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Sample records for hg matrix study

  1. STATISTICAL EVALUATION OF PROCESSING DATA FROM THE RH RU HG MATRIX STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D

    2009-04-17

    An evaluation of the statistical significance of Rh, Ru, and Hg on DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle catalytic hydrogen generation and process chemistry was conducted by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) using a full-factorial experimental design. This test design can identify significant interactions between these three species in addition to individual effects. Statistical modeling of data from the Rh-Ru-Hg matrix study has been completed. Preliminary data and conclusions were given in an earlier report. This final report concludes the work on the Rh-Ru-Hg matrix study. Modeling results are summarized below. Rhodium was found to: Promote increased total hydrogen mass; Promote an increase in the maximum hydrogen generation rate; Promote an increase in the hydrogen generation rate shortly after acid addition; Shorten the elapsed time between acid addition and the maximum hydrogen generation rate; Increase formate loss; Inhibit NO{sub 2} and total NO{sub x} off-gas species formation; and Reduce nitrite-to-nitrate conversion. Ruthenium was found to: Promote increased total hydrogen mass; Promote an increase in the maximum hydrogen generation rate; Promote an increase in the hydrogen generation rate in the second half of the SRAT cycle; Promote an increase in total CO{sub 2} generated; Increase formate loss; Promote NO{sub 2} and total NO{sub x} off-gas species formation; and Reduce nitrite-to-nitrate conversion. Mercury was found to: Inhibit total hydrogen mass produced; Promote an increase in total CO{sub 2} generated; Promote NO{sub 2} off-gas species formation; and Inhibit total NO{sub x} off-gas species formation. Results confirmed qualitative observations that Rh was activating before Ru for hydrogen generation. An interaction between Rh and Ru was present in the model for the total hydrogen generated during the SRAT, perhaps because the total combined contributions from two separate episodes of hydrogen generation. The first

  2. Photolytic codeposition generation of the HgF radical in an argon matrix at 12 K: An ESR investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, L.B. Jr.; Fisher, T.A.; Wise, M.B.

    1981-06-01

    The HgF radical has been generated by photolysis during the codeposition reaction of Hg atoms and F/sub 2/(g) in an argon matrix at 12 K. The magnetic parameters are g(/sub parallel/) = 1.993(1), g/sub perpendicular/ = 1.961(1); A/sub parallel/ (/sup 19/F) = 1344(10) MHz, A/sub perpendicular/ (/sup 19/F) = 195(5), A/sub parallel/ (/sup 199/Hg) = 22 622(10), A/sub perpendicular/(/sup 199/Hg) = 21 880(8), A/sub parallel/ (/sup 201/Hg) = 8055(12), A/sub perpendicular/ (/sup 201/Hg) = 7760(10). Utilizing the g and A tensor data, the electronic structure of HgF is compared to the other MF radicals studied.

  3. Synthesis and growth of HgI{sub 2} nanocrystals in a glass matrix: Heat treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Condeles, J. F. E-mail: ricssilva@yahoo.com.br; Silva, R. S. E-mail: ricssilva@yahoo.com.br; Silva, A. C. A.; Dantas, N. O.

    2014-08-14

    Mercury iodide (HgI{sub 2}) nanocrystals (NCs) were successfully grown in a barium phosphate glass matrix synthesized by fusion. Growth control of HgI{sub 2} NCs was investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Optical Absorption (OA), Fluorescence (FL), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). AFM images reveal the formation of HgI{sub 2} nanocrystals in host glass matrix. HgI{sub 2} NCs growth was evidenced by an OA and FL band red-shift with increasing annealing time. XRD measurements revealed the β crystalline phase of the HgI{sub 2} nanocrystals.

  4. Hg(II) Coordination Studies in Penicillamine Enantiomers by 199mHg-TDPAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tröger, W.; ISOLDE Collaboration

    2001-11-01

    In order to study the binding of the toxic heavy metal ion Hg2+ to penicillamine, complexes with the D- and L-enantiomers of penicillamine were investigated by the nuclear quadrupole interaction of 199Hg monitored by time differential perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy. It was found that bound Hg(II) occurs in two-fold, three-fold and four-fold coordinations.

  5. Superdeformation studies in {sup 191}Hg

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Crowell, B.

    1995-08-01

    Superdeformation in the A {approximately} 190 region was first observed in {sup 191}Hg from an experiment performed at ATLAS using the Argonne Notre Dame {gamma}-ray facility. We recently revisited the study of superdeformation in this nucleus using Gammasphere and the {sup 160}Gd({sup 36}S,5n) and {sup 174}Yb({sup 22}Ne,5n) reactions at 172 and 120 MeV in order to populate and measure states in the second well. The goal of the experiment was to identify new bands in the data, and thus allow us to gain understanding on the relative placement of single particle orbitals near the N = 112 SD shell gap. From an analysis of the data, the three previously identified SD bands were extended, and their feeding into the yrast states delineated. Two new SD bands were observed and preliminary evidence for a third new band was obtained as well.

  6. Thiourea catalysis of MeHg ligand exchange between natural dissolved organic matter and a thiol-functionalized resin: a novel method of matrix removal and MeHg preconcentration for ultratrace Hg speciation analysis in freshwaters.

    PubMed

    Vermillion, Brian R; Hudson, Robert J M

    2007-05-01

    Ultratrace analysis of dissolved MeHg in freshwaters requires both dissociation of MeHg from strong ligands in the sample matrix and preconcentration for detection. Existing solid phase extraction methods generally do not efficiently adsorb MeHg from samples containing high concentrations of natural dissolved organic matter. We demonstrate here that the addition of 10-60 mM thiourea (TU) quantitatively releases MeHg from the dissolved matrix of freshwater samples by forming a more labile complex (MeHgTU+) that quantitatively exchanges MeHg with thiol-functionalized resins at pH approximately 3.5 during column loading. The contents of these columns were efficiently eluted with acidified TU and MeHg was analyzed by Hg-TU complex ion chromatography with cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry detection. Routinely more than 90% of MeHg was recovered with good precision (average relative standard deviation of 6%) from natural waters-obtained from pools and saturated sediments of wetlands and from rivers-containing up to 68.7 mg C L-1 dissolved organic matter. With the preconcentration step, the method detection limit of 0.29 pg absolute or 0.007 ng L-1 in 40-mL samples is equivalent to that of the current state-of-the- art as practiced by skilled analysts. MeHg in 20-50-mL samples was completely trapped. On the basis of our knowledge of the chemistry of the process, breakthrough volume should depend on the concentrations of TU and H+. At a TU concentration of 12 mM breakthrough occurred between 50 and 100 mL, but overall adsorption efficiency was still 85% at 100 mL. Formation of artifactual MeHg is minimal; only about 0.7% of ambient MeHg is artifactual as estimated from samples spiked with 4 microg L-1 HgII.

  7. Assessment of modified matrix solid-phase dispersion as sample preparation for the determination of CH3Hg+ and Hg2+ in fish.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Fabio A; Soares, Bruno M; Vieira, Augusto A; Pereira, Ederson R; Maciel, Juliana V; Caldas, Sergiane S; Primel, Ednei G

    2013-05-21

    This paper reports, for the first time, the development of an analytical method employing modified matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) for the extraction of CH3Hg(+) and Hg(2+) species from fish samples. Separation and determination of mercury species were performed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Important MSPD parameters, such as sample mass, type and mass of solid support, concentration of extraction solution (HCl and NaCl), and stirring time, were investigated by the response surface methodology. The derivatization step and the separation of mercury species were also evaluated for the determination by GC/MS. Quantitative recoveries were obtained with 0.2 g of fish sample, 0.5 g of SiO2 as the solid support, 0.5 mol L(-1) NaCl and 4.2 mol L(-1) HCl as the extraction solution, and 1 min stirring time. The MSPD method showed to be suitable for the extraction and determination of mercury species in certified reference materials of dogfish liver (DOLT-3) and dogfish muscle (DORM-2). It had good agreement (about 99%) with the certified values, and the relative standard deviation was lower than 9.5%. The limits of detection were 0.06 and 0.12 μg g(-1), for CH3Hg(+) and Hg(2+), respectively. A matrix effect was observed, and the quantification was carried out by the matrix-matched calibration. The method was applied to tuna fish ( Thunnus thynnus ), angel shark ( Squatina squatina ), and guitarfish ( Rhinobatos percellens ) samples. The results of the mercury speciation by MPSD and GC/MS were compared to the total mercury concentration determined by flow injection cold vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, after microwave-assisted digestion. Agreement ranged from 102% to 105%.

  8. Molecular beam photoionization study of HgBr/sub 2/ and HgI/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Linn, S.H.; Tzeng, W.; Brom, J.M. Jr.; Ng, C.Y.

    1983-01-01

    Photoionization efficiency (PIE) data for HgBr/sub 2//sup +/ and HgI/sub 2//sup +/ and their fragment ions have been obtained in the region 600--1350 A using an oven-type supersonic beam source. The ionization energies (IE) for the X /sup 2/Pi/sub 3/2g/ states of HgBr/sub 2//sup +/ and HgI/sub 2//sup +/ were determined to be 10.560 +- 0.003 and 9.5088 +- 0.0022 eV, respectively. The analyses of the Rydberg series converging to the /sup 2/Pi/sub 1/2g/ states of HgBr/sub 2//sup +/ and HgI/sub 2//sup +/ yield a value of 10.8846 +- 0.0012 eV for the IE of the /sup 2/Pi/sub 1/2g/ state of HgBr/sub 2//sup +/ and 10.1953 +- 0.0025 eV for that of HgI/sub 2//sup +/. The major fragment ions from HgBr/sub 2/ were identified to be HgBr/sup +/, Hg/sup +/, Br/sub 2//sup +/, and Br/sup +/ and those from HgI/sub 2/ were found to be HgI/sup +/, I/sub 2//sup +/, and I/sup +/. The measured appearance energies for HgBr/sup +/ and HgI/sup +/ allow the calculation of the bond dissociation energies for HgBr/sup +/ and HgI/sup +/ to be 55 +- 2 and 59 +- 1 kcal/mol, respectively. Similar to the observation in the PIE curves for HgCl/sub 2//sup +/ and its fragment ions, the PIE spectra for HgBr/sub 2//sup +/, HgI/sub 2//sup +/, and their fragment ions are dominated by autoionization structures exhibiting asymmetric Beutler--Fano line profiles. The comparison of the PIE curves of HgCl/sub 2//sup +/, HgBr/sub 2//sup +/, HgI/sub 2//sup +/, and Hg/sup +/ from Hg confirms the previous conclusion that these autoionizing Rydberg series can be assigned to transitions((5d)/sup 10/sigma/sub g//sup 2/sigma/sub u//sup 2/..pi../sub u//sup 4/..pi../sub g//sup 4/) ..-->.. ((5d)/sup 9/sigma/sub g//sup 2/sigma/sub u//sup 2/..pi../sub u//sup 4/..pi../sub g//sup 4/ /sup 2/D/sub plus-or-minus5/2/)np and ((5d)/sup 10/sigma/sub g//sup 2/sigma/sub u//sup 2/..pi../sub u//sup 4/..pi../sub g//sup 4/) ..-->.. ((5d)/sup 9/sigma/sub g//sup 2/sigma/sub u//sup 2/..pi../sub u//sup 4/..pi../sub g//sup 4/ /sup 2/D/sub plus

  9. Electronic properties of liquid Hg-In alloys : Ab-initio molecular dynamics study

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Nalini Ahluwalia, P. K.; Thakur, Anil

    2016-05-23

    Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the structural properties of liquid Hg-In alloys. The interatomic interactions are described by ab-initio pseudopotentials given by Troullier and Martins. Three liquid Hg-In alloys (Hg{sub 10}In{sub 90}, Hg{sub 30}In{sub 70,.} Hg{sub 50}In{sub 50}, Hg{sub 70}In{sub 30}, and Hg{sub 90}Pb{sub 10}) at 299 K are considered. The calculated results for liquid Hg (l-Hg) and lead (l-In) are also drawn. Along with the calculated results of considered five liquid alloys of Hg-In alloy. The results obtained from electronic properties namely total density of state and partial density of states help to find the local arrangement of Hg and In atoms and the presence of liquid state in the considered five alloys.

  10. Electronic properties of liquid Hg-In alloys : Ab-initio molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Nalini; Thakur, Anil; Ahluwalia, P. K.

    2016-05-01

    Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the structural properties of liquid Hg-In alloys. The interatomic interactions are described by ab-initio pseudopotentials given by Troullier and Martins. Three liquid Hg-In alloys (Hg10In90, Hg30In70,. Hg50In50, Hg70In30, and Hg90Pb10) at 299 K are considered. The calculated results for liquid Hg (l-Hg) and lead (l-In) are also drawn. Along with the calculated results of considered five liquid alloys of Hg-In alloy. The results obtained from electronic properties namely total density of state and partial density of states help to find the local arrangement of Hg and In atoms and the presence of liquid state in the considered five alloys.

  11. Photoemission studies of core level shifts in HgCdTe, CdMnTe, and HgZnTe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, C. K.; Spicer, W. E.; Furdyna, J. K.; Sher, A.

    1987-01-01

    The results of photoemission studies of core level shifts in the Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te, Cd(1-x)Mn(x)Te, and Hg(1-x)Zn(x)Te alloys are discussed. In Hg(0.7)Cd(0.3)Te, the Hg 5d level is found to shift to lower binding energy by 0.1 eV, and the Cd 4d level to shift to higher binding energy by 0.25 eV upon alloying (relative to their binaries). The Born-Haber cycle is used to determine core level binding energies relative to the valence-band maximum in the context of tight-binding theory, and calculated core level shifts upon alloying in HgCdTe are shown to be too small to account for the observed values. A natural valence-band offset between HgTe and CdTe of 0.35 eV is found.

  12. Hg L3 edge absorption study of the HgBa2CuO4+δ superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ziyu; Saini, N. L.; Bianconi, A.

    2001-09-01

    The HgBa2CuO4+δ superconductor has been studied by high resolution Hg L3 x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The XANES spectrum has been simulated by full multiple-scattering calculations in order to explore the origin of different features in the experimental spectrum. The experimental Hg L3-edge spectrum could be well reproduced by considering a cluster of 85 atoms, containing 10 shells, within a radius of about 7 Å from the central Hg atom. The low energy spectral feature in the XANES spectrum is found to be due to a transition from the Hg p states to the electronic states hybridized with higher shell Ba atoms. This implies that the transition features in the Hg L3-edge XANES are strongly influenced by medium range order effects unlike the case of L3 edge of 3d transition metals where short-range order is enough to describe the main transition features.

  13. Matrixed business support comparison study.

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, Josh D.

    2004-11-01

    The Matrixed Business Support Comparison Study reviewed the current matrixed Chief Financial Officer (CFO) division staff models at Sandia National Laboratories. There were two primary drivers of this analysis: (1) the increasing number of financial staff matrixed to mission customers and (2) the desire to further understand the matrix process and the opportunities and challenges it creates.

  14. Study of atomic structure of liquid Hg-In alloys using ab-initio molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Nalini; Ahluwalia, P. K.; Thakur, Anil

    2015-05-15

    Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the structural properties of liquid Hg-In alloys. The interatomic interactions are described by ab-initio pseudopotentials given by Troullier and Martins. Five liquid Hg-In mixtures (Hg{sub 10}In{sub 90}, Hg{sub 30}In{sub 70}, Hg{sub 50}In{sub 50}, Hg{sub 70}In{sub 30} and Hg{sub 90}In{sub 10}) at 299K are considered. The radial distribution function g(r) and structure factor S(q) of considered alloys are compared with respective experimental results for liquid Hg (l-Hg) and (l-In). The radial distribution function g(r) shows the presence of short range order in the systems considered. Smooth curves of Bhatia-Thornton partial structure factors factor shows the presence of liquid state in the considered alloys.

  15. Study of atomic structure of liquid Hg-In alloys using ab-initio molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Nalini; Thakur, Anil; Ahluwalia, P. K.

    2015-05-01

    Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the structural properties of liquid Hg-In alloys. The interatomic interactions are described by ab-initio pseudopotentials given by Troullier and Martins. Five liquid Hg-In mixtures (Hg10In90, Hg30In70, Hg50In50, Hg70In30 and Hg90In10) at 299K are considered. The radial distribution function g(r) and structure factor S(q) of considered alloys are compared with respective experimental results for liquid Hg (l-Hg) and (l-In). The radial distribution function g(r) shows the presence of short range order in the systems considered. Smooth curves of Bhatia-Thornton partial structure factors factor shows the presence of liquid state in the considered alloys.

  16. Direct lead isotope analysis in Hg-rich sulfides by LA-MC-ICP-MS with a gas exchange device and matrix-matched calibration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Hu, Zhaochu; Günther, Detlef; Liu, Yongsheng; Ling, Wenli; Zong, Keqing; Chen, Haihong; Gao, Shan

    2016-12-15

    In situ Pb isotope data of sulfide samples measured by LA-MC-ICP-MS provide valuable geochemical information for studies of the origin and evolution of ore deposits. However, the severe isobaric interference of (204)Hg on (204)Pb and the lack of matrix-matched sulfide reference materials limit the precision of Pb isotopic analyses for Hg-rich sulfides. In this study, we observe that Hg forms vapor and can be completely removed from sample aerosol particles produced by laser ablation using a gas exchange device. Additionally, this device does not influence the signal intensities of Pb isotopes. The within-run precision, the external reproducibility and the analytical accuracy are significantly improved for the Hg-rich sulfide samples using this mercury-vapor-removing device. Matrix effects are observed when using silicate glass reference materials as the external standards to assess the relationship of mass fractionation factors between Tl and Pb in sulfide samples, resulting in a maximum deviation of ∼0.20% for (20x)Pb/(204)Pb. Matrix-matched reference materials are therefore required for the highly precise and accurate Pb isotope analyses of sulfide samples. We investigated two sulfide samples, MASS-1 (the Unites States Geological Survey reference materials) and Sph-HYLM (a natural sphalerite), as potential candidates. Repeated analyses of the two proposed sulfide reference materials by LA-MC-ICP-MS yield good external reproducibility of <0.04% (RSD, k = 2) for (20x)Pb/(206)Pb and <0.06% (RSD, k = 2) for (20x)Pb/(204)Pb with the exception of (20x)Pb/(204)Pb in MASS-1, which provided an external reproducibility of 0.24% (RSD, k = 2). Because the concentration of Pb in MASS-1 (76 μg g(-1)) is ∼5.2 times lower than that in Sph-HYLM (394 ± 264 μg g(-1)). The in situ analytical results of MASS-1 and Sph-HYLM are consistent with the values obtained by solution MC-ICP-MS, demonstrating the reliability and robustness of our analytical protocol

  17. Understanding natural semiquinone radicals--multifrequency EPR and relativistic DFT studies of the structure of Hg(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Witwicki, Maciej; Jerzykiewicz, Maria; Ozarowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Multifrequency EPR spectroscopy and DFT calculations were used to investigate Hg(II) complexes with semiquinone radical ligands formed in a direct reaction between the metal ions and tannic acid (a polyphenol closely related to tannins). Because of the intricate structure of tannic acid a vast array of substituted phenolic compounds were tested to find a structural model mimicking its ability to react with Hg(II) ions. The components of the g matrix (the g tensor) determined from the high field (208 GHz) EPR spectra of the Hg(II) complexes with the radical ligands derived from tannic acid and from the model compounds were analogous, indicating a similar coordination mode in all the studied Hg(II) complexes. Since catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene) was the simplest compound undergoing the reaction with Hg(II) it was selected for DFT studies which were aimed at providing an insight into the structural properties of the investigated complexes. Various coordination numbers and different conformations and protonation states of the ligands were included in the theoretical analyses. g Matrices were computed for all the DFT optimized geometries. A good agreement between the theoretical and experimental values was observed only for the model with the Hg(II) ion tetracoordinated by two ligands, one of the ligands being monoprotonated with the unpaired electron mainly localized on it.

  18. How to Study a Matrix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jairam, Dharmananda; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Kauffman, Douglas F.; Zhao, Ruomeng

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how best to study a matrix. Fifty-three participants studied a matrix topically (1 column at a time), categorically (1 row at a time), or in a unified way (all at once). Results revealed that categorical and unified study produced higher: (a) performance on relationship and fact tests, (b) study material satisfaction, and…

  19. How to Study a Matrix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jairam, Dharmananda; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Kauffman, Douglas F.; Zhao, Ruomeng

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how best to study a matrix. Fifty-three participants studied a matrix topically (1 column at a time), categorically (1 row at a time), or in a unified way (all at once). Results revealed that categorical and unified study produced higher: (a) performance on relationship and fact tests, (b) study material satisfaction, and…

  20. Gapless superconductivity in overdoped Hg system: Cu-NQR study

    SciTech Connect

    Ohsugi, Shigeki; Tsuchiya, Tetsuo; Koyama, Tadashi; Fueki, Kazuo

    1996-11-01

    The nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) investigation of Cu in the overdoped compounds HgBa{sub 2}CuO{sub y} (Hg1201) with Y=4.06 (T{sub c}=92K) and 4.11 (64K) and HgBa{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub y} (Hg1212) with y=6.13 (T{sub c}=125K) and 6.21 (117K) was carried out in zero field. From the temperature (T) dependence of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time, T{sub 1}, of {sup 63}Cu, the authors discuss a cause of the T{sub c} suppression with decreasing the number of CuO{sub 2} layers.

  1. A theoretical study of the oxidation of Hg0 to HgBr2 in the troposphere.

    PubMed

    Goodsite, M E; Plane, J M C; Skov, H

    2004-03-15

    The oxidation of elemental mercury (Hg0) to the divalent gaseous mercury dibromide (HgBr2) has been proposed to account for the removal of Hg0 during depletion events in the springtime Arctic. The mechanism of this process is explored in this paper by theoretical calculations of the relevant rate coefficients. Rice-Ramsberger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) theory, together with ab initio quantum calculations where required, are used to estimate the following: recombination rate coefficients of Hg with Br, I, and O; the thermal dissociation rate coefficient of HgBr; and the recombination rate coefficients of HgBr with Br, I, OH, and O2. A mechanism based on the initial recombination of Hg with Br, followed by the addition of a second radical (Br, I, or OH) in competition with thermal dissociation of HgBr, is able to account for the observed rate of Hg0 removal, both in Arctic depletion events and at lower latitudes.

  2. Overcoming phytoremediation limitations. A case study of Hg contaminated soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbafieri, Meri

    2013-04-01

    Phytoremediation is a broad term that comprises several technologies to clean up water and soil. Despite the numerous articles appearing in scientific journals, very few field applications of phytoextraction have been successfully realized. The research here reported on Phytoextraction, the use the plant to "extract" metals from contaminated soil, is focused on implementations to overcome two main drawbacks: the survival of plants in unfavorable environmental conditions (contaminant toxicity, low fertility, etc.) and the often lengthy time it takes to reduce contaminants to the requested level. Moreover, to overcome the imbalance between the technology's potential and its drawbacks, there is growing interest in the use of plants to reduce only the fraction that is the most hazardous to the environment and human health, that is to target the bioavailable fractions of metals in soil. Bioavailable Contaminant Stripping (BCS) would be a remediation approach focused to remove the bioavailable metal fractions. BCS have been used in a mercury contaminated soil from Italian industrial site. Bioavailable fractions were determined by sequential extraction with H2O and NH4Cl.Combined treatments of plant hormone and thioligand to strength Hg uptake by crop plants (Brassica juncea and Helianthus annuus) were tested. Plant biomass, evapotranspiration, Hg uptake and distribution following treatments were compared. Results indicate the plant hormone, cytokinine (CK) foliar treatment, increased evapotranspiration rate in both tested plants. The Hg uptake and translocation in both tested plants increased with simultaneous addition of CK and TS treatments. B. juncea was the most effective in Hg uptake. Application of CK to plants grown in TS-treated soil lead to an increase in Hg concentration of 232% in shoots and 39% in roots with respect to control. While H. annuus gave a better response in plant biomass production, the application of CK to plants grown in TS-treated soil lead to

  3. HgCdTe Surface and Defect Study Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    Sci. Technol. A 1 1735 (1983). 2. K. C. Mills, Thermodynamic Data for Inorganic Sulphides , Selenides and Tellurides (Betterworths, London, 1974). 3. A...34HgCdTe-SiO2 Interface Structure," 1983 U.S. Workshop on the Physics and Chemistry of Mercury Cadmium Telluride, February 8-10, 1983, Dallas, Texas. 5...J.A. Wilson, "Electrical Properties of the Si02 :HgCdTe Interface," 1984 U.S. Workshop on the Physics and Chemistry of Mercury Cadmium Telluride

  4. Nuclear Structure Studies from Hg and Au Alpha Decay Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goon, J. Tm.; Bingham, C. R.; Hartley, D. J.; Zhang, Jing-Ye; Riedinger, L. L.; Danchev, M.; Kondev, F. G.; Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Abu Saleem, K. H.; Ahmad, I.; Davids, C. N.; Heinz, A.; Khoo, T. L.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; Poli, G. L.; Seweryniak, D.; Wiedenhover, I.; Ma, W. C.; Amro, H.; Reviol, W.; Cizewski, J. A.; Smith, M.

    2003-04-01

    Neutron deficient nuclei near the Z = 82 shell gap have been a source of great interest. This region is known to exhibit the phenomena of shape-coexistence and triaxiality. Alpha decay study of these nuclei coupled with gamma-rayspectroscopy data can give a better understanding of their nuclear structure properties. The decay chains of ^173-177Au and ^175-179Hg were studied following the bombardment of ^92,94,96Mo targets with ^84Sr beam from the ATLAS accelerator at the Argonne National Laboratory. The experiment utilized the Gammasphere array in conjunction with the Fragment Mass Analyzer (FMA) for mass identification and a Double-sided Silicon Strip Detector (DSSD) that was used to detect the recoiling implants and the alpha particles associated with each nuclide. An array of four Ge detectors and a low-energy photon spectrometer (LEPS) was used at the focal plane of the FMA to detect γ rays in coincidence with the α particles. This information was used to elucidate the α-decay fine structures. Inverse radioactive decay tagging was also useful in assigning certain fine structure α peaks to a particular nuclide. New α decay lines were observed and their energies, and half-lives were measured. These include fine structure lines in the α decays of ^174,176Au and ^173Pt. The decay schemes resulting from the fine structure observations will be presented. The α decay reduced widths are used to suggest spin and parity assignments. The structure of these states will be discussed in the framework of the Nilsson model and alpha decay selection rules. * This work is supported by the Department of Energy through contract numbers DE-FG02-96ER40983 (UT), W-31-109-ENG-38 (ANL), DE-FG02-95ER40939 (MSU), DE-FG05-88ER40406 (WU), and by the National Science Foundation (RU

  5. Development of active matrix flat panel imagers incorporating thin layers of polycrystalline HgI(2) for mammographic x-ray imaging.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Zhao, Qihua; Antonuk, Larry E; El-Mohri, Youcef; Gupta, Tapan

    2013-02-07

    Active matrix flat-panel imagers (AMFPIs) offer many advantages and have become ubiquitous across a wide variety of medical x-ray imaging applications. However, for mammography, the imaging performance of conventional AMFPIs incorporating CsI:Tl scintillators or a-Se photoconductors is limited by their relatively modest signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), particularly at low x-ray exposures or high spatial resolution. One strategy for overcoming this limitation involves the use of a high gain photoconductor such as mercuric iodide (HgI(2)) which has the potential to improve the SNR by virtue of its low effective work function (W(EFF)). In this study, the performance of direct-detection AMFPI prototypes employing relatively thin layers of polycrystalline HgI(2) operated under mammographic irradiation conditions over a range of 0.5 to 16.0 mR is presented. High x-ray sensitivity (corresponding to W(EFF) values of ∼19 eV), low dark current (<0.1 pA mm(-2)) and good spatial resolution, largely limited by the size of the pixel pitch, were observed. For one prototype, a detective quantum efficiency of ∼70% was observed at an x-ray exposure of ∼0.5 mR at 26 kVp.

  6. Using X-ray Microscopy and Hg L3 XANES to study Hg Binding in the Rhizosphere of Spartina Cordgrass

    PubMed Central

    Patty, Cynthia; Barnett, Brandy; Mooney, Bridget; Kahn, Amanda; Levy, Silvio; Liu, Yijin; Pianetta, Piero; Andrews, Joy C

    2009-01-01

    San Francisco Bay has been contaminated historically by mercury from mine tailings as well as contemporary industrial sources. Native Spartina foliosa and non-native S. alterniflora-hybrid cordgrasses are dominant florae within the SF Bay estuary environment. Understanding mercury uptake and transformations in these plants will help to characterize the significance of their roles in mercury biogeochemical cycling in the estuarine environment. Methylated mercury can be biomagnified up the food web, resulting in levels in sport fish up to one million times greater than in surrounding waters and resulting in advisories to limit fish intake. Understanding the uptake and methylation of mercury in the plant rhizosphere can yield insight into ways to manage mercury contamination. The transmission x-ray microscope on beamline 6-2 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) was used to obtain absorption contrast images and 3D tomography of Spartina foliosa roots that were exposed to 1 ppm Hg (as HgCl2) hydroponically for one week. Absorption contrast images of micron-sized roots from S. foliosa revealed dark particles, and dark channels within the root, due to Hg absorption. 3D tomography showed that the particles are on the root surface, and slices from the tomographic reconstruction revealed that the particles are hollow, consistent with microorganisms with a thin layer of Hg on the surface. Hg L3 XANES of ground-up plant roots and Hg L3 micro-XANES from microprobe analysis of micron-sized roots (60–120 microns in size) revealed three main types of speciation in both Spartina species: Hg-S ligation in a form similar to Hg(II) cysteine, Hg-S bonding as in cinnabar and metacinnabar, and methylmercury-carboxyl bonding in a form similar to methylmercury acetate. These results are interpreted within the context of obtaining a “snapshot” of mercury methylation in progress. PMID:19848152

  7. Using X-ray microscopy and Hg L3 XANES to study Hg binding in the rhizosphere of Spartina cordgrass.

    PubMed

    Patty, Cynthia; Barnett, Brandy; Mooney, Bridget; Kahn, Amanda; Levy, Silvio; Liu, Yijin; Pianetta, Piero; Andrews, Joy C

    2009-10-01

    San Francisco Bay has been contaminated historically by mercury from mine tailings as well as contemporary industrial sources. Native Spartina foliosa and non-native S. alterniflora-hybrid cordgrasses are dominant florae within the SF Bay estuary environment. Understanding mercury uptake and transformations in these plants will help to characterize the significance of their roles in mercury biogeochemical cycling in the estuarine environment. Methylated mercury can be biomagnified up the food web, resulting in levels in sport fish up to 1 million times greater than in surrounding waters and resulting in advisories to limit fish intake. Understanding the uptake and methylation of mercury in the plant rhizosphere can yield insight into ways to manage mercury contamination. The transmission X-ray microscope on beamline 6-2 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) was used to obtain absorption contrast images and 3D tomography of Spartina foliosa roots that were exposed to 1 ppm Hg (as HgCl2) hydroponically for 1 week. Absorption contrast images of micrometer-sized roots from S. foliosa revealed dark particles, and dark channels within the root, due to Hg absorption. 3D tomography showed that the particles are on the root surface, and slices from the tomographic reconstruction revealed that the particles are hollow, consistent with microorganisms with a thin layer of Hg on the surface. Hg L3 XANES of ground-up plant roots and Hg L3 micro-XANES from microprobe analysis of micrometer-sized roots (60-120 microm in size) revealed three main types of speciation in both Spartina species: Hg-S ligation in a form similar to Hg(II) cysteine, Hg-S bonding as in cinnabar and metacinnabar, and methylmercury-carboxyl bonding in a form similar to methylmercury acetate. These results are interpreted within the context of obtaining a "snapshot" of mercury methylation in progress.

  8. Atmospheric-particulates-bound mercury Hg(p) study at five characteristic sampling sites in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Lo, Chaur-Tsuen; Huang, Winn-Jung; Wu, Yuh-Shen; Huang, Jun-Han

    2011-10-01

    The main purpose for this study is to observe the seasonal and month variations for particulates-bound mercury Hg(p) in total suspended particulates (TSP) concentration, dry deposition at five characteristic sampling sites during years of 2009-2010 in central Taiwan. The results show that the highest and lowest monthly average particulates-bound mercury Hg(p) concentrations in TSP were occurred in Dec. and Oct. at Gao-mei (wetland), Chang-hua (downtown) and He-mei (residential) sampling site. In addition, the results show that the highest and lowest monthly average particulates-bound mercury Hg(p) dry deposition was occurred in Feb. and Oct. at Quan-xing (industrial) sampling site. This study reflected that the mean highest particulates-bound mercury Hg(p) concentrations in TSP and mean highest particulates-bound mercury Hg(p) dry deposition were occurred at Gao-mei (wetland) and Quan-xing (industrial). However, the mean lowest particulates-bound mercury Hg(p) concentrations in TSP and mean lowest particulates-bound mercury Hg(p) dry deposition were also occurred at Gao-mei (wetland). Regarding seasonal variation, the order of mean-particulates-bound mercury Hg(p) concentrations in TSP in winter and spring were Gao-mei (wetland) > Quan-xing (industrial) > Bei-shi (suburban/coastal) > Chang-hua (downtown) > He-mei (residential). Finally, the order of mean-particulates-bound mercury Hg(p) dry deposition in fall, spring and summer were Quan-xing (industrial) > Bei-shi (suburban/coastal) > Chang-hua (downtown) > He-mei (residential) > Gao-mei (wetland).

  9. Surface Studies on HgCdTe Using Non-aqueous Iodine-Based Polishing Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nokhwal, Radheshyam; Srivastav, Vanya; Goyal, Anshu; Sharma, B. L.; Hashmi, S. A.; Sharma, R. K.

    2017-09-01

    Bromine- and iodine-based solutions were compared for surface preparation of HgCdTe epilayers. The iodine (I)-potassium iodide (KI)-based non-aqueous solution for surface preparation of mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) epilayers is less corrosive, less toxic and technologically more suitable compared to the widely used bromine-based etchants. It provides improved surface morphology and a lower amount of oxides. A comparative study of the oxide content and elemental tellurium residue on the polished surface was made by x-ray photoelectron spectrometry measurements. Least elemental Te content was observed on the HgCdTe surface polished with I-KI solution as compared to bromine-based etchants. It may result in reduced trap density at the surface of HgCdTe. The possibility of potassium diffusion due to I-KI polishing at the HgCdTe surface, as well as at the cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe)-HgCdTe interface, has been ruled out using secondary ion mass spectrometry. Performance of photodiodes fabricated on the polished epilayers (Hg0.7Cd0.3Te) was assessed and the zero bias dynamic resistance area product (R0A) was measured as >5 × 104 Ω cm2 under stray illumination.

  10. Investigation of the signal behavior at diagnostic energies of prototype, direct detection, active matrix, flat-panel imagers incorporating polycrystalline HgI2

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hong; El-Mohri, Youcef; Zhao, Qihua; Su, Zhong; Yamamoto, Jin; Wang, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Active matrix, flat-panel x-ray imagers based on a-Si:H thin film transistors offer many advantages and are widely utilized in medical imaging applications. Unfortunately, the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of conventional flat-panel imagers incorporating scintillators or a-Se photoconductors is significantly limited by their relatively modest signal to noise ratio, particularly in applications involving low x-ray exposures or high spatial resolution. For this reason, polycrystalline HgI2 is of considerable interest by virtue of its low effective work function, high atomic number, and the possibility of large-area deposition. In this study, a detailed investigation of the properties of prototype, flat-panel arrays coated with two forms of this high-gain photoconductor are reported. Encouragingly, high x-ray sensitivity, low dark current, and spatial resolution close to the theoretical limits were observed from a number of prototypes. In addition, input-quantum-limited DQE performance was measured from one of the prototypes at relatively low exposures. However, high levels of charge trapping, lag, and polarization, as well as pixel-to-pixel variations in x-ray sensitivity are of concern. While the results of the current study are promising, further development will be required to realize prototypes exhibiting the characteristics necessary to allow practical implementation of this approach. PMID:18296765

  11. Fabrication of a simple materials system for study of Hg in a stainless steel.

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, C. W.

    1999-01-04

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), currently under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is expected to employ a Hg target encased in a stainless steel. Little is known about the metallurgical behavior of this materials engineering system, which will occur in a service environment involving elevated temperatures and intense radiation. Under normal equilibrium conditions, however, Hg is known to be insoluble in and non-reactive with solid Fe and Cr but to form one or more intermetallics with Ni. Hg has been implanted into alloy 304L. For implantations at 400 and 500 C to a fluence of 3 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup {minus}2} sub-micron sized precipitates of Hg are formed, as judged, for example, from their solidification behavior on cooling during TEM observation. The formation of such a system of microtargets and possible studies employing them as in situ TEM specimens are discussed, which can provide useful empirical information in conjunction with SNS target development.

  12. XAFS studies of Pb(II)-chloro and Hg(II)-chloro ternary complexes on goethite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bargar, J.R.; Persson, Petra; Brown, Gordon E.

    1997-01-01

    EXAFS spectroscopy was used to study Pb(II) and Hg(II) adsorption complexes on goethite (??-FeOOH) in the presence of Cl-. At pH 7, the dominant Pb(II) species are bonded to edges of FeO6 octahedra and are similar to complexes that occur in the absence of Cl-. At pH ??? 6, Pb(II)-chloro ternary complexes predominate and are bonded to corners of FeO6 octahedra. At pH 6.5, linear Hg(OH)Cl ternary complexes predominate that are bonded to goethite through surface oxygens in a bent Hg-O-Fe geometry. In the absence of Cl-, the Hg(II) surface complexes retain this basic geometry, but an OH group replaces the chloride ion in the first coordination shell.

  13. Shape coexistence in the neutron-deficient even-even (182-188)Hg isotopes studied via coulomb excitation.

    PubMed

    Bree, N; Wrzosek-Lipska, K; Petts, A; Andreyev, A; Bastin, B; Bender, M; Blazhev, A; Bruyneel, B; Butler, P A; Butterworth, J; Carpenter, M P; Cederkäll, J; Clément, E; Cocolios, T E; Deacon, A; Diriken, J; Ekström, A; Fitzpatrick, C; Fraile, L M; Fransen, Ch; Freeman, S J; Gaffney, L P; García-Ramos, J E; Geibel, K; Gernhäuser, R; Grahn, T; Guttormsen, M; Hadinia, B; Hadyńska-Kle K, K; Hass, M; Heenen, P-H; Herzberg, R-D; Hess, H; Heyde, K; Huyse, M; Ivanov, O; Jenkins, D G; Julin, R; Kesteloot, N; Kröll, Th; Krücken, R; Larsen, A C; Lutter, R; Marley, P; Napiorkowski, P J; Orlandi, R; Page, R D; Pakarinen, J; Patronis, N; Peura, P J; Piselli, E; Rahkila, P; Rapisarda, E; Reiter, P; Robinson, A P; Scheck, M; Siem, S; Singh Chakkal, K; Smith, J F; Srebrny, J; Stefanescu, I; Tveten, G M; Van Duppen, P; Van de Walle, J; Voulot, D; Warr, N; Wenander, F; Wiens, A; Wood, J L; Zielińska, M

    2014-04-25

    Coulomb-excitation experiments to study electromagnetic properties of radioactive even-even Hg isotopes were performed with 2.85  MeV/nucleon mercury beams from REX-ISOLDE. Magnitudes and relative signs of the reduced E2 matrix elements that couple the ground state and low-lying excited states in Hg182-188 were extracted. Information on the deformation of the ground and the first excited 0+ states was deduced using the quadrupole sum rules approach. Results show that the ground state is slightly deformed and of oblate nature, while a larger deformation for the excited 0+ state was noted in Hg182,184. The results are compared to beyond mean field and interacting-boson based models and interpreted within a two-state mixing model. Partial agreement with the model calculations was obtained. The presence of two different structures in the light even-mass mercury isotopes that coexist at low excitation energy is firmly established.

  14. Novel methodology for the study of mercury methylation and reduction in sediments and water using 197Hg radiotracer.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio; Zizek, Suzana; Repinc, Urska; Pérez Catán, Soledad; Jaćimović, Radojko; Horvat, Milena

    2007-03-01

    Mercury tracers are powerful tools that can be used to study mercury transformations in environmental systems, particularly mercury methylation, demethylation and reduction in sediments and water. However, mercury transformation studies using tracers can be subject to error, especially when used to assess methylation potential. The organic mercury extracted can be as low as 0.01% of the endogenous labeled mercury, and artefacts and contamination present during methylmercury (MeHg) extraction processes can cause interference. Solvent extraction methods based on the use of either KBr/H2SO4 or HCl were evaluated in freshwater sediments using 197Hg radiotracer. Values obtained for the 197Hg tracer in the organic phase were up to 25-fold higher when HCl was used, which is due to the coextraction of 197Hg2+ into the organic phase during MeHg extraction. Evaluations of the production of MeHg gave similar results with both MeHg extraction procedures, but due to the higher Hg2+ contamination of the controls, the uncertainty in the determination was higher when HCl was used. The Hg2+ contamination of controls in the HCl extraction method showed a nonlinear correlation with the humic acid content of sediment pore water. Therefore, use of the KBr/H2SO4 method is recommended, since it is free from these interferences. 197Hg radiotracer (T1/2=2.673 d) has a production rate that is about 50 times higher than that of 203Hg (T1/2=46.595 d), the most frequently used mercury radiotracer. Hence it is possible to obtain a similar level of performance to 203Hg when it is used it in short-term experiments and produced by the irradiation of 196Hg with thermal neutrons, using mercury targets with the natural isotopic composition. However, if the 0.15% natural abundance of the 196Hg isotope is increased, the specific activity of the 197Hg tracer can be significantly improved. In the present work, 197Hg tracer was produced from mercury 51.58% enriched in the 196Hg isotope, and a 340-fold

  15. HgCdTe Surface and Defect Study Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    the blockage of UV as mentioned above, except in the case of pressures, above I Torr. RPT40497 25 SBRC: --- -- -- -- - Another important consideration...as "independent" entities as is the case (to the first approximation) with all other semiconductors studied to date. These results have given rise to...all cases but one (Prof. Walter Harrison’s invited paper on the theory of bonding in MCT) have been written up as full articles for the conference

  16. Novel extraction induced by microemulsion breaking: a model study for Hg extraction from Brazilian gasoline.

    PubMed

    Vicentino, Priscila O; Cassella, Ricardo J

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach for the extraction of Hg from Brazilian gasoline samples: extraction induced by microemulsion breaking (EIMB). In this approach, a microemulsion is formed by mixing the sample with n-propanol and HCl. Afterwards, the microemulsion is destabilized by the addition of water and the two phases are separated: (i) the top phase, containing the residual gasoline and (ii) the bottom phase, containing the extracted analyte in a medium containing water, n-propanol and the ethanol originally present in the gasoline sample. The bottom phase is then collected and the Hg is measured by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS). This model study used Brazilian gasoline samples spiked with Hg (organometallic compound) to optimize the process. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the microemulsion was prepared by mixing 8.7mL of sample with 1.2mL of n-propanol and 0.1mL of a 10molL(-1) HCl solution. Emulsion breaking was induced by adding 300µL of deionized water and the bottom phase was collected for the measurement of Hg. Six samples of Brazilian gasoline were spiked with Hg in the organometallic form and recovery percentages in the range of 88-109% were observed.

  17. Oxidation of Hg1-xCdxTe studied with surface sensitive techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgen, P.; Silberman, J. A.; Lindau, I.; Spicer, W. E.; Wilson, J. A.

    1982-07-01

    We report the use of surface sensitive electron spectroscopies to monitor the initial steps of formation of a native oxide on atomically clean cleaved Hgl-xCdxTe single crystal surfaces in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV). Here the oxide is formed by oxygen excited by the presence of an operating ion gauge. During the reaction, the composition of the surface region of the substrate was found to change, with a net loss of Hg from the surface. Parallel studies of the compositions of thick anodic oxides using sputter profiling techniques showed only small amounts of Hg in the anodic oxides.

  18. Study of asymmetric fission yield behavior from neutron-deficient Hg isotope

    SciTech Connect

    Perkasa, Y. S.; Waris, A. Kurniadi, R. Su'ud, Z.

    2014-09-30

    A study of asymmetric fission yield behavior from a neutron-deficient Hg isotope has been conducted. The fission yield calculation of the neutron-deficient Hg isotope using Brownian Metropolis shape had showed unusual result at decreasing energy. In this paper, this interesting feature will be validated by using nine degree of scission shapes parameterization from Brosa model that had been implemented in TALYS nuclear reaction code. This validation is intended to show agreement between both model and the experiment result. The expected result from these models considered to be different due to dynamical properties that implemented in both models.

  19. Environmental quality assessment of reservoirs impacted by Hg from chlor-alkali technologies: case study of a recovery.

    PubMed

    Le Faucheur, Séverine; Vasiliu, Dan; Catianis, Irina; Zazu, Mariana; Dranguet, Perrine; Beauvais-Flück, Rebecca; Loizeau, Jean-Luc; Cosio, Claudia; Ungureanu, Costin; Ungureanu, Viorel Gheorghe; Slaveykova, Vera I

    2016-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) pollution legacy of chlor-alkali plants will be an important issue in the next decades with the planned phase out of Hg-based electrodes by 2025 within the Minamata convention. In such a context, the present study aimed to examine the extent of Hg contamination in the reservoirs surrounding the Oltchim plant and to evaluate the possible improvement of the environmental quality since the closure of its chlor-alkali unit. This plant is the largest chlor-alkali plant in Romania, which partly switched to Hg-free technology in 1999 and definitely stopped the use of Hg electrolysis in May 2012. Total Hg (THg) and methylmercury (CH3Hg) concentrations were found to decrease in the surface waters and sediments of the reservoirs receiving the effluents of the chlor-alkali platform since the closure of Hg units. Hence, calculated risk quotients (RQ) indicated no adverse effect of Hg for aquatic organisms from the ambient water exposure. RQ of Hg in sediments were mostly all higher than 1, showing important risks for benthic organisms. However, ecotoxicity testing of water and sediments suggest possible impact of other contaminants and their mixtures. Hg hotspots were found in soils around the platform with RQ values much higher than 1. Finally, THg and CH3Hg concentrations in fish were below the food safety limit set by the WHO, which contrasts with previous measurements made in 2007 revealing that 92 % of the studied fish were of high risk of consumption. Discontinuing the use of Hg electrodes greatly improved the surrounding environment of chlor-alkali plants within the following years and led to the decrease environmental exposure to Hg through fish consumption. However, sediment and soil still remained highly contaminated and problematic for the river reservoir management. The results of this ecological risk assessment study have important implications for the evaluation of the benefits as well as limits of the Minamata Convention implementation.

  20. Spin-orbit configuration interaction study of potential energy curves and transition probabilities of the mercury hydride molecule and tests of relativistic effective core potentials for Hg, Hg + , and Hg2 +

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseyev, Aleksey B.; Liebermann, Heinz-Peter; Buenker, Robert J.; Hirsch, Gerhard

    1996-03-01

    predissociation occurs in the HgH A1 state. Numerous higher-lying electronic states are also studied, with Te values up to 60 000 cm-1, and on this basis it is argued that earlier assignments for the HgH C-X and D-X transitions are incorrect, as previously concluded by Nedelec et al. [Chem. Phys. 134, 137 (1989)].

  1. Study on the feasibility of the HgI2 dosimeter for quality assurance of radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.-W.; Shin, J.-W.; Oh, K.-M.; Noh, S.-J.; Lee, Y.-K.; Cho, H.-L.; Ahn, K.-J.; Kim, C.-J.; Kim, J.-Y.; Suh, T.-S.; Nam, S.-H.; Park, S.-K.

    2013-05-01

    In radiotherapy, a variety of detectors such as ionization chambers, films, TLDs, diodes, and OSL, are being used for quality assurance (QA). Owing to its high sensitivity and feasibility to operate at low voltages, silicon (Si) photoconductors, which are used as detection material of a diode, are currently being used as relative dosimeters. In addition, other materials such as amorphous selenium (a-Se), cadmium telluride (CdTe), lead iodide (PbI2), and mercury iodide (HgI2) were also being investigated for their feasibility as diagnostic radiation detector. Among these materials, HgI2 has been reported to show remarkable properties including high spatial resolution and high stopping power. Hence In this study, we have verified the feasibility of HgI2 dosimeter for quality assurance of radiotherapy. In order to fabricate the detector, HgI2 was mixed with TiO2 to minimize the signal reduction. Following this, the resulting mixture was deposited onto indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass by particle-in binder (PIB) method. Finally, the top ITO electrode was coated by magnetron sputterring system. Subsequently, we measured the electrical properties generated by high-energy radiation from linear accelerator (LINAC), and analyzed the reproducibility, linearity, and percent depth dose (PDD) of the fabricated detoctor. In addition, we have determined the build-up materials in experimental setup, since the thickness of build-up region, where the secondary electron emission equilibrium occurs, changes depending on radiation energy. It was observed that the relative variations measured as standard deviation divided by the average value among repeated measurements was approximately 1%. Deviations from linearity are smaller than 5%. Finally, we compared the experimental data of the detector fabricated in this study with those of the farmer-type ionization chamber. Base on the results obtained from this study, it could be realized that HgI2 could be used as dosimeter for QA of

  2. Chemical thermodynamics of Hg1201 and Hg1223 phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Tetsuo; Fueki, Kazuo; Koyama, Tadashi

    1998-03-01

    The decomposition equilibrium of Hg1201 and Hg1223 was studied using a thermomicrobalance. A thermodynamic diagram representing the stability domains of Hg1201 and Hg1223 was constructed. Using the diagram, it was shown that Hg1201 is metastable at 800°C and that Hg1223 is stable at 660°C due to the formation of an atmosphere of mercury vapor and oxygen formed by the decomposition of excess HgO. Chemical analysis revealed that the valence of Hg is +2 regardless of the oxygen content. The dependence of Tc on the oxygen content was also studied.

  3. [Matrix Support: a bibliographical study].

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Alexandra; Avellar, Luziane Zacché

    2014-09-01

    This article presents a bibliographical review of matrix support in mental health. A search was conducted in the Virtual Health Library and the LILACS, SciELO and Google Scholar databases using the key words: "matrix support in mental health." Fourteen articles were located with the desired characteristics, which indicates that only a restricted number of publications are in circulation. The articles were analyzed with respect to their structural and methodological aspects, which revealed the absolute predominance of the use of qualitative methods and health professionals as the target research population. The same articles were then analyzed for their theoretical discussions. Among other issues, the importance of matrix support to enhance the primary health care teams provided to people suffering from psychic distress is highlighted. However, there is still considerable confusion regarding the proposal of the matrix support and shared responsibilities between teams of reference and mental health professionals, which emphasizes the need for training of these professionals, as well as better coordination and organization of the mental health care network.

  4. A study of high copper amalgams. II. Amalgamation on a Hg-plated high copper alloy containing 30 wt% Cu.

    PubMed

    Okabe, T; Mitchell, R; Wright, A H; Fairhurst, C W

    1978-01-01

    The amalgamation reaction of a low silver, high copper alloy powder has been investigated by plating tablets of compacted powder with Hg. Both gamma1 Ag-Hg and micro Cu-Sn crystals form on the tablets. In spite of large differences in composition, these tablets amalgamated similarly to the T tablets studied and reported in Part I.

  5. Spectrophotometric study of the system Hg(II)-thymol blue-H2O and its evidence through electrochemical means.

    PubMed

    Balderas-Hernández, P; Rojas-Hernández, A; Galván, M; Ramírez-Silva, M T

    2004-02-01

    The detailed analysis of the experimental spectrophotometric data obtained from solutions containing the acid-base indicator thymol blue (TB) and mercury(II) (Hg(II)) coupled with data processing by means of the SQUAD program, a chemical model was determined that includes the formation of complexes indicator-metal ion (HgTB and HgOTB), dimer species (H3TB2 and H4TB2) and monomer species (HTB and TB). The values of the overall formation constants (log beta) were calculated for the chemical equilibria involved: TB+Hg<-->HgTB log beta=16.047 +/- 0.043, TB+Hg+H2O<-->HgOHTB+H log beta=7.659 +/- 0.049, 2TB+4H<-->H4TB2 log beta=31.398 +/- 0.083, 2TB+3H<-->H3TB2 log beta=29.953 +/- 0.084 and H+TB<-->HTB-log beta=8.900. To compliment the present research, the values of the absorptivity coefficients are included for all the species involved, within a wide range of wavelengths (250-700 nm). The latter were used subsequently to carry simulations of the absorption spectra at various pH values, thus corroborating that the chemical model proposed is fully capable to describe the experimental information. Voltammetric study performed evidenced the formation of a complex with a 1:1 stoichiometry Hg(II):TB.

  6. A solid-state 199Hg NMR study of mercury halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, R. E.; Bai, Shi; Dybowski, C.

    2011-02-01

    The principal elements of the 199Hg chemical-shift (CS) tensors of the mercuric halides (HgX 2, X = F, Cl, Br, and I) and the mercurous halides (Hg 2X 2, X = F and Cl) were determined from spectra of static polycrystalline powders and from magic-angle spinning (MAS) spectra. The CS tensors of both HgCl 2 and Hg 2Cl 2 are axially symmetric ( η = 0) within experimental error, differing from literature reports of η = 0.12 and η = 0.14, respectively. The principal elements of the axially symmetric CS tensor in HgBr 2 were also measured using a static sample, and the wideline spectra of HgF 2 and HgI 2 (red polymorph) give chemical-shift tensors that suggest, within experimental error, that the mercury sits in sites of cubic symmetry. The 199Hg CS tensor for Hg 2F 2 is asymmetric. Experiments with static polycrystalline samples may allow the determination of the elements of the 199Hg CS tensors even when MAS fails to completely average the dipolar coupling of the spin-½ 199Hg and the quadrupolar halide nucleus.

  7. One-step green synthesis and characterization of plant protein-coated mercuric oxide (HgO) nanoparticles: antimicrobial studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Amlan Kumar; Marwal, Avinash; Sain, Divya; Pareek, Vikram

    2015-03-01

    The present study demonstrates the bioreductive green synthesis of nanosized HgO using flower extracts of an ornamental plant Callistemon viminalis. The flower extracts of Callistemon viminalis seem to be environmentally friendly, so this protocol could be used for rapid production of HgO. Till date, there is no report of synthesis of nanoparticles using flower extract of Callistemon viminalis. Mercuric acetate was taken as the metal precursor in the present experiment. The flower extract was found to act as a reducing as well as a stabilizing agent. The phytochemicals present in the flower extract act as reducing agent which include proteins, saponins, phenolic compounds, phytosterols, and flavonoids. FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed that the extract had the ability to act as a reducing agent and stabilizer for HgO nanoparticles. The formation of the plant protein-coated HgO nanoparticles was first monitored using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The UV-Vis spectroscopy revealed the formation of HgO nanoparticles by exhibiting the typical surface plasmon absorption maxima at 243 nm. The average particle size formed ranges from 2 to 4 nm. The dried form of synthesized nanoparticles was further characterized using TGA, XRD, TEM, and FTIR spectroscopy. FT-IR spectra of synthesized HgO nanoparticles were performed to identify the possible bio-molecules responsible for capping and stabilization of nanoparticles, which confirm the formation of plant protein-coated HgO nanoparticles that is further corroborated by TGA study. The optical band gap of HgO nanoparticle was measured to be 2.48 eV using cutoff wavelength which indicates that HgO nanoparticles can be used in metal oxide semiconductor-based photovoltaic cells. A possible core-shell structure of the HgO nanobiocomposite has been proposed.

  8. Heterogeneous Reduction Pathways for Hg(II) Species on Dry Aerosols: A First-Principles Computational Study

    DOE PAGES

    Tacey, Sean A.; Xu, Lang; Mavrikakis, Manos; ...

    2016-03-25

    Here, the atmospheric lifetime of mercury is greatly impacted by redox chemistry resulting from the high deposition rate of reactive mercury (Hg(II)) compared to elemental mercury (Hg0). Recent laboratory and field studies have observed the reduction of Hg(II) but the chemical mechanism for this reaction has not been identified. Recent laboratory studies have shown that the reduction reaction is heterogeneous and can occur on iron and sodium chloride aerosol surfaces. This study explores the use of density functional theory calculations to discern the reduction pathways of HgCl2, HgBr2, Hg(NO3)2, and HgSO4 on clean Fe(110), NaCl(100), and NaCl(111)Na surfaces. In doingmore » so, potential energy surfaces have been prepared for the various reduction pathways, indicating that the reduction pathway leading to the production of gas-phase elemental mercury is highly favorable on Fe(110) and NaCl(111)Na. Moreover, the Fe(110) surface requires an external energy source of approximately 0.5 eV to desorb the reduced mercury, whereas the NaCl(111)Na surface requires no energy input. The results indicate that a number of mercury species can be reduced on metallic iron and sodium chloride surfaces, which are known aerosol components, and that a photochemical reaction involving the aerosol surface is likely needed for the reaction to be catalytic.« less

  9. Spectrophotometric study of the system Hg(II)-thymol blue-H 2O and its evidence through electrochemical means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balderas-Hernández, P.; Rojas-Hernández, A.; Galván, M.; Ramírez-Silva, M. T.

    2004-02-01

    The detailed analysis of the experimental spectrophotometric data obtained from solutions containing the acid-base indicator thymol blue (TB) and mercury(II) (Hg(II)) coupled with data processing by means of the SQUAD program, a chemical model was determined that includes the formation of complexes indicator-metal ion (HgTB and HgOTB), dimer species (H 3TB 2 and H 4TB 2) and monomer species (HTB and TB). The values of the overall formation constants (log β) were calculated for the chemical equilibria involved: TB+Hg↔HgTB log β=16.047±0.043, TB+Hg+H 2O↔HgOHTB+H log β=7.659±0.049, 2TB+4H↔H 4TB 2 log β=31.398±0.083, 2TB+3H↔H 3TB 2 log β=29.953±0.084 and H+TB↔HTB-log β=8.900. To compliment the present research, the values of the absorptivity coefficients are included for all the species involved, within a wide range of wavelengths (250-700 nm). The latter were used subsequently to carry simulations of the absorption spectra at various pH values, thus corroborating that the chemical model proposed is fully capable to describe the experimental information. Voltammetric study performed evidenced the formation of a complex with a 1:1 stoichiometry Hg(II):TB.

  10. Study of Deep Levels in Mesa-Type HgCdTe Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshino, Junya; Morimoto, Jun; Wada, Hideo

    1998-07-01

    The deep levels in the p+-on-n mesa-type Hg1-xCdxTe (x=0.222) device fabricated on the Si substrate by the molecular beam epitaxy method have been studied using the isothermal capacitance transient spectroscopy (ICTS) method and the spectral analysis of deep level transient spectroscopy (SADLTS) method. The value of the activation energy and the capture cross section could not be determined by means of ICTS because the apparent peaks were not obtained in the ICTS spectrum. However, five deep levels have been confirmed by SADLTS and the activation energies and the capture cross sections for each level were calculated. The confirmed levels existed from 19.7 meV to 45.7 meV below the conduction band edge. Three deeper levels are considered to be related to the Hg vacancy, whereas two shallower levels are considered to be related to the impurity in the n-type region. Moreover it is suggested that three deeper levels may assist the tunneling current in the reverse bias region. On the other hand, the obtained values of the capture cross sections ranged from 10-18 to 10-11 cm2.

  11. Uniformity studies of inductively coupled plasma etching in fabrication of HgCdTe detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bommena, R.; Velicu, S.; Boieriu, P.; Lee, T. S.; Grein, C. H.; Tedjojuwono, K. K.

    2007-04-01

    Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) chemistry based on a mixture of CH 4, Ar, and H II was investigated for the purpose of delineating HgCdTe mesa structures and vias typically used in the fabrication of second and third generation infrared photo detector arrays. We report on ICP etching uniformity results and correlate them with plasma controlling parameters (gas flow rates, total chamber pressure, ICP power and RF power). The etching rate and surface morphology of In-doped MWIR and LWIR HgCdTe showed distinct dependences on the plasma chemistry, total pressure and RF power. Contact stylus profilometry and cross-section scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the anisotropy of the etched profiles obtained after various processes and a standard deviation of 0.06 μm was obtained for etch depth on 128 x 128 format array vias. The surface morphology and the uniformity of the etched surfaces were studied by plan view SEM. Atomic force microscopy was used to make precise assessments of surface roughness.

  12. [Study on Kinetic of Hg2+ from Wastewater Absorbed by Lemon Residues].

    PubMed

    Shen, Wang-qing; Wang, Miao; Yang, Ting

    2016-03-01

    With low price and its superior adsorption performance after modification, currently agricultural waste is used as adsorbent of heavy metals in wastewater, which has become a hot research topic. To study on Hg2+ from wastewater absorbed by lemon residues that has been modified by 15% concentration of sulphuric acid. The pore volume, pore size and other properties of the adsorbent were test. The samples were characterized by differential thermal analysis, IR, electron microscopy and spectroscopy. The result showed that the adsorption rate was controlled by membrane diffusion kinetics that was viewed as the first order kinetics equation of the Lagergren, which was physically absorbed. The adsorption properties of modified lemon residues were improved greatly, and the pore size distribution mainly was medium. There were three losses-weight process. There was a endothermic peak around 66 degrees C and two exotherm near 316 degrees C and 494 degrees C. Basic framework of Lemon residues was not changed and structure of Lemon residues was amorphous; the surface of modified lemon residues loosen and many pores formed, and Hg2+ have been adsorbed effectively.

  13. Fabrication, photoemission studies, and sensor of Hg nanoparticles templated on plasmid DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Majumder, Subrata; Umananda, M.; Satyam, P. V.; Varma, Shikha; Priyadarshini, M.; Subudhi, U.; Chainy, G. B. N.

    2009-02-16

    Fabrication of Hg nanoparticles (NPs) templated on plasmid DNA has been investigated here. The Hg NPs get embedded inside the DNA scaffold through local melting of double helix due to the strong and exclusive interaction of the NPs with the nitrogen of the nucleic acid bases. The interaction of the Hg NPs with the guanine-cytosine base pair sites is responsible for the formation of two Hg metal-base complexes that can find application as the signature of ion-DNA interactions. The modifications in the transport properties of metal conjugated DNA can be utilized as sensor for mercury contamination.

  14. Matrix and impurity element distributions in CdHgTe (CMT) and (Cd,Zn)(Te,Se) compounds by chemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capper, P.; O'Keefe, E. S.; Maxey, C.; Dutton, D.; Mackett, P.; Butler, C.; Gale, I.

    1996-04-01

    This review describes several of the main techniques used to determine matrix element distributions and those which can provide a survey of impurity levels and assess deliberate doping concentrations in Cd xHg 1 - xTe and CdTe-based substrate materials. The most widely used method to non-destructively determine x is that of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry and lateral x variations in current bulk, LPE and MOVPE material measured by this technique will be presented. Auger electron spectrometry (AES) has been used on bevelled samples to assess variations in x with depth and interface widths in LPE, MOVPE and MBE layers and examples will be given. Near IR spectrometry is also now being used to monitor the variations in Zn and Se content, in CdZnTe and CdTeSe respectively, and results in this area will be described along with measurements of Zn on the micro-scale using AES. All of these techniques need to be calibrated against an absolute chemical analysis technique and we have used atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The latter technique also provides the accurate measure of dopant and impurity elements to standardise other techniques. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is mainly used for the determination of dopant depth distributions while laser scan mass spectrometry (LSMS) has the unique capability of providing a survey of low levels of impurities in thin epitaxial layers. Depth profiles of arsenic and iodine in MOVPE heterostructures, using SIMS, will be given. Impurity surveys, using LSMS, in bulk CMT and substrate materials and in CMT epitaxial layers grown by LPE, MOVPE and MBE will be described. Reported glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS) results on substrate materials will be compared to the present results.

  15. Evidence to Maintain the SBP Treatment Threshold at 140 mmHg for Stroke Prevention: the Northern Manhattan Study

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Chuanhui; Della-Morte, David; Rundek, Tatjana; Wright, Clinton B.; Elkind, Mitchell S. V.; Sacco, Ralph L.

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, the Eighth Joint National Committee revised the target maximum systolic blood pressure (SBP) from 140 to 150 mmHg in persons aged ≥60 years without diabetes mellitus (DM) or chronic kidney disease (CKD). The evidence from cohort studies supporting this change was sparse, particularly among U.S. minority populations. In the Northern Manhattan Study, 1,750 participants aged ≥60 years and free of stroke, DM, and CKD had SBP measured at baseline and were annually followed for incident stroke. Mean age at baseline was 72±8 years; 63% were women; 48% Hispanic, 25% non-Hispanic white, and 25% non-Hispanic black. Among all participants, 40% were on antihypertensive medications, and 43% had SBP <140 mmHg, 20% 140-149 mmHg, and 37% ≥150 mmHg. Over a median follow-up of 13 years, 182 participants developed stroke. The crude stroke incidence was greater among individuals with SBP ≥150 mmHg (10.8 per 1000 person-years) and SBP 140-149 (12.3) compared to those with SBP<140 (6.2). After adjusting for demographics, vascular risk factors, diastolic BP, and medication use, participants with SBP 140-149 mmHg had an increased risk of stroke (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.6) compared with those with SBP <140 mmHg. The increased stroke risk was most notable among Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks. Raising the SBP threshold from 140 to 150 mmHg as a new target for hypertension treatment in older individuals without DM or CKD could have a detrimental effect on stroke risk reduction, especially among minority U.S. populations. PMID:26831192

  16. EBIC study of resistive photosensitive elements based on HgCdTe

    SciTech Connect

    Vergeles, P. S.; Krapukhin, V. V.; Yakimov, E. B.

    2007-02-15

    Photosensitive resistive elements based on HgCdTe with decreased photosensitivity as a result of prolonged operation are studied by the method of electron-beam-induced current in a scanning electron microscope. It is shown that the degradation processes in these elements are related to the appearance of regions with a lowered sensitivity in the vicinity of contacts. Distribution of the induced current for these inhomogeneous elements was simulated. It is shown that a comparison of the measured and calculated distributions of the induced-current signal makes it possible to reveal the most probable causes of the inhomogeneous decrease in the photosensitivity. The comparison performed showed that the most likely cause of a decrease in the photosensitivity of the elements under study was an increase in the donor concentration in the near-contact regions.

  17. Further studies of anisotropy in the T1u⊗hg Jahn-Teller system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Q. C.; Dunn, J. L.; Bates, C. A.; Liu, Y. M.

    1998-08-01

    In the linear T1u⊗hg Jahn-Teller system, the adiabatic potential energy surface (APES) is a trough. However, in real systems, quadratic coupling will be present, which warps the APES to give wells of either D3d or D5d symmetry. The degeneracy of the vibrations within the wells is also lifted. This anisotropy has recently been investigated in the T1u⊗hg system, and expressions for the frequencies in both types of wells obtained in the strong coupling limit using the method of Öpik and Pryce. A scale transformation procedure was then used to incorporate these results into expressions for the states in the wells and their associated energies. However, this calculation did not allow for second-order perturbation effects and is only valid in the strong coupling limit. In this paper, a revised scale transformation procedure is developed for the D5d wells, which allows expressions for the anisotropic frequencies to be obtained without employing the Öpik and Pryce procedure. An expression is obtained for the phonon overlap that is correct to second-order and is not restricted to the strong coupling limit. Results are then obtained for the ground-state energies and inversion splitting. For D3d wells, the previous results are improved by application of a modified scale transformation procedure and overlaps correct to second order obtained. The results obtained in this paper are of interest in studies of the C-60 anion state of the C60 molecule, which is known to occupy a T1u orbital ground state.

  18. Protonolysis of the Hg-C bond of chloromethylmercury and dimethylmercury. A DFT and QTAIM study.

    PubMed

    Ni, Boris; Kramer, James R; Bell, Russell A; Werstiuk, Nick H

    2006-08-03

    Possible mechanisms for degrading chloromethylmercury (CH(3)HgCl) and dimethylmercury [(CH3)2Hg] involving thiol and ammonium residues were investigated by DFT and atoms-in-molecules (QTAIM) calculations. Using H2S and HS- as models for thiol and thiolate groups RSH and RS-, respectively, we obtained transition states and energy barriers for possible decomposition routes to Hg(SH)2 based on a model proposed by Moore and Pitts (Moore, M. J.; Distefano, M. D.; Zydowsky, L. D.; Cummings, R. T.; Walsh, C. T. Acc. Chem. Res. 1990, 23, 301. Pitts, K. E.; Summers, A. O. Biochemistry 2002, 41, 10287). Demethylation was found to be a multistep process that involved initial substitution of Cl- by RS-. We found that successive coordination of Hg with thiolates leads to increased negative charge on the methyl group and facilitates the protonolysis of the Hg-C bond by H-SH. This was also found to be the case for (CH3)2Hg. We found that NH4(+) readily protonolyzes the Hg-C bond of these thiolate complexes, suggesting that ammonium residues of protonated amino acids might also act as effective proton donors.

  19. [Using atomic fluorescence spectrometry to study the spatial distribution of As and Hg in orchard soils].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xi-Mei; Lü, Chun-Yan; Liu, Qing; Zhu, Xi-Cun

    2014-02-01

    Aqua regia digestion, double channels-atomic fluorescence spectrometry method was used to determine the concentrations of As and Hg in orchard soils of Qixia City - the main apple production area of Shandong province. Validate The detection limitation, accuracy and precision of the method were validated, the spatial distribution was analyzed, and the characteristics of As and Hg pollution in Qixia orchard soils were assessed. The results showed that the range of As concentration in Qixia soils is between 2.79 and 20.93 mg x kg(-1), the average concentration is 10.59 mg x kg(-1), the range of Hg concentration in Qixia soil is between 0.01 and 0.79 mg x kg(-1), the average concentration is 0.12 mg x kg(-1). The variation of As concentration in soils is small, whereas that of Hg concentration is large. Frequency distribution graphics of As and Hg showed that the concentration of As in soils is according with the normal distribution approximately and the concentrations are mostly between 7 and 15 mg x kg(-1), the concentration of Hg in soil isn't according with the normal distribution and the concentrations are mostly between 0.03 and 0.21 mg x kg(-1). The correlations between the concentrations of As or Hg in soils and the nutrient are not significant and there is no significant correlation even between As and Hg. Based on the environmental technical terms for green food production area, the As concentration in orchard soil of Qixia City is at clean level, but there are 4.76% of sample points with Hg pollution index exceeding 1, and this should be attracted the attention of the administrators.

  20. Examining mechanisms of groundwater Hg(II) treatment by reactive materials: an EXAFS study.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Blair D; Ptacek, Carol J; Lindsay, Matthew B J; Blowes, David W

    2011-12-15

    Laboratory batch experiments were conducted to examine mechanisms of Hg(II) removal by reactive materials proposed for groundwater treatment. These materials included granular iron filings (GIF), 1:1 (w/w) mixtures of metallurgical granular Fe powder + elemental S (MGI+S) and elemental Cu + elemental S (Cu+S), granular activated carbon (GAC), attapulgite clay (ATP), ATP treated with 2-amino-5-thiol-1,3,4-thiadiazole (ATP-a), and ATP treated with 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (ATP-d). Following treatment of simulated groundwater containing 4 mg L(-1) Hg for 8 or 16 days, the solution pH values ranged from 6.8 to 8.8 and Eh values ranged from +400 to -400 mV. Large decreases in aqueous Hg concentrations were observed for ATP-d (>99%), GIF (95%), MGI+S (94%), and Cu+S (90%). Treatment of Hg was less effective using ATP (29%), ATP-a (69%), and GAC (78%). Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra of Hg on GIF, MGI+S, and GAC indicated the presence of an Hg-O bond at 2.04-2.07 Å, suggesting that Hg was bound to GIF corrosion products or to oxygen complexes associated with water sorbed to activated carbon. In contrast, bond lengths ranging from 2.35 to 2.48 Å were observed for Hg in Cu+S, ATP-a, and ATP-d treatments, suggesting the formation of Hg-S bonds.

  1. Examining Mechanisms of Groundwater Hg(II) Treatment by Reactive Materials: An EXAFS Study

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, Blair D.; Ptacek, Carol J.; Lindsay, Matthew B.J.; Blowes, David W.

