 2006. Faced with the threat of stronger regulation, the chromium industry initiated an effort to challenge the scientific evidence supporting a more protective standard. This effort included the use of "product defense" consultants to conduct post hoc analyses of a publicly-funded study to challenge results viewed unfavorably by the industry. The industry also commissioned a study of the mortality experience of workers at four low-exposure chromium plants, but did not make the results available to OSHA in a timely manner, despite multiple agency requests for precisely these sorts of data. The commissioned study found a statistically significant elevation in lung cancer risk among Cr(VI)-exposed workers at levels far below the current standard. This finding changed when the multi-plant cohort was divided into two statistically underpowered components and then published separately. The findings of the first paper published have been used by the chromium industry to attempt to slow OSHA's standard setting process. The second paper was withheld from OSHA until it was accepted for publication in a scientific journal, after the rulemaking record had closed. Studies funded by private sponsors that seek to influence public regulatory proceedings should be subject to the same access and reporting provisions as those applied to publicly funded science. Parties in regulatory proceedings should be required to disclose whether the studies were performed by researchers who had the right to present their findings without the sponsor's consent or

  16. Chromium.

    PubMed

    Barceloux, D G

    1999-01-01

    Chromium occurs primarily in the trivalent state (III), which is the most stable form, or in the hexavalent state (VI), which is a strong oxidizing agent. Elemental chromium (0) does not occur naturally on earth. Trivalent chromium (III) is an essential trace metal necessary for the formation of glucose tolerance factor and for the metabolism of insulin. Commercial applications of chromium compounds include tanning (III), corrosion inhibition, plating, glassware-cleaning solutions, wood preservatives (VI), manufacture of safety matches, metal finishing (VI), and the production of pigments (III, VI). Hexavalent chromium (VI) contaminated local soil when chromium waste slag was part of the fill material present in residential, public, and industrial areas. In some urban areas, about two-thirds of the chromium in air results from the emission of hexavalent chromium from fossil fuel combustion and steel production. The remaining chromium in air is the trivalent form. The residence time of chromium in air is < 10 days, depending on the particle size. Trivalent compounds generally have low toxicity and the gastrointestinal tract poorly absorbs these compounds. Hexavalent chromium is a skin and mucous membrane irritant and some of these hexavalent compounds are strong corrosive agents. Hexavalent chromium compounds also produce an allergic contact dermatitis characterized by eczema. Sensitivity to trivalent compounds is much less frequent, but some workers may react to high concentrations of these compounds. Hexavalent chromium is recognized by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and by the US Toxicology Program as a pulmonary carcinogen. The increased risk of lung cancer occurs primarily in workers exposed to hexavalent chromium dust during the refining of chromite ore and the production of chromate pigments. Although individual studies suggest the possibility of an excess incidence of cancer at sites outside the lung, the results from these studies are

  17. Activated carbons and low cost adsorbents for remediation of tri- and hexavalent chromium from water.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Dinesh; Pittman, Charles U

    2006-09-21

    Hexavalent chromium is a well-known highly toxic metal, considered a priority pollutant. Industrial sources of Cr(VI) include leather tanning, cooling tower blowdown, plating, electroplating, anodizing baths, rinse waters, etc. The most common method applied for chromate control is reduction of Cr(VI) to its trivalent form in acid (pH approximately 2.0) and subsequent hydroxide precipitation of Cr(III) by increasing the pH to approximately 9.0-10.0 using lime. Existing overviews of chromium removal only cover selected technologies that have traditionally been used in chromium removal. Far less attention has been paid to adsorption. Herein, we provide the first review article that provides readers an overview of the sorption capacities of commercial developed carbons and other low cost sorbents for chromium remediation. After an overview of chromium contamination is provided, more than 300 papers on chromium remediation using adsorption are discussed to provide recent information about the most widely used adsorbents applied for chromium remediation. Efforts to establish the adsorption mechanisms of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) on various adsorbents are reviewed. Chromium's impact environmental quality, sources of chromium pollution and toxicological/health effects is also briefly introduced. Interpretations of the surface interactions are offered. Particular attention is paid to comparing the sorption efficiency and capacities of commercially available activated carbons to other low cost alternatives, including an extensive table.

  18. Simultaneous determination of hexavalent and total chromium in water and plating baths by spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Gao, R M; Zhao, Z Q; Zhou, Q Z; Yuan, D X

    1993-05-01

    A new spectrophotometric determination method of hexavalent chromium in waste water and plating baths is described based on the oxidation of beryllon III by chromium(VI) in 0.02M sulphuric acid medium. The decrease in the absorbance of beryllon III was measured at 482 nm with an apparent molar absorptivity of 5.15 x 10(4)1.mole(-1).cm(-1). Beer's law was obeyed for chromium(VI) over the range 0-25 mug/25 ml. After the oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) by ammonium persulphate, total chromium can be determined. Therefore, chromium(III) can be calculated by subtracting chromium(VI) from total chromium. The detection limit is 0.015 and 0.020 mug/25 ml for chromium(VI) and total chromium, respectively. A sensitive spectrophotometric method for trace Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in waste water and plating baths was developed with good precision and accuracy. The reaction is also discussed.

  19. Detoxification of hexavalent chromium by Leucobacter sp. uses a reductase with specificity for dihydrolipoamide.

    PubMed

    Sarangi, Abhipsa; Krishnan, Chandraraj

    2016-02-01

    Leucobacter sp. belongs to the metal stressed community and possesses higher tolerance to metals including chromium and can detoxify toxic hexavalent chromium by reduction to less toxic trivalent chromium. But, the mechanism of reduction of hexavalent chromium by Leucobacter sp. has not been studied. Understanding the enzyme catalyzing reduction of chromium is important to improve the species for application in bioremediation. Hence, a soluble reductase catalyzing the reduction of hexavalent chromium was purified from a Leucobacter sp. and characterized. The pure chromate reductase was obtained from the cell-free extract through hydrophobic interaction and gel filtration column chromatographic methods. It was a monomeric enzyme and showed similar molecular weights in both gel filtration (∼68 KDa) and SDS-PAGE (64 KDa). It reduced Cr(VI) using both NADH and NADPH as the electron donor, but exhibited higher activity with NADH. The optimal activity was found at pH 5.5 and 30 °C. The K(m) and V(max) for Cr(VI) reduction with NADH were 46.57 μM and 0.37 μmol min(-1) (mg protein) (-1), respectively. The activity was inhibited by p-hydroxy mercury benzoate, Ag(2+) and Hg(2+) indicating the role of thiol groups in the catalysis. The spectrophotometric analysis of the purified enzyme showed the absence of bound flavin in the enzyme. The N-terminal amino acid sequence and LC/MS analysis of trypsin digested purified enzyme showed similarity to dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase. The purified enzyme had dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase activity with dihydrolipoamide as the substrate, which suggested that Leucobacter sp. uses reductase with multiple substrate specificity for reduction of Cr(VI) detoxification.

  20. Ecotoxicology of Hexavalent Chromium in Freshwater Fish: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Velma, Venkatramreddy; Vutukuru, S.S.; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    Chromium (Cr) is a naturally occurring element found in rocks, animals, plants, and soil, predominantly in its insoluble trivalent form [Cr(III)]. Intense industrialization and other anthropogenic activities have led to the global occurrence of soluble Cr(VI), which is readily leached from soil to groundwater or surface water, in concentrations above permissible levels. The ecotoxicology of Cr(VI) is linked to its environmental persistence and the ability to induce a variety of adverse effects in biologic systems, including fish. In aquatic ecosystems, Cr(VI) exposure poses a significant threat to aquatic life. This paper reviews the fate and transport of Cr(VI) in the environment and its acute and chronic effects on fish. We also discuss Cr(VI) toxicity at the cellular, biochemical, and genetic levels. An attempt is made in this review to comprehend the staggered data on the toxic effects of Cr(VI) to various species of fish. Such data are extremely useful to the scientific community and public officials involved in health risk assessment and management of environmental contaminants as a guide to the best course of action to restore ecosystems and, in turn, to preserve human health. PMID:19658319

  1. Development of Cadmium and Hexavalent Chromium Free Electrical Connectors: Test Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Transportation Management o Requires Government agencies to reduce quantity of toxic and hazardous chemicals and materials acquired, used, or disposed  Cadmium...regulated as Hazardous Substance, Hazardous Air Pollutant, Hazardous Waste, Toxic Chemical, and Priority Pollutant (Clean Water Act)  Restrictions...cadmium with hexavalent chromium − Five cadmium alternatives  Electroplated aluminum (AlumiPlate®)  Electroplated zinc- nickel (ZnNi)  Electroplated

  2. Evaluation and Demonstration of Non-Hexavalent Chromium Pretreatments and Sealers for Steel Substrates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    is low • Concerns with hydrogen embrittlement in High-hard armor for Phos and Zn • Inducing stress risers on outer surfaces of gun barrels • Abrasive...MIL-DTL-16232G and TT-C-490. •Use 120-240 hours ageing at room temperature Concerns with Hydrogen Embrittlement UNCLASSIFIED: Approved for public...UNCLASSIFIED: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Evaluation and Demonstration of Non-Hexavalent Chromium Pretreatments and

  3. The detection of hexavalent chromium by organically doped sol-gels

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, P.W.; Mackenzie, J.D.

    1994-12-31

    The sol-gel process can be used to produce porous inorganic matrices that are doped with organic molecules. These doped gels can be used as a quantitative method for the spectrophotometric determination of trace concentrations of metallic ions. For the detection of hexavalent chromium, malachite green was used as the dopant. Preliminary results indicate concentrations on the order of 5 ppb are detectable using this method.

  4. Replacement for Cadmium Plating and Hexavalent Chromium on Fasteners and Electrical Connectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-10

    hexavalent chromium] where they can perform adequately for the intended application and operating environment.” • 29 CFR 1910.1200 – Asbestos, beryllium...Chromium stainless steel 11–30% Cr (passive) • Inconel (passive) (80Ni-13Cr-7Fe) • Nickel (passive) • Silver solder • Monel (70Ni-30Cu) • Cupronickels...60–90Cu, 40-10Ni) • Bronzes (Cu-Sn) • Copper • Brasses (Cu-Zn) • Inconel (active) • Nickel (active) • Tin • Lead • Lead-tin solders • 18-8Mo stainless

  5. Development of a site-specific water quality criterion for hexavalent chromium

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, D.O.; Sticko, J.P.; Reash, R.J.

    1995-12-31

    The effluent of treated fly ash from a coal-fired power plant located on the Ohio River periodically exceeds its NPDES acute permit limit for hexavalent chromium of 15 {micro}g/L. The increased levels of hexavalent chromium in the effluent are a recent occurrence which are likely due to changes in coal blends burned in the generating units. Ohio EPA determined the use designation of the receiving stream (Limited Resource Water) was being attained and a one-year biomonitoring program of the effluent detected no acute toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia or Daphnia magna. The water-effect ratio (WER) procedure was selected to develop a site-specific criterion maximum concentration for hexavalent chromium for the effluent`s receiving stream. WER procedures followed those described in EPA`s ``Interim Guidance on Determination and Use of Water-Effect Ratios for Metals`` (1994). Site water used in the WER determinations was undiluted effluent since the receiving stream originates at the discharge point of the outfall. 48-hour acute D. magna and 96-hour acute fathead minnow toxicity tests were selected as the primary and secondary tests, respectively for use in three seasonal WER determinations. The results of the three WER determinations and the status of the regulatory process will be presented.

  6. Biodegradation of the metallic carcinogen hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) by an indigenously isolated bacterial strain

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Susmita

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], a potential mutagen and carcinogen, is regularly introduced into the environment through diverse anthropogenic activities, including electroplating, leather tanning, and pigment manufacturing. Human exposure to this toxic metal ion not only causes potential human health hazards but also affects other life forms. The World Health Organization, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and the Environmental Protection Agency have determined that Cr(VI) compounds are known human carcinogens. The Sukinda valley in Jajpur District, Orissa, is known for its deposit of chromite ore, producing nearly 98% of the chromite ore in India and one of the prime open cast chromite ore mines in the world (CES, Orissa Newsletter). Materials and Methods: Our investigation involved microbial remediation of Cr(VI) without producing any byproduct. Bacterial cultures tolerating high concentrations of Cr were isolated from the soil sample collected from the chromite-contaminated sites of Sukinda, and their bioaccumulation properties were investigated. Strains capable of growing at 250 mg/L Cr(VI) were considered as Cr resistant. Results: The experimental investigation showed the maximum specific Cr uptake at pH 7 and temperature 30°C. At about 50 mg/L initial Cr(VI) concentrations, uptake of the selected potential strain exceeded 98% within 12 h of incubation. The bacterial isolate was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as Brevebacterium casei. Conclusion: Results indicated promising approach for microbial remediation of effluents containing elevated levels of Cr(VI). PMID:20976016

  7. Interferences in the spectrophotometric S-diphenylcarbazide determination of environmental hexavalent chromium in a chromium and zinc plating plant.

    PubMed

    Carelli, G; La Bua, R; Rimatori, V; Porcelli, D; Iannaccone, A

    1981-03-01

    A study on the determination of environmental hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] was carried out in a chromium and zinc plating plant. The atmospheric particulate was collected both on glass wool filters and with an electrostatic sampler; Cr(VI) was determined by the S-diphenylcarbazide method. The filtered and electrostatically collected Cr(VI) was extracted with both 1.4% sulfuric acid and 7% sodium carbonate. Strong interference was observed when extraction was carried out with the acid medium. Alkaline extraction permits 95 +/- 6 (+/- SD)% recovery of the total chromium and has been shown to be suitable in releasing Cr(VI). The analyses of the alkaline samples were carried out with the standard addition method to compensate for a depressive interference of 26 +/- 8 (+/- SD)%. The absorbance decrease of the Cr-S-diphenylcarbazide complex is a time function, and it should be measured within a few minutes of the reagent addition.

  8. Modulation of histone methylation and MLH1 gene silencing by hexavalent chromium

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Hong; Zhou Xue; Chen Haobin; Li Qin; Costa, Max

    2009-06-15

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a mutagen and carcinogen, and occupational exposure can lead to lung cancers and other adverse health effects. Genetic changes resulting from DNA damage have been proposed as an important mechanism that mediates chromate's carcinogenicity. Here we show that chromate exposure of human lung A549 cells increased global levels of di- and tri-methylated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) and lysine 4 (H3K4) but decreased the levels of tri-methylated histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) and di-methylated histone H3 arginine 2 (H3R2). Most interestingly, H3K9 dimethylation was enriched in the human MLH1 gene promoter following chromate exposure and this was correlated with decreased MLH1 mRNA expression. Chromate exposure increased the protein as well as mRNA levels of G9a a histone methyltransferase that specifically methylates H3K9. This Cr(VI)-induced increase in G9a may account for the global elevation of H3K9 dimethylation. Furthermore, supplementation with ascorbate, the primary reductant of Cr(VI) and also an essential cofactor for the histone demethylase activity, partially reversed the H3K9 dimethylation induced by chromate. Thus our studies suggest that Cr(VI) may target histone methyltransferases and demethylases, which in turn affect both global and gene promoter specific histone methylation, leading to the silencing of specific tumor suppressor genes such as MLH1.

  9. The toxic effects on the stress and immune responses in juvenile rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii exposed to hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Hwan; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2016-04-01

    Juvenile Sebastes schlegelii (mean length 13.7±1.7cm, and mean weight 55.6±4.8g) were exposed for 4 weeks with the different levels of dietary chromium (Cr(6+)) concentration (0, 30, 60, 120 and 200mg/L). The plasma cortisol and heat shock protein 70 was evaluated as stress indicators. Plasma cortisol was significantly increased in response to the dietary chromium exposure over 120mg/kg at 2 and 4 weeks. Heat shock protein 70 was also notably increased over 120mg/kg at 2 weeks and over 60mg/kg at 4 weeks. In the immune response, immunoglobulin M was considerably increased in the concentration of 240mg/kg at 2 weeks and over 120mg/kg at 4 weeks. Lysozyme activity was considerably induced by the dietary hexavalent chromium exposure. A significant increase in plasma lysozyme activity was observed at 240mg/kg after 2 weeks and over 60mg/kg after 4 weeks, kidney lysozyme was also increased over 120mg/kg at 2 and 4 weeks. The results demonstrate that dietary Cr exposure can induce a significant stress and immune stimulation.

  10. A post-remediation assessment in Jersey City of the association of hexavalent chromium in house dust and urinary chromium in children.

    PubMed

    Black, Kathleen; Gochfeld, Michael; Lioy, Paul J; Fan, Zhi-Hua Tina; Yu, Chang Ho; Jeitner, Chris; Hernandez, Marta; Einstein, Stephanie A; Stern, Alan H

    2015-01-01

    Although all chromite ore processing residue (COPR) sites near residential neighborhoods in Jersey City, New Jersey have undergone remediation, recent studies found widespread, but low levels of hexavalent chromium (Cr(+6)) in house dust both in Jersey City and in communities with no known sources of Cr(+6). This study was designed as a follow-up to determine whether there is an association between current Cr(+6) levels in house dust and urinary chromium concentrations in young children. Dust samples (N=369) were collected from 123 homes. The median Cr(+6) concentration was 3.3 μg/g (mean±SD 5.2±7.5) and the median Cr(+6) loading was 1.1 μg/m(2) (1.9±3.1). These levels were not elevated compared with previously reported levels in background communities (median concentration=3.5 μg/g; median loading=2.8 μg/m(2)). Urinary chromium concentrations were measured in spot urine samples collected from 150 children, ages 3 months to 6 years. The median uncorrected urinary chromium concentration was 0.19 μg/l (0.22±0.16). Current urinary chromium concentrations were significantly lower than those previously reported before and during remediation (t-test; P<0.001). Urinary chromium concentrations were not significantly higher in homes with high (75th or 90th percentile) Cr(+6) dust levels (concentration or loading) compared with other homes. Multiple linear regression was used to examine the relationship between Cr(+6) levels (concentration and loading) in house dust and urinary chromium concentrations (uncorrected and specific gravity corrected). Contrary to pre-remediation studies, we did not find a positive association between Cr(+6) levels in house dust and urinary chromium concentrations. The findings indicate that current Cr(+6) levels in house dust are not positively associated with children's chromium exposure as measured by urinary chromium, and the children's exposure to Cr(+6) in house dust is below the level that could be identified by urine

  11. Release of Hexavalent Chromium by Ash and Soils in Wildfire-Impacted Areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, Ruth E.; Morman, Suzette A.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Hageman, Philip L.; Adams, Monique

    2008-01-01

    The highly oxidizing environment of a wildfire has the potential to convert any chromium present in the soil or in residential or industrial debris to its more toxic form, hexavalent chromium, a known carcinogen. In addition, the highly basic conditions resulting from the combustion of wood and wood products could result in the stabilization of any aqueous hexavalent chromium formed. Samples were collected from the October 2007 wildfires in Southern California and subjected to an array of test procedures to evaluate the potential effects of fire-impacted soils and ashes on human and environmental health. Soil and ash samples were leached using de-ionized water to simulate conditions resulting from rainfall on fire-impacted areas. The resulting leachates were of high pH (10-13) and many, particularly those of ash from burned residential areas, contained elevated total chromium as much as 33 micrograms per liter. Samples were also leached using a near-neutral pH simulated lung fluid to model potential chemical interactions of inhaled particles with fluids lining the respiratory tract. High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry was used to separate and detect individual species (for example, Cr+3, Cr+6, As+3, As+5, Se+4, and Se+6). These procedures were used to determine the form of the chromium present in the de-ionized water and simulated lung fluid leachates. The results show that in the de-ionized water leachate, all of the chromium present is in the form of Cr+6, and the resulting high pH tends to stabilize Cr+6 from reduction to Cr+3. Analysis of the simulated lung fluid leachates indicates that the predominant form of chromium present in the near-neutral pH of lung fluid would be Cr+6, which is of concern due to the high possibility of inhalation of the small ash and soil particulates, particularly by fire or restoration crews.

  12. Hexavalent chromium-induced multiple biomarker responses in liver and kidney of goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Velma, Venkatramreddy; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2011-11-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)] is a constituent of chromite ore. Although it is known to have several industrial and technological applications, its release into the aquatic environment as a result of chemical spill or inadequate waste discharge may hamper the health of aquatic organisms. In this study, we have investigated the effects of Cr (VI) on multiple biomarkers responses in goldfish under subchronic exposure conditions. Laboratory-acclimatized fish were exposed to 4.25 ppm and 8.57 ppm Cr (VI) for four weeks using a continuous flow-through system. During exposure, fish samples were collected on a weekly basis and analyzed for multiple biomarkers including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), metallothionein (MT), and total protein in liver and kidney. Study results indicated that the CAT activity and total protein levels in Cr (VI) - treated goldfish did not significantly differ (P > 0.05) from their respective controls during experimentation. However, highly significant up-regulations (P < 0.05) of SOD, GPx, and MT expression in Cr (VI) - treated goldfish were recorded at different exposure times depending on Cr (VI) concentration, test organ, and/or biomarker of interest. For example, significantly higher liver GPx levels were found at weeks 2 and 3 in the 4.25 ppm concentration, and at weeks 3 and 4 in the 8.57 ppm, while kidney GPx levels were significantly higher at weeks 1, 2 and 3 in the 4.25 ppm concentration, and at weeks 2, 3 and 4 in the 8.57 ppm concentration. In summary, Cr (VI)-induced oxidative stress was characterized by statistically significant increases in SOD, GPx, and MT expression in goldfish tissues; with the kidney showing a relatively higher sensitivity to Cr (VI) toxicity compared with the liver.

  13. Hexavalent Chromium-Induced Multiple Biomarker Responses in Liver and Kidney of Goldfish, Carassius auratus

    PubMed Central

    Velma, Venkatramreddy; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)] is a constituent of chromite ore. Although it is known to have several industrial and technological applications, its release into the aquatic environment as a result of chemical spill or inadequate waste discharge may hamper the health of aquatic organisms. In this study, we have investigated the effects of Cr (VI) on multiple biomarkers responses in goldfish under sub-chronic exposure conditions. Laboratory-acclimatized fish were exposed to 4.25 ppm and 8.57 ppm Cr (VI) for four weeks using a continuous flow-through system. During exposure, fish samples were collected on a weekly basis and analyzed for multiple biomarkers including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), metallothionein (MT), and total protein in liver and kidney. Study results indicated that the CAT activity and total protein levels in Cr (VI) – treated goldfish did not significantly differ (p>0.05) from their respective controls during experimentation. However, highly significant up-regulations (p<0.05) of SOD, GPx, and MT expression in Cr (VI) – treated goldfish were recorded at different exposure times depending on Cr (VI) concentration, test organ, and/or biomarker of interest. For example, significantly higher liver GPx levels were found at weeks 2 and 3 in the 4.25 ppm concentration, and at weeks 3 and 4 in the 8.57 ppm, while kidney GPx levels were significantly higher at weeks 1, 2 and 3 in the 4.25 ppm concentration, and at weeks 2, 3 and 4 in the 8.57 ppm concentration. In summary, Cr (VI)-induced oxidative stress was characterized by statistically significant increases in SOD, GPx, and MT expression in goldfish tissues; with the kidney showing a relatively higher sensitivity to Cr (VI) toxicity compared to the liver. PMID:20549632

  14. Oral bioaccessibility of trivalent and hexavalent chromium in soil by simulated gastric fluid.

    PubMed

    Skowronski, G A; Seide, M; Abdel-Rahman, M S

    2001-07-06

    Chromium is found in soil from natural sources and anthropogenic activities. The ingestion of soil contaminated with chromium especially by children can have toxic consequences. Therefore, it is important to quantify the oral bioaccessibility of chromium in chromium in contaminated soil. In this study, chromium-51 as chromic (III) chloride and sodium chromate (VI), was mixed with an Atsion sandy soil and a Keyport clay soil and stored for 4 mo at either 21-25 degrees C or 2-4 degrees C. Utilizing simulated gastric conditions, the oral bioaccessibility of chromium in soil was determined. When the effects of soil on the bioaccessibility of chromium were compared, the data revealed the the bioaccessibility of chromium (III) from the clay soil was significantly lower than from the sandy at 21-25 degrees C. However, at 2-4 degrees C, more chromium (III) was extracted by synthetic gastric fluid from the clay soil than from the sandy soil. Temperature was also a factor as evidenced by the higher bioaccessibility of chromium (IV) in the sandy soil at 2-4 degrees C and of both chromium species in the clay soil at the same temperature. Reduction of the soluble chromium (VI) chemical to the nonsoluble chromium (III) compound in the acidic soils by naturally occurring organic matter in soil would explain the lower bioaccessibilty of chromium (VI) at 21-25 degrees C. At 2-4 degrees C, the data indicate that the rate of chromium (VI) reduction to chromium (III) was slowed. Although the results of this study are limited to one low concentration of chromium (III) and chromium (VI) and indicate that the bioaccessibility of chromium in soil can range between 18% and 72%, the data also suggest that there may be a potential health hazard from oral exposure to chromium in heavily contaminated sites. Therefore, more extensive research should be conducted to determine if thes findings can be extended to environmentally relevant concentrations.

  15. Cancer mortality in relation to environmental chromium exposure.

    PubMed

    Fryzek, J P; Mumma, M T; McLaughlin, J K; Henderson, B E; Blot, W J

    2001-07-01

    From the 1950s to the 1980s, hexavalent chromium compounds were used as additives at certain water-cooling towers at three southern California gas compressor facilities. Claims of potential residential chromium exposure prompted the examination of age-adjusted mortality rates during 1989 to 1998 for lung cancer, all cancer, and all deaths for neighborhoods near versus distant from the plants. Differences in the rates between areas tended to be small and not statistically significant. The only significant difference was a lower, rather than higher, rate of total cancer among women in the potentially exposed areas. Study limitations preclude a definitive assessment of risk, but similar to previous investigations of cancer in relation to environmental chromium exposure in other locations, this study found no evidence of a cancer hazard among residents living near these California gas compressor facilities.

  16. Field evaluation of a sampling and analytical method for environmental levels of airborne hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, P; Ricks, R; Ripple, S; Paustenbach, D

    1992-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), has been classified as a human respiratory carcinogen. Airborne Cr(VI) emissions are associated with a number of industrial sources including metal plating, tanning, chromite ore processing, and spray painting operations; combustion sources such as automobiles and incinerators; and fugitive dusts from contaminated soil. There has been considerable interest within industry and the regulatory community to assess the potential cancer risks of workers exposed to Cr(VI) at levels substantially below the threshold limit value (TLV) of 50 micrograms/m3. To date, only the workplace sampling and analytical method (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health [NIOSH] Method 7600) has been validated for measuring airborne Cr(VI), and it can accurately measure concentrations only as low as 500 ng/m3. This paper describes the field evaluation of a sampling and analytical method for the quantitation of airborne Cr(VI) at concentrations 5000 times lower than the current standard method (as low as 0.1 ng/m3). The collection method uses three 500-mL Greenberg-Smith impingers in series, operated at 15 Lpm for 24 hr. All three impingers are filled with 200 mL of a slightly alkaline (pH approximately 8) sodium bicarbonate buffer solution. The results of validation tests showed that both Cr(VI) and trivalent chromium, Cr(III), were stable in the collection medium and that samples may be stored for up to 100 days without appreciable loss of Cr(VI). Method precision based on the pooled coefficient of variation for replicate samples was 10.4%, and method accuracy based on the mean percent recovery of spiked samples was 94%. Both the precision and accuracy of the impinger method were within NIOSH criteria. This method could be used to measure ambient concentrations of Cr(VI) in the workplace caused by fugitive emissions from manufacturing processes or chromium-contaminated soils at workplace concentrations well below the current TLV (50 micrograms/m3

  17. Differences in uptake and translocation of hexavalent and trivalent chromium by two species of willows.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Gu, Ji-Dong; Xing, Li-Qun

    2008-11-01

    Uptake and translocation of chromium (Cr) by two willow species was investigated. Intact pre-rooted weeping willows (Salix babylonica L.) and hankow willows (Salix matsudana Koidz) were grown hydroponically and spiked with hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)] or trivalent chromium [Cr (III)] at 25.0 +/- 0.5 degrees C for 120 h. Removal of leaves was also performed as a treatment to quantify the effect of transpiration on uptake and translocation of either of the Cr species. Although the two willow species were able to eliminate Cr (VI) and Cr (III) from the hydroponic solution, significant differences in the removal rate for both chemical species were observed between the two willows (p < 0.05): faster removal rate for Cr (III) than Cr (VI) was detected in both willow species; hankow willows showed higher removal potential for both chemical species than weeping willows. Remarkable decreases in the removal rates for both Cr species were detected in the willows with leaves removed (p < 0.05). The results from the treatments spiked with Cr (VI) also revealed that Cr was more mobile in plant materials of hankow willows than that in weeping willows (p < 0.01), while higher translocation efficiency of Cr was observed in weeping willows than hankow willows for the Cr (III) treated (p < 0.01). However, a convincing decrease in the translocation efficiency due to the removal of leaves was only observed in the treatments spiked with Cr (VI) (p < 0.05). Substantial differences existed in the distribution of Cr species in plant materials after exposure of either of the chemical forms: roots and lower stems were the major sites for accumulation in weeping willows exposed to Cr (VI) and Cr (III), respectively; in contrast roots were the only sink in hankow willows exposed to both chemical species. The capacity of willows to assimilate both Cr species was also evaluated using detached leaves and roots of both willow species in sealed glass vessels in vivo. The results indicated that

  18. Reduction And Immobilization Of Hexavalent Chromium By Microbially Reduced Fe-bearing Clay Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, Michael E.; Glasser, Paul; Dong, Hailiang; Arey, Bruce W.; Kovarik, Libor

    2014-05-15

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) is a major contaminant in the environment. As a redox-sensitive element, the fate and toxicity of chromium is controlled by reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions. Previous research has shown the ability of structural Fe(II) in naturally present and chemically reduced clay minerals to reduce Cr6+ to Cr(III) as a way of immobilization and detoxification. However, it is still poorly known whether or not structural Fe(II) in biologically reduced clay minerals exhibits a similar reactivity and if so, what the kinetics and mechanisms of Cr6+ reduction are. The objective of this study was to determine the kinetics and possible mechanisms of Cr6+ reduction by structural Fe(II) in microbially reduced clay minerals and the nature of reduced Cr(III). Structural Fe(III) in nontronite (NAu-2), montmorillonite (SWy-2), chlorite (CCa-2), and clay-rich sediments from the Ringold Formation of the Hanford site of Washington State, USA was first bioreduced to Fe(II) by an iron-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens with acetate as the sole electron donor and anthraquinone-2,6-disulfate (AQDS) as electron shuttle in synthetic groundwater (pH 7). Biogenic Fe(II) was then used to reduce aqueous Cr6+ at three different temperatures, 10°, 20°, and 30°C, in order to determine the temperature dependence of the redox reaction between Cr6+ and clay-Fe(II). The results showed that nontronite and montmorillonite were most effective in reducing aqueous Cr6+ at all three temperatures. In contrast, most Fe(II) in chlorite was not reactive towards Cr6+ reduction at 10°C, though at 30°C there was some reduction. For all the clay minerals, the ratio of total Fe(II) oxidized to Cr6+ reduced was close to the expected stoichiometric value of 3. Characterization of the Cr-clay reaction product with scanning electron microscopy with focused ion beam and transmission electron microscopy with electron energy loss spectroscopy revealed that reduced chromium was possibly

  19. Reduction and immobilization of hexavalent chromium by microbially reduced Fe-bearing clay minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Michael E.; Glasser, Paul; Dong, Hailiang; Arey, Bruce; Kovarik, Libor

    2014-05-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) is a major contaminant in the environment. As a redox-sensitive element, the fate and toxicity of chromium is controlled by reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions. Previous research has shown the ability of structural Fe(II) in naturally present and chemically reduced clay minerals to reduce Cr6+ to Cr(III) as a way of immobilization and detoxification. However, it is still poorly known whether or not structural Fe(II) in biologically reduced clay minerals exhibits a similar reactivity and if so, what the kinetics and mechanisms of Cr6+ reduction are. The objective of this study was to determine the kinetics and possible mechanisms of Cr6+ reduction by structural Fe(II) in microbially reduced clay minerals and the nature of reduced Cr(III). Structural Fe(III) in nontronite (NAu-2), montmorillonite (SWy-2), chlorite (CCa-2), and clay-rich sediments from the Ringold Formation of the Hanford site of Washington State, USA was first bioreduced to Fe(II) by an iron-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens with acetate as the sole electron donor and anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) as electron shuttle in synthetic groundwater (pH 7). Biogenic Fe(II) was then used to reduce aqueous Cr6+ at three different temperatures, 10, 20, and 30 °C, in order to determine the temperature dependence of the redox reaction between Cr6+ and clay-Fe(II). The results showed that nontronite and montmorillonite were most effective in reducing aqueous Cr6+ at all three temperatures. In contrast, most Fe(II) in chlorite was not reactive towards Cr6+ reduction at 10 °C, though at 30 °C there was some reduction. For all the clay minerals, the ratio of total Fe(II) oxidized to Cr6+ reduced was close to the expected stoichiometric value of 3. Characterization of the Cr-clay reaction product with scanning electron microscopy with focused ion beam and transmission electron microscopy with electron energy loss spectroscopy revealed that reduced chromium was possibly

  20. A revised model of ex-vivo reduction of hexavalent chromium in human and rodent gastric juices

    SciTech Connect

    Schlosser, Paul M. Sasso, Alan F.

    2014-10-15

    Chronic oral exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr-VI) in drinking water has been shown to induce tumors in the mouse gastrointestinal (GI) tract and rat oral cavity. The same is not true for trivalent chromium (Cr-III). Thus reduction of Cr-VI to Cr-III in gastric juices is considered a protective mechanism, and it has been suggested that the difference between the rate of reduction among mice, rats, and humans could explain or predict differences in sensitivity to Cr-VI. We evaluated previously published models of gastric reduction and believe that they do not fully describe the data on reduction as a function of Cr-VI concentration, time, and (in humans) pH. The previous models are parsimonious in assuming only a single reducing agent in rodents and describing pH-dependence using a simple function. We present a revised model that assumes three pools of reducing agents in rats and mice with pH-dependence based on known speciation chemistry. While the revised model uses more fitted parameters than the original model, they are adequately identifiable given the available data, and the fit of the revised model to the full range of data is shown to be significantly improved. Hence the revised model should provide better predictions of Cr-VI reduction when integrated into a corresponding PBPK model. - Highlights: • Hexavalent chromium (Cr-VI) reduction in gastric juices is a key detoxifying step. • pH-dependent Cr-VI reduction rates are explained using known chemical speciation. • Reduction in rodents appears to involve multiple pools of electron donors. • Reduction appears to continue after 60 min, although more slowly than initial rates.

  1. Sorption and transport modeling of hexavalent chromium on soil media.

    PubMed

    Khan, Anwar Ali; Muthukrishnan, M; Guha, B K

    2010-02-15

    Chromium-soil adsorption system exhibited both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models fit to the sorption data in the studied range of concentration. However the model fit was much better for Freundlich isotherm, this was primarily due to low adsorptive capacity of the soil, 1/n is equal to about 1.08 which is quite close to 1.0, indicating low adsorptive capacity of the soil for chromium(VI) system and the Q(max) was observed very low in range of 0.196-0.220 mg Cr(VI)/g of soil. The initial concentration of Cr(VI) in the solution remarkably influenced the equilibrium Cr(VI) uptake on soil sorption process. The model simulated results for the natural redemption of the soil show the periodic movement of the chromium concentration front ultimately reaching quite low concentration at the end of the cycles. In the case of inorganic chemicals, the absence of chemical decay makes the adsorption phenomena as the major contaminant removal mechanism where as for biodegradation the chemical depletion becomes a major factor in the transport of pollutant. Consequently, the concentration of contaminants reaching the ground water table becomes quite low.

  2. Catalytic reduction of hexavalent chromium by a novel nitrogen-functionalized magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon doped with Pd nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Sisi; Tang, Lin; Zeng, Guangming; Wang, Jiajia; Deng, Yaocheng; Wang, Jingjing; Xie, Zhihong; Zhou, Yaoyu

    2016-11-01

    Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) is a toxic water pollutant which can cause serious influence to the health of the human and animals. Therefore, developing new methods to remove hexavalent chromium in water attracts great attention of scholars. In our research, we successfully synthesized a new type of magnetic mesoporous carbon hybrid nitrogen (Fe-NMC) loaded with catalyst Pd nanoparticles (NPs), which performed excellent catalytic reduction efficiency toward Cr(VI). The characterization of Pd/Fe-NMC composite was investigated in detail using scanning electron microscope (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements. According to the experimental results, we dealt with in-depth discussion and studied on the mechanism of hexavalent chromium removed by Pd/Fe-NMC composite. Furthermore, the batch experiments were conducted to investigate the catalytic reduction ability of composite. It was found that the chromium reduction process conforms to pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics model when the concentrations of chromium and sodium formate were low. It took only 20 min for the Pd/Fe-NMC composite to reach 99.8 % reduction of Cr(VI) (50 mg/L). The results suggested that the Pd/Fe-NMC composite may exhibit significantly improved catalytic activity for the hexavalent chromium reduction at industrial wastewater.

  3. Comparative Genotoxicity and Cytotoxicity of Four Hexavalent Chromium Compounds in Human Bronchial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Sandra S.; Holmes, Amie L.; Qin, Qin; Xie, Hong; Katsifis, Spiros P.; Thompson, W. Douglas; Wise, John Pierce

    2010-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) compounds are well-established human lung carcinogens. Solubility plays an important role in their carcinogenicity with the particulate Cr(VI) compounds being the most carcinogenic. Epidemiology and animal studies suggest that zinc chromate is the most potent particulate Cr(VI) compound, however, there are few comparative data to support these observations. The purpose of this study was to compare the genotoxicity of zinc chromate with two other particulate Cr(VI) compounds, barium chromate and lead chromate, and one soluble Cr(VI) compound, sodium chromate. The clastogenic effects of barium chromate and zinc chromate were similar but lead chromate induced significantly less damage. The levels of DNA damage measured by gamma-H2A.X foci formation were similar for the three particulate chromium compounds. Corrected for chromium uptake differences, we found that zinc chromate and barium chromate were the most cytotoxic and lead chromate and sodium chromate were less cytotoxic. Zinc chromate was more clastogenic than all other chromium compounds and lead chromate was the least clastogenic. There was no significant difference between any of the compounds for the induction of DNA double strand breaks. All together, these data suggest that the difference in the carcinogenic potency of zinc chromate over the other chromium compounds is not due solely to a difference in chromium ion uptake and the zinc cation may in fact have an important role in its carcinogenicity. PMID:20000473

  4. Hexavalent chromium removal by using synthesis of polyaniline and polyvinyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Riahi Samani, Majid; Ebrahimbabaie, Parisa; Vafaei Molamahmood, Hamed

    2016-11-01

    Over the past few years, heavy metals have been proved to be one of the most important contaminants in industrial wastewater. Chromium is one of these heavy metals, which is being utilized in several industries such as textile, finishing and leather industries. Since hexavalent chromium is highly toxic to human health, removal of it from the wastewater is essential for human safety. One of the techniques for removing chromium (VI) is the use of different adsorbents such as polyaniline. In this study, composites of polyaniline (PANi) were synthesized with various amounts of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The results showed that PANi/PVA removed around 76% of chromium at a pH of 6.5; the PVA has altered the morphology of the composites and increased the removal efficiency. Additionally, synthesis of 20 mg/L of PVA by PANi composite showed the best removal efficiency, and the optimal stirring time was calculated as 30 minutes. Moreover, the chromium removal efficiency was increased by decreasing the pH, initial chromium concentration and increasing stirring time.

  5. Vitamin C lowers mutagenic and toxic effect of hexavalent chromium in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Ginter, E; Chorvatovicová, D; Kosinová, A

    1989-01-01

    The mutagenic effect of intraperitoneally injected K2Cr2O7 was significantly higher in vitamin C-deficient guinea pigs than in animals fed diet with high vitamin C content. Mutagenic and toxic effects of hexavalent chromium were more expressed in vitamin C-deficient guinea pigs administered K2Cr2O7 in drinking water: the number of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes of bone marrow was increased, and the activity of O-demethylase and the levels of cytochromes P-450 and b5 in liver microsomes were decreased. In guinea pigs fed high vitamin C diet the same doses of bichromate in drinking water evoked no mutagenic changes in the bone marrow and no changes in microsomal enzymes in the liver. These results indicate that high intake of ascorbic acid in the diet reduces mutagenic effects of K2Cr2O7 and its toxic influence on drug metabolizing enzymes in hepatocytes. The protective effect ascorbic acid consists most probably in the enhanced extracellular and intracellular reduction of hexavalent chromium to the less toxic and less mutagenic trivalent chromium.

  6. Bacterial chromate reductase, a potential enzyme for bioremediation of hexavalent chromium: a review.

    PubMed

    Thatoi, Hrudayanath; Das, Sasmita; Mishra, Jigni; Rath, Bhagwat Prasad; Das, Nigamananda

    2014-12-15

    Hexavalent chromium is mobile, highly toxic and considered as a priority environmental pollutant. Chromate reductases, found in chromium resistant bacteria are known to catalyse the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) and have recently received particular attention for their potential use in bioremediation process. Different chromate reductases such as ChrR, YieF, NemA and LpDH, have been identified from bacterial sources which are located either in soluble fractions (cytoplasm) or bound to the membrane of the bacterial cell. The reducing conditions under which these enzymes are functional can either be aerobic or anaerobic or sometimes both. Enzymatic reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) involves transfer of electrons from electron donors like NAD(P)H to Cr(VI) and simultaneous generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Based on the steps involved in electron transfer to Cr(VI) and the subsequent amount of ROS generated, two reaction mechanisms, namely, Class I "tight" and Class II "semi tight" have been proposed. The present review discusses on the types of chromate reductases found in different bacteria, their mode of action and potential applications in bioremediation of hexavalent chromium both under free and immobilize conditions. Besides, techniques used in characterization of the Cr (VI) reduced products were also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hexavalent chromium affects sperm motility by influencing protein tyrosine phosphorylation in the midpiece of boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Linqing; Wang, Lirui; Fu, Jieli; Li, Yuhua; Zhao, Na; Li, Xinhong

    2016-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium reportedly induces reproductive toxicity and further inhibits male fertility in mammals. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which hexavalent chromium affects motility signaling in boar spermatozoa in vitro. The results indicated that Cr(VI) decreased sperm motility, protein phosphorylation, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and metabolic enzyme activity starting at 4μmol/mL following incubation for 1.5h. Notably, all parameters were potently inhibited by 10μmol/mL Cr, while supplementation with the dibutyryl-cAMP (dbcAMP) and the 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) prevented the inhibition of protein phosphorylation. Interestingly, high concentrations of Cr (>10μmol/mL) increased the tyrosine phosphorylation of some high-molecular-weight proteins in the principle piece but decreased that in the middle piece associated with an extreme reduction of sperm motility. These results suggest that chromium affects boar sperm motility by impairing tyrosine phosphorylation in the midpiece of sperm by blocking the cAMP/PKA pathway in boar sperm in vitro.

  8. Hexavalent chromium removal from aqueous solutions by a novel powder prepared from Colocasia esculenta leaves.

    PubMed

    Nakkeeran, E; Saranya, N; Giri Nandagopal, M S; Santhiagu, A; Selvaraju, N

    2016-08-02

    In this study, batch removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions by powdered Colocasia esculenta leaves was investigated. Batch experiments were conducted to study the effects of adsorption of Cr(VI) at different pH values, initial concentrations, agitation speeds, temperatures, and contact times. The biosorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer analysis. The biosorptive capacity of the adsorbent was dependent on the pH of the chromium solution in which maximum removal was observed at pH 2. The adsorption equilibrium data were evaluated for various adsorption isotherm models, kinetic models, and thermodynamics. The equilibrium data fitted well with Freundlich and Halsey models. The adsorption capacity calculated was 47.62 mg/g at pH 2. The adsorption kinetic data were best described by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Thus, Colocasia esculenta leaves can be considered as one of the efficient and cheap biosorbents for hexavalent chromium removal from aqueous solutions.

  9. Toxic hexavalent chromium reduction by Bacillus pumilis, Cellulosimicrobium cellulans and Exiguobacterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Fatima; Faisal, Muhammad

    2015-05-01

    Three bacterial strains Bacillus pumilis, Cellulosimicrobium cellulans and Exiguobacterium were investigated when grown in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium at 500 μg/mL Cr(VI). The hexavalent chromium reduction was measured by growing the strains in DeLeo and Ehrlich (1994) medium at 200 and 400 μg/mL K2CrO4. The optimal Cr (VI) reduction by strains B. pumilis, Exigubacterium and C. cellulans was 51%, 39%, and 41%, respectively, at an initial K2CrO4 concentration of 200 μg/mL at pH 3 and temperature 37°C. At an initial chromate concentration of 400 μg/mL, the Cr(VI) reduction by strains B. pumilis, Exigubacterium and C. cellulans was 24%, 19%, and 18%, respectively at pH 3 at 37°C after 24 h. These strains have ability to reduce toxic hexavalent chromium to the less mobile trivalent chromium at a wide range of different environmental conditions and can be useful for the treatment of contaminated wastewater and soils.

  10. MODELING THE RATE-CONTROLLED SORPTION OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grove, D.B.; Stollenwerk, K.G.

    1985-01-01

    Sorption of chromium VI on the iron-oxide- and hydroxide-coated surface of alluvial material was numerically simulated with rate-controlled reactions. Reaction kinetics and diffusional processes, in the form of film, pore, and particle diffusion, were simulated and compared with experimental results. The use of empirically calculated rate coefficients for diffusion through the reacting surface was found to simulate experimental data; pore or particle diffusion is believed to be a possible rate-controlling mechanism. The use of rate equations to predict conservative transport and rate- and local-equilibrium-controlled reactions was shown to be feasible.

  11. Cycling and retention of hexavalent chromium in a plant-soil system

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, F.G.

    1983-01-01

    The environs of an industrial plant in east Tennessee (USA) have been exposed to hexavalent chromium (Cr/sup +6/) deposition for over three decades. The behavior of this metal was investigated in a series of studies designed to determine its bioavailability through interception, retention, and incorporation in plants by foliar and root uptake. In this contribution, condensed summaries of research from field and controlled environment studies are reviewed to determine how they pertain to transfers between ecosystem compartments and to ascertain the storage of the contaminant in a grassland ecosystem following years of continuous deposition.

  12. Dispersion modeling of particulate matter containing hexavalent chromium during high winds in southern Iraq.

    PubMed

    Zannetti, Paolo; Daly, Aaron D; Freedman, Frank R

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a scientific methodology (i.e., the combination of different well-established modeling techniques) and its application to a real case scenario of contaminated dust emissions in high winds. This scenario addresses potential air pollution problems at the water treatment plant (WTP) at Qarmat-Ali, Basra, Iraq, during 2003. Workplace practices at the WTP before 2003 resulted in sodium dichromate contamination in the area. Looting at the site in early 2003 also contributed to this contamination. Individuals who were assigned to provide security at the site in 2003 have claimed adverse health effects caused by exposure to dust containing hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)]. This report presents our modeling study with respect to these claims in relation to (1) amount of Cr(VI) present in the soil, (2) wind erosion episodes, and (3) possible long-term (e.g., annual average) Cr(VI) concentrations inhaled by different people while at the site. Our modeling approach included (1) the analysis of Cr(VI) soil measurements to assess the degree of contamination in different areas of the plant at different times; (2) the use of DUSTRAN model equations to calculate the emission rate of particulate matter (PM) less than 10 µm in diameter (PM10) during high-wind episodes; (3) the use of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) AERMOD modeling system to estimate Cr(VI) concentrations at the site; and (4) the calculation of modeling results in the form of both contour lines of average Cr(VI) concentrations at the site, and specific concentration values for selected individuals, based upon their recollection of their visits to the site.

  13. Hexavalent Chromium-Induced Alteration of Proteomic Landscape in Human Skin Fibroblast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lei; Xiao, Yongsheng; Wang, Yinsheng

    2013-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] generated during industrial processes is carcinogenic. Although much is known about the deleterious effects caused by reactive oxygen species generated during the reduction of Cr(VI) after its absorption by biological systems, the precise mechanisms underlying Cr(VI) cytotoxicity remain poorly defined. Here, we analyzed, at the global proteome scale, the perturbation of protein expression in GM00637 human skin fibroblast cells upon exposure to potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7). We were able to quantify ~ 4600 unique proteins, among which ~ 400 exhibited significant alterations in expression levels upon a 24-hr treatment with 0.5 μM K2Cr2O7. Pathway analysis revealed the Cr(VI)-induced perturbation of cholesterol biosynthesis, G-protein signaling, inflammatory response, and selenoprotein pathways. In particular, we discovered that the K2Cr2O7 treatment led to pronouncedly elevated expression of a large number of enzymes involved in de novo cholesterol biosynthesis. Real-time PCR analysis revealed the increased mRNA expression of selected genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. Consistently, K2Cr2O7 treatment resulted in marked increases in cellular cholesterol level in multiple cell lines. Moreover, the Cr(VI)-induced growth inhibition of cultured human cells could be rescued by a cholesterol-lowering drug, lovastatin. Together, we demonstrated, for the first time, that Cr(VI) may exert its cytotoxic effect, at least partly, through the up-regulation of enzymes involved in de novo cholesterol biosynthesis and the resultant increase of cholesterol level in cells. PMID:23718831

  14. Elevated Frequencies of Micronuclei and other Nuclear Abnormalities of Chrome Plating Workers Occupationally Exposed to Hexavalent Chromium

    PubMed Central

    Sudha, S; Kripa, SK; Shibily, P; Shyn, J

    2011-01-01

    Background Biomonitoring provides a useful tool to estimate the genetic risk from exposure to genotoxic agents. The aim of this study was to assess the potential cytogenetic damage associated with occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium by using micronuclei (MN) as a biomarker. Methods This was a cross-sectional study and all participants were males. Both the exposed and control individuals were selected from Coimbatore, Southern India. Exfoliated buccal cells from 44 chrome plating workers and 40 age and sex matched control subjects were examined for MN frequency and nuclear abnormalities (NA) other than micronuclei, such as binucleates, broken eggs, karyorrhexis, karyolysis and pyknosis. Results Results showed statistically significant difference between chrome plating workers and control groups. MN and NA frequencies in chrome plating workers were significantly higher than those in control groups (p < 0.05) and also significantly related to smoking habit (P < 0.05). A significant difference in NA was observed in workers exposed to chromium for longer duration. In addition to this, a higher degree of NA was observed among smokers. Conclusion MN and other NA reflect genetic changes, events associated with carcinogenesis. Therefore the results of this study indicate that chrome plating workers are under risk of significant cytogenetic damage. Therefore, there is a need to educate those who work with heavy metals about the potential hazard of occupational exposure and the importance of using protective measures. PMID:26328050

  15. Comparison of Hexavalent Chromium Leaching Levels of Zeoliteand Slag-based Concretes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oravec, Jozef; Eštoková, Adriana

    2017-06-01

    In this experiment, the reference concrete samples containing Portland cement as binder and the concrete samples with the addition of ground granulated blast furnace slag (85% and 95%, respectively as replacement of Portland cement) and other samples containing ground zeolite (8% and 13%, respectively as replacement of Portland cement) were analyzed regarding the leachability of chromium. The prepared concrete samples were subjected to long-term leaching test for 300 days in three different leaching agents (distilled water, rainwater and Britton-Robinson buffer). Subsequently, the concentration of hexavalent chromium in the various leachates spectrophotometrically was measured. The leaching parameters as values of the pH and the conductivity were also studied. This experiment clearly shows the need for the regulation and control of the waste addition to the construction materials and the need for long-term study in relation to the leaching of heavy metals into the environment.

