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Sample records for hg0 oxidative absorption

  1. Hg0 absorption in potassium persulfate solution*

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qun-feng; Wang, Cheng-yun; Wang, Da-hui; Sun, Guan; Xu, Xin-hua

    2006-01-01

    The aqueous phase oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) by potassium persulfate (KPS) catalyzed by Ag+ was investigated using a glass bubble column reactor. Concentration of gaseous mercury and potassium persulfate were measured by cold vapor atom absorption (CVAA) and ion chromatograph (IC), respectively. The effects of pH value, concentration of potassium persulfate and silver nitrate (SN), temperature, Hg0 concentration in the reactor inlet and tertiary butanol (TBA), free radical scavenger, on the removal efficiency of Hg0 were studied. The results showed that the removal efficiency of Hg0 increased with increasing concentration of potassium persulfate and silver nitrate, while temperature and TBA were negatively effective. Furthermore, the removal efficiency of Hg0 was much better in neutral solution than in both acidic and alkaline solution. But the influence of pH was almost eliminated by adding AgNO3. High Hg0 concentration has positive effect. The possible reaction mechanism of gaseous mercury was also discussed. PMID:16615172

  2. Diel variations in photoinduced oxidation of Hg0 in freshwater.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Edenise; Poulain, Alexandre J; Amyot, Marc; Ariya, Parisa A

    2005-05-01

    Experiments have been conducted to determine diel variations in photoinduced Hg0 oxidation in lake water under natural Hg0(aq) concentrations. Pseudo-first-order rates of photooxidation (k') were calculated for water freshly collected in a Canadian Shield lake, Lake Croche (45 degrees 56' N, 74 degrees 00' W), at different periods of the day and subsequently incubated in the dark. Hg0 oxidation rates ranged from 0.02 to 0.07 h(-1), increasing from sunrise to noon and then decreasing throughout the remainder of the day. These changes paralleled those in sunlight intensity integrated over 1 h preceding water collection, and suggested that the water freshly collected in daylight was rich in photochemically produced Hg0 oxidants. It was also estimated that under intense solar radiation, even if oxidation rates reached a peak, reduction of Hg(II) was the prevalent redox process. Inversely, Hg0 oxidation overcame DGM production during the night or at periods of weaker light intensity. Overall, these findings explain the decreases in the DGM pool generally observed overnight. They also support previous reports that, during summer days, volatilization of Hg0 from water represent an important step in the Hg cycle in freshwater systems.

  3. A novel oxidative method for the absorption of Hg(0) from flue gas of coal fired power plants using task specific ionic liquid scrubber.

    PubMed

    Barnea, Zach; Sachs, Tatyana; Chidambaram, Mandan; Sasson, Yoel

    2013-01-15

    A simple continuous process is described for the removal of mercury from gas streams (such as flue gas of a coal fired power stations) using imidazolium based Task Specific Ionic Liquids [TSILs] with the general structure ([RMIM][XI(2)(-)]) where X=Cl, Br or I. The latter are formed by blending dialkylimidazolium halide salts with iodine. When applied in a gas/liquid scrubber, these salts were shown to absorb >99% of elemental mercury originally present in a gas stream in concentration of 75-400 ppb. The mercury abatement is attained by oxidating the mercury to HgI(2) which is bound as a stable IL complex ([RMIM(+)][XHgI(2)(-)]. The novel absorption system exhibits a remarkable mercury concentration factor of seven orders of magnitude. The final solution obtained contains up to 50% (w/w) mercury in the IL. Upon exposure to sodium formate, directly added to the saturated IL at 45 °C, reduced metallic mercury swiftly precipitated from the solution and could be quantitatively separated and collected. The free IL could be fully recycled.

  4. [Removal of NO and Hg0 in flue gas using alkaline absorption enhanced by non-thermal plasma].

    PubMed

    Luo, Hong-Jing; Zhu, Tian-Le; Wang, Mei-Yan

    2010-06-01

    Non-thermal plasma (NTP) induced by positive corona discharge was utilized to oxidize NO and Hg0 to more water-soluble NO2 and Hg2+ under the conditions of simulated flue gas. The effects of discharge voltage and inlet SO2 and NO concentrations on NO and Hg0 oxidation and their removals by alkaline absorption were investigated. The results show that the oxidation and removal of NO and Hg0 are enhanced with the increase of discharge voltage. The concentrations of NO and NO2 at the outlet of absorption tower are 0 and 69 mg/m3 with an inlet NO concentration of 134 mg/m3 and a discharge voltage of 12. 8 kV while the outlet concentrations of Hg0 and Hg2+ are 22 microg/m3 and 11 microg/m3 with an inlet Hg0 concentration of 110 microg/m3 and a discharge voltage of 13.1 kV. The presence of SO2 slightly improves the oxidation and removal of Hg0 while it has almost no effect on NO oxidation and its removal. The oxidation and removal of Hg0 are significantly inhibited with the increase of inlet NO concentration. In the coexistence of 800 mg/m3 SO2, 134 mg/m3 NO and 110 microg/m3 Hg0, the removal efficiencies are 57% for NO and 31% for Hg0 with an energy input of 77 J/L.

  5. Simultaneous oxidation of NO, SO2 and Hg0 from flue gas by pulsed corona discharge.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei; Luo, Zhongyang; Cao, Wei; Wang, Peng; Wei, Bo; Gao, Xiang; Fang, Mengxiang; Cen, Kefa

    2009-01-01

    A process capable of simultaneously oxidizing NO, SO2, and Hg0 was proposed, using a high-voltage and short-duration positive pulsed corona discharge. By focusing on NO, SO2, and Hg0 oxidation efficiencies, the influences of pulse peak voltage, pulse frequency, initial concentration, electrode number, residence time and water vapor addition were investigated. The results indicate that NO, SO2 and Hg0 oxidation efficiencies depend primarily on the radicals (OH, HO2, O) and the active species (O3, H2O2, etc.) produced by the pulsed corona discharge. The NO, SO2 and Hg0 oxidation efficiencies could be improved as pulse peak voltage, pulse frequency, electrode number and residence time increased, but they were reduced with increasing initial concentrations. By adding water vapor, the SO2 oxidation efficiency was improved remarkably, while the NO oxidation efficiency decreased slightly. In our experiments, the simultaneous NO, SO2, and Hg0 oxidation efficiencies reached to 40%, 98%, and 55% with the initial concentrations 479 mg/m3, 1040 mg/m3, and 15.0 microg/m3, respectively.

  6. NOVEL ECONOMICAL HG(0) OXIDATION REAGENT FOR MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors have developed a novel economical additive for elemental mercury (Hg0) removal from coal-fired boilers. The oxidation reagent was rigorously tested in a lab-scale fixed-bed column with the Norit America's FGD activated carbon (DOE's benchmark sorbent) in a typical PRB...

  7. Microbial Oxidation of Hg(0) - Its Effect on Hg Stable Isotope Fractionation and Methylmercury Production

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, Nathan; Barkay, Tamar; Reinfelder, John

    2016-06-28

    Mercury (Hg) associated with mixed waste generated by nuclear weapons manufacturing has contaminated vast areas of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg) has been formed from the inorganic Hg wastes discharged into headwaters of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). Thus, understanding the processes and mechanisms that lead to Hg methylation along the flow path of EFPC is critical to predicting the impacts of the contamination and the design of remedial action at the ORR. In part I of our project, we investigated Hg(0) oxidation and methylation by anaerobic bacteria. We discovered that the anaerobic bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 can oxidize elemental mercury [Hg(0)]. When provided with dissolved elemental mercury, D. desulfuricans ND132 converts Hg(0) to Hg(II) and neurotoxic methylmercury [MeHg]. We also demonstrated that diverse species of subsurface bacteria oxidizes dissolved elemental mercury under anoxic conditions. The obligate anaerobic bacterium Geothrix fermentans H5, and the facultative anaerobic bacteria Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and Cupriavidus metallidurans AE104 can oxidize Hg(0) to Hg(II) under anaerobic conditions. In part II of our project, we established anaerobic enrichment cultures and obtained new bacterial strains from the DOE Oak Ridge site. We isolated three new bacterial strains from subsurface sediments collected from Oak Ridge. These isolates are Bradyrhizobium sp. strain FRC01, Clostridium sp. strain FGH, and a novel Negativicutes strain RU4. Strain RU4 is a completely new genus and species of bacteria. We also demonstrated that syntrophic interactions between fermentative bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria in Oak Ridge saprolite mediate iron reduction via multiple mechanisms. Finally, we tested the impact of Hg on denitrification in nitrate reducing enrichment cultures derived from subsurface sediments from the Oak Ridge site, where nitrate is a major contaminant. We showed that there is an inverse

  8. A theoretical study of the oxidation of Hg0 to HgBr2 in the troposphere.

    PubMed

    Goodsite, M E; Plane, J M C; Skov, H

    2004-03-15

    The oxidation of elemental mercury (Hg0) to the divalent gaseous mercury dibromide (HgBr2) has been proposed to account for the removal of Hg0 during depletion events in the springtime Arctic. The mechanism of this process is explored in this paper by theoretical calculations of the relevant rate coefficients. Rice-Ramsberger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) theory, together with ab initio quantum calculations where required, are used to estimate the following: recombination rate coefficients of Hg with Br, I, and O; the thermal dissociation rate coefficient of HgBr; and the recombination rate coefficients of HgBr with Br, I, OH, and O2. A mechanism based on the initial recombination of Hg with Br, followed by the addition of a second radical (Br, I, or OH) in competition with thermal dissociation of HgBr, is able to account for the observed rate of Hg0 removal, both in Arctic depletion events and at lower latitudes.

  9. Catalytic oxidation of Hg(0) by MnOx-CeO2/γ-Al2O3 catalyst at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengying; Su, Sheng; Xiang, Jun; You, Huawei; Cao, Fan; Sun, Lushi; Hu, Song; Zhang, Yun

    2014-04-01

    MnOx-CeO2/γ-Al2O3 (MnCe) selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts prepared by sol-gel method were employed for low-temperature Hg(0) oxidation on a fixed-bed experimental setup. BET, XRD and XPS were used to characterize the catalysts. MnCe catalysts exhibited high Hg(0) oxidation activity at low temperatures (100-250 °C) under the simulated flue gas (O2, CO2, NO, SO2, HCl, H2O and balanced with N2). Only a small decrease in mercury oxidation was observed in the presence of 1200 ppm SO2, which proved that the addition of Ce helped resist SO2 poisoning. An enhancing effect of NO was observed due to the formation of multi-activity NOx species. The presence of HCl alone had excellent Hg(0) oxidation ability, while 10 ppm HCl plus 5% O2 further increased Hg(0) oxidation efficiency to 100%. Hg(0) oxidation on the MnCe catalyst surface followed the Langmiur-Hinshelwood mechanism, where reactions took place between the adsorbed active species and adsorbed Hg(0) to form Hg(2+). NH3 competed with Hg(0) for active sites on the catalyst surface, hence inhibiting Hg(0) oxidation. This study shows the feasibility of a single-step process integrating low-temperature SCR and Hg(0) oxidation from the coal combustion flue gas.

  10. Role of NO in Hg(0) oxidation over a commercial selective catalytic reduction catalyst V2O5-WO3/TiO2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruihui; Xu, Wenqing; Tong, Li; Zhu, Tingyu

    2015-12-01

    Experiments were conducted in a fixed-bed reactor that contained a commercial catalyst, V2O5-WO3/TiO2, to investigate mercury oxidation in the presence of NO and O2. Mercury oxidation was improved by NO, and the efficiency was increased by simultaneously adding NO and O2. With NO and O2 pretreatment at 350°C, the catalyst exhibited higher catalytic activity for Hg(0) oxidation, whereas NO pretreatment did not exert a noticeable effect. Decreasing the reaction temperature boosted the performance of the catalyst treated with NO and O2. Although NO promoted Hg(0) oxidation at the very beginning, excessive NO counteracted this effect. The results show that NO plays different roles in Hg(0) oxidation; NO in the gaseous phase may directly react with the adsorbed Hg(0), but excessive NO hinders Hg(0) adsorption. The adsorbed NO was converted into active nitrogen species (e.g., NO2) with oxygen, which facilitated the adsorption and oxidation of Hg(0). Hg(0) was oxidized by NO mainly by the Eley-Rideal mechanism. The Hg(0) temperature-programmed desorption experiment showed that weakly adsorbed mercury species were converted to strongly bound ones in the presence of NO and O2.

  11. SIMULTANEOUS CONTROL OF HG(0), SO2, AND NOX BY NOVEL OXIDIZED CALCIUM-BASED SORBENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an investigation of two classes of calcium (Ca)-based sorbents (hydrated limes and silicate compounds). {NOTE: Efforts to develop multipollutant control strategies have demonstrated that adding certain oxidants to different classes of Ca-based sorbents ...

  12. Photocatalytic oxidation removal of Hg0 using ternary Ag/AgI-Ag2CO3 hybrids in wet scrubbing process under fluorescent light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Anchao; Zhang, Lixiang; Chen, Xiaozhuan; Zhu, Qifeng; Liu, Zhichao; Xiang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    A series of ternary Ag/AgI-Ag2CO3 photocatalysts synthesized using a facile coprecipitation method were employed to investigate their performances of Hg0 removal in a wet scrubbing reactor. The hybrids were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, SEM-EDS, HRTEM, XPS, DRS and ESR. The photocatalytic activities of Hg0 removal were evaluated under fluorescent light. The results showed that AgI content, fluorescent light irradiation, reaction temperature all showed significant influences on Hg0 removal. NO exhibited significant effect on Hg0 removal in comparison to SO2. Among these ternary Ag/AgI-Ag2CO3 hybrids, Ag/AgI(0.1)-Ag2CO3 showed the highest Hg0 removal efficiency, which could be ascribed to the effective separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs between AgI and Ag2CO3 and the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect in the visible region by metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag0 NPs). The trapping studies of reactive radicals showed that the superoxide radicals (rad O2-) may play a key role in Hg0 removal under fluorescent light. According to the experimental and characterization results, a possible photocatalytic oxidation mechanism for enhanced Hg0 removal over Ag/AgI(0.1)-Ag2CO3 hybrid under fluorescent light was proposed.

  13. Effects of properties of manganese oxide-impregnated catalysts and flue gas condition on multipollutant control of Hg0 and NO.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chun-Hsiang; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Lin, Hong-Ping; Chang, Tien-Chin

    2015-06-30

    This research investigated the effects of manganese oxide (MnOx) impregnation on the physical/chemical properties and multi pollutant control effectiveness of Hg(0) and NO using a V2O5-WO3/TiO2-SiO2 selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst. Raw and MnOx-treated SCR samples were bean-shaped nanoparticles with sizes within 10-30 nm. Impregnating MnOx of ≤ 5 wt% caused limited changes in physical properties of the catalyst. The decrease in surface area when the impregnated MnOx amount was 10 wt% may stem from the pore blockage and particle growth or aggregation of the catalyst. Mn(4+) was the main valence state of impregnated MnOx. Apparent crystallinity of MnOx was not observed based on X-ray diffraction. MnOx impregnation enhanced the Hg(0) oxidation and NO/SO2 removal of SCR catalyst. The 5 and 10% MnOx-impregnated samples had the greatest multi pollutant control potentials for Hg(0) oxidation and NO removal; however, the increasing SO2 removal that may be mainly due to SO2-SO3 conversion should be cautioned. HCl and O2 greatly promoted Hg(0) oxidation. SO2 enhanced Hg(0) oxidation at ≤ 200 ppm while NO and NH3 consistently inhibited Hg(0) oxidation. Elevating flue gas temperature enhanced Hg(0) oxidation. Overall, MnOx-impregnated catalysts show stable and consistent multi pollutant removal effectiveness under the test conditions.

  14. Mechanism of Hg(0) oxidation in the presence of HCl over a commercial V2O5-WO3/TiO2 SCR catalyst.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruihui; Xu, Wenqing; Tong, Li; Zhu, Tingyu

    2015-10-01

    Experiments were conducted in a fixed-bed reactor containing a commercial V2O5/WO3/TiO2 catalyst to investigate mercury oxidation in the presence of HCl and O2. Mercury oxidation was improved significantly in the presence of HCl and O2, and the Hg(0) oxidation efficiencies decreased slowly as the temperature increased from 200 to 400°C. Upon pretreatment with HCl and O2 at 350°C, the catalyst demonstrated higher catalytic activity for Hg(0) oxidation. Notably, the effect of pretreatment with HCl alone was not obvious. For the catalyst treated with HCl and O2, better performance was observed with lower reaction temperatures. The results showed that both HCl and Hg(0) were first adsorbed onto the catalyst and then reacted with O2 following its adsorption, which indicates that the oxidation of Hg(0) over the commercial catalyst followed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. Several characterization techniques, including Hg(0) temperature-programmed desorption (Hg-TPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), were employed in this work. Hg-TPD profiles showed that weakly adsorbed mercury species were converted to strongly bound species in the presence of HCl and O2. XPS patterns indicated that new chemisorbed oxygen species were formed by the adsorption of HCl, which consequently facilitated the oxidation of mercury.

  15. Design Strategies for CeO2-MoO3 Catalysts for DeNOx and Hg(0) Oxidation in the Presence of HCl: The Significance of the Surface Acid-Base Properties.

    PubMed

    Chang, Huazhen; Wu, Qingru; Zhang, Tao; Li, Mingguan; Sun, Xiaoxu; Li, Junhua; Duan, Lei; Hao, Jiming

    2015-10-20

    A series of CeMoOx catalysts with different surface Ce/Mo ratios was synthesized by a coprecipitation method via changing precipitation pH value. The surface basicity on selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts (CeMoOx and VMo/Ti) was characterized and correlated to the durability and activity of catalyst for simultaneous elimination of NOx and Hg(0). The pH value in the preparation process affected the surface concentrations of Ce and Mo, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area, and the acid-base properties over the CeMoOx catalysts. The O 1s X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra and CO2-temperature programmed desorption (TPD) suggested that the surface basicity increased as the pH value increased. The existence of strong basic sites contributed to the deactivation effect of HCl over the VMo/Ti and CeMoOx catalysts prepared at pH = 12. For the CeMoOx catalysts prepared at pH = 9 and 6, the appearance of surface molybdena species replaced the surface -OH, and the existence of appropriate medium-strength basic sites contributed to their resistance to HCl poisoning in the SCR reaction. Moreover, these sites facilitated the adsorption and activation of HCl and enhanced Hg(0) oxidation. On the other hand, the inhibitory effect of NH3 on Hg(0) oxidation was correlated with the competitive adsorption of NH3 and Hg(0) on acidic surface sites. Therefore, acidic surface sites may play an important role in Hg(0) adsorption. The characterization and balance of basicity and acidity of an SCR catalyst is believed to be helpful in preventing deactivation by acid gas in the SCR reaction and simultaneous Hg(0) oxidation.

  16. Hg0 removal from flue gas over different zeolites modified by FeCl3.

    PubMed

    Qi, Hao; Xu, Wenqing; Wang, Jian; Tong, Li; Zhu, Tingyu

    2015-02-01

    The elemental mercury removal abilities of three different zeolites (NaA, NaX, HZSM-5) impregnated with iron(III) chloride were studied on a lab-scale fixed-bed reactor. X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption porosimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) analyses were used to investigate the physicochemical properties. Results indicated that the pore structure and active chloride species on the surface of the samples are the key factors for physisorption and oxidation of Hg0, respectively. Relatively high surface area and micropore volume are beneficial to efficient mercury adsorption. The active Cl species generated on the surface of the samples were effective oxidants able to convert elemental mercury (Hg0) into oxidized mercury (Hg2+). The crystallization of NaCl due to the ion exchange effect during the impregnation of NaA and NaX reduced the number of active Cl species on the surface, and restricted the physisorption of Hg0. Therefore, the Hg0 removal efficiencies of the samples were inhibited. The TPD analysis revealed that the species of mercury on the surface of FeCl3-HZSM-5 was mainly in the form of mercuric chloride (HgCl2), while on FeCl3-NaX and FeCl3-NaA it was mainly mercuric oxide (HgO).

  17. Isotopic Composition of Gaseous Elemental Mercury (Hg0) at Various Sites in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamakawa, A.; Moriya, K.; Yoshinaga, J.

    2015-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic heavy metal, which exists in various chemical forms in the environmental system. In the atmosphere, Hg exists in three forms (Hg0(g), Hg+2(g), and Hg(p)). Hg0(g) is the dominant species of atmospheric Hg, accounting for >95% of the total Hg in the atmosphere. Because Hg0(g) is highly volatile and has limited solubility in water, it cannot be easily removed by wet or dry deposition processes. Therefore, the residence time of Hg0(g) in the atmosphere is relatively long (1 to 2 years), allowing long-range transport from mercury emission source(s). Conversely, Hg+2(g) and Hg(p) are effectively removed from the atmosphere through wet and dry depositions. The determination of mercury source attribution using quantitative data is challenging because Hg0(g) may be deposited on an area upon oxidation to Hg+2(g) and associated with aerosols and particulates to form Hg(p) while the global cycling of Hg0(g). Over the last decade, the development of analytical methods of highly precise Hg isotopic measurements demonstrated mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) and mass-independent fractionation (MIF) of Hg isotopes in environmental samples. For instance, MDF of Hg isotopes is thought to occur during various natural and industrial Hg transformations. MIF of Hg isotopes is observed during abiotic reduction, photochemical and non-photochemical, and physical and chemical processes. Such processes lead to differences in the Hg isotopic composition of different emission sources, both natural and anthropogenic, and atmospheric processes (i.e., transportation, oxidation/reduction, deposition, and reemission). Therefore, Hg isotopic compositions could be used to trace the sources and processes of atmospheric Hg. For securing the reliability and accuracy of atmospheric Hg isotope data, the methods of collection, pretreatment, and isotopic measurement for Hg0(g) were developed to obtain high recovery yield of samples with no Hg isotopic fractionation during each

  18. Experimental study on Hg0 removal from flue gas over columnar MnOx-CeO2/activated coke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yine; Li, Caiting; Zhao, Lingkui; Zhang, Jie; Zeng, Guangming; Zhang, Xunan; Zhang, Wei; Tao, Shasha

    2015-04-01

    Mn-Ce mixed oxides supported on commercial columnar activated coke (MnCe/AC) were employed to remove elemental mercury (Hg0) at low temperatures (100-250 °C) without the assistance of HCl in flue gas. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). Effects of some factors, including Mn-Ce loading values, active component, reaction temperatures and flue gas components (O2, SO2, NO, H2O), on Hg0 removal efficiency were investigated. Results indicated that the optimal Mn-Ce loading value and reaction temperature were 6% and 190 °C, respectively. Considerable high Hg0 removal efficiency (>90%) can be obtained over MnCe6/AC under both N2/O2 atmosphere and simulated flue gas atmosphere at 190 °C. Besides, it was observed that O2 and NO exerted a promotional effect on Hg0 removal, H2O exhibited a suppressive effect, and SO2 hindered Hg0 removal seriously when in the absence of O2. Furthermore, the XPS spectra of Hg 4f and Hg-TPD results showed that the captured mercury were existed as Hg0 and HgO on the MnCe6/AC, and HgO was the major species, which illustrated that adsorption and catalytic oxidation process were included for Hg0 removal over MnCe6/AC, and catalytic oxidation played the critical role. What's more, both lattice oxygen and chemisorbed oxygen or OH groups on MnCe6/AC contributed to Hg0 oxidation. MnCe6/AC, which exhibited excellent performance on Hg0 removal in the absence of HCl, appeared to be promising in industrial application, especially for low-rank coal fired flue gas.

  19. Chasing quicksilver: modeling the atmospheric lifetime of Hg(0)(g) in the marine boundary layer at various latitudes.

    PubMed

    Hedgecock, Ian M; Pirrone, Nicola

    2004-01-01

    The lifetime of elemental mercury in the marine boundary layer(MBL) has been studied using AMCOTS (Atmospheric Mercury Chemistry Over The Sea), a box model of MBL photochemistry including aerosols and detailed mercury chemistry. Recently measured Hg(0)(g) oxidation reactions have been included, and the studies were performed as a function of latitude, time of year, boundary layer liquid water content (LWC) and cloud optical depth. The results show that Hg has the shortest lifetime when air temperatures are low and sunlight and deliquescent aerosol particles are plentiful. Thus the modeled lifetime for clear-sky conditions is actually shorter at mid-latitudes and high latitudes than near the equator, and for a given latitude and time of year, cooler temperatures enhance the rate of Hg oxidation. Under typical summer conditions (for a given latitude) of temperature and cloudiness, the lifetime (tau) of Hg(0)(g) in the MBL is calculated to be around 10 days at all latitudes between the equator and 60 degrees N. This is much shorter than the generally accepted atmospheric residence time for Hg(0)(g) of a year or more. Given the relatively stable background concentrations of Hg(0)(g) which have been measured, continual replenishment of Hg(0)(g) must take place, suggesting a "multihop" mechanism for the distribution of Hg, rather than solely aeolian transport with little or no chemical transformation between source and receptor. Inclusion of an empirical Hg(0)(g) emission factor related to insolation was used to stabilize the Hg(0)(g) concentration in the model, and the emission rates necessarily agree well with estimated emission fluxes for the open ocean.

  20. Elemental Mercury in Natural Waters: Occurrence and Determination of Particulate Hg(0).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongmin; Li, Yanbin; Liu, Guangliang; Wang, Dingyong; Jiang, Guibin; Cai, Yong

    2015-08-18

    Elemental mercury, Hg(0), is ubiquitous in water and involved in key Hg biogeochemical processes. It is extensively studied as a purgeable dissolved species, termed dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM). Little information is available regarding nonpurgeable particulate Hg(0) in water, Hg(0) bound to suspended particulate matter (SPM), which is presumably present due to high affinity of Hg(0) adsorption on solids. By employing stable isotope tracer and isotope dilution (ID) techniques, we investigated the occurrence and quantification of particulate Hg(0) after Hg(0) being spiked into natural waters, aiming to provide firsthand information on particulate Hg(0) in water. A considerable fraction of (201)Hg(0) spiked in water (about 70% after 4 h equilibration) was bound to SPM and nonpurgeable, suggesting the occurrence of particulate Hg(0) in natural waters. A scheme, involving isotope dilution, purge and trap, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection, was proposed to quantify particulate Hg(0) by the difference between DGM and total Hg(0), determined immediately and at equilibration after spiking ID Hg isotope, respectively. The application of this newly established method revealed the presence of particulate Hg(0) in Florida Everglades water, as the determined DGM levels (0.14 to 0.22 ng L(-1)) were remarkably lower than total Hg(0) (0.41 to 0.75 ng L(-1)).

  1. Experiments on and mechanism of simultaneous removal of Hg0, SO2 and NO from flus gas using NaClO2 solution.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yi; Ma, Xiaoying; Liu, Songtao; Yao, Jie

    2009-03-01

    Experiments on the simultaneous removal of mercury (Hg0), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitric oxide (NO) from flue gas using sodium chlorite solution (NaClO2) were carried out in a bench-scale bubbling reactor. The effect of initial pH on Hg0 removal efficiency was investigated. The results show that the efficiency of Hg0 removal was higher in acid condition. The effect of the concentrations of SO2 and NO from simulated flue gas on Hg0 removal efficiency with NaClO2 solution was examined. The Hg0 removal efficiency can be significantly improved by adding NO to flue gas, when sufficient NaClO2 solution was available. In the experiment, an amount of NaClO2 was found to be consumed by SO2. The addition of SO2 to simulated flue gas did not significantly affect the efficiency of Hg0 removal. Moreover, under the acid condition, the simultaneous removal of Hg0, SO2 and NO indicated that NaClO2 solution was an excellent absorbent. Finally, the reaction mechanism between Hg0, SO2, NO and NaClO2 is discussed.

  2. Simultaneous removal of NO and Hg(0) over Ce-Cu modified V2O5/TiO2 based commercial SCR catalysts.

    PubMed

    Chi, Guilong; Shen, Boxiong; Yu, Ranran; He, Chuan; Zhang, Xiao

    2017-02-12

    A series of novel Ce-Cu modified V2O5/TiO2 based commercial SCR catalysts were prepared via ultrasonic-assisted impregnation method for simultaneous removal of NO and elemental mercury (Hg(0)). Nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature programmed reduction of H2 (H2-TPR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the catalysts. 7% Ce-1% Cu/SCR catalyst exhibited the highest NO conversion efficiency (>97%) at 200-400°C, as well as the best Hg(0) oxidation activity (>75%) at 150-350°C among all the catalysts. The XPS and H2-TPR results indicated that 7% Ce-1% Cu/SCR possess abundant chemisorbed oxygen and good redox ability, which was due to the strong synergy between Ce and Cu in the catalyst. The existence of the redox cycle of Ce(4+)+Cu(1+)↔Ce(3+)+Cu(2+) could greatly improve the catalytic activity. 7% Ce-1% Cu/SCR showed higher resistance to SO2 and H2O than other catalysts. NO has a promoting effect on Hg(0) oxidation. The Hg(0) oxidation activity was inhibited by the injection of NH3, which was due to the competitive adsorption and oxidized mercury could be reduced by ammonia at temperatures greater than 325°C. Therefore, Hg(0) oxidation could easily occurred at the outlet of SCR catalyst layer due to the consumption of NH3.

  3. Continuous determination of land-atmosphere Hg0 exchange using a novel Relaxed Eddy Accumulation design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterwalder, Stefan; Fritsche, Johannes; Nilsson, Mats B.; Alewell, Christine; Bishop, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    The fate of anthropogenic emissions to the atmosphere is influenced by the exchange of elemental mercury (Hg0) with the earth surface. However, it remains challenging to quantify these exchanges which hold the key to a better understanding of mercury cycling at different scales, from the entire earth to specific environments. To better test hypotheses about land-atmosphere Hg interactions, we applied dynamic flux chambers (DFCs) for short term measurements and developed a novel Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) design for continuous flux monitoring. Accurate determination of Hg0 fluxes has proven difficult due to the technical challenges presented by the small concentration differences (< 1 ng m-3) between updrafts and downdrafts. To address this we present a dual-intake, single analyzer REA system including a calibration module for periodic quality-control measurements with reference gases. To demonstrate the system performance, we present results from two contrasting environments: In February 2012 REA monitored a heterogeneous urban surface in the center of Basel, Switzerland where an average flux of 14 ng m-2 h-1 was detected with a distinct diurnal pattern. In May 2012, the REA monitored a boreal mire in northern Sweden with different turbulence regimes and Hg0 sink/source characteristics. During the snowmelt period in May 2012 the Hg0 flux averaged at 2 ng m-2 h-1. In order to better quantify inputs and outputs of Hg from boreal landscapes, we subsequently monitored the land-atmosphere exchange of Hg0 during a course of a year and compared the fluxes occasionally with DFC measurements. The amount of Hg0 volatilized from boreal mires was at a similar level as the annual export of Hg in stream water, identifying the mire as net source of Hg to neighboring environments. We believe that this dual-inlet, single detector approach is a significant innovation which can help realize the potential of REA for continuous, long-term determination of land-atmosphere Hg0

  4. Salt-marsh plants as potential sources of Hg0 into the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canário, João; Poissant, Laurier; Pilote, Martin; Caetano, Miguel; Hintelmann, Holger; O'Driscoll, Nelson J.

    2017-03-01

    To assess the role of salt-marsh plants on the vegetation-atmospheric Hg0 fluxes, three salt marsh plant species, Halimione portulacoides, Sarcocornia fruticosa and Spartina maritima were selected from a moderately contaminated site in the Tagus estuary during May 2012. Total mercury in stems and leaves for each plant as well as total gaseous mercury and vegetation-air Hg0 fluxes were measured over two continuous days. Mercury fluxes were estimated with a dynamic flux Tedlar® bag coupled to a high-resolution automated mercury analyzer (Tekran 2537A). Other environmental parameters such as air temperature, relative humidity and net solar radiation were also measured aside. H. portulacoides showed the highest total mercury concentrations in stems and leaves and the highest average vegetation-air Hg0 flux (0.48 ± 0.40 ng Hg m-2 h-1). The continuous measurements converged to a daily pattern for all plants, with enhanced fluxes during daylight and lower flux during the night. It is noteworthy that throughout the measurements a negative flux (air-vegetation) was never observed, suggesting the absence of net Hg0 deposition. Based on the above fluxes and the total area occupied by each species we have estimated the total amount of Hg0 emitted from this salt-marsh plants. A daily emission of 1.19 mg Hg d-1 was predicted for the Alcochete marsh and 175 mg Hg d-1 for the entire salt marsh area of the Tagus estuary.

  5. Simultaneous Removal of NO and Hg(0) from Flue Gas over Mn-Ce/Ti-PILCs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yinyin; Shen, Boxiong; He, Chuan; Yue, Shiji; Wang, Fumei

    2015-08-04

    A series of Mn-Ce/Ti-PILCs (PILCs, pillared interlayered clays) catalysts were prepared via impregnation method in simultaneous removal of NO and elemental mercury in simulated flue gas. The physicochemical properties of these catalysts have been examined by some characterization methods, such as H2-TPR, nitrogen adsorption, XRD and XPS. Mn(6%)-Ce(6%)/Ti-PILCs exhibited superior NO conversion (>95%) and Hg(0) removal efficiency (>90%) at low temperature (250 °C). The results indicated that the elemental mercury had little impact on NO removal efficiency, while the presence of NH3 and NO in SCR system inhibited the Hg(0) removal. NO and Hg(0) removal activity was strongly affected by the transform between surface adsorbed oxygen and lattice oxygen. The species ratio of Mn(4+)/Mn(3+) and Ce(4+)/Ce(3+) on the catalyst surface contributed to the NO conversions and Hg(0) removal. Mn-Ce/Ti-PILCs displayed a broad prospect for controlling the emission of NO and mercury. On the basis of the results obtained, a mechanism for the simultaneous removal of NO and Hg(0) was proposed for the Mn-Ce/Ti-PILCs catalysts: -NH2 + NO → N2 + H2O, -OH + 1/2 Hg(ad) →1/2 HgO + 1/2 H2O.

  6. A comprehensive evaluation of the influence of air combustion and oxy-fuel combustion flue gas constituents on Hg(0) re-emission in WFGD systems.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-González, Raquel; Díaz-Somoano, Mercedes; Martínez-Tarazona, M Rosa

    2014-07-15

    This paper evaluates the influence of the main constituents of flue gases from coal combustion (CO2, O2, N2 and water vapor), in air and oxy-fuel combustion conditions on the re-emission of Hg(0) in wet scrubbers. It was observed that the concentration of water vapor does not affect the re-emission of mercury, whereas O2 and CO2 have a notable influence. High concentrations of O2 in the flue gas prevent the re-emission of Hg(0) due to the reaction of oxygen with the metals present in low oxidation states. High concentrations of CO2, which cause a decrease in the pH and the redox potential of gypsum slurries, reduce the amount of Hg(0) that is re-emitted. As a consequence, the high content of CO2 in oxy-fuel combustion may decrease the re-emission of Hg(0) due to the solubility of CO2 in the suspension and the decrease in the pH. It was also found that O2 affects the stabilization of Hg(2+) species in gypsum slurries. The results of this study confirm that the amount of metals present in limestone as well as the redox potential and pH of the slurries in wet desulphurization plants need to be strictly controlled to reduce Hg(0) re-emissions from power plants operating under oxy-fuel combustion conditions.