    2012-02-07

    Laboratory batch experiments were conducted to examine mechanisms of Hg(II) removal by reactive materials proposed for groundwater treatment. These materials included granular iron filings (GIF), 1:1 (w/w) mixtures of metallurgical granular Fe powder + elemental S (MGI+S) and elemental Cu + elemental S (Cu+S), granular activated carbon (GAC), attapulgite clay (ATP), ATP treated with 2-amino-5-thiol-1,3,4-thiadiazole (ATP-a), and ATP treated with 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (ATP-d). Following treatment of simulated groundwater containing 4 mg L{sup -1} Hg for 8 or 16 days, the solution pH values ranged from 6.8 to 8.8 and Eh values ranged from +400 to -400 mV. Large decreases in aqueous Hg concentrations were observed for ATP-d (>99%), GIF (95%), MGI+S (94%), and Cu+S (90%). Treatment of Hg was less effective using ATP (29%), ATP-a (69%), and GAC (78%). Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra of Hg on GIF, MGI+S, and GAC indicated the presence of an Hg-O bond at 2.04-2.07 {angstrom}, suggesting that Hg was bound to GIF corrosion products or to oxygen complexes associated with water sorbed to activated carbon. In contrast, bond lengths ranging from 2.35 to 2.48 {angstrom} were observed for Hg in Cu+S, ATP-a, and ATP-d treatments, suggesting the formation of Hg-S bonds.

  2. Symmetry Breaking Study with Random Matrix Ensembles

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, M. S.; Carvalho, J. X. de; Pato, M. P.; Sargeant, A. J.

    2008-04-04

    A random matrix model to describe the coupling of m-fold symmetry is constructed. The particular threefold case is used to analyze data on eigenfrequencies of elastomechanical vibration of an anisotropic quartz block. It is suggested that such experimental/theoretical study may supply a powerful means to discern intrinsic symmetry of physical systems.

  3. Heterogeneous Reduction Pathways for Hg(II) Species on Dry Aerosols: A First-Principles Computational Study

    SciTech Connect

    Tacey, Sean A.; Xu, Lang; Mavrikakis, Manos; Schauer, James J.

    2016-03-25

    Here, the atmospheric lifetime of mercury is greatly impacted by redox chemistry resulting from the high deposition rate of reactive mercury (Hg(II)) compared to elemental mercury (Hg0). Recent laboratory and field studies have observed the reduction of Hg(II) but the chemical mechanism for this reaction has not been identified. Recent laboratory studies have shown that the reduction reaction is heterogeneous and can occur on iron and sodium chloride aerosol surfaces. This study explores the use of density functional theory calculations to discern the reduction pathways of HgCl2, HgBr2, Hg(NO3)2, and HgSO4 on clean Fe(110), NaCl(100), and NaCl(111)Na surfaces. In doing so, potential energy surfaces have been prepared for the various reduction pathways, indicating that the reduction pathway leading to the production of gas-phase elemental mercury is highly favorable on Fe(110) and NaCl(111)Na. Moreover, the Fe(110) surface requires an external energy source of approximately 0.5 eV to desorb the reduced mercury, whereas the NaCl(111)Na surface requires no energy input. The results indicate that a number of mercury species can be reduced on metallic iron and sodium chloride surfaces, which are known aerosol components, and that a photochemical reaction involving the aerosol surface is likely needed for the reaction to be catalytic.

  4. Consensus document on the prevention of methylmercury exposure in Spain: Study group for the prevention of Me-Hg exposure in Spain (GEPREM-Hg).

    PubMed

    González-Estecha, Montserrat; Bodas-Pinedo, Andrés; Guillén-Pérez, José Jesús; Rubio-Herrera, Miguel Ángel; Martínez-Álvarez, Jesús Román; Herráiz-Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Martell-Claros, Nieves; Ordóñez-Iriarte, José M; Sáinz-Martín, María; Farré-Rovira, Rosaura; Martínez-Astorquiza, Txantón; García-Donaire, José Antonio; Calvo-Manuel, Elpidio; Bretón-Lesmes, Irene; Prieto-Menchero, Santiago; Llorente-Ballesteros, M Teresa; Martínez-García, M José; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Cuadrado-Cenzual, M Ángeles; Gallardo-Pino, Carmen; Fuentes, María Blanco; Torres-Moreno, Miriam; Trasobares-Iglesias, Elena M; Martín, Bernardino Barceló; Arroyo-Fernández, Manuel; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso

    2015-10-01

    The beneficial effects of fish consumption in both children and adults are well known. However, the intake of methylmercury, mainly from contaminated fish and shellfish, can have adverse health effects. The study group on the prevention of exposure to methylmercury (GEPREM-Hg), made up of representatives from different Spanish scientific societies, has prepared a consensus document in a question and answer format, containing the group's main conclusions, recommendations and proposals. The objective of the document is to provide broader knowledge of factors associated with methylmercury exposure, its possible effects on health amongst the Spanish population, methods of analysis, interpretation of the results and economic costs, and to then set recommendations for fish and shellfish consumption. The group sees the merit of all initiatives aimed at reducing or prohibiting the use of mercury as well as the need to be aware of the results of contaminant analyses performed on fish and shellfish marketed in Spain. In addition, the group believes that biomonitoring systems should be set up in order to follow the evolution of methylmercury exposure in children and adults and perform studies designed to learn more about the possible health effects of concentrations found in the Spanish population, taking into account the lifestyle, eating patterns and the Mediterranean diet.

  5. Quantum chemical study of the interaction of elemental Hg with small neutral, anionic and cationic Au{sub n} (n = 1–6) clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, Shamoon Ahmad; Bouarissa, Nadir; Rasheed, Tabish; Al-Assiri, M.S.

    2013-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Binding energies as a function of cluster size for Au{sub n}Hg, Au{sub n}Hg{sup +} and Au{sub n}Hg{sup −} complexes. Highlights: ► Hg adsorption of neutral and charged Au{sub n} (n = 1–6) clusters has been discussed. ► Size and charged state of cluster significantly affect the Hg adsorption. ► Transfer of electron mainly found from s orbital of Hg to s orbital of Au. - Abstract: Adsorption of elemental mercury (Hg) on small neutral, cationic and anionic gold clusters (Au{sub n}, n = 1–6) has been studied by using the density functional theory (DFT). Results of this investigation show that frontier molecular orbital theory is a useful tool to predict the selectivity of Hg adsorption. It is found that adsorption of Hg on neutral, cationic and anionic Au{sub n} (n = 1–6) clusters are thermodynamically favorable. The binding energies of Hg on the cationic Au{sub n} clusters are greater than those on the neutral and anionic clusters. Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis indicates that the flow of electrons in the neutral and charged clusters is mainly due to the s orbitals of Hg and Au. Results of NBO analysis also indicate that the binding energy of Hg with Au{sub n} clusters is directly proportional to the charge transfer, i.e. greater is the charge transfer, higher is the binding energy.

  6. Theoretical and experimental study of charge transfer through DNA: impact of mercury mediated T-Hg-T base pair.

    PubMed

    Kratochvílová, Irena; Golan, Martin; Vala, Martin; Špérová, Miroslava; Weiter, Martin; Páv, Ondřej; Šebera, Jakub; Rosenberg, Ivan; Sychrovský, Vladimír; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias

    2014-05-22

    DNA-Hg complexes may play an important role in sensing DNA defects or in detecting the presence of Hg in the environment. A fundamental way of characterizing DNA-Hg complexes is to study the way the electric charge is transferred through the molecular chain. The main goal of this contribution was to investigate the impact of a mercury metal cation that links two thymine bases in a DNA T-T mismatched base pair (T-Hg-T) on charge transfer through the DNA molecule. We compared the charge transfer efficiencies in standard DNA, DNA with mismatched T-T base pairs, and DNA with a T-Hg(II)-T base pair. For this purpose, we measured the temperature dependence of steady-state fluorescence and UV-vis of the DNA molecules. The experimental results were confronted with the results obtained employing theoretical DFT methods. Generally, the efficiency of charge transfer was driven by mercury changing the spatial overlap of bases.

  7. Renal tubular handling of /sup 203/Hg/sup 2 +/ in the dog: a microinjection study

    SciTech Connect

    Cikrt, M.; Heller, J.

    1980-04-01

    /sup 203/HgCl/sub 2/ in trace amounts was injected together with (methoxy-/sup 3/H)inulin into the proximal convoluted tubules of the dog kidney superficial nephrons. Of the injected inulin, 97.3 +- 5.7% was recovered in the urine from the injected kidney. From the injected /sup 203/Hg only 8.2 +- 1.0% was recovered in the urine from the injected kidney and 0.4 +- 0.7% from the contralateral kidney. These results were not significantly influenced by intrarterial infusion of KCN, ouabain, or 2,4-dinitrophenol, indicating that there occurred no active tubular reabsorption of mercury. Of the injected /sup 203/Hg, 88.2 to 93.5% was recovered in the kidney whose tubules were punctured. When /sup 203/Hg was injected into peritubular capillary, only 1.2 +- 0.7% was recovered in the urine from the injected and 0.91 +- 0.2% from the contralateral kidney, this difference being not significant. Results are interpreted as lacking evidence for active transport mechanism of Hg/sup 2 +/ in the dog kidney under conditions of microinjection experiment.

  8. Methylation of Hg downstream from the Bonanza Hg mine, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, John E.; Hines, Mark E.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Thoms, Bryn

    2012-01-01

    Speciation of Hg and conversion to methyl-Hg were evaluated in stream sediment, stream water, and aquatic snails collected downstream from the Bonanza Hg mine, Oregon. Total production from the Bonanza mine was >1360t of Hg, during mining from the late 1800s to 1960, ranking it as an intermediate sized Hg mine on an international scale. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution, transport, and methylation of Hg downstream from a Hg mine in a coastal temperate climatic zone. Data shown here for methyl-Hg, a neurotoxin hazardous to humans, are the first reported for sediment and water from this area. Stream sediment collected from Foster Creek flowing downstream from the Bonanza mine contained elevated Hg concentrations that ranged from 590 to 71,000ng/g, all of which (except the most distal sample) exceeded the probable effect concentration (PEC) of 1060ng/g, the Hg concentration above which harmful effects are likely to be observed in sediment-dwelling organisms. Concentrations of methyl-Hg in stream sediment collected from Foster Creek varied from 11 to 62ng/g and were highly elevated compared to regional baseline concentrations (0.11-0.82ng/g) established in this study. Methyl-Hg concentrations in stream sediment collected in this study showed a significant correlation with total organic C (TOC, R2=0.62), generally indicating increased methyl-Hg formation with increasing TOC in sediment. Isotopic-tracer methods indicated that several samples of Foster Creek sediment exhibited high rates of Hg-methylation. Concentrations of Hg in water collected downstream from the mine varied from 17 to 270ng/L and were also elevated compared to baselines, but all were below the 770ng/L Hg standard recommended by the USEPA to protect against chronic effects to aquatic wildlife. Concentrations of methyl-Hg in the water collected from Foster Creek ranged from 0.17 to 1.8ng/L, which were elevated compared to regional baseline sites upstream and downstream

  9. First principles study on electronic structure and elastic properties of LaCd and LaHg

    SciTech Connect

    Devi, Hansa E-mail: gita-pagare@yahoo.co.in; Pagare, Gitanjali E-mail: gita-pagare@yahoo.co.in; Chouhan, S. S. E-mail: gita-pagare@yahoo.co.in; Sanyal, Sankar P.

    2014-04-24

    Full -potential linearized augmented plane wave method (FP- LAPW) has been used for the comparative study of electronic structure and elastic properties of CsCl-type LaCd and LaHg intermetallic compounds using generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The density of states at the Fermi Level, N (E{sub F}), is found to be 0.06 and 3.03 states/eV for LaCd and LaHg respectively. We report elastic constants for these compounds for the first time. The ductility/brittleness of these compounds has been analyzed using Pugh rule and Cauchy’s pressure.

  10. Reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0) by magnetite.

    PubMed

    Wiatrowski, Heather A; Das, Soumya; Kukkadapu, Ravi; Ilton, Eugene S; Barkay, Tamar; Yee, Nathan

    2009-07-15

    Mercury (Hg) is a highly toxic element, and its contamination of groundwater presents a significant threat to terrestrial ecosystems. Understanding the geochemical processes that mediate mercury transformations in the subsurface is necessary to predict its fate and transport. In this study, we investigated the redox transformation of mercuric Hg (Hg[II]) in the presence of the Fe(II)/Fe(III) mixed valence iron oxide mineral magnetite. Kinetic and spectroscopic experiments were performed to elucidate reaction rates and mechanisms. The experimental data demonstrated that reaction of Hg(II) with magnetite resulted in the loss of Hg(II) and the formation of volatile elemental Hg (Hg[0]). Kinetic experiments showed that Hg(II) reduction occurred within minutes, with reaction rates increasing with increasing magnetite surface area (0.5 to 2 m2/L) and solution pH (4.8 to 6.7), and decreasing with increasing chloride concentration (10(-6) to 10(-2) mol/L). Mössbauer spectroscopic analysis of reacted magnetite samples revealed a decrease in Fe(II) content, corresponding to the oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III) in the magnetite structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy detected the presence of Hg(II) on magnetite surfaces, implying that adsorption is involved in the electron transfer process. These results suggest that Hg(II) reaction with solid-phase Fe(II) is a kinetically favorable pathway for Hg(II) reduction in magnetite-hearing environmental systems.

  11. Reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0) by Magnetite

    SciTech Connect

    Wiatrowski, Heather A.; Das, Soumya; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Ilton, Eugene S.; Barkay, Tamar; Yee, Nathan

    2009-06-12

    Mercury (Hg) is a highly toxic element, and its contamination of groundwater presents a significant threat to terrestrial ecosystems. Understanding the geochemical processes that mediate mercury transformations in the subsurface is necessary to predict its fate and transport. In this study, we investigated the redox transformation of mercuric Hg (Hg[II]) in the presence of the Fe(II)/Fe(III) mixed valence iron oxide mineral magnetite. Kinetic and spectroscopic experiments were performed to elucidate reaction rates and mechanisms. The experimental data demonstrated that reaction of Hg(II) with magnetite results in the loss of Hg(II) and the formation of volatile elemental Hg (Hg[0]). Kinetic experiments showed that Hg(II) reduction occurred within minutes, with reaction rates increasing with increasing magnetite suspension density (0.05 to 0.2 g/L) and solution pH (4.8 to 6.7), and decreasing with increasing chloride concentration (10-6 to 10-2 mol/L). Mössbauer spectroscopic analysis of reacted magnetite samples revealed a decrease in Fe(II) content, corresponding the oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III) in the magnetite structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy detected the presence of Hg(II) on magnetite surfaces, suggesting that adsorption is involved in the electron transfer process. These results suggest that Hg(II) reaction with solid-phase Fe(II) is a kinetically favorable pathway for Hg(II) reduction in magnetite-bearing environmental systems.

  12. PILOT STUDY: CCQM-P39.1: As, Hg, Pb, Se and methylmercury in salmon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aregbe, Y.; Taylor, P. D. P.

    2006-01-01

    CCQM-P39.1 was organized as a follow-up pilot study in parallel to the key comparison CCQM-K43 after the previous pilot study on tuna fish. CCQM-P39.1 was an activity of the Inorganic Analysis Working Group (IAWG) of CCQM and was coordinated by the Joint Research Centre-Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM, Geel, Belgium) of the European Commission (EC). In CCQM-P39.1 the amount contents of As, Hg, Pb, Se and methylmercury (CH3Hg) in salmon (muscle and skin) were the measurands under investigation. Besides the national metrology institutes (NMIs) also non-IAWG members, expert laboratories for mercury and methylmercury measurements, were invited to participate in this pilot study. Results were reported by six IAWG members and six expert laboratories. During the CCQM-IAWG autumn meeting in Berlin, October 2005, it was agreed that in CCQM-K43 the KCRV is calculated as the mixture model median (MM-median) of all reported results. Therefore in CCQM-P39.1 the reported results are presented graphically with the KCRV from CCQM-K43. The reported results of the IAWG members fall within a range of +/-4% for arsenic and lead relative to the CCQM-K43 KCRV. For mercury, the spread was +/-2%, but one IAWG member reported a very large uncertainty on the measurement result. For selenium the spread of IAGW members is +/-2% deviation from the CCQM-K43 KCRV. Including the reported results from the invited expert laboratories, the spread of results increased for arsenic, lead and mercury to +/-8%. The reported results including the experts fall within a range of +/-20% for selenium and +/-30% for methylmercury. The methods applied were isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) using sector field or quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), external calibration or standard addition using ICP-MS, atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS), atomic emission detection (AED) and electron capture detection (ECD

  13. Biosorption of Hg(II) onto goethite with extracellular polymeric substances.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenjuan; Pan, Xiangliang; Mu, Shuyong; Zhang, Daoyong; Yang, Xue; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2014-05-01

    This study characterized the interactions of goethite, EPS from cyanobacterium Chroococcus sp. and Hg(II) using excitation emission matrix (EEM) spectra and adsorption isotherms. Three protein-like fluorescence peaks were noted to quench in the presence of Hg(II). The estimated conditional stability constant (logKa) and the binding constant (logKb) of the studied EPS-Hg(II) systems ranged 3.84-4.24 and 6.99-7.69, respectively. The proteins in EPS formed stable complex with Hg(II). The presence of proteins of Chroococcus sp. enhanced the adsorption capacity of Hg(II) on goethite; therefore, the goethite-EPS soil is a larger Hg(II) sink than goethite alone soil. Biosorption significantly affects the mobility of Hg(II) in goethite soils.

  14. Mercury (Hg) accumulation in terrestrial carbon (C) reservoirs: magnitude, spatial patterns, fate upon C losses, and implications of global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrist, D.; Johnson, D. W.; Lindberg, S. E.; Luo, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems are strong natural reservoirs that retain the bulk of atmospheric Hg deposition. As a result, a long-term legacy of past and present Hg pollution is sequestered in surface litter and soil pools. Hg shows a particular affinity to—and hence tends to accumulate in—terrestrial organic C. We present a summary of a comprehensive five-year investigation where we quantified: (i) relationships between Hg and C across 14 forests sites to assess the affinity of Hg to C accumulation across spatial scales; (ii) the degree to which C determines net retention and spatial accumulation of Hg; (iii) the fate of Hg upon losses of C, including losses though wildfires and mineralization; (iv) the coupling of gaseous Hg losses to CO2 respiration; and (v) the potential sensitivity of climate-change induced changes in C on terrestrial Hg sequestration. Results show that continental-scale spatial distribution of Hg in soils and litter is strongly related to C, and that old terrestrial C pools (as determined by C/N ratios) are particularly prone to Hg enrichment. The correlation of Hg and C is likely responsible for increasing Hg levels (concentrations and pools of total Hg, as well as methylated Hg) with higher latitude, which we attribute to a legacy of Hg sequestration in C-rich layers of northern ecosystems. Experimental studies and field observations to address fate of Hg sequestered in organic C show that: (i) fires leads to up-to-complete Hg losses in either gaseous elemental or particulate-bound form; (ii) litter decomposition also leads to evasion losses of Hg in the range of 50% of initial Hg, but little Hg is subject to runoff as dissolved Hg; (iii) soils effectively retain Hg with only about 3% of Hg subject to volatilization upon C loss during respiration; (iv) no links between CO2 and gaseous Hg concentrations are observed in soil depth profiles in the field, indicating that fate and movement of gaseous Hg is decoupled from that of CO2. We calculate

  15. Study to improve the low frequency noise characteristics of (Hg,Cd)Te detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broudy, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    Efforts made to identify and reduce the sources of l/f noise in 15 micron n-type (Hg,Cd)Te detectors operating at 77 K are reported. The investigation covered: evaluation of the influence of material properties and detector processing techniques, determination of the relative importance of surfaces, volumes, regions, and contracts, and generation of theoretical models for guidance of the experimental work.

  16. Experimental study of HgCdTe imaging sensor irradiated by pulse CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xi; Wang, Qingsheng; Hu, Hongtao; Fang, Xiaodong; Nie, Jinsong

    2016-10-01

    The damages of TEA-CO2 laser to HgCdTe imaging sensor are researched experimentally and theoretically. The shadows, cracks and dark line are observed. There is a gap between photosensitive layer and CdZnTe which decreases light transmittance, so that the shadows occur. It shows that the crack damages begin from photosensitive layer. The sensor is irradiated by pulse laser, the absorptivity of photosensitive layer is strong, sharp temperatures fluctuations inside the sensor, leading to stress. With the stress increased, the cracks are observed on the surface of the detector. Cracked the surface of the substrate, and effective transmission reduced, which caused gray pixel response decline. The dark line in image occurs several times because Hg atoms separate out from the detector and gather together at the Si-COMS which makes a short circuit between silicon substrate and signal choice line. The volatility of Hg makes the short circuit is unstable, resulting in the dark line repeated in the output image, but the short circuit occurs by chance.

  17. Electrical and Optical Studies of Defect Structure of HgCdTe Films Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Świątek, Z.; Ozga, P.; Izhnin, I. I.; Fitsych, E. I.; Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Korotaev, A. G.; Mynbaev, K. D.; Varavin, V. S.; Dvoretsky, S. A.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Yakushev, M. V.; Bonchyk, A. Yu.; Savytsky, H. V.

    2016-07-01

    Electrical and optical studies of defect structure of HgCdTe films grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) are performed. It is shown that the peculiarity of these films is the presence of neutral defects formed at the growth stage and inherent to the material grown by MBE. It is assumed that these neutral defects are the Te nanocomplexes. Under ion milling, they are activated by mercury interstitials and form the donor centers with the concentration of 1017 cm-3, which makes it possible to detect such defects by measurements of electrical parameters of the material. Under doping of HgCdTe with arsenic using high temperature cracking, the As2 dimers are present in the arsenic flow and block the neutral Te nanocomplexes to form donor As2Te3 complexes. The results of electrical studies are compared with the results of studies carried out by micro-Raman spectroscopy.

  18. Oxygen arrangement on Hg0.5Tl0.5Ba2CuOx (100) surface studied by high-resolution electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oku, Takeo; Nakajima, Satoru

    1999-10-01

    Oxygen arrangement on Hg0.5Tl0.5Ba2CuOx (100) surface was studied by high-resolution electron microscopy. The {100} planes were found to be stable and to have preferred atomic surface. A surface structure model of Hg0.5Tl0.5Ba2CuOx was proposed and compared to the image calculations, which indicated the surface consists of Ba layers and oxygen atoms on the (Hg, Tl) layers. The present work indicates that the stable {100} planes of Hg-1201-type superconducting oxides would be suitable for the future device application.

  19. Comparative study of the trophic transfer of two mercury compounds--HgCl/sub 2/ and CH/sub 3/HgCl--between Chlorella vulgaris and Daphnia magna. Influence of temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Baudou, A.; Ribeyre, F.

    1981-12-01

    A comparative study is presented of the transfer of HgCl/sub 2/ and CH/sub 3/HgCl between a species representative of the ''producer'' level -- Chlorella vulgaris -- and a primary consumer -- Daphnia magna. The experiment was carried out at two temperatures, 10 and 18/sup 0/C, and the concentration of metal in the environment was 1 ..mu..g.l/sup -1/ (1 ppb). Results seem to indicate that the two contaminants, which are first introduced into the environment and then fixed by the unicellular algae, retain their specific property of crossing the digestive barrier of the consumer link.

  20. Studies on efficiency of guava (Psidium guajava) bark as bioadsorbent for removal of Hg (II) from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Lohani, Minaxi B; Singh, Amarika; Rupainwar, D C; Dhar, D N

    2008-11-30

    Biosorption of Hg (II) was investigated in this study by using guava bark powder (GBP). In the batch system, effects of various parameters like contact time, initial concentration, pH and temperature were investigated. Removal of Hg (II) was pH dependent and was found maximum at pH 9.0. Based on this study, the thermodynamic parameters like change in standard Gibb's free energy (DeltaG(0)), standard enthalpy (DeltaH(0)) and standard entropy (DeltaS(0)) were evaluated. The rate kinetic study was found to follow second-order. The applicability of Freundlich adsorption isotherm model was tested. The value of regression coefficient was greater than 0.99. This indicated that the isotherm model adequately described the experimental data of the biosorption of Hg (II). Maximum adsorption of 3.364 mgg(-1) was reached at 80 min. The results of the study showed that guava bark powder can be efficiently used as a low-cost alternative for the removal of divalent mercury from aqueous solutions.

  1. Molecular Dynamics Studies of Matrix Metalloproteases.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Natalia; Suárez, Dimas

    2017-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteases are multidomain enzymes with a remarkable proteolytic activity located in the extracellular environment. Their catalytic activity and structural properties have been intensively studied during the last few decades using both experimental and theoretical approaches, but many open questions still remain. Extensive molecular dynamics simulations enable the sampling of the configurational space of a molecular system, thus contributing to the characterization of the structure, dynamics, and ligand binding properties of a particular MMP. Based on previous computational experience, we provide in this chapter technical and methodological guidelines that may be useful to and stimulate other researchers to perform molecular dynamics simulations to help address unresolved questions concerning the molecular mode of action of MMPs.

  2. Relativistic coupled cluster study of diatomic compounds of Hg, Cn, and Fl

    SciTech Connect

    Borschevsky, A.; Pershina, V.; Eliav, E.; Kaldor, U.

    2014-08-28

    The structure and energetics of eight diatomic heavy-atom molecules are presented. These include the species MAu, M{sub 2}, and MHg, with M standing for the Hg, Cn (element 112), and Fl (element 114) atoms. The infinite-order relativistic 2-component Hamiltonian, known to closely reproduce 4-component results at lower computational cost, is used as framework. High-accuracy treatment of correlation is achieved by using the coupled cluster scheme with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations in large converged basis sets. The calculated interatomic separation and bond energy of Hg{sub 2}, the only compound with known experimental data, are in good agreement with measurements. The binding of Fl to Au is stronger than that of Cn, predicting stronger adsorption on gold surfaces. The bond in the M{sub 2} species is strongest for Fl{sub 2}, being of chemical nature; weaker bonds appear in Cn{sub 2} and Hg{sub 2}, which are bound by van der Waals interactions, with the former bound more strongly due to the smaller van der Waals radius. The same set of calculations was also performed using the relativistic density functional theory approach, in order to test the performance of the latter for these weakly bound systems with respect to the more accurate coupled cluster calculations. It was found that for the MAu species the B3LYP functional provides better agreement with the coupled cluster results than the B88/P86 functional. However, for the M{sub 2} and the MHg molecules, B3LYP tends to underestimate the binding energies.

  3. Relativistic coupled cluster study of diatomic compounds of Hg, Cn, and Fl.

    PubMed

    Borschevsky, A; Pershina, V; Eliav, E; Kaldor, U

    2014-08-28

    The structure and energetics of eight diatomic heavy-atom molecules are presented. These include the species MAu, M2, and MHg, with M standing for the Hg, Cn (element 112), and Fl (element 114) atoms. The infinite-order relativistic 2-component Hamiltonian, known to closely reproduce 4-component results at lower computational cost, is used as framework. High-accuracy treatment of correlation is achieved by using the coupled cluster scheme with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations in large converged basis sets. The calculated interatomic separation and bond energy of Hg2, the only compound with known experimental data, are in good agreement with measurements. The binding of Fl to Au is stronger than that of Cn, predicting stronger adsorption on gold surfaces. The bond in the M2 species is strongest for Fl2, being of chemical nature; weaker bonds appear in Cn2 and Hg2, which are bound by van der Waals interactions, with the former bound more strongly due to the smaller van der Waals radius. The same set of calculations was also performed using the relativistic density functional theory approach, in order to test the performance of the latter for these weakly bound systems with respect to the more accurate coupled cluster calculations. It was found that for the MAu species the B3LYP functional provides better agreement with the coupled cluster results than the B88/P86 functional. However, for the M2 and the MHg molecules, B3LYP tends to underestimate the binding energies.

  4. Relativistic coupled cluster study of diatomic compounds of Hg, Cn, and Fl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borschevsky, A.; Pershina, V.; Eliav, E.; Kaldor, U.

    2014-08-01

    The structure and energetics of eight diatomic heavy-atom molecules are presented. These include the species MAu, M2, and MHg, with M standing for the Hg, Cn (element 112), and Fl (element 114) atoms. The infinite-order relativistic 2-component Hamiltonian, known to closely reproduce 4-component results at lower computational cost, is used as framework. High-accuracy treatment of correlation is achieved by using the coupled cluster scheme with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations in large converged basis sets. The calculated interatomic separation and bond energy of Hg2, the only compound with known experimental data, are in good agreement with measurements. The binding of Fl to Au is stronger than that of Cn, predicting stronger adsorption on gold surfaces. The bond in the M2 species is strongest for Fl2, being of chemical nature; weaker bonds appear in Cn2 and Hg2, which are bound by van der Waals interactions, with the former bound more strongly due to the smaller van der Waals radius. The same set of calculations was also performed using the relativistic density functional theory approach, in order to test the performance of the latter for these weakly bound systems with respect to the more accurate coupled cluster calculations. It was found that for the MAu species the B3LYP functional provides better agreement with the coupled cluster results than the B88/P86 functional. However, for the M2 and the MHg molecules, B3LYP tends to underestimate the binding energies.

  5. Nuclear structure studies of 202Hg and 203Tl using deep-inelastic collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gass, Emily; McCutchan, E. A.; Sonzogni, A. A.; Barrett, J. S.; Loveland, W.; Yanez, R.; Zhu, S.; Ayangeakaa, A. D.; Carpenter, M. P.; Greene, J. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Lauritsen, T.; Chiara, C. J.; Harker, J. L.; Walters, W. B.

    2016-09-01

    Nuclei with a few valence nucleons outside 208Pb are crucial for testing the nuclear shell model and guiding our understanding of single particle structure. Data in this region are also potentially relevant to nuclear astrophysics. This analysis focused on the high-spin structure of 202Hg and 203Tl. Excited states in these nuclei were populated through deep-inelastic reactions from a beam of 136Xe and that was incident on a thick target of 208Pb in the Gammasphere array at Argonne National Laboratory. The level schemes of 202Hg and 203Tl were extended by locating a new isomer in each nucleus and a number of new high-spin states built on top of the isomers. The newly-observed states will be discussed in the context of the shell model. Supported by US DOE under the SULI Program and Grant Nos. DE-FG06-97ER41026 and DE-FG02-94ER40834 and Contract Nos. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and DE-AC02-06CH10886.

  6. Kinetics of Hg(II) exchange between organic ligands, goethite, and natural organic matter studied with an enriched stable isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Jiskra, Martin; Saile, Damian; Wiederhold, Jan G; Bourdon, Bernard; Björn, Erik; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2014-11-18

    The mobility and bioavailability of toxic Hg(II) in the environment strongly depends on its interactions with natural organic matter (NOM) and mineral surfaces. Using an enriched stable isotope approach, we investigated the exchange of Hg(II) between dissolved species (inorganically complexed or cysteine-, EDTA-, or NOM-bound) and solid-bound Hg(II) (carboxyl-/thiol-resin or goethite) over 30 days under constant conditions (pH, Hg and ligand concentrations). The Hg(II)-exchange was initially fast, followed by a slower phase, and depended on the properties of the dissolved ligands and sorbents. The results were described by a kinetic model allowing the simultaneous determination of adsorption and desorption rate coefficients. The time scales required to reach equilibrium with the carboxyl-resin varied greatly from 1.2 days for Hg(OH)2 to 16 days for Hg(II)-cysteine complexes and approximately 250 days for EDTA-bound Hg(II). Other experiments could not be described by an equilibrium model, suggesting that a significant fraction of total-bound Hg was present in a non-exchangeable form (thiol-resin and NOM: 53-58%; goethite: 22-29%). Based on the slow and incomplete exchange of Hg(II) described in this study, we suggest that kinetic effects must be considered to a greater extent in the assessment of the fate of Hg in the environment and the design of experimental studies, for example, for stability constant determination or metal isotope fractionation during sorption.

  7. HgL(3) XANES Study of Mercury Methylation in Shredded Eichhornia Crassipes

    SciTech Connect

    Rajan, M.; Darrow, J.; Hua, M.; Barnett, B.; Mendoza, M.; Greenfield, B.K.; Andrews, J.C.

    2009-05-21

    Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) is a non-native plant found in abundance in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (hereafter called Delta). This species has become a problem, clogging waterways and wetlands. Water hyacinth are also known to accumulate mercury. Recent attempts to curb its proliferation have included shredding with specialized boats. The purpose of this research is to better understand the ability of water hyacinth to phytoremediate mercury and to determine the effect of shredding and anoxic conditions on mercury speciation in plant tissue. In the field assessment, total mercury levels in sediment from the Dow Wetlands in the Delta were found to be 0.273 {+-} 0.070 ppm Hg, and levels in hyacinth roots and shoots from this site were 1.17 {+-} 0.08 ppm and 1.03 {+-} 0.52 ppm, respectively, indicating bioaccumulation of mercury. Plant samples collected at this site were also grown in nutrient solution with 1 ppm HgCl{sub 2} under (1) aerobic conditions, (2) anaerobic conditions, and (3) with shredded plant material only. The greatest accumulation was found in the roots of whole plants. Plants grown in these conditions were also analyzed at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory using Hg L{sub 3} X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES), a method to examine speciation that is element-specific and noninvasive. Least-squares fitting of the XANES data to methylated and inorganic mercury(II) model compounds revealed that in plants grown live and aerobically, 5 {+-} 3% of the mercury was in the form of methylmercury, in a form similar to methylmercury cysteine. This percentage increased to 16 {+-} 4% in live plants grown anaerobically and to 22 {+-} 6% in shredded anaerobic plants. We conclude that shredding of the hyacinth plants and, in fact, subjection of plants to anaerobic conditions (e.g., as in normal decay, or in crowded growth conditions) increases mercury methylation. Mechanical removal of the entire plant is significantly more

  8. Hg L3 XANES study of mercury methylation in shredded Eichhornia crassipes.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Michael; Darrow, Jeannine; Hua, Michael; Barnett, Brandy; Mendoza, Miguel; Greenfield, Ben K; Andrews, Joy C

    2008-08-01

    Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) is a non-native plant found in abundance in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (hereafter called Delta). This species has become a problem, clogging waterways and wetlands. Water hyacinth are also known to accumulate mercury. Recent attempts to curb its proliferation have included shredding with specialized boats. The purpose of this research is to better understand the ability of water hyacinth to phytoremediate mercury and to determine the effect of shredding and anoxic conditions on mercury speciation in plant tissue. In the field assessment, total mercury levels in sediment from the Dow Wetlands in the Delta were found to be 0.273 +/- 0.070 ppm Hg, and levels in hyacinth roots and shoots from this site were 1.17 +/- 0.08 ppm and 1.03 +/- 0.52 ppm, respectively, indicating bioaccumulation of mercury. Plant samples collected at this site were also grown in nutrient solution with 1 ppm HgCl2 under (1) aerobic conditions, (2) anaerobic conditions, and (3)with shredded plant material only. The greatest accumulation was found in the roots of whole plants. Plants grown in these conditions were also analyzed at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory using Hg L3 X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES), a method to examine speciation that is element-specific and noninvasive. Least-squares fitting of the XANES data to methylated and inorganic mercury(II) model compounds revealed that in plants grown live and aerobically, 5 +/- 3% of the mercury was in the form of methylmercury, in a form similar to methylmercury cysteine. This percentage increased to 16 +/- 4% in live plants grown anaerobically and to 22 +/- 6% in shredded anaerobic plants. We conclude that shredding of the hyacinth plants and, in fact, subjection of plants to anaerobic conditions (e.g., as in normal decay, or in crowded growth conditions) increases mercury methylation. Mechanical removal of the entire plant is significantly more expensive than

  9. The redox processes in Hg-contaminated soils from Descoberto (Minas Gerais, Brazil): implications for the mercury cycle.

    PubMed

    Windmöller, Cláudia C; Durão Júnior, Walter A; de Oliveira, Aline; do Valle, Cláudia M

    2015-02-01

    Investigations of the redox process and chemical speciation of Hg(II) lead to a better understanding of biogeochemical processes controlling the transformation of Hg(II) into toxic and bioaccumulative monomethyl mercury, mainly in areas contaminated with Hg(0). This study investigates the speciation and redox processes of Hg in soil samples from a small area contaminated with Hg(0) as a result of gold mining activities in the rural municipality of Descoberto (Minas Gerais, Brazil). Soil samples were prepared by adding Hg(0) and HgCl2 separately to dry soil, and the Hg redox process was monitored using thermodesorption coupled to atomic absorption spectrometry. A portion of the Hg(0) added was volatilized (up to 37.4±2.0%) or oxidized (from 36±7% to 88±16%). A correlation with Mn suggests that this oxidation is favored, but many other factors must be evaluated, such as the presence of microorganisms and the types of organic matter present. The interaction of Hg with the matrix is suggested to involve Hg(II)-complexes formed with inorganic and organic sulfur ligands and/or nonspecific adsorption onto oxides of Fe, Al and/or Mn. The kinetics of the oxidation reaction was approximated for two first-order reactions; the faster reaction was attributed to the oxidation of Hg(0)/Hg(I), and the slower reaction corresponded to Hg(I)/Hg(II). The second stage was 43-139 times slower than the first. The samples spiked with Hg(II) showed low volatilization and a shifting of the signal of Hg(II) to lower temperatures. These results show that the extent, rate and type of redox process can be adverse in soils. Descoberto can serve as an example for areas contaminated with Hg(0).

  10. Quenching studies in bridgman-grown Cd xHg 1-xTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capper, P.; Gosney, J. J. G.; Jones, C. L.; Quelch, M. J. T.

    1983-09-01

    Rapid quenching of crystals of Cd xHg 1- xTe (CMT) while growing at the slow rates of the Bridgman process reveals the solid/liquid interface at the point of quenching. The shape and extent of these interfaces, revealed by etching longitudinally-cut sections, have been related to the resulting radial composition variations as determined by infra-red transmission measurements. In the singly-quenched crystals features are seen at the interface which are believed to be diffusional boundary layers. Optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis have been used to determine the thickness of these layers. The evidence suggests that melt stirring reduces the thickness as expected for diffusional boundary layers.

  11. Cd/Hg cationic substitution in magic-sized CdSe clusters: Optical characterization and theoretical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antanovich, Artsiom; Prudnikau, Anatol; Gurin, Valerij; Artemyev, Mikhail

    2015-07-01

    We examine conversion of magic-sized CdSe clusters (MSCs) into HgSe ones by means of Cd/Hg cation exchange. With this procedure Cd8Cd17- and Cd32-selenide clusters can be converted into corresponding Hg8-, Hg17- and Hg32-selenide ones. Upon cationic exchange MSCs behavior differs from that of bulkier counterparts - larger (2-3 nm) quantum dots. Unlike CdSe colloidal quantum dots, magic-sized clusters are converted in fast and complete manner without a formation of intermediate mixed CdxHg1-x compounds that was established on the basis of optical absorption spectroscopy and chemical composition analysis. These assumptions were supported by DFT quantum chemical calculations performed for Cd8-, Cd17- and Hg8-, Hg17-selenide model clusters. Energies of experimental and calculated optical transitions were compared in order to prove the isostructural character of cationic substitution in magic-sized clusters.

  12. [Synthesis and Spectroscopic Study of a Chemosensor for Naked Eye Recognition of Cu2+ and Hg2+].

    PubMed

    Cao, Li; Qian, Ya-ao; Huang, Yan; Cao, Juan; Jia, Chun-man; Liu, Chun-ling; Zhang, Qi; Lu, Zheng-rong

    2015-07-01

    Compound L, as the procedural sensor for the detection of Cu2+ and Hg2+, was designed and synthesized based on the coumarin-modified rhodamine derivative. The structure of compound L was characterized by NMR, high resolution mass spectrometry and infrared method. Its sensing behavior toward various metal ions was investigated with absorbance methods. The study found that L had good selectivity and sensitivity for Cu2+. When addition of various metal ions (Zn2+, Hg2+, Cu2+, Fe3+, Cd2+, CO2+, Ni2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Al3+, La3+, K+, Na+, Mn2+, Pb2+ and Ag+), only Cu2+ could induce a visible change of solution from colourless to pink and a new absorption band centered at 534 nm appear, which indicated that compound L could be used for the naked eye detection of Cu2+. From UV titration, the detection limit was about 1.9 X 10(-8) mol x L(-1). Test strips based on L were fabricated, and this test strips could act as a convenient and efficient Cu2+ test kit. The binding ratio of the complex of L-Cu2+ was 1:1 according to the Job's plot and high resolution mass spectrometer (HRMS) experiments. Moreover, Upon addition of 1 equiv. EDTA to the mixture of L and Cu2+ in DMSO solution, colour changed from pink to almost colourless, indicating that the EDTA replaced the receptor L to coordinate with Cu2+. Therefore, L could be classified as a reversible sensor for Cu2+. In addition, when adding Hg2+ to L-Cu2+ complexes, a visible change of solution from pink to colourless was observed, while other metal ions didn't cause this change. Thus, L-Cu2+ complex also could be used for the naked eye recognition of Hg2+, and the detection limit was calculated about 2.9 x 10(-1) mol x L(-1) according to the UV titration. Consequently, this procedural sensor L could be use for the orderly naked eye recognition of Cu2+ and Hg2+.

  13. A comparative design study for MWIR HgCdTe detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozer, Yigit; Kocaman, Serdar

    2017-02-01

    High performance multi-layer MWIR HgCdTe detector design requires detailed analysis considering the interaction between layers and the nonlinear effects. For this purpose, an in-house numerical model is utilized so that electrical and optical parameters are manipulated to eliminate the undesired performance limits. An ideal detector with perfect crystal quality is expected to have diffusion limited dark current. However, for low operating temperatures (<120K), which is usually the case for the high performance applications, SRH mechanism may dominate dark current especially for alternative substrate detectors and low crystal quality resulting in a short SRH lifetime ( 200ns). Here, physical sizes, composition and doping profiles are optimized to suppress generation-recombination (GR) dark current so that cooling burden can be minimized. We numerically achieve 30K (from 85K to 115K) increase on the operating temperature without degrading the system performance parameters for the detection of near room temperature object (300K) by placing a wide bandgap layer inside the bandgap.

  14. AIEgens for dark through-bond energy transfer: design, synthesis, theoretical study and application in ratiometric Hg(2+) sensing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuncong; Zhang, Weijie; Cai, Yuanjing; Kwok, Ryan T K; Hu, Yubing; Lam, Jacky W Y; Gu, Xinggui; He, Zikai; Zhao, Zheng; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Chen, Bin; Gui, Chen; Tang, Ben Zhong

    2017-03-01

    A novel dark through-bond energy transfer (DTBET) strategy is proposed and applied as the design strategy to develop ratiometric Hg(2+) sensors with high performance. Tetraphenylethene (TPE) derivatives with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristics are selected as dark donors to eliminate emission leakage from the donors. The TBET mechanism has been adopted since it experiences less influence from spectral overlapping than Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), making it more flexible for developing cassettes with large pseudo-Stokes shifts. In this work, energy transfer from the TPE derivatives (dark donor) to a rhodamine moiety (acceptor) was illustrated through photophysical spectroscopic studies and the energy transfer efficiency (ETE) was found to be up to 99%. In the solution state, no emission from the donors was observed and large pseudo-Stokes shifts were achieved (>280 nm), which are beneficial for biological imaging. Theoretical calculations were performed to gain a deeper mechanistic insight into the DTBET process and the structure-property relationship of the DTBET cassettes. Ratiometric Hg(2+) sensors were rationally constructed based on the DTBET mechanism by taking advantage of the intense emission of TPE aggregates. The Hg(2+) sensors exhibited well resolved emission peaks. >6000-fold ratiometric fluorescent enhancement is also achieved and the detection limit was found to be as low as 0.3 ppb. This newly proposed DTBET mechanism could be used to develop novel ratiometric sensors for various analytes and AIEgens with DTBET characteristics will have great potential in various areas including light harvesting materials, environmental science, chemical sensing, biological imaging and diagnostics.

  15. Experimental study on Hg0 removal from flue gas over columnar MnOx-CeO2/activated coke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yine; Li, Caiting; Zhao, Lingkui; Zhang, Jie; Zeng, Guangming; Zhang, Xunan; Zhang, Wei; Tao, Shasha

    2015-04-01

    Mn-Ce mixed oxides supported on commercial columnar activated coke (MnCe/AC) were employed to remove elemental mercury (Hg0) at low temperatures (100-250 °C) without the assistance of HCl in flue gas. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). Effects of some factors, including Mn-Ce loading values, active component, reaction temperatures and flue gas components (O2, SO2, NO, H2O), on Hg0 removal efficiency were investigated. Results indicated that the optimal Mn-Ce loading value and reaction temperature were 6% and 190 °C, respectively. Considerable high Hg0 removal efficiency (>90%) can be obtained over MnCe6/AC under both N2/O2 atmosphere and simulated flue gas atmosphere at 190 °C. Besides, it was observed that O2 and NO exerted a promotional effect on Hg0 removal, H2O exhibited a suppressive effect, and SO2 hindered Hg0 removal seriously when in the absence of O2. Furthermore, the XPS spectra of Hg 4f and Hg-TPD results showed that the captured mercury were existed as Hg0 and HgO on the MnCe6/AC, and HgO was the major species, which illustrated that adsorption and catalytic oxidation process were included for Hg0 removal over MnCe6/AC, and catalytic oxidation played the critical role. What's more, both lattice oxygen and chemisorbed oxygen or OH groups on MnCe6/AC contributed to Hg0 oxidation. MnCe6/AC, which exhibited excellent performance on Hg0 removal in the absence of HCl, appeared to be promising in industrial application, especially for low-rank coal fired flue gas.

  16. Stable isotope (N, C, Hg) study of methylmercury sources and trophic transfer in the northern gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Senn, David B; Chesney, Edward J; Blum, Joel D; Bank, Michael S; Maage, Amund; Shine, James P

    2010-03-01

    We combined N, C, and Hg stable isotope measurements to identify the most important factors that influence MeHg accumulation in fish from the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM), and to determine if coastal species residing in the Mississippi River (MR) plume and migratory oceanic species derive their MeHg from the same, or different, sources. In six coastal species and two oceanic species (blackfin and yellowfin tuna), trophic position as measured by delta(15)N explained most of the variance in log[MeHg] (r(2) approximately 0.8), but coastal species and tuna fell along distinct, nearly parallel lines with significantly different intercepts. The tuna also had significantly higher delta(202)Hg (0.2-0.5 per thousand) and Delta(201)Hg ( approximately 1.5 per thousand) than the coastal fish (delta(202)Hg = 0 to -1.0 per thousand; Delta(201)Hg approximately 0.4 per thousand). The observations can be best explained by largely disconnected food webs rooted in different baseline delta(15)N signatures (MR-plume vs oceanic) and isotopically distinct MeHg sources, with oceanic MeHg having undergone substantial photodegradation ( approximately 50%) before entering the base of the food web. Given the MR's large, productive footprint in the nGOM and the potential for exporting prey and MeHg to the adjacent oligotrophic GOM, the disconnected food webs and different MeHg sources are consistent with recent evidence in other systems of important oceanic MeHg sources.

  17. Studying genetic code by a matrix approach.

    PubMed

    Crowder, Tanner; Li, Chi-Kwong

    2010-05-01

    Following Petoukhov and his collaborators, we use two length n zero-one sequences, alpha and beta, to represent a length n genetic sequence (alpha/beta) so that the columns of (alpha/beta) have the following correspondence with the nucleotides: C ~ (0/0), U ~ (1/0), G ~ (1/1), A ~ (0/1). Using the Gray code ordering to arrange alpha and beta, we build a 2(n) x 2(n) matrix C(n) including all the 4(n) length n genetic sequences. Furthermore, we use the Hamming distance of alpha and beta to construct a 2(n) x 2(n) matrix D(n). We explore structures of these matrices, refine the results in earlier papers, and propose new directions for further research.

  18. Parametric Study Of A Ceramic-Fiber/Metal-Matrix Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, P. L. N.; Hopkins, D. A.; Chamis, C. C.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes computer-model parametric study of effects of degradation of constituent materials upon mechanical properties of ceramic-fiber/metal-matrix composite material. Contributes to understanding of weakening effects of large changes in temperature and mechanical stresses in fabrication and use. Concerned mainly with influences of in situ fiber and matrix properties upon behavior of composite. Particular attention given to influence of in situ matrix strength and influence of interphase degradation.

  19. Methionine-pyrene hybrid based fluorescent probe for trace level detection and estimation of Hg(II) in aqueous environmental samples: experimental and computational studies.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Arnab; Karak, Debasis; Sahana, Animesh; Guha, Subarna; Lohar, Sisir; Das, Debasis

    2011-02-15

    A new fluorescent, Hg(2+) selective chemosensor, 4-methylsulfanyl-2-[(pyren-4-ylmethylene)-amino] butyric acid methyl ester (L, MP) was synthesized by blending methionine with pyrene. It was well characterized by different analytical techniques, viz. (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, QTOF mass spectra, elemental analysis, FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopy. The reaction of this ligand with Hg(2+) was studied by steady state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The Hg(2+) complexation process was confirmed by comparing FTIR, UV-vis, thermal, QTOF mass spectra and (1)H NMR data of the product with that of the free ligand values. The composition (Hg(2+):L=1:1) of the Hg(2+) complex in solution was evaluated by fluorescence titration method. Based on the chelation assisted fluorescence quenching, a highly sensitive spectrofluorometric method was developed for the determination of trace amounts of Hg(2+) in water. The ligand had an excitation and emission maxima at 360 nm and 455 nm, respectively. The fluorescence life times of the ligand and its Hg(2+) complex were 1.54 ns and 0.72 ns respectively. The binding constant of the ligand, L with Hg(2+) was calculated using Benesi-Hildebrand equation and was found to be 7.5630×10(4). The linear range of the method was from 0 to 16 μg L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.056 μg L(-1) for Hg(2+). The quantum yields of the ligand and its Hg(2+) complex were found to be 0.1206 and 0.0757 respectively. Both the ligand and its Hg(2+) complex have been studied computationally (Ab-initio, Hartree Fock method) to get their optimized structure and other related physical parameters, including bond lengths, bond angles, dipole moments, orbital interactions etc. The binding sites of the ligand to the Hg(2+) ion as obtained from the theoretical calculations were well supported by (1)H NMR titration. The interference of foreign ions was negligible. This method has been successfully applied to the determination of mercury(II) in industrial waste water

  20. Hg removal and the effects of coexisting metals in forward osmosis and membrane distillation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Yu; Chen, Shiao-Shing; Zhang, Dai-Zhou; Kobayashi, Jun

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we investigate the rejection of Hg, Cd, and Pb and the effect of coexisting metals on Hg removal through forward osmosis (FO) and membrane distillation (MD) in order to establish a more effective water treatment process. The results of our laboratory experiment indicate that more than 97% of the rejection for each metal is achieved through the FO system, and this rejection is the highest among previous studies using membrane filtrations. Moreover, we examine the matrix effect of the coexisting Cd and Pb on the rejection of Hg in the FO system. Hg(2+) rejection increases with increase in the concentration of the coexisting metals. Furthermore, we study the effect of the Hg concentration and the water temperature on rejection of Hg(2+). Indeed, the rejection of Hg(2+) is achieved above 95% under any condition. However, approximately 1-10 ppb Hg from the feed solution remains in the draw solution due to permeation. Therefore, we use a FO-MD hybrid system. Approximately 100% rejection of Hg(2+) and a stable water flux are achieved. Thus, the FO-MD hybrid system is considered an important alternative to previous studies using membrane filtration for heavy metals removal.

  1. Studies of fiber-matrix adhesion on compression strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bascom, Willard D.; Nairn, John A.; Boll, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    A study was initiated on the effect of the matrix polymer and the fiber matrix bond strength of carbon fiber polymer matrix composites. The work includes tests with micro-composites, single ply composites, laminates, and multi-axial loaded cylinders. The results obtained thus far indicate that weak fiber-matrix adhesion dramatically reduces 0 degree compression strength. Evidence is also presented that the flaws in the carbon fiber that govern compression strength differ from those that determine fiber tensile strength. Examination of post-failure damage in the single ply tests indicates kink banding at the crack tip.

  2. Defect study in molecular beam epitaxy-grown HgCdTe films with activated and unactivated arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Izhnin, I. I.; Dvoretsky, S. A.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Varavin, V. S.; Mynbaev, K. D.; Fitsych, O. I.; Pociask-Bialy, M.; Sheregii, E.; Voitsekhovskii, A. V.

    2014-04-28

    A defect study was performed on molecular beam epitaxy-grown HgCdTe films in situ doped with arsenic. Doping was performed from either effusion cell or cracker cell, and studied were both as-grown samples and samples subjected to arsenic activation annealing. Electrical properties of the films were investigated with the use of ion milling as a means of “stirring” defects in the material. As a result of the study, it was confirmed that the most efficient incorporation of electrically active arsenic occurs at the cracking zone temperature of 700 °C. Interaction between arsenic and tellurium during the growth was observed and is discussed in the paper.

  3. Evidence to Maintain the Systolic Blood Pressure Treatment Threshold at 140 mm Hg for Stroke Prevention: The Northern Manhattan Study.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chuanhui; Della-Morte, David; Rundek, Tatjana; Wright, Clinton B; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Sacco, Ralph L

    2016-03-01

    In 2014, the Eighth Joint National Committee revised the target maximum systolic blood pressure (SBP) from 140 to 150 mm Hg in patients aged ≥60 years without diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease. The evidence from cohort studies supporting this change was sparse, particularly among US minority populations. In the Northern Manhattan Study, 1750 participants aged ≥60 years and free of stroke, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease had SBP measured at baseline and were annually followed up for incident stroke. Mean age at baseline was 72±8 years, 63% were women, 48% Hispanic, 25% non-Hispanic white, and 25% non-Hispanic black. Among all participants, 40% were on antihypertensive medications; 43% had SBP <140 mm Hg, 20% had 140 to 149 mm Hg, and 37% had ≥150 mm Hg. Over a median follow-up of 13 years, 182 participants developed stroke. The crude stroke incidence was greater among individuals with SBP≥150 mm Hg (10.8 per 1000 person-years) and SBP 140 to 149 (12.3) than among those with SBP<140 (6.2). After adjusting for demographics, vascular risk factors, diastolic BP, and medication use, participants with SBP 140 to 149 mm Hg had an increased risk of stroke (hazard ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.6) compared with those with SBP <140 mm Hg. The increased stroke risk was most notable among Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks. Raising the SBP threshold from 140 to 150 mm Hg as a new target for hypertension treatment in older individuals without diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease could have a detrimental effect on stroke risk reduction, especially among minority US populations. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Studies on the fabrication of Ag/Hg1Ba2Ca1Cu2O6+dgr/CdSe heterostructures using the pulse electrodeposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivagan, D. D.; Shirage, P. M.; Pawar, S. H.

    2004-03-01

    Metal/superconductor/semiconductor (Ag/Hg1Ba2Ca1Cu2O6+dgr (Hg-1212)/CdSe) heterostructures have been successfully fabricated using the pulse electrodeposition technique. The electrochemical parameters are optimized and diffusion free growth of CdSe on to Ag/Hg-1212 was obtained by employing underpotential deposition and by studying nucleation and growth mechanism during deposition. The heterostructures are characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy studies and low-temperature four-probe electrical resistivity measurements. After the deposition of CdSe, the critical transition temperature of Hg-1212 films was found to be increased from 115 K with Jc (77 K) = 1.7 × 103 A cm-2 to 117.2 K with Jc (77 K) = 1.91 × 103 A cm-2. Tc and Jc (77 K) values were 120.3 K and 3.7 × 103 A cm-2, respectively, when the heterostructure was irradiated with red He-Ne laser. The improvements in superconducting properties of Hg-1212 in Ag/Hg-1212/CdSe heterostructures have been explained at length in this paper.

  5. Novel bimetallic thiocyanate-bridged Cu(II)-Hg(II) compounds—synthesis, X-Ray studies and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machura, B.; Świtlicka, A.; Zwoliński, P.; Mroziński, J.; Kalińska, B.; Kruszynski, R.

    2013-01-01

    Seven novel heterobimetallic Cu/Hg polymers based on thiocyanate bridges have been synthesised and characterised by means of IR, EPR, magnetic measurements and single crystal X-Ray. Three of them, [Cu(pzH)4Hg(SCN)4]n (1) [Cu(indH)4Hg(SCN)4]n (2) and [Cu(ampy)2Hg(SCN)4]n (3), have one-dimensional coordination structure. Two compounds [Cu(pzH)2Hg(SCN)4]n (4) and [Cu(abzimH)Hg(SCN)4]n (5) form two-dimensional nets, whereas the complexes [Cu(pyCN)2Hg(SCN)4]n (6) and [Cu(pyCH(OH)(OMe))2Hg(SCN)4]n (7) are three-dimensional coordination polymers. The chains of 1 are connected by the intermolecular N-H•••N hydrogen bonds to the three dimensional net. In 2 the N-H•••S hydrogen bonds link the polymeric chains to the two dimensional layer extending along crystallographic (0 0 1) plane. The polymeric chains of compound 3 are joined by the intermolecular N-H•••N and N-H•••S hydrogen bonds to the three dimensional net. The polymeric layers of 4 are connected by the intermolecular N-H•••N hydrogen bonds to the three dimensional net.

  6. Polymer matrix and graphite fiber interface study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, D. F.; Zimmerman, R. S.; Odom, E. M.

    1985-01-01

    Hercules AS4 graphite fiber, unsized, or with EPON 828, PVA, or polysulfone sizing, was combined with three different polymer matrices. These included Hercules 3501-6 epoxy, Hercules 4001 bismaleimide, and Hexcel F155 rubber toughened epoxy. Unidirectional composites in all twelve combinations were fabricated and tested in transverse tension and axial compression. Quasi-isotropic laminates were tested in axial tension and compression, flexure, interlaminar shear, and tensile impact. All tests were conducted at both room temperature, dry and elevated temperature, and wet conditions. Single fiber pullout testing was also performed. Extensive scanning electron microphotographs of fracture surfaces are included, along with photographs of single fiber pullout failures. Analytical/experimental correlations are presented, based on the results of a finite element micromechanics analysis. Correlations between matrix type, fiber sizing, hygrothermal environment, and loading mode are presented. Results indicate that the various composite properties were only moderately influenced by the fiber sizings utilized.

  7. Neutron scattering study of the antiferromagnetic response of HgBa2CuO4+δ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yang; Chan, Mun; Dorow, Chelsey; Veit, Mike; Ge, Yang; Greven, Martin; Mangin-Thro, Lucile; Sidis, Yvan; Bourges, Philippe; Zhao, Xudong; Steffens, Paul; Christianson, Andrew; Abernathy, Douglas; Park, Jitae

    Antiferromagnetic correlations have been argued to be the cause of the d-wave superconductivity and of the pseudogap phenomena exhibited by the cuprates. Although neutron scattering experiments of the antiferromagnetic response have been reported for a number of cuprates, results for structurally simple HgBa2CuO4+δ (Hg1201) have begun to emerge only recently. Specifically, we have found for moderately-doped Hg1201 (Tc ~ 71 K, pseudogap temperature T* ~ 305 K) that the two most prominent features of the magnetic spectrum reported for other cuprates are absent: the X-shaped `hourglass' response and the resonance mode in the superconducting state. Instead, the response of Hg1201 is Y-shaped, gapped, and significantly enhanced below T*. Here we will discuss our ongoing efforts to understand the doping dependence of the AF response in Hg1201. Work supported by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  8. In vivo ingestion of heavy metal particles of Se, Hg and W by murine macrophages. A study using scanning electron microscopy coupled with X-ray microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Cherdwongcharoensuk, Duangrudee; Cunha, Elisabete M; Upatham, Suchart; Pereira, António Sousa; Oliveira, Maria João R; Aguas, Artur P

    2002-09-01

    Several heavy metals that are currently employed in industry may become polluters of work and natural environments. As particulate matter, heavy metals are suitable for entering the human body through the respiratory and digestive systems. They often end up inside phagocytes; the size of the microscopic particles modulates both their phagocytosis, and the physiology of macrophages. Here we have adopted an experimental model to investigate the ingestion of particles of three industrial heavy metals (Se, Hg, W) by murine peritoneal macrophages in vivo. The phagocytes were studied by scanning electron microscopy coupled with X-ray elemental microanalysis (SEM-XRM), a method that allows specific identification of Se, W and Hg in cells at high resolution. We found that Hg that was taken up by macrophages was organized into small, round particles (0.31 +/- 0.14 microm). This was in contrast with the larger size of intracellular particles of Se (2.37 +/- 1.84 microm) or W (1.75 +/- 1.34 microm). Ingested particles of Se and W, but not Hg, often caused bulging of the cell surface of macrophages. We conclude that particulate matters of Se, W and Hg are organized in particles of different size inside macrophages. This size difference is likely to be associated with distinct phlogistic activities of these heavy metals, Se and W causing a milder inflammatory reaction than Hg.

  9. Cross-Sectional Study of Macrodefects in MBE Dual-Band HgCdTe on CdZnTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, M.; Lofgreen, D. D.; Jones, K. A.; Peterson, J. M.; Radford, W. A.; Benson, J. D.; Johnson, S. M.

    2013-11-01

    HgCdTe dual-band mid-wave infrared/long-wave infrared focal-plane arrays on CdZnTe are a key component in advanced electrooptic sensor applications. Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) has been used successfully for growth of dual-band layers on larger CdZnTe substrates. However, the macrodefect density, which is known to reduce the pixel operability and its run-to-run variation, is larger when compared with layers grown on Si substrate. This paper reports the macrodefect density versus size signature of a well-optimized MBE dual-band growth and a cross-sectional study of a macrodefect that represents the most prevalent class using focused ion beam, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The results show that the macrodefect originates from a void, which in turn is associated with a pit on the CdZnTe substrate.

  10. A theoretical study on the mechanism of electronic to vibrational energy transfer in Hg/3P/ + CO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kato, S.; Jaffe, R. L.; Komornicki, A.; Morokuma, K.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanism of electronic-to-vibrational (E-V) energy transfer in Hg(3P) + CO collisions has been studied theoretically. The configuration interaction (CI) method was employed to calculate potential energy surfaces of the collision system. A simplified theoretical model, based on the reaction coordinate concept and the calculated potential energy characteristics, was used to discuss the mechanism of the singlet-triplet transition and the energy disposal in the collision. The results obtained were that: (a) the quenching process processed via a collision complex mechanism; and that (b) the triplet-singlet transition occurs near the collinear geometry. A model classical trajectory calculation gives a product CO vibrational distribution in good agreement with the experimental result.

  11. Can Nassarius reticulatus be used as a bioindicator for Hg contamination? Results from a longitudinal study of the Portuguese coastline.

    PubMed

    Coelho, J P; Pimenta, J; Gomes, R; Barroso, C M; Pereira, M E; Pardal, M A; Duarte, A

    2006-06-01

    The focus of this work is to explore the use of the netted whelk, Nassarius reticulatus (L.), as an indicator of mercury (Hg) contamination, by assessing the concentration of Hg in the sediments and in the whelk along the entire Portuguese coast. Total Hg concentrations ranged from below the detection limit (0.01 ng absolute mercury) up to 0.87 mg kg(-1) dry weight (dwt) in sediments and between 0.06 and 1.02 mg kg(-1) (dwt) for organisms, with no significant differences between males and females. Although organic mercury was not detected in the sediments, it represented, on average, 52% of the total Hg in the whelk tissues, and as high as 88% in some cases, suggesting mercury accumulation from dietary intake. Significant negative correlations were found between the total Hg concentrations in the sediments and the log(10) of Hg concentrations in whelk tissues males (r=-0.64; P<0.01) and females (r=-0.52; P<0.01) indicating that the species is a poor indicator of Hg contamination. Nevertheless, since the highest concentrations of organic mercury in the whelk tissues were found in the least contaminated areas, this species must be highly relevant in the trophic web, namely on the possible biomagnification of mercury. The high dietary mercury accumulation from feeding on carrion and the low bioavailability of mercury to whelks in estuarine sediments may be the basis of the mercury accumulation pattern in N. reticulatus.

  12. Phase transitions of the system Ag sub 2 HgI sub 4 -Cu sub 2 HgI sub 4 at normal and high pressure studied by differential scanning calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Friesel, M.; Baranowski, B.; Lunden, A. )

    1990-02-08

    Differential scanning calorimetry has been applied for studying the system Ag{sub 2}HgI{sub 4}-Cu{sub 2}HgI{sub 4} at both normal and high pressure. It is confirmed that there is a miscibility gap in the ordered phase and that the order-disorder phase transition has a eutectoid point at 307 K and 42.7 mol % Cu{sub 2}HgI{sub 4} at normal pressure, which is about 30 K higher than expected from a calculation for ideal eutectic behavior. The order-disorder transition is of first-order character over the whole composition range, confirming the interpretation by Suchow and ruling out the suggestion by Jaffray that it should be of second-order character in the middle part of the range. The transition enthalpy is equal to 7.3 {plus minus} 0.2 kJ/mol for the eutectoid composition. The phase diagram of the eutectoid composition was determined for pressures up to 0.72 GPa, and the temperature of the order-disorder transition increased from 307 to about 325 K, The correlation was not linear over the whole pressure range, but an average dT/dP slope of 25 K/GPa is in good agreement with the 24 K/GPa calculated by means of van Laar,s formula. The transition enthalpy (kJ/mol) decreased linearly with increasing pressure with d{Delta}H/dp = -4.0 kJ/(mol GPa). A calculation from simple additive rule gives instead d{Delta}H/dp = -1.5 kJ/(mol GPa).

  13. Hg0 and HgCl2 Reference Gas Standards: ?NIST Traceability ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and NIST have collaborated to establish the necessary procedures for establishing the required NIST traceability of commercially-provided Hg0 and HgCl2 reference generators. This presentation will discuss the approach of a joint EPA/NIST study to accurately quantify the true concentrations of Hg0 and HgCl2 reference gases produced from high quality, NIST-traceable, commercial Hg0 and HgCl2 generators. This presentation will also discuss the availability of HCl and Hg0 compressed reference gas standards as a result of EPA's recently approved Alternative Methods 114 and 118. Gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) and oxidized mercury (HgCl2) reference standards are integral to the use of mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (Hg CEMS) for regulatory compliance emissions monitoring. However, a quantitative disparity of approximately 7-10% has been observed between commercial Hg0 and HgCl2 reference gases which currently limits the use of (HgCl2) reference gas standards. Resolving this disparity would enable the expanded use of (HgCl2) reference gas standards for regulatory compliance purposes.

  14. Theoretical studies of carrier transport in HgI{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.; James, R.B.

    1996-06-01

    Theoretical studies of the electron-phonon coupling and carrier mobility for red mercuric iodide are presented. The electronic states are calculated by an empirical pseudopotential method, while the lattice vibrations are described via a rigid-ion model. Effects due to the deformation potential and polar-optical scattering are discussed. Carrier mobilities along both {ital c} and {ital a} axes as functions of temperature are calculated and they are in good agreement with the experimental data. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  15. Trace elements profiles, notably Hg, from a preliminary study of the Apollo 15 deep-drill core.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jovanovic, S.; Reed, G. W., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The possible thermal gradient near the surface during a lunation is considered together with the heat flow from the interior, the physical process of Hg migration, the results from core and trench samples from previous missions, and other temperature sensitive phenomena that may help understand the processes. U, Os, and Ru concentrations in the deep drill core samples are of potential interest and are summarized in a table. The Os tends to parallel the Hg profile with depth.

  16. A DFT study of the reactions of O 3 with Hg° or Br -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Ludovic; Dommergue, Aurélien; Ferrari, Christophe; Maron, Laurent

    In the mid 1980s the study of ozone reactivity gained a significant interest with the discoveries of the stratospheric ozone hole ( Farman et al., 1985) and of the ozone depletion events in the polar boundary layer ( Oltmans et al., 1989). In the stratosphere, the mechanism involves heterogeneous reactions on polar stratospheric clouds that lead to chlorine activation ( Solomon et al., 1986). In contrast, tropospheric ozone depletion occurring during polar springtime rather involves reactive bromine species. They are released during a series of photochemical and heterogeneous reactions often called the bromine explosion (see the review of Simpson et al., 2007). In this reaction sequence, an essential step is the generation of photolyzable Br 2, the precursor of two Br atoms, via the multiphasic reaction (1): HOBr + Br - + H + → H 2O + Br 2 The production of reactive HOBr could occur with the oxidation of BrO by HO 2.

  17. A study of the convective flow as a function of external parameters in a high-pressure metal halide discharge lamp (HgDyI{sub 3})

    SciTech Connect

    Hajji, S.; HadjSalah, S.; Benhalima, A.; Charrada, K.; Zissis, G.

    2016-06-15

    This paper deals with the modelling of the convection processes in metal–halide lamp discharges (HgDyI{sub 3}). For this, we realized a 3D model, a steady, direct current powered and time-depending model for the solution of conservation equations relative to mass, momentum, and energy. After validation, this model was applied to the study of the effect of some parameters that have appeared on major transport phenomena of mass and energy in studying the lamp. Indeed, the electric current, the atomic ratio (Hg/Dy), and the effect of the convective transport have been studied.

  18. A study of the convective flow as a function of external parameters in a high-pressure metal halide discharge lamp (HgDyI3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajji, S.; HadjSalah, S.; Benhalima, A.; Charrada, K.; Zissis, G.

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with the modelling of the convection processes in metal-halide lamp discharges (HgDyI3). For this, we realized a 3D model, a steady, direct current powered and time-depending model for the solution of conservation equations relative to mass, momentum, and energy. After validation, this model was applied to the study of the effect of some parameters that have appeared on major transport phenomena of mass and energy in studying the lamp. Indeed, the electric current, the atomic ratio (Hg/Dy), and the effect of the convective transport have been studied.

  19. Theoretical Studies on Two-Photon Fluorescent Hg(2+) Probes Based on the Coumarin-Rhodamine System.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yujin; Leng, Jiancai

    2017-07-20

    The development of fluorescent sensors for Hg(2+) has attracted much attention due to the well-known adverse effects of mercury on biological health. In the present work, the optical properties of two newly-synthesized Hg(2+) chemosensors based on the coumarin-rhodamine system (named Pro1 and Pro2) were systematically investigated using time-dependent density functional theory. It is shown that Pro1 and Pro2 are effective ratiometric fluorescent Hg(2+) probes, which recognize Hg(2+) by Förster resonance energy transfer and through bond energy transfer mechanisms, respectively. To further understand the mechanisms of the two probes, we have developed an approach to predict the energy transfer rate between the donor and acceptor. Using this approach, it can be inferred that Pro1 has a six times higher energy transfer rate than Pro2. Thus the influence of spacer group between the donor and acceptor on the sensing performance of the probe is demonstrated. Specifically, two-photon absorption properties of these two probes are calculated. We have found that both probes show significant two-photon responses in the near-infrared light region. However, only the maximum two-photon absorption cross section of Pro1 is greatly enhanced with the presence of Hg(2+), indicating that Pro1 can act as a potential two-photon excited fluorescent probe for Hg(2+). The theoretical investigations would be helpful to build a relationship between the structure and the optical properties of the probes, providing information on the design of efficient two-photon fluorescent sensors that can be used for biological imaging of Hg(2+) in vivo.

  20. Complexations of Hg(CN)(2) with imidazolidine-2-thione and its derivatives: solid state, solution NMR and antimicrobial activity studies.

    PubMed

    Wazeer, Mohamed I M; Isab, Anvarhusein A

    2007-12-31

    The preparation and characterization of new mercuric complexes of formula L(2)Hg(CN)(2) with L being imidazolidine-2-thione (Imt) and its substituted derivatives, 1,3-diazinane-2-thione (Diaz), 1,3-diazipane-2-thione (Diap), are described. The solution and solid-state (13)C NMR show a significant shift of the CS carbon resonance of the ligands, while the other resonances are relatively unaffected, indicating that most likely the solid-state structure is maintained in solution as well. The principal components of the (199)Hg shielding tensors were determined from solid-state NMR data. Antimicrobial activity studies of the free ligands and their complexes show that ligands exhibit substantial antibacterial activities compare to their Hg(II) complexes.