  16. Two fold modified chitosan for enhanced adsorption of hexavalent chromium from simulated wastewater and industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    Kahu, S S; Shekhawat, A; Saravanan, D; Jugade, R M

    2016-08-01

    Ionic solid (Ethylhexadecyldimethylammoniumbromide) impregnated phosphated chitosan (ISPC) was synthesized and applied for enhanced adsorption of hexavalent chromium from industrial effluent. The compound obtained was extensively characterized using instrumental techniques like FT-IR, TGA-DTA, XRD, SEM, BET and EDX. ISPC showed high adsorption capacity of 266.67mg/g in accordance with Langmuir isotherm model at pH 3.0 due to the presence of multiple sites which contribute for ion pair and electrostatic interactions with Cr(VI) species. The sorption kinetics and thermodynamic studies revealed that adsorption of Cr(VI) followed pseudo-second-order kinetics with exothermic and spontaneous behaviour. Applicability of ISPC for higher sample volumes was discerned through column studies. The real chrome plating industry effluent was effectively treated with total chromium recovery of 94%. The used ISPC was regenerated simply by dilute ammonium hydroxide treatment and tested for ten adsorption-desorption cycles with marginal decrease in adsorption efficiency.

  17. DNA-protein cross-links in erythrocytes of freshwater fish exposed to hexavalent chromium or divalent nickel.

    PubMed

    Kuykendall, Jim R; Miller, Kyle L; Mellinger, Kristen M; Cain, Andrew J; Perry, Michael W; Bradley, Michael; Jarvi, Eric J; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2009-02-01

    DNA-protein cross-links (DPXs) in fish erythrocytes represent a potential biomarker for exposure to metal cations, such as hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI]) and divalent nickel (Ni[II]). Species-specific sensitivities to DPX formation were studied by coexposure of juvenile specimens of rainbow trout, hybrid bluegill, and channel catfish to waterborne metals, such as Cr(VI) and Ni(II). In a species comparison, 4 days of exposure to 2 ppm Cr(VI) induced highest DPXs in bluegill erythrocytes, followed by trout and catfish, at 186%, 97%, and 48% above controls, respectively. A similar pattern of species sensitivity was observed following co-exposure of the fish to 15 ppm Ni(II) for 4 days, with 237%, 124%, and 82% increased DPXs above control bluegill, trout, and catfish, respectively. Biological stability of Cr(VI)-induced DPXs was demonstrated in Cr(VI)-exposed bluegill, as DPX levels remained elevated for up to 20 days after discontinuation of exposure. Similar results were found following exposure of catfish to Ni(II), with detectable DPXs found 10 days after acute exposure. In both bluegill and catfish, a continued increase in DPX formation in erythrocytes was seen for 5-10 days after Cr(VI) was removed from tank water, suggesting that residual Cr(VI) may be involved in DPX formation following acute exposure of fish.

  18. Hexavalent Chromium Free Coatings Projects for Aerospace Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    Fog per ASTM G85 Annex 4  Beach and Desert ExposureExposure at Redstone Arsenal, Static Test Stand to rocket motor exhaust  Hydrogen ... Embrittlement  Fastener Hardware Assembly UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 31 Yourfilename.ppt Wet Tape Test Adhesion  Performed and evaluated per

  19. The Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Hexavalent Chromium in Steller Sea Lion Lung Fibroblasts Compared to Human Lung Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Wise, John Pierce; Wise, Sandra S.; Holmes, Amie L.; LaCerte, Carolyne; Shaffiey, Fariba; Aboueissa, AbouEl-Makarim

    2010-01-01

    In this study we directly compared soluble and particulate chromate cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human (Homo sapiens) and sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) lung fibroblasts. Our results show that hexavalent chromium induces increased cell death and chromosome damage in both human and sea lion cells with increasing intracellular chromium ion levels. The data further indicate that both sodium chromate and lead chromate are less cytotoxic and genotoxic to sea lion cells than human cells, based on administered dose. Differences in chromium ion uptake explained some but not all of the reduced amounts of sodium chromate-induced cell death. By contrast, uptake differences could explain the differences in sodium chromate-induced chromosome damage and particulate chromate-induced toxicity. Altogether they indicate that while hexavalent chromium induces similar toxic effects in sea lion and human cells, there are different mechanisms underlying the toxic outcomes. PMID:20211760

  20. Isotope evidence of hexavalent chromium stability in ground water samples.

    PubMed

    Čadková, Eva; Chrastný, Vladislav

    2015-11-01

    Chromium stable isotopes are of interest in many geochemical studies as a tool to identify Cr(VI) reduction and/or dilution in groundwater aquifers. For such studies the short term stability of Cr(VI) in water samples is required before the laboratory analyses can be carried out. Here the short term stability of Cr(VI) in groundwater samples was studied using an isotope approach. Based on commonly available methods for Cr(VI) stabilization, water samples were filtered and the pH value was adjusted to be equal to or greater than 8 before Cr isotope analysis. Based on our Cr isotope data (expressed as δ(53)CrNIST979), Cr(VI) was found to be unstable over short time periods in anthropogenically contaminated groundwater samples regardless of water treatment (e.g., pH adjustment, different storage temperatures). Based on our laboratory experiments, δ(53)CrNIST979 of the Cr(VI) pool was found to be unstable in the presence of dissolved Fe(II), Mn(IV) and/or SO2. Threshold concentrations of Fe(II) causing Cr(VI) reduction range between 10 mg L(-1) and 100 mg L(-1)and less than 1 mg L(-1) for Mn. Hence our isotope data show that water samples containing Cr(VI) should be processed on-site through anion column chemistry to avoid any isotope shifts.

  1. Assessment of the mutagenic potential of hexavalent chromium in the duodenum of big blue® rats.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Chad M; Young, Robert R; Dinesdurage, Harshini; Suh, Mina; Harris, Mark A; Rohr, Annette C; Proctor, Deborah M

    2017-09-01

    A cancer bioassay on hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) in drinking water reported increased incidences of duodenal tumors in B6C3F1 mice at exposures of 30-180ppm, and oral cavity tumors in F344 rats at 180ppm. A subsequent transgenic rodent (TGR) in vivo mutation assay in Big Blue® TgF344 rats found that exposure to 180ppm Cr(VI) in drinking water for 28days did not increase cII transgene mutant frequency (MF) in the oral cavity (Thompson et al., 2015). Herein, we extend our analysis to the duodenum of these same TgF344 rats. At study termination, duodenum chromium levels were below either the limit of detection or quantification in control rats, but were 24.6±3.8μg/g in Cr(VI)-treated rats. The MF in control (23.2×10(-6)) and Cr(VI)-treated rats (22.7×10(-6)) were nearly identical. In contrast, the MF in the duodenum of rats exposed to 1-ethyl-1-nitrosourea for six days (study days 1, 2, 3, 12, 19, 26) increased 24-fold to 557×10(-6). These findings indicate that mutagenicity is unlikely an early initiating event in Cr(VI)-induced intestinal carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Remediation of hexavalent chromium through adsorption by bentonite based Arquad® 2HT-75 organoclays.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Binoy; Xi, Yunfei; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Krishnamurti, Gummuluru S R; Rajarathnam, Dharmarajan; Naidu, Ravi

    2010-11-15

    Unlike hydrophobic organic pollutants, the potential of organoclays to adsorb inorganic ionic contaminants is relatively underexplored. The present study attempts to characterise bentonite (QB) based organoclays synthesised from a commercially available, low-cost alkyl ammonium surfactant Arquad® 2HT-75 (Aq) and test their ability to adsorb hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) in aqueous solution. XRD, FTIR and TGA characterisation techniques prove successful modification of the bentonite structure and reveal that higher surfactant loadings gives rise to more ordered surfactant conformation in the organoclays. The zeta potential values indicate that higher surfactant loadings also create positive charges on the organoclay surfaces. Detailed isothermal and kinetic studies show that the organoclays effectively remove hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) from aqueous solution by both physical and chemical adsorption processes. Higher surfactant loadings provide better adsorption efficiency. The adsorption performance is reasonably efficient under the levels of pH, temperature, electrolyte concentration and natural organic matter concentration that generally prevail in contaminated soil and water. This study shows that organoclay sorbents offer good potential for remediating Cr (VI) under real environmental conditions.

  3. Transcriptomic analysis of cultured whale skin cells exposed to hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)].

    PubMed

    Pabuwal, Vagmita; Boswell, Mikki; Pasquali, Amanda; Wise, Sandra S; Kumar, Suresh; Shen, Yingjia; Garcia, Tzintzuni; Lacerte, Carolyne; Wise, John Pierce; Wise, John Pierce; Warren, Wesley; Walter, Ronald B

    2013-06-15

    Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) is known to produce cytotoxic effects in humans and is a highly toxic environmental contaminant. Interestingly, it has been shown that free ranging sperm whales (Phyester macrocephalus) may have exceedingly high levels of Cr in their skin. Also, it has been demonstrated that skin cells from whales appear more resistant to both cytotoxicity and clastogenicity upon Cr exposure compared to human cells. However, the molecular genetic mechanisms employed in whale skin cells that might lead to Cr tolerance are unknown. In an effort to understand the underlying mechanisms of Cr(VI) tolerance and to illuminate global gene expression patterns modulated by Cr, we exposed whale skin cells in culture to varying levels of Cr(VI) (i.e., 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 μg/cm²) followed by short read (100 bp) next generation RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). RNA-seq reads from all exposures (≈280 million reads) were pooled to generate a de novo reference transcriptome assembly. The resulting whale reference assembly had 11K contigs and an N50 of 2954 bp. Using the reads from each dose (0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 μg/cm²) we performed RNA-seq based gene expression analysis that identified 35 up-regulated genes and 19 down-regulated genes. The experimental results suggest that low dose exposure to Cr (1.0 μg/cm²) serves to induce up-regulation of oxidative stress response genes, DNA repair genes and cell cycle regulator genes. However, at higher doses (5.0 μg/cm²) the DNA repair genes appeared down-regulated while other genes that were induced suggest the initiation of cytotoxicity. The set of genes identified that show regulatory modulation at different Cr doses provide specific candidates for further studies aimed at determination of how whales exhibit resistance to Cr toxicity and what role(s) reactive oxygen species (ROS) may play in this process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Behavior of hexavalent chromium in a polluted groundwater: redox processes and immobilization in soils.

    PubMed

    Loyaux-Lawniczak, S; Lecomte, P; Ehrhardt, J J

    2001-04-01

    This work describes the chemical mechanisms governing transport and reduction of hexavalent chromium in soils of a contaminated industrial waste landfill. Groundwater and soil analyses indicate that the main source of chromium is a slag heap essentially consisting of mill tailings. In the groundwater, downstream migration of Cr(IV) is limited thanks to a redox mechanism involving chromate ions and ferrous ions or Fe(II)-bearing minerals. High Fe2+ concentrations in the groundwater are a result of pyrite residues from old activities at the site. Analyses of soil samples reveal that chromium is preferentially located in the soil profile at the fluctuation of the groundwater level. Grain size fractionation of four soil samples was performed, and fraction analyses show that chromium is preferentially accumulated in the clay fraction (<2 microm) and more specifically associated with montmorillonite particles. This work is a demonstration of the reduction of Cr(VI) by Fe(II) studied previously in the laboratory (Buerge, I. J.; Hug, S. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 1997, 31, 1426-1432; Fendorf, S. E.; Li, G. Environ. Sci. Technol. 1996, 30, 1614-1617; Sedlak, D. L.; Chan, P. G. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 1997, 11, 2185-2192) in a field setting. Cr(VI) migration into the groundwater is stopped vertically by the very thick green clay unit and horizontally by the presence of Fe(II) acting as a chemical barrier. The specific site conditions safely prevent any extension of the Cr pollution.

  5. Synergy between hexavalent chromium ions and TiO2 nanoparticles inside TUD-1 in the photocatalytic oxidation of propane, a spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdy, Mohamed S.

    2016-02-01

    Siliceous TUD-1 mesoporous material was bi-functionalized by titanium dioxide nanoparticles and hexavalent chromium ions. The synthesis was carried out by one-pot procedure based on sol-gel technique. The photocatalytic performance of the prepared material was evaluated in the oxidation of propane under the illumination of ultraviolet light (wavelength = 360 nm) and monitored by in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared material exhibited an extra-ordinary activity than the reference samples that contain either hexavalent chromium ions or titanium dioxide nanoparticles only, confirming the true synergy between hexavalent chromium and tetravalent titanium ions of titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

  6. An evaluation of in vivo models for toxicokinetics of hexavalent chromium in the stomach

    SciTech Connect

    Sasso, A.F. Schlosser, P.M.

    2015-09-15

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr6) is a drinking water contaminant that has been detected in most of the water systems throughout the United States. In 2-year drinking water bioassays, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) found clear evidence of carcinogenic activity in male and female rats and mice. Because reduction of Cr6 to trivalent chromium (Cr3) is an important detoxifying step in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract prior to systemic absorption, models have been developed to estimate the extent of reduction in humans and animals. The objective of this work was to use a revised model of ex vivo Cr6 reduction kinetics in gastric juice to analyze the potential reduction kinetics under in vivo conditions for mice, rats and humans. A published physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was adapted to incorporate the new reduction model. This paper focuses on the toxicokinetics of Cr6 in the stomach compartment, where most of the extracellular Cr6 reduction is believed to occur in humans. Within the range of doses administered by the NTP bioassays, neither the original nor revised models predict saturation of stomach reducing capacity to occur in vivo if applying default parameters. However, both models still indicate that mice exhibit the lowest extent of reduction in the stomach, meaning that a higher percentage of the Cr6 dose may escape stomach reduction in that species. Similarly, both models predict that humans exhibit the highest extent of reduction at low doses. - Highlights: • We outline a new in vivo model for hexavalent chromium reduction in the stomach. • We examine in vivo reduction for mice, rats, and humans under varying conditions. • Species differences in toxicokinetics may explain susceptibility. • We show that a simplified stomach reduction model is adequate for extrapolation. • Internal dose uncertainties still exist.

  7. Bioremediation of hexavalent chromium (VI) by a soil-borne bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae B2-DHA.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Aminur; Nahar, Noor; Nawani, Neelu N; Jass, Jana; Hossain, Khaled; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Saha, Ananda K; Ghosh, Sibdas; Olsson, Björn; Mandal, Abul

    2015-01-01

    Chromium and chromium containing compounds are discharged into the nature as waste from anthropogenic activities, such as industries, agriculture, forest farming, mining and metallurgy. Continued disposal of these compounds to the environment leads to development of various lethal diseases in both humans and animals. In this paper, we report a soil borne bacterium, B2-DHA that can be used as a vehicle to effectively remove chromium from the contaminated sources. B2-DHA is resistant to chromium with a MIC value of 1000 µg mL(-1) potassium chromate. The bacterium has been identified as a Gram negative, Enterobacter cloacae based on biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene analysis. TOF-SIMS and ICP-MS analyses confirmed intracellular accumulation of chromium and thus its removal from the contaminated liquid medium. Chromium accumulation in cells was 320 µg/g of cells dry biomass after 120-h exposure, and thus it reduced the chromium concentration in the liquid medium by as much as 81%. Environmental scanning electron micrograph revealed the effect of metals on cellular morphology of the isolates. Altogether, our results indicate that B2-DHA has the potential to reduce chromium significantly to safe levels from the contaminated environments and suggest the potential use of this bacterium in reducing human exposure to chromium, hence avoiding poisoning.

  8. A revised model of ex-vivo reduction of hexavalent chromium in human and rodent gastric juices.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Paul M; Sasso, Alan F

    2014-10-15

    Chronic oral exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr-VI) in drinking water has been shown to induce tumors in the mouse gastrointestinal (GI) tract and rat oral cavity. The same is not true for trivalent chromium (Cr-III). Thus reduction of Cr-VI to Cr-III in gastric juices is considered a protective mechanism, and it has been suggested that the difference between the rate of reduction among mice, rats, and humans could explain or predict differences in sensitivity to Cr-VI. We evaluated previously published models of gastric reduction and believe that they do not fully describe the data on reduction as a function of Cr-VI concentration, time, and (in humans) pH. The previous models are parsimonious in assuming only a single reducing agent in rodents and describing pH-dependence using a simple function. We present a revised model that assumes three pools of reducing agents in rats and mice with pH-dependence based on known speciation chemistry. While the revised model uses more fitted parameters than the original model, they are adequately identifiable given the available data, and the fit of the revised model to the full range of data is shown to be significantly improved. Hence the revised model should provide better predictions of Cr-VI reduction when integrated into a corresponding PBPK model.

  9. Automated Ground-Water Sampling and Analysis of Hexavalent Chromium using a “Universal” Sampling/Analytical System

    PubMed Central

    Burge, Scott R.; Hoffman, Dave A.; Hartman, Mary J.; Venedam, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    The capabilities of a “universal platform” for the deployment of analytical sensors in the field for long-term monitoring of environmental contaminants were expanded in this investigation. The platform was previously used to monitor trichloroethene in monitoring wells and at groundwater treatment systems (1,2). The platform was interfaced with chromium (VI) and conductivity analytical systems to monitor shallow wells installed adjacent to the Columbia River at the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site, Washington. A groundwater plume of hexavalent chromium is discharging into the Columbia River through the gravels beds used by spawning salmon. The sampling/analytical platform was deployed for the purpose of collecting data on subsurface hexavalent chromium concentrations at more frequent intervals than was possible with the previous sampling and analysis methods employed a the Site.

  10. Genotoxicity of Tri- and Hexavalent Chromium Compounds In Vivo and Their Modes of Action on DNA Damage In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Zhijia; Zhao, Min; Zhen, Hong; Chen, Lifeng; Shi, Ping; Huang, Zhiwei

    2014-01-01

    Chromium occurs mostly in tri- and hexavalent states in the environment. Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] compounds are extensively used in diverse industries, and trivalent chromium [Cr(III)] salts are used as micronutrients and dietary supplements. In the present work, we report that they both induce genetic mutations in yeast cells. They both also cause DNA damage in both yeast and Jurkat cells and the effect of Cr(III) is greater than that of Cr(VI). We further show that Cr(III) and Cr(VI) cause DNA damage through different mechanisms. Cr(VI) intercalates DNA and Cr(III) interferes base pair stacking. Based on our results, we conclude that Cr(III) can directly cause genotoxicity in vivo. PMID:25111056

  11. Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Trivalent and Hexavalent Chromium Based on Ingestion and Inhalation of Soluble Chromium Compounds.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    Toxic Hazards Research Unit (THRU), and was coordinated by Allen Vinegar , Ph.D., Manager of the Biological Simulation Program at the THRU. This...chromates and dichromates, chromium trioxide (Cr0 3), and the hydrated Cr(III) nitrate, chloride, acetate , and sulfate salts, are soluble or highly...associated principally with the manufacture of chromates, including chromate pigments; chromium electroplating, which generates aerosols of chromic acid

  12. The Effects of Hexavalent Chromium on Thioredoxin Reductase and Peroxiredoxins in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Judith M.; Myers, Charles R.

    2009-01-01

    Inhalational exposure to hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] compounds (e.g. chromates) is of concern in many Cr-related industries and their surrounding environments. The bronchial epithelium is directly exposed to inhaled Cr(VI). Cr(VI) species gain easy access inside cells where they are reduced to reactive Cr species which may also contribute to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The thioredoxin (Trx) system promotes cell survival and has a major role in maintaining intracellular thiol redox balance. Previous studies with normal human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) demonstrated that chromates cause dose- and time-dependent oxidation of Trx1 and Trx2. The Trxs keep many intracellular proteins reduced including the peroxiredoxins (Prx). Prx1 (cytosolic) and Prx3 (mitochondrial) were oxidized by Cr(VI) treatments that oxidized all, or nearly all, of the respective Trxs. Prx oxidation is therefore likely the result of a lack of reducing equivalents from Trx. Trx reductases (TrxR) maintain the Trxs largely in the reduced state. Cr(VI) caused pronounced inhibition of TrxR, but the levels of TrxR protein remained unchanged. The inhibition of TrxR was not reversed by removal of residual Cr(VI) or by NADPH, the endogenous electron donor for TrxR. In contrast, the oxidation of Trx1, Trx2, and Prx3 were reversible by disulfide reductants. Prolonged inhibition of TrxR in Cr(VI)-treated cells might contribute to the sustained oxidation of Trxs and Prxs. Reduced Trx binds to an N-terminal domain of apoptosis signaling kinase (ASK1), keeping ASK1 inactive. Cr(VI) treatments that significantly oxidized Trx1 resulted in pronounced dissociation of Trx1 from ASK1. Overall, the effects of Cr(VI) on the redox state and function of the Trxs, Prxs, and TrxR in the bronchial epithelium could have important implications for redox-sensitive cell signaling and tolerance to oxidant insults. PMID:19703554

  13. Evaluation of sequential extraction procedures for soluble and insoluble hexavalent chromium compounds in workplace air samples.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Kevin; Applegate, Gregory T; Marcy, A Dale; Drake, Pamela L; Pierce, Paul A; Carabin, Nathalie; Demange, Martine

    2009-02-01

    Because toxicities may differ for Cr(VI) compounds of varying solubility, some countries and organizations have promulgated different occupational exposure limits (OELs) for soluble and insoluble hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) compounds, and analytical methods are needed to determine these species in workplace air samples. To address this need, international standard methods ASTM D6832 and ISO 16740 have been published that describe sequential extraction techniques for soluble and insoluble Cr(VI) in samples collected from occupational settings. However, no published performance data were previously available for these Cr(VI) sequential extraction procedures. In this work, the sequential extraction methods outlined in the relevant international standards were investigated. The procedures tested involved the use of either deionized water or an ammonium sulfate/ammonium hydroxide buffer solution to target soluble Cr(VI) species. This was followed by extraction in a sodium carbonate/sodium hydroxide buffer solution to dissolve insoluble Cr(VI) compounds. Three-step sequential extraction with (1) water, (2) sulfate buffer and (3) carbonate buffer was also investigated. Sequential extractions were carried out on spiked samples of soluble, sparingly soluble and insoluble Cr(VI) compounds, and analyses were then generally carried out by using the diphenylcarbazide method. Similar experiments were performed on paint pigment samples and on airborne particulate filter samples collected from stainless steel welding. Potential interferences from soluble and insoluble Cr(III) compounds, as well as from Fe(II), were investigated. Interferences from Cr(III) species were generally absent, while the presence of Fe(II) resulted in low Cr(VI) recoveries. Two-step sequential extraction of spiked samples with (first) either water or sulfate buffer, and then carbonate buffer, yielded quantitative recoveries of soluble Cr(VI) and insoluble Cr(VI), respectively. Three-step sequential

  14. Pleiotropic effects of hexavalent chromium (CrVI) in Mytilus galloprovincialis digestive gland.

    PubMed

    Barmo, Cristina; Ciacci, Caterina; Fabbri, Rita; Olivieri, Silvia; Bianchi, Nicola; Gallo, Gabriella; Canesi, Laura

    2011-05-01

    Hexavalent Chromium Cr(VI) is an important contaminant considered as a model oxidative toxicant released from both domestic and industrial effluents, and represents the predominant chemical form of the metal in aquatic ecosystems. On the other hand, in mammals the reduced form Cr(III) is considered an essential microelement, involved in regulation of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism; moreover, recent evidence suggests that Cr may have endocrine effects. In this work, the effects of Cr(VI) were investigated in the digestive gland of the marine bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis. Mussels were exposed to 0.1-1-10-100 μg Cr(VI) L(-1) animal(-1) for 96 h. At 100 μg L(-1), a large increase in total Cr tissue content was observed; in these conditions, the lysosomal membranes were completely destabilized, whereas other lysosomal biomarkers (neutral lipids-NL and lipofuscin-LF), as well as different enzyme activities and gene expression were unaffected, this indicating severe stress conditions in the tissue. On the other hand, at lower concentrations, changes in other histochemical, biochemical and molecular endpoints were observed. In particular, at both 1 and 10 μg L(-1), lysosomal destabilization was associated with significant NL and LF accumulation; however, no changes in catalase and GSH transferase (GST) activities were observed. At the same concentrations, GSSG reductase (GSR) activity was significantly increased, this probably reflecting the recycling of GSSG produced in the GSH-mediated intracellular reduction of Cr(VI). Increased activities of the key glycolytic enzymes PFK (phosphofructokinase) and PK (pyruvate kinase) were also observed, indicating that Cr(VI) could affect carbohydrate metabolism. Cr(VI) induced downregulation or no effects on the expression of metallothioneins MT10 and MT20, except for an increase in MT20 transcription in males. Moreover, significant up-regulation of the Mytilus estrogen receptor MeER2 and serotonin receptor (5-HTR) were

  15. AN IN-SITU PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER FOR THE TREATMENT OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM AND TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN GROUNDWATER: VOLUME 3 MULTICOMPONENT REACTIVE TRANSPORT MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reactive transport modeling has been conducted to describe the performance of the permeable reactive barrier at the Coast Guard Support Center near Elizabeth City, NC. The reactive barrier was installed to treat groundwater contaminated by hexavalent chromium and chlorinated org...

  16. AN IN-SITU PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER FOR THE TREATMENT OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM AND TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN GROUNDWATER: VOLUME 3 MULTICOMPONENT REACTIVE TRANSPORT MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reactive transport modeling has been conducted to describe the performance of the permeable reactive barrier at the Coast Guard Support Center near Elizabeth City, NC. The reactive barrier was installed to treat groundwater contaminated by hexavalent chromium and chlorinated org...

  17. [Simultaneous determination of trivalent chromium and hexavalent chromium in plastics by accelerated solvent extraction-ion chromatography].

    PubMed

    Yu, Ruipeng; Hu, Zhongyang; Ye, Mingli; Che, Jinshui

    2012-04-01

    A method based on accelerated solvent extraction-ion chromatography (ASE-IC) was developed for the simultaneous determination of trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in plastic samples. The accelerated solvent extraction was employed as the pretreatment method for the simultaneous extraction of the Cr(III) and Cr(VI) from the samples. Cr(III) and Cr(VI) were derivatized with 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (PDCA) and 1,5-diphenyl-carbazide (DPC), and detected by an ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) detector at UV and visible wavelengths, respectively. The results showed that the limits of detection for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) were 5.0 microg/L and 0.5 microg/L and the good linearities of the calibration curves for them were in the ranges of 50 - 1 000 microg/L (r2 = 0.9994) and 5.0 - 100 microg/L (r2 = 0.9998), respectively. The recoveries were between 90.7% and 101.1% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.7% -4.4% for Cr(III) and Cr(VI). The method is sensitive, reproducible and adaptable to the simultaneous determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in the plastic samples.

  18. Studies on the biosorption of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions by using boiled mucilaginous seeds of Ocimum americanum.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanraj, Levankumar; Gurusamy, Ayyanar; Gobinath, M B; Chandramohan, R

    2009-09-30

    Investigations were carried out to study the chromium removal efficiency of boiled mucilaginous seeds of Ocimum americanum. Batch experiments were conducted to study the biosorption kinetics of chromium removal for the concentrations 10mg/L, 20mg/L and 40 mg/L of chromium(VI) solutions. The biosorbent dosage was 8 g dry seeds/L. The toxic hexavalent chromium was reduced to less toxic chromium(III) in the presence of seeds and the reduced chromium was adsorbed on the mucilage of seeds. Both the chromium(VI) and chromium(III) were present in the aqueous phase. The optimum chromium reduction and adsorption was observed at the pH value 1.5. The biosorption data fitted well with Langmuir isotherm. The biosorption capacity calculated from the Langmuir isotherm was q=32 mg chromium(III)/g of dry seeds. The continuous column study was also carried out at the flow rate of 27 mL/h for the initial concentration 25mg/L of chromium(VI) feed solution using a packed bed column filled with boiled mucilaginous seeds. The maximum reduction of chromium(VI) to chromium(III) in the packed bed was 80%. The percentage removal of reduced chromium from the aqueous solution was 56.25%. This value was maintained constant until 0.52 L of chromium(VI) solution was pumped through the packed bed column. Thus the naturally immobilized polysaccharides on the seeds mimic the microbial polysaccharides in terms of their ability to adsorb heavy metals with an added advantage of making the immobilization step unnecessary which is a major cost factor of the metal removal process when microbial exopolysaccharides used. The uniform size and spherical shape of swollen seeds give an additional advantage to use them in a packed bed column for continuous removal of chromium(VI) from aqueous solutions.

  19. Adsorption of hexavalent chromium onto organic bentonite modified by the use of iron(III) chloride.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jianchao; Xiao, Leilei; Liu, Huifen; Shi, Lijun; Xu, Xiaoyan; Lian, Bin; Liu, Congqiang

    2014-01-01

    The adsorption of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) was improved by using organic bentonite (OB) modified with iron(III) chloride. The adsorption mechanisms and characteristics of OB and organic bentonite modified by FeCl3 (FMOB) were studied by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). It was found that hydroxyl-iron replaced some of the calcium and magnesium contained in the FMOB, but no significant change in its structure was shown even though the adsorption experiments proved that FMOB had a better Cr(VI) adsorption ability compared to OB. The coated material was prepared by mixing FMOB and 4A molecular sieves in a coated pot for the adsorption experiments in the test column. The relevant results showed that the adsorption of the coated material retained its high adsorption ability and maintained that ability after desorption and regeneration, which implied a potential for further application.

  20. Evaluation of hexavalent chromium in sediment pore water of the Hackensack River, New Jersey, USA.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Susan Kane; McArdle, Margaret E; Plumlee, Megan H; Proctor, Deborah

    2010-03-01

    Pore water was collected from in situ passive samplers in Hackensack River sediments adjacent to a chromite ore processing residue site in Kearny, New Jersey. Although the sediments at this site contained more than 3,000 mg/kg of total chromium (Cr) and shallow groundwater adjacent to the shore contained more than 1,000 microg/L of hexavalent Cr [Cr(VI)], concentrations of dissolved total Cr and Cr(VI) in pore water (PW) samples were less than ambient water quality criteria for Cr(VI) (50 microg/L). Concentrations of dissolved total Cr in pore water ranged from <2.0 to 5.3 microg/L, while Cr(VI) was not detected (<10 microg/L). These findings are consistent with previous studies, which demonstrated limited bioavailability and toxicity of Cr in sediment at this site and others with similar conditions.

  1. Removal of hexavalent chromium by biosorption process in rotating packed bed.

    PubMed

    Panda, M; Bhowal, A; Datta, S

    2011-10-01

    Removal of hexavalent chromium ions from an aqueous solution by crude tamarind (Tamarindus indica) fruit shell was examined in a rotating packed bed contactor by continuously recirculating a given volume of solution through the bed. Reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) within the biosorbent appeared to be the removal mechanism. Depletion rate of Cr(VI) from, and release of reduced Cr(III) ions into the aqueous phase, was influenced by mass transfer resistance besides pH and packing depth. A mathematical model considering the reduction reaction to be irreversible and incorporating intraparticle and external phase mass transfer resistances represented the experimental data adequately. The study indicated that the limitations of fixed bed contactor operating under terrestrial gravity in intensifying mass transfer rates for this system can be overcome with rotating packed bed due to liquid flow under centrifugal acceleration.

  2. Sequestration of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions by activated carbon derived from Macadamia nutshells.

    PubMed

    Pakade, V E; Nchoe, O B; Hlungwane, L; Tavengwa, N T

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of activated carbons prepared from Macadamia nutshells as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) from aqueous solutions. The activated carbon was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), CHNS analyzer and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). For effective removal of Cr(VI), the optimum parameters found were pH 2, 120 min of contact time and 0.2 g of sorbent. The adsorption data fitted well into the Freundlich model, suggesting a multilayer sorption process. The results demonstrated that Macadamia activated carbon could be used as cost-effective biosorbent for the treatment of aqueous solutions contaminated by Cr(VI) with an adsorption capacity of 22.3 mg g(-1). The mode of removal involved adsorption and reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III).

  3. Assessment of Hexavalent Chromium Natural Attenuation for the Hanford Site 100 Area

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Szecsody, James E.; Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Sahajpal, Rahul; Zhong, Lirong; Lawter, Amanda R.; Lee, Brady D.

    2015-09-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) plumes are present in the 100 Area at the Hanford Site. Remediation efforts are under way with objectives of restoring the groundwater to meet the drinking-water standard (48 µg/L) and protecting the Columbia River by ensuring that discharge of groundwater to the river is below the surface-water quality standard (10 µg/L). Current remedies include application of Pump-and-Treat (P&T) at the 100-D, 100-H, and 100-K Areas and Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) at the 100-F/IU Area. Remedy selection is still under way at the other 100 Areas. Additional information about the natural attenuation processes for Cr(VI) is important in all of these cases. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to demonstrate and quantify natural attenuation mechanisms using 100 Area sediments and groundwater conditions.

  4. Adsorption of hexavalent chromium on manganese nodule leached residue obtained from NH3-SO2 leaching.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Sujata; Dash, S S; Parida, K M

    2006-05-15

    Adsorption of hexavalent chromium onto manganese nodule leached residues was investigated as a possible alternative to the conventional methods of its removal from aqueous synthetic solutions. Adsorption behavior was studied as a function of time, pH, temperature, and concentration of adsorbate and adsorbent in acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer medium. Cr (VI) removal was pH dependent and was found to be of a maximum at pH 3. The applicability of the Langmuir isotherm to the present system was tested. Increased adsorption capacity with increased temperature indicates that the adsorption reaction was endothermic in nature. Based on these studies, thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy change (DeltaG0), standard enthalpy change (DeltaH0), and standard entropy change (DeltaS0) were calculated.

  5. Avoidance response of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to hexavalent chromium solutions.

    PubMed

    Svecevicius, Gintaras

    2007-12-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted on one-year-old rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to evaluate their ability to detect and avoid hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)). Test fish were given a choice to discriminate between clean water and Cr(6+) solutions of six sublethal concentrations ranging from 0.0015 to 0.3 mg Cr/L in a counter-current flow, steep gradient chamber. The intensity of avoidance response reached a significant level at test concentrations of 0.003 mg Cr/L and higher, and was directly proportional to the Cr(6+) concentration logarithm. Avoidance threshold was estimated through regression analysis and to be 0.0017 mg Cr/L. This result is approximately sixfold lower than maximum-permitted concentration of 0.01 mg Cr/L accepted as the Lithuanian water-quality guideline for the protection of aquatic life.

  6. Hexavalent Chromium-Induced Apoptosis in Rat Uterus: Involvement of Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Marouani, Neila; Tebourbi, Olfa; Mokni, Moncef; Yacoubi, Mohamed Tahar; Sakly, Mohsen; Benkhalifa, Moncef; Rhouma, Khémais Ben

    2015-01-01

    The present study is designed to test the hypothesis that oxidative stress mediates hexavalent chromium (VI)-induced apoptosis in uterus. Female Wistar rats received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of potassium dichromate at doses of 1 and 2 mg/kg. Superoxide anion production was assessed by determination of the reduction of cytochrome c and iodonitrotetrazolium (INT), lipid peroxidation (LPO), metallothioneins (MTs), and catalase (CAT) activity. The expression of Bax and Bcl-2 proteins was investigated. After 15 days of treatment, an increase of LPO and MT levels occurred, whereas CAT activity decreased. Intense apoptosis was observed in endometriotic stromal cells of Cr-exposed rats. Bax protein expression was induced in endometriotic stromal cells with 1 mg of Cr(VI)/kg, and in stromal and epithelial cells at the higher dose. These results clearly suggest that Cr(VI) subacute treatment causes oxidative stress in rat uterus, leading to endometriotic stromal cells apoptosis.

  7. Effect of acclimatization on hexavalent chromium reduction in a biocathode microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiayuan; Zhu, Xujun; Song, Tianshun; Zhang, Lixiong; Jia, Honghua; Wei, Ping

    2015-03-01

    A simple acclimatization method for the reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) at a biocathode by first enriching an exoelectrogenic biofilm on a microbial fuel cell (MFC) anode, followed by direct inversion of the anode to function as the biocathode, has been established. This novel method significantly enhanced the Cr(VI) reduction efficiency of the MFC, which was mainly attributed to the higher microbial density and less resistive Cr(III) precipitates on the cathode when compared with a common biocathode acclimatization method (control). The biocathode acclimatization period was shortened by 19days and the Cr(VI) reduction rate was increased by a factor of 2.9. Microbial community analyses of biocathodes acclimatized using different methods further verified the feasibility of this electrode inversion method, indicating similar dominant bacteria species in biofilms, which mainly consist of Gamma-proteobacteria and Bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effects of water rock interaction and the human activities on the occurrence of hexavalent chromium in waters. The case study of the Psachna basin, Central Euboea, Greece.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasileiou, Eleni; Perraki, Maria; Stamatis, George; Gartzos, Efthimios

    2014-05-01

    High concentrations of heavy metals, particularly of the toxic hexavalent chromium, are recorded in surface and ground waters in many areas, and constitute one of the most severe environmental problems nowadays. The natural genesis of chromium is associated with the geological environment (peridotites and serpentintites). Chromium is structured in many minerals, mainly in spinel (e.g. chromite), in silicate minerals such as phyllosilicate serpentine minerals, chlorite, talc and chain-silicate minerals of pyroxene and amphibole group. Chromium is found in two forms in soils, waters and rocks, the hexavalent and the trivalent one. The relation between Cr(III) and Cr(VI) strongly depends on pH and oxidative properties of the area; however, in most cases, Cr(III) is the dominating variant. The natural oxidation of trivalent to hexavalent chromium can be achieved by manganese oxides, H2O2, O2 gas and oxy-hydroxides of trivalent iron. Anthropogenic factors may also cause the process of chromium's oxidation. In the Psachna basin, Central Euboea, Greece, high concentrations of hexavalent chromium were recently measured in spring- and drill- waters. In this work, we study the effect of the geological environment and of the anthropogenic activities on the water quality with emphasis on chromium. A detailed geochemical, petrological and mineralogical study of rocks and soils was carried out by means of optical microscopy, XRF, XRD and SEM/EDS. Ground and surface water samples were physically characterized and hydrochemically studied by means of ICP and AAF. Combined result evaluation indicates a natural source for the trivalent chromium in waters, attributed to the alteration of Cr-bearing minerals of the ultramafic rocks. However the oxidation of trivalent to hexavalent chromium results from anthropogenic activities, mainly from intensive agricultural activities and the extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides causing nitrate pollution in groundwater. It has been shown

  9. Quantification of total and hexavalent chromium in lager beers: variability between styles and estimation of daily intake of chromium from beer.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Elsa; Soares, M Elisa; Kozior, Marta; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O; Bastos, M Lourdes

    2014-09-17

    A survey of the presence of total and hexavalent chromium in lager beers was conducted to understand the variability between different styles of lager beer packaged in glass or cans and to estimate daily intake of total Cr and hexavalent chromium from beer. Graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy using validated methodologies was applied. Selective extraction of hexavalent chromium was performed using a Chromabond NH2/500 mg column and elution with nitric acid. The detection limits were 0.26 and 0.68 μg L(-1) for total Cr and Cr(VI), respectively. The mean content of total Cr ranged between 1.13 μg L(-1) in canned pale lager and 4.32 μg L(-1) in low-alcohol beers, whereas the mean content of Cr(VI) was <2.51 μg L(-1). Considering an intake of 500 mL of beer, beer consumption can contribute approximately 2.28-8.64 and 1.6-6.17% of the recommended daily intake of chromium for women and men, respectively.

  10. COST EFFECTIVE CONTROL OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM AIR EMISSIONS FROM FUNCTIONAL CHROMIUM ELECTROPLATING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper will summrize thie pollution prevention (p2) method to control stack emissions from hard chromium plating operations performed by the USEPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) over the last four years. During literature research and user surveys, it...

  11. COST EFFECTIVE CONTROL OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM AIR EMISSIONS FROM FUNCTIONAL CHROMIUM ELECTROPLATING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper will summrize thie pollution prevention (p2) method to control stack emissions from hard chromium plating operations performed by the USEPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) over the last four years. During literature research and user surveys, it...

  12. Diffusion of hexavalent chromium in chromium-containing slag as affected by microbial detoxification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunyan; Yang, Zhihui; Chai, Liyuan; Zhao, Kun

    2009-09-30

    An electrochemical method was used to determine the diffusion coefficient of chromium(VI) in chromium-containing slag. A slag plate was prepared from the original slag or the detoxified slag by Achromobacter sp. CH-1. The results revealed that the apparent diffusion coefficient of Cr(VI) was 4.4 x 10(-9)m(2)s(-1) in original slag and 2.62 x 10(-8)m(2)s(-1) in detoxified slag. The results implied that detoxification of chromium-containing slag by Achromobacter sp. CH-1 could enhance Cr(VI) release. Meanwhile, the results of laboratory experiment showed that the residual total Cr(VI) in slag decreased from an initial value of 6.8 mg g(-1) to 0.338 mg g(-1) at the end of the detoxification process. The Cr(VI) released from slag was also reduced by Achromobacter sp. CH-1 strain since water soluble Cr(VI) in the leachate was not detected after 4 days. Therefore, Achromobacter sp. CH-1 has potential application for the bio-detoxification of chromium-containing slag.

  13. Reduction of hexavalent chromium by Sphaerotilus natans a filamentous micro-organism present in activated sludges.

    PubMed

    Caravelli, Alejandro H; Giannuzzi, Leda; Zaritzky, Noemí E

    2008-08-15

    Wastewaters produced by various industries may contain undesirable amounts of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), as chromate and dichromate, a hazardous metal affecting flora and animals of aquatic ecosystems as well as human health. One removal strategy comprises the microbial reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), a less soluble chemical species that is less toxic than Cr(VI). In this work, the ability to reduce Cr(VI) of Sphaerotilus natans, a filamentous bacterium usually found in activated sludge systems, was evaluated. In aerobic conditions, S. natans was able to efficiently reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III) from dichromate solutions ranging between 4.5 and 80 mg Cr(VI)l(-1) in the presence of a carbonaceous source. A simultaneous evaluation of the microbial respiratory activity inhibition was also carried out to analyze the toxic effect of Cr(VI). Cr(VI) reduction by S. natans was mathematically modeled; chromium(VI) reduction rate depended on both Cr(VI) concentration and active biomass concentration. Although it is known that S. natans removes heavy metal cations such as Cr(III) by biosorption, the ability of this micro-organism to reduce Cr(VI), which behaves as an oxyanion in aqueous solutions, is a novel finding. The distinctive capacity to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III) than remain soluble or precipitated becomes S. natans a potential micro-organism to decontaminate wastewaters.

  14. High-capacity adsorption of dissolved hexavalent chromium using amine-functionalized magnetic corn stalk composites.

    PubMed

    Song, Wen; Gao, Baoyu; Zhang, Tengge; Xu, Xing; Huang, Xin; Yu, Huan; Yue, Qinyan

    2015-08-01

    Easily separable amine-functionalized magnetic corn stalk composites (AF-MCS) were employed for effective adsorption and reduction of toxic hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] to nontoxic Cr(III). The saturated magnetization of AF-MCS reached 6.2emu/g, and as a result, it could be separated from aqueous solution by a magnetic process for its superparamagnetism. The studies of various factors influencing the sorption behavior indicated that the optimum AF-MCS dosage for Cr(VI) adsorption was 1g/L, and the maximum adsorption capacity was observed at pH 3.0. The chromium adsorption perfectly fitted the Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo second order kinetic model. Furthermore, characterization of AF-MCS was investigated by means of XRD, SEM, TEM, FT-IR, BET, VSM and XPS analysis to discuss the uptake mechanism. Basically, these results demonstrated that AF-MCS prepared in this work has shown its merit in effective removal of Cr(VI) and rapid separation from effluents simultaneously.

  15. Genotoxicity evaluation of tannery effluent treated with newly isolated hexavalent chromium reducing Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Vineeta; Yadav, Ashutosh; Haq, Izharul; Kumar, Sharad; Bharagava, Ram Naresh; Singh, Sudheer Kumar; Raj, Abhay

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the efficiency of free and immobilized cells of newly isolated hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] reducing Bacillus cereus strain Cr1 (accession no. KJ162160) was studied in the treatment of tannery effluent. The analysis of effluents revealed high chemical oxygen demand (COD-1260 mg/L), biological oxygen demand (BOD5-660 mg/L), total dissolved solids (TDS-14000 mg/L), electrical conductivity (EC-21.5 mS/cm) and total chromium (TC-2.4 mg/L). The effluents also showed genotoxic effects to Allium cepa. Treatment of tannery effluent with isolated B. cereus strain led to considerable reduction of pollutant load. The pollutant load reduction was studied with both immobilized and free cells and immobilized cells were more effective in reducing COD (65%), BOD (80%), TDS (67%), EC (65%) and TC (92%) after 48 h. GC-MS analysis of pre and post-treatment tannery effluent samples revealed reduction of organic load after treatment with free and immobilized cells. An improvement in mitotic index and reduction in chromosomal aberrations was also observed in A. cepa grown with post-treatement effluent samples compared to untreated sample. Results demonstrate that both methods of bacterial treatment (free and immobilized) were efficient in reducing the pollutant load of tannery effluent as well as in reducing genotoxic effects, however, treatment with immobilized cells was more effective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Extraction of hexavalent chromium from chromated copper arsenate treated wood under alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Radivojevic, Suzana; Cooper, Paul A

    2008-05-15

    Information on chromium (Cr) oxidation states is essential for the assessment of environmental and health risks associated with the overall life-cycle of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood products because of differences in toxicity between trivalent [Cr(III)] and hexavalent [Cr(VI)] chromium compounds. Hypothetical Cr(VI) fixation products were investigated in CCA type C treated sawdust of aspen and red pine during or following preservative fixation by extraction with Cr(VI)-specific extractants. Cr(VI) was found only in alkaline extracts of treated wood. A major source of Cr(VI) was method-induced oxidation of fixed Cr(III) during alkaline extraction, as confirmed by demonstrated oxidation of Cr(III) from CrCl3 treated wood. Oxidation of nontoxic and immobile Cr(III) to toxic and mobile Cr(VI) was facilitated by the presence of wood at pH > 8.5. Thermodynamic equilibrium between Cr(III) and Cr(VI) is affected by pH, temperature, rates of dissolution of CrIII) compounds, and oxygen availability. Results of this study recommend against alkaline extraction protocols for determination of Cr(VI) in treated wood. This Cr oxidation mechanism can act as a previously unrecognized route for generation of hazardous Cr(VI) if CCA treated wood is exposed to alkaline conditions during its production, use, or waste management.

  17. Isolation and Characterization of an Enterobacter cloacae Strain That Reduces Hexavalent Chromium under Anaerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pi-Chao; Mori, Tsukasa; Komori, Kohya; Sasatsu, Masanori; Toda, Kiyoshi; Ohtake, Hisao

    1989-01-01

    An Enterobacter cloacae strain (HO1) capable of reducing hexavalent chromium (chromate) was isolated from activated sludge. This bacterium was resistant to chromate under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Only the anaerobic culture of the E. cloacae isolate showed chromate reduction. In the anaerobic culture, yellow turned white with chromate and the turbidity increased as the reduction proceeded, suggesting that insoluble chromium hydroxide was formed. E. cloacae is likely to utilize toxic chromate as an electron acceptor anaerobically because (i) the anaerobic growth of E. cloacae HO1 accompanied the decrease of toxic chromate in culture medium, (ii) the chromate-reducing activity was rapidly inhibited by oxygen, and (iii) the reduction occurred more rapidly in glycerol- or acetate-grown cells than in glucose-grown cells. The chromate reduction in E. cloacae HO1 was observed at pH 6.0 to 8.5 (optimum pH, 7.0) and at 10 to 40°C (optimum, 30°C). PMID:16347962

  18. Removal of hexavalent chromium from wastewater using a new composite chitosan biosorbent.

    PubMed

    Boddu, Veera M; Abburi, Krishnaiah; Talbott, Jonathan L; Smith, Edgar D

    2003-10-01

    A new composite chitosan biosorbent was prepared by coating chitosan, a glucosamine biopolymer, onto ceramic alumina. The composite bioadsorbent was characterized by high-temperature pyrolysis, porosimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Batch isothermal equilibrium and continuous column adsorption experiments were conducted at 25 degrees C to evaluate the biosorbent for the removal of hexavalent chromium from synthetic as well as field samples obtained from chrome plating facilities. The effect of pH, sulfate, and chloride ion on adsorption was also investigated. The biosorbent loaded with Cr(VI) was regenerated using 0.1 M sodium hydroxide solution. A comparison of the results of the present investigation with those reported in the literature showed that chitosan coated on alumina exhibits greater adsorption capacity for chromium(VI). Further, experimental equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms, and values of the parameters of the isotherms are reported. The ultimate capacity obtained from the Langmuir model is 153.85 mg/g chitosan.