  7. Hg0 evasion from boreal mires determined with chamber methods and a novel REA design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterwalder, Stefan; Fritsche, Johannes; Åkerblom, Staffan; Nilsson, Mats B.; Alewell, Christine; Bishop, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic mercury has accumulated in superficial organic soils of boreal mires, hotspots of methylmercury production. We hypothesize that emission from the peat surface is an important factor in regulating the pool of mercury in mires and ultimately the loading of methylmercury to surface waters. To test this hypothesis, we used both dynamic flux chambers (DFCs) and a dual-intake, single analyzer Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) system to quantify the land-atmosphere exchange of elemental mercury (Hg0) from a mixed acid mire system situated near Vindeln in the county of Västerbotten, Sweden. Teflon and polycarbonate DFCs were used to (i) investigate the effect of sulfur and nitrogen addition as well as warming and changed moisture regimes on Hg0 flux and (ii) to quantify typical all-day summertime fluxes. The novel REA design was developed for long-term, all-year flux monitoring and uses twin inlets at the same level for simultaneous accumulation of up and downdrafts on a pair of gold traps which are then analyzed sequentially on the same detector while another pair of gold traps takes over the accumulation. The exchange of Hg0 from the peatland surface was measured continuously with DFC during cloudless conditions in July 2014 and averaged 0.62 ± 1.3 ng m-2 h-1. The flux revealed a significant diurnal pattern and a strong linear relationship with air temperature inside (R2= 0.65, p < 0.001) and outside (R2= 0.58, p < 0.001) the DFC. Hg0 exchange was significantly lower on experimental plots exposed to elevated sulfur deposition. This indicated either earlier Hg evasion or Hg binding to sulfur in organic matter, making Hg less susceptible to volatilization and more prone to transport in runoff. The REA measurements revealed a seasonal pattern of Hg0 fluxes over the year with net evasion during growing season and dominating deposition from autumn to spring. We managed to perform the first conditional sampling of Hg0 flux over a boreal mire using REA and were

  8. Evaluation of sensory evoked potentials in Long Evans rats gestationally exposed to mercury (Hg0) vapor.

    PubMed

    Herr, David W; Chanda, Sushmita M; Graff, Jaimie E; Barone, Stanley S; Beliles, Robert P; Morgan, Daniel L

    2004-11-01

    Mercury is known to alter neuronal function and has been shown to cross the placental barrier. These experiments were undertaken to examine if gestational exposure to mercury vapor (Hg(0)) would result in alterations in sensory neuronal function in adult offspring. Dams were exposed to 0 or 4 mg/m(3) Hg(0) for 2 h/day from gestational days 6-15. This exposure paradigm has been shown to approximate a maximal tolerated dose of Hg(0) for the dams. Between postnatal days 140-168, male and female offspring (one of each gender/dam) were examined using a battery of sensory evoked potentials. Peripheral nerve action potentials, nerve conduction velocity, somatosensory evoked responses (cortical and cerebellar), brainstem auditory evoked responses, pattern evoked potentials, and flash evoked potentials were quantified. Gestational exposure to 4 mg/m(3) Hg(0) did not significantly alter any of the evoked responses, although there was a suggestion of a decrease in compound nerve action potential (CNAP) amplitudes in male animals for the 3 mA stimulus condition. However, this possible change in CNAP amplitudes was not replicated in a second experiment. All evoked potentials exhibited predictable changes as the stimulus was modified. This shows conclusively that the evoked responses were under stimulus control, and that the study had sufficient statistical power to detect changes of these magnitudes. These results indicate that gestational exposure to 4 mg/m(3) Hg(0) did not result in changes in responses evoked from peripheral nerves, or the somatosensory, auditory, or visual modalities.

  9. Development of cost-effective noncarbon sorbents for Hg(0) removal from coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo-Youp; Ju, Yuhong; Keener, Tim C; Varma, Rajender S

    2006-04-15

    Noncarbonaceous materials or mineral oxides (silica gel, alumina, molecular sieves, zeolites, and montmorillonite) were modified with various functional groups such as amine, amide, thiol, urea, and active additives such as elemental sulfur, sodium sulfide, and sodium polysulfide to examine their potential as sorbents for the removal of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) vapor at coal-fired utility power plants. A number of sorbent candidates such as amine- silica gel, urea- silica gel, thiol- silica gel, amide-silica gel, sulfur-alumina, sulfur-molecular sieve, sulfur-montmorillonite, sodium sulfide-montmorillonite, and sodium polysulfide-montmorillonite, were synthesized and tested in a lab-scale fixed-bed system under an argon flow for screening purposes at 70 degrees C and/or 140 degrees C. Several functionalized silica materials reported in previous studies to effectively control heavy metals in the aqueous phase showed insignificant adsorption capacities for Hg(0) control in the gas phase, suggesting that mercury removal mechanisms in both phases are different. Among elemental sulfur-, sodium sulfide-, and sodium polysulfide-impregnated inorganic samples, sodium polysulfide-impregnated montmorillonite K 10 showed a moderate adsorption capacity at 70 degrees C, which can be used for sorbent injection prior to the wet FGD system.

  10. The catalytic performance and characterization of ZrO2 support modification on CuO-CeO2/TiO2 catalyst for the simultaneous removal of Hg0 and NO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Teng; Li, Caiting; Zhao, Lingkui; Zhang, Junyi; Li, Shanhong; Zeng, Guangming

    2017-04-01

    The different addition amounts of ZrO2 on CuO-CeO2/TiO2 catalyst synthesized by co-precipitation method were investigated to research the simultaneous removal of Hg0 and NO in simulated flue gas. Results indicated that the CuCe/TiZr0.15 catalyst exhibited the superior Hg0 removal efficiency (72.7%) and prominent NO conversion (83.3%). Hg0 slightly restrained the NO conversion. Except for the effect of the separate NH3 and NO on Hg0 removal, significances of the increased NH3/NO ratio on Hg0 removal and NO conversion were detected. The lower GHSV could give rise to the significant acceleration of Hg0 and NO removal. With the existence of SO2 and H2O, the slightly prohibitive effect on Hg0 and NO removal was displayed. BET, XRD, SEM, H2-TPR, XPS, FTIR analysis were applied to characterize catalysts and the results revealed the ZrO2 modified support on CuO-CeO2/TiO2 resulted in strong redox ability, great mobility of surface oxygen and growing total amount of chemisorbed oxygen and lattice oxygen, which favorably impacted on Hg0 and NO removal. The introduction of Zr benefited great surface area, weakened crystallinity of TiO2 and then improved the dispersion of metal oxide species. More stable Lewis acid sites to form coordinated NH3 were generated due to ZrO2 additive. The synergetic effect through redox equilibrium of Ce3+ + Cu2+ ↔ Ce4+ + Cu+ contributed to Hg0 removal and NO conversion. In addition, the simultaneous removal of Hg0 and NO on CuCe/TiZr0.15 in terms of detailed mechanism was discussed.

  11. [Adsorption and removal of gas-phase Hg(0) over a V2O5/AC catalyst in the presence of SO2].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-wei; Yang, Jian-li; Liu, Zhen-yu

    2009-12-01

    The adsorption and removal behaviors of gas-phase Hg(0) over V2O5/AC and AC were studied under a simulated flue gas (containing N2, SO2, O2) in a fixed-bed reactor. The influences of the V2O5, loading, SO2 concentration and adsorption temperature on Hg0 adsorption were investigated. The speciation of mercury adsorbed was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that the V2O5/AC catalyst has a much higher capability than AC for Hg(0) adsorption and removal, mainly because of the catalytic oxidation activity of V2O5. The Hg(0) adsorption capability depends on the V2O5 content of the V2O5/AC catalyst. The amounts of mercury adsorbed increase from 75.9 microg x g(-1) to 89.6 microg x g(-1) (in the absence of O2) and from 115.9 microg x g(-1) to 185.5 microg x g(-1) (in the presence of O2) as the V2O5 loading increases from 0.5% to 1.0%, which are much higher than those over AC under the same conditions (9.6 microg x g(-1) and 23.3 microg x g(-1)). SO2 in the flue gas enhances Hg(0) adsorption over the V2O5/AC catalyst, which is due to the reaction of SO2 and Hg(0) on V2O3/AC. But as the SO2 concentration increases from 500 x 10(-6) to 2000 x 10(-6), the amount of mercury adsorbed has only a slight increase. The optimal temperature for Hg(0) adsorption over the V2O5/AC catalyst is around 150 degrees C, at which the amounts of mercury adsorbed are up to 98.5 microg x g(-1) (in the absence of O2) and 187.7 microg x g(-1) (in the presence of O2). The XPS results indicate the formation of Hg(0) and HgSO4 on the surface of the V2O5/AC catalyst, which confirms the role of V2O5 and SO2.

  12. Mode of incorporation of phosphorus in Hg(0.8)Cd(0.2)Te

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vydyanath, H. R.; Abbott, R. C.; Nelson, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Selim and Kroeger (1977) have studied the mode of incorporation of phosphorus in CdTe. According to their findings, phosphorus behaves amphoterically in CdTe acting as an acceptor interstitially and on Te lattice sites, and as a triple donor on Cd lattice sites. The present investigation is concerned with the role of phosphorus in Hg(0.8)Cd(0.2)Te, taking into account Hall-effect and mobility measurements on phosphorus-doped crystals quenched from a temperature in the range from 450 to 600 C subsequent to anneals in different partial pressures of Hg. It is found that the behavior of phosphorus in Hg(0.8)Cd(0.2)Te is similar to that established for CdTe, except that all the electrically active phosphorus defect centers in Hg(0.8)Cd(0.2)Te appear to be only singly ionized. At low Hg pressure, phosphorus is incorporated as a single donor occupying Hg lattice sites, and at high Hg pressure, as a single acceptor on interstitial sites and Te lattice sites.

  13. Mode of incorporation of phosphorus in Hg(0.8)Cd(0.2)Te

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vydyanath, H. R.; Abbott, R. C.; Nelson, D. A.

    1983-03-01

    Selim and Kroeger (1977) have studied the mode of incorporation of phosphorus in CdTe. According to their findings, phosphorus behaves amphoterically in CdTe acting as an acceptor interstitially and on Te lattice sites, and as a triple donor on Cd lattice sites. The present investigation is concerned with the role of phosphorus in Hg(0.8)Cd(0.2)Te, taking into account Hall-effect and mobility measurements on phosphorus-doped crystals quenched from a temperature in the range from 450 to 600 C subsequent to anneals in different partial pressures of Hg. It is found that the behavior of phosphorus in Hg(0.8)Cd(0.2)Te is similar to that established for CdTe, except that all the electrically active phosphorus defect centers in Hg(0.8)Cd(0.2)Te appear to be only singly ionized. At low Hg pressure, phosphorus is incorporated as a single donor occupying Hg lattice sites, and at high Hg pressure, as a single acceptor on interstitial sites and Te lattice sites.

  14. Density, Electrical Conductivity and Viscosity of Hg(0.8)Cd(0.2)Te Melt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, C.; Scripa, R. N.; Ban, H.; Su, C.-H.; Lehoczky, S. L.

    2004-01-01

    The density, viscosity, and electrical conductivity of Hg(0.8)Cd(0.2)Te melt were measured as a function of temperature. A pycnometric method was used to measure the melt density in the temperature range of 1072 to 1122 K. The viscosity and electrical conductivity were determined using a transient torque method from 1068 to 1132 K. The density result from this study is within 0.3% of the published data. However, the current viscosity result is approximately 30% lower than the existing data. The electrical conductivity of Hg(0.8)Cd(0.2)Te melt as a function of temperature, which is not available in the literature, is also determined. The analysis of the temperature dependent electrical conductivity and the relationship between the kinematic viscosity and density indicated that the structure of the melt appeared to be homogeneous when the temperature was above 1090 K. A structural transition occurred in the Hg(0.8)Cd(0.2)Te melt as the temperature was decreased to below 1090 K

  15. Seasonal variations in metallic mercury (Hg0) vapor exchange over biannual wheat - corn rotation cropland in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommar, J.; Zhu, W.; Shang, L.; Lin, C.-J.; Feng, X. B.

    2015-09-01

    Air-surface gas exchange of Hg0 was measured in five approximately bi-weekly campaigns (in total 87 days) over a wheat-corn rotation cropland located in the North China Plain using the relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) technique. The campaigns were separated over duration of a full year period (201-2013) aiming to capture the flux pattern over essential growing stages of the planting system with a low homogeneous topsoil Hg content (~ 45 ng g-1). Contrasting pollution regimes influenced air masses at the site and corresponding Hg0 concentration means (3.3 in late summer to 6.2 ng m-3 in winter) were unanimously above the typical hemispheric background of 1.5-1.7 ng m-3 during the campaigns. Extreme values in bi-directional net Hg0 exchange were primarily observed during episodes of peaking Hg0 concentrations. In tandem with under-canopy chamber measurements, the above-canopy REA measurements provided evidence for a balance between Hg0 ground emissions and uptake of Hg0 by the developed canopies. During the wheat growing season covering ~ 2/3 of the year at the site, net field-scale Hg0 emission was prevailing for periods of active plant growth until canopy senescence (mean flux: 20.0 ng m-3) disclosing the dominance of Hg0 soil efflux during warmer seasons. In the final vegetative stage of corn and wheat, ground and above-canopy Hg0 flux displayed inversed daytime courses with a near mid-day maximum (emission) and minimum (deposition), respectively. In contrast to wheat, Hg0 uptake of the corn canopy at this stage offset ground Hg0 emissions with additional removal of Hg0 from the atmosphere. Differential uptake of Hg0 between wheat (C3 species) and corn (C4 species) foliage is discernible from estimated Hg0 flux (per leaf area) and Hg content in mature cereal leaves being a factor of > 3 higher for wheat (at ~ 120 ng g-1 dry weight). Furthermore, this study shows that intermittent flood irrigation of the air-dry field induced a short pulse of Hg0 emission due to

  16. Viscosity of Hg(0.84)Zn(0.16)Te Pseudobinary Melt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazuruk, K.; Su, Ching-Hua; Sha, Yi-Gao; Lehoczky, S. L.

    1996-01-01

    An oscillating-cup viscometer was developed to measure viscosity of molten HgZnTe ternary semiconductor alloys. Data were collected for the pseudobinary Hg(0.84)Zn(0.16)Te melt between 770 and 850 C. The kinematic viscosity was found to vary from approximately 1.1 to 1.4 x 10(sup -3)sq cm/s. A slow relaxation phenomena was also observed for temperatures from the melting point of 770 to approx. 800 C. Possible mechanisms for this effect are discussed.

  17. Persistent photoconductivity of amorphous Hg0.78Cd0.22Te:In films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lianjie, Yu; Yuhui, Su; Yanli, Shi; Xiongjun, Li; Weiyan, Zhao; Qi, Ma; Yunjian, Tai; Peng, Zhao

    2016-10-01

    The persistent photoconductivity (PPC) of amorphous Hg0.78Cd0.22Te: In films has been studied under illumination by super-bandgap light (a He-Ne laser, hv = 1.96 eV, 30 mW/cm2) and sub-bandgap light (1000 K Blackbody source, the largest photon energies hv p = 0.42 eV, 8.9 mW/cm2) in the range of 80-300 K. The persistent photoconductivity effect increases with increase in illumination intensity and illumination time. However, it decreases with increase in working temperature. The non-exponential decay of photoconductivity implies the presence of continuous distribution of defect states in amorphous Hg0.78Cd0.22Te: In films. These results indicate that the decay of photoconductivity is not governed by the carrier trapped in the intrinsic defects, but it may be due to light-induced defects under light illumination. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Yunnan Province (No. 2008CD176).

  18. Doping behavior of iodine in Hg/0.8/Cd/0.2/Te

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vydyanath, H. R.; Kroger, F. A.

    1982-01-01

    The defect state prevailing in iodine doped single-crystal samples of Hg0.8Cd0.2Te, annealed at 450-600 C in Hg vapor, has been deduced from Hall effect measurements on samples cooled to 77 K from the annealing temperature. Results are found to be similar to those previously obtained for iodine doped CdS, i.e. iodine acts as a single donor occupying Te lattice sites with a fraction paired with the native acceptor defects. The concentration of iodine on tellurium lattice sites increases with the partial pressure of Hg, whereas that of the pair species increases as the partial pressure of Hg decreases.

  19. Analysis of Radial Segregation in Directionally Solidified Hg(0.89)Mn(0.11)Te

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, M. W.; Scripa, R. N.; Szofran, F. R.; Motakef, S.; Hanson, B.

    2003-01-01

    Bridgman growth experiments were performed on Hg(0.89)Mn(0.11)Te (MMT) to determine the extent of radial Manganese segregation during directional solidification. MMT crystals were directionally solidified at rates of 0.09 and 0.18 p d s and in axial thermal gradients of 83 and 68"C/cm. Wavelength Dispersive Spectroscopy (WDS) and Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) analytical techniques were used to determine the radial homogeneity in all boules and the deflection of the solid-liquid interface (SLI) in two boules that were rapidly quenched after 5 to 6 cm of directional solidification. For all growth runs, the measured radial coinpositional variations were on the order of 0.01 molar percent MnTe in the steady state region of growth. Comparison of the measured radial compositional results of the crystals to predicted values in the diffusion-limited regime indicate a strong influence of convection near the solid-liquid interface. This conclusion is supported by the weak influence of the translation rates and axial thermal gradients utilized in this study upon radial compositional homogeneity.

  20. Directional Solidification and Characterization of Hg(0.89) Mn(0.11)Te

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, M. W.; Scripa, R. N.; Lehoczky. S. L.; Szofran, F. R.; Su, C.-H.

    1998-01-01

    Two boules of Hg(0.89)Mn(0.11)Te(MMT) were solidified using the vertical Bridgman-Stockbarger method. Translation rates of 0.09 and 0. 18 microns/s were used. The influence of growth rate on axial compositional homogeneity in the MMT boules was evaluated experimentally by conducting precision density measurements on radial slices taken from each boule. In addition, Plane Front Solidification theory and segregation coefficient (k) data for the Hg(1-x)Mn(x)Te system were used to fit theoretical composition profiles to the measured MMT axial composition profiles. The strong correlation between the measured and calculated MMT axial composition profiles indicates diffusion dominated axial solute redistribution in the boules under the applied growth conditions. The analysis of the MMT axial composition profiles by Plane Front Solidification theory allowed the calculation of the effective diffusion coefficient (D(eff) = 3.5 x l0(exp -5) sq cm/s). The k-values for the Hg(1-x)Mn(x)Te system and the D(sub eff) - value were then used to verify that both boules were solidified under conditions which did not exceed the Constitutional Supercooling Criteria under ideal conditions. Finally, a preliminary examination of the radial compositional variation in each MMT was made using Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR). The radial homogeneity in the MMT boules was found to be comparable for both translation rates.

  1. Fracture mechanisms of Hg 0.8Cd 0.2Te induced by pulsed TEA-CO 2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, H.; Cheng, Z. H.; Zhu, H. H.; Zuo, D. L.

    2005-12-01

    The fracture mechanisms of Hg 0.8Cd 0.2Te induced by pulsed TEA-CO 2 laser have been investigated theoretically and experimentally in this paper. The Hg 0.8Cd 0.2Te target was irradiated by a TEA-CO 2 laser with wavelength of 10.6 μm and spike width of 240 ns in an ambient atmosphere. The evident cracks can be found on the surface of the target from the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photos, indicating that the severe breaks happened during the experiment. Theoretical analysis has also been carried out and the results show that the fracture of Hg 0.8Cd 0.2Te is mainly induced by thermal stresses, although there are three forces (thermal stress, evaporation wave and laser-supported detonation (LSD) wave) exerted on the target surface during the process.

  2. The heat of formation of Mercury vacancies in Hg(0.8)Cd(0.2)Te

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedemeier, H.; Trivedi, S. B.; Whiteside, R. C.; Palosz, W.

    1986-01-01

    A modified mass loss measurement technique has been employed for the first time for the direct in situ determination of vacancy concentrations in Hg(0.8)Cd(0.2)Te at elevated temperatures. This technique can also be used to establish the pressure-temperature phase diagram for this type of system. The derived mean value for the heat of formation of mercury vacancies in the above alloy is 0.43 eV. Theoretical considerations concerning the vacancy formation in HgTe and in Hg(0.8)Cd(0.2)Te are in qualitative agreement with the experimental value.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF NONCARBON SORBENTS FOR HG0 REMOVAL FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Noncarbon materials or mineral oxides (silica gel, alumina, molecular sieves, zeolites, and montmorillonite) were modified with various functional groups, such as amine, amide, thiol, and urea; and active additives, such as elemental sulfur, sodium sulfide, and sodium polysulfide...

  4. Absorption of ac fields in amorphous indium-oxide films

    SciTech Connect

    Ovadyahu, Z.

    2014-08-20

    Absorption data from applied ac fields in Anderson-localized amorphous indium-oxide (In{sub x}O) films are shown to be frequency and disorder dependent. The absorption shows a roll-off at a frequency which is much lower than the electron-electron scattering rate of the material when it is in the diffusive regime. This is interpreted as evidence for discreteness of the energy spectrum of the deeply localized regime. This is consistent with recent many-body localization scenarios. As the metal-insulator transition is approached, the absorption shifts to higher frequencies. Comparing with the previously obtained results on the crystalline version of indium-oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3−x}) implies a considerably higher inelastic electron-phonon scattering rate in the amorphous material. The range over which the absorption versus frequency decreases may indicate that a wide distribution of localization length is a common feature in these systems.

  5. Asymmetric spin absorption across a low-resistance oxide barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shuhan; Qin, Chuan; Ji, Yi

    2015-07-21

    An unconventional method of nonlocal spin detection is demonstrated in mesoscopic lateral spin valves at room temperature. Clear nonlocal spin signals are detected between the two ends of an extended ferromagnetic spin detector. This is different from the conventional method in which the nonlocal voltage is measured between the spin detector and the nonmagnetic channel. The results can be understood as spatially non-uniform absorption of a pure spin current into the spin detector across a low-resistance oxide interface.

  6. Absorption-Enhancing Effect of Nitric Oxide on the Absorption of Hydrophobic Drugs in Rat Duodenum.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Hisanao; Miyazaki, Kaori; Takizawa, Yusuke; Shirasaka, Yoshiyuki; Inoue, Katsuhisa

    2016-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), an endogenous gas that plays a versatile role in the physiological system, has the ability to increase the intestinal absorption of water-soluble compounds through the paracellular route. However, it remains unclear whether NO can enhance the absorption of hydrophobic drugs through the transcellular route. In this study, we examined the absorption-enhancing effect of NO on intestinal permeability of hydrophobic drugs in rat intestine. The pretreatment of rat gastrointestinal sacs with NOC7, a NO-releasing reagent, significantly increased the permeation of griseofulvin from mucosa to serosa in the sacs prepared from the duodenum, but not in those prepared from the other regions such as jejunum, ileum, and colon. The absorption-enhancing effect of NOC7 on the duodenal permeation varied depending on the hydrophobicity of the drugs used. Furthermore, NOC7 treatment was found to be apparently ineffective on the griseofulvin permeation in the duodenum pretreated with dithiothreitol (DTT) that was used as a mucus remover, even though the permeation was increased by pretreatment with DTT alone. These results suggest that NO increases the absorption of hydrophobic drugs through the transcellular route in the duodenum by modulating the mucus layer function.

  7. Microwave Absorption Characteristics of Conventionally Heated Nonstoichiometric Ferrous Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhiwei; Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Mouris, Joe; Hutcheon, Ron; Sun, Xiang

    2011-08-01

    The temperature dependence of the microwave absorption of conventionally heated nonstoichiometric ferrous oxide (Fe0.925O) was characterized via the cavity perturbation technique between 294 K and 1373 K (21 °C and 1100 °C). The complex relative permittivity and permeability of the heated Fe0.925O sample slightly change with temperature from 294 K to 473 K (21 °C to 200 °C). The dramatic variations of permittivity and permeability of the sample from 473 K to 823 K (200 °C to 550 °C) are partially attributed to the formation of magnetite (Fe3O4) and metal iron (Fe) from the thermal decomposition of Fe0.925O, as confirmed by the high-temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD). At higher temperatures up to 1373 K (1100 °C), it is found that Fe0.925O regenerates and remains as a stable phase with high permittivity. Since the permittivity dominates the microwave absorption of Fe0.925O above 823 K (550 °C), resulting in shallow microwave penetration depth (~0.11 and ~0.015 m at 915 and 2450 MHz, respectively), the regenerated nonstoichiometric ferrous oxide exhibits useful microwave absorption capability in the temperature range of 823 K to1373 K (550 °C to 1100 °C).

  8. Seasonal variations in metallic mercury (Hg0) vapor exchange over biannual wheat-corn rotation cropland in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommar, Jonas; Zhu, Wei; Shang, Lihai; Lin, Che-Jen; Feng, Xinbin

    2016-04-01

    Air-surface gas exchange of Hg0 was measured in five approximately bi-weekly campaigns (in total 87 days) over a wheat-corn rotation cropland located on the North China Plain (NCP) using the relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) technique. The campaigns were separated over the duration of a full-year period (2012-2013) aiming to capture the flux pattern over essential growing stages of the planting system with a low homogeneous topsoil Hg content ( ˜ 45 ng g-1). Contrasting pollution regimes influenced air masses at the site and corresponding Hg0 concentration means (3.3 in late summer to 6.2 ng m-3 in winter) were unanimously above the typical hemispheric background of 1.5-1.7 ng m-3 during the campaigns. Extreme values in bi-directional net Hg0 exchange were primarily observed during episodes of peaking Hg0 concentrations. In tandem with under-canopy chamber measurements, the above-canopy REA measurements provided evidence for a balance between Hg0 ground emissions and uptake of Hg0 by the developed canopies. During the wheat growing season covering ˜ 2 / 3 of the year at the site, net field-scale Hg0 emission prevailed for periods of active plant growth until canopy senescence (mean flux: 20.0 ng m-3), showing the dominance of Hg0 soil efflux during warmer seasons. In the final vegetative stage of corn and wheat, ground and above-canopy Hg0 flux displayed inversed daytime courses with a near mid-day maximum (emission) and minimum (deposition), respectively. In contrast to wheat, Hg0 uptake of the corn canopy at this stage offset ground Hg0 emissions with additional removal of Hg0 from the atmosphere. Differential uptake of Hg0 between wheat (C3 species) and corn (C4 species) foliage is discernible from estimated Hg0 flux (per leaf area) and Hg content in mature cereal leaves, being a factor of > 3 higher for wheat (at ˜ 120 ng g-1 dry weight). Furthermore, this study shows that intermittent flood irrigation of the air-dry field induced a short pulse of Hg0 emission

  9. Characterization of oxidized carbon materials with photoinduced absorption response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uklein, A. V.; Diyuk, V. E.; Grishchenko, L. M.; Kozhanov, V. O.; Boldyrieva, O. Yu.; Lisnyak, V. V.; Multian, V. V.; Gayvoronsky, V. Ya.

    2016-12-01

    An efficient application of fast remote diagnostics for carbon material (CM) bulk particles was demonstrated. Porous layers of CM particles with different oxidation levels were characterized by self-action of picosecond laser pulses at 1064 nm. Nitrogen adsorption, Boehm titration, and thermal analysis of the oxidized CMs revealed diverse specific surface area S_{BET}, reasonable surface acidity, and high concentration of surface oxygen-containing groups. Dense CM porous layers showed a monotonous reduction of the absorptive nonlinear optical (NLO) response efficiency versus the oxidation level with characteristic magnitude Im(χ _C^{(3)})˜ 10^{-10} esu for the carbon particles fraction. The obtained Im(χ _C^{(3)})/S_{BET} ratio remains approximately constant, which indicates the certain proportion between the absorptive NLO response efficiency and the specific surface area. We suggest to use Im(χ _C^{(3)}) as a figure of merit for carbons subjected to the oxidation—the route to enhance the CM surface reactivity.

  10. Oxidative Tea Polyphenols Greatly Inhibit the Absorption of Atenolol

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Yun; Zhang, Mengmeng; Wang, Tengfei; Huang, Qin; Yin, Dan; Xiang, Zemin; Wang, Xuanjun; Sheng, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative tea polyphenols (OTPs) is the oxidative polymerization product of epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) forms during the process of Pu-er tea fermentation, and possesses absorption property, which may absorbs on drugs thus impact the drug bioavailability when taking medicines with Pu-er tea. Here we demonstrated that OTP inhibited the absorption of atenolol in the intestine, which was determined by testing atenolol levels of plasma via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After administration of atenolol (50 mg/kg), atenolol was absorbed (Tmax: 1.867 h) with the half-life (t1/2) of 6.663 h in control group; Compared with atenolol group, AUC0-t (h*ng/ml), AUC0-∞(h∗ng/ml), and Cmax of OTP+atenolol group (OTP 500 mg/kg + atenolol 50 mg/kg) reduced 38.7, 27, and 51%, respectively, the atenolol concentration of plasma was reduced by OTP approximately 43, 49, and 55.5% at 30 min, 1 and 2 h, respectively, (P < 0.01). Furthermore, the level of atenolol in feces was higher in the OTP+atenolol group, indicating that the absorption of atenolol in rats was inhibited by OTP. Isothermal titration calorimetry assay identified that EGCG can bind to atenolol and the in vitro results showed that OTP absorbed on atenolol and formed precipitate in acid condition, demonstrating a significant positive relationship between atenolol levels and OTP dosage. Taken together, these results suggested that consuming Pu-er tea with atenolol might inhibit atenolol absorption and possible other drugs. PMID:27445825

  11. Real-time measurements of Hg0 and H2S at La Solfatara Crater (Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy) and Mt. Amiata volcano (Siena, Central Italy): a new geochemical approach to estimate the distribution of air contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabassi, J.; Calabrese, S.; Tassi, F.; Venturi, S.; Capecchiacci, F.; Di Lonardo, C.; D'Alessandro, W.; Vaselli, O.

    2014-12-01

    The emission of Hg and H2S from natural and anthropogenic sources may have a great environmental impact in urban areas as well as in the surroundings of active and passive degassing volcanoes. Mercury is present in the atmosphere mainly in its elemental form (Hg0~98 %), which has a relatively high volatility, low solubility and chemical inertness. Hydrogen sulfide, one of the most abundant gas species in volcanic fluids, is highly poisoning and corrosive. In this study, an innovative real-time method for the measurements of Hg0 and H2S concentrations in air was carried out at La Solfatara Crater, a hydrothermally altered tuff-cone nested in the town of Pozzuoli (Southern Italy), and at Mt. Amiata volcano (Central Italy), where a world-class Hg mining district abandoned in the seventies and a presently-exploited geothermal field for the production of electrical energy occur. The main aims were (i) to test this new methodological approach and (ii) to investigate Hg0 and H2S concentrations and the chemical-physical parameters regulating their spatial distribution in polluted areas. A portable Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer with high frequency modulation of light polarization (Lumex RA-915M) was used in combination with a pulsed fluorescence gas analyzer (Thermo Scientific Model 450i) to measure Hg0 and H2S, respectively. The instruments were synchronized and set at high-frequency acquisition (10 sec and 1 min, respectively). Measurements were carried out along pathways (up to 12 km long) at an average speed of <10 km/h and coupled with GPS data and meteorological parameters. In selected sites, passive samplers were positioned to determine the time-integrated Hg0 and H2S concentrations to be compared with the real-time measurements. The results indicate that this approach is highly efficient and effective in providing reliable and reproducible Hg0 and H2S concentrations and can be used to identify and characterize gas emitters in different environments.

  12. INVESTIGATING OXIDATION MECHANISMS OF HG0 IN THE FREE TROPOSPHERE AND ITS INFLUENCE ON LONG RANGE MERCURY TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2000, the US EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) initiated a study to evaluate the magnitude of long-range transport of mercury through the marine free troposphere to South Florida via aircraft measurements (200 to 12,000 feet). ORD funded the National Oceanic and At...

  13. Linewidths in excitonic absorption spectra of cuprous oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweiner, Frank; Main, Jörg; Wunner, Günter

    2016-02-01

    We present a theoretical calculation of the absorption spectrum of cuprous oxide (Cu2O ) based on the general theory developed by Y. Toyozawa. An inclusion not only of acoustic phonons but also of optical phonons and of specific properties of the excitons in Cu2O like the central-cell corrections for the 1 S exciton allows us to calculate the experimentally observed linewidths in experiments by T. Kazimierczuk et al. [T. Kazimierczuk, D. Fröhlich, S. Scheel, H. Stolz, and M. Bayer, Nature (London) 514, 343 (2014), 10.1038/nature13832] within the same order of magnitude, which demonstrates a clear improvement in comparison to earlier work on this topic. We also discuss a variety of further effects, which explain the still observable discrepancy between theory and experiment but can hardly be included in theoretical calculations.

  14. Effect of morphology and solvent on two-photon absorption of nano zinc oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Kavitha, M.K.; Haripadmam, P.C.; Gopinath, Pramod; Krishnan, Bindu; John, Honey

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► ZnO nanospheres and triangular structures synthesis by novel precipitation technique. ► The effect of precursor concentration on the size and shape of nano ZnO. ► Open aperture Z-scan measurements of the ZnO nanoparticle dispersions. ► Nanospheres exhibit higher two photon absorption coefficient than triangular nanostructures. ► Nanospheres dispersed in water exhibit higher two photon absorption coefficient than its dispersion in 2-propanol. - Abstract: In this paper, we report the effect of morphology and solvent on the two-photon absorption of nano zinc oxide. Zinc oxide nanoparticles in two different morphologies like nanospheres and triangular nanostructures are synthesized by novel precipitation technique and their two-photon absorption coefficient is measured using open aperture Z-scan technique. Experimental results show that the zinc oxide nanospheres exhibit higher two-photon absorption coefficient than the zinc oxide triangular nanostructures. The zinc oxide nanospheres dispersed in water exhibit higher two-photon absorption coefficient than that of its dispersion in 2-propanol. The zinc oxide nanospheres dispersed in water shows a decrease in two-photon absorption coefficient with an increase in on-axis irradiance. The result confirms the dependence of shape and solvent on the two-photon absorption of nano zinc oxide.

  15. Electrospun metal oxide-TiO2 nanofibers for elemental mercury removal from flue gas.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Zhao, Yongchun; Li, Hailong; Li, Yang; Gao, Xiang; Zheng, Chuguang; Zhang, Junying

    2012-08-15

    Nanofibers prepared by an electrospinning method were used to remove elemental mercury (Hg(0)) from simulated coal combustion flue gas. The nanofibers composed of different metal oxides (MO(x)) including CuO, In(2)O(3), V(2)O(5), WO(3) and Ag(2)O supported on TiO(2) have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersing X-ray (EDX) and UV-vis spectra. The average diameters of these nanofibers were about 200nm. Compared to pure TiO(2), the UV-vis absorption intensity for MO(x)-TiO(2) increased significantly and the absorption bandwidth also expanded, especially for Ag(2)O-TiO(2) and V(2)O(5)-TiO(2). Hg(0) oxidation efficiencies over the MO(x)-TiO(2) nanofibers were tested under dark, visible light (vis) irradiation and UV irradiation, respectively. The results showed that WO(3) doped TiO(2) exhibited the highest Hg(0) removal efficiency of 100% under UV irradiation. Doping V(2)O(5) into TiO(2) enhanced Hg(0) removal efficiency greatly from 6% to 63% under visible light irradiation. Ag(2)O doped TiO(2) showed a steady Hg(0) removal efficiency of around 95% without any light due to the formation of silver amalgam. An extended experiment with 8 Hg(0) removal cycles showed that the MO(x)-TiO(2) nanofibers were stable for removing Hg(0) from flue gas. Factors responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic activities of the MO(x)-TiO(2) nanofibers were also discussed.

  16. The saturable absorption and reverse saturable absorption properties of Cu doped zinc oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Cheng-Bao; Wen, Xin; Li, Qiang-Hua; Yan, Xiao-Yan; Li, Jin; Zhang, Ke-Xin; Sun, Wen-Jun; Bai, Li-Na; Yang, Shou-Bin

    2017-03-01

    We present the structure and nonlinear absorption (NLA) properties of Cu-doped ZnO (CZO) films prepared by magnetron sputtering. The films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The results show that the CZO films can maintain a wurtzite structure. Furthermore, the open-aperture (OA) Z-scan measurements of the film were carried out by nanosecond laser pulse. A transition from saturable absorption (SA) to reverse saturable absorption (RSA) was observed as the excitation intensity increasing. With good excellent nonlinear optical coefficient, the samples were expected to be the potential applications in optical devices.