  1. Interfacial studies in fiber-reinforced thermoplastic-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    The major theme of this dissertation is structure/property relationships in fiber-reinforced thermoplastic-matrix composites. Effort has been focused on the interface: interfacial crystallization and fiber/matrix adhesion. Included are investigations on interfacial nucleation and morphology, measurement of fiber/matrix adhesion, effects of interfacial adsorption and crystallization on fiber/matrix adhesion, and composites reinforced with thermotropic liquid crystal copolyester fibers. Crystallization of a copolyester and polybutylene terephthalate with glass, carbon, or aramid fibers has been studied with regard to interfacial morphology. Techniques employed included hot-stage optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Nucleation by the fibers was found to be a general phenomenon. Morphology could be varied by changing the cooling rate. In order to better monitor fiber /matrix adhesion, a buckled plate test has been developed. The test measures transverse toughness as the parameter characterizing interfacial adhesion in unidirectional, continuous-fiber composites. The test is simple to perform yet has advantages over other interfacial evaluation techniques. The buckled plate test was found to be a sensitive measure of fiber/matrix adhesion. The buckled plate test has been used along with the transverse tensile test to examine how interfacial adsorption and crystallization affect fiber/matrix adhesion in polycarbonate/carbon fiber composites. Adsorption was found to be of primary importance in developing adhesion, while crystallization is a secondary effect. The toughness data have been fit successfully for annealing time and temperature dependence. The dependence of adsorption and transverse toughness on matrix molecular weight was found to be large, with higher molecular weights adsorbing more effectively.

  2. Comparison of HgO and CuSO4 as digestion catalysts in manual Kjeldahl determination of crude protein in animal feeds: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Kane, P F

    1984-01-01

    The official AOAC manual Kjeldahl method for determining crude protein in animal feeds, 7.015, uses HgO as a catalyst in the digestion step. Because of environmental considerations, there is considerable interest in alternative catalysts. A collaborative study compares the official HgO-catalyzed method and an alternative using CuSO4. Fifty-four samples consisting of blind duplicates of closely matched pairs, representing a range of animal feed materials and 2 standard materials, were analyzed once by each method. Results were returned by 22 laboratories. Means and standard deviations between methods were comparable. The CuSO4-catalyzed method has been adopted official first action.

  3. Search for parity and time reversal violating effects in HgH: Relativistic coupled-cluster study.

    PubMed

    Sasmal, Sudip; Pathak, Himadri; Nayak, Malaya K; Vaval, Nayana; Pal, Sourav

    2016-03-28

    The high effective electric field (Eeff) experienced by the unpaired electron in an atom or a molecule is one of the key ingredients in the success of electron electric dipole moment (eEDM) experiment and its precise calculation requires a very accurate theory. We, therefore, employed the Z-vector method in the relativistic coupled-cluster framework and found that HgH has a very large Eeff value (123.2 GV/cm) which makes it a potential candidate for the next generation eEDM experiment. Our study also reveals that it has a large scalar-pseudoscalar (S-PS) P,T-violating interaction constant, Ws = 284.2 kHz. To judge the accuracy of the obtained results, we have calculated parallel and perpendicular magnetic hyperfine structure (HFS) constants and compared with the available experimental values. The results of our calculation are found to be in nice agreement with the experimental values. Therefore, by looking at the HFS results, we can say that both Eeff and Ws values are also very accurate. Further, We have derived the relationship between these quantities and the ratio which will help to get model independent value of eEDM and S-PS interaction constant.

  4. X-ray Structure of a Hg2+ Complex of Mercuric Reductase (MerA) and Quantum Mechanical/Molecular Mechanical Study of Hg2+ Transfer between the C-Terminal and Buried Catalytic Site Cysteine Pairs

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Mercuric reductase, MerA, is a key enzyme in bacterial mercury resistance. This homodimeric enzyme captures and reduces toxic Hg2+ to Hg0, which is relatively unreactive and can exit the cell passively. Prior to reduction, the Hg2+ is transferred from a pair of cysteines (C558′ and C559′ using Tn501 numbering) at the C-terminus of one monomer to another pair of cysteines (C136 and C141) in the catalytic site of the other monomer. Here, we present the X-ray structure of the C-terminal Hg2+ complex of the C136A/C141A double mutant of the Tn501 MerA catalytic core and explore the molecular mechanism of this Hg transfer with quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations. The transfer is found to be nearly thermoneutral and to pass through a stable tricoordinated intermediate that is marginally less stable than the two end states. For the overall process, Hg2+ is always paired with at least two thiolates and thus is present at both the C-terminal and catalytic binding sites as a neutral complex. Prior to Hg2+ transfer, C141 is negatively charged. As Hg2+ is transferred into the catalytic site, a proton is transferred from C136 to C559′ while C558′ becomes negatively charged, resulting in the net transfer of a negative charge over a distance of ∼7.5 Å. Thus, the transport of this soft divalent cation is made energetically feasible by pairing a competition between multiple Cys thiols and/or thiolates for Hg2+ with a competition between the Hg2+ and protons for the thiolates. PMID:25343681

  5. X-ray Structure of a Hg2+ Complex of Mercuric Reductase (MerA) and Quantum Mechanical/Molecular Mechanical Study of Hg2+ Transfer between the C-Terminal and Buried Catalytic Site Cysteine Pairs

    DOE PAGES

    Lian, Peng; Guo, Hao-Bo; Riccardi, Demian; ...

    2014-10-24

    Here we report that mercuric reductase, MerA, is a key enzyme in bacterial mercury resistance. This homodimeric enzyme captures and reduces toxic Hg2+ to Hg0, which is relatively unreactive and can exit the cell passively. Prior to reduction, the Hg2+ is transferred from a pair of cysteines (C558' and C559' using Tn501 numbering) at the C-terminus of one monomer to another pair of cysteines (C136 and C141) in the catalytic site of the other monomer. Here, we present the X-ray structure of the C-terminal Hg2+ complex of the C136A/C141A double mutant of the Tn501 MerA catalytic core and explore themore » molecular mechanism of this Hg transfer with quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations. The transfer is found to be nearly thermoneutral and to pass through a stable tricoordinated intermediate that is marginally less stable than the two end states. For the overall process, Hg2+ is always paired with at least two thiolates and thus is present at both the C-terminal and catalytic binding sites as a neutral complex. Prior to Hg2+ transfer, C141 is negatively charged. As Hg2+ is transferred into the catalytic site, a proton is transferred from C136 to C559' while C558' becomes negatively charged, resulting in the net transfer of a negative charge over a distance of ~7.5 Å. Thus, the transport of this soft divalent cation is made energetically feasible by pairing a competition between multiple Cys thiols and/or thiolates for Hg2+ with a competition between the Hg2+ and protons for the thiolates.« less

  6. Muon spin rotation study of magnetism in multilayer HgBa 2Ca 4Cu 5O y superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokiwa, Kazuyasu; Mikusu, Satoshi; Higemoto, Wataru; Nishiyama, Kusuo; Iyo, Akira; Tanaka, Yasumoto; Kotegawa, Hisashi; Mukuda, Hidekazu; Kitaoka, Yoshio; Watanabe, Tsuneo

    2007-09-01

    Zero- and longitudinal-field muon-spin rotation (ZF-μSR and LF-μSR) measurements were carried out on a multi-layered HgBa 2Ca 4Cu 5O y (Hg-1245) superconductor with Tc of 108 K. With decreasing temperature, the observed ZF-μSR function changed from a Gaussian-type to an exponential-type below 60 K and zero field muon precession was also observed below 45 K. These μSR signals are attributed to the development of the antiferromagnetic ordering in inner CuO 2 planes with a low carrier concentration. These results seem to indicate clear evidence that antiferromagnetism microscopically coexists with superconductivity in the Hg-1245 superconductor below 60 K.

  7. Study of impurity states in p-type Hg1-xCdxTe using far-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Biao; Gui, Yongsheng; Chen, Zhanghai; Ye, Hongjuan; Chu, Junhao; Wang, Shanli; Ji, Rongbin; He, Li

    1998-09-01

    This letter reports the far-infrared (FIR) transmission spectra of undoped and Sb-doped p-type Hg1-xCdxTe films grown by a liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) or molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) technique. The activation energies of cation vacancy acceptor are found to be ˜10-12 meV and are almost independent on Cd composition. The absorption strength per Hg vacancy, useful for evaluating the cation vacancy density from the absorption spectra, is derived as 3.4×10-12 cm. Further, Zeeman splitting resulting from two different acceptors is observed from magnetotransmission measurement for the Sb-doped LPE sample, and light hole effective mass is estimated. FIR transmission seems to be a powerful tool for nondestructive characterization of impurity states in Hg1-xCdxTe.

  8. Shape coexistence studied in {}^{{182,184}}Hg via the β decay of {}^{{182,184}}Tl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapisarda, E.; Andreyev, A. N.; Antalic, S.; Barzakh, A.; Cocolios, T. E.; Darby, I. G.; De Groote, R.; De Witte, H.; Diriken, J.; Elseviers, J.; Fedorov, D.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Ferrer, R.; Huyse, M.; Kalaninová, Z.; Köster, U.; Lane, J.; Liberati, V.; Lynch, K. M.; Marsh, B. A.; Molkanov, P. L.; Pauwels, D.; Procter, T. J.; Radulov, D.; Sandhu, K.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Van Beveren, C.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van Duppen, P.; Venhart, M.; Veselský, M.; Wrzosek-Lipska, K.

    2017-07-01

    The {β }+/EC decay of {}{182,184}Tl to excited states in the daughter nuclei {}{182,184}Hg has been investigated at the CERN on-line isotope mass separator facility. In both Tl nuclei two β-decaying states were observed. In the case of 184Tl, narrow-band laser spectroscopy could be used to disentangle the decay of both isomers. In 182Hg a precise energy of 335 (1) keV for the {0}2+ state was measured together with its feeding from a tentatively proposed {2}3+ state at 973 keV. Large conversion coefficients for the {2}2+\\to {2}1+ transition in {}{182,184}Hg were measured to be 7.2 (13) and 14.2 (36), respectively, evidencing a strong E0 component.

  9. Enhanced circular photogalvanic effect in HgTe quantum wells in the heavily inverted regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Yang, Wen; Liu, Jiang-Tao; Huang, Wei; Li, Cheng; Chen, Song-Yan

    2017-01-01

    HgTe-based quantum wells (QWs) possess very strong spin-orbit interaction (SOI) and have become an ideal platform for the study of fundamental SOI-dependent phenomena and the topological insulator phase. Circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE) in HgTe QWs is of great interest because it provides an effective optical access to probe the spin-related information of HgTe systems. However, the complex band structure and large spin splitting of HgTe QWs makes it inadequate to analyze the experimental results of CPGE in HgTe QWs [B. Wittmann et al., Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25, 095005 (2010), 10.1088/0268-1242/25/9/095005] with reduced band models. Here, based on the realistic eight-band k .p Hamiltonian and combined with the density-matrix formalism, we present a detailed theoretical investigation of CPGE in (001)-oriented Hg0.3Cd0.7Te /HgTe /Hg0.3Cd0.7Te QWs. We find the CPGE currents in HgTe QWs in the heavily inverted regime are significantly enhanced due to the strong distortion of band dispersion at a certain range of the energy spectrum. This enhancement effect could offer an experimental certificate that the HgTe QW is in the heavily inverted phase (usually accompanied with the emergence of two-dimensional topological edge states), and could also be utilized in engineering the high efficiency ellipticity detector of infrared and terahertz radiation [S. N. Danilov et al., J. Appl. Phys. 105, 013106 (2009), 10.1063/1.3056393]. Additionally, within the same theoretical framework, we also investigate the interplay effect of structure inversion asymmetry and bulk inversion asymmetry and the pure spin currents driven by linearly polarized light in HgTe QWs.

  10. The effects of CO2-insufflation with 5 and 10 mmHg during thoracoscopy on cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics in piglets: an animal experimental study.

    PubMed

    Stolwijk, Lisanne J; Tytgat, Stefaan H A J; Keunen, Kristin; Suksamanapan, Nutnicha; van Herwaarden, Maud Y A; Groenendaal, Floris; Lemmers, Petra M A; van der Zee, David C

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of CO2-insufflation with 5 and 10 mmHg on cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics in neonates. An increasing percentage of surgical interventions in neonates are performed by minimal invasive techniques. Recently, concerns have been raised regarding a decrease of cerebral oxygenation in neonates during thoracoscopy as a result of CO2-insufflation. This was an animal experimental study. Piglets were anesthetized, intubated, ventilated, and surgically prepared for CO2-insufflation. Insufflation was done with 5 or 10 mmHg CO2 during 1 h. Arterial saturation (SaO2), heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), and cerebral oxygenation (rScO2) were monitored. CFTOE, an estimator of cerebral oxygen extraction ((SaO2 - rScO2)/SaO2)), was calculated. Arterial blood gases were drawn every 15': pre (T0), during (T1-T4) and after CO2-insufflation (T5). Ten piglets (4 kg) were randomized for 5 (P5) and 10 (P10) mmHg CO2-insufflation. Two P10 piglets needed resuscitation after insufflation, none P5. Linear mixed-effect modeling of paCO2, pH, and SaO2 showed that values were dependent on time and time squared (p < 0.001) but were not different between the 5 and 10 mmHg groups. Analysis demonstrated significant changes over time in heart rate and MABP between the 5 and 10 mmHg groups, with a significant higher heart rate and lower blood pressure in the 10 mmHg group (p < 0.001). For rScO2 and cFTOE, no group differences could be demonstrated, but a significant effect of time was found: rScO2 increased and cFTOE decreased (p < 0.001). Insufflation of CO2 during thoracoscopy with 10 mmHg caused more severe hemodynamic instability and seems to be related with a decrease of cerebral perfusion as represented by a higher oxygen extraction. CO2-insufflation of 5 mmHg for thoracoscopy seems to have no adverse effects on cerebral oxygenation.

  11. Binding of Hg by bacterial extracellular polysaccharide: a possible role in Hg tolerance.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Kimberly; Guézennec, Jean; Barkay, Tamar

    2017-04-10

    Bacteria employ adaptive mechanisms of mercury (Hg) tolerance to survive in environments containing elevated Hg concentrations. The potential of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) production by bacteria as a mechanism of Hg tolerance has not been previously investigated. The objectives of this study were to determine if bacterial EPS sorb Hg, and if so does sorption provide protection against Hg toxicity. Purified EPS with different chemical compositions produced by bacterial isolates from microbial mats in French Polynesian atolls and deep-sea hydrothermal vents were assessed for Hg sorption. The data showed that EPS sorbed up to 82% of Hg from solution, that this sorption was dependent on EPS composition, and that sorption was a saturable mechanism. Hg uptake capacities ranged from 0.005 to 0.454 mmol Hg/g for the different EPS. To determine if EPS production could alter bacterial Hg tolerance, Escherichia coli K-12 strains and their EPS defective mutants were tested by the disc inhibition assay. Mercury inhibited growth in a dose-dependent manner with wild-type strains having smaller (~1 mm), but statistically significant, zones of inhibition than various mutants and this difference was related to a 2-fold decline in the amount of EPS produced by the mutants relative to cell biomass. These experiments identified colanic acid and hexosamine as Hg-binding moieties in EPS. Together these data indicate that binding of Hg to EPS affords a low level of resistance to the producing bacteria.

  12. Hyperemesis Gravidarum (HG)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Support Forums BlogHER Research Contact Us Understanding Hyperemesis Theories Diagnosis Treatments Risks Complications Impact Take a Poll ... to and worsen ongoing nausea. There are numerous theories regarding the etiology of hyperemesis gravidarum. Unfortunately, HG ...

  13. Combined NDE/finite element technique to study the effects of matrix porosity on the behavior of ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Ghosn, Louis J.; Baaklini, George Y.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna

    2003-08-01

    Ceramic matrix composites are being considered as candidate materials for high temperature aircraft engine components to replace the current high density metal alloys. The current Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) are engineered material composed of coated 2D woven high strength fiber tows and melt infiltrated ceramic matrix. Matrix voids are common anomalies generated during the melt infiltration process. The effects of these matrix porosities are usually associated with a reduction in the initial overall composite stiffness, and an increase in the thermal conductivity of the component. Furthermore, the role of the matrix as well as the coating is to protect the fibers from the harsh engine environment. Hence, the current design approach is to limit the design stress level of CMC components to be always below the first matrix cracking stress. In this study, the effects of matrix porosity on the initial component stiffness and the onset of matrix cracking are analyzed using a combined NDE/Finite-Element Technique. The Computed Tomography (CT) is utilized as the NDE technique to characterize the initial matrix porosity's locations and sizes in various CMC test specimens. The Finite Element is utilized to calculate the localized stress field around these pores based on the geometric modeling of the specimen's CT results, using image analysis and geometric modeling software. The same specimen was also scanned after tensile testing to a maximum nominal stress of 150 MPa to depict any growth of the previous observe voids. The post test CT scans depicted an enlargement and some coalescence of the existing voids.

  14. Growing rice aerobically markedly decreases mercury accumulation by reducing both Hg bioavailability and the production of MeHg.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xun; Ye, Zhihong; Li, Bing; Huang, Linan; Meng, Mei; Shi, Jianbo; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-01-01

    Rice consumption represents a major route of mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) exposure for those living in certain areas of inland China. In this study we investigated the effects of water management on bioavailable Hg, MeHg, and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB, abundance and community composition) in rhizosphere soil, and total Hg (THg) and MeHg in rice plants grown under glasshouse and paddy field conditions. Aerobic conditions greatly decreased the amount of THg and MeHg taken up by rice plants and affected their distribution in different plant tissues. There were positive correlations between bioavailable Hg and THg in brown rice and roots and between numbers of SRB and MeHg in brown rice, roots, and rhizosphere soil. Furthermore, the community composition of SRB was dramatically influenced by the water management regimes. Our results demonstrate that the greatly reduced bioavailability of Hg and production of MeHg are due to decreased SRB numbers and proportion of Hg methylators in the rhizosphere under aerobic conditions. These are the main reasons for the reduced Hg and MeHg accumulation in aerobically grown rice. Water management is indicated as an effective measure that can be used to reduce Hg and MeHg uptake by rice plants from Hg-contaminated paddy fields.

  15. Theoretical study of HgCr2Se3.5Te0.5: a doping-site-dependent semimetal

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiang-Long; Jin, Yuan-Jun; Wu, Jiansheng

    2016-01-01

    Weyl semimetals have recently attracted enormous attention due to their unusual features. So far, this novel state has been predicted theoretically and confirmed experimentally in several materials, such as HgTe, LaPtBi, Y2Ir2O7, TaAs, TaP, NbAs, NbP and HgCr2Se4. Doping plays an important role in the research of condensed-matter materials. However, its influence on the Weyl semimetal has been little investigated. Here, we present detailed first-principles and theoretical studies on HgCr2Se4 with doping of Te atoms at the Se sites. A special case where only one pair of crossing points locates at the Fermi level is realized in HgCr2Se3.5Te0.5 where one of the Se atoms in the primitive unit cell is replaced by a Te atom. A further study of k·p theory shows that the two points constitute a pair of Weyl nodes with opposite chiralities in the momentum space, and only one edge state and one single Fermi arc are obtained at each boundary of a film. Moreover, through investigations and analyses of different doping cases of HgCr2Se3.5Te0.5, we find that when the type of doping induces inversion symmetry or positional disorder, the Weyl nodes transform into Dirac points resulting in a change from a Weyl semimetal to a Dirac semimetal. PMID:27480923

  16. Theoretical study of HgCr2Se3.5Te0.5: a doping-site-dependent semimetal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiang-Long; Jin, Yuan-Jun; Wu, Jiansheng

    2016-08-01

    Weyl semimetals have recently attracted enormous attention due to their unusual features. So far, this novel state has been predicted theoretically and confirmed experimentally in several materials, such as HgTe, LaPtBi, Y2Ir2O7, TaAs, TaP, NbAs, NbP and HgCr2Se4. Doping plays an important role in the research of condensed-matter materials. However, its influence on the Weyl semimetal has been little investigated. Here, we present detailed first-principles and theoretical studies on HgCr2Se4 with doping of Te atoms at the Se sites. A special case where only one pair of crossing points locates at the Fermi level is realized in HgCr2Se3.5Te0.5 where one of the Se atoms in the primitive unit cell is replaced by a Te atom. A further study of k·p theory shows that the two points constitute a pair of Weyl nodes with opposite chiralities in the momentum space, and only one edge state and one single Fermi arc are obtained at each boundary of a film. Moreover, through investigations and analyses of different doping cases of HgCr2Se3.5Te0.5, we find that when the type of doping induces inversion symmetry or positional disorder, the Weyl nodes transform into Dirac points resulting in a change from a Weyl semimetal to a Dirac semimetal.

  17. Multi-Pollutant Emissions Control: Pilot Plant Study of Technologies for Reducing Hg, SO3, NOx and CO2 Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Fenger; Richard A. Winschel

    2005-08-31

    A slipstream pilot plant was built and operated to investigate technology to adsorb mercury (Hg) onto the existing particulate (i.e., fly ash) by cooling flue gas to 200-240 F with a Ljungstrom-type air heater or with water spray. The mercury on the fly ash was then captured in an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). An alkaline material, magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH){sub 2}), is injected into flue gas upstream of the air heater to control sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}), which prevents acid condensation and corrosion of the air heater and ductwork. The slipstream was taken from a bituminous coal-fired power plant. During this contract, Plant Design and Construction (Task 1), Start Up and Maintenance (Task 2), Baseline Testing (Task 3), Sorbent Testing (Task 4), Parametric Testing (Task 5), Humidification Tests (Task 6), Long-Term Testing (Task 7), and a Corrosion Study (Task 8) were completed. The Mercury Stability Study (Task 9), ESP Report (Task 11), Air Heater Report (Task 12) and Final Report (Task 14) were completed. These aspects of the project, as well as progress on Public Outreach (Task 15), are discussed in detail in this final report. Over 90% mercury removal was demonstrated by cooling the flue gas to 200-210 F at the ESP inlet; baseline conditions with 290 F flue gas gave about 26% removal. Mercury removal is sensitive to flue gas temperature and carbon content of fly ash. At 200-210 F, both elemental and oxidized mercury were effectively captured at the ESP. Mg(OH){sub 2} injection proved effective for removal of SO{sub 3} and eliminated rapid fouling of the air heater. The pilot ESP performed satisfactorily at low temperature conditions. Mercury volatility and leaching tests did not show any stability problems. No significant corrosion was detected at the air heater or on corrosion coupons at the ESP. The results justify larger-scale testing/demonstration of the technology. These conclusions are presented and discussed in two presentations given in July and

  18. Magnetotransmission of unpolarized infrared radiation in Hg1 - x Cd x Cr2Se4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) single crystals studied using the voigt geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhorukov, Yu. P.; Telegin, A. V.; Bebenin, N. G.; Patrakov, E. I.; Naumov, S. V.; Fedorov, V. A.; Menshchikova, T. K.

    2013-11-01

    The features characterizing the behavior of magnetotransmission in Hg1 - x Cd x Cr2Se4 single crystals are studied using natural light in the infrared spectral range. The relation between the changes in the magneto-optical properties and in the electron band structure is found. It is shown that the most significant changes in the magnetotransmission spectrum and the band structure occur within the 0.1 < x < 0.25 range.

  19. Interface morphology studies of liquid phase epitaxy grown HgCdTe films by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azoulay, M.; George, M. A.; Burger, A.; Collins, W. E.; Silberman, E.

    1994-04-01

    In this paper we report an investigation of the morphology of the interfaces of liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) grown HgCdTe thin films on CdTe and CdZnTe substrates by atomic force microscopy (AFM) on freshly cleaved (110) crystallographic planes. An empirical observation which may be linked to lattice mismatch was indicated by an angle between the cleavage steps of the substrate to those of the film. The precipitates with size ranging from 5 nm to 20 nm were found to be most apparent near the interface.

  20. Matrix isolation as a tool for studying interstellar chemical reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, David W.; Ortman, Bryan J.; Hauge, Robert H.; Margrave, John L.

    1989-01-01

    Since the identification of the OH radical as an interstellar species, over 50 molecular species were identified as interstellar denizens. While identification of new species appears straightforward, an explanation for their mechanisms of formation is not. Most astronomers concede that large bodies like interstellar dust grains are necessary for adsorption of molecules and their energies of reactions, but many of the mechanistic steps are unknown and speculative. It is proposed that data from matrix isolation experiments involving the reactions of refractory materials (especially C, Si, and Fe atoms and clusters) with small molecules (mainly H2, H2O, CO, CO2) are particularly applicable to explaining mechanistic details of likely interstellar chemical reactions. In many cases, matrix isolation techniques are the sole method of studying such reactions; also in many cases, complexations and bond rearrangements yield molecules never before observed. The study of these reactions thus provides a logical basis for the mechanisms of interstellar reactions. A list of reactions is presented that would simulate interstellar chemical reactions. These reactions were studied using FTIR-matrix isolation techniques.

  1. Inclined Fiber Pullout from a Cementitious Matrix: A Numerical Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Yu, Rena C

    2016-09-26

    It is well known that fibers improve the performance of cementitious composites by acting as bridging ligaments in cracks. Such bridging behavior is often studied through fiber pullout tests. The relation between the pullout force vs. slip end displacement is characteristic of the fiber-matrix interface. However, such a relation varies significantly with the fiber inclination angle. In the current work, we establish a numerical model to simulate the entire pullout process by explicitly representing the fiber, matrix and the interface for arbitrary fiber orientations. Cohesive elements endorsed with mixed-mode fracture capacities are implemented to represent the bond-slip behavior at the interface. Contact elements with Coulomb's friction are placed at the interface to simulate frictional contact. The bond-slip behavior is first calibrated through pull-out curves for fibers aligned with the loading direction, then validated against experimental results for steel fibers oriented at 30 ∘ and 60 ∘ . Parametric studies are then performed to explore the influences of both material properties (fiber yield strength, matrix tensile strength, interfacial bond) and geometric factors (fiber diameter, embedment length and inclination angle) on the overall pullout behavior, in particular on the maximum pullout load. The proposed methodology provides the necessary pull-out curves for a fiber oriented at a given angle for multi-scale models to study fracture in fiber-reinforced cementitious materials. The novelty lies in its capacity to capture the entire pullout process for a fiber with an arbitrary inclination angle.

  2. Feasibility study on the use of soil washing to remediate the As-Hg contamination at an ancient mining and metallurgy area.

    PubMed

    Sierra, C; Menéndez-Aguado, J M; Afif, E; Carrero, M; Gallego, J R

    2011-11-30

    Soils in abandoned mining sites generally present high concentrations of trace elements, such as As and Hg. Here we assessed the feasibility of washing procedures to physically separate these toxic elements from soils affected by a considerable amount of mining and metallurgical waste ("La Soterraña", Asturias, NW Spain). After exhaustive soil sampling and subsequent particle-size separation via wet sieving, chemical and mineralogical analysis revealed that the finer fractions held very high concentrations of As (up to 32,500 ppm) and Hg (up to 1600 ppm). These elements were both associated mainly with Fe/Mn oxides and hydroxides. Textural and geochemical data were correlated with the geological substrate by means of a multivariate statistical analysis. In addition, the Hg liberation size (below 200 μm) was determined to be main factor conditioning the selection of suitable soil washing strategies. These studies were finally complemented with a specific-gravity study performed with a C800 Mozley separator together with a grindability test, both novel approaches in soil washing feasibility studies. The results highlighted the difficulties in treating "La Soterraña" soils. These difficulties are attributed to the presence of contaminants embedded in the soil and spoil heap aggregates, caused by the meteorization of gangue and ore minerals. As a result of these two characteristics, high concentrations of the contaminants accumulate in all grain-size fractions. Therefore, the soil washing approach proposed here includes the grinding of particles above 125 μm.

  3. Coexistence of superconductivity and antiferromagnetism in HgBa2Ca4Cu5Oy : Multiharmonic susceptibility and vortex dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisan, A.; Tanaka, Y.; Iyo, A.; Shivagan, D. D.; Shirage, P. M.; Tokiwa, K.; Watanabe, T.; Cosereanu, L.; Button, T. W.; Abell, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    We have studied the multiharmonic ac susceptibility response of HgBa2Ca4Cu5Oy (Hg:1245), a multilayered high-temperature superconductor (HTS) having two crystallographically inequivalent CuO2 planes in a unit cell with very imbalanced carrier concentrations. Vortex melting lines are well described by the commonly accepted model of melting with moderate anisotropy factors of 40-50, depending on the doping level. The diamagnetic response with applied fields parallel to superconducting (a,b) planes also shows a quite robust supercurrent along the c axis. Our results are also discussed in connection with contradictory models and experiments regarding the coexistence of superconductivity and antiferromagnetism in HTSs.

  4. Collagen matrix as a tool in studying fibroblastic cell behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kanta, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Type I collagen is a fibrillar protein, a member of a large family of collagen proteins. It is present in most body tissues, usually in combination with other collagens and other components of extracellular matrix. Its synthesis is increased in various pathological situations, in healing wounds, in fibrotic tissues and in many tumors. After extraction from collagen-rich tissues it is widely used in studies of cell behavior, especially those of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Cells cultured in a classical way, on planar plastic dishes, lack the third dimension that is characteristic of body tissues. Collagen I forms gel at neutral pH and may become a basis of a 3D matrix that better mimics conditions in tissue than plastic dishes. PMID:25734486

  5. Characteristics of equilibrium, kinetics studies for adsorption of Hg(II), Cu(II), and Ni(II) ions by thiourea-modified magnetic chitosan microspheres.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Limin; Wang, Yiping; Liu, Zhirong; Huang, Qunwu

    2009-01-30

    Magnetic chitosan microspheres were prepared and chemically modified with thiourea (TMCS) for adsorption of metal ions. TMCS obtained were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), IR, magnetic properties and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The adsorption properties of TMCS toward Hg(2+), Cu(2+), and Ni(2+) ions were evaluated. Various factors affecting the uptake behavior such as contact time, temperature, pH and initial concentration of the metal ions were investigated. The kinetics was evaluated utilizing the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and the intra-particle diffusion models. The equilibrium data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Tempkin isotherm models. The adsorption kinetics followed the mechanism of the pseudo-second-order equation for all systems studied, evidencing chemical sorption as the rate-limiting step of adsorption mechanism and not involving a mass transfer in solution. The best interpretation for the equilibrium data was given by Langmuir isotherm, and the maximum adsorption capacities were 625.2, 66.7, and 15.3mg/g for Hg(2+), Cu(2+), and Ni(2+) ions, respectively. TMCS displayed higher adsorption capacity for Hg(2+) in all pH ranges studied. The adsorption capacity of the metal ions decreased with increasing temperature. The metal ion-loaded TMCS with were regenerated with an efficiency of greater than 88% using 0.01-0.1M ethylendiamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA).

  6. Methylmercury (MeHg)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methylmercury ( MeHg ) ; CASRN 22967 - 92 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  7. Investigation of uptake and retention of atmospheric Hg(II) by boreal forest plants using stable Hg isotopes.

    PubMed

    Graydon, Jennifer A; St Louis, Vincent L; Hintelmann, Holger; Lindberg, Steve E; Sandilands, Ken A; Rudd, John W M; Kelly, Carol A; Tate, Michael T; Krabbenhoft, Dave P; Lehnherr, Igor

    2009-07-01

    Although there is now a general consensus among mercury (Hg) biogeochemists that increased atmospheric inputs of inorganic Hg(II) to lakes and watersheds can result in increased methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in fish, researchers still lack kinetic data describing the movement of Hg from the atmosphere, through watershed and lake ecosystems, and into fish. The use of isotopically enriched Hg species in environmental studies now allows experimentally applied new Hg to be distinguished from ambient Hg naturally present in the system. Four different enriched stable Hg(II) isotope "spikes" were applied sequentially over four years to the ground vegetation of a microcatchment at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) in the remote boreal forest of Canada to examine retention of Hg(II) following deposition. Areal masses of the spikes and ambient THg (all forms of Hg in a sample) were monitored for eight years, and the pattern of spike retention was used to estimate retention of newly deposited ambient Hg within the ground vegetation pool. Fifty to eighty percent of applied spike Hg was initially retained by ground vegetation. The areal mass of spike Hg declined exponentially over time and was best described by a first-order process with constants(k) ranging between 9.7 x 10(-40 day(-1) and 11.6 x 10(-4) day(-1). Average halflife (t1/2) of spike Hg within the ground vegetation pool (+/-S.D.) was 704 +/- 52 days. This retention of new atmospheric Hg(II) by vegetation delays movement of new Hg(II) into soil, runoff, and finally into adjacent lakes. Ground-applied Hg(II) spikes were not detected in tree foliage and litterfall, indicating that stomatal and/or root uptake of previously deposited Hg (i.e., "recycled" from ground vegetation or soil Hg pools) were likely not large sources of foliar Hg under these experimental conditions.

  8. Investigation of uptake and retention of atmospheric Hg(II) by boreal forest plants using stable Hg isotopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graydon, J.A.; St. Louis, V.L.; Hintelmann, H.; Lindberg, S.E.; Sandilands, K.A.; Rudd, J.W.M.; Kelly, C.A.; Tate, M.T.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Lehnherr, I.

    2009-01-01

    Although there is now a general consensus among mercury (Hg) biogeochemists that increased atmospheric inputs of inorganic Hg(II) to lakes and watersheds can result in increased methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in fish, researchers still lack kinetic data describing the movement of Hg from the atmosphere, through watershed and lake ecosystems, and into fish. The use of isotopically enriched Hg species in environmental studies now allows experimentally applied new Hg to be distinguished from ambient Hg naturally present in the system. Four different enriched stable Hg(II) isotope "spikes" were applied sequentially over four years to the ground vegetation of a microcatchment at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) in the remote boreal forest of Canada to examine retention of Hg(II) following deposition. Areal masses of the spikes and ambient THg (all forms of Hg in a sample) were monitored for eight years, and the pattern of spike retention was used to estimate retention of newly deposited ambient Hg within the ground vegetation pool. Fifty to eighty percent of applied spike Hg was initially retained by ground vegetation. The areal mass of spike Hg declined exponentially over time and was best described by a first-order process with constants (k) ranging between 9.7 ?? 10-4 day -1 and 11.6 ?? 10-4 day-1. Average half-life (t1/2) of spike Hg within the ground vegetation pool (??S.D.) was 704 ?? 52 days. This retention of new atmospheric Hg(II) by vegetation delays movement of new Hg(II) into soil, runoff, and finally into adjacent lakes. Ground-applied Hg(II) spikes were not detected in tree foliage and litterfall, indicating that stomatal and/or root uptake of previously deposited Hg (i.e., "recycled" from ground vegetation or soil Hg pools) were likely not large sources of foliar Hg under these experimental conditions. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  9. Isotherm, kinetic, and thermodynamic studies on Hg(II) adsorption from aqueous solution by silica- multiwall carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Tawfik A

    2015-11-01

    Silica combined with 2% multiwall carbon nanotubes (SiO2-CNT) was synthesized and characterized. Its sorption efficacy was investigated for the Hg(II) removal from an aqueous solution. The effect of pH on the percentage removal by the prepared material was examined in the range from 3 to 7. The adsorption kinetics were well fitted by using a pseudo-second-order model at various initial Hg(II) concentrations with R (2) of >0.99. The experimental data were plotted using the interparticle diffusion model, which indicated that the interparticle diffusion is not the only rate-limiting step. The data is well described by the Freundlich isotherm equation. The activation energy (Ea) for adsorption was 12.7 kJ mol(-1), indicating the process is to be physisorption. Consistent with an endothermic process, an increase in the temperature resulted in increasing mercury removal with a ∆H(o) of 13.3 kJ/mol and a ∆S(o) 67.5 J/mol K. The experimental results demonstrate that the combining of silica and nanotubes is a promising alternative material, which can be used to remove the mercury from wastewaters.

  10. DFT studies on some properties of maleonitriledithiolate complexes [M(mnt)2]2- (M=Ni, Pd, Pt and Zn, Cd, Hg).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hu; Zhang, Yu; Zhu, Dun-ru

    2012-02-01

    The structures and some molecular properties of the complexes M(mnt)(2)(2-) (M=Ni, Pd, Pt and Zn, Cd, Hg; mnt(2-)=deprotonated maleonitriledithiolate) have been studied by using density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP/LanL2DZ level of theory. Computed binding energies show that the sequences of binding strengths are NiHgHg complexes gain electrons to their ns orbitals. The absorption spectra of these complexes were obtained by using time-dependent density functional theory associated with polarized continuum model. Comparison of the absorption spectra in acetonitrile solution with those in gas phase show that the solvatochromic effect made the lowest energy absorption red shift by 31, 34 and 44 nm for d(8) metal complexes Ni(mnt)(2)(2-), Pd(mnt)(2)(2-) and Pt(mnt)(2)(2-), respectively, while blue shift by 28, 44, 25 nm for d(10) metal complexes Zn(mnt)(2)(2-), Cd(mnt)(2)(2-) and Hg(mnt)(2)(2-), respectively. The calculated results reproduced the experimental data with the deviations less than 5% for Ni-S stretching vibrational frequencies and less than 3% for other vibrational modes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis, characterization, DFT and biological studies of isatinpicolinohydrazone and its Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Gammal, O. A.; Rakha, T. H.; Metwally, H. M.; Abu El-Reash, G. M.

    2014-06-01

    Isatinpicolinohydrazone (H2IPH) and its Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) complexes have been synthesized and investigated using physicochemical techniques viz. IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, UV-Vis spectrometric methods and magnetic moment measurements. The investigation revealed that H2IPH acts as binegative tetradentate in Zn(II), neutral tridentate in Cd(II) and as neutral bidentate towards Hg(II) complex. Octahedral geometry is proposed for all complexes. The bond length, bond angle, chemical reactivity, energy components (kcal/mol), binding energy (kcal/mol) and dipole moment (Debyes) for all the title compounds were evaluated by DFT and also MEP for the ligand is shown. Theoretical infrared intensities of H2IPH and also the theoretical electronic spectra of the ligand and its complexes were calculated. The thermal behavior and the kinetic parameters of degradation were determined using Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger methods. The in vitro antibacterial studies of the complexes proved them as growth inhibiting agents. The DDPH antioxidant of the compounds have been screened. Antitumor activity, carried out in vitro on human mammary gland (breast) MCF7, have shown that Hg(II) complex exhibited potent activity followed by Zn(II), Cd(II) complexes and the ligand.

  12. Synthesis, characterization, DFT and biological studies of isatinpicolinohydrazone and its Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    El-Gammal, O A; Rakha, T H; Metwally, H M; Abu El-Reash, G M

    2014-06-05

    Isatinpicolinohydrazone (H2IPH) and its Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) complexes have been synthesized and investigated using physicochemical techniques viz. IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, UV-Vis spectrometric methods and magnetic moment measurements. The investigation revealed that H2IPH acts as binegative tetradentate in Zn(II), neutral tridentate in Cd(II) and as neutral bidentate towards Hg(II) complex. Octahedral geometry is proposed for all complexes. The bond length, bond angle, chemical reactivity, energy components (kcal/mol), binding energy (kcal/mol) and dipole moment (Debyes) for all the title compounds were evaluated by DFT and also MEP for the ligand is shown. Theoretical infrared intensities of H2IPH and also the theoretical electronic spectra of the ligand and its complexes were calculated. The thermal behavior and the kinetic parameters of degradation were determined using Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger methods. The in vitro antibacterial studies of the complexes proved them as growth inhibiting agents. The DDPH antioxidant of the compounds have been screened. Antitumor activity, carried out in vitro on human mammary gland (breast) MCF7, have shown that Hg(II) complex exhibited potent activity followed by Zn(II), Cd(II) complexes and the ligand.

  13. Identification of Atmospheric Mercury Input to Ecosystems From Precipitation Using Coupled Δ200Hg and Δ204Hg Fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, J. D.; Johnson, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    Mercury has seven stable isotopes, and during most biogeochemical reactions all of the isotopes fractionate mass dependently (MDF; relative to δ202/198Hg). The odd isotopes also fractionate mass independently (MIF) during reactions involving the magnetic isotope and nuclear volume effects. In 2010 we first reported MIF of 200Hg in precipitation (Gratz et al), and in 2013 we reported MIF of 204Hg in precipitation (Demers et al). Measurements of Δ200Hg are becoming more common and several studies have now used Δ200Hg as a tracer of Hg(II) deposited from the atmosphere (Chen et al, 2012; Strok et al 2015). Δ204Hg is much less commonly measured and reported, but sheds additional light on the mechanisms that might cause even isotope MIF. We observe Δ204Hg to be of opposite sign and ~2x the magnitude of Δ200Hg. The presence of coupled Δ200Hg and Δ204Hg is most useful for detecting precipitation inputs of Hg to ecosystems. We have measured Δ200Hg and Δ204Hg in hundreds of samples of precipitation, invertebrates, fish, moss, lichen, ice crystals and GEM at many locations in North America and Hawaii. When average values for each sample type at each study location are plotted as Δ200Hg versus Δ204Hg they fall on a linear array with slope=0.57 and R2=0.92. Samples of sediment, coal, various rock-types, and point-source contaminants have contrasting Δ200Hg and Δ204Hg indistinguishable from zero. We also use combined Δ200Hg and Δ204Hg to explore mechanisms leading to even isotope MIF. Ghosh et al (2012) measured nuclear volume fractionation and found even MIF to be undetectable. Mead et al (2013) calculated even mass MIF from nuclear self-shielding and it does not fit our observations of Δ200Hg/Δ204Hg in natural samples; they also measured MIF caused by implantation of Hg into glass in compact fluorescent lights (CFLs) and this is consistent with Δ200Hg/Δ204Hg in atmospheric Hg(II), suggesting the possibility of a common fractionation mechanism.

  14. Mercury (Hg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations in fish from the coastal lagoon of Orbetello, central Italy.

    PubMed

    Miniero, R; Beccaloni, E; Carere, M; Ubaldi, A; Mancini, L; Marchegiani, S; Cicero, M R; Scenati, R; Lucchetti, D; Ziemacki, G; De Felip, E

    2013-11-15

    Total mercury (Hg tot) and methyl mercury (MeHg) were quantified in several specimens of Dicentrarchus labrax and Sparus aurata from the east basin of the Orbetello lagoon, central Italy. The size of each specimen was recorded to estimate body burdens (BBs); =Hg tot and MeHg were measured in fillets of both species. Hg tot and MeHg in S. aurata ranged between 0.355-1.58 and 0.341-1.53 μg/g wet weight (ww), respectively; in D. labrax, their ranges were 0.284-2.54 and 0.214-2.35 μg/g ww. Approximately 90% of the concentrations measured exceeded Hg tot regulatory maximum level of 0.5 μg/g ww; however, exceedance rate was different in the two species studied. No correlations between specimen size and Hg tot or MeHg BBs were detected in this study.

  15. Stabilization of Nanoparticulate HgS by Thiols and Humic Substances During HgS Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu-Kim, H.; Deonarine, A.

    2008-12-01

    In the aquatic environment mercury has a strong affinity for reduced sulfur-containing ligands such as inorganic sulfides and thiolate functional groups in natural organic matter (NOM). Complexation of aqueous Hg(II) is particularly important because coordination to inorganic sulfide and humic compounds governs Hg(II) speciation (and subsequent bioavailability and mobility) in contaminated water and sediment. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential for NOM-coated HgS nanoparticles in the aquatic environment. HgS precipitation experiments were conducted in the presence of natural organic acids that are prevalent in surface water and sediment porewater. Dynamic light scattering was used to the monitor the size of HgS particles precipitating over time. The results indicated that humic substances decreased growth rates of precipitating HgS particles and stabilized particles with aggregate diameters smaller than 0.2 μm for at least 8 hours. Thiol-containing low molecular weight acids such as cysteine and thioglycolate also decreased growth of HgS particles whereas the hydroxyl-containing acids (serine and glycolate) did not affect particle growth rates. As the humic and thiol concentration increased in solution, growth rates of HgS particles decreased. Growth rates of the aggregates increased in solutions with greater ionic strength. Nanoparticles of HgS would be possible in aquatic environments where HgS precipitation is possible. We conducted equilibrium speciation calculations to determine HgS(s) saturation indices under conditions typical for sediment porewater. The calculations indicated that the metacinnabar saturation index was 1 to 3 orders of magnitude above or below saturation, depending on Hg-(bi)sulfide and Hg-NOM binding constants, which vary by orders of magnitude. These insights suggest that HgS nanoparticles may exist in surface waters and porewater of contaminated sediments as a result of kinetically-hindered mineralization reactions. Hg

  16. Nano modification of NZVI with an aquatic plant Azolla filiculoides to remove Pb(II) and Hg(II) from water: Aging time and mechanism study.

    PubMed

    Arshadi, M; Abdolmaleki, M K; Mousavinia, F; Foroughifard, S; Karimzadeh, A

    2017-01-15

    This paper reports the preparation and stabilization of nano zero valent iron (NZVI) on a modified aquatic plant, Azolla filiculoides, and investigates its potential for the adsorption/reduction of Pb(II) and Hg(II) ions from aqueous media even after six months of storage in the lab condition. XRD, TEM and zeta potential results demonstrated that the Azolla-NaOH could be a good stabilizer of aged NZVI (six months) and the green support suppressed the oxidation and aggregation of immobilized NZVI. Kinetic and equilibrium models for lead and mercury ions uptake were developed by considering the effect of the initial Pb(II) and Hg(II) concentrations, contact time, adsorbent dosage, initial pH and effect of temperature. The contact time to obtain equilibrium for maximum uptake by Azolla-OH-NZVI was 20min. The removal of toxic metal ions has been monitored in terms of pseudo-first- and -second-order kinetics, and the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms models have also been utilized to the equilibrium uptake results. The uptake kinetics followed the mechanism of the pseudo-second-order equation for all systems studied, confirming chemical sorption as the rate-limiting step of adsorption mechanisms and not involving a mass transfer in solution. The thermodynamic results confirmed that the uptake of Pb(II) and Hg(II) ions were feasible, spontaneous and endothermic at 25-80°C. XRD and zeta potential data displayed the existence of Pb(0) and Hg(0) on the Azolla-OH-NZVI surface. The nanobioadsorbent revealed high recyclability due to its reasonable uptake efficiency after 7th adsorption-desorption cycles. The proposed nano biocomposite could also be utilized to uptake Pb(II) and Hg(II) ions from the real water (Anzali lagoon water). However, coated NZVI with Azolla filiculoides as a green and environmentally friendly support suppressed rapid oxidation and aggregation of the immobilized NZVI, therefore vastly enhancing the probability of environmental transport and reducing

  17. Hg(+) Frequency Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prestage, John D.; Tjoelker, Robert L.; Maleki, Lute

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we review the development of Hg(+) microwave frequency standards for use in high reliability and continuous operation applications. In recent work we have demonstrated short-term frequency stability of 3 x 10(exp -14)/nu(sub tau) when a cryogenic oscillator of stability 2-3 x 10(exp 15) was used a the local oscillator. The trapped ion frequency standard employs a Hg-202 discharge lamp to optically pump the trapped Hg(+)-199 clock ions and a helium buffer gas to cool the ions to near room temperature. We describe a small Hg(+) ion trap based frequency standard with an extended linear ion trap (LITE) architecture which separates the optical state selection region from the clock resonance region. This separation allows the use of novel trap configurations in the resonance region since no optical pumping is carried out there. A method for measuring the size of an ion cloud inside a linear trap with a 12-rod trap is currently being investigated. At approx. 10(exp -12), the 2nd order Doppler shift for trapped mercury ion frequency standards is one of the largest frequency offsets and its measurement to the 1% level would represent an advance in insuring the very long-term stability of these standards to the 10(exp -14) or better level. Finally, we describe atomic clock comparison experiments that can probe for a time variation of the fine structure constant, alpha = e(exp 2)/2(pi)hc, at the level of 10(exp -20)/year as predicted in some Grand Unified String Theories.

  18. Influence of Ga/Hg Ratio on Phase Constituents and Electrochemical Performance of Mg-Hg-Ga Anode Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Libo; Li, Peijie; He, Liangju

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the impacts of Mg-Hg-Ga alloys of various Ga/Hg ratios on phase constituents and electrochemical performance. The relationship between composition and phase constituents of the casting alloys were investigated by SEM and XRD Potentiodynamic polarization curves and the galvanostatic curves of the alloys in 3.5wt% NaCl solution were obtained. With a Ga/Hg ratio greater than 0.97, the second phase changes from Mg3Hg to Mg5Ga2, and the normal eutectic becomes a divorced eutectic. Additionally, corrosion is inhibited and passivation appears with an increase in the Ga/Hg ratio increase. With a starting Ga/Hg ratio of less than 0.68, the discharge process becomes steadier and discharge time simultaneiously increases with the Ga/Hg ratio. Mg-Hg-Ga alloys with a 0.68 Ga/Hg ratio are suitable as the anode material for seawater batteries.

  19. Random matrix study for a three-terminal chaotic device

    SciTech Connect

    Martínez-Argüello, A. M.; Castaño, E.; Martínez-Mares, M.

    2014-01-14

    We perform a study based on a random-matrix theory simulation for a three-terminal device, consisting of chaotic cavities on each terminal. We analyze the voltage drop along one wire with two chaotic mesoscopic cavities, connected by a perfect conductor, or waveguide, with one open mode. This is done by means of a probe, which also consists of a chaotic cavity that measure the voltage in different configurations. Our results show significant differences with respect to the disordered case, previously considered in the literature.

  20. Density matrix renormalization group numerical study of the kagome antiferromagnet.

    PubMed

    Jiang, H C; Weng, Z Y; Sheng, D N

    2008-09-12

    We numerically study the spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on the kagome lattice using the density-matrix renormalization group method. We find that the ground state is a magnetically disordered spin liquid, characterized by an exponential decay of spin-spin correlation function in real space and a magnetic structure factor showing system-size independent peaks at commensurate magnetic wave vectors. We obtain a spin triplet excitation gap DeltaE(S=1)=0.055+/-0.005 by extrapolation based on the large size results, and confirm the presence of gapless singlet excitations. The physical nature of such an exotic spin liquid is also discussed.

  1. Error analysis and feasibility study of dynamic stiffness matrix-based damping matrix identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozgen, Gokhan O.; Kim, Jay H.

    2009-02-01

    Developing a method to formulate a damping matrix that represents the actual spatial distribution and mechanism of damping of the dynamic system has been an elusive goal. The dynamic stiffness matrix (DSM)-based damping identification method proposed by Lee and Kim is attractive and promising because it identifies the damping matrix from the measured DSM without relying on any unfounded assumptions. However, in ensuing works it was found that damping matrices identified from the method had unexpected forms and showed traces of large variance errors. The causes and possible remedies of the problem are sought for in this work. The variance and leakage errors are identified as the major sources of the problem, which are then related to system parameters through numerical and experimental simulations. An improved experimental procedure is developed to reduce the effect of these errors in order to make the DSM-based damping identification method a practical option.

  2. Shock Interaction Studies on Glass Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, K. P. J.; Jagadeesh, G.; Jayaram, V.; Reddy, B. Harinath; Madhu, V.; Reddy, C. Jaya Rami

    Glass fibre reinforced polymer matrix composites are being extensively used for structural applications both in civil and defense sectors, owing to their high specific strength, stiffness and good energy absorbing capability. Understanding the dynamic response of these composites on shock loading is very essential for effective design of structures resistant to blast loads. In the present study, E- glass/epoxy composite laminate has been fabricated and evaluated for their mechanical properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength and inter laminar shear strength (ILSS). Further, dynamic response of E-glass laminates is presently studied by shock loading. When E-glass composite subjected to peak shock reflected pressure of 7.2 MPa and estimated temperature of about 14000 K for short duration, it underwent surface discolorations and charring of epoxy matrix. Post test analysis of the composite sample was carried out to study the damage analysis using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), changes in thermal properties of composites using Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA) and Thermo-Gravimetric Analyzer (TGA). The results of these investigations are discussed in this paper.

  3. INITIAL CHARACTERIZATIONS AND SRAT SIMULATIONS OF FOUR SLUDGE MATRIX STUDY SIMULANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman,D.; Lambert, D.

    2009-12-10

    -to-nitrate conversion were found that can be used in the acid calculations for future sludge matrix process simulations. A reasonable determination of the minimum acid requirement for nitrite destruction was found to be slightly less than 105% of the Koopman minimum stoichiometric acid equation prediction for all four simulants at the low noble metal concentrations. The Koopman minimum stoichiometric acid equation is based on supernate carbonate, plus total Mg and Ca, in addition to the usual DWPF inputs such as base equivalents and Mn. This group of four tests extends the range of bulk insoluble solids concentrations over which the new Koopman minimum stoichiometric acid equation has been validated. The low iron-low manganese case appeared to have somewhat more excess acid than the other three combinations. Preliminary results of the initial testing indicate: (1) Hydrogen generation rate was not an issue in these tests. (2) Mercury stripping was less efficient than expected at about 1000 g steam/g mercury stripped. Only about 25% of the initial concentration of 1.5 wt% Hg in the total solids was removed in 13-14 hours of boiling, when 70% needed to be removed to meet the DWPF SRAT product specification of 0.45 wt% in the total solids. (3) Foaminess was not an issue using the nominal antifoam addition strategy in these tests. (4) Ammonia generation was not an issue based on off-gas condensate analyses. (5) One of the SRAT products (an HM-type simulant) was much more viscous than the other three SRAT products even though it had the lowest wt% insoluble solids. More comprehensive results concerning the impact of insoluble solids composition on processing, melt rate, etc. must await completion of the full sludge matrix study experimental scope.

  4. Thermal Studies of Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) Complexes of Some N-Alkyl-N-Phenyl-Dithiocarbamates

    PubMed Central

    Onwudiwe, Damian C.; Ajibade, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) complexes of N-ethyl-N-phenyl and N-butyl-N-phenyl dithiocarbamates have been studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The products of the decomposition, at two different temperatures, were further characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The results show that while the zinc and cadmium complexes undergo decomposition to form metal sulphides, and further undergo oxidation forming metal oxides as final products, the mercury complexes gave unstable volatiles as the final product. PMID:22949811

  5. Relativistic unitary coupled-cluster study of the electric quadrupole moment and magnetic dipole hyperfine constants of {sup 199}Hg{sup +}

    SciTech Connect

    Sur, Chiranjib; Chaudhuri, Rajat K.

    2007-09-15

    Searching for an accurate optical clock which can serve as a better time standard than the present-day atomic clock is highly demanding from several areas of science and technology. Several attempts have been made to build more accurate clocks with different ion species. In this paper, we discuss the electric quadrupole and hyperfine shifts in the 5d{sup 9}6s{sup 2} {sup 2}D{sub 5/2}(F=0,m{sub F}=0){r_reversible}5d{sup 10}6s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}(F=2,m{sub F}=0) clock transition in {sup 199}Hg{sup +}, one of the most promising candidates for next-generation optical clocks. We have applied Fock-space unitary coupled-cluster theory to study the electric quadrupole moment of the 5d{sup 9}6s{sup 2} {sup 2}D{sub 5/2} state and magnetic dipole hyperfine constants of 5d{sup 9}6s{sup 2} {sup 2}D{sub 3/2,5/2} and 5d{sup 10}6s{sup 1} {sup 2}S{sub 1/2} states, respectively, of {sup 199}Hg{sup +}. We have also compared our results with available data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a variant of coupled-cluster theories has been applied to study these kinds of properties of Hg{sup +} and is the most accurate estimate of these quantities to date.

  6. X-ray absorption spectroscopic study of new high-Tc superconducting intercalation compound of (HgX2)0.5Bi2Sr2CaCu2Oy(X=Br,I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choy, Jin-Ho; Park, Nam-Gyu; Hwang, Seong-Ju; Hwang, Sung-Ho; Kim, Dong-Hoon

    1996-06-01

    We have systematically performed x-ray absorption spectroscopic (XAS) studies on the new mercuric halide intercalated superconductors, (HgX2)0.5Bi2Sr2CaCu2Oy with X equals Br and I, in order to investigate the electronic and crystal structure of these compounds. The present Hg LIII-edge EXAFS results indicate that the mercury is coordinated with two bromide or iodide ligands with bond length of 2.46 angstrom for the HgBr2-intercalate and 2.65 angstrom for the HgI2-one. This is the first example of linear molecular salt of HgX2 stabilized in the solid lattice. According to the I LI- and Br K-edge x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopic studies, a small amount of electron transfer from the intercalant HgX2 to the host lattice could be observed upon intercalation, resulting in the negatively charged state of (HgX2)(delta -). The Cu K-edge EXAFS analysis reveals that the bond distance of Cu-Oaxial is slightly shortened upon intercalation, reflecting the oxidation of (Cu-O) layer, which is well consistent with the I LI- and Br K-edge XANES results.

  7. Fabrication process study for matrix silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepovalova, Olga V.

    2017-02-01

    The possibility of manufacturing silicon matrix solar cells (MSC) on the base of multi-layer epitaxial structures with electrically broken reverse-biased p-n junctions has been investigated. As a result of technological processes studies, experimental dependencies and theoretical expressions have been obtained to determine the values of electrical breakdown voltages applied in the course of MSC multi-layer epitaxial structure fabrication. The optimal technological conditions and parameters of the MSC fabrication process have been defined. Experimental samples of MSCs have been studied. The output voltage of experimental samples is 0.3V to 0.6V per one p-n junction wile the efficiency is from 8% to 8.6%, for MSCs with ten n-p junctions, and it ranges from 8.2% to 8.5%, for MSCs with twelve n-p junctions.

  8. Fibre-matrix bond strength studies of glass, ceramic, and metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grande, D. H.; Mandell, J. F.; Hong, K. C. C.

    1988-01-01

    An indentation test technique for compressively loading the ends of individual fibers to produce debonding has been applied to metal, glass, and glass-ceramic matrix composites; bond strength values at debond initiation are calculated using a finite-element model. Results are correlated with composite longitudinal and interlaminar shear behavior for carbon and Nicalon fiber-reinforced glasses and glass-ceramics including the effects of matrix modifications, processing conditions, and high-temperature oxidation embrittlement. The data indicate that significant bonding to improve off-axis and shear properties can be tolerated before the longitudinal behavior becomes brittle. Residual stress and other mechanical bonding effects are important, but improved analyses and multiaxial interfacial failure criteria are needed to adequately interpret bond strength data in terms of composite performance.

  9. Fibre-matrix bond strength studies of glass, ceramic, and metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grande, D. H.; Mandell, J. F.; Hong, K. C. C.

    1988-01-01

    An indentation test technique for compressively loading the ends of individual fibers to produce debonding has been applied to metal, glass, and glass-ceramic matrix composites; bond strength values at debond initiation are calculated using a finite-element model. Results are correlated with composite longitudinal and interlaminar shear behavior for carbon and Nicalon fiber-reinforced glasses and glass-ceramics including the effects of matrix modifications, processing conditions, and high-temperature oxidation embrittlement. The data indicate that significant bonding to improve off-axis and shear properties can be tolerated before the longitudinal behavior becomes brittle. Residual stress and other mechanical bonding effects are important, but improved analyses and multiaxial interfacial failure criteria are needed to adequately interpret bond strength data in terms of composite performance.

  10. Hg-Mask Coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourget, P.; Veiga, C. H.; Vieira Martins, R.; Assus, P.; Colas, F.

    In order to optimize the occulting process of a Lyot coronagraph and to provide a high dynamic range imaging, a new kind of occulting disk has been developed at the National Observatory of Rio de Janeiro. A mercury (Hg) drop glued onto an optical window by molecular cohesion and compressed by a pellicle film is used as the occulting disk. The minimum of the superficial tension potential function provides an optical precision (lambda/100) of the toric free surface of the mercury. This process provides a size control for the adaptation to the seeing conditions and to the apparent diameter of a resolved object, and in the case of adaptive optics, to the Airy diameter fraction needed. The occultation is a three dimensional process near the focal plane on the toric free surface that provides an apodization of the occultation. The Hg-Mask coronagraph has been projected for astrometric observations of faint satellites near to Jovian planets and works since 2000 at the 1.6 m telescope of the Pico dos Dias Observatory (OPD - Brazil).

  11. Microbial Oxidation of Hg(0) - Its Effect on Hg Stable Isotope Fractionation and Methylmercury Production

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, Nathan; Barkay, Tamar; Reinfelder, John

    2016-06-28

    relationship between Hg concentrations and rates of denitrification in enrichment cultures. In part III of our project, we examined in more detail the effects of microbial interactions on Hg transformations. We discovered that both sulfate reducing and iron reducing bacteria coexist in freshwater sediments and both microbial groups contribute to mercury methylation. We showed that mercury methylation by sulfate reducing and iron reducing bacteria are temporally and spatially separated processes. We also discovered that methanogens can methylate mercury. We showed that Methanospirillum hungatei JF-1 methylated Hg at comparable rates, but with higher yields, than those observed for sulfate-reducing bacteria and iron-reducing bacteria. Finally, we demonstrated that syntrophic interactions between different microbial groups increase mercury methylation rates. We showed that Hg methylation rates are stimulated via inter-species hydrogen and acetate transfer (i) from sulfate-reducing bacteria to methanogens and (ii) from fermenters to the sulfate-reducing bacteria. In part IV of the project, we studied Hg bioavailability and Hg isotope fractionation. We demonstrated that thiol-bound Hg is bioavailable to mercury resistant bacteria. We found that uptake of Hg from Hg-glutathione and Hg-cysteine complexes does not require functioning glutathione and cystine/cysteine transport systems. We demonstrated that a wide range of methylmercury complexes (e.g. MeHgOH, MeHg-cysteine, and MeHg-glutathione) are bioavailable to mercury resistant bacteria. The rate of MeHg demethylation varies more between different species of mercury resistant bacteria than among MeHg complexes. We showed that microbial demethylation of MeHg depends more on the species of microorganism than on the types and relative concentrations of thiols or other MeHg ligands present. Finally, we demonstrated that Hg methylation by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 imparts mass

  12. Anethole-Water a Combined Jet, Matrix, and Computational Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newby, Josh; Nesheiwat, Jackleen

    2016-06-01

    Anethole [(E)-1-methoxy-4-(1-propenyl)benzene] is a natural product molecule that is commonly recognized as the flavor component of anise, fennel, and licorice. Previously, we reported the jet-cooled, laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and single vibronic level fluorescence (SVLF) spectra of anethole. In this work, several weak bands were observed and were tentatively assigned as van der Waals clusters of anethole with water. We have since confirmed this assignment and have conducted a more detailed study to determine the geometry of these clusters. Results from LIF, SVLF, and matrix isolation FTIR spectroscopy, as well as computational results will be presented in this talk. J. Phys. Chem. A, 2013, 117 (48), 12831-12841 Newly built system at Hobart and William Smith Colleges

  13. Insight On Colorectal Carcinoma Infiltration by Studying Perilesional Extracellular Matrix.

    PubMed

    Nebuloni, Manuela; Albarello, Luca; Andolfo, Annapaola; Magagnotti, Cinzia; Genovese, Luca; Locatelli, Irene; Tonon, Giovanni; Longhi, Erika; Zerbi, Pietro; Allevi, Raffaele; Podestà, Alessandro; Puricelli, Luca; Milani, Paolo; Soldarini, Armando; Salonia, Andrea; Alfano, Massimo

    2016-03-04

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) from perilesional and colorectal carcinoma (CRC), but not healthy colon, sustains proliferation and invasion of tumor cells. We investigated the biochemical and physical diversity of ECM in pair-wised comparisons of healthy, perilesional and CRC specimens. Progressive linearization and degree of organization of fibrils was observed from healthy to perilesional and CRC ECM, and was associated with a steady increase of stiffness and collagen crosslinking. In the perilesional ECM these modifications coincided with increased vascularization, whereas in the neoplastic ECM they were associated with altered modulation of matrisome proteins, increased content of hydroxylated lysine and lysyl oxidase. This study identifies the increased stiffness and crosslinking of the perilesional ECM predisposing an environment suitable for CRC invasion as a phenomenon associated with vascularization. The increased stiffness of colon areas may represent a new predictive marker of desmoplastic region predisposing to invasion, thus offering new potential application for monitoring adenoma with invasive potential.

  14. Insight On Colorectal Carcinoma Infiltration by Studying Perilesional Extracellular Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Nebuloni, Manuela; Albarello, Luca; Andolfo, Annapaola; Magagnotti, Cinzia; Genovese, Luca; Locatelli, Irene; Tonon, Giovanni; Longhi, Erika; Zerbi, Pietro; Allevi, Raffaele; Podestà, Alessandro; Puricelli, Luca; Milani, Paolo; Soldarini, Armando; Salonia, Andrea; Alfano, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) from perilesional and colorectal carcinoma (CRC), but not healthy colon, sustains proliferation and invasion of tumor cells. We investigated the biochemical and physical diversity of ECM in pair-wised comparisons of healthy, perilesional and CRC specimens. Progressive linearization and degree of organization of fibrils was observed from healthy to perilesional and CRC ECM, and was associated with a steady increase of stiffness and collagen crosslinking. In the perilesional ECM these modifications coincided with increased vascularization, whereas in the neoplastic ECM they were associated with altered modulation of matrisome proteins, increased content of hydroxylated lysine and lysyl oxidase. This study identifies the increased stiffness and crosslinking of the perilesional ECM predisposing an environment suitable for CRC invasion as a phenomenon associated with vascularization. The increased stiffness of colon areas may represent a new predictive marker of desmoplastic region predisposing to invasion, thus offering new potential application for monitoring adenoma with invasive potential. PMID:26940881

  15. Implementation of a Matrix Organizational Structure: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whorton, David M.

    The implementation of a matrix structure as an alternative to the traditional collegial/bureaucratic form at a college of education in a medium-size state university is described. Matrix organizational structures are differentiated from hierarchical bureaucratic structures by dividing the organization's tasks into functional units across which an…

  16. Implementation of a Matrix Organizational Structure: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whorton, David M.

    The implementation of a matrix structure as an alternative to the traditional collegial/bureaucratic form at a college of education in a medium-size state university is described. Matrix organizational structures are differentiated from hierarchical bureaucratic structures by dividing the organization's tasks into functional units across which an…

  17. Children's Ability to Operate Within a Matrix: A Developmental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Alexander W.; Kresh, Esther

    Eight children from each of five age groups, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 years, were administered matrix tasks involving two nominal dimensions, color and shape. Nine stimulus cells and six attribute cells made up the apparatus. The attribute cells consisted of three colors and three geometric shapes; the stimulus cells made up a matrix consisting of the…

  18. Spectroscopic, and electrochemical studies of [MCl2(η2-N,N-dpksc)] (M = Zn, Cd, Hg and dpksc = di-2-pyridylketone semicarbazone)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakir, Mohammed; McDermot, Covel; Johnson, Toni

    2013-05-01

    A series of group 12 metal chlorides of dpksc of the type [MCl2(η2-N,N-dpksc)] (M = Zn, Cd and Hg) were synthesized from the reactions between MCl2 and dpksc in refluxing CH3CN. Spectroscopic measurements performed on protophilic solutions of [MCl2(η2-N,N-dpksc)] divulged sensitivity of [MCl2(η2-N,N-dpksc)] to changes in their surroundings. Variable temperature 1H NMR studies revealed the amine protons to be more sensitive to temperature variations compared to the amide and aromatic protons. Electronic absorption spectral measurements disclosed acid-base inter-conversion between [MCl2(η2-N,N-dpksc)] and its conjugate base [MCl2(η2-N,N-dpksc-H)]-. In dmf, the acidity of [MCl2(η2-N,N-dpksc)] increases in the following order: [ZnCl2(η2-N,N-dpksc)] > [CdCl2(η2-N,N-dpksc)] > [HgCl2(η2-N,N-dpksc)]. The electrochemical properties of [MCl2(η2-N,N-dpksc)] are dominated by a series of irreversible redox transformations pointing to electrochemical decomposition of [MCl2(η2-N,N-dpksc)] upon electronic transfers.

  19. Study of LWIR and VLWIR Focal Plane Array Developments: Comparison Between p-on- n and Different n-on- p Technologies on LPE HgCdTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravrand, O.; Mollard, L.; Largeron, C.; Baier, N.; Deborniol, E.; Chorier, Ph.

    2009-08-01

    The very long infrared wavelength (>14 μm) is a very challenging range for the design of mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) large focal plane arrays (FPAs). The need (mainly expressed by the space industry) for very long wave FPAs appears very difficult to fulfil. High homogeneity, low defect rate, high quantum efficiency, low dark current, and low excess noise are required. Indeed, for such wavelength, the corresponding HgCdTe gap becomes smaller than 100 meV and each step from the metallurgy to the technology becomes critical. This paper aims at presenting a status of long and very long wave FPAs developments at DEFIR (LETI-LIR/Sofradir joint venture). This study will focus on results obtained in our laboratory for three different ion implanted technologies: n-on- p mercury vacancies doped technology, n-on- p extrinsic doped technology, and p-on- n arsenic on indium technology. Special focus is given to 15 μm cutoff n/ p FPA fabricated in our laboratory demonstrating high uniformity, diffusion and shot noise limited photodiodes at 50 K.

  20. Extensive study of potential harmful elements (Ag, As, Hg, Sb, and Se) in surface sediments of the Bohai Sea, China: Sources and environmental risks.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Cui, Jingjing; Liu, Jihua; Gao, Jingjing; Bai, Yazhi; Shi, Xuefa

    2016-12-01

    This study analyzed 405 surface sediment samples, obtained from across the Bohai Sea, for concentrations of five potentially harmful elements (Ag, As, Hg, Sb, and Se) and several ancillary parameters (Al, Fe, Mn, total organic carbon (TOC), and grain size). Statistically, the spatial distributions of these elements were correlated positively with Al, Fe, TOC, and grain size, indicating natural sources for these elements or common accumulation mechanisms. The assessment of potential environmental risk with empirical sediment quality guidelines showed that a significant proportion of the samples had As and Sb concentrations that exceeded the effects range low (ERL) or T20 values in the Bohai Sea, indicating the potential for adverse biological effects. However, the assessment results differed when using evaluation methods that considered background values. Based on the geoaccumulation index (Igeo), Hg and Ag were found to have the highest percentages (35% and 60%, respectively) in samples that were moderately contaminated. The estimated contamination degree (Cd) suggested higher contamination levels for the entire area, with 69% of the samples being moderately contaminated. Generally, except for some local hotspots, such as Jinzhou Bay, the contamination levels of these elements in the Bohai Sea were established as slight to moderate. Samples from the Jinzhou Bay area had concentrations that were 10-100 times higher than in the rest of the Bohai Sea, indicating severe contamination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Pilot Study of Common Bile Duct Reconstruction with CorMatrix Extracellular Matrix in Swine (Sus scrofa)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-06

    peritonitis or bowel obstruction. Six pigs survived to the conclusion of the study. Two of these developed gastric ulcers . The remaining four pigs did...developed in this experiment was prone to causing early bowel obstructions and gastric ulcers . The CorMatrix interposition graft provided continuity for bile

  2. Decellularization of porcine skeletal muscle extracellular matrix for the formulation of a matrix hydrogel: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yuehe; Fan, Xuejiao; Tian, Chunxiang; Luo, Jingcong; Zhang, Yi; Deng, Li; Qin, Tingwu; Lv, Qing

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogels are used as scaffolds to facilitate the repair and reconstruction of tissues. This study aimed to optimize the decellularization process of porcine skeletal muscle ECM and to formulate a matrix hydrogel scaffold. Five multi-step methods (methods A-E) were used to generate acellular ECM from porcine skeletal muscle [rinsing in SDS, trypsin, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), Triton X-100 and/or sodium deoxycholate at 4-37°C]. The resulting ECM was evaluated using haematoxylin and eosin, 4-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, and DNA quantification. Acellular matrix was dissolved in pepsin and gelled at 37°C. Hydrogel response to temperature was observed in vivo and in vitro. ECM components were assessed by Masson, Sirius red, and alcian blue staining, and total protein content. Acellular porcine skeletal muscle exhibited a uniform translucent white appearance. No intact nuclear residue was detected by haematoxylin and eosin staining, while DAPI staining showed a few nuclei in the matrixes produced by methods B, C, and D. Method A generated a gel that was too thin for gelation. However, the matrix obtained by rinsing in 0.2% trypsin/0.1% EDTA, 0.5% Triton X-100, and 1% Triton X-100/0.2% sodium deoxycholate was nuclei-free and produced a viscous solution that formed a structurally stable white jelly-like hydrogel. The residual DNA content of this solution was 49.37 ± 0.72 ng/mg, significantly less than in fresh skeletal muscle, and decreased to 19.22 ± 0.85 ng/mg after gelation (P < 0.05). The acellular matrix was rich in collagen and glycosaminoglycan, with a total protein concentration of 64.8 ± 6.9%. An acellular ECM hydrogel from porcine skeletal muscle was efficiently produced.