  19. Field method for the determination of insoluble or total hexavalent chromium in workplace air.

    PubMed

    Hazelwood, Kyle J; Drake, Pamela L; Ashley, Kevin; Marcy, Dale

    2004-09-01

    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health method 7703 is a portable field procedure for the analysis of workplace air filter samples for hexavalent chromium (CrVI) content immediately after the samples are collected. The field method prescribes CrVI extraction from air filter samples with an ammonium sulfate/ammonium hydroxide extraction buffer using ultrasonic extraction (UE). Strong anion-exchange solid-phase extraction (SAE-SPE) is then used to separate CrVI from trivalent chromium and other interferences. Portable spectrophotometric measurement of CrVI is then conducted using the 1,5-diphenylcarbazide (DPC) method. However, it has been found that the ammonium extraction buffer does not adequately bring insoluble CrVI compounds into solution during the UE process. Thus, it was deemed necessary to modify the field method so that it would provide acceptable recoveries for insoluble CrVI compounds. To this end, a more alkaline extraction solution--sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate buffer--was investigated. The modified procedure using the highly alkaline extraction solution was demonstrated to be compatible with SAE-SPE cartridges when determining insoluble CrVI in air filter samples. It was found that the carbonate/bicarbonate buffer was equally effective for complete dissolution of both insoluble and soluble forms of CrVI. Furthermore, the modified procedure met desired performance criteria established for air sampling and analytical methods.

  20. Hexavalent Chromium Removal by a Paecilomyces sp. Fungal Strain Isolated from Environment

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas-González, Juan F.; Acosta-Rodríguez, Ismael

    2010-01-01

    A resistant and capable fungal strain in removing hexavalent chromium was isolated from an environment near of Chemical Science Faculty, located in the city of San Luis Potosí, Mexico. The strain was identified as Paecilomyces sp., by macro- and microscopic characteristics. Strain resistance of the strain to high Cr (VI) concentrations and its ability to reduce chromium were studied. When it was incubated in minimal medium with glucose, another inexpensive commercial carbon source like unrefined and brown sugar or glycerol, in the presence of 50 mg/L of Cr (VI), the strain caused complete disappearance of Cr (VI), with the concomitant production of Cr (III) in the growth medium after 7 days of incubation, at 28°C, pH 4.0, 100 rpm, and an inoculum of 38 mg of dry weight. Decrease of Cr (VI) levels from industrial wastes was also induced by Paecilomyces biomass. These results indicate that reducing capacity of chromate resistant filamentous fungus Cr (VI) could be useful for the removal of Cr (VI) pollution. PMID:20634988

  1. Equilibrium and dynamic study on hexavalent chromium adsorption onto activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Di Natale, F; Erto, A; Lancia, A; Musmarra, D

    2015-01-08

    In this work, the results of equilibrium and dynamic adsorption tests of hexavalent chromium, Cr (VI), on activated carbon are presented. Adsorption isotherms were determined at different levels of pH and temperature. Dynamic tests were carried out in terms of breakthrough curves of lab-scale fixed bed column at different pH, inlet concentration and flow rate. Both the adsorption isotherms and the breakthrough curves showed non-linear and unconventional trends. The experimental results revealed that chromium speciation played a key role in the adsorption process, also for the occurrence of Cr(VI)-to-Cr(III) reduction reactions. Equilibrium tests were interpreted in light of a multi-component Langmuir model supported by ion speciation analysis. For the interpretation of the adsorption dynamic tests, a mass transfer model was proposed. Dynamic tests at pH 11 were well described considering the external mass transfer as the rate controlling step. Differently, for dynamic tests at pH 6 the same model provided a satisfying description of the experimental breakthrough curves only until a sorbent coverage around 1.6mgg(-1). Above this level, a marked reduction of the breakthrough curve slope was observed in response to a transition to an inter-particle adsorption mechanism.

  2. Anaerobic reduction of hexavalent chromium by bacterial cells of Achromobacter sp. Strain Ch1.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenjie; Chai, Liyuan; Ma, Zemin; Wang, Yunyan; Xiao, Haijuan; Zhao, Kun

    2008-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a widespread environmental contaminant. Achromobacter sp. strain Chi was a Cr(VI) reducing bacterium with high reduction performance. Cr(VI) reductase was just existing in the cells, but was not discharged into the surrounding medium. Cr(VI) reduction was carried out with resting cells of strain Ch1 under anaerobic conditions. Initial pH value and lactate (electron donor) concentration were found to influence the reduction rate of Cr(VI), and the optimal conditions were at pH 9.0 and supplemented with 40 mM of lactate. The reduction rate would be constant under established conditions approximately 12.5 micromol 10(9) cells(-1) min(-1), which was not affected by cell density and initial Cr(VI) concentration. The maximal reduction capacity of Achromobacter sp. strain Ch1 was 54.2 mM, while the cell density of reduction system was 3.64 x 10(9) cells ml(-1). Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis showed that chromium was precipitated perhaps as the form of Cr(OH)3.

  3. An evaluation of in vivo models for toxicokinetics of hexavalent chromium in the stomach.

    PubMed

    Sasso, A F; Schlosser, P M

    2015-09-15

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr6) is a drinking water contaminant that has been detected in most of the water systems throughout the United States. In 2-year drinking water bioassays, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) found clear evidence of carcinogenic activity in male and female rats and mice. Because reduction of Cr6 to trivalent chromium (Cr3) is an important detoxifying step in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract prior to systemic absorption, models have been developed to estimate the extent of reduction in humans and animals. The objective of this work was to use a revised model of ex vivo Cr6 reduction kinetics in gastric juice to analyze the potential reduction kinetics under in vivo conditions for mice, rats and humans. A published physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was adapted to incorporate the new reduction model. This paper focuses on the toxicokinetics of Cr6 in the stomach compartment, where most of the extracellular Cr6 reduction is believed to occur in humans. Within the range of doses administered by the NTP bioassays, neither the original nor revised models predict saturation of stomach reducing capacity to occur in vivo if applying default parameters. However, both models still indicate that mice exhibit the lowest extent of reduction in the stomach, meaning that a higher percentage of the Cr6 dose may escape stomach reduction in that species. Similarly, both models predict that humans exhibit the highest extent of reduction at low doses.

  4. The role of iron in hexavalent chromium reduction by municipal landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Li, Yarong; Low, Gary K-C; Scott, Jason A; Amal, Rose

    2009-01-30

    The function of iron (ferric (Fe(III)) and ferrous (Fe(II))) in the hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) reduction mechanism by bacteria in municipal landfill leachate (MLL) was assessed. Evidence of an "electron shuttle" mechanism was observed, whereby the Cr(VI) was reduced to trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) by Fe(II) with the resulting Fe(III) bacterially re-reduced to Fe(II). Typically, investigations on this electron shuttle mechanism have been performed in an artificial medium. As MLL comprises an elaborate mixture of bacteria, humic materials and organic and inorganic species, additional complexities were evident within the cycle in this study. Bioavailability of the Fe(III) for bacterial reduction, availability of bacterially produced Fe(II) for chemical Cr(VI) reduction and hydrolysis of Fe(II) and Fe(III) become prevalent during each phase of the shuttle cycle when MLL is present. Each of these factors contributes to the overall rate of bacterial Cr(VI) reduction in this media. This work highlights the need to consider local environmental conditions when assessing the bacterial reduction of Cr(VI).

  5. NOM and alkalinity interference in trace-level hexavalent chromium analysis.

    PubMed

    Parks, Jeffrey L; McNeill, Laurie; Edwards, Marc

    2014-12-01

    Three analytical methods were evaluated for hexavalent and trivalent chromium analyses in the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) and alkalinity. Each method was tested using a simulated tap water with 1 μg L(-1) Cr(VI) and 0.8 μg L(-1) Cr(III) and several concentrations of NOM and/or alkalinity. An ion chromatograph with post column reaction cell conforming to USEPA Method 218.7 could accurately quantify Cr(VI) in the presence of up to 8 mg CL(-1) NOM and up to 170 mg L(-1) as CaCO3 alkalinity, and no oxidation of chromium was observed when 0.8 μg L(-1) Cr(III) was also present. A high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma (HPLC-ICPMS) method and a field speciation method were also evaluated. Each of these methods was unaffected by the presence of alkalinity; however, the presence of NOM created issues. For the HPLC-ICPMS method, as the concentration of NOM increased the recovery of Cr(VI) decreased, resulting in a 'false negative' for Cr(VI). However, for the field speciation method, Cr(III) was complexed by NOM and carried through the ion exchange column, resulting in a 'false positive' for Cr(VI). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of hexavalent chromium on performance and microbial community of an aerobic granular sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zichao; Gao, Mengchun; She, Zonglian; Jin, Chunji; Zhao, Yangguo; Yang, Shiying; Guo, Liang; Wang, Sen

    2015-03-01

    The performance and microbial community of an aerobic granular sequencing batch reactor (GSBR) were investigated at different hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) concentrations. The COD and NH4 (+)-N removal efficiencies decreased with the increase in Cr(VI) concentration from 0 to 30 mg/L. The specific oxygen utilization rate (SOUR) decreased from 34.86 to 12.18 mg/(g mixed liquor suspended sludge (MLSS)·h) with the increase in Cr(VI) concentration from 0 to 30 mg/L. The specific ammonium oxidation rate (SAOR), specific nitrite oxidation rate (SNOR), and specific nitrate reduction rate (SNRR) decreased with the increase in Cr(VI) concentration, whereas the SNRR was always higher than the sum of SAOR and SNOR at 0-30 mg/L Cr(VI). The scanning electron micrographs (SEM) showed some undefined particles on the surface of filamentous bacteria that might be the chelation of chromium and macromolecular organics at 30 mg/L Cr(VI). The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles revealed that some microorganisms adapting to high Cr(VI) concentration gradually became the predominant bacteria, while others without Cr(VI)-tolerance capacity tended to deplete or weaken. Some bacteria could tolerate the toxicity of high Cr(VI) concentration in the aerobic GSBR, such as Propionibacteriaceae bacterium, Ochrobactrum anthropi, and Micropruina glycogenica.

  7. Removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution by granular and powdered Peganum Harmala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosravi, Rasoul; Fazlzadehdavil, Mehdi; Barikbin, Behnam; Taghizadeh, Ali Akbar

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, batch removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions by granular and powdered seeds of Peganum Harmala was investigated. The Peganum Harmala seeds were collected and after beating slowly, separating and cleaning the Harmala seeds done using a sieve. Batch adsorption studies were performed in 100 ml Erlenmeyer flasks inside an incubator container. The main process parameters considered were pH, initial Cr(VI) concentration for PPH and GPH, adsorbent dose, and contact time. Cr(VI) was measured at a wavelength of 540 nm using a UV-vis T80+ spectrophotometer. The adsorption data were fitted well by Freundlich isotherm. The result shows that the maximum removal of Cr(VI) was observed at pH 1.5 for both adsorbents. Also, by increase adsorption dose, adsorption capacity of Cr(VI) decreased but the chromium adsorption rate increased. The mount of adsorbed Cr(VI) onto both adsorbents increased with an increase in the contact time but by increases initial concentration of Cr(VI), the mount of adsorbed Cr(VI) onto both adsorbents decreased. The results indicate that the powdered Peganum Harmala can be effective adsorbent than the granular Peganum Harmala for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution.

  8. Chromium isotopes and the fate of hexavalent chromium in the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, Andre S.; Johnson, Thomas M.; Bullen, Thomas D.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of chromium (Cr) stable-isotope fractionation in laboratory experiments and natural waters show that lighter isotopes reacted preferentially during Cr(VI) reduction by magnetite and sediments. The 53Cr/52Cr ratio of the product was 3.4 ± 0.1 per mil less than that of the reactant.53Cr/52Cr shifts in water samples indicate the extent of reduction, a critical process that renders toxic Cr(VI) in the environment immobile and less toxic.

  9. Microcalorimetric study the toxic effect of hexavalent chromium on microbial activity of Wuhan brown sandy soil: an in vitro approach.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jun; Tian, Lin; Wang, Yanxin; Djah, Atakora; Wang, Fei; Chen, Huilun; Su, Chunli; Zhuang, Rensheng; Zhou, Yong; Choi, Martin M F; Bramanti, Emilia

    2008-02-01

    A multi-channel thermal activity monitor was applied to study soil microbial activity in Wuhan brown sandy soil in the presence of different concentrations of hexavalent chromium (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)). In order to stimulate the soil microbial activity, 5.0mg of glucose and 5.0mg of ammonium sulfate were added to a 1.20-g soil sample under a controlled humidity of 35%. The results show that the poisonous species of K(2)Cr(2)O(7) at an half inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) value of 4.27 microg mL(-1) against soil microbe, and an increase of the amount of hexavalent chromium is associated to a decrease in the microbial activity of the soil, probably due to an increase in the toxicity of hexavalent chromium, affecting strongly the life in this soil microbial environment. Our work also suggests that microcalorimetry is a fast, simple and more sensitive method that can be easily performed to study the toxicity of different species of heavy metals on microorganism compared to other biological methods.

  10. Homologous Recombination and Translesion DNA Synthesis Play Critical Roles on Tolerating DNA Damage Caused by Trace Levels of Hexavalent Chromium

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Youjun; Zhou, Yi-Hui; Neo, Dayna; Clement, Jean; Takata, Minoru; Takeda, Shunichi; Sale, Julian; Wright, Fred A.; Swenberg, James A.; Nakamura, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of potentially carcinogenic hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in the drinking water is a major public health concern worldwide. However, little information is available regarding the biological effects of a nanomoler amount of Cr(VI). Here, we investigated the genotoxic effects of Cr(VI) at nanomoler levels and their repair pathways. We found that DNA damage response analyzed based on differential toxicity of isogenic cells deficient in various DNA repair proteins is observed after a three-day incubation with K2CrO4 in REV1-deficient DT40 cells at 19.2 μg/L or higher as well as in TK6 cells deficient in polymerase delta subunit 3 (POLD3) at 9.8 μg/L or higher. The genotoxicity of Cr(VI) decreased ~3000 times when the incubation time was reduced from three days to ten minutes. TK mutation rate also significantly decreased from 6 day to 1 day exposure to Cr(VI). The DNA damage response analysis suggest that DNA repair pathways, including the homologous recombination and REV1- and POLD3-mediated error-prone translesion synthesis pathways, are critical for the cells to tolerate to DNA damage caused by trace amount of Cr(VI). PMID:27907204

  11. Evaluation of extraction methods for hexavalent chromium determination in dusts, ashes, and soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, Ruth E.; Wilson, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the difficulties in performing speciation analyses on solid samples is finding a suitable extraction method. Traditional methods for extraction of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), in soils, such as SW846 Method 3060A, can be tedious and are not always compatible with some determination methods. For example, the phosphate and high levels of carbonate and magnesium present in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method 3060A digestion for Cr(VI) were found to be incompatible with the High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) detection method used by our laboratory. Modification of Method 3060A by eliminating the use of the phosphate buffer provided improved performance with the detection method, however dilutions are still necessary to achieve good chromatographic separation and detection of Cr(VI). An ultrasonic extraction method using a 1 mM Na2CO3 - 9 mM NaHCO3 buffer solution, adapted from Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Method ID215, has been used with good results for the determination of Cr(VI) in air filters. The average recovery obtained for BCR-545 - Welding Dust Loaded on Filter (IRMM, Belgium) using this method was 99 percent (1.2 percent relative standard deviation) with no conversion of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) during the extraction process. This ultrasonic method has the potential for use with other sample matrices, such as ashes and soils. Preliminary investigations using NIST 2701 (Hexavalent Chromium in Contaminated Soil) loaded onto quartz filters showed promising results with approximately 90 percent recovery of the certified Cr(VI) value. Additional testing has been done using NIST 2701 and NIST 2700 using different presentation methods. Extraction efficiency of bulk presentation, where small portions of the sample are added to the bottom of the extraction vessel, will be compared with supported presentation, where small portions of the sample are loaded onto a

  12. Mitigation of Hexavalent Chromium in Storm Water Resulting from Demolition of Large Concrete Structure at the East Tennessee Technology Park - 12286

    SciTech Connect

    Britto, Ronnie; Brown, Bridget; Hale, Timothy B.; Hensley, Janice L.; Johnson, Robert T.; Patel, Madhu; Emery, Jerry A.; Gaston, Clyde; Queen, David C.

    2012-07-01

    American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funding was provided to supplement the environmental management program at several DOE sites, including the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Demolition of the ETTP K-33 Building, the largest building to be demolished to date in Oak Ridge, was awarded to LSRS in FY-2010 under the ARRA program. The K-33 building was an 82 foot tall 2-story structure covering approximately 32 acres. Once this massive building was brought down to the ground, the debris was segregated and consolidated into piles of concrete rubble and steel across the remaining pad. The process of demolishing the building, tracking across concrete debris with heavy equipment, and stockpiling the concrete rubble caused it to become pulverized. During and after storm events, hexavalent chromium leached from the residual cement present in the large quantities of concrete. Storm water control measures were present to preclude migration of contaminants off-site, but these control measures were not designed to control hexavalent chromium dissolved in storm water from reaching nearby receiving water. The following was implemented to mitigate hexavalent chromium in storm water: - Steel wool was distributed around K-33 site catch basins and in water pools as an initial step in addressing hexavalent chromium. - Since the piles of concrete were too massive and unsafe to tarp, they were placed into windrows in an effort to reduce total surface area. - A Hach colorimetric field meter was acquired by the K-33 project to provide realtime results of hexavalent chromium in site surface water. - Three hexavalent chromium treatment systems were installed at three separate catch basins that receive integrated storm water flow from the K-33 site. Sodium bisulfite is being used as a reducing agent for the immobilization of hexavalent chromium while also assisting in lowering pH. Concentrations initially were 310 - 474 ppb of hexavalent chromium in

  13. Hexavalent chromium removal in contaminated water using reticulated chitosan micro/nanoparticles from seafood processing wastes.

    PubMed

    Dima, Jimena Bernadette; Sequeiros, Cynthia; Zaritzky, Noemi E

    2015-12-01

    Chitosan particles (CH) were obtained from seafood processing wastes (shrimp shells) and physicochemically characterized; deacetylation degree of CH was measured by Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and potentiometric titration; polymer molecular weight was determined by intrinsic viscosity measurements. Reticulated micro/nanoparticles of chitosan (MCH) with an average diameter close to 100nm were synthesized by ionic gelation of chitosan using tripolyphosphate (TPP), and characterized by SEM, size distribution and Zeta-potential. Detoxification capacities of CH and MCH were tested analyzing the removal of hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) from contaminated water, at different initial chromium concentrations. The effect of pH on adsorption capacity of CH and MCH was experimentally determined and analyzed considering the Cr(VI) stable complexes (anions) formed, the presence of protonated groups in chitosan particles and the addition of the reticulating agent (TPP). Chitosan crosslinking was necessary to adsorb Cr(VI) at pH<2 due to the instability of CH particles in acid media. Langmuir isotherm described better than Freundlich and Temkin equations the equilibrium adsorption data. Pseudo-second order rate provided the best fitting to the kinetic data in comparison to pseudo-first order and Elovich equations. Chemical analysis to determine the oxidation state of the adsorbed Cr, showed that Cr(VI) was adsorbed on CH particles without further reduction; in contrast Cr(VI) removed from the solution was reduced and bound to the MCH as Cr(III). The reduction of toxic Cr(VI) to the less or nontoxic Cr(III) by the reticulated chitosan micro/nanoparticles can be considered a very efficient detoxification technique for the treatment of Cr(VI) contaminated water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cytotoxic Effects of Hexavalent and Trivalent Chromium on Mammalian Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Levis, A. G.; Bianchi, V.; Tamino, G.; Pegoraro, B.

    1978-01-01

    The cytotoxic effects of hexavalent (k2Cr2O7) and trivalent (CrCl3) chromium compounds have been studied in cultured hamster fibroblasts (BHK line) and human epithelial-like cells (HEp line). K2Cr2O7 stimulates the uptake of labelled thymidine into the soluble intracellular pool (the stimulation of nucleoside uptake represents a specific effect of Cr6+) while Cr3+ always exerts an inhibitory action. DNA Synthesis is inhibited by treatment with both chromium compounds, but especially by K2Cr2O7. Moreover, the effective CrCl3 concentrations reduce the sensitivity of DNA and RNA to hydrolysis with perchloric acid. Treatments with k2Cr2O7 in balanced salt solution, where Cr6+ reduction is less marked, induce more pronounced cytotoxic effects than treatments in complete growth medium. HEp cells turned out to be more sensitive to K2Cr2O7 than BHK fibroblasts: in the former line TdR uptake is less stimulated, DNA synthesis and cell survival are more affected. Survival of BHK cells to K2Cr2O7 indicates a multi-hit mechanism of cell inactivation, the extrapolation number being about 10. On the basis of quantitative Cr determinations in the treatment solutions and in the treated cells, the cytotoxic effects of Cr are attributed to the action of Cr6+ at the plasma membrane level on the mechanisms involved in nucleoside uptake, and to the interaction of Cr3+ at the intracellular level with nucleophilic targets on the DNA molecule. PMID:205233

  15. Effect of temperature on phytoextraction of hexavalent and trivalent chromium by hybrid willows.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Peng, Xiao-Ying; Xing, Li-Qun

    2010-01-01

    The removal of hexavalent and trivalent chromium from hydroponic solution by plants to changes in temperature was investigated. Pre-rooted hybrid willows (Salix matsudana Koidz x alba L.) were exposed to a nutrient solution spiked with potassium chromate (K(2)CrO(4)) or chromium chloride (CrCl(3)) for 4 days. Ten different temperatures were tested ranging from 11 to 32 degrees C. Total Cr in solutions and in plant materials were all analyzed quantitatively. The results revealed that large amounts of the applied Cr were removed from the hydroponic solution in the presence of the plants. Significantly faster removal of Cr(III) than Cr(VI) was achieved by hybrid willows from the hydroponic solutions at all temperatures (P < 0.01). The removal rates of both chemical forms of Cr by plants increased linearly with the increase of temperatures. The highest removal rate of Cr(VI) was found at 32 degrees C with a value of 1.99 microg Cr/g day, whereas the highest value of Cr(III) was 3.55 microg Cr/g day at the same temperature. Roots were the main sink for Cr accumulation in plants at all temperatures. Translocation of both chemical forms of Cr from roots to lower stems was only found at temperatures > or = 24 degrees C. The temperature coefficient values (Q(10)) were 2.41 and 1.42 for Cr(VI) and Cr(III), respectively, indicating that the removal of Cr(VI) by hybrid willows was much more susceptible to changes in temperature than that of Cr(III). This information suggests that changes in temperature have a substantial influence on the uptake and accumulation of both chemical forms of Cr by plants.

  16. Hexavalent chromium removal and bioelectricity generation by Ochrobactrum sp. YC211 under different oxygen conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Yu; Cheng, Chiu-Yu; Chen, Ching-Kuo; Hsieh, Min-Chi; Lin, Ssu-Ting; Ho, Kuo-Ying; Li, Jo-Wei; Lin, Chia-Pei; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2016-01-01

    Bioremediation is an environmentally friendly method of reducing heavy metal concentration and toxicity. A chromium-reducing bacterial strain, isolated from the vicinity of an electroplate factory, was identified as Ochrobactrum sp. YC211. The efficiency and capacity per time of Ochrobactrum sp. YC211 for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) removal under anaerobic conditions were superior to those under aerobic conditions. An acceptable removal efficiency (96.5 ± 0.6%) corresponding to 30.2 ± 0.8 mg-Cr (g-dry cell weight-h)(-1) was achieved by Ochrobactrum sp. YC211 at 300 mg L(-1) Cr(VI). A temperature of 30°C and pH 7 were the optimal parameters for Cr(VI) removal. By examining reactivated cells, permeabilized cells, and cell-free extract, we determined that Cr(VI) removal by Ochrobactrum sp. YC211 under anaerobic conditions mainly occurred in the soluble fraction of the cell and can be regarded as an enzymatic reaction. The results also indicated that an Ochrobactrum sp. YC211 microbial fuel cell (MFC) with an anaerobic anode was considerably superior to that with an aerobic anode in bioelectricity generation and Cr(VI) removal. The maximum power density and Cr(VI) removal efficiency of the MFC were 445 ± 3.2 mW m(-2) and 97.2 ± 0.3%, respectively. Additionally, the effects of coexisting ions (Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Ni(2+), SO4(2-), and Cl(-)) in the anolyte on the MFC performance and Cr(VI) removal were nonsignificant (P > 0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first report to compare Cr(VI) removal by different cells and MFC types under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

  17. Biotransformation of hexavalent chromium into extracellular chromium(III) oxide nanoparticles using Schwanniomyces occidentalis.

    PubMed

    Mohite, Pallavi T; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi; Zinjarde, Smita S

    2016-03-01

    To demonstrate biotransformation of toxic Cr(VI) ions into Cr2O3 nanoparticles by the yeast Schwanniomyces occidentalis. Reaction mixtures containing S. occidentalis NCIM 3459 and Cr(VI) ions that were initially yellow turned green after 48 h incubation. The coloration was due to the synthesis of chromium (III) oxide nanoparticles (Cr2O3NPs). UV-Visible spectra of the reaction mixtures showed peaks at 445 and 600 nm indicating (4)A2g → (4)T1g and (4)A2g → (4)T2g transitions in Cr2O3, respectively. FTIR profiles suggested the involvement of carboxyl and amide groups in nanoparticle synthesis and stabilization. The Cr2O3NPs ranged between 10 and 60 nm. Their crystalline nature was evident from the selective area electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction patterns. Energy dispersive spectra confirmed the chemical composition of the nanoparticles. These biogenic nanoparticles could find applications in different fields. S. occidentalis mediated biotransformation of toxic Cr(VI) ions into crystalline extracellular Cr2O3NPs under benign conditions.

  18. Hexavalent chromium damages chamomile plants by alteration of antioxidants and its uptake is prevented by calcium.

    PubMed

    Kováčik, Jozef; Babula, Petr; Hedbavny, Josef; Klejdus, Bořivoj

    2014-05-30

    Toxicity of low (3μM) and high (60 and 120μM) concentrations of hexavalent chromium/Cr(VI) in chamomile plants was studied. Fluorescence staining confirmed reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Cr was mainly accumulated in the roots with translocation factor <0.007. Notwithstanding this, both shoots and roots revealed increase in oxidative stress and depletion of glutathione, total thiols, ascorbic acid and activities of glutathione reductase and partially ascorbate peroxidase mainly at 120μM Cr. Though some protective mechanisms were detected (elevation of nitric oxide, enhancement of GPX activity and increase in phenols and lignin), this was not sufficient to counteract the oxidative damage. Consequently, soluble proteins, tissue water content and biomass production were considerably depleted. Surprising increase in some mineral nutrients in roots (Ca, Fe, Zn and Cu) was also detected. Subsequent experiment confirmed that exogenous calcium suppressed oxidative symptoms and Cr uptake but growth of chamomile seedlings was not improved. Alteration of naturally present reductants could be a reason for Cr(III) signal detected using specific fluorescence reagent: in vitro assay confirmed disappearance of ascorbic acid in equimolar mixture with dichromate (>96% at pH 4 and 7) while such response of glutathione was substantially less visible.

  19. Kinetics and mechanism of hexavalent chromium removal by basic oxygen furnace slag.

    PubMed

    Han, Chong; Jiao, Yanan; Wu, Qianqian; Yang, Wangjin; Yang, He; Xue, Xiangxin

    2016-08-01

    Basic oxygen furnace slag (BOFS) has the potential to remove hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) from wastewater by a redox process due to the presence of minerals containing Fe(2+). The effects of the solution pH, initial Cr(VI) concentration, BOFS dosage, BOFS particle size, and temperature on the removal of Cr(VI) was investigated in detail through batch tests. The chemical and mineral compositions of fresh and reacted BOFS were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) system and X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The results show that Cr(VI) in wastewater can be efficiently removed by Fe(2+) released from BOFS under appropriate acidic conditions. The removal of Cr(VI) by BOFS significantly depended on the parameters mentioned above. The reaction of Cr(VI) with BOFS followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Fe(2+) responsible for Cr(VI) removal was primarily derived from the dissolution of FeO and Fe3O4 in BOFS. When H2SO4 was used to adjust the solution acidity, gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) could be formed and become an armoring precipitate layer on the BOFS surface, hindering the release of Fe(2+) and the removal of Cr(VI). Finally, the main mechanism of Cr(VI) removal by BOFS was described using several consecutive reaction steps.

  20. Assessment of hexavalent chromium release in Malaysian electric arc furnace steel slag for fertilizer usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bankole, L. K.; Rezan, S. A.; Sharif, N. M.

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the leaching of hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) from electric arc furnace steel slag as Cr (VI) is classified as human carcinogen. Batch leaching tests were performed for 16 days. The lixiviants used were alkaline, de-ionized and rain water. After 16 days, Cr (VI) was found to be highest in alkaline water (0.03 mg/L) and lowest in de-ionized water (0.01 mg/L). Besides the lixiviants used, slag stirring speed and liquid to solid ratio also affect Cr (VI) released. The experimental work was complimented with slag characterization using XRF, XRD and SEM/EDX analysis. The leaching process was also simulated via Factsage software to calculate isothermal pourbaix diagrams. The Cr (VI) released was low and below the threshold of 0.1 mg/L set for public water systems. Recycle the slag as fertilizer should be considered safe as it does not exceed the safety limit set for Cr (VI) dissolution.

  1. Soil microbial community response to hexavalent chromium in planted and unplanted soil.

    PubMed

    Ipsilantis, Ioannis; Coyne, Mark S

    2007-01-01

    Theories suggest that rapid microbial growth rates lead to quicker development of metal resistance. We tested these theories by adding hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] to soil, sowing Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), and comparing rhizosphere and bulk soil microbial community responses. Four weeks after the initial Cr(VI) application we measured Cr concentration, microbial biomass by fumigation extraction and soil extract ATP, tolerance to Cr and growth rates with tritiated thymidine incorporation, and performed community substrate use analysis with BIOLOG GN plates. Exchangeable Cr(VI) levels were very low, and therefore we assumed the Cr(VI) impact was transient. Microbial biomass was reduced by Cr(VI) addition. Microbial tolerance to Cr(VI) tended to be higher in the Cr-treated rhizosphere soil relative to the non-treated systems, while microorganisms in the Cr-treated bulk soil were less sensitive to Cr(VI) than microorganisms in the non-treated bulk soil. Microbial diversity as measured by population evenness increased with Cr(VI) addition based on a Gini coefficient derived from BIOLOG substrate use patterns. Principal component analysis revealed separation between Cr(VI) treatments, and between rhizosphere and bulk soil treatments. We hypothesize that because of Cr(VI) addition there was indirect selection for fast-growing organisms, alleviation of competition among microbial communities, and increase in Cr tolerance in the rhizosphere due to the faster turnover rates in that environment.

  2. Preparation of Silk Sericin/Lignin Blend Beads for the Removal of Hexavalent Chromium Ions

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Hyo Won; Shin, Munju; Yun, Haesung; Lee, Ki Hoon

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, novel adsorbents having high adsorption capability and reusability were prepared using agricultural by-products: silk sericin and lignin. Silk sericin and lignin blend beads were successfully prepared using simple coagulation methods for the removal of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) from aqueous solution. A 1 M lithium chloride (LiCl)/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent system successfully dissolved both sericin and lignin and had sufficient viscosity for bead preparation. Compared to the conventional sericin bead adsorbent, sericin/lignin blend beads showed higher Cr(VI) adsorption capacity. The amount of lignin added to the adsorbent greatly affected the adsorption capacity of the beads, and a 50:50 sericin/lignin blend ratio was optimal. Adsorption behavior followed the Freundlich isotherm, which means the adsorption of Cr(VI) occurred on the heterogeneous surface. Cr(VI) adsorption capability increased with temperature because of thermodynamic-kinetic effects. In addition, over 90% of Cr(VI) ions were recovered from the Cr(VI) adsorbed sericin/lignin beads in a 1 M NaOH solution. The adsorption-desorption recycling process was stable for more than seven cycles, and the recycling efficiency was 82%. It is expected that the sericin/lignin beads could be successfully applied in wastewater remediation especially for hazardous Cr(VI) ions in industrial wastewater. PMID:27598142

  3. Assessment of calcium polysulfide for the remediation of hexavalent chromium in chromite ore processing residue (COPR).

    PubMed

    Wazne, Mahmoud; Jagupilla, Santhi Chandra; Moon, Deok Hyun; Jagupilla, Sarath Chandra; Christodoulatos, Christos; Kim, Min Gyu

    2007-05-17

    Bench scale and pilot scale treatability studies were conducted to evaluate the remediation of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in chromite ore processing residue (COPR) using calcium polysulfide. The results from the bench scale study indicated that a calcium polysulfide dosage twice the molar stoichiometric requirement (2x) proved effective in meeting the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) total Cr(VI) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) regulatory standards. The treatment results were more effective at pH 12 than at pH 9.5. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy were also used to assess the treatment performance. Based on the bench scale results, an ex-situ pugmill pilot program was implemented to evaluate the applicability of the calcium polysulfide treatment on a larger scale (1000-lb batch test). The pugmill treatment results met Cr(VI) and TCLP regulatory standards over a period of 15 months. XANES analysis indicated that approximately 62% of Cr(VI) was reduced by calcium polysulfide at stoichiometric ratio of 2x after a curing period of 10 months.

  4. Calcium polysulfide remediation of hexavalent chromium contamination from chromite ore processing residue.

    PubMed

    Graham, Margaret C; Farmer, John G; Anderson, Peter; Paterson, Edward; Hillier, Stephen; Lumsdon, David G; Bewley, Richard J F

    2006-07-01

    Past disposal of high-lime chromite ore processing residue (COPR) from a chemical works in S.E. Glasgow, UK, has led to continuing release of toxic and carcinogenic hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) to groundwaters which are highly contaminated with Cr(VI)O4(2-). Traditional methods of remediating Cr(VI)-contaminated land, e.g. using ferrous sulfate and organic matter, have had limited success in converting Cr(VI) to less harmful and insoluble Cr(III). This paper describes the first application of calcium polysulfide (CaS(x)) to the remediation of contaminated groundwater and high-lime COPR in a series of laboratory experiments, which have demonstrated the effectiveness of the treatment in quantitatively and rapidly reducing Cr(VI) to Cr(III) over the pH range (8-12.5) typically found at the sites. Cr(III)-organic complexes, present in groundwater at one location, were also effectively precipitated upon treatment with CaS(x). The potential for large-scale use of CaS(x) in the remediation of Cr(VI) from COPR is also discussed.

  5. Evaluation of hexavalent chromium extraction method EPA method 3060A for soils using XANES spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Malherbe, Julien; Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Séby, Fabienne; Watson, Russell P; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Pablo; Stutzman, Paul E; Davis, Clay W; Maurizio, Chiara; Unceta, Nora; Sieber, John R; Long, Stephen E; Donard, Olivier F X

    2011-12-15

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) occurrence in soils is generally determined using an extraction step to transfer it to the liquid phase where it is more easily detected and quantified. In this work, the performance of the most common extraction procedure (EPA Method 3060A) using NaOH-Na(2)CO(3) solutions is evaluated using X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES), which enables the quantification of Cr(VI) directly in the solid state. Results obtained with both methods were compared for three solid samples with different matrices: a soil containing chromite ore processing residue (COPR), a loamy soil, and a paint sludge. Results showed that Cr(VI) contents determined by the two methods differ significantly, and that the EPA Method 3060A procedure underestimated the Cr(VI) content in all studied samples. The underestimation is particularly pronounced for COPR. Low extraction yield for EPA Method 3060A was found to be the main reason. The Cr(VI) present in COPR was found to be more concentrated in magnetic phases. This work provides new XANES analyses of SRM 2701 and its extraction residues for the purpose of benchmarking EPA 3060A performance.

  6. Removal of hexavalent chromium from contaminated waters by ultrasound-assisted aqueous solution ball milling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Chen, Zhenhua; Chen, Ding; Xiong, Wei

    2017-02-01

    Batch mode experiments were conducted to study the removal of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) from aqueous solutions using ultrasound-assisted aqueous solution ball milling. The results show that the reduction rate of Cr(VI) by ultrasound-assisted aqueous solution ball milling was significantly faster than that by ball milling or ultrasound treatment alone, and an initial Cr(VI) concentration of 166mg/L could be decreased to 0.35mg/L at 120min. The decisive factors, including initial concentration of Cr(VI), pH value, ultrasonic frequency and filling gas, were studied. It was found that the optimal ultrasonic frequency for ultrasound-assisted aqueous solution ball milling device was 20kHz, and the rate of Cr(VI) reduction as a function of filling gas followed the order: Ar>air>N2>O2. Samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, fluorescence measurements, atomic absorption and the diphenylcarbazide colorimetric method. The Cr(VI) transformed into a precipitate that could be removed from the contaminated water, after which the water could be reused. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Application of phytogenic zerovalent iron nanoparticles in the adsorption of hexavalent chromium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhavi, Vemula; Prasad, T. N. V. K. V.; Reddy, Ambavaram Vijaya Bhaskar; Ravindra Reddy, B.; Madhavi, Gajulapalle

    2013-12-01

    Zerovalent iron nanoparticles (ZVNI) were synthesized using a rapid, single step and completely green synthetic method from the leaf extracts of Eucalyptus globules and were characterized using the techniques Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), UV-Vis Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Zeta potential measurement. The FT-IR analysis reveals that the polyphenolic compounds present in the leaf extract may be responsible for the reduction and stabilization of the ZVNI. These nanoparticles were utilized for the adsorption of hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) and the concentration of Cr (VI) was determined using UV-Vis spectrometer after treating with ZVNI. Response and surface contour plots were drawn with the help of Mini-tab software to explain the adsorption of Cr (VI). The adsorption efficiency of Cr (VI) reaches to the highest value (98.1%) when the reaction time was about 30 min. and the ZVNI dosage was 0.8 g/L. The effective parameters such as adsorbent (ZVNI) dosage, initial Cr (VI) concentration and the kinetics were also examined.

  8. Preparation of Silk Sericin/Lignin Blend Beads for the Removal of Hexavalent Chromium Ions.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Hyo Won; Shin, Munju; Yun, Haesung; Lee, Ki Hoon

    2016-09-02

    In the present study, novel adsorbents having high adsorption capability and reusability were prepared using agricultural by-products: silk sericin and lignin. Silk sericin and lignin blend beads were successfully prepared using simple coagulation methods for the removal of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) from aqueous solution. A 1 M lithium chloride (LiCl)/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent system successfully dissolved both sericin and lignin and had sufficient viscosity for bead preparation. Compared to the conventional sericin bead adsorbent, sericin/lignin blend beads showed higher Cr(VI) adsorption capacity. The amount of lignin added to the adsorbent greatly affected the adsorption capacity of the beads, and a 50:50 sericin/lignin blend ratio was optimal. Adsorption behavior followed the Freundlich isotherm, which means the adsorption of Cr(VI) occurred on the heterogeneous surface. Cr(VI) adsorption capability increased with temperature because of thermodynamic-kinetic effects. In addition, over 90% of Cr(VI) ions were recovered from the Cr(VI) adsorbed sericin/lignin beads in a 1 M NaOH solution. The adsorption-desorption recycling process was stable for more than seven cycles, and the recycling efficiency was 82%. It is expected that the sericin/lignin beads could be successfully applied in wastewater remediation especially for hazardous Cr(VI) ions in industrial wastewater.

  9. Effect of hexavalent chromium on electron leakage of respiratory chain in mitochondria isolated from rat liver.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ying; Zhong, Caigao; Zeng, Ming; Guan, Lan; Luo, Lei

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we explored reactive axygen species (ROS) production in mitochondria, the mechanism of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) hepatotoxicity, and the role of protection by GSH. Intact mitochondria were isolated from rat liver tissues and mitochondrial basal respiratory rates of NADH and FADH2 respiratory chains were determined. Mitochondria were treated with Cr(VI), GSH and several complex inhibitors. Mitochondria energized by glutamate/malate were separately or jointly treated with Rotenone (Rot), diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and antimycinA (Ant), while mitochondria energized by succinate were separately or jointly treated with Rot, DPI ' thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA) and Ant. Cr(VI) concentration-dependently induced ROS production in the NADH and FADH2 respiratory chain in liver mitochondria. Basal respiratory rate of the mitochondrial FADH2 respiratory chain was significantly higher than that of NADH respiratory chain. Hepatic mitochondrial electron leakage induced by Cr(VI) from NADH respiratory chain were mainly from ubiquinone binding sites of complex I and complex III. Treatment with 50µM Cr(VI) enhances forward movement of electrons through FADH2 respiratory chain and leaking through the ubiquinone binding site of complex III. Moreover, the protective effect of GSH on liver mitochondria electron leakage is through removing excess H2O2 and reducing total ROS. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Reduction of hexavalent chromium: photocatalysis and photochemistry and their application in wastewater remediation.

    PubMed

    Machado, Tiele Caprioli; Lansarin, Marla Azário; Matte, Natália

    2014-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium present in wastewater discharge of galvanic industries is toxic to most microorganisms and potentially harmful to human health. This work examines the photochemical reduction of Cr(VI) with ethanol under ultraviolet (UV) and visible radiation, and photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) with TiO2 in the presence of ethanol under UV radiation. By means of different experimental designs, this study investigates the influence of the initial pH, ethanol amount, catalyst concentration and initial Cr(VI) concentration on total Cr(VI) reduction. The results obtained showed that photochemistry with ethanol under UV radiation (96.10%) was more efficient than photochemistry with ethanol under visible light (48.07%). Furthermore, photocatalysis with TiO2 in the presence of ethanol under UV radiation showed high values of total Cr(VI) reduction: 94.15%, under the optimal conditions established by the experimental design. Finally, experiments were carried out with wastewater discharge from an electroplating plant in its original concentration, and higher values of total Cr(VI) reduction were observed.

  11. Removal of hexavalent chromium by using red mud activated with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide.

    PubMed

    Li, Deliang; Ding, Ying; Li, Lingling; Chang, Zhixian; Rao, Zhengyong; Lu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    The removal of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from aqueous solution by using red mud activated with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was studied. The optimum operation parameters, such as CTAB concentration, pH values, contact time, and initial Cr(VI) concentration, were investigated. The best concentration of CTAB for modifying red mud was found to be 0.50% (mCTAB/VHCl,0.6 mol/L). The lower pH (<2) was found to be much more favourable for the removal of Cr(VI). Red mud activated with CTAB can greatly improve the removal ratio of Cr(VI) as high as four times than that of original red mud. Adsorption equilibrium was reached within 30 min under the initial Cr(VI) concentration of 100 mg L(-1). The isotherm data were analysed using Langmuir and Freundlich models. The adsorption of Cr(VI) on activated red mud fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum adsorption capacity was estimated as 22.20 mg g(-1) (Cr/red mud). The adsorption process could be well described using the pseudo-second-order model. The result shows that activated red mud is a promising agent for low-cost water treatment.

  12. Investigation of Hexavalent Chromium Flux to Groundwater at the 100-C-7:1 Excavation Site

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mackley, Rob D.; Horner, Jacob A.; Johnson, Christian D.; Newcomer, Darrell R.

    2012-11-16

    Deep excavation of soil has been conducted at the 100-C-7 and 100-C-7:1 waste sites within the 100-BC Operable Unit at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site to remove hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) contamination with the excavations reaching to near the water table. Soil sampling showed that Cr(VI) contamination was still present at the bottom of the 100-C-7:1 excavation. In addition, Cr(VI) concentrations in a downgradient monitoring well have shown a transient spike of increased Cr(VI) concentration following initiation of excavation. Potentially, the increased Cr(VI) concentrations in the downgradient monitoring well are due to Cr(VI) from the excavation site. However, data were needed to evaluate this possibility and to quantify the overall impact of the 100-C-7:1 excavation site on groundwater. Data collected from a network of aquifer tubes installed across the floor of the 100-C-7:1 excavation and from temporary wells installed at the bottom of the entrance ramp to the excavation were used to evaluate Cr(VI) releases into the aquifer and to estimate local-scale hydraulic properties and groundwater flow velocity.

  13. Photocatalytic removal of hexavalent chromium by newly designed and highly reductive TiO2 nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gongde; Feng, Ji; Wang, Wenshou; Yin, Yadong; Liu, Haizhou

    2017-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI), a highly toxic oxyanion, widely occurs in drinking water supplies. This study designed and synthesized a new type of highly reductive TiO2 nanocrystals for photochemical Cr(VI) removal, via the thermal hydrolysis of TiCl4 in the presence of diethylene glycol (DEG). Surface analyses and hydroxyl radical measurements suggested that DEG was chemically bonded on TiO2 surface that resulted in an internal hole-scavenging effect and a high electron-releasing capacity, making it advantageous to conventional TiO2 materials. Upon UV irradiation, the synthesized TiO2 photocatalyst exhibited fast Cr(VI) reduction kinetics in diverse water chemical conditions. Fast elimination of Cr(VI) was achieved on a time scale of seconds in drinking water matrices. The removal of Cr(VI) by reductive TiO2 exhibited a three-stage kinetic behavior: an initial fast-reaction phase, a lag phase resulting from surface precipitation of Cr(OH)3(s), and a final reaction phase due to surface regeneration from oxidation-reduction induced ripening process. The lag phase disappeared in acidic conditions that prevented the formation of Cr(OH)3(s). The catalyst exhibited extremely high electron-releasing capacity that can be reused for multiple cycles of Cr(VI) removal in drinking water treatment.

  14. Hexavalent chromium removal performance of anionic functionalized monolithic polymers: column adsorption, regeneration and modelling.

    PubMed

    Barlik, Necla; Keskinler, Bülent; Kocakerim, M Muhtar

    2016-01-01

    Anionic functionalized monolithic macro-porous polymers were used for the removal of hexavalent chromium(VI) anions from aqueous solution in column experiments. At a flux of 1.0 cm min and 30 mg Cr(VI) L(-1) feed concentration, breakthrough capacity and apparent capacity were 0.066 g Cr(VI) g(-1) anionic monolith and 0.144 g Cr(VI) g(-1) anionic monolith, respectively. The degree of column utilization was found to lie in the range 41-46%. Two kinetic models, theoretical and Thomas models, were applied to experimental data to predict the breakthrough curves and to determine the characteristic parameters of the column useful for process design. The simulation of the whole breakthrough curve was effective with the models. At a flux of 1.0 cm min and 30 mg Cr(VI) L(-1) feed concentration, the dispersion coefficient and adsorption equilibrium constant (K) were 3.14 × 10(-7) m s(-1) and 3,840, respectively. Also, Thomas model parameters k1 (rate constant of adsorption) and qm (equilibrium solid-phase concentration of sorbed solute) were 1.08 × 10(-3) L mg(-1) min(-1) and 0.124 g g(-1), respectively. After reaching equilibrium adsorption capacity, the monoliths were regenerated using 1 N HCl and were subsequently re-tested. It was found that the regeneration efficiency reduced from 98% after second usage to 97% after the third usage.

  15. Adsorption and desorption of hexavalent chromium in an alluvial aquifer near Telluride, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stollenwerk, K.G.; Grove, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    A laboratory investigation of reactions between hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] and alluvium was conducted to evaluate reactions of Cr(VI) contaminating an alluvial aquifer near Telluride, CO and to determine the mechanisms responsible for these reactions. Uncontaminated alluvium and groundwater (spiked with CrO42-) from the study site were used in batch and column experiments. Results of these experiments show that Cr(VI) was adsorbed by the alluvium. Distribution coefficients from batch experiments ranged from 52 L/kg at an equilibrium CrO42- concentration of 0.4 ??mol/L to 1.7 L/kg at an equilibrium concentration of 1400 ??mol/L. The zero point of charge for the alluvium was approximately 8.3, and the alluvium had a positive net charge at the groundwater pH of 6.8. Visual and chemical evidence indicated that Fe oxide and hydroxide coatings on the alluvial particles principally were responsible for the absorption of Cr(VI). During column experiments, Cr(VI) initially was desorbed easily from the alluvium by Cr-free groundwater; however, the rate of desorption decreased rapidly, and > 60 pore volumes of groundwater were required to decrease the effluent concentration of Cr(VI) to 3 ??mol/L [drinking water standard for Cr(VI) = 1 ??mol/L]. The quantity of Cr(VI) adsorbed varied with the type and concentration of other anions in solution.

  16. Hexavalent chromium removal from near natural water by copper-iron bimetallic particles.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ching-Yao; Lo, Shang-Lien; Liou, Ya-Hsuan; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Shih, Kaimin; Lin, Chin-Jung

    2010-05-01

    The reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) by zero-valent iron (ZVI) is self-inhibiting in near natural groundwater because insulating Fe(III)-Cr(III) (oxy)hydroxide film forms on the ZVI surface during the reaction. This study tries to overcome this deficiency by coating the surface of ZVI with copper to form copper-iron bimetallic particles. The Cr(VI) removal rate by ZVI rose significantly after the copper coating was applied. The copper loading needed for enhancing Cr(VI) removal was much higher than that needed for enhancing removal of chlorinated organic compounds or other oxidative contaminants, because of the higher oxidation potential of Cr(VI). The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicate that coating copper onto the surface of ZVI can not only increase the deepness of the oxidation film but also increase the oxidation state of iron in the film. This phenomenon means higher Cr(VI) removal capacity per unit weight of ZVI.

  17. Hexavalent chromium disrupts mitosis by stabilizing microtubules in Lens culinaris root tip cells.

    PubMed

    Eleftheriou, Eleftherios P; Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S; Fatsiou, Maria; Panteris, Emmanuel

    2013-02-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is an accumulating environmental pollutant due to anthropogenic activities, toxic for humans, animals and plants. Therefore, the effects of Cr(VI) on dividing root cells of lentil (Lens culinaris) were investigated by tubulin immunofluorescence and DNA staining. In Cr(VI)-treated roots, cell divisions were perturbed, the chromosomes formed irregular aggregations, multinucleate cells were produced and tubulin clusters were entrapped within the nuclei. All cell cycle-specific microtubule (MT) arrays were affected, indicating a stabilizing effect of Cr(VI) on the MTs of L. culinaris. Besides, a time- and concentration-dependent gradual increase of acetylated α-tubulin, an indicator of MT stabilization, was observed in Cr(VI)-treated roots by both immunofluorescence and western blotting. Evidence is also provided that reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by Cr(VI), determined with the specific marker dichlorofluorescein, may be responsible for MT stabilization. Combined treatments with Cr(VI) and oryzalin revealed that Cr(VI) overcomes the depolymerizing ability of oryzalin, as it does experimentally introduced hydrogen peroxide, further supporting its stabilizing effect. In conclusion, it is suggested that the mitotic aberrations caused by Cr(VI) in L. culinaris root cells may be the result of MT stabilization rather than depolymerization, which consequently disturbs MT dynamics and their related functions.