  17. Absorption characteristics of elemental mercury in mercury chloride solutions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yongpeng; Xu, Haomiao; Qu, Zan; Yan, Naiqiang; Wang, Wenhua

    2014-11-01

    Elemental mercury (Hg(0)) in flue gases can be efficiently captured by mercury chloride (HgCl2) solution. However, the absorption behaviors and the influencing effects are still poorly understood. The mechanism of Hg(0) absorption by HgCl2 and the factors that control the removal were studied in this paper. It was found that when the mole ratio of Cl(-) to HgCl2 is 10:1, the Hg(0) removal efficiency is the highest. Among the main mercury chloride species, HgCl3(-) is the most efficient ion for Hg(0) removal in the HgCl2 absorption system when moderate concentrations of chloride ions exist. The Hg(0) absorption reactions in the aqueous phase were investigated computationally using Moller-Plesset perturbation theory. The calculated Gibbs free energies and energy barriers are in excellent agreement with the results obtained from experiments. In the presence of SO3(2-) and SO2, Hg(2+) reduction occurred and Hg(0) removal efficiency decreased. The reduced Hg(0) removal can be controlled through increased chloride concentration to some degree. Low pH value in HgCl2 solution enhanced the Hg(0) removal efficiency, and the effect was more significant in dilute HgCl2 solutions. The presence of SO4(2-) and NO3(-) did not affect Hg(0) removal by HgCl2.

  18. Non-Controlled Emission of Inorganic Toxic gas Components (CO, H2S, NH3 and Hg0) to the atmosphere from Arico's landfill, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echeita, A.; Perez, C.; Hernandez, C.; Fariña, L.; Lima, R.; Salazar, J.; Hernandez, P.; Perez, N.

    2001-12-01

    Landfill gas is mainly constituted by CO2 and CH4. However, other inorganic toxic gas components such as CO, NH3, H2S and Hg0, are also present. Reduced gas species are produced and released during the anaerobic decomposition of urban waste, while Hg0 is originally present in the waste and it is released as a volatile. Significant amounts of non-controlled emission of these components could be released to the atmosphere in the form of diffuse degassing, The goal of this study is to evaluate the "non-controlled" emissions of these inorganic toxic gas components from Arico's landfill, Tenerife. Arico's landfill (0.35 Km2) holds about 1,200 t/d of urban solid waste with an average organic matter content of 48%. Diffuse CO2 emission has been measured at the surface of Arico's landfill by means of a NDIR according with the accumulation chamber method. Landfill gases were also collected at 40 cm depth using a metallic probe and analyzed within 24 hours for CO2 and CO composition by means of a VARIAN micro-GC QUAD. H2S and Hg0 were analyzed by means of a Polytron-II electrochemical sensor and a JEROME 431-X mercury analyzer, respectively. NH3 was fixed in a boric acid solution and determined by means of a selective electrode. CO concentration ranged from non-detectable to 2,531 ppmv, with a median of 24.3 ppmv. The highest observed Hg0 concentration in the surface landfill gas is 0.004 ppbv, while H2S concentration reached levels up to 12 ppmv. NH3 contents were lower than 1 ppmv. CO, Hg0, H2S and NH3 fluxes have been estimated by multiplying CO2 efflux times (Tox.I.C.)i/CO2 where (Tox.I.C.)i is the concentration of CO, Hg0, H2S and NH3. The highest efflux values for CO, Hg0, H2S and NH3 were 6.8 gm-2d-1, 0.04 µ gm-2d-1, 1.7 mgm-2d-1 and 0.23 gm-2d-1, respectively.

  19. Absorption of nitrogen oxides by sulfoxides and sulfones

    SciTech Connect

    Bikbaeva, G.G.; Isyangil'dina, A.Kh.; Baranovskaya, E.M.; Nikitin, Yu.E.

    1986-10-10

    Petroleum sulfoxides (PSO) have high sorption capacity for NO/sub 2/. In view of their comparative availability and low cost, PSO may be of practical interest as absorbents for nitrogen oxides. At the same time, the properties of adducts formed by sulfoxides, both individual and from petroleum, with nitrogen oxides have been studies very little. In this work the methods of IR and UV spectroscopy were used for studying complex formation of nitrogen oxides with sulfoxides, and also with sulfones, obtained by oxidation of sulfoxides.

  20. Facile synthesis of iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites: application for electromagnetic wave absorption at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lili; Yu, Xinxin; Hu, Hongrui; Li, Yang; Wu, Mingzai; Wang, Zhongzhu; Li, Guang; Sun, Zhaoqi; Chen, Changle

    2015-03-01

    Iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites were synthesized by facile thermochemical reactions of graphite oxide and FeSO4.7H2O. By adjusting reaction temperature, α-Fe2O3/reduced graphene oxide and Fe3O4/reduced graphene oxide composites can be obtained conveniently. Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide sheets were demonstrated to regulate the phase transition from α-Fe2O3 to Fe3O4 via γ-Fe2O3, which was reported for the first time. The hydroxyl groups attached on the graphene oxide sheets and H2 gas generated during the annealing of graphene oxide are believed to play an important role during these phase transformations. These samples showed good electromagnetic wave absorption performance due to their electromagnetic complementary effect. These samples possess much better electromagnetic wave absorption properties than the mixture of separately prepared Fe3O4 with rGO, suggesting the crucial role of synthetic method in determining the product properties. Also, these samples perform much better than commercial absorbers. Most importantly, the great stability of these composites is highly advantageous for applications as electromagnetic wave absorption materials at high temperatures.

  1. Facile synthesis of iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites: application for electromagnetic wave absorption at high temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lili; Yu, Xinxin; Hu, Hongrui; Li, Yang; Wu, Mingzai; Wang, Zhongzhu; Li, Guang; Sun, Zhaoqi; Chen, Changle

    2015-03-19

    Iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites were synthesized by facile thermochemical reactions of graphite oxide and FeSO4 · 7H2O. By adjusting reaction temperature, α-Fe2O3/reduced graphene oxide and Fe3O4/reduced graphene oxide composites can be obtained conveniently. Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide sheets were demonstrated to regulate the phase transition from α-Fe2O3 to Fe3O4 via γ-Fe2O3, which was reported for the first time. The hydroxyl groups attached on the graphene oxide sheets and H2 gas generated during the annealing of graphene oxide are believed to play an important role during these phase transformations. These samples showed good electromagnetic wave absorption performance due to their electromagnetic complementary effect. These samples possess much better electromagnetic wave absorption properties than the mixture of separately prepared Fe3O4 with rGO, suggesting the crucial role of synthetic method in determining the product properties. Also, these samples perform much better than commercial absorbers. Most importantly, the great stability of these composites is highly advantageous for applications as electromagnetic wave absorption materials at high temperatures.

  2. Facile synthesis of iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites: application for electromagnetic wave absorption at high temperature

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lili; Yu, Xinxin; Hu, Hongrui; Li, Yang; Wu, Mingzai; Wang, Zhongzhu; Li, Guang; Sun, Zhaoqi; Chen, Changle

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites were synthesized by facile thermochemical reactions of graphite oxide and FeSO4·7H2O. By adjusting reaction temperature, α-Fe2O3/reduced graphene oxide and Fe3O4/reduced graphene oxide composites can be obtained conveniently. Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide sheets were demonstrated to regulate the phase transition from α-Fe2O3 to Fe3O4 via γ-Fe2O3, which was reported for the first time. The hydroxyl groups attached on the graphene oxide sheets and H2 gas generated during the annealing of graphene oxide are believed to play an important role during these phase transformations. These samples showed good electromagnetic wave absorption performance due to their electromagnetic complementary effect. These samples possess much better electromagnetic wave absorption properties than the mixture of separately prepared Fe3O4 with rGO, suggesting the crucial role of synthetic method in determining the product properties. Also, these samples perform much better than commercial absorbers. Most importantly, the great stability of these composites is highly advantageous for applications as electromagnetic wave absorption materials at high temperatures. PMID:25788158

  3. Three Dimensional Mapping of Nicle Oxidation States Using Full Field Xray Absorption Near Edge Structure Nanotomography

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, G.J.; Chu, Y.; Harris, W.M.; Izzo, J.R.; Grew, K.N., Chiu, W.K.S.; Yi, J.; Andrews, J.C.; Liu, Y., Pierro, P.

    2011-04-28

    The reduction-oxidation cycling of the nickel-based oxides in composite solid oxide fuel cells and battery electrodes is directly related to cell performance. A greater understanding of nickel redox mechanisms at the microstructural level can be achieved in part using transmission x-ray microscopy (TXM) to explore material oxidation states. X-ray nanotomography combined with x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy has been applied to study samples containing distinct regions of nickel and nickel oxide (NiO) compositions. Digitally processed images obtained using TXM demonstrate the three-dimensional chemical mapping and microstructural distribution capabilities of full-field XANES nanotomography.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF COST-EFFECTIVE NONCARBON SORBENTS FOR HG0 REMOVAL FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Noncarbon materials or mineral oxides (silica gel, alumina, molecular sieves, zeolites, and montmorillonite) were modified with various functional groups such as amine, amide, thiol, urea and active additives such as elemental mercury (Hg0) vapor at coal-fired utility ...

  5. A rapid electrochemical procedure for the detection of Hg(0) produced by mercuric-reductase: application for monitoring Hg-resistant bacteria activity.

    PubMed

    Battistel, Dario; Baldi, Franco; Marchetto, Davide; Gallo, Michele; Daniele, Salvatore

    2012-10-02

    In this work, gold microelectrodes are employed as traps for the detection of volatilized metallic mercury produced by mercuric reductase (MerA) extracted from an Hg-resistant Pseudomonas putida strain FB1. The enzymatic reduction of Hg (II) to Hg (0) was induced by NADPH cofactor added to the samples. The amount of Hg(0) accumulated on the gold microelectrode surface was determined by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) after transferring the gold microelectrode in an aqueous solution containing 0.1 M HNO(3) + 1 M KNO(3). Electrochemical measurements were combined with spectrofluorometric assays of NADPH consumption to derive an analytical expression for the detection of a relative MerA activity of different samples with respect to that of P. putida. The method developed here was employed for the rapid determination of MerA produced by bacteria harbored in soft tissues of clams (Ruditapes philippinarum), collected in high Hg polluted sediments of Northern Adriatic Sea in Italy.

  6. Electrical properties of antimony-doped p-type Hg 0.78Cd 0.22Te liquid-phase-epitaxy films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M. C.; Dodge, J. A.

    1986-08-01

    Hall measurements have been performed on antimony-doped p-type Hg 0.78Cd 0.22Te LPE (Liquid-Phase-Epitaxy) films between 20 and 150 K. The ionization energy of isolated shallow acceptors was estimated to be about 11 meV. From the analysis of the Hall coefficient and the hole mobility data, we found that compensation in the films is not enough to explain the typically low hole mobility at low temperatures.

  7. Determination of the Solid/Liquid Interface Shape and Resultant Radial Homogeneity in Directionally Solidified Hg(0.89)Mn(0.11)Te

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, M. W.; Scripa, R. N.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Szofran, F. R.; Hanson, B.

    1999-01-01

    Directional solidification and interrupted directional solidification experiments were used to determine tile shape of the solid/liquid interface and the resultant radial homogeneity in Hg(0.89)Mg(0.11)Te. For directionally solidified samples solidified at a rate of 0.09 microns/sec in a thermal gradient of 83 C/cm, a maximum of 0.006 molar percent MnTe radial variation across the Hg0.89)Mn(0.11)Te boules at specific locations was determined using an FTIR technique. This FTIR evaluation of the radial homogeneity also indicated an asymmetrical, convex interface shape during solidification. The asymmetrical, convex shape of the growth interface was confirmed by interrupted directional solidification experiments. These were performed under the same growth conditions as the normally completed directional solidification experiments except that the samples were quenched before the final growth transient was reached. In these experiments, etching and scanning X-ray fluorescence were used to reveal the shape of the solid/liquid interface. Microprobe analysis of composition gradients across the interface was used to confirm the authors' previous work in evaluating the segregation coefficient of Hg(0.89)Mn(0.11)Te alloy. Microprobe analysis of the interface region of the interrupted growth sample revealed a dendritic structure containing secondary and tertiary dendritic arms.

  8. Elemental Mercury Oxidation over Fe-Ti-Mn Spinel: Performance, Mechanism, and Reaction Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Shangchao; Xiao, Xin; Huang, Nan; Dang, Hao; Liao, Yong; Zou, Sijie; Yang, Shijian

    2017-01-03

    The design of a high-performance catalyst for Hg(0) oxidation and predicting the extent of Hg(0) oxidation are both extremely limited due to the uncertainties of the reaction mechanism and the reaction kinetics. In this work, Fe-Ti-Mn spinel was developed as a high-performance catalyst for Hg(0) oxidation, and the reaction mechanism and the reaction kinetics of Hg(0) oxidation over Fe-Ti-Mn spinel were studied. The reaction orders of Hg(0) oxidation over Fe-Ti-Mn spinel with respect to gaseous Hg(0) concentration and gaseous HCl concentration were approximately 1 and 0, respectively. Therefore, Hg(0) oxidation over Fe-Ti-Mn spinel mainly followed the Eley-Rideal mechanism (i.e., the reaction of gaseous Hg(0) with adsorbed HCl), and the rate of Hg(0) oxidation mainly depended on Cl(•) concentration on the surface. As H2O, SO2, and NO not only inhibited Cl(•) formation on the surface but also interfered with the interface reaction between gaseous Hg(0) and Cl(•) on the surface, Hg(0) oxidation over Fe-Ti-Mn spinel was obviously inhibited in the presence of H2O, SO2, and NO. Furthermore, the extent of Hg(0) oxidation over Fe-Ti-Mn spinel can be predicted according to the kinetic parameter kE-R, and the predicted result was consistent with the experimental result.

  9. Lithocholic acid: a new emergent protector of intestinal calcium absorption under oxidant conditions.

    PubMed

    Marchionatti, Ana M; Pérez, Adriana; Rivoira, María A; Rodríguez, Valeria A; Tolosa de Talamoni, Nori G

    2017-04-01

    LCA and 1,25(OH)2D3 are vitamin D receptor ligands with different binding affinity. The secosteroid stimulates intestinal Ca(2+) absorption. Whether LCA alters this process remains unknown. The aim of our work was to determine the effect of LCA on intestinal Ca(2+) absorption in the absence or presence of NaDOC, bile acid that inhibits the cation transport. The data show that LCA by itself did not alter intestinal Ca(2+) absorption, but prevented the inhibitory effect of NaDOC. The concomitant administration of LCA avoided the reduction of intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity caused by NaDOC. In addition, LCA blocked a decrease caused by NaDOC on gene and protein expression of molecules involved in the transcellular pathway of intestinal Ca(2+) absorption. The oxidative stress and apoptosis triggered by NaDOC were abrogated by LCA co-treatment. In conclusion, LCA placed in the intestinal lumen protects intestinal Ca(2+) absorption against the inhibitory effects caused by NaDOC. LCA avoids the reduction of the transcellular Ca(2+) movement, apparently by blocking the oxidative stress and apoptosis triggered by NaDOC, normalizing the gene and protein expression of molecules involved in Ca(2+) movement. Therefore, LCA might become a possible treatment to improve intestinal calcium absorption under oxidant conditions.

  10. Determination of uranyl incorporation into biogenic manganese oxides using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and scattering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, S.M.; Fuller, C.C.; Tebo, B.M.; Bargar, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Biogenic manganese oxides are common and an important source of reactive mineral surfaces in the environment that may be potentially enhanced in bioremediation cases to improve natural attenuation. Experiments were performed in which the uranyl ion, UO22+ (U(VI)), at various concentrations was present during manganese oxide biogenesis. At all concentrations, there was strong uptake of U onto the oxides. Synchrotron-based extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies were carried out to determine the molecular-scale mechanism by which uranyl is incorporated into the oxide and how this incorporation affects the resulting manganese oxide structure and mineralogy. The EXAFS experiments show that at low concentrations (2 mol % U, >4 ??M U(VI) in solution), the presence of U(VI) affects the stability and structure of the Mn oxide to form poorly ordered Mn oxide tunnel structures, similar to todorokite. EXAFS modeling shows that uranyl is present in these oxides predominantly in the tunnels of the Mn oxide structure in a tridentate complex. Observations by XRD corroborate these results. Structural incorporation may lead to more stable U(VI) sequestration that may be suitable for remediation uses. These observations, combined with the very high uptake capacity of the Mn oxides, imply that Mn-oxidizing bacteria may significantly influence dissolved U(VI) concentrations in impacted waters via sorption and incorporation into Mn oxide biominerals. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  11. Subwavelength structure for sound absorption from graphene oxide-doped polyvinylpyrrolidone nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qamoshi, Khadijeh; Rasuli, Reza

    2016-09-01

    We study the sound absorption of the reinforced polyvinylpyrrolidone nanofibers with graphene oxide. It is shown that reinforced nanofibers can acquire impedance-matched surface to airborne sound at special frequencies. To obtain such surface, nanofibers were spun with polyvinylpyrrolidone polymer that was doped by graphene oxide with concentrations of 0, 6 and 12 wt%. It was found that fibers without graphene oxide were spun continuously and randomly, whereas by doping with graphene oxide, the mode of fibers is changed and some nodes form on the fibers coating. The sound absorption coefficient was measured by an impedance tube based on 105341-1 ISO standard. Measurements in the frequency range from 700 to 1600 Hz show that use of graphene oxide as a reinforcing phase increases sound absorption coefficient of the samples at a frequency ~1500 Hz up to ~40 %. Angular eigenfrequency and dissipation coefficient of the samples were obtained by impedance measurement for the prepared samples. Results show that doping the polymer with graphene oxide causes an increase in the angular eigenfrequency and the dissipation coefficient.

  12. Hierarchical porous Ni@boehmite/nickel aluminum oxide flakes with enhanced microwave absorption ability.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Biao; Liu, Junwei; Guo, Xiaoqin; Zhao, Wanyu; Liang, Luyang; Ma, Chao; Zhang, Rui

    2017-03-29

    In this article, composites consisting of porous Ni cores coated with boehmite/nickel aluminum oxide nanoflakes were successfully prepared by a versatile method. The crystal constituents and shapes of the boehmite/nickel aluminum oxide nanoflakes were strongly influenced by reaction temperature, and their microwave absorption properties were investigated in terms of complex permittivity and permeability. The results reveal that the composites comprising porous Ni cores coated with boehmite/nickel aluminum oxide synthesized at 180 °C present superior absorption properties. The optimal reflection loss is -44.3 dB (>99.99% attenuation) at 14.4 GHz, and the effective absorption (below -10 dB) bandwidth can be monitored in the frequency range of 5.8-18.0 GHz for an absorber with thickness in the range of 1.5-3.5 mm. The high dissipation capability, good impedance match and multiple reflection of the porous flaky structure are responsible for the improvement in microwave absorption. Moreover, a new absorption mechanism was proposed for the porous structure. In this mechanism, the porous structure serves as a spreading container, which attenuates electromagnetic energy by prolonging the travel path and constrains waves in the void space to gradually consume energy. This method paves a new avenue to design porous magnetic-dielectric absorbing materials.

  13. Non-Controlled Biogenic Emission of CO, H2S, NH3 and Hg0 from Lazareto's Landfill, Tenerife, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolasco, D.; Lima, R.; Salazar, J.; Hernández, P. A.; Pérez, N. M.

    2002-12-01

    Landfills are important sources of contaminant gases to the surrounding environment and a significant amount of them could be released to the atmosphere through the surface environment in a diffuse form, also known as non-controlled emission of landfill gases. CH4 and CO2 are major components in landfill gases and other gas species are only present in minor amounts. Trace compounds include both inorganic and a large number of volatile organic components. The goal of this study is to evaluate the non-controlled biogenic emission of inorganic toxic gases from Lazareto's landfill. Which is located in the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, with a population of about 150,000, and is used as a Palm tree park. Lazareto's landfill has an extension of 0.22 Km2 and it is not operative since 1980. A non-controlled biogenic gas emission survey of 281 sampling sites was carried out from February tod March, 2002. Surface CO2 efflux measurements were performed by means of a portable NDIR sensor according with the accumulation chamber method. Surface CO2 efflux ranged from negligible values up to 30,600 gm-2d-1. At each sampling site, surface landfill gas samples were collected at 40 cm depth using a metallic soil probe. These gas samples were analyzed within 24 hours for major and inorganic toxic gas species by means of microGC and specific electrochemical sensors. The highest concentrations of CO, H2S, NH3 and Hg0 were 3, 20, 2,227, 0.010 ppmV, respectively. Non-controlled biogenic emission rate of CO, H2S, NH3, and Hg0 were estimated by multiplying the observed surface CO2 efflux times (Inorganic Toxic Gas)i/CO2 weight ratio at each sampling site, respectively. The highest surface inorganic toxic gas efllux rates were 699 gm-2d-1 for NH3, 81, 431 and 4 mgm-2d-1 for CO, H2S and Hg0, respectively. Taking into consideration the spatial distribution of the inorganic toxic gas efflux values as well as the extension of the landfill, the non-controlled biogenic emission of CO, H2S, NH3

  14. Intestinal paracellular absorption is necessary to support the sugar oxidation cascade in nectarivorous bats.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Peña, Nelly; Price, Edwin R; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique; Flores-Ortiz, Cesar M; Karasov, William H

    2016-03-01

    We made the first measurements of the capacity for paracellular nutrient absorption in intact nectarivorous bats. Leptonycteris yerbabuenae (20 g mass) were injected with or fed inert carbohydrate probes L-rhamnose and D(+)-cellobiose, which are absorbed exclusively by the paracellular route, and 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3OMD-glucose), which is absorbed both paracellularly and transcellularly. Using a standard pharmacokinetic technique, we collected blood samples for 2 h after probe administration. As predicted, fractional absorption (f) of paracellular probes declined with increasing Mr in the order of rhamnose (f=0.71)>cellobiose (f=0.23). Absorption of 3OMD-glucose was complete (f=0.85; not different from unity). Integrating our data with those for glucose absorption and oxidation in another nectarivorous bat, we conclude that passive paracellular absorption of glucose is extensive in nectarivorous bat species, as in other bats and small birds, and necessary to support high glucose fluxes hypothesized for the sugar oxidation cascade.

  15. Research on filling process of fuel and oxidant during detonation based on absorption spectrum technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Xiao-Jing; Li, Ning; Weng, Chun-Sheng

    2014-12-01

    Research on detonation process is of great significance for the control optimization of pulse detonation engine. Based on absorption spectrum technology, the filling process of fresh fuel and oxidant during detonation is researched. As one of the most important products, H2O is selected as the target of detonation diagnosis. Fiber distributed detonation test system is designed to enable the detonation diagnosis under adverse conditions in detonation process. The test system is verified to be reliable. Laser signals at different working frequency (5Hz, 10Hz and 20Hz) are detected. Change of relative laser intensity in one detonation circle is analyzed. The duration of filling process is inferred from the change of laser intensity, which is about 100~110ms. The peak of absorption spectrum is used to present the concentration of H2O during the filling process of fresh fuel and oxidant. Absorption spectrum is calculated, and the change of absorption peak is analyzed. Duration of filling process calculated with absorption peak consisted with the result inferred from the change of relative laser intensity. The pulse detonation engine worked normally and obtained the maximum thrust at 10Hz under experiment conditions. The results are verified through H2O gas concentration monitoring during detonation.

  16. Nanocrystalline titanium dioxide and magnesium oxide in vitro dermal absorption in human skin.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, Deon; Tawde, Snehal; Pickrell, John A; Erickson, Larry E

    2009-01-01

    The dermal absorption potential of a nanocrystalline magnesium oxide (MgO) and titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) mixture in dermatomed human skin was assessed in vitro using Bronaugh-type flow-through diffusion cells. Nanocrystalline material was applied to the skin surface at a dose rate of 50 mg/cm(2) as a dry powder, as a water suspension, and as a water/surfactant (sodium lauryl sulfate) suspension, for 8 hours. Dermal absorption of nanocrystalline MgO and TiO(2) through human skin with intact, functional stratum corneum was not detectable under the conditions of this experiment.

  17. Parasitic Absorption Reduction in Metal Oxide-Based Transparent Electrodes: Application in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Werner, Jérémie; Geissbühler, Jonas; Dabirian, Ali; Nicolay, Sylvain; Morales-Masis, Monica; Wolf, Stefaan De; Niesen, Bjoern; Ballif, Christophe

    2016-07-13

    Transition metal oxides (TMOs) are commonly used in a wide spectrum of device applications, thanks to their interesting electronic, photochromic, and electrochromic properties. Their environmental sensitivity, exploited for gas and chemical sensors, is however undesirable for application in optoelectronic devices, where TMOs are used as charge injection or extraction layers. In this work, we first study the coloration of molybdenum and tungsten oxide layers, induced by thermal annealing, Ar plasma exposure, or transparent conducting oxide overlayer deposition, typically used in solar cell fabrication. We then propose a discoloration method based on an oxidizing CO2 plasma treatment, which allows for a complete bleaching of colored TMO films and prevents any subsequent recoloration during following cell processing steps. Then, we show that tungsten oxide is intrinsically more resilient to damage induced by Ar plasma exposure as compared to the commonly used molybdenum oxide. Finally, we show that parasitic absorption in TMO-based transparent electrodes, as used for semitransparent perovskite solar cells, silicon heterojunction solar cells, or perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells, can be drastically reduced by replacing molybdenum oxide with tungsten oxide and by applying a CO2 plasma pretreatment prior to the transparent conductive oxide overlayer deposition.

  18. Air-surface exchange of Hg0 measured by collocated micrometeorological and enclosure methods - Part 1: Data comparability and method characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, W.; Sommar, J.; Lin, C.-J.; Feng, X.

    2014-09-01

    Reliable quantification of air-biosphere exchange flux of elemental mercury vapor (Hg0) is crucial for understanding global biogeochemical cycle of mercury. However, there has not been a standard analytical protocol for flux quantification, and little attention has been devoted to characterize the temporal variability and comparability of fluxes measured by different methods. In this study, we deployed a collocated set of micro-meteorological (MM) and enclosure measurement systems to quantify Hg0 flux over bare soil and low standing crop in an agricultural field. The techniques include relaxed eddy accumulation (REA), modified Bowen-ratio (MBR), aerodynamic gradient (AGM) as well as dynamic flux chambers of traditional (TDFC) and novel (NDFC) designs. The five systems and their measured fluxes were cross-examined with respect to magnitude, temporal trend and sensitivity to environmental variables. Fluxes measured by the MM and DFC methods showed distinct temporal trends. The former exhibited a highly dynamic temporal variability while the latter had much gradual temporal features. The diurnal characteristics reflected the difference in the fundamental processes driving the measurements. The correlations between NDFC and TDFC fluxes and between MBR and AGM fluxes were significant (R > 0.8, p < 0.05), but the correlation between DFC and MM instantaneous fluxes were from weak to moderate (R = 0.1-0.5). Statistical analysis indicated that the median of turbulent fluxes estimated by the three independent MM-techniques were not significantly different. Cumulative flux measured by TDFC is considerably lower (42% of AGM and 31% of MBR fluxes) while those measured by NDFC, AGM and MBR were similar (< 10% difference). This implicates that the NDFC technique, which accounts for internal friction velocity, effectively bridged the gap in measured Hg0 flux compared to MM techniques. Cumulated flux measured by REA was ~60% higher than the gradient-based fluxes. Environmental

  19. The effect of the material surface oxidation on laser light absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hruška, M.; Tesař, J.; Vostřák, M.; Smazalová, E.

    2017-02-01

    This study examines the influence of surface condition on its interaction with a laser beam. The relation was tested on milled C45 steel samples with a different width of created oxide layer. The milled surface with roughness 1.6 was modified by the creation of oxide layer. The oxide layers were created by solid state pulsed laser with scanning optics. The modified samples were processed by high power diode laser with a wide spread beam. The surface temperature was measured by the thermal camera during this process. The surface hardness and hardness depth profile were measured for all modified samples and the emissivity values were measured. The effect of pretreatment on hardness and microstructure will be discussed. The goal of this paper is to describe the relation between the parameters of created oxide layer and its effect on laser beam absorption.

  20. Tuning optical and three photon absorption properties in graphene oxide-polyvinyl alcohol free standing films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthikeyan, B.; Udayabhaskar, R.; Hariharan, S.

    2016-07-01

    We report the optical and nonlinear optical properties of graphene oxide (GO)-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) free standing films. The composite polymer films were prepared in ex-situ method. The variation in optical absorption spectra and optical constants with the amount of GO loading was noteworthy from the optical absorption spectroscopic studies. Nonlinear optical studies done at 532 nm using 5 ns laser pulses show three photon absorption like behaviour. Both steady state and time resolved fluorescence studies reveal that the GO was functioning as a pathway for the decay of fluorescence from PVA. This is attributed to the energy level modifications of GO through hydroxyl groups with PVA. Raman spectroscopy also supports the interaction between GO and PVA ions through OH radicals.

  1. Development of a mechanistically based computer simulation of nitrogen oxide absorption in packed towers

    SciTech Connect

    Counce, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    A computer simulation for nitrogen oxide (NO/sub x/) scrubbing in packed towers was developed for use in process design and process control. This simulation implements a mechanistically based mathematical model, which was formulated from (1) an exhaustive literature review; (2) previous NO/sub x/ scrubbing experience with sieve-plate towers; and (3) comparisons of sequential sets of experiments. Nitrogen oxide scrubbing is characterized by simultaneous absorption and desorption phenomena: the model development is based on experiments designed to feature these two phenomena. The model was then successfully tested in experiments designed to put it in jeopardy.

  2. HPLC analysis of in vivo intestinal absorption and oxidative metabolism of salicylic acid in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kuzma, Mónika; Nyúl, Eszter; Mayer, Mátyás; Fischer, Emil; Perjési, Pál

    2016-12-01

    In vivo absorption and oxidative metabolism of salicylic acid in rat small intestine was studied by luminal perfusion experiment. Perfusion through the lumen of proximal jejunum with isotonic medium containing 250 μm sodium salicylate was carried out. Absorption of salicylate was measured by a validated HPLC-DAD method which was evaluated for a number of validation characteristics (specificity, repeatability and intermediate precision, limit of detection, limit of quantification, linearity and accuracy). The method was linear over the concentration range 0.5-50 μg/mL. After liquid-liquid extraction of the perfusion samples oxidative biotransformation of salicylate was also investigated by HPLC-MS. The method was linear over the concentration range 0.25-5.0 μg/mL. Two hydroxylated metabolites of salicylic acid (2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid) were detected and identified. The mean recovery of extraction was 72.4% for 2,3-DHB, 72.5% for 2,5-DHB and 50.1% for salicylic acid, respectively. The methods were successfully applied to investigate jejunal absorption and oxidative metabolism of sodium salicylate in experimental animals. The methods provide analytical background for further metabolic studies of salycilates under modified physiological conditions.

  3. Intrinsic nature of visible-light absorption in amorphous semiconducting oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Youngho; Song, Hochul; Han, Seungwu; Nahm, Ho-Hyun; Jeon, Sang Ho; Cho, Youngmi

    2014-03-01

    To enlighten microscopic origin of visible-light absorption in transparent amorphous semiconducting oxides, the intrinsic optical property of amorphous InGaZnO{sub 4} is investigated by considering dipole transitions within the quasiparticle band structure. In comparison with the crystalline InGaZnO{sub 4} with the optical gap of 3.6 eV, the amorphous InGaZnO{sub 4} has two distinct features developed in the band structure that contribute to significant visible-light absorption. First, the conduction bands are down-shifted by 0.55 eV mainly due to the undercoordinated In atoms, reducing the optical gap between extended states to 2.8 eV. Second, tail states formed by localized oxygen p orbitals are distributed over ∼0.5 eV near the valence edge, which give rise to substantial subgap absorption. The fundamental understanding on the optical property of amorphous semiconducting oxides based on underlying electronic structure will pave the way for resolving instability issues in recent display devices incorporating the semiconducting oxides.

  4. ULTRAVIOLET ABSORPTION SPECTRUM OF NITROUS OXIDE AS FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE AND ISOTOPIC SUBSTITUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Selwyn, G.S.; Johnston, H.S.

    1980-07-01

    The ultraviolet absorption spectra of nitrous oxide and its {sup 15}N isotopes over the wavelength range 197 to 172 nm and between 150 and 500 K show a weak continuous absorption and a pattern of diffuse banding that became pronounced at higher temperatures. The temperature dependence of the absorption spectrum results from the activation of the n{sub 2}{double_prime} bending mode. Deconvolution of the data shows that absorption by molecules in the (010) vibrational mode results in a spectrum of vibrational bands superimposed on a continuum. A weaker and nearly continuous spectrum results from the ultraviolet absorption by molecules in the (000) vibrational mode. Analysis of the structuring indicates n{sub 2}{double_prime} = (490 {+-} 10) cm{sup -1}. No rotational structure can be observed. Measurement of the n{sub 2}{double_prime} isotope shift is used to identify the quantum number of the upper state vibrational levels. Normal coordinate analysis of the excited state is used to determine a self-consistent set of molecular parameters: bond angle (115{sup o}), the values of n{sub 1}{prime} and n{sub 3}{prime} (1372 and 1761 cm{sup -1}, respectively), and the force constants of the upper state. It is suggested that the transitions observed are {sup 1}S{sup -}({sup 1}A{sup -}) {l_arrow} X- {sup 1}{sup +} and {sup 1}D {l_arrow} {tilde X} {sup 1}S{sup +}.

  5. Observation of confinement effects through liner and nonlinear absorption spectroscopy in cuprous oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekhar, H.; Rakesh Kumar, Y.; Narayana Rao, D.

    2015-02-01

    Cuprous oxide nano clusters, micro cubes and micro particles were successfully synthesized by reducing copper (II) salt with ascorbic acid in the presence of sodium hydroxide via a co-precipitation method. The X-ray diffraction studies revealed the formation of pure single phase cubic. Raman spectrum shows the inevitable presence of CuO on the surface of the Cu2O powders which may have an impact on the stability of the phase. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) data revealed that the morphology evolves from nanoclusters to micro cubes and micro particles by increasing the concentration of NaOH. Linear optical measurements show that the absorption peak maximum shifts towards red with changing morphology from nano clusters to micro cubes and micro particles. The nonlinear optical properties were studied using open aperture Z-scan technique with 532 nm, 6 ns laser pulses. Samples exhibited saturable as well as reverse saturable absorption. The results show that the transition from SA to RSA is ascribed to excited-state absorption (ESA) induced by two-photon absorption (TPA) process. Due to confinement effects (enhanced band gap) we observed enhanced nonlinear absorption coefficient (βeff) in the case of nano-clusters compared to their micro-cubes and micro-particles.

  6. Investigation on binding of nitric oxide to horseradish peroxidase by absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Li; Zhu, Shuhua; Ma, Hongmei; Zhou, Jie

    2010-01-01

    Binding of nitric oxide to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) has been investigated by absorption spectrometry in 0.2 M anaerobic phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4). Based on this binding equilibrium, a model equation for evaluating the binding constant of nitric oxide to HRP is developed and the binding constant is calculated to be (1.55 ± 0.06) × 10 4 M -1, indicating that HRP can form a stable complex with nitric oxide. The type of inhibition by nitric oxide is validated on the basis of studying initial reaction rates of HRP-catalyzed oxidation of guaiacol in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide. The inhibition mechanism is found to follow an apparent non-competitive inhibition by Lineweaver-Burk method. Based on this kinetic mechanism, the binding constant is also calculated to be (5.22 ± 0.06) × 10 4 M -1. The values of the binding constant determined by the two methods are almost identical. The non-competitive inhibition model is also applicable to studying the effect of nitric oxide on other metalloenzymes, which catalyze the two-substrate reaction with the "ping-pong" mechanism.