  3. [Effects of Hg on soil enzyme activity].

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun-Lu; Sun, Tie-Heng; He, Wen-Xiang; Chen, Su

    2007-03-01

    With simulation test, this paper studied the effects of Hg on the activities of urease, invertase and neutral phosphotase in four soils. The results showed that Hg inhibited soil urease and invertase activities markedly, but its inhibitory effect differed with test soils. There was a significant logarithmic correlation between the concentration of HgCl2 and the activities of these two enzymes (P < 0.05). In test soils, the ED50 of urease activity was 87.99, 5.47, 24.05 and 19.88 mg x kg(-1), and that of invertase activity was 76.68, 727.49, 236.52 and 316.59 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Urease was more sensitive than invertase to Hg contamination, while organic matter had a protective effect on soil enzymes. Soil neutral phosphatase was not sensitive to Hg contamination, except that it was significantly activated by Hg in the meadow brown soil applied with plenty of organic fertilizer.

  4. Hg0 absorption in potassium persulfate solution*

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qun-feng; Wang, Cheng-yun; Wang, Da-hui; Sun, Guan; Xu, Xin-hua

    2006-01-01

    The aqueous phase oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) by potassium persulfate (KPS) catalyzed by Ag+ was investigated using a glass bubble column reactor. Concentration of gaseous mercury and potassium persulfate were measured by cold vapor atom absorption (CVAA) and ion chromatograph (IC), respectively. The effects of pH value, concentration of potassium persulfate and silver nitrate (SN), temperature, Hg0 concentration in the reactor inlet and tertiary butanol (TBA), free radical scavenger, on the removal efficiency of Hg0 were studied. The results showed that the removal efficiency of Hg0 increased with increasing concentration of potassium persulfate and silver nitrate, while temperature and TBA were negatively effective. Furthermore, the removal efficiency of Hg0 was much better in neutral solution than in both acidic and alkaline solution. But the influence of pH was almost eliminated by adding AgNO3. High Hg0 concentration has positive effect. The possible reaction mechanism of gaseous mercury was also discussed. PMID:16615172

  5. Optical and electrical studies of arsenic-implanted HgCdTe films grown with molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs and Si substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izhnin, I. I.; Voitsekhovsky, A. V.; Korotaev, A. G.; Fitsych, O. I.; Bonchyk, A. Yu.; Savytskyy, H. V.; Mynbaev, K. D.; Varavin, V. S.; Dvoretsky, S. A.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Yakushev, M. V.; Jakiela, R.

    2017-03-01

    A defect study was performed on arsenic-implanted Hg1-xCdxTe (x = 0.23-0.30) films with graded-gap surface layers, grown with molecular-beam epitaxy on GaAs and Si substrates and designed for fabrication of 'p+-n'-type photodiodes. First, formation of n+-p structure was investigated in p-type material, in order to study radiation-induced donor defects. Next, formation of p+-n structure was investigated in the course of implantation in n-type material and arsenic activation annealing. Influence of the graded-gap surface layer was found to be expressed in the degree of saturation of the concentration of radiation-induced defects, with results obtained on arsenic- and boron-implanted material differing due to the difference in the ion masses.

  6. GLYCOLIC-FORMIC ACID FLOWSHEET SLUDGE MATRIX STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.; Koopman, D.

    2011-06-30

    Testing was completed to demonstrate the viability of the newly developed glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet on processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility's (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) initiated a sludge matrix study to evaluate the impact of changing insoluble solid composition on the processing characteristics of slurries in DWPF. Four sludge simulants were prepared to cover two compositional ranges in the waste. The first was high iron/low aluminum versus low iron/high aluminum (referred to as HiFe or LoFe in this report). The second was high calcium-manganese/low nickel, chromium, and magnesium versus low calcium-manganese/high nickel, chromium, and magnesium (referred to as HiMn or LoMn in this report). These two options can be combined to form four distinct sludge compositions. The sludge matrix study called for testing each of these four simulants near the minimum acid required for nitrite destruction (100% acid stoichiometry) and at a second acid level that produced significant hydrogen by noble metal catalyzed decomposition of formic acid (150% acid stoichiometry). Four simulants were prepared based on the four possible combinations of the Al/Fe and Mn-Ca/Mg-Ni-Cr options. Preliminary simulant preparation work has already been documented. The four simulants were used for high and low acid testing. Eight planned experiments (GF26 to GF33) were completed to demonstrate the viability of the glycolic-formic flowsheet. Composition and physical property measurements were made on the SRAT product. Composition measurements were made on the condensate from the Mercury Water Wash Tank (MWWT), Formic Acid Vent Condenser (FAVC), ammonia scrubber and on SRAT samples pulled throughout the SRAT cycle. Updated values for formate loss and nitrite-tonitrate conversion were found that can be used in the acid calculations for future sludge matrix process simulations with the glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet

  7. Adaptation of Aquatic Microbial Communities to Hg2+ Stress †

    PubMed Central

    Barkay, Tamar

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism of adaptation to Hg2+ in four aquatic habitats was studied by correlating microbially mediated Hg2+ volatilization with the adaptive state of the exposed communities. Community diversity, heterotrophic activity, and Hg2+ resistance measurements indicated that adaptation of all four communities was stimulated by preexposure to Hg2+. In saline water communities, adaptation was associated with rapid volatilization after an initial lag period. This mechanism, however, did not promote adaptation in a freshwater sample, in which Hg2+ was volatilized slowly, regardless of the resistance level of the microbial community. Distribution of the mer operon among representative colonies of the communities was not related to adaptation to Hg2+. Thus, although volatilization enabled some microbial communities to sustain their functions in Hg2+-stressed environments, it was not mediated by the genes that serve as a model system in molecular studies of bacterial resistance to mercurials. PMID:16347488

  8. Nuclear structure of (190)Hg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Shon, Markus Matthias

    1998-12-01

    The excited states of 190Hg were studied using γ-ray and conversion-electron spectroscopy using data obtained in the β+/EC decay of mass- separated 190m,gTl. The low-spin (Jπ=2/sp- ) isomer 190gTl was produced via the β+/EC decay of 190Pb, which was generated in the reaction 185Re(16O, p 10n)190Pb. The reaction 185Re(16O, 2p 9n)190mTl yielded the high-spin (Jπ=7+)/ 190mTl isomer. It was found that the second reaction predominated in our experiment. The 16O beam was accelerated by the 25MV folded tandem accelerator of the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF), and products were mass-separated using the on-line University Isotope Separator (UNISOR). HHIRF and UNISOR are located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Spectra were obtained for γ-/gamma,/ /gamma- e/sp- and e/sp--e/sp- coincidences. These spectra were used to construct the energy level scheme, and to calculate internal conversion coefficients in order to assign multipolarities to the transitions, and to make spin assignments. The motivation of the work was to search for E0 (electric monopole) transitions, which are signatures of shape coexistence, and to provide detailed structural information above 1500 keV in 190Hg.

  9. Amalgamating at the molecular level. A study of the strong closed-shell Au(I)···Hg(II) interaction.

    PubMed

    López-de-Luzuriaga, José M; Monge, Miguel; Olmos, M Elena; Pascual, David; Lasanta, Tania

    2011-06-28

    Complex {[Hg(C(6)F(5))(2)][Au(C(6)F(5))(PMe(3))](2)}(n)2 displays unsupported Au(I)···Hg(II) and Au(I)···Au(I) interactions. Its crystal structure displays a polymeric -(Au-Hg-Au-Au-Hg-Au)(n)- disposition. Ab initio calculations show very strong Au(I)···Hg(II) and Au(I)···Au(I) closed-shell interactions of -73.3 kJ mol(-1) and -57.0 kJ mol(-1), respectively, which have a dispersive (van der Waals) nature and are strengthened by large relativistic effects (>20%).

  10. Study of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vizoso, F J; González, L O; Corte, M D; Rodríguez, J C; Vázquez, J; Lamelas, M L; Junquera, S; Merino, A M; García-Muñiz, J L

    2007-01-01

    An immunohistochemical study was performed using tissue microarrays and specific antibodies against matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 1, 2, 7, 9, 11, 13, 14, and their tisullar inhibitors (TIMPs) 1, 2, and 3. More than 2600 determinations on cancer specimens from 131 patients with primary ductal invasive tumours of the breast (65 with and 66 without distant metastasis) and controls were performed. Staining results were categorised using a score based on the intensity of the staining and a specific software program calculated the percentage of immunostained cells automatically. We observed a broad variation of the total immunostaining scores and the cell type expressing each protein. There were multiple and significant associations between the expression of the different MMPs and TIMPs evaluated and some parameters indicative of tumour aggressiveness, such as large tumour size, advanced tumour grade, high Nottinham prognostic index, negative oestrogen receptor status, peritumoural inflammation, desmoplastic reaction, and infiltrating tumoural edge. Likewise, the detection of elevated immunohistochemical scores for MMP-9, 11, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2, was significantly associated with a higher rate of distant metastases. The expression of MMP-9 or TIMP-2 by tumour cells, MMP-1, 7, 9, 11, 13, or TIMP-3 by fibroblastic cells, and MMP-7, 9, 11, 13, 14, TIMP-1, or TIMP-2 by mononuclear inflammatory cells, was also significantly associated with a higher rate of distant metastases. PMID:17342087

  11. Ground state in κ -(BEDT-TTF)2Hg(SCN)2Br studied by Raman Spectroscopy and Heat Capacity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, N.; Turunova, S. A.; Zhilyaeva, E. I.; Lyubovskaya, R. N.; Drichko, N.

    Quasi-two-dimensional organic conductor κ -(BEDT-TTF)2Hg(SCN)2Br is a Mott insulator (Tc ~ 100 K) on a triangular lattice which makes it a potential spin liquid candidate. To elucidate its magnetic ground state we study heat capacity and Raman response of single crystals of this material. Our low temperature heat capacity measurements suggest a presence of a linear term in the temperature dependence, which might indicate the existence of gapless spinons. Vibrational Raman response indicates a presence of charge order fluctuations in the insulating state. The low-frequency Raman response is discussed in terms of fluctuations of ``paired electron crystal'' state. The work at IQM was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Material Sciences and Engineering, under Grant No. DEFG02-08ER46544.

  12. Organic matrix composition and ultrastructure of eggshell: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Panheleux, M; Bain, M; Fernandez, M S; Morales, I; Gautron, J; Arias, J L; Solomon, S E; Hincke, M; Nys, Y

    1999-05-01

    1. The avian eggshell is a biomineralised composite ceramic consisting of calcium carbonate embedded in an organic matrix. Matrix components are supposed to be involved in the control of mineralisation, crystallographic texture and biomechanical properties of eggshell. 2. The structure and eggshell matrix composition of various domesticated bird species were compared to gain insight into the universality of the eggshell mineralisation process. 3. The SDS-PAGE profiles of soluble eggshell matrix were specific within groups of birds (a: laying hen, breeder hen, quail, pheasant and possibly turkey; b: guinea fowl; c: duck and goose) but some of the protein bands were common to all groups. 4. Analogies between species were confirmed by Western blotting using hen protein antibodies. Ovocleidin-17 (OC-17) and ovalbumin were revealed in all species (except quail for OC-17). Lysozyme was present only in hen eggshell. Another egg white protein: ovotransferrin showed a positive signal in hens, turkey and quail. Osteopontin was observed in laying and breeder hens and quail. 5. Different proteoglycans were localised to discrete regions within the eggshell. Dermatan sulphate was observed within the matrix of the calcified shell of all species except quail which contained chondroitin-6-sulfate. Keratan sulphate was observed in mammillary bodies of breeder and laying hen, quail, pheasant and turkey while chondroitin sulphate was also present in guinea fowl and duck. 6. The general structural organisation of the different avian eggshells was similar but specific differences were observed in the ultrastructure of the mammillary layer. Species of the same taxonomic family could be grouped according to their structural analogies: breeder hen, turkey and pheasant resembled that of the domestic fowl. Guinea fowl was unique. Goose and duck were quite similar with large and confluent mammillary bodies. 7. Some matrix components are therefore common to eggshells of various species but

  13. Genome-Wide Association Study of Resistance to Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines) HG Type 2.5.7 in Wild Soybean (Glycine soja).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hengyou; Li, Chunying; Davis, Eric L; Wang, Jinshe; Griffin, Joshua D; Kofsky, Janice; Song, Bao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most destructive soybean pest worldwide. Host plant resistance is the most environmentally friendly and cost-effective way of mitigating SCN damage to soybeans. However, overuse of the resistant soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars from limited genetic resources has resulted in SCN race shifts in many soybean-growing areas. Thus, exploration of novel sources of SCN resistance and dissection of the genetic basis are urgently needed. In this study, we screened 235 wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) accessions to identify genotypes resistant to SCN HG Type 2.5.7 (race 5), a less investigated type but is prevalent in the southeastern US. We also dissected the genetic basis of SCN resistance using a genome-wide association study with SNPs genotyped by SoySNP50k iSelect BeadChip. In total, 43 resistant accessions (female index < 30) were identified, with 10 SNPs being significantly associated with SCN HG 2.5.7 resistance in this wild species. Furthermore, four significant SNPs were localized to linked regions of the known quantitative trait locus (QTL) rhg1 on chromosome 18. The other four SNPs on chromosome 18 and two SNPs on chromosome 19 are novel. Genes encoding disease resistance-related proteins with a leucine-rich region, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) on chromosome 18, and a MYB transcription factor on chromosome 19 were identified as promising candidate genes. The identified SNPs and candidate genes will benefit future marker-assisted breeding and dissection of the molecular mechanisms underlying the soybean-SCN interaction.

  14. Genome-Wide Association Study of Resistance to Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines) HG Type 2.5.7 in Wild Soybean (Glycine soja)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hengyou; Li, Chunying; Davis, Eric L.; Wang, Jinshe; Griffin, Joshua D.; Kofsky, Janice; Song, Bao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most destructive soybean pest worldwide. Host plant resistance is the most environmentally friendly and cost-effective way of mitigating SCN damage to soybeans. However, overuse of the resistant soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars from limited genetic resources has resulted in SCN race shifts in many soybean-growing areas. Thus, exploration of novel sources of SCN resistance and dissection of the genetic basis are urgently needed. In this study, we screened 235 wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) accessions to identify genotypes resistant to SCN HG Type 2.5.7 (race 5), a less investigated type but is prevalent in the southeastern US. We also dissected the genetic basis of SCN resistance using a genome-wide association study with SNPs genotyped by SoySNP50k iSelect BeadChip. In total, 43 resistant accessions (female index < 30) were identified, with 10 SNPs being significantly associated with SCN HG 2.5.7 resistance in this wild species. Furthermore, four significant SNPs were localized to linked regions of the known quantitative trait locus (QTL) rhg1 on chromosome 18. The other four SNPs on chromosome 18 and two SNPs on chromosome 19 are novel. Genes encoding disease resistance-related proteins with a leucine-rich region, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) on chromosome 18, and a MYB transcription factor on chromosome 19 were identified as promising candidate genes. The identified SNPs and candidate genes will benefit future marker-assisted breeding and dissection of the molecular mechanisms underlying the soybean-SCN interaction. PMID:27582748

  15. Stable mercury isotope ratios as tracers for Hg cycling at the inoperative New Idria Hg mine, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiederhold, J. G.; Jew, A. D.; Brown, G. E.; Bourdon, B.; Kretzschmar, R.

    2010-12-01

    The seven stable isotopes of Hg are fractionated in the environment as a result of mass-dependent (MDF) and mass-independent (MIF) fractionation processes that can be studied in parallel by analyzing the ratios of even and odd mass Hg isotopes. MDF and MIF Hg isotope signatures of natural samples may provide a new tool to trace sources and transformations in environmental Hg cycling. However, the mechanisms controlling the extent of kinetic and equilibrium Hg isotope fractionations are still only partially understood. Thus, development of this promising tracer requires experimental calibration of relevant fractionation factors as well as assessment of natural variations of Hg isotope ratios under different environmental conditions. The inoperative Hg mine in New Idria (California, USA) represents an ideal case study to explore Hg isotope fractionation during Hg transformation and transport processes. More than a century of Hg mining and on-site thermal refining to obtain elemental Hg until 1972 produced large volumes of contaminated mine wastes which now represent sources of Hg pollution for the surrounding ecosystems. Here, we present Hg isotope data from various materials collected at New Idria using Cold-Vapor-MC-ICPMS with a long-term δ202Hg reproducibility of ±0.1‰ (2SD). Uncalcined mine waste samples were isotopically similar to NIST-3133 and did not exhibit any MIF signatures. In contrast, calcine samples, which represent the residue of the thermal ore processing at 700°C, had significantly heavier δ202Hg values of up to +1.5‰. In addition, we observed small negative MIF anomalies of the odd-mass Hg isotopes in the calcine samples, which could be caused either by nuclear volume fractionation or a magnetic isotope effect during or after the roasting process. The mass-dependent enrichment of heavy Hg isotopes in the calcine materials indicates that light Hg isotopes were preferentially removed during the roasting process, in agreement with a previous

  16. Evolution of collectivity in {sup 180}Hg and {sup 182}Hg

    SciTech Connect

    Grahn, T.; Petts, A.; Scheck, M.; Butler, P. A.; Page, R. D.; Dewald, A.; Jolie, J.; Melon, B.; Pissulla, Th.; Hornillos, M. B. Gomez; Greenlees, P. T.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Ketelhut, S.; Leino, M.; Nyman, M.; Rahkila, P.; Saren, J.; Scholey, C.

    2009-07-15

    Lifetimes of yrast states in {sup 180}Hg up to the 8{sup +} state and of the 9{sup -} state have been extracted from recoil-decay tagged {gamma}-ray spectra by using the recoil distance Doppler-shift method. In addition, lifetimes of yrast states up to the 10{sup +} state in {sup 182}Hg have been extracted from recoil-gated {gamma}{gamma}-coincidence spectra. The present study addresses the evolution of collectivity of two competing shapes in neutron-deficient Hg nuclei as a function of A and the configuration mixing at low spin.

  17. Theoretical study of the formation of mercury (Hg2+) complexes in solution using an explicit solvation shell in implicit solvent calculations.

    PubMed

    Afaneh, Akef T; Schreckenbach, Georg; Wang, Feiyue

    2014-09-25

    The structures and harmonic vibrational frequencies of water clusters (H2O)n, n = 1-10, have been computed using the M06-L/, B3LYP/, and CAM-BLYP/cc-pVTZ levels of theories. On the basis of the literature and our results, we use three hexamer structures of the water molecules to calculate an estimated "experimental" average solvation free energy of [Hg(H2O)6](2+). Aqueous formation constants (log K) for Hg(2+) complexes, [Hg(L)m(H2O)n](2-mq), L = Cl(-), HO(-), HS(-), and S(2-), are calculated using a combination of experimental (solvation free energies of ligands and Hg(2+)) and calculated gas- and liquid-phase free energies. A combined approach has been used that involves attaching n explicit water molecules to the Hg(2+) complexes such that the first coordination sphere is complete, then surrounding the resulting (Hg(2+)-Lm)-(OH2)n cluster by a dielectric continuum, and using suitable thermodynamic cycles. This procedure significantly improves the agreement between the calculated log K values and experiment. Thus, for some neutral and anionic Hg(II) complexes, particularly Hg(II) metal ion surrounded with homo- or heteroatoms, augmenting implicit solvent calculations with sufficient explicit water molecules to complete the first coordination sphere is required-and adequate-to account for strong short-range hydrogen bonding interactions between the anion and the solvent. Calculated values for formation constants of Hg(2+) complexes with S(2-) and SH(-) are proposed. Experimental measurements of these log K values have been lacking or controversial.

  18. Adsorption of Hg on lunar samples

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, G.W. Jr.; Jovanovic, S.

    1985-01-01

    Understanding the presence, migration mechanisms and trapping of indigneous gases and volatiles on the moon is the objective of this study. The rare gases Ar and Xe and highly volatile Hg/sup 0/ and Br/sup 0/ (and/or their compounds) have been determined to be present in the lunar regolith. Evidence for these elements in the moon was recently reviewed. Studies of the sorption behavior of Xe on lunar material have been carried out. We report here preliminary results of a study designed to rationalize the behavior of Hg in lunar material.

  19. Uptake of HgCl{sub 2} and MeHgCl in an insect cell line (Aedes albopictus C6/36)

    SciTech Connect

    Braeckman, B.; Cornelis, R.; Rzeznik, U.; Raes, H.

    1998-10-01

    The authors studied the uptake mechanism of mercuric chloride (Hg) and methylmercuric chloride (MeHg) in Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells. The uptake kinetics, together with the effect of temperature and a metabolic inhibitor (2,4-dinitrophenol) on the mercury accumulation, were examined. Both amounts of internalized Hg and MeHg increased linearly with the extracellular concentration. Initially, the influx rate was high for both metal species but MeHg was found to accumulate seven times faster than Hg. At longer exposure times it leveled off for Hg, while for MeHg, the intracellular concentration decreased. Hg toxicity was not significantly influenced by elevated temperatures; in contrast there was a marked decrease of the LC{sub 50/24 h} value for MeHg. On the other hand, Hg accumulation was temperature dependent but MeHg was not. The different toxicity and uptake rate of both mercury compounds can be explained in terms of membrane permeability and target site. For Hg the main target seems to be the plasma membrane, while MeHg readily crosses this barrier and reacts with intracellular targets. 2,4-Dinitrophenol had no effect on the accumulation of Hg but that of MeHg was doubled.

  20. Interfacial Studies of Chemical Vapor Infiltrated (CVI) Ceramic Matrix Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-31

    methyldichlorosilane (MDS), methyltrichlorosilane (MTS), and dimethyldichlorosilane (DMDS). The fibers utilized were Nicalon SiC and Nextel 440 mullite. During the... methyltrichlorosilane (MTS), and dimethyldichlorosilane (DMDS). The fibers utilized were Nicalon SiC and Nextel 440 mullite. The chemistry and...MOS), methyltrichlorosilane (MTS), and dimethyldichloro- silane (DMDS). The fiber/matrix interface was tailored by means of introducing a carbon, BN, or

  1. A study of blood contamination of Siqveland matrix bands.

    PubMed

    Lowe, A H; Bagg, J; Burke, F J T; MacKenzie, D; McHugh, S

    2002-01-12

    AIMS To use a sensitive forensic test to measure blood contamination of used Siqveland matrix bands following routine cleaning and sterilisation procedures in general dental practice. Sixteen general dental practices in the West of Scotland participated. Details of instrument cleaning procedures were recorded for each practice. A total of 133 Siqveland matrix bands were recovered following cleaning and sterilisation and were examined for residual blood contamination by the Kastle-Meyer test, a well-recognised forensic technique. Ultrasonic baths were used for the cleaning of 62 (47%) bands and retainers and the remainder (53%) were hand scrubbed prior to autoclaving. Overall, 21% of the matrix bands and 19% of the retainers gave a positive Kastle-Meyer test, indicative of residual blood contamination, following cleaning and sterilisation. In relation to cleaning method, 34% of hand-scrubbed bands and 32% of hand-scrubbed retainers were positive for residual blood by the Kastle-Meyer test compared with 6% and 3% respectively of ultrasonically cleaned bands and retainers (P < 0.001). If Siqveland matrix bands are re-processed in the assembled state, then adequate pre-sterilisation cleaning cannot be achieved reliably. Ultrasonic baths are significantly more effective than hand cleaning for these items of equipment.

  2. A first-principles study of Hg adsorption on Pd(1 1 1) and Pd/γ-Al2O3(1 1 0) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Lu; Han, Lina; Cen, Wanglai; Wang, Jiancheng; Chang, Liping; Kong, Dejin; Feng, Gang

    2014-12-01

    Spin-polarized density functional theory calculations were carried out to investigate the adsorption of Hgn (n = 1-3) on the perfect, step and vacancy-defective Pd(1 1 1) surfaces as well as the Pd/γ-Al2O3(1 1 0) surface. It is found that Hg atoms prefer to adsorb on the hollow sites on Pd(1 1 1) surfaces. The adsorption of Hg on the step and vacancy-defective Pd(1 1 1) surfaces is stronger than on the perfect Pd(1 1 1) surface, which indicates that the existence of vacancy and step defects can enhance the mercury adsorption activity of Pd adsorbents. As indicated by the calculated adsorption energies, the mercury adsorption on γ-Al2O3 is weak. The γ-Al2O3 supported single Pd atom shows as good Hg adsorption activity as the perfect Pd(1 1 1) surface at low Hg coverage, while more coordination unsaturated active Pd atoms is needed to achieve high Hg adsorption capacity. In addition, it was also found that the Hg adsorption on Pd/γ-Al2O3 weakens the binding of Pd to the γ-Al2O3 surface.

  3. Highly efficient ultrasonic-assisted removal of Hg(II) ions on graphene oxide modified with 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone: Adsorption isotherms and kinetics studies.

    PubMed

    Tadjarodi, Azadeh; Moazen Ferdowsi, Somayeh; Zare-Dorabei, Rouholah; Barzin, Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    A novel adsorbent, based on modifying graphene oxide (GO) chemically with 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (2-PTSC) as ligand, was designed by facile process for removal of Hg(II) from aqueous solution. Characterization of the adsorbent was performed using various techniques, such as FT-IR, XRD, XPS, SEM and AFM analysis. The adsorption capacity was affected by variables such as adsorbent dosage, pH solution, Hg(2+) initial concentration and sonicating time. These variables were optimized by rotatable central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology (RSM). The predictive model for Hg(II) adsorption was constructed and applied to find the best conditions at which the responses were maximized. In this conditions, the adsorption capacity of this adsorbent for Hg(2+) ions was calculated to be 309mgg(-1) that was higher than that of GO. Appling the ultrasound power combined with adsorption method was very efficient in shortening the removal time of Hg(2+) ions by enhancing the dispersion of adsorbent and metal ions in solution and effective interactions among them. The adsorption process was well described by second-order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm model in which the maximum adsorption capacity (Qm) was found to be 555mgg(-1) for adsorption of Hg(2+) ions over the obtained adsorbent. The performance of adsorbent was examined on the real wastewaters and confirmed the applicability of adsorbent for practical applications.

  4. Analysis of RFSA Campaign No.2 Dissolver Solution for Hg(I) and Hg(II)

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, H.P.

    2001-05-17

    TA 2-1083, under which RFSA processing is conducted, calls for a nominal mercuric ion concentration in the dissolver solution of 0.006M with a maximum of 0.01 M. The second RFSA campaign operated according to these guidelines with the initial Hg(II) concentration being 0.0068 M. Part of this study is to ascertain optimum excess Hg(I) for chloride removal.

  5. Quasiparticle excitations in superdeformed {sup 192}Hg

    SciTech Connect

    Lauritsen, T.; Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F.

    1995-08-01

    The nucleus {sup 192}Hg plays a pivotal role for superdeformation in the mass 190 region, since calculations of single-particle levels show large shell-gaps for the superdeformed (SD) shape at N = 112 and Z = 80. As a result, {sup 192}Hg is referred to as the doubly magic SD nucleus for the A = 190 region. In previous studies, only one superdeformed band was observed in this nucleus, and this fact was cited as indirect evidence that large shell gaps do indeed exist at the proposed particle numbers.

  6. Concentrations of particulates in ambient air, gaseous elementary mercury (GEM), and particulate-bound mercury (Hg(p)) at a traffic sampling site: a study of dry deposition in daytime and nighttime.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Lin, Yen-Heng; Chang, Chia-Ying; Zheng, Yu-Cheng

    2014-08-01

    In this investigation, the concentrations of particles in ambient air, gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), and particulate-bound mercury (Hg(p)) in total suspended particulates (TSP) as well as dry deposition at a (Traffic) sampling site at Hung-kuang were studied during the day and night in 2012. The results reveal that the mean concentrations of TSP in ambient air, GEM, and Hg(p) were 69.72 μg/m(3), 3.17, and 0.024 ng/m(3), respectively, at the Hung-kuang (Traffic) sampling site during daytime sampling periods. The results also reveal that the mean rates of dry deposition of particles from ambient air and Hg(p) were 145.20 μg/m(2) min and 0.022 ng/m(2) min, respectively, at the Hung-kuang (Traffic) sampling site during the daytime sampling period. The mean concentrations of TSP in ambient air, GEM, and Hg(p) were 60.56 μg/m(3), 2.74, and 0.018 ng/m(3), respectively, at the Hung-kuang (Traffic) sampling site during the nighttime sampling period. The mean rates of dry deposition of particles and Hg(p) from ambient air were 132.58 μg/m(2) min and 0.016 ng/m(2) min, respectively, at the Hung-kuang (Traffic) sampling site during the nighttime sampling period.

  7. Study of the nucleation and growth of antibiotic labeled Au NPs and blue luminescent Au8 quantum clusters for Hg(2+) ion sensing, cellular imaging and antibacterial applications.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Puneet; Singh, Dheeraj K; Sadhu, Subha; Poddar, Pankaj

    2015-12-21

    Herein, we report a detailed experimental study supported by DFT calculations to understand the mechanism behind the synthesis of cefradine (CFD--an antibiotic) labeled gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) by employing CFD as both a mild reducing and capping agent. The analysis of the effect of growth conditions reveals that a higher concentration of HAuCl4 results in the formation of an increasing fraction of anisotropic structures, higher temperature leads to the formation of quasi-spherical particles instead of anisotropic ones, and larger pH leads to the formation of much smaller particles. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) results show that when the pH of the reaction medium increases from 4 to 6, the reduction potential of CFD increases which leads to the synthesis of nanoparticles (in a pH 4 reaction) to quantum clusters (in a pH 6 reaction). The MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry results of supernatant of the pH 6 reaction indicate the formation of [Au8(CFD)2S6] QCs which show fluorescence at ca. 432 nm with a Stokes shift of ca. 95 nm. The blue luminescence from Au8 QCs was applied for sensing of Hg(2+) ions on the basis of an aggregation-induced fluorescence quenching mechanism and offers good selectivity and a high sensitivity with a limit of detection ca. 2 nM which is lower than the detection requirement of 10 nM by the U.S. EPA and 30 nM by WHO for drinking water. We have also applied the sensing probe to detect Hg(2+) ions in bacterial samples. Further, we have investigated the antibacterial property of as-synthesized Au NPs using MIC, growth curve and cell survival assay. The results show that Au NPs could reduce the cell survival very efficiently rather than the cell growth in comparison to the antibiotic itself. The scanning electron microscopy study shows the degradation and blebbing of the bacterial cell wall upon exposure with Au NPs which was further supported by fluorescence microscopy results. These Au NPs did not show reactive oxygen species generation. We

  8. Biotransformation of Hg(II) by Cyanobacteria▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, Daniel D.; Kelly, David; Budd, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    The biotransformation of Hg(II) by cyanobacteria was investigated under aerobic and pH-controlled culture conditions. Mercury was supplied as HgCl2 in amounts emulating those found under heavily impacted environmental conditions where bioremediation would be appropriate. The analytical procedures used to measure mercury within the culture solution, including that in the cyanobacterial cells, used reduction under both acid and alkaline conditions in the presence of SnCl2. Acid reduction detected free Hg(II) ions and its complexes, whereas alkaline reduction revealed that meta-cinnabar (β-HgS) constituted the major biotransformed and cellularly associated mercury pool. This was true for all investigated species of cyanobacteria: Limnothrix planctonica (Lemm.), Synechococcus leopoldiensis (Racib.) Komarek, and Phormidium limnetica (Lemm.). From the outset of mercury exposure, there was rapid synthesis of β-HgS and Hg(0); however, the production rate for the latter decreased quickly. Inhibitory studies using dimethylfumarate and iodoacetamide to modify intra- and extracellular thiols, respectively, revealed that the former thiol pool was required for the conversion of Hg(II) into β-HgS. In addition, increasing the temperature enhanced the amount of β-HgS produced, with a concomitant decrease in Hg(0) volatilization. These findings suggest that in the environment, cyanobacteria at the air-water interface could act to convert substantial amounts of Hg(II) into β-HgS. Furthermore, the efficiency of conversion into β-HgS by cyanobacteria may lead to the development of applications in the bioremediation of mercury. PMID:17071784

  9. Persistent Hg contamination and occurrence of Hg-methylating transcript (hgcA) downstream of a chlor-alkali plant in the Olt River (Romania).

    PubMed

    Bravo, Andrea G; Loizeau, Jean-Luc; Dranguet, Perrine; Makri, Stamatina; Björn, Erik; Ungureanu, Viorel Gh; Slaveykova, Vera I; Cosio, Claudia

    2016-06-01

    Chlor-alkali plants using mercury (Hg) cell technology are acute point sources of Hg pollution in the aquatic environment. While there have been recent efforts to reduce the use of Hg cells, some of the emitted Hg can be transformed to neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg). Here, we aimed (i) to study the dispersion of Hg in four reservoirs located downstream of a chlor-alkali plant along the Olt River (Romania) and (ii) to track the activity of bacterial functional genes involved in Hg methylation. Total Hg (THg) concentrations in water and sediments decreased successively from the initial reservoir to downstream reservoirs. Suspended fine size particles and seston appeared to be responsible for the transport of THg into downstream reservoirs, while macrophytes reflected the local bioavailability of Hg. The concentration and proportion of MeHg were correlated with THg, but were not correlated with bacterial activity in sediments, while the abundance of hgcA transcript correlated with organic matter and Cl(-) concentration, indicating the importance of Hg bioavailability in sediments for Hg methylation. Our data clearly highlights the importance of considering Hg contamination as a legacy pollutant since there is a high risk of continued Hg accumulation in food webs long after Hg-cell phase out.

  10. Hg0 and HgCl2 Reference Gas Standards: ?NIST Traceability and Comparability?(And EPA ALT Methods for Hg and HCl )

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA and NIST have collaborated to establish the necessary procedures for establishing the required NIST traceability of commercially-provided Hg0 and HgCl2 reference generators. This presentation will discuss the approach of a joint EPA/NIST study to accurately quantify the tru...

  11. Hg0 and HgCl2 Reference Gas Standards: NIST Traceability and Comparability (And EPA ALT Methods for Hg and HCl )

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA and NIST have collaborated to establish the necessary procedures for establishing the required NIST traceability of commercially-provided Hg0 and HgCl2 reference generators. This presentation will discuss the approach of a joint EPA/NIST study to accurately quantify the tru...

  12. Theoretical Studies of the Relaxation Matrix for Molecular Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Qiancheng; Boulet, C.

    2016-06-01

    The phenomenon of collisional transfer of intensity due to line mixing has an increasing importance for atmospheric monitoring. From a theoretical point of view, all relevant information about the collisional processes is contained in the relaxation matrix where the diagonal elements give half-widths and shifts, and the off-diagonal elements correspond to line interferences. For simple systems such as those consisting of diatom-atom or diatom-diatom, accurate fully quantum calculations based on interaction potentials are feasible. However, fully quantum calculations become unrealistic for more complex systems. On the other hand, the semi-classical Robert-Bonamy formalism, which has been widely used to calculate half-widths and shifts for decades, fails in calculating the off-diagonal matrix elements resulting from applying the isolated line approximation. As a result, in order to simulate atmospheric spectra where the effects from line mixing are important, semi-empirical fitting or scaling laws such as the energy corrected sudden (ECS) and the infinite order sudden (IOS) models are commonly used. Recently, we have found that in developing this semi-classical line shape theory, to rely on the isolated line approximation is not necessary. By eliminating this unjustified assumption, and accurately evaluating matrix elements of the exponential operators, we have developed a more capable formalism that enables one not only to reduce uncertainties for calculated half-widths and shifts, but also to calculate the whole relaxation matrix. This implies that we can address the line mixing with the semi-classical theory based on interaction potentials between molecular absorber and molecular perturber. We have applied this formalism for Raman and infrared spectra of linear and asymmetric-top molecules. Recently, the method has been extended into symmetric-tops with inverse symmetry such as the NH3 molecule. Our calculated half-widths of NH3 lines in the νb{1} and the pure

  13. Decay properties of the new isotopes [sup 172]Hg and [sup 173]Hg

    SciTech Connect

    Seweryniak, D.; Uusitalo, J.; Carpenter, M.P.; Nisius, D.; Davids, C.N.; Brown, L.T.; Henderson, D.J.; Janssens, R.V. ); Seweryniak, D.; Conticchio, L.; Walters, W.B. ); Bingham, C.R.; Wauters, J. ); Woods, P.J. )

    1999-09-01

    The [alpha] decays of the two neutron-deficient nuclei [sup 172]Hg and [sup 173]Hg were observed for the first time using the [sup 78]Kr([sup 96]Ru,2n) and [sup 80]Kr([sup 96]Ru,3n) reactions, respectively. The reaction products were dispersed according to their mass-to-charge state ratios in the Argonne Fragment Mass Analyzer and implanted in a double-sided silicon strip detector, where their subsequent decays were studied using spatial and time correlations between implants and decays. A half-life of 250([sub [minus]90][sup +350]) [mu]s and an energy of 7350(12) keV were deduced for the [alpha] decay of [sup 172]Hg. In [sup 173]Hg the half-life was measured to be 0.93([sub [minus]0.26][sup +0.57]) ms and the corresponding energy is 7211(11) keV. In addition, the half-life and energy of the [alpha] decay of [sup 174]Hg were measured more precisely. The reduced widths deduced for these Hg isotopes indicate that the observed decays correspond to unhindered [Delta]l=0 transitions. The [alpha]-decay [ital Q] values are compared with the values calculated using mass tables by M[umlt o]ller and Nix, and by Liran and Zeldes. The latter mass tables show better agreement with the data. [copyright] [ital 1999] [ital The American Physical Society

  14. Ruditapes philippinarum and Ruditapes decussatus under Hg environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Velez, Cátia; Galvão, Petrus; Longo, Renan; Malm, Olaf; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Figueira, Etelvina; Freitas, Rosa

    2015-08-01

    The native species Ruditapes decussatus and the invasive species Ruditapes philippinarum have an important ecological role and socio-economic value, from the Atlantic and Mediterranean to the Indo-Pacific region. In the aquatic environment, they are subjected to the presence of different contaminants, such as mercury (Hg) and its methylated form, methylmercury (MeHg). However, few studies have assessed the impacts of Hg on bivalves under environmental conditions, and little is known on bivalve oxidative stress patterns due to Hg contamination. Therefore, this study aims to assess the Hg contamination in sediments as well as the concentration of Hg and MeHg in R. decussatus and R. philippinarum, and to identify the detoxification strategies of both species living in sympatry, in an aquatic system with historical Hg contamination. The risk to human health due to the consumption of clams was also evaluated. The results obtained demonstrated that total Hg concentration found in sediments from the most contaminated area was higher than the maximum levels established by Sediment Quality Guidelines. This study further revealed that the total Hg and MeHg accumulation in both species was strongly correlated with the total Hg contamination of the sediments. Nonetheless, the THg concentration in both species was lower than maximum permissible limits (MPLs) of THg defined by international organizations. R. decussatus and R. philippinarum showed an increase in lipid peroxidation levels along with the increase of THg accumulation by clams. Nevertheless, for both species, no clear trend was obtained regarding the activity of antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, catalase) and biotransformation (glutathione S-transferase) enzymes and metallothioneins with the increase of THg in clams. Overall, the present work demonstrated that both species can be used as sentinel species of contamination and that the consumption of these clams does not constitute a risk for human health.

  15. Optical spectroscopy studies of the complexation of bis(azophenol)calix[4]arene possessing chromogenic donors with Ni2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Pb2+ and Hg2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaabani, Behrouz; Shaghaghi, Zohreh; Khandar, Ali Akbar

    2012-12-01

    Due to their potential applicability as selective receptors in electrochemical or optical sensors, a bis(azophenol)calix[4]arene derivative H2L has been investigated. The complexation properties of this molecule towards Ni2+ and Co2+ metal ions has been studied. It is revealed that this ligand exhibits tetradentate with N2O2 core when bound to Ni (II) or Co (II) metal ion. The optical response of azo groups of H2L towards Ni2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Pb2+ and Hg2+ metal ions has been investigated in DMSO by UV-vis spectroscopy. The absorption spectra of calix[4]arene with cations show marked changes, especially for Co2+ ion. Furthermore, Job's plot indicate 1:1 binding-stiochiometry for calix[4]arene with Co2+ ion and Benson-Hilderbrand plot is used for the determination of its association constant. The investigation of UV-vis spectra of chromogenic calix[4]arene in different solvents shows that cis-trans isomerization of azo groups probably depends on kind of solvent. Also the different between the polarity and viscosity of organic solvents used is likely responsible for the changes of the band shape of the spectra.

  16. Study of the nucleation and growth of antibiotic labeled Au NPs and blue luminescent Au8 quantum clusters for Hg2+ ion sensing, cellular imaging and antibacterial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandelwal, Puneet; Singh, Dheeraj K.; Sadhu, Subha; Poddar, Pankaj

    2015-11-01

    Herein, we report a detailed experimental study supported by DFT calculations to understand the mechanism behind the synthesis of cefradine (CFD - an antibiotic) labeled gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) by employing CFD as both a mild reducing and capping agent. The analysis of the effect of growth conditions reveals that a higher concentration of HAuCl4 results in the formation of an increasing fraction of anisotropic structures, higher temperature leads to the formation of quasi-spherical particles instead of anisotropic ones, and larger pH leads to the formation of much smaller particles. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) results show that when the pH of the reaction medium increases from 4 to 6, the reduction potential of CFD increases which leads to the synthesis of nanoparticles (in a pH 4 reaction) to quantum clusters (in a pH 6 reaction). The MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry results of supernatant of the pH 6 reaction indicate the formation of [Au8(CFD)2S6] QCs which show fluorescence at ca. 432 nm with a Stokes shift of ca. 95 nm. The blue luminescence from Au8 QCs was applied for sensing of Hg2+ ions on the basis of an aggregation-induced fluorescence quenching mechanism and offers good selectivity and a high sensitivity with a limit of detection ca. 2 nM which is lower than the detection requirement of 10 nM by the U.S. EPA and 30 nM by WHO for drinking water. We have also applied the sensing probe to detect Hg2+ ions in bacterial samples. Further, we have investigated the antibacterial property of as-synthesized Au NPs using MIC, growth curve and cell survival assay. The results show that Au NPs could reduce the cell survival very efficiently rather than the cell growth in comparison to the antibiotic itself. The scanning electron microscopy study shows the degradation and blebbing of the bacterial cell wall upon exposure with Au NPs which was further supported by fluorescence microscopy results. These Au NPs did not show reactive oxygen species generation. We believe

  17. Matrix Training of Receptive Language Skills with a Toddler with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curiel, Emily S. L.; Sainato, Diane M.; Goldstein, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Matrix training is a systematic teaching approach that can facilitate generalized language. Specific responses are taught that result in the emergence of untrained responses. This type of training facilitates the use of generalized language in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study used a matrix training procedure with a toddler…

  18. Matrix Training of Receptive Language Skills with a Toddler with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curiel, Emily S. L.; Sainato, Diane M.; Goldstein, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Matrix training is a systematic teaching approach that can facilitate generalized language. Specific responses are taught that result in the emergence of untrained responses. This type of training facilitates the use of generalized language in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study used a matrix training procedure with a toddler…

  19. An Evaluation of Matrix-Containing and Humanised Matrix-Free 3-Dimensional Cell Culture Systems for Studying Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Grace C.; Morris, Paul G.; Moss, Marcus A.; Maltby, Sarah L.; Palmer, Chelsea A.; Nash, Claire E.; Smart, Emily; Holliday, Deborah L.; Speirs, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Background 3D cell cultures are emerging as more physiologically meaningful alternatives to monolayer cultures for many biological applications. They are attractive because they more closely mimic in vivo morphology, especially when co-cultured with stromal fibroblasts. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the efficacy of 3 different 3D cell culture systems; collagen I, low attachment culture vessels and a modification of Fibrolife®, a specialised humanised cell culture medium devoid of animal-derived components, using breast cancer cell lines representative of the different molecular subtypes of breast cancer, cultured alone or with human mammary fibroblasts with a view to developing matrix-free humanised systems. 3D collagen I culture supported the growth of a range of breast cancer cell lines. By modifying the composition of Fibrolife® to epiFL, matrix-free cell culture was possible. During sequential transfer to epiFL breast cancer cells gradually detached from the flask, growing progressively as spheroids. Phenotype was stable and reversible with cells remaining actively proliferating and easily accessible throughout culture. They could also be revived from frozen stocks. To achieve co-culture with fibroblasts in epiFL required use of low attachment culture vessels instead of standard plastic as fibroblasts remained adherent in epiFL. Here, cancer cell spheroids were allowed to form before adding fibroblasts. Immunohistochemical examination showed fibroblasts scattered throughout the epithelial spheroid, not dissimilar to the relationship of tumour stroma in human breast cancer. Conclusions Because of its ease of handling, matrix-free 3D cell culture may be a useful model to study the influence of fibroblasts on breast cancer epithelial cells with use of epiFL culture medium taking this a step further towards a fully humanised 3D model. This methodology could be applied to other types of cancer cell lines, making this a versatile technique for cancer

  20. Spectral studies on anthracene based dual sensor for Hg2 + and Al3 + ions with two distinct output modes of detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Navneet; Kaur, Baljeet

    2017-06-01

    A simple and easily synthesized colorimetric and fluorescent chemosensor 1, based on aromatic sbnd OH and imine moieties as a binding and anthracene as signaling unit, has been synthesized in a one-step procedure. The chemosensor 1 is developed as a dual chemosensor for detection of Hg2 + and Al3 + ions in CH3OH, which exhibited a color change from light yellow to dark yellow with Hg2 + ions, enabling 1 a suitable ;bare eye; indicator for Hg2 + ions. On the other hand, fluorescent enhancement with blue shift along with brilliant cyan fluorescence was observed upon binding with Al3 + ions. A possible sensing mechanism has been proposed by means of Job's plot and 1H NMR titration.

  1. Oxidative stress in MeHg-induced neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Farina, Marcelo; Aschner, Michael; Rocha, Joao B.T.

    2011-11-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental toxicant that leads to long-lasting neurological and developmental deficits in animals and humans. Although the molecular mechanisms mediating MeHg-induced neurotoxicity are not completely understood, several lines of evidence indicate that oxidative stress represents a critical event related to the neurotoxic effects elicited by this toxicant. The objective of this review is to summarize and discuss data from experimental and epidemiological studies that have been important in clarifying the molecular events which mediate MeHg-induced oxidative damage and, consequently, toxicity. Although unanswered questions remain, the electrophilic properties of MeHg and its ability to oxidize thiols have been reported to play decisive roles to the oxidative consequences observed after MeHg exposure. However, a close examination of the relationship between low levels of MeHg necessary to induce oxidative stress and the high amounts of sulfhydryl-containing antioxidants in mammalian cells (e.g., glutathione) have led to the hypothesis that nucleophilic groups with extremely high affinities for MeHg (e.g., selenols) might represent primary targets in MeHg-induced oxidative stress. Indeed, the inhibition of antioxidant selenoproteins during MeHg poisoning in experimental animals has corroborated this hypothesis. The levels of different reactive species (superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide) have been reported to be increased in MeHg-exposed systems, and the mechanisms concerning these increments seem to involve a complex sequence of cascading molecular events, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxicity, intracellular calcium dyshomeostasis and decreased antioxidant capacity. This review also discusses potential therapeutic strategies to counteract MeHg-induced toxicity and oxidative stress, emphasizing the use of organic selenocompounds, which generally present higher affinity for MeHg when compared to the classically

  2. An experimental ecotoxicological study and its application to the behavioural study of organic mercury (CH3HgCl) in the environment: influence of temperature and pH.

    PubMed

    Jahanbakht, S; Livardjani, F; Jaeger, A

    2002-12-01

    Laboratory experiments were carried out to study the influence of temperature (24, 28 and 30 degrees C) and pH (1-10) on organic mercury (CH3HgCl) transfer and accumulation in an experimental ecotoxicological model. We followed the evolution of CH3HgCl in a basic model (water + air) by varying temperature and pH. In a second step, we completed the model by adding sediment and fish. We added CH3HgCI to water at the beginning of each experiment which was repeated at least three times. Results demonstrated that mercury was released from methylmercury into the air regardless of water pH and its concentration in the air increased with increasing pH. By contrast, in presence of sediment, almost all the mercury was fixed onto the sediment and no mercury was traced in air or in water. Interestingly, in the presence of sediment, the life span of fish under methylmercury exposure lasted longer despite their higher mercury body level content at their death. These results indicate that water is a bad exposure indicator for aquatic pollution. In case of chronic pollution, sediments, fish and aquatic plants are more appropriate indicators.

  3. Wear and Reactivity Studies of Melt infiltrated Ceramic Matrix Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarmon, David C.; Ojard, Greg; Brewer, David N.

    2013-01-01

    As interest grows in the use of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) for critical gas turbine engine components, the effects of the CMCs interaction with the adjoining structure needs to be understood. A series of CMC/material couples were wear tested in a custom elevated temperature test rig and tested as diffusion couples, to identify interactions. Specifically, melt infiltrated silicon carbide/silicon carbide (MI SiC/SiC) CMC was tested in combination with a nickel-based super alloy, Waspaloy, a thermal barrier coating, Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), and a monolithic ceramic, silicon nitride (Si3N4). To make the tests more representative of actual hardware, the surface of the CMC was kept in the as-received state (not machined) with the full surface features/roughness present. Test results include: scanning electron microscope characterization of the surfaces, micro-structural characterization, and microprobe analysis.

  4. Structural Studies of Matrix Metalloproteinase by X-Ray Diffraction.

    PubMed

    Decaneto, Elena; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Ogata, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteolytic enzymes whose endopeptidase activity is dependent on the presence of specific metal ions. MT1-MMP (or MMP-14), which has been implicated in tumor progression and cellular invasion, contains a membrane-spanning region located C-terminal to a hemopexin-like domain and an N-terminal catalytic domain. We recombinantly expressed the catalytic domain of human MT1-MMP in E. coli and purified it from inclusion bodies using a refolding protocol that yielded significant quantities of active protein. Crystals of MT1-MMP were obtained using the vapour diffusion method. Here, we describe the protocols used for crystallization and the data analysis together with the resulting diffraction pattern.

  5. Matrix population models from 20 studies of perennial plant populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, Martha M.; Williams, Jennifer L.; Lesica, Peter; Bell, Timothy J.; Bierzychudek, Paulette; Bowles, Marlin; Crone, Elizabeth E.; Doak, Daniel F.; Ehrlen, Johan; Ellis-Adam, Albertine; McEachern, Kathryn; Ganesan, Rengaian; Latham, Penelope; Luijten, Sheila; Kaye, Thomas N.; Knight, Tiffany M.; Menges, Eric S.; Morris, William F.; den Nijs, Hans; Oostermeijer, Gerard; Quintana-Ascencio, Pedro F.; Shelly, J. Stephen; Stanley, Amanda; Thorpe, Andrea; Tamara, Ticktin; Valverde, Teresa; Weekley, Carl W.

    2012-01-01

    Demographic transition matrices are one of the most commonly applied population models for both basic and applied ecological research. The relatively simple framework of these models and simple, easily interpretable summary statistics they produce have prompted the wide use of these models across an exceptionally broad range of taxa. Here, we provide annual transition matrices and observed stage structures/population sizes for 20 perennial plant species which have been the focal species for long-term demographic monitoring. These data were assembled as part of the "Testing Matrix Models" working group through the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS). In sum, these data represent 82 populations with >460 total population-years of data. It is our hope that making these data available will help promote and improve our ability to monitor and understand plant population dynamics.

  6. Matrix population models from 20 studies of perennial plant populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, Martha M.; Williams, Jennifer L.; Lesica, Peter; Bell, Timothy J.; Bierzychudek, Paulette; Bowles, Marlin; Crone, Elizabeth E.; Doak, Daniel F.; Ehrlen, Johan; Ellis-Adam, Albertine; McEachern, Kathryn; Ganesan, Rengaian; Latham, Penelope; Luijten, Sheila; Kaye, Thomas N.; Knight, Tiffany M.; Menges, Eric S.; Morris, William F.; den Nijs, Hans; Oostermeijer, Gerard; Quintana-Ascencio, Pedro F.; Shelly, J. Stephen; Stanley, Amanda; Thorpe, Andrea; Tamara, Ticktin; Valverde, Teresa; Weekley, Carl W.

    2012-01-01

    Demographic transition matrices are one of the most commonly applied population models for both basic and applied ecological research. The relatively simple framework of these models and simple, easily interpretable summary statistics they produce have prompted the wide use of these models across an exceptionally broad range of taxa. Here, we provide annual transition matrices and observed stage structures/population sizes for 20 perennial plant species which have been the focal species for long-term demographic monitoring. These data were assembled as part of the 'Testing Matrix Models' working group through the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS). In sum, these data represent 82 populations with >460 total population-years of data. It is our hope that making these data available will help promote and improve our ability to monitor and understand plant population dynamics.

  7. Ambient air particulates and particulate-bound mercury Hg(p) concentrations: dry deposition study over a Traffic, Airport, Park (T.A.P.) areas during years of 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Lin, Yen-Heng; Zheng, Yu-Cheng

    2016-02-01

    The main purpose of this study was to monitor ambient air particles and particulate-bound mercury Hg(p) in total suspended particulate (TSP) concentrations and dry deposition at the Hung Kuang (Traffic), Taichung airport and Westing Park sampling sites during the daytime and nighttime, from 2011 to 2012. In addition, the calculated/measured dry deposition flux ratios of ambient air particles and particulate-bound mercury Hg(p) were also studied with Baklanov & Sorensen and the Williams models. For a particle size of 10 μm, the Baklanov & Sorensen model yielded better predictions of dry deposition of ambient air particulates and particulate-bound mercury Hg(p) at the Hung Kuang (Traffic), Taichung airport and Westing Park sampling site during the daytime and nighttime sampling periods. However, for particulates with sizes 20-23 μm, the results obtained in the study reveal that the Williams model provided better prediction results for ambient air particulates and particulate-bound mercury Hg(p) at all sampling sites in this study.

  8. Mercury methylation rates for geochemically relevant Hg(II) species in sediments.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Sofi; Skyllberg, Ulf; Nilsson, Mats B; Westlund, Per-Olof; Shchukarev, Andrey; Lundberg, Erik; Björn, Erik

    2012-11-06

    Monomethylmercury (MeHg) in fish from freshwater, estuarine, and marine environments is a major global environmental issue. Mercury levels in biota are mainly controlled by the methylation of inorganic mercuric mercury (Hg(II)) to MeHg in water, sediments, and soils. There is, however, a knowledge gap concerning the mechanisms and rates of methylation of specific geochemical Hg(II) species. Such information is crucial for a better understanding of variations in MeHg concentrations among ecosystems and, in particular, for predicting the outcome of currently proposed measures to mitigate mercury emissions and reduce MeHg concentrations in fish. To fill this knowledge gap we propose an experimental approach using Hg(II) isotope tracers, with defined and geochemically important adsorbed and solid Hg(II) forms in sediments, to study MeHg formation. We report Hg(II) methylation rate constants, k(m), in estuarine sediments which span over 2 orders of magnitude depending on chemical form of added tracer: metacinnabar (β-(201)HgS(s)) < cinnabar (α-(199)HgS(s)) < Hg(II) reacted with mackinawite (≡FeS-(202)Hg(II)) < Hg(II) bonded to natural organic matter (NOM-(196)Hg(II)) < a typical aqueous tracer ((198)Hg(NO(3))(2)(aq)). We conclude that a combination of thermodynamic and kinetic effects of Hg(II) solid-phase dissolution and surface desorption control the Hg(II) methylation rate in sediments and cause the large observed differences in k(m)-values. The selection of relevant solid-phase and surface-adsorbed Hg(II) tracers will therefore be crucial to achieving biogeochemically accurate estimates of ambient Hg(II) methylation rates.

  9. Effects of fulvic substances on the distribution and migration of Hg in landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Xiaoli, Chai; Guixiang, Liu; Jun, Wu; Huanhuan, Tong; Rong, Ji; Youcai, Zhao

    2011-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) distribution and migration in different landfill stabilization processes were evaluated in this study. Wide ranges of Hg concentrations were observed because of the heterogeneity and variability of landfill refuse. In addition, temporally variable conditions, including pH, organic matter, and vegetation cover, which influence Hg migration in landfills, may also affect the temporal distribution of Hg in landfill refuse. The main fraction of Hg, elemental Hg, decreased with time, while the stable fractions of Hg increased. The fulvic acid (FA) extracted from the landfill leachate had much lower overall Hg-complexation stability constants, which suggests that organic S groups might have been rapidly saturated by small amounts of Hg while leaving oxygen functional groups, such as carboxylic functional or phenolic groups, acting as the primary binding sites for Hg.

  10. Crystal Growth and Electronic Raman Scattering Study of Model High-Tc Cuprate HgBa2 CaCu2 O6 +Ä

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lichen; Li, Yuan; Luo, Xiangpeng; Li, Jiarui; Yuan Li's Group in ICQM Team

    In this talk, I will report our recent progress on crystal growth of HgBa2CaCu2O6 +x (Hg1212), which possesses a simple tetragonal crystal structure and the highest ambient-pressure Tc (128 K) among all cuprate superconductors with two CuO2 sheets in the primitive cell. Improvement in single-crystal synthesis was made possible by using self-designed high-pressure furnaces and a two-layer encapsulation method, and we demonstrate that the hole concentration can be homogeneously tuned in the underdoped region by post-growth annealing. Our electronic Raman scattering experiments reveal that the maximum of the d-wave superconducting gap increases from single-layer HgBa2CuO4 +x to double-layer Hg1212. In the same spectra, it is found that the characteristic energy of spin excitations, as manifested by the energy of the two-magnon signal, also increases in a nearly proportional fashion. This result is consistent with the idea that magnetic interactions are closely related to the Cooper pairing mechanism.

  11. A study of Hg1-xCdxTe surfaces processed using inductively coupled plasma with CH4/H2/N2/Ar mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wenhong; Ye, Zhenhua; Hu, Xiaoning; Ding, Ruijun; He, Li

    2008-12-01

    Hydrogen-based dry plasmas, generated in inductively coupled plasma reactors have been demonstrated to be very effective in fabricating high fill-factor mesa of Hg1-xCd xTe multi-layer hetero-structure material for infrared focal plane array applications. To obtain reasonable dry etching process for Hg 1-xCd xTe, it is essential to investigate the physical, chemical, and electrical characteristics of the surface. This paper explores the effect of varying the plasma process parameters on the surface of Hg 1-xCd xTe. The surface chemical analysis was carried out using spot X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the surface roughness was measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and p-to-n type conversion depth was assessed by a reliable current-voltage test of a designed structure basing on material-chip technology concept and a convenient technology of cross-section surface potential imaging (SPM). At last, Hg 1-xCd xTe etched surfaces with roughness low and mechanical or electrical damage free were achieved.

  12. Influence of Cd2+, Hg2+ and Pb2+ on (+)-catechin binding to bovine serum albumin studied by fluorescence spectroscopic methods.

    PubMed

    Peng, Mijun; Shi, Shuyun; Zhang, Yuping

    2012-01-01

    The effect of heavy metal ions, Cd(2+), Hg(2+) and Pb(2+) on (+)-catechin binding to bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been investigated by spectroscopic methods. The results indicated that the presence of heavy metal ions significantly affected the binding modes and binding affinities of (+)-catechin to BSA, and the effects depend on the types of heavy metal ion. One binding mode was found for (+)-catechin with and without Cd(2+), while two binding modes - a weaker one at low concentration and a stronger one at high concentration were found for (+)-catechin in the presence of Hg(2+) and Pb(2+). The presence of Cd(2+) decreased the binding affinities of (+)-catechin for BSA by 20.5%. The presence of Hg(2+) and Pb(2+) decreased the binding affinity of (+)-catechin for BSA by 8.9% and 26.7% in lower concentration, respectively, and increased the binding affinity of (+)-catechin for BSA by 5.2% and 9.2% in higher concentration, respectively. The changed binding affinity and binding distance of (+)-catechin for BSA in the presence of Cd(2+), Hg(2+) and Pb(2+) were mainly because of the conformational change of BSA induced by heavy metal ions. However, the quenching mechanism for (+)-catechin to BSA was based on static quenching combined with non-radiative energy transfer irrespective of the absence or presence of heavy metal ions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of Cd 2+, Hg 2+ and Pb 2+ on (+)-catechin binding to bovine serum albumin studied by fluorescence spectroscopic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Mijun; Shi, Shuyun; Zhang, Yuping

    2012-01-01

    The effect of heavy metal ions, Cd 2+, Hg 2+ and Pb 2+ on (+)-catechin binding to bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been investigated by spectroscopic methods. The results indicated that the presence of heavy metal ions significantly affected the binding modes and binding affinities of (+)-catechin to BSA, and the effects depend on the types of heavy metal ion. One binding mode was found for (+)-catechin with and without Cd 2+, while two binding modes - a weaker one at low concentration and a stronger one at high concentration were found for (+)-catechin in the presence of Hg 2+ and Pb 2+. The presence of Cd 2+ decreased the binding affinities of (+)-catechin for BSA by 20.5%. The presence of Hg 2+ and Pb 2+ decreased the binding affinity of (+)-catechin for BSA by 8.9% and 26.7% in lower concentration, respectively, and increased the binding affinity of (+)-catechin for BSA by 5.2% and 9.2% in higher concentration, respectively. The changed binding affinity and binding distance of (+)-catechin for BSA in the presence of Cd 2+, Hg 2+ and Pb 2+ were mainly because of the conformational change of BSA induced by heavy metal ions. However, the quenching mechanism for (+)-catechin to BSA was based on static quenching combined with non-radiative energy transfer irrespective of the absence or presence of heavy metal ions.

  14. Studies on a novel mask technique with high selectivity and aspect-ratio patterns for HgCdTe trenches ICP etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Z. H.; Hu, W. D.; Li, Y.; Huang, J.; Yin, W. T.; Lin, C.; Hu, X. N.; Ding, R. J.; Chen, X. S.; Lu, W.; He, L.

    2012-06-01

    A novel mask technique, combining high selectivity silicon dioxide patterns over high aspect-ratio photoresist (PR) patterns has been exploited to perform mesa etching for device delineation and electrical isolation of HgCdTe third-generation infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPAs). High-density silicon dioxide film covering high aspect-ratio PR patterns was deposited at the temperature of 80°C and silicon dioxide film patterns over high aspect-ratio PR patterns of HgCdTe etching samples was developed by standard photolithography and wet chemical etch. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the surfaces of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etched samples are quite clean and smooth. The etching selectivity between the novel mask and HgCdTe of the samples is increased to above 32: 1 while the side-wall impact of etching plasma is suppressed by the high aspect ratio patterns. These results show that the combined patterning of silicon dioxide film and thick PR film is a readily available and promising masking technique for HgCdTe mesa etching.

  15. Transfer matrix of a Glaser magnet to study the dynamics of non-axisymmetric beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, A.; Sing Babu, P.; Pandit, V. S.

    2012-06-01

    A Glaser magnet, having bell-shaped distribution of axial field, is often used to focus charged particle beams in the low energy section of accelerators and in many other devices. The transfer matrix of a Glaser magnet available in the literature is only for a rotationally axisymmetric beam. The objective of this paper is to obtain the 4D transfer matrix of a Glaser magnet for a non-axisymmetric beam having different emittances in the two transverse planes. Starting from the Hamiltonian of a single particle motion we have obtained the 4×4 linear transfer matrix of the Glaser magnet in symplectic form. The matrix so derived has been used to estimate the beam envelope through a Glaser magnet using the well known sigma matrix method. We have also studied the emittance growth that results from the coupling between the two transverse planes as the beam passes through the Glaser magnet.

  16. Study of cell-matrix adhesion dynamics using surface plasmon resonance imaging ellipsometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Hwa; Chegal, Won; Doh, Junsang; Cho, Hyun Mo; Moon, Dae Won

    2011-04-06

    The interaction of cells with extracellular matrix, termed cell-matrix adhesions, importantly governs multiple cellular phenomena. Knowledge of the functional dynamics of cell-matrix adhesion could provide critical clues for understanding biological phenomena. We developed surface plasmon resonance imaging ellipsometry (SPRIE) to provide high contrast images of the cell-matrix interface in unlabeled living cells. To improve the contrast and sensitivity, the null-type imaging ellipsometry technique was integrated with an attenuated total reflection coupler. We verified that the imaged area of SPRIE was indeed a cell-matrix adhesion area by confocal microscopy imaging. Using SPRIE, we demonstrated that three different cell types exhibit distinct features of adhesion. SPRIE was applied to diverse biological systems, including during cell division, cell migration, and cell-cell communication. We imaged the cell-matrix anchorage of mitotic cells, providing the first label-free imaging of this interaction to our knowledge. We found that cell-cell communication can alter cell-matrix adhesion, possibly providing direct experimental evidence for cell-cell communication-mediated changes in cell adhesion. We also investigated shear-stress-induced adhesion dynamics in real time. Based on these data, we expect that SPRIE will be a useful methodology for studying the role of cell-matrix adhesion in important biological phenomena.

  17. Material and structural studies of metal and polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorelli, R. A.; Serafini, T. T.; Johns, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Fiber-reinforced composites and design analysis methods for these materials are being developed because of the vast potential of composites for decreasing weight and/or increasing use temperature capability in aerospace systems. These composites have potential for use in airbreathing engine components as well as aeronautical and space vehicle structures. Refractory wire-superalloy composites for use up to 2200 F or more and metal-matrix composites for lower temperature applications such as aerospace structures and turbojet fan and compressor blades are under investigation and are discussed. The development of a number of resin systems, including the polyimides and polyphenylquinoxalines, is described and their potential for use at temperatures approaching 315 C (600 F) is indicated. Various molecular modifications that improve processability and/or increase thermal and oxidative resistance of the resins are also described. Structural analysis methods are discussed for determining the stresses and deformations in complex composite systems. Consideration is also given to residual stresses resulting from the curing process and to the foreign object damage problem in fan blade applications.

  18. Biophysical studies of matrix metalloproteinase/triple-helix complexes.

    PubMed

    Fields, Gregg B

    2014-01-01

    Several members of the zinc-dependent matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family catalyze collagen degradation. The structures of MMPs, in solution and solid state and in the presence and absence of triple-helical collagen models, have been assessed by NMR spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, and X-ray crystallography. Structures observed in solution exhibit flexibility between the MMP catalytic (CAT) and hemopexin-like (HPX) domains, while solid-state structures are relatively compact. Evaluation of the maximum occurrence (MO) of MMP-1 conformations in solution found that, for all the high MO conformations, the CAT and HPX domains are not in tight contact, and the residues of the HPX domain reported to be responsible for the binding to the collagen triple-helix are solvent exposed. A mechanism for collagenolysis has been developed based on analysis of MMP solution structures. Information obtained from solid-state structures has proven valuable for analyzing specific contacts between MMPs and the collagen triple-helix.

  19. HgCdTe heterostructures on Si (310) substrates for midinfrared focal plane arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Yakushev, M. V. Brunev, D. V.; Varavin, V. S.; Vasilyev, V. V.; Dvoretskii, S. A.; Marchishin, I. V.; Predein, A. V.; Sabinina, I. V.; Sidorov, Yu. G.; Sorochkin, A. V.

    2011-03-15

    Results of studies of the molecular beam epitaxial growth of HgCdTe alloys on Si substrates as large as 100 mm in diameter are presented. Optimum conditions for obtaining HgCdTe/Si(310) heterostructures of the device quality for the spectral range of 3-5 {mu}m are determined. The results of measurements and discussion of photoelectric parameters of an infrared photodetector of a format of 320 Multiplication-Sign 256 elements with a step of 30 {mu}m based on a hybrid assembly of a matrix photosensitive cell with a Si multiplexer are presented. A high stability of photodetector parameters to thermocycling from room temperature to liquid-nitrogen temperature is shown.

  20. [Study of sustained-matrix tablets Ambroxol hydrochloride and potential impact of different fillers on the matrix tablet's scale-up].

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng-yuan; Yang, Ya-peng; Chang, Jun-biao; Guo, Min-tong

    2012-10-18

    To study the release profiles of Ambroxol hydrochloride in matrix tablets with different fillers and controlled release materials, and investigate the potential impact on different fillers on the matrix tablet's scale-up. Ambroxol hydrochloride was chosen as the model drug to make single-layer matrix tablets with different types of hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose as matrix material, and lactose or microcrystalline cellulose as the filler. In vitro dissolution test was used to evaluate the drug release performance of the matrix tablets made. Also ethyl cellulose was used to prepare double-layer matrix tablets to investigate how different kinds of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and fillers would affect the drug release in double-layer matrix tablets. The drug release rate of single-layer tablets with lactose and HPMC decreased significantly with the increase of the level and viscosity of HPMC. However the release profile only slightly slowed down with the increase of the content and viscosity of HPMC for single-layer matrix tablets of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). Compared with the single-layer tablets, the level and viscosity of HPMC had less impact on the drug release of the double-layer matrix tablets. The matrix tablet with lactose and HPMC has greater flexibility to design formulations with different drug release rate, however the introduction of other process parameters during the scale-up could lead the shifting of the drug release profile from small scale batches. The drug release profiles of matrix tablets with insoluble filler-MCC only change within a small range with the increase of the level and viscosity of HPMC. From the formulation design point of view, it could be necessary to select different type of controlled release polymers to meet the design requirement.

  1. Infrared Matrix-Isolation Study of New Noble-Gas Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Cheng; Räsänen, Markku; Khriachtchev, Leonid

    2016-06-01

    We identify new noble-gas compounds in solid matrices using IR spectroscopy. The compounds under study belong to two types: HNgY and YNgY' where Ng is a noble-gas atom and Y and Y' are electronegative fragments. The experimental assignments are supported by ab initio calculations at the MP2(full) and CCSD(T) levels of theory with the def2-TZVPPD basis set. We have prepared and characterized two new HNgY compounds (noble-gas hydrides): HKrCCCl in a Kr matrix and HXeCCCl in a Xe matrix.I The synthesis of these compounds includes two steps: UV photolysis of HCCCl in a noble-gas matrix to form the H + CCCl fragments and annealing of the matrix to mobilize H atoms and to promote the H + Ng + CCCl = HNgCCCl reaction. An interesting observation in the experiments on HXeCCCl in a Xe matrix is the temperature-induced transformation of the three H-Xe stretching bands. This observation is explained by temperature-induced changes of local matrix morphology around the embedded HXeCCCl molecule. In these experiments, we have also obtained the IR spectrum of the CCCl radical, which is produced by photodecomposition of HCCCl. We have identified three new YNgY' compounds (fluorinated noble-gas cyanides): FKrCN in a Kr matrix and FXeCN and FXeNC in a Xe matrix.II These molecule are formed by photolysis of FCN in a noble-gas matrix due to locality of this process. The amount of these molecules increases upon thermal mobilization of the F atoms in the photolyzed matrix featuring the F + Ng + CN reaction.

  2. Importance of Dissolved Neutral Hg-Sulfides, Energy Rich Organic Matter and total Hg Concentrations for Methyl Mercury Production in Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drott, A.; Skyllberg, U.

    2007-12-01

    Methyl mercury (MeHg) is the mercury form that biomagnifies to the greatest extent in aquatic food webs. Therefore information about factors determining MeHg concentrations is critical for accurate risk assessment of contaminated environments. The concentration of MeHg in wetlands and sediments is the net result of: 1) methylation rates, 2) demethylation rates, and 3) input/output processes. In this study, the main controls on Hg methylation rates and total concentrations of MeHg, were investigated at eight sites in Sweden with sediments that had been subjected to local Hg contamination either as Hg(0), or as phenyl-Hg. Sediments were selected to represent a gradient in total Hg concentration, temperature climate, salinity, primary productivity, and organic C content and quality. Most sediments were high in organic matter content due to wood fibre efflux from pulp and paper industry. The pore water was analysed for total Hg, MeHg, DOC, H2S(aq), pH, DOC, Cl and Br. The chemical speciation of Hg(II) and MeHg in pore water was calculated using equilibrium models. Potential methylation and demethylation rates in sediments were determined in incubation experiments at 23° C under N2(g) for 48 h, after addition of isotopically enriched 201Hg(II) and Me204Hg. In all surface (0-20 cm) sediments there was a significant (p<0.001) positive relationship between the experimentally determined specific potential methylation rate constant (Km, day-1) and % MeHg (concentrations of MeHg normalized to total Hg) in the sediment. This indicates that MeHg production overruled degradation and input/output processes of MeHg in surface sediments, and that % MeHg in surface sediments may be used as a proxy for net production of MeHg. To our knowledge, these are the first data showing significant positive relationships between short term (48 h) MeHg production and longer term accumulation of MeHg, across a range of sites with different properties (1). If MeHg was not normalized to total Hg

  3. Matrix isolation ESR and theoretical studies of metal phosphides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Rebecca O.; Chandler, Graham S.; Davis, Jeffrey R.; McKinley, Allan J.