  18. Reduction of hexavalent chromium by a novel Ochrobactrum sp. - microbial characteristics and reduction kinetics.

    PubMed

    Narayani, M; Vidya Shetty, K

    2014-04-01

    A Gram negative hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) reducing bacteria, Ochrobactrum sp. Cr-B4 (genbank accession number: JF824998) was isolated from the aerator water of an activated sludge process of a wastewater treatment facility of a dye and pigment based specialty chemical industry. It showed a resistance for 1000 mg L(-1) Cr(VI). It exhibited resistance against other heavy metal ions like Ni(2+) (900 mg L(-1) ), Cu(2+) (500 mg L(-1) ), Pb(2+) (800 mg L(-1) ), and Cd(2+) (250 mg L(-1) ), Zn(2+) (700 mg L(-1) ), Fe(3+) (800 mg L(-1) ), and against selected antibiotics. Cr-B4 could efficiently reduce 200 mg L(-1) Cr(VI) completely in nutrient and LB media and could convert Cr(VI) to Cr(III) efficiently. Cr(VI) reduction in nutrient media followed allosteric enzyme kinetics with Km values of 59.39 mg L(-1) and Vmax values of 47.03 mg L(-1)  h(-1) . The reduction in LB media followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with Km values of 99.52 mg L(-1) and Vmax of 77.63 mg L(-1)  h(-1) . Scanning electron micrograms revealed the presence of extracellular polymeric secretions.

  19. Hexavalent chromium reduction and energy recovery by using dual-chambered microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Gangadharan, Praveena; Nambi, Indumathi M

    2015-01-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology is utilized to treat hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) from wastewater and to generate electricity simultaneously. The Cr(VI) is bioelectrochemically reduced to non-toxic Cr(III) form in the presence of an organic electron donor in a dual-chambered MFC. The Cr(VI) as catholyte and artificial wastewater inoculated with anaerobic sludge as anolyte, Cr(VI) at 100 mg/L was completely removed within 48 h (initial pH value 2.0). The total amount of Cr recovered was 99.87% by the precipitation of Cr(III) on the surface of the cathode. In addition to that 78.4% of total organic carbon reduction was achieved at the anode chamber within 13 days of operation. Furthermore, the maximum power density of 767.01 mW/m² (2.08 mA/m²) was achieved by MFCs at ambient conditions. The present work has successfully demonstrated the feasibility of using MFCs for simultaneous energy production from wastewater and reduction of toxic Cr(VI) to non-toxic Cr(III).

  20. Hexavalent chromium induces apoptosis in male somatic and spermatogonial stem cells via redox imbalance

    PubMed Central

    Das, Joydeep; Kang, Min-Hee; Kim, Eunsu; Kwon, Deug-Nam; Choi, Yun-Jung; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2015-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], an environmental toxicant, causes severe male reproductive abnormalities. However, the actual mechanisms of toxicity are not clearly understood and have not been studied in detail. The present in vitro study aimed to investigate the mechanism of reproductive toxicity of Cr(VI) in male somatic cells (mouse TM3 Leydig cells and TM4 Sertoli cells) and spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) because damage to or dysfunction of these cells can directly affect spermatogenesis, resulting in male infertility. Cr(VI) by inducing oxidative stress was cytotoxic to both male somatic cells and SSCs in a dose-dependent manner, and induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Although the mechanism of Cr(VI)-induced cytotoxicity was similar in both somatic cells, the differences in sensitivity of TM3 and TM4 cells to Cr(VI) could be attributed, at least in part, to cell-specific regulation of P-AKT1, P-ERK1/2, and P-P53 proteins. Cr(VI) affected the differentiation and self-renewal mechanisms of SSCs, disrupted steroidogenesis in TM3 cells, while in TM4 cells, the expression of tight junction signaling and cell receptor molecules was affected as well as the secretory functions were impaired. In conclusion, our results show that Cr(VI) is cytotoxic and impairs the physiological functions of male somatic cells and SSCs. PMID:26355036

  1. Morphological and transcriptional responses of Lycopersicon esculentum to hexavalent chromium in agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-Guo; Hou, Jing; Liu, Xin-Hui; Cui, Bao-Shan; Bai, Jun-Hong

    2016-07-01

    The carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic effects of hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI]) on living organisms through the food chain raise the immediate need to assess the potential toxicological impacts of Cr(VI) on human health. Therefore, the concentration-dependent responses of 12 Cr(VI)-responsive genes selected from a high-throughput Lycopersicon esculentum complementary DNA microarray were examined at different Cr concentrations. The results indicated that most of the genes were differentially expressed from 0.1 mg Cr/kg soil, whereas the lowest-observable-adverse-effect concentrations of Cr(VI) were 1.6 mg Cr/kg soil, 6.4 mg Cr/kg soil, 3.2 mg Cr/kg soil, and 0.4 mg Cr/kg soil for seed germination, root elongation, root biomass, and root morphology, respectively, implying that the transcriptional method was more sensitive than the traditional method in detecting Cr(VI) toxicity. Dose-dependent responses were observed for the relative expression of expansin (p = 0.778), probable chalcone-flavonone isomerase 3 (p = -0.496), and 12S seed storage protein CRD (p = -0.614); therefore, the authors propose the 3 genes as putative biomarkers in Cr(VI)-contaminated soil. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1751-1758. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  2. Biosorption of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions by Macadamia nutshell powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakade, Vusumzi Emmanuel; Ntuli, Themba Dominic; Ofomaja, Augustine Enakpodia

    2016-04-01

    Macadamia nutshell biosorbents treated in three different activating agents [raw Macadamia nutshell powder (RMN), acid-treated Macadamia nutshell (ATMN) and base-treated Macadamia nutshell (BTMN)] were investigated for the adsorption of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from aqueous solutions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra of free and Cr(VI)-loaded sorbents as well as thermogravimetric analysis revealed that the acid and base treatments modified the surface properties of the sorbent. Surface characteristics were also evaluated by the scanning electron microscopy and surface area analyzer. The optimum conditions for the adsorption of Cr(VI) by sorbents were pH 2, contact time 10 h, adsorbent mass 0.2 g and concentration 100 mg L-1. The equilibrium data were fitted into the Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Sips isotherms, and no single model could clearly explain the sorption mechanism. Maximum binding capacities of 45.23, 44.83 and 42.44 mg g-1 for RMN, ATMN and BTMN, respectively, were obtained. The kinetic data were analyzed using the pseudo-first, pseudo-second and Elovich kinetic models, and it was observed that the pseudo-second-order model produced the best fit for the experimental data. Macadamia nutshell sorbents showed potential as low-cost adsorbent for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution.

  3. Environmental exposure to chromium compounds in the valley of León, México.

    PubMed Central

    Armienta-Hernández, M A; Rodríguez-Castillo, R

    1995-01-01

    The effects on the environment and health of the operation of a chromate compounds factory and tanneries in the León valley in central México are discussed. Sampling and analysis of chromium were performed in water, soil, and human urine. Groundwater has been polluted in an area of about 5 km2 by the leaching of a solid factory waste, which results in concentrations up to 50 mg/l of hexavalent chromium. The plume shape and extension appear to be controlled by the prevailing well extraction regime. Total chromium was detected in the soil around the factory as a result of both aerial transport and deposition of dust produced in the chromate process and irrigation with tannery-contaminated water. Analysis of the impact of chromium in air and water on populations with various degrees of exposure revealed that highly harmful health effects were not observed. PMID:7621799

  4. Prospective role of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in attenuating hexavalent chromium-induced functional and cellular damage in rat thyroid.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Irfan Zia; Mahmood, Tariq

    2010-07-01

    Occupational exposure to toxic heavy metals may render industrial workers with thyroid-related problems. Here, we examined the role of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) against hexavalent chromium Cr (VI)-induced damage in rat thyroid gland. Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) and ascorbic acid doses were 60 microg and 120 mg kg(-1) body wt (intraperitoneally [i.p.]) respectively. Treatment regimens were group I rats, saline treated control; group II, only K2Cr2O7; group III, ascorbic acid 1 hour prior K2Cr2O7; group IV, simultaneous doses of ascorbic acid and K2Cr2O7, and group V, a combined premix dose of ascorbic acid and K2 Cr2O7 (2:1 ratio). Blood samples were taken before dosing the animals and 48 hours post exposure to determine the serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) concentrations. Toward end of experiment, rats were sacrificed and thyroid glands were processed to evaluate the extent of cellular insult. Results showed significantly increased TSH and decreased FT3 and FT4 concentrations in groups II, III and IV rats as compared to control levels (p < 0.05). In contrast, in group V rats, serum TSH, FT3 and FT4 concentrations neared control concentrations. Histopathologically, protective effect of ascorbic acid was found in group V rats only, where thyroid gland structure neared control thyroid except the follicular size that was decreased (p < 0.05). Follicular density was no different from control. Basal laminae were intact, interfollicular spaces were normal. Colloid retraction and/or reabsorption were reduced maximally. Epithelial cell height was no different from control; epithelial follicular index increased only 1.3 fold, whereas nuclear-cytoplasmic (N/C) ratio was decreased by 14% only. The study indicates that the ascorbic acid may have the potential to protect thyroid gland from chromium toxicity; however, the study warrants further in-depth experimentation to precisely elucidate this role.

  5. Rats retain chromium in tissues following chronic ingestion of drinking water containing hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, J E; Zhitkovich, A; Kluz, T; Costa, M

    2000-04-01

    Humans have sometimes been exposed to as much as 10 ppm Cr(VI) in drinking water from contaminated wells. The risks to these individuals are not well understood because the digestive tract reduces some of the Cr(VI) to the less bioavailable Cr(III) prior to absorption, and the disposition of the remaining Cr(VI) has not been well studied. We determined tissue Cr concentrations in rats after chronic ingestion of Cr(VI) in drinking water at concentrations relevant to human exposure levels. Adult male and female Fischer 344 rats consumed ad libitum 0, 0.5, 3, or 10 ppm Cr(VI) as K2CrO4 in drinking water for 44 wk. Rats then were given deionized water 4-6 d prior to sample collection. Females given 3 or 10 ppm Cr(VI) consumed more Cr(VI) per unit of body weight than did males. Bone Cr concentrations were significantly elevated in rats that drank 10 ppm Cr(VI). Renal Cr concentrations were significantly elevated in male rats that drank 3 or 10 ppm Cr(VI) and in female rats dosed with 10 ppm Cr(VI). Female rats had elevated liver Cr concentrations after drinking 3 or 10 ppm Cr(VI). Testicular Cr concentrations were slightly elevated in rats that drank 10 ppm Cr(VI). Brain, ovarian, and whole-blood Cr concentrations were below detection limits in all exposure groups. Although tissue Cr accumulation may have resulted from absorption of Cr(III), it is poorly absorbed. Therefore, the increased tissue retention may also have resulted, in part, from increased absorption of Cr(VI) and its subsequent uptake from the systemic circulation.

  6. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism in lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Song-Ze; Yang, Yu-Xiu; Li, Xiu-Ling; Michelli-Rivera, Audrey; Han, Shuang-Yin; Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Wang, Xin; Lu, Jian; Yin, Yuan-Qin; Budhraja, Amit; Hitron, Andrew J.

    2013-05-15

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is an important human carcinogen associated with pulmonary diseases and lung cancer. Exposure to Cr(VI) induces DNA damage, cell morphological change and malignant transformation in human lung epithelial cells. Despite extensive studies, the molecular mechanisms remain elusive, it is also not known if Cr(VI)-induced transformation might accompany with invasive properties to facilitate metastasis. We aimed to study Cr(VI)-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells. The results showed that Cr(VI) at low doses represses E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression, enhances mesenchymal marker vimentin expression and transforms the epithelial cell into fibroblastoid morphology. Cr(VI) also increases cell invasion and promotes colony formation. Further studies indicated that Cr(VI) uses multiple mechanisms to repress E-cadherin expression, including activation of E-cadherin repressors such as Slug, ZEB1, KLF8 and enhancement the binding of HDAC1 in E-cadherin gene promoter, but DNA methylation is not responsible for the loss of E-cadherin. Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced E-cadherin and vimentin protein expression, attenuates cell invasion in matrigel and colony formation on soft agar. These results demonstrate that exposure to a common human carcinogen, Cr(VI), induces EMT and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells and implicate in cancer metastasis and prevention. - Graphical abstract: Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanisms in lung epithelial cells. - Highlights: • We study if Cr(VI) might induce EMT and invasion in epithelial cells. • Cr(VI) induces EMT by altering E-cadherin and vimentin expression. • It also increases cell invasion and promotes oncogenic transformation. • Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced EMT, invasion and

  7. Comparison of in vivo genotoxic and carcinogenic potency to augment mode of action analysis: Case study with hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Chad M; Bichteler, Anne; Rager, Julia E; Suh, Mina; Proctor, Deborah M; Haws, Laurie C; Harris, Mark A

    2016-04-01

    Recent analyses-highlighted by the International Workshops on Genotoxicity Testing Working Group on Quantitative Approaches to Genetic Toxicology Risk Assessment-have identified a correlation between (log) estimates of a carcinogen's in vivo genotoxic potency and in vivo carcinogenic potency in typical laboratory animal models, even when the underlying data have not been matched for tissue, species, or strain. Such a correlation could have important implications for risk assessment, including informing the mode of action (MOA) of specific carcinogens. When in vivo genotoxic potency is weak relative to carcinogenic potency, MOAs other than genotoxicity (e.g., endocrine disruption or regenerative hyperplasia) may be operational. Herein, we review recent in vivo genotoxicity and carcinogenicity data for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), following oral ingestion, in relevant tissues and species in the context of the aforementioned correlation. Potency estimates were generated using benchmark doses, or no-observable-adverse-effect-levels when data were not amenable to dose-response modeling. While the ratio between log values for carcinogenic and genotoxic potency was ≥1 for many compounds, the ratios for several Cr(VI) datasets (including in target tissue) were less than unity. In fact, the ratios for Cr(VI) clustered closely with ratios for chloroform and diethanolamine, two chemicals posited to have non-genotoxic MOAs. These findings suggest that genotoxicity may not play a major role in the cancers observed in rodents following exposure to high concentrations of Cr(VI) in drinking water-a finding consistent with recent MOA and adverse outcome pathway (AOP) analyses concerning Cr(VI). This semi-quantitative analysis, therefore, may be useful to augment traditional MOA and AOP analyses. More case examples will be needed to further explore the general applicability and validity of this approach for human health risk assessment.

  8. 78 FR 7456 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Hexavalent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ...; Hexavalent Chromium Standards for General Industry, Shipyard Employment, and Construction ACTION: Notice... Administration (OSHA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Hexavalent Chromium Standards for...: The Hexavalent Chromium standards for general industry, shipyard employment, and construction...

  9. Remediation of hexavalent chromium spiked soil by using synthesized iron sulfide particles.

    PubMed

    Li, Yujie; Wang, Wanyu; Zhou, Liqiang; Liu, Yuanyuan; Mirza, Zakaria A; Lin, Xiang

    2017-02-01

    Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) stabilized microscale iron sulfide (FeS) particles were synthesized and applied to remediate hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) spiked soil. The effects of parameters including dosage of FeS particles, soil moisture, and natural organic matter (NOM) in soil were investigated with comparison to iron sulfate (FeSO4). The results show that the stabilized FeS particles can reduce Cr(VI) and immobilize Cr in soil quickly and efficiently. The soil moisture ranging from 40% to 70% and NOM in soil had no significant effects on Cr(VI) remediation by FeS particles. When molar ratio of FeS to Cr(VI) was 1.5:1, about 98% of Cr(VI) in soil was reduced by FeS particles in 3 d and Cr(VI) concentration decreased from 1407 mg kg(-1) to 16 mg kg(-1). The total Cr and Cr(VI) in Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) leachate were reduced by 98.4% and 99.4%, respectively. In FeS particles-treated soil, the exchangeable Cr fraction was mainly converted to Fe-Mn oxides bound fraction because of the precipitation of Cr(III)-Fe(III) hydroxides. The physiologically based extraction test (PBET) bioaccessibility of Cr was decreased from 58.67% to 6.98%. Compared to FeSO4, the high Cr(VI) removal and Cr immobilization efficiency makes prepared FeS particles a great potential in field application of Cr(VI) contaminated soil remediation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hexavalent Chromium Is Cytotoxic and Genotoxic to Hawksbill Sea Turtle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Sandra S.; Xie, Hong; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Thompson, W. Douglas; Wise, John Pierce

    2014-01-01

    Sea turtles are a charismatic and ancient ocean species and can serve as key indicators for ocean ecosystems, including coral reefs and sea grass beds as well as coastal beaches. Genotoxicity studies in the species are absent, limiting our understanding of the impact of environmental toxicants on sea turtles. Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a ubiquitous environmental problem worldwide, and recent studies show it is a global marine pollutant of concern. Thus, we evaluated the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of soluble and particulate Cr(VI) in hawksbill sea turtle cells. Particulate Cr(VI) was both cytotoxic and genotoxic to sea turtle cells. Concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 5 μg/cm2 lead chromate induced 108, 79, 54, and 7 percent relative survival, respectively. Additionally, concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 5 μg/cm2 lead chromate induced damage in 4, 10, 15, 26, and 36 percent of cells and caused 4, 11, 17, 30, and 56 chromosome aberrations in 100 metaphases, respectively. For soluble Cr, concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2.5, and 5 μM sodium chromate induced 84, 69, 46, 25, and 3 percent relative survival, respectively. Sodium chromate induced 3, 9, 9, 14, 21, and 29 percent of metaphases with damage, and caused 3, 10, 10, 16, 26, and 39 damaged chromosomes in 100 metaphases at concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2.5, and 5 μM sodium chromate, respectively. These data suggest that Cr(VI) may be a concern for hawksbill sea turtles and sea turtles in general. PMID:24952338

  11. Hexavalent chromium is cytotoxic and genotoxic to hawksbill sea turtle cells.

    PubMed

    Wise, Sandra S; Xie, Hong; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Douglas Thompson, W; Wise, John Pierce

    2014-09-01

    Sea turtles are a charismatic and ancient ocean species and can serve as key indicators for ocean ecosystems, including coral reefs and sea grass beds as well as coastal beaches. Genotoxicity studies in the species are absent, limiting our understanding of the impact of environmental toxicants on sea turtles. Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a ubiquitous environmental problem worldwide, and recent studies show it is a global marine pollutant of concern. Thus, we evaluated the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of soluble and particulate Cr(VI) in hawksbill sea turtle cells. Particulate Cr(VI) was both cytotoxic and genotoxic to sea turtle cells. Concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 5μg/cm(2) lead chromate induced 108, 79, 54, and 7% relative survival, respectively. Additionally, concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 5μg/cm(2) lead chromate induced damage in 4, 10, 15, 26, and 36% of cells and caused 4, 11, 17, 30, and 56 chromosome aberrations in 100 metaphases, respectively. For soluble Cr, concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2.5, and 5μM sodium chromate induced 84, 69, 46, 25, and 3% relative survival, respectively. Sodium chromate induced 3, 9, 9, 14, 21, and 29% of metaphases with damage, and caused 3, 10, 10, 16, 26, and 39 damaged chromosomes in 100 metaphases at concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2.5, and 5μM sodium chromate, respectively. These data suggest that Cr(VI) may be a concern for hawksbill sea turtles and sea turtles in general.

  12. Hexavalent chromium release from lignite fly ash and related ecotoxic effects.

    PubMed

    Darakas, Efthymios; Tsiridis, Vasilios; Petala, Maria; Kungolos, Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) is a pollutant of immense concern due to its high mobility to water sources and highly toxic properties. In most cases, Cr(VI) could be released from lignite fly ash in aquatic environment when fly ash comes into contact with water. In this study, the contribution of the leaching patterns and bioavailability of Cr(VI) from lignite fly ash to the overall ecotoxic properties of fly ash leachates was originally examined and leaching procedures were evaluated in this context. A series of customized leaching tests were conducted and a battery of ecotoxicity tests including the crustacean Daphnia magna and the photobacterium Vibrio fischeri was applied. The leaching of Cr(VI) was pH and liquid to solid (L/S) ratio dependent, exhibiting the highest releases at pH values between 7 and 8. At the liquid to solid ratio (L/S) equal to 100 L/kg, the (CrVI) release reached a plateau, implying the presence of diffusion constrains and/or solubility hindrances. The toxic effect of the leachates obtained under leaching at pH 7 towards D. magna was relatively high (TU = 28.6 (23.8-35.7) at L/S = 10 L/kg). Interestingly, the toxicity of the leachates towards D. magna not only was significantly correlated to Cr(VI) (r = 0.961, P < 0.01), but the toxicity of the leachates (in absolute values) was matching the toxicity of the Cr(VI) revealing its remarkable contribution to the overall effect. In addition, the lower sensitivity of the bacteria V. fischeri when exposed to the leachates, along with the time dependence of the toxicity profiles supported the interpretation of the results obtained in this study.

  13. Hexavalent chromium is cytotoxic and genotoxic to hawksbill sea turtle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, Sandra S.; Xie, Hong; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Douglas Thompson, W.; and others

    2014-09-01

    Sea turtles are a charismatic and ancient ocean species and can serve as key indicators for ocean ecosystems, including coral reefs and sea grass beds as well as coastal beaches. Genotoxicity studies in the species are absent, limiting our understanding of the impact of environmental toxicants on sea turtles. Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a ubiquitous environmental problem worldwide, and recent studies show it is a global marine pollutant of concern. Thus, we evaluated the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of soluble and particulate Cr(VI) in hawksbill sea turtle cells. Particulate Cr(VI) was both cytotoxic and genotoxic to sea turtle cells. Concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 5 μg/cm{sup 2} lead chromate induced 108, 79, 54, and 7% relative survival, respectively. Additionally, concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 5 μg/cm{sup 2} lead chromate induced damage in 4, 10, 15, 26, and 36% of cells and caused 4, 11, 17, 30, and 56 chromosome aberrations in 100 metaphases, respectively. For soluble Cr, concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2.5, and 5 μM sodium chromate induced 84, 69, 46, 25, and 3% relative survival, respectively. Sodium chromate induced 3, 9, 9, 14, 21, and 29% of metaphases with damage, and caused 3, 10, 10, 16, 26, and 39 damaged chromosomes in 100 metaphases at concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2.5, and 5 μM sodium chromate, respectively. These data suggest that Cr(VI) may be a concern for hawksbill sea turtles and sea turtles in general. - Highlights: • Particulate Cr(VI) is cytotoxic and clastogenic to hawksbill sea turtle cells. • Soluble Cr(VI) is cytotoxic and clastogenic to hawksbill sea turtle cells. • Cr(VI) may be a risk factor for hawksbill sea turtle health.

  14. Double shroud delivery of silica precursor for reducing hexavalent chromium in welding fume.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Kalivoda, Mark; Guan, Jianying; Theodore, Alexandros; Sharby, Jessica; Wu, Chang-Yu; Paulson, Kathleen; Es-Said, Omar

    2012-01-01

    The welding process yields a high concentration of nanoparticles loaded with hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)), a known human carcinogen. Previous studies have demonstrated that using tetramethylsilane (TMS) as a shielding gas additive can significantly reduce the Cr(6+) concentration in welding fume particles. In this study, a novel insulated double shroud torch (IDST) was developed to further improve the reduction of airborne Cr(6+) concentration by separating the flows of the primary shielding gas and the TMS carrier gas. Welding fumes were collected from a welding chamber in the laboratory and from a fixed location near the welding arc in a welding facility. The Cr(6+) content was analyzed with ion chromatography and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results from the chamber sampling demonstrated that the addition of 3.2 ≈ 5.1% of TMS carrier gas to the primary shielding gas resulted in more than a 90% reduction of airborne Cr(6+) under all shielding gas flow rates. The XPS result confirmed complete elimination of Cr(6+) inside the amorphous silica shell. Adding 100 ≈ 1000 ppm of nitric oxide or carbon monoxide to the shielding gas could also reduce Cr(6+) concentrations up to 57% and 35%, respectively; however, these reducing agents created potential hazards from the release of unreacted agents. Results of the field test showed that the addition of 1.6% of TMS carrier gas to the primary shielding gas reduced Cr(6+) concentration to the limitation of detection (1.1 μg/m(3)). In a worst-case scenario, if TMS vapor leaked into the environment without decomposition and ventilation, the estimated TMS concentration in the condition of field sampling would be a maximum 5.7 ppm, still well below its flammability limit (1%). Based on a previously developed cost model, the use of TMS increases the general cost by 3.8%. No visual deterioration of weld quality caused by TMS was found, although further mechanical testing is necessary.

  15. Removing hexavalent chromium from subsurface waters with anion-exchange resin

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, R.A.

    1995-06-01

    Some subsurface waters at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), is also present in the ground water; however, the source of the Cr(VI) may be natural. The Cr(VI) still must be treated if brought to the surface because its concentration exceeds discharge standards. We are planning facilities for removing the VOCs and Cr(VI) to a level below the discharge standards. The planned treatment includes the following steps: (1) Pumping the water to the surface facility. (2) Purging the VOCs with air and absorbing them on activated carbon. The VOCs in LLNL`s subsurface waters are primarily chlorinated organic solvents, such as dichloroethylene (DCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), and chloroform (CHCl{sub 3}). Contamination levels range from tens to thousands of parts per billion. (3) Filtering the water. (4) Passing the water through anion-exchange resin to remove the Cr. The Cr in LLNL subsurface waters occurs almost entirely as Cr(VI), which exists as the chromate anion, CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, at environmental pH. Cr levels range from tens to hundreds of parts per billion. (5) Discharging the treated water into the local arroyos. The relevant discharge criteria are 5 ppb total VOCs, 11 ppb Cr(VI), and pH between 6.5 and 8.5, inclusive. This report describes laboratory experiments undertaken to learn how the proposed treatment facility can be expected to operate. The laboratory results are expected to supply vendors with the detailed performance specifications needed to prepare bids on the Cr removal portion of the treatment facility. The treatment facility is expected to process 60 gallons per minute (gpm) of water by stripping VOCs with 720 standard cubic feet per minute (scfm) of air and removing Cr(VI) with 60 ft{sup 3} of resin.

  16. Hexavalent Chromium Reduction under Fermentative Conditions with Lactate Stimulated Native Microbial Communities

    SciTech Connect

    Somenahally, Anil C; Mosher, Jennifer J; Yuan, Tong; Phelps, Tommy Joe; Brown, Steven D; Yang, Zamin Koo; Hazen, Terry C; Arkin, Adam; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Van Nostrand, Dr. Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; Elias, Dwayne A

    2013-01-01

    Microbial reduction of toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in-situ is a plausible bioremediation strategy in electron-acceptor limited environments. However, higher [Cr(VI)] may impose stress on syntrophic communities and impact community structure and function. The study objectives were to understand the impacts of Cr(VI) concentrations on community structure and on the Cr(VI)-reduction potential of groundwater communities at Hanford, WA. Steady state continuous flow bioreactors were used to grow native communities enriched with lactate (30 mM) and continuously amended with Cr(VI) at 0.0 (No-Cr), 0.1 (Low-Cr) and 3.0 (High-Cr) mg/L. Microbial growth, metabolites, Cr(VI), 16S rRNA gene sequences and GeoChip based functional gene composition were monitored for 15 weeks. Temporal trends and differences in growth, metabolite profiles, and community composition were observed, largely between Low-Cr and High-Cr bioreactors. In both High-Cr and Low-Cr bioreactors, Cr(VI) levels were below detection from week 1 until week 15. With lactate enrichment, native bacterial diversity substantially decreased as Pelosinus spp., and Sporotalea spp., became the dominant groups, but did not significantly differ between Cr concentrations. The Archaea diversity also substantially decreased after lactate enrichment from Methanosaeta (35%), Methanosarcina (17%) and others, to mostly Methanosarcina spp. (95%). Methane production was lower in High-Cr reactors suggesting some inhibition of methanogens. Several key functional genes were distinct in Low-Cr bioreactors compared to High-Cr. Among the Cr resistant microbes, Burkholderia vietnamiensis, Comamonas testosterone and Ralstonia pickettii proliferated in Cr amended bioreactors. In-situ fermentative conditions facilitated Cr(VI) reduction, and as a result 3.0 mg/L Cr(VI) did not impact the overall bacterial community structure.

  17. Immunological pattern alteration in shoe, hide, and leather industry workers exposed to hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Mignini, Fiorenzo; Tomassoni, Daniele; Traini, Enea; Vitali, Mario; Scuri, Stefania; Baldoni, Emilia; Grappasonni, Iolanda; Cocchioni, Mario

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the effects of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] on shoe, leather, and hide industry workers, based on the assumption that Cr(VI) can behave as an environmental immunological "stressor." The immunological patterns of 84 male subjects were studied in relation to Cr(VI) hematic and urinary levels. Cr(VI) was measured through atomic absorption. Lymphocyte subsets, mitogen-mediated lymphocyte-proliferation, cytokine levels, and natural killer (NK) cytotoxic activity were also assayed. The urinary levels of the total amount of Cr(VI) were significantly higher in a subgroup of exposed subjects (group B) than in the control or in the lower exposed (group A). In group B, Cr(VI) caused a decrease in the density of glucocorticoid receptors (GR) on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and a increase of IL-6. Cr(VI) did not modify NK-mediated cytotoxicity, the plasmatic levels of inflammatory cytokines and related soluble receptors, and prostaglandin levels, while it tended to increase lymphocyte sensitivity to mitogens and the production of immunomodulant cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-4, and IL-2). The experimental addition of Cr(VI) to the in vitro lymphocyte culture determined a significant inhibition of phagocytosis percentage, index, and killing percentage. These effects were neutralized by exogenous IFN-gamma. Cr(VI) could represent an environmental immunological stressor whose effects can be evaluated through laboratory surveys. The lymphocyte mitogen-induced proliferation, GR receptor on PBMC, and IL-6 plasma levels may represent a discriminating element between Cr(VI)-induced stress and other kinds of stress.

  18. Photocatalytic reduction of hexavalent chromium with illuminated amorphous FeOOH.

    PubMed

    Samarghandi, Mohammad-Reza; Yang, Jae-Kyu; Giahi, Omid; Shirzad-Siboni, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, photocatalytic reduction of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] by amorphous FeOOH was investigated with variations in FeOOH dosage, pH, initial Cr(VI) concentration, purging gas, organic compounds and initial hydrogen peroxide concentration. Reduction and adsorption were identified as important processes for the removal of Cr(VI). FeOOH dosage was also an important parameter for the removal of Cr(VI). As the FeOOH dosage increased up to 0.5 g/L, the removal of Cr(VI) was continuously enhanced and then decreased above 0.5 g/L due to increased blockage of the incident UV light. The removal efficiency of Cr(VI) decreased with increasing pH, initial Cr(VI) concentration and initial hydrogen peroxide concentration. While the removal efficiency of Cr(VI) increased with purging of nitrogen gas compared to that of oxygen gas because of less competition between dissolved oxygen and Cr(VI) with the electron in the conduction band of FeOOH. The photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) was increased in the presence of citric acid and phenol, while it was decreased in the presence of EDTA and oxalic acid. The reaction rate constant (kobs) was decreased from 0.2141 to 0.0026 1/min and the value of electrical energy per order (EEo) was increased from 22.41 to 1846.15 (kWh/m3) with increasing initial Cr(VI) concentration from 10 to 50 mg/L, respectively. Finally, proper photocatalytic activity was maintained even after five successive cycles.

  19. Hexavalent Chromium Reduction under Fermentative Conditions with Lactate Stimulated Native Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Tong; Podar, Mircea; Phelps, Tommy J.; Brown, Steven D.; Yang, Zamin K.; Hazen, Terry C.; Arkin, Adam P.; Palumbo, Anthony V.; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2013-01-01

    Microbial reduction of toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in-situ is a plausible bioremediation strategy in electron-acceptor limited environments. However, higher [Cr(VI)] may impose stress on syntrophic communities and impact community structure and function. The study objectives were to understand the impacts of Cr(VI) concentrations on community structure and on the Cr(VI)-reduction potential of groundwater communities at Hanford, WA. Steady state continuous flow bioreactors were used to grow native communities enriched with lactate (30 mM) and continuously amended with Cr(VI) at 0.0 (No-Cr), 0.1 (Low-Cr) and 3.0 (High-Cr) mg/L. Microbial growth, metabolites, Cr(VI), 16S rRNA gene sequences and GeoChip based functional gene composition were monitored for 15 weeks. Temporal trends and differences in growth, metabolite profiles, and community composition were observed, largely between Low-Cr and High-Cr bioreactors. In both High-Cr and Low-Cr bioreactors, Cr(VI) levels were below detection from week 1 until week 15. With lactate enrichment, native bacterial diversity substantially decreased as Pelosinus spp., and Sporotalea spp., became the dominant groups, but did not significantly differ between Cr concentrations. The Archaea diversity also substantially decreased after lactate enrichment from Methanosaeta (35%), Methanosarcina (17%) and others, to mostly Methanosarcina spp. (95%). Methane production was lower in High-Cr reactors suggesting some inhibition of methanogens. Several key functional genes were distinct in Low-Cr bioreactors compared to High-Cr. Among the Cr resistant microbes, Burkholderia vietnamiensis, Comamonas testosterone and Ralstonia pickettii proliferated in Cr amended bioreactors. In-situ fermentative conditions facilitated Cr(VI) reduction, and as a result 3.0 mg/L Cr(VI) did not impact the overall bacterial community structure. PMID:24376771

  20. Hexavalent chromium reduction under fermentative conditions with lactate stimulated native microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Somenahally, Anil C; Mosher, Jennifer J; Yuan, Tong; Podar, Mircea; Phelps, Tommy J; Brown, Steven D; Yang, Zamin K; Hazen, Terry C; Arkin, Adam P; Palumbo, Anthony V; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhou, Jizhong; Elias, Dwayne A

    2013-01-01

    Microbial reduction of toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in-situ is a plausible bioremediation strategy in electron-acceptor limited environments. However, higher [Cr(VI)] may impose stress on syntrophic communities and impact community structure and function. The study objectives were to understand the impacts of Cr(VI) concentrations on community structure and on the Cr(VI)-reduction potential of groundwater communities at Hanford, WA. Steady state continuous flow bioreactors were used to grow native communities enriched with lactate (30 mM) and continuously amended with Cr(VI) at 0.0 (No-Cr), 0.1 (Low-Cr) and 3.0 (High-Cr) mg/L. Microbial growth, metabolites, Cr(VI), 16S rRNA gene sequences and GeoChip based functional gene composition were monitored for 15 weeks. Temporal trends and differences in growth, metabolite profiles, and community composition were observed, largely between Low-Cr and High-Cr bioreactors. In both High-Cr and Low-Cr bioreactors, Cr(VI) levels were below detection from week 1 until week 15. With lactate enrichment, native bacterial diversity substantially decreased as Pelosinus spp., and Sporotalea spp., became the dominant groups, but did not significantly differ between Cr concentrations. The Archaea diversity also substantially decreased after lactate enrichment from Methanosaeta (35%), Methanosarcina (17%) and others, to mostly Methanosarcina spp. (95%). Methane production was lower in High-Cr reactors suggesting some inhibition of methanogens. Several key functional genes were distinct in Low-Cr bioreactors compared to High-Cr. Among the Cr resistant microbes, Burkholderia vietnamiensis, Comamonas testosterone and Ralstonia pickettii proliferated in Cr amended bioreactors. In-situ fermentative conditions facilitated Cr(VI) reduction, and as a result 3.0 mg/L Cr(VI) did not impact the overall bacterial community structure.

  1. Comparison of three sampling and analytical methods for the determination of airborne hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Boiano, J M; Wallace, M E; Sieber, W K; Groff, J H; Wang, J; Ashley, K

    2000-08-01

    A field study was conducted with the goal of comparing the performance of three recently developed or modified sampling and analytical methods for the determination of airborne hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)). The study was carried out in a hard chrome electroplating facility and in a jet engine manufacturing facility where airborne Cr(VI) was expected to be present. The analytical methods evaluated included two laboratory-based procedures (OSHA Method ID-215 and NIOSH Method 7605) and a field-portable method (NIOSH Method 7703). These three methods employ an identical sampling methodology: collection of Cr(VI)-containing aerosol on a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) filter housed in a sampling cassette, which is connected to a personal sampling pump calibrated at an appropriate flow rate. The basis of the analytical methods for all three methods involves extraction of the PVC filter in alkaline buffer solution, chemical isolation of the Cr(VI) ion, complexation of the Cr(VI) ion with 1,5-diphenylcarbazide, and spectrometric measurement of the violet chromium diphenylcarbazone complex at 540 nm. However, there are notable specific differences within the sample preparation procedures used in three methods. To assess the comparability of the three measurement protocols, a total of 20 side-by-side air samples were collected, equally divided between a chromic acid electroplating operation and a spray paint operation where water soluble forms of Cr(VI) were used. A range of Cr(VI) concentrations from 0.6 to 960 microg m(-3), with Cr(VI) mass loadings ranging from 0.4 to 32 microg, was measured at the two operations. The equivalence of the means of the log-transformed Cr(VI) concentrations obtained from the different analytical methods was compared. Based on analysis of variance (ANOVA) results, no statistically significant differences were observed between mean values measured using each of the three methods. Small but statistically significant differences were observed between

  2. Adsorption and Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium on the Surface of Vivianite at Acidic Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HA, S.; Hyun, S. P.; Lee, W.

    2016-12-01

    Due to the rapid increase of chemical use in industrial activities, acid spills have frequently occurred in Korea. The acid spill causes soil and water acidification and additional problems such as heavy metal leaching from the soil. Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is relatively mobile in the environment and toxic and mutagenic. Monoclinic octa-hydrated ferrous phosphate, vivianite, is one of commonly found iron-bearing soil minerals occurring in phosphorous-enriched reducing environments. We have investigated reductive sorption of Cr(VI) on the vivianite surfaces using batch experimental tests under diverse groundwater conditions. Cr(VI) (5 mg/L) was added in 6.5 g/L vivianite suspension buffered at pH 5, 7, and 9, using 0.05 M HEPES or tris buffer solution, to check the effect of pH on the reductive sorption of Cr(VI) on the vivianite surface. The aqueous Cr(VI) removal was fastest at pH 5, followed by pH 7, and pH 9. The effect of ionic strength on the removal kinetics of Cr(VI) was negligible. It could be subsequently removed via sorption and reduction on the surface of vivianite of which reactive chemical species could be aqueous Fe(II), iron oxides, and metavivianite. Adsorption test was conducted using the same amount of Cr(III) to check the selectivity of chromium species on the vivianite surface for the reductive adsorption. Through Cr extraction test, amount of strong-bound Cr to vivianite is similar for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) injection but amount of weak-bound Cr is bigger for Cr(VI) injection. Reaction mechanism for the sorption and reductive transformation of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) species at reactive sites of vivianite surface are discussed based on surface complexation modeling and K-edge Fe X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) results. Since vivianite is reacted with Cr(VI), two smooth peaks of absorption edge changed to one sharp peak. Pre-edge that contains 1s-3d transition information tends to show high peak when reaction time is increased and pH is

  3. Investigations on the nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity of trivalent and hexavalent chromium compounds.

    PubMed

    Dartsch, P C; Hildenbrand, S; Kimmel, R; Schmahl, F W

    1998-09-01

    In contrast to trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) compounds, hexavalent chromium ((Cr(VI)) compounds are oxidizing agents capable of directly inducing tissue damage and possessing carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic potency. After oral or dermal absorption of Cr(VI), the kidney is the main target organ for chromium accumulation, which might result in acute tubular necrosis in humans. In contrast, an acute toxic effect of Cr(VI) on the liver has not yet been described. Therefore, we used two established epithelial cell lines from the kidney (Opossum kidney cells) and the liver (Hep G2 cells) to design an in vitro-assay which is able to examine acute toxic effects of chromium compounds. Cells of both cell lines were treated with various concentrations of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) ranging from 0.01 micromol/l to 1 mmol/l for 24 h. Thereafter, cell morphology, organization of the intracellular cytoskeleton, number of viable cells and mean cell volume were examined. The results show that Cr(VI), but not Cr(III), has an acute cytotoxic effect and causes a dose-dependent loss in cell viability. The effective dose that caused 50% of cell death was 5 micromol/l for kidney epithelial cells and 50 micromol/l for liver epithelial cells. This means that kidney epithelial cells are 10 times more sensitive towards Cr(VI) treatment than liver epithelial cells and this might explain the known nephrotoxicity in vivo. The loss in cell viability was accompanied by a rounding and detachment of the cells and a marked reduction of intracellular F-actin-containing stress fibers. Microtubules and intermediate-sized filaments were observed to be unaffected. Only in the case of kidney epithelial cells, a dose-dependent cell volume increase was observed after Cr(VI) treatment at concentrations up to 50 micromol/l. At higher concentrations, the cell volume decreased due to the high number of cells undergoing lysis and the appearance of cellular fragments. Various chloride channel blockers with

  4. Fixed-bed column study for hexavalent chromium removal and recovery by short-chain polyaniline synthesized on jute fiber.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Potsangbam Albino; Chakraborty, Saswati

    2009-03-15

    Fixed-bed column studies were conducted to evaluate performance of a short-chain polymer, polyaniline, synthesized on the surface of jute fiber (PANI-jute) for the removal of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in aqueous environment. Influent pH, column bed depth, influent Cr(VI) concentrations and influent flow rate were variable parameters for the present study. Optimum pH for total chromium removal was observed as 3 by electrostatic attraction of acid chromate ion (HCrO(4)(-)) with protonated amine group (NH(3)(+)) of PANI-jute. With increase in column bed depth from 40 to 60 cm, total chromium uptake by PANI-jute increased from 4.14 to 4.66 mg/g with subsequent increase in throughput volume from 9.84 to 12.6L at exhaustion point. The data obtained for total chromium removal were well described by BDST equation till 10% breakthrough. Adsorption rate constant and dynamic bed capacity at 10% breakthrough were observed as 0.01 L/mgh and 1069.46 mg/L, respectively. Adsorbed total chromium was recovered back from PANI-jute as non-toxic Cr(III) after ignition with more than 97% reduction in weight, minimizing the problem of solid waste disposal.

  5. Profiling stainless steel welding processes to reduce fume emissions, hexavalent chromium emissions and operating costs in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Keane, Michael; Siert, Arlen; Stone, Samuel; Chen, Bean T

    2016-01-01

    Nine gas metal arc welding (GMAW) processes for stainless steel were assessed for fume generation rates, fume generation rates per g of electrode consumed, and emission rates for hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)). Elemental manganese, nickel, chromium, iron emissions per unit length of weld, and labor plus consumables costs were similarly measured. Flux-cored arc welding and shielded metal arc (SMAW) processes were also studied. The objective was to identify the best welding processes for reducing workplace exposures, and estimate costs for all processes. Using a conical chamber, fumes were collected, weighed, recovered, and analyzed by inductively coupled atomic emission spectroscopy for metals, and by ion chromatography for Cr(6+). GMAW processes used were Surface Tension Transfer, Regulated Metal Deposition, Cold Metal Transfer, short-circuit, axial spray, and pulsed spray modes. Flux-cored welding used gas shielding; SMAW used E308 rods. Costs were estimated as dollars per m length of a ¼ in (6.3 mm) thick horizontal butt weld; equipment costs were estimated as ratios of new equipment costs to a 250 ampere capacity SMAW welding machine. Results indicate a broad range of fume emission factors for the processes studied. Fume emission rates per g of electrode were lowest for GMAW processes such as pulsed-spray mode (0.2 mg/g), and highest for SMAW (8 mg fume/g electrode). Emission rates of Cr(6+) ranged from 50-7800 µg/min, and Cr(6+) generation rates per g electrode ranged from 1-270 µg/g. Elemental Cr generation rates spanned 13-330 µg/g. Manganese emission rates ranged from 50-300 µg/g. Nickel emission rates ranged from 4-140 µg/g. Labor and consumables costs ranged from $3.15 (GMAW pulsed spray) to $7.40 (SMAW) per meter of finished weld, and were measured or estimated for all 11 processes tested. Equipment costs for some processes may be as much as five times the cost of a typical SMAW welding machine. The results show that all of the GMAW processes in this

  6. Profiling stainless steel welding processes to reduce fume emissions, hexavalent chromium emissions and operating costs in the workplace

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Michael; Siert, Arlen; Stone, Samuel; Chen, Bean T.

    2016-01-01

    Nine gas metal arc welding (GMAW) processes for stainless steel were assessed for fume generation rates, fume generation rates per g of electrode consumed, and emission rates for hexavalent chromium (Cr6+). Elemental manganese, nickel, chromium, iron emissions per unit length of weld and labor plus consumables costs were similarly measured. Flux-cored arc welding and shielded metal arc (SMAW) processes were also studied. The objective was to identify the best welding processes for reducing workplace exposures, and estimate costs for all processes. Using a conical chamber, fumes were collected, weighed, recovered and analyzed by inductively-coupled atomic emission spectroscopy for metals, and by ion chromatography for Cr6+. GMAW processes used were Surface Tension Transfer™, Regulated Metal Deposition™, Cold Metal Transfer™, short-circuit, axial spray, and pulsed spray modes. Flux-cored welding used gas shielding; SMAW used E308 rods. Costs were estimated as dollars per m length of a ¼ in (6.3 mm) thick horizontal butt weld; equipment costs were estimated as ratios of new equipment costs to a 250 ampere capacity SMAW welding machine. Results indicate a broad range of fume emission factors for the processes studied. Fume emission rates per g of electrode were lowest for GMAW processes such as pulsed-spray mode (0.2 mg/g), and highest for SMAW (8 mg fume/g electrode). Emission rates of Cr6+ ranged from 50 to 7800 μg/min, and Cr6+ generation rates per g electrode ranged from 1 to 270μg/g. Elemental Cr generation rates spanned 13 to 330μg/g. Manganese emission rates ranged from 50 to 300μg/g. Nickel emission rates ranged from 4 to140 μg/g. Labor and consumables costs ranged from $3.15 (GMAW pulsed spray) to $7.40 (SMAW) per meter of finished weld, and were measured or estimated for all 11 processes tested. Equipment costs for some processes may be as much as 5 times the cost of a typical SMAW welding machine. The results show that all of the GMAW processes

  7. Quantitative aspects of contact allergy to chromium and exposure to chrome-tanned leather.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Malene Barré; Rydin, Stefan; Menné, Torkil; Duus Johansen, Jeanne

    2002-09-01

    The potential of trivalent and hexavalent chromium to induce and elicit allergic contact dermatitis and the degree of chromium exposure from leather products are reviewed. Chromium dermatitis is often due to exposure in the occupational environment, with cement being one of the most common chromium sources. However, consumer products such as chromium(III)-tanned leather products are also an important source of chromium exposure. Apart from Cr(III), which is used for tanning, leather often also contains trace amounts of Cr(VI), which is formed by oxidation of Cr(III) during the tanning process. In a recent study of the Cr(VI) content of leather products bought on the Danish market, 35% of such articles had a Cr(VI) content above the detection limit of 3 p.p.m., ranging from 3.6 p.p.m. to 14.7 p.p.m. Leachable Cr(III) was detected at levels of 430-980 p.p.m. An examination of available dose-response studies showed that exposure to occluded patch test concentrations of 7-45 p.p.m. Cr(VI) elicits a reaction in 10% of the chromium-sensitive patients. When reviewing repeated open exposure studies, it is seen that either exposure to 5 p.p.m. Cr(VI) in the presence of 1% sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) or exposure to 10 p.p.m. Cr(VI) alone both elicit eczema in chromium-sensitive patients. The eliciting capacity of Cr(III) has not been systematically investigated but, compared to Cr(VI), much higher concentrations are needed to elicit eczema.

  8. AN IN-SITU PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER FOR THE TREATMENT OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM AND TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN GROUND WATER: VOLUME 1 DESIGN AND INSTALLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 46 m long, 7.3 m deep, and 0.6 m wide permeable subsurface reactive wall was installed at the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Support Center, near Elizabeth City, North Carolina, in June 1996. The reactive wall was designed to remediate hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] contaminated ground ...

  9. AN IN SITU PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER FOR THE TREATMENT OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM AND TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN GROUNDWATER:VOLUME 2 PERFORMANCE MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 46 m long, 7.3 m deep, and 0.6 m wide permeable subsurface reactive wall was installed at the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Support Center, near Elizabeth City, North Carolina, in June 1996. The reactive wall was designed to remediate hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] contaminated ground ...

  10. TREATMENT OF A SATURATED ZONE HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM SOURCE AREA USING A FERROUS SULFATE/SODIUM DITHIONITE MIXTURE: A FIELD PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field pilot study was conducted to evaluate the performance of a combined ferrous sulfate/sodium dithionite solution for in situ treatment of a saturated zone hexavalent chromium source area at a former ferrochromium alloy production facility in Charleston, S.C. The saturate...

  11. AN IN SITU PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER FOR THE TREATMENT OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM AND TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN GROUNDWATER:VOLUME 2 PERFORMANCE MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 46 m long, 7.3 m deep, and 0.6 m wide permeable subsurface reactive wall was installed at the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Support Center, near Elizabeth City, North Carolina, in June 1996. The reactive wall was designed to remediate hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] contaminated ground ...

  12. AN IN-SITU PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER FOR THE TREATMENT OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM AND TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN GROUND WATER: VOLUME 1 DESIGN AND INSTALLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 46 m long, 7.3 m deep, and 0.6 m wide permeable subsurface reactive wall was installed at the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Support Center, near Elizabeth City, North Carolina, in June 1996. The reactive wall was designed to remediate hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] contaminated ground ...