  7. CeO2-TiO2 catalysts for catalytic oxidation of elemental mercury in low-rank coal combustion flue gas.

    PubMed

    Li, Hailong; Wu, Chang-Yu; Li, Ying; Zhang, Junying

    2011-09-01

    CeO(2)-TiO(2) (CeTi) catalysts synthesized by an ultrasound-assisted impregnation method were employed to oxidize elemental mercury (Hg(0)) in simulated low-rank (sub-bituminous and lignite) coal combustion flue gas. The CeTi catalysts with a CeO(2)/TiO(2) weight ratio of 1-2 exhibited high Hg(0) oxidation activity from 150 to 250 °C. The high concentrations of surface cerium and oxygen were responsible for their superior performance. Hg(0) oxidation over CeTi catalysts was proposed to follow the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism whereby reactive species from adsorbed flue gas components react with adjacently adsorbed Hg(0). In the presence of O(2), a promotional effect of HCl, NO, and SO(2) on Hg(0) oxidation was observed. Without O(2), HCl and NO still promoted Hg(0) oxidation due to the surface oxygen, while SO(2) inhibited Hg(0) adsorption and subsequent oxidation. Water vapor also inhibited Hg(0) oxidation. HCl was the most effective flue gas component responsible for Hg(0) oxidation. However, the combination of SO(2) and NO without HCl also resulted in high Hg(0) oxidation efficiency. This superior oxidation capability is advantageous to Hg(0) oxidation in low-rank coal combustion flue gas with low HCl concentration.

  8. Elemental mercury (Hg(0)) in air and surface waters of the Yellow Sea during late spring and late fall 2012: concentration, spatial-temporal distribution and air/sea flux.

    PubMed

    Ci, Zhijia; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zhangwei; Zhang, Xiaoshan

    2015-01-01

    The Yellow Sea in East Asia receives great Hg input from regional emissions. However, Hg cycling in this marine system is poorly investigated. In late spring and late fall 2012, we determined gaseous elemental Hg (GEM or Hg(0)) in air and dissolved gaseous Hg (DGM, mainly Hg(0)) in surface waters to explore the spatial-temporal variations of Hg(0) and further to estimate the air/sea Hg(0) flux in the Yellow Sea. The results showed that the GEM concentrations in the two cruises were similar (spring: 1.86±0.40 ng m(-3); fall: 1.84±0.50 ng m(-3)) and presented similar spatial variation pattern with elevated concentrations along the coast of China and lower concentrations in the open ocean. The DGM concentrations of the two cruises were also similar with 27.0±6.8 pg L(-1) in the spring cruise and 28.2±9.0 pg L(-1) in the fall cruise and showed substantial spatial variation. The air/sea Hg(0) fluxes in the spring cruise and fall cruise were estimated to be 1.06±0.86 ng m(-2) h(-1) and 2.53±2.12 ng m(-2) h(-1), respectively. The combination of this study and our previous summer cruise showed that the summer cruise presented enhanced values of GEM, DGM and air/sea Hg(0) flux. The possible reason for this trend was that high solar radiation in summer promoted Hg(0) formation in seawater, and the high wind speed during the summer cruise significantly increased Hg(0) emission from sea surface to atmosphere and subsequently enhanced the GEM levels.

  9. Titanium-silicon oxide film structures for polarization-modulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Iain E.; Zorn, Stefan; Richter, Gunther; Srot, Vesna; Kelsch, Marion; van Aken, Peter A.; Skoda, Maximilian; Gerlach, Alexander; Spatz, Joachim P.; Schreiber, Frank

    2010-01-01

    We present a titanium-silicon oxide film structure that permits polarization modulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy on silicon oxide surfaces. The structure consists of a ~6 nm sputtered silicon oxide film on a ~200 nm sputtered titanium film. Characterization using conventional and scanning transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray reflectometry is presented. We demonstrate the use of this structure to investigate a selectively protein-resistant self-assembled monolayer (SAM) consisting of silane-anchored, biotin-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). PEG-associated IR bands were observed. Measurements of protein-characteristic band intensities showed that this SAM adsorbed streptavidin whereas it repelled bovine serum albumin, as had been expected from its structure. PMID:20418963

  10. Direct Oxidative Damage of Naked DNA Generated upon Absorption of UV Radiation by Nucleobases.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Mendoza, Miguel; Banyasz, Akos; Douki, Thierry; Markovitsi, Dimitra; Ravanat, Jean-Luc

    2016-10-06

    It has been shown that in addition to formation of pyrimidine dimers, UV irradiation of DNA in the absence of photosensitizer also induces formation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine, but the mechanism of formation of that oxidized base has not been clearly established. In the present study, we provide an unambiguous demonstration that absorption of UVC and UVB radiation by the nucleobases induces DNA oxidation via a direct process (one-electron oxidation) and not singlet oxygen. Evidence arose from the fact that polyamine-guanine adducts that are specifically produced through the transient formation of guanine radical cation are generated following UV irradiation of DNA in the presence of a polyamine even in the absence of any photosensitizer.

  11. FORMATION OF REACTIVE GASEOUS MERCURY IN THE ARCTIC: EVIDENCE OF OXIDATION OF HG0 TO GAS-PHASE HG-II COMPOUNDS AFTER ARCTIC SUNRISE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have measured total gaseous mercury concentrations (Hgo) at Point Barrow, Alaska since September 1998 in an effort to determine the geographic extent and reaction mechanism of the so-called mercury depletion events (MDE) previously reported in the high Arctic at Alert, Canad...

  12. Experimental study on the absorption behaviors of gas phase bivalent mercury in Ca-based wet flue gas desulfurization slurry system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuejun; Wang, Yunjun; Liu, Yue; Wu, Zhongbiao; Mo, Jiansong; Cheng, Bin

    2010-11-15

    Gas phase oxidation and catalytic oxidation of element mercury (Hg(0)) to bivalent mercury (Hg(2+)) were proposed to improve the mercury removal efficiency in the wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) system. However, the re-emission of Hg(0), generated by the reduction of absorbed Hg(2+), would lead to a damping of the total mercury removal efficiency. In this paper, the absorption and reduction behaviors of bivalent mercury in the Ca-based WFGD slurry were evaluated in our purpose-built device. According to our experimental results, the slurry chemistry (such as CaSO(3) content, SO(4)(2-), Cl(-) and pH value) had a strong influence on the reduction of absorbed bivalent mercury. And the inlet concentrations of SO(2) and O(2) contribute little to the mercury absorption. Within the typical pH value range of 4.5-5.5, about 70% of inlet bivalent mercury was converted to Hg(0). The re-emission of Hg would be greatly retarded with the increase of [SO(4)(2-)] due to the formation of HgSO(4) or Hg(3)O(2)SO(4). Moreover, it was found that Cl(-) would also inhibit the reduction of bivalent mercury through the ligands reactions between Cl(-) and Hg(2+).

  13. A study on optical absorption and constants of doped poly(ethylene oxide)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Faleh, R. S.; Zihlif, A. M.

    2011-05-01

    Thin films of polymer electrolyte based on poly(ethylene oxide) doped with sodium iodide (NaI) were prepared using the solution cast method. The films obtained have average thickness of 70 μm and different NaI concentrations. Absorption and reflectance spectra of UV-radiation were studied in the wavelength range 300-800 nm. The optical results were analyzed in terms of absorption formula for non-crystalline materials. The optical energy gap and the basic optical constants, refractive index, and dielectric constants of the prepared films have been investigated and showed a clear dependence on the NaI concentration. The interpreted absorption mechanism is a direct electron transition. The observed optical energy gap for neat poly(ethylene oxide) is about 2.6 eV, and decreases to a value 2.36 eV for the film of 15 wt% NaI content. It was found that the calculated refractive index and the dielectric constants of the polymer electrolyte thin films increase with NaI content. Models were used to describe the dependences of the dielectric constant on the NaI concentration, and the refractive index on the incident photon energy.

  14. An x-ray absorption spectroscopy study of Mo oxidation in Pb at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Shanshan; Olive, Daniel; Terry, Jeff; Segre, Carlo U.

    2009-06-30

    The corrosion of fuel cladding and structural materials by lead and lead-bismuth eutectic in the liquid state at elevated temperatures is an issue that must be considered when designing advanced nuclear systems and high-power spallation neutron targets. In this work, lead corrosion studies of molybdenum were performed to investigate the interaction layer as a function of temperature by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. In situ X-ray absorption measurements on a Mo substrate with a 3-6 {micro}m layer of Pb deposited by thermal evaporation were performed at temperatures up to 900 C and at a 15{sup o} angle to the incident X-rays. The changes in the local atomic structure of the corrosion layer are visible in the difference extended X-ray absorption fine structure and the linear combination fitting of the X-ray absorption near-edge structure to as-deposited molybdenum sample and molybdenum oxide (MoO{sub 2} and MoO{sub 3}) standards. The data are consistent with the appearance of MoO{sub 3} in an intermediate temperature range (650-800 C) and the more stable MoO{sub 2} phase dominating at high and low temperatures.

  15. Excess conductivity analysis for Tl 0.8Hg 0.2Ba 2Ca 2Cu 3O 9-δ substituted by Sm and Yb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou-Aly, A. I.; Awad, R.; Ibrahim, I. H.; Abdeen, W.

    2009-02-01

    A series of superconducting samples of type Tl 0.8Hg 0.2Ba 2Ca 2- xR xCu 3O 9-δ, where R=Sm and Yb with 0≤x≤0.15, were prepared in a sealed quartz tube via a solid-state reaction technique. The electrical resistivity ρ(T) was measured as a function of temperature using the conventional dc four-probe technique. The fluctuation conductivity Δσ, above the superconducting transition temperature Tc, was analyzed as a function of temperature using the Aslamazov and Larkin model. It exhibits five different fluctuation regions namely critical (cr), three-dimensional (3D), two-dimensional (2D), one-dimensional (1D) and short-wave (sw). The zero-temperature coherence length, the effective layer thickness of the two dimensional system, the wire cross-sectional area for one dimensional systems and the inter-layer coupling strength were estimated as a function of the substitution-content x. Furthermore, the thermodynamics critical field, lower critical magnetic field, upper critical magnetic field, critical current density and Fermi energy are calculated from the Ginzburg number.

  16. Synthesis, structural characterization and dielectric properties of (C6H9N2)2(Hg0.75Cd0.25)Cl4 compound.

    PubMed

    Elwej, R; Hamdi, M; Hannachi, N; Hlel, F

    2014-01-01

    The present paper undertakes the study of a title compound whose structure is (C6H9N2)2(Hg0.75Cd0.25)Cl4. The centrosymmetric compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1, with a=7.580(7) Å; b=8.572(8) Å; c=15.433(13) Å; α=84.49(5)°; β=89.13(5)°; γ=68.53(5)° and Z=2. The crystal structure was solved and refined to R (int)=0.0212 using 7932 independent reflections. The atomic arrangement shows an alternation of organic and inorganic layers. Between layers, the cohesion is performed via N-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonding, yet in the organic sheets, cations are further connected to classical π-π stacking. The Infrared and Raman spectra of this compound reported from 400 to 4000 cm(-1) confirmed the presence of the principal bands assigned to the internal modes of organic cation. Solid-state (13)C and (111)Cd CP-MAS-NMR spectra are reported. The dielectric study of this compound has been measured, in order to determine the σ(d.c) conductivity which is thermally activated with activation energy about 1.5 eV.

  17. Transient thermal effect, nonlinear refraction and nonlinear absorption properties of graphene oxide sheets in dispersion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Liang; Liu, Zhi-Bo; Li, Xiao-Chun; Ma, Qiang; Chen, Xu-Dong; Tian, Jian-Guo; Xu, Yan-Fei; Chen, Yong-Sheng

    2013-03-25

    The nonlinear refraction (NLR) properties of graphene oxide (GO) in N, N-Dimethylformamide (DMF) was studied in nanosecond, picosecond and femtosecond time regimes by Z-scan technique. Results show that the dispersion of GO in DMF exhibits negative NLR properties in nanosecond time regime, which is mainly attributed to transient thermal effect in the dispersion. The dispersion also exhibits negative NLR in picosecond and femtosecond time regimes, which are arising from sp(2)- hybridized carbon domains and sp(3)- hybridized matrix in GO sheets. To illustrate the relations between NLR and nonlinear absorption (NLA), NLA properties of the dispersion were also studied in nanosecond, picosecond and femtosecond time regimes.

  18. Metal release in metallothioneins induced by nitric oxide: X-ray absorption spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Casero, Elena; Martín-Gago, José A; Pariente, Félix; Lorenzo, Encarnación

    2004-12-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight proteins that include metal ions in thiolate clusters. The capability of metallothioneins to bind different metals has suggested their use as biosensors for different elements. We study here the interaction of nitric oxide with rat liver MTs by using in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques. We univocally show that the presence of NO induces the release of Zn atoms from the MT structure to the solution. Zn ions transform in the presence of NO from a tetrahedral four-fold coordinated environment in the MT into a regular octahedral six-fold coordinated state, with interatomic distances compatible with those of Zn solvated in water.

  19. Mercury re-emission in flue gas multipollutants simultaneous absorption system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yue; Wang, Qingfeng; Mei, Rongjun; Wang, Haiqiang; Weng, Xiaole; Wu, Zhongbiao

    2014-12-02

    Recently, simultaneous removal of SO2, NOx and oxidized mercury in wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) scrubber has become a research focus. Mercury re-emission in traditional WFGD system has been widely reported due to the reduction of oxidized mercury by sulfite ions. However, in multipollutants simultaneous absorption system, the formation of a large quantity of nitrate and nitrite ions as NOx absorption might also affect the reduction of oxidized mercury in the aqueous absorbent. As such, this paper studied the effects of nitrate and nitrite ions on mercury re-emission and its related mechanism. Experimental results revealed that the nitrate ions had neglected effect on mercury re-emission while the nitrite ions could greatly change the mercury re-emission behaviors. The nitrite ions could initially improve the Hg(0)-emission through the decomposition of HgSO3NO2(-), but with a further increase in the concentration, they would then inhibit the reduction of bivalent mercury owing to the formation of Hg-nitrite complex [Hg(NO2)x(2-x)]. In addition, the subsequent addition of Cl(-) could further suppress the Hg(0) emission, where the formation of a stable Hg-SO3-NO2-Cl complex was assumed to be the main reason for such strong inhibition effect.

  20. Sensing the dynamics of oxidative stress using enhanced absorption in protein-loaded random media.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Guillaume; Santschi, Christian; Slaveykova, Vera I; Martin, Olivier J F

    2013-12-09

    Reactive oxygen species play a key role in cell signalling and oxidative stress mechanisms, therefore, sensing their production by living organisms is of fundamental interest. Here we describe a novel biosensing method for extracellular detection of endogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The method is based on the enhancement of the optical absorption spectrum of the hemoprotein cytochrome c when loaded into a highly scattering random medium. Such a configuration enables, in contrast to existing techniques, non-invasive and dynamic detection of the oxidation of cyt c in the presence of H2O2 with unprecedented sensitivity. Dynamic information on the modification of the cell oxidative status of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, an aquatic green algae, was obtained under oxidative stress conditions induced by the presence of trace concentrations of Cd(II). Furthermore, the dynamics of H2O2 production was investigated under different lighting conditions confirming the impact of Cd(II) on the photosynthetic activity of those phytoplanktonic cells.

  1. Influence of Reduced Graphene Oxide on Effective Absorption Bandwidth Shift of Hybrid Absorbers

    PubMed Central

    Ameer, Shahid; Gul, Iftikhar Hussain

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic nanoparticle composite NiFe2O4 has traditionally been studied for high-frequency microwave absorption with marginal performance towards low-frequency radar bands (particularly L and S bands). Here, NiFe2O4 nanoparticles and nanohybrids using large-diameter graphene oxide (GO) sheets are prepared via solvothermal synthesis for low-frequency wide bandwidth shielding (L and S radar bands). The synthesized materials were characterized using XRD, SEM, FTIR and microwave magneto dielectric spectroscopy. The dimension of these solvothermally synthesized pristine particles and hybrids lies within 30–58 nm. Microwave magneto-dielectric spectroscopy was performed in the low-frequency region in the 1 MHz-3 GHz spectrum. The as-synthesized pristine nanoparticles and hybrids were found to be highly absorbing for microwaves throughout the L and S radar bands (< −10 dB from 1 MHz to 3 GHz). This excellent microwave absorbing property induced by graphene sheet coupling shows application of these materials with absorption bandwidth which is tailored such that these could be used for low frequency. Previously, these were used for high frequency absorptions (typically > 4 GHz) with limited selective bandwidth. PMID:27270944

  2. Reduced Graphene Oxide Functionalized with Cobalt Ferrite Nanocomposites for Enhanced Efficient and Lightweight Electromagnetic Wave Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yi; Liao, Qingliang; Liu, Shuo; Guo, Huijing; Sun, Yihui; Zhang, Guangjie; Zhang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, reduced graphene oxide functionalized with cobalt ferrite nanocomposites (CoFe@rGO) as a novel type of electromagnetic wave (EW) absorbing materials was successfully prepared by a three-step chemical method including hydrothermal synthesis, annealing process and mixing with paraffin. The effect of the sample thickness and the amount of paraffin on the EW absorption properties of the composites was studied, revealing that the absorption peaks shifted toward the low frequency regions with the increasing thickness while other conditions had little or no effect. It is found that the CoFe@rGO enhanced both dielectric losses and magnetic losses and had the best EW absorption properties and the wide wavelength coverage of the hole Ku-Band when adding only 5wt% composites to paraffin. Therefore, CoFe@rGO could be used as an efficient and lightweight EW absorber. Compared with the research into traditional absorbing materials, this figures of merit are typically of the same order of magnitude, but given the lightweight nature of the material and the high level of compatibility with mass production standards, making use of CoFe@rGO as an electromagnetic absorber material shows great potential for real product applications. PMID:27587001

  3. Removing nitric oxide from flue gas using iron(II) citrate chelate absorption with microbial regeneration.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xinhua; Chang, Shih Ger

    2007-04-01

    The addition of metal chelates such as Fe(II)EDTA or Fe(II)Cit to wet flue gas desulfurization systems has been shown to increase the amount of NO(x) absorption from gas streams containing SO(2). This paper attempts to demonstrate the advantage of not only using Fe(II)Cit chelate to absorb nitrogen oxides from flue gas but also the advantage gained from adding microorganisms to the system. Two distinct classes of microorganisms are needed: denitrifying and iron-reducing bacteria. The presence of oxygen in flue gas will affect the absorption efficiency of NO by Fe(II)Cit chelate. The oxidation of Fe(II) can be slowed with the help of bacteria in two ways: bacteria can serve to directly reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II) or they can serve to keep levels of dissolved oxygen in the solution low. As a result, after NO absorption, Fe(II)(Cit)NO will be reduced by denitrifying bacteria to Fe(II)Cit while Fe(III) is reduced by anaerobic bacteria back to Fe(II). Our experiments have shown that the implementation of our protocol allowed for an NO reduction rate constant increase from standard levels of 0.0222-0.100 m Mh(-1) with inlet NO changed from 250 to 1000 ppm. We have also found that total Fe concentration tends to decrease after prolonged periods of operation due to the loss of some Fe to the formation of Fe(OH)(3) that settles together with the sludge at the bottom of bioreactor tank.

  4. An international evaluation of holmium oxide solution reference materials for wavelength calibration in molecular absorption spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Travis, John C; Zwinkels, Joanne C; Mercader, Flora; Ruíz, Arquímedes; Early, Edward A; Smith, Melody V; Noël, Mario; Maley, Marissa; Kramer, Gary W; Eckerle, Kenneth L; Duewer, David L

    2002-07-15

    Commercial spectrophotometers typically use absorption-based wavelength calibration reference materials to provide wavelength accuracy for their applications. Low-mass fractions of holmium oxide (Ho2O3) in dilute acidic aqueous solution and in glass matrixes have been favored for use as wavelength calibration materials on the basis of spectral coverage and absorption band shape. Both aqueous and glass Ho2O3 reference materials are available commercially and through various National Metrology Institutes (NMIs). Three NMIs of the North American Cooperation in Metrology (NORAMET) have evaluated the performance of Ho3-(aq)-based Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) under "routine" operating conditions using commercial instrumentation. The study was not intended to intercompare national wavelength scales but to demonstrate comparability of wavelength measurements among the participants and between two versions of the CRMs. It was also designed to acquire data from a variety of spectrophotometers for use in a NIST study of wavelength assignment algorithms and to provide a basis for a possible reassessment of NIST-certified Ho3+(aq) band locations. The resulting data show a substantial level of agreement among laboratories, instruments, CRM preparations, and peak-location algorithms. At the same time, it is demonstrated that the wavelength comparability of the five participating instruments can actually be improved by calibrating all of the instruments to the consensus Ho3+(aq) band locations. This finding supports the value of absorption-based wavelength standards for calibrating absorption spectrophotometers. Coupled with the demonstrated robustness of the band position values with respect to preparation and measurement conditions, it also supports the concept of extending the present approach to additional NMIs in order to certify properly prepared dilute acidic Ho2O3 solution as an intrinsic wavelength standard.

  5. Dietary oxidized n-3 PUFA induce oxidative stress and inflammation: role of intestinal absorption of 4-HHE and reactivity in intestinal cells[S

    PubMed Central

    Awada, Manar; Soulage, Christophe O.; Meynier, Anne; Debard, Cyrille; Plaisancié, Pascale; Benoit, Bérengère; Picard, Grégory; Loizon, Emmanuelle; Chauvin, Marie-Agnès; Estienne, Monique; Peretti, Noël; Guichardant, Michel; Lagarde, Michel; Genot, Claude; Michalski, Marie-Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Dietary intake of long-chain n-3 PUFA is now widely advised for public health and in medical practice. However, PUFA are highly prone to oxidation, producing potentially deleterious 4-hydroxy-2-alkenals. Even so, the impact of consuming oxidized n-3 PUFA on metabolic oxidative stress and inflammation is poorly described. We therefore studied such effects and hypothesized the involvement of the intestinal absorption of 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (4-HHE), an oxidized n-3 PUFA end-product. In vivo, four groups of mice were fed for 8 weeks high-fat diets containing moderately oxidized or unoxidized n-3 PUFA. Other mice were orally administered 4-HHE and euthanized postprandially versus baseline mice. In vitro, human intestinal Caco-2/TC7 cells were incubated with 4-hydroxy-2-alkenals. Oxidized diets increased 4-HHE plasma levels in mice (up to 5-fold, P < 0.01) compared with unoxidized diets. Oxidized diets enhanced plasma inflammatory markers and activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) in the small intestine along with decreasing Paneth cell number (up to −19% in the duodenum). Both in vivo and in vitro, intestinal absorption of 4-HHE was associated with formation of 4-HHE-protein adducts and increased expression of glutathione peroxidase 2 (GPx2) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78). Consumption of oxidized n-3 PUFA results in 4-HHE accumulation in blood after its intestinal absorption and triggers oxidative stress and inflammation in the upper intestine. PMID:22865918

  6. Dietary oxidized n-3 PUFA induce oxidative stress and inflammation: role of intestinal absorption of 4-HHE and reactivity in intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Awada, Manar; Soulage, Christophe O; Meynier, Anne; Debard, Cyrille; Plaisancié, Pascale; Benoit, Bérengère; Picard, Grégory; Loizon, Emmanuelle; Chauvin, Marie-Agnès; Estienne, Monique; Peretti, Noël; Guichardant, Michel; Lagarde, Michel; Genot, Claude; Michalski, Marie-Caroline

    2012-10-01

    Dietary intake of long-chain n-3 PUFA is now widely advised for public health and in medical practice. However, PUFA are highly prone to oxidation, producing potentially deleterious 4-hydroxy-2-alkenals. Even so, the impact of consuming oxidized n-3 PUFA on metabolic oxidative stress and inflammation is poorly described. We therefore studied such effects and hypothesized the involvement of the intestinal absorption of 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (4-HHE), an oxidized n-3 PUFA end-product. In vivo, four groups of mice were fed for 8 weeks high-fat diets containing moderately oxidized or unoxidized n-3 PUFA. Other mice were orally administered 4-HHE and euthanized postprandially versus baseline mice. In vitro, human intestinal Caco-2/TC7 cells were incubated with 4-hydroxy-2-alkenals. Oxidized diets increased 4-HHE plasma levels in mice (up to 5-fold, P < 0.01) compared with unoxidized diets. Oxidized diets enhanced plasma inflammatory markers and activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) in the small intestine along with decreasing Paneth cell number (up to -19% in the duodenum). Both in vivo and in vitro, intestinal absorption of 4-HHE was associated with formation of 4-HHE-protein adducts and increased expression of glutathione peroxidase 2 (GPx2) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78). Consumption of oxidized n-3 PUFA results in 4-HHE accumulation in blood after its intestinal absorption and triggers oxidative stress and inflammation in the upper intestine.

  7. X-Ray Absorption Studies of Vanadium-Containing Metal Oxide Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Hohn, Keith, L.

    2006-01-09

    Metal oxide nanocrystals offer significant potential for use as catalysts or catalyst supports due to their high surface areas and unique chemical properties that result from the high number of exposed corners and edges. However, little is known about the catalytic activity of these materials, especially as oxidation catalysts. This research focused on the preparation, characterization and use of vanadium-containing nanocrystals as selective oxidation catalysts. Three vanadium-containing nanocrystals were prepared using a modified sol-gel procedure: V/MgO, V/SiO2, and vanadium phosphate (VPO). These represent active oxidation catalysts for a number of industrially relevant reactions. The catalysts were characterized by x-ray diffraction and Raman, UV-VIS, infrared and x-ray absorption spectroscopies with the goal of determining the primary structural and chemical differences between nanocrystals and microcrystals. The catalytic activity of these catalysts was also studied in oxidative dehydrogenation of butane and methanol oxidation to formaldehyde. V/MgO nanocrystals were investigated for activity in oxidative dehydrogenation of butane and compared to conventional V/MgO catalysts. Characterization of V/MgO catalysts using Raman spectroscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy showed that both types of catalysts contained magnesium orthovanadate at vanadium loadings below 15 weight%, but above that loading, magnesium pyrovanadate may have been present. In general, MgO nanocrystals had roughly half the crystal size and double the surface area of the conventional MgO. In oxidative dehydrogenation of butane, nanocrystalline V/MgO gave higher selectivity to butene than conventional V/MgO at the same conversion. This difference was attributed to differences in vanadium domain size resulting from the higher surface areas of the nanocrystalline support, since characterization suggested that similar vanadium phases were present on both types of catalysts. Experiments in

  8. Furan- and Thiophene-Based Auxochromes Red-shift Chlorin Absorptions and Enable Oxidative Chlorin Polymerizations.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ruisheng; Bornhof, Anna-Bea; Arkhypchuk, Anna I; Orthaber, Andreas; Borbas, K Eszter

    2016-11-08

    The de novo syntheses of chemically stable chlorins with five-membered heterocyclic (furane, thiophene, formylfurane and formylthiophene) substituents in selected meso- and β-positions are reported. Heterocycle incorporation in the 3- and 13-positions shifted the chlorin absorption and emission to the red (up to λem =680 nm), thus these readily incorporated substituents function analogously to auxochromes present in chlorophylls, for example, formyl and vinyl groups. Photophysical, theoretical and X-ray crystallographic experiments revealed small but significant differences between the behavior of the furan- and the thiophene-based auxochromes. Four regioisomeric bis-thienylchlorins (3,10; 3,13, 3,15 and 10,15) were oxidatively electropolymerized; the chlorin monomer geometry had a profound impact on the polymerization efficiency and the electrochemical properties of the resulting material. Chemical co-polymerization of 3,13-bis-thienylchlorin with 3-hexylthiophene yielded an organic-soluble red-emitting polymer.

  9. X-ray absorption and diffraction study of II VI dilute oxide semiconductor alloy epilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscherini, F.; Malvestuto, M.; Ciatto, G.; D'Acapito, F.; Bisognin, G.; DeSalvador, D.; Berti, M.; Felici, M.; Polimeni, A.; Nabetani, Y.

    2007-11-01

    Dilute oxide semiconductor alloys obtained by adding oxygen to a II-VI binary compound are of potential applicative interest for blue-light emitters in which the oxygen content could be used to tune the band gap. Moreover, their properties can be usefully compared to the more thoroughly studied dilute nitrides in order to gain insight into the common mechanisms which give rise to their highly non-linear physical properties. Recently, it has been possible to deposit ZnSeO and ZnSeOS epilayers on GaAs(001), which exhibit a red-shift of the band gap and giant optical bowing. In order to provide a structural basis for an understanding of their physical properties, we have performed a study of a set of ZnSeO and ZnSeOS epilayers on GaAs by high resolution x-ray diffraction and x-ray absorption fine structure. We have found that the strain goes from compressive to tensile with increasing O and S concentration and that, while all epilayers are never found to be pseudomorphic, the ternary ones exhibit a low relaxed fraction if compared to the ZnSe/GaAs sample. O K-edge x-ray absorption near edge spectra and corresponding simulations within the full multiple-scattering regime show that O is substitutionally incorporated in the host lattice. Zn and Se K-edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure detect the formation of Zn-O and Zn-S bonds; the analysis of these spectra within multiple-scattering theory has allowed us to measure the local structural parameters. The value of Zn-Se bond length is found to be in agreement with estimates based on models of local distortions in strained and relaxed epilayers; an increase of the mean-square relative displacement is detected at high O and S concentration and is related to both intrinsic and extrinsic factors.

  10. Synthesis, Characterization, and Microwave Absorption Properties of Reduced Graphene Oxide/Strontium Ferrite/Polyaniline Nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Luo, Juhua; Shen, Pan; Yao, Wei; Jiang, Cuifeng; Xu, Jianguang

    2016-12-01

    Strontium ferrite nanoparticles were prepared by a coprecipitation method, and reduced graphene oxide/strontium ferrite/polyaniline (R-GO/SF/PANI) ternary nanocomposites were prepared by in situ polymerization method. The morphology, structure, and magnetic properties of the ternary nanocomposites were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), TEM, Raman, and VSM. The microwave-absorbing properties of the composites were measured by a vector network analyzer. The XRD patterns show the single phase of strontium hexaferrite without other intermediate phases. TEM photographs reveal that strontium ferrite nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed on the surfaces of R-GO sheets. The R-GO/SF/PANI nanocomposite exhibited the best absorption property with the optimum matching thickness of 1.5 mm in the frequency of 2-18 GHz. The value of the maximum RL was -45.00 dB at 16.08 GHz with the 5.48-GHz bandwidth. The excellent absorption properties of R-GO/SF/PANI nanocomposites indicated their great potential as microwave-absorbing materials.

  11. Synthesis, Characterization, and Microwave Absorption Properties of Reduced Graphene Oxide/Strontium Ferrite/Polyaniline Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Juhua; Shen, Pan; Yao, Wei; Jiang, Cuifeng; Xu, Jianguang

    2016-03-01

    Strontium ferrite nanoparticles were prepared by a coprecipitation method, and reduced graphene oxide/strontium ferrite/polyaniline (R-GO/SF/PANI) ternary nanocomposites were prepared by in situ polymerization method. The morphology, structure, and magnetic properties of the ternary nanocomposites were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), TEM, Raman, and VSM. The microwave-absorbing properties of the composites were measured by a vector network analyzer. The XRD patterns show the single phase of strontium hexaferrite without other intermediate phases. TEM photographs reveal that strontium ferrite nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed on the surfaces of R-GO sheets. The R-GO/SF/PANI nanocomposite exhibited the best absorption property with the optimum matching thickness of 1.5 mm in the frequency of 2-18 GHz. The value of the maximum RL was -45.00 dB at 16.08 GHz with the 5.48-GHz bandwidth. The excellent absorption properties of R-GO/SF/PANI nanocomposites indicated their great potential as microwave-absorbing materials.

  12. Tailoring of absorption edge by thermal annealing in tin oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, Anup; Gautam, Sanjeev; Kumar, Virender; Chae, K. H.; Lee, Ik-Jae; Shin, Hyun Joon

    2015-05-15

    Tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) thin films were deposited by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering on silicon and glass substrates in different oxygen-to-argon gas-flow ratio (O{sub 2}-to-Ar = 0%, 10%, 50%). All films were deposited at room temperature and fixed working pressures, 10 mTorr. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement suggests that all films were crystalline in nature except film deposited in argon environment. Thin films were annealed in air at 200 °C, 400 °C and 600 °C for two hours. All films were highly transparent except the film deposited only in the argon environment. It was also observed that transparency was improved with annealing due to decrease in oxygen vacancies. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), results showed that the surface of all the films were highly flat and smooth. Blue shift was observed in the absorption edge with annealing temperature. It was also observed that there was not big change in the absorption edge with annealing for films deposited in 10% and 50% oxygen-to-argon gas-flow ratio.

  13. Oxidation of dissolved elemental mercury by thiol compounds under anoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wang; Lin, Hui; Mann, Benjamin F; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua

    2013-11-19

    Mercuric ion, Hg(2+), forms strong complexes with thiolate compounds that commonly dominate Hg(II) speciation in natural freshwater. However, reactions between dissolved aqueous elemental mercury (Hg(0)aq) and organic ligands in general, and thiol compounds in particular, are not well studied although these reactions likely affect Hg speciation and cycling in the environment. In this study, we compared the reaction rates between Hg(0)aq and a number of selected organic ligands with varying molecular structures and sulfur (S) oxidation states in dark, anoxic conditions to assess the role of these ligands in Hg(0)aq oxidation. Significant Hg(0)aq oxidation was observed with all thiols but not with ligands containing no S. Compounds with oxidized S (e.g., disulfide) exhibited little or no reactivity toward Hg(0)aq either at pH 7. The rate and extent of Hg(0)aq oxidation varied greatly depending on the chemical and structural properties of thiols, thiol/Hg ratios, and the presence or absence of electron acceptors. Smaller aliphatic thiols and higher thiol/Hg ratios resulted in higher Hg(0)aq oxidation rates than larger aromatic thiols at lower thiol/Hg ratios. The addition of electron acceptors (e.g., humic acid) also led to substantially increased Hg(0)aq oxidation. Our results suggest that thiol-induced oxidation of Hg(0)aq is important under anoxic conditions and can affect Hg redox transformation and bioavailability for microbial methylation.

  14. Impacts of halogen additions on mercury oxidation, in a slipstream selective catalyst reduction (SCR), reactor when burning sub-bituminous coal.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yan; Gao, Zhengyang; Zhu, Jiashun; Wang, Quanhai; Huang, Yaji; Chiu, Chengchung; Parker, Bruce; Chu, Paul; Pant, Wei-Ping

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of impacts of halogen species on the elemental mercury (Hg(0)) oxidation in a real coal-derived flue gas atmosphere. It is reported there is a higher percentage of Hg(0) in the flue gas when burning sub-bituminous coal (herein Powder River Basin (PRB) coal) and lignite, even with the use of selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The higher Hg(0)concentration in the flue gas makes it difficult to use the wet-FGD process for the mercury emission control in coal-fired utility boilers. Investigation of enhanced Hg(0) oxidation by addition of hydrogen halogens (HF, HCl, HBr, and HI) was conducted in a slipstream reactor with and without SCR catalysts when burning PRB coal. Two commercial SCR catalysts were evaluated. SCR catalyst no. 1 showed higher efficiencies of both NO reduction and Hg(0) oxidation than those of SCR catalyst no. 2. NH3 addition seemed to inhibit the Hg(0) oxidation, which indicated competitive processes between NH3 reduction and Hg(0) oxidation on the surface of SCR catalysts. The hydrogen halogens, in the order of impact on Hg(0) oxidation, were HBr, HI, and HCl or HF. Addition of HBr at approximately 3 ppm could achieve 80% Hg(0) oxidation. Addition of HI at approximately 5 ppm could achieve 40% Hg(0) oxidation. In comparison to the empty reactor, 40% Hg(0) oxidation could be achieved when HCl addition was up to 300 ppm. The enhanced Hg(0) oxidation by addition of HBr and HI seemed not to be correlated to the catalytic effects by both evaluated SCR catalysts. The effectiveness of conversion of hydrogen halogens to halogen molecules or interhalogens seemed to be attributed to their impacts on Hg(0) oxidation.