    2010-10-01

    The ZnP, Z67nP, CdP, C111dP, and C113dP radicals have been formed by laser ablation of the metal with GaP pressed into the metal surface, isolated in an inert neon matrix at 4.3 K and their electronic structure was established using electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The following magnetic parameters were determined experimentally for ZnP/Z67nP, g⊥=1.9982(2), A⊥(P)=111(6) MHz, A⊥(Z67n)=160(2) MHz, and D=-29 988(3) MHz and estimates were made for the following ZnP/Z67nP magnetic parameters: g∥=1.9941(2), A∥(P)=-5(6) MHz, and A∥(Z67n)=180(50) MHz. The following magnetic parameters for CdP/C111dP/C113dP were determined experimentally: g⊥=1.9963(2), A⊥(P)=97(3) MHz, A⊥(C111d)=862(3) MHz, and A⊥(C113d)=902(3) MHz. Evidence for the formation of the MgP radical was also obtained and an approximate hyperfine coupling constant of A⊥(P)=157(6) MHz was determined. The low-lying electronic states of ZnP and MgP were also investigated using the multiconfigurational self-consistent field technique. Potential energy surfaces, binding energies, optimized bond lengths, energy separations, and dissociation energies have been determined. Both radicals are found to have Σ4- ground states with a leading configuration at re of 10σ211σ25π15π112σ1 for ZnP and 7σ28σ23π13π19σ1 for MgP. Significant mixing to this state is calculated for MgP.

  4. Seasonal and Diurnal Variations of Hg(0) Over New England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, H.; Talbot, R.; Sigler, J.; Sive, B.; Hegarty, J.

    2007-12-01

    Diurnal to interannual variability of Hg° over New England was investigated using multiple years of Hg° measurements at two inland sites, Thompson Farm (TF, 43.11° N, 70.95° W, 24 m, 25 km inland) and Pac Monadnock (PM, 42.86° N, 71.88° W, 700 m, 180 km inland), and one summer of measurements from a marine site, Appledore Island (AI, 42.97° N, 70.62° W, sea level), from the University of New Hampshire AIRMAP observing network. Possible sources were identified via a thorough examination of relationships between Hg° and a number of trace gases, e.g., CO, CO2, CH4, NOy, NO, SO2, and VOCs. The measurements of Hg at TF showed distinct seasonality with an annual maxima in late winter - early spring and a minima in early fall, with large day-to-day variation. A decreasing trend in the mixing ratio of Hg over the time period of March - September occurred at a rate of 0.5 - 0.6 ppqv d-1 for all years except 2004 (0.3 ppqv d-1). Measurements of Hg° at the elevated site PM exhibited much smaller daily and annual variation, particularly reflected in the slower warm season decline (relative to TF) of 0.2 and 0.3 ppqv d-1 in 2005 and 2006 respectively. The AI data appeared to track the variation observed at TF albeit with much higher minima. Hg° was correlated most strongly with CO and NOy in winter suggesting that anthropogenic emissions were the primary source of Hg° . Applying the Hg° - CO relationship, we found that the seasonally averaged Hg° mixing ratio of ~160 ppqv at PM can be considered the regional background level. The positive Hg° -NOy correlation along the lower boundary of all data points indicated dry deposition as a stronger sink for Hg° than suggested by previous studies. We estimated a dry deposition velocity for Hg° of 0.17 - 0.20 cm s-1, and a lifetime of ~11 days in the local PBL at TF. Correlation between Hg° and CHBr3 at both TF and AI suggested a role of the oceanic source influencing the ambient levels of Hg° in the marine and coastal

  5. Elemental Mercury in Natural Waters: Occurrence and Determination of Particulate Hg(0).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongmin; Li, Yanbin; Liu, Guangliang; Wang, Dingyong; Jiang, Guibin; Cai, Yong

    2015-08-18

    Elemental mercury, Hg(0), is ubiquitous in water and involved in key Hg biogeochemical processes. It is extensively studied as a purgeable dissolved species, termed dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM). Little information is available regarding nonpurgeable particulate Hg(0) in water, Hg(0) bound to suspended particulate matter (SPM), which is presumably present due to high affinity of Hg(0) adsorption on solids. By employing stable isotope tracer and isotope dilution (ID) techniques, we investigated the occurrence and quantification of particulate Hg(0) after Hg(0) being spiked into natural waters, aiming to provide firsthand information on particulate Hg(0) in water. A considerable fraction of (201)Hg(0) spiked in water (about 70% after 4 h equilibration) was bound to SPM and nonpurgeable, suggesting the occurrence of particulate Hg(0) in natural waters. A scheme, involving isotope dilution, purge and trap, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection, was proposed to quantify particulate Hg(0) by the difference between DGM and total Hg(0), determined immediately and at equilibration after spiking ID Hg isotope, respectively. The application of this newly established method revealed the presence of particulate Hg(0) in Florida Everglades water, as the determined DGM levels (0.14 to 0.22 ng L(-1)) were remarkably lower than total Hg(0) (0.41 to 0.75 ng L(-1)).

  6. Studies of boron implantation through photochemically deposited SiO/sub 2/ films on Hg/sub 1-x/Cd/sub x/Te. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, R.C.; Robertson, R.E.; Knudsen, J.F.; Downing, R.G.

    1987-05-22

    Variable-temperature Hall and resistivity measurements were used to monitor the changes in carrier behavior in p-type Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te when boron ions are implanted through photochemically deposited SiO/sub 2/. The formation of an n-type layer is demonstrated. Quantitative and nondestructive determination of the absolute /sup 10/B concentration and distribution were obtained by the novel method of neutron-depth profiling. As expected, the boron distributions in the SiO/sub 2/ films and Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te are strongly dependent upon the ion implant energy. However, negligible changes in the boron depth profiles were found after 200 C anneals. The present results are briefly related to the performance behavior of mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) sensors produced via generic ion-implantation procedures.

  7. A relativistic periodic DFT study on interaction of superheavy elements 112 (Cn) and 114 (Fl) and their homologs Hg and Pb, respectively, with a quartz surface.

    PubMed

    Pershina, V

    2016-06-29

    Relativistic periodic calculations of adsorption energies of group-12 elements Hg and Cn and group-14 elements Pb and Fl on a hydroxylated (001) α-quartz surface at different adsorbate coverage have been performed using the ADF-BAND program. Results for the (4 × 4) supercell, being in good agreement with gas-phase chromatography experimental data for adsorption of Hg and Pb on quartz at zero coverage, indicate that Cn and Fl should not interact with the silicon oxide at room temperature. However, their moderately strong interaction with gold is expected. The reason for the non-interaction of Cn and Fl with SiO2 is strong relativistic effects on their valence electron shells.

  8. Numerical study of the intrinsic recombination carriers lifetime in extended short-wavelength infrared detector materials: A comparison between InGaAs and HgCdTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Hanqing; Bellotti, Enrico

    2016-05-01

    Intrinsic carrier lifetime due to radiative and Auger recombination in HgCdTe and strained InGaAs has been computed in the extended short-wavelength infrared (ESWIR) spectrum from 1.7 μm to 2.7 μm. Using the Green's function theory, both direct and phonon-assisted indirect Auger recombination rates as well as the radiative recombination rates are calculated for different cutoff wavelengths at 300 K with full band structures of the materials. In order to properly model the full band structures of strained InGaAs, an empirical pseudo-potential model for the alloy is fitted using the virtual crystal approximation with spin-orbit coupling included. The results showed that for InxGa1-xAs grown on InP substrate, the compressive strain, which presents in the film when the cutoff wavelength is longer than 1.7 μm, leads to decrease of Auger recombination rate and increase of radiative recombination rate. Since the dominant intrinsic recombination mechanism in this spectral range is radiative recombination, the overall intrinsic carrier lifetime in the strained InGaAs alloys is shorter than that in the relaxed material. When compared to the relaxed HgCdTe, both relaxed and compressively strained InGaAs alloys show shorter intrinsic carrier lifetime at the same cutoff wavelength in room temperature which confirms the potential advantage of HgCdTe as wide-band infrared detector material. While HgCdTe offers superior performance, ultimately the material of choice for ESWIR application will also depend on material quality and cost.

  9. Numerical study of the intrinsic recombination carriers lifetime in extended short-wavelength infrared detector materials: A comparison between InGaAs and HgCdTe

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Hanqing; Bellotti, Enrico

    2016-05-28

    Intrinsic carrier lifetime due to radiative and Auger recombination in HgCdTe and strained InGaAs has been computed in the extended short-wavelength infrared (ESWIR) spectrum from 1.7 μm to 2.7 μm. Using the Green's function theory, both direct and phonon-assisted indirect Auger recombination rates as well as the radiative recombination rates are calculated for different cutoff wavelengths at 300 K with full band structures of the materials. In order to properly model the full band structures of strained InGaAs, an empirical pseudo-potential model for the alloy is fitted using the virtual crystal approximation with spin-orbit coupling included. The results showed that for In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As grown on InP substrate, the compressive strain, which presents in the film when the cutoff wavelength is longer than 1.7 μm, leads to decrease of Auger recombination rate and increase of radiative recombination rate. Since the dominant intrinsic recombination mechanism in this spectral range is radiative recombination, the overall intrinsic carrier lifetime in the strained InGaAs alloys is shorter than that in the relaxed material. When compared to the relaxed HgCdTe, both relaxed and compressively strained InGaAs alloys show shorter intrinsic carrier lifetime at the same cutoff wavelength in room temperature which confirms the potential advantage of HgCdTe as wide-band infrared detector material. While HgCdTe offers superior performance, ultimately the material of choice for ESWIR application will also depend on material quality and cost.

  10. A study of the influence of Hg(6(3)P2) population in a low-pressure discharge on mercury ion emission at 194.2 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maleki, L.; Blasenheim, B. J.; Janik, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    A low-pressure mercury-argon discharge, similar to the type existing in the mercury lamp for the trapped-ion standard, is probed with a new technique of laser spectroscopy to determine the influence of the Hg(6 3P(sub 2)) population on discharge emission. The discharge is excited with inductively coupled rf power. Variations in the intensity of emission lines in the discharge were examined as lambda = 546.1 nm light from a continuous wave (CW) laser excited the Hg(6 3P(sub 2)) to (7 3S (sub 1)) transition. The spectrum of the discharge viewed in the region of laser irradiation showed increased emission in lambda = 546.1, 435.8, 404.7, 253.7, and 194.2 nm lines. Other lines in Hg I exhibited a decrease in emission. When the discharge was viewed outside the region of laser irradiation, all lines exhibited an increased emission. Based on these results, it is concluded that the dominant mechanism for the excitation of higher lying levels of mercury is the the electron-impact excitation via the 3P(sub 2) level. The depopulation of this metastable is also responsible for the observed increase in the electron temperature when the laser irradiates the discharge. It is also concluded that the 3P(sub 2) metastable level of mercury does not play a significant role in the excitation of the 3P(sub 1/2) level of mercury ion.

  11. Mueller matrix holographic method for small particle characterization: theory and numerical studies.

    PubMed

    Gao, Meng; Yang, Ping; McKee, David; Kattawar, George W

    2013-07-20

    Holographic imaging has proved to be useful for spherical particle characterization, including the retrieval of particle size, refractive index, and 3D location. In this method, the interference pattern of the incident and scattered light fields is recorded by a camera and compared with the relevant Lorenz-Mie solutions. However, the method is limited to spherical particles, and the complete polarized scattering components have not been studied. This work extends the Mueller matrix formalism for the scattered light to describe the interference light field, and proposes a Mueller matrix holography method, through which complete polarization information can be obtained. The mathematical formalism of the holographic Mueller matrix is derived, and numerical examples of birefringent spheres are provided. The Mueller matrix holography method may provide a better opportunity than conventional methods to study anisotropic particles.

  12. An in-depth evaluation of accuracy and precision in Hg isotopic analysis via pneumatic nebulization and cold vapor generation multi-collector ICP-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rua-Ibarz, Ana; Bolea-Fernandez, Eduardo; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) isotopic analysis via multi-collector inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) can provide relevant biogeochemical information by revealing sources, pathways, and sinks of this highly toxic metal. In this work, the capabilities and limitations of two different sample introduction systems, based on pneumatic nebulization (PN) and cold vapor generation (CVG), respectively, were evaluated in the context of Hg isotopic analysis via MC-ICP-MS. The effect of (i) instrument settings and acquisition parameters, (ii) concentration of analyte element (Hg), and internal standard (Tl)-used for mass discrimination correction purposes-and (iii) different mass bias correction approaches on the accuracy and precision of Hg isotope ratio results was evaluated. The extent and stability of mass bias were assessed in a long-term study (18 months, n = 250), demonstrating a precision ≤0.006% relative standard deviation (RSD). CVG-MC-ICP-MS showed an approximately 20-fold enhancement in Hg signal intensity compared with PN-MC-ICP-MS. For CVG-MC-ICP-MS, the mass bias induced by instrumental mass discrimination was accurately corrected for by using either external correction in a sample-standard bracketing approach (SSB) or double correction, consisting of the use of Tl as internal standard in a revised version of the Russell law (Baxter approach), followed by SSB. Concomitant matrix elements did not affect CVG-ICP-MS results. Neither with PN, nor with CVG, any evidence for mass-independent discrimination effects in the instrument was observed within the experimental precision obtained. CVG-MC-ICP-MS was finally used for Hg isotopic analysis of reference materials (RMs) of relevant environmental origin. The isotopic composition of Hg in RMs of marine biological origin testified of mass-independent fractionation that affected the odd-numbered Hg isotopes. While older RMs were used for validation purposes, novel Hg isotopic data are provided for the

  13. SPE HG-AAS method for the determination of inorganic arsenic in rice--results from method validation studies and a survey on rice products.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Rie R; Qian, Yiting; Sloth, Jens J

    2013-09-01

    The present paper describes the development, validation and application of a method for inorganic arsenic (iAs) determination in rice samples. The separation of iAs from organoarsenic compounds was done by off-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS) detection. This approach was earlier developed for seafood samples (Rasmussen et al., Anal Bioanal Chem 403:2825-2834, 2012) and has in the present work been tailored for rice products and further optimised for a higher sample throughput and a lower detection limit. Water bath heating (90 °C, 60 min) of samples with dilute HNO3 and H2O2 solubilised and oxidised all iAs to arsenate (As(V)). Loading of buffered sample extracts (pH 6 ± 1) followed by selective elution of arsenate from a strong anion exchange SPE cartridge enabled the selective iAs quantification by HG-AAS, measuring total arsenic (As) in the SPE eluate. The in-house validation gave mean recoveries of 101-106% for spiked rice samples and in two reference samples. The limit of detection was 0.02 mg kg(-1), and repeatability and intra-laboratory reproducibility were less than 6 and 9%, respectively. The SPE HG-AAS method produced similar results compared to parallel high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. The SPE separation step was tested collaboratively, where the laboratories (N = 10) used either HG-AAS or ICP-MS for iAs determination in a wholemeal rice powder. The trial gave satisfactory results (HorRat value of 1.6) and did not reveal significant difference (t test, p > 0.05) between HG-AAS and ICP-MS quantification. The iAs concentration in 36 rice samples purchased on the Danish retail market varied (0.03-0.60 mg kg(-1)), with the highest concentration found in a red rice sample.

  14. Infrared spectra of HMSH and HMMSH (M = Zn, Cd, Hg) in solid argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhenyun; Liu, Xing; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Xuefeng

    2015-04-01

    Reactions of zinc, cadmium and mercury atoms with hydrogen sulfide were studied by matrix-isolation infrared spectroscopy. Insertion products HMSH (M = Zn, Cd, Hg) and HMMSH (M = Zn, Cd) were identified by H234S and D2S isotopic substitutions and by theoretical vibrational frequency calculations (B3LYP, BPW91, CCSD(T)). The absorptions of HZnSH and HCdSH molecules increased on annealing in solid argon, suggesting the reactions occur without activation energy; however, the HHgSH molecule was observed on full-arc irradiation. In addition our HMMSH molecules provide simple model to understand the bonding of {M2}2+ core complexes.

  15. Determination of elemental constituents in different matrix materials and flow injection studies by the electrolyte cathode glow discharge technique with a new design

    SciTech Connect

    Shekhar, R.; Karunasagar, D.; Ranjit, M.; Arunachalam, J.

    2009-10-15

    An open-to-air type electrolyte cathode discharge (ELCAD) has been developed with a new design. The present configuration leads to a stable plasma even at low flow rates (0.96 mL/min). Plasma fluctuations arising from the variations in the gap between solid anode and liquid cathode were eliminated by providing a V-groove to the liquid glass-capillary. Cathode (ground) connection is given to the solution at the V-groove itself. Interfaced to atomic emission spectrometry (AES), its analytical performance is evaluated. The optimized molarity of the solution is 0.2 M. The analytical response curves for Ca, Cu, Cd, Pb, Hg, Fe, and Zn demonstrated good linearity. The limit of detections of Ca, Cu, Cd, Pb, Hg, Fe, and Zn are determined to be 17, 11, 5, 45, 15, 28, and 3 ng mL{sup -1}. At an integration time of 0.3 s, the relative standard deviation (RSD) values of the acid blank solutions are found to be less than 10% for the elements Ca, Cu, Cd, Hg, Fe, and Zn and 18% for Pb. The method is applied for the determination of the elemental constituents in different matrix materials such as tuna fish (IAEA-350), oyster tissue (NIST SRM 1566a), and coal fly ash (CFA SRM 1633b). The obtained results are in good agreement with the certified values. The accuracy is found to be between 7% and 0.6% for major to trace levels of constituent elements and the precision between 11% and 0.6%. For the injection of 100 {mu} L of 200 ng mL{sup -1} mercury solution at the flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, the flow injection studies resulted in the relative standard deviation (RSD) of 8%, concentration detection limit of 10 ng/mL, and mass detection limit of 1 ng for mercury.

  16. Study of uranium matrix interference on ten analytes using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazi, A. A.; Qamar, Sajid; Atta, M. A.

    1993-08-01

    Maximum allowable concentrations of 12 elements in uranium hexafluoride feed for enrichment to reactor grade material (about 3%), vary from 1 to 100 ppm ( μg/g). Using an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer, 51 lines of ten of these elements (B, Cr, Mo, P, Sb, Si, Ta, Ti, V and W) have been studied with a uranium matrix to investigate the matrix interference on the basis of signal to background (SBR), and background to background ratios (BBR). Detection limits and limits of quantitative determination (LQDs) were calculated for these elements in a uranium matrix using SBR and relative standard deviation of the background signal (RSD B) approach. In almost all cases, the uranium matrix interference reduces the SBRs to the extent that direct trace analysis is impossible. A uranium sample having known concentrations of impurities (around LQDs) was directly analysed with results that showed reasonable accuracy and precision.

  17. Statistical Analysis of HgMn Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazaryan, S.; Alecian, G.

    2017-07-01

    To check if the multiplicity is a determinant parameter for abundance peculiarities determined for the hot chemically peculiar group of HgMn stars, we have considered a compilation of a large number of recently published data obtained from spectroscopy. We compared those data to the previous compilation by Smith (1996). Our analysis confirm the main trends of the abundance peculiarities, and their large spread from star to star. We studied correlations between abundances and effective temperature (Teff) also and confirmed the known correlation as well as for Mn, and for some other elements. Statistical analysis using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test shows that the abundances' anomalies in the atmosphere of HgMn stars do not present significant dependence on the multiplicity.

  18. Combined tween 20-stabilized gold nanoparticles and reduced graphite oxide-Fe3O4 nanoparticle composites for rapid and efficient removal of mercury species from a complex matrix.

    PubMed

    Shih, Ya-Chen; Ke, Chen-Yi; Yu, Cheng-Ju; Lu, Chi-Yu; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2014-10-22

    This study describes a simple method for removing mercuric ions (Hg(2+)) from a high-salt matrix based on the use of Tween-20-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Tween 20-Au NPs) as Hg(2+) adsorbents and composites of reduced graphite oxide and Fe3O4 NPs as NP collectors. Citrate ions adsorbed on the surface of the Tween 20-Au NPs reduced Hg(2+) to Hg(0), resulting in the deposition of Hg(0) on the surface of the NPs. To circumvent time-consuming centrifugation and transfer steps, the Hg(0)-containing gold NPs were collected using reduced graphite oxide-Fe3O4 NP composites. Compared with the reported NP-based methods for removing Hg(2+), Tween 20-Au NPs offered the rapid (within 30 min), efficient (>99% elimination efficiency), durable (>10 cycles), and selective removal of Hg(2+), CH3Hg(+), and C2H5Hg(+) in a high-salt matrix without the interference of other metal ions. This was attributed to the fact that the dispersed Tween 20-Au NPs exhibited large surface-area-to-volume ratio to bind Hg(2+) through Hg(2+)-Au(+) metallophilic interactions in a high-salt matrix. The formation of graphite oxide sheets and reduced graphite oxide-Fe3O4 NP composites was demonstrated using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy. The mechanism of interaction between Tween 20-Au NPs and Hg(2+) was studied using visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  19. Discrete-line transitions from superdeformed to yrast states in {sup 194}Hg and {sup 192}Hg

    SciTech Connect

    Hackman, G.; Khoo, T.L.; Ackermann, D.

    1996-12-31

    Discrete-line {gamma}-ray decay from superdeformed (SD) to yrast states in {sup 194,192}Hg has been studied with the Gammasphere spectrometer. The previously established decay for the yrast SD band of {sup 194}Hg has been characterized further. In addition, one-step decays have been observed for {sup 194}Hg SD band 3, which fixes the excitation energy and spin of the last observed level of this band at E* = 7.455 MeV, J = 11{Dirac_h}. So far no direct decays from superdeformed to yrast states have been observed in {sup 192}Hg or in {sup 194}Hg band 2, a result which is consistent with fluctuations of the transition strengths.

  20. Magnetic fields of HgMn stars⋆

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubrig, S.; González, J. F.; Ilyin, I.; Korhonen, H.; Schöller, M.; Savanov, I.; Arlt, R.; Castelli, F.; Lo Curto, G.; Briquet, M.; Dall, T. H.

    2012-11-01

    Context. The frequent presence of weak magnetic fields on the surface of spotted late-B stars with HgMn peculiarity in binary systems has been controversial during the two last decades. Recent studies of magnetic fields in these stars using the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique have failed to detect magnetic fields, indicating an upper limit on the longitudinal field between 8 and 15 G. In these LSD studies, assumptions were made that all spectral lines are identical in shape and can be described by a scaled mean profile. Aims: We re-analyse the available spectropolarimetric material by applying the moment technique on spectral lines of inhomogeneously distributed elements separately. Furthermore, we present new determinations of the mean longitudinal magnetic field for the HgMn star HD 65949 and the hotter analog of HgMn stars, the PGa star HD 19400, using FORS 2 installed at the VLT. We also give new measurements of the eclipsing system AR Aur with a primary star of HgMn peculiarity, which were obtained with the SOFIN spectropolarimeter installed at the Nordic Optical Telescope. Methods: We downloaded from the European Southern Observatory (ESO) archive the publically available HARPS spectra for eight HgMn stars and one normal and one superficially normal B-type star obtained in 2010. Out of this sample, three HgMn stars belong to spectroscopic double-lined systems. The application of the moment technique to the HARPS and SOFIN spectra allowed us to study the presence of the longitudinal magnetic field, the crossover effect, and quadratic magnetic fields. Results for the HgMn star HD 65949 and the PGa star HD 19400 are based on a linear regression analysis of low-resolution spectra obtained with FORS 2 in spectropolarimetric mode. Results: Our measurements of the magnetic field with the moment technique using spectral lines of several elements separately reveal the presence of a weak longitudinal magnetic field, a quadratic magnetic field, and the

  1. In vivo formation and binding of SeHg complexes to the erythrocyte surface.

    PubMed

    Cherdwongcharoensuk, Duangrudee; Oliveira, Maria João; Aguas, Artur Perez

    2010-08-01

    The in vivo dynamics of selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) interaction was studied in mouse tissues using direct visualization of individual Se, Hg, and SeHg particles on the surface of circulating erythrocytes. This high-resolution detection of Se and Hg was obtained by scanning electron microscopy coupled to X-ray microanalysis. BALB/c mice were injected in the peritoneal cavity with Se and Hg salts, and the animals were sacrificed 3 min after the Hg injection. Only a minority (9%) of the metal dots seen on mouse liver erythrocytes were SeHg complexes when Se and Hg salts were mixed together before injection. In contrast, the majority (73%) of metal dots on liver erythrocytes were SeHg complexes if Se was injected at least 5 min before Hg injection. All metal dots on liver erythrocytes were of SeHg complexes if Se was injected 9 or 12 min before the Hg injection. We conclude that the formation of stable in vivo SeHg complexes requires preliminary interaction of Se with a putative serum factor before complexes between Se and Hg are formed and are bound to the erythrocyte cell surface.

  2. Long-distance transport of Hg, Sb, and As from a mined area, conversion of Hg to methyl-Hg, and uptake of Hg by fish on the Tiber River basin, west-central Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, John E.; Rimondi, Valentina; Costagliola, Pilario; Vaselli, Orlando; Lattanzi, Pierfranco

    2014-01-01

    guideline. Data in this study indicate some conversion of inorganic Hg to methyl-Hg and uptake of Hg in fish on the Paglia River, but less methylation of Hg and Hg uptake by freshwater fish in the larger Tiber River.

  3. Long-distance transport of Hg, Sb, and As from a mined area, conversion of Hg to methyl-Hg, and uptake of Hg by fish on the Tiber River basin, west-central Italy.

    PubMed

    Gray, John E; Rimondi, Valentina; Costagliola, Pilario; Vaselli, Orlando; Lattanzi, Pierfranco

    2014-02-01

    μg/g fish muscle guideline. Data in this study indicate some conversion of inorganic Hg to methyl-Hg and uptake of Hg in fish on the Paglia River, but less methylation of Hg and Hg uptake by freshwater fish in the larger Tiber River.

  4. Hg{sup +} frequency standards

    SciTech Connect

    Prestage, John D.; Tjoelker, Robert L.; Maleki, Lute

    1999-01-15

    In this paper we review the development of Hg{sup +} microwave frequency standards for use in high reliability and continuous operation applications. In recent work we have demonstrated short-term frequency stability of 3x10{sup -14}/{radical}{tau} when a cryogenic oscillator of stability 2-3x10{sup -15} was used as the local oscillator. The trapped ion frequency standard employs a {sup 202}Hg discharge lamp to optically pump the trapped {sup 199}Hg{sup +} clock ions and a helium buffer gas to cool the ions to near room temperature. We describe a small Hg{sup +} ion trap based frequency standard with an extended linear ion trap (LITE) architecture which separates the optical state selection region from the clock resonance region. This separation allows the use of novel trap configurations in the resonance region since no optical pumping is carried out there. A method for measuring the size of an ion cloud inside a linear trap with a 12-rod trap is currently being investigated. At {approx}10{sup -12}, the 2{sup nd} order Doppler shift for trapped mercury ion frequency standards is one of the largest frequency offsets and its measurement to the 1% level would represent an advance in insuring the very long-term stability of these standards to the 10{sup -14} or better level. Finally, we describe atomic clock comparison experiments that can probe for a time variation of the fine structure constant, {alpha}=e{sup 2}/2{pi}hc, at the level of 10{sup -20}/year as predicted in some Grand Unified String Theories.

  5. Introducing Explorer of Taxon Concepts with a case study on spider measurement matrix building.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hong; Xu, Dongfang; Chong, Steven S; Ramirez, Martin; Rodenhausen, Thomas; Macklin, James A; Ludäscher, Bertram; Morris, Robert A; Soto, Eduardo M; Koch, Nicolás Mongiardino

    2016-11-17

    Taxonomic descriptions are traditionally composed in natural language and published in a format that cannot be directly used by computers. The Exploring Taxon Concepts (ETC) project has been developing a set of web-based software tools that convert morphological descriptions published in telegraphic style to character data that can be reused and repurposed. This paper introduces the first semi-automated pipeline, to our knowledge, that converts morphological descriptions into taxon-character matrices to support systematics and evolutionary biology research. We then demonstrate and evaluate the use of the ETC Input Creation - Text Capture - Matrix Generation pipeline to generate body part measurement matrices from a set of 188 spider morphological descriptions and report the findings. From the given set of spider taxonomic publications, two versions of input (original and normalized) were generated and used by the ETC Text Capture and ETC Matrix Generation tools. The tools produced two corresponding spider body part measurement matrices, and the matrix from the normalized input was found to be much more similar to a gold standard matrix hand-curated by the scientist co-authors. Special conventions utilized in the original descriptions (e.g., the omission of measurement units) were attributed to the lower performance of using the original input. The results show that simple normalization of the description text greatly increased the quality of the machine-generated matrix and reduced edit effort. The machine-generated matrix also helped identify issues in the gold standard matrix. ETC Text Capture and ETC Matrix Generation are low-barrier and effective tools for extracting measurement values from spider taxonomic descriptions and are more effective when the descriptions are self-contained. Special conventions that make the description text less self-contained challenge automated extraction of data from biodiversity descriptions and hinder the automated reuse of the

  6. Equilibrium mercury isotope fractionation between dissolved Hg(II) species and thiol-bound Hg.

    PubMed

    Wiederhold, Jan G; Cramer, Christopher J; Daniel, Kelly; Infante, Ivan; Bourdon, Bernard; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2010-06-01

    Stable Hg isotope ratios provide a new tool to trace environmental Hg cycling. Thiols (-SH) are the dominant Hg-binding groups in natural organic matter. Here, we report experimental and computational results on equilibrium Hg isotope fractionation between dissolved Hg(II) species and thiol-bound Hg. Hg(II) chloride and nitrate solutions were equilibrated in parallel batches with varying amounts of thiol resin resulting in different fractions of thiol-bound and free Hg. Mercury isotope ratios in both fractions were analyzed by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). Theoretical equilibrium Hg isotope effects by mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) and nuclear volume fractionation (NVF) were calculated for 14 relevant Hg(II) species. The experimental data revealed that thiol-bound Hg was enriched in light Hg isotopes by 0.53 per thousand and 0.62 per thousand (delta(202)Hg) relative to HgCl(2) and Hg(OH)(2), respectively. The computational results were in excellent agreement with the experimental data indicating that a combination of MDF and NVF was responsible for the observed Hg isotope fractionation. Small mass-independent fractionation (MIF) effects (<0.1 per thousand) were observed representing one of the first experimental evidences for MIF of Hg isotopes by NVF. Our results indicate that significant equilibrium Hg isotope fractionation can occur without redox transition, and that NVF must be considered in addition to MDF to explain Hg isotope variations.

  7. Management of gingival recession with acellular dermal matrix graft: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Balaji, V. R.; Ramakrishnan, T.; Manikandan, D.; Lambodharan, R.; Karthikeyan, B.; Niazi, Thanvir Mohammed; Ulaganathan, G.

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Obtaining root coverage has become an important part of periodontal therapy. The aims of this studyare to evaluate the clinical efficacy of acellular dermal matrix graft in the coverage of denuded roots and also to examine the change in the width of keratinized gingiva. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 sites with more than or equal to 2 mm of recession depth were taken into the study, for treatment with acellular dermal matrix graft. The clinical parameters such as recession depth, recession width, width of keratinized gingiva, probing pocket depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were measured at the baseline, 8th week, and at the end of the study (16th week). The defects were treated with a coronally positioned pedicle graft combined with acellular dermal matrix graft. Results: Out of 20 sites treated with acellular dermal matrix graft, seven sites showed complete root coverage (100%), and the mean root coverage obtained was 73.39%. There was a statistically significant reduction in recession depth, recession width, and probing PD. There was also a statistically significant increase in width of keratinized gingiva and also gain in CAL. The postoperative results were both clinically and statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: The results of this study were esthetically acceptable to the patients and clinically acceptable in all cases. From this study, it may be concluded that acellular dermal matrix graft is an excellent substitute for autogenous graft in coverage of denuded roots. PMID:27829749

  8. Long Noncoding RNA MIR4697HG Promotes Cell Growth and Metastasis in Human Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li-qian; Yang, Su-qing; Wang, Ying; Fang, Qiao; Chen, Xian-jun; Lu, Hong-sheng

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the three most common gynecological malignant tumors worldwide. The prognosis of patients suffering from this malignancy remains poor because of limited therapeutic strategies. Herein, we investigated the role of a long noncoding RNA named MIR4697 host gene (MIR4697HG) in the cell growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer. Results showed that the transcriptional level of MIR4697HG in cancerous tissues increased twofold compared with that in adjacent noncancerous tissues. MIR4697HG was differentially expressed in ovarian cancer cell lines, with the highest levels in OVCAR3 and SKOV3 cells. MIR4697HG knockdown by specific shRNA significantly inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation in both OVCAR3 and SKOC3 cells. Consistently, in a xenograft model of ovarian cancer, MIR4697HG depletion also significantly restricted tumor volumes and weights. Furthermore, MIR4697HG knockdown inhibited cell migration and invasion capacities. Invasion ability was inhibited by 58% in SKOV3 cells and 40% in OVCAR3 cells, and migration ability was inhibited by 73% in SKOV3 cells and 62% in OVCAR3 cells after MIR4697HG knockdown. MIR4697HG knockdown also caused a decrease in matrix metalloprotease-9, phosphorylated ERK, and phosphorylated AKT. These data suggested that MIR4697HG promoted ovarian cancer growth and metastasis. The aggressive role of MIR4697HG in ovarian cancer may be related to the ERK and AKT signaling pathways. PMID:28168162

  9. Study on voids of epoxy matrix composites sandwich structure parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Simin; Wen, Youyi; Yu, Wenjun; Liu, Hong; Yue, Cheng; Bao, Jing

    2017-03-01

    Void is the most common tiny defect of composite materials. Porosity is closely related to composite structure property. The voids forming behaviour in the composites sandwich structural parts with the carbon fiber reinforced epoxy resin skins was researched by adjusting the manufacturing process parameters. The composites laminate with different porosities were prepared with the different process parameter. The ultrasonic non-destructive measurement method for the porosity was developed and verified through microscopic examination. The analysis results show that compaction pressure during the manufacturing process had influence on the porosity in the laminate area. Increasing the compaction pressure and compaction time will reduce the porosity of the laminates. The bond-line between honeycomb core and carbon fiber reinforced epoxy resin skins were also analyzed through microscopic examination. The mechanical properties of sandwich structure composites were studied. The optimization process parameters and porosity ultrasonic measurement method for composites sandwich structure have been applied to the production of the composite parts.

  10. Material and structural studies of metal and polymer matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorelli, R. A.; Serafini, T. T.; Johns, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    The application of fiber composites to aeronautical and space vehicle systems indicates the following: It appears quite probable that resin/fiber composites can be developed for service at 315 C for several thousand hours and at 370 C for a few hundred hours. The retention of resin/fiber strength at these high temperatures can be achieved by modifying the polymer molecular structure or by developing new processing techniques, or both. Carbon monofilament with attractive strength values has been produced and fabrication studies to reinforce aluminum with such monofilaments have been initiated. Refractory wire-superalloy composites have demonstrated sufficiently high strength and impact values to suggest that they have potential for application to turbine blades at temperatures to 1200 C and above.

  11. Spectroscopic evidence of spinel phase clustering in solid solutions Hg(1-x)Cr(x)Se (0.03 ≤ x ≤ 0.1).

    PubMed

    Lamonova, K; Ivanchenko, I; Orel, S; Paranchich, S; Tkach, V; Zhitlukhina, E; Popenko, N; Pashkevich, Yu

    2009-01-28

    The diluted magnetic semiconductors Hg(1-x)Cr(x)Se (0.03≤x≤0.1) were prepared by the solid state recrystallization method. The structure microanalysis of the Hg(1-x)Cr(x)Se compounds, performed by using a scanning electron spectrometer, has shown that the HgCr(2)Se(4) spinel-like inclusions are present in the host matrix Hg(1-x)Cr(x)Se and their amount increases when the chromium content grows. ESR studies of Hg(1-x)Cr(x)Se samples were carried out in the temperature range 4.2-300 K. ESR spectra of the samples with different chromium contents demonstrate the same g-factors at room temperature and similar fine structure development with the temperature decrease. Numerical studies of g-factors, performed by the modified crystal field approach (MCFA), allowed us to reveal that Cr(2+)/Cr(3+) ions in the tetrahedral environment of the solid solution Hg(1-x)Cr(x)Se cannot lead to the ESR signal. The experimental g-factor is well reproduced by a numerical g-factor for Cr(3+) ions located in the octahedral environment, being specific for the HgCr(2)Se(4) spinel phase. The onset of the ESR fine structure is determined by the trigonal distortions of the (CrSe(6))(9-) octahedral cell. From our study it has been found that the spinel clusters are present in the Hg(1-x)Cr(x)Se solid solution even at low chromium content.

  12. Compression of HgCr2S4 and HgCr2Se4 spinels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efthymiopoulos, I.; Yaresko, A.; Tsurkan, V.; Deisenhofer, J.; Loidl, A.; Park, C.; Wang, Y.; Wang Group Team; Yaresko Collaboration; Iap Collaboration; Loidl Collaboration; Hpcat Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    The family of ACr2X4 spinels constitutes a prototype system for studying magnetism in solids. More recently, members of this series were found to exhibit multiferroicity. The origin of the ferroic properties is unknown; the role of the structure, however, appears to be important. Given the strong interplay between structural and ferroic properties in these systems, structural tuning by pressure can provide valuable hints for multiferroicity. We have performed high-pressure structural investigations on the multiferroic HgCr2S4 and the HgCr2Se4 compounds.HgCr2S4 exhibits three structural transitions: the starting cubic phase adopts a tetragonal structure at 20 GPa, at 27 GPa an orthorhombic distortion occurs, and a third transition takes place above 37 GPa. As for HgCr2Se4, our studies detect a structural transition at 14 GPa, near the theoretically predicted band gap closure. We discuss the possible mechanisms for the observed phase transitions for both Cr-spinels.

  13. Neutron diffraction study of metal-matrix composite with fullerite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, P. A.; Blanter, M. S.; Brazhkin, VV; Somenkov, VA; Filonenko, V. P.

    2016-09-01

    Interaction of amorphous fullerite C60 with austenitic Fe-33.2 wt. % Ni alloy at pressures 0-8 GPa and temperatures 600-1100 °C was studied by neutron diffraction. The amorphous fullerite was obtained by ball milling and mixed with the powder of the crystalline alloy. The interaction at sintering led to the dissolution of carbon in fcc Fe-Ni solid solution and the formation of carbide (Fe, Ni)3C, but the Fe-Ni-C alloy did not undergo phase transformations and preserved the original fcc structure. As a result, the alloy hardened, we could also witness a clear barometric effect: at the pressure of 2 GPa the amount of the dissolved carbon and the microhardness turned out to be significantly higher than those at 8 GPa. During sintering amorphous fullerite is undergoing phase transitions and its microhardness is higher than the microhardness of the metal component. At high temperatures of interaction graphite appears. The presence of Fe-Ni alloy in the composite reduces the temperature of graphite formation in comparison with transformations in the pure amorphous fullerene.

  14. Topological Control of Extracellular Matrix Growth: A Native-Like Model for Cell Morphodynamics Studies.

    PubMed

    Caballero, David; Samitier, Josep

    2017-02-01

    The interaction of cells with their natural environment influences a large variety of cellular phenomena, including cell adhesion, proliferation, and migration. The complex extracellular matrix network has challenged the attempts to replicate in vitro the heterogeneity of the cell environment and has threatened, in general, the relevance of in vitro studies. In this work, we describe a new and extremely versatile approach to generate native-like extracellular matrices with controlled morphologies for the in vitro study of cellular processes. This general approach combines the confluent culture of fibroblasts with microfabricated guiding templates to direct the three-dimensional growth of well-defined extracellular networks which recapitulate the structural and biomolecular complexity of features typically found in vivo. To evaluate its performance, we studied fundamental cellular processes, including cell cytoskeleton organization, cell-matrix adhesion, proliferation, and protrusions morphodynamics. In all cases, we found striking differences depending on matrix architecture and, in particular, when compared to standard two-dimensional environments. We also assessed whether the engineered matrix networks influenced cell migration dynamics and locomotion strategy, finding enhanced migration efficiency for cells seeded on aligned matrices. Altogether, our methodology paves the way to the development of high-performance models of the extracellular matrix for potential applications in tissue engineering, diagnosis, or stem-cell biology.

  15. Parametric studies to determine the effect of compliant layers on metal matrix composite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, J. J.; Chamis, C. C.; Brown, H. C.

    1990-01-01

    Computational simulation studies are conducted to identify compliant layers to reduce matrix stresses which result from the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch and the large temperature range over which the current metal matrix composites will be used. The present study includes variations of compliant layers and their properties to determine their influence on unidirectional composite and constituent response. Two simulation methods are used for these studies. The first approach is based on a three-dimensional linear finite element analysis of a 9 fiber unidirectional composite system. The second approach is a micromechanics based nonlinear computer code developed to determine the behavior of metal matrix composite system for thermal and mechanical loads. The results show that an effective compliant layer for the SCS 6 (SiC)/Ti-24Al-11Nb (Ti3Al + Nb) and SCS 6 (SiC)/Ti-15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al (Ti-15-3) composite systems should have modulus 15 percent that of the matrix and a coefficient of thermal expansion of the compliant layer roughly equal to that of the composite system without the CL. The matrix stress in the longitudinal and the transverse tangent (loop) direction are tensile for the Ti3Al + Nb and Ti-15-3 composite systems upon cool down from fabrication. The fiber longitudinal stress is compressive from fabrication cool down. Addition of a recommended compliant layer will result in a reduction in the composite modulus.

  16. Dynamic studies of proton diffusion in mesoscopic heterogeneous matrix

    PubMed Central

    Gutman, M.; Nachliel, E.; Kiryati, S.

    1992-01-01

    The thin water layer, as found in chloroplast or mitochondria, is confined between low dielectric amphypathic surfaces a few nm apart. The physical properties of this mesoscopic space, and how its dimensions affect the rate of chemical reactions proceeding in it, is the subject for this study. The method selected for this purpose is time resolved fluorometry which can monitor the reversible dissociation of a proton from excited molecule of pyranine (8 hydroxy pyrene 1,3,6 tri sulfonate) trapped in thin water layers of a multilamellar vesicle made of neutral or slightly charged phospholipids. The results were analyzed by a computer program of N. Agmon (Pines, E., D. Huppert, and N. Agmon. 1988. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 88:5620-5630) that simulates the diffusion of a proton, subjected to electrostatic attraction, in a thin water layer enclosed between low affinity, proton binding surfaces. The analysis determines the diffusion coefficient of the proton, the effective dielectric constant of the water and the water accessibility of the phosphomoieties of the lipids. These parameters were measured for various lipids [egg-phosphatidylcholine (egg PC), dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), cholesterol + DPPC (1:1) and egg PC plus phosphatidyl serine (9:1)] and under varying osmotic pressure which reduces the width of the water layer down to ∼10 ∼ across. We found that: (a) The effective dielectric constant of the aqueous layer, depending on the lipid composition, is ∼40. (b) The diffusion coefficient of the proton in the thin layer (30-10 ∼ across) is that measured in bulk water D = 9.3 10-5 cm2/s, indicating that the water retains its normal liquid state even on contact with the membrane. (c) The reactivity of the phosphomoiety, quantitated by rate of its reaction with proton, diminishes under lateral pressure which reduces the surface area per lipid. We find no evidence for abnormal dynamics of proton transfer at the lipid water interface which, by any mechanism

  17. Hg2+ reduction and re-emission from simulated wet flue gas desulfurization liquors.

    PubMed

    Wo, Jingjing; Zhang, Meng; Cheng, Xiaoya; Zhong, Xiaohang; Xu, Jiang; Xu, Xinhua

    2009-12-30

    In this study, considering that Hg(2+) in wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems can easily be reduced and then released into atmosphere, causing secondary pollution, the researches about Hg(2+) reduction and Hg(0) re-emission mechanism were carried out. The effects of several experimental parameters on the reduction were studied, including initial pH, temperature, and concentrations of Cl(-) and S(IV). Our experimental results indicated that Cl(-) had a restraining effect on the Hg(2+) reduction and Hg(0) re-emission, after 24h reaction, only 20.5% of Hg(2+) was reduced with 100mM Cl(-) in simulated desulfurization solution. Cl(-) can slow Hg(2+) reduction and Hg(0) re-emissions dramatically through changing reaction mechanism, with formation of new intermediate: ClHgSO(3)(-), which can decompose to Hg(0), but much more slowly than Hg(SO(3))(2)(2-) or HgSO(3). Simulating the conditions of the practical application (initial pH 5, T=50 degrees C, S(IV)=5 mM, Cl(-)=100 mM), we also found that Ca(2+), NO(3)(-), F(-), etc. all had obvious effects on reduction rates. Based on the material balance and characteristic of the reactants, the reduction emission mechanism of Hg(2+) has been established, providing theoretical basis for industrial application of mercury control in wet FGD systems.

  18. Growth of HgZnTe Layers by LPE Technique

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    Solid solution mixtures of a wide band gap II-VI compound with one constituent being the semimetal HgTe may be tuned to yield narrow gap...experimental research into the narrow band gap range of this solid solution . In the present work the LPE of Hg1-xZnxTe was studied, focusing on the...evaluation of this technique as a tool for achieving epitaxial layers of the ’new material’, the solid solution Hg1-xZnxTe, with morphological, crystalline

  19. Chemical thermodynamics of the Hg1212 phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Tetsuo; Fueki, Kazuo

    1997-02-01

    The single phase of Hg1212 was synthesized by the simple oxide method using starting materials containing HgO 16% in excess. Stability regions of Hg1212 and pure HgO were determined by measuring the decomposition temperature as a function of oxygen partial pressure, and thermodynamic diagrams showing the stability domains of HgO and Hg1212 were constructed. The thermodynamical condition of formation of Hg1212 was discussed using the diagrams. It was found by chemical analysis that the valence of Hg is always 2 + and the valence of Ce changes with the oxygen content. TC (zero) changed from 122 to 118 K when the oxygen content was increased from 6.10 to 6.22.

  20. Size quantization in layered HgI/sub 2/ colloids

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M.W.; Micic, O.I.; Nozik, A.J.

    1988-07-14

    Colloidal particles of HgI/sub 2/ with a particle size less than about 25 /angstrom/ are formed by the reaction of HgCl/sub 2/ with NaI in acetonitrile. The particles are charged with Cl/sup -/ ions that fill normally empty tetrahedral coordination sites at the edges; therefore they have an empirical formula HgI/sub 2/Cl/sub 0.6//sup 0.6-/. About 40% of the mercury in the colloidal solution is in the form of the ionic complex HgI/sub 2/Cl/sup -/. These conclusions are based on extensive spectroscopic studies of various Hg-I-Cl species and experiments involving ultracentifugation, ultrafiltration, and treatment of the colloids with ion-exchange resins. The absorption spectrum of the colloidal HgI/sub 2/ consists of three peaks at 4.26, 4.94, and 6.04 eV, and is attributed to size quantization effects. This spectrum is consistent with the first three allowed transitions in a simple particle-in-a-box model with infinite potential barriers in which the colloidal particles have the usual tetrahedral, layered structure of red HgI/sub 2/, with dimensions of 26.1 /angstrom/ perpendicular to the layer plane (four layers thick) and 13.3 /angstrom/ in the direction parallel to the layer plane.

  1. Comparison of HgO and CuSO4/TiO2 as catalysts in manual Kjeldahl digestion for determination of crude protein in animal feed: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Kane, P F

    1987-01-01

    Because of environmental concerns about HgO, and because of lengthy digestion requirements for HgO and CuSO4, interest in alternative catalysts for the Kjeldahl determination of animal feeds remains high. A digestion system using a mixed CuSO4/TiO2 catalyst has been found to reduce digestion times to 40 min. A collaborative study was carried out to compare this system to the official AOAC HgO method, 7.015. Thirty-eight samples, consisting of blind duplicates of closely matched pairs and 2 standard materials, were analyzed once by each method. Results were received from 13 laboratories. Means and standard deviations of individual samples were comparable, with an overall difference of grand means of 0.005% protein. With only one exception, analyses of variance showed no significant method difference at the 95% confidence level. The CuSO4/TiO2 method has been approved interim official first action as an alternative method for determination of crude protein in animal feed.

  2. Thermo-oxidative stability studies of PMR-15 polymer matrix composites reinforced with various fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to measure the thermo-oxidative stability of PMR-15 polymer matrix composites reinforced with various fibers and to observe differences in the way they degrade in air. The fibers that were studied included graphite and the thermally stable Nicalon and Nextel ceramic fibers. Weight loss rates for the different composites were assessed as a function of mechanical properties, specimen geometry, fiber sizing, and interfacial bond strength. Differences were observed in rates of weight loss, matrix cracking, geometry dependency, and fiber-sizing effects. It was shown that Celion 6000 fiber-reinforced composites do not exhibit a straight-line Arrhenius relationship at temperatures above 316 C.

  3. A feasibility study for producing an egg matrix candidate reference material for the polyether ionophore salinomycin.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Rosana Gomes; Monteiro, Mychelle Alves; Pereira, Mararlene Ulberg; da Costa, Rafaela Pinto; Spisso, Bernardete Ferraz; Calado, Veronica

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of producing an egg matrix candidate reference material for salinomycin. Preservation techniques investigated were freeze-drying and spray drying dehydration. Homogeneity and stability studies of the produced batches were conducted according to ISO Guides 34 and 35. The results showed that all produced batches were homogeneous and both freeze-drying and spray drying techniques were suitable for matrix dehydrating, ensuring the material stability. In order to preserve the material integrity, it must be transported within the temperature range of -20 up to 25°C. The results constitute an important step towards the development of an egg matrix reference material for salinomycin is possible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Maternal-fetal distribution of mercury ( sup 203 Hg) released from dental amalgam fillings

    SciTech Connect

    Vimy, M.J.; Takahashi, Y.; Lorscheider, F.L. )

    1990-04-01

    In humans, the continuous release of Hg vapor from dental amalgam tooth restorations is markedly increased for prolonged periods after chewing. The present study establishes a time-course distribution for amalgam Hg in body tissues of adult and fetal sheep. Under general anesthesia, five pregnant ewes had twelve occlusal amalgam fillings containing radioactive 203Hg placed in teeth at 112 days gestation. Blood, amniotic fluid, feces, and urine specimens were collected at 1- to 3-day intervals for 16 days. From days 16-140 after amalgam placement (16-41 days for fetal lambs), tissue specimens were analyzed for radioactivity, and total Hg concentrations were calculated. Results demonstrate that Hg from dental amalgam will appear in maternal and fetal blood and amniotic fluid within 2 days after placement of amalgam tooth restorations. Excretion of some of this Hg will also commence within 2 days. All tissues examined displayed Hg accumulation. Highest concentrations of Hg from amalgam in the adult occurred in kidney and liver, whereas in the fetus the highest amalgam Hg concentrations appeared in liver and pituitary gland. The placenta progressively concentrated Hg as gestation advanced to term, and milk concentration of amalgam Hg postpartum provides a potential source of Hg exposure to the newborn. It is concluded that accumulation of amalgam Hg progresses in maternal and fetal tissues to a steady state with advancing gestation and is maintained. Dental amalgam usage as a tooth restorative material in pregnant women and children should be reconsidered.

  5. MicroCT vs. Hg porosimetry: microporosity in commercial stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusi, N.; Martinez-Martinez, J.; Barberini, V.; Galimberti, L.

    2009-04-01

    Decay of rocks, due both to extrinsic and intrinsic factors, can show up in several different forms, such as neoformation of minerals, decohesion of grains and/or crystals, magnification of previous defects, new discontinuities, etc. Intrinsic factors include the type of material, its properties and microstructure, in particular porosity and microporosity. Extrinsic factors relate to atmosphere and usage of the material itself. Rock degradation has several heavy consequences for commercial stones, such as increase of permeability, loss of material, loss of mechanical strength; these consequences are of crucial importance for conservation of historical buildings. Aim of this study is to compare microporosity of some massive commercial stones by means of X ray microtomography, a non destructive technique, and Hg porosimetry. Nine of the most used Spanish limestones and dolostones have been analysed. The lithotypes have been chosen for their homogeneous mineralogical composition (calcitic or dolomitic) and for their low porosity; some of them have been widely used in Spain for historical buildings. Different lithotypes have been described in thin section: Ambarino (A) and Beige Serpiente (BS): brecciated dolostone, composed by microcrystalline dolomitic clasts, in a dolomitic and/or calcitic microcrystalline matrix. Amarillo Triana (AT): yellow dolomitic marble, with fissures filled up by calcite and Fe oxides. Blanco Alconera (BA): a white-pink homogeneous limestone, with veins. Blanco Tranco (BT): a homogeneous white calcitic marble, without any fissures and/or fractures. Crema Valencia (CV): a pinkish limestone, characterized by abundant stilolythes, filled mainly by quartz (80%) and kaolin (11%). Gris Macael (GM): a calcitic marble wiht darker and lighter beds, conferring a strong anisotropy. Rojo Cehegin (RC): a red fossiliferous limestone with white calcitic veins. Travertino Blanco (TB): a massive white calcitic travertine. Prismatic samples of about 2x1x1 cm

  6. Mercury isotope signatures as tracers for Hg cycling at the New Idria Hg mine.

    PubMed

    Wiederhold, Jan G; Smith, Robin S; Siebner, Hagar; Jew, Adam D; Brown, Gordon E; Bourdon, Bernard; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2013-06-18

    Mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) and mass-independent fractionation (MIF) of Hg isotopes provides a new tool for tracing Hg in contaminated environments such as mining sites, which represent major point sources of Hg pollution into surrounding ecosystems. Here, we present Hg isotope ratios of unroasted ore waste, calcine (roasted ore), and poplar leaves collected at a closed Hg mine (New Idria, CA, U.S.A.). Unroasted ore waste was isotopically uniform with δ(202)Hg values from -0.09 to 0.16‰ (± 0.10‰, 2 SD), close to the estimated initial composition of the HgS ore (-0.26‰). In contrast, calcine samples exhibited variable δ(202)Hg values ranging from -1.91‰ to +2.10‰. Small MIF signatures in the calcine were consistent with nuclear volume fractionation of Hg isotopes during or after the roasting process. The poplar leaves exhibited negative MDF (-3.18 to -1.22‰) and small positive MIF values (Δ(199)Hg of 0.02 to 0.21‰). Sequential extractions combined with Hg isotope analysis revealed higher δ(202)Hg values for the more soluble Hg pools in calcines compared with residual HgS phases. Our data provide novel insights into possible in situ transformations of Hg phases and suggest that isotopically heavy secondary Hg phases were formed in the calcine, which will influence the isotope composition of Hg leached from the site.

  7. Synthesis of fluorescent BSA-Au NCs for the detection of Hg2+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po-Cheng; Chiang, Cheng-Kang; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we present a simple heating approach for preparation of gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a template. At 70 °C, the reaction for the preparation of BSA-Au NCs is completed within 20 min. By conducting matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS), we have found that the main product is BSA-Au20 NCs that emit at 660 nm when excited at 330 nm due to "molecular-like" behavior. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data reveal that there are Au+ ions and Au atoms coexisting in the BSA-Au NCs. The as-prepared Au NCs show excellent stability over a wide pH range (2.0-10.0). The fluorescence and MALDI-MS data reveal that the changes in their fluorescence properties are due to the formation of various sizes of BSA-Au NCs for different periods of reaction time. The as-prepared BSA-Au NCs are selective and sensitive (limit of detection of 4 nM at a signal-to noise ratio 3) for the detection of Hg2+ ions through the d10-d10 metallophilic interaction of Au+ and Hg2+ that leads to a decrease in fluorescence. The present assay has been validated for the detection of Hg2+ ions in real water samples, with a result being in good agreement with that from inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

  8. Hassle free synthesis of nanodimensional Ni, Cu and Zn sulfides for spectral sensing of Hg, Cd and Pb: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Zarina; Singha, Shib Shankar; Saha, Abhijit; Sen, Kamalika

    2017-04-05

    A simple room temperature synthesis method of Ni, Cu and Zn sulfide nanoparticles (NPs) in aqueous medium is reported here. The NPs stabilized in aqueous medium by the citrate ions were characterized by UV-vis, ζ potentials, TEM and Raman spectroscopic techniques. The solid NPs could be isolated from the aqueous medium when allowed to stand for a prolonged time (~20h). The solids were also characterized by IR and powder X-ray analysis. The nanoparticles were further used for the development of facile optical sensing and detection of heavy metal ions at trace scale. Alterations in the absorption spectra of the generated NPs were indicative of their interactions with heavy metal ions. Raman spectral measurements further validate the detection technique. It is found that out of the three synthesized nanoparticles, nickel sulfide NP is a specific sensor for mercury ions whereas zinc sulfide and copper sulfide NPs act as sensors for Hg(2+), Cd(2+) and Pb(2+).

  9. Hassle free synthesis of nanodimensional Ni, Cu and Zn sulfides for spectral sensing of Hg, Cd and Pb: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Zarina; Singha, Shib Shankar; Saha, Abhijit; Sen, Kamalika

    2017-04-01

    A simple room temperature synthesis method of Ni, Cu and Zn sulfide nanoparticles (NPs) in aqueous medium is reported here. The NPs stabilized in aqueous medium by the citrate ions were characterized by UV-vis, ζ potentials, TEM and Raman spectroscopic techniques. The solid NPs could be isolated from the aqueous medium when allowed to stand for a prolonged time ( 20 h). The solids were also characterized by IR and powder X-ray analysis. The nanoparticles were further used for the development of facile optical sensing and detection of heavy metal ions at trace scale. Alterations in the absorption spectra of the generated NPs were indicative of their interactions with heavy metal ions. Raman spectral measurements further validate the detection technique. It is found that out of the three synthesized nanoparticles, nickel sulfide NP is a specific sensor for mercury ions whereas zinc sulfide and copper sulfide NPs act as sensors for Hg2 +, Cd2 + and Pb2 +.

  10. Automated simultaneous analysis of monomethyl and mercuric Hg in biotic samples by Hg-thiourea complex liquid chromatography following acidic thiourea leaching.

    PubMed

    Shade, Christopher W

    2008-09-01

    A simple leaching procedure has been validated for quantitative isolation of both monomethyl (CH3Hg+) and inorganic (Hg(II)) mercuryfrom fresh or dried biotic tissue for simultaneous analysis via separation and quantification with Hg-thiourea complex liquid chromatography cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HgTU/LC-CVAFS). The leaching solution comprises thiourea, hydrochloric acid, and glacial acetic acid and works by protonating thiol binding sites and forming water-soluble cationic CH3HgS=C(NH2)2+ and Hg[S=C(NH2)2]2(2+) complexes, which are easily separated from the solid matrix. The isolated complexes are preconcentrated online by either thiol resin trapping or a new iodide-complex polydivinylbenzene resin trapping (I-PDVB). The I-PDVB trapping involves only one reagent addition, requires no pH adjustments, and is quantitative over a large range of volumes and flow rates. The chromatography system can use either ion chromatography or a new ion-pairing reversed phase separation coupled to cold vapor generation and atomic fluorescence detection. The system allows quantitative sample introduction and yields absolute detection limits of 0.4 pg and 0.7 pg, for CH3Hg+ and Hg(II) respectively, enabling relative detection limits as low as 4 and 7 pg g(-1) with 100 mg samples, and yields % CV routinely less than 5% with well homogenized samples. Accuracy for both forms of mercury has been validated with multiple biotic reference materials and by comparison of the sum of CH3Hg+ and Hg(II) with total Hg on a variety of different biotic sample types (n = 49). The system can be calibrated with either aqueous standards or leached reference materials.

  11. In vitro characterization and release study of Ambroxol hydrochloride matrix tablets prepared by direct compression.

    PubMed

    Abd-Elbary, A; Haider, M; Sayed, S

    2012-01-01

    A series of either hydrophilic or hydrophobic polymers were used to prepare controlled release Ambroxol hydrochloride (AMX) matrix tablets by direct compression. Both the compatibility and flow properties of AMX/polymer mixtures were investigated. The effect of the amount and type of polymer on the physical properties and in vitro drug release was studied and compared to commercially available Ambroxol(®) SR capsules. A kinetic study of the release profile of AMX from the prepared matrix tablets was performed. All excipients used in the study were compatible with the model drug. AMX/drug mixtures containing sodium alginate (NA) and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) showed better flow properties than other polymers used in the study. The in vitro drug release studies showed that matrix tablets formulae containing 10% HPMC (S7) or a combination of 30% NA and 5% HPMC (Ah) exhibited a higher ability to control the release of AMX. The kinetic study revealed that a diffusion controlled mechanism prevailed except when carbopol was used. Formula Ah followed a non-fickian diffusion mechanism similar to Ambroxol(®) SR capsules. Both formulae S7 and Ah could be considered as potential candidates for formulation of AMX controlled release matrix tablets.

  12. Numerical modelling of transdermal delivery from matrix systems: parametric study and experimental validation with silicone matrices.

    PubMed

    Snorradóttir, Bergthóra S; Jónsdóttir, Fjóla; Sigurdsson, Sven Th; Másson, Már

    2014-08-01

    A model is presented for transdermal drug delivery from single-layered silicone matrix systems. The work is based on our previous results that, in particular, extend the well-known Higuchi model. Recently, we have introduced a numerical transient model describing matrix systems where the drug dissolution can be non-instantaneous. Furthermore, our model can describe complex interactions within a multi-layered matrix and the matrix to skin boundary. The power of the modelling approach presented here is further illustrated by allowing the possibility of a donor solution. The model is validated by a comparison with experimental data, as well as validating the parameter values against each other, using various configurations with donor solution, silicone matrix and skin. Our results show that the model is a good approximation to real multi-layered delivery systems. The model offers the ability of comparing drug release for ibuprofen and diclofenac, which cannot be analysed by the Higuchi model because the dissolution in the latter case turns out to be limited. The experiments and numerical model outlined in this study could also be adjusted to more general formulations, which enhances the utility of the numerical model as a design tool for the development of drug-loaded matrices for trans-membrane and transdermal delivery.

  13. The Upside to Hg-DOM Associations for Water Quality: Removal of Hg from Solution Using Coagulaion with Metal-Based Salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneberry, Y.; Kraus, T. E.; Fleck, J.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Horwath, W. R.

    2011-12-01

    This study assessed the potential use of metal-based coagulants to remove dissolved mercury (Hg) from natural waters and provides information regarding the importance of Hg associations with the dissolved organic matter (DOM) fraction and metal hydroxides. Previous research indicated coagulants were not effective at removing Hg from solution; however those studies used high concentrations of Hg, which did not reflect naturally occurring concentrations of Hg. Filtered water collected from an agricultural drain in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Delta) was treated with three industrial-grade coagulants (ferric chloride, ferric sulfate, and polyaluminum chloride) to determine their efficacy in removing both inroganic (IHg) and methylmercury (MeHg) from the water column. The Delta suffers from elevated surface water Hg concentrations and as a result is listed as an imparied water body. Coagulants removed up to 85% of DOM from solution. In the absence of DOM, all three coagulants released IHg into solution, however in the presence of DOM the coagulants removed up to 97% of IHg and 80% of MeHg. Results suggest that the removal of Hg is mediated by DOM-coagulant interactions. There was a preferential association of IHg with the more aromatic, higher molecular weight fraction of DOM but no such relationship was found for MeHg. This study offers new fundamental insights regarding large-scale removal of Hg at environmentally relevant concentrations. Research using isotopically labeled Hg is providing insight into whether coagulation can remove recently added Hg (e.g. atmospheric deposition) from solution and whether once formed, the floc can remove additional Hg from the water column.

  14. Matrix mineralogy of the Lance CO3 carbonaceous chondrite - A transmission electron microscope study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; Buseck, Peter R.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on electron microprobe analyses of three CO chondrites, all of which are falls: Lance, Kainsaz, and Warrenton. The TEM mineralogy results of Lance chondrite show that Fe-rich matrix olivines have been altered to Fe-bearing serpentine and Fe(3+) oxide; matrix metal was also altered to produce Fe(3+) oxides, leaving the residual metal enriched in Ni. Olivine grains in Lance's matrix contain channels along their 100-line and 001-line directions; the formation and convergence of such channels resulted in a grain-size reduction of the olivine. A study of Kainsaz and Warrenton showed that these meteorites do not contain phyllosilicates in their matrices, although both contain Fe(3+) oxide between olivine grains. It is suggested that, prior to its alteration, Lance probably resembled Kainsaz, an unaltered CO3 chondrite.

  15. Lyophilic matrix method for dissolution and release studies of nanoscale particles.

    PubMed

    Pessi, Jenni; Svanbäck, Sami; Lassila, Ilkka; Hæggström, Edward; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2017-10-25

    We introduce a system with a lyophilic matrix to aid dissolution studies of powders and particulate systems. This lyophilic matrix method (LM method) is based on the ability to discriminate between non-dissolved particles and the dissolved species. In the LM method the test substance is embedded in a thin lyophilic core-shell matrix. This permits rapid contact with the dissolution medium while minimizing dispersion of non-dissolved particles without presenting a substantial diffusion barrier. The method produces realistic dissolution and release results for particulate systems, especially those featuring nanoscale particles. By minimizing method-induced effects on the dissolution profile of nanopowders, the LM method overcomes shortcomings associated with current dissolution tests. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations of liquid Hg-Pb alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Nalini; Thakur, Anil; Ahluwalia, P. K.

    2014-04-01

    Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the structural properties of liquid Hg-Pb alloys. The interatomic interactions are described by ab-initio pseudopotentials given by Troullier and Martins. Three liquid Hg-Pb mixtures (Hg30Pb70, Hg50Pb50 and Hg90Pb10) at 600K are considered. The radial distribution function g(r) and structure factor S(q) of considered alloys are compared with respective experimental results for liquid Hg (l-Hg) and lead (l-Pb). The radial distribution function g(r) shows the presence of short range order in the systems considered. Smooth curves of Bhatia-Thornton partial structure factors factor shows the presence of liquid state in the considered three alloys. Among the all considered alloys, Hg50Pb50 alloy shows presence of more chemical ordering and presence of hetero-coordination.

  17. A Study on Virtual Indirect Control Method of Single Phase/Three Phase Matrix Converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iino, Kazuyuki; Fukuma, Tooru; Kondo, Keiichiro; Sato, Yukihiko

    In this paper, we study a control method based on the virtual indirect circuit method for a single phase to three phase matrix converter (MC). The MC has a capacitor at the input side to compensate for the single phase input power fluctuation. We propose a method to determine the amplitude of the compensation capacitor voltage on the basis of the load power. The method is validated using a 1350W class single phase to three phase matrix converter system. In addition, restrictions on the modulation ratio of the input current and the compensation capacitor current are revealed, showing the limit of the output voltage according to the load power.

  18. [Experimental study of the collagen matrix for increase the gums using a 3D-modeling].

    PubMed

    Baulin, I M; Badalyan, V A; Ryakhovsky, A N

    2015-01-01

    In an experimental study on mini-pigs demonstrated that the use of collagen matrix Mucograft open method leads to the formation of mature connective tissue around the implants, more pronounced after 70 days, and the width of attached mucosa already 45th day (from 4.4 ± 0.3 to 7.7 ± 0.5 mm) is comparable to that of free gingival graft. Three-dimensional computer modeling of jaws experimental animals showed the soft tissue augmentation by 0.8 ± 0.1 cm3 after use of collagen matrix Mucograft and 1.1 ± 0.12 cm3 after free gingival graft.

  19. High removal efficacy of Hg(II) and MeHg(II) ions from aqueous solution by organoalkoxysilane-grafted lignocellulosic waste biomass.

    PubMed

    Saman, Norasikin; Johari, Khairiraihanna; Song, Shiow-Tien; Kong, Helen; Cheu, Siew-Chin; Mat, Hanapi

    2017-03-01

    An effective organoalkoxysilanes-grafted lignocellulosic waste biomass (OS-LWB) adsorbent aiming for high removal towards inorganic and organic mercury (Hg(II) and MeHg(II)) ions was prepared. Organoalkoxysilanes (OS) namely mercaptoproyltriethoxylsilane (MPTES), aminopropyltriethoxylsilane (APTES), aminoethylaminopropyltriethoxylsilane (AEPTES), bis(triethoxysilylpropyl) tetrasulfide (BTESPT), methacrylopropyltrimethoxylsilane (MPS) and ureidopropyltriethoxylsilane (URS) were grafted onto the LWB using the same conditions. The MPTES grafted lignocellulosic waste biomass (MPTES-LWB) showed the highest adsorption capacity towards both mercury ions. The adsorption behavior of inorganic and organic mercury ions (Hg(II) and MeHg(II)) in batch adsorption studies shows that it was independent with pH of the solutions and dependent on initial concentration, temperature and contact time. The maximum adsorption capacity of Hg(II) was greater than MeHg(II) which respectively followed the Temkin and Langmuir models. The kinetic data analysis showed that the adsorptions of Hg(II) and MeHg(II) onto MPTES-LWB were respectively controlled by the physical process of film diffusion and the chemical process of physisorption interactions. The overall mechanism of Hg(II) and MeHg(II) adsorption was a combination of diffusion and chemical interaction mechanisms. Regeneration results were very encouraging especially for the Hg(II); this therefore further demonstrated the potential application of organosilane-grafted lignocellulosic waste biomass as low-cost adsorbents for mercury removal process.

  20. Selective optical scattering characterisation of tissue malignancy using Mueller matrix polarimetry: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathima, Adeeba; Sujatha, N.

    2016-04-01

    Quantitative Mueller polarimetry optically characterizes a medium and is reflected upon by the ultrastructural changes in it. Tissue morphology changes occur during advent of diseases like cancer neoplasia. This alters the Mueller matrix characterizing the tissue as an optical element. The nucleus size undergoes an approximate doubling during the development of cancer. Cell crowding during cancer increases the number density of the nuclei per unit volume. Modeling the cell nuclei as main scattering centers, a systematic computational study on how Mueller matrix elements vary for an increase in scatterer size and number density is performed. Simulation on polarized light transport of wavelength 633nm through a slab of size 3 mm comprising of spherical scatterers in a medium of refractive index 1.33 is carried out. Light propagation is modeled using Monte Carlo method and meridian plane method is adopted for tracking the polarization state change. The stokes vector of the outgoing light is tracked to calculate the Mueller matrix images of the light backscattered from the slab. The Mueller matrix elements as well as depolarization factors are derived. The depolarization index increases with scatterer size. Along with nucleus size, change in the cell number density is also expected in the different stages of the cancer growth. Volume fraction of the scatterers in medium is varied as an indicator of this number density change. Behavior of Mueller matrix with respect to change in scattering coefficient due to variation in scatterer size and volume fraction is studied. It is observed that the depolarization index derived from Mueller matrix has selective discrimination towards the change in scattering coefficient caused due to size change and volume fraction change respectively.