  13. TREATMENT OF A SATURATED ZONE HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM SOURCE AREA USING A FERROUS SULFATE/SODIUM DITHIONITE MIXTURE: A FIELD PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field pilot study was conducted to evaluate the performance of a combined ferrous sulfate/sodium dithionite solution for in situ treatment of a saturated zone hexavalent chromium source area at a former ferrochromium alloy production facility in Charleston, S.C. The saturate...

  14. TREATMENT OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM IN CHROMITE ORE PROCESSING SOLID WASTE USING A MIXED REDUCTANT SOLUTION OF FERROUS SULFATE AND SODIUM DITHIONITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a method for disseminating ferrous iron in the subsurface to enhance chemical reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in a chromite ore processing solid waste derived from the production of ferrochrome alloy. The method utilizes ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) in combinati...

  15. TREATMENT OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM IN CHROMITE ORE PROCESSING SOLID WASTE USING A MIXED REDUCTANT SOLUTION OF FERROUS SULFATE AND SODIUM DITHIONITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a method for disseminating ferrous iron in the subsurface to enhance chemical reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in a chromite ore processing solid waste derived from the production of ferrochrome alloy. The method utilizes ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) in combinati...

  16. Hexavalent chromium reduction in contaminated soil: A comparison between ferrous sulphate and nanoscale zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Di Palma, L; Gueye, M T; Petrucci, E

    2015-01-08

    Iron sulphate (FeSO4) and colloidal nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) as reducing agents were compared, with the aim of assessing their effectiveness in hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] removal from a contaminated industrial soil. Experiments were performed on soil samples collected from an industrial site where a nickel contamination, caused by a long-term productive activity, was also verified. The influence of reducing agents amount with respect to chromium content and the effectiveness of deoxygenation of the slurry were discussed. The soil was fully characterized before and after each test, and sequential extractions were performed to assess chemico-physical modifications and evaluate metals mobility induced by washing. Results show that both the reducing agents successfully lowered the amount of Cr(VI) in the soil below the threshold allowed by Italian Environmental Regulation for industrial reuse. Cr(VI) reduction by colloidal nZVI proved to be faster and more effective: the civil reuse of soil [Cr(VI)<2mg/kg] was only achieved using colloidal nZVI within 60min adopting a nZVI/Cr(VI) molar ratio of 30. The reducing treatment resulted in an increase in the amount of chromium in the oxide-hydroxide fraction, thus confirming a mechanism of chromium-iron hydroxides precipitation. In addition, a decrease of nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) content in soil was also observed when acidic conditions were established.

  17. Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium by Human Cytochrome b5: Generation of Hydroxyl Radical and Superoxide

    PubMed Central

    Borthiry, Griselda R.; Antholine, William E.; Kalyanaraman, B.; Myers, Judith M.; Myers, Charles R.

    2007-01-01

    The reduction of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), can generate reactive Cr intermediates and various types of oxidative stress. The potential role of human microsomal enzymes in free radical generation was examined using reconstituted proteoliposomes (PLs) containing purified cytochrome b5 and NADPH:P450 reductase. Under aerobic conditions, the PLs reduced Cr(VI) to Cr(V) which was confirmed by ESR using isotopically pure 53Cr(VI). When 5-Diethoxyphos-phoryl-5-methyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DEPMPO) was included as a spin trap, a very prominent signal for the hydroxyl radical (HO•) adduct was observed as well as a smaller signal for the superoxide (O2•−) adduct. These adducts were observed even at very low Cr(VI) concentrations (10 μM). NADPH, Cr(VI), O2 and the PLs were all required for significant HO• generation. Superoxide dismutase eliminated the O2• − adduct and resulted in a 30% increase in the HO• adduct. Catalase largely diminished the HO• adduct signal indicating its dependence on H2O2. Some sources of catalase were found to have Cr(VI)-reducing contaminants which could confound results, but a source of catalase free of these contaminants was used for these studies. Exogenous H2O2 was not needed, indicating that it was generated by the PLs. Adding exogenous H2O2, however, did increase the amount of DEPMPO/HO• adduct. The inclusion of formate yielded the carbon dioxide radical adduct of DEPMPO, and experiments with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) plus the spin trap α-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) yielded the methoxy and methyl radical adducts of PBN, confirming the generation of HO•. Quantification of the various species over time was consistent with a stoichiometric excess of HO• relative to the net amount of Cr(VI) reduced. This also represents the first demonstration of a role for cytochrome b5 in the generation of HO•. Overall, the simultaneous generation of Cr(V) and H2O2 by the PLs and the resulting generation of HO• at low Cr

  18. The role of EDTA in phytoextraction of hexavalent and trivalent chromium by two willow trees.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2008-04-01

    Effects of the synthetic chelator ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA) on uptake and internal translocation of hexavalent and trivalent chromium by plants were investigated. Two different concentrations of EDTA were studied for enhancing the uptake and translocation of Cr from the hydroponic solution spiked with K(2)CrO(4) or CrCl(3) maintained at 24.0 +/- 1 degrees C. Faster removal of Cr(3+) than Cr(6+) by hybrid willows (Salix matsudana Koidz x Salix alba L.) from the plant growth media was observed. Negligible effect of EDTA on the uptake of Cr(6+) was found, but significant decrease of the Cr concentration in roots was measured. Although the translocation of Cr(6+) within plant materials was detected in response to EDTA concentration, the amount of Cr(6+) translocated to the lower stems was considerably small. EDTA in the nutrient media showed a negative effect on the uptake of Cr(3+ )by hybrid willows; the removal rates of Cr(3+ )were significantly decreased. Translocation of Cr(3+) into the stems and leaves was undetectable, but roots were the exclusive sink for Cr(3+) accumulation. Weeping willows (Salix babylonica L.) showed lower removal rates for both chemical forms of Cr than hybrid willows. Although EDTA had a minor effect on Cr(6+ )uptake by weeping willows, positive effect on Cr(6+ )translocation within plant materials was observed. It was also determined that EDTA in plant growth media significantly decreased the amount of Cr(3+) taken up by plants, but significantly increased Cr(3+) mobilization from roots to stems. Results indicated that EDTA was unable to increase the uptake of Cr(6+) by both plant species, but translocation of Cr(6+)-EDTA within plant materials was possible. Addition of EDTA in the nutrient media showed a strong influence on the uptake and translocation of Cr(3+) in both willows. Cr(3+)-EDTA in tissues of weeping willows was more mobile than that in hybrid willows. The information has important implications for the use of metal

  19. Cancer mortality in a Chinese population exposed to hexavalent chromium in drinking water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beaumont, J.J.; Sedman, R.M.; Reynolds, S.D.; Sherman, C.D.; Li, L.-H.; Howd, R.A.; Sandy, M.S.; Zeise, L.; Alexeeff, G.V.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 1987, investigators in Liaoning Province, China, reported that mortality rates for all cancer, stomach cancer, and lung cancer in 1970-1978 were higher in villages with hexavalent chromium (Cr)-contaminated drinking water than in the general population. The investigators reported rates, but did not report statistical measures of association or precision. METHODS: Using reports and other communications from investigators at the local Jinzhou Health and Anti-Epidemic Station, we obtained data on Cr contamination of groundwater and cancer mortality in 9 study regions near a ferrochromium factory. We estimated:(1) person-years at risk in the study regions, based on census and population growth rate data, (2) mortality counts, based on estimated person-years at risk and previously reported mortality rates, and (3) rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: The all-cancer mortality rate in the combined 5 study regions with Cr-contaminated water was negligibly elevated in comparison with the rate in the 4 combined study regions without contaminated water (rate ratio = 1.13; 95% confidence interval = 0.86-1.46), but was somewhat more elevated in comparison with the whole province (1.23; 0.97-1.53). Stomach cancer mortality in the regions with contaminated water was more substantially elevated in comparison with the regions without contaminated water (1.82; 1.11-2.91) and the whole province (1.69; 1.12-2.44). Lung cancer mortality was slightly elevated in comparison with the unexposed study regions (1.15; 0.62-2.07), and more strongly elevated in comparison with the whole province (1.78; 1.03-2.87). Mortality from other cancers combined was not elevated in comparison with either the unexposed study regions (0.86; 0.53-1.36) or the whole province (0.92; 0.58-1.38). CONCLUSIONS: While these data are limited, they are consistent with increased stomach cancer risk in a population exposed to Cr in drinking water. ?? 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

  20. Modeling hexavalent chromium reduction in groundwater in field-scale transport and laboratory batch experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedly, J.C.; Davis, J.A.; Kent, D.B.

    1995-01-01

    A plausible and consistent model is developed to obtain a quantitative description of the gradual disappearance of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) from groundwater in a small-scale field tracer test and in batch kinetic experiments using aquifer sediments under similar chemical conditions. The data exhibit three distinct timescales. Fast reduction occurs in well-stirred batch reactors in times much less than 1 hour and is followed by slow reduction over a timescale of the order of 2 days. In the field, reduction occurs on a timescale of the order of 8 days. The model is based on the following hypotheses. The chemical reduction reaction occurs very fast, and the longer timescales are caused by diffusion resistance. Diffusion into the secondary porosity of grains causes the apparent slow reduction rate in batch experiments. In the model of the field experiments, the reducing agent, heavy Fe(II)-bearing minerals, is heterogeneously distributed in thin strata located between larger nonreducing sand lenses that comprise the bulk of the aquifer solids. It is found that reducing strata of the order of centimeters thick are sufficient to contribute enough diffusion resistance to cause the observed longest timescale in the field. A one-dimensional advection/dispersion model is formulated that describes the major experimental trends. Diffusion rates are estimated in terms of an elementary physical picture of flow through a stratified medium containing identically sized spherical grains. Both reduction and sorption reactions are included. Batch simulation results are sensitive to the fraction of reductant located at or near the surface of grains, which controls the amount of rapid reduction, and the secondary porosity, which controls the rate of slow reduction observed in batch experiments. Results of Cr(VI) transport simulations are sensitive to the thickness and relative size of the reducing stratum. Transport simulation results suggest that nearly all of the reductant must be

  1. Measurement of Soluble and Total Hexavalent Chromium in the Ambient Airborne Particles in New Jersey

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lihui; Yu, Chang Ho; Hopke, Philip K.; Lioy, Paul J.; Buckley, Brian T.; Shin, Jin Young; Fan, Zhihua (Tina)

    2015-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in ambient airborne particulate matter (PM) is a known pulmonary carcinogen and may have both soluble and insoluble forms. The sum of the two forms is defined as total Cr(VI). Currently, there were no methods suitable for large-scale monitoring of total Cr(VI) in ambient PM. This study developed a method to measure total Cr(VI) in ambient PM. This method includes PM collection using a Teflon filter, microwave extraction with 3% Na2CO3-2% NaOH at 95°C for 60 minutes, and Cr(VI) analysis by 1,5-diphenylcarbazide colorimetry at 540 nm. The recoveries of total Cr(VI) were 119.5 ± 10.4% and 106.3 ± 16.7% for the Cr(VI)-certified reference materials, SQC 012 and SRM 2700, respectively. Total Cr(VI) in the reference urban PM (NIST 1648a) was 26.0 ± 3.1 mg/kg (%CV = 11.9%) determined by this method. The method detection limit was 0.33 ng/m3. This method and the one previously developed to measure ambient Cr(VI), which is soluble in pH ~9.0 aqueous solution, were applied to measure Cr(VI) in ambient PM10 collected from three urban areas and one suburban area in New Jersey. The total Cr(VI) concentrations were 1.05–1.41 ng/m3 in the winter and 0.99–1.56 ng/m3 in the summer. The soluble Cr(VI) concentrations were 0.03–0.19 ng/m3 in the winter and 0.12–0.37 ng/m3 in the summer. The summer mean ratios of soluble to total Cr(VI) were 14.3–43.7%, significantly higher than 4.2–14.4% in the winter. The winter concentrations of soluble and total Cr(VI) in the suburban area were significantly lower than in the three urban areas. The results suggested that formation of Cr(VI) via atmospheric chemistry may contribute to the higher soluble Cr(VI) concentrations in the summer. PMID:26120324

  2. [Occupational exposure to chromium(VI) compounds].

    PubMed

    Skowroń, Jolanta; Konieczko, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the effect of chromium(VI) (Cr(VI)) on human health under conditions of acute and chronic exposure in the workplace. Chromium(VI) compounds as carcinogens and/or mutagens pose a direct danger to people exposed to them. If carcinogens cannot be eliminated from the work and living environments, their exposure should be reduced to a minimum. In the European Union the proposed binding occupational exposure limit value (BOELV) for chromium(VI) of 0.025 mg/m³ is still associated with high cancer risk. Based on the Scientific Commitee of Occupational Exposure Limits (SCOEL) document chromium(VI) concentrations at 0.025 mg/m³ increases the risk of lung cancer in 2-14 cases per 1000 exposed workers. Exposure to chromium(VI) compounds expressed in Cr(VI) of 0.01 mg Cr(VI)/m3; is responsible for the increased number of lung cancer cases in 1-6 per 1000 people employed in this condition for the whole period of professional activity.

  3. The carcinogenicity of chromium

    PubMed Central

    Norseth, Tor

    1981-01-01

    The carcinogenicity of chromium compounds is reviewed with specific attention to the gaps in knowledge for risk estimation and research needs. The most important problems at present are whether trivalent chromium compounds cause cancer, and whether there is a difference in cancer causing effects between the soluble and the slightly soluble hexavalent compounds in the practical exposure situation. Dose estimates for risk estimation based on epidemiological investigations are also lacking. Present evidence indicates that the trivalent chromium compounds do not cause cancer although high concentrations in some in vitro systems have shown genetic toxicity. Hexavalent chromium compounds cause cancer in humans, in experimental animals and exert genetic toxicity in bacteria and in mammalian cells in vitro. Epidemiological evidence and animal experiments indicate that the slightly soluble hexavalent salts are the most potent carcinogens, but proper identification and characterization of exposure patterns in epidemiological work are lacking. Workers also tend to have mixed exposures. Soluble and slightly soluble salts are equally potent genotoxic agents in vitro. Further work for establishing dose estimates for risk evaluation in epidemiological work is important. In vitro systems should be applied for further identification of the mechanism of the carcinogenic effects, and animal experiments are urgent for comparison of the carcinogenic potency of the different hexavalent salts. Hexavalent chromium salts must be regarded as established carcinogens, and proper action should be taken in all industries with regard to such exposure. At present the carcinogenic risk to the general population caused by chromium compounds seems to be negligible, chromium in cigarettes, however, is an uncertainty in this respect. The amount of chromium and the type of chromium compounds inhaled from cigarettes is not known. PMID:7023928

  4. Application of ICP-MS and HPLC-ICP-MS for diagnosis and therapy of a severe intoxication with hexavalent chromium and inorganic arsenic.

    PubMed

    Heitland, Peter; Blohm, Martin; Breuer, Christian; Brinkert, Florian; Achilles, Eike Gert; Pukite, Ieva; Köster, Helmut Dietrich

    2017-05-01

    ICP-MS and HPLC-ICP-MS were applied for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring in a severe intoxication with a liquid containing hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and inorganic arsenic (iAs). In this rare case a liver transplantation of was considered as the only chance of survival. We developed and applied methods for the determination of Cr(VI) in erythrocytes and total chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) in blood, plasma, urine and liver tissue by ICP-MS. Exposure to iAs was diagnosed by determination of iAs species and their metabolites in urine by anion exchange HPLC-ICP-MS. Three days after ingestion of the liquid the total Cr concentrations were 2180 and 1070μg/L in whole blood and plasma, respectively, and 4540μg/L Cr(VI) in erythrocytes. The arsenic concentration in blood was 206μg/L. The urinary As species concentrations were <0.5, 109, 115, 154 and 126μg/L for arsenobetaine, As(III), As(V), methylarsonate (V) and dimethylarsinate (V), respectively. Total Cr and As concentrations in the explanted liver were 11.7 and 0.9mg/kg, respectively. Further analytical results of this case study are tabulated and provide valuable data for physicians and toxicologists. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  5. Ameliorative effect of vitamin C on hexavalent chromium-induced delay in sexual maturation and oxidative stress in developing Wistar rat ovary and uterus.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Jawahar B; Stanley, Jone A; Vengatesh, Ganapathy; Princess, Rajendran A; Muthusami, Sridhar; Roopha, Dailiah P; Suthagar, Esakky; Kumar, Kathiresh M; Sebastian, Maria S; Aruldhas, Michael M

    2012-09-01

    Hexavalent chromium (CrVI) is a highly toxic metal and major environmental pollutant and is extensively used in more than 50 industries. The major route of CrVI exposure for the general population is oral intake. Chromium is considered an important nutrient responsible for carbohydrate metabolism. However, excess CrVI exposure is associated with various pathological conditions including reproductive dysfunction. CrVI can traverse the placental barrier and cause wide range of abnormalities in fetal development. Cr is transported to offspring through mother's milk in lactating women exposed to CrVI. Therefore, the present study was carried out to determine the toxic effects of lactational CrVI exposure on ovary and uterus and the beneficial role of vitamin C in preventing/ameliorating the toxic effects of CrVI in developing female Wistar rats. Generation of oxidative stress is considered one of the plausible mechanisms behind Cr-induced cellular deteriorations. The present study evidenced a decrease in the specific activities of antioxidants, serum testosterone and progesterone and an increase in the levels of H₂O₂, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and follicle stimulating hormone in rats exposed to CrVI when compared to control. CrVI exposure also delayed the sexual maturation and extended the estrous cycle. Simultaneous administration of vitamin C significantly prevented the increase in LPO and enhanced the antioxidant status. These results suggest the protective effect of vitamin C against the CrVI exposure-induced toxicity and attest the significance of antioxidants in diet.

  6. Effect of hexavalent chromium on proliferation and differentiation to adipocytes of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Martini, Claudia N; Brandani, Javier N; Gabrielli, Matías; Vila, María del C

    2014-06-01

    Heavy metals contamination has become an important risk factor for public health and the environment. Chromium is a frequent industrial contaminant and is also used in orthopaedic joint replacements made from cobalt-chromium-alloy. Since hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) was reported as genotoxic and carcinogenic in different mammals, to further evaluate its cytotoxicity, we investigated the effect of this heavy metal in the proliferation and differentiation to adipocytes of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts. These cells, after the addition of a mixture containing insulin, dexamethasone and methylisobutylxanthine, first proliferate, a process known as mitotic clonal expansion (MCE), and then differentiate to adipocytes. In this differentiation process a key transcription factor is induced: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma). We found that treatment of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts with potassium chromate inhibited proliferation in exponentially growing cells and MCE as well as differentiation. A decrease in PPAR gamma content, evaluated by western blot and immunofluorescence, was found in cells differentiated in the presence of chromium. On the other hand, after inhibition of differentiation with chromium, when the metal was removed, differentiation was recovered, which indicates that this may be a reversible effect. We also found an increase in the number of micronucleated cells after treatment with Cr(VI) which is associated with genotoxic effects. According to our results, Cr(VI) is able to inhibit proliferation and differentiation to adipocytes of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts and to increase micronucleated cells, which are all indicative of alterations in cellular physiology and therefore, contributes to further elucidate the cytotoxic effects of this heavy metal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Removal of hexavalent chromium in carbonic acid solution by oxidizing slag discharged from steelmaking process in electric arc furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Seiji; Okazaki, Kohei; Sasano, Junji; Izaki, Masanobu

    2014-02-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is well-known to be a strong oxidizer, and is recognized as a carcinogen. Therefore, it is regulated for drinking water, soil, groundwater and sea by the environmental quality standards all over the world. In this study, it was attempted to remove Cr(VI) ion in a carbonic acid solution by the oxidizing slag that was discharged from the normal steelmaking process in an electric arc furnace. After the addition of the slag into the aqueous solution contained Cr(VI) ion, concentrations of Cr(VI) ion and total chromium (Cr(VI) + trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) ions decreased to lower detection limit of them. Therefore, the used slag could reduce Cr(VI) and fix Cr(III) ion on the slag. While Cr(VI) ion existed in the solution, iron did not dissolve from the slag. From the relation between predicted dissolution amount of iron(II) ion and amount of decrease in Cr(VI) ion, the Cr(VI) ion did not react with iron(II) ion dissolved from the slag. Therefore, Cr(VI) ion was removed by the reductive reaction between Cr(VI) ion and the iron(II) oxide (FeO) in the slag. This reaction progressed on the newly appeared surface of iron(II) oxide due to the dissolution of phase composed of calcium etc., which existed around iron(II) oxide grain in the slag.

  8. Individual susceptibility to hexavalent chromium of workers of shoe, hide, and leather industries. Immunological pattern of HLA-B8, DR3-positive subjects.

    PubMed

    Mignini, Fiorenzo; Streccioni, Valentino; Baldo, Meris; Vitali, Mario; Indraccolo, Ugo; Bernacchia, Gianna; Cocchioni, Mario

    2004-10-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] on the immunological pattern of shoe, hide, and leather industry workers, moving from the hypothesis that some haplotypes (HLA-B8,DR3) can be important hidden risk cofactors. Workplaces of 20 firms were monitored for total and respirable dusts and for total and hexavalent chromium. Cr(VI) on materials was also measured. Assay of chromium levels in blood and urine of 44 serological human leukocytes antigen (HLA)-typed workers (20 exposed, 15 HLA-B8,DR3-negative/5-positive and 24 non-exposed, 18 HLA-B8,DR3-negative/6-positive subjects) was performed by atomic absorption, and lymphocyte subsets (FACS-analysis), mitogen-mediate lympho-proliferation ([3H]thymidine incorporation), cytokine levels (ELISA), natural killer (NK) cytotoxic activity (51Cr-release assay) were determined. The environmental parameter levels are lower than threshold limit value-time-weighted average (TLV-TWA); in the materials, the Cr(VI) values exceeded the levels allowed. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) proliferation and the T-helper1 (TH1) cytokine pattern of subjects chronically exposed were significantly raised; addition in vitro of Cr(VI) further stimulated these parameters and in general the entire TH1 system and NK activity. The TH2 system was unaltered. In the HLA-B8,DR3-positive workers, immunologically "low responders", the addition of Cr(VI) in vitro caused a further reduction of the considered parameters in the exposed subjects with a dramatic deficit of the TH1 system. Results indicate the unsuitability of TLV-TWA as a line of demarcation between safe and dangerous Cr(VI) concentrations and the importance of individual genetic susceptibility for occupational and preventative medicine. In particular, the presence of the HLA-B8,DR3 alleles can represent an important cofactor of immunotoxic susceptibility consequent to chronic low-dose Cr(VI) exposure.

  9. Bionanocomposites based on layered silicates and cationic starch as eco-friendly adsorbents for hexavalent chromium removal.

    PubMed

    Koriche, Yamina; Darder, Margarita; Aranda, Pilar; Semsari, Saida; Ruiz-Hitzky, Eduardo

    2014-07-21

    Functional bionanocomposites based on two layered silicates, the commercial montmorillonite known as Cloisite®Na and a natural bentonite from Algeria, were prepared by intercalation of cationic starch, synthesized with two different degrees of substitution, 0.85 and 0.55. After characterization of the prepared bionanocomposites by XRD and zeta potential measurements, batch studies were conducted to evaluate the adsorption capacity of hexavalent chromium anions from aqueous solution. The adsorption isotherms, adsorption kinetics, and the effect of pH on the process were studied. The removal efficiency was evaluated in the presence of competing anions such as NO3(-), ClO4(-), SO4(2-) and Cl(-). In order to regenerate the adsorbent for its repeated use, the regeneration process was studied in two different extractant solutions, 0.1 M NaCl at pH 10 and 0.28 M Na2CO3 at pH 12.

  10. Evaluating the Impact of the U.S. National Toxicology Program: A Case Study on Hexavalent Chromium

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yun; Holmgren, Stephanie; Andrews, Danica M. K.; Wolfe, Mary S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evaluating the impact of federally funded research with a broad, methodical, and objective approach is important to ensure that public funds advance the mission of federal agencies. Objectives: We aimed to develop a methodical approach that would yield a broad assessment of National Toxicology Program’s (NTP’s) effectiveness across multiple sectors and demonstrate the utility of the approach through a case study. Methods: A conceptual model was developed with defined activities, outputs (products), and outcomes (proximal, intermediate, distal) and applied retrospectively to NTP’s research on hexavalent chromium (CrVI). Proximal outcomes were measured by counting views of and requests for NTP’s products by external stakeholders. Intermediate outcomes were measured by bibliometric analysis. Distal outcomes were assessed through Web and LexisNexis searches for documents related to legislation or regulation changes. Results: The approach identified awareness of NTP’s work on CrVI by external stakeholders (proximal outcome) and citations of NTP’s research in scientific publications, reports, congressional testimonies, and legal and policy documents (intermediate outcome). NTP’s research was key to the nation’s first-ever drinking water standard for CrVI adopted by California in 2014 (distal outcome). By applying this approach to a case study, the utility and limitations of the approach were identified, including challenges to evaluating the outcomes of a research program. Conclusions: This study identified a broad and objective approach for assessing NTP’s effectiveness, including methodological needs for more thorough and efficient impact assessments in the future. Citation: Xie Y, Holmgren S, Andrews DMK, Wolfe MS. 2017. Evaluating the impact of the U.S. National Toxicology Program: a case study on hexavalent chromium. Environ Health Perspect 125:181–188; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP21 PMID:27483499

  11. Evaluating the Impact of the U.S. National Toxicology Program: A Case Study on Hexavalent Chromium.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yun; Holmgren, Stephanie; Andrews, Danica M K; Wolfe, Mary S

    2017-02-01

    Evaluating the impact of federally funded research with a broad, methodical, and objective approach is important to ensure that public funds advance the mission of federal agencies. We aimed to develop a methodical approach that would yield a broad assessment of National Toxicology Program's (NTP's) effectiveness across multiple sectors and demonstrate the utility of the approach through a case study. A conceptual model was developed with defined activities, outputs (products), and outcomes (proximal, intermediate, distal) and applied retrospectively to NTP's research on hexavalent chromium (CrVI). Proximal outcomes were measured by counting views of and requests for NTP's products by external stakeholders. Intermediate outcomes were measured by bibliometric analysis. Distal outcomes were assessed through Web and LexisNexis searches for documents related to legislation or regulation changes. The approach identified awareness of NTP's work on CrVI by external stakeholders (proximal outcome) and citations of NTP's research in scientific publications, reports, congressional testimonies, and legal and policy documents (intermediate outcome). NTP's research was key to the nation's first-ever drinking water standard for CrVI adopted by California in 2014 (distal outcome). By applying this approach to a case study, the utility and limitations of the approach were identified, including challenges to evaluating the outcomes of a research program. This study identified a broad and objective approach for assessing NTP's effectiveness, including methodological needs for more thorough and efficient impact assessments in the future. Citation: Xie Y, Holmgren S, Andrews DMK, Wolfe MS. 2017. Evaluating the impact of the U.S. National Toxicology Program: a case study on hexavalent chromium. Environ Health Perspect 125:181-188; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP21.

  12. Efficiencies and Optimization of Weak Base Anion Ion-Exchange Resin for Groundwater Hexavalent Chromium Removal at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Nesham, Dean O.; Ivarson, Kristine A.; Hanson, James P.; Miller, Charles W.; Meyers, P.; Jaschke, Naomi M.

    2014-02-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) contractor, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, has successfully converted a series of groundwater treatment facilities to use a new treatment resin that is delivering more than $3 million in annual cost savings and efficiency in treating groundwater contamination at the DOE Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. During the production era, the nuclear reactors at the Hanford Site required a continuous supply of high-quality cooling water during operations. Cooling water consumption ranged from about 151,417 to 378,541 L/min (40,000 to 100,000 gal/min) per reactor, depending on specific operating conditions. Water from the Columbia River was filtered and treated chemically prior to use as cooling water, including the addition of sodium dichromate as a corrosion inhibitor. Hexavalent chromium was the primary component of the sodium dichromate and was introduced into the groundwater at the Hanford Site as a result of planned and unplanned discharges from the reactors starting in 1944. Groundwater contamination by hexavalent chromium and other contaminants related to nuclear reactor operations resulted in the need for groundwater remedial actions within the Hanford Site reactor areas. Beginning in 1995, groundwater treatment methods were evaluated, leading to the use of pump-and-treat facilities with ion exchange using Dowex™ 21K, a regenerable, strong-base anion exchange resin. This required regeneration of the resin, which was performed offsite. In 2008, DOE recognized that regulatory agreements would require significant expansion for the groundwater chromium treatment capacity. As a result, CH2M HILL performed testing at the Hanford Site in 2009 and 2010 to demonstrate resin performance in the specific groundwater chemistry at different waste sites. The testing demonstrated that a weak-base anion, single-use resin, specifically ResinTech SIR-700 ®, was effective at removing chromium, had a significantly

  13. Investigation of the mode of action underlying the tumorigenic response induced in B6C3F1 mice exposed orally to hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Chad M; Proctor, Deborah M; Haws, Laurie C; Hébert, Charles D; Grimes, Sheila D; Shertzer, Howard G; Kopec, Anna K; Hixon, J Gregory; Zacharewski, Timothy R; Harris, Mark A

    2011-09-01

    Chronic ingestion of high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water induces intestinal tumors in mice. To investigate the mode of action (MOA) underlying these tumors, a 90-day drinking water study was conducted using similar exposure conditions as in a previous cancer bioassay, as well as lower (heretofore unexamined) drinking water concentrations. Tissue samples were collected in mice exposed for 7 or 90 days and subjected to histopathological, biochemical, toxicogenomic, and toxicokinetic analyses. Described herein are the results of toxicokinetic, biochemical, and pathological findings. Following 90 days of exposure to 0.3-520 mg/l of sodium dichromate dihydrate (SDD), total chromium concentrations in the duodenum were significantly elevated at ≥ 14 mg/l. At these concentrations, significant decreases in the reduced-to-oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) were observed. Beginning at 60 mg/l, intestinal lesions were observed including villous cytoplasmic vacuolization. Atrophy, apoptosis, and crypt hyperplasia were evident at ≥ 170 mg/l. Protein carbonyls were elevated at concentrations ≥ 4 mg/l SDD, whereas oxidative DNA damage, as assessed by 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, was not increased in any treatment group. Significant decreases in the GSH/GSSG ratio and similar histopathological lesions as observed in the duodenum were also observed in the jejunum following 90 days of exposure. Cytokine levels (e.g., interleukin-1β) were generally depressed or unaltered at the termination of the study. Overall, the data suggest that Cr(VI) in drinking water can induce oxidative stress, villous cytotoxicity, and crypt hyperplasia in the mouse intestine and may underlie the MOA of intestinal carcinogenesis in mice.

  14. Investigation of the Mode of Action Underlying the Tumorigenic Response Induced in B6C3F1 Mice Exposed Orally to Hexavalent Chromium

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Chad M.; Proctor, Deborah M.; Haws, Laurie C.; Hébert, Charles D.; Grimes, Sheila D.; Shertzer, Howard G.; Kopec, Anna K.; Hixon, J.Gregory; Zacharewski, Timothy R.; Harris, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic ingestion of high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water induces intestinal tumors in mice. To investigate the mode of action (MOA) underlying these tumors, a 90-day drinking water study was conducted using similar exposure conditions as in a previous cancer bioassay, as well as lower (heretofore unexamined) drinking water concentrations. Tissue samples were collected in mice exposed for 7 or 90 days and subjected to histopathological, biochemical, toxicogenomic, and toxicokinetic analyses. Described herein are the results of toxicokinetic, biochemical, and pathological findings. Following 90 days of exposure to 0.3–520 mg/l of sodium dichromate dihydrate (SDD), total chromium concentrations in the duodenum were significantly elevated at ≥ 14 mg/l. At these concentrations, significant decreases in the reduced-to-oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) were observed. Beginning at 60 mg/l, intestinal lesions were observed including villous cytoplasmic vacuolization. Atrophy, apoptosis, and crypt hyperplasia were evident at ≥ 170 mg/l. Protein carbonyls were elevated at concentrations ≥ 4 mg/l SDD, whereas oxidative DNA damage, as assessed by 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, was not increased in any treatment group. Significant decreases in the GSH/GSSG ratio and similar histopathological lesions as observed in the duodenum were also observed in the jejunum following 90 days of exposure. Cytokine levels (e.g., interleukin-1β) were generally depressed or unaltered at the termination of the study. Overall, the data suggest that Cr(VI) in drinking water can induce oxidative stress, villous cytotoxicity, and crypt hyperplasia in the mouse intestine and may underlie the MOA of intestinal carcinogenesis in mice. PMID:21712504

  15. Role of Bacillus subtilis Error Prevention Oxidized Guanine System in Counteracting Hexavalent Chromium-Promoted Oxidative DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Escobar, Fernando; Gutiérrez-Corona, J. Félix

    2014-01-01

    Chromium pollution is potentially detrimental to bacterial soil communities, compromising carbon and nitrogen cycles that are essential for life on earth. It has been proposed that intracellular reduction of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] to trivalent chromium [Cr(III)] may cause bacterial death by a mechanism that involves reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced DNA damage; the molecular basis of the phenomenon was investigated in this work. Here, we report that Bacillus subtilis cells lacking a functional error prevention oxidized guanine (GO) system were significantly more sensitive to Cr(VI) treatment than cells of the wild-type (WT) strain, suggesting that oxidative damage to DNA is involved in the deleterious effects of the oxyanion. In agreement with this suggestion, Cr(VI) dramatically increased the ROS concentration and induced mutagenesis in a GO-deficient B. subtilis strain. Alkaline gel electrophoresis (AGE) analysis of chromosomal DNA of WT and ΔGO mutant strains subjected to Cr(VI) treatment revealed that the DNA of the ΔGO strain was more susceptible to DNA glycosylase Fpg attack, suggesting that chromium genotoxicity is associated with 7,8-dihydro-8-oxodeoxyguanosine (8-oxo-G) lesions. In support of this notion, specific monoclonal antibodies detected the accumulation of 8-oxo-G lesions in the chromosomes of B. subtilis cells subjected to Cr(VI) treatment. We conclude that Cr(VI) promotes mutagenesis and cell death in B. subtilis by a mechanism that involves radical oxygen attack of DNA, generating 8-oxo-G, and that such effects are counteracted by the prevention and repair GO system. PMID:24973075

  16. Role of heteroatoms in activated carbon for removal of hexavalent chromium from wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Valix, M; Cheung, W H; Zhang, K

    2006-07-31

    Heteroatoms are elements including sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen which are found on the surface of activated carbons. This study investigated the surface modification arising from heteroatoms bonding to carbon aromatic rings within the activated carbon and their corresponding influence on the chromium adsorption process. Activated carbons were prepared from bagasse by physical. Chromium removal capacities of these activated carbons by adsorption and reduction were determined. Models which related the chromium adsorption and reduction capacities of activated carbons to carbon acidity and heteroatom site concentrations were established using multi-variable linear regression method. It was found the individual heteroatoms contributed separately to the basicity of the carbon which in turn determined the mechanism by which chromium was removed from solution. The surface areas of the carbons were also observed to influence the adsorption and reduction of chromium. These understandings provide the fundamental method of optimising chromium removal through suitable control of carbon surface chemistry and textural properties.

  17. Electrodeposition of platinum-iridium coatings and nanowires for neurostimulating applications: Fabrication, characterization and in-vivo retinal stimulation/recording. EIS studies of hexavalent and trivalent chromium based military coating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrossians, Artin

    properties of the coatings in which the primers with hexavalent chromium ions (Cr6+) provided better corrosion protection compared to primers with trivalent chromium ions (Cr3+). After 30 days of the exposure of the samples in 0.5 N NaCl, one sample from each set of samples was scribed and exposed to 0.5 N NaCl for 3 days. Analysis of the impedance spectra revealed that the samples with chromium conversion coating pretreatment and hexavalent chromium primer showed "self healing" characteristics and provided better corrosion protection on the scribed areas compared to the scribed samples with trivalent chromium pretreatment and non-hexavalent chromium primer.

  18. Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas stutzeri strain RCH2 isolated from a Hexavalent Chromium [Cr(VI)] contaminated site

    DOE PAGES

    Chakraborty, Romy; Woo, Hannah; Dehal, Paramvir; ...

    2017-02-08

    Hexavalent Chromium [Cr(VI)] is a widespread contaminant found in soil, sediment, and ground water in several DOE sites, including Hanford 100 H area. In order to stimulate microbially mediated reduction of Cr(VI) at this site, a poly-lactate hydrogen release compound was injected into the chromium contaminated aquifer. The targeted enrichment of dominant nitrate-reducing bacteria post injection resulted in the isolation of Pseudomonas stutzeri strain RCH2. P. stutzeri strain RCH2 was isolated using acetate as the electron donor and is a complete denitrifier. Experiments with anaerobic washed cell suspension of strain RCH2 revealed it could reduce Cr(VI) and Fe(III). We sequencedmore » the genome of strain RCH2 using a combination of Illumina and 454 sequencing technologies and contained a circular chromosome of 4.6 Mb and three plasmids. Furthermore, global genome comparisons of strain RCH2 with six other fully sequenced P. stutzeri strains revealed most genomic regions are conserved, however strain RCH2 has an additional 244 genes, some of which are involved in chemotaxis, Flp pilus biogenesis and pyruvate/2-oxogluturate complex formation.« less

  19. Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Hexavalent Chromium in Human and North Atlantic Right Whale (Eubalaena glacialis) Lung Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tânia Li; Wise, Sandra S.; Holmes, Amie; Shaffiey, Fariba; Wise, John Pierce; Thompson, W. Douglas; Kraus, Scott; Wise, John Pierce

    2009-01-01

    Humans and cetaceans are exposed to a wide range of contaminants. In this study, we compared the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of a metal pollutant, hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], which has been shown to cause damage in lung cells from both humans and North Atlantic right whales. Our results show that Cr induces increased cell death and chromosome damage in lung cells from both species with increasing intracellular Cr ion levels. Soluble Cr(VI) induced less of a cytotoxic and genotoxic effect on administered dose in right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) cells than in human (Homo sapiens) cells. Whereas, particulate Cr(VI) induced a similar cytotoxic effect but less of a genotoxic effect based on administered dose in right whale cells than in human cells. Differences in chromium ion uptake explained some but not all of the soluble chromate-induced cell death and chromosome damage. Uptake differences of lead ions could explain the differences in particulate chromate-induced toxicity. The data show that both forms of Cr(VI) are less genotoxic to right whale than human lung cells, and that soluble Cr(VI) induces a similar cytotoxic effect in both right whale and human cells, while particulate Cr(VI) is more cytotoxic to right whale lung cells. PMID:19632355

  20. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of hexavalent chromium in human and North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) lung cells.

    PubMed

    Li Chen, Tânia; Wise, Sandra S; Holmes, Amie; Shaffiey, Fariba; Wise, John Pierce; Thompson, W Douglas; Kraus, Scott; Wise, John Pierce

    2009-11-01

    Humans and cetaceans are exposed to a wide range of contaminants. In this study, we compared the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of a metal pollutant, hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], which has been shown to cause damage in lung cells from both humans and North Atlantic right whales. Our results show that Cr induces increased cell death and chromosome damage in lung cells from both species with increasing intracellular Cr ion levels. Soluble Cr(VI) induced less of a cytotoxic and genotoxic effect based on administered dose in right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) cells than in human (Homo sapiens) cells. Whereas, particulate Cr(VI) induced a similar cytotoxic effect but less of a genotoxic effect based on administered dose in right whale cells than in human cells. Differences in chromium ion uptake explained soluble chromate-induced cell death but not all of the soluble chromate-induced chromosome damage. Uptake differences of lead ions could explain the differences in particulate chromate-induced toxicity. The data show that both forms of Cr(VI) are less genotoxic to right whale than human lung cells, and that soluble Cr(VI) induces a similar cytotoxic effect in both right whale and human cells, while particulate Cr(VI) is more cytotoxic to right whale lung cells.

  1. Montmorillonite-supported magnetite nanoparticles for the removal of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Peng; Fan, Mingde; Yang, Dan; He, Hongping; Liu, Dong; Yuan, Aihua; Zhu, JianXi; Chen, TianHu

    2009-07-30

    Montmorillonite-supported magnetite nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation and hydrosol method. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption, elemental analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The average sizes of the magnetite nanoparticles without and with montmorillonite support are around 25 and 15 nm, respectively. The montmorillonite-supported magnetite nanoparticles exist on the surface or inside the interparticle pores of clays, with better dispersing and less coaggregation than the ones without montmorillonite support. Batch tests were carried out to investigate the removal mechanism of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] by these synthesized magnetite nanoparticles. The Cr(VI) uptake was mainly governed by a physico-chemical process, which included an electrostatic attraction followed by a redox process in which Cr(VI) was reduced into trivalent chromium. The adsorption of Cr(VI) was highly pH-dependent and the kinetics of the adsorption followed the Pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption data of unsupported and clay-supported magnetite nanoparticles fit well with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations. The montmorillonite-supported magnetite nanoparticles showed a much better adsorption capacity per unit mass of magnetite (15.3mg/g) than unsupported magnetite (10.6 mg/g), and were more thermally stable than their unsupported counterparts. These fundamental results demonstrate that the montmorillonite-supported magnetite nanoparticles are readily prepared, enabling promising applications for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution.

  2. Assessment of Tri- and Hexavalent Chromium Phytotoxicity on Oats (Avena sativa L.) Biomass and Content of Nitrogen Compounds.

    PubMed

    Wyszkowski, Mirosław; Radziemska, Maja

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of soil contamination with tri- and hexavalent chromium and soil application of compost, zeolite, and CaO on the mass of oats and content of nitrogen compounds in different organs of oats. The oats mass and content of nitrogen compounds in the crop depended on the type and dose of chromium and alleviating substances incorporated to soil. In the series without neutralizing substances, Cr(VI), unlike Cr(III), had a negative effect on the growth and development of oats. The highest doses of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) stimulated the accumulation of total nitrogen but depressed the content of N-NO3(-) in most of organs of oats. Among the substances added to soil in order to alleviate the negative impact of Cr (VI) on the mass of plants, compost had a particularly beneficial effect on the growth and development of oats. The application of compost, zeolite, and CaO to soil had a stronger effect on the content of nitrogen compounds in grain and straw than in roots. Soil enrichment with either of the above substances usually raised the content of nitrogen compounds in oats grain and straw, but decreased it in roots.

  3. Comparative cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of particulate and soluble hexavalent chromium in human and sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) skin cells.

    PubMed

    Li Chen, Tânia; LaCerte, Carolyne; Wise, Sandra S; Holmes, Amie; Martino, Julieta; Wise, John Pierce; Thompson, W Douglas; Wise, John Pierce

    2012-01-01

    Chromium (Cr) is a global marine pollutant, present in marine mammal tissues. Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a known human carcinogen. In this study, we compare the cytotoxic and clastogenic effects of Cr(VI) in human (Homo sapiens) and sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) skin fibroblasts. Our data show that increasing concentrations of both particulate and soluble Cr(VI) induce increasing amounts of cytotoxicity and clastogenicity in human and sperm whale skin cells. Furthermore, the data show that sperm whale cells are resistant to these effects exhibiting less cytotoxicity and genotoxicity than the human cells. Differences in Cr uptake accounted for some but not all of the differences in particulate and soluble Cr(VI) genotoxicity, although it did explain the differences in particulate Cr(VI) cytotoxicity. Altogether, the data indicate that Cr(VI) is a genotoxic threat to whales, but also suggest that whales have evolved cellular mechanisms to protect them against the genotoxicity of environmental agents such as Cr(VI). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Particulate and Soluble Hexavalent Chromium in Human and Sperm Whale (Physeter macrocephalus) Skin Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li Chen, Tânia; LaCerte, Carolyne; Wise, Sandra S.; Holmes, Amie; Martino, Julieta; Wise, John Pierce; Thompson, W. Douglas; Wise, John Pierce

    2014-01-01

    Chromium (Cr) is a global marine pollutant, present in marine mammal tissues. Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a known human carcinogen. In this study we compare the cytotoxic and clastogenic effects of Cr(VI) in human (Homo sapiens) and sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) skin fibroblasts. Our data show that increasing concentrations of both particulate and soluble Cr(VI) induce increasing amounts of cytotoxicity and clastogenicity in human and sperm whale skin cells. Furthermore, the data show that sperm whale cells are resistant to these effects exhibiting less cytotoxicity and genotoxicity than the human cells. Differences in Cr uptake accounted for some but not all of the differences in particulate and soluble Cr(VI) genotoxicity, although it did explain the differences in particulate Cr(VI) cytotoxicity. Altogether the data indicate that Cr(VI) is a genotoxic threat to whales, but also suggest that whales have evolved cellular mechanisms to protect them against the genotoxicity of environmental agents such as Cr(VI). PMID:21466859

  5. Biosorption of hexavalent chromium by raw and acid-treated green alga Oedogonium hatei from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Gupta, V K; Rastogi, A

    2009-04-15

    The hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), biosorption by raw and acid-treated Oedogonium hatei were studied from aqueous solutions. Batch experiments were conducted to determine the biosorption properties of the biomass. The optimum conditions of biosorption were found to be: a biomass dose of 0.8 g/L, contact time of 110 min, pH and temperature 2.0 and 318 K respectively. Both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations could fit the equilibrium data. Under the optimal conditions, the biosorption capacities of the raw and acid-treated algae were 31 and 35.2 mg Cr(VI) per g of dry adsorbent, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters showed that the adsorption of Cr(VI) onto algal biomass was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic under studied conditions. The pseudo-first-order kinetic model adequately describe the kinetic data in comparison to second-order model and the process involving rate-controlling step is much complex involving both boundary layer and intra-particle diffusion processes. The physical and chemical properties of the biosorbent were determined and the nature of biomass-metal ions interactions were evaluated by FTIR analysis, which showed the participation of -COOH, -OH and -NH(2) groups in the biosorption process. Biosorbents could be regenerated using 0.1 M NaOH solution, with up to 75% recovery. Thus, the biomass used in this work proved to be effective materials for the treatment of chromium bearing aqueous solutions.

  6. Removal of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from aqueous solutions by the diatomite-supported/unsupported magnetite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Peng; Liu, Dong; Fan, Mingde; Yang, Dan; Zhu, Runliang; Ge, Fei; Zhu, JianXi; He, Hongping

    2010-01-15

    Diatomite-supported/unsupported magnetite nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation and hydrosol methods, and characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption, elemental analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The average sizes of the unsupported and supported magnetite nanoparticles are around 25 and 15 nm, respectively. The supported magnetite nanoparticles exist on the surface or inside the pores of diatom shells, with better dispersing and less coaggregation than the unsupported ones. The uptake of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] on the synthesized magnetite nanoparticles was mainly governed by a physico-chemical process, which included an electrostatic attraction followed by a redox process in which Cr(VI) was reduced into trivalent chromium [Cr(III)]. The adsorption of Cr(VI) was highly pH-dependent and the kinetics of the adsorption followed a pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption data of diatomite-supported/unsupported magnetite fit well with the Langmuir isotherm equation. The supported magnetite showed a better adsorption capacity per unit mass of magnetite than unsupported magnetite, and was more thermally stable than their unsupported counterparts. These results indicate that the diatomite-supported/unsupported magnetite nanoparticles are readily prepared, enabling promising applications for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution.

  7. [Chromium exposure biological indices and clinical findings in chromium plating industry (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Franchini, I; Cavatorta, A; Mutti, A; Marcato, M; Bottazzi, D; Cigala, F

    1977-09-01

    According to the investigations carried out on workers of two chromium plating plants, the authors believe that chromium urinary excretion allows to determine the degree of its acute absorption. Moreover, the renal clearance of diffusible chromium allows the evaluation of chromium body burden and is related to the duration as well as to the severity of exposure. This interpretation is supported by the relation between the exposure biological indexes and the clinical and instrumental investigations which make possible the evaluation of lesions caused by chromium exposure, mostly concerning the respiratory system.

  8. Distribution and mass balance of hexavalent and trivalent chromium in a subsurface, horizontal flow (SF-h) constructed wetland operating as post-treatment of textile wastewater for water reuse.

    PubMed

    Fibbi, Donatella; Doumett, Saer; Lepri, Luciano; Checchini, Leonardo; Gonnelli, Cristina; Coppini, Ester; Del Bubba, Massimo

    2012-01-15

    In this study, during a two-year period, we investigated the fate of hexavalent and trivalent chromium in a full-scale subsurface horizontal flow constructed wetland planted with Phragmites australis. The reed bed operated as post-treatment of the effluent wastewater from an activated sludge plant serving the textile industrial district and the city of Prato (Italy). Chromium speciation was performed in influent and effluent wastewater and in water-suspended solids, at different depths and distances from the inlet; plants were also analyzed for total chromium along the same longitudinal profile. Removals of hexavalent and trivalent chromium equal to 72% and 26%, respectively were achieved. The mean hexavalent chromium outlet concentration was 1.6 ± 0.9 μg l(-1) and complied with the Italian legal limits for water reuse. Chromium in water-suspended solids was in the trivalent form, thus indicating that its removal from wastewater was obtained by the reduction of hexavalent chromium to the trivalent form, followed by accumulation of the latter inside the reed bed. Chromium in water-suspended solids was significantly affected by the distance from the inlet. Chromium concentrations in the different plant organs followed the same trend of suspended solids along the longitudinal profile and were much lower than those found in the solid material, evidencing a low metal accumulation in P. australis.

  9. Verification and Demonstration for Transition of Non-Hexavalent Chromium, Low-VOC Alternative Technologies to Replace DOD-P-15328 Wash Primer for Multimetal Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT  It has been known for quite some time that chemical treatments containing hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] are...Regulation (AR) 750-1,1 all Army-based ground equipment is required to have a full Chemical Agent Resistant Coating (CARC) system. The description of...inhibiting pigment in a flexible adhering polymer activated by phosphoric acid prior to use. The DOD-P-15328 wash primer has been a workhorse pretreatment

  10. Effect of available nitrogen on phytoavailability and bioaccumulation of hexavalent and trivalent chromium in hankow willows (Salix matsudana Koidz).