  15. Impacts of halogen additions on mercury oxidation, in a slipstream selective catalyst reduction (SCR), reactor when burning sub-bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Cao; Zhengyang Gao; Jiashun Zhu; Quanhai Wang; Yaji Huang; Chengchung Chiu; Bruce Parker; Paul Chu; Wei-ping Pan

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of impacts of halogen species on the elemental mercury (Hg(0)) oxidation in a real coal-derived flue gas atmosphere. It is reported there is a higher percentage of Hg(0) in the flue gas when burning sub-bituminous coal (herein Powder River Basin (PRB) coal) and lignite, even with the use of selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The higher Hg(0) concentration in the flue gas makes it difficult to use the wet-FGD process for the mercury emission control in coal-fired utility boilers. Investigation of enhanced Hg(0) oxidation by addition of hydrogen halogens (HF, HCl, HBr, and HI) was conducted in a slipstream reactor with and without SCR catalysts when burning PRB coal. Two commercial SCR catalysts were evaluated. SCR catalyst no. 1 showed higher efficiencies of both NO reduction and Hg(0) oxidation than those of SCR catalyst no. 2. NH{sub 3} addition seemed to inhibit the Hg(0) oxidation, which indicated competitive processes between NH{sub 3} reduction and Hg(0) oxidation on the surface of SCR catalysts. The hydrogen halogens, in the order of impact on Hg(0) oxidation, were HBr, HI, and HCl or HF. Addition of HBr at approximately 3 ppm could achieve 80% Hg(0) oxidation. Addition of HI at approximately 5 ppm could achieve 40% Hg(0) oxidation. In comparison to the empty reactor, 40% Hg(0) oxidation could be achieved when HCl addition was up to 300 ppm. The enhanced Hg(0) oxidation by addition of HBr and HI seemed not to be correlated to the catalytic effects by both evaluated SCR catalysts. The effectiveness of conversion of hydrogen halogens to halogen molecules or interhalogens seemed to be attributed to their impacts on Hg(0) oxidation. 30 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Chemical Modification of Graphene Oxide by Nitrogenation: An X-ray Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Cheng-Hao; Ray, Sekhar C.; Mazumder, Debarati; Sharma, Surbhi; Ganguly, Abhijit; Papakonstantinou, Pagona; Chiou, Jau-Wern; Tsai, Huang-Ming; Shiu, Hung-Wei; Chen, Chia-Hao; Lin, Hong-Ji; Guo, Jinghua; Pong, Way-Faung

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphene oxides (GO:Nx) were synthesized by a partial reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using urea [CO(NH2)2]. Their electronic/bonding structures were investigated using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), valence-band photoemission spectroscopy (VB-PES), X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS). During GO:Nx synthesis, different nitrogen-bonding species, such as pyrrolic/graphitic-nitrogen, were formed by replacing of oxygen-containing functional groups. At lower N-content (2.7 at%), pyrrolic-N, owing to surface and subsurface diffusion of C, N and NH is deduced from various X-ray spectroscopies. In contrast, at higher N-content (5.0 at%) graphitic nitrogen was formed in which each N-atom trigonally bonds to three distinct sp2-hybridized carbons with substitution of the N-atoms for C atoms in the graphite layer. Upon nitrogen substitution, the total density of state close to Fermi level is increased to raise the valence-band maximum, as revealed by VB-PES spectra, indicating an electron donation from nitrogen, molecular bonding C/N/O coordination or/and lattice structure reorganization in GO:Nx. The well-ordered chemical environments induced by nitrogen dopant are revealed by XANES and RIXS measurements. PMID:28186190

  17. Chemical Modification of Graphene Oxide by Nitrogenation: An X-ray Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Cheng-Hao; Ray, Sekhar C; Mazumder, Debarati; Sharma, Surbhi; Ganguly, Abhijit; Papakonstantinou, Pagona; Chiou, Jau-Wern; Tsai, Huang-Ming; Shiu, Hung-Wei; Chen, Chia-Hao; Lin, Hong-Ji; Guo, Jinghua; Pong, Way-Faung

    2017-02-10

    Nitrogen-doped graphene oxides (GO:Nx) were synthesized by a partial reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using urea [CO(NH2)2]. Their electronic/bonding structures were investigated using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), valence-band photoemission spectroscopy (VB-PES), X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS). During GO:Nx synthesis, different nitrogen-bonding species, such as pyrrolic/graphitic-nitrogen, were formed by replacing of oxygen-containing functional groups. At lower N-content (2.7 at%), pyrrolic-N, owing to surface and subsurface diffusion of C, N and NH is deduced from various X-ray spectroscopies. In contrast, at higher N-content (5.0 at%) graphitic nitrogen was formed in which each N-atom trigonally bonds to three distinct sp(2)-hybridized carbons with substitution of the N-atoms for C atoms in the graphite layer. Upon nitrogen substitution, the total density of state close to Fermi level is increased to raise the valence-band maximum, as revealed by VB-PES spectra, indicating an electron donation from nitrogen, molecular bonding C/N/O coordination or/and lattice structure reorganization in GO:Nx. The well-ordered chemical environments induced by nitrogen dopant are revealed by XANES and RIXS measurements.

  18. Chemical Modification of Graphene Oxide by Nitrogenation: An X-ray Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Cheng-Hao; Ray, Sekhar C.; Mazumder, Debarati; Sharma, Surbhi; Ganguly, Abhijit; Papakonstantinou, Pagona; Chiou, Jau-Wern; Tsai, Huang-Ming; Shiu, Hung-Wei; Chen, Chia-Hao; Lin, Hong-Ji; Guo, Jinghua; Pong, Way-Faung

    2017-02-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphene oxides (GO:Nx) were synthesized by a partial reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using urea [CO(NH2)2]. Their electronic/bonding structures were investigated using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), valence-band photoemission spectroscopy (VB-PES), X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS). During GO:Nx synthesis, different nitrogen-bonding species, such as pyrrolic/graphitic-nitrogen, were formed by replacing of oxygen-containing functional groups. At lower N-content (2.7 at%), pyrrolic-N, owing to surface and subsurface diffusion of C, N and NH is deduced from various X-ray spectroscopies. In contrast, at higher N-content (5.0 at%) graphitic nitrogen was formed in which each N-atom trigonally bonds to three distinct sp2-hybridized carbons with substitution of the N-atoms for C atoms in the graphite layer. Upon nitrogen substitution, the total density of state close to Fermi level is increased to raise the valence-band maximum, as revealed by VB-PES spectra, indicating an electron donation from nitrogen, molecular bonding C/N/O coordination or/and lattice structure reorganization in GO:Nx. The well-ordered chemical environments induced by nitrogen dopant are revealed by XANES and RIXS measurements.

  19. Hydrophilic molybdenum oxide nanomaterials with controlled morphology and strong plasmonic absorption for photothermal ablation of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Guosheng; Shen, Jia; Jiang, Feiran; Hu, Ronggui; Li, Wenyao; An, Lei; Zou, Rujia; Chen, Zhigang; Qin, Zongyi; Hu, Junqing

    2014-03-26

    The molybdenum oxide nanosheets have shown strong localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorption in the near-infrared (NIR) region. However, the long alky chains of ligands made them hydrophobic and less biocompatible. To meet the requirements of molybdenum based nanomaterials for use as a future photothermal therapy, a simple hydrothermal route has been developed for hydrophilic molybdenum oxide nanospheres and nanoribbons using a molybdenum precursor and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). First, molybdenum oxide nanomaterials prepared in the presence of PEG exhibit strong localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorption in near-infrared (NIR) region, compared with that of no PEG. Second, elevation of synthetic temperature leads to a gradual transformation of molybdenum oxide nanospheres into nanoribbons, entailing the evolution of an intense LSPR absorption in the NIR region. Third, as-prepared molybdenum oxide nanomaterials coated with PEG possess a hydrophilic property and thus can be directly used for biological applications without additional post treatments. Moreover, molybdenum oxide nanoribbons as a model of photothermal materials can efficiently convert the 980 nm wavelength laser energy into heat energy, and this localized hyperthermia produces the effective thermal ablation of cancer cells, meaning a potential photothermal material.

  20. Rapid Mapping of Lithiation Dynamics in Transition Metal Oxide Particles with Operando X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nowack, Lea; Grolimund, Daniel; Samson, Vallerie; Marone, Federica; Wood, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Since the commercialization of lithium ion batteries (LIBs), layered transition metal oxides (LiMO2, where M = Co, Mn, Ni, or mixtures thereof) have been materials of choice for LIB cathodes. During cycling, the transition metals change their oxidation states, an effect that can be tracked by detecting energy shifts in the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectrum. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) can therefore be used to visualize and quantify lithiation kinetics in transition metal oxide cathodes; however, in-situ measurements are often constrained by temporal resolution and X-ray dose, necessitating compromises in the electrochemistry cycling conditions used or the materials examined. We report a combined approach to reduce measurement time and X-ray exposure for operando XAS studies of lithium ion batteries. A highly discretized energy resolution coupled with advanced post-processing enables rapid yet reliable identification of the oxidation state. A full-field microscopy setup provides sub-particle resolution over a large area of battery electrode, enabling the oxidation state within many transition metal oxide particles to be tracked simultaneously. Here, we apply this approach to gain insights into the lithiation kinetics of a commercial, mixed-metal oxide cathode material, nickel cobalt aluminium oxide (NCA), during (dis)charge and its degradation during overcharge. PMID:26908198

  1. Rapid Mapping of Lithiation Dynamics in Transition Metal Oxide Particles with Operando X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowack, Lea; Grolimund, Daniel; Samson, Vallerie; Marone, Federica; Wood, Vanessa

    2016-02-01

    Since the commercialization of lithium ion batteries (LIBs), layered transition metal oxides (LiMO2, where M = Co, Mn, Ni, or mixtures thereof) have been materials of choice for LIB cathodes. During cycling, the transition metals change their oxidation states, an effect that can be tracked by detecting energy shifts in the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectrum. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) can therefore be used to visualize and quantify lithiation kinetics in transition metal oxide cathodes; however, in-situ measurements are often constrained by temporal resolution and X-ray dose, necessitating compromises in the electrochemistry cycling conditions used or the materials examined. We report a combined approach to reduce measurement time and X-ray exposure for operando XAS studies of lithium ion batteries. A highly discretized energy resolution coupled with advanced post-processing enables rapid yet reliable identification of the oxidation state. A full-field microscopy setup provides sub-particle resolution over a large area of battery electrode, enabling the oxidation state within many transition metal oxide particles to be tracked simultaneously. Here, we apply this approach to gain insights into the lithiation kinetics of a commercial, mixed-metal oxide cathode material, nickel cobalt aluminium oxide (NCA), during (dis)charge and its degradation during overcharge.

  2. Oxidation of dissolved elemental mercury by thiol compounds under anoxic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Wang; Lin, Hui; Mann, Benjamin F; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua

    2013-01-01

    Mercuric mercury, Hg(II), forms strong complexes with thiol compounds that commonly dominate Hg(II) speciation in natural freshwater. However, reactions between dissolved elemental Hg(0) and thiols are not well understood although these processes are likely to be important in determining Hg speciation and geochemical cycling in the environment. In this study, reaction rates and mechanisms between dissolved Hg(0) and a number of selected organic ligands with varying molecular structures and sulfur (S) oxidation states were determined to assess the role of these ligands in Hg(0) redox transformation. We found that all thiols caused oxidation of Hg(0) under anoxic conditions but, contrary to expectation, compounds with higher S-oxidation states (e.g., disulfide) than thiols exhibited little or no reactivity with Hg(0) at pH 7. The rate and extent of Hg(0) oxidation varied widely, with smaller aliphatic thiols showing the greatest degree of oxidation. The mechanism of the oxidation is attributed to a two-step process involving adsorption of Hg(0) to thiols followed by the charge transfer from Hg(0) to electron acceptors. These observations demonstrate a unique thiol-induced oxidation pathway of dissolved Hg(0), with important implications for the redox transformation, speciation, and bioavailability of Hg for microbial methylation in anoxic environments.

  3. Plasmon resonance and perfect light absorption in subwavelength trench arrays etched in gallium-doped zinc oxide film

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, Joshua R. Leedy, Kevin; Cleary, Justin W.; Vangala, Shivashankar; Nader, Nima; Guo, Junpeng

    2015-11-09

    Near-perfect light absorption in subwavelength trench arrays etched in highly conductive gallium-doped zinc oxide films was experimentally observed in the mid infrared regime. At wavelengths corresponding to the resonant excitation of surface plasmons, up to 99% of impinging light is efficiently trapped and absorbed in the periodic trenches. Scattering cross sectional calculations reveal that each individual trench acts like a vertical split ring resonator with a broad plasmon resonance spectrum. The coupling of these individual plasmon resonators in the grating structure leads to enhanced photon absorption and significant resonant spectral linewidth narrowing. Ellipsometry measurements taken before and after device fabrication result in different permittivity values for the doped zinc oxide material, indicating that localized annealing occurred during the plasma etching process due to surface heating. Simulations, which incorporate a 50 nm annealed region at the zinc oxide surface, are in a good agreement with the experimental results.

  4. 3D Imaging of Nickel Oxidation States using Full Field X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure Nanotomography

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, George; Harris, William; Izzo, John; Grew, Kyle N.

    2012-01-20

    Reduction-oxidation (redox) cycling of the nickel electrocatalyst phase in the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode can lead to performance degradation and cell failure. A greater understanding of nickel redox mechanisms at the microstructural level is vital to future SOFC development. Transmission x-ray microscopy (TXM) provides several key techniques for exploring oxidation states within SOFC electrode microstructure. Specifically, x-ray nanotomography and x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy have been applied to study samples of varying nickel (Ni) and nickel oxide (NiO) compositions. The imaged samples are treated as mock SOFC anodes containing distinct regions of the materials in question. XANES spectra presented for the individual materials provide a basis for the further processing and analysis of mixed samples. Images of composite samples obtained are segmented, and the distinct nickel and nickel oxide phases are uniquely identified using full field XANES spectroscopy. Applications to SOFC analysis are discussed.

  5. An environmentally friendly method for the fabrication of reduced graphene oxide foam with a super oil absorption capacity.

    PubMed

    He, Yongqiang; Liu, Yue; Wu, Tao; Ma, Junkui; Wang, Xingrui; Gong, Qiaojuan; Kong, Weina; Xing, Fubao; Liu, Yu; Gao, Jianping

    2013-09-15

    Three kinds of graphene oxide (GO) foams were fabricated using different freezing methods (unidirectional freezing drying (UDF), non-directional freezing drying, and air freezing drying), and the corresponding reduced graphene oxide (RGO) foams were prepared by their thermal reduction of those GO foams. These RGO foams were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The absorption process and the factors that influence the absorption capacity were investigated. The RGO foams are hydrophobic and showed extremely high absorbing abilities for organic liquids. The absorption capacity of the RGO foams made by UDF was higher than 100 g g(-1) for all the oils tested (gasoline, diesel oil, pump oil, lubricating oil and olive oil) and had the highest value of about 122 g g(-1) for olive oil. The oil absorption capacity of the GO foams was lower than that of the RGO foams, but for olive oil, the absorption capacity was still high than 70 g g(-1), which is higher than that of most oil absorbents.

  6. Local Symmetry Effects in Actinide 4f X-ray Absorption in Oxides.

    PubMed

    Butorin, Sergei M; Modin, Anders; Vegelius, Johan R; Suzuki, Michi-To; Oppeneer, Peter M; Andersson, David A; Shuh, David K

    2016-04-19

    A systematic X-ray absorption study at actinide N6,7 (4f → 6d transitions) edges was performed for light-actinide oxides including data obtained for the first time for NpO2, PuO2, and UO3. The measurements were supported by ab initio calculations based on local-density-approximation with added 5f-5f Coulomb interaction (LDA+U). Improved energy resolution compared to common experiments at actinide L(2,3) (2p → 6d transitions) edges allowed us to resolve the major structures of the unoccupied 6d density of states (DOS) and estimate the crystal-field splittings in the 6d shell directly from the spectra of light-actinide dioxides. The measurements demonstrated an enhanced sensitivity of the N(6,7) spectral shape to changes in the compound crystal structure. For nonstoichiometric NpO(2-x), the filling of the entire band gap with Np 6d states was observed thus supporting a phase coexistence of Np metal and stoichiometric NpO2 which is in agreement with the tentative Np-O phase diagram.

  7. High-Frequency Isotope Measurements in Nitrous Oxide by Using Mid-Ir Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, F.; Baer, D. S.

    2010-12-01

    The stable isotope composition of atmosphere trace gases provides information of their origin and fate that cannot be determined from their concentration measurements alone. Biological source and loss processes, like bacterial production of N2O, are typically accompanied by isotopic selectivity associated with the kinetics of bond formation and destruction. Of the three important biologically mediated greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O), the understanding of N2O isotopic budget in air lags far behind the other two gases. One of the reasons of this is due to the low concentration of N2O in ambient air (~320 ppbv), which leads to inherent difficulties in collection, extraction and analysis. We report on the development of novel instrumentation for real-time measurements of nitrogen-isotope ratio (δ15N) and mixing ratio [N2O] of nitrous oxide over a very wide range of mixing ratios. This novel technology, which employs cavity enhanced absorption and a mid-infrared laser and does not require any cryogenic components, has been developed for in situ simultaneous measurements of the mixing ratios of three main isotopomers - 14N14N16O, 15N14N16O and 14N15N16O, which leads to the nitrogen-isotope ratio (δ15N) and the 15N position-dependent enrichment. A precision of better than 1 per mil may be achieved in ambient air (300 ppbv N2O) in less than 300 seconds measurement time.

  8. Americium characterization by X-ray fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy in plutonium uranium mixed oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degueldre, Claude; Cozzo, Cedric; Martin, Matthias; Grolimund, Daniel; Mieszczynski, Cyprian

    2013-06-01

    Plutonium uranium mixed oxide (MOX) fuels are currently used in nuclear reactors. The actinides in these fuels need to be analyzed after irradiation for assessing their behaviour with regard to their environment and the coolant. In this work the study of the atomic structure and next-neighbour environment of Am in the (Pu,U)O2 lattice in an irradiated (60 MW d kg-1) MOX sample was performed employing micro-X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) and micro-X-ray absorption fine structure (µ-XAFS) spectroscopy. The chemical bonds, valences and stoichiometry of Am (˜0.66 wt%) are determined from the experimental data gained for the irradiated fuel material examined in its peripheral zone (rim) of the fuel. In the irradiated sample Am builds up as Am3+ species within an [AmO8]13- coordination environment (e.g. >90%) and no (<10%) Am(IV) or (V) can be detected in the rim zone. The occurrence of americium dioxide is avoided by the redox buffering activity of the uranium dioxide matrix.

  9. In-situ X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) Investigation of a Bifunctional Manganese Oxide Catalyst with High Activity for Electrochemical Water Oxidation and Oxygen Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Benck, Jesse D.; Gul, Sheraz; Webb, Samuel M.; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Yano, Junko; Jaramillo, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    In-situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a powerful technique that can be applied to electrochemical systems, with the ability to elucidate the chemical nature of electrocatalysts under reaction conditions. In this study, we perform in-situ XAS measurements on a bifunctional manganese oxide (MnOx) catalyst with high electrochemical activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Using x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), we find that exposure to an ORR-relevant potential of 0.7 V vs. RHE produces a disordered Mn3II,III,IIIO4 phase with negligible contributions from other phases. After the potential is increased to a highly anodic value of 1.8 V vs. RHE, relevant to the OER, we observe an oxidation of approximately 80% of the catalytic thin film to form a mixed MnIII,IV oxide, while the remaining 20% of the film consists of a less oxidized phase, likely corresponding to unchanged Mn3II,III,IIIO4. XAS and electrochemical characterization of two thin film catalysts with different MnOx thicknesses reveals no significant influence of thickness on the measured oxidation states, at either ORR or OER potentials, but demonstrates that the OER activity scales with film thickness. This result suggests that the films have porous structure, which does not restrict electrocatalysis to the top geometric layer of the film. As the portion of the catalyst film that is most likely to be oxidized at the high potentials necessary for the OER is that which is closest to the electrolyte interface, we hypothesize that the MnIII,IV oxide, rather than Mn3II,III,IIIO4, is the phase pertinent to the observed OER activity. PMID:23758050

  10. Temperature and Field Dependences of Parameters of the Equivalent Circuit Elements of MIS Structures Based on MBE n-Hg0.775Cd0.225Te in the Strong Inversion Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Nesmelov, S. N.; Dzyadukh, S. M.

    2016-11-01

    A technique is proposed for the determining the parameters of the equivalent circuit elements in strong inversion mode using the measurement results of the admittance of MIS structures based on n-Hg0.775Cd0.225Te grown by molecular beam epitaxy. It is shown that at 77 K and frequencies above 10 kHz, the capacitancevoltage characteristics of MIS structures based on n-Hg0.775Cd0.225Te with a near-surface graded gap layer have a high-frequency behavior with respect to the recharge time of surface states located near the Fermi level of intrinsic semiconductor. It is established that the electron concentration in the near-surface graded-gap layer exceeds an average concentration found by the Hall method by more than 2 times. The proposed technique was used for determining the temperature dependences of the insulator capacitance, capacitance and differential resistance of the space-charge region, and capacitance of the inversion layer in MIS structures based on n-Hg0.775Cd0.225Te without a graded-gap layer. The temperature and voltage dependences of the parameters of the equivalent circuit elements in strong inversion are calculated. The results of calculation are qualitatively consistent with the results obtained from the measurements of the admittance.

  11. Americium characterization by X-ray fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy in plutonium uranium mixed oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Degueldre, Claude Cozzo, Cedric; Martin, Matthias; Grolimund, Daniel; Mieszczynski, Cyprian

    2013-06-01

    Plutonium uranium mixed oxide (MOX) fuels are currently used in nuclear reactors. The actinides in these fuels need to be analyzed after irradiation for assessing their behaviour with regard to their environment and the coolant. In this work the study of the atomic structure and next-neighbour environment of Am in the (Pu,U)O₂ lattice in an irradiated (60 MW d kg⁻¹) MOX sample was performed employing micro-X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) and micro-X-ray absorption fine structure (µ-XAFS) spectroscopy. The chemical bonds, valences and stoichiometry of Am (~0.66 wt%) are determined from the experimental data gained for the irradiated fuel material examined in its peripheral zone (rim) of the fuel. In the irradiated sample Am builds up as Am³⁺ species within an [AmO₈]¹³⁻ coordination environment (e.g. >90%) and no (<10%) Am(IV) or (V) can be detected in the rim zone. The occurrence of americium dioxide is avoided by the redox buffering activity of the uranium dioxide matrix. - Graphical abstract: Americium LIII XAFS spectra recorded for the irradiated MOX sub-sample in the rim zone for a 300 μm×300 μm beam size area investigated over six scans of 4 h. The records remain constant during multi-scan. The analysis of the XAFS signal shows that Am is found as trivalent in the UO₂ matrix. This analytical work shall open the door of very challenging analysis (speciation of fission product and actinides) in irradiated nuclear fuels. - Highlights: • Americium was characterized by microX-ray absorption spectroscopy in irradiated MOX fuel. • The americium redox state as determined from XAS data of irradiated fuel material was Am(III). • In the sample, the Am³⁺ face an AmO₈¹³⁻coordination environment in the (Pu,U)O₂ matrix. • The americium dioxide is reduced by the uranium dioxide matrix.

  12. Development of a Near-Ir Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectrometer for the Detection of Atmospheric Oxidation Products and Organoamines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eddingsaas, Nathan C.; Jewell, Breanna; Thurnherr, Emily

    2014-06-01

    An estimated 10,000 to 100,000 different compounds have been measured in the atmosphere, each one undergoes many oxidation reactions that may or may not degrade air quality. To date, the fate of even some of the most abundant hydrocarbons in the atmosphere is poorly understood. One difficulty is the detection of atmospheric oxidation products that are very labile and decompose during analysis. To study labile species under atmospheric conditions, a highly sensitive, non-destructive technique is needed. Here we describe a near-IR incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (IBBCEAS) setup that we are developing to meet this end. We have chosen to utilize the near-IR, where vibrational overtone absorptions are observed, due to the clean spectral windows and better spectral separation of absorption features. In one spectral window we can simultaneously and continuously monitor the composition of alcohols, hydroperoxides, and carboxylic acids in an air mass. In addition, we have used our CEAS setup to detect organoamines. The long effective path length of CEAS allows for low detection limits, even of the overtone absorption features, at ppb and ppt levels.

  13. Self-Supported Copper Oxide Electrocatalyst for Water Oxidation at Low Overpotential and Confirmation of Its Robustness by Cu K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiang; Cui, Shengsheng; Sun, Zijun; Ren, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Du, Pingwu

    2016-01-21

    Developing efficient water oxidation catalysts made of earth-abundant elements is a demanding challenge that should be met to fulfill the promise of water splitting for clean energy. Herein we report an annealing approach to synthesize binder-free, self-supported heterogeneous copper oxide (CuO) on conductive electrodes for oxygen evolution reaction (OER), producing electrodes with excellent electrocatalytic properties such as high efficiency, low overpotential, and good stability. The catalysts were grown in situ on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) by electrodeposition from a simple Cu(II) salt solution, followed by annealing at a high temperature. Under optimal conditions, the CuO-based OER catalyst shows an onset potential of <0.58 V (vs Ag/AgCl) in 1.0 M KOH at pH 13.6. From the Tafel plot, the required overpotentials for current densities of 0.1 and 1.0 mA/cm2 are only 360 and 430 mV, respectively. The structure and the presence of a CuO motif in the catalyst have been identified by high-energy X-ray diffraction (HE-XRD), Cu K-edge X-ray absorption (XAS) spectra including X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). To the best of our knowledge, this represents the best catalytic activity for CuO-based OER catalysts to date.

  14. Chromium oxide as a metal diffusion barrier layer: An x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahamad Mohiddon, Md.; Lakshun Naidu, K.; Ghanashyam Krishna, M.; Dalba, G.; Ahmed, S. I.; Rocca, F.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction at the interface between chromium and amorphous Silicon (a-Si) films in the presence of a sandwich layer of chromium oxide is investigated using X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. The oxidized interface was created, in situ, prior to the deposition of a 400 nm tick a-Si layer over a 50 nm tick Cr layer. The entire stack of substrate/metallic Cr/Cr2O3/a-Si was then annealed at temperatures from 300 up to 700 °C. Analysis of the near edge and extended regions of each XAFS spectrum shows that only a small fraction of Cr is able to diffuse through the oxide layer up to 500 °C, while the remaining fraction is buried under the oxide layer in the form of metallic Cr. At higher temperatures, diffusion through the oxide layer is enhanced and the diffused metallic Cr reacts with a-Si to form CrSi2. At 700 °C, the film contains Cr2O3 and CrSi2 without evidence of unreacted metallic Cr. The activation energy and diffusion coefficient of Cr are quantitatively determined in the two temperature regions, one where the oxide acts as diffusion barrier and another where it is transparent to Cr diffusion. It is thus demonstrated that chromium oxide can be used as a diffusion barrier to prevent metal diffusion into a-Si.

  15. [Study on temperature dependence of ultraviolet absorption cross sections of nitric oxide at high temperatures].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Shi-Liang; Chen, Xiao-Hu

    2007-07-01

    To study the temperature dependence of ultraviolet absorption characteristics of NO species in flue gas, the absorption cross sections of NO in the spectral region 200-230 nm at temperatures ranging from 285 to 410 K were measured using a grating monochromator with 0.2 nm resolution, a deuterium lamp and a specially-fabricated closed sample cell. The absorption spectrum of NO consists of discrete bands superimposed on a continuous base. Results indicated that discrete absorption bands were present with a fixed wavelength interval of roughly 10.5 nm. The peaks of discrete bands decreased first and started to increase later as the temperature rose from 285 to 410 K, with a maximum relative variation of 19.3%. Peak position and half width of the absorption peaks did not exhibit apparent change with the variation of temperature. Continuous absorption cross section increased monotonously with the temperature, and the variation gradient gradually decrease with wavelength red shift. The absorption cross section of NO should not be considered as constant when applied in online monitoring of NO concentration in flue gas. A compensation calculation of absorption cross section with respect to temperature effect is indispensable for the purpose of improving online measurement precision of NO concentration.

  16. Deuterium absorption from the D{sub 2}O exposure of oxidized 4H-SiC (0001), (0001{sup ¯}), and (112{sup ¯}0) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Gang; Xu, Can; Feldman, Leonard C.; Yakshinskiy, Boris; Wielunski, Leszek; Gustafsson, Torgny; Bloch, Joseph; Dhar, Sarit

    2015-03-23

    We report results on deuterium absorption on several oxidized 4H-SiC surfaces following D{sub 2}O vapor absorption. Absorption at the oxide/semiconductor interface is strongly face dependent with an order of magnitude more deuterium on the C-face and a-face than on the Si-face, in contrast to the bulk of the oxides which show essentially no face dependence. Annealing in NO gas produces a large reduction in interfacial deuterium absorption in all cases. The reduction of the positive charge at the interface scales linearly with the interface D content. These results also scale with the variation in interface trap density (D{sub it}) and mobility on the three faces after wet oxidation annealing.

  17. Direct observation of single layer graphene oxide reduction through spatially resolved, single sheet absorption/emission microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, Denis A; Morozov, Yurii V; McDonald, Matthew P; Vietmeyer, Felix; Hodak, Jose H; Kuno, Masaru

    2014-06-11

    Laser reduction of graphene oxide (GO) offers unique opportunities for the rapid, nonchemical production of graphene. By tuning relevant reduction parameters, the band gap and conductivity of reduced GO can be precisely controlled. In situ monitoring of single layer GO reduction is therefore essential. In this report, we show the direct observation of laser-induced, single layer GO reduction through correlated changes to its absorption and emission. Absorption/emission movies illustrate the initial stages of single layer GO reduction, its transition to reduced-GO (rGO) as well as its subsequent decomposition upon prolonged laser illumination. These studies reveal GO's photoreduction life cycle and through it native GO/rGO absorption coefficients, their intrasheet distributions as well as their spatial heterogeneities. Extracted absorption coefficients for unreduced GO are α405 nm ≈ 6.5 ± 1.1 × 10(4) cm(-1), α520 nm ≈ 2.1 ± 0.4 × 10(4) cm(-1), and α640 nm ≈ 1.1 ± 0.3 × 10(4) cm(-1) while corresponding rGO α-values are α405 nm ≈ 21.6 ± 0.6 × 10(4) cm(-1), α520 nm ≈ 16.9 ± 0.4 × 10(4) cm(-1), and α640 nm ≈ 14.5 ± 0.4 × 10(4) cm(-1). More importantly, the correlated absorption/emission imaging provides us with unprecedented insight into GO's underlying photoreduction mechanism, given our ability to spatially resolve its kinetics and to connect local rate constants to activation energies. On a broader level, the developed absorption imaging is general and can be applied toward investigating the optical properties of other two-dimensional materials, especially those that are nonemissive and are invisible to current single molecule optical techniques.

  18. Hydrogen absorption in solid aluminum during high-temperature steam oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreev, L. A.; Gelman, B. G.; Zhukhovitskiy, A. A.

    1979-01-01

    Hydrogen is emitted by aluminum heated in a vacuum after high-temperature steam treatment. Wire samples are tested for this effect, showing dependence on surface area. Two different mechanisms of absorption are inferred, and reactions deduced.

  19. Direct determination of fluorine in niobium oxide using slurry sampling electrothermal high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Mao Dong; Becker-Ross, Helmut; Okruss, Michael; Geisler, Sebastian; Florek, Stefan; Richter, Silke; Meckelburg, Angela

    Aiming for a round-robin test, a new method for the direct determination of fluorine in niobium oxide has been developed. It is based on the use of high-resolution molecular absorption spectra of calcium mono-fluoride (CaF) generated in the graphite tube, combined with the slurry sampling technique. The absorption measurement was performed at the 606.44 nm CaF rotational line. By using graphite tubes with zirconium carbide (ZrC) modified platform, the molecular absorption sensitivity of CaF has been improved by a factor of 20, and no additional chemical modifier was necessary. Generally, non-spectral interferences were observed in the presence of HCl, H2SO4, and H3PO4. For HCl, additional spectral interference occurred due to an overlap of the absorption spectra of CaF and CaCl. However, due to the absence of these mentioned substances in the current material, such interferences do not exist for this application. The characteristic mass found for the CaF 606.44 nm line was 0.1 ng; the limit of detection was 5 mg fluorine per kg solid sample (3σ criterion). The results obtained by the method were within the range of certified values. Comparing to the classical method such as the pyrohydrolysis-photometric method, the developed new method showed clear advantages regarding sensitivity and specificity. The time requirement for one sample analysis was strongly shortened from several hours to only some minutes.

  20. Calibration-free self-absorption model for measuring nitric oxide concentration in a pulsed corona discharge.

    PubMed

    Du, Yanjun; Ding, Yanjun; Liu, Yufeng; Lan, Lijuan; Peng, Zhimin

    2014-08-01

    The effect of self-absorption on emission intensity distributions can be used for species concentration measurements. A calculation model is developed based on the Beer-Lambert law to quantify this effect. And then, a calibration-free measurement method is proposed on the basis of this model by establishing the relationship between gas concentration and absorption strength. The effect of collision parameters and rotational temperature on the method is also discussed. The proposed method is verified by investigating the nitric oxide emission bands (A²Σ⁺→X²∏) that are generated by a pulsed corona discharge at various gas concentrations. Experiment results coincide well with the expectations, thus confirming the precision and accuracy of the proposed measurement method.

  1. P2X Receptors Inhibit NaCl Absorption in mTAL Independently of Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Svendsen, Samuel L.; Isidor, Søren; Praetorius, Helle A.; Leipziger, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Activation of basolateral P2X receptors markedly reduces NaCl absorption in mouse medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL). Here we tested the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the ATP-mediated (P2X) transport inhibition. We used isolated, perfused mTALs from mice to electrically measure NaCl absorption. By microelectrodes we determined the transepithelial voltage (Vte) and transepithelial resistance (Rte). Via these two parameters, we calculated the equivalent short circuit current, I'sc as a measure of the transepithelial Na+ absorption. Basolateral ATP (100 μM) acutely induced reversible inhibition of Na+ absorption (24 ± 4%, n = 10). Addition of L-arginine (100 μM) had no apparent effect on the ATP-induced transport inhibition. Acute reduction of extracellular [Ca2+] to either 100 nM or 0 nM by addition of EGTA had no effect on the ATP-induced transport inhibition. In the presence of the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NAME (100 μM) and/or ODQ to inhibit the guanylyl cyclase, the ATP effect remained unaffected. Increasing the concentration and incubation time for L-NAME (1 mM) still did not reveal any effect on the ATP-mediated transport inhibition. Acute addition of the NO donors SNAP (100 μM) and Spermine NONOate (10 μM) did not alter tubular transport. High concentrations of L-NAME (1 mM) in itself, however, reduced the transepithelial transport significantly. Thus, we find no evidence for nitric oxide (NO) as second messenger for P2X receptor-dependent transport inhibition in mTAL. Moreover, Ca2+ signaling appears not involved in the ATP-mediated effect. It remains undefined how P2X receptors trigger the marked reduction of transport in the TAL. PMID:28174542

  2. Direct Determination of Oxidation States of Uranium in Mixed-Valent Uranium Oxides Using Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sanyal, Kaushik; Khooha, Ajay; Das, Gangadhar; Tiwari, M K; Misra, N L

    2017-01-03

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF)-based X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy has been used to determine the oxidation state of uranium in mixed-valent U3O8 and U3O7 uranium oxides. The TXRF spectra of the compounds were measured using variable X-ray energies in the vicinity of the U L3 edge in the TXRF excitation mode at the microfocus beamline of the Indus-2 synchrotron facility. The TXRF-based X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (TXRF-XANES) spectra were deduced from the emission spectra measured using the energies below and above the U L3 edge in the XANES region. The data processing using TXRF-XANES spectra of U(IV), U(V), and U(VI) standard compounds revealed that U present in U3O8 is a mixture of U(V) and U(VI), whereas U in U3O7 is mixture of U(IV) and U(VI). The results obtained in this study are similar to that reported in literature using the U M edge. The present study has demonstrated the possibility of application of TXRF for the oxidation state determination and elemental speciation of radioactive substances in a nondestructive manner with very small amount of sample requirement.

  3. Optical absorption and luminescence studies of fast neutron-irradiated complex oxides for jewellery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironova-Ulmane, N.; Skvortsova, V.; Popov, A. I.