  1. X-ray crystallographic study of 3-Oxo-2-{[4-(thiazol-2-ylsulfamoyl)-phenyl]-hydrazono}-butyric acid ethyl ester and its application in the solvent assisted naked eye sensing of Hg(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, K. K.; Upadhyay, Shalini; Kumar, Kamlesh; Prasad, Rajendra

    2009-06-01

    The 3-Oxo-2-{[4-(thiazol-2-ylsulfamoyl)-phenyl]-hydrazono}-butyric acid ethyl ester (OSPBE) was studied through single crystal structure analysis revealing some interesting supramolecular architectural patterns. The N(3)-N(4) bond length of OSPBE was found to be 1.36 Å matching well with reported N-N bond length in the literature and hence clearly proved that it is the keto form of OSPBE which is stable. Full structural optimization of OSPBE using density functional theory (DFT) at the HCTH407/6-31G ∗∗ level also proved that the keto form of OSPBE is stable. The UV-Vis absorption peaks for OSPBE predicted by the time dependent DFT at B3LYP/6-311G ∗∗ level matched quite well with the experimentally observed UV-Vis bands for OSPBE. The OSPBE was successfully tested as the naked eye sensor for Hg(II) as its chloride salt at the millimolar level in dimethylsulfoxide. A color change from red orange to olive green was observed on addition of 1.0 equiv. of Hg(II) to the 1.0 × 10 -3 M DMSO solution of the chemosensor. The role of DMSO in the sensing process appears to be the crucial one because the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) band of OSPBE in DMSO observed at 489 nm did not appear in the UV-Vis spectrum of OSPBE in nujol. The UV-Vis and 1H NMR titrations revealed that formation of six membered 1:1 chelate between OSPBE and Hg(II) along with reversible supramolecular association of DMSO with NH at N-2 position in OSPBE may be responsible for its Hg(II) sensing. No sensing for other d 10 metal ions like Zn(II) and Cd(II) were observed with OSPBE under similar conditions. Besides DMSO, some other polar aprotic solvents like DMF and acetone having X dbnd O (where X = C) also produced similar type of color change on the addition of 1.0 equiv. of Hg(II) to their respective 1.0 × 10 -3 M OSPBE solutions. Nevertheless, polar aprotic solvent like acetonitrile not having X dbnd O or non-polar aprotic solvent like chloroform no color change was observed under

  2. Elastic extracellular matrix of the embryonic chick heart: an immunohistological study using laser confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hurle, J M; Kitten, G T; Sakai, L Y; Volpin, D; Solursh, M

    1994-08-01

    The "elastic matrix" constitutes a specialized component of the extracellular matrix which confers resiliency to tissues and organs subjected to repeated deformations. The role of the elastic matrix in living organisms appears to be of key importance since diseases characterized by expression of defective inherited genes which encode components of the elastic matrix lead to premature death. While the elastic matrix of adult organs has received a great deal of attention, little is known about when it first appears in embryonic tissues or its possible role in developing organs. In the present study we have performed an immunohistochemical study of the distribution of elastin and three additional components often associated with elastic matrices in adult tissues (i.e., fibrillin, emilin, and type VI collagen) during the development of the chicken embryonic heart. The three-dimensional arrangement of these components was established through the observation of whole-amount specimens with scanning laser confocal microscopy. Our results revealed three different periods of heart development regarding the composition of the elastic matrix. Prior to stage 21 the embryonic heart lacks elastin but exhibits a matrix scaffold of fibrillin and emilin associated with the endocardium and the developing cardiac jelly. Between stages 22 and 29 the heart shows a transient elastic scaffold in the outflow tract which contains elastin, fibrillin, and emilin. Elastin-positive fibrillar material is also observed during these stages in the base of the atrioventricular cushion adjacent to the myocardial wall. In addition, emilin-positive material appears to be associated with the zones of formation of ventricular trabeculae. Collagen type VI was not detected during these early stages. From stage 30 to stage 40 a progressive modification of the pattern of distribution of elastin, fibrillin, emilin, and collagen type VI is observed in association with the formation of the definitive four

  3. Transient and diffusion analysis of HgCdTe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Solute redistribution during directional solidification of HgCdTe is addressed. Both one-dimensional and two-dimensional models for solute redistribution are treated and model results compared to experiment. The central problem studied is the cause of radial inhomogeneities found in directionally solidified HgCdTe. A large scale gravity-driven interface instability, termed shape instability, is postulated to be the cause of radial inhomogeneities. Recommendations for future work, along with appropriate computer programs, are included.

  4. School Television for Social Studies: A Competency-Based Matrix, Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    This matrix keys school films to the social studies competency-based curriculum cbjectives for grade 5. Three television series are included. Emphasis is placed on geography, people, and the economy, but the themes are also related to history and government. The first series, "Across Cultures," focuses on the people of North America, South…

  5. Method Modification Study for the Thermo Scientific SureTect™ Listeria Species Assay-Matrix Extension.

    PubMed

    Cloke, Jonathan; Evans, Katharine; Crabtree, David; Hughes, Annette; Simpson, Helen; Holopainen, Jani; Wickstrand, Nina; Kauppinen, Mikko; Leon-Velarde, Carlos; Larson, Nathan; Dave, Keron; Chen, Yi; Ryser, Elliot; Carter, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The Thermo Scientific™ SureTect™ Listeria species assay is a new real-time PCR assay for the detection of all species of Listeria in food and environmental samples. The assay was originally certified as Performance Tested Methods(SM) (PTM) 071304 in 2013. This report details the method modification study undertaken to extend the performance claims of the assay for matrixes of raw ground turkey, raw ground pork, bagged lettuce, raw pork sausages, pasteurized 2% fat milk, raw cod, pasteurized brie cheese, and ice cream. The method modification study was conducted using the AOAC Research Institute (RI) PTM program to validate the SureTect PCR assay in comparison to the reference method detailed in ISO 11290-1:1996 including amendment 1:2004. All matrixes were tested by Thermo Fisher Scientific (Basingstoke, United Kingdom). In addition, three matrixes (raw cod, bagged lettuce, and pasteurized brie cheese) were analyzed independently as part of the AOAC RI-controlled independent laboratory study by the University of Guelph, Canada. Using probability of detection statistical analysis, there was no significant difference in the performance between the SureTect assay and the International Organization for Standardization reference method for any of the matrixes analyzed in this study.

  6. Study of the matrix effect in the secondary ion emission of aluminium-zinc alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Craen, M.; Van Espen, P.; Adams, F.

    1981-12-01

    The secondary ion emission of AlZn alloys was studied under Ar + primary ion bombardment at saturation conditions for oxygen adsorption. Relative ionisation coefficients of Al and Zn sputtered from the alloys, were measured as a function of the solute element concentration, which allowed the quantitative evaluation of the matrix effect in SIMS analysis for AlZn alloys.

  7. School Television for Social Studies: A Competency-Based Matrix, Grades K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    This matrix keys the objectives of the school television programs to the objectives of the grades K-3 competency-based curriculum. Eight programs of the "Out and About" series address science and social studies competency goals and objectives for kindergarten and grade 1. Titles of the lessons are: "Making Friends"; "Keeping Friends"; "Ways to…

  8. New thermodynamic data on the Hg-O-S system: With application to the thermal processing of mercury containing wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Fredrickson, G.L.; Hager, J.P.

    1996-12-31

    A modified transpiration reactor was used to measure the composition of the equilibrium gas phase formed above compounds in the Hg-O-S system at high temperatures (600 to 900K). A thermodynamic database ({Delta}G{degrees}{sub f}, {Delta}H{degrees}{sub f}, {Delta}S{degrees}{sub f}) for HgO, HgS, HgSO{sub 4}, Hg{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, HgSO{sub 4}-HgO, and HgSO{sub 4}{circ}2HgO was developed based on the experimental results. Prior to this study, only estimated data were available in the literature for the sulfates and oxysulfates at temperatures above 298K. A series of vapor pressure / stability diagrams were constructed from 473 to 973K with isobars of Hg(g), HgO(g), S{sub 2}(g), and SO{sub 3}(g). These diagrams were found to be significantly different than those available previously and do provide insight to the phase relations of importance during the thermal processing of Hg-containing wastes. The thermodynamic results were used to conduct a series of Gibbs energy minimization calculations for a thermal processor / afterburner system for the treatment of HgS-containing wastes. The retention of Hg in the discharge calcine was examined as a function of temperature and excess air. Hg was found to report to the calcine as HgSO{sub 4}, Hg{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, or HgSO{sub 4}-HgO depending on the process conditions, and Hg retention occurs at temperatures as high as 930K. The precipitation of Hg-containing phases from cooled afterburner discharge gas starts at approximately 900K and the cooling of the gas an additional 30K (to 870K) results in over 50% of the Hg being precipitated as HgSO{sub 4}-HgO. It was also determined that for small amounts of Hg present in sulfide concentrates during roasting, the Hg will be retained as HgSO{sub 4} or HgSO{sub 4}-HgO at temperatures as high as 870K. 8 refs., 30 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. The use of PriMatrix, a fetal bovine acellular dermal matrix, in healing chronic diabetic foot ulcers: a prospective multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Kavros, Steven J; Dutra, Timothy; Gonzalez-Cruz, Renier; Liden, Brock; Marcus, Belinda; McGuire, James; Nazario-Guirau, Luis

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this multicenter study was to prospectively evaluate the healing outcomes of chronic diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) treated with PriMatrix (TEI Biosciences, Boston, Massachusetts), a fetal bovine acellular dermal matrix. Inclusion criteria required the subjects to have a chronic DFU that ranged in area from 1 to 20 cm² and failed to heal more than 30% during a 2-week screening period when treated with moist wound therapy. For qualifying subjects, PriMatrix was secured into a clean, sharply debrided wound; dressings were applied to maintain a moist wound environment, and the DFU was pressure off-loaded. Wound area measurements were taken weekly for up to 12 weeks, and PriMatrix was reapplied at the discretion of the treating physician. A total of 55 subjects were enrolled at 9 US centers with 46 subjects progressing to study completion. Ulcers had been in existence for an average of 286 days, and initial mean ulcer area was 4.34 cm². Of the subjects completing the study, 76% healed by 12 weeks with a mean time to healing of 53.1 ± 21.9 days. The mean number of applications for these healed wounds was 2.0 ± 1.4, with 59.1% healing with a single application of PriMatrix and 22.9% healing with 2 applications. For subjects not healed by 12 weeks, the average wound area reduction was 71.4%. The results of this multicenter prospective study demonstrate that the use of PriMatrix integrated with standard-of-care therapy is a successful treatment regimen to heal DFUs.

  10. Homogalacturonan deesterification during pollen-ovule interaction in Larix decidua Mill.: an immunocytochemical study.

    PubMed

    Rafińska, Katarzyna; Świdziński, Michał; Bednarska-Kozakiewicz, Elżbieta

    2014-07-01

    Studies on angiosperm plants have shown that homogalacturonan present in the extracellular matrix of pistils plays an important role in the interaction with the male gametophyte. However, in gymnosperms, knowledge on the participation of HG in the pollen-ovule interaction is limited, and only a few studies on male gametophytes have been reported. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the distribution of HG in male gametophytes and ovules during their interaction in Larix decidua Mill. The distribution of HG in pollen grains and unpollinated and pollinated ovules was investigated by immunofluorescence techniques using monoclonal antibodies that recognise high methyl-esterified HG (JIM7), low methyl-esterified HG (JIM5) and calcium cross-linked HG (2F4). All studied categories of HG were detected in the ovule. Highly methyl-esterified HG was present in the cell walls of all cells throughout the interaction; however, the distribution of low methyl-esterified and calcium cross-linked HG changed during the course of interaction. Both of these categories of HG appeared only in the apoplast and the extracellular matrix of the ovule tissues, which interact with the male gametophyte. This finding suggests that in L. decidua, low methyl-esterified and calcium cross-linked HG play an important role in pollen-ovule interaction. The last category of HG is most likely involved in adhesion between the pollen and the ovule and might provide an optimal calcium environment for pollen grain germination and pollen tube growth.

  11. Cardiac dysfunction in HgCl2-induced nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moreira-Rodrigues, Mónica; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago; Moura, Cláudia; Vasques-Nóvoa, Francisco; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita; Pestana, Manuel; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F

    2010-03-01

    The experimental model of HgCl(2) injection is characterized by a systemic autoimmune disease which leads to the development of nephrotic syndrome (NS). NS seems to be accompanied by cardiovascular alterations, since patients with NS present an increased incidence in cardiac disease. The aim of our work was to study the effects of HgCl(2)-induced NS on myocardial function and morphometry. Normotensive Brown-Norway rats were injected with HgCl(2) (1 mg/kg, HgCl(2) group; n = 6, subcutaneous) or the vehicle (control group; n = 6, subcutaneous) on days 0, 2, 4, 7, 9 and 11. The animals were placed in metabolic cages for evaluation of urinary excretion of noradrenaline, sodium, total proteins, albumin and creatinine. Fourteen and 21 days after the first HgCl(2) injection, left ventricle (LV) hemodynamics was evaluated through pressure micromanometers in basal and isovolumetric heartbeats. The heart and gastrocnemius muscle weights and tibial length were also examined. In an additional group of animals cardiac dimensions and ejection fraction were assessed by echocardiography and LV apoptosis and fibrosis were studied. HgCl(2)-injected rats presented proteinuria, albuminuria, hyperlipidemia, anemia, sodium retention and ascites at day 14. These alterations were accompanied by LV hemodynamic changes only in isovolumetric heartbeats. Similarly, on day 21, HgCl(2)-injected rats presented proteinuria, albuminuria, hyperlipidemia, anemia, but no sodium retention or ascites. These animals presented LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction in both basal and isovolumetric heartbeats, as well as cardiac atrophy, LV fibrosis and an increase in myocyte apoptosis. In conclusion, HgCl(2)-induced NS is accompanied by LV dysfunction and can be a promising model for studying the link between NS and cardiac disease.

  12. Cyclic photocleavage of water with the intermediate redox couple Hg/sub 2/O/Hg

    SciTech Connect

    Tennakone, K.; Wickramanayake, S.

    1986-03-27

    It is found that water can be photodecomposed into oxygen and hydrogen by a cyclic two-photosystem process using TiO/sub 2/ as the sensitizer and the redox couple Hg/sub 2/O/Hg as the electron pool linking the two photosystems. At neutral pH an aqueous suspension of TiO/sub 2/ and Hg/sub 2/O photooxidizes water, reducing Hg/sub 2/O to Hg. When the pH of the resulting solution is made strongly alkaline, water is photoreduced, oxidizing Hg back to Hg/sub 2/O. 17 references, 6 figures.

  13. Mercury isotope fractionation during precipitation of metacinnabar (β-HgS) and montroydite (HgO).

    PubMed

    Smith, Robin S; Wiederhold, Jan G; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2015-04-07

    To utilize stable Hg isotopes as a tracer for Hg cycling and pollution sources in the environment, it is imperative that fractionation factors for important biogeochemical processes involving Hg are determined. Here, we report experimental results on Hg isotope fractionation during precipitation of metacinnabar (β-HgS) and montroydite (HgO). In both systems, we observed mass-dependent enrichments of light Hg isotopes in the precipitates relative to the dissolved Hg. Precipitation of β-HgS appeared to follow equilibrium isotope fractionation with an enrichment factor ε(202)Hg(precipitate-supernatant) of -0.63‰. Precipitation of HgO resulted in kinetic isotope fractionation, which was described by a Rayleigh model with an enrichment factor of -0.32‰. Small mass-independent fractionation was observed in the HgS system, presumably related to nuclear volume fractionation. We propose that Hg isotope fractionation in the HgS system occurred in solution during the transition of O- to S-coordination of Hg(II), consistent with theoretical predictions. In the HgO system, fractionation was presumably caused by the faster precipitation of light Hg isotopes, and no isotopic exchange between solid and solution was observed on the timescale investigated. The results of this work emphasize the importance of Hg solution speciation and suggest that bonding partners of Hg in solution complexes may control the overall isotope fractionation. The determined fractionation factor and mechanistic insights will have implications for the interpretation of Hg isotope signatures and their use as an environmental tracer.

  14. HG ion thruster component testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantenieks, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    Cathodes, isolators, and vaporizers are critical components in determining the performance and lifetime of mercury ion thrusters. The results of life tests of several of these components are reported. A 30-cm thruster CIV test in a bell jar has successfully accumulated over 26,000 hours. The cathode has undergone 65 restarts during the life test without requiring any appreciable increases in starting power. Recently, all restarts have been achieved with only the 44 volt keeper supply with no change required in the starting power. Another ongoing 30-cm Hg thruster cathode test has successfully passed the 10,000 hour mark. A solid-insert, 8-cm thruster cathode has accumulated over 4,000 hours of thruster operation. All starts have been achieved without the use of a high voltage ignitor. The results of this test indicate that the solid impregnated insert is a viable neutralizer cathode for the 8-cm thruster.

  15. IS THE PREFRONTAL CORTEX IMPORTANT FOR FLUID INTELLIGENCE? A NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY USING MATRIX REASONING

    PubMed Central

    Tranel, Daniel; Manzel, Kenneth; Anderson, Steven W.

    2008-01-01

    Patients with prefrontal damage and severe defects in decision making and emotional regulation often have a remarkable absence of intellectual impairment, as measured by conventional IQ tests such as the WAIS/WAIS-R. This enigma might be explained by shortcomings in the tests, which tend to emphasize measures of “crystallized” (e.g., vocabulary, fund of information) more than “fluid” (e.g., novel problem solving) intelligence. The WAIS-III added the Matrix Reasoning subtest to enhance measurement of fluid reasoning. In a set of four studies, we investigated Matrix Reasoning performances in 80 patients with damage to various sectors of the prefrontal cortex, and contrasted these with the performances of 80 demographically matched patients with damage outside the frontal lobes. The results failed to support the hypothesis that prefrontal damage would disproportionately impair fluid intelligence, and every prefrontal subgroup we studied (dorsolateral, ventromedial, dorsolateral + ventromedial) had Matrix Reasoning scores (as well as IQ scores more generally) that were indistinguishable from those of the brain-damaged comparison groups. Our findings do not support a connection between fluid intelligence and the frontal lobes, although a viable alternative interpretation is that the Matrix Reasoning subtest lacks construct validity as a measure of fluid intelligence. PMID:17853146

  16. Study of the matrix effect on the PIXE quantification of active pharmaceutical ingredients in different formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejjani, Alice; Noun, Manale; Soueidan, Maher; Della-Negra, Serge; Abi-Fadel, Edmond; Roumie, Mohammad; Nsouli, Bilal

    2017-09-01

    While Particle Induced X-ray Emission technique (PIXE) is an accurate technique to quantify Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API's) via the analysis of their heteroatoms, each drug (formulation) may require a specific quantification procedure due to its distinct matrix composition. The commercial Fludinium® drug, which has two active ingredients Clidinium Bromide (C22H26NO3Br) and Dihydrochloride Trifluoperazine (C21H24N3F3S. 2HCl) has been taken as a case study in this work. Different amounts of its API's and its placebo were mixed to provide various formulations. The matrix effect on the quantification of the three heteroatoms (chlorine, sulfur and bromine) related to the above API's in different formulations has been studied. In fact, chlorine which is in its hydrochloride form in the API was not eventually considered for calculation due to its instability under beam. The calculation of bromine amount via its Kα or its Lα rays was found to be independent of the matrix composition and it was rapidly done by simple comparison to an external standard. However, the calculation of sulfur, via its Kα, was highly dependent on the matrix composition. Therefore, to achieve an accurate quantification a more sophisticated calculation method was used by means of the GUPIX code.

  17. Exploring possible causes of fatal burns in 2007 using Haddon’s Matrix: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Arshi, Shahnam; Mohammad Hosseini, Mirkazem; Samadirad, Bahram; Nadir Mohammadi, Mehryar; Daemi, Amin; Mohammadi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Burns are a major factor in injury mortality. The aim of this study was to explore the possible causes of fatal burns using Haddon’s Matrix. Methods: This is a qualitative study using a phenomenological approach. We collected elicitation interview data using nine corroborators who were the most knowledgeable about the index burn event. Immediately after recording, the data was verbatim. Each event was analyzed using Haddon’s Matrix. Results: Interviewees provided detailed information about 11 burn cases. Overall, 202 burn-related factors were extracted. Using Haddon’s Matrix, 43 risk factors were identified. The most common included the lack of basic knowledge of burn care, the use of unsafe appliances including kerosene heaters and stoves in hazardous environments such kitchens and bathrooms, poor burn care delivery system in hospitals, poor and unsafe living conditions, financial issues, and other factors detailed in the article. Conclusions: Our findings suggest burn related prevention efforts should focus on improving human living conditions, promoting the use of safe heating appliances, providing public burn-safety precautions education, and improving the quality of care in burn centers and hospitals. The use of Haddon’s Matrix in future injury research is discussed. PMID:24879079

  18. Photochemical reactions between mercury (Hg) and dissolved organic matter decrease Hg bioavailability and methylation

    DOE PAGES

    Luo, Hong-Wei; Yin, Xiangping; Jubb, Aaron M.; ...

    2016-11-09

    Atmospheric deposition of mercury (Hg) to surface water is one of the dominant sources of Hg in aquatic environments and ultimately drives methylmercury (MeHg) toxin accumulation in fish. It is known that freshly deposited Hg is more readily methylated by microorganisms than aged or preexisting Hg; however the underlying mechanism of this process is unclear. Here we report that Hg bioavailability is decreased by photochemical reactions between Hg and dissolved organic matter (DOM) in water. Photo-irradiation of Hg-DOM complexes results in loss of Sn(II)-reducible (i.e. reactive) Hg and up to an 80% decrease in MeHg production by the methylating bacteriummore » Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA. Loss of reactive Hg proceeded at a faster rate with a decrease in the Hg to DOM ratio and is attributed to the possible formation of mercury sulfide (HgS). Lastly, these results suggest a new pathway of abiotic photochemical formation of HgS in surface water and provide a mechanism whereby freshly deposited Hg is readily methylated but, over time, progressively becomes less available for microbial uptake and methylation.« less

  19. Photochemical reactions between mercury (Hg) and dissolved organic matter decrease Hg bioavailability and methylation

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Hong-Wei; Yin, Xiangping; Jubb, Aaron M.; Chen, Hongmei; Lu, Xia; Zhang, Weihua; Lin, Hui; Yu, Han-Qing; Liang, Liyuan; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Gu, Baohua

    2016-11-09

    Atmospheric deposition of mercury (Hg) to surface water is one of the dominant sources of Hg in aquatic environments and ultimately drives methylmercury (MeHg) toxin accumulation in fish. It is known that freshly deposited Hg is more readily methylated by microorganisms than aged or preexisting Hg; however the underlying mechanism of this process is unclear. Here we report that Hg bioavailability is decreased by photochemical reactions between Hg and dissolved organic matter (DOM) in water. Photo-irradiation of Hg-DOM complexes results in loss of Sn(II)-reducible (i.e. reactive) Hg and up to an 80% decrease in MeHg production by the methylating bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA. Loss of reactive Hg proceeded at a faster rate with a decrease in the Hg to DOM ratio and is attributed to the possible formation of mercury sulfide (HgS). Lastly, these results suggest a new pathway of abiotic photochemical formation of HgS in surface water and provide a mechanism whereby freshly deposited Hg is readily methylated but, over time, progressively becomes less available for microbial uptake and methylation.

  20. Characteristics of Hg-resistant bacteria isolated from Minamata Bay sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, K.; Fujisaki, T.; Tamashiro, H.

    1986-06-01

    Seventy-two strains of Hg-resistant bacteria (Pseudomonas) were isolated on agar plates containing 40 micrograms/ml of HgCl2 from Minamata Bay sediment, which was heavily polluted with mercury (45.8 micrograms/g). The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of mercurial compounds were determined for the Hg-resistant pseudomonads and 65 strains (Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp., Vibrio sp., and Corynebacterium sp.) isolated from Sendai Bay sediment (1 microgram/g of mercury) as control. The MICs to HgCl/sub 2/, CH/sub 3/HgCl, C/sub 2/H/sub 5/HgCl, C/sub 3/H/sub 7/HgCl, and C/sub 6/H/sub 5/HgOCOCH/sub 3/ for the Hg-resistant pseudomonads from Minamata Bay were significantly higher than those of strains from Sendai Bay. The volatilization from liquid culture containing 20 micrograms/ml of HgCl2 was observed in all of the Hg-resistant pseudomonads from Minamata Bay (70 strains). The mean loss of mercury from liquid culture was 60.4 +/- 17.3%. Further study is warranted to determine what role the Hg-resistant bacteria, particularly the Pseudomonas species, play in the mercury cycle in Minamata Bay.

  1. Solution speciation controls mercury isotope fractionation of Hg(II) sorption to goethite.

    PubMed

    Jiskra, Martin; Wiederhold, Jan G; Bourdon, Bernard; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2012-06-19

    The application of Hg isotope signatures as tracers for environmental Hg cycling requires the determination of isotope fractionation factors and mechanisms for individual processes. Here, we investigated Hg isotope fractionation of Hg(II) sorption to goethite in batch systems under different experimental conditions. We observed a mass-dependent enrichment of light Hg isotopes on the goethite surface relative to dissolved Hg (ε(202)Hg of -0.30‰ to -0.44‰) which was independent of the pH, chloride and sulfate concentration, type of surface complex, and equilibration time. Based on previous theoretical equilibrium fractionation factors, we propose that Hg isotope fractionation of Hg(II) sorption to goethite is controlled by an equilibrium isotope effect between Hg(II) solution species, expressed on the mineral surface by the adsorption of the cationic solution species. In contrast, the formation of outer-sphere complexes and subsequent conformation changes to different inner-sphere complexes appeared to have insignificant effects on the observed isotope fractionation. Our findings emphasize the importance of solution speciation in metal isotope sorption studies and suggest that the dissolved Hg(II) pool in soils and sediments, which is the most mobile and bioavailable, should be isotopically heavy, as light Hg isotopes are preferentially sequestered during binding to both mineral phases and natural organic matter.

  2. Pressure dependence of the metal-insulator transition in κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Hg(SCN)2Cl: optical and transport studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löhle, A.; Rose, E.; Singh, S.; Beyer, R.; Tafra, E.; Ivek, T.; Zhilyaeva, E. I.; Lyubovskaya, R. N.; Dressel, M.

    2017-02-01

    The two-dimensional organic conductor κ-(BEDT-TTF)2-Hg(SCN)2Cl exhibits a pronounced metal-insulator transition at {{T}\\text{CO}}=30 K. From the splitting of the molecular vibrations, the phase transition can be unambiguously assigned to charge-ordering with 2{δρ}=0.2e . We have investigated the pressure evolution of this behavior by temperature-dependent electrical transport measurements and optical investigations applying hydrostatic pressure up to 12 kbar. The data reveal a mean-field like down-shift of {{T}\\text{CO}}≤ft( p\\right) with a critical pressure of {{p}c}=0.7+/- 0.1 kbar and a metallic state above the suppression of the charge-ordered state; no traces of superconductivity could be identified down to T  =  1.5 K. As the charge order {δρ} sets in abruptly with decreasing temperature, its size remains unaffected by pressure. However, the fraction of charge imbalanced molecules decreases until it is completely absent above 1.6 kbar.

  3. Pressure dependence of the metal-insulator transition in κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Hg(SCN)2Cl: optical and transport studies.

    PubMed

    Löhle, A; Rose, E; Singh, S; Beyer, R; Tafra, E; Ivek, T; Zhilyaeva, E I; Lyubovskaya, R N; Dressel, M

    2017-02-08

    The two-dimensional organic conductor κ-(BEDT-TTF)2-Hg(SCN)2Cl exhibits a pronounced metal-insulator transition at [Formula: see text] K. From the splitting of the molecular vibrations, the phase transition can be unambiguously assigned to charge-ordering with [Formula: see text]. We have investigated the pressure evolution of this behavior by temperature-dependent electrical transport measurements and optical investigations applying hydrostatic pressure up to 12 kbar. The data reveal a mean-field like down-shift of [Formula: see text] with a critical pressure of [Formula: see text] kbar and a metallic state above the suppression of the charge-ordered state; no traces of superconductivity could be identified down to T  =  1.5 K. As the charge order [Formula: see text] sets in abruptly with decreasing temperature, its size remains unaffected by pressure. However, the fraction of charge imbalanced molecules decreases until it is completely absent above 1.6 kbar.

  4. Ligational behavior of clioquinol antifungal drug towards Ag(I), Hg(II), Cr(III) and Fe(III) metal ions: Synthesis, spectroscopic, thermal, morphological and antimicrobial studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Megharbel, Samy M.; Refat, Moamen S.

    2015-04-01

    This article presents a synthesis, characterization, theoretical and biological (anti-bacterial, and anti-fugal) evaluation studies of Ag(I), Hg(II), Cr(III) and Fe(III) complexes of clioquinol (CQ) drug ligand. Structures of the titled complexes cited herein were discussed using elemental analyses and spectral measurements e.g., IR, 1H NMR, and electronic studies. The results confirmed the formation of the clioquinol complexes by three molar ratios (1:1) for Ag(I), (1:2) for Hg(II) and (1:3) for both Cr(III) and Fe(III) metal ions. The clioquinol reacts as a bidentate chelate bound to all respected metal ions through the oxygen and nitrogen of quinoline-8-ol. The metal(II) ions coordinated to clioquinol ligand through deprotonation of sbnd OH terminal group. Infrared and 1H NMR spectral data confirm that coordination is via the oxygen of phenolic group and nitrogen atom of quinoline moiety. The molar conductance measurements of the CQ complexes in DMSO correspond to be non-electrolyte nature. Thus, these complexes may be formulated as [Ag(CQ)(H2O)2] H2O, [Hg(CQ)2]ṡ2H2O, [Cr(CQ)3] and [Fe(CQ)3]H2O. The Coats-Redfern method, the kinetic thermodynamic parameters like activation energies (E∗), entropies (ΔS∗), enthalpies (ΔH∗), and Gibbs free energies (ΔG∗) of the thermal decomposition reactions have been deduced from thermogravimetric curves (TG) with helpful of differential thermo gravimetric (DTG) curves. The narrow size distribution in nano-scale range for the clioquinol complexes have been discussed using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer (EDX) analyzer.

  5. Study of drug release and tablet characteristics of silicone adhesive matrix tablets.

    PubMed

    Tolia, Gaurav; Li, S Kevin

    2012-11-01

    Matrix tablets of a model drug acetaminophen (APAP) were prepared using a highly compressible low glass transition temperature (T(g)) polymer silicone pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) at various binary mixtures of silicone PSA/APAP ratios. Matrix tablets of a rigid high T(g) matrix forming polymer ethyl cellulose (EC) were the reference for comparison. Drug release study was carried out using USP Apparatus 1 (basket), and the relationship between the release kinetic parameters of APAP and polymer/APAP ratio was determined to estimate the excipient percolation threshold. The critical points attributed to both silicone PSA and EC tablet percolation thresholds were found to be between 2.5% and 5% w/w. For silicone PSA tablets, satisfactory mechanical properties were obtained above the polymer percolation threshold; no cracking or chipping of the tablet was observed above this threshold. Rigid EC APAP tablets showed low tensile strength and high friability. These results suggest that silicone PSA could eliminate issues related to drug compressibility in the formulation of directly compressed oral controlled release tablets of poorly compressible drug powder such as APAP. No routinely used excipients such as binders, granulating agents, glidants, or lubricants were required for making an acceptable tablet matrix of APAP using silicone PSA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Microstructure and morphological study of ball-milled metal matrix nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afkham, Y.; Khosroshahi, R. Azari; Kheirifard, R.; Mousavian, R. Taherzadeh; Brabazon, D.

    2017-08-01

    Due to the difficulty of preparation and beneficial properties achievable, copper and iron matrix nanocomposites are materials for which fabrication via the powder metallurgy route is attracting increasing research interest. The presence of ceramic nanoparticles in their matrix can lead to considerable changes in the microstructure and morphology. The effects of the type of metallic matrix and ceramic nanoparticle on the distribution of nano reinforcements and the morphology of ball-milled composite powders were evaluated in this study. For this purpose, 25 wt % of Al2O3 and SiC nanoparticles were separately ball-milled in the presence of iron and copper metals. The SEM, FESEM, and XRD results indicated that as-received nanoparticles, which were agglomerated before milling, were partially separated and embedded in the matrix of both the metals after the initial stages of ball milling, while prolonged milling was not found to further affect the distribution of nanoparticles. It was also observed that the Al2O3 phase was not thermodynamically stable during ball milling with copper powders. Finally, it was found that the presence of nanoparticles considerably reduce the average size of metallic powder particles.

  7. Synthesis, spectroscopic, antimicrobial and DNA cleavage studies of new Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) and Hg(II) complexes with naphthofuran-2-carbohydrazide Schiff base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halli, Madappa B.; Sumathi, R. B.

    2012-08-01

    A series of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) and Hg(II) complexes have been synthesized with newly synthesized Schiff base derived from naphthofuran-2-carbohydrazide and cinnamaldehyde. The elemental analyses of the complexes are confined to the stoichiometry of the type MLCl2 [M = Co(II) and Cu(II)], ML2Cl2 [M = Ni(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) and Hg(II)] respectively, where L is Schiff base ligand. Structures have been proposed from elemental analyses, IR, electronic, mass, 1H NMR, ESR spectral data, magnetic, and thermal studies. The measured low molar conductance values in DMF indicate that the complexes are non-electrolytes. Spectroscopic studies suggest coordination occurs through azomethine nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen of the ligand with the metal ions. The Schiff base and its complexes have been screened for their antibacterial (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi) and antifungal (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Cladosporium and Candida albicans) activities by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. The DNA cleavage studies by agarose gel electrophoresis method was studied for all the complexes.

  8. Mercury methylation and demethylation in Hg-contaminated lagoon sediments (Marano and Grado Lagoon, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, Mark E.; Poitras, Erin N.; Covelli, Stefano; Faganeli, Jadran; Emili, Andrea; Žižek, Suzana; Horvat, Milena

    2012-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) transformation activities and sulfate (SO42-) reduction were studied in sediments of the Marano and Grado Lagoons in the Northern Adriatic Sea region as part of the "MIRACLE" project. The lagoons, which are sites of clam (Tapes philippinarum) farming, have been receiving excess Hg from the Isonzo River for centuries. Marano Lagoon is also contaminated from a chlor-alkali plant. Radiotracer methods were used to measure mercury methylation (230Hg, 197Hg), methylmercury (MeHg) demethylation (14C-MeHg) and SO42- reduction (35S) in sediment cores collected in autumn, winter and summer. Mercury methylation rate constants ranged from near zero to 0.054 day-1, generally decreased with depth, and were highest in summer. Demethylation rate constants were much higher than methylation reaching values of ˜0.6 day-1 in summer. Demethylation occurred via the oxidative pathway, except in winter when the reductive pathway increased in importance in surficial sediments. Sulfate reduction was also most active in summer (up to 1600 nmol mL-1 day-1) and depth profiles reflected seasonally changing redox conditions near the surface. Methylation and demethylation rate constants correlated positively with SO42- reduction and pore-water Hg concentrations, and inversely with Hg sediment-water partition coefficients indicating the importance of SO42- reduction and Hg dissolution on Hg cycling. Hg transformation rates were calculated using rate constants and concentrations of Hg species. In laboratory experiments, methylation was inhibited by amendments of the SO42--reduction inhibitor molybdate and by nitrate. Lagoon sediments displayed a dynamic seasonal cycle in which Hg dissolution in spring/summer stimulated Hg methylation, which was followed by a net loss of MeHg in autumn from demethylation. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) tended to be responsible for methylation of Hg and the oxidative demethylation of MeHg. However, during winter in surficial sediments, iron

  9. Assessment of Hg Pollution Released from a WWII Submarine Wreck (U-864) by Hg Isotopic Analysis of Sediments and Cancer pagurus Tissues.

    PubMed

    Rua-Ibarz, Ana; Bolea-Fernandez, Eduardo; Maage, Amund; Frantzen, Sylvia; Valdersnes, Stig; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2016-10-04

    Hg pollution released from the U-864 submarine sunk during WWII and potential introduction of that Hg into the marine food chain have been studied by a combination of quantitative Hg and MeHg determination and Hg isotopic analysis via cold vapor generation multicollector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (CVG-MC-ICP-MS) in sediment and Cancer pagurus samples. The sediment pollution could be unequivocally linked with the metallic Hg present in the wreck. Crabs were collected at the wreck location and 4 nmi north and south, and their brown and claw meat were analyzed separately. For brown meat, the δ(202)Hg values of the individuals from the wreck location were shifted toward the isotopic signature of the sediment and, thus, the submarine Hg. Such differences were not found for claw meat. The isotope ratio results suggest direct ingestion of metallic Hg by C. pagurus but do not offer any proof for any other introduction of the submarine Hg into the marine food chain.

  10. Pd(II)-catalysed and Hg(II)-co-catalysed oxidation of D-glucose and D-fructose by N-bromoacetamide in the presence of perchloric acid: a kinetic and mechanistic study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ashok Kumar; Srivastava, Jaya; Rahmani, Shahla; Singh, Vineeta

    2006-02-27

    The kinetics of Pd(II)-catalysed and Hg(II)-co-catalysed oxidation of D-glucose (Glc) and D-fructose (Fru) by N-bromoacetamide (NBA) in the presence of perchloric acid using mercury(II) acetate as a scavenger for Br- ions have been studied. The results show first-order kinetics with respect to NBA at low concentrations, tending to zero order at high concentrations. First-order kinetics with respect to Pd(II) and inverse fractional order in Cl- ions throughout their variation have also been noted. The observed direct proportionality between the first-order rate constant (k1) and the reducing sugar concentration shows departure from the straight line only at very higher concentration of sugar. Addition of acetamide (NHA) decreases the first-order rate constant while the oxidation rate is not influenced by the change in the ionic strength (mu) of the medium. Variation of [Hg(OAc)2] shows a positive effect on the rate of reaction. The observed negative effect in H+ at lower concentrations tends to an insignificant effect at its higher concentrations. The first-order rate constant decreases with an increase in the dielectric constant of the medium. The various activation parameters have also been evaluated. The products of the reactions were identified as arabinonic acid and formic acid for both the hexoses. A plausible mechanism involving HOBr as the reactive oxidising species, Hg(II) as co-catalyst, and [PdCl3.S]-1 as the reactive Pd(II)-sugar complex in the rate-controlling step is proposed.

  11. Study of barrier height and trap centers of Au/n-Hg{sub 3}In{sub 2}Te{sub 6} Schottky contacts by current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and deep level transient spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yapeng; Fu, Li Sun, Jie; Wang, Xiaozhen

    2015-02-28

    The temperature-dependent electrical characteristics of the Au/n-Hg{sub 3}In{sub 2}Te{sub 6} Schottky contact have been studied at the temperature range of 140 K–315 K. Based on the thermionic emission theory, the ideality factor and Schottky barrier height were calculated to decrease and increase from 3.18 to 1.88 and 0.39 eV to 0.5 eV, respectively, when the temperature rose from 140 K to 315 K. This behavior was interpreted by the lateral inhomogeneities of Schottky barrier height at the interface of Au/n-Hg{sub 3}In{sub 2}Te{sub 6} contact, which was shown by the plot of zero-bias barrier heights Φ{sub bo} versus q/2kT. Meanwhile, it was found that the Schottky barrier height with a Gaussian distribution was 0.67 eV and the standard deviation σ{sub 0} was about 0.092 eV, indicating that the uneven distribution of barrier height at the interface region. In addition, the mean value of Φ{sup ¯}{sub b0} and modified Richardson constant was determined to be 0.723 eV and 62.8 A/cm{sup 2}K{sup 2} from the slope and intercept of the ln(I{sub o}/T{sup 2}) – (qσ{sub 0}{sup 2}/2k{sup 2}T{sup 2}) versus q/kT plot, respectively. Finally, two electron trap centers were observed at the interface of Au/n-Hg{sub 3}In{sub 2}Te{sub 6} Schottky contact by means of deep level transient spectroscopy.

  12. Processing of a fiber-reinforced transparent glass matrix composite and study of micromechanics of load transfer from matrix to fiber using micro-fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Debangshu

    The brittleness of monolithic ceramic materials can be overcome by reinforcing them with high strength, high modulus ceramic fibers. These ceramic matrix composites exhibit improved strength, toughness, and work of fracture. Successful design of a ceramic matrix composite (CMC) depends on two factors: proper choice of fiber, matrix, and interface material, and understanding the mechanics of fracture. The conventional techniques for measuring stress and strain at a local level in CMCs are based on indirect experiments and analytical models. In recent years a couple of optical techniques have been explored for non- contact and direct evaluation of the stress and strain in materials, such as laser Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. In order to employ spectroscopy to study stress in a composite, a transparent matrix was needed. In this study a SiC fiber reinforced transparent glass matrix composite was developed. A tape casting, binder burnout, and sintering route was adopted to achieve the optimum transparency with proper fiber alignment and interfacial properties. Sapphire fibers were used to act as probe to generate fluorescence signals for measuring stress. A fugitive carbon coating was developed to act as a weak interface for the sapphire fiber, which otherwise, forms a strong bond with the matrix. A fixture was designed to apply stress on the composite specimen, in situ, under the microscope of the spectrometer. Using fluorescence spectroscopy, the micromechanics of load transfer from matrix to fibers were studied. Studies were conducted on both strongly and weakly bonded fibers, as well as on single fiber, and multi fiber situations. Residual stresses arising from thermal expansion mismatch have been mapped along the fiber length with resolution in microns. Residual axial stress was found to follow a shear lag profile along the fiber length. A finite residual axial stress was detected at the fiber ends. Correction of the measured stress for sample

  13. Biomechanical effect of rotator cuff augmentation with an acellular dermal matrix graft: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Omae, Hiromichi; Steinmann, Scott P; Zhao, Chunfeng; Zobitz, Mark E; Wongtriratanachai, Prasit; Sperling, John W; An, Kai-Nan

    2012-10-01

    Acellular human dermal matrix grafts (Graftjacket; Wright Medical Technology, Arlington, TN, USA) are used clinically for rotator cuff augmentation without a detailed understanding of their biomechanical effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of augmentation with dermal grafts on the biomechanical effects of rotator cuff repairs. Nine matched pairs of human cadaveric shoulders were used. A single-row rotator cuff repair combined with an augmentation graft was performed on one shoulder, and a single-row repair was performed on the contralateral shoulder as a control. An acellular dermal matrix graft was sutured to the tendon medially and fixed to the humerus laterally. The constructs were preloaded at 10 N and then cyclically loaded between 10 and 180 N for 1000 cycles, followed by tensile testing to failure at 1.0 mm/s. The maximum load of the augmentation group (560.2 N, SD 95.5) was greater than that of the control group (345.7 N, SD 60.8), while the linear stiffness of the augmentation group (65.2 N/mm, SD 15.6) was less than that of the control group (77.2 N/mm, SD 15.7). Reliable gap distance data were not obtained during cyclic loading in 5 of 9 augmented repairs due to the elasticity of the dermal matrix graft. The dermal matrix graft augmentation increased the maximum load but did not increase the linear stiffness. The elasticity of the dermal matrix graft affected the biomechanical effects of the augmented rotator cuff repairs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Chlorine oxide radicals ClOx (x = 1-4) studied by matrix isolation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kopitzky, Rodion; Grothe, Hinrich; Willner, Helge

    2002-12-16

    Low pressure flash thermolysis of different precursor molecules containing-ClO, -ClO3 or -OClO3 yield, when highly diluted in Ne or O2 and subsequent quenching of the products in a matrix at 5 or 15 K, ClOx (x = 1, 3, 4) radicals, respectively. If Ne or O2 gas is directed over solid ClO2 at -120 degrees C and the resulting gas mixtures are immediately deposited as a matrix, a high fraction of (OClO)2 is trapped. This enables recording of IR and UV spectra of weakly bonded (OClO)2 dimers and detailed studying of their photochemistry. For Ne or O2 matrix isolated ClO radicals the vibrational wavenumbers and electronic transitions are only slightly affected compared with the gas phase. In this study strong evidence is found for long lived ClO in the electronically excited 2 [symbol: see text] 1/2 state. A comprehensive IR study of Ne matrix isolated ClO3 (fundamentals at 1081, 905, 567, 476 cm-1) yield i) a reliable force field; ii) a OClO bond angle of alpha e = 113.8 +/- 1 degrees and iii) a ClO bond length of 148.5 +/- 2 pm in agreement with predicted data from quantum chemical calculations. The UV/Vis spectrum of ClO3 isolated in a Ne matrix (lambda max at 32,100 and 23,150 cm-1) agrees well with the photoelectron spectrum of ClO3- and theoretical predictions. The origin of the structured high energy absorption is at 22,696 cm-1 and three fundamentals (794, 498, 280 cm-1) are detected in the C2E state. By photolysis of ClO3 with visible light the complex ClO.O2 with ClO in the 2 [symbol: see text] 1/2 state is formed. In an extended spectroscopic study of the elusive ClO4 radical, isolated in a Ne or O2 matrix, three additional IR bands, a complete UV spectrum and a strong interaction with O2 are found. This leads to the conclusion that ClO4 exhibits C2v or Cs symmetry with a shallow potential minimum and forms with O2 the previously unknown peroxy radical O3ClO-O2. All these results are discussed in the context of recent developments in the chemistry and

  15. Selective Hg(II) adsorption from aqueous solutions of Hg(II) and Pb(II) by hydrolyzed acrylamide-grafted PET films.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Nazia; Sato, Nobuhiro; Sugiyama, Masaaki; Hidaka, Yoshiki; Okabe, Hirotaka; Hara, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Selective Hg(II) adsorption from aqueous solutions of Hg(II) and Pb(II) using hydrolyzed acrylamide (AAm)-grafted polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films was examined to explore the potential reuse of waste PET materials. Selective recovery of Hg(II) from a mixture of soft acids with similar structure, such as Hg(II) and Pb(II), is important to allow the reuse of recovered Hg(II). An adsorbent for selective Hg(II) adsorption was prepared by γ-ray-induced grafting of AAm onto PET films followed by partial hydrolysis through KOH treatment. The adsorption capacity of the AAm-grafted PET films for Hg(II) ions increased from 15 to 70 mg/g after partial hydrolysis because of the reduction of hydrogen bonding between -CONH2 groups and the corresponding improved access of metal ions to the amide groups. The prepared adsorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The absorbent film showed high selectivity for the adsorption of Hg(II) over Pb(II) throughout the entire initial metal concentration range (100-500 mg/L) and pH range (2.2-5.6) studied. The high selectivity is attributed to the ability of Hg(II) ions to form covalent bonds with the amide groups. The calculated selectivity coefficient for the adsorbent binding Hg(II) over Pb(II) was 19.2 at pH 4.5 with an initial metal concentration of 100 mg/L. Selective Hg(II) adsorption equilibrium data followed the Langmuir model and kinetic data were well fitted by a pseudo-second-order equation. The adsorbed Hg(II) and Pb(II) ions were effectively desorbed from the adsorbent film by acid treatment, and the regenerated film showed no marked loss of adsorption capacity upon reuse for selective Hg(II) adsorption.

  16. HCN Producing Bacteria Enable Sensing Of Non-Bioavailable Hg Species by the Whole Cell Biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvat, M.; Rijavec, T.; Koron, N.; Lapanje, A.

    2015-12-01

    Bacteria play an important role in Hg transformation reactions. The production of cyanide (HCN) and other secondary metabolites seems to be key elements involved in these transformations. Current hypotheses link the role of HCN production to growth inhibition of nonHCN producing competitor organisms (role of an antimicrobial agent). Our past investigations showed that HCN production did not correlate with antimicrobial activity and since pK value of HCN is very high (pK = 9,21), it can be expected that most of the produced HCN is removed from the microenvironment. This way, the expected inhibitory concentrations can hardly be reached. Accordingly, we proposed a new concept, where the ability of complexation of transient metals by HCN served as a regulation process for the accessibility of micro-elements. In our study, we focused on the presence of HCN producing bacteria and carried it out in the Hg contaminated environment connected to the Idrija Mercury Mine, Slovenia. We characterised the isolates according to the presence of Hg resistance (HgR), level of HCN production and genetic similarities. In laboratory setups, using our merR whole cell based biosensor, we determined the transformation of low bioavailable Hg0 and HgS forms into bioavailable Hg by these HCN producing bacteria. We observed that HgR strains producing HCN had the highest impact on increased Hg bioavailability. In the proposed ecological strategy HgR HCN producing bacteria increase their competitive edge over non-HgR competitors through the increase of Hg toxicity. Due to their activity, Hg is made available to other organisms as well and thus enters into the ecosystem. Finally, using some of the characteristics of bacteria (e.g. Hg resistance genetic elements), we developed a fully automated sensing approach, combining biosensorics and mechatronics, to measure the bioavailability of Hg in situ.

  17. Identification of proteins involved in Hg-Se antagonism in water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes).

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Pablo; Hanley, Traci; Figueroa, Julio A Landero

    2014-03-01

    Different studies have established the presence of a proteinaceus complex involved in Hg-Se agonism/antagonism in plants. In order to identify proteins involved in this mechanism, water hyacinth plants were divided into groups and supplemented with Hg, Se and a Hg-Se mixture. Proteins involved were identified through a screening separation by SEC-ICPMS followed by SAX-ICPMS and then peptide mapping of selected fractions by nanoLC-ESI-ITMS(2). Determination of total metal concentration showed that Se inhibits Hg translocation from roots to aerial compartments of the plant and that Se and Hg are antagonists to each other in terms of plant toxicity. In roots, stems and leaves Se was distributed mainly in two molecular mass fractions <670 kDa and ∼40 kDa, however, the proportion between these two fractions was inverted when Hg was co-administered. Hg throughout the plant was distributed in high and medium molecular mass compounds. Hg associated with molecules, ranging from <1.5 kDa to 15 kDa, was found in the root extract of Hg(ii) supplemented plants, but was absent in the root extract of Se(iv) and Hg(ii) supplemented plants. SAX showed that Hg and Se were mostly not associated with the same entity, since the complete overlapping of Hg and Se signals in all the peaks of SEC chromatograms was not observed. Changes in Se and Hg levels in water hyacinth were more evident in leaves in contrast to other compartments. Several proteins, possibly associated with either Se or Hg, were identified in roots, stems and leaves. Most of the identified proteins were associated with Hg and located in leaves, and these are associated specifically with chloroplast and mitochondria proteins, related to essential mechanisms in plants such as photosynthesis, carbon fixation and the electron transport chain.

  18. General Population Job Exposure Matrix Applied to a Pooled Study of Prevalent Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Ann Marie; Zeringue, Angelique; Harris-Adamson, Carisa; Rempel, David; Bao, Stephen; Thiese, Matthew S.; Merlino, Linda; Burt, Susan; Kapellusch, Jay; Garg, Arun; Gerr, Fred; Hegmann, Kurt T.; Eisen, Ellen A.; Evanoff, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    A job exposure matrix may be useful for the study of biomechanical workplace risk factors when individual-level exposure data are unavailable. We used job title–based exposure data from a public data source to construct a job exposure matrix and test exposure-response relationships with prevalent carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Exposures of repetitive motion and force from the Occupational Information Network were assigned to 3,452 active workers from several industries, enrolled between 2001 and 2008 from 6 studies. Repetitive motion and force exposures were combined into high/high, high/low, and low/low exposure groupings in each of 4 multivariable logistic regression models, adjusted for personal factors. Although force measures alone were not independent predictors of CTS in these data, strong associations between combined physical exposures of force and repetition and CTS were observed in all models. Consistent with previous literature, this report shows that workers with high force/high repetition jobs had the highest prevalence of CTS (odds ratio = 2.14–2.95) followed by intermediate values (odds ratio = 1.09–2.27) in mixed exposed jobs relative to the lowest exposed workers. This study supports the use of a general population job exposure matrix to estimate workplace physical exposures in epidemiologic studies of musculoskeletal disorders when measures of individual exposures are unavailable. PMID:25700886

  19. Functionalized CMK-3 mesoporous carbon with 2-amino-5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole for Hg(II) removal from aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Anbia, Mansoor; Dehghan, Roghaye

    2014-07-01

    Ordered mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) was synthesized and functionalized with 2-amino-5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole groups (AMT-OCMK-3) for Hg(II) removal from aqueous solution. The modified CMK-3 was characterized by X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The effects of solution pH, contact time, initial Hg(II) concentration and matrix effect were studied. The adsorption data were successfully fitted with the Langmuir model, exhibiting high adsorption capacity of 450.45 mg/g of AMT-OCMK-3. In the solid-phase extraction system a series of experimental parameters such as sample flow rate, sample volume, eluent volume and concentration of the eluent solution have been investigated and established for preconcentration of Hg(II) in aqueous solution. The results showed that the enrichment factor for Hg(II) was 250, the precision (relative standard deviation (RSD), %) for six replicate measurements was 2.05% and the limit of detection for Hg(II) was achieved at 0.17 μg/L.

  20. A transfer-matrix study of directed lattice animals and directed percolation on a square lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knežević, Dragica; Knežević, Milan

    2016-03-01

    We studied the large-scale properties of directed lattice animals and directed percolation on a square lattice. Using a transfer-matrix approach on strips of finite widths, we generated relatively long sequences of estimates for effective values of critical fugacity, percolation threshold and correlation length critical exponents. We applied two different extrapolation methods to obtain estimates for infinite systems. The precision of our final estimates is comparable to (or better than) the precision of the best currently available results.

  1. Study Of The Efficacy Of Extracellular Matrix Arterial Interposition Grafts In A Sheep (Ovis aries) Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-29

    interposition grafts in a sheep (Ovis aries ) model." PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Pl) I TRAINING COORDINATOR (TC): Maj Lucas Neff DEPARTMENT: General...USAGE: Animal Species: Total# Approved # Used this FY Total# Used to Date Ovies aries 12 8 4 2. PROTOCOL TYPE I CHARACTERISTICS: (Check all applicable...and conclusions/applications.) Title: Study of the efficacy of extracellular matrix arterial interposition grafts in a sheep (Ovis aries ) model

  2. The origin of the genetic code cannot be studied using measurements based on the PAM matrix because this matrix reflects the code itself, making any such analyses tautologous.

    PubMed

    Di Giulio, M

    2001-01-21

    Freeland et al. (Mol. Biol. Evol. 2000 a, 17, 511--518) have recently used a transformation of the PAM 74-100 matrix to study the level of optimization reached during genetic code origin. Since the PAM matrix counts the amino acid substitutions that occurred in families of homologous proteins during molecular evolution and as this process is mediated by the genetic code structure itself, it could be that the influence of the code on this matrix is such as to make any conclusion insignificant. As will be shown in the present paper, the transformation of the PAM matrix is affected in a non-marginal way by the organization of the genetic code and, thus, renders the analysis of Freeland et al. tautologous. Although, under the hypothesis of a highly optimized genetic code, some correlations may be expected between a measurement of similarity between amino acids and the genetic code structure, no certain conclusions can be drawn for the measurement used by Freeland et al.

  3. Extraordinary role of Hg in enhancing the thermoelectric performance of p-type SnTe

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Gangjian; Shi, Fengyuan; Doak, Jeff W.; Sun, Hui; Zhao, Li-Dong; Wang, Pengli; Uher, Ctirad; Wolverton, Chris; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2015-10-01

    We report several synergistic effects in Hg alloying of SnTe to enhance the power factor and overall figure of merit ZT. Hg alloying decreases the energy separation between the two valence bands, leading to pronounced band convergence that improves the Seebeck coefficient. Hg alloying of SnTe also significantly enlarges the band gap thereby effectively suppressing the bipolar diffusion. Collectively, this results in high ZT of similar to 1.35 at 910 K for 2% Bi-doped SnTe with 3% HgTe. The solubility limit of Hg in SnTe is less than 3 mol%, and above this level we observe HgTe precipitates in the SnTe matrix, typically trapped at grain boundary triple junctions. The strong point defect scattering of phonons caused by Hg alloying coupled with mesoscale scattering via grain boundaries contributes to a great reduction of lattice thermal conductivity. The multiple synergistic roles that Hg plays in regulating the electron and phonon transport in SnTe provide important new insights into continued optimization of SnTe-based and related materials.

  4. 3D printed nanocomposite matrix for the study of breast cancer bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Holmes, Benjamin; Glazer, Robert I; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-01-01

    Bone is one of the most common metastatic sites of breast cancer, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, in part due to an absence of advanced platforms for cancer culture and study that mimic the bone microenvironment. In the present study, we integrated a novel stereolithography-based 3D printer and a unique 3D printed nano-ink consisting of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles suspended in hydrogel to create a biomimetic bone-specific environment for evaluating breast cancer bone invasion. Breast cancer cells cultured in a geometrically optimized matrix exhibited spheroid morphology and migratory characteristics. Co-culture of tumor cells with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells increased the formation of spheroid clusters. The 3D matrix also allowed for higher drug resistance of breast cancer cells than 2D culture. These results validate that our 3D bone matrix can mimic tumor bone microenvironments, suggesting that it can serve as a tool for studying metastasis and assessing drug sensitivity. From the Clinical Editor: Cancer remains a major cause of mortality for patients in the clinical setting. For breast cancer, bone is one of the most common metastatic sites. In this intriguing article, the authors developed a bone-like environment using 3D printing technology to investigate the underlying biology of bone metastasis. Their results would also allow a new model for other researchers who work on cancer to use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Model system for studies on bone matrix formation by osteogenic cells in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinton, Todd M.; Fattaey, Heideh K.; Motaffaf, Farzaneh; Johnson, Terry C.

    1998-01-01

    A considerable amount of attention has been focused on the physiological factors that are responsible for the reduction of bone mineralization and mass during prolonged periods in the microgravity environment. Although bone mineralization can be reduced by one percent per month as shown to result from shuttle flights and Mir habitation, the reasons for this phenomenon remain unclear. Changes in specific markers of bone cells upon differentiation indicate that the induction of bone matrix formation is dependent upon these cells reaching confluency. In our laboratory, we have isolated a reversible inhibitor of cellular growth (CeReS-18) that could be important in cell contact inhibition and thus may mimic the signals involved in growth confluency. Preliminary experiments with osteogenic cells have revealed the potential capability of CeReS-18 to inhibit these cells in a reversible manner. We are developing a series of studies, designed at the cellular level, to quantitatively measure the production of bone matrix by osteogenic cells propagated in culture. The use of CeReS-18 would facilitate the study of several factors being assessed regarding matrix formation including the rate of cell population density, hormone induction events, calcium availability, and cell cycle arest. The studies are being conducted in a manner that will allow comparable measurements in the microgravity environment with flight hardware designed and deployed by BioServe Space Technologies.

  6. Studies on the optimization of deformation processed metal metal matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Tim W.

    1994-01-04

    A methodology for the production of deformation processed metal metal matrix composites from hyper-eutectic copper-chromium alloys was developed. This methodology was derived from a basic study of the precipitation phenomena in these alloys encompassing evaluation of microstructural, electrical, and mechanical properties. The methodology developed produces material with a superior combination of electrical and mechanical properties compared to those presently available in commercial alloys. New and novel alloying procedures were investigated to extend the range of production methods available for these material. These studies focused on the use of High Pressure Gas Atomization and the development of new containment technologies for the liquid alloy. This allowed the production of alloys with a much more refined starting microstructure and lower contamination than available by other methods. The knowledge gained in the previous studies was used to develop two completely new families of deformation processed metal metal matrix composites. These composites are based on immissible alloys with yttrium and magnesium matrices and refractory metal reinforcement. This work extends the physical property range available in deformation processed metal metal matrix composites. Additionally, it also represents new ways to apply these metals in engineering applications.

  7. The role of extracellular matrix in peripheral nerve regeneration: a wound chamber study.

    PubMed

    Liu, H M

    1992-01-01

    A wound chamber model was used for the study of the interaction between axon, Schwann cell and extracellular matrix during peripheral nerve regeneration. Impermeable silicone tubes, 8 mm long and 1.4 mm in internal diameter were sutured to transected rat sciatic nerve and the contents of the tubes were removed at intervals for chemical, histological, immunocytochemical and electron microscopic studies. There was an initial phase of fluid accumulation and the formation of a fibrin/fibronectin clot or cable which connected the cut ends of the nerve. The chamber fluid was shown to have a protein profile similar to that of rat serum. Schwann cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts migrated first into the cable, apparently mediated by cell-fibrin interaction. Axons buried within the Schwann cell cytoplasm were led into the cable but an axon-fibrin interaction was not observed. After 1 week, the fibrin matrix underwent dissolution, with replacement by collagen. This marked the onset of myelination and the organization of nerve fibers into fascicles. The findings from the present study suggest that the interactions between axon and Schwann cell and between Schwann cell and a changing extracellular matrix are the essential driving force in nerve growth and differentiation during peripheral nerve regeneration.

  8. Structural studies on some dithiophosphonato complexes of Ni(II), Cd(II), Hg(II) and theoretical studies on a dithiophosphonato Ni(II) complex using density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sağlam, Ertuğrul Gazi; Ebinç, Ahmet; Zeyrek, Celal Tuğrul; Ünver, Hüseyin; Hökelek, Tuncer

    2015-11-01

    In this study, three dithiophosphonic acid complexes, namely, trans-bis-[O-3-methylbutyl (4-methoxyphenyl)dithiophosphonato]nickel(II), Ni(L)2; bis-{bis-[O-3-phenylpropyl (4-methoxyphenyl)dithiophosphonato]cadmium(II)}, [Cd(L)2]2 and bis-{bis-[O-3-methylbutyl (4-methoxyphenyl)dithiophosphonato]mercury(II)}, [Hg(L)2]2 were prepared. The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis; MS; FTIR and Raman spectroscopies and were also investigated by 1H-, 13C- and 31P- NMR. The Ni(L)2 complex was elucidated by X-ray crystallography, molecular characterization and density functional modelling studies. The molecular structure obtained from X-ray single-crystal analysis of the Ni(L)2 complex in the ground state has been compared using density functional theory (DFT), B3LYP functional with 6-311G(d,p) basis set. In addition to the optimized geometrical structures, atomic charges and nonlinear optical (NLO) effects have been investigated by using DFT. The experimental (spectroscopic) and calculated vibrational frequencies (using DFT) of the Ni(L)2 have been compared. There exists a good correlation between experimental and theoretical data for the Ni(L)2 complex.

  9. Electrochemical study of gelatin as a matrix for the immobilization of horse heart cytochrome c.

    PubMed

    De Wael, Karolien; De Belder, Stijn; Van Vlierberghe, Sandra; Van Steenberge, Geert; Dubruel, Peter; Adriaens, Annemie

    2010-10-15

    The aim of this paper is to emphasize the strength of gelatin as a stable matrix for redox enzymes. Cyclic voltammetry has been applied for a detailed electrochemical study of horse heart cytochrome c (HHC) entrapped in a gelatin matrix immobilized on a gold electrode. The influence of the HHC concentration, the mass percentage of the gelatin and the nature of the gelatin on the electrochemical behaviour of HHC have been described in detail. In addition, attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy was used to prove the immobilization on a qualitative and conformational level. The thickness of the gelatin film was determined using a non-contact optical profiler. These results open up new perspectives in the development of stable, biocompatible matrices for redox enzymes. The latter has its relevance in the field of biosensor development.

  10. High-throughput virtual screening and docking studies of matrix protein vp40 of ebola virus.

    PubMed

    Tamilvanan, Thangaraju; Hopper, Waheeta

    2013-01-01

    Ebolavirus, a member of the Filoviridae family of negative-sense RNA viruses, causes severe haemorrhagic fever leading up to 90% lethality. Ebolavirus matrix protein VP40 is involved in the virus assembly and budding process. The RNA binding pocket of VP40 is considered as the drug target site for structure based drug design. High Throughput Virtual Screening and molecular docking studies were employed to find the suitable inhibitors against VP40. Ten compounds showing good glide score and glide energy as well as interaction with specific amino acid residues were short listed as drug leads. These small molecule inhibitors could be potent inhibitors for VP40 matrix protein by blocking virus assembly and budding process.

  11. R-matrix study of electron impact excitation and dissociation of CH+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, K.; Dora, A.; Ghosh, R.; Choudhury, B. S.; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    Electron impact excitation and electron impact dissociation of CH+ ions are studied in the framework of the R-matrix method using the diatomic version of the UK molecular R-matrix codes. A configuration interaction calculation is first performed to yield the potential energy curves of the lowest eight singlet and triplet states of CH+. Scattering calculations are then performed to yield vibrationally-resolved electronic excitations to the lowest three bound states, namely the a {}3{{\\Pi }}, A {}1{{\\Pi }} and the b {}3{{{Σ }}}-. Electron impact dissociation cross sections are obtained from the assumption that all electronic excitations above the dissociation threshold result in dissociation. Bound states of CH and resonance positions and widths of Feshbach resonances in the e-CH+ system are also calculated at the CH+ equilibrium bond length 2.137 a0.

  12. Study On Matrix Homogeneity And Interfacial Zone Of Sodium-poly(sialate-siloxo) Geopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subaer, Haris, Abdul; van Riessen, Arie

    2010-12-01

    Geopolymers are relatively novel materials with a wide range of potential application. The purpose of the present study was to experimentally investigate the composition-microstructure-property relationship of these materials. Na-PSS geopolymers were prepared by thermally assisted alkali-activation of metakaolinite. Microstructural characterization by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) revealed that the morphology of geopolymers consists of aluminosilicate matrix, unreacted metakaoline, micro pores and secondary micro cracks. Computed Tomography Imaging (CT-Scan) was used to further examine the development of micro cracks on the surface of geopolymers with and without the inclusion of aggregate. It was also observed that the interfacial zone between geopolymer paste and aggregate has the same chemical composition as the rest of the matrix.

  13. Systems biology—opportunities and challenges: the application of proteomics to study the cardiovascular extracellular matrix

    PubMed Central

    Barallobre-Barreiro, Javier; Lynch, Marc; Yin, Xiaoke; Mayr, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Systems biology approaches including proteomics are becoming more widely used in cardiovascular research. In this review article, we focus on the application of proteomics to the cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM). ECM remodelling is a hallmark of many cardiovascular diseases. Proteomic techniques using mass spectrometry (MS) provide a platform for the comprehensive analysis of ECM proteins without a priori assumptions. Proteomics overcomes various constraints inherent to conventional antibody detection. On the other hand, studies that use whole tissue lysates for proteomic analysis mask the identification of the less abundant ECM constituents. In this review, we first discuss decellularization-based methods that enrich for ECM proteins in cardiac tissue, and how targeted MS allows for accurate protein quantification. The second part of the review will focus on post-translational modifications including hydroxylation and glycosylation and on the release of matrix fragments with biological activity (matrikines), all of which can be interrogated by proteomic techniques. PMID:27635058

  14. Performance of Cu(II) -, Pb(II) -, and Hg(II) -Exchanged Mordenite in the Adsorption of I2 , ICH3 , H2 O, CO, ClCH3 , and Cl2 : A Density Functional Study.

    PubMed

    Chibani, Siwar; Medlej, Israa; Lebègue, Sébastien; Ángyán, János G; Cantrel, Laurent; Badawi, Michael

    2017-06-20

    Periodic dispersion-corrected DFT is used to investigate the adsorption of I2 and ICH3 , which may be released during a severe nuclear accident, for three divalent cation (Cu(2+) , Pb(2+) and Hg(2+) )-exchanged mordenites with an Si/Al ratio of 23. Gases such as H2 O, CO, ClCH3 , and Cl2 present in the containment atmosphere can inhibit the selective adsorption of iodine species. To identify the most promising adsorbents, a systematic study is performed in which all the possible cationic sites in the main channel of the mordenite structure are considered. For the energetically most stable sites, the divalent cation is located in the small rings (five- or six-membered) containing two Al atoms, while in the energetically less stable configurations, the two Al atoms are far apart (>7 Å) and the cation is close to only one Al atom. Upon adsorption of the various molecules, the coordination number of the cation decreases with increasing interaction energy, as the molecules can attract the divalent cations from the framework. Finally, the computed interaction energies show that Hg-mordenite (MOR) could be a suitable material for selective adsorption of volatile iodine species, contrary to Cu-MOR and Pb-MOR. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. DFT study and crystal structure analysis of a new nano-structure five coordinated Hg(II) complex involving C-H⋯O, N⋯O and π⋯π interactions in a supra-molecular structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montazerozohori, M.; Musavi, S. A.; Masoudiasl, A.; Hojjati, A.; Assoud, A.

    2015-08-01

    In this research, template synthesis and crystal structure of a new HgLI2 complex are presented (L = N1-(4-nitrobenzylidene)-N2-(2-((E)-(4-nitrobenzylidene)amino)ethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine). The mercury complex crystallizes in the triclinic system with space group of P 1 bar . The crystal structure of the complex shows a distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry around the mercury(II) center; including two I and an N atoms of Schiff base ligand in equatorial plane and two iminic N atoms in axial positions. Two five membered mercury containing rings [Hg(-N-C-C-N-)] are found in the structure. Some C-H⋯O, N⋯O and π⋯π intermolecular interactions causes a supra-molecular network in the solid-state. In addition to crystal structure analysis, density functional theory (DFT) study at the B3LYP/LanL2DZ level of theory has been also performed on the structure. Thereafter some theoretical structural and spectral data were compared with experimental results. Furthermore, total energy levels of HOMO and LUMO orbitals, molecular electrostatic potential, Mullikan atomic charges, thermodynamic and polarizability properties of the complex were calculated. Finally the mercury complex was prepared in nano-structure size confirmed by SEM and XRD analyses. The particles size of the titled complex was evaluated under 40 nm based on Sherrer's formula.

  16. DFT study and crystal structure analysis of a new nano-structure five coordinated Hg(II) complex involving C-H⋯O, N⋯O and π⋯π interactions in a supra-molecular structure.

    PubMed

    Montazerozohori, M; Musavi, S A; Masoudiasl, A; Hojjati, A; Assoud, A

    2015-08-05

    In this research, template synthesis and crystal structure of a new HgLI₂ complex are presented (L=N(1)-(4-nitrobenzylidene)-N(2)-(2-((E)-(4-nitrobenzylidene)amino)ethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine). The mercury complex crystallizes in the triclinic system with space group of P1¯. The crystal structure of the complex shows a distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry around the mercury(II) center; including two I and an N atoms of Schiff base ligand in equatorial plane and two iminic N atoms in axial positions. Two five membered mercury containing rings [Hg(-N-C-C-N-)] are found in the structure. Some C-H⋯O, N⋯O and π⋯π intermolecular interactions causes a supra-molecular network in the solid-state. In addition to crystal structure analysis, density functional theory (DFT) study at the B3LYP/LanL2DZ level of theory has been also performed on the structure. Thereafter some theoretical structural and spectral data were compared with experimental results. Furthermore, total energy levels of HOMO and LUMO orbitals, molecular electrostatic potential, Mullikan atomic charges, thermodynamic and polarizability properties of the complex were calculated. Finally the mercury complex was prepared in nano-structure size confirmed by SEM and XRD analyses. The particles size of the titled complex was evaluated under 40 nm based on Sherrer's formula.

  17. DFT study of Hg adsorption on M-substituted Pd(1 1 1) and PdM/γ-Al2O3(1 1 0) (M = Au, Ag, Cu) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiancheng; Yu, Huafeng; Geng, Lu; Liu, Jianwen; Han, Lina; Chang, Liping; Feng, Gang; Ling, Lixia

    2015-11-01

    The adsorption of Hgn (n = 1-3) on the Au-, Ag-, Cu-substituted Pd(1 1 1) surfaces as well as the PdM/γ-Al2O3(1 1 0) (M = Au, Ag, Cu) surfaces has been investigated using spin-polarized density functional theory calculations. It is found that M-substituted Pd(1 1 1) surfaces show as good Hg adsorption capacity as the perfect Pd(1 1 1) at low Hg coverage, while the Hg adsorption capacity is only slightly weakened at high Hg coverage. On the basis of stepwise adsorption energies analysis, it is concluded that M-substituted Pd(1 1 1) surfaces can contribute to the binding of Hg atom on the surfaces at high Hg coverage. The electronic properties of the second metal atoms are the main factor contributes to the Hg adsorption capacity. Gas phase Pd2 shows better Hg adsorption capacity than Pd2/γ-Al2O3, while PdM/γ-Al2O3 can adsorb Hg more efficiently than bare PdM clusters. It suggests that the γ-Al2O3 support can enhance the activity of PdM for Hg adsorption and reduces the activity of Pd2. It is also found that Pd is the main active composition responsible for the interaction of mercury with the surface for PdM/γ-Al2O3 sorbent. Taking Hg adsorption capacity and economic costs into account, Cu addition is a comparatively good candidate for Hg capture.

  18. Mercury profiles in sediment from the marginal high of Arabian Sea: an indicator of increasing anthropogenic Hg input.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Parthasarathi; Vudamala, Krushna; Chennuri, Kartheek; Armoury, Kazip; Linsy, P; Ramteke, Darwin; Sebastian, Tyson; Jayachandran, Saranya; Naik, Chandan; Naik, Richita; Nath, B Nagender

    2016-05-01

    Total Hg distributions and its speciation were determined in two sediment cores collected from the western continental marginal high of India. Total Hg content in the sediment was found to gradually increase (by approximately two times) towards the surface in both the cores. It was found that Hg was preferentially bound to sulfide under anoxic condition. However, redox-mediated reactions in the upper part of the core influenced the total Hg content in the sediment cores. This study suggests that probable increase in authigenic and allogenic Hg deposition attributed to the increasing Hg concentration in the surface sediment in the study area.