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2008-06-01

    The effect of available nitrogen in nutrient solution on removal of two chemical forms of chromium (Cr) by plants was investigated. Pre-rooted hankow willows (Salix matsudana Koidz) were grown in a hydroponic solution system with or without nitrogen, and amended with hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)] or trivalent chromium [Cr (III)] at 25.0+/-0.5 degrees C for 192 h. The results revealed that higher removal of Cr by plants was achieved from the hydroponic solutions without any nitrogen than those containing nitrogen. Although faster removal of Cr (VI) than Cr (III) was observed, translocation of Cr (III) within plant materials was more efficient than Cr (VI). Substantial difference existed in the distribution of Cr in different parts of plant tissues due to the nitrogen in nutrient solutions (p<0.05): lower stems were the major sink for both Cr species in willows grown in the N-free nutrient solutions and more Cr was accumulated in the roots of plants in N-containing ones. No significant difference was found in the removal rate of Cr (VI) between willows grown in the N-free and N-containing solutions (p>0.05). Removal rates of Cr (III) decreased linearly with the strength of nutrient solutions with or without N addition (p<0.01). Translocation efficiencies of both Cr species increased proportionally with the strength of N-containing nutrient solutions and decreased with the strength of N-free nutrient solutions. Results suggest that uptake and translocation mechanisms of Cr (VI) and Cr (III) are apparently different in hankow willows. The presence of easily available nitrogen and other nutrient elements in the nutrient solutions had a more pronounced influence on the uptake of Cr (III) than Cr (VI). Nitrogen availability and quantities in the ambient environment will affect the translocation of both Cr species and their distribution in willows in phytoremediation.

  11. Reevaluation and Classification of Duodenal Lesions in B6C3F1 Mice and F344 Rats from 4 Studies of Hexavalent Chromium in Drinking Water.

    PubMed

    Cullen, John M; Ward, Jerrold M; Thompson, Chad M

    2016-02-01

    Thirteen-week and 2-year drinking water studies conducted by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) reported that hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) induced diffuse epithelial hyperplasia in the duodenum of B6C3F1 mice but not F344 rats. In the 2-year study, Cr(VI) exposure was additionally associated with duodenal adenomas and carcinomas in mice only. Subsequent 13-week Cr(VI) studies conducted by another group demonstrated non-neoplastic duodenal lesions in B6C3F1 mice similar to those of the NTP study as well as mild duodenal hyperplasia in F344 rats. Because intestinal lesions in mice are the basis for proposed safety standards for Cr(VI), and the histopathology data are relevant to the mode of action, consistency (an important Hill criterion for causality) was assessed across the aforementioned studies. Two veterinary pathologists applied uniform diagnostic criteria to the duodenal lesions in rats and mice from the 4 repeated-dose studies. Comparable non-neoplastic intestinal lesions were evident in mice and rats from all 4 studies; however, the incidence and severity of intestinal lesions were greater in mice than rats. These findings demonstrate consistency across studies and species and highlight the importance of standardized nomenclature for intestinal pathology. The differences in the severity of non-neoplastic lesions also likely contribute to the differential tumor response.

  12. Reevaluation and Classification of Duodenal Lesions in B6C3F1 Mice and F344 Rats from 4 Studies of Hexavalent Chromium in Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, John M.; Ward, Jerrold M.

    2015-01-01

    Thirteen-week and 2-year drinking water studies conducted by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) reported that hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) induced diffuse epithelial hyperplasia in the duodenum of B6C3F1 mice but not F344 rats. In the 2-year study, Cr(VI) exposure was additionally associated with duodenal adenomas and carcinomas in mice only. Subsequent 13-week Cr(VI) studies conducted by another group demonstrated non-neoplastic duodenal lesions in B6C3F1 mice similar to those of the NTP study as well as mild duodenal hyperplasia in F344 rats. Because intestinal lesions in mice are the basis for proposed safety standards for Cr(VI), and the histopathology data are relevant to the mode of action, consistency (an important Hill criterion for causality) was assessed across the aforementioned studies. Two veterinary pathologists applied uniform diagnostic criteria to the duodenal lesions in rats and mice from the 4 repeated-dose studies. Comparable non-neoplastic intestinal lesions were evident in mice and rats from all 4 studies; however, the incidence and severity of intestinal lesions were greater in mice than rats. These findings demonstrate consistency across studies and species and highlight the importance of standardized nomenclature for intestinal pathology. The differences in the severity of non-neoplastic lesions also likely contribute to the differential tumor response. PMID:26538584

  13. Loss of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase induces glycolysis and promotes apoptosis resistance of cancer stem-like cells: an important role in hexavalent chromium-induced carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jin; Ji, Yanli; Wang, Wei; Kim, Donghern; Fai, Leonard Yenwong; Wang, Lei; Luo, Jia; Zhang, Zhuo

    2017-09-15

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) compounds are confirmed human carcinogens for lung cancer. Our previous studies has demonstrated that chronic exposure of human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells to low dose of Cr(VI) causes malignant cell transformation. The acquisition of cancer stem cell-like properties is involved in the initiation of cancers. The present study has observed that a small population of cancer stem-like cells (BEAS-2B-Cr-CSC) exists in the Cr(VI)-transformed cells (BEAS-2B-Cr). Those BEAS-2B-Cr-CSC exhibit extremely reduced capability of generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis resistance. BEAS-2B-Cr-CSC are metabolic inactive as evidenced by reductions in oxygen consumption, glucose uptake, ATP production, and lactate production. Most importantly, BEAS-2B-Cr-CSC are more tumorigenic with high levels of cell self-renewal genes, Notch1 and p21. Further study has found that fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP1), an rate-limiting enzyme driving glyconeogenesis, was lost in BEAS-2B-Cr-CSC. Forced expression of FBP1 in BEAS-2B-Cr-CSC restored ROS generation, resulting in increased apoptosis, leading to inhibition of tumorigenesis. In summary, the present study suggests that loss of FBP1 is a critical event in tumorigenesis of Cr(VI)-transformed cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. High concentrations of hexavalent chromium in drinking water alter iron homeostasis in F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Suh, Mina; Thompson, Chad M; Kirman, Christopher R; Carakostas, Michael C; Haws, Laurie C; Harris, Mark A; Proctor, Deborah M

    2014-03-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] induces hematological signs of microcytic anemia in rodents. Considering that Cr(VI) can oxidize ferrous (Fe(2+)) to ferric (Fe(3+)) iron, and that only the former is transported across the duodenum, we hypothesize that, at high concentrations, Cr(VI) oxidizes Fe(2+) in the lumen of the small intestine and perturbs iron absorption. Herein we report that 90-day exposure to Cr(VI) in drinking water resulted in dose-dependent decreases in Fe levels in the duodenum, liver, serum, and bone marrow. Toxicogenomic analyses from the duodenum indicate responses consistent with Fe deficiency, including significant induction of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1, Slc11a2) and transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1, Tfr1). In addition, at ⩾20mg Cr(VI)/L in drinking water, Cr RBC:plasma ratios in rats were increased and exceeded unity, indicating saturation of reductive capacity and intracellular absorption of Cr(VI) into red blood cells (RBCs). These effects occurred in both species but were generally more severe in rats. These data suggest that high concentrations of Cr(VI) in drinking limit Fe absorption and alter iron homeostasis. Furthermore, some effects observed at high doses in recent Cr(VI) chronic and subchronic bioassays may be explained, at least in part, by iron deficiency and disruption of homeostasis.

  15. Determination of hexavalent chromium in exhaled breath condensate and environmental air among chrome plating workers.

    PubMed

    Goldoni, Matteo; Caglieri, Andrea; Poli, Diana; Vettori, Maria Vittoria; Corradi, Massimo; Apostoli, Pietro; Mutti, Antonio

    2006-03-15

    Chromium speciation has attracted attention because of the different toxicity of Cr(III), which is considered relatively non-toxic, and Cr(VI), which can cross cell membranes mainly as a chromate anion and has been classified as a class I human carcinogen. The aims of the present study were to measure soluble Cr(VI) levels in environmental samples, to develop a simple method of quantifying Cr(VI) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), and to follow the kinetics of EBC Cr(VI) in chrome plating workers.Personal air samples were collected from 10 chrome platers; EBC was collected from the same workers immediately after the work shift on Tuesday and before the work shift on the following Wednesday. Environmental and EBC Cr(VI) levels were determined by means of colorimetry and electrothermal absorption atomic spectrometry, respectively.The method of detecting Cr(VI) in environmental air was based on the extraction of the Cr(VI)-diphenylcarbazide (Cr(VI)-DPC) complex in 1-butanol, whereas EBC Cr(VI) was determined using a solvent extraction of Cr(VI) as an ion pair with tetrabutylammonium ion, and subsequent direct determination of the complex (Cr(VI)-DPC) in EBC.Kinetic data showed that airborne Cr(VI) was reduced by 50% in airway lining fluid sampled at the end of exposure and that there was a further 50% reduction after about 15 h. The persistence of Cr(VI) in EBC supports the use of EBC in assessing target tissue levels of Cr(VI).

  16. Determination of hexavalent chromium in exhaled breath condensate and environmental air among chrome plating workers

    PubMed Central

    Goldoni, Matteo; Caglieri, Andrea; Poli, Diana; Vettori, Maria Vittoria; Corradi, Massimo; Apostoli, Pietro; Mutti, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Chromium speciation has attracted attention because of the different toxicity of Cr(III), which is considered relatively non-toxic, and Cr(VI), which can cross cell membranes mainly as a chromate anion and has been classified as a class I human carcinogen. The aims of the present study were to measure soluble Cr(VI) levels in environmental samples, to develop a simple method of quantifying Cr(VI) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), and to follow the kinetics of EBC Cr(VI) in chrome plating workers. Personal air samples were collected from 10 chrome platers; EBC was collected from the same workers immediately after the work shift on Tuesday and before the work shift on the following Wednesday. Environmental and EBC Cr(VI) levels were determined by means of colorimetry and electrothermal absorption atomic spectrometry, respectively. The method of detecting Cr(VI) in environmental air was based on the extraction of the Cr(VI)-diphenylcarbazide (Cr(VI)–DPC) complex in 1-butanol, whereas EBC Cr(VI) was determined using a solvent extraction of Cr(VI) as an ion pair with tetrabutylammonium ion, and subsequent direct determination of the complex (Cr(VI)–DPC) in EBC. Kinetic data showed that airborne Cr(VI) was reduced by 50% in airway lining fluid sampled at the end of exposure and that there was a further 50% reduction after about 15 h. The persistence of Cr(VI) in EBC supports the use of EBC in assessing target tissue levels of Cr(VI). PMID:17047732

  17. Hexavalent chromium reduction with scrap iron in continuous-flow system Part 1: effect of feed solution pH.

    PubMed

    Gheju, M; Iovi, A; Balcu, I

    2008-05-01

    The reduction of hexavalent chromium by scrap iron was investigated in continuous system, using long-term column experiments, for aqueous Cr(VI) solutions having low buffering capacities, over the pH range of 2.00-7.30. The results showed that the initial pH of Cr(VI) solution significantly affects the reduction capacity of scrap iron. The highest reduction capacity was determined to be 19.2 mg Cr(VI)/g scrap iron, at pH 2.50, and decreased with increasing the initial pH of Cr(VI) solution. A considerable decrease in scrap iron reduction capacity (25%) was also observed at pH 2.00, as compared to pH 2.50, due to the increased contribution of H(+) ions to the corrosion of scrap iron, which leads to a rapid decrease in time of the scrap iron volume. Over the pH range of 2.50-7.30, hexavalent chromium concentration increases slowly in time after its breakthrough in column effluent, until a steady-state concentration was observed; similarly, over the same pH range, the amount of solubilized Cr(III) in treated column effluent decreases in time, until a steady-state concentration was observed. The steady-state concentration in column effluent decreased for Cr(VI) and increased for Cr(III) with decreasing the initial pH of Cr(VI) solution. No steady-state Cr(VI) or Cr(III) concentrations in column effluent were observed at pH 2.00. Over the entire studied pH range, the amount of Fe(total) in treated solution increases as the initial pH of column influent is decreased; the results show also a continuously decrease in time of Fe(total) concentration, for a constant initial pH, due to a decrease in time of iron corrosion rate. Cr(III) concentration in column effluent also continuously decreased in time, for a constant initial pH, over the pH range of 2.50-7.30. This represents an advantage, because the amount of precipitant agent used to remove Fe(total) and Cr(III) from the column effluent will also decrease in time. The optimum pH for Cr(VI) reduction with scrap iron in

  18. Hexavalent chromium at low concentration alters Sertoli cell barrier and connexin 43 gap junction but not claudin-11 and N-cadherin in the rat seminiferous tubule culture model

    SciTech Connect

    Carette, Diane; Perrard, Marie-Hélène; Prisant, Nadia; Gilleron, Jérome; Pointis, Georges; Segretain, Dominique; Durand, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Exposure to toxic metals, specifically those belonging to the nonessential group leads to human health defects and among them reprotoxic effects. The mechanisms by which these metals produce their negative effects on spermatogenesis have not been fully elucidated. By using the Durand's validated seminiferous tubule culture model, which mimics the in vivo situation, we recently reported that concentrations of hexavalent chromium, reported in the literature to be closed to that found in the blood circulation of men, increase the number of germ cell cytogenetic abnormalities. Since this metal is also known to affect cellular junctions, we investigated, in the present study, its potential influence on the Sertoli cell barrier and on junctional proteins present at this level such as connexin 43, claudin-11 and N-cadherin. Cultured seminiferous tubules in bicameral chambers expressed the three junctional proteins and ZO-1 for at least 12 days. Exposure to low concentrations of chromium (10 μg/l) increased the trans-epithelial resistance without major changes of claudin-11 and N-cadherin expressions but strongly delocalized the gap junction protein connexin 43 from the membrane to the cytoplasm of Sertoli cells. The possibility that the hexavalent chromium-induced alteration of connexin 43 indirectly mediates the effect of the toxic metal on the blood–testis barrier dynamic is postulated. - Highlights: ► Influence of Cr(VI) on the Sertoli cell barrier and on junctional proteins ► Use of cultured seminiferous tubules in bicameral chambers ► Low concentrations of Cr(VI) (10 μg/l) altered the trans-epithelial resistance. ► Cr(VI) did not alter claudin-11 and N-cadherin. ► Cr(VI) delocalized connexin 43 from the membrane to the cytoplasm of Sertoli cells.

  19. Effect of culture conditions and mother's age on the sensitivity of Daphnia magna Straus 1820 (Cladocera) neonates to hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando; Martínez-Jerónimo, Laura; Espinosa-Chávez, Félix

    2006-04-01

    Daphnia magna is a freshwater cladoceran used worldwide as test organism in aquatic toxicity assays. In Mexico there is a test protocol for this species; nevertheless, some aspects of the controlled neonate production, as well as the possible consequences of the reproducers' culture conditions on the response of neonates to the toxic substance, are not completely known. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of temperature and photoperiod on the acute toxicity of CrVI in D. magna neonates, aimed at providing useful information on the Median Lethal Concentration (LC50) to this heavy metal, which is used as reference toxicant in some laboratories. D. magna was cultured at 20 and 25 degrees C, in combination with two photoperiod values: 16:8 and 12:12 (light:dark) during 40 days; the green microalga Ankistrodesmus falcatus (4x10(5) cells ml(-1)) was supplied as food. Once the reproduction began, the neonates were removed and acute toxicity bioassays at 20 and 25 degrees C were performed, by exposing them to hexavalent chromium. We also determined changes in neonates' size at 20 and 25 degrees C. Chromium toxicity increased along with increasing temperatures, and LC50 values were slightly lower for the first and last clutches in the observed period, but these findings are not conclusive because of the large variability recorded. The average LC50's were 0.2076+/-0.0164 mg l(-1) (at 20 degrees C) and 0.1544+/-0.0175 mg l(-1) (at 25 degrees C). The reproducers' culture temperature had no effect on neonates' sensitivity to chromium, in spite of performing the tests at temperatures either lower or higher than those at which the neonates had been obtained. The length of neonates produced during the first two clutches (<1.25 mm) was significantly lower than that measured in neonates of following reproductions (>1.3 mm), and were smaller at 25 degrees C; however, this did not seem to affect their sensitivity to chromium.

  20. Determination and evaluation of hexavalent chromium in power plant coal combustion by-products and cost-effective environmental remediation solutions using acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Kingston, H M Skip; Cain, Randy; Huo, Dengwei; Rahman, G M Mizanur

    2005-09-01

    The chromium species leaching from a coal combustion fly ash landfill has been characterized as well as a novel approach to treat leachates rich in hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), by using another natural waste by-product, acid mine drainage (AMD), has been investigated during this study. It is observed that as much as 8% (approximately 10 microg g(-1) in fly ash) of total chromium is converted to the Cr(VI) species during oxidative combustion of coal and remains in the resulting ash as a stable species, however, it is significantly mobile in water based leaching. Approximately 1.23 +/- 0.01 microg g(-1) of Cr(VI) was found in the landfill leachate from permanent deposits of aged fly ash. This study also confirmed the use of AMD, which often is in close proximity to coal combustion by-product landfills, is an extremely effective and economical remediation option for the elimination of hexavalent chromium in fly ash generated leachate. Speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SIDMS), as described in EPA Method 6800, was used to analytically evaluate and validate the field application of the ferrous iron and chromate chemistry in the remediation of Cr(VI) runoff.

  1. Toxic and genotoxic effects of hexavalent chromium in environment and its bioremediation strategies.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sandhya; Bharagava, Ram Naresh

    2016-01-01

    Chromium is one of the major inorganic environmental pollutants, which is added in the environment through various natural and anthropogenic activities and exists mainly in two forms: Cr(III) and Cr(VI). Cr(VI) is considered to be more toxic than Cr(III) due to its high solubility and mobility. It is a well-reported occupational carcinogen associated with lung, nasal, and sinus cancers. Thus, this review article provides the detailed information on the occurrence, sources of chromium contamination in the environment and their toxicological effects in human, animal, plants as well as in microorganisms, and bioremediation strategies to minimize the toxic effects.

  2. Hexavalent chromium induces energy metabolism disturbance and p53-dependent cell cycle arrest via reactive oxygen species in L-02 hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Fang; Feng, Xiaotao; Zeng, Ming; Guan, Lan; Hu, Qingqing; Zhong, Caigao

    2012-12-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] has become a non-negligible pollutant in the world. Cr(VI) exposure leads to severe damage to the liver, but the mechanisms involved in Cr(VI)-mediated toxicity in the liver are unclear. The present study aimed to explore whether Cr(VI) induces energy metabolism disturbance and cell cycle arrest in human L-02 hepatocytes. We showed that Cr(VI) inhibited state 3 respiration, respiratory control rate (RCR), and subsequently induced energy metabolism disturbance with decreased ATP production. Interestingly, cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry and protein expression analysis by western blotting revealed that low dose of Cr(VI) (4 uM) exposure induced S phase cell cycle arrest with decreased mediator of replication checkpoint 1 (Mrc1) and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), while higher doses of Cr(VI) (16, 32 uM) exposure resulted in G2/M phase arrest with decreased budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles-related 1 (BubR1) and cell division cycle 25 (CDC25). Mechanism study revealed that Cr(VI) decreased the activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex (MRCC) I and II, thus leading to ROS accumulation. Moreover, inhibiting ROS production by antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) rescued Cr(VI)-induced ATP depletion and cell cycle arrest. ROS-mediated p53 activation was found to involve in Cr(VI)-induced cell cycle arrest, and p53 inhibitor Pifithrin-α (PFT-α) rescued Cr(VI)-induced reduction of check point proteins Mrc1 and BubR1, thus inhibiting cell cycle arrest. In summary, the present study provides experimental evidence that Cr(VI) leads to energy metabolism disturbance and p53-dependent cell cycle arrest via ROS in L-02 hepatocytes.

  3. Hexavalent Chromium (Cr(VI)) Down-Regulates Acetylation of Histone H4 at Lysine 16 through Induction of Stressor Protein Nupr1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Danqi; Kluz, Thomas; Fang, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoru; Sun, Hong; Jin, Chunyuan; Costa, Max

    2016-01-01

    The environmental and occupational carcinogen Hexavalent Chromium (Cr(VI)) has been shown to cause lung cancer in humans when inhaled. In spite of a considerable research effort, the mechanisms of Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis remain largely unknown. Nupr1 (nuclear protein 1) is a small, highly basic, and unfolded protein with molecular weight of 8,800 daltons and is induced by a variety of stressors. Studies in animal models have suggested that Nupr1 is a key factor in the development of lung and pancreatic cancers, with little known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. Here we report that the level of Nupr1 is significantly increased in human bronchial epithelial BEAS2B cells following exposure to Cr(VI) through epigenetic mechanisms. Interestingly, Cr(VI) exposure also results in the loss of acetylation at histone H4K16, which is considered a ‘hallmark’ of human cancer. Cr(VI)-induced reduction of H4K16 acetylation appears to be caused by the induction of Nupr1, since (a) overexpression of Nupr1 decreased the levels of both H4K16 acetylation and the histone acetyltransferase MOF (male absent on the first; also known as Kat8, Myst 1), which specifically acetylates H4K16; (b) the loss of acetylation of H4K16 upon Cr(VI) exposure is greatly compromised by knockdown of Nupr1. Moreover, Nupr1-induced reduction of H4K16 acetylation correlates with the transcriptional down-regulation at several genomic loci. Notably, overexpression of Nupr1 induces anchorage-independent cell growth and knockdown of Nupr1 expression prevents Cr(VI)-induced cell transformation. We propose that Cr(VI) induces Nupr1 and rapidly perturbs gene expression by downregulating H4K16 acetylation, thereby contributing to Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:27285315

  4. Hexavalent chromium reduction by Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6: the influence of carbon source, iron minerals, and electron shuttling compounds.

    PubMed

    Field, Erin K; Gerlach, Robin; Viamajala, Sridhar; Jennings, Laura K; Peyton, Brent M; Apel, William A

    2013-06-01

    The reduction of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), to trivalent chromium, Cr(III), can be an important aspect of remediation processes at contaminated sites. Cellulomonas species are found at several Cr(VI) contaminated and uncontaminated locations at the Department of Energy site in Hanford, Washington. Members of this genus have demonstrated the ability to effectively reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III) fermentatively and therefore play a potential role in Cr(VI) remediation at this site. Batch studies were conducted with Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6 to assess the influence of various carbon sources, iron minerals, and electron shuttling compounds on Cr(VI) reduction rates as these chemical species are likely to be present in, or added to, the environment during in situ bioremediation. Results indicated that the type of carbon source as well as the type of electron shuttle present influenced Cr(VI) reduction rates. Molasses stimulated Cr(VI) reduction more effectively than pure sucrose, presumably due to presence of more easily utilizable sugars, electron shuttling compounds or compounds with direct Cr(VI) reduction capabilities. Cr(VI) reduction rates increased with increasing concentration of anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) regardless of the carbon source. The presence of iron minerals and their concentrations did not significantly influence Cr(VI) reduction rates. However, strain ES6 or AQDS could directly reduce surface-associated Fe(III) to Fe(II), which was capable of reducing Cr(VI) at a near instantaneous rate. These results suggest the rate limiting step in these systems was the transfer of electrons from strain ES6 to the intermediate or terminal electron acceptor whether that was Cr(VI), Fe(III), or AQDS.

  5. Eugenia dysenterica DC. (Myrtaceae) exerts chemopreventive effects against hexavalent chromium-induced damage in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ávila, Renato Ivan de; Mattos Alvarenga, Cátia Belo; Ávila, Paulo Henrique Marcelino de; Moreira, Roger Cardoso; Arruda, Andréa Fernandes; Fernandes, Thaís de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Bruna Dos Santos; Andrade, Wanessa Machado; Batista, Aline Carvalho; Paula, José Realino de; Valadares, Marize Campos

    2016-11-01

    Eugenia dysenterica DC. (Myrtaceae) has been widely used in the folk medicine and it presents phytochemicals constituents associated to antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effects of E. dysenterica leaf hydroalcoholic extract (EDE) in vitro and in vivo using AMJ2-C11 cells and Swiss mice exposed to hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], respectively. AMJ2-C11 cells were pretreated with EDE and exposed to Cr(VI) to evaluate cytotoxicity and the pathways involved in the chemopreventive effects of the extract. Mice were daily pretreated with EDE and then exposed to Cr(VI). Survival analysis, histopathological examination and determination of Cr levels in biological tissues were carried out. In vitro studies showed that pretreatment of the AMJ2-C11 cells with EDE protected against the cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by Cr(VI). Consequently, the pretreatment with EDE reduced reactive oxygen species and apoptosis triggered by Cr(VI), probably by a marked antioxidant and chelating activities demonstrated by EDE. Regarding in vivo studies, pretreatment for 10 days with EDE increased survival of the mice exposed to Cr(VI). In addition, EDE prevented liver and kidney pathological damages, in parallel with reduction in chromium levels found in these organs and plasma. EDE also showed a marked antioxidant potential associated with the presence of polyphenols, especially flavonoids and tannins, as confirmed by HPLC-PDA. The study showed that EDE protects against Cr(VI)-induced damage in vitro and in vivo supporting further studies for the development of therapeutic products applied to prevent the damage induced by toxic metals, especially Cr(VI).

  6. Precursor preparation for Ca-Al layered double hydroxide to remove hexavalent chromium coexisting with calcium and magnesium chlorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Lihua; He, Xiaoman; Qu, Jun; Li, Xuewei; Lei, Zhiwu; Zhang, Qiwu; Liu, Xinzhong

    2017-01-01

    Al(OH)3 and Ca(OH)2 powders are co-ground to prepare a precursor which hydrates into a layered double hydroxide (LDH) phase by agitation in aqueous solution with target hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) at room temperature, to achieve an obvious improvement in removal efficiency of Cr(VI) through an easy incorporation into the structure. Although the prepared precursor transforms into LDH phases also when agitated in the solutions of calcium and magnesium chlorides, it incorporates Cr(VI) preferentially to the chloride salts when they coexist. The adsorption isotherm and kinetic studies show that the phenomena occurring on the Al-Ca precursor fit a pseudo-second-order kinetics with a Langmuir adsorption capacity of 59.45 mg/g. Besides, characterizations of the prepared precursor and the samples after adsorption are also performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) to understand the reason of the preferential incorporation of Cr(VI) to the coexisting chloride salts during the LDH phase formation.

  7. Effect of NaX zeolite-modified graphite felts on hexavalent chromium removal in biocathode microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiayuan; Tong, Fei; Yong, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Lixiong; Jia, Honghua; Wei, Ping

    2016-05-05

    Two kinds of NaX zeolite-modified graphite felts were used as biocathode electrodes in hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI))-reducing microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The one was fabricated through direct modification, and the other one processed by HNO3 pretreatment of graphite felt before modification. The results showed that two NaX zeolite-modified graphite felts are excellent bio-electrode materials for MFCs, and that a large NaX loading mass, obtained by HNO3 pretreatment (the HNO3-NaX electrode), leads to a superior performance. The HNO3-NaX electrode significantly improved the electricity generation and Cr(VI) removal of the MFC. The maximum Cr(VI) removal rate increased to 10.39±0.28 mg/L h, which was 8.2 times higher than that of the unmodified control. The improvement was ascribed to the strong affinity that NaX zeolite particles, present in large number on the graphite felt, have for microorganisms and Cr(VI) ions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hexavalent chromium removal from aqueous solution by algal bloom residue derived activated carbon: equilibrium and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Tang, Yi; Cai, Dongqing; Liu, Xianan; Wang, Xiangqin; Huang, Qing; Yu, Zengliang

    2010-09-15

    A novel approach to prepare activated carbon from blue-green algal bloom residue has been tried for first time and its adsorption capability to remove hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) from aqueous solution has been examined. For this algal bloom residue derived activated carbon, the physical characters regarding adsorption capability were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Batch studies showed that initial pH, absorbent dosage, and initial concentration of Cr(VI) were important parameters for Cr(VI) absorption. It was found that initial pH of 1.0 was most favorable for Cr(VI) removal. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order equation and Freundlich isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacity for Cr(VI) was 155.52 mg g(-1) in an acidic medium, which is comparable to best result from activated carbons derived from biomass. Therefore, this work put forward a nearly perfect solution which on one hand gets rid of environment-unfriendly algae residue while on the other hand produces high-quality activated carbon that is in return advantageous to environment protection.

  9. Effects of dentifrice containing hydroxyapatite on dentinal tubule occlusion and aqueous hexavalent chromium cations sorption: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Peiyan; Shen, Xiaoqing; Liu, Jing; Hou, Yarong; Zhu, Manqun; Huang, Jiansheng; Xu, Pingping

    2012-01-01

    In order to endow environmental protection features to dentifrice, hydroxyapatite (HA) was added to ordinary dentifrice. The effects on dentinal tubule occlusion and surface mineralization were compared after brushing dentine discs with dentifrice with or without HA. The two types of dentifrice were then added to 100 µg/ml of hexavalent chromium cation (Cr(6+)) solution in order to evaluate their capacities of adsorbing Cr(6+) from water. Our results showed that the dentifrice containing HA was significantly better than the ordinary dentifrice in occluding the dentinal tubules with a plugging rate greater than 90%. Moreover, the effect of the HA dentifrice was persistent and energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) revealed that the atomic percentages of calcium and phosphorus on the surface of dentine discs increased significantly. Adding HA to ordinary dentifrice significantly enhanced the ability of dentifrice to adsorb Cr(6+) from water with the removal rate up to 52.36%. In addition, the sorption was stable. Our study suggests that HA can be added to ordinary dentifrice to obtain dentifrice that has both relieving dentin hypersensitivity benefits and also helps to control environmental pollution.

  10. Utility of Ochrobactrum anthropi YC152 in a Microbial Fuel Cell as an Early Warning Device for Hexavalent Chromium Determination.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guey-Horng; Cheng, Chiu-Yu; Liu, Man-Hai; Chen, Tzu-Yu; Hsieh, Min-Chi; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2016-08-16

    Fast hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) determination is important for environmental risk and health-related considerations. We used a microbial fuel cell-based biosensor inoculated with a facultatively anaerobic, Cr(VI)-reducing, and exoelectrogenic Ochrobactrum anthropi YC152 to determine the Cr(VI) concentration in water. The results indicated that O. anthropi YC152 exhibited high adaptability to pH, temperature, salinity, and water quality under anaerobic conditions. The stable performance of the microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based biosensor indicated its potential as a reliable biosensor system. The MFC voltage decreased as the Cr(VI) concentration in the MFC increased. Two satisfactory linear relationships were observed between the Cr(VI) concentration and voltage output for various Cr(VI) concentration ranges (0.0125-0.3 mg/L and 0.3-5 mg/L). The MFC biosensor is a simple device that can accurately measure Cr(VI) concentrations in drinking water, groundwater, and electroplating wastewater in 45 min with low deviations (<10%). The use of the biosensor can help in preventing the violation of effluent regulations and the maximum allowable concentration of Cr(VI) in water. Thus, the developed MFC biosensor has potential as an early warning detection device for Cr(VI) determination even if O. anthropi YC152 is a possible opportunistic pathogen.

  11. Effects of hexavalent chromium on microtubule organization, ER distribution and callose deposition in root tip cells of Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Eleftheriou, Eleftherios P; Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S; Melissa, Pelagia

    2012-04-01

    The subcellular targets of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] were examined in Allium cepa root tips with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Cr(VI) exerted dose- and time-dependent negative effects on root growth rate, the mitotic index and microtubule (MT) organization during cell division cycle. Interphase MTs were more resistant than the mitotic ones, but when affected they were shorter, sparse and disoriented. The preprophase band of MTs became poorly organized, branched or with fragmented MTs, whilst neither a perinuclear array nor a prophase spindle was formed. Metaphase spindles converged to eccentric mini poles or consisted of dissimilar halves and were unable to correctly orient the chromosomes. Anaphase spindles were less disturbed, but chromatids failed to separate; neither did they move to the poles. At telophase, projecting, lagging or bridging chromosomes and micronuclei also occurred. Phragmoplasts were unilaterally developed, split, located at unexpected sites and frequently dissociated from the branched and misaligned cell plates. Chromosomal aberrations were directly correlated with MT disturbance. The morphology and distribution of endoplasmic reticulum was severely perturbed and presumably contributed to MT disassembly. Heavy callose apposition was also induced by Cr(VI), maybe in the context of a cellular defence reaction. Results indicate that MTs are one of the main subcellular targets of Cr(VI), MT impairment underlies chromosomal and mitotic aberrations, and MTs may constitute a reliable biomonitoring system for Cr(VI) toxicity in plants.

  12. Hexavalent Chromium Removal from Model Water and Car Shock Absorber Factory Effluent by Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Bejaoui, Imen; Mouelhi, Meral; Hamrouni, Béchir

    2017-01-01

    Nanofiltration and reverse osmosis are investigated as a possible alternative to the conventional methods of Cr(VI) removal from model water and industrial effluent. The influences of feed concentration, water recovery, pH, and the coexisting anions were studied. The results have shown that retention rates of hexavalent chromium can reach 99.7% using nanofiltration membrane (NF-HL) and vary from 85 to 99.9% using reverse osmosis membrane (RO-SG) depending upon the composition of the solution and operating conditions. This work was also extended to investigate the separation of Cr(VI) from car shock absorber factory effluent. The use of these membranes is very promising for Cr(VI) water treatment and desalting industry effluent. Spiegler-Kedem model was applied to experimental results in the aim to determine phenomenological parameters, the reflection coefficient of the membrane (σ), and the solute permeability coefficient (Ps). The convective and diffusive parts of the mass transfer were quantified with predominance of the diffusive contribution. PMID:28819360

  13. Influence of various organic molecules on the reduction of hexavalent chromium mediated by zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Rivero-Huguet, Mario; Marshall, William D

    2009-08-01

    Hexavalent chromium is a priority pollutant in many countries. Reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) is desirable as the latter specie is an essential nutrient for maintaining normal physiological function and also has a low mobility and bioavailability. A variety of naturally-occurring organic molecules (containing alpha-hydroxyl carbonyl, alpha-hydroxyl carboxylate, alpha-carbonyl carboxylate, phenolate, carboxylates and/or thiol groups, siderophore, ascorbic acid); chelating agents (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid derivates, acetyacetone) and others were examined their reducing activity towards a surfactant preparation (Tween 20) containing Cr(VI) and Fe(0) under a variety of reaction conditions. An appreciable enhancement (up to 50-fold) of the pseudo-first-order rate constant was achieved at acidic and circum neutral pH values for those compounds capable of reducing Cr(VI) (alpha-hydroxyl carboxylate, ascorbic acid, cysteine). Comparable enhancements were obtained for certain chelating agents (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid derivates and siderophores) which is attributed to the formation of complexes with reaction products, such as Cr(III) and Fe(III), which impede the precipitation of Cr(III) and Fe(III) hydroxides and Cr(x)Fe(1-)(x)(OH)(3) and thus reduce passivation of the Fe(0) surface. The results suggest that these molecules might be used in effective remediation mediated by Fe(0) of Cr(VI)-contaminated soils or groundwater in a wide range of pH, thus increasing reaction rates and long-term performance of permeable reductive barriers.

  14. Removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions using micro zero-valent iron supported by bentonite layer.

    PubMed

    Daoud, Waseem; Ebadi, Taghi; Fahimifar, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) is of particular environmental concern due to its toxicity, mobility, and challenging removal from industrial wastewater. It is a strong oxidizing agent that is carcinogenic and mutagenic and diffuses quickly through soil and aquatic environments. Moreover, it does not form insoluble compounds in aqueous solutions; therefore, separation by precipitation is not feasible. While Cr(VI) oxyanions are very mobile and toxic in the environment, trivalent Cr(III) cations are the opposite and, like many metal cations, Cr(III) forms insoluble precipitates. Thus, reducing Cr(VI)-Cr(III) simplifies its removal from effluent and also reduces its toxicity and mobility. Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) with zero-valent iron (ZVI) have been used to remediate contaminated groundwater with metals, but using ZVI in remediation of contaminated groundwater or wastewater is limited due to its lack of stability, easy aggregation, and difficulty in separation of iron from the treated solution. Thus, the technology used in the present study is developed to address these problems by placing a layer of bentonite after the PRB layer to remove iron from the treated water. The removal rates of Cr(VI) under different values of pH were investigated, and the results indicated the highest adsorption capacity at low pH.

  15. Effects of Dentifrice Containing Hydroxyapatite on Dentinal Tubule Occlusion and Aqueous Hexavalent Chromium Cations Sorption: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Hou, Yarong; Zhu, Manqun; Huang, Jiansheng; Xu, Pingping

    2012-01-01

    In order to endow environmental protection features to dentifrice, hydroxyapatite (HA) was added to ordinary dentifrice. The effects on dentinal tubule occlusion and surface mineralization were compared after brushing dentine discs with dentifrice with or without HA. The two types of dentifrice were then added to 100 µg/ml of hexavalent chromium cation (Cr6+) solution in order to evaluate their capacities of adsorbing Cr6+ from water. Our results showed that the dentifrice containing HA was significantly better than the ordinary dentifrice in occluding the dentinal tubules with a plugging rate greater than 90%. Moreover, the effect of the HA dentifrice was persistent and energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) revealed that the atomic percentages of calcium and phosphorus on the surface of dentine discs increased significantly. Adding HA to ordinary dentifrice significantly enhanced the ability of dentifrice to adsorb Cr6+ from water with the removal rate up to 52.36%. In addition, the sorption was stable. Our study suggests that HA can be added to ordinary dentifrice to obtain dentifrice that has both relieving dentin hypersensitivity benefits and also helps to control environmental pollution. PMID:23300511

  16. Polyacrylonitrile/polypyrrole core/shell nanofiber mat for the removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianqiang; Pan, Kai; He, Qiwei; Cao, Bing

    2013-01-15

    Polyacrylonitrile/polypyrrole (PAN/PPy) core-shell structure nanofibers were prepared via electrospinning followed by in situ polymerization of pyrrole monomer for the removal of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) from aqueous solution. Attenuated total reflections Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results confirmed the presence of the polypyrrole (PPy) layer on the surface of PAN nanofibers. The morphology and structure of the core-shell PAN/PPy nanofibers were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), and the core-shell structure can be clearly proved from the SEM and TEM images. Adsorption results indicated that the adsorption capacity increased with the initial solution pH decreased. The adsorption equilibrium reached within 30 and 90 min as the initial solution concentration increased from 100 to 200mg/L, and the process can be described using the pseudo-second-order model. Isotherm data fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm model. Thermodynamic study revealed that the adsorption process is endothermic and spontaneous in nature. Desorption results showed that the adsorption capacity can remain up to 80% after 5 times usage. The adsorption mechanism was also studied by XPS.

  17. Simultaneously photocatalytic treatment of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) using rotating reactor under solar irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngji; Joo, Hyunku; Her, Namguk; Yoon, Yeomin; Sohn, Jinsik; Kim, Sungpyo; Yoon, Jaekyung

    2015-05-15

    In this study, simultaneous treatments, reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and oxidation of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), such as bisphenol A (BPA), 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) and 17β-estradiol (E2), were investigated with a rotating photocatalytic reactor including TiO₂ nanotubes formed on titanium mesh substrates under solar UV irradiation. In the laboratory tests with a rotating type I reactor, synergy effects of the simultaneous photocatalytic reduction and oxidation of inorganic (Cr(VI)) and organic (BPA) pollutants were achieved. Particularly, the concurrent photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) and oxidation of BPA was higher under acidic conditions. The enhanced reaction efficiency of both pollutants was attributed to a stronger charge interaction between TiO₂ nanotubes (positive charge) and the anionic form of Cr(VI) (negative charge), which are prevented recombination (electron-hole pair) by the hole scavenging effect of BPA. In the extended outdoor tests with a rotating type II reactor under solar irradiation, the experiment was extended to examine the simultaneous reduction of Cr(VI) in the presence of additional EDCs, such as EE2 and E2 as well as BPA. The findings showed that synergic effect of both photocatalytic reduction and oxidation was confirmed with single-component (Cr(VI) only), two-components (Cr(VI)/BPA, Cr(VI)/EE2, and Cr(VI)/E2), and four-components (Cr(VI)/BPA/EE2/E2) under various solar irradiation conditions.

  18. Hexavalent Chromium Removal from Model Water and Car Shock Absorber Factory Effluent by Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis Membrane.

    PubMed

    Mnif, Amine; Bejaoui, Imen; Mouelhi, Meral; Hamrouni, Béchir

    2017-01-01

    Nanofiltration and reverse osmosis are investigated as a possible alternative to the conventional methods of Cr(VI) removal from model water and industrial effluent. The influences of feed concentration, water recovery, pH, and the coexisting anions were studied. The results have shown that retention rates of hexavalent chromium can reach 99.7% using nanofiltration membrane (NF-HL) and vary from 85 to 99.9% using reverse osmosis membrane (RO-SG) depending upon the composition of the solution and operating conditions. This work was also extended to investigate the separation of Cr(VI) from car shock absorber factory effluent. The use of these membranes is very promising for Cr(VI) water treatment and desalting industry effluent. Spiegler-Kedem model was applied to experimental results in the aim to determine phenomenological parameters, the reflection coefficient of the membrane (σ), and the solute permeability coefficient (Ps ). The convective and diffusive parts of the mass transfer were quantified with predominance of the diffusive contribution.

  19. Self-assembly modified-mushroom nanocomposite for rapid removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution with bubbling fluidized bed.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei; Liu, Xu; Chen, Yijiao; Zhang, Ke; Xu, Heng

    2016-05-18

    A self-assembled modified Pleurotus Cornucopiae material (SMPM) combined with improved Intermittent Bubbling Fluidized Bed (IBFB) was investigated to remove the hexavalent chromium ions in aqueous solution. After the modification, the powder-like raw material gradually self-assembled together to SMPM, which had crinkly porous structure, improved the Cr-accommodation ability in a sound manner. Optimized by Taguchi method, Cr(VI) removal efficiency was up to 75.91% and 48.01% for 100 mg/L and 500 mg/L initial concentration of Cr(VI), respectively. Results indicated that the metal removal was dependent on dosage of adsorbent, particle diameter and treatment time. The experimental data obtained from the biosorption process was successfully correlated with Freundlich isotherm model. Thermodynamic study indicated the endothermic nature of the process. The results confirmed that self-assembly modified Pleurotus Cornucopiae material could be applied for the removal of heavy metal from wastewater in continuous fluidized bed process.

  20. Self-assembly modified-mushroom nanocomposite for rapid removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution with bubbling fluidized bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Fei; Liu, Xu; Chen, Yijiao; Zhang, Ke; Xu, Heng

    2016-05-01

    A self-assembled modified Pleurotus Cornucopiae material (SMPM) combined with improved Intermittent Bubbling Fluidized Bed (IBFB) was investigated to remove the hexavalent chromium ions in aqueous solution. After the modification, the powder-like raw material gradually self-assembled together to SMPM, which had crinkly porous structure, improved the Cr-accommodation ability in a sound manner. Optimized by Taguchi method, Cr(VI) removal efficiency was up to 75.91% and 48.01% for 100 mg/L and 500 mg/L initial concentration of Cr(VI), respectively. Results indicated that the metal removal was dependent on dosage of adsorbent, particle diameter and treatment time. The experimental data obtained from the biosorption process was successfully correlated with Freundlich isotherm model. Thermodynamic study indicated the endothermic nature of the process. The results confirmed that self-assembly modified Pleurotus Cornucopiae material could be applied for the removal of heavy metal from wastewater in continuous fluidized bed process.

  1. Utility of Ochrobactrum anthropi YC152 in a Microbial Fuel Cell as an Early Warning Device for Hexavalent Chromium Determination

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guey-Horng; Cheng, Chiu-Yu; Liu, Man-Hai; Chen, Tzu-Yu; Hsieh, Min-Chi; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2016-01-01

    Fast hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) determination is important for environmental risk and health-related considerations. We used a microbial fuel cell-based biosensor inoculated with a facultatively anaerobic, Cr(VI)-reducing, and exoelectrogenic Ochrobactrum anthropi YC152 to determine the Cr(VI) concentration in water. The results indicated that O. anthropi YC152 exhibited high adaptability to pH, temperature, salinity, and water quality under anaerobic conditions. The stable performance of the microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based biosensor indicated its potential as a reliable biosensor system. The MFC voltage decreased as the Cr(VI) concentration in the MFC increased. Two satisfactory linear relationships were observed between the Cr(VI) concentration and voltage output for various Cr(VI) concentration ranges (0.0125–0.3 mg/L and 0.3–5 mg/L). The MFC biosensor is a simple device that can accurately measure Cr(VI) concentrations in drinking water, groundwater, and electroplating wastewater in 45 min with low deviations (<10%). The use of the biosensor can help in preventing the violation of effluent regulations and the maximum allowable concentration of Cr(VI) in water. Thus, the developed MFC biosensor has potential as an early warning detection device for Cr(VI) determination even if O. anthropi YC152 is a possible opportunistic pathogen. PMID:27537887

  2. Adsorption of hexavalent chromium from synthetic and electroplating effluent on chemically modified Swietenia mahagoni shell in a packed bed column.

    PubMed

    Rangabhashiyam, S; Nandagopal, M S Giri; Nakkeeran, E; Selvaraju, N

    2016-07-01

    Packed bed column studies were carried out to evaluate the performance of chemically modified adsorbents for the sequestration of hexavalent chromium from synthetic and electroplating industrial effluent. The effects of parameters such as bed height (3-9 cm), inlet flow rate (5-15 mL/min), and influent Cr(VI) concentration (50-200 mg/L) on the percentage removal of Cr(VI) and the adsorption capacity of the adsorbents in a packed bed column were investigated. The breakthrough time increased with increasing bed height and decreased with the increase of inlet flow rate and influent Cr(VI) concentration. The adsorption column models such as Thomas, Adams-Bohart, Yoon-Nelson, and bed depth service time (BDST) were successfully correlated with the experimental data. The Yoon-Nelson and BDST model showed good agreement with the experimental data for all the studied parameter conditions. Results of the present study indicated that the chemically modified Swietenia mahagoni shell can be used as an adsorbent for the removal of Cr(VI) from industrial wastewater in a packed bed column.

  3. A Comparative Study of Raw and Metal Oxide Impregnated Carbon Nanotubes for the Adsorption of Hexavalent Chromium from Aqueous Solution

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Muhammad I.; Al-Baghli, Nadhir

    2017-01-01

    The present study reports the use of raw, iron oxide, and aluminum oxide impregnated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for the adsorption of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) ions from aqueous solution. The raw CNTs were impregnated with 1% and 10% loadings (weight %) of iron oxide and aluminum oxide nanoparticles using wet impregnation technique. The synthesized materials were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Batch adsorption experiments were performed to assess the removal efficiency of Cr(VI) ions from water and the effects of pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, and initial concentration of the Cr(VI) ions were investigated. Results of the study revealed that impregnated CNTs achieved significant increase in the removal efficiency of Cr(VI) ions compared to raw CNTs. In fact, both CNTs impregnated with 10% loading of iron and aluminum oxides were able to remove up to 100% of Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solution. Isotherm studies were carried out using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Adsorption kinetics of Cr(VI) ions from water was found to be well described by the pseudo-second-order model. The results suggest that metallic oxide impregnated CNTs have very good potential application in the removal of Cr(VI) ions from water resulting in better environmental protection. PMID:28487625

  4. Self-assembly modified-mushroom nanocomposite for rapid removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution with bubbling fluidized bed

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fei; Liu, Xu; Chen, Yijiao; Zhang, Ke; Xu, Heng

    2016-01-01

    A self-assembled modified Pleurotus Cornucopiae material (SMPM) combined with improved Intermittent Bubbling Fluidized Bed (IBFB) was investigated to remove the hexavalent chromium ions in aqueous solution. After the modification, the powder-like raw material gradually self-assembled together to SMPM, which had crinkly porous structure, improved the Cr-accommodation ability in a sound manner. Optimized by Taguchi method, Cr(VI) removal efficiency was up to 75.91% and 48.01% for 100 mg/L and 500 mg/L initial concentration of Cr(VI), respectively. Results indicated that the metal removal was dependent on dosage of adsorbent, particle diameter and treatment time. The experimental data obtained from the biosorption process was successfully correlated with Freundlich isotherm model. Thermodynamic study indicated the endothermic nature of the process. The results confirmed that self-assembly modified Pleurotus Cornucopiae material could be applied for the removal of heavy metal from wastewater in continuous fluidized bed process. PMID:27188258

  5. Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium by Green Tea Polyphenols and Green Tea Nano Zero-Valent Iron (GT-nZVI).

    PubMed

    Chrysochoou, M; Reeves, K

    2017-03-01

    This study reports on the direct reduction of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] by green tea polyphenols, including a green tea solution and pure epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) solution. A linear trend was observed between the amount of reduced Cr(VI) and the amount of added polyphenols. The green tea solution showed a continued decrease in the observed stoichiometry with increasing pH, from a maximum of 1.4 mol per gallic acid equivalent (GAE) of green tea at pH 2.5, to 0.2 mol/GAE at pH 8.8. The EGCG solution exhibited different behavior, with a maximum stoichiometry of 2 at pH 7 and minimum of 1.6 at pH 4.4 and 8.9. When green tea was used to first react with Fe(3+) and form GT-nZVI, the amount of Cr(VI) reduced by a certain volume of GT-nZVI was double compared to green tea, and 6 times as high considering that GT-nZVI only contains 33 % green tea.

  6. Application of Fe-Cu binary oxide nanoparticles for the removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Khan, Saif Ullah; Zaidi, Rumman; Hassan, Saeikh Z; Farooqi, I H; Azam, Ameer

    2016-01-01

    The adsorption process has been used as an effective technique for the removal of metal ions from aqueous solutions. Groundwater remediation by nanoparticles has received interest in recent years. In the present study, a binary metal oxide of Fe-Cu was prepared and used for the removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were performed to investigate the effects of initial Cr (VI) concentration, dose of adsorbent, and pH of solution on the removal efficiency of Cr (VI). The prepared nanostructured Fe-Cu binary oxides were able to reduce the concentration of Cr (VI) in aqueous solution. Binary metal oxides nanoparticle exhibited an outstanding ability to remove Cr (VI) due to high surface area, low particle size, and high inherent activity. The percentage removal efficiency of Cr (VI) increased with nanoparticles doses (0.1 g L(-1)-2.5 g L(-1)), whereas it decreased with initial Cr (VI) concentration (1 mg L(-1)-25 mg L(-1)) and with pH (3-9). The Freundlich model was found to be the better fit for adsorption isotherm. The prepared nanomaterial was characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy. It showed that the Fe-Cu binary oxides were formed in single phase. SEM micrograph showed aggregates with many nano-sized particles. UV-visible spectroscopy showed quantum confinement effect.