    2016-07-01

    We studied the optical absorption and luminescence of agate (SiO2), topaz (Al2[SiO4](F,OH)2), beryl (Be3Al2Si6O18), and prehnite (Ca2Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)2) doped with different concentrations of transition metal ions and exposed to fast neutron irradiation. The exchange interaction between the impurity ions and the defects arising under neutron irradiation causes additional absorption as well as bands' broadening in the crystals. These experimental results allow us to suggest the method for obtaining new radiation-defect induced jewellery colors of minerals due to neutron irradiation.

  4. Vapor Absorption and Conductivity in Poly(ethylene Oxide)-Salt-Propylene Glycol Films.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE il. REPORT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION lb. RESTRICTIVE MARKINGS Unclassified 2. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION ...OF I JAN 73 IS OBSOLETE. UNCILASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE SC5384.TR Rockwell InternationalSciTnce Center VAPOR ABSORPTION AND...salt electrolytes occurs primarily in amorphous regions; hence, a low crystal-to- glass transition temperature is a most desirable characteristic

  5. Optimal design of solid oxide fuel cell, ammonia-water single effect absorption cycle and Rankine steam cycle hybrid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrpooya, Mehdi; Dehghani, Hossein; Ali Moosavian, S. M.

    2016-02-01

    A combined system containing solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine power plant, Rankine steam cycle and ammonia-water absorption refrigeration system is introduced and analyzed. In this process, power, heat and cooling are produced. Energy and exergy analyses along with the economic factors are used to distinguish optimum operating point of the system. The developed electrochemical model of the fuel cell is validated with experimental results. Thermodynamic package and main parameters of the absorption refrigeration system are validated. The power output of the system is 500 kW. An optimization problem is defined in order to finding the optimal operating point. Decision variables are current density, temperature of the exhaust gases from the boiler, steam turbine pressure (high and medium), generator temperature and consumed cooling water. Results indicate that electrical efficiency of the combined system is 62.4% (LHV). Produced refrigeration (at -10 °C) and heat recovery are 101 kW and 22.1 kW respectively. Investment cost for the combined system (without absorption cycle) is about 2917 kW-1.

  6. Preparation, characterization and nonlinear absorption studies of cuprous oxide nanoclusters, micro-cubes and micro-particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekhar, H.; Narayana Rao, D.

    2012-07-01

    Cuprous oxide nanoclusters, micro-cubes and micro-particles were successfully synthesized by reducing copper(II) salt with ascorbic acid in the presence of sodium hydroxide via a co-precipitation method. The X-ray diffraction and FTIR studies revealed that the formation of pure single-phase cubic. Raman and EPR spectral studies show the presence of CuO in as-synthesized powders of Cu2O. Transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy data revealed that the morphology evolves from nanoclusters to micro-cubes and micro-particles by increasing the concentration of NaOH. Linear optical measurements show absorption peak maximum shifts towards red with changing morphology from nanoclusters to micro-cubes and micro-particles. The nonlinear optical properties were studied using open aperture Z-scan technique with 532 nm 6 ns laser pulses. Samples-exhibited both saturable as well as reverse saturable absorption. Due to confinement effects (enhanced band gap), we observed enhanced nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) in the case of nanoclusters compared to their micro-cubes and micro-particles.

  7. Enhanced nonlinear optical absorption and optical limiting properties of superparamagnetic spinel zinc ferrite decorated reduced graphene oxide nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, M.; T. C., Sabari Girisun

    2017-01-01

    Nonlinear absorption and optical limiting properties of ZnFe2O4-rGO magnetic nanostructures was investigated by the Z-scan technique using Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (5 ns, 532 nm, 10 Hz) as an excitation source. Excited state absorption was the dominant process responsible for the observed nonlinearity in ZnFe2O4 decorated rGO which arises due to photo-generated charge carriers in the conduction band of zinc ferrite and increases in defects at the surface of rGO due to the incorporation of ZnFe2O4. The magnitude of the nonlinear absorption co-efficient was found to be in the order of 10-10 m/W. A noteworthy enhancement in the third-order NLO properties in ZnFe2O4-(15 wt%) rGO with those of individual counter parts and well known graphene composites was reported. Role of induced defects states (sp3) arising from the functionalization of rGO in the enhancement of NLO response was explained through Raman studies. Earlier incorporation and distribution of ZnFe2O4 upon GO through one-step hydrothermal method was analyzed by XRD and FTIR. Formation of (nanospheres/nanospindles) ZnFe2O4 along with reduction of graphene oxide was confirmed through TEM analysis. VSM studies showed zinc ferrite decorated rGO posseses superparamagnetic behavior. The tuning of nonlinear optical and magnetic behavior with variation in the content of spinel ferrites upon reduced graphene oxide provides an easy way to attain tunable properties which are exceedingly required in both optoelectronics and photothermal therapy applications.

  8. Anormalous Optical Absorption in Porous Al_2O3 Host Matrix---Nano-Oxide Particle Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lide; Zhang, Biao; Mo, Chimei

    1996-03-01

    Porous Al_2O3 host matrix---nano-γ-Fe_2O3 particle composites (porous nanocomposite) were prepared by pyrolysis of Fe(NO_3)_39H_2O in porous nano- Al_2O3 matrix at 250^0C. Comparing with simple nanocomposites formed by mixing nano-γ-Fe_2O3 and compacting at room temperature, followed by annealing at 250^0C, the following anomalous optical behaviors were observed: for porous nanocomposite containing 5% Fe_2O_3, the aborption edge shifts obviously from 827nm to 543nm, and with increasing dopping amount of Fe_2O3 from 5% to 70%, blue shift phenomina decreases. Namely, the absorption edge moves from 543nm to 710nm. The mechanism of shift of the absorption edge is discussed.

  9. A thermodynamic model of the Hg(0.8)Cd(0.2)Te-iodine transport system. I - Te-saturated source material. II - Source material composition within the homogeneity range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, D.; Wiedemeier, H.

    1987-01-01

    A thermochemical analysis of the Hg(0.8)Cd(0.2)Te-iodine vapor transport system is presented, and theoretical calculations of diffusion-controlled mass transport rates are made. The predicted mass fluxes are compared with experimental data obtained from transport experiments under vertical, stabilizing conditions reported earlier and with results of additional transport experiments conducted during the present study. Experimental mass transport rate studies of the transport system for fixed amount of excess Hg as a function of transport agent pressure are presented. The mass fluxes are determined for the vertical, stabilizing orientation of the density gradient relative to the gravitational vector. In order to compare experimental mass transport rates with computed values, the thermochemical analysis is extended to take the formation of Hg vacancies in the above compound into account along with their effect on the partial pressure of the system.

  10. Soybean β-conglycinin induces inflammation and oxidation and causes dysfunction of intestinal digestion and absorption in fish.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Xiu; Guo, Lin-Ying; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Liu, Yang; Hu, Kai; Jiang, Jun; Li, Shu-Hong; Tang, Ling; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2013-01-01

    β-Conglycinin has been identified as one of the major feed allergens. However, studies of β-conglycinin on fish are scarce. This study investigated the effects of β-conglycinin on the growth, digestive and absorptive ability, inflammatory response, oxidative status and gene expression of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) in vivo and their enterocytes in vitro. The results indicated that the specific growth rate (SGR), feed intake, and feed efficiency were reduced by β-conglycinin. In addition, activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin, lipase, creatine kinase, Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and alkaline phosphatase in the intestine showed similar tendencies. The protein content of the hepatopancreas and intestines, and the weight and length of the intestines were all reduced by β-conglycinin. β-Conglycinin increased lipid and protein oxidation in the detected tissues and cells. However, β-conglycinin decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities and glutathione (GSH) content in the intestine and enterocytes. Similar antioxidant activity in the hepatopancreas was observed, except for GST. The expression of target of rapamycin (TOR) gene was reduced by β-conglycinin. Furthermore, mRNA levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) genes were increased by β-conglycinin. However, β-conglycinin increased CuZnSOD, MnSOD, CAT, and GPx1b gene expression. In conclusion, this study indicates that β-conglycinin induces inflammation and oxidation, and causes dysfunction of intestinal digestion and absorption in fish, and finally reduces fish growth. The results of this study provide some information to the mechanism of β-conglycinin-induced negative effects.

  11. Soybean β-Conglycinin Induces Inflammation and Oxidation and Causes Dysfunction of Intestinal Digestion and Absorption in Fish

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin-Xiu; Guo, Lin-Ying; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Liu, Yang; Hu, Kai; Jiang, Jun; Li, Shu-Hong; Tang, Ling; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2013-01-01

    β-conglycinin has been identified as one of the major feed allergens. However, studies of β-conglycinin on fish are scarce. This study investigated the effects of β-conglycinin on the growth, digestive and absorptive ability, inflammatory response, oxidative status and gene expression of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) in vivo and their enterocytes in vitro. The results indicated that the specific growth rate (SGR), feed intake, and feed efficiency were reduced by β-conglycinin. In addition, activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin, lipase, creatine kinase, Na+,K+-ATPase and alkaline phosphatase in the intestine showed similar tendencies. The protein content of the hepatopancreas and intestines, and the weight and length of the intestines were all reduced by β-conglycinin. β-conglycinin increased lipid and protein oxidation in the detected tissues and cells. However, β-conglycinin decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities and glutathione (GSH) content in the intestine and enterocytes. Similar antioxidant activity in the hepatopancreas was observed, except for GST. The expression of target of rapamycin (TOR) gene was reduced by β-conglycinin. Furthermore, mRNA levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) genes were increased by β-conglycinin. However, β-conglycinin increased CuZnSOD, MnSOD, CAT, and GPx1b gene expression. In conclusion, this study indicates that β-conglycinin induces inflammation and oxidation, and causes dysfunction of intestinal digestion and absorption in fish, and finally reduces fish growth. The results of this study provide some information to the mechanism of β-conglycinin-induced negative effects. PMID:23520488

  12. Highly sensitive transient absorption imaging of graphene and graphene oxide in living cells and circulating blood.

    PubMed

    Li, Junjie; Zhang, Weixia; Chung, Ting-Fung; Slipchenko, Mikhail N; Chen, Yong P; Cheng, Ji-Xin; Yang, Chen

    2015-07-23

    We report a transient absorption (TA) imaging method for fast visualization and quantitative layer analysis of graphene and GO. Forward and backward imaging of graphene on various substrates under ambient condition was imaged with a speed of 2 μs per pixel. The TA intensity linearly increased with the layer number of graphene. Real-time TA imaging of GO in vitro with capability of quantitative analysis of intracellular concentration and ex vivo in circulating blood were demonstrated. These results suggest that TA microscopy is a valid tool for the study of graphene based materials.

  13. Water absorption in thermally grown oxides on SiC and Si: Bulk oxide and interface properties

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Gang; Xu, Can; Feldman, Leonard C.; Yakshinskiy, Boris; Wielunski, Leszek; Gustafsson, Torgny; Bloch, Joseph; Dhar, Sarit

    2014-11-10

    We combine nuclear reaction analysis and electrical measurements to study the effect of water exposure (D{sub 2}O) on the n-type 4H-SiC carbon face (0001{sup ¯}) MOS system and to compare to standard silicon based structures. We find that: (1) The bulk of the oxides on Si and SiC behave essentially the same with respect to deuterium accumulation; (2) there is a significant difference in accumulation of deuterium at the semiconductor/dielectric interface, the SiC C-face structure absorbs an order of magnitude more D than pure Si; (3) standard interface passivation schemes such as NO annealing greatly reduce the interfacial D accumulation; and (4) the effective interfacial charge after D{sub 2}O exposure is proportional to the total D amount at the interface.

  14. Interaction between indium tin oxide nanoparticles and cytochrome c: A surface-enhanced Raman scattering and absorption spectroscopic study

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yimin E-mail: tqiu@seu.edu.cn; Du, Deyang; Fan, Jiyang; Qiu, Teng E-mail: tqiu@seu.edu.cn; Kong, Fan

    2015-06-28

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanoparticles were annealed in vacuum or reducing atmosphere to obtain different surface structures and investigate their influence on the adsorptive character and conformation of cytochrome c (Cyt c) molecule. Annealing-induced morphometric or structural changes of ITO nanoparticles were characterized by instruments of transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Raman scattering. Semiconductor ITO nanoparticle-enhanced Raman scattering of Cyt c was observed and the enhanced efficiency was found to closely depend on the surface structures which control the adsorbance of buffer anions needed for Cyt c loading. Direct electron transfer between Cyt c and ITO surface at the moment of molecular elastic collision was found and a reverse electron transfer process for O-terminated surface and metal-terminated surface was observed, according to absorption spectroscopic measurement on the residual solution.

  15. Chiral monolithic absorbent constructed by optically active helical-substituted polyacetylene and graphene oxide: preparation and chiral absorption capacity.

    PubMed

    Li, Weifei; Wang, Bo; Yang, Wantai; Deng, Jianping

    2015-02-01

    Chiral monolithic absorbent is successfully constructed for the first time by using optically active helical-substituted polyacetylene and graphene oxide (GO). The preparative strategy is facile and straightforward, in which chiral-substituted acetylene monomer (Ma), cross-linker (Mb), and alkynylated GO (Mc) undergo copolymerization to form the desired monolithic absorbent in quantitative yield. The resulting monoliths are characterized by circular dichroism, UV-vis absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FT-IR, Raman, energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), XPS, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques. The polymer chains derived from Ma form chiral helical structures and thus provide optical activity to the monoliths, while GO sheets contribute to the formation of porous structures. The porous structure enables the monolithic absorbents to demonstrate a large swelling ratio in organic solvents, and more remarkably, the helical polymer chains provide optical activity and further enantio-differentiating absorption ability. The present study establishes an efficient and versatile methodology for preparing novel functional materials, in particular monolithic chiral materials based on substituted polyacetylene and GO.

  16. Absorption band III kinetics probe the picosecond heme iron motion triggered by nitric oxide binding to hemoglobin and myoglobin.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Byung-Kuk; Kruglik, Sergei G; Lamarre, Isabelle; Martin, Jean-Louis; Negrerie, Michel

    2012-04-05

    To study the ultrafast movement of the heme iron induced by nitric oxide (NO) binding to hemoglobin (Hb) and myoglobin (Mb), we probed the picosecond spectral evolution of absorption band III (∼760 nm) and vibrational modes (iron-histidine stretching, ν(4) and ν(7) in-plane modes) in time-resolved resonance Raman spectra. The time constants of band III intensity kinetics induced by NO rebinding (25 ps for hemoglobin and 40 ps for myoglobin) are larger than in Soret bands and Q-bands. Band III intensity kinetics is retarded with respect to NO rebinding to Hb and to Mb. Similarly, the ν((Fe-His)) stretching intensity kinetics are retarded with respect to the ν(4) and ν(7) heme modes and to Soret absorption. In contrast, band III spectral shift kinetics do not coincide with band III intensity kinetics but follows Soret kinetics. We concluded that, namely, the band III intensity depends on the heme iron out-of-plane position, as theoretically predicted ( Stavrov , S. S. Biopolymers 2004 , 74 , 37 - 40 ).

  17. Obtaining X-ray absorption near-edge structure for transition metal oxides via the Bethe-Salpeter equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yufeng; Vinson, John; Pemmaraju, Sri; Shirley, Eric; Prendergast, David

    Transition metal oxides are an important class of materials featured with strongly correlated effects. Most interesting and yet to-be-unveiled physics is associated with the metal 3d orbitals, which can be probed by X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy. A thorough interpretation of the x-ray spectroscopy is often accompanied with first-principles simulations of structures, electronic properties and the corresponding x-ray spectra. However, the simulation for TMOs is particularly challenging with the localized 3d orbitals. Most previous studies relied on the ground-state calculations without the core-hole as a compromise. Other treated the excited atom as a charged impurity but the calculated spectra turn out to be even more deviated from experiments. Here, we present the first study for the O K-edge for several typical TMOs via solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE). We have found that electron-core-hole interactions can alter the absorption spectra significantly. Our study helps to disentangle core-hole effects from the intrinsic electron correlations and hence facilitates the development of more advanced many-electron theories.

  18. Determination of exhaled nitric oxide distributions in a diverse sample population using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namjou, K.; Roller, C. B.; Reich, T. E.; Jeffers, J. D.; McMillen, G. L.; McCann, P. J.; Camp, M. A.

    2006-11-01

    A liquid-nitrogen free mid-infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) system equipped with a folded-optical-path astigmatic Herriott cell was used to measure levels of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) and exhaled carbon dioxide (eCO2) in breath. Quantification of absolute eNO concentrations was performed using NO/CO2 absorption ratios measured by the TDLAS system coupled with absolute eCO2 concentrations measured with a non-dispersive infrared sensor. This technique eliminated the need for routine calibrations using standard cylinder gases. The TDLAS system was used to measure eNO in children and adults (n=799, ages 5 to 64) over a period of more than one year as part of a field study. Volunteers for the study self-reported data including age, height, weight, and health status. The resulting data were used to assess system performance and to generate eNO and eCO2 distributions, which were found to be log-normal and Gaussian, respectively. There were statistically significant differences in mean eNO levels for males and females as well as for healthy and steroid naïve asthmatic volunteers not taking corticosteroid therapies. Ambient NO levels affected measured eNO concentrations only slightly, but this effect was not statistically significant.

  19. Nitric oxide contributes to minerals absorption, proton pumps and hormone equilibrium under cadmium excess in Trifolium repens L. plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiliang; Yang, Rongjie; Pan, Yuanzhi; Ma, Mingdong; Pan, Jiang; Zhao, Yan; Cheng, Qingsu; Wu, Mengxi; Wang, Maohua; Zhang, Lin

    2015-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a stress-signaling molecule in plants that mediates a wide range of physiological processes and responses to metal toxicity. In this work, various NO modulators (NO donor: SNP; NO scavenger: cPTIO; NO synthase inhibitor: l-NAME; and SNP analogs: sodium nitrite/nitrate and sodium ferrocyanide) were investigated to determine the role of NO in Trifolium repens L. plants exposed to Cd. Cd (100μM) markedly reduced biomass, NO production and chlorophyll (Chl a, Chl b and total Chl) concentration but stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Cd accumulation in plants. SNP (50μM) substantially attenuated growth inhibition, reduced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) levels, stimulated ROS-scavenging enzymes/agents, and mitigated the H(+)-ATPase inhibition in proton pumps. Interestingly, SNP considerably up-regulated the levels of jasmonic acid (JA) and proline in plant tissues but down-regulated the levels of ethylene (ET) in both shoots and roots and the level of salicylic acid (SA) in roots only, which might be related to the elevated NO synthesis. Additionally, SNP (25-200μM) regulated mineral absorption and, particularly at 50μM, significantly enhanced the uptake of shoot magnesium (Mg) and copper (Cu) and of root calcium (Ca), Mg and iron (Fe). Nevertheless, the effects of SNP on plant growth were reversed by cPTIO and l-NAME, suggesting that the protective effect of SNP might be associated with NO synthesis in vivo. Moreover, SNP analogs did not display roles similar to that of SNP. These results indicated that NO depleted Cd toxicity by eliminating oxidative damage, enhancing minerals absorption, regulating proton pumps, and maintaining hormone equilibrium.

  20. Blood Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Originates from Microbiota Mediated Breakdown of Phosphatidylcholine and Absorption from Small Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Stremmel, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Kathrin V.; Schuhmann, Vera; Kratzer, Frank; Garbade, Sven F.; Langhans, Claus-Dieter; Fricker, Gert; Okun, Jürgen G.

    2017-01-01

    Elevated serum trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) was previously reported to be associated with an elevated risk for cardiovascular events. TMAO originates from the microbiota-dependent breakdown of food-derived phosphatidylcholine (PC) to trimethylamine (TMA), which is oxidized by hepatic flavin-containing monooxygenases to TMAO. Our aim was to investigate the predominant site of absorption of the bacterial PC-breakdown product TMA. A healthy human proband was exposed to 6.9 g native phosphatidylcholine, either without concomitant treatment or during application with the topical antibiotic rifaximin, or exposed only to 6.9 g of a delayed-release PC formulation. Plasma and urine concentrations of TMA and TMAO were determined by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (plasma) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (urine). Native PC administration without concomitant treatment resulted in peak plasma TMAO levels of 43 ± 8 μM at 12 h post-ingestion, which was reduced by concomitant rifaximin treatment to 22 ± 8 μM (p < 0.05). TMAO levels observed after delayed-release PC administration were 20 ± 3 μM (p < 0.001). Accordingly, the peak urinary concentration at 24 h post-exposure dropped from 252 ± 33 to 185 ± 31 mmol/mmol creatinine after rifaximin treatment. In contrast, delayed-release PC resulted in even more suppressed urinary TMAO levels after the initial 12-h observation period (143 ± 18 mmol/mmol creatinine) and thereafter remained within the control range (24 h: 97 ± 9 mmol/mmol creatinine, p < 0.001 24 h vs. 12 h), indicating a lack of substrate absorption in distal intestine and large bowel. Our results showed that the microbiota in the small intestine generated the PC breakdown product TMA. The resulting TMAO, as a cardiovascular risk factor, was suppressed by topical-acting antibiotics or when PC was presented in an intestinally delayed release preparation. PMID:28129384

  1. Structural, thermal and optical absorption features of heavy metal oxides doped tellurite rich glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaky, Kawa M.; Lakshminarayana, G.; Baki, S. O.; Kityk, I. V.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H.; Mahdi, M. A.

    In order to improve tellurite glass stability to be applicable for optical fiber amplifier applications, glasses with the composition of (70 - x)TeO2. (10)ZnO. (10)WO3. (5)Na2O. (5)TiO2. (x)Bi2O3 (x = 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mol%) have been produced and characterized using the related methods. Structural properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) which confirms the non-crystalline structure and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs also confirm the XRD results. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis profiles show that all the mentioned elements are present in the prepared glasses. Following the IR spectra, all the tellurium bonds such as stretching vibrations of TeO4 tbp and TeO3/TeO3+1 unit are revealed. Raman spectra confirm the presence of different functional groups, actually, it shows bands mainly in four spectral regions: R1 (65-150) cm-1, R2 (280-550) cm-1, R3 (880-950) cm-1 and R4 (916-926) cm-1 and the identified bands are assigned to respective molecular groups. The thermal study was carried out using Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) which indicates good thermal stability of the synthesized glasses with increasing Bi concentration. From the optical absorption spectra, we evaluated cut-off edge wavelengths and found increasing cutoff wavelength with an increase in Bi2O3 concentration. In the UV-Visible region, optical band gap energy and allowed transitions were investigated using three methods; direct, indirect, and absorption spectrum fitting (ASF), and band gaps from indirect and ASF were matched.

  2. Coloration and oxygen vacancies in wide band gap oxide semiconductors: Absorption at metallic nanoparticles induced by vacancy clustering—A case study on indium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, M. Schewski, R.; Irmscher, K.; Galazka, Z.; Markurt, T.; Naumann, M.; Schulz, T.; Uecker, R.; Fornari, R.; Meuret, S.; Kociak, M.

    2014-02-07

    In this paper, we show by optical and electron microscopy based investigations that vacancies in oxides may cluster and form metallic nanoparticles that induce coloration by extinction of visible light. Optical extinction in this case is caused by generation of localized surface plasmon resonances at metallic particles embedded in the dielectric matrix. Based on Mie's approach, we are able to fit the absorption due to indium nanoparticles in In{sub 2}O{sub 3} to our absorption measurements. The experimentally found particle distribution is in excellent agreement with the one obtained from fitting by Mie theory. Indium particles are formed by precipitation of oxygen vacancies. From basic thermodynamic consideration and assuming theoretically calculated activation energies for vacancy formation and migration, we find that the majority of oxygen vacancies form just below the melting point. Since they are ionized at this temperature they are Coulomb repulsive. Upon cooling, a high supersaturation of oxygen vacancies forms in the crystal that precipitates once the Fermi level crosses the transition energy level from the charged to the neutral charge state. From our considerations we find that the ionization energy of the oxygen vacancy must be higher than 200 meV.

  3. Applications of x ray absorption fine structure to the in situ study of the effect of cobalt in nickel hydrous oxide electrodes for fuel cells and rechargeable batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Sunghyun; Tryk, Donald A.; Scherson, Daniel A.; Antonio, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    Electronic and structural aspects of composite nickel-cobalt hydrous oxides have been examined in alkaline solutions using in situ X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). The results obtained have indicated that cobalt in this material is present as cobaltic ions regardless of the oxidation state of nickel in the lattice. Furthermore, careful analysis of the Co K-edge Extended X-ray absorption fine structure data reveals that the co-electrodeposition procedure generates a single phase, mixed metal hydrous oxide, in which cobaltic ions occupy nickel sites in the NiO2 sheet-like layers and not two intermixed phases each consisting of a single metal hydrous oxide.

  4. Amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide visible-light phototransistor with a polymeric light absorption layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zan, Hsiao-Wen; Chen, Wei-Tsung; Hsueh, Hsiu-Wen; Kao, Shih-Chin; Ku, Ming-Che; Tsai, Chuang-Chuang; Meng, Hsin-Fei

    2010-11-01

    This work demonstrates a real-time visible-light phototransistor comprised of a wide-band-gap amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) and a narrow-band-gap polymeric capping layer. The capping layer and the IGZO layer form a p-n junction diode. The p-n junction absorbs visible light and consequently injects electrons into the IGZO layer, which in turn affects the body voltage as well as the threshold voltage of a-IGZO TFT. The hysteresis behavior due to the charges at IGZO back interface is also discussed.

  5. Ultracompact Electro-Absorption Modulators Based on Novel Materials (I): Epsilon-Near-Zero Material and Electro-Absorption Modulation Based on Indium-Tin-Oxide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-21

    Indium-Tin-Oxide” 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) is widely used as transparent electrode in solar cells and...Modulation Based on Indium-Tin-Oxide” Report Title ABSTRACT Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) is widely used as transparent electrode in solar cells and displays...oxide (ITO) is widely used as transparent electrode in solar cells and displays. Recent work showed that ITO and other transparent conducting oxides

  6. Influence of the ``second gap'' on the optical absorption of transparent conducting oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Viet-Anh; Waroquiers, David; Rignanese, Gian-Marco; Hautier, Geoffroy

    Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are critical to many technologies (e.g., thin-film solar cells, flat-panel displays or organic light-emitting diodes). TCOs are heavily doped (n or p-type) oxides that satisfy many design criteria such as high transparency to visible light (i.e., a band gap > 3 eV), high concentration and mobility of carriers (leading to high conductivity), ... In such (highly doped) systems, optical transitions from the conduction band minimum to higher energy bands in n-type or from lower energy bands to the valence band maximum in p-type are possible and can degrade transparency. In fact, it has been claimed that a high energy (> 3eV) for any of these transitions made possible by doping, commonly referred as a high ``second gap'', is a necessary design criterion for high performance TCOs. Here, we study the influence of this second gap on the transparency of doped TCOs by using ab initio calculations within the random phase approximation (RPA) for several well-known p-type and n-type TCOs. Our work highlights how the second gap affects the transparency of doped TCOs, shining light on more accurate design criteria for high performance TCOs.

  7. Synthesis of Tb{sub 4}O{sub 7} complexed with reduced graphene oxide for Rhodamine-B absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Hui; Zhou, Yang; Chen, Keqin; Li, Xiaolong

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Tb–rGO composite was fabricated via a facile thermally reduction process. • The green and blue emissions were both observed in the composite. • The composite exhibited efficient absorption capability for Rhodamine-B. - Abstract: Tb{sub 4}O{sub 7} complexed with reduced graphene oxide composite (Tb–rGO) had been designed and fabricated by a facile thermal reduction method. The formation of Tb{sub 4}O{sub 7} particles and reduction of graphene oxide (GO) occurred simultaneously, and partial terbium ions would be complexed with rGO via oxygen-containing function groups on rGO sheets. Introducing of terbium ions could effectively tune the photoluminescence properties of rGO, and the composite exhibited the typical green emission of terbium ions as well as the blue self-luminescence of graphene entered at 440 nm. Moreover, Tb–rGO had demonstrated its high capability as an organic dye (Rhodamine-B) scavenger with high speed and efficiency. The findings showed the promising applications for large-scale removal of organic dye contaminants, especially in the field of waste water treatment.

  8. Electromagnetic wave absorption properties of NiCoP alloy nanoparticles decorated on reduced graphene oxide nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Weichun; Fu, Jiajia; Wang, Qin; Wang, Chunming; Xue, Desheng

    2015-12-01

    NiCoP alloy nanoparticles supported on reduced graphene oxide (NiCoP/RGO) are synthesized by in situ co-reduction of Ni2+, Co2+ and graphene oxide (GO) with sodium hypophosphite in a one-pot reaction. This synthesis route is simple and can be used for industrial preparation. The different molar ratios of Ni/Co can be obtained by changing the molar ratio of their salts in the reaction bath. The effect of annealing temperature on the crystal structure of NiCoP alloys has been further investigated. After 500 °C annealing, NiCoP alloys exhibit good crystallinity. The as-prepared NiCoP/RGO composites demonstrate high dielectric constant and magnetic loss in the frequency range of 2-18 GHz due to the conductive and ferromagnetic behavior. Also, their coercivity and magnetization strength are decreased from magnetic measurement with the increase of Ni content. As the molar ratio of Ni/Co is 3:1, the maximum value of the reflection loss reaches to -17.84 dB. Furthermore, the NiCoP/RGO composites have better corrosion resistance than traditional iron series magnetic nanoparticles. It is expected that the composites with the thin, light-weighted and broadband absorbing and good anti-corrosion properties will have a great potential for electromagnetic wave absorption applications.

  9. Curium analysis in plutonium uranium mixed oxide by x-ray fluorescence and absorption fine structure spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Degueldre, C; Borca, C; Cozzo, C

    2013-10-15

    Plutonium uranium mixed oxide (MOX) fuels are being used in commercial nuclear reactors. The actinides in these fuels need to be analyzed after irradiation for assessing their behaviour with regards to their environment and the coolant. In this work the study of the local occurrence, speciation and next-neighbour environment of curium (Cm) in the (Pu,U)O2 lattice within an irradiated (60 MW d kg(-1) average burn-up) MOX sample was performed employing micro-x-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) and micro-x-ray absorption fine structure (µ-XAFS) spectroscopy. The chemical bonds, valences and stoichiometry of Cm (≈ 0.7 wt% in the rim and ≈ 0.03 wt% in the centre) are determined from the experimental data gained for the irradiated fuel material examined in its centre and peripheral (rim) zones of the fuel. Curium occurrence is also reduced from the centre (hot) to the periphery (colder) because of the condensation of these volatile oxides. In the irradiated sample Cm builds up as Cm(3+) species (>90%) within a [CmO8](13-) or [CmO7](11-) coordination environment and no (<10%) Cm(IV) can be detected in the rim zone. Curium dioxide is reduced because of the redox buffering activity of the uranium dioxide matrix and of its thermodynamic instability.

  10. Evaluation of oxidant media for the determination of lead in food slurries by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Madrid, Y; Bonilla, M; Cámara, C

    1990-05-01

    Several oxidant media were evaluated for the generation of lead hydride from slurry samples and their application to the determination of lead in vegetables and fish by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Three oxidant - acid media were compared: hydrogen peroxide - nitric acid, ammonium persulphate - nitric acid and potassium dichromate - lactic acid. The powdered samples were suspended in Triton X-100 and shaken with 10.0 g of blown zirconia spheres until a slurry was formed. The potassium dichromate - lactic acid medium was the most satisfactory for the determination of lead in fish and vegetables, providing the lowest detection limits as a result of its high sensitivity and low blank values. The ammonium persulphate - nitric acid medium gave good accuracy, precision and selectivity for vegetables (1-2 p.p.m. of lead); however, with fish (0.1-1 p.p.m. of lead) it was only a semi-quantitative medium for the determination of lead owing to its lack of sensitivity and selectivity. The hydrogen peroxide - nitric acid medium was unsatisfactory for the generation of lead hydride from slurry samples because of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by the organic matter in the sample.

  11. Synthesis and microwave absorption properties of graphene-oxide(GO)/polyaniline nanocomposite with gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Chen; He, Da-Wei; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Fu, Ming; Geng, Xin; Zhuo, Zu-Liang

    2015-08-01

    A composite of graphene/PANI/GAunano is synthesized using the co-blend method. The morphologies and microstructures of samples are examined by transition electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Moreover, the microwave absorption properties of both graphene/PANI and GO/PANI/ GAunano composites are investigated in a microwave frequency band from 1 GHz to 18 GHz. The maximum reflection loss (RL) of GO/PANI/GAunano with a thickness of 2 mm is up to -24.61 dB at 15.45 GHz, and the bandwidth corresponding to RL at -10 dB can reach 4.08 GHz (from 13.92 GHz to 18.00 GHz) for a 2-mm-thick layer. The electromagnetic data demonstrate that GO/PANI/GAunano can be used as an attractive candidate for microwave absorbers. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2011CB932700 and 2011CB932703), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61335006, 61378073, and 61077044), and the Beijing Natural Science Fund (Grant No. 4132031).

  12. MnOx/Graphene for the Catalytic Oxidation and Adsorption of Elemental Mercury.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haomiao; Qu, Zan; Zong, Chenxi; Huang, Wenjun; Quan, Fuquan; Yan, Naiqiang

    2015-06-02

    MnOx/graphene composites were prepared and employed to enhance the performance of manganese oxide (MnOx) for the capture of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) in flue gas. The composites were characterized using FT-IR, XPS, XRD, and TEM, and the results showed that the highly dispersed MnOx particles could be readily deposited on graphene nanosheets via hydrothermal process described here. Graphene appeared to be an ideal support for MnOx particles and electron transfer channels in the catalytic oxidation of Hg(0) at a high efficiency. Thus, MnOx/graphene-30% sorbents exhibited an Hg(0) removal efficiency of greater than 90% at 150 °C under 4% O2, compared with the 50% removal efficiency of pure MnOx. The mechanism of Hg(0) capture is discussed, and the main Hg(0) capture mechanisms of MnOx/graphene were catalytic oxidation and adsorption. Mn is the main active site for Hg(0) catalytic oxidation, during which high valence Mn (Mn(4+) or Mn(3+)) is converted to low valence Mn (Mn(3+) or Mn(2+)). Graphene enhanced the electrical conductivity of MnOx, which is beneficial for catalytic oxidation. Furthermore, MnOx/graphene exhibited an excellent regenerative ability, and is a promising sorbent for capturing Hg(0).

  13. [Oxidation of mercury by CuBr2 decomposition under controlled-release membrane catalysis condition].

    PubMed

    Hu, Lin-Gang; Qu, Zan; Yan, Nai-Qiang; Guo, Yong-Fu; Xie, Jiang-Kun; Jia, Jin-Ping

    2014-02-01

    CuBr2 in the multi-porous ceramic membrane can release Br2 at high temperature, which was employed as the oxidant for Hg0 oxidation. Hg0 oxidation efficiency was studied by a membrane catalysis device. Meanwhile, a reaction and in situ monitoring device was designed to avoid the impact of Br2 on the downstream pipe. The result showed that the MnO(x)/alpha-Al2O3 catalysis membrane had a considerable "controlled-release" effect on Br2 produced by CuBr2 decomposition. The adsorption and reaction of Hg0 and Br2 on the surface of catalysis membrane obeyed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. The removal efficiency of Hg0 increased with the rising of Br2 concentration. However, when Br2 reached a certain concentration, the removal efficiency was limited by adsorption rate and reaction rate of Hg0 and Br2 on the catalysis membrane. From 473 K to 573 K, the variation of Hg0 oxidation efficiency was relatively stable. SO2 in flue gas inhibited the oxidation of Hg0 while NO displayed no obvious effect.