  19. Matrix isolation infrared spectroscopic study of 4-Pyridinecarboxaldehyde and of its UV-induced photochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cluyts, Liesel; Sharma, Archna; Kuş, Nihal; Schoone, Kristien; Fausto, Rui

    2017-01-01

    The structure, infrared spectrum, barrier to internal rotation, and photochemistry of 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde (4PCA) were studied by low-temperature (10 K) matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations undertaken at both Moller-Plesset to second order (MP2) and density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) levels of approximation. The molecule has a planar structure (Cs point group), with MP2/6-311 ++G(d,p) predicted internal rotation barrier of 26.6 kJ mol- 1, which is slightly smaller than that of benzaldehyde ( 30 kJ mol- 1), thus indicating a less important electron charge delocalization from the aromatic ring to the aldehyde moiety in 4PCA than in benzaldehyde. A complete assignment of the infrared spectrum of 4PCA isolated in an argon matrix has been done for the whole 4000-400 cm- 1 spectral range, improving over previously reported data. Both the geometric parameters and vibrational frequencies of the aldehyde group reveal the relevance in this molecule of the electronic charge back-donation effect from the oxygen trans lone electron pair to the aldehyde Csbnd H anti-bonding orbital. Upon in situ UV irradiation of the matrix-isolated compound, prompt decarbonylation was observed, leading to formation of pyridine.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of zirconia-magnesia inert matrix fuel: Uranium homolog studies

    SciTech Connect

    Holliday, Kiel; Hartmann, Thomas; Poineau, Frederic; Kennedy, J Rory; Czerwinski, Ken

    2009-10-21

    X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, microscopy, X-ray absorption fine structure, and electron probe microanalysis were used to characterize ZrO2–MgO inert matrix fuel containing UO2 (as a fissile element and a Pu homolog) and Er2O3 as a burnable poison. A large composition range of MgO and ZrO2 was evaluated to determine total concentrations, local environment, phases present, phase mixing, and phase composition. It was found that most compositions of the material consist of two phases: MgO (periclase) and ZrO2 (cubic zirconia). The zirconia phase incorporates up to 5% (wt/wt) MgO and up to 20% and 10% (wt/wt) UO2 and Er2O3 respectively. This allows the fissile material and burnable poison to be incorporated into the zirconia crystal structure and defines the limits of this isomorphic substitution. The bond deformation due to the isomorphic substitution of uranium was determined by X-ray absorption fine structure. The MgO phase remains pure, which will enable design optimization of the overall thermophysical properties of the inert matrix fuel in regard to thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity. This characterization data will be used in future studies to correlate the dissolution behavior of inert matrix material containing plutonium.

  1. Assessing anthropogenic sources of mercury in soil in Wanshan Hg mining area, Guizhou, China.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhihui; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Jingfu; Jiang, Taiming; Xiao, Houjun; Li, Yu; Wang, Xun; Qiu, Guangle

    2013-11-01

    Long-term mining and smelting activities brought a series of environmental issues into soils in Wanshan mercury (Hg) mining area (WMMA), Guizhou, China. Several studies have been published on the concentrations of Hg in local soils, but a comprehensive assessment of the mass of Hg in soil induced by anthropogenic activities, as presented in this paper, has not been previously conducted. Three districts of WMMA were chosen as the study areas. We summarized previous published data and sampled 14 typical soil profiles to analyze the spatial and vertical distributions of Hg in soil in the study areas. The regional geologic background, direct and indirect Hg deposition, and Hg-polluted irrigation water were considered as the main sources of Hg contaminations in local soils. Furthermore, the enrichment factor (EF) method was applied to assess the extent of anthropogenic input of Hg to soil. Titanium (Ti) was chosen to be the reference element to calculate the EF. Generally, the elevated values of EF were observed in the upper soil layers and close to mine wastes. The total budget of Hg in soil contributed from anthropogenic sources was estimated to be 1,227 t in arable soil and 75 t in natural soil. Our data showed that arable soil was the major sink of anthropogenic Hg in the study area.

  2. Study of the influence of water matrix components on admicellar sorbents.

    PubMed

    García-Prieto, Amalia; Lunar, Loreto; Rubio, Soledad; Pérez-Bendito, Dolores

    2007-08-01

    Hemimicelle-based and/or admicelle-based solid-phase extraction (SPE) has recently been proved to be a fruitful strategy for the extraction and concentration of a wide variety of organic pollutants. This research focus on the effect of river and wastewater matrix components on the adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) onto alumina, which is the most-used sorbent in hemimicelle-based and/or admicelle-based SPE, and we discuss the analytical consequences of the modifications observed. The effect of electrolytes (0.1 M NaCl), precipitating agents (127 and 333 mg L(-1) CaCl2) and major organic components in wastewater (19.8 mg L(-1) carbohydrates, proteins and fats and 10 mg L(-1) linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) and rivers (8 mg L(-1) humic acid) on the SDS adsorption isotherm was investigated. Also, the global effect of matrix components was assessed using a river sample. Three types of sorbents were considered (hemimicelles, mixed hemimicelles/admicelles and admicelles). Electrolytes were found to compete with surfactant molecules for charge surface sites in the early part of the hemimicellar region; precipitating agents yield insoluble salts with the aqueous surfactant in equilibrium with admicelle-based sorbents; and organic matter did not have any influence at all. The matrix component concentrations investigated were above the usual range present in rivers and wastewater, which makes this study applicable to a wide number of environmental water samples. From the results obtained, simple rules were established to prevent and detect matrix-induced surfactant adsorption modifications, which permits us to know, a priori, the suitability of these sorbents for a specific application and allows the development of more straightforward and robust methods.

  3. 46 CFR 53.12-1 - General (modifies HG-600 through HG-640).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HEATING BOILERS Instruments, Fittings, and Controls (Article 6) § 53.12-1 General (modifies HG-600 through HG-640). (a) The instruments, fittings and controls for heating boilers shall be as indicated in HG... automatic auxiliary heating equipment, the requirements in part 63 of this subchapter govern and shall...

  4. 46 CFR 53.12-1 - General (modifies HG-600 through HG-640).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HEATING BOILERS Instruments, Fittings, and Controls (Article 6) § 53.12-1 General (modifies HG-600 through HG-640). (a) The instruments, fittings and controls for heating boilers shall be as indicated in HG... automatic auxiliary heating equipment, the requirements in part 63 of this subchapter govern and shall...

  5. 46 CFR 53.12-1 - General (modifies HG-600 through HG-640).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HEATING BOILERS Instruments, Fittings, and Controls (Article 6) § 53.12-1 General (modifies HG-600 through HG-640). (a) The instruments, fittings and controls for heating boilers shall be as indicated in HG... automatic auxiliary heating equipment, the requirements in part 63 of this subchapter govern and shall...

  6. 46 CFR 53.12-1 - General (modifies HG-600 through HG-640).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HEATING BOILERS Instruments, Fittings, and Controls (Article 6) § 53.12-1 General (modifies HG-600 through HG-640). (a) The instruments, fittings and controls for heating boilers shall be as indicated in HG... automatic auxiliary heating equipment, the requirements in part 63 of this subchapter govern and shall...

  7. 46 CFR 53.12-1 - General (modifies HG-600 through HG-640).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HEATING BOILERS Instruments, Fittings, and Controls (Article 6) § 53.12-1 General (modifies HG-600 through HG-640). (a) The instruments, fittings and controls for heating boilers shall be as indicated in HG... automatic auxiliary heating equipment, the requirements in part 63 of this subchapter govern and shall...

  8. Impacts of forest harvesting on mobilization of Hg and MeHg in drained peatland forests on black schist or felsic bedrock.

    PubMed

    Ukonmaanaho, Liisa; Starr, Mike; Kantola, Marjatta; Laurén, Ari; Piispanen, Juha; Pietilä, Heidi; Perämäki, Paavo; Merilä, Päivi; Fritze, Hannu; Tuomivirta, Tero; Heikkinen, Juha; Mäkinen, Jari; Nieminen, Tiina M

    2016-04-01

    Forest harvesting, especially when intensified harvesting method as whole-tree harvesting with stump lifting (WTHs) are used, may increase mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) leaching to recipient water courses. The effect can be enhanced if the underlying bedrock and overburden soil contain Hg. The impact of stem-only harvesting (SOH) and WTHs on the concentrations of Hg and MeHg as well as several other variables in the ditch water was studied using a paired catchment approach in eight drained peatland-dominated catchments in Finland (2008-2012). Four of the catchments were on felsic bedrock and four on black schist bedrock containing heavy metals. Although both Hg and MeHg concentrations increased after harvesting in all treated sites according to the randomized intervention analyses (RIAs), there was only a weak indication of a harvest-induced mobilization of Hg and MeHg into the ditches. Furthermore, no clear differences between WTHs and SOH were found, although MeHg showed a nearly significant difference (p = 0.06) between the harvesting regimes. However, there was a clear bedrock effect, since the MeHg concentrations in the ditch water were higher at catchments on black schist than at those on felsic bedrock. The pH, suspended solid matter (SSM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and iron (Fe) concentrations increased after harvest while the sulfate (SO4-S) concentration decreased. The highest abundances of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were found on the sites with high MeHg concentrations. The biggest changes in ditch water concentrations occurred first 2 years after harvesting.

  9. Coaxial HgI excimer lamps

    SciTech Connect

    Malinin, A N; Polyak, A V; Guivan, N N; Shimon, Lyudvik L; Zubrilin, N G

    2002-02-28

    The emission of coaxial HgI excimer lamps pumped by a repetitively pulsed barrier discharge is experimentally studied. The stable operation of the excimer lamps was demonstrated at pump-pulse repetition rates from 0.5 to 12 kHz, and the average emission power attained of 0.6 W at 444 nm. It was found that upon an addition of 0.8% of xenon to the mixture of helium and mercury diiodide, the pulse and average emission powers increased by 30%. The emission power reduced by 5% after 2.5 x 10{sup 6} pulses. An interpretation of the results of optimising the excimer lamp characteristics is given. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  10. Photosynthetic pigments and peroxidase activity of Lepidium sativum L. during assisted Hg phytoextraction.

    PubMed

    Smolinska, Beata; Leszczynska, Joanna

    2017-04-06

    The study was conducted to evaluate metabolic answer of Lepidium sativum L. on Hg, compost, and citric acid during assisted phytoextraction. The chlorophyll a and b contents, total carotenoids, and activity of peroxidase were determined in plants exposed to Hg and soil amendments. Hg accumulation in plant shoots was also investigated. The pot experiments were provided in soil artificially contaminated by Hg and/or supplemented with compost and citric acid. Hg concentration in plant shoots and soil substrates was determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AAS) method after acid mineralization. The plant photosynthetic pigments and peroxidase activity were measured by standard spectrophotometric methods. The study shows that L. sativum L. accumulated Hg in its aerial tissues. An increase in Hg accumulation was noticed when soil was supplemented with compost and citric acid. Increasing Hg concentration in plant shoots was correlated with enhanced activation of peroxidase activity and changes in total carotenoid concentration. Combined use of compost and citric acid also decreased the chlorophyll a and b contents in plant leaves. Presented study reveals that L. sativum L. is capable of tolerating Hg and its use during phytoextraction assisted by combined use of compost and citric acid lead to decreasing soil contamination by Hg.

  11. Thermo-oxidative stability studies of PMR-15 polymer matrix composites reinforced with various continuous fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to measure the thermooxidative stability of PMR-15 composites reinforced with various fibers and to observe differences in the way they degrade in air. The fibers studied include graphite and the thermally stable Nicalon and Nextel ceramic fibers. Weight-loss rates for the different composites were assessed as a function of mechanical properties, specimen geometry, fiber sizing, and interfacial bond strength. Differences were observed in rates of weight loss, matrix cracking, geometry dependency, and fiber sizing effects. It was shown that Celion 6000 fiber-reinforced composites do not exhibit a straight-line Arrhenius relationship at temperatures above 316 C.

  12. Thermo-oxidative stability studies of PMR-15 polymer matrix composites reinforced with various continuous fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to measure the thermooxidative stability of PMR-15 composites reinforced with various fibers and to observe differences in the way they degrade in air. The fibers studied include graphite and the thermally stable Nicalon and Nextel ceramic fibers. Weight-loss rates for the different composites were assessed as a function of mechanical properties, specimen geometry, fiber sizing, and interfacial bond strength. Differences were observed in rates of weight loss, matrix cracking, geometry dependency, and fiber sizing effects. It was shown that Celion 6000 fiber-reinforced composites do not exhibit a straight-line Arrhenius relationship at temperatures above 316 C.

  13. Effect of doping on electronic properties of HgSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, Abhinav; Sastri, O. S. K. S.; Kumar, Jagdish

    2016-05-01

    First principle study of electronic properties of pure and doped HgSe have been performed using all electron Full Potential Linearized Augmented Plane Wave (FP-LAPW) method using ELK code. The electronic exchange and co-relations are considered using Generalized Gradient Approach (GGA). Lattice parameter, Density of States (DOS) and Band structure calculations have been performed. The total energy curve (Energy vs Lattice parameter), DOS and band structure calculations are in good agreement with the experimental values and those obtained using other DFT codes. The doped material is studied within the Virtual Crystal Approximation (VCA) with doping levels of 10% to 25% of electrons (hole) per unit cell. Results predict zero band gap in undopedHgSe and bands meet at Fermi level near the symmetry point D. For doped HgSe, we found that by electron (hole) doping, the point where conduction and valence bands meet can be shifted below (above) the fermi level.

  14. Effect of doping on electronic properties of HgSe

    SciTech Connect

    Nag, Abhinav Sastri, O. S. K. S. Kumar, Jagdish

    2016-05-23

    First principle study of electronic properties of pure and doped HgSe have been performed using all electron Full Potential Linearized Augmented Plane Wave (FP-LAPW) method using ELK code. The electronic exchange and co-relations are considered using Generalized Gradient Approach (GGA). Lattice parameter, Density of States (DOS) and Band structure calculations have been performed. The total energy curve (Energy vs Lattice parameter), DOS and band structure calculations are in good agreement with the experimental values and those obtained using other DFT codes. The doped material is studied within the Virtual Crystal Approximation (VCA) with doping levels of 10% to 25% of electrons (hole) per unit cell. Results predict zero band gap in undopedHgSe and bands meet at Fermi level near the symmetry point Γ. For doped HgSe, we found that by electron (hole) doping, the point where conduction and valence bands meet can be shifted below (above) the fermi level.

  15. Bioaccumulation of Hg in the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus

    SciTech Connect

    Bressa, G.; Cima, L.; Costa, P.

    1988-10-01

    The possibility of utilizing industrial, urban, and other wastes for the growth of a product which is directly edible by humans is fascinating. However, it is possible that many wastes containing toxic substances, for example, heavy metals, could reach the food chain and produce adverse effects on human health. To this end, we studied the possibility of bioaccumulation of Hg by a mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, grown on an artificial compost containing this element. Concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/kg of Hg as Hg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/.H/sub 2/O were added to three groups of the same compost, successively inoculated with the mycelia of the mushroom. Higher concentrations strongly reduced the growth of the mycelia and therefore were not utilized. The concentrations of Hg in the substrate and in the mushroom were evaluated by AAS. The range of the accumulation factor was found to be 65-140, i.e., very marked. This finding suggests that the cultivation of P. ostreatus on substrates containing Hg from industrial and urban wastes could involve possible risks to human health.

  16. An Experimental Study of Penny-shaped Fluid-driven Cracks in an Elastic Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Howard

    2015-11-01

    When a pressurized fluid is injected into an elastic matrix, the fluid generates a fracture that grows along a plane and forms a fluid-filled disc-like shape. For example, such problems occur in various natural and industrial applications involving the subsurface of Earth, such as hydraulic fracturing operations. We report a laboratory study of such a fluid-driven crack in a gelatin matrix, study the crack shape as a function of time, and investigate the influence of different experimental parameters such as the injection flow rate, Young's modulus of the matrix, and fluid viscosity. We find that the crack radius increases with time as a power law, which has been predicted both for the limit where viscous effects in the flow along the crack opening control the rate of crack propagation, as well as the limit where fracture toughness controls crack propagation. We vary experimental parameters to probe the physical limits and highlight that for our typical parameters both effects can be significant. Also, we measure the time evolution of crack shape, which has not been studied before. The rescaled crack shapes collapse at longer times, based on an appropriate scaling argument, and again we compare the scaling arguments in different physical limits. The gelatin system provides a useful laboratory model for further studies of fluid-driven cracks, some of which we will mention as they are inspired by the physics of hydraulic fracturing. This work is part of the PhD thesis of Ching-Yao Lai and is a collaboration with Drs. Zhong Zheng and Jason Wexler (Princeton University) and Professor Emilie Dressaire (NYU). Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.

  17. General population job exposure matrix applied to a pooled study of prevalent carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dale, Ann Marie; Zeringue, Angelique; Harris-Adamson, Carisa; Rempel, David; Bao, Stephen; Thiese, Matthew S; Merlino, Linda; Burt, Susan; Kapellusch, Jay; Garg, Arun; Gerr, Fred; Hegmann, Kurt T; Eisen, Ellen A; Evanoff, Bradley

    2015-03-15

    A job exposure matrix may be useful for the study of biomechanical workplace risk factors when individual-level exposure data are unavailable. We used job title-based exposure data from a public data source to construct a job exposure matrix and test exposure-response relationships with prevalent carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Exposures of repetitive motion and force from the Occupational Information Network were assigned to 3,452 active workers from several industries, enrolled between 2001 and 2008 from 6 studies. Repetitive motion and force exposures were combined into high/high, high/low, and low/low exposure groupings in each of 4 multivariable logistic regression models, adjusted for personal factors. Although force measures alone were not independent predictors of CTS in these data, strong associations between combined physical exposures of force and repetition and CTS were observed in all models. Consistent with previous literature, this report shows that workers with high force/high repetition jobs had the highest prevalence of CTS (odds ratio = 2.14-2.95) followed by intermediate values (odds ratio = 1.09-2.27) in mixed exposed jobs relative to the lowest exposed workers. This study supports the use of a general population job exposure matrix to estimate workplace physical exposures in epidemiologic studies of musculoskeletal disorders when measures of individual exposures are unavailable. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Fiber-matrix interface studies on bioabsorbable composite materials for internal fixation of bone fractures. I. Raw material evaluation and measurement of fiber-matrix interfacial adhesion.

    PubMed

    Slivka, M A; Chu, C C; Adisaputro, I A

    1997-09-15

    The objective of this study was to characterize and evaluate the performance of various fiber-matrix composite systems by studying the mechanical, thermal, and physical properties of the fiber and matrix components, and by studying the fiber-matrix interface adhesion strength using both microbond and fragmentation methods. The composites studies were poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) matrix reinforced with continuous fibers of either nonabsorbable AS4 carbon (C), absorbable calcium phosphate (CaP), poly(glycolic acid) (PGA), or chitin. Carbon and CaP single fibers had high Young's moduli and failed in a brittle manner. PGA and chitin single fibers had relatively lower Young's moduli and relatively higher ductility. Upon in vitro hydrolysis, CaP fibers retained 17% of their tensile strength and 39% of their Young's modulus after 12 h, PCA fibers retained 10% of their tensile strength and 52% of their Young's modulus after 16 days, and chitin fibers retained 87% of their tensile strength and 130% of their Young's modulus after 25 days. PLLA films had much lower strength and Young's moduli, but much higher ductility relative to the single fibers. Using the microbond method, the initial fiber-matrix interfacial shear strength (IFSS) of C/PLLA and CaP/PLLA microcomposites was 33.9 and 12.6 MPa, respectively. Upon in vitro hydrolysis, C/PLLA retained 49% of IFSS after 15 days and CaP/PLLA retained 46% of IFSS after 6 h. Using a fiber fragmentation method, the initial IFSS of C/PLLA, CaP/PLLA, and chitin/ PLLA was 22.2, 15.6, and 28.3 MPa, respectively. The performance of carbon fibers and C/PLLA composites was superior to the other fibers and fiber/PLLA systems, but the carbon fiber was nonabsorbable. CaP had the most suitable modulus of the absorbable fibers for fixing cortical bone fracture, but its rapid deterioration of mechanical properties and loss of IFSS limits its use. PGA and chitin fibers had suitable mechanical properties and their retention for fixing cancellous

  19. Unique Hg stable isotope signatures of compact fluorescent lamp-sourced Hg.

    PubMed

    Mead, Chris; Lyons, James R; Johnson, Thomas M; Anbar, Ariel D

    2013-03-19

    The recent widespread adoption of compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) has increased their importance as a source of environmental Hg. Stable isotope analysis can identify the sources of environmental Hg, but the isotopic composition of Hg from CFL is not yet known. Results from analyses of CFL with a range of hours of use show that the Hg they contain is isotopically fractionated in a unique pattern during normal CFL operation. This fractionation is large by comparison to other known fractionating processes for Hg and has a distinctive, mass-independent signature, such that CFL Hg could be uniquely identified from other sources. The fractionation process described here may also explain anomalous fractionation of Hg isotopes in precipitation.

  20. Raman spectroscopic investigations of Hg-Cd-Te melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrobel-Sosa, Anny

    1987-01-01

    Raman scattering measurements are reported for a series of Hg sub1-xCd subxTe (with x less than or =0.2) materials from 295 K (room temperature) to 1126K (up to and above their liquidus temperatures), and for Hg sub1-xCd subxTe (x=0.3) at 285K. The samples were contained in high-temperature optically-flat fused silica cell. Variable temperature measurements were effected in a three-zone, high-temperature furnace equipped with optical windows, and monitored externally by three independently programmable temperature controllers. All studies were made in the backscattering geometry using the 5145 A line of an Ar+ ion laser, with incident power less than 250 mW, as the excitiation source. An intensity enhancement is observed for a mode in each of the compositions studied. The frequency of this mode varies with composition, 142/cm for HgTe, and 128/cm for both the Hg sub1-xCd subxTe (x=0.053 and 0.204) samples. In addition, a shift to lower frequency as a function of temperature is observed in all samples. This shift is most prominent for the x=0.053 sample. The temperature dependence of these modes as the liquidus temperatures are achieved and surpassed for these samples is presented as being associated with a structural transition in the Hg-rich compositions of the Hg sub1-xCd subxTe series. To our knowledge, this is the first reported study of Raman scattering by phonons in the melts of these materials.

  1. Comparative study of tube assembly in three-dimensional collagen matrix and on Matrigel coats.

    PubMed

    Montañez, Eloi; Casaroli-Marano, Ricardo P; Vilaró, Senén; Pagan, Roser

    2002-01-01

    This study compares phenotypic changes of human umbilical endothelial vein cells cultured in three-dimensional collagen matrixes in the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor or on Matrigel coats. Under both conditions, endothelial cells rapidly assembled into an irregular network of tubular structures with a high frequency of intercellular or lumen-like spaces. Tubular structures were characterized and compared by phase-contrast, confocal and electron microscopy. The dominant mechanism of lumen-like formation was highly model-dependent. Ultrastructural analyses of capillary-like structures and the mechanism of lumen-like formation indicated that the in vivo angiogenesis was better reproduced in the collagen model.

  2. Density Induced Phase Transitions in the Schwinger Model: A Study with Matrix Product States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bañuls, Mari Carmen; Cichy, Krzysztof; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Jansen, Karl; Kühn, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    We numerically study the zero temperature phase structure of the multiflavor Schwinger model at nonzero chemical potential. Using matrix product states, we reproduce analytical results for the phase structure for two flavors in the massless case and extend the computation to the massive case, where no analytical predictions are available. Our calculations allow us to locate phase transitions in the mass-chemical potential plane with great precision and provide a concrete example of tensor networks overcoming the sign problem in a lattice gauge theory calculation.

  3. Electron-H2 Collisions Studied Using the Finite Element Z-Matrix Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred M.; Brown, David; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    We have applied the Z-matrix method, using a mixed basis of finite elements and Gaussians, to study e-H2 elastic and inelastic collisions. Special attention is paid to the quality of the basis set and the treatment of electron correlation. The calculated cross sections are invariant, to machine accuracy, with respect to the choice of parameters a, b, d, e as long as they satisfy Equation (3). However, the log derivative approach, i.e., the choice a = -e = 1, b = d = 0 appears to converge slightly faster than other choices. The cross sections agree well with previous theoretical results. Comparison will be made with available experimental data.

  4. First-principles study on magnetism and half-metallicity in bulk and various (001) surfaces of Heusler alloy Zr2VSn with Hg2CuTi-type structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zun-Yi; Zhang, Jian-Min

    2016-07-01

    Structural, electronic and magnetic properties in the bulk and five different (001) surfaces (ZrV-, ZrSn-, VV-, ZrZr- and SnSn-terminations) of Zr2 VSn Heusler alloy with Hg2 CuTi -type structure are studied by using first-principles calculations based on density-functional theory. The bulk Zr2 VSn Heusler alloy is ferrimagnetic half-metallicity with equilibrium lattice constant 6.815 Å and total magnetic moment -1.000 μB / f.u . , following the Slater-Pauling rule μt =Zt - 18 . The atoms on different surface layers exhibit different displacements, electronic and magnetic properties. All five (001) surfaces lose the half-metallicity and are not usable in spintronics devices.

  5. Contact Formation (Hg, CD)Te

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    AD-A21 7 088 0 a CONTACT FORMATION ON (HG, CD )TE FINAL REPORT W.A. BECK AND G.D. DAVIS V C ELECTE , I DECEMBER 1989 JAN22 1990 U.S. ARMY RESEARCH...27709-2211 I N I 11. TITLE (Include Security Clasification) Contact Formation on (Hg, CD )Te (u) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) W.A. Beck and G.D. Davis 13a...whereas the 1/f noise of the Au contacts originated at th i/" Cd )Te interface or in the underlying (Hg, Cd )Te, the 1/f noise of the Al contacts orig.L

  6. Relationship between proline and Hg2+-induced oxidative stress in a tolerant rice mutant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feijuan; Zeng, Bin; Sun, Zongxiu; Zhu, Cheng

    2009-05-01

    There has been little agreement regarding the mechanism by which proline reduces heavy metal stress. The present work examines the relationship between Hg(2+)-induced oxidative stress and proline accumulation in rice and explores the possible mechanisms through which proline protects against Hg(2+) stress. The effect of proline on alleviation of Hg(2+) toxicity was studied by spectrophotography and enzymatic methods. Hg(2+) induced oxidative stress in rice by increasing lipid peroxidation. Pretreatment of the rice with 2 mM proline for 12 h profoundly alleviated Hg(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation and minimized H(2)O(2) accumulation. Proline pretreatment significantly reduced (p < 0.01) the Hg(2+) content in rice leaves. A comparison of the effects of proline pretreatment on H(2)O(2) accumulation by Hg(2+) and aminotrazole suggested that proline protected cells from Hg(2+)-induced oxidative stress by scavenging reactive oxygen species. The present work demonstrates a protective effect of proline on Hg(2+) toxicity through detoxifying reactive oxygen species, rather than chelating metal ions or maintaining the water balance under Hg(2+) stress.

  7. [Experimental Research of Hg (II) Removal from Aqueous Solutions of HgCl2 with Nano-TiO2].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiong; Zhang, Jin-yang; Wang, Ding-yong; Qin, Cai-qing; Xu, Feng; Luo Cheng-zhong; Yang, Xi

    2016-01-15

    Mercury removal from aqueous solutions of HgCl2 was studied by indoor simulation experiments, and the effects of three different diameter of particles of Nano-TiO2 ( Nano-Titanium Dioxide) at different dosage, pH, adsorption time and the initial concentration of Hg2+ on the mercury adsorption from simulated wastewater were investigated. The single factor experiments showed that the optimal conditions were: 7.5 g x L(-1) of 5 nm TiO2 or 2.0 g x L(-1) of 100 nm TiO2, pH 8.0, initial concentration of Hg2+ 15 x mg x L(-1) adsorption time 5 min, and under these conditions the adsorption rates reached 99.5% and 99.3%, relatively. When the content of 25 nm TiO2 was 10 g x L(-1), and the other conditions were pH 8.0, initial concentration of Hg2+ 15 mg x L(-1), adsorption time 60 min, the adsorption rate was 62.8%. The Hg(II) removal effects of the TiO2 particles with different diameters followed the order of 100 nm TiO2 > 5 nm TiO2 > 25 nm TiO2. Component adsorption results showed that the 5 nm TiO2 component adsorption effect was superior to its single adsorption effect, while there was little difference between 100 nm TiO2 component adsorption effect and its single adsorption effect. The results of orthogonal experiments indicated that the influencing factors of the adsorption rate followed the order of pH > the initial concentration of Hg2+ > time > dosage. The optimal experiment scheme was: pH 8.0, a dosage of 100 nm Nano-TiO2 of 2.0 g x L(-1) an initial Hg2+ concentration of 25 mg x L(-1) and adsorption time of 10 min. Under the experimental conditions, the maximum adsorption rate reached 99.9%, at the same time, the equilibrium concentration of Hg(II) was 0.033 mg x L(-1) < 0.05 mg x L(-1), below the current enterprise rules of water pollutants in mercury emissions limits. In addition, the maximum adsorptive capacity was 26.95 mg x g(-1). The adsorption isotherm was in line with the Langmuir isotherm equation, indicating that the Hg(II) uptake by 100 nm Nano-TiO2

  8. A new HgMn star HD 196821

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćalışkan, Şeyma; Ünal, Özge

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we present the chemical abundance analysis of HD 196821. The spectra of HD 196821 was obtained at the TÜBİTAK National Observatory using the Coudé Echelle spectrograph attached to the 1.5 m telescope. We determined the atmospheric parameters of HD 196821: Teff=10600K, log g=3.6, vmic=0 km/s, and [Fe/H]=0.16 dex. HD 196821 shows an overabundance of 85 times solar for Mn and 208,930 times solar for Hg. This strongly suggests that the star should be classified as an HgMn star.

  9. Electronic properties of Hg1-xCdxSe lens-shaped quantum dots under external fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, J. R.; Gutierrez, W.; Miranda, D. A.

    2016-02-01

    Hg1-xCdxSe are II-VI semiconductors alloys with optoelectronic properties that depend upon the molar fraction x, which can be further controlled by nanostructuring. In this work one electron confined in a zero-dimensional lens-shaped nanostructure of Hg1-xCdxSe surrounded by a matrix of different molar fraction is analyzed and its electronic properties are studied under external magnetic and electric fields. Our system was modeled by means of the 3D Schrodinger equation in the framework of the effective mass approximation, which was solved using a finite element method. The model is described by a discontinuous space with Ben Daniel-Duke boundary conditions. We calculated the energy spectrum and the corresponding probability density of the electron for some low-lying energy levels as a function of: electric field strength on plane and magnetic field strength applied along the growth direction. Also, the effect of finite confinement potential was studied in presence of a uniform magnetic field. Our results shown that the electronic properties of Hg1-xCdxSe quantum dots are highly sensitive to a threading magnetic field because the degenerate energy levels are split. On the other hand, the effect of electric and magnetic fields applied simultaneously on a quantum dot can increase the system stability against external perturbation, e.g. thermal interactions.

  10. Using Simple Science to Influence Corporate Responsibility—A Lesson from Mercury (Hg)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippelli, G. M.

    2016-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a powerful neurotoxin with wide environmental distribution. Typical population exposure to Hg comes from fish consumption, with fish being the final ecological endpoint of Hg magnification after a series of biogeochemical processes. The emission of Hg from coal-fired power plants has been strongly implicated as a key source of environmental Hg, and thus the target for various public policy initiatives in the US and abroad. We conducted a study of Hg distribution in surface soils over a broad area of central Indiana (US) to understand the major sources of Hg to local fish, and to assess the potential role of policy compliance in reducing Hg. We found a plume-like distribution pattern for soil Hg, with values exceeding 400 ppb Hg in the heart of the plume, and reducing to background concentration of about 30 ppb outside of the plume. The plume covered hundreds of square kilometers, was centered directly over the downtown area of Indianapolis (a city of roughly 1 million inhabitants), and could be roughly backtracked to a source in the southwest corner of the city, coincident with a large coal-fired utility plant that has the highest reported emissions of Hg in the area. Evidence of this link between a local source of Hg and net Hg deposition, with related implications for Hg runoff to local stream, biomagnification to fish, and fish consumption advisories was reported in regional newspapers and eventually published in scientific journals. But importantly, these findings were used by an NGO (the Beyond Coal campaign by Indiana branch of the Sierra Club) at a critical time to influence a decision by the owner of the power plant of whether to comply with the Hg policy rule by either adding higher technology scrubbing technologies to the plant or simply to convert the plant over to natural gas as the fuel source (a costlier choice upfront). The utility chose the latter option, and with the permanent elimination of Hg emissions, the net measurable effects

  11. The Conformational Landscape of L-Threonine Matrix Isolation Infrared and {AB-INITIO Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Pankaj; Mukhopadhyay, Anamika; Viswanathan, K. S.

    2017-06-01

    Amino acids, containing hydroxy side chains such as L-threonine and tyrosine play an important role in molecular recognition, such as in the docking of propofol, which is a commonly used anaesthetic. A rich conformational landscape of these amino acids makes them interesting candidates in the study of intra and intermolecular interactions. In this work, the conformational landscape of L-threonine was studied, as it can be expected to serve as a basis for understanding structure and functions of polypeptides and other biomolecules. The matrix isolation technique (MI) coupled with a high temperature effusive molecular beam (EMB) nozzle was used to trap conformers of amino acid, which were then characterized using FTIR spectroscopy. The usefulness of MI-EMB-FTIR spectroscopy is that it can trap structures corresponding to the local minima along with the global minimum and hence allows for a better exploration of the potential energy surface. A major challenge in conformational analysis of amino acids using matrix isolation FTIR arises from its non-volatile nature. A home built heating system which was mounted close to the cryotip, was used to evaporate the non-volatile amino acids. Our infrared spectra show that three conformations were trapped in the matrix. Experimental results were supported by {ab-initio calculations performed using the CCSD(T), MP2 and M06-2X methods together with 6-311++G(d,p) and aug/cc-pVDZ basis sets. The side chains of the amino acids appeared to have an influence on the preferential stabilisation of a particular backbone structure of amino acids. Factors such as entropy, anomeric effect and intramolecular H-bonding were also found to play an important role in determining conformal preferences, which will be discussed.

  12. Dose and Hg species determine the T-helper cell activation in murine autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Havarinasab, Said; Björn, Erik; Ekstrand, Jimmy; Hultman, Per

    2007-01-05

    Inorganic mercury (mercuric chloride--HgCl(2)) induces in mice an autoimmune syndrome (HgIA) with T cell-dependent polyclonal B cell activation and hypergammaglobulinemia, dose- and H-2-dependent production of autoantibodies targeting the 34 kDa nucleolar protein fibrillarin (AFA), and systemic immune-complex deposits. The organic mercury species methylmercury (MeHg) and ethylmercury (EtHg--in the form of thimerosal) induce AFA, while the other manifestations of HgIA seen after treatment with HgCl(2) are present to varying extent. Since these organic Hg species are converted to the autoimmunogen Hg(2+) in the body, their primary autoimmunogen potential is uncertain and the subject of this study. A moderate dose of HgCl(2) (8 mg/L drinking water--internal dose 148 micro gHg/kg body weight [bw]/day) caused the fastest AFA response, while the induction was delayed after higher (25 mg/L) and lower (1.5 and 3 mg/L) doses. The lowest dose of HgCl(2) inducing AFA was 1.5 mg/L drinking water which corresponded to a renal Hg(2+) concentration of 0.53 micro g/g. Using a dose of 8 mg HgCl(2)/L this threshold concentration was reached within 24 h, and a consistent AFA response developed after 8-10 days. The time lag for the immunological part of the reaction leading to a consistent AFA response was therefore 7-9 days. A dose of thimerosal close to the threshold dose for induction of AFA (2 mg/L drinking water--internal dose 118 micro gHg/kg bw per day), caused a renal Hg(2+) concentration of 1.8 micro g/g. The autoimmunogen effect of EtHg might therefore be entirely due to Hg(2+) formed from EtHg in the body. The effect of organic and inorganic Hg species on T-helper type 1 and type 2 cells during induction of AFA was assessed as the presence and titre of AFA of the IgG1 and IgG2a isotype, respectively. EtHg induced a persistent Th1-skewed response irrespectively of the dose and time used. A low daily dose of HgCl(2) (1.5-3 mg/L) caused a Th1-skewed AFA response, while a

  13. Mercury contamination from historical mining territory at Malachov Hg-deposit (Central Slovakia).

    PubMed

    Dadová, Jana; Andráš, Peter; Kupka, Jiří; Krnáč, Jozef; Andráš, Peter; Hroncová, Emília; Midula, Pavol

    2016-02-01

    Environmental contamination caused by mercury is a serious problem worldwide. The study was conducted in order to identify Hg contamination in soil, technosoil from dumps, groundwater, and surface water in the surroundings of the abandoned Hg deposit of Malachov in Central Slovakia. Soil from the Malachovský brook valley was classified as cambi-soil (rendzina). The highest Hg concentrations (44.24 mg kg(-1)) were described in the soil from the mining area at the Vel'ká Studňa locality. In the groundwater, the maximal Hg content is 0.84 μg L(-1), and in the surface water it is 394 μg L(-1). The speciation study proved that in most samples, Hg occurs in the form of cinnabarite. The release of Hg into the environment as a consequence of weathering is limited.

  14. Matrix Isolation Studies of Carbonic Acid—The Vapor Phase above the β-Polymorph

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Twenty years ago two different polymorphs of carbonic acid, α- and β-H2CO3, were isolated as thin, crystalline films. They were characterized by infrared and, of late, by Raman spectroscopy. Determination of the crystal structure of these two polymorphs, using cryopowder and thin film X-ray diffraction techniques, has failed so far. Recently, we succeeded in sublimating α-H2CO3 and trapping the vapor phase in a noble gas matrix, which was analyzed by infrared spectroscopy. In the same way we have now investigated the β-polymorph. Unlike α-H2CO3, β-H2CO3 was regarded to decompose upon sublimation. Still, we have succeeded in isolation of undecomposed carbonic acid in the matrix and recondensation after removal of the matrix here. This possibility of sublimation and recondensation cycles of β-H2CO3 adds a new aspect to the chemistry of carbonic acid in astrophysical environments, especially because there is a direct way of β-H2CO3 formation in space, but none for α-H2CO3. Assignments of the FTIR spectra of the isolated molecules unambiguously reveal two different carbonic acid monomer conformers (C2v and Cs). In contrast to the earlier study on α-H2CO3, we do not find evidence for centrosymmetric (C2h) carbonic acid dimers here. This suggests that two monomers are entropically favored at the sublimation temperature of 250 K for β-H2CO3, whereas they are not at the sublimation temperature of 210 K for α-H2CO3. PMID:23631554

  15. Experimental and Computational Study of Interphase Properties and Mechanics in Titanium Metal Matrix Composites at Elevated Temperatures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    properties of this region 3 depend directly upon the chemical, mechanical and thermodynamic nature of the bonding process between the matrix and the fiber...Experimental and Computational Study of Interphase Properties and Mechanics in Titanium Metal Matrix Composites at Elevated Temperatures Final Report...AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Experimental and Computational Study of Interphase Properties and Sb. GRANT NUMBER Mechanics in Titanium Metal

  16. The Hg region: Superdeformation and other shapes

    SciTech Connect

    Janssens, R.V.F.; Carpenter, M.P.; Fernandez, P.B.; Moore, E.F.; Ahmad, I.; Khoo, T.L.; Wolfs, F.L.H. ); Drigert, M.W. ); Ye, D.; Beard, K.B.; Reviol, W. ); Bearden, I.; Benet, P.; Daly, P.J.; Grabowski, Z.W. )

    1990-01-01

    We shall first summarize the present experimental situation concerning {sup 192}Hg, the nucleus regarded as the analog of {sup 152}Dy{sup 8} for this SD region in that shell gaps are calculated {sup 5} to occur at large deformation for Z=80 and N=112. Proton and neutron excitations out of te {sup 192}Hg core will then be reviewed with particular emphasis on {sup 191}Hg and {sup 193}Tl. The implications of the results for pairing at large deformations and the need to consider other degrees of freedom (such as octupole correlations) will be addressed. The presentation will conclude with a brief discussion on other shapes seen in this region, with a particular emphasis on {sup 191}Hg.

  17. The Hg isoelectronic defect in ZnO

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, J.; McGlynn, E. Henry, M. O.; Johnston, K.; Dunker, D.; Bayer, M.; Yakovlev, D. R.

    2013-11-21

    We report a study of the luminescence due to Hg in ZnO, concentrating on the main zero phonon line (ZPL) at 3.2766(1) eV and its associated phonon sidebands. For a sample implanted with radioactive {sup 192}Hg, the ZPL intensity, normalised to that of shallow bound exciton emission, is observed to decrease with an equivalent half-life of 4.5(1) h, very close to the 4.85(20) h half-life of {sup 192}Hg. ZnO implanted with stable Hg impurities produces the same luminescence spectrum. Temperature dependent measurements confirm that the zero phonon line is a thermalizing doublet involving one allowed and one largely forbidden transition from excited states separated by 0.91(1) meV to a common ground state. Uniaxial stress measurements show that the allowed transition takes place from an orbitally degenerate excited state to a non-degenerate ground state in a centre of trigonal (C{sub 3v}) symmetry while the magneto-optical properties are characteristic of electron-hole pair recombination at an isoelectronic defect. The doublet luminescence is assigned to bound exciton recombination involving exchange-split Γ{sub 5} and Γ{sub 1,2} excited states (using C{sub 6v} symmetry labels; Γ{sub 3} and Γ{sub 1,2} using C{sub 3v} labels) at isoelectronic Hg impurities substituting for Zn in the crystal. The electron and hole g values deduced from the magneto-optical data indicate that this Hg impurity centre in ZnO is hole-attractive.

  18. Benthic flux measurements of Hg species in a northern Adriatic lagoon environment (Marano and Grado Lagoon, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emili, Andrea; Acquavita, Alessandro; Koron, Neža; Covelli, Stefano; Faganeli, Jadran; Horvat, Milena; Žižek, Suzana; Fajon, Vesna

    2012-11-01

    As part of the "MIRACLE" project, the biogeochemical cycling of mercury (Hg) at the sediment-water interface was studied in the field in the Marano and Grado Lagoon (Northern Adriatic Sea). Seasonal investigations were conducted at selected experimental sites, where Manila Clams (Tapes philippinarum) were previously seeded. Measurements were performed seasonally during three campaigns, using two benthic chambers, one transparent and one dark, to evaluate the effect of light on Hg cycling. Total dissolved Hg (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and dissolved gaseous Hg (DGM) species were considered. Diurnal benthic fluxes were found to significantly exceed the diffusive fluxes at all stations. The assessment of the annual recycling of Hg species from sediments to the water column showed that up to 99% of MeHg is recycled annually to the water column, while Hg recycling ranges from 30 to 60%. MeHg poses the higher risk for potential bioaccumulation in clams, but it is partially mitigated by Hg reduction, which seems to be an important process leading to evasion losses of Hg from these environments. Estimated benthic fluxes suggest that Hg recycling at the sediment-water interface is more active in the Grado sector. Hence, based on the estimated release of MeHg from sediments, it is suggested that the western sector seems to be more suitable for clam farming and the extension of rearing activities.

  19. The Abundance and Isotopic Composition of Hg in Extraterrestrial Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauretta, D. S.

    2004-01-01

    During the past three year grant period we made excellent progress in our study of the abundances and isotopic compositions of Hg and other volatile trace elements in extraterrestrial materials. As part of my startup package I received funds to construct a state-of-the-art experimental facility to study gas-solid reaction kinetics. Much of our effort was spent developing the methodology to measure the abundance and isotopic composition of Hg at ultratrace levels in solid materials. In our first study, the abundance and isotopic composition of Hg was determined in bulk samples of the Murchison (CM) and Allende (CV) carbonaceous chondrites. We have continued our study of mercury in primitive meteorites and expanded the suite of meteorites to include other members of the CM and CV chondrite group as well as CI and CO chondrites. Samples of the CI chondrite Orgueil, the CM chondrites Murray, Nogoya, and Cold Bokkeveld, the CO chondrites Kainsaz, Omans, and Isna, and the CV chondrites Vigarano, Mokoia, and Grosnaja were tested. We have developed a thermal analysis ICP-MS technique and applied it to the study of a suite of thermally labile elements (Zn, As, Se, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Hg, Au, Tl, Pb, and Bi) in geologic materials as well.

  20. The Abundance and Isotopic Composition of Hg in Extraterrestrial Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauretta, D. S.

    2004-01-01

    During the past three year grant period we made excellent progress in our study of the abundances and isotopic compositions of Hg and other volatile trace elements in extraterrestrial materials. As part of my startup package I received funds to construct a state-of-the-art experimental facility to study gas-solid reaction kinetics. Much of our effort was spent developing the methodology to measure the abundance and isotopic composition of Hg at ultratrace levels in solid materials. In our first study, the abundance and isotopic composition of Hg was determined in bulk samples of the Murchison (CM) and Allende (CV) carbonaceous chondrites. We have continued our study of mercury in primitive meteorites and expanded the suite of meteorites to include other members of the CM and CV chondrite group as well as CI and CO chondrites. Samples of the CI chondrite Orgueil, the CM chondrites Murray, Nogoya, and Cold Bokkeveld, the CO chondrites Kainsaz, Omans, and Isna, and the CV chondrites Vigarano, Mokoia, and Grosnaja were tested. We have developed a thermal analysis ICP-MS technique and applied it to the study of a suite of thermally labile elements (Zn, As, Se, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Hg, Au, Tl, Pb, and Bi) in geologic materials as well.

  1. Conformations of n-butyl imidazole: Matrix isolation infrared and DFT studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, N.; Sundararajan, K.; Sankaran, K.

    2015-03-01

    Conformations of n-butyl imidazole (B-IMID) were studied using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy by trapping in argon, xenon and nitrogen matrixes using an effusive nozzle source. The experimental studies were supported by DFT computations performed at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. Computations identified nine unique minima for B-IMID, corresponding to conformers with tg±tt, tg±g∓t, tg±g±t, tg±tg±, tg±tg∓, tg±g∓g∓, tg±g±g±, tg±g∓g± and tg±g±g∓ structures, given in order of increasing energy. Computations of the transition state structures connecting the higher energy conformers to the global minimum, tg±tt structure were carried out. The barriers for the conformer inter-conversion were found to be ∼2 kcal/mol. Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis was performed to understand the reasons for conformational preferences in B-IMID.

  2. Study of the influence of alkalizing components on matrix pellets prepared by extrusion/spheronization.

    PubMed

    Hamedelniel, Elnazeer I; Bajdik, János; Kása, Péter; Pintye-Hódi, Klára

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of alkalizing components and the nature of the wetting liquid on the properties of matrix pellets prepared by extrusion and spheronization. Atenolol was used as an active pharmaceutical ingredient, ethylcellulose as a matrix former, microcrystalline cellulose as a filler and disodium phosphate anhydrous and trisodium phosphate dodecahydrate as alkalizing materials. Water and a water-ethanol mixture served as granulation liquids. Pellet formation was evaluated via mechanical, dissolution and morphological studies. In order to enhance the dissolution of Atenolol from the pellets, alkalizing components were used and the influence of these components on the pH was tested. Investigations of the breaking hardness, the morphology and the dissolution revealed that the pellets containing trisodium phosphate dodecahydrate and prepared with a higher amount of water as binding liquid displayed the best physico-chemical parameters and uniform dissolution. In in vitro experiments, the dissolution release complied with the texture of the pellets and the effect of pH. The pellets have suitable shape and very good hardness for the coating process and are appropriate for subsequent in vivo experiments.

  3. Ridge preservation using a new 3D collagen matrix: a preclinical study.

    PubMed

    Roman, Alexandra; Cioban, Cosmin; Stratul, Stefan-Ioan; Schwarz, Frank; Muste, Aurel; Petrutiu, Stefan-Adrian; Zaganescu, Raluca; Mihatovic, Ilja

    2015-07-01

    The success of ridge preservation techniques in reducing bone resorption is well documented, but no clear guidelines have been provided regarding the type of the biomaterial or technique to be used. This experimental animal study aimed at comparing the effectiveness of two ridge preservation techniques. Following the extraction of the distal roots of the mandibular second and fourth premolars of four dogs, the sockets were preserved using a combination of a collagen membrane intimately covering the socket plus a collagen matrix or a collagen membrane alone. The mandibular quadrants were randomly assigned to one of the treatment groups. Histomorphometrical analyses as well as microscopic observations were performed. After 5 months of healing, the histological analysis revealed a similar picture of bone formation in both groups. No significant differences between the buccal and lingual dimensions were calculated between the two treatment groups. The mucosa covering the alveolar ridges is significantly more abundant in post-extraction sockets preserved with the double-layered approach. The double-layered approach used to treat post-extraction sockets may result in a better preservation of the mucosal seal than the single-layered approach. The use of the new collagen matrix associated with a collagen membrane could be a clinical option to preserve post-extraction ridges, especially when an improvement in soft tissue dimension and quality is desired. However, the cost-benefit ratio of this approach should be thoroughly evaluated in further studies.

  4. Conformations of n-butyl imidazole: matrix isolation infrared and DFT studies.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, N; Sundararajan, K; Sankaran, K

    2015-03-15

    Conformations of n-butyl imidazole (B-IMID) were studied using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy by trapping in argon, xenon and nitrogen matrixes using an effusive nozzle source. The experimental studies were supported by DFT computations performed at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. Computations identified nine unique minima for B-IMID, corresponding to conformers with tg(±)tt, tg(±)g(∓)t, tg(±)g(±)t, tg(±)tg(±), tg(±)tg(∓), tg(±)g(∓)g(∓), tg(±)g(±)g(±), tg(±)g(∓)g(±) and tg(±)g(±)g(∓) structures, given in order of increasing energy. Computations of the transition state structures connecting the higher energy conformers to the global minimum, tg(±)tt structure were carried out. The barriers for the conformer inter-conversion were found to be ∼2 kcal/mol. Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis was performed to understand the reasons for conformational preferences in B-IMID. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. No increased risk of psychological/behavioral disorders in siblings of women with hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) unless their mother had HG.

    PubMed

    Mullin, P M; Bray, A; Vu, V; Schoenberg-Paik, F; MacGibbon, K; Romero, R; Goodwin, T M; Fejzo, M S

    2012-10-01

    Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG), severe nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, is characterized by prolonged maternal stress, undernutrition and dehydration. Maternal stress and malnutrition of pregnancy are linked to poor neonatal outcome and associated with poor adult health, and we recently showed that in utero exposure to HG may lead to increased risks of psychological and behavioral disorders in the offspring. In addition, we have shown familial aggregation of HG, which is strong evidence for a genetic component to the disease. In this study, we compare the rates of psychological and behavioral disorders in 172 adults with and 101 adults without a sibling with HG. The rate of emotional/behavioral disorders is identical (15%) in both groups. The results suggest that the etiology of HG is not likely to include genetic factors associated with emotional and behavioral disorders. In addition, this study provides evidence that the increased incidence of psychological/behavioral disorders among offspring of women with HG is attributable to the HG pregnancy itself, rather than to confounding genetic factors linked to HG.

  6. Thiamine and benfotiamine prevent apoptosis induced by high glucose-conditioned extracellular matrix in human retinal pericytes.

    PubMed

    Beltramo, Elena; Nizheradze, Konstantin; Berrone, Elena; Tarallo, Sonia; Porta, Massimo

    2009-10-01

    Early and selective loss of pericytes and thickening of the basement membrane are hallmarks of diabetic retinopathy. We reported reduced adhesion, but no changes in apoptosis, of bovine retinal pericytes cultured on extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by endothelial cells in high glucose (HG). Since human and bovine pericytes may behave differently in conditions mimicking the diabetic milieu, we verified the behaviour of human retinal pericytes cultured on HG-conditioned ECM. Pericytes were cultured in physiological/HG on ECM produced by human umbilical vein endothelial cells in physiological/HG, alone or in the presence of thiamine and benfotiamine. Adhesion, proliferation, apoptosis, p53 and Bcl-2/Bax ratio (mRNA levels and protein concentrations) were measured in wild-type and immortalized human pericytes. Both types of pericytes adhered less to HG-conditioned ECM and plastic than to physiological glucose-conditioned ECM. DNA synthesis was impaired in pericytes cultured in HG on the three different surfaces but there were no differences in proliferation. DNA fragmentation and Bcl-2/Bax ratio were greatly enhanced by HG-conditioned ECM in pericytes kept in both physiological and HG. Addition of thiamine and benfotiamine to HG during ECM production completely prevented these damaging effects. Apoptosis is strongly increased in pericytes cultured on ECM produced by endothelium in HG, probably due to impairment of the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Thiamine and benfotiamine completely revert this effect. This behaviour is therefore completely different from that of bovine pericytes, underlining the importance of establishing species-specific cell models to study the mechanisms of diabetic retinopathy. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. New technique for quantification of elemental Hg in mine wastes and its implications for mercury evasion into the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Jew, Adam D; Kim, Christopher S; Rytuba, James J; Gustin, Mae S; Brown, Gordon E

    2011-01-15

    Mercury in the environment is of prime concern to both ecosystem and human health. Determination of the molecular-level speciation of Hg in soils and mine wastes is important for understanding its sequestration, mobility, and availability for methylation. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy carried out under ambient P-T conditions has been used in a number of past studies to determine Hg speciation in complex mine wastes and associated soils. However, this approach cannot detect elemental (liquid) mercury in Hg-polluted soils and sediments due to the significant structural disorder of liquid Hg at ambient-temperature. A new sample preparation protocol involving slow cooling through the crystallization temperature of Hg(0) (234 K) results in its transformation to crystalline α-Hg(0). The presence and proportion of Hg(0), relative to other crystalline Hg-bearing phases, in samples prepared in this way can be quantified by low-temperature (77 K) EXAFS spectroscopy. Using this approach, we have determined the relative concentrations of liquid Hg(0) in Hg mine wastes from several sites in the California Coast Range and have found that they correlate well with measured fluxes of gaseous Hg released during light and dark exposure of the same samples, with higher evasion ratios from samples containing higher concentrations of liquid Hg(0). Two different linear relationships are observed in plots of the ratio of Hg emission under light and dark conditions vs % Hg(0), corresponding to silica-carbonate- and hot springs-type Hg deposits, with the hot springs-type samples exhibiting higher evasion fluxes than silica-carbonate type samples at similar Hg(0) concentrations. Our findings help explain significant differences in Hg evasion data for different mine sites in the California Coast Range.

  8. New technique for quantification of elemental hg in mine wastes and its implications for mercury evasion into the atmosphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jew, A.D.; Kim, C.S.; Rytuba, J.J.; Gustin, M.S.; Brown, Gordon E.

    2011-01-01

    Mercury in the environment is of prime concern to both ecosystem and human health. Determination of the molecular-level speciation of Hg in soils and mine wastes is important for understanding its sequestration, mobility, and availability for methylation. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy carried out under ambient P-T conditions has been used in a number of past studies to determine Hg speciation in complex mine wastes and associated soils. However, this approach cannot detect elemental (liquid) mercury in Hg-polluted soils and sediments due to the significant structural disorder of liquid Hg at ambient-temperature. A new sample preparation protocol involving slow cooling through the crystallization temperature of Hg(0) (234 K) results in its transformation to crystalline ??-Hg(0). The presence and proportion of Hg(0), relative to other crystalline Hg-bearing phases, in samples prepared in this way can be quantified by low-temperature (77 K) EXAFS spectroscopy. Using this approach, we have determined the relative concentrations of liquid Hg(0) in Hg mine wastes from several sites in the California Coast Range and have found that they correlate well with measured fluxes of gaseous Hg released during light and dark exposure of the same samples, with higher evasion ratios from samples containing higher concentrations of liquid Hg(0). Two different linear relationships are observed in plots of the ratio of Hg emission under light and dark conditions vs % Hg(0), corresponding to silica-carbonate- and hot springs-type Hg deposits, with the hot springs-type samples exhibiting higher evasion fluxes than silica-carbonate type samples at similar Hg(0) concentrations. Our findings help explain significant differences in Hg evasion data for different mine sites in the California Coast Range. ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  9. A New Technique for Quantification of Elemental Hg in Mine Wastes and Its Implications for Mercury Evasion Into the Atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    JEW, ADAM D.; KIM, CHRISTOPHER S.; RYTUBA, JAMES J.; GUSTIN, MAE S.; BROWN, GORDON E.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury in the environment is of prime concern to both ecosystem and human health. Determination of the molecular-level speciation of Hg in soils and mine wastes is important for understanding its sequestration, mobility, and availability for methylation. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy carried out under ambient P-T conditions has been used in a number of past studies to determine Hg speciation in complex mine wastes and associated soils. However, this approach cannot detect elemental (liquid) mercury in Hg-polluted soils and sediments due to the significant structural disorder of liquid Hg at ambient-temperature. A new sample preparation protocol involving slow cooling through the crystallization temperature of Hg(0) (234K) results in its transformation to crystalline α-Hg(0). The presence and proportion of Hg(0), relative to other crystalline Hg-bearing phases, in samples prepared in this way can be quantified by low-temperature (77K) EXAFS spectroscopy. Using this approach, we have determined the relative concentrations of liquid Hg(0) in Hg mine wastes from several sites in the California Coast Range and have found that they correlate well with measured fluxes of gaseous Hg released during light and dark exposure of the same samples, with higher evasion ratios from samples containing higher concentrations of liquid Hg(0). Two different linear relationships are observed in plots of the ratio of Hg emission under light and dark conditions vs. % Hg(0), corresponding to silica-carbonate- and hot springs-type Hg deposits, with the hot springs-type samples exhibiting higher evasion fluxes than silica-carbonate type samples at similar Hg(0) concentrations. Our findings help explain significant differences in Hg evasion data for different mine sites in the California Coast Range. PMID:21121657

  10. Photoreduction of Hg(II) and photodemethylation of methylmercury: the key role of thiol sites on dissolved organic matter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jeremiason, Jeffrey D.; Portner, Joshua C.; Aiken, George R.; Hiranaka, Amber J.; Dvorak, Michelle T.; Tran, Khuyen T.; Latch, Douglas E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the kinetics of photoreduction of Hg(II) and photodemethylation of methylmercury (MeHg+) attached to, or in the presence of, dissolved organic matter (DOM). Both Hg(II) and MeHg+ are principally bound to reduced sulfur groups associated with DOM in many freshwater systems. We propose that a direct photolysis mechanism is plausible for reduction of Hg(II) bound to reduced sulfur groups on DOM while an indirect mechanism is supported for photodemethylation of MeHg+ bound to DOM. UV spectra of Hg(II) and MeHg+ bound to thiol containing molecules demonstrate that the Hg(II)–S bond is capable of absorbing UV-light in the solar spectrum to a much greater extent than MeHg+–S bonds. Experiments with chemically distinct DOM isolates suggest that concentration of DOM matters little in the photochemistry if there are enough reduced S sites present to strongly bind MeHg+ and Hg(II); DOM concentration does not play a prominent role in photodemethylation other than to screen light, which was demonstrated in a field experiment in the highly colored St. Louis River where photodemethylation was not observed at depths ≥10 cm. Experiments with thiol ligands yielded slower photodegradation rates for MeHg+ than in experiments with DOM and thiols; rates in the presence of DOM alone were the fastest supporting an intra-DOM mechanism. Hg(II) photoreduction rates, however, were similar in experiments with only DOM, thiols plus DOM, or only thiols suggesting a direct photolysis mechanism. Quenching experiments also support the existence of an intra-DOM photodemethylation mechanism for MeHg+. Utilizing the difference in photodemethylation rates measured for MeHg+ attached to DOM or thiol ligands, the binding constant for MeHg+ attached to thiol groups on DOM was estimated to be 1016.7.

  11. Impacts of Activated Carbon Amendment on Hg Methylation, Demethylation and Microbial Activity in Marsh Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmour, C. C.; Ghosh, U.; Santillan, E. F. U.; Soren, A.; Bell, J. T.; Butera, D.; McBurney, A. W.; Brown, S.; Henry, E.; Vlassopoulos, D.

    2015-12-01

    In-situ sorbent amendments are a low-impact approach for remediation of contaminants in sediments, particular in habitats like wetlands that provide important ecosystem services. Laboratory microcosm trials (Gilmour et al. 2013) and early field trials show that activated carbon (AC) can effectively increase partitioning of both inorganic Hg and methylmercury to the solid phase. Sediment-water partitioning can serve as a proxy for Hg and MeHg bioavailability in soils. One consideration in using AC in remediation is its potential impact on organisms. For mercury, a critical consideration is the potential impact on net MeHg accumulation and bioavailability. In this study, we specifically evaluated the impact of AC on rates of methylmercury production and degradation, and on overall microbial activity, in 4 different Hg-contaminated salt marsh soils. The study was done over 28 days in anaerobic, sulfate-reducing slurries. A double label of enriched mercury isotopes (Me199Hg and inorganic 201Hg) was used to separately follow de novo Me201Hg production and Me199Hg degradation. AC amendments decreased both methylation and demethylation rate constants relative to un-amended controls, but the impact on demethylation was stronger. The addition of 5% (dry weight) regenerated AC to soil slurries drove demethylation rate constants to nearly zero; i.e. MeHg sorption to AC almost totally blocked its degradation. The net impact was increased solid phase MeHg concentrations in some of the soil slurries with the highest methylation rate constants. However, the net impact of AC amendments was to increase MeHg (and inorganic Hg) partitioning to the soil phase and decrease concentrations in the aqueous phase. AC significantly decreased aqueous phase inorganic Hg and MeHg concentrations after 28 days. Overall, the efficacy of AC in reducing aqueous MeHg was highest in the soils with the highest MeHg concentrations. The AC addition did not significantly impact microbial activity, as

  12. Matching of beams on the MAPPER MATRIX tool: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belledent, J.; Berglund, G. Z. M.; Brandt, P. L.; Bérard-Bergery, S.; Wieland, M. J.; Pain, L.

    2013-03-01

    So far, the CMOS technology roadmap has been consistent with Moore's law, even if manufacturing photolithography tools are now operating beyond their resolution limit. This has been made feasible at the expense of an intensive joint work between designers and process people who have successfully enabled double patterning processes. Tools that can provide photo lithographers with some relief are on their way although not yet in production. Among them, massively parallel mask-less electron beam lithography stands out as a serious candidate since it can achieve the required resolution at the right cost of ownership provided targeted throughput performance is reached. This paper focuses on this latter technique and more precisely, reports on simulation works performed using an emulator of the high volume manufacturing tool being developed by MAPPER Lithography, called MATRIX. In a nutshell, the MATRIX tool will operate using more than 13,000 beams, each one writing a stripe 2μm wide. Each beam itself will be composed of 49 individual sub-beams that can be blanked independently in order to write pixels onto the wafer. The residual placement errors and any current mismatch between the beams will be measured in-situ and corrected through the data path. In order to validate that this concept can actually work, the authors have built an off-line emulator of the data treatment performed down to the information sent to the blanker. It has then been plugged into an electron beam simulator such that the performance on real designs can be tested. In this paper, the methodology used for the corrections is explained as well as the validation process applied. The results of an extensive statistical study are presented showing CD, placement and residual scaling errors simulated on a set of predefined key structures assuming current and misplacement ranges within the MATRIX tool specifications, applying various correction solutions. Based on the collected data, it is shown that CD

  13. Study on a three-dimensional testing method coupling with a leaching behavior model for solidified waste matrix.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kuen-Shan; Li, Kung-Cheh

    2008-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a three-dimensional leaching method to understand the diffusion behavior of a solidified waste matrix. A cylindrical solidified waste matrix with isotope lead compounds used as a tracer was used to demonstrate the diffusion phenomenon. The leaching test method was coupled with the mathematical diffusion model derived from Duhamel's theorem to control the time-dependent conditions and compute the mass diffusivity and mass generation rate constant of the target pollutants and also simulate the pollutants leached from solidified waste matrix. The simulation value is in fair agreement with experiment.

  14. FT-Raman spectroscopy study of organic matrix degradation in nanofilled resin composite.

    PubMed

    Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva; Nahórny, Sídnei; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2013-04-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of light curing unit (LCU) type, mouthwashes, and soft drink on chemical degradation of a nanofilled resin composite. Samples (80) were divided into eight groups: halogen LCU, HS--saliva (control); HPT--Pepsi Twist®; HLC--Listerine®; HCP--Colgate Plax®; LED LCU, LS--saliva (control); LPT--Pepsi Twist®; LLC--Listerine®; LCP--Colgate Plax®. The degree of conversion analysis and the measure of the peak area at 2,930 cm-1 (organic matrix) of resin composite were done by Fourier-transform Raman spectroscopy (baseline, after 7 and 14 days). The data were subjected to multifactor analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a 95% confidence followed by Tukey's HSD post-hoc test. The DC ranged from 58.0% (Halogen) to 59.3% (LED) without significance. Differences in the peak area between LCUs were found after 7 days of storage in S and PT. A marked increase in the peak intensity of HLC and LLC groups was found. The soft-start light-activation may influence the chemical degradation of organic matrix in resin composite. Ethanol contained in Listerine® Cool Mint mouthwash had the most significant degradation effect. Raman spectroscopy is shown to be a useful tool to investigate resin composite degradation.

  15. Matrix Isolation and ab initio study of the noncovalent complexes between formamide and acetylene.

    PubMed

    Mardyukov, Artur; Sánchez-García, Elsa; Sander, Wolfram

    2009-02-12

    Matrix isolation spectroscopy in combination with ab initio calculations is a powerful technique for the identification of weakly bound intermolecular complexes. Here, weak complexes between formamide and acetylene are studied, and three 1:1 complexes with binding energies of -2.96, -2.46, and -1.79 kcal/mol have been found at the MP2 level of theory (MP2/cc-pVTZ + ZPE + BSSE). The two most stable dimers A and B are identified in argon and nitrogen matrices by comparison between the experimental and calculated infrared frequencies. Both complexes are stabilized by the formamide C=O...HC acetylene and H...pi interactions. Large shifts have been observed experimentally for the C-H stretching vibrations of the acetylene molecule, in very good agreement with the calculated values. Eight 1:2 FMA-acetylene trimers (T-A to T-H) with binding energies between -5.44 and -2.62 kcal/mol (MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ + ZPE + BSSE) were calculated. The two most stable trimers T-A and T-B are very close in energy and have similar infrared spectra. Several weak bands that are in agreement with the calculated frequencies of the trimers T-A and T-B are observed under matrix isolation conditions. However, the differences are too small for a definitive assignment.

  16. Mobility of a Mononucleotide within a Lipid Matrix: A Neutron Scattering Study

    PubMed Central

    Misuraca, Loreto; Natali, Francesca; da Silva, Laura; Peters, Judith; Demé, Bruno; Ollivier, Jacques; Seydel, Tilo; Laux-Lesourd, Valerie; Haertlein, Michael; Zaccai, Giuseppe; Deamer, David; Maurel, Marie Christine

    2017-01-01

    An essential question in studies on the origins of life is how nucleic acids were first synthesized and then incorporated into compartments about 4 billion years ago. A recent discovery is that guided polymerization within organizing matrices could promote a non-enzymatic condensation reaction allowing the formation of RNA-like polymers, followed by encapsulation in lipid membranes. Here, we used neutron scattering and deuterium labelling to investigate 5′-adenosine monophosphate (AMP) molecules captured in a multilamellar phospholipid matrix. The aim of the research was to determine and compare how mononucleotides are captured and differently organized within matrices and multilamellar phospholipid structures and to explore the role of water in organizing the system to determine at which level the system becomes sufficiently anhydrous to lock the AMP molecules into an organized structure and initiate ester bond synthesis. Elastic incoherent neutron scattering experiments were thus employed to investigate the changes of the dynamic properties of AMP induced by embedding the molecules within the lipid matrix. The influence of AMP addition to the lipid membrane organization was determined through diffraction measurement, which also helped us to define the best working Q range for dynamical data analysis with respect to specific hydration. The use of different complementary instruments allowed coverage of a wide time-scale domain, from ns to ps, of atomic mean square fluctuations, providing evidence of a well-defined dependence of the AMP dynamics on the hydration level. PMID:28054992

  17. A matrix isolation ESR and theoretical study of MgN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearne, Thomas S.; Yates, Sally A.; Wild, Duncan A.; McKinley, Allan J.

    2017-07-01

    Matrix isolation experiments have been conducted on the Mg14N, 25Mg14N, Mg15N, and 25Mg15N radicals which were formed by the reaction of a plume of magnesium metal produced with laser ablation and either acetonitrile vapour or nitrogen atoms. The radicals were isolated in an inert neon matrix at 4.3 K and studied with electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The ground electronic state of MgN was determined to be 4Σ-. The following magnetic parameters were determined experimentally for MgN: g⊥ = 2.004 78 (2), g∥ = 2.001 72 (4), |D| = 9797 (6) MHz, A⊥(14N) = 19.7 (2) MHz, A∥ (14N) = -4.0 (3) MHz, A⊥(15N) = 27.5 (3) MHz, A∥ (15N) = -5.7 (3) MHz, A⊥ (25Mg) = -60.7 (5) MHz, and A∥(25Mg) = -65 (3) MHz. The low-lying electronic states of MgN were also investigated using the complete active space multiconfigurational self-consistent field technique. By plotting the potential energy surface, theoretical parameters for the ground state with a configuration of 5σ26σ27σ12π12π1 were able to be determined, including re = 2.090 Å and De = 11.28 kcal/mol.

  18. Circulating levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and abdominal aortic pathology: from the Dallas Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Grodin, Justin L; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M; Ayers, Colby R; Kumar, Darpan S; Rohatgi, Anand; Khera, Amit; McGuire, Darren K; de Lemos, James A; Das, Sandeep R

    2011-10-01

    Prior reports have associated increased circulating levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), an endopeptidase active in the extracellular matrix, with the formation and rupture of aortic aneurysms, raising the possibility that MMP-9 may be a useful diagnostic or therapeutic target for aortic pathology. However, associations between MMP-9 and pathological abdominal aortic phenotypes in the general population have not been reported. In the Dallas Heart Study, a population-based sample of Dallas County residents (n = 2304), we measured MMP-9 and performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdominal aorta, measuring aortic compliance, plaque, wall thickness and luminal diameter. After adjustment for traditional cardiac risk factors and body size, higher MMP-9 quartiles were independently associated with higher aortic wall thickness and larger luminal diameter (p < 0.0001 for each), but not abdominal aortic plaque (p = 0.08), coronary artery calcium (p = 0.20) or the aortic luminal diameter/aortic wall thickness ratio (p = 0.37), supporting the hypothesis that therapies targeting MMP-9 may affect the abdominal aortic wall and modify aortic pathology.

  19. Circulating levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and abdominal aortic pathology: From the Dallas Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Grodin, Justin L; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M; Ayers, Colby R; Kumar, Darpan S; Rohatgi, Anand; Khera, Amit; McGuire, Darren K; de Lemos, James A; Das, Sandeep R

    2012-01-01

    Prior reports have associated increased circulating levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), an endopeptidase active in the extracellular matrix, with the formation and rupture of aortic aneurysms, raising the possibility that MMP-9 may be a useful diagnostic or therapeutic target for aortic pathology. However, associations between MMP-9 and pathological abdominal aortic phenotypes in the general population have not been reported. In the Dallas Heart Study, a population-based sample of Dallas County residents (n = 2304), we measured MMP-9 and performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdominal aorta, measuring aortic compliance, plaque, wall thickness and luminal diameter. After adjustment for traditional cardiac risk factors and body size, higher MMP-9 quartiles were independently associated with higher aortic wall thickness and larger luminal diameter (p < 0.0001 for each), but not abdominal aortic plaque (p = 0.08), coronary artery calcium (p = 0.20) or the aortic luminal diameter/aortic wall thickness ratio (p = 0.37), supporting the hypothesis that therapies targeting MMP-9 may affect the abdominal aortic wall and modify aortic pathology. PMID:22002999

  20. Proteoliposomes as matrix vesicles’ biomimetics to study the initiation of skeletal mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Simão, A.M.S.; Yadav, M.C.; Ciancaglini, P.; Millán, J.L.