  7. Chi-square analysis of the reduction of ATP levels in L-02 hepatocytes by hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yang; Peng, Li; Gong-Hua, Hu; Lu, Dai; Xia-Li, Zhong; Yu, Zhou; Cai-Gao, Zhong

    2012-06-01

    This study explored the reduction of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels in L-02 hepatocytes by hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) using chi-square analysis. Cells were treated with 2, 4, 8, 16, or 32 μM Cr(VI) for 12, 24, or 36 h. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) experiments and measurements of intracellular ATP levels were performed by spectrophotometry or bioluminescence assays following Cr(VI) treatment. The chi-square test was used to determine the difference between cell survival rate and ATP levels. For the chi-square analysis, the results of the MTT or ATP experiments were transformed into a relative ratio with respect to the control (%). The relative ATP levels increased at 12 h, decreased at 24 h, and increased slightly again at 36 h following 4, 8, 16, 32 μM Cr(VI) treatment, corresponding to a "V-shaped" curve. Furthermore, the results of the chi-square analysis demonstrated a significant difference of the ATP level in the 32-μM Cr(VI) group (P < 0.05). The results suggest that the chi-square test can be applied to analyze the interference effects of Cr(VI) on ATP levels in L-02 hepatocytes. The decreased ATP levels at 24 h indicated disruption of mitochondrial energy metabolism and the slight increase of ATP levels at 36 h indicated partial recovery of mitochondrial function or activated glycolysis in L-02 hepatocytes.

  8. Hexavalent chromium reduction by aerobic heterotrophic bacteria indigenous to chromite mine overburden

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Satarupa; Paul, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Microbiological analysis of overburden samples collected from chromite mining areas of Orissa, India revealed that they are rich in microbial density as well as diversity and dominated by Gram-negative (58%) bacteria. The phenotypically distinguishable bacterial isolates (130) showed wide degree of tolerance to chromium (2–8 mM) when tested in peptone yeast extract glucose agar medium. Isolates (92) tolerating 2 mM chromium exhibited different degrees of Cr+6 reducing activity in chemically defined Vogel Bonner (VB) broth and complex KSC medium. Three potent isolates, two belonging to Arthrobacter spp. and one to Pseudomonas sp. were able to reduce more than 50 and 80% of 2 mM chromium in defined and complex media respectively. Along with Cr+6 (MIC 8.6–17.8 mM), the isolates showed tolerance to Ni+2, Fe+3, Cu+2 and Co+2 but were extremely sensitive to Hg+2 followed by Cd+2, Mn+2 and Zn+2. In addition, they were resistant to antibiotics like penicillin, methicillin, ampicillin, neomycin and polymyxin B. During growth under shake-flask conditions, Arthrobacter SUK 1201 and SUK 1205 showed 100% reduction of 2 mM Cr+6 in KSC medium with simultaneous formation of insoluble precipitates of chromium salts. Both the isolates were also equally capable of completely reducing the Cr+6 present in mine seepage when grown in mine seepage supplemented with VB concentrate. PMID:24159321

  9. Adsorption behavior comparison of trivalent and hexavalent chromium on biochar derived from municipal sludge.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tan; Zhou, Zeyu; Xu, Sai; Wang, Hongtao; Lu, Wenjing

    2015-08-01

    In this work, static equilibrium experiments were conducted to distinguish the adsorption performance between the two valence states of chromium on biochar derived from municipal sludge. The removal capacity of Cr(VI) is lower than 7mg/g at the initial chromium concentration range of 50-200mg/L, whereas that of Cr(III) higher than 20mg/g. It indicates that Cr(III) is much easier to be stabilized than Cr(VI). No significant changes in the biochar surface functional groups are observed before and after the adsorption equilibrium, demonstrating the poor contribution of organic matter in chromium adsorption. The main mechanism of heavy metal adsorption by biochar involves (1) surface precipitation through pH increase caused by biochar buffer ability, and (2) exchange between cations in solution (Cd(2+)) and in biochar matrix (e.g. Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)). The reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) is necessary to improve removal efficiency of chromium.

  10. In Situ Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium in Alkaline Soils Enriched with Chromite Ore Processing Residue.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Thomas E; Halloran, Amy R; Dobbins, Maribeth E; Pittignano, Alex J

    1998-11-01

    In investigating chromium sites in New Jersey, it has been observed that an organic-rich 0.5- to 4-foot-thick layer of decayed vegetation (locally known as "meadowmat") underlying the chromium-containing material acts as a natural barrier to the migration of Cr(VI). The groundwater in a sand layer directly beneath the meadowmat has been shown to contain low or nondetectable levels of chromium. The meadowmat is under highly reduced conditions due to bacterial activity associated with the organic material. Based on the observed ability of the meadowmat to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III), the feasibility of in situ reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) at chromite ore processing residue (COPR) sites was investigated in biologically-active, laboratory-scale test columns. COPR typically has a high pH (in excess of 12) and may contain total chromium concentrations as high as 70,000 mg/kg. Experimental results demonstrated that the addition of a mineral acid (to lower the pH to between 7.0 and 9.5) and a bacteria-rich organic substrate (fresh manure) resulted in the reduction of Cr(VI) to the less toxic and less mobile trivalent form. Pore water Cr(VI) was reduced from approximately 800 mg/L to less than 0.05 mg/L over a period of eight months. This is less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for chromium in drinking water of 0.1 mg/L. Solid phase Cr(VI) concentrations decreased from approximately 2,000 mg/kg to less than 10 mg/kg in the columns over a period of 11 months while the total chromium concentrations remained unchanged. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) extract from the treated columns met the regulatory limit of 5 mg/L of Cr, whereas the untreated samples had TCLP extract concentrations greater than 40 mg/L. This study demonstrated the potential applicability of in situ reduction to soils contaminated with Cr(VI) by adjusting the pH to between 7.0 and 9.5 and mixing in a bacteria-rich organic substrate.

  11. In situ reduction of hexavalent chromium in alkaline soils enriched with chromite ore processing residue

    PubMed

    Higgins; Halloran; Dobbins; Pittignano

    1998-11-01

    In investigating chromium sites in New Jersey, it has been observed that an organic-rich 0.5- to 4-foot-thick layer of decayed vegetation (locally known as "meadowmat") underlying the chromium-containing material acts as a natural barrier to the migration of Cr(VI). The groundwater in a sand layer directly beneath the meadowmat has been shown to contain low or nondetectable levels of chromium. The meadowmat is under highly reduced conditions due to bacterial activity associated with the organic material. Based on the observed ability of the meadowmat to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III), the feasibility of in situ reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) at chromite ore processing residue (COPR) sites was investigated in biologically-active, laboratory-scale test columns. COPR typically has a high pH (in excess of 12) and may contain total chromium concentrations as high as 70,000 mg/kg. Experimental results demonstrated that the addition of a mineral acid (to lower the pH to between 7.0 and 9.5) and a bacteria-rich organic substrate (fresh manure) resulted in the reduction of Cr(VI) to the less toxic and less mobile trivalent form. Pore water Cr(VI) was reduced from approximately 800 mg/L to less than 0.05 mg/L over a period of eight months. This is less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for chromium in drinking water of 0.1 mg/L. Solid phase Cr(VI) concentrations decreased from approximately 2,000 mg/kg to less than 10 mg/kg in the columns over a period of 11 months while the total chromium concentrations remained unchanged. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) extract from the treated columns met the regulatory limit of 5 mg/L of Cr, whereas the untreated samples had TCLP extract concentrations greater than 40 mg/L. This study demonstrated the potential applicability of in situ reduction to soils contaminated with Cr(VI) by adjusting the pH to between 7.0 and 9.5 and mixing in a bacteria-rich organic substrate.

  12. A plan for study of hexavalent chromium, CR(VI) in groundwater near a mapped plume, Hinkley, California, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John A.; Groover, Krishangi D.

    2016-01-22

    The Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) Hinkley compressor station, in the Mojave Desert 80 miles northeast of Los Angeles, is used to compress natural gas as it is transported through a pipeline from Texas to California. Between 1952 and 1964, cooling water used at the compressor station was treated with a compound containing chromium to prevent corrosion. After cooling, the wastewater was discharged to unlined ponds, resulting in contamination of soil and groundwater in the underlying alluvial aquifer (Lahontan Regional Water Quality Control Board, 2013). Since 1964, cooling-water management practices have been used that do not contribute chromium to groundwater.In 2007, a PG&E study of the natural background concentrations of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), in groundwater estimated average concentrations in the Hinkley area to be 1.2 micrograms per liter (μg/L), with a 95-percent upper-confidence limit of 3.1 μg/L (CH2M-Hill, 2007). The 3.1 μg/L upper-confidence limit was adopted by the Lahontan Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB) as the maximum background concentration used to map the plume extent. In response to criticism of the study’s methodology, and an increase in the mapped extent of the plume between 2008 and 2011, the Lahontan RWQCB (Lahontan Regional Water Quality Control Board, 2012) agreed that the 2007 PG&E background-concentration study be updated.The purpose of the updated background study is to evaluate the presence of natural and man-made Cr(VI) near Hinkley, Calif. The study also is to estimate natural background Cr(VI) concentrations in the aquifer upgradient and downgradient from the mapped Cr(VI) contamination plume, as well as in the plume and near its margins. The study was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with a technical working group (TWG) composed of community members, the Independent Review Panel (IRP) Manager (Project Navigator, Ltd.), the Lahontan RWQCB, PG&E, and consultants for PG&E.&E.

  13. Both trivalent and hexavalent chromium strongly alter in vitro germination and ultrastructure of kiwifruit pollen.

    PubMed

    Speranza, Anna; Ferri, Paola; Battistelli, Michela; Falcieri, Elisabetta; Crinelli, Rita; Scoccianti, Valeria

    2007-01-01

    Due to its widespread industrial use, chromium is considered a dangerous environmental pollutant. It is known to inhibit plant growth and development. The present study provides the first evidence of the toxicity of this metal on the male haploid generation of a higher plant. Both Cr(III) and Cr(VI) species, supplied as CrCl(3) and CrO(3), respectively, exerted a strong dose-dependent inhibitory effect on kiwifruit pollen tube emergence and growth. Cr(III) resulted more effective than Cr(VI) in the 16-75microM interval; moreover, complete inhibition of germination was attained at much lower doses than Cr(VI). Also tube morphology was affected. While the plasma membrane was still undamaged in the large majority of the treated pollen grains, dramatic ultrastructural alterations were induced by chromium including chromatin condensation, swelling of mitochondria, cytoplasmic vacuolization, and perturbed arrangement of endoplasmic reticulum cisternae. Thus, it seems that the impact of the two chromium species on kiwifruit pollen may result in severe compromission of both essential structures and functions of the male gametophyte.

  14. Selecting Processes to Minimize Hexavalent Chromium from Stainless Steel Welding: Eight welding processes/shielding gas combinations were assessed for generation of hexavalent chromium in stainless steel welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Keane, M; Siert, A; Stone, S; Chen, B; Slaven, J; Cumpston, A; Antonini, J

    2012-09-01

    Eight welding processes/shielding gas combinations were assessed for generation of hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)) in stainless steel welding fumes. The processes examined were gas metal arc welding (GMAW) (axial spray, short circuit, and pulsed spray modes), flux cored arc welding (FCAW), and shielded metal arc welding (SMAW). The Cr(6+) fractions were measured in the fumes; fume generation rates, Cr(6+) generation rates, and Cr(6+) generation rates per unit mass of welding wire were determined. A limited controlled comparison study was done in a welding shop including SMAW, FCAW, and three GMAW methods. The processes studied were compared for costs, including relative labor costs. Results indicate the Cr(6+) in the fume varied widely, from a low of 2800 to a high of 34,000 ppm. Generation rates of Cr(6+) ranged from 69 to 7800 μg/min, and Cr(6+) generation rates per unit of wire ranged from 1 to 270 μg/g. The results of field study were similar to the findings in the laboratory. The Cr(6+) (ppm) in the fume did not necessarily correlate with the Cr(6+) generation rate. Physical properties were similar for the processes, with mass median aerodynamic diameters ranging from 250 to 336 nm, while the FCAW and SMAW fumes were larger (360 and 670 nm, respectively). The pulsed axial spray method was the best choice of the processes studied based on minimal fume generation, minimal Cr(6+) generation, and cost per weld. This method is usable in any position, has a high metal deposition rate, and is relatively simple to learn and use.

  15. Optimization of adsorption process parameters by response surface methodology for hexavalent chromium removal from aqueous solutions using Annona reticulata Linn peel microparticles.

    PubMed

    Saranya, N; Nakeeran, E; Giri Nandagopal, M S; Selvaraju, N

    2017-05-01

    Fruit peel microparticles of Annona reticulata Linn were used as biosorbent for the sequestration of hexavalent chromium (CR(VI)). Characterization of the biosorbent was done using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDXS), Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS), carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur (CHNS) elemental analysis, mercury intrusion porosimetry and point of zero charge. Influential parameters were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) with a total of 17 experimental runs based on the Box-Behnken design and found to be pH 1.0, temperature 25 °C and 100 mg/L initial chromium concentration. pH and concentration were found to be more influential than temperature. The analysis of variance indicated that a second-order polynomial regression equation was the most suitable for fitting the experimental data. The experimental runs showed a good correlation with the predicted responses (R(2) = 0.9956). The biosorption process fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm with an adsorption capacity of 108. 32 mg/g out of the other isotherms such as Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich that were analyzed. Non linear pseudo first order, pseudo second order, and intraparticle diffusion kinetics were applied to describe the interaction between the biosorbent and Cr(VI). Desorption and regeneration performances showed that fruit peels of Annona reticulata Linn can be an environmental friendly option for hexavalent chromium removal from aqueous solutions.

  16. Reduction and immobilization of hexavalent chromium with coal- and humate-based sorbents.

    PubMed

    Janos, Pavel; Hůla, Václav; Bradnová, Petra; Pilarová, Vera; Sedlbauer, Josef

    2009-05-01

    Two kinds of the commercially available sorbents containing humic acids as active constituents were used for Cr(VI) reduction and removal, namely oxihumolite (naturally occurring weathered young brown coal) and iron humate (IH) (waste material produced during industrial manufacturing of humic substances). The mechanisms of the chromium removal involve the reduction of Cr(VI) (by humic substances or by Fe(II) ions) and subsequent binding of Cr(III) to a humic acid matrix. Other metal-binding mechanisms possibly effective in the process of Cr(VI) removal, e.g., coprecipitation or surface precipitation of Fe(III)/Cr(III) hydroxides, are also discussed. Oxihumolite was able to remove Cr(VI) from strongly acidic solutions with pH below ca. 2. IH, on the other hand, exhibited a maximum sorption capability in slightly acidic solutions with pH above ca. 3. Over the whole examined range (pH 1-5), however, IH was able to reduce Cr(VI) almost completely to its less toxic trivalent state. A sufficiently high sorption capacity (20 mg g(-1)) was found for chromium removal with IH in an unbuffered system, where the "natural" pH values governed by the buffering capacity of the sorbent itself ranged from 3.9 to 4.6. It follows from extraction studies with the loaded (spent) sorbents that chromium is bound strongly to the sorbent, and thus risks of its subsequent liberation into the environment are minimized. Similarity in the extraction behavior of the Cr(III)-loaded and Cr(VI)-loaded sorbents supported the above-mentioned mechanisms of the Cr(VI) removal.

  17. Occurrence of hexavalent chromium in ground water in the western Mojave Desert, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, J.W.; Izbicki, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    About 200 samples from selected public supply, domestic, and observation wells completed in alluvial aquifers underlying the western Mojave Desert were analyzed for total dissolved Cr and Cr(VI). Because Cr(VI) is difficult to preserve, samples were analyzed by 3 methods. Chromium(VI) was determined in the field using both a direct colorimetric method and EPA method 218.6, and samples were speciated in the field for later analysis in the laboratory using a cation-exchange method developed for the study described in this paper. Comparison of the direct colorimetric method and EPA method 218.6 with the new cation-exchange method yielded r2 values of 0.9991 and 0.9992, respectively. Total dissolved Cr concentrations ranged from less than the 0.1 ??g/l detection limit to 60 ??g/l, and almost all the Cr present was Cr(VI). Near recharge areas along the mountain front pH values were near neutral, dissolved O2 concentrations were near saturation, and Cr(VI) concentrations were less than the 0.1 ??g/l detection limit. Chromium(VI) concentrations and pH values increased downgradient as long as dissolved O 2 was present. However, low Cr(VI) concentrations were associated with low dissolved O2 concentrations near ground-water discharge areas along dry lakes. Chromium(VI) concentrations as high as 60 ??g/l occurred in ground water from the Sheep Creek fan alluvial deposits weathered from mafic rock derived from the San Gabriel Mountains, and Cr(VI) concentrations as high as about 36 ??g/l were present in ground water from alluvial deposits weathered from less mafic granitic, metamorphic, and volcanic rocks. Chromium(III) was the predominant form of Cr only in areas where dissolved O2 concentrations were less than 1 mg/l and was detected at a median concentration of 0.1 ??g/l, owing to its low solubility in water of near-neutral pH. Depending on local hydrogeologic conditions and the distribution of dissolved O2, Cr(VI) concentrations may vary considerably with depth. Samples

  18. Differential uptake and transport of trivalent and hexavalent chromium by tumbleweed (Salsola kali).

    PubMed

    Gardea-Torresdey, J L; de la Rosa, G; Peralta-Videa, J R; Montes, M; Cruz-Jimenez, G; Cano-Aguilera, I

    2005-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the differential absorption of Cr species by tumbleweed (Salsola kali) as well as the effect of this heavy metal on plant growth and nutrient uptake. Tumbleweed seeds were grown in an agar-based media containing different concentrations of either Cr(III) or Cr(VI). The results demonstrated that the uptake of Cr was influenced by the Cr concentration in the growth medium and the speciation of this heavy metal. When supplied in the hexavalent form, the concentration of Cr in the different plant parts (2900, 790, and 600 mg kg(-1) for roots, stems, and leaves, respectively) was between 10 and 20 times higher than the amounts found when Cr was supplied in the trivalent form. In addition, it was found that in most of the experiments, Cr(III) exhibited more toxic effects on tumbleweed plants than Cr(VI). The size of roots of plants grown in 20 mg L(-1) Cr(III) were significantly smaller (p < 0.05) than those grown in 20 mg L(-1) Cr(VI). Plants exposed to 20 mg L(-1) Cr(III) produced shoots significantly shorter (p < 0.05) compared with the size of control plants and with those grown in 20 mg L(-1) Cr(VI). In addition, the absorption of macronutrients and microelements was in general lower when the plants were grown in the medium containing Cr(III). The amounts of Cr concentrated in the aerial plant parts under experimental conditions may indicate tumbleweed as a new option for the phytoremediation of Cr-contaminated soil.

  19. Inhibition of CO poisoning on Pt catalyst coupled with the reduction of toxic hexavalent chromium in a dual-functional fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Chung, Dong Young; Kim, Hyoung-il; Chung, Young-Hoon; Lee, Myeong Jae; Yoo, Sung Jong; Bokare, Alok D; Choi, Wonyong; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2014-12-12

    We propose a method to enhance the fuel cell efficiency with the simultaneous removal of toxic heavy metal ions. Carbon monoxide (CO), an intermediate of methanol oxidation that is primarily responsible for Pt catalyst deactivation, can be used as an in-situ reducing agent for hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) with reactivating the CO-poisoned Pt catalyst. Using electro-oxidation measurements, the oxidation of adsorbed CO molecules coupled with the concurrent conversion of Cr (VI) to Cr (III) was confirmed. This concept was also successfully applied to a methanol fuel cell to enhance its performance efficiency and to remove toxic Cr (VI) at the same time.

  20. Inhibition of CO poisoning on Pt catalyst coupled with the reduction of toxic hexavalent chromium in a dual-functional fuel cell

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Dong Young; Kim, Hyoung-il; Chung, Young-Hoon; Lee, Myeong Jae; Yoo, Sung Jong; Bokare, Alok D.; Choi, Wonyong; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method to enhance the fuel cell efficiency with the simultaneous removal of toxic heavy metal ions. Carbon monoxide (CO), an intermediate of methanol oxidation that is primarily responsible for Pt catalyst deactivation, can be used as an in-situ reducing agent for hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) with reactivating the CO-poisoned Pt catalyst. Using electro-oxidation measurements, the oxidation of adsorbed CO molecules coupled with the concurrent conversion of Cr (VI) to Cr (III) was confirmed. This concept was also successfully applied to a methanol fuel cell to enhance its performance efficiency and to remove toxic Cr (VI) at the same time. PMID:25502744

  1. Hexavalent chromium-induced apoptosis of granulosa cells involves selective sub-cellular translocation of Bcl-2 members, ERK1/2 and p53

    SciTech Connect

    Banu, Sakhila K.; Stanley, Jone A.; Lee, JeHoon; Stephen, Sam D.; Arosh, Joe A.; Hoyer, Patricia B.; Burghardt, Robert C.

    2011-03-15

    Hexavalent chromium (CrVI) has been widely used in industries throughout the world. Increased usage of CrVI and atmospheric emission of CrVI from catalytic converters of automobiles, and its improper disposal causes various health hazards including female infertility. Recently we have reported that lactational exposure to CrVI induced a delay/arrest in follicular development at the secondary follicular stage. In order to investigate the underlying mechanism, primary cultures of rat granulosa cells were treated with 10 {mu}M potassium dichromate (CrVI) for 12 and 24 h, with or without vitamin C pre-treatment for 24 h. The effects of CrVI on intrinsic apoptotic pathway(s) were investigated. Our data indicated that CrVI: (i) induced DNA fragmentation and increased apoptosis, (ii) increased cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to cytosol, (iii) downregulated anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, HSP70 and HSP90; upregulated pro-apoptotic BAX and BAD, (iv) altered translocation of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, BAX, BAD, HSP70 and HSP90 to the mitochondria, (v) upregulated p-ERK and p-JNK, and selectively translocated p-ERK to the mitochondria and nucleus, (vi) activated caspase-3 and PARP, and (vii) increased phosphorylation of p53 at ser-6, ser-9, ser-15, ser-20, ser-37, ser-46 and ser-392, increased p53 transcriptional activation, and downregulated MDM-2. Vitamin C pre-treatment mitigated CrVI effects on apoptosis and related pathways. Our study, for the first time provides a clear insight into the effect of CrVI on multiple pathways that lead to apoptosis of granulosa cells which could be mitigated by vitamin C.

  2. Soil suspension/dispersion modeling methods for estimating health-based soil cleanup levels of hexavalent chromium at chromite ore processing residue sites.

    PubMed

    Scott, Paul K; Proctor, Deborah

    2008-03-01

    The primary health concern associated with exposures to chromite ore processing residue (COPR)-affected soils is inhalation of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] particulates. Site-specific soil alternative remediation standards (ARSs) are set using soil suspension and dispersion models to be protective of the theoretical excess cancer risk associated with inhalation of soil suspended by vehicle traffic and wind. The purpose of this study was to update a previous model comparison study that identified the 1995 AP-42 particulate emission model for vehicle traffic over unpaved roads and the Fugitive Dust Model (FDM) as the most appropriate model combination for estimating site-specific ARSs. Because the AP-42 model has been revised, we have updated our past evaluation. Specifically, the 2006 AP-42 particulate emissions model; the Industrial Source Complex-Short Term model, version 3 (ISCST3); and the American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD) air dispersion models were evaluated, and the results were compared with those from the previously used modeling approaches. Two sites with and two sites without vehicle traffic were evaluated to determine if wind erosion is a significant source of emissions. For the two sites with vehicle traffic, both FDM and ISCST3 produced total suspended particulate (TSP) estimates that were, on average, within a factor of 2 of measured; whereas AERMOD produced estimates that were as much as 5-fold higher than measured. In general, the estimated TSP concentrations for FDM were higher than those for ISCST3. For airborne Cr(VI), the ISCST3 model produced estimates that were only 2- to 8-fold of the measured concentrations, and both FDM and AERMOD estimated airborne Cr(VI) concentrations that were approximately 4- to 14-fold higher than measured. Results using the 1995 AP-42 model were closer to measured than those from the 2006 AP-42 model. Wind erosion was an insignificant contributor to particulate

  3. Hexavalent chromium induces malignant transformation of human lung bronchial epithelial cells via ROS-dependent activation of miR-21-PDCD4 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Divya, Sasidharan Padmaja; Turcios, Lilia; Roy, Ram Vinod; Hitron, John Andrew; Wang, Lei; Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin; Asha, Padmaja; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin

    2016-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a well-known human carcinogen associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis remain unclear. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is a key regulator of oncogenic processes. Studies have shown that miR-21 exerts its oncogenic activity by targeting the tumor suppressor gene programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4). The present study examined the role of miR-21-PDCD4 signaling in Cr(VI)-induced cell transformation and tumorigenesis. Results showed that Cr(VI) induces ROS generation in human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells. Chronic exposure to Cr(VI) is able to cause malignant transformation in BEAS-2B cells. Cr(VI) caused a significant increase of miR-21 expression associated with an inhibition of PDCD4 expression. Notably, STAT3 transcriptional activation by IL-6 is crucial for the Cr(VI)-induced miR-21 elevation. Stable knockdown of miR-21 or overexpression of PDCD4 in BEAS-2B cells significantly reduced the Cr(VI)-induced cell transformation. Furthermore, the Cr(VI) induced inhibition of PDCD4 suppressed downstream E-cadherin protein expression, but promoted β-catenin/TCF-dependent transcription of uPAR and c-Myc. We also found an increased miR-21 level and decreased PDCD4 expression in xenograft tumors generated with chronic Cr(VI)-exposed BEAS-2B cells. In addition, stable knockdown of miR-21 and overexpression of PDCD4 reduced the tumorogenicity of chronic Cr(VI)-exposed BEAS-2B cells in nude mice. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the miR-21-PDCD4 signaling axis plays an important role in Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:27323401

  4. Remediation of hexavalent chromium contamination in chromite ore processing residue by sodium dithionite and sodium phosphate addition and its mechanism.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunyi; Cundy, Andrew B; Feng, Jingxuan; Fu, Hang; Wang, Xiaojing; Liu, Yangsheng

    2017-05-01

    Large amounts of chromite ore processing residue (COPR) wastes have been deposited in many countries worldwide, generating significant contamination issues from the highly mobile and toxic hexavalent chromium species (Cr(VI)). In this study, sodium dithionite (Na2S2O4) was used to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in COPR containing high available Fe, and then sodium phosphate (Na3PO4) was utilized to further immobilize Cr(III), via a two-step procedure (TSP). Remediation and immobilization processes and mechanisms were systematically investigated using batch experiments, sequential extraction studies, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Results showed that Na2S2O4 effectively reduced Cr(VI) to Cr(III), catalyzed by Fe(III). The subsequent addition of Na3PO4 further immobilized Cr(III) by the formation of crystalline CrPO4·6H2O. However, addition of Na3PO4 simultaneously with Na2S2O4 (via a one-step procedure, OSP) impeded Cr(VI) reduction due to the competitive reaction of Na3PO4 and Na2S2O4 with Fe(III). Thus, the remediation efficiency of the TSP was much higher than the corresponding OSP. Using an optimal dosage in the two-step procedure (Na2S2O4 at a dosage of 12× the stoichiometric requirement for 15 days, and then Na3PO4 in a molar ratio (i.e. Na3PO4: initial Cr(VI)) of 4:1 for another 15 days), the total dissolved Cr in the leachate determined via Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP Cr) testing of our samples was reduced to 3.8 mg/L (from an initial TCLP Cr of 112.2 mg/L, i.e. at >96% efficiency).

  5. Groundwater Contaminated with Hexavalent Chromium [Cr (VI)]: A Health Survey and Clinical Examination of Community Inhabitants (Kanpur, India)

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Priti; Bihari, Vipin; Agarwal, Sudhir K.; Verma, Vipin; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan N.; Pangtey, Balram S.; Mathur, Neeraj; Singh, Kunwar Pal; Srivastava, Mithlesh; Goel, Sudhir K.

    2012-01-01

    Background We assessed the health effects of hexavalent chromium groundwater contamination (from tanneries and chrome sulfate manufacturing) in Kanpur, India. Methods The health status of residents living in areas with high Cr (VI) groundwater contamination (N = 186) were compared to residents with similar social and demographic features living in communities having no elevated Cr (VI) levels (N = 230). Subjects were recruited at health camps in both the areas. Health status was evaluated with health questionnaires, spirometry and blood hematology measures. Cr (VI) was measured in groundwater samples by diphenylcarbazide reagent method. Results Residents from communities with known Cr (VI) contamination had more self-reports of digestive and dermatological disorders and hematological abnormalities. GI distress was reported in 39.2% vs. 17.2% males (AOR = 3.1) and 39.3% vs. 21% females (AOR = 2.44); skin abnormalities in 24.5% vs. 9.2% males (AOR = 3.48) and 25% vs. 4.9% females (AOR = 6.57). Residents from affected communities had greater RBCs (among 30.7% males and 46.1% females), lower MCVs (among 62.8% males) and less platelets (among 68% males and 72% females) than matched controls. There were no differences in leucocytes count and spirometry parameters. Conclusions Living in communities with Cr (VI) groundwater is associated with gastrointestinal and dermatological complaints and abnormal hematological function. Limitations of this study include small sample size and the lack of long term follow-up. PMID:23112863

  6. Chromate Reductase YieF from Escherichia coli Enhances Hexavalent Chromium Resistance of Human HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuan; Wu, Gaofeng; Zhang, Yanli; Wu, Dan; Li, Xiangkai; Liu, Pu

    2015-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a serious environmental pollutant and human toxicant. Mammalian cells are very sensitive to chromate as they lack efficient chromate detoxifying strategy, e.g., chromate-reducing genes that are widely present in prokaryotes. To test whether introduction of prokaryotic chromate-reducing gene into mammalian cells could render higher chromate resistance, an Escherichia coli chromate-reducing gene yieF was transfected into human HepG2 cells. The expression of yieF was measured in stably transfected cells HepG2-YieF by quantitative RT-PCR and found up-regulated by 3.89-fold upon Cr(VI) induction. In chromate-reducing ability test, HepG2-YieF cells that harbored the reductase showed significantly higher reducing ability of Cr(VI) than HepG2 control cells. This result was further supported by the evidence of increased Cr(VI)-removing ability of crude cell extract of HepG2-YieF. Moreover, HepG2-YieF demonstrated 10% higher viability and decreased expression of GSH synthesizing enzymes under Cr(VI) stress. Subcellular localization of YieF was determined by tracing GFP-YieF fusion protein that was detected in both nucleus and cytoplasm by laser confocal microscopy. Altogether, this study successfully demonstrated that the expression of a prokaryotic Cr(VI)-reducing gene yieF endowed mammalian cell HepG2 with enhanced chromate resistance, which brought new insight of Cr(VI) detoxification in mammalian cells. PMID:26016500

  7. Nanoscale zero-valent iron application for in situ reduction of hexavalent chromium and its effects on indigenous microorganism populations.

    PubMed

    Němeček, Jan; Lhotský, Ondřej; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2014-07-01

    Because of its high toxicity and mobility, hexavalent chromium is considered to be a high priority pollutant. This study was performed to carry out a pilot-scale in-situ remediation test in the saturated zone of a historically Cr(VI)-contaminated site using commercially available nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI). The site was monitored before and after the nZVI application by means of microbial cultivation tests, phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) and toxicological tests with Vibrio fischeri. Injection of nZVI resulted in a rapid decrease in the Cr(VI) and total Cr concentrations in the groundwater without any substantial effect on its chemical properties. The ecotoxicological test with V. fischeri did not indicate any negative changes in the toxicity of the groundwater following the application of nZVI and no significant changes were observed in cultivable psychrophilic bacteria densities and PLFA concentrations in the groundwater samples during the course of the remediation test. However, PLFA of soil samples revealed that the application of nZVI significantly stimulated the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. Principle component analysis (PCA) was applied to the PLFA results for the soil samples from the site in order to explain how Cr(VI) reduction and the presence of Fe influence the indigenous populations. The PCA results clearly indicated a negative correlation between the Cr concentrations and the biota before the application of nZVI and a significant positive correlation between bacteria and the concentration of Fe after the application of nZVI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Chi-square analysis of the reduction of ATP levels in L-02 hepatocytes by hexavalent chromium

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuan; Li, Peng; Hu, Gong-Hua; Dai, Lu; Zhong, Xia-Li; Zhou, Yu; Zhong, Cai-Gao

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the reduction of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels in L-02 hepatocytes by hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) using chi-square analysis. Cells were treated with 2, 4, 8, 16, or 32 µM Cr(VI) for 12, 24, or 36 h. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) experiments and measurements of intracellular ATP levels were performed by spectrophotometry or bioluminescence assays following Cr(VI) treatment. The chi-square test was used to determine the difference between cell survival rate and ATP levels. For the chi-square analysis, the results of the MTT or ATP experiments were transformed into a relative ratio with respect to the control (%). The relative ATP levels increased at 12 h, decreased at 24 h, and increased slightly again at 36 h following 4, 8, 16, 32 µM Cr(VI) treatment, corresponding to a “V-shaped” curve. Furthermore, the results of the chi-square analysis demonstrated a significant difference of the ATP level in the 32-µM Cr(VI) group (P < 0.05). The results suggest that the chi-square test can be applied to analyze the interference effects of Cr(VI) on ATP levels in L-02 hepatocytes. The decreased ATP levels at 24 h indicated disruption of mitochondrial energy metabolism and the slight increase of ATP levels at 36 h indicated partial recovery of mitochondrial function or activated glycolysis in L-02 hepatocytes. PMID:22437481

  9. Gene 33/Mig6 inhibits hexavalent chromium-induced DNA damage and cell transformation in human lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soyoung; Li, Cen; Zhao, Hong; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Xu, Dazhong

    2016-01-01

    Hexavalent Chromium [Cr(VI)] compounds are human lung carcinogens and environmental/occupational hazards. The molecular mechanisms of Cr(VI) carcinogenesis appear to be complex and are poorly defined. In this study, we investigated the potential role of Gene 33 (ERRFI1, Mig6), a multifunctional adaptor protein, in Cr(VI)-mediated lung carcinogenesis. We show that the level of Gene 33 protein is suppressed by both acute and chronic Cr(VI) treatments in a dose- and time-dependent fashion in BEAS-2B lung epithelial cells. The inhibition also occurs in A549 lung bronchial carcinoma cells. Cr(VI) suppresses Gene 33 expression mainly through post-transcriptional mechanisms, although the mRNA level of gene 33 also tends to be lower upon Cr(VI) treatments. Cr(VI)-induced DNA damage appears primarily in the S phases of the cell cycle despite the high basal DNA damage signals at the G2M phase. Knockdown of Gene 33 with siRNA significantly elevates Cr(VI)-induced DNA damage in both BEAS-2B and A549 cells. Depletion of Gene 33 also promotes Cr(VI)-induced micronucleus (MN) formation and cell transformation in BEAS-2B cells. Our results reveal a novel function of Gene 33 in Cr(VI)-induced DNA damage and lung epithelial cell transformation. We propose that in addition to its role in the canonical EGFR signaling pathway and other signaling pathways, Gene 33 may also inhibit Cr(VI)-induced lung carcinogenesis by reducing DNA damage triggered by Cr(VI). PMID:26760771

  10. Bioreduction and immobilization of hexavalent chromium by the extremely acidophilic Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Acidocella aromatica strain PFBC.

    PubMed

    Masaki, Yusei; Hirajima, Tsuyoshi; Sasaki, Keiko; Okibe, Naoko

    2015-03-01

    The extremely acidophilic, Fe(III)-reducing heterotrophic bacterium Acidocella aromatica strain PFBC was tested for its potential utility in bioreduction of highly toxic heavy metal, hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI). During its aerobic growth on fructose at pH 2.5, 20 µM Cr(VI) was readily reduced to Cr(III), achieving the final Cr(VI) concentration of 0.4 µM (0.02 mg/L), meeting the WHO drinking water guideline of 0.05 mg/L. Despite of the highly inhibitory effect of Cr(VI) on cell growth at higher concentrations, especially at low pH, Cr(VI) reduction activity was readily observed in growth-decoupled cell suspensions under micro-aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Strain PFBC was not capable of anaerobic growth via dissimilatory reduction of Cr(VI), such as reported for Fe(III). In the presence of both Cr(VI) and Fe(III) under micro-aerobic condition, microbial Fe(III) reduction occurred only upon complete disappearance of Cr(VI) by its reduction to Cr(III). Following Cr(VI) reduction, the resultant Cr(III), supposedly present in the form of cationic Cr (III) (OH2) 6 (3+) , was partially immobilized on the negatively charged cell surface through biosorption. When Cr(III) was externally provided, rather than microbially produced, it was poorly immobilized on the cell surface. Cr(VI) reducing ability was reported for the first time in Acidocella sp. in this study, and its potential role in biogeochemical cycling of Cr, as well as its possible utility in Cr(VI) bioremediation, in highly acidic environments/solutions, were discussed.

  11. Chromate Reductase YieF from Escherichia coli Enhances Hexavalent Chromium Resistance of Human HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuan; Wu, Gaofeng; Zhang, Yanli; Wu, Dan; Li, Xiangkai; Liu, Pu

    2015-05-26

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a serious environmental pollutant and human toxicant. Mammalian cells are very sensitive to chromate as they lack efficient chromate detoxifying strategy, e.g., chromate-reducing genes that are widely present in prokaryotes. To test whether introduction of prokaryotic chromate-reducing gene into mammalian cells could render higher chromate resistance, an Escherichia coli chromate-reducing gene yieF was transfected into human HepG2 cells. The expression of yieF was measured in stably transfected cells HepG2-YieF by quantitative RT-PCR and found up-regulated by 3.89-fold upon Cr(VI) induction. In chromate-reducing ability test, HepG2-YieF cells that harbored the reductase showed significantly higher reducing ability of Cr(VI) than HepG2 control cells. This result was further supported by the evidence of increased Cr(VI)-removing ability of crude cell extract of HepG2-YieF. Moreover, HepG2-YieF demonstrated 10% higher viability and decreased expression of GSH synthesizing enzymes under Cr(VI) stress. Subcellular localization of YieF was determined by tracing GFP-YieF fusion protein that was detected in both nucleus and cytoplasm by laser confocal microscopy. Altogether, this study successfully demonstrated that the expression of a prokaryotic Cr(VI)-reducing gene yieF endowed mammalian cell HepG2 with enhanced chromate resistance, which brought new insight of Cr(VI) detoxification in mammalian cells.

  12. Characterization of concentration, particle size distribution, and contributing factors to ambient hexavalent chromium in an area with multiple emission sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chang Ho; Huang, Lihui; Shin, Jin Young; Artigas, Francisco; Fan, Zhi-hua (Tina)

    2014-09-01

    Airborne hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a known pulmonary carcinogen and can be emitted from both natural and anthropogenic sources, including diesel emissions. However, there is limited knowledge about ambient Cr(VI) concentration levels and its particle size distribution. This pilot study characterized ambient Cr(VI) concentrations in the New Jersey Meadowlands (NJ ML) district, which is close to the heavily trafficked New Jersey Turnpike (NJTPK) as well as Chromium Ore Processing Residue (COPR) waste sites. Monitoring was simultaneously conducted at two sites, William site (∼50 m from NJTPK) and MERI site (∼700 m from NJTPK). The distance between the two sites is approximately 6.2 km. Ambient Cr(VI) concentrations and PM2.5 mass concentrations were concurrently measured at both sites during summer and winter. The summer concentrations (mean ± S.D. [median]), 0.13 ± 0.06 [0.12] ng/m3 at the MERI site and 0.08 ± 0.05 [0.07] ng/m3 at the William site, were all significantly higher than the winter concentrations, 0.02 ± 0.01 [0.02] ng/m3 and 0.03 ± 0.01 [0.03] ng/m3 at the MERI and William sites, respectively. The site difference (i.e., MERI > William) was observed for summer Cr(VI) concentrations; however, no differences for winter and pooled datasets. These results suggest higher Cr(VI) concentrations may be attributed from stronger atmospheric reactions such as photo-oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) in the summer. The Cr(VI) distribution as a function of particle size, ranging from 0.18 to 18 μm, was determined at the William site. It was found that Cr(VI) was enriched in the particles less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5). This finding suggested potential health concerns, because PM2.5 are easily inhaled and deposited in the alveoli. A multiple linear regression analysis confirmed ambient Cr(VI) concentrations were significantly affected by meteorological factors (i.e., temperature and humidity) and reactive gases/particles (i.e., O3, Fe and Mn).

  13. Characterization of concentration, particle size distribution, and contributing factors to ambient hexavalent chromium in an area with multiple emission sources

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chang Ho; Huang, Lihui; Shin, Jin Young; Artigas, Francisco; Fan, Zhi-hua (Tina)

    2015-01-01

    Airborne hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a known pulmonary carcinogen and can be emitted from both natural and anthropogenic sources, including diesel emissions. However, there is limited knowledge about ambient Cr(VI) concentration levels and its particle size distribution. This pilot study characterized ambient Cr(VI) concentrations in the New Jersey Meadowlands (NJ ML) district, which is close to the heavily trafficked New Jersey Turnpike (NJTPK) as well as Chromium Ore Processing Residue (COPR) waste sites. Monitoring was simultaneously conducted at two sites, William site (~50 m from NJTPK) and MERI site (~700 m from NJTPK). The distance between the two sites is approximately 6.2 km. Ambient Cr(VI) concentrations and PM2.5 mass concentrations were concurrently measured at both sites during summer and winter. The summer concentrations (mean ± S.D. [median]), 0.13 ± 0.06 [0.12] ng/m3 at the MERI site and 0.08 ± 0.05 [0.07] ng/m3 at the William site, were all significantly higher than the winter concentrations, 0.02 ± 0.01 [0.02] ng/m3 and 0.03 ± 0.01 [0.03] ng/m3 at the MERI and William sites, respectively. The site difference (i.e., MERI > William) was observed for summer Cr(VI) concentrations; however, no differences for winter and pooled datasets. These results suggest higher Cr(VI) concentrations may be attributed from stronger atmospheric reactions such as photo-oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) in the summer. The Cr(VI) distribution as a function of particle size, ranging from 0.18 to 18 μm, was determined at the William site. It was found that Cr(VI) was enriched in the particles less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5). This finding suggested potential health concerns, because PM2.5 are easily inhaled and deposited in the alveoli. A multiple linear regression analysis confirmed ambient Cr(VI) concentrations were significantly affected by meteorological factors (i.e., temperature and humidity) and reactive gases/particles (i.e., O3, Fe and Mn). PMID

  14. Low temperature reduction of hexavalent chromium by a microbial enrichment consortium and a novel strain of Arthrobacter aurescens

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Rene' N; Apel, William A; Thompson, Vicki S; Sheridan, Peter P

    2006-01-01

    Background Chromium is a transition metal most commonly found in the environment in its trivalent [Cr(III)] and hexavalent [Cr(VI)] forms. The EPA maximum total chromium contaminant level for drinking water is 0.1 mg/l (0.1 ppm). Many water sources, especially underground sources, are at low temperatures (less than or equal to 15 Centigrade) year round. It is important to evaluate the possibility of microbial remediation of Cr(VI) contamination using microorganisms adapted to these low temperatures (psychrophiles). Results Core samples obtained from a Cr(VI) contaminated aquifer at the Hanford facility in Washington were enriched in Vogel Bonner medium at 10 Centigrade with 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 1000 mg/l Cr(VI). The extent of Cr(VI) reduction was evaluated using the diphenyl carbazide assay. Resistance to Cr(VI) up to and including 1000 mg/l Cr(VI) was observed in the consortium experiments. Reduction was slow or not observed at and above 100 mg/l Cr(VI) using the enrichment consortium. Average time to complete reduction of Cr(VI) in the 30 and 60 mg/l Cr(VI) cultures of the consortium was 8 and 17 days, respectively at 10 Centigrade. Lyophilized consortium cells did not demonstrate adsorption of Cr(VI) over a 24 hour period. Successful isolation of a Cr(VI) reducing organism (designated P4) from the consortium was confirmed by 16S rDNA amplification and sequencing. Average time to complete reduction of Cr(VI) at 10 Centigrade in the 25 and 50 mg/l Cr(VI) cultures of the isolate P4 was 3 and 5 days, respectively. The 16S rDNA sequence from isolate P4 identified this organism as a strain of Arthrobacter aurescens, a species that has not previously been shown to be capable of low temperature Cr(VI) reduction. Conclusion A. aurescens, indigenous to the subsurface, has the potential to be a predominant metal reducer in enhanced, in situ subsurface bioremediation efforts involving Cr(VI) and possibly other heavy metals and radionuclides. PMID:16436214

  15. 75 FR 12485 - Revising the Notification Requirements in the Exposure Determination; Provisions of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... Notification Requirements in the Exposure Determination; Provisions of the Hexavalent Chromium Standards AGENCY... Hexavalent Chromium (Cr ] (VI)). Public Citizen Health Research Group (Public Citizen) and other parties... decide whether to publish a new final rule. III. Discussion of Changes Paragraph (d) of the...

  16. Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of total and hexavalent chromium in atmospheric aerosols.

    PubMed

    Mandiwana, Khakhathi L; Panichev, Nikolay; Resane, Tabby

    2006-08-21

    A method was developed which allow separate determination of Cr(VI) and total Cr from the same minute sample of atmospheric aerosols. Cr(VI) was leached was with 0.1M Na(2)CO(3) and the total Cr concentrations were determined after acid digestion. The method was validated by the analysis of certified reference materials, CRM 545, Mess-3 and Pacs-2 with good agreement between certified and found values. Cr concentrations in air samples taken around the chromium smelter show concentrations that exceed the maximum allowed levels in 8h with higher values closer to the smelter. The limit of detection (LOD) of the method for Cr(VI) determination in air samples was found to be 0.2 ng m(-3), i.e. lower than offered by the commonly preferred spectrophotometric and colorimetric techniques.

  17. Hexavalent Chromium Reduction from Pollutant Samples by Achromobacter xylosoxidans SHB 204 and its Kinetics Study.

    PubMed

    Tadishetty Hanumanth Rao, Swapna; Papathoti, Narendra Kumar; Gundeboina, Ravi; Mohamed, Yahya Khan; Mudhole, Gopal Reddy; Bee, Hameeda

    2017-09-01

    Cr(VI) is most toxic heavy metal and second most widespread hazardous metal compound worldwide. Present work focused on Cr(VI) reduction from synthetic solutions and polluted samples by Achromobacter xylosoxidans SHB 204. It could tolerate Cr(VI) up to 1600 ppm and reduce 500 ppm with 4.5 chromium reductase enzyme units (U) having protein size 30 kDa. Changes in morphology of cells on interaction with Cr(VI) metal ion was also studied using SEM-EDX and FTIR. Microcosm studies in pollutant samples for Cr(VI) reduction and adsorption isotherm with biomass of bacterium was best fitted with Langmuir model along with kinetic studies. This study focuses on significance of Cr reduction from synthetic solutions and polluted samples by A. xylosoxidans SHB 204 and its potential for bioremediation.

  18. Isolation and characterization of hexavalent chromium-reducing rhizospheric bacteria from a wetland.

    PubMed

    Mauricio Gutiérrez, Amparo; Peña Cabriales, Juan José; Maldonado Vega, María

    2010-01-01

    Scirpus americanus Pers. occurs naturally in "San Germán," a pond that serves as a receptor of industrial wastewater in Guanajuato, México. This plant accumulates metals mainly in the root: concentrations (mg/kg) of Cr, As, Cd and Se were 970, 49, 41, and 85 respectively. Analysis of rhizosphere samples indicated bacterial population of 10(8) cfu g(-1) in media with 0.2 mM Cr(VI) and 10 mM sodium gluconate. Thirteen isolates were obtained and phylogenetic analyses (16S rRNA) indicated they corresponded to genera of Agrobacterium, Arthrobacter, Microbacterium, Curtobacterium, Rhodococcus, Xanthomonas and Pseudomonas. Cr(VI) reduction was evaluated using the diphenyl carbazide method. The isolates accomplished 5-40% (20 microM) of reduction in assays of resting cell and tolerated 0.5-5.0 mM Cr(VI). Eight strains used nitrate and thirteen used iron and chromium as electron acceptors to grow under anaerobic conditions. Cr(VI) reduction by five strains occurred at pH values (7-9) and NaCl concentrations (0.5-1.0 M) in basal medium. A mixed culture of strains (S17 and S28) reached a chromium removal of 100% at 0.2 mM Cr(VI) initial concentration. Aerobically, this consortium was capable of 93.8% Cr(VI) reduction of 81 microg L(-1) Cr(VI) of the industrial effluent, indicating their possible use in environmental cleanup.

  19. Reduction remediation of hexavalent chromium by bacterial flora in Cr(VI) aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Xu, Xinhua; Zhao, Fanglin; Liu, Zhihao; Xu, Jinan

    2010-01-01

    Chromium(VI) is a priority pollutant in soils and wastewaters and reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) is a solution to this problem. In this study a low-cost method was proposed to adapt indigenous bacteria and use them to reduce Cr(VI) in solutions. The experiment results show that Cr(VI) could be efficiently reduced by indigenous bacteria under anaerobic and pH-unadjusted conditions. After about 24 h the concentration of Cr(VI) could be reduced from 21.74 mg/L to below 0.5 mg/L. The observed Cr(VI) reduction rates were affected by temperature and pH. Cr(VI) in aqueous solutions could be reduced to Cr(III) completely and partly be incepted by the organisms. Cr(VI) reduction was enzyme-mediated. It was not an energy-conserving process but a detoxification reaction. This method could be used in an anaerobic reactor to treat low-concentration wastewater or industrial water as the last step.

  20. Dissociation of Hexavalent Chromium from Primer Paint Particles into Simulated Mucus Fluid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    welding, leather tanning and Cr plating industries [2]. These industries have well-documented data showing a clear link between exposure and lung cancer ...facility. Hayes found a ratio of observed to expected (O/E) cancer deaths of 2.0 (pɘ.01). Gibbs followed 2357 male workers at the same Baltimore plant but...increased lung cancer risk among 77,965 workers (including 1216 painters) from aircraft manufacturing plant. Exposure categories were formed using job

  1. Hexavalent chromium reduction potential of Cellulosimicrobium sp. isolated from common effluent treatment plant of tannery industries.