  14. Resolving Sulfur Oxidation and Removal from Pt and Pt3Co Electrocatalysts Using in Situ X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ramaker, D.; Gatewood, D; Korovina, A; Garsany, Y; Swider-Lyons, K

    2010-01-01

    Adsorbed sulfur is a poison to the Pt catalysts used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells, but it can be removed by potential cycling. This process is studied for S{sub x}-poisoned nanoscale Pt- and Pt{sub 3}Co- on Vulcan carbon (Pt/VC and Pt{sub 3}Co/VC) in perchloric acid electrolyte using the {Delta}{mu} adsorbate isolation technique for in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The {Delta}{mu} technique is modified to better distinguish the {Delta}{mu} signatures for H, O, and Sx on Pt. The resulting {Delta}{mu} analysis suggests that SO{sub 2} on nanoscale Pt is oxidized to bisulfate or sulfate species in two regions, near 1.05 V on the cluster edges of the Pt nanoparticle, and at higher potentials from the Pt(111) faces where oxygen is less strongly bound. The bisulfate or sulfate species desorb from the Pt surface at high potentials due to O(OH) adsorption/replacement and at low potentials due to loss of the Coulomb attraction between the bisulfate anion and the Pt. A similar oxidation process occurs for S{sub x}-poisoned Pt{sub 3}Co/VC, but at lower potentials because a ligand effect coming from Co shifts the oxidization potential of adsorbed SO{sub 2} to lower potentials while pushing OH adsorption to higher potentials. The spectroscopic results give insights into cyclic voltammetry data and are consistent with electrochemical cycling procedures for removing the sulfur.

  15. Oxidation of elemental mercury by modified spent TiO2-based SCR-DeNOx catalysts in simulated coal-fired flue gas.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lingkui; Li, Caiting; Zhang, Xunan; Zeng, Guangming; Zhang, Jie; Xie, Yin'e

    2016-01-01

    In order to reduce the costs, the recycle of spent TiO2-based SCR-DeNOx catalysts were employed as a potential catalytic support material for elemental mercury (Hg(0)) oxidation in simulated coal-fired flue gas. The catalytic mechanism for simultaneous removal of Hg(0) and NO was also investigated. The catalysts were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) method. Results indicated that spent TiO2-based SCR-DeNOx catalyst supported Ce-Mn mixed oxides catalyst (CeMn/SCR1) was highly active for Hg(0) oxidation at low temperatures. The Ce1.00Mn/SCR1 performed the best catalytic activities, and approximately 92.80% mercury oxidation efficiency was obtained at 150 °C. The inhibition effect of NH3 on Hg(0) oxidation was confirmed in that NH3 consumed the surface oxygen. Moreover, H2O inhibited Hg(0) oxidation while SO2 had a promotional effect with the aid of O2. The XPS results illustrated that the surface oxygen was responsible for Hg(0) oxidation and NO conversion. Besides, the Hg(0) oxidation and NO conversion were thought to be aided by synergistic effect between the manganese and cerium oxides.

  16. Electrochemical regeneration of sodium hypochlorite in the absorption-oxidation method of desorbing waste gases

    SciTech Connect

    Znamenskii, Yu.D.; Perchugov, G.Ya.

    1988-07-10

    The electrochemical synthesis of sodium hypochlorite from a solution with a reduced concentration of sodium chloride is efficiently carried out with the use of ruthenium oxide-titanium anodes (ROTA). In this context they investigated the electrolysis of a solution of sodium chloride with concentrations equal to 20 and 50 kg/m/sup 3/ in a single cell flow-type electrolyzer with an ROTA and, for comparison, with a graphite anode under laboratory conditions. A flow-type electrolyzer was selected in view of the fact that it most closely satisfies the purposes of gas purification. The current efficiency with respect to sodium hypochlorite was almost two times higher, and the specific consumption of electrical energy was 1.6-1.8 times lower in the case of the ROTA than in the case of the graphite electrode. The yield of sodium chlorate remained on the same level in both cases.

  17. Oxidative activation of acylguanidine prodrugs: intestinal presystemic activation in rats limits absorption and can be inhibited by co-administration of ketoconazole.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, W G; Obermeier, M T; Chong, S; Kimball, S D; Das, J; Chen, P; Moquin, R; Han, W-C; Gedamke, R; White, R E; Morrison, R A

    2003-01-01

    1. The disposition of acyl prodrugs was studied to improve the delivery of a guanidine-containing parent compound with poor membrane permeability and poor absorption. 2. The prodrugs were evaluated in vitro and in vivo for conversion to drug. Prodrugs were evaluated for hydrolytic or oxidative bioactivation in intestinal homogenate and rat liver S9 or microsomes. The disposition of the prodrugs in vivo was monitored in bile duct-cannulated rats. 3. Compounds with n-alkylacyl groups were efficiently bioactivated, but were hydrolysed before absorption. 4. Hydrolytic bioactivation could be blocked in vitro by branching in the alkyl chain. These compounds showed modest improvements in absorption, despite favourable permeability. Experiments with liver microsomes demonstrated efficient NADPH-dependent oxidative bioactivation, which was proposed to occur through a CYP-mediated side chain oxidation followed by cyclization and release of parent compound. Ketoconazole co-administration yielded approximately a twofold increase in absorption. 5. The hydrolytically stable prodrugs were successful in increasing absorption of parent drug and were efficiently bioactivated, but they did not yield increased systemic levels of drug.

  18. Hydrothermal synthesis, characterization by single crystal XRD, structural discussion and electric, dielectrical properties of (C6H9N2)2(Hg0.12Zn0.88)Cl4 hybrid compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elwej, R.; Hlel, F.

    2016-10-01

    The new hybrid compound "Bis-2-amino-4-picolinium tetrachloro-mercurate-zincate ((C6H9N2)2(Hg0.12Zn0.88)Cl4)" was prepared by hydrothermal method using HCl as solvent and characterized by XRD, NMR-MAS 13C and electrical impedance spectroscopy. The XRD reveals that the compound was crystallized in the triclinic system, centrosymetric space group P 1 bar and the lattice parameters a=7.578(1)Å, b=8.559(1)Å, c=15.418(2)Å, α=84.443(1)°, β=89.506(1)°, γ=68.615(1)° and Z=2. The AC electrical conductivity and the dielectric relaxation properties were measured in the frequency range of 209 Hz-5 MHz at different temperature. The alternating current (AC) conductivity of the investigated compound obeys the Jonscher law: σ(ω)=σdc+Aωn. Furthermore, the temperature dependence of the Jonscher's exponent shows that the conduction inside the studied material is insured by the model: overlapping-large polaron tunneling (OLPT) model.

  19. AC susceptibility of the Hg0.3La0.7Ba2Ca3(Cu0.95Ag0.5)4O10+δ superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafa, M. F.; Hassen, A.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the temperature, magnetic field and frequency dependence of the ac susceptibility of Hg0.3La0.7Ba2Ca3(Cu0.95Ag0.5)4O10+δ were studied. The superconductivity still survives even at this amount of Ag. The magnetic field dependence of the irreversibility line (IL) and the flux pinning of this compound are discussed and compared with those of low Ag content. The IL exhibits thermally activated behaviour. A collective creep of the vortex bundle also occurs for this level of doping. A crossover from a two- to a three-dimensional system is suggested at T/Tc = 0.75 and a magnetic field, Hdc = 0.04 T. Based on vortex glass phase transition theory, the effective pinning energy, ueff, was calculated. The change in the characteristic temperature of the studied compound and that of low Ag content samples are summarised. Comparisons with similar materials are discussed.

  20. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of titanium oxide by time dependent density functional calculations.

    PubMed

    Fronzoni, G; De Francesco, R; Stener, M; Causà, M

    2006-05-25

    The potentiality of the time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) for the description of core excitation spectra (XAS) in transition metal oxides is analyzed, considering the rutile form of TiO(2) as a test case. Cluster models are adopted to mimic the bulk, embedded within an array of point charges to simulate the Madelung potential. All of the edges, titanium and oxygen K and titanium L edges, are considered, and the TDDFT results are compared with the experimental data in order to assess the performance of the theoretical approach in dealing with this complex class of compounds. Satisfactory results have been obtained for the Ti and O K edges, while in the case of the Ti L edge some discrepancies with the experiment are still present. The configuration mixing explicitly included in the TDDFT model strongly influences the distribution of the 2p metal oscillator strength. The origin of the spectral features is investigated with the help of the partial density of the virtual states (PDOS) calculated for each core hole considered, which can be qualitatively compared with the theoretical spectra calculated in the Kohn-Sham one-electron approach.

  1. Adsorption and oxidation of elemental mercury over Ce-MnOx/Ti-PILCs.

    PubMed

    He, Chuan; Shen, Boxiong; Chen, Jianhong; Cai, Ji

    2014-07-15

    A series of innovative Ce-Mn/Ti-pillared-clay (Ce-Mn/Ti-PILC) catalysts combining the advantages of PILCs and Ce-Mn were investigated for elemental mercury (Hg0) capture at 100-350 °C in the absence of HCl in the flue gas. The fresh and used catalysts were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The catalyst characterization indicated that the 6%Ce-6%MnOx/Ti-PILC catalyst possessed a large specific surface area and high dispersion of Ce and Mn on the surface. The experimental results indicated that the 6%Ce-6%MnOx/Ti-PILC catalyst exhibited high Hg0 capture (>90%) at 100-350 °C. During the first stage of the reaction, the main Hg0 capture mechanism for the catalyst was adsorption. As the reaction proceeded, the Hg0 oxidation ability was substantially enhanced. Both the hydroxyl oxygen and the lattice oxygen on the surface of the catalysts participated in Hg0 oxidation. At a low temperature (150 °C), the hydroxyl oxygen and lattice oxygen from Ce4+→Ce3+ and Mn3+→Mn2+ on the surface contributed to Hg0 oxidation. However, at a high temperature (250 °C), the hydroxyl oxygen and lattice oxygen from Mn4+→Mn3+ contributed to Hg0 oxidation. Hg0 oxidation was preferred at a high temperature. The 6%Ce-6%MnOx/Ti-PILC catalyst was demonstrated to a good Hg0 adsorbent and catalytic oxidant in the absence of HCl in the flue gas.

  2. Dermal absorption and short-term biological impact in hairless mice from sunscreens containing zinc oxide nano- or larger particles

    PubMed Central

    Oytam, Yalchin; Kirby, Jason K.; Gomez-Fernandez, Laura; Baxter, Brent; McCall, Maxine J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown no, or very limited, skin penetration of metal oxide nanoparticles following topical application of sunscreens, yet concerns remain about their safety compared to larger particles. Here, we assessed the comparative dermal absorption of a traceable form of Zn (68Zn) from 68ZnO nano-sized and larger particles in sunscreens. Sunscreens were applied to the backs of virgin or pregnant hairless mice over four days. Control groups received topical applications of the sunscreen formulation containing no ZnO particles, or no treatment. Major organs were assessed for changes in 68Zn/64Zn ratios, 68Zn tracer and total Zn concentrations. Short-term biological impact was assessed by measuring levels of serum amyloid A in blood, and by performing whole-genome transcriptional profiling on livers from each group. Increased concentrations of 68Zn tracer were detected in internal organs of mice receiving topical applications of 68ZnO (nano-sized and larger particles), as well as in fetal livers from treated dams, compared with controls. Furthermore, concentrations of 68Zn in organs of virgin mice treated with sunscreen containing 68ZnO nanoparticles were found to be significantly higher than in mice treated with sunscreen containing larger 68ZnO particles. However, no ZnO-mediated change in total Zn concentration in any of the major organs was observed. Thus, despite 68Zn absorption, which may have been in the form of soluble 68Zn species or 68ZnO particles (not known), Zn homeostasis was largely maintained, and the presence of ZnO particles in sunscreen did not elicit an adverse biological response in the mice following short-term topical applications. PMID:24266363

  3. Fluorinated graphene oxide for enhanced S and X-band microwave absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Sudeep, P. M.; Vinayasree, S.; Mohanan, P.; Ajayan, P. M.; Narayanan, T. N.; Anantharaman, M. R.

    2015-06-01

    Here we report the microwave absorbing properties of three graphene derivatives, namely, graphene oxide (GO), fluorinated GO (FGO, containing 5.6 at. % Fluorine (F)), and highly FGO (HFGO, containing 23 at. % F). FGO is known to be exhibiting improved electrochemical and electronic properties when compared to GO. Fluorination modifies the dielectric properties of GO and hence thought of as a good microwave absorber. The dielectric permittivities of GO, FGO, and HFGO were estimated in the S (2 GHz to 4 GHz) and X (8 GHz to 12 GHz) bands by employing cavity perturbation technique. For this, suspensions containing GO/FGO/HFGO were made in N-Methyl Pyrrolidone (NMP) and were subjected to cavity perturbation. The reflection loss was then estimated and it was found that −37 dB (at 3.2 GHz with 6.5 mm thickness) and −31 dB (at 2.8 GHz with 6 mm thickness) in the S band and a reflection loss of −18 dB (at 8.4 GHz with 2.5 mm thickness) and −10 dB (at 11 GHz with 2 mm thickness) in the X band were achieved for 0.01 wt. % of FGO and HFGO in NMP, respectively, suggesting that these materials can serve as efficient microwave absorbers even at low concentrations.

  4. Mercury speciation by high-performance liquid chromatography atomic fluorescence spectrometry using an integrated microwave/UV interface. Optimization of a single step procedure for the simultaneous photo-oxidation of mercury species and photo-generation of Hg0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Quadros, Daiane P. C.; Campanella, Beatrice; Onor, Massimo; Bramanti, Emilia; Borges, Daniel L. G.; D'Ulivo, Alessandro

    2014-11-01

    We described the hyphenation of photo-induced chemical vapor generation with high performance liquid chromatography-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HPLC-AFS) for the quantification of inorganic mercury, methylmercury (MeHg) and ethylmercury (EtHg). In the developed procedure, formic acid in mobile phase was used for the photodecomposition of organomercury compounds and reduction of Hg2 + to mercury vapor under microwave/ultraviolet (MW/UV) irradiation. We optimized the proposed method studying the influence of several operating parameters, including the type of organic acid and its concentration, MW power, composition of HPLC mobile phase and catalytic action of TiO2 nanoparticles. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection were 0.15, 0.15 and 0.35 μg L- 1 for inorganic mercury, MeHg and EtHg, respectively. The developed method was validated by determination of the main analytical figures of merit and applied to the analysis of three certified reference materials. The online interfacing of liquid chromatography with photochemical-vapor generation-atomic fluorescence for mercury determination is simple, environmentally friendly, and represents an attractive alternative to the conventional tetrahydroborate (THB) system.

  5. Minimization of volatile nitrogen oxides interference in the determination of arsenic by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Moraes Flores, Érico Marlon; da Silva, Letícia Longhi Cirne; Barin, Juliano Smanioto; Saidelles, Ana Paula Fleig; Zanella, Renato; Dressler, Valderi Luis; Paniz, José Neri Gottfried

    2001-10-01

    In this study emphasis was given to minimize the interference of volatile nitrogen oxides from digestion procedures with nitric acid on the determination of arsenic by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG AAS). Sulfamic acid (SA) is proposed to minimize this interference by employing three procedures for the digestion of hair in closed systems: conventional and microwave (MW) heating in polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) vessels and by MW heating in glass vials. Hair samples were digested with H 2SO 4+HNO 3 or HNO 3+H 2O 2 mixtures. Concentrated hydrochloric acid was added for the digestion for the procedure in glass vials. The accuracy of the procedures with PTFE vessels was verified by the spike recoveries of organic ( p-aminobenzenearsonic acid and dimethyl arsinic acid, from 92 to 101%) and inorganic (sodium arsenate, from 98 to 102%) arsenic compounds. For the procedure in glass vials the recovery was from 86 to 97% for organic As and from 97 to 102% for inorganic As. The results obtained for a certified hair reference material using the three digestion procedures were well within the 95% confidence interval of the certificate when SA was added to the solutions. However, when SA was not added, recoveries were low and non-reproducible signals and high background levels were observed. Urea, benzoic acid and hydroxylamine hydrochloride were also studied (maximum As recovery of 90% using hydroxylamine hydrochloride) but the best results were obtained with use of SA.

  6. Nephelauxetic effect of low phonon antimony oxide glass in absorption and photoluminescence of rare-earth ions.

    PubMed

    Som, Tirtha; Karmakar, Basudeb

    2011-09-01

    An antimony oxide based monolithic glass with very high Sb2O3 content (70 mol%) in the system K2O-B2O3-Sb2O3 (KBS) has been prepared for the first time. Its phonon energy (602 cm(-1)), evaluated by infrared reflection spectroscopy, is found to be very close to that of fluoride glasses (500-600 cm(-1)). After doping with different rare-earth ions, their UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence properties have been explored, compared with those observed in other hosts and justified with quantitative calculation of nephelauxetic parameter and covalent bonding characteristics. It is been proposed that tunable laser or new color visible light sources may be obtained by controlling these fundamental properties of the glass host. The results also suggest that KBS glass may be used as hosts in the place of fluoride glasses. The Judd-Ofelt parameters, Ωt=2,4,6 for Nd3+, Ho3+, and Er3+ doped in KBS glass have been evaluated and compared with other glasses. It is established that Ωt=2 value follow a direct relationship with covalent character of the hosts which not only supports the above calculation but also provides a generalized evidence for the sensitivity of this parameter to their bonding characteristics.

  7. Local environment of iron in heavy ion-irradiated amorphous magnetic oxides by Moessbauer and x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Studer, F.; Houpert Ch. ); Toulemonde, M. ) Dartyge E. )

    1991-04-01

    Moessbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopies of some crystallized iron oxides, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, FePO{sub 4}, Fe{sub 3}PO{sub 7}, and SrMn{sub 1.85}Fe{sub 0.15}O{sub 2.5}, the garnet Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}, and the barium hexaferrite BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} have been undertaken in order to look at the local order around iron in Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} and BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} materials amorphized by irradiation with high energy (27 MeV/n) xenon ions accelerated by GANIL. Simulations of the Moessbauer spectra suggested the presence of fivefold coordinated iron in the amorphous irradiated compounds with a distribution of magnetic interactions due to the variations of the number of iron second neighbors. The XANES spectra at the Fe-K edge confirmed the fivefold coordination of iron in the amorphous ferrites, show that the local structure around iron appears to be similar although the original structures were different, and appear close to the one observed in the Fe{sub 3}PO{sub 7} compound in which iron stands in a trigonal bipyramidal environment.

  8. Significant enhancement of optical absorption through nano-structuring of copper based oxide semiconductors: possible future materials for solar energy applications.

    PubMed

    Bhaumik, Anagh; Shearin, Austin M; Patel, Rishi; Ghosh, Kartik

    2014-06-14

    The optical absorption coefficient is a crucial parameter in determining solar cell efficiency under operational conditions. It is well known that inorganic nanocrystals are a benchmark model for solar cell nanotechnology, given that the tunability of optical properties and stabilization of specific phases are uniquely possible at the nanoscale. A hydrothermal method was employed to fabricate nanostructured copper oxides where the shape, size and phase were tailored by altering the growth parameters, namely the base media used, the reaction temperature, and the reaction time. The nano crystalline structures, phases, morphology, molecular vibrational modes, and optical properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL), and UV-vis spectroscopy. A significantly large optical absorption coefficient, of the order of twice that of Si in the visible range, was observed in a particular phase mixture of nanostructured copper oxides. An optical absorption coefficient of 7.05 10(+5) cm(-1) at 525 nm was observed in a particular nanostructured phase mixture of copper oxides which is appreciably larger than commercially pure CuO (1.19 10(+5) cm(-1)) and Si (1.72 10(+5) cm(-1)). A possible mechanism of formation of phase mixtures and morphology of copper oxides has also been discussed, which opens up a roadmap in synthesis of similar morphology nanostructures for efficient solar cells.

  9. Atmospheric absorption cell characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-06-01

    The measurement capability of the Avionics Laboratory IR Facility was used to evaluate an absorption cell that will be used to simulate atmospheric absorption over horizontal paths of 1 - 10 km in length. Band models were used to characterize the transmittance of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen (N2), and nitrous oxide (N2O) in the cell. The measured transmittance was compared to the calculated values. Nitrous oxide is important in the 4 - 4.5 micron range in shaping the weak line absorption of carbon dioxide. The absorption cell is adequate for simulating atmospheric absorption over these paths.

  10. Enhanced mercury removal from fix-bed reactor by lamella manganese oxide sorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, H. W.; Yu, C. T.

    2015-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is an extremely hazardous metal and attracted more concern because of its high toxicity and bioaccumulation. Several manganese-oxide-containing sorbents prepared by co-precipitation method could exhibit the mercury removal activities toward Hg0. The mercury removal test at the temperature of 300°C has the highest removal efficiency. Under this temperature, the maximum absorption equivalent of Mg-Al-Mn and Mn-Al were up to 90.9 and 247 μg/g, then gradually decreased at 400°C. The mercury removal efficiency declined in the following sequence: Mn-Al > Mg-Al-Mn > Mg-Al-Mn/ACA = Mn/AC(p)> Mn/AC(g), due to the manganese-oxide content formed on the sorbents.

  11. Development of All-Solid-State Sensors for Measurement of Nitric Oxide and Ammonia Concentrations by Optical Absorption in Particle-Laden Combusion Exhaust Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Jerald A. Caton; Kalyan Annamalai

    2003-09-24

    An all-solid-state continuous-wave (cw) laser system for ultraviolet absorption measurements of the nitric oxide (NO) molecule has been developed and demonstrated. For the NO sensor, 250 nW of tunable cw ultraviolet radiation is produced by sum-frequency-mixing of 532-nm radiation from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser and tunable 395-nm radiation from an external cavity diode laser (ECDL). The sum-frequency-mixing process occurs in a beta-barium borate crystal. The nitric oxide absorption measurements are performed by tuning the ECDL and scanning the sum-frequency-mixed radiation over strong nitric oxide absorption lines near 226 nm. The nitric oxide sensor has been used for measurements in the exhaust of a coal-fired laboratory combustion facility. The Texas A&M University boiler burner facility is a 30 kW (100,000 Btu/hr) downward-fired furnace with a steel shell encasing ceramic insulation. Measurements of nitric oxide concentration in the exhaust stream were performed after modification of the facility for laser based NOx diagnostics. The diode-laser-based sensor measurements showed good agreement with the results from physical probe sampling of the combustion exhaust. The diode-laser-based ultraviolet absorption measurements were successful even when the beam was severely attenuated by particulate in the exhaust stream and window fouling. Single-laser-sweep measurements were demonstrated with an effective time resolution of 100 msec, limited at this time by the scan rate of our mechanically tuned ECDL system. Future planned modifications will lead to even faster response times at sensitivity levels at or below 1 ppm.

  12. Cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) system for measuring atmospheric mercury using differential absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, A.; Obrist, D.; Moosmuller, H.; Moore, C.

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric elemental mercury (Hg0) is a globally pervasive element that can be transported and deposited to remote ecosystems where it poses — particularly in its methylated form — harm to many organisms including humans. Current techniques for measurement of atmospheric Hg0 require several liters of sample air and several minutes for each analysis. Fast-response (i.e., 1 second or faster) measurements would improve our ability to understand and track chemical cycling of mercury in the atmosphere, including high frequency Hg0 fluctuations, sources and sinks, and chemical transformation processes. We present theory, design, challenges, and current results of our new prototype sensor based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) for fast-response measurement of Hg0 mass concentrations. CRDS is a direct absorption technique that implements path-lengths of multiple kilometers in a compact absorption cell using high-reflectivity mirrors, thereby improving sensitivity and reducing sample volume compared to conventional absorption spectroscopy. Our sensor includes a frequency-doubled, dye-laser emitting laser pulses tunable from 215 to 280 nm, pumped by a Q-switched, frequency tripled Nd:YAG laser with a pulse repetition rate of 50 Hz. We present how we successfully perform automated wavelength locking and stabilization of the laser to the peak Hg0 absorption line at 253.65 nm using an external isotopically-enriched mercury (202Hg0) cell. An emphasis of this presentation will be on the implementation of differential absorption measurement whereby measurements are alternated between the peak Hg0 absorption wavelength and a nearby wavelength "off" the absorption line. This can be achieved using a piezo electric tuning element that allows for pulse-by-pulse tuning and detuning of the laser "online" and "offline" of the Hg absorption line, and thereby allows for continuous correction of baseline extinction losses. Unexpected challenges with this approach included

  13. Enhanced Microwave Absorption Properties by Tuning Cation Deficiency of Perovskite Oxides of Two-Dimensional LaFeO3/C Composite in X-Band.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Wang, Lai-Sen; Ma, Yating; Zheng, Hongfei; Lin, Liang; Zhang, Qinfu; Chen, Yuanzhi; Qiu, Yulong; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2017-03-01

    Development of microwave absorption materials with tunable thickness and bandwidth is particularly urgent for practical applications but remains a great challenge. Here, two-dimensional nanocomposites consisting of perovskite oxides (LaFeO3) and amorphous carbon were successfully obtained through a one pot with heating treatment using sodium chloride as a hard template. The tunable absorption properties were realized by introducing A-site cation deficiency in LaFeO3 perovskite. Among the A-site cation-deficient perovskites, La0.62FeO3/C (L0.62FOC) has the best microwave absorption properties in which the maximum absorption is -26.6 dB at 9.8 GHz with a thickness of 2.94 mm and the bandwidth range almost covers all X-band. The main reason affecting the microwave absorption performance was derived from the A-site cation deficiency which induced more dipoles polarization loss. This work proposes a promising method to tune the microwave absorption performance via introducing deficiency in a crystal lattice.

  14. Photochemical Oxidation of Dissolved Elemental Mercury by Carbonate Radicals in Water

    DOE PAGES

    He, Feng; Zhao, Weirong; Liang, Liyuan; ...

    2014-11-11

    Photochemical oxidation of dissolved elemental mercury [Hg(0)] affects mercury chemical speciation and its transfer at the water-air interface in the aquatic environment. The mechanisms and factors that control Hg(0) photooxidation, however, are not completely understood, especially in natural freshwaters containing dissolved organic matter (DOM) and carbonate. Here, we evaluate Hg(0) photooxidation rates affected by various reactive ionic species [e.g., DOM, CO32-, NO3-] and free radicals in a creek water and a phosphate buffer solution (pH=8) under simulated solar irradiation. We report a high Hg(0) photooxidation rate (k = 1.44 h-1) in the presence of both HCO32- and NO3-, whereas HCO32-,more » NO3-, or DOM alone increased the oxidation rate slightly (k = 0.1 0.17 h-1). Using scavengers and enhancers for singlet oxygen (1O2) and hydroxyl (HO∙ ) radicals, as well as electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we identify that carbonate radicals (CO3 ∙-) primarily drive the Hg(0) photooxidation, whereas addition of DOM resulted in a 2-fold decrease in Hg(0) oxidation. This study identifies an unrecognized pathway of Hg(0) photooxidation by CO3 ∙- radicals and the inhibitory effect of DOM, which could be important in assessing Hg transformation and fate in water containing carbonate such as hard water and seawater.« less

  15. Strong interlayer coupling mediated giant two-photon absorption in MoS e2 /graphene oxide heterostructure: Quenching of exciton bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rituraj; Aneesh, J.; Yadav, Rajesh Kumar; Sanda, Suresh; Barik, A. R.; Mishra, Ashish Kumar; Maji, Tuhin Kumar; Karmakar, Debjani; Adarsh, K. V.

    2016-04-01

    A complex few-layer MoS e2 /graphene oxide (GO) heterostructure with strong interlayer coupling was prepared by a facile hydrothermal method. In this strongly coupled heterostructure, we demonstrate a giant enhancement of two-photon absorption that is in stark contrast to the reverse saturable absorption of a weakly coupled MoS e2 /GO heterostructure and saturable absorption of isolated MoS e2 . Spectroscopic evidence of our study indicates that the optical signatures of isolated MoS e2 and GO domains are significantly modified in the heterostructure, displaying a direct coupling of both domains. Furthermore, our first-principles calculations indicate that strong interlayer coupling between the layers dramatically suppresses the MoS e2 excitonic bands. We envision that our findings provide a powerful tool to explore different optical functionalities as a function of interlayer coupling, which may be essential for the development of device technologies.

  16. Relaxation mechanism in NiFe thin films driven by spin angular momentum absorption throughout the antiferromagnetic phase transition in native surface oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frangou, L.; Forestier, G.; Auffret, S.; Gambarelli, S.; Baltz, V.

    2017-02-01

    We report an alternative mechanism for the physical origin of the temperature-dependent ferromagnetic relaxation observed in bare permalloy (NiFe) thin films. Through spin-pumping experiments, we demonstrate that the peak in the temperature dependence of NiFe damping can be understood in terms of enhanced absorption of spin angular momentum at the magnetic phase transition in native antiferromagnetic surface-oxidized layers. These results suggest some avenues for the investigation of an incompletely understood phenomenon in physics.

  17. Effects of fasting and/or oxidizing and reducing agents on absorption of neptunium from the gastrointestinal tract of mice and adult or neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, M F; Ruemmler, P S; Ryan, J L

    1984-12-01

    Neptunium-237(V) nitrate was administered by gavage to groups of fed or fasted adult and 5-day-old rats. Some groups also received the oxidants quinhydrone or ferric iron, and others received the reducing agent ferrous iron. Adult mice received ferric or ferrous iron and 235Np. When the adult rats were killed at 7 days after gavage, measurements showed that, compared with rats that were fed, a 24-hr fast caused a fivefold increase in 237Np absorption and retention. Both quinhydrone and ferric iron caused an even greater increase in absorption in both fed and fasted rats. Ferrous iron, on the other hand, decreased absorption in fasted rats to values lower than those obtained in fed rats. Similar results were obtained in mice treated with 235Np and either ferric or ferrous iron. The highest absorption obtained after gavage of ferric iron to fasted rats and mice was about two orders of magnitude higher than the value obtained in animals that were fed before gavage. The effects of ferric and ferrous iron on neptunium absorption by neonatal rats were similar to their effects on adult animals but of lesser magnitude. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that Np(V), when given in small mass quantities to fed animals, is reduced in the gastrointestinal tract to Np(IV), which is less well absorbed than Np(V).

  18. Time-Resolved Investigation of Cobalt Oxidation by Mn(III)-Rich δ-MnO2 Using Quick X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Simanova, Anna A; Peña, Jasquelin

    2015-09-15

    Manganese oxides are important environmental oxidants that control the fate of many organic and inorganic species including cobalt. We applied ex situ quick X-ray absorption spectroscopy (QXAS) to determine the time evolution of Co(II) and Co(III) surface loadings and their respective average surface speciation in Mn(III)-rich δ-MnO2 samples at pH 6.5 and loadings of 0.01-0.20 mol Co mol(-1) Mn. In this Mn oxide, which contained few unoccupied vacancies but abundant Mn(III) at edge and interlayer sites, Co(II) sorption and oxidation started at the particle edges. We found no evidence for Co(II) oxidation by interlayer Mn(III) or Mn(III, IV) adjacent to vacancy sites at <10 min. After 10 min, basal surface sites were implicated due to slow Co oxidation by interlayer Mn(III) and reactive sites formed upon removal of interlayer Mn(III), such that 50-60% of the sorbed Co was incorporated into the MnO2 sheets or adsorbed at vacancy sites by 12 h. Our findings indicate that the redox reactivity of surface sites depends on Mn valence and crystallographic location, with Mn(III) at the edges being the most effective oxidant at short reaction times and Mn(III,IV) in the MnO2 sheet contributing at longer reaction times.

  19. A novel pre-oxidation method for elemental mercury removal utilizing a complex vaporized absorbent.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yi; Hao, Runlong; Guo, Qing

    2014-09-15

    A novel semi-dry integrative method for elemental mercury (Hg(0)) removal has been proposed in this paper, in which Hg(0) was initially pre-oxidized by a vaporized liquid-phase complex absorbent (LCA) composed of a Fenton reagent, peracetic acid (CH3COOOH) and sodium chloride (NaCl), after which Hg(2+) was absorbed by the resultant Ca(OH)2. The experimental results indicated that CH3COOOH and NaCl were the best additives for Hg(0) oxidation. Among the influencing factors, the pH of the LCA and the adding rate of the LCA significantly affected the Hg(0) removal. The coexisting gases, SO2 and NO, were characterized as either increasing or inhibiting in the removal process, depending on their concentrations. Under optimal reaction conditions, the efficiency for the single removal of Hg(0) was 91%. Under identical conditions, the efficiencies of the simultaneous removal of SO2, NO and Hg(0) were 100%, 79.5% and 80.4%, respectively. Finally, the reaction mechanism for the simultaneous removal of SO2, NO and Hg(0) was proposed based on the characteristics of the removal products as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS), the analysis of the electrode potentials, and through data from related research references.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF ALL-SOLID-STATE SENSORS FOR MEASUREMENT OF NITRIC OXIDE AND AMMONIA CONCENTRATIONS BY OPTICAL ABSORPTION IN PARTICLE-LADEN COMBUSTION EXHAUST STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Jerald A. Caton; Kalyan Annamalai; Robert P. Lucht

    2004-09-30

    An all-solid-state continuous-wave (cw) laser system for ultraviolet absorption measurements of the nitric oxide (NO) molecule has been developed and demonstrated. For the NO sensor, 250 nW of tunable cw ultraviolet radiation is produced by sum-frequency-mixing of 532-nm radiation from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser and tunable 395-nm radiation from an external cavity diode laser (ECDL). The sum-frequency-mixing process occurs in a beta-barium borate crystal. The nitric oxide absorption measurements are performed by tuning the ECDL and scanning the sum-frequency-mixed radiation over strong nitric oxide absorption lines near 226 nm. In Year 1 of the research, the nitric oxide sensor was used for measurements in the exhaust of a coal-fired laboratory combustion facility. The Texas A&M University boiler burner facility is a 30 kW (100,000 Btu/hr) downward-fired furnace with a steel shell encasing ceramic insulation. Measurements of nitric oxide concentration in the exhaust stream were performed after modification of the facility for laser based NOx diagnostics. The diode-laser-based ultraviolet absorption measurements were successful even when the beam was severely attenuated by particulate in the exhaust stream and window fouling. Single-laser-sweep measurements were demonstrated with an effective time resolution of 100 msec, limited at this time by the scan rate of our mechanically tuned ECDL system. In Year 2 described in this progress report, the Toptica ECDL in the original system was replaced with a Sacher Lasers ECDL. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Toptica ECDL were 25 GHz and a few Hz, respectively. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Sacher Lasers ECDL were 90 GHz and a few hundred Hz, respectively. The Sacher Lasers ECDL thus allows us to scan over the entire NO absorption line and to determine the absorption baseline with increased accuracy and precision. The increased tuning rate is an advantage in that data can be

  1. Development of All-Solid-State Sensors for Measurement of Nitric Oxide and Ammonia Concentrations by Optical Absorption in Particle-Laden Combustion Exhaust Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Jerald A. Caton; Kalyan Annamalai; Robert P. Lucht

    2005-09-30

    An all-solid-state continuous-wave (cw) laser system for ultraviolet absorption measurements of the nitric oxide (NO) molecule has been developed and demonstrated. For the NO sensor, 250 nW of tunable cw ultraviolet radiation is produced by sum-frequency-mixing of 532-nm radiation from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser and tunable 395-nm radiation from an external cavity diode laser (ECDL). The sum-frequency-mixing process occurs in a beta-barium borate crystal. The nitric oxide absorption measurements are performed by tuning the ECDL and scanning the sum-frequency-mixed radiation over strong nitric oxide absorption lines near 226 nm. In Year 1 of the research, the nitric oxide sensor was used for measurements in the exhaust of a coal-fired laboratory combustion facility. The Texas A&M University boiler burner facility is a 30 kW (100,000 Btu/hr) downward-fired furnace with a steel shell encasing ceramic insulation. Measurements of nitric oxide concentration in the exhaust stream were performed after modification of the facility for laser based NOx diagnostics. The diode-laser-based ultraviolet absorption measurements were successful even when the beam was severely attenuated by particulate in the exhaust stream and window fouling. Single-laser-sweep measurements were demonstrated with an effective time resolution of 100 msec, limited at this time by the scan rate of our mechanically tuned ECDL system. In Year 2, the Toptica ECDL in the original system was replaced with a Sacher Lasers ECDL. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Toptica ECDL were 25 GHz and a few Hz, respectively. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Sacher Lasers ECDL were 90 GHz and a few hundred Hz, respectively. The Sacher Lasers ECDL thus allows us to scan over the entire NO absorption line and to determine the absorption baseline with increased accuracy and precision. The increased tuning rate is an advantage in that data can be acquired much more rapidly and the

  2. Method development for the determination of fluorine in toothpaste via molecular absorption of aluminum mono fluoride using a high-resolution continuum source nitrous oxide/acetylene flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Ozbek, Nil; Akman, Suleyman

    2012-05-30

    Fluorine was determined via the rotational molecular absorption line of aluminum mono fluoride (AlF) generated in C(2)H(2)/N(2)O flame at 227.4613 nm using a high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (HR-CS-FAAS). The effects of AlF wavelength, burner height, fuel rate (C(2)H(2)/N(2)O) and amount of Al on the accuracy, precision and sensitivity were investigated and optimized. The Al-F absorption band at 227.4613 nm was found to be the most suitable analytical line with respect to sensitivity and spectral interferences. Maximum sensitivity and a good linearity were obtained in acetylene-nitrous oxide flame at a flow rate of 210 L h(-1) and a burner height of 8mm using 3000 mg L(-1) of Al for 10-1000 mg L(-1)of F. The accuracy and precision of the method were tested by analyzing spiked samples and waste water certified reference material. The results were in good agreement with the certified and spiked amounts as well as the precision of several days during this study was satisfactory (RSD<10%). The limit of detection and characteristic concentration of the method were 5.5 mg L(-1) and 72.8 mg L(-1), respectively. Finally, the fluorine concentrations in several toothpaste samples were determined. The results found and given by the producers were not significantly different. The method was simple, fast, accurate and sensitive.