    2017-01-01

    During the process of endochondral bone formation, chondrocytes and osteoblasts mineralize their extracellular matrix by promoting the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA) seed crystals in the sheltered interior of membrane-limited matrix vesicles (MVs). Ion transporters control the availability of phosphate and calcium needed for HA deposition. The lipidic microenvironment in which MV-associated enzymes and transporters function plays a crucial physiological role and must be taken into account when attempting to elucidate their interplay during the initiation of biomineralization. In this short mini-review, we discuss the potential use of proteoliposome systems as chondrocyte- and osteoblast-derived MVs biomimetics, as a means of reconstituting a phospholipid microenvironment in a manner that recapitulates the native functional MV microenvironment. Such a system can be used to elucidate the interplay of MV enzymes during catalysis of biomineralization substrates and in modulating in vitro calcification. As such, the enzymatic defects associated with disease-causing mutations in MV enzymes could be studied in an artificial vesicular environment that better mimics their in vivo biological milieu. These artificial systems could also be used for the screening of small molecule compounds able to modulate the activity of MV enzymes for potential therapeutic uses. Such a nanovesicular system could also prove useful for the repair/treatment of craniofacial and other skeletal defects and to facilitate the mineralization of titanium-based tooth implants. PMID:20401430

  1. Mercury in stream water at five Czech catchments across a Hg and S deposition gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Shanley, James B.; Rohovec, Jan; Oulehle, Filip; Krám, Pavel; Matoušková, Šárka; Tesař, Miroslav; Hojdová, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The Czech Republic was heavily industrialized in the second half of the 20th century but the associated emissions of Hg and S from coal burning were significantly reduced since the 1990s. We studied dissolved (filtered) stream water mercury (Hg) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations at five catchments with contrasting Hg and S deposition histories in the Bohemian part of the Czech Republic. The median filtered Hg concentrations of stream water samples collected in hydrological years 2012 and 2013 from the five sites varied by an order of magnitude from 1.3 to 18.0 ng L− 1. The Hg concentrations at individual catchments were strongly correlated with DOC concentrations r from 0.64 to 0.93 and with discharge r from 0.48 to 0.75. Annual export fluxes of filtered Hg from individual catchments ranged from 0.11 to 13.3 μg m− 2 yr− 1 and were highest at sites with the highest DOC export fluxes. However, the amount of Hg exported per unit DOC varied widely; the mean Hg/DOC ratio in stream water at the individual sites ranged from 0.28 to 0.90 ng mg− 1. The highest stream Hg/DOC ratios occurred at sites Pluhův Bor and Jezeří which both are in the heavily polluted Black Triangle area. Stream Hg/DOC was inversely related to mineral and total soil pool Hg/C across the five sites. We explain this pattern by greater soil Hg retention due to inhibition of soil organic matter decomposition at the sites with low stream Hg/DOC and/or by precipitation of a metacinnabar (HgS) phase. Thus mobilization of Hg into streams from forest soils likely depends on combined effects of organic matter decomposition dynamics and HgS-like phase precipitation, which were both affected by Hg and S deposition histories.

  2. Reaction of the Tricyanoborate Dianion [B(CN)3](2-) with HgCl2.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Eduard; Bernhardt-Pitchougina, Vera; Jenne, Carsten

    2017-05-01

    The very reactive [B(CN)3](2-) dianion has a strongly nucleophilic boron atom and can be used for the synthesis of tricyanoborates, which otherwise are difficult to access. Herein the reaction of this anion with HgCl2 is reported. The main product is the anionic mercury complex [Hg(B(CN)3)2](2-). Heteronuclear NMR spectroscopic experiments shows that the reaction proceeds via the intermediate [ClHgB(CN)3](2-). Even though [Hg(B(CN)3)2](2-) is the main product, it is difficult to obtain it in pure form, because it slowly decomposes in the presence of water and air to [(NC)HgB(CN)3](-). All three anions were fully characterized by hetereonuclear NMR spectroscopy ((11)B, (13)C, and (199)Hg). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies of the salts K[ClHgB(CN)3], [Ph4P]2[Hg(B(CN)3)2], K[(NC)HgB(CN)3], and [Ph4P][(NC)HgB(CN)3] revealed linear coordination environments around mercury for all anions. The Hg-B bonds range from 2.219(5) Å in [Hg(B(CN)3)2](2-) to 2.148(11) Å in [ClHgB(CN)3](-), are in accord with the sum of the covalent radii of mercury and boron, and can be described as covalent single bonds. A comparison with related complexes indicates that the [B(CN)3](2-) dianion is a stronger ligand than chloride, cyanide, or carbenes. [Hg(B(CN)3)2](2-) hydrolyses in solution only in the presence of oxygen. It is suggested that cis-[Hg(OH)2(B(CN)3)2](2-) is formed as a very unstable intermediate, which decomposes very fast to [(NC)HgB(CN)3](-) and other products. The anion cis-[Hg(OH)2(B(CN)3)2](2-) would contain mercury in the unusual oxidation state +IV. Quantum-chemical calculations were performed to support this assumption.

  3. Infrared Spectroscopic Studies of Matrix-Isolated Molecules with Potential Astrophysical Significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehlburg, Christine Marie

    1997-08-01

    Many of the molecules purported to exist in interstellar space can only be generated in high temperature processes or are ions that are difficult to produce at high enough concentrations for spectroscopic analysis. The molecules investigated in this study, specifically, were polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) ions, carbon chain water complexes and carbon chain anions. PAHs are the proposed carriers of the unidentified interstellar (UIR) emission. The infrared investigation of pentacene and tetracene ions was pursued to provide data concerning the possibility that PAH cations were the source of the UIR emission. In this study, infrared features corresponding to both cation and anions for both molecules were observed for the first time. The most intense features for the neutral molecules were the CH out-of-plane wagging modes while the most intense cationic and anionic features were in the CC stretch and CH bending regions. The relative intensities from theoretical calculations were in reasonable agreement with experimental values with the exception of an overestimation for the intensities of the CH stretch in both neutral pentacene and tetracene. Carbon chain water complexes are very weakly bound species that are observed when graphite is vaporized at low power. The infrared features increase in intensity and new ones appear after annealing a matrix containing carbon chain molecules and H2O. The current study involved assignment of infrared features at 1959.4 and 2014.4 cm-1 to C6ċ H2O and C9ċ H2O, respectively. Assignments were based on the fact that both bands increased relative to the C9 and C6 bands when the concentration of H2O increased. The band assignments were further justified by a 12,13C study for C6/cdotH2O and the agreement of the theoretical shift, relative to the asymmetric stretch band of C9, for C9ċ H2O. In addition a new feature at 1550.4 cm-1 was tentatively assigned to C4ċ H2O. Finally, an isotopic study of a feature at 1721.8 cm-1

  4. Matrix Algebra.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    on courses being taught at NPS. LIST OF REFERENCES [1] Anton , Howard , Elementary Linear Algebra , John Wiley and Sons, New York, New York, 1994...and computational techniques for solving systems of linear equations. The goal is to enhance current matrix algebra textbooks and help the beginning... algebra is the study of algebraic operations on matrices and of their applications, primarily for solving systems of linear equations. Systems of

  5. Zuotai and HgS differ from HgCl2 and methyl mercury in Hg accumulation and toxicity in weanling and aged rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin-Bin; Li, Wen-Kai; Hou, Wei-Yu; Luo, Ya; Shi, Jing-Zhen; Li, Cen; Wei, Li-Xin; Liu, Jie

    2017-09-15

    Mercury sulfides are used in Ayurvedic medicines, Tibetan medicines, and Chinese medicines for thousands of years and are still used today. Cinnabar (α-HgS) and metacinnabar (β-HgS) are different from mercury chloride (HgCl2) and methylmercury (MeHg) in their disposition and toxicity. Whether such scenario applies to weanling and aged animals is not known. To address this question, weanling (21d) and aged (450d) rats were orally given Zuotai (54% β-HgS, 30mg/kg), HgS (α-HgS, 30mg/kg), HgCl2 (34.6mg/kg), or MeHg (MeHgCl, 3.2mg/kg) for 7days. Accumulation of Hg in kidney and liver, and the toxicity-sensitive gene expressions were examined. Animal body weight gain was decreased by HgCl2 and to a lesser extent by MeHg, but unaltered after Zuotai and HgS. HgCl2 and MeHg produced dramatic tissue Hg accumulation, increased kidney (kim-1 and Ngal) and liver (Ho-1) injury-sensitive gene expressions, but such changes are absent or mild after Zuotai and HgS. Aged rats were more susceptible than weanling rats to Hg toxicity. To examine roles of transporters in Hg accumulation, transporter gene expressions were examined. The expression of renal uptake transporters Oat1, Oct2, and Oatp4c1 and hepatic Oatp2 was decreased, while the expression of renal efflux transporter Mrp2, Mrp4 and Mdr1b was increased following HgCl2 and MeHg, but unaffected by Zuotai and HgS. Thus, Zuotai and HgS differ from HgCl2 and MeHg in producing tissue Hg accumulation and toxicity, and aged rats are more susceptible than weanling rats. Transporter expression could be adaptive means to reduce tissue Hg burden. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Special Issue: Environmental Chemicals and Neurotoxicity Oxidative stress in MeHg-induced neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Farina, Marcelo; Aschner, Michael; Rocha, João B. T.

    2011-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental toxicant that leads to long-lasting neurological and developmental deficits in animals and humans. Although the molecular mechanisms mediating MeHg-induced neurotoxicity are not completely understood, several lines of evidence indicate that oxidative stress represents a critical event related to the neurotoxic effects elicited by this toxicant. The objective of this review is to summarize and discuss data from experimental and epidemiological studies that have been important in clarifying the molecular events which mediate MeHg-induced oxidative damage and, consequently, toxicity. Although unanswered questions remain, the electrophilic properties of MeHg and its ability to oxidize thiols have been reported to play decisive roles to the oxidative consequences observed after MeHg exposure. However, a close examination of the relationship between low levels of MeHg necessary to induce oxidative stress and the high amounts of sulfhydryl-containing antioxidants in mammalian cells (e.g., glutathione) have led to the hypothesis that nucleophilic groups with extremely high affinities for MeHg (e.g., selenols) might represent primary targets in MeHg-induced oxidative stress. Indeed, the inhibition of antioxidant selenoproteins during MeHg poisoning in experimental animals has corroborated this hypothesis. The levels of different reactive species (superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide) have been reported to be increased in MeHg-exposed systems, and the mechanisms concerning these increments seem to involve a complex sequence of cascading molecular events, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxicity, intracellular calcium dyshomeostasis and decreased antioxidant capacity. This review also discusses potential therapeutic strategies to counteract MeHg-induced toxicity and oxidative stress, emphasizing the use of organic selenocompounds, which generally present higher affinity for MeHg when compared to the classically

  7. Conformations of Trimethyl Phosphite: a Matrix Isolation Infrared and AB Initio Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, N.; Sundararajan, K.; Kar, Bishnu Prasad; Viswanathan, K. S.

    2011-06-01

    Hyperconjugative interactions have received considerable attention because of its importance in determining structure and reactivity in organic compounds. In all these molecules, our studies, as many others in the literature, indicated that the O-P-O and O-C-O segments played a crucial role in conformational preferences. In the case of the organic phosphates, in addition to the O-P-O segments, the P=O group was also found to influence the structures. To address this issue further, it was thought interesting to study the conformations of trimethylphosphite (TMPhite), which lacks a P=O group. A comparison of the conformations of trimethylphosphate (TMP) and TMPhite was expected to highlight the role of the P=O group in the conformational preference of organic phosphates, which is the motivation for the present work. The conformations of TMPhite were studied using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy. TMPhite was trapped in a nitrogen matrix using an effusive source maintained at 298 K and 410 K and also a supersonic source. These experiments were designed to enable us to assign the infrared features of the higher energy conformer(s). As a result of these experiments, infrared spectra of the conformations of TMPhite were obtained. The experimental studies were supported by ab initio computations performed at the B3LYP/6-31++G** level. Computations indicated four minima corresponding to conformers with the following symmetries: C_1, C_s, C1a and C_3, given in order of increasing energy. This conformational picture was clearly different from that of TMP, in which the C_3 was the lowest energy structure, thereby clearly indicating the role of the P=O group in structural preferences in these systems. We also performed a photochemical insertion of oxygen in TMPhite to produce TMP in the matrix, in an effort to correlate the conformers of the two molecules. These experiments also gave rise to interesting side reactions, where in addition to TMP, we also observed the

  8. A study regarding friction behaviour of lysine and isoleucine modified epoxy matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bălan, I.; Bosoancă, R.; Căpăţină, A.; Graur, I.; Bria, V.; Ungureanu, C.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to point out the effect of L-lysine and L-isoleucine used as modifying agents for epoxy resins. The amino acids are largely used to turn the usual polymers in bio-compatible materials but they effect also other significant proprieties of formed materials. The general study developed in Polymer Composite Laboratory is focused on analysis of 14 amino acids used as modifying agents but the two above mentioned showed a special behaviour namely they re-crystalized during the polymerization of the matrix. The coefficient of friction was obtained through the calculation of friction torque measured with a loaded cell sensor. As far as we know, there is no report on the friction proprieties of amino acids modified epoxy resins.

  9. Study of the effects of heat-treatment of hydroxyapatite synthesized in gelatin matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaits, A. V.; Golovanova, O. A.; Kuimova, M. V.

    2017-01-01

    In the study, the isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of hydroxyapatite synthesized in gelatin matrix (HAG) has been performed. 3 wt.% HAG samples were synthesized from the solution simulating the human extracellular fluid (SBF). X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy were used to determine the composition. During the experiment, increase in the calcination temperature up to 200°C-800°C was found to cause weight loss. The study of phase composition revealed that heat treatment does not affect the phase composition of the solid phase, which is composed of hydroxylapatite (HA). The prepared HAG (3 wt.% gelatin) samples are shown to have low thermal stability; the degradation of the samples occurs at 400°C.

  10. Study of the effects of heat-treatment of hydroxyapatite synthesized in gelatin matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaits, A. V.; Golovanova, O. A.; Kuimova, M. V.

    2017-01-01

    In the study, the isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of hydroxyapatite synthesized in gelatin matrix (HAG) has been performed. 3 wt.% HAG samples were synthesized from the solution simulating the human extracellular fluid (SBF). X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy were used to determine the composition. During the experiment, increase in the calcination temperature up to 200°C-800°C was found to cause weight loss. The study of phase composition revealed that heat treatment does not affect the phase composition of the solid phase, which is composed of hydroxylapatite (HA). The prepared HAG (3 wt.% gelatin) samples are shown to have low thermal stability; the degradation of the samples occurs at 400° C.

  11. A study of the composition and microstructure of aluminum matrix composites reinforced with alumina fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotova, D.; Serpova, V.; Prokofiev, M.; Rabinskiy, L.; Shavnev, A.

    2016-04-01

    This article presents the results of a study of the microstructure and the composition of aluminum-based metal matrix composites (MMC) reinforced with continuous alumina fibers. An Al-Mg-Cu alloy similar to that of AA 2024 was used. X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence analyses were used for investigation of a probable volume fraction of a spinel phase in MMC. Scanning electron microscopy and an X-ray microanalysis were used to study a change of the elemental composition of the composites microstructure on the polished cross sections. The constant mass fractions of magnesium (0.65 wt. %) and copper (1.25 wt. %) were found in the interphase area within radius of 1 μm around fibers.

  12. Pilot Study of the Efficacy of Extracellular Matrix Arterial Interposition Grafts in a Sheep (Ovis aries) Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-18

    extracellular matrix arterial interposition grafts in a sheep (Ovis aries) model." 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...carotid arteries in sheep . Methods: Three crossbred sheep were anesthetized, instrumented, and had 10 cm interposition grafts placed in both carotid...was present by four weeks. Conclusion: In this pilot study, the Cormatrix extracellular matrix performed well in a sheep carotid interposition graft

  13. A study of low-noise preamplifier systems for use with room temperature mercuric iodide /HgI2/ X-ray detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwanczyk, J. S.; Huth, G. C.; Del Duca, A.; Schnepple, W.; Dabrowski, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of different preamplification systems for use with room temperature mercuric iodide X-ray detectors has been performed. Resistor-, drain-, and light-feedback preamplifiers have been studied. Energy resolution values of 295 eV (FWHM) for an Fe-55 source (5.9 keV) and 225 eV (FWHM) for a pulser have been obtained with both the detector and the input FET at room temperature using a pulsed-light feedback preamplifier. Improvement in energy resolution by cooling the input FET using a small Peltier element has been discussed.

  14. A study of low-noise preamplifier systems for use with room temperature mercuric iodide /HgI2/ X-ray detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwanczyk, J. S.; Huth, G. C.; del Duca, A.; Schnepple, W.; Dabrowski, A. J.

    1981-02-01

    An analysis of different preamplification systems for use with room temperature mercuric iodide X-ray detectors has been performed. Resistor-, drain-, and light-feedback preamplifiers have been studied. Energy resolution values of 295 eV (FWHM) for an Fe-55 source (5.9 keV) and 225 eV (FWHM) for a pulser have been obtained with both the detector and the input FET at room temperature using a pulsed-light feedback preamplifier. Improvement in energy resolution by cooling the input FET using a small Peltier element has been discussed.

  15. Epithelial expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer/CD147 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 in neoplasms and precursor lesions derived from cutaneous squamous cells: An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Ayva, Sebnem Kupana; Karabulut, Ayse Anil; Akatli, Ayşe Nur; Atasoy, Pinar; Bozdogan, Onder

    2013-10-01

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (CD147) is a transmembrane glycoprotein involved in the regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The study investigated CD147 and MMP-2 expression in epidermis of cutaneous squamous lesions. CD147 and MMP-2 expressions were evaluated immunohistochemically in 44 specimens: 18 actinic keratoses (AK), 6 squamous cell carcinomas in situ (SCCIS), 13 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC; peritumoral and invasive portions assessed), and 7 normal skins. Patterns of expression were assessed, with MMP-2 in nuclei (MMP-2n) and cytoplasm (MMP-2c) evaluated separately. The expression of each marker was quantified using a calculated immunohistochemical/histologic score (H-score). Correlations were analyzed for the marker H-scores in each study group. Associations between H-scores and histopathologic parameters were also evaluated. CD147 H-score was the highest in SCC (invasive islands), followed by AK, SCCIS, and control specimens, respectively. MMP-2n and MMP-2c H-scores were the highest in AK, followed by SCCIS, SCC, and control specimens, respectively. MMP-2c and MMP-2n H-scores were significantly higher in peritumoral epidermis than in invasive islands of SCC. MMP-2c and CD147 H-scores were positively correlated in the peritumoral SCCs. CD147 H-score was positively correlated with tumor differentiation in SCC. The findings suggest that overexpression of CD147 plays a role in the development of SCC.

  16. Genome-Wide Association Studies with a Genomic Relationship Matrix: A Case Study with Wheat and Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Gianola, Daniel; Fariello, Maria I.; Naya, Hugo; Schön, Chris-Carolin

    2016-01-01

    Standard genome-wide association studies (GWAS) scan for relationships between each of p molecular markers and a continuously distributed target trait. Typically, a marker-based matrix of genomic similarities among individuals (G) is constructed, to account more properly for the covariance structure in the linear regression model used. We show that the generalized least-squares estimator of the regression of phenotype on one or on m markers is invariant with respect to whether or not the marker(s) tested is(are) used for building G, provided variance components are unaffected by exclusion of such marker(s) from G. The result is arrived at by using a matrix expression such that one can find many inverses of genomic relationship, or of phenotypic covariance matrices, stemming from removing markers tested as fixed, but carrying out a single inversion. When eigenvectors of the genomic relationship matrix are used as regressors with fixed regression coefficients, e.g., to account for population stratification, their removal from G does matter. Removal of eigenvectors from G can have a noticeable effect on estimates of genomic and residual variances, so caution is needed. Concepts were illustrated using genomic data on 599 wheat inbred lines, with grain yield as target trait, and on close to 200 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions. PMID:27520956

  17. A Study of Impact Response of Electrified Organic Matrix Composites (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    temperature across the thickness of the carbon fiber polymer matrix composite plate due to an electric current passing in the carbon fibers. A long...unidirectional carbon fiber polymer matrix composite plate that carries a DC current I in the fiber direction. Assume that the ratio of the thickness, h , to...the minimum temperature, minT , is at the surface, 2z h= ± . Moreover, a strong temperature gradient appears in carbon fiber polymer matrix composite plates

  18. Ion Beam Nanostructuring of HgCdTe Ternary Compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Aleksey B.; Savkina, Rada K.; Udovytska, Ruslana S.; Gudymenko, Oleksandr I.; Kladko, Vasyl P.; Korchovyi, Andrii A.

    2017-05-01

    Systematic study of mercury cadmium telluride thin films subjected to the ion beam bombardment was carried out. The evolution of surface morphology of (111) Hg1 - x Cd x Te ( x 0.223) epilayers due to 100 keV B+ and Ag+ ion irradiation was studied by AFM and SEM methods. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction methods were used for the investigation of the chemical compound and structural properties of the surface and subsurface region. It was found that in the range of nanoscale, arrays of holes and mounds on Hg0.777Cd0.223Te (111) surface as well as the polycrystalline Hg1 - x Cd x Te cubic phase with alternative compound ( x 0.20) have been fabricated using 100 keV ion beam irradiation of the basic material. Charge transport investigation with non-stationary impedance spectroscopy method has shown that boron-implanted structures are characterized by capacity-type impedance whereas for silver-implanted structures, an inductive-type impedance (or "negative capacitance") is observed. A hybrid system, which integrates the nanostructured ternary compound (HgCdTe) with metal-oxide (Ag2O) inclusions, was fabricated by Ag+ ion bombardment. The sensitivity of such metal-oxide-semiconductor hybrid structure for sub-THz radiation was detected with NEP 4.5 × 10-8 W/Hz1/2at ν ≈ 140 GHz and 296 K without amplification.

  19. Anthropogenic Hg in the ocean: Trajectories of change and implications for exposure in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amos, H. M.; Corbitt, E. S.; Bullard, K. T.; Sunderland, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    Humans have been releasing mercury (Hg) to the environment for millenia through activities such as mining and fuel combustion. The result has been an enrichment of the ocean, atmosphere, and terrestrial ecosystems. Consumption of marine fish contaminated with methylmercury (MeHg) is the primary route of exposure in many populations globally. We present an updated analysis of sources of MeHg exposures in the United States that shows the majority (>70%) is from oceanic fish rather than coastal species. Using a fully coupled biogeochemical box model we also estimate Hg accumulation across major ocean basins and show anthropogenic enrichment is highest in the North Atlantic Ocean and lowest in the deep Pacific Ocean. Our results for contemporary ocean concentrations are consistent with recent data from the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian and Southern Oceans measured as part of the CLIVAR repeat hydrography program. Our estimates of natural (i.e., pre-anthropogenic) seawater Hg concentrations are lower than suggested by other studies, implying a greater anthropogenic perturbation in the ocean. Our work suggests total accumulation of anthropogenic Hg in the global oceans is greater than recently derived based on anthropogenic CO2. We compare modeled seawater concentrations since 1980 to observations over this period to evaluate evidence for changes in recent decades and then investigate potential impacts of changing global emissions. To do this, we use a range of historical and future anthropogenic Hg emission inventories. Our previous work using the box model indicates burial of Hg at ocean margins is the single largest global sink of anthropogenic Hg. We will discuss how the magnitude and permanence of this sink affects estimates of enrichment and time scales of recovery in all geochemical Hg reservoirs. Governing time scales of response in each ocean basin are diagnosed using eigenanalysis and discussed in the context of changes in human MeHg exposure resulting from

  20. Biosynthesis of micro- and nanocrystals of Pb (II), Hg (II) and Cd (II) sulfides in four Candida species: a comparative study of in vivo and in vitro approaches.

    PubMed

    Cuéllar-Cruz, Mayra; Lucio-Hernández, Daniela; Martínez-Ángeles, Isabel; Demitri, Nicola; Polentarutti, Maurizio; Rosales-Hoz, María J; Moreno, Abel

    2017-03-01

    Nature produces biominerals (biogenic minerals) that are synthesized as complex structures, in terms of their physicochemical properties. These biominerals are composed of minerals and biological macromolecules. They are produced by living organisms and are usually formed through a combination of chemical, biochemical and biophysical processes. Microorganisms like Candida in the presence of heavy metals can biomineralize those metals to form microcrystals (MCs) and nanocrystals (NCs). In this work, MCs and NCs of PbS, HgS or HgCl2 as well as CdS are synthesized both in vitro (gels) and in vivo by four Candida species. Our in vivo results show that, in the presence of Pb(2+) , Candida cells are able to replicate and form extracellular PbS MCs, whereas in the presence of Hg(2+) and Cd(2+) , they did synthesize intercellular MCs from HgS or HgCl2 and CdS NCs respectively. The MCs and NCs biologically obtained in Candida were compared with those PbS, HgS and CdS crystals synthetically obtained in vitro through the gel method (grown either in agarose or in sodium metasilicate hydrogels). This is, to our knowledge, the first time that the biosynthesis of the various MCs and NCs (presented in several species of Candida) has been reported. This biosynthesis is differentially regulated in each of these pathogens, which allows them to adapt and survive in different physiological and environmental habitats.

  1. Gamma scintigraphic study of the hydrodynamically balanced matrix tablets of Metformin HCl in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Mahboubeh; Karimian, Hamed; Yeong, Chai Hong; Sarji, Sazilah Ahmad; Chung, Lip Yong; Nyamathulla, Shaik; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo performance of gastro-retentive matrix tablets having Metformin HCl as model drug and combination of natural polymers. A total of 16 formulations were prepared by a wet granulation method using xanthan, tamarind seed powder, tamarind kernel powder and salep as the gel-forming agents and sodium bicarbonate as a gas-forming agent. All the formulations were evaluated for compendial and non-compendial tests and in vitro study was carried out on a USP-II dissolution apparatus at a paddle speed of 50 rpm. MOX2 formulation, composed of salep and xanthan in the ratio of 4:1 with 96.9% release, was considered as the optimum formulation with more than 90% release in 12 hours and short floating lag time. In vivo study was carried out using gamma scintigraphy in New Zealand White rabbits, optimized formulation was incorporated with 10 mg of 153Sm for labeling MOX2 formulation. The radioactive samarium oxide was used as the marker to trace transit of the tablets in the gastrointestinal tract. The in vivo data also supported retention of MOX2 formulation in the gastric region for 12 hours and were different from the control formulation without a gas and gel forming agent. It was concluded that the prepared floating gastro-retentive matrix tablets had a sustained-release effect in vitro and in vivo, gamma scintigraphy played an important role in locating the oral transit and the drug-release pattern. PMID:26124637

  2. Use of Synthetic Peptides to Study Structure-Function Relationships of Matrix Metalloproteinases and Their Substrates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netzel-Arnett, Sarah Joann

    The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc proteinases that is collectively capable of degrading the major components of the extracellular matrix. A variety of synthetic peptides has been prepared which are models for the human MMP and their substrates to study structure -function relationships in this enzyme-substrate system. To elucidate the sequence specificity of the MMP, the k _{cat}/K_ M values for the hydrolysis of over 50 synthetic octapeptides has been investigated. Similarities, as well as distinct differences have been found between the individual MMP with the largest differences occurring at subsites P_1, P_1^' and P_3 ^'. Based on these data, quenched -fluorescence substrates with optimized sequences have been developed for five human MMP. The key features of these heptapeptides are a tryptophan on the P_ n^' side and a dinitrophenol quenching group on the amino terminus. To assess the role of the triple helical conformation in the collagenase-collagen system, a series of triple helical peptides has been prepared and shown to compete with collagen in collagenase assays. This provides evidence for the existence of a triple helical recognition site distinct from the active site. All of the MMP are secreted as zymogens and it has been postulated that the portion of the propeptide surrounding a critical cysteine is responsible for maintaining latency. Conformational energy calculations and mutagenesis studies have suggested that this region adopts a specific conformation that stabilizes the latent form. Peptide models of this region of the propeptide have been prepared and shown to inhibit the MMP. CD and NMR studies, however, have failed to provide evidence for the predicted peptide conformation. Thus, the observed inhibition may reflect their propensity to adopt the propeptide conformation upon binding to the enzyme.

  3. Gamma scintigraphic study of the hydrodynamically balanced matrix tablets of Metformin HCl in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Mahboubeh; Karimian, Hamed; Yeong, Chai Hong; Sarji, Sazilah Ahmad; Chung, Lip Yong; Nyamathulla, Shaik; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo performance of gastro-retentive matrix tablets having Metformin HCl as model drug and combination of natural polymers. A total of 16 formulations were prepared by a wet granulation method using xanthan, tamarind seed powder, tamarind kernel powder and salep as the gel-forming agents and sodium bicarbonate as a gas-forming agent. All the formulations were evaluated for compendial and non-compendial tests and in vitro study was carried out on a USP-II dissolution apparatus at a paddle speed of 50 rpm. MOX2 formulation, composed of salep and xanthan in the ratio of 4:1 with 96.9% release, was considered as the optimum formulation with more than 90% release in 12 hours and short floating lag time. In vivo study was carried out using gamma scintigraphy in New Zealand White rabbits, optimized formulation was incorporated with 10 mg of (153)Sm for labeling MOX2 formulation. The radioactive samarium oxide was used as the marker to trace transit of the tablets in the gastrointestinal tract. The in vivo data also supported retention of MOX2 formulation in the gastric region for 12 hours and were different from the control formulation without a gas and gel forming agent. It was concluded that the prepared floating gastro-retentive matrix tablets had a sustained-release effect in vitro and in vivo, gamma scintigraphy played an important role in locating the oral transit and the drug-release pattern.

  4. Protein matrix involved in the lipid retention of foie gras during cooking: a multimodal hyperspectral imaging study.

    PubMed

    Théron, Laëtitia; Vénien, Annie; Jamme, Frédéric; Fernandez, Xavier; Peyrin, Frédéric; Molette, Caroline; Dumas, Paul; Réfrégiers, Matthieu; Astruc, Thierry

    2014-06-25

    Denaturation of the protein matrix during heat treatment of duck foie gras was studied in relationship to the amount of fat loss during cooking. A low fat loss group was compared with a high fat loss group by histochemistry, FT-IR, and synchrotron UV microspectroscopy combination to characterize their protein matrix at different scales. After cooking, the high fat loss group showed higher densification of its matrix, higher ultraviolet tyrosine autofluorescence, and an infrared shift of the amide I band. These results revealed a higher level of protein denaturation and aggregation during cooking in high fat loss than in low fat loss foie gras. In addition, the fluorescence and infrared responses of the raw tissue revealed differences according to the level of fat losses after cooking. These findings highlight the importance of the supramolecular state of the protein matrix in determining the fat loss of foie gras.

  5. Study of color-octet matrix elements through J/ψ production in e+e- annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi-Jie; Xu, Guang-Zhi; Zhang, Pan-Pan; Zhang, Yu-Jie; Liu, Kui-Yong

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the color-octet long distance matrix elements are studied through the inclusive J/ψ production in e+e- annihilation within the framework of non-relativistic QCD factorization. The calculations are up-to next-to-leading order with the radiative and relativistic corrections in the energy region of the B-factory and the near-threshold region of 4.6{-}5.6 GeV. A constraint of the long distance matrix elements (< ^1S_08> , < ^3P_08> ) is obtained. Through our estimation, the P-wave color-octet matrix element (< 0|^3P^8_0|0> ) should be of the order of 0.008m_c^2 GeV^3 or less. The constrained region is not compatible with the values of the long distance matrix elements fitted at hadron colliders.

  6. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for methyl mercury (MeHg) in monkey and human

    SciTech Connect

    Gearhart, J.M.; Clewall, H.J. III; Shipp, A.M.

    1995-12-31

    A PBPK model for MeHg was developed which coherently describes MeHg pharmacokinetics in the adult rat, monkey and man, and predicts fetal levels of MeHg from in utero exposure. The model includes a description of enterohepatic recirculation of MeHg, conversion to inorganic mercury in tissues and intestinal flora, slowly reversible incorporation of mercury in tissues, and excretion of both organic and inorganic mercury into urine, feces, and hair. The adult submodel includes compartments representing the red blood tells (RBC), plasma, brain, liver, kidney, gut intestinal lumen, gut tissue, hair, richly and slowly perfused tissues, and placenta. The fetal submodel includes compartments representing RBC`s, plasma, brain, and remaining body mass. Two features of the model structure which are critical to prediction of the kinetics of MeHg in different species is the use of separate RBC and plasma compartments, allowing the use of species specific RBC/plasma ratios, and biliary excretion with enterohepatic recirculation. Published tissue and blood MeHg concentrations were used to derive the partition coefficients and RBC/plasma ratios to adjust for species differences in MeHg distribution. Validation involved comparing the model simulations with data from repeated dosing studies in animals and humans, and from accidental human exposures. The model will be used to investigate maternal MeHg intake as it relates to measured blood and hair MeHg concentrations, and to fetal exposure.

  7. Effects of salinity and humic acid on the sorption of Hg on Fe and Mn hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Liang, Peng; Li, Yi-Chun; Zhang, Chan; Wu, Sheng-Chun; Cui, Hao-Jie; Yu, Shen; Wong, Ming H

    2013-01-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of humic acid (HA) and salinity on adsorption of Hg on the amorphous and crystalline of iron and manganese hydroxides. The results show that the adsorption of Hg(2+) on Fe and Mn hydroxides was inhibited in marine system due to the formation of stable, nonsorbing aqueous HgCl(2) complexes in solution. Moreover, Cl(-) inhibited the Hg(2+) adsorption more severely on amorphous than crystalline hydroxides. The addition of HA inhibited Hg(2+) adsorption on Fe and Mn hydroxides in freshwater system might be attributed to the competition between Hg(2+) and HA on adsorption to Fe and Mn hydroxides. In contrast, the addition of HA promoted Hg(2+) adsorption on Fe and Mn hydroxides in the marine system, which might be due to the addition of humic acid resulted in the reaction between Cl(-) and HA, and therefore the reducing of Cl(-) promoted more Hg(2+) on Fe and Mn hydroxides. In addition, the influence of HA on Hg(2+) adsorption on Fe and Mn hydroxides are more visible for crystalline than amorphous hydroxides.

  8. Bioaccumulation of As, Cd, Cr, Hg(II), and MeHg in killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from amphipod and worm prey.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Jessica; Fisher, Nicholas S

    2011-08-15

    Elevated metal levels in fish are a concern for the fish themselves, their predators, and possibly humans who consume contaminated seafood. Metal bioaccumulation models often rely on assimilation efficiencies (AEs) of ingested metals and loss rate constants after dietary exposure (k(ef)s). These models can be used to better understand processes regulating metal accumulation and can be used to make site-specific predictions of metal concentrations in animal tissues. Fish often consume a varied diet, and prey choice can influence these two parameters. We investigated the trophic transfer of As, Cd, Cr, Hg(II), and methylmercury (MeHg) from a benthic amphipod (Leptocheirus plumulosus) and an oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus) to killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) using gamma-emitting radioisotopes. Except for MeHg, AEs varied between prey type. AEs were highest for MeHg (92%) and lowest for Cd (2.9-4.5%) and Cr (0.2-4%). Hg(II) showed the largest AE difference between prey type (14% amphipods, 24% worms). For Cd and Hg(II) k(ef)s were higher after consuming amphipods than consuming worms. Tissue distribution data shows that Cd and Hg(II) were mainly associated with the intestine, whereas As and MeHg were transported throughout the body. Calculated trophic transfer factors (TTFs) suggest that MeHg is likely to biomagnify at this trophic step at all ingestion rates, whereas As, Cd, Cr, and Hg(II) will not. Data collected in this study and others indicate that using one prey item to calculate AE and k(ef) could lead to an over- or underestimation of these parameters.

  9. Functionalized graphene sheets as immobilization matrix for Fenugreek β-amylase: enzyme kinetics and stability studies.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Garima; Singh, Kritika; Talat, Mahe; Srivastava, Onkar Nath; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2014-01-01

    β-Amylase finds application in food and pharmaceutical industries. Functionalized graphene sheets were customised as a matrix for covalent immobilization of Fenugreek β-amylase using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linker. The factors affecting the process were optimized using Response Surface Methodology based Box-Behnken design of experiment which resulted in 84% immobilization efficiency. Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy (SEM, TEM) and Fourier Tansform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were employed for the purpose of characterization of attachment of enzyme on the graphene. The enzyme kinetic studies were carried out for obtaining best catalytic performance and enhanced reusability. Optimum temperature remained unchanged, whereas optimum pH showed shift towards acidic range for immobilized enzyme. Increase in thermal stability of immobilized enzyme and non-toxic nature of functionalized graphene can be exploited for production of maltose in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  10. Environmental/Thermal Barrier Coatings for Ceramic Matrix Composites: Thermal Tradeoff Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Pappu L. M.; Brewer, David; Shah, Ashwin R.

    2007-01-01

    Recent interest in environmental/thermal barrier coatings (EBC/TBCs) has prompted research to develop life-prediction methodologies for the coating systems of advanced high-temperature ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). Heat-transfer analysis of EBC/TBCs for CMCs is an essential part of the effort. It helps establish the resulting thermal profile through the thickness of the CMC that is protected by the EBC/TBC system. This report documents the results of a one-dimensional analysis of an advanced high-temperature CMC system protected with an EBC/TBC system. The one-dimensional analysis was used for tradeoff studies involving parametric variation of the conductivity; the thickness of the EBC/TBCs, bond coat, and CMC substrate; and the cooling requirements. The insight gained from the results will be used to configure a viable EBC/TBC system for CMC liners that meet the desired hot surface, cold surface, and substrate temperature requirements.

  11. Study of linear and nonlinear optical properties of dendrimers using density matrix renormalization group method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Ramasesha, S.

    2009-08-01

    We have used the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method to study the linear and nonlinear optical responses of first generation nitrogen based dendrimers with donor acceptor groups. We have employed Pariser-Parr-Pople Hamiltonian to model the interacting π electrons in these systems. Within the DMRG method we have used an innovative scheme to target excited states with large transition dipole to the ground state. This method reproduces exact optical gaps and polarization in systems where exact diagonalization of the Hamiltonian is possible. We have used a correction vector method which tacitly takes into account the contribution of all excited states, to obtain the ground state polarizibility, first hyperpolarizibility, and two photon absorption cross sections. We find that the lowest optical excitations as well as the lowest excited triplet states are localized. It is interesting to note that the first hyperpolarizibility saturates more rapidly with system size compared to linear polarizibility unlike that of linear polyenes.

  12. A fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy study of matrix metalloproteinases -2 and -9 in human atherosclerotic plaque

    PubMed Central

    Phipps, Jennifer E.; Hatami, Nisa; Galis, Zorina S.; Baker, J. Dennis; Fishbein, Michael C.; Marcu, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -2 and -9 play important roles in the progression of atherosclerosis. This study aims to determine whether MMP-2 and -9 content in the fibrotic caps of atherosclerotic plaque is correlated with plaque autofluorescence. A time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TR-LIFS) system was used to measure the autofluorescence and assess the biochemical composition of human plaques obtained from carotid endarterectomy. Results presented here demonstrate for the first time the ability to characterize the biochemical composition as it relates to MMP-2 and -9 content in the atherosclerotic plaque cap using a label-free imaging technique implemented with a fiberoptic TR-LIFS system. PMID:21770037

  13. STUDY OF DUAL MATRIX TABLETS CONTAINING HYPROMELLOSE OF DIFFERENT VISCOSITY DEGREE AND GLYCERYL DIBEHENATE.

    PubMed

    Mužíková, Jitka; Holubová, Katerina; Komersová, Alena; Lochar, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Studies are described on the compressibility of directly compressible tableting materials containing two viscosity types of hypromellose in two concentrations and tableting materials containing additional glyceryl dibehenate, also in two concentrations. Compressibility is evaluated by means of the energy profile of the compression process and determination of tensile strength of tablets. Dissolution test examines the rate of release of the active ingredient from matrix tablets, which is subsequently evaluated mathematically. Increased concentrations of both hypromelloses and an addition of glyceryl dibehenate into tablets with both types of hypromellose improved compressibility. The rate of drug release was decreased with increasing viscosity degree of hypromellose and its increasing concentration. An addition of glyceryl dibehenate exerted the same influence on release as increased concentrations of the pertinent hypromellose.

  14. Energy density functional study of nuclear matrix elements for neutrinoless ββ decay.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Tomás R; Martínez-Pinedo, Gabriel

    2010-12-17

    We present an extensive study of nuclear matrix elements (NME) for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of the nuclei 48Ca, 76Ge, 82Se, 96Zr, 100Mo, 116Cd, 124Sn, 128Te, 130Te, 136Xe, and 150Nd based on state-of-the-art energy density functional methods using the Gogny D1S functional. Beyond-mean-field effects are included within the generating coordinate method with particle number and angular momentum projection for both initial and final ground states. We obtain a rather constant value for the NMEs around 4.7 with the exception of 48Ca and 150Nd, where smaller values are found. We analyze the role of deformation and pairing in the evaluation of the NME and present detailed results for the decay of 150Nd.

  15. Evaluation of higher order PMD effects using Jones matrix analytical models: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, M. F.

    2006-04-01

    A comparative study among the Jones matrix analytical models with high-order PMD is presented. The models that make use of an exponential expansion arrested up to second order or consider the dispersion vector as a Taylor series expansion do not give good results in the approximation of high-order PMD effects, because of the nonlimited behavior with respect to frequency of the modulus of their dispersion vectors. On the other hand, the analytical model which describes the dispersion vector as rotating on a circumference in the Stokes space is found to be the most accurate. Moreover, it can be used to obtain an analytical expression of the pulse broadening, which is often chosen as a quality-system parameter.

  16. Study of mould design and forming process on advanced polymer-matrix composite complex structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S. J.; Zhan, L. H.; Bai, H. M.; Chen, X. P.; Zhou, Y. Q.

    2015-07-01

    Advanced carbon fibre-reinforced polymer-matrix composites are widely applied to aviation manufacturing field due to their outstanding performance. In this paper, the mould design and forming process of the complex composite structure were discussed in detail using the hat stiffened structure as an example. The key issues of the moulddesign were analyzed, and the corresponding solutions were also presented. The crucial control points of the forming process such as the determination of materials and stacking sequence, the temperature and pressure route of the co-curing process were introduced. In order to guarantee the forming quality of the composite hat stiffened structure, a mathematical model about the aperture of rubber mandrel was introduced. The study presented in this paper may provide some actual references for the design and manufacture of the important complex composite structures.

  17. Study of linear and nonlinear optical properties of dendrimers using density matrix renormalization group method.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, S; Ramasesha, S

    2009-08-21

    We have used the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method to study the linear and nonlinear optical responses of first generation nitrogen based dendrimers with donor acceptor groups. We have employed Pariser-Parr-Pople Hamiltonian to model the interacting pi electrons in these systems. Within the DMRG method we have used an innovative scheme to target excited states with large transition dipole to the ground state. This method reproduces exact optical gaps and polarization in systems where exact diagonalization of the Hamiltonian is possible. We have used a correction vector method which tacitly takes into account the contribution of all excited states, to obtain the ground state polarizibility, first hyperpolarizibility, and two photon absorption cross sections. We find that the lowest optical excitations as well as the lowest excited triplet states are localized. It is interesting to note that the first hyperpolarizibility saturates more rapidly with system size compared to linear polarizibility unlike that of linear polyenes.

  18. FRET study in oligopeptide-linked donor-acceptor system in PVA matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Sunil; Mandecki, Wlodek; Li, Ji; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Borejdo, Julian; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Fudala, Rafal

    2016-12-01

    An oligopeptide: Lys-Gly-Pro-Arg-Ser-Leu-Ser-Gly-Lys-NH2, cleaved specifically by a matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) at the Ser-Leu bond, was labeled on the ɛ-NH2 groups of lysine with donor (5, 6 TAMRA) and acceptor (HiLyte647) dye. The donor control was a peptide labeled with 5, 6 TAMRA only on the C-terminal lysine, and the acceptor control was free HiLyte647. Following three products were studied by dissolving in 10% (w/w) poly(vinyl alcohol) and dried on glass slides forming 200 micron films. Absorption spectra of the films show full additivity of donor and acceptor absorptions. A strong Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) with an efficiency of about 85% was observed in the fluorescence emission and excitation spectra. The lifetime of the donor was shorter and heterogeneous compared with the donor control.

  19. Fundamental Studies of Low Velocity Impact Resistance of Graphite Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, K. J.

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted to relate the impact resistance of graphite fiber reinforced composites with matrix properties through gaining an understanding of the basic mechanics involved in the deformation and fracture process, and the effect of the polymer matrix structure on these mechanisms. It was found that the resin matrix structure influences the composite impact resistance in at least two ways. The integration of flexibilizers into the polymer chain structure tends to reduce the T sub g and the mechanical properties of the polymer. The reduction in the mechanical properties of the matrix does not enhance the composite impact resistance because it allows matrix controlled failure to initiate impact damage. It was found that when the instrumented dropweight impact tester is used as a means for assessing resin toughness, the resin toughness is enhanced by the ability of the clamped specimen to deflect enough to produce sufficient membrane action to support a significant amount of the load. The results of this study indicate that crossplied composite impact resistance is very much dependent on the matrix mechanical properties.

  20. Effect of the drug-excipient ratio in matrix-type-controlled release systems: computer simulation study.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Rafael; Ganem, Adriana; Cordero, Salomón; Vidales, Ana Maria; Domínguez, Armando

    2005-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to study the drug release behavior from inert matrix systems by using computer simulation. This study allowed us to propose a new statistical method to evaluate the drug percolation threshold as a function of the exposed surface area of the device. The matrix system was simulated as a simple cubic lattice. The sites of the lattice were randomly occupied at various drug-excipient ratios. By simulating a diffusive process, the drug was delivered from the matrix system. The obtained release profiles were fitted to two different models: near the excipient percolation threshold, the square root of the time was well fitted, whereas close to (but above) the drug percolation threshold, the power law described accurately the release data. A relationship between the initial drug load and the amount of drug trapped inside the matrix system at infinite time was found. This relationship was conveniently described by an error function. Percolation thresholds in the matrix systems were determined from the latter relationship by using a nonlinear regression method. The assessment of percolation thresholds depends on the exposed surface area of the matrix systems. Moreover, estimated percolation thresholds were in agreement with the predicted values stated in the percolation theory.

  1. Decay from the superdeformed bands in {sup 194}Hg

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, R.G.; Khoo, T.L.; Carpenter, M.P.

    1995-08-01

    Superdeformed bands in {sup 194}H g were studied using the early implementation of Gammasphere. The response functions for the Ge detectors were measured for the first time as part of this experiment. Experiments were performed with both a backed target (where the residue stopped in the Au backing) and a thin target (where the residue recoiled into vacuum). This will permit measurements of the decay times of the quasicontinuum {gamma}rays. The spectrum in coincidence with the yrast SD band in {sup 194}Hg reveals the same features as found in the quasicontinuum structure in {sup 192}Hg. These features include: statistical {gamma}rays feeding the SD band, a pronounced E2 peak from transitions feeding the SD band, a Ml/E2 bump at low energies that is associated with the last stages of feeding of the superdeformed band, and a quasicontinuous distribution from {gamma}rays linking SD and normal states, including a sizable clustering of strength around 1.7 MeV. The remarkable similarity of the spectra coincident with SD bands in {sup 192,194}Hg provides additional support for a statistical process for decay out of the SD states. This similarity contrasts with differences observed in the spectrum coincident with the SD band in the odd-even {sup 191}Hg, confirming the predictions about the role of pairing (in normal states) in influencing the shape of the decay-out spectrum.

  2. HgCdTe barrier infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopytko, M.; Rogalski, A.

    2016-05-01

    In the last decade, new strategies to achieve high-operating temperature (HOT) detectors have been proposed, including barrier structures such as nBn devices, unipolar barrier photodiodes, and multistage (cascade) infrared detectors. The ability to tune the positions of the conduction and valence band edges independently in a broken-gap type-II superlattices is especially helpful in the design of unipolar barriers. This idea has been also implemented in HgCdTe ternary material system. However, the implementation of this detector structure in HgCdTe material system is not straightforward due to the existence of a valence band discontinuity (barrier) at the absorber-barrier interface. In this paper we present status of HgCdTe barrier detectors with emphasis on technological progress in fabrication of MOCVD-grown HgCdTe barrier detectors achieved recently at the Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology. Their performance is comparable with state-of-the-art of HgCdTe photodiodes. From the perspective of device fabrication their important technological advantage results from less stringent surface passivation requirements and tolerance to threading dislocations.

  3. 3D Bioprinting a Cell-Laden Bone Matrix for Breast Cancer Metastasis Study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuan; Zhu, Wei; Nowicki, Margaret; Miao, Shida; Cui, Haitao; Holmes, Benjamin; Glazer, Robert I; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-11-09

    Metastasis is one of the deadliest consequences of breast cancer, with bone being one of the primary sites of occurrence. Insufficient 3D biomimetic models currently exist to replicate this process in vitro. In this study, we developed a biomimetic bone matrix using 3D bioprinting technology to investigate the interaction between breast cancer (BrCa) cells and bone stromal cells (fetal osteoblasts and human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)). A tabletop stereolithography 3D bioprinter was employed to fabricate a series of bone matrices consisting of osteoblasts or MSCs encapsulated in gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogel with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHA). When BrCa cells were introduced into the stromal cell-laden bioprinted matrices, we found that the growth of BrCa cells was enhanced by the presence of osteoblasts or MSCs, whereas the proliferation of the osteoblasts or MSCs was inhibited by the BrCa cells. The BrCa cells co-cultured with MSCs or osteoblasts presented increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion in comparison to that of monocultured BrCa cells. Additionally, the alkaline phosphatase activity of MSCs or osteoblasts was reduced after BrCa cell co-culture. These results demonstrate that the 3D bioprinted matrix, with BrCa cells and bone stromal cells, provides a suitable model with which to study the interactive effects of cells in the context of an artificial bone microenvironment and thus may serve as a valuable tool for the investigation of postmetastatic breast cancer progression in bone.

  4. EFFECT OF MODEL-DEPENDENT COVARIANCE MATRIX FOR STUDYING BARYON ACOUSTIC OSCILLATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Labatie, A.; Starck, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Large-scale structures in the universe are a powerful tool to test cosmological models and constrain cosmological parameters. A particular feature of interest comes from baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs), which are sound waves traveling in the hot plasma of the early universe that stopped at the recombination time. This feature can be observed as a localized bump in the correlation function at the scale of the sound horizon r{sub s} . As such, it provides a standard ruler and a lot of constraining power in the correlation function analysis of galaxy surveys. Moreover, the detection of BAOs at the expected scale gives strong support to cosmological models. Both of these studies (BAO detection and parameter constraints) rely on a statistical modeling of the measured correlation function {xi}-circumflex. Usually {xi}-circumflex is assumed to be Gaussian, with a mean {xi}{sub {theta}} depending on the cosmological model and a covariance matrix C generally approximated as a constant (i.e., independent of the model). In this article, we study whether a realistic model-dependent C {sub {theta}} changes the results of cosmological parameter constraints compared to the approximation of a constant covariance matrix C. For this purpose, we use a new procedure to generate lognormal realizations of the luminous red galaxy sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 to obtain a model-dependent C {sub {theta}} in a reasonable time. The approximation of C {sub {theta}} as a constant creates small changes in the cosmological parameter constraints on our sample. We quantify this modeling error using a lot of simulations and find that it only has a marginal influence on cosmological parameter constraints for current and next-generation galaxy surveys. It can be approximately taken into account by extending the 1{sigma} intervals by a factor Almost-Equal-To 1.3.

  5. Electron-impact study of SiN using the R-matrix method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Savinder; Baluja, Kasturi L.

    2015-03-01

    We have carried out a comprehensive study of electron-impact on an open-shell SiN molecule by using the R-matrix method. Elastic (integrated and differential), momentum-transfer, excitation and ionization cross sections, along with efffective collision frequencies over a wide electron temperature range (100-100 000 K) have been presented. The target states are represented by including correlations via a configuration interaction formalism. The results of the static-exchange, one-state and 28-state close-coupling approximation are presented. Our study has detected a shape resonance, two core-excited and three Feshbach resonances in the 28-state model. All calculations are done in C 2 v point group. We detect a stable bound state of SiN- of 1 A 1 symmetry having configuration ...7 σ 2, 1 π 4,2 π 4 with a Vertical Electronic Affinity value of 2.86 eV which is in good agreement with the experimental (adiabatic) value of 2.949 ± 0.008 eV. The ionization cross sections are calculated using the Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) Model in which molecular orbitals at self-consistent Hartree-Fock (HF) level are used to calculate kinetic and binding energies of the occupied molecular orbitals. For scattering calculations we have used partial waves up to l = 4 to represent continuum electron in our R-matrix approach. A Born top-up procedure is invoked for dipole-allowed transitions to account for the contribution of partial waves higher than l = 4 to obtain converged cross-sections.

  6. Mercury chemistry in the MBL: Modeling results including Hg + halogen atom reaction rate constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedgecock, I. M.; Pirrone, N.

    2003-04-01

    The inclusion, of recently published kinetic data for the reactions between gas phase elemental Hg and halogen atoms and molecules, in a photochemical box model including aerosols of the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL), suggests that the cycling of Hg over the world's oceans may be much more dynamic than was once thought, as a direct result of halogen activation from marine aerosols. The rate of gas phase oxidation of Hg(0) in the model leads to high concentrations of gas phase oxidised Hg (Hg(II)), which is deposited to the sea surface either directly from the gas phase or indirectly via scavenging by sea salt and non-sea-salt sulphate aerosol particles and subsequent deposition. The model base run predicts Hg(II) concentrations higher than those measured in the marine atmosphere, and a lifetime for Hg(0) of a matter of days, rather than months as has been generally assumed. In light of previous measurements and the known stability of the hemispherical background concentration of Hg(0) the influence of liquid water content (the number of deliquescent aerosol droplets), cloud optical depth at the top of the boundary layer, and the Henry's Law constants for HgCl2 and HgBr2 have been investigated. In order to maintain a stable background concentration of Hg(0) a source strength (for emission from the sea, or entrainment from the free troposphere) of at least 15 ng m-2 hr-1 is required, which seems most unlikely considering results from flux chamber experiments. The model therefore either overestimates the rate of gas phase oxidation or lacks a fundamental reduction process. The evidence from studies of mercury depletion events in the Arctic troposphere lend support to the fast reaction between Hg(0) and Br containing radicals which have been included in the model, it is necessary therefore to investigate homogeneous and heterogeneous mechanisms for the reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0) in order to explain the measured Hg(II) concentrations in the MBL and the stable

  7. Number of CuO2 layers dependence of magnetic quantum criticality in homogeneously doped high-T copper oxides: A 63Cu-NMR study on four-layered high-T compounds HgBa2Ca3Cu4O8+y

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itohara, Keita; Shimizu, Sunao; Mukuda, Hidekazu; Kitaoka, Yoshio; Shirage, Parasharam M.; Kito, Hijiri; Iyo, Akira

    2010-12-01

    We report 63Cu-NMR/NQR studies on Hg-based four-layered compounds HgBa2Ca3Cu4 O8+y (Hg-1234) with T=123, 110, and 95 K. The 63Cu Knight shift measurements have revealed that the carrier density (N) monotonously decreases with decreasing T. Although static magnetic order was not observed at N=0.15 for the IP with T=95K, it was revealed that antiferromagnetic correlations critically develop, preventing from observing the NMR spectrum below ˜200 K far above T. Thus, we deduce that a magnetic quantum critical point, where an AFM order collapses, may exist at slightly less than N˜0.15 in the Hg-based four-layered compounds, which is lower than that in Hg-based five-layered compounds, N˜0.17. This result suggests that a magnetic interlayer coupling, which stabilizes an AFM order, becomes weaker in the four-layered compounds than in five-layered compounds.

  8. HgCdTe Surface Study Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    Spectroscopy, in: Optical Properties of Solids , Ed. Berlin, 1976). B.O. Seraphin (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1976). [31 S.P. Kowalczyk and J.T. Cheung, J... Optical Properties of Solids -New Developments, work edited by B. 0. Seraphin (North-Holland, Amsterdam, This work was supported by U. S. Defense Ad

  9. Homogenous implant in rat tibias of matrix preserved in 98% glycerin: histomorphologic study.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, T; Kira, M E; Okamoto, R; Garcia Júnior, I R; Niccoli Filho, W D

    2000-01-01

    As a chemical medium for preservation of tissues, glycerin has shown good results because it maintains the cellular integrity despite the tissue dehydration it causes. Taking advantage of the osteoinducing properties of the osseous matrix and glycerin as a proper medium for tissue preservation, osseous matrix was implanted in rat tibias. Twenty-four rats were used, each receiving two surgical wounds. In one of the wounds an osseous matrix preserved in 98% glycerin was implanted and the other received a matrix without preservatives. Six animals were sacrificed on days 10, 20, 30 and 60 post-implant. After routine histological processing, the specimens were stained in hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome. The results showed that the matrixes preserved in glycerin presented faster resorption with replacement by newly formed tissue.

  10. A Comparative Study of Collagen Matrix Density Effect on Endothelial Sprout Formation Using Experimental and Computational Approaches.

    PubMed

    Shamloo, Amir; Mohammadaliha, Negar; Heilshorn, Sarah C; Bauer, Amy L

    2016-04-01

    A thorough understanding of determining factors in angiogenesis is a necessary step to control the development of new blood vessels. Extracellular matrix density is known to have a significant influence on cellular behaviors and consequently can regulate vessel formation. The utilization of experimental platforms in combination with numerical models can be a powerful method to explore the mechanisms of new capillary sprout formation. In this study, using an integrative method, the interplay between the matrix density and angiogenesis was investigated. Owing the fact that the extracellular matrix density is a global parameter that can affect other parameters such as pore size, stiffness, cell-matrix adhesion and cross-linking, deeper understanding of the most important biomechanical or biochemical properties of the ECM causing changes in sprout morphogenesis is crucial. Here, we implemented both computational and experimental methods to analyze the mechanisms responsible for the influence of ECM density on the sprout formation that is difficult to be investigated comprehensively using each of these single methods. For this purpose, we first utilized an innovative approach to quantify the correspondence of the simulated collagen fibril density to the collagen density in the experimental part. Comparing the results of the experimental study and computational model led to some considerable achievements. First, we verified the results of the computational model using the experimental results. Then, we reported parameters such as the ratio of proliferating cells to migrating cells that was difficult to obtain from experimental study. Finally, this integrative system led to gain an understanding of the possible mechanisms responsible for the effect of ECM density on angiogenesis. The results showed that stable and long sprouts were observed at an intermediate collagen matrix density of 1.2 and 1.9 mg/ml due to a balance between the number of migrating and proliferating

  11. Prospective study of single-stage repair of contaminated hernias using a biologic porcine tissue matrix: the RICH Study.

    PubMed

    Itani, Kamal M F; Rosen, Michael; Vargo, Daniel; Awad, Samir S; Denoto, George; Butler, Charles E

    2012-09-01

    In the presence of contamination, the repair of a ventral incisional hernia (VIH) is challenging. The presence of comorbidities poses an additional risk for postoperative wound events and hernia recurrence. To date, very few studies describe the outcomes of VIH repair in this high-risk population. A prospective, multicenter, single-arm, the Repair of Infected or Contaminated Hernias study was performed to study the clinical outcomes of open VIH repair of contaminated abdominal defects with a non-cross-linked, porcine, acellular dermal matrix, Strattice. Of 85 patients who consented to participate, 80 underwent open VIH repair with Strattice. Hernia defects were 'clean-contaminated' (n = 39), 'contaminated' (n = 39), or 'dirty' (n = 2), and the defects were classified as grade 3 (n = 60) or grade 4 (n = 20). The midline was restored, and primary closure was achieved in 64 patients; the defect was bridged in 16 patients. At 24 months, 53 patients (66%) experienced 95 wound events. There were 28 unique, infection-related events in 24 patients. Twenty-two patients experienced seromas, all but 5 of which were transient and required no intervention. No unanticipated adverse events occurred, and no tissue matrix required complete excision. There were 22 hernia (28%) recurrences by month 24. There was no correlation between infection-related events and hernia recurrence. The use of the intact, non-cross-linked, porcine, acellular dermal matrix, Strattice, in the repair of contaminated VIH in high-risk patients allowed for successful, single-stage reconstruction in >70% of patients followed for 24 months after repair. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  12. Matrix-isolation study and ab initio calculations of the structure and spectra of hydroxyacetone.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Archna; Reva, Igor; Fausto, Rui

    2008-07-03

    The structure of hydroxyacetone (HA) isolated in an argon matrix (at 12 K) and in a neat solid phase (at 12-175 K) was characterized by using infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The interpretation of the experimental results was supported by high-level quantum chemical calculations, undertaken by using both ab initio (MP2) and density functional theory methods. A potential-energy surface scan, carried out at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory, predicted four nonequivalent minima, Cc, Tt, Tg, and Ct, all of them doubly degenerate by symmetry. The energy barriers for conversion between most of the symmetrically related structures and also between some of the nonequivalent minima (e.g., Tg --> Tt and Ct --> Tt) are very small and stay below the zero-point vibrational level associated with the isomerization coordinate in the higher-energy form in each pair. Therefore, only Cc and Tt conformers have physical significance, with populations of 99 and 1%, respectively, in gas phase at room temperature. For the matrix-isolated compound, only the most stable Cc conformer was observed. On the other hand, the polarizable continuum model calculations indicated that in water solution, the population of Tt and Ct conformers might be high enough (ca. 6 and 11%, respectively) to enable their experimental detection, thus supporting the conclusions of a previous IR spectroscopy study [ Spectrochim. Acta A 2005, 61, 477] in which the presence of more than one HA conformer in aqueous solution was postulated. The signatures of these minor conformers, however, do not appear in the spectra of the neat HA crystal, and the crystal structure was rationalized in terms of centrosymmetric hydrogen-bonded dimers consisting of two Cc-like units. Finally, we calculated (1)H, (13)C, and (17)O NMR chemical shifts at different levels of theory and found them to agree with available experimental data.

  13. Mueller-matrix ellipsometry studies of optically active structures in scarab beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järrendahl, K.; Landin, J.; Arwin, H.

    2010-06-01

    The complexity of multilayers, photonic crystals, metamaterials and other artificial materials has promoted the use of spectroscopic, variable angle, generalized and Mueller-matrix ellipsometry. Naturally occurring structures may show even higher complexity than artificial structures but with a more narrow range of constituent materials. Fascinating reflection properties result from intricate photonic structures in, for instance, the wing scales and cuticles of insects. Currently there is a large interest to explore such functional supramolecular architectures for exploitation in nanotechnology. In this study, Mueller-matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry is applied in the spectral range of 250 to 1000 nm to investigate optical response and structures of the cuticle of Scarab beetles of the Cetoniinae subfamily. The cuticle of Cetonia aurata (the rose chafer, la cétoine dorée) is green with a metallic appearance and reflects left-handed circular/elliptically polarized light. It has been suggested that the polarization of this metallic gloss is caused by a helical structure in the chitinous cuticle. We find that the polarization effect is limited to the narrow spectral range 470-550 nm whereas for shorter or longer wavelengths the reflection properties are similar to those from a near-dielectric material. Model calculations and parameterization of the nanostructure employing a heliocoidal structure are discussed. As a comparison the polarization effects from light reflected from two other beetles will be presented. Coptomia laevis has a similar appearance as Cetonia aurata but has very different polarization properties. The golden Plusiotis argentiola has very interesting properties showing both left and right-handed polarization depending on incidence angle and wavelength.

  14. Evaluating the role of re-adsorption of dissolved Hg(2+) during cinnabar dissolution using isotope tracer technique.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ping; Li, Yanbin; Liu, Guangliang; Yang, Guidi; Lagos, Leonel; Yin, Yongguang; Gu, Baohua; Jiang, Guibin; Cai, Yong

    2016-11-05

    Cinnabar dissolution is an important factor controlling mercury (Hg) cycling. Recent studies have suggested the co-occurrence of re-adsorption of the released Hg during the course of cinnabar dissolution. However, there is a lack of feasible techniques that can quantitatively assess the amount of Hg re-adsorbed on cinnabar when investigating cinnabar dissolution. In this study, a new method, based on isotope tracing and dilution techniques, was developed to study the role of Hg re-adsorption in cinnabar dissolution. The developed method includes two key components: (1) accurate measurement of both released and spiked Hg in aqueous phase and (2) estimation of re-adsorbed Hg on cinnabar surface via the reduction in spiked (202)Hg(2+). By adopting the developed method, it was found that the released Hg for trials purged with oxygen could reach several hundred μgL(-1), while no significant cinnabar dissolution was detected under anaerobic condition. Cinnabar dissolution rate when considering Hg re-adsorption was approximately 2 times the value calculated solely with the Hg detected in the aqueous phase. These results suggest that ignoring the Hg re-adsorption process can significantly underestimate the importance of cinnabar dissolution, highlighting the necessity of applying the developed method in future cinnabar dissolution studies.

  15. Evaluating the role of re-adsorption of dissolved Hg2+ during cinnabar dissolution using isotope tracer technique

    DOE PAGES

    Jiang, Ping; Li, Yanbin; Liu, Guangliang; ...

    2016-06-02

    Cinnabar dissolution is an important factor controlling mercury (Hg) cycling. Recent studies have suggested the co-occurrence of re-adsorption of the released Hg during the course of cinnabar dissolution. However, there is a lack of feasible techniques that can quantitatively assess the amount of Hg re-adsorbed on cinnabar when investigating cinnabar dissolution. In this study, a new method, based on isotope tracing and dilution techniques, was developed to study the role of Hg re-adsorption in cinnabar dissolution. The developed method includes two key components: (1) accurate measurement of both released and spiked Hg in aqueous phase and (2) estimation of re-adsorbedmore » Hg on cinnabar surface via the reduction in spiked 202Hg2+. By adopting the developed method, it was found that the released Hg for trials purged with oxygen could reach several hundred g L–1, while no significant cinnabar dissolution was detected under anaerobic condition. Cinnabar dissolution rate when considering Hg re-adsorption was approximately 2 times the value calculated solely with the Hg detected in the aqueous phase. Lastly, these results suggest that ignoring the Hg re-adsorption process can significantly underestimate the importance of cinnabar dissolution, highlighting the necessity of applying the developed method in future cinnabar dissolution studies.« less

  16. Quasiparticle excitations in superdeformed [sup 192]Hg

    SciTech Connect

    Fallon, P. ); Lauritsen, T.; Ahmad, I.; Carpenter, M.P. ); Cederwall, B.; Clark, R.M. ); Crowell, B. ); Deleplanque, M.A.; Diamond, R.M. ); Gall, B.; Hannachi, F. ); Henry, R.G.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Khoo, T.L. ); Korichi, A. ); Lee, I.Y.; Macchiavelli, A.O. (Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence

    1995-04-01

    For the first time, two excited superdeformed (SD) bands have been observed in the double closed shell superdeformed nucleus [sup 192]Hg. One of the SD bands exhibits a pronounced peak in the dynamic moment of inertia which is interpreted as a crossing between two excited SD configurations involving the [ital N]=7 intruder and the [512]5/2 orbitals. This is only the second occurrence of such a crossing in a SD nucleus around [ital A]=190. The second excited SD band has near identical transition energies to an excited SD band in [sup 191]Hg.

  17. Impact of Land Use on the Mobility of Hg Species in Different Compartments of a Tropical Watershed in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Clara Ayume Ito; de Almeida, Marcelo Gomes; Pestana, Inacio Abreu; Bastos, Wanderley R; do Nascimento Recktenvald, Maria Cristina Nery; de Souza, Cristina Maria Magalhães; Pedrosa, Paulo

    2017-09-09

    This study evaluated the levels of total Hg and CH3Hg(+) from a comprehensive perspective, considering the retention, leaching, and deposition of these contaminants in the main compartments (soil, plant litter, and sediment) of three landscapes (Atlantic Forest, pasture, and agricultural area) in a watershed in northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Variables analyzed were total Hg, CH3Hg(+), organic carbon, total nitrogen, grain size, and surface area. In soil samples, total Hg levels were the highest in agricultural soil followed by forest soil and pasture (97.3, 87.6, and 77.1 ng g(-1), respectively), and CH3Hg(+) was lower than 1.7%. Total Hg levels in leaf litter varied between 22.6 and 34.2 ng g(-1), and CH3Hg(+) was 4.37%. In sediment, Hg (60-180 ng g(-1)) and CH3Hg(+) (<1%) indicate the transport of these contaminants from soils to this compartment and may be associated with soil use and cover. Multiple regressions were used to understand the dispersion of Hg species, and the effect of each variable varied with the landscape, showing that plant cover should not be ignored in investigations related to Hg species retention in a watershed. The landscapes surveyed in the present study clearly influence the quantitative and qualitative distribution of Hg species. On the other hand, anthropic processes associated with changes in soil use did not have any critical effects on the absolute levels of total Hg and CH3Hg(+), meaning that the landscapes evaluated seem to represent the background concentration of these chemical species for the evaluated watershed.

  18. Effect of carboxylic and thiol ligands (oxalate, cysteine) on the kinetics of desorption of Hg(II) from kaolinite

    SciTech Connect

    Senevirathna, W. U.; Zhang, Hong; Gu, Baohua

    2010-01-01

    Sorption and desorption of Hg(II) on clay minerals can impact the biogeochemical cycle and bio-uptake of Hg in the environment. We studied the kinetics of the desorption of Hg(II) from kaolinite as affected by oxalate and cysteine, representing the ligands with carboxylic and thiol groups of different affinities for Hg(II). The effects of pH (3, 5, and 7), ligand concentration (0.25 and 1.0 mM), and temperature (15 C, 25 C, and 35 C) on the Hg(II) desorption were investigated through desorption kinetics. Our study showed that the Hg(II) desorption was pH dependent. In the absence of any organic ligand, >90% of the previously adsorbed Hg(II) desorbed at pH 3 within 2 h, compared to <10% at pH 7. Similar results were observed in the presence of oxalate, showing that it hardly affected the Hg(II) desorption. Cysteine inhibited the Hg(II) desorption significantly at all the pH tested, especially in the first 80 min with the desorption less than 20%, but the inhibition of the desorption appeared to be less prominent afterwards. The effect of the ligand concentration on the Hg(II) desorption was small, especially in the presence of oxalate. The effect of temperature on the Hg(II) desorption was nearly insignificant. The effect of the organic acids on the Hg(II) sorption and desorption is explained by the formation of the ternary surface complexes involving the mineral, ligand, and Hg(II). The competition for Hg(II) between the cysteine molecules adsorbed on the particle surfaces and in the solution phase probably can also affect the Hg(II) desorption.

  19. Immunotoxic effects of chemicals: A matrix for occupational and environmental epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Veraldi, Angela; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Bolejack, Vanessa; Miligi, Lucia; Vineis, Paolo; van Loveren, Henk

    2006-12-01

    Many biological and chemical agents have the capacity to alter the way the immune system functions in human and animals. This study evaluates the immunotoxicity of 20 substances used widely in work environments. A systematic literature search on the immunotoxicity of 20 chemicals was performed. The first step was to review literature on immunotoxicity testing and testing schemes adopted for establishing immunotoxicity in humans. The second step consisted of providing a documentation on immunotoxicity of substances that are widely used in work environment, by building tables for each chemical of interest (benzene, trichloroethylene, PAHs, crystalline silica, diesel exhausts, welding fumes, asbestos, styrene, formaldehyde, toluene, vinyl chloride monomer, tetrachloroethylene, chlorophenols, 1,3-butadiene, mineral oils, P-dichlorobenzene, dichloromethane, xylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, ethylene oxide). The third step was the classification of substances; an index (strong, intermediate, weak, nil) was assigned on the basis of the evidence of toxicity and type of immunotoxic effects (immunosuppression, autoimmunity, hypersensitivity) on the basis of the immune responses. Finally substances were assigned a score of immunotoxic power. Tables have been produced that include information for the 20 substances of interest, based on 227 animal studies and 94 human studies. Each substance was assigned an index