    PubMed

    Bharagava, Ram Naresh; Mishra, Sandhya

    2017-08-22

    Present study deals with the isolation and characterization of a bacterium capable for the effective reduction of Cr(VI) from tannery wastewater. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, this bacterium was identified as Cellulosimicrobium sp. (KX710177). During the Cr(VI) reduction experiment performed at 50, 100, 200,and 300mg/L of Cr(VI) concentrations, the bacterium showed 99.33% and 96.98% reduction at 50 and 100mg/L at 24 and 96h, respectively. However, at 200 and 300mg/L concentration of Cr(VI), only 84.62% and 62.28% reduction was achieved after 96h, respectively. The SEM analysis revealed that bacterial cells exposed to Cr(VI) showed increased cell size in comparison to unexposed cells, which might be due to either the precipitation or adsorption of reduced Cr(III) on bacterial cells. Further, the Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis showed some chromium peaks for cells exposed to Cr(VI), which might be either due to the presence of precipitated reduced Cr(III) on cells or complexation of Cr(III) with cell surface molecules. The bacterium also showed resistance and sensitivity against the tested antibiotics with a wide range of MIC values ranging from 250 to 800mg/L for different heavy metals. Thus, this multi-drug and multi-metal resistant bacterium can be used as a potential agent for the effective bioremediation of metal contaminated sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Rapid leaching of Cr(VI) in soil with Na3PO4 in the determination of hexavalent chromium by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mandiwana, Khakhathi L

    2008-01-15

    A method has been developed that leaches Cr(VI) selectively from soil samples. Hexavalent chromium was leached completely from soil with 0.01molL(-1) Na(3)PO(4). This was achieved by boiling the soil-reagent solution mixture for a period of 5min. The leached Cr(VI) was then quantified by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET-AAS) after filtration of the sample solutions through Hydrophilic Millipore PVDF 0.45microm filter. Statistical evaluations indicated that the new developed method is reliable since neither its comparison with the established method nor the comparison of the sum of the concentrations of chromium species to that of the total concentration of chromium show any difference at 95% level of confidence. The spiking of soil samples with Cr(III) standards before pretreatment show that Cr(III) was not oxidized to Cr(VI) during leaching as the Cr(VI) content never increased. The detection limit established was 0.07microg g(-1), which is an improvement to that of the US EPA method 3060A by a factor of more than 500. The maximum concentrations of Cr(VI) found in soil samples collected around the new chromium mine was 8.0microg g(-1) and falls within acceptable level of 15microg g(-1) in accordance with the Italian Guidelines.

  3. Insights into controls on hexavalent chromium in groundwater provided by environmental tracers, Sacramento Valley, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, Andrew H.; Mills, Christopher; Morrison, Jean M.; Ball, Lyndsay B.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental tracers are useful for determining groundwater age and recharge source, yet their application in studies of geogenic Cr(VI) in groundwater has been limited. Environmental tracer data from 166 wells located in the Sacramento Valley, northern California, were interpreted and compared to Cr concentrations to determine the origin and age of groundwater with elevated Cr(VI), and better understand where Cr(VI) becomes mobilized and how it evolves along flowpaths. In addition to major ion and trace element concentrations, the dataset includes δ18O, δ2H, 3H concentration, 14C activity (of dissolved inorganic C), δ13C, 3He/4He ratio, and noble gas concentrations (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe). Noble gas recharge temperatures (NGTs) were computed, and age-related tracers were interpreted in combination to constrain the age distribution in samples and sort them into six different age categories spanning from <60 yr old to >10,000 yr old. Nearly all measured Cr is in the form of Cr(IV). Concentrations range from <1 to 46 μg L−1, with 10% exceeding the state of California’s Cr(VI) maximum contaminant level of 10 μg L−1. Two groups with elevated Cr(VI) (⩾5 μg L−1) were identified. Group 1 samples are from the southern part of the valley and contain modern (<60 yr old) water, have elevated NO3− concentrations (>3 mg L−1), and commonly have δ18O values enriched relative to local precipitation. These samples likely contain irrigation water and are elevated due to accelerated mobilization of Cr(VI) in the unsaturated zone (UZ) in irrigated areas. Group 2 samples are from throughout the valley and typically contain water 1000–10,000 yr old, have δ18O values consistent with local precipitation, and have unexpectedly warm NGTs. Chromium(VI) concentrations in Group 2 samples may be elevated for multiple reasons, but the hypothesis most consistent with all available data (notably, the warm NGTs) is a relatively long UZ residence time due to

  4. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexavalent Chromium Part 2: Human, Toxicokinetic, and Mechanistic Studies (Preliminary Assessment Materials)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In August 2014, EPA released the second part of draft literature searches and associated search strategies, evidence tables, and exposure response arrays for Cr(VI) to obtain input from stakeholders and the public prior to developing the draft IRIS assessment. Specifically, EPA w...

  5. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexavalent Chromium Part 1: Experimental Animal Studies (Preliminary Assessment Materials)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In April 2014, EPA released the draft literature searches and associated search strategies, evidence tables, and exposure response arrays for Cr(VI) to obtain input from stakeholders and the public prior to developing the draft IRIS assessment. Specifically, EPA was interested in...

  6. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexavalent Chromium Part 1: Experimental Animal Studies (Preliminary Assessment Materials)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In April 2014, EPA released the draft literature searches and associated search strategies, evidence tables, and exposure response arrays for Cr(VI) to obtain input from stakeholders and the public prior to developing the draft IRIS assessment. Specifically, EPA was interested in...

  7. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexavalent Chromium Part 2: Human, Toxicokinetic, and Mechanistic Studies (Preliminary Assessment Materials)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In August 2014, EPA released the second part of draft literature searches and associated search strategies, evidence tables, and exposure response arrays for Cr(VI) to obtain input from stakeholders and the public prior to developing the draft IRIS assessment. Specifically, EPA w...

  8. Natural occurrence of hexavalent chromium in serpentinite hosted spring waters from Western Tuscany (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiarantini, Laura; Agostini, Samuele; Baneschi, Ilaria; Guidi, Massimo; Natali, Claudio; Tonarini, Sonia

    2013-04-01

    , able to rapid oxidise Cr(III) into Cr (VI ), implies that local presence of Cr (VI) in waters have to be ascribed to other processes. Some serpentinites contain significant amount of Fe-rich brucite and show evidences of its dissolution during surface weathering. This process could lead to the formation of both of hydrous magnesium carbonates and of Mg-rich members of "layered double hydroxide" group, which can contain high contents of Cr(III) that can be easily oxidized and mobilized during weathering reactions (Langone et al., in press). Cr isotopes analyses, able to record any occurrence of Cr redox reactions, are analysed in order to better understand which are the mineralogical, chemical and thermodynamic parameters responsible for Cr(III)-Cr(VI) oxidation during water-rock interactions. Langone A., Baneschi I., Boschi C., Dini A., Guidi M, and Cavallo A., (in press), Serpentinite-water interaction and chromium (VI) release in spring waters: examples from Tuscan ophiolites, Ofioliti.

  9. Exposure of soil microbial communities to chromium and arsenic alters their diversity and structure.

    PubMed

    Sheik, Cody S; Mitchell, Tyler W; Rizvi, Fariha Z; Rehman, Yasir; Faisal, Muhammad; Hasnain, Shahida; McInerney, Michael J; Krumholz, Lee R

    2012-01-01

    Extensive use of chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) based preservatives from the leather tanning industry in Pakistan has had a deleterious effect on the soils surrounding production facilities. Bacteria have been shown to be an active component in the geochemical cycling of both Cr and As, but it is unknown how these compounds affect microbial community composition or the prevalence and form of metal resistance. Therefore, we sought to understand the effects that long-term exposure to As and Cr had on the diversity and structure of soil microbial communities. Soils from three spatially isolated tanning facilities in the Punjab province of Pakistan were analyzed. The structure, diversity and abundance of microbial 16S rRNA genes were highly influenced by the concentration and presence of hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) and arsenic. When compared to control soils, contaminated soils were dominated by Proteobacteria while Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria (which are generally abundant in pristine soils) were minor components of the bacterial community. Shifts in community composition were significant and revealed that Cr (VI)-containing soils were more similar to each other than to As contaminated soils lacking Cr (VI). Diversity of the arsenic resistance genes, arsB and ACR3 were also determined. Results showed that ACR3 becomes less diverse as arsenic concentrations increase with a single OTU dominating at the highest concentration. Chronic exposure to either Cr or As not only alters the composition of the soil bacterial community in general, but affects the arsenic resistant individuals in different ways.

  10. Chromium and disease: review of epidemiologic studies with particular reference to etiologic information provided by measures of exposure.

    PubMed

    Lees, P S

    1991-05-01

    Dozens of epidemiologic studies have been conducted since the late 1940s in an attempt to elucidate the relationship between exposure to chromium compounds and increased rates of certain cancers observed in several industries. The relationship between employment in industries producing chromium compounds from chromite ore and lung cancer has been well established in numerous studies. The relationship between exposure to certain chromium-based pigments and chromic acid and lung cancer, although not as strong, is fairly well accepted. The data concerning emissions from stainless-steel manufacturing and disease are contradictory. Although individual studies have indicated excesses of gastrointestinal and occasionally other cancers in these industries, results are not consistent and not universally accepted. There is general agreement that chromite ore does not have an associated risk of cancer. Although the chromium compound (or compounds) responsible for disease have yet to be identified, there is general agreement that hexavalent species are responsible for these diseases and that the trivalent species are not. Hypotheses about the carcinogenicity of specific chromium compounds generally relate to their solubility in body fluids. These hypotheses, however, have generally been produced as a result of toxicologic, not epidemiologic, investigation. Well-designed epidemiologic studies incorporating detailed assessments of worker exposures have the potential to help elucidate causality, identify specific carcinogenic compounds, and quantify risk in humans, eliminating the need to extrapolate from animal data. Although the need for exposure data crucial to this effort was identified in the earliest epidemiologic studies of chromium, such studies have not been conducted. As a result, little more is known today about the relationship between this chemical and disease in humans than was known 40 years ago.

  11. Chromium and disease: review of epidemiologic studies with particular reference to etiologic information provided by measures of exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Lees, P S

    1991-01-01

    Dozens of epidemiologic studies have been conducted since the late 1940s in an attempt to elucidate the relationship between exposure to chromium compounds and increased rates of certain cancers observed in several industries. The relationship between employment in industries producing chromium compounds from chromite ore and lung cancer has been well established in numerous studies. The relationship between exposure to certain chromium-based pigments and chromic acid and lung cancer, although not as strong, is fairly well accepted. The data concerning emissions from stainless-steel manufacturing and disease are contradictory. Although individual studies have indicated excesses of gastrointestinal and occasionally other cancers in these industries, results are not consistent and not universally accepted. There is general agreement that chromite ore does not have an associated risk of cancer. Although the chromium compound (or compounds) responsible for disease have yet to be identified, there is general agreement that hexavalent species are responsible for these diseases and that the trivalent species are not. Hypotheses about the carcinogenicity of specific chromium compounds generally relate to their solubility in body fluids. These hypotheses, however, have generally been produced as a result of toxicologic, not epidemiologic, investigation. Well-designed epidemiologic studies incorporating detailed assessments of worker exposures have the potential to help elucidate causality, identify specific carcinogenic compounds, and quantify risk in humans, eliminating the need to extrapolate from animal data. Although the need for exposure data crucial to this effort was identified in the earliest epidemiologic studies of chromium, such studies have not been conducted. As a result, little more is known today about the relationship between this chemical and disease in humans than was known 40 years ago. PMID:1935857

  12. Hexavalent chromium reduction in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough causes transitory inhibition of sulfate reduction and cell growth.

    PubMed

    Klonowska, A; Clark, M E; Thieman, S B; Giles, B J; Wall, J D; Fields, M W

    2008-04-01

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough is a well-studied sulfate reducer that can reduce heavy metals and radionuclides [e.g., Cr(VI) and U(VI)]. Cultures grown in a defined medium had a lag period of approximately 30 h when exposed to 0.05 mM Cr(VI). Substrate analyses revealed that although Cr(VI) was reduced within the first 5 h, growth was not observed for an additional 20 h. The growth lag could be explained by a decline in cell viability; however, during this time small amounts of lactate were still utilized without sulfate reduction or acetate formation. Approximately 40 h after Cr exposure (0.05 mM), sulfate reduction occurred concurrently with the accumulation of acetate. Similar amounts of hydrogen were produced by Cr-exposed cells compared to control cells, and lactate was not converted to glycogen during non-growth conditions. D. vulgaris cells treated with a reducing agent and then exposed to Cr(VI) still experienced a growth lag, but the addition of ascorbate at the time of Cr(VI) addition prevented the lag period. In addition, cells grown on pyruvate displayed more tolerance to Cr(VI) compared to lactate-grown cells. These results indicated that D. vulgaris utilized lactate during Cr(VI) exposure without the reduction of sulfate or production of acetate, and that ascorbate and pyruvate could protect D. vulgaris cells from Cr(VI)/Cr(III) toxicity.

  13. Hexavalent chromium reduction in Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough causes transitory inhibition of sulfate reduction and cellgrowth

    SciTech Connect

    Klonowska, A.; Clark, M.E.; Thieman, S.B.; Giles, B.J.; Wall,J.D.; Fields, M.W.

    2008-01-07

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough is a well-studiedsulfate reducer that can reduce heavy metals and radionuclides [e.g.,Cr(VI) and U(VI)]. Cultures grown in a defined medium had a lag period ofapproximately 30 h when exposed to 0.05 mM Cr(VI). Substrate analysesrevealed that although Cr(VI) was reduced within the first 5 h, growthwas not observed for an additional 20 h. The growth lag could beexplained by a decline in cell viability; however, during this time smallamounts of lactate were still utilized without sulfate reduction oracetate formation. Approximately 40 h after Cr exposure (0.05 mM),sulfate reduction occurred concurrently with the accumulation of acetate.Similar amounts of hydrogen were produced by Cr-exposed cells compared tocontrol cells, and lactate was not converted to glycogen duringnon-growth conditions. D. vulgaris cells treated with a reducing agentand then exposed to Cr(VI) still experienced a growth lag, but theaddition of ascorbate at the time of Cr(VI) addition prevented the lagperiod. In addition, cells grown on pyruvate displayed more tolerance toCr(VI) compared to lactate-grown cells. These results indicated that D.vulgaris utilized lactate during Cr(VI) exposure without the reduction ofsulfate or production of acetate, and that ascorbate and pyruvate couldprotect D. vulgaris cells from Cr(VI)/Cr(III) toxicity.

  14. Differential physiological responses of two Salvinia species to hexavalent chromium at a glance.

    PubMed

    Prado, Carolina; Chocobar Ponce, Silvana; Pagano, Eduardo; Prado, Fernando E; Rosa, Mariana

    2016-06-01

    In plants of Salvinia rotundifolia and Salvinia minima the effect of two Cr(VI) concentrations (5 and 20mgL(-1)) applied for 7days was assessed by measuring changes in biomass, photosynthetic pigments, Cr accumulation, malondialdehyde (MDA), membrane stability index (MSI), thiols (TT, NPT and PBT), and phenolics (SP and IP). Biomass in S. minima was decreased at highest Cr(VI) concentration, but there were no changes in S. rotundifolia. Metal accumulation was different in both species. S. minima accumulates more metal in fronds, but S. rotundifolia accumulates more metal in lacinias. Results also showed that S. minima translocates more Cr to fronds than S. rotundifolia, but at the whole plant level higher accumulation occurred in this last. Tolerance index (Ti) was higher in S. rotundifolia. Chl b and carotenoids were decreased only upon exposure to high Cr(VI) concentration in both species. Cr(VI) treatment did not enhance MDA accumulation. Cr exposure had no impact on MSI values when comparing with Cr-untreated values. Thiols in fronds and lacinias showed different distribution patterns between species. IP and NPT were higher in S. rotundifolia lacinias that accumulate more Cr than S. minima lacinias. Whilst SP and NPT were higher in S. minima fronds compared with S. rotundifolia ones. This may indicate that these species can cope with Cr(VI) toxicity, either through metal complexation and/or metal reduction or by the scavenging of ROS derived from Cr-induced oxidative stress. Based on Cr accumulation and biomass production, S. rotundifolia seems more suitable to remove Cr(VI) from polluted waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Energy reserve modification in different age groups of Daphnia schoedleri (Anomopoda: Daphniidae) exposed to hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Arzate-Cárdenas, Mario Alberto; Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando

    2012-07-01

    Caloric content is a reliable biomaker of effect since it is modified by exposure to toxicants that can alter basal metabolism. Since organisms' age modifies how energy resources are allocated and modifies the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the response to toxic agents could be altered with age. Seven age groups of Daphnia schoedleri (0, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28-day-old) were exposed for 24h to two sublethal concentrations of Cr(VI): 1/25 and 1/5 of the 48 h EC(50) of each age group, to determine the age at which susceptibility to Cr(VI) is highest. To evaluate energy content, carbohydrate, protein and lipid reserves were quantified and antioxidant enzymes activity was assessed (SOD, CAT, GPx, and GR). Furthermore, an integrative approach was applied to evaluate both sets of responses and interpret them as a whole in a simply visual way, achieved by the integrated biomarker response approach. Results indicate that Cr(VI) induced significant differences in all age groups. Seven and 14-day-old organisms were exposed to the highest concentrations (based on their EC50) and showed greater tolerance to this metal. Susceptibility to the toxicant was highest in younger specimens in which energy requirements are greater due to high growth rates (basal metabolism), as a result of which more energy reserves are expended to satisfy demands in terms of growth and response to toxicants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Biological markers in chromium exposure assessment: Confounding variables

    SciTech Connect

    Bukowski, J.A.; Goldstein, M.D.; Johnson, B.B. )

    1991-07-01

    An estimated two million tons of chromate production waste pollution has caused a major environmental and public health concern in Hudson County, New Jersey. As part of an occupational exposure assessment, urinary and red blood cell (RBC) chromium measurements were performed on 52 state employees who worked either near a contaminated site or elsewhere. Samples were collected so as to minimize contamination, and they were analyzed using sensitive techniques. These workers also completed a questionnaire that addressed potentially important third variables. Individual analyses suggested that exercise, drinking beer, past employment in chromium-related occupations, and diabetic status had an important effect on urinary chromium levels. These variables were entered into a regression model and were all found to be significant predictors of urinary chromium level (p less than .10). Some variables were also examined for their influence on RBC chromium level, but none had a measurable effect.

  17. Stabilisation of nanoscale zero-valent iron with biochar for enhanced transport and in-situ remediation of hexavalent chromium in soil.

    PubMed

    Su, Huijie; Fang, Zhanqiang; Tsang, Pokeung Eric; Fang, Jianzhang; Zhao, Dongye

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a biochar-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI@BC) material was used for in situ remediation of hexavalent chromium-contaminated soil. Sedimentation tests and column experiments were used to compare the stability and mobility of nZVI@BC and bare-nZVI. The immobilisation efficiency of chromium, toxic effect of chromium and the content of iron were assessed through leaching tests and pot experiments. Sedimentation tests and transport experiments indicated that nZVI@BC with nZVI to BC mass ratio of 1:1 exhibited better stability and mobility than that of bare-nZVI. The immobilisation efficiency of Cr(VI) and Crtotal was 100% and 92.9%, respectively, when the soil was treated with 8 g/kg of nZVI@BC for 15 days. Moreover, such remediation effectively reduced the leachability of Fe caused by bare-nZVI. In addition, pot experiments showed that such remediation reduced the phytotoxicity of Cr and the leachable Fe and was favourable for plant growth.

  18. Matrix isolation with an ion transfer device for interference-free simultaneous spectrophotometric determinations of hexavalent and trivalent chromium in a flow-based system.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Nakamura, Koretaka; Chiba, Mitsuki; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Toda, Kei

    2017-03-01

    Chromium speciation by spectrophotometric determination of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) with diphenylcarbazide (DPC) has several problems. These include: (1) the inability to directly detect trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) with DPC, (2) positive interference in Cr(VI) determination by other metal cations and (3) negative interference by any reducing agent present in the sample. These are addressed with an ion transfer device (ITD) in a flow injection analysis system. We previously developed the ITD for electrodialytic separations. Here we separate oppositely charged Cr(III) and Cr(VI) species by the ITD into two different acceptor solutions within ~5 s. The acceptor solutions consist of buffered H2O2 to oxidize the Cr(III) to Cr(VI). Then DPC is added to either acceptor to measure Cr(III) and Cr(VI) spectrophotometrically. The system was optimized to provide the same response for Cr(VI) and Cr(III) with limits of detection (LODs, S/N=3) of 0.5 μg L(-1) for each and a throughput rate of 30 samples h(-1). The ITD separation was also effective for matrix isolation and reduction of interferences. Potential cationic interferences were not transferred into the anionic Cr(VI) acceptor stream. Much of the organic compounds in soil extracts were also eliminated as evidenced from standard addition and recovery studies.

  19. Chromium adsorption by lignin

    SciTech Connect

    Lalvani, S.B.; Huebner, A.; Wiltowski, T.S.

    2000-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium is a known carcinogen, and its maximum contamination level in drinking water is determined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Chromium in the wastewaters from plating and metal finishing, tanning, and photographic industries poses environmental problems. A commercially available lignin was used for the removal of hexavalent as well as trivalent chromium from aqueous solution. It is known that hexavalent chromium is present as an anionic species in the solution. It was found that lignin can remove up to 63% hexavalent and 100% trivalent chromium from aqueous solutions. The removal of chromium ions was also investigated using a commercially available activated carbon. This absorbent facilitated very little hexavalent and almost complete trivalent chromium removal. Adsorption isotherms and kinetics data on the metal removal by lignin and activated carbon are presented and discussed.

  20. Chromium in the environment: an evaluation of exposure of the UK general population and possible adverse health effects.

    PubMed

    Rowbotham, A L; Levy, L S; Shuker, L K

    2000-01-01

    Chromium in the hexavalent form, Cr(VI), has long been recognized as a carcinogen and there is concern as to the effects of continuous low-level exposure to chromium both occupationally and environmentally. This review summarizes the available exposure data and known health effects and evaluates the potential risk to human health in the United Kingdom. Chromium emissions to the environment in the United Kingdom are predominantly derived from fuel combustion, waste incineration, and industrial processes. The less toxic trivalent form of chromium [Cr(III)] is dominant in most environmental compartments, and any Cr(VI), the more toxic form, that is emitted to the environment can be reduced to Cr(III). Food is a major source of exposure to chromium, and estimated daily oral intakes for infants (1 yr), children (11 yr), and adults are 33-45, 123-171, and 246-343 micrograms/person/d, respectively. Soil ingestion, particularly common in young children, can contribute to oral intake. Inhalation is a minor route of exposure for the general population. Average daily inhalation intakes in infants can range from 0.004 microgram/d for rural infants to 0.14 microgram/d for urban infants who are passively exposed to tobacco smoke, whereas adults who live in industrialized areas and smoke may take up between 2 and 12 micrograms/d. The most serious health effect associated with Cr(VI) is lung cancer, which has been associated with some occupational exposure scenarios, whereas Cr(III) is an essential nutrient with a broad safety range and low toxicity. The human body has effective detoxification mechanisms that can reduce ingested or inhaled Cr(VI) to Cr(III). In conclusion, there is no clear evidence to relate exposure to environmental levels of chromium with adverse health effects in either the general UK population or subgroups exposed to chromium around industrialized or contaminated sites. It can be expected that an improved understanding of the relevance of possible long

  1. Chromium III histidinate exposure modulates antioxidant gene expression in HaCaT human keratinocytes exposed to oxidative stress

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    While the toxicity of hexavalent chromium is well established, trivalent Cr (Cr(III)) is an essential nutrient involved in insulin and glucose homeostasis. Recently, antioxidant effects of chromium (III) histidinate (Cr(III)His) were reported in HaCaT human keratinocytes exposed to oxidative stress...

  2. Hexavalent Chromium Minimization Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Green Chemistry – Cradle to grave management • International, Federal, & State Toxic Substances Laws – EPA’s Chemical Actions Plans & “Chemical Safety...for Sustainability” • Restrictions or banning of chemicals/materials – California Green Chemistry Law – European Union’s “REACH” regulation for chemical...Directorate Portfolio • Emerging Contaminants Program • Green Chemistry & DoD Chemical Management Program – DoD REACH Strategic Plan signed in July 2010

  3. The protective and toxic effects of rhubarb tannins and anthraquinones in treating hexavalent chromium-injured rats: the Yin/Yang actions of rhubarb.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ling-na; Ma, Zhi-jie; Zhao, Yan-ling; Zhang, Lin-dong; Li, Rui-sheng; Wang, Jia-bo; Zhang, Ping; Yan, Dan; Li, Qi; Jiang, Bing-qian; Pu, Shi-biao; Lü, Yang; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2013-02-15

    Chromium nephrotoxicity (CrNT) is thought to occur through the oxidant lesion mechanism. There is still a lack of specific remedies against CrNT. We primarily screened Chinese herbal medicines with a potential protective effect against CrNT, e.g., rhubarb (Rheum palmatum L.). However, the active constituents in rhubarb and its mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, the total rhubarb extract (TR) was successively separated into three parts: total anthraquinone extract (TA), total tannin extract (TT) and remaining component extract (RC). The effects of each extract on the potassium dichromate (K(2)Cr(2)O(7))-induced nephrotoxicity in rats were comparatively assessed. The results showed that only the administration of TT protected the kidney function in K(2)Cr(2)O(7)-injured rats. Besides, TT showed significant activity to scavenge hydroxyl radicals, which is considered to be the dominant lesion product generated by hexavalent chromium. TT also showed a reduced ability to transform toxic high valence chromium ions into non-toxic low valence ions. And TT was able to further precipitate chromium ions. These results suggested that rhubarb tannins treat CrNT as a free radical scavenger, reductant, and metal precipitant. The multiple protective routes of the plant tannins reveal a superior option for development into a promising natural remedy against CrNT. In addition, the opposite effects of rhubarb anthraquinones in treating CrNT were observed compared to rhubarb tannins, which suggested the duo-directional effects (Yin and Yang) of herbal medicines should be addressed.

  4. N-Acetylcysteine Attenuates Hexavalent Chromium-Induced Hypersensitivity through Inhibition of Cell Death, ROS-Related Signaling and Cytokine Expression

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chien-Cheng; Sheu, Hamm-Ming; Tsai, Jui-Chen; Lin, Chia-Ho; Wang, Ying-Jan; Wang, Bour-Jr

    2014-01-01

    Chromium hypersensitivity (chromium-induced allergic contact dermatitis) is an important issue in occupational skin disease. Hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) can activate the Akt, Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), and Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways and induce cell death, via the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, cell death stimuli have been proposed to regulate the release of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 (IL-1). However, the exact effects of ROS on the signaling molecules and cytotoxicity involved in Cr(VI)-induced hypersensitivity have not yet been fully demonstrated. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) could increase glutathione levels in the skin and act as an antioxidant. In this study, we investigated the effects of NAC on attenuating the Cr(VI)-triggered ROS signaling in both normal keratinocyte cells (HaCaT cells) and a guinea pig (GP) model. The results showed the induction of apoptosis, autophagy and ROS were observed after different concentrations of Cr(VI) treatment. HaCaT cells pretreated with NAC exhibited a decrease in apoptosis and autophagy, which could affect cell viability. In addition, Cr (VI) activated the Akt, NF-κB and MAPK pathways thereby increasing IL-1α and TNF-α production. However, all of these stimulation phenomena could be inhibited by NAC in both of in vitro and in vivo studies. These novel findings indicate that NAC may prevent the development of chromium hypersensitivity by inhibiting of ROS-induced cell death and cytokine expression. PMID:25248126

  5. N-acetylcysteine attenuates hexavalent chromium-induced hypersensitivity through inhibition of cell death, ROS-related signaling and cytokine expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu-Hsuan; Su, Shih-Bin; Huang, Chien-Cheng; Sheu, Hamm-Ming; Tsai, Jui-Chen; Lin, Chia-Ho; Wang, Ying-Jan; Wang, Bour-Jr

    2014-01-01

    Chromium hypersensitivity (chromium-induced allergic contact dermatitis) is an important issue in occupational skin disease. Hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) can activate the Akt, Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), and Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways and induce cell death, via the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, cell death stimuli have been proposed to regulate the release of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 (IL-1). However, the exact effects of ROS on the signaling molecules and cytotoxicity involved in Cr(VI)-induced hypersensitivity have not yet been fully demonstrated. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) could increase glutathione levels in the skin and act as an antioxidant. In this study, we investigated the effects of NAC on attenuating the Cr(VI)-triggered ROS signaling in both normal keratinocyte cells (HaCaT cells) and a guinea pig (GP) model. The results showed the induction of apoptosis, autophagy and ROS were observed after different concentrations of Cr(VI) treatment. HaCaT cells pretreated with NAC exhibited a decrease in apoptosis and autophagy, which could affect cell viability. In addition, Cr (VI) activated the Akt, NF-κB and MAPK pathways thereby increasing IL-1α and TNF-α production. However, all of these stimulation phenomena could be inhibited by NAC in both of in vitro and in vivo studies. These novel findings indicate that NAC may prevent the development of chromium hypersensitivity by inhibiting of ROS-induced cell death and cytokine expression.

  6. Short-term toxicity of hexavalent-chromium to epipsammic diatoms of a microtidal estuary (Río de la Plata): responses from the individual cell to the community structure.

    PubMed

    Licursi, M; Gómez, N

    2013-06-15

    Diatoms are an integral and often dominant component of the benthic microalgal assemblage in estuarine and shallow coastal environments. Different toxic substances discharged into these ecosystems persist in the water, sediments, and biota for long periods. Among these pernicious agents, the toxicity in diatoms by metal is linked to different steps in the transmembrane and internal movements of the toxicant, causing perturbations in the normal structural and functional cellular components. These changes constitute an early, nontaxonomic warning signal that could potentially serve as an indicator of this type of pollution. The aim of this work was to study the environment-reflecting short-term responses at different levels of organization of epipsammic diatoms from the Río de la Plata estuary, Argentina that had been exposed to hexavalent chromium within experimental microcosms. To this end we monitored: (i) changes in the proportion of the diatoms in relation to other algal groups at the biofilm community level; (ii) shifts in species composition at the diatom-assemblage level; (iii) projected changes in the densities of the most representative species at the population level through comparison of relative growth rates and generation times; and (iv) the cytological changes at the cellular and subcellular levels as indicated by the appearance of teratological effects on individuals and nuclear alterations. The epipsammic biofilms were exposed for 96 h to chromium at a concentration similar to that measured in highly impacted sites along the coast (80 μg L⁻¹). Chromium pollution, at this concentration and short exposure time did not affect the algal biomass and density of these mature biofilms. The biofilm composition, however, did change, as reflected in a decline in cyanophytes and an increment in the proportions of diatoms and chlorophytes; with Hippodonta hungarica, Navicula novaesiberica, Nitzschia palea, and Sellaphora pupula being the most frequent and

  7. Pilot Scale Production of Activated Carbon Spheres Using Fluidized Bed Reactor and Its Evaluation for the Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Aqueous Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Nagesh Kumar; Sathe, Manisha

    2017-06-01

    Large scale production of activated carbon is need of ongoing research due to its excellent adsorption capacity for removal of heavy metals from contaminated solutions. In the present study, polymeric precursor polystyrene beads [Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface area, 46 m2/g; carbon content, 40.64%; crushing strength, 0.32 kg/sphere] were used to produce a new variant of activated carbon, Activated Carbon Spheres (ACS) in a pilot scale fluidized bed reactor. ACS were prepared by carbonization of polymeric precursor at 850 °C followed by activation of resultant material with steam. Prepared ACS were characterized using scanning electron microscope, CHNS analyzer, thermogravimetric analyzer, surface area analyzer and crushing strength tester. The produced ACS have 1009 m2/g BET surface area, 0.89 cm3/g total pore volume, 92.32% carbon content and 1.1 kg/sphere crushing strength with less than 1% of moisture and ash content. The ACS were also evaluated for its potential to remove hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from contaminated solutions. The chromium removal is observed to be 99.1% at initial concentration 50 mg/l, pH 2, ACS dose 1 g/l, contact time 2 h, agitation 120 rpm and temperature 30 °C. Thus ACS can be used as an adsorbent material for the removal of Cr(VI) from contaminated solutions.

  8. Synthesis, physical properties and application of the zero-valent iron/titanium dioxide heterocomposite having high activity for the sustainable photocatalytic removal of hexavalent chromium in water.

    PubMed

    Petala, Eleni; Baikousi, Maria; Karakassides, Michael A; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Filip, Jan; Tuček, Jiří; Vasilopoulos, Konstantinos C; Pechoušek, Jiří; Zbořil, Radek

    2016-04-21

    A magnetic photocatalytic material composed of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) homogeneously distributed over a mesoporous nanocrystalline TiO2 matrix has been prepared by a multistage chemical process, including sol-gel technique, wet impregnation, and chemical reduction. X-ray powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were used for the structural and chemical characterization of the magnetic photocatalyst, while bulk magnetization measurements and scanning/transmission electron microscopy were employed to determine the physical and textural properties of the photocatalyst. The synthesized nZVI@TiO2 photocatalyst shows very high efficiency in the removal of hexavalent chromium, Cr(vi), from water. The degradation rate follows a pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Most importantly, the remarkable efficiency of the photocatalyst is found to be due to the synergistic contributions of both counterparts, nZVI and TiO2, as validated by comparative experiments with neat TiO2 and nZVI@TiO2 under UV-C irradiation and without irradiation. New insights into the mechanism of synergistic degradation of chromium(vi) and suppressed oxidation of nZVI particles in the composite material are proposed and therein discussed.

  9. The determination of hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) in electronic and electrical components and products to comply with RoHS regulations.

    PubMed

    Hua, L; Chan, Y C; Wu, Y P; Wu, B Y

    2009-04-30

    Toxicity of hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)) was focused on with a publication of EU RoHS directive, a novel method to determine hexavalent chromium is developed. It is a combination of energy dispersion X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF), spot test, alkali digestion and UV-vis spectrophotometric analysis. First, by EDXRF screening, the presence or absence of element Cr was established. Spot test was followed to identify the valent state of chromium because Cr(6+) and Cr(3+) normally coexist. After alkali digestion, Cr(VI) was separated without an undersired Cr(VI)-Cr(III) interconversions. With a color reagent (DPC) to chelated with Cr(VI), the solution was finally detected by a UV-vis spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 540 nm which is the basis of analyzing Cr(VI) quantitatively. Some parameters affecting analyses were studied. It was found that when pH in the final solution was 2.0, the extraction time was 60 min, the extraction temperature was 90 degrees C, pH during the extraction process was 7.5-8.5, and a mixed buffer solution (0.5M K(2)HPO(4)/0.5M KH(2)PO(4)) was added up to 1 ml, colorimetric reagent was added to 2 ml, it is optimal for extraction. Under this condition, interferences from Fe(3+), Pb(2+), Ag(+), etc., were overcome. It was also found that the curves are rectilinear in the range of 0-500 microg l(-1), the correlation coefficient is up to 0.999924, and the recovery rates are more than 85%, the Cr(III)-DPCO complex can be kept stable for 24h with a relative humidity (RH) range of 60-90%, and a temperature range of 5-40 degrees C. So it can be concluded that the proposed method has a good sensitivity and high precision. It is a more convincing and reliable method due to its relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) <1% after six replicate determinations of Cr(VI) in an Fe-Ni alloy sample.

  10. Environmental exposure to arsenic and chromium in an industrial area.

    PubMed

    Vimercati, Luigi; Gatti, Maria F; Gagliardi, Tommaso; Cuccaro, Francesco; De Maria, Luigi; Caputi, Antonio; Quarato, Marco; Baldassarre, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Arsenic and chromium are widespread environmental contaminants that affect global health due to their toxicity and carcinogenicity. To date, few studies have investigated exposure to arsenic and chromium in a population residing in a high-risk environmental area. The aim of this study is to evaluate the exposure to arsenic and chromium in the general population with no occupational exposure to these metals, resident in the industrial area of Taranto, Southern Italy, through biological monitoring techniques. We measured the levels of chromium, inorganic arsenic, and methylated metabolites, in the urine samples of 279 subjects residing in Taranto and neighboring areas. Qualified health staff administered a standardized structured questionnaire investigating lifestyle habits and controlling for confounding factors. The biological monitoring data showed high urinary concentrations of both the heavy metals investigated, particularly Cr. On this basis, it will be necessary to carry out an organized environmental monitoring program, taking into consideration all exposure routes so as to correlate the environmental concentrations of these metals with the biomonitoring results.

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of cat, gpx1 and Cu/Zn-sod genes in pengze crucian carp (Carassius auratus var. Pengze) and antioxidant enzyme modulation induced by hexavalent chromium in juveniles.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Zheng, Yao; Liang, Hongwei; Zou, Linhu; Sun, Jiejie; Zhang, Yingying; Qin, Fang; Liu, Shaozhen; Wang, Zaizhao

    2013-04-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)) is a common pollutant transient metal with high toxicity in the environment. The toxicological effects partly result from oxidative damage due to the production of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the reductive process of Cr(6+). To explore the influence of ROS induced directly by Cr(6+) on the oxidative stress generation and antioxidant system, the full length cDNAs of antioxidant-related genes cat, gpx1 and Cu/Zn-sod were successfully acquired from pengze crucian carp first and analyzed. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of the antioxidant genes encompassing catalase (cat), copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-sod) and glutathione peroxidase (gpx1), antioxidant enzyme activities of CAT, SOD, and GPx and total protein content were further studied in the gill, intestine and liver of pengze crucian carp (Carassius auratus var. Pengze) juveniles upon acute exposure to Cr(6+) at concentrations of 0.1, 1.0, 10 and 100 mg/L for 4 days. Differential significant changes of the antioxidant enzymes and gene expression were observed in different tissues. The findings contribute to better understanding the antioxidant mechanisms induced by Cr(6+) and selecting the organic-specific sensitive biomarkers to monitor the safety of the aquatic ecosystem. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of the human health risks posed by exposure to chromium-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, P.J.; Meyer, D.M.; Sauer, M.M.; Paustenbach, D.J. )

    1991-02-01

    Millions of tons of chromite-ore processing residue have been used as fill in various locations in northern New Jersey and elsewhere in the United States. The primary toxicants in the residue are trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)). The hazard posed by Cr(III) is negligible due to its low acute and chronic toxicity. In contrast, Cr(VI) is a human carcinogen following inhalation of high concentrations. It can also cause allergic contact dermatitis. This evaluation addresses a residential site where the arithmetic mean (x) and geometric mean (gm) concentrations of Cr(III) in soil were 2879 and 1212 mg/kg (ppm). The mean concentrations of Cr(VI) were 180 and 4 mg/kg, respectively. The uptake (absorbed dose) of Cr(III) via soil ingestion, consumption of homegrown vegetables, and ingestion of inspired particles was determined. The uptake of Cr(VI) via dermal absorption from contact with surface soil and building wall surfaces, as well as inhalation, was also evaluated. The techniques used in this assessment are applicable for evaluating the human health risks posed by any residential site having contaminated soil. The potential for both sensitized and unsensitized persons to develop allergic contact dermatitis due to exposure to soil contaminated at these levels was found to be negligible. The estimated average daily dose (ADD) via ingestion and dermal absorption for the maximally exposed individual (MEI) was about 1500- and 40-fold below the EPA reference dose (RfD) for Cr(III) and Cr(VI), respectively. It was shown that for residential sites, the most important route of exposure to Cr(III) was incidental soil ingestion. Although not relevant to these sites specifically, if garden vegetables could be successfully grown in these soils, then they would probably be the predominant source of uptake of Cr(III). 163 refs.

  13. Exposure of Soil Microbial Communities to Chromium and Arsenic Alters Their Diversity and Structure

    PubMed Central

    Rizvi, Fariha Z.; Rehman, Yasir; Faisal, Muhammad; Hasnain, Shahida; McInerney, Michael J.; Krumholz, Lee R.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive use of chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) based preservatives from the leather tanning industry in Pakistan has had a deleterious effect on the soils surrounding production facilities. Bacteria have been shown to be an active component in the geochemical cycling of both Cr and As, but it is unknown how these compounds affect microbial community composition or the prevalence and form of metal resistance. Therefore, we sought to understand the effects that long-term exposure to As and Cr had on the diversity and structure of soil microbial communities. Soils from three spatially isolated tanning facilities in the Punjab province of Pakistan were analyzed. The structure, diversity and abundance of microbial 16S rRNA genes were highly influenced by the concentration and presence of hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) and arsenic. When compared to control soils, contaminated soils were dominated by Proteobacteria while Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria (which are generally abundant in pristine soils) were minor components of the bacterial community. Shifts in community composition were significant and revealed that Cr (VI)-containing soils were more similar to each other than to As contaminated soils lacking Cr (VI). Diversity of the arsenic resistance genes, arsB and ACR3 were also determined. Results showed that ACR3 becomes less diverse as arsenic concentrations increase with a single OTU dominating at the highest concentration. Chronic exposure to either Cr or As not only alters the composition of the soil bacterial community in general, but affects the arsenic resistant individuals in different ways. PMID:22768219

  14. Hexavalent chromium in house dust — A comparison between an area with historic contamination from chromate production and background locations

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Alan H.; Yu, Chang Ho; Black, Kathleen; Lin, Lin; Lioy, Paul J.; Gochfeld, Michael; Fan, Zhi-Hua (Tina)

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to Cr+ 3, Cr+ 6 is carcinogenic and allergenic. Although Cr+ 6 can occur naturally, it is thought that most soil Cr+ 6 is anthropogenic, however, the extent of Cr+ 6 in the background environment is unknown. Cr+ 6-containing chromite ore processing residue (COPR) from chromate manufacture was deposited in numerous locations in Jersey City (JC), New Jersey. In the 1990’s, significantly elevated concentrations of total Cr (Cr+ 6+Cr+ 3) were found in house dust near COPR sites. We undertook a follow-up study to determine ongoing COPR exposure. We compared Cr+6 in house dust in JC to selected background communities with no known sources of Cr+ 6. Samples were collected from living areas, basements and window wells. Cr+6 was detected in dust from all JC and background houses. In the JC homes, the mean (±SD) Cr+ 6 concentration for all samples was 3.9±7.0 μg/g (range: non-detect–90.4 μg/g), and the mean Cr+ 6 loading was 5.8±15.7 μg/m2 (range: non-detect–196.4 μg/m2). In background homes, the mean Cr+ 6 concentrations of all samples was 4.6±7.8 μ μg/g, (range, 0.05–56.6 μg/g). The mean loading was 10.0±27.9 μg/m2 (range, 0.22–169.3 μg/m2). There was no significant difference between Cr+ 6 dust concentrations in Jersey City and background locations. Stratification by sample location within houses and sampling method gave similar results. Samples exceeding 20 μg/g were obtained only from single wood surfaces in different homes. Lower concentrations in window well samples suggests transport from outside is not the major source of indoor Cr+ 6. Landscaping and groundcover may influence indoor Cr+6. There appears to be a widespread low level background of Cr+ 6 that is not elevated in Jersey City homes despite its historic COPR contamination. It is possible that house dust, in general, is a source of Cr+ 6 exposure with potential implications for persistence of chromium allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:20692023

  15. Hexavalent chromium in house dust--a comparison between an area with historic contamination from chromate production and background locations.

    PubMed

    Stern, Alan H; Yu, Chang Ho; Black, Kathleen; Lin, Lin; Lioy, Paul J; Gochfeld, Michael; Fan, Zhi-Hua Tina

    2010-10-01

    In contrast to Cr(+3), Cr(+6) is carcinogenic and allergenic. Although Cr(+6) can occur naturally, it is thought that most soil Cr(+6) is anthropogenic, however, the extent of Cr(+6) in the background environment is unknown. Cr(+6)-containing chromite ore processing residue (COPR) from chromate manufacture was deposited in numerous locations in Jersey City (JC), New Jersey. In the 1990's, significantly elevated concentrations of total Cr (Cr(+6)+Cr(+3)) were found in house dust near COPR sites. We undertook a follow-up study to determine ongoing COPR exposure. We compared Cr(+6) in house dust in JC to selected background communities with no known sources of Cr(+6). Samples were collected from living areas, basements and window wells. Cr(+6) was detected in dust from all JC and background houses. In the JC homes, the mean (+ or - SD) Cr(+6) concentration for all samples was 3.9 + or - 7.0 microg/g (range: non-detect-90.4 microg/g), and the mean Cr(+6) loading was 5.8 + or - 15.7 microg/m(2) (range: non-detect-196.4 microg/m(2)). In background homes, the mean Cr(+6) concentrations of all samples was 4.6 + or - 7.8 microg/g, (range, 0.05-56.6 microg/g). The mean loading was 10.0 + or - 27.9 microg/m(2) (range, 0.22-169.3 microg/m(2)). There was no significant difference between Cr(+6) dust concentrations in Jersey City and background locations. Stratification by sample location within houses and sampling method gave similar results. Samples exceeding 20 microg/g were obtained only from single wood surfaces in different homes. Lower concentrations in window well samples suggests transport from outside is not the major source of indoor Cr(+6). Landscaping and groundcover may influence indoor Cr(+6). There appears to be a widespread low level background of Cr(+6) that is not elevated in Jersey City homes despite its historic COPR contamination. It is possible that house dust, in general, is a source of Cr(+6) exposure with potential implications for persistence of

  16. Chemical and microbial remediation of hexavalent chromium from contaminated soil and mining/metallurgical solid waste: a review.

    PubMed

    Dhal, B; Thatoi, H N; Das, N N; Pandey, B D

    2013-04-15

    Chromium is a highly toxic non-essential metal for microorganisms and plants, and its occurrence is rare in nature. Lower to higher chromium containing effluents and solid wastes released by activities such as mining, metal plating, wood preservation, ink manufacture, dyes, pigments, glass and ceramics, tanning and textile industries, and corrosion inhibitors in cooling water, induce pollution and may cause major health hazards. Besides, natural processes (weathering and biochemical) also contribute to the mobility of chromium which enters in to the soil affecting the plant growth and metabolic functions of the living species. Generally, chemical processes are used for Cr- remediation. However, with the inference derived from the diverse Cr-resistance mechanism displayed by microorganisms and the plants including biosorption, diminished accumulation, precipitation, reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), and chromate efflux, bioremediation is emerging as a potential tool to address the problem of Cr(VI) pollution. This review focuses on the chemistry of chromium, its use, and toxicity and mobility in soil, while assessing its concentration in effluents/wastes which becomes the source of pollution. In order to conserve the environment and resources, the chemical/biological remediation processes for Cr(VI) and their efficiency have been summarised in some detail. The interaction of chromium with various microbial/bacterial strains isolated and their reduction capacity towards Cr(VI) are also discussed.

  17. Determination of hexavalent chromium in South African cements and cement-related materials with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Potgieter, S.S.; Panichev, N.; Potgieter, J.H.; Panicheva, S

    2003-10-01

    The selective extraction of Cr(VI) in a cement matrix, based on treatment with 0.1 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution and subsequent determination of chromium by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry has been proposed. The proposed method has been applied to South African cement clinkers, natural gypsum, limestone and certified reference materials. The limit of detection of chromium determination in cement samples was found to be 0.14 {mu}g g{sup -1}. Between 30% and 80% of the total chromium in South African cement clinkers are Cr(VI) compounds and 8-26% of the total amount of Cr(VI) species is water soluble. The analytical performance of the proposed method has been verified by the analysis of BCS-CRM, a sulphate-resisting Portland cement, and the results obtained were in good agreement with the certified values.

  18. Possible adverse effect of chromium in occupational exposure of tannery workers.

    PubMed

    Kornhauser, Carlos; Wróbel, Katarzyna; Wróbel, Kazimierz; Malacara, Juan Manuel; Nava, Laura Eugenia; Gómez, Leobardo; González, Rita

    2002-04-01

    Our aim was to investigate the adverse effects of occupational exposure to trivalent chromium. We measured chromium and iron levels in serum and urine and hemoglobin levels in tannery workers and unexposed persons. We studied three groups of subjects. Group 1 included 15 non-smoking male tannery workers highly exposed to chromium from tanning and retanning departments. Group 2 included 14 non-smoking male tannery workers with moderate chromium exposure from dying, drying and finishing departments. Group 3 included 11 healthy, non-smoking male subjects without direct chromium exposure. Higher serum chromium levels were observed in groups 1 and 2 with respect to group 3 (mean values respectively: 0.43; 0.25 and 0.13 microg x l(-1)). Urine chromium levels in group 1 were higher than those in controls (mean values: 1.78 and 1.35 microg x l(-1)). In group 1 an inverse association was found between serum chromium and urine iron (-0.524), urine chromium and hemoglobin (-0.594) and between the urine chromium to iron ratio and hemoglobin (-0.693, p<0.05). The results suggest a chromium adverse effect on iron metabolism, possibly associated with excessive body chromium accumulation. In conclusion, chromium urine test could be recommended for diagnosis of chromium adverse effect on iron metabolism. Further studies are needed to quantify the relationship between urine chromium and hemoglobin metabolism.

  19. Geogenic Cr oxidation on the surface of mafic minerals and the hydrogeological conditions influencing hexavalent chromium concentrations in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Kazakis, N; Kantiranis, N; Voudouris, K S; Mitrakas, M; Kaprara, E; Pavlou, A

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to specify the source minerals of geogenic chromium in soils and sediments and groundwater and to determine the favorable hydrogeological environment for high concentrations of Cr(VI) in groundwaters. For this reason, chromium origin and the relevant minerals were identified, the groundwater velocity was calculated and the concentrations of Cr(VI) in different aquifer types were determined. Geochemical and mineralogical analyses showed that chromium concentrations in soils and sediments range from 115 to 959 mg/kg and that serpentine prevails among the phyllosilicates. The high correlation between chromium and serpentine, amphibole and pyroxene minerals verifies the geogenic origin of chromium in soils and sediments and, therefore, in groundwater. Manganese also originates from serpentine, amphibole and pyroxene, and is strongly correlated with chromium, indicating that the oxidation of Cr(