  3. Reduced Graphene Oxide-Cu0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4-Polyaniline Nanocomposite: Preparation, Characterization and Microwave Absorption Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dat, Tran Quang; Ha, Nguyen Tran; Hung, Do Quoc

    2017-02-01

    Reduced graphene oxide-Cu0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4-polyaniline nanocomposite (RGO-CNF-PANI) was synthesized by a three-step method. The morphology, structure and magnetic properties of composite samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy (RAMAN) and vibrating sample magnetometer. It was found that reduced graphene oxide was exfoliated and decorated homogeneously with ferrite nanoparticles having diameters between 11 nm and 21 nm. The polyaniline was coated by an in situ chemical oxidation polymerization. The measurement of magnetic properties found the remanence (Mr) and coercive field (Hc) were near zero, indicating that the obtained material was superparamagnetic. The microwave measurements found that the nanocomposite exhibited a good absorption property with the optimum matching thickness of 3 mm in the frequency of 8-12 GHz. The value of the maximum RL was -40.7 dB at 9.8 GHz.

  4. Application of Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy to the Detection of Nitric Oxide, Carbonyl Sulphide, and Ethane--Breath Biomarkers of Serious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Wojtas, Jacek

    2015-06-17

    The paper presents one of the laser absorption spectroscopy techniques as an effective tool for sensitive analysis of trace gas species in human breath. Characterization of nitric oxide, carbonyl sulphide and ethane, and the selection of their absorption lines are described. Experiments with some biomarkers showed that detection of pathogenic changes at the molecular level is possible using this technique. Thanks to cavity enhanced spectroscopy application, detection limits at the ppb-level and short measurements time (<3 s) were achieved. Absorption lines of reference samples of the selected volatile biomarkers were probed using a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser and a tunable laser system consisting of an optical parametric oscillator and difference frequency generator. Setup using the first source provided a detection limit of 30 ppb for nitric oxide and 250 ppb for carbonyl sulphide. During experiments employing a second laser, detection limits of 0.9 ppb and 0.3 ppb were obtained for carbonyl sulphide and ethane, respectively. The conducted experiments show that this type of diagnosis would significantly increase chances for effective therapy of some diseases. Additionally, it offers non-invasive and real time measurements, high sensitivity and selectivity as well as minimizing discomfort for patients. For that reason, such sensors can be used in screening for early detection of serious diseases.

  5. Application of Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy to the Detection of Nitric Oxide, Carbonyl Sulphide, and Ethane—Breath Biomarkers of Serious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wojtas, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents one of the laser absorption spectroscopy techniques as an effective tool for sensitive analysis of trace gas species in human breath. Characterization of nitric oxide, carbonyl sulphide and ethane, and the selection of their absorption lines are described. Experiments with some biomarkers showed that detection of pathogenic changes at the molecular level is possible using this technique. Thanks to cavity enhanced spectroscopy application, detection limits at the ppb-level and short measurements time (<3 s) were achieved. Absorption lines of reference samples of the selected volatile biomarkers were probed using a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser and a tunable laser system consisting of an optical parametric oscillator and difference frequency generator. Setup using the first source provided a detection limit of 30 ppb for nitric oxide and 250 ppb for carbonyl sulphide. During experiments employing a second laser, detection limits of 0.9 ppb and 0.3 ppb were obtained for carbonyl sulphide and ethane, respectively. The conducted experiments show that this type of diagnosis would significantly increase chances for effective therapy of some diseases. Additionally, it offers non-invasive and real time measurements, high sensitivity and selectivity as well as minimizing discomfort for patients. For that reason, such sensors can be used in screening for early detection of serious diseases. PMID:26091398

  6. Calculation of optical and K pre-edge absorption spectra for ferrous iron of distorted sites in oxide crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vercamer, Vincent; Hunault, Myrtille O. J. Y.; Lelong, Gérald; Haverkort, Maurits W.; Calas, Georges; Arai, Yusuke; Hijiya, Hiroyuki; Paulatto, Lorenzo; Brouder, Christian; Arrio, Marie-Anne; Juhin, Amélie

    2016-12-01

    Advanced semiempirical calculations have been performed to compute simultaneously optical absorption and K pre-edge x-ray absorption spectra of Fe2 + in four distinct site symmetries found in minerals. The four symmetries, i.e., a distorted octahedron, a distorted tetrahedron, a square planar site, and a trigonal bipyramidal site, are representative of the Fe2 + sites found in crystals and glasses. A particular attention has been paid to the definition of the p -d hybridization Hamiltonian which occurs for noncentrosymmetric symmetries in order to account for electric dipole transitions. For the different sites under study, an excellent agreement between calculations and experiments was found for both optical and x-ray absorption spectra, in particular in terms of relative intensities and energy positions of electronic transitions. To our knowledge, these are the first calculations of optical absorption spectra on Fe2 + placed in such diverse site symmetries, including centrosymmetric sites. The proposed theoretical model should help to interpret the features of both the optical absorption and the K pre-edge absorption spectra of 3 d transition metal ions and to go beyond the usual fingerprint interpretation.

  7. Operando soft X-ray absorption spectroscopic study on a solid oxide fuel cell cathode during electrochemical oxygen reduction.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takashi; Oike, Ryo; Kimura, Yuta; Tamenori, Yusuke; Kawada, Tatsuya; Amezawa, Koji

    2017-03-16

    Operando soft X-ray absorption spectroscopic technique, which could analyze electronic structures of the electrode materials at elevated temperature and controlled atmosphere under electrochemical polarization, was established and its availability was demonstrated by investigating electronic structural changes of an La2NiO4+d dense film electrode during electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction. Clear O K-edge and Ni L-edge X-ray absorption spectra could be obtained below 773 K in fully atmospheric pressure of 100 ppm O2-He, 0.1% O2-He and 1% O2-He gas mixtures. By the PO2 change and the application of electrical potential, considerable spectral changes were observed in O K-edge X-ray absorption spectra while only small spectral changes were observed in Ni L-edge X-ray absorption spectra. Pre-edge peak of the O K-edge X-ray absorption spectra, which reflects the unoccupied pDOS of Ni3d-O2p hybridization, increased/deceased with cathodic/anodic polarization, respectively. The electronic structural changes of the outermost orbital of the electrode material due to electrochemical polarization were successfully confirmed by the operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy developed in this study.

  8. Excellent electromagnetic absorption properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-reduced graphene oxide-Co3O4 composites prepared by a hydrothermal method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pan-Bo; Huang, Ying; Sun, Xu

    2013-12-11

    The ternary composites of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-reduced graphene oxide-Co3O4 (PEDOT-RGO-Co3O4) were synthesized and the electromagnetic absorption property of the composites was investigated. The structure of the composites was characterized with Fourier-transform infrared spectra, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscope. The electromagnetic parameters indicate the enhanced electromagnetic absorption property of the composites was attributed to the better impedance matching. On the basis of the above characterization, an electromagnetic complementary theory was proposed to explain the impedance matching. It can be found that the maximum reflection loss of PEDOT-RGO-Co3O4 can reach -51.1 dB at 10.7 GHz, and the bandwidth exceeding -10 dB is 3.1 GHz with absorber thickness of 2.0 mm. Therefore, the PEDOT-RGO-Co3O4 composites, with such excellent electromagnetic absorption properties and wide absorption bandwidth, can be used as a new kind of candidate for microwave absorbing materials.

  9. Measurement of absorption spectrum of deuterium oxide (D{sub 2}O) and its application to signal enhancement in multiphoton microscopy at the 1700-nm window

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuxin; Wen, Wenhui; Wang, Kai; Wang, Ke; Zhai, Peng; Qiu, Ping

    2016-01-11

    1700-nm window has been demonstrated to be a promising excitation window for deep-tissue multiphoton microscopy (MPM). Long working-distance water immersion objective lenses are typically used for deep-tissue imaging. However, absorption due to immersion water at 1700 nm is still high and leads to dramatic decrease in signals. In this paper, we demonstrate measurement of absorption spectrum of deuterium oxide (D{sub 2}O) from 1200 nm to 2600 nm, covering the three low water-absorption windows potentially applicable for deep-tissue imaging (1300 nm, 1700 nm, and 2200 nm). We apply this measured result to signal enhancement in MPM at the 1700-nm window. Compared with water immersion, D{sub 2}O immersion enhances signal levels in second-harmonic generation imaging, 3-photon fluorescence imaging, and third-harmonic generation imaging by 8.1, 24.8, and 24.7 times with 1662-nm excitation, in good agreement with theoretical calculation based on our absorption measurement. This suggests D{sub 2}O a promising immersion medium for deep-tissue imaging.

  10. Conversion of elemental mercury with a novel membrane delivery catalytic oxidation system (MDCOs).

    PubMed

    Guo, Yongfu; Yan, Naiqiang; Yang, Shijian; Qu, Zan; Wu, Zhongbiao; Liu, Yue; Liu, Ping; Jia, Jinping

    2011-01-15

    In order to overcome the shortcomings of the traditional catalytic oxidation (TCO) mode for the conversion of the trace level of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) in flue gas, we put forward a novel and unique assembly that integrated membrane delivery with catalytic oxidation systems (MDCOs), which combined the controlled delivery of oxidants with the catalytic oxidation of Hg(0). The results show that the demanded HCl for Hg(0) conversion in the MDCOs was less than 5% of that in the TCO mode, and over 90% of Hg(0) removal efficiency can be obtained in the MDCOs with less than 0.5 mg m(-3) of HCl escaped. Meanwhile, the inhibition of SO(2) to Hg(0) catalytic conversion in the MDCOs was also less significant than in the TCO. The MDCOs have high retainability for HCl, which is quite favorable to Hg(0) conversion and HCl utilization. The reaction mechanism on mercury conversion in the MDCOs is discussed. The MDCOs appear to be a promising method for emission control of elemental mercury.

  11. Dissimilatory reduction of FeIII (EDTA) with microorganisms in the system of nitric oxide removal from the flue gas by metal chelate absorption.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bi-yao; Li, Wei; Jing, Guo-hua; Shi, Yao

    2004-01-01

    In the system of nitric oxide removal from the flue gas by metal chelate absorption, it is an obstacle that ferrous absorbents are easily oxidized by oxygen in the flue gas to ferric counterparts, which are not capable of binding NO. By adding iron metal or electrochemical method, FeIII(EDTA) can be reduced to FeII(EDTA). However, there are various drawbacks associated with these techniques. The dissimilatory reduction of FeIII(EDTA) with microorganisms in the system of nitric oxide removal by metal chelate absorption was investigated. Ammonium salt instead of nitrate was used as the nitrogen source, as nitrates inhibited the reduction of FeIII due to the competition between the two electron acceptors. Supplemental glucose and lactate stimulated the formation of FeII more than ethanol as the carbon sources. The microorganisms cultured at 50 degrees C were not very sensitive to the other experimental temperature, the reduction percentage of FeIII varied little with the temperature range of 30-50 degrees C. Concentrated Na2CO3 solution was added to adjust the solution pH to an optimal pH range of 6-7. The overall results revealed that the dissimilatory ferric reducing microorganisms present in the mix-culture are probably neutrophilic, moderately thermophilic FeIII reducers.

  12. Improved microwave absorption and electromagnetic properties of BaFe12O19-poly(vinylidene fluoride) composites by incorporating reduced graphene oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hongcai; Luo, Feifei; Qian, Neng; Wang, Ning

    2015-02-01

    Three-phase composites of poly(vinylidene fluoride)-BaFe12O19-reduced graphene oxide (PVDF-BFO-RGO) were synthesized by a facile wet chemical method and hot-pressing approach. The phase structure, topography of the hybrid materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectra. Influence of RGO on their electromagnetic properties was investigated. Especially, improved microwave absorption and electromagnetic properties of BaFe12O19-PVDF composites by incorporating RGO were obtained and studied. The PVDF/BFO/RGO sample with m(RGO):m(BFO) = 5:100 shows the best microwave absorption properties with a minimum RL = -32 dB at 11 GHz and with the bandwidth less than -20 dB from 9.6 to 12.8 GHz. The composites were believed to have potential applications as the microwave absorber.

  13. Development of All-Solid-State Sensors for Measurement of Nitric Oxide and Ammonia Concentrations by Optical Absorption in Particle-Laden Combustion Exhaust Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Jerald A. Caton; Kalyan Annamalai; Robert P. Lucht

    2006-12-31

    An all-solid-state continuous-wave (cw) laser system for ultraviolet absorption measurements of the nitric oxide (NO) molecule has been developed and demonstrated. For the NO sensor, 250 nW of tunable cw ultraviolet radiation is produced by sum-frequency-mixing of 532-nm radiation from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser and tunable 395-nm radiation from an external cavity diode laser (ECDL). The sum-frequency-mixing process occurs in a beta-barium borate crystal. The nitric oxide absorption measurements are performed by tuning the ECDL and scanning the sum-frequency-mixed radiation over strong nitric oxide absorption lines near 226 nm. In Year 1 of the research, the nitric oxide sensor was used for measurements in the exhaust of a coal-fired laboratory combustion facility. The Texas A&M University boiler burner facility is a 30 kW (100,000 Btu/hr) downward-fired furnace with a steel shell encasing ceramic insulation. Measurements of nitric oxide concentration in the exhaust stream were performed after modification of the facility for laser based NOx diagnostics. The diode-laser-based ultraviolet absorption measurements were successful even when the beam was severely attenuated by particulate in the exhaust stream and window fouling. Single-laser-sweep measurements were demonstrated with an effective time resolution of 100 msec, limited at this time by the scan rate of our mechanically tuned ECDL system. In Year 2, the Toptica ECDL in the original system was replaced with a Sacher Lasers ECDL. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Toptica ECDL were 25 GHz and a few Hz, respectively. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Sacher Lasers ECDL were 90 GHz and a few hundred Hz, respectively. The Sacher Lasers ECDL thus allows us to scan over the entire NO absorption line and to determine the absorption baseline with increased accuracy and precision. The increased tuning rate is an advantage in that data can be acquired much more rapidly and the

  14. Regenerable cobalt oxide loaded magnetosphere catalyst from fly ash for mercury removal in coal combustion flue gas.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianping; Zhao, Yongchun; Zhang, Junying; Zheng, Chuguang

    2014-12-16

    To remove Hg(0) in coal combustion flue gas and eliminate secondary mercury pollution of the spent catalyst, a new regenerable magnetic catalyst based on cobalt oxide loaded magnetospheres from fly ash (Co-MF) was developed. The catalyst, with an optimal loading of 5.8% cobalt species, attained approximately 95% Hg(0) removal efficiency at 150 °C under simulated flue gas atmosphere. O2 could enhance the Hg(0) removal activity of magnetospheres catalyst via the Mars-Maessen mechanism. SO2 displayed an inhibitive effect on Hg(0) removal capacity. NO with lower concentration could promote the Hg(0) removal efficiency. However, when increasing the NO concentration to 300 ppm, a slightly inhibitive effect of NO was observed. In the presence of 10 ppm of HCl, greater than 95.5% Hg(0) removal efficiency was attained, which was attributed to the formation of active chlorine species on the surface. H2O presented a seriously inhibitive effect on Hg(0) removal efficiency. Repeated oxidation-regeneration cycles demonstrated that the spent Co-MF catalyst could be regenerated effectively via thermally treated at 400 °C for 2 h.

  15. Self-absorption theory applied to rocket measurements of the nitric oxide (1,0)[gamma] band in the daytime thermosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Eparvier, F.G.; Barth, C.A. )

    1992-09-01

    Sounding rocket observations of the ultraviolet fluorescent emissions of the nitric oxide molecule in the lower thermospheric dayglow are described and analyzed. The rocket experiment was an ultraviolet spectrometer which took limb-viewing spectra of the dayglow between 90- and 185- km altitude in the spectral region from 2120 to 2505 [angstrom] with a resolution of 2.0 [angstrom]. The flight occurred at local noon on March 7, 1989, from Poker Flat, Alaska. Several NO[gamma] bands were visible at all altitudes of the flight, along with emission features of N[sub 2], O[sup +], and N[sup +]. The data for the NO (1,0) and (0,1)[gamma] bands were modeled with optically thin synthetic spectra and used as diagnostics of nitric oxide concentrations. The resonant NO (1,0)[gamma] band emissions were shown to be attenuated at low altitudes relative to the expected emission rates predicted from comparison with the nonresonant (0,1)[gamma] band. Inversion of the optically thin data resulted in a peak nitric oxide concentration of 3.1x10[sup 8] cm[sup [minus]3] at an altitude of 100km. A self-absorption model using Holstein transmission functions was developed and applied to the (1,0) [gamma] band observation. The model results agree with the measured attenuation of the band, indicating the necessity of including self-absorption theory in the analysis of satellite and rocket limb data of NO. The success of the model also confirms the value adopted for the absorption oscillator strength of the (1,0)[gamma] band transition and the instrument calibration.

  16. Mechanism of Heterogeneous Mercury Oxidation by HBr over V2O5/TiO2 Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Bingkai; Yang, Yingju; Zhang, Zhen; Miao, Sen

    2016-05-17

    Catalytic oxidation of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) through a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system is a promising method to reduce mercury emissions from coal-burning power plants. The density functional theory (DFT) and periodic slab models were used to study the reaction mechanism of Hg(0) oxidation by HBr on V2O5/TiO2 SCR catalyst surface. The interaction mechanisms of Hg(0), HBr, HgBr, and HgBr2 on V2O5/TiO2(001) were investigated. The oxidation reaction energy profiles and the corresponding geometries of the intermediates, final states, and transition states were researched. The results indicate that Hg(0) and HgBr2 are weakly adsorbed on the oxygen sites of the V2O5/TiO2(001) surface with physisorption. HgBr is chemically adsorbed on the surface. HBr is dissociatively adsorbed on the surface with an energy barrier of 85.59 kJ/mol. The reaction of Hg(0) oxidation by HBr follows the Eley-Rideal mechanism: Hg(0) interacts with a surface Br from HBr dissociation to form HgBr, and surface HgBr further interacts with HBr to form HgBr2, last HgBr2 desorbs from the surface. Comparing the energy pathway of Hg(0) oxidation over V2O5/TiO2(001) surface by HBr to that of HCl, it is found that the dissociation energy barrier of HBr is lower than that of HCl, the formation and desorption energy barriers of HgBr2 are also lower than that of HgCl2, which explains why HBr is much more effective than HCl in promoting Hg(0) oxidation.

  17. Significance of RuO2 modified SCR catalyst for elemental mercury oxidation in coal-fired flue gas.

    PubMed

    Yan, Naiqiang; Chen, Wanmiao; Chen, Jie; Qu, Zan; Guo, Yongfu; Yang, Shijian; Jia, Jinping

    2011-07-01

    Catalytic conversion of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) to its oxidized form has been considered as an effective way to enhance mercury removal from coal-fired power plants. In order to make good use of the existing selective catalytic reduction of NO(x) (SCR) catalysts as a cobenefit of Hg(0) conversion at lower level HCl in flue gas, various catalysts supported on titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) and commercial SCR catalysts were investigated at various cases. Among the tested catalysts, ruthenium oxides (RuO(2)) not only showed rather high catalytic activity on Hg(0) oxidation by itself, but also appeared to be well cooperative with the commercial SCR catalyst for Hg(0) conversion. In addition, the modified SCR catalyst with RuO(2) displayed an excellent tolerance to SO(2) and ammonia without any distinct negative effects on NO(x) reduction and SO(2) conversion. The demanded HCl concentration for Hg(0) oxidation can be reduced dramatically, and Hg(0) oxidation efficiency over RuO(2) doped SCR catalyst was over 90% even at about 5 ppm HCl in the simulated gases. Ru modified SCR catalyst shows a promising prospect for the cobenefit of mercury emission control.

  18. Synthesis and microwave absorption property of graphene oxide/carbon nanotubes modified with cauliflower-like Fe3O4 nanospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Shaojiu; Wang, Lina; Wang, Tihong; Zhang, Liqiang; Li, Yongfeng; Dai, Shenglong

    2016-03-01

    We report a simple procedure to fabricate graphene oxide/carbon nanotube hybrids coated with cauliflower-like Fe3O4 sphere. Characterizations have been carried out to investigate the morphology, crystalline structure of the composites by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Fe3O4 particles have the morphologies of multi-lacuna; moreover, some spheres are hollow. As a kind of potential microwave absorption material, the composites are lightweight and exhibit excellent microwave absorbing ability in the range of 2-16 GHz.

  19. Light absorption by secondary organic aerosol from α-pinene: Effects of oxidants, seed aerosol acidity, and relative humidity

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Chen; Gyawali, Madhu; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Shilling, John E.; Arnott, W. Patrick

    2013-10-25

    It is well known that light absorption from dust and black carbon aerosols has a warming effect on climate while light scattering from sulfate, nitrate, and sea salt aerosols has a cooling effect. However, there are large uncertainties associated with light absorption and scattering by different types of organic aerosols, especially in the near-UV and UV spectral regions. In this paper, we present the results from a systematic laboratory study focused on measuring light absorption by secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) generated from dark α-pinene + O3 and α-pinene + NOx + O3 systems in the presence of neutral and acidic sulfate seed aerosols. Light absorption was monitored using photoacoustic spectrometers at four different wavelengths: 355, 405, 532, and 870 nm. Significant light absorption at 355 and 405 nm was observed for the SOA formed from α-pinene + O3 + NO3 system only in the presence of highly acidic sulfate seed aerosols under dry conditions. In contrast, no absorption was observed when the relative humidity was elevated to greater than 27% or in the presence of neutral sulfate seed aerosols. Organic nitrates in the SOA formed in the presence of neutral sulfate seed aerosols were found to be nonabsorbing, while the light-absorbing compounds are speculated to be aldol condensation oligomers with nitroxy organosulfate groups that are formed in highly acidic sulfate aerosols. Finally and overall, these results suggest that dark α-pinene + O3 and α-pinene + NOx + O3 systems do not form light-absorbing SOA under typical atmospheric conditions.

  20. Formation of soluble mercury oxide coatings: Transformation of elemental mercury in soils

    DOE PAGES

    Miller, Carrie L.; Watson, David B.; Lester, Brian P.; ...

    2015-09-21

    In this study, the impact of mercury (Hg) on human and ecological health has been known for decades. Although a treaty signed in 2013 by 147 nations regulates future large-scale mercury emissions, legacy Hg contamination exists worldwide and small-scale releases will continue. The fate of elemental mercury, Hg(0), lost to the subsurface and its potential chemical transformation that can lead to changes in speciation and mobility are poorly understood. Here, we show that Hg(0) beads interact with soil or manganese oxide solids and X-ray spectroscopic analysis indicates that the soluble mercury coatings are HgO. Dissolution studies show that, after reactingmore » with a composite soil, >20 times more Hg is released into water from the coated beads than from a pure liquid mercury bead. An even larger, >700 times, release occurs from coated Hg(0) beads that have been reacted with manganese oxide, suggesting that manganese oxides are involved in the transformation of the Hg(0) beads and creation of the soluble mercury coatings. Although the coatings may inhibit Hg(0) evaporation, the high solubility of the coatings can enhance Hg(II) migration away from the Hg(0)-spill site and result in potential changes in mercury speciation in the soil and increased mercury mobility.« less

  1. Formation of Soluble Mercury Oxide Coatings: Transformation of Elemental Mercury in Soils.

    PubMed

    Miller, Carrie L; Watson, David B; Lester, Brian P; Howe, Jane Y; Phillips, Debra H; He, Feng; Liang, Liyuan; Pierce, Eric M

    2015-10-20

    The impact of mercury (Hg) on human and ecological health has been known for decades. Although a treaty signed in 2013 by 147 nations regulates future large-scale mercury emissions, legacy Hg contamination exists worldwide and small-scale releases will continue. The fate of elemental mercury, Hg(0), lost to the subsurface and its potential chemical transformation that can lead to changes in speciation and mobility are poorly understood. Here, we show that Hg(0) beads interact with soil or manganese oxide solids and X-ray spectroscopic analysis indicates that the soluble mercury coatings are HgO. Dissolution studies show that, after reacting with a composite soil, >20 times more Hg is released into water from the coated beads than from a pure liquid mercury bead. An even larger, >700 times, release occurs from coated Hg(0) beads that have been reacted with manganese oxide, suggesting that manganese oxides are involved in the transformation of the Hg(0) beads and creation of the soluble mercury coatings. Although the coatings may inhibit Hg(0) evaporation, the high solubility of the coatings can enhance Hg(II) migration away from the Hg(0)-spill site and result in potential changes in mercury speciation in the soil and increased mercury mobility.

  2. Formation of soluble mercury oxide coatings: Transformation of elemental mercury in soils

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Carrie L.; Watson, David B.; Lester, Brian P.; Howe, Jane Y.; Phillips, Debra H.; He, Feng; Liang, Liyuan; Pierce, Eric M.

    2015-09-21

    In this study, the impact of mercury (Hg) on human and ecological health has been known for decades. Although a treaty signed in 2013 by 147 nations regulates future large-scale mercury emissions, legacy Hg contamination exists worldwide and small-scale releases will continue. The fate of elemental mercury, Hg(0), lost to the subsurface and its potential chemical transformation that can lead to changes in speciation and mobility are poorly understood. Here, we show that Hg(0) beads interact with soil or manganese oxide solids and X-ray spectroscopic analysis indicates that the soluble mercury coatings are HgO. Dissolution studies show that, after reacting with a composite soil, >20 times more Hg is released into water from the coated beads than from a pure liquid mercury bead. An even larger, >700 times, release occurs from coated Hg(0) beads that have been reacted with manganese oxide, suggesting that manganese oxides are involved in the transformation of the Hg(0) beads and creation of the soluble mercury coatings. Although the coatings may inhibit Hg(0) evaporation, the high solubility of the coatings can enhance Hg(II) migration away from the Hg(0)-spill site and result in potential changes in mercury speciation in the soil and increased mercury mobility.

  3. Enhancement of conduction noise absorption by hybrid absorbers composed of indium-tin-oxide thin film and magnetic composite sheet on a microstrip line

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sun-Hong; Kim, Sung-Soo

    2014-05-05

    In order to develop wide-band noise absorbers with a focused design for low frequency performance, this study investigates hybrid absorbers that are composed of conductive indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin film and magnetic composite sheets. The ITO films prepared via reactive sputtering exhibit a typical value of electrical resistivity of ≃10{sup −4} Ω m. Rubber composites with flaky Fe-Si-Al particles are used as the magnetic sheet with a high permeability and high permittivity. For the ITO film with a low surface resistance and covered by the magnetic sheet, approximately 90% power absorption can be obtained at 1 GHz, which is significantly higher than that of the original magnetic sheet or ITO film. The high power absorption of the hybrid absorber is attributed to the enhanced ohmic loss of the ITO film through increased electric field strength bounded by the upper magnetic composite sheet. However, for the reverse layering sequence of the ITO film, the electric field experienced by ITO film is very weak due to the electromagnetic shielding by the under layer of magnetic sheet, which does not result in enhanced power absorption.

  4. NOVEL OXIDANT FOR ELEMENTAL MERCURY CONTROL FROM FLUE GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel economical oxidant has been developed for elemental mercury (Hg(0)) removal from coal-fired boilers. The oxidant was rigorously tested in a lab-scale fixed-bed system with the Norit America's FGD activated carbon (DOE's benchmark sorbent) in a typical PRB subbituminous/l...

  5. Chemical absorption process for degradation of VOC gas using heterogeneous gas-liquid photocatalytic oxidation: toluene degradation by photo-Fenton reaction.

    PubMed

    Tokumura, Masahiro; Nakajima, Rina; Znad, Hussein Tawfeek; Kawase, Yoshinori

    2008-10-01

    A novel process for degradation of toluene in the gas-phase using heterogeneous gas-liquid photocatalytic oxidation has been developed. The degradation of toluene gas by photo-Fenton reaction in the liquid-phase has experimentally examined. The photo-Fenton reaction in the liquid-phase could improve the overall toluene absorption rate by increasing the driving force for mass transfer and as a result enhance the removal of toluene in the exhaust gas. The toluene concentrations in the inlet gas were varied in the range from 0.0968 to 8.69 g m(-3) with initial hydrogen peroxide concentration of 400 mg l(-1) and Fe dose of 5.0 mg l(-1). It was found that toluene in the inlet gas was almost completely dissolved into water and degraded in the liquid-phase for the inlet toluene gas concentration of less than 0.42 g m(-3). The dynamic process of toluene gas degradation by the photo-Fenton reaction providing information for reaction kinetics and mass transfer rate was examined. Toluene removal kinetic analysis indicated that photo-Fenton degradation was significantly affected by H(2)O(2) concentration. The experimental results were satisfactorily described by the predictions simulated using the simplified tanks-in-series model combined with toluene removal kinetic analysis. The present results showed that the proposed chemical absorption process using the photo-Fenton heterogeneous gas-liquid photocatalytic oxidation is very effective for degradation of volatile organic gases.

  6. Self-absorption theory applied to rocket measurements of the nitric oxide (1, 0) gamma band in the daytime thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eparvier, F. G.; Barth, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    Observations of the UV fluorescent emissions of the NO (1, 0) and (0, 1) gamma bands in the lower-thermospheric dayglow, made with a sounding rocket launched on March 7, 1989 from Poker Flat, Alaska, were analyzed. The resonant (1, 0) gamma band was found to be attenuated below an altitude of about 120 km. A self-absorption model based on Holstein transmission functions was developed for the resonant (1, 0) gamma band under varying conditions of slant column density and temperature and was applied for the conditions of the rocket flight. The results of the model agreed with the measured attenuation of the band, indicating the necessity of including self-absorption theory in the analysis of satellite and rocket limb data of NO.

  7. Facile synthesis of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/reduced graphene oxide nanohybrids for enhanced microwave absorption properties

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhiwei; Wan, Yizao; Xiong, Guangyao; Li, Deying; Li, Qiuping; Ma, Chunying; Guo, Ruisong; Luo, Honglin

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with a small diameter are uniformly anchored on RGO surface. • A strong interfacial bonding was formed between ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and RGO. • The minimum RL of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/RGO nanohybrids is −29.3 dB at 16.7 GHz and 1.6 mm. • ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/RGO nanohybrids show great promise as a microwave absorption material. - Abstract: The nanohybrids composed of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) have been synthesized by a facile one-step hydrothermal strategy. The morphology and structure of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/RGO nanohybrids were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectra. RGO content was also determined by thermogravimetric analysis. The results confirm the formation of nanohybrids with a content of 20.4 wt% RGO and extensive interfaces between small-diameter ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and RGO sheets. The magnetic properties and electromagnetic parameters of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/RGO nanohybrids were measured and the microwave absorption properties were investigated. ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/RGO nanohybrids exhibit the advantages of thin matching thickness and strong absorption at high frequency bands. It is demonstrated that ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/RGO nanohybrids can be a powerful candidate in the field of microwave absorption.

  8. The origin of the absorption spectra of porphyrin N- and dithiaporphyrin S-oxides in their neutral and protonated states.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, Torsten; Brückner, Christian

    2015-02-07

    meso-Tetraphenylporphyrin N-oxide (1) and meso-tetraphenyl-21,23-dithiaporphyrin S-oxide (3) possess optical spectra that are distinctly different from their parent porphyrins, meso-tetraphenylporphyrin (2) and meso-tetraphenyl-21,23-dithiaporphyrin (4), respectively. The hyperporphyrin spectra were reproduced and classified using TD CAM-B3LYP and SCS-CC2 computational methods. Calculations revealed the electronic and conformational influences of the N- and S-oxide functionalities. While the N-oxide under acidic conditions forms a dication with a UV-vis spectrum that is nearly indistinguishable from that of the diprotonated parent porphyrin, the diprotonated S-oxide possesses a much different UV-vis spectrum from diprotonated parent dithiaporphyrin. A computational study of the protonation events revealed the site and degree of protonation and rationalized the regular and hyperporphyrin UV-vis spectra of the neutral and protonated species, respectively. The study illuminates the electronic effects of the relatively rare modification of the inner porphyrin heteroatoms. It also illustrates a case in which TD CAM-B3LYP reaches its limits to make reliable predictions about the optical properties of a porphyrinoid, making the use of higher methods essential.

  9. Structural differences of oxidized iron-sulfur and nickel-iron cofactors in O2-tolerant and O2-sensitive hydrogenases studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sigfridsson, Kajsa G V; Leidel, Nils; Sanganas, Oliver; Chernev, Petko; Lenz, Oliver; Yoon, Ki-Seok; Nishihara, Hirofumi; Parkin, Alison; Armstrong, Fraser A; Dementin, Sébastien; Rousset, Marc; De Lacey, Antonio L; Haumann, Michael

    2015-02-01

    The class of [NiFe]-hydrogenases comprises oxygen-sensitive periplasmic (PH) and oxygen-tolerant membrane-bound (MBH) enzymes. For three PHs and four MBHs from six bacterial species, structural features of the nickel-iron active site of hydrogen turnover and of the iron-sulfur clusters functioning in electron transfer were determined using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Fe-XAS indicated surplus oxidized iron and a lower number of ~2.7 Å Fe-Fe distances plus additional shorter and longer distances in the oxidized MBHs compared to the oxidized PHs. This supported a double-oxidized and modified proximal FeS cluster in all MBHs with an apparent trimer-plus-monomer arrangement of its four iron atoms, in agreement with crystal data showing a [4Fe3S] cluster instead of a [4Fe4S] cubane as in the PHs. Ni-XAS indicated coordination of the nickel by the thiol group sulfurs of four conserved cysteines and at least one iron-oxygen bond in both MBH and PH proteins. Structural differences of the oxidized inactive [NiFe] cofactor of MBHs in the Ni-B state compared to PHs in the Ni-A state included a ~0.05 Å longer Ni-O bond, a two times larger spread of the Ni-S bond lengths, and a ~0.1 Å shorter Ni-Fe distance. The modified proximal [4Fe3S] cluster, weaker binding of the Ni-Fe bridging oxygen species, and an altered localization of reduced oxygen species at the active site may each contribute to O2 tolerance.

  10. Cobalt complexes with pyrazole ligands as catalyst precursors for the peroxidative oxidation of cyclohexane: X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies and biological applications.

    PubMed

    Silva, Telma F S; Martins, Luísa M D R S; Guedes da Silva, M Fátima C; Kuznetsov, Maxim L; Fernandes, Alexandra R; Silva, Ana; Pan, Chun-Jern; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Hwang, Bing-Joe; Pombeiro, Armando J L

    2014-04-01

    [CoCl(μ-Cl)(Hpz(Ph))3]2 (1) and [CoCl2(Hpz(Ph))4] (2) were obtained by reaction of CoCl2 with HC(pz(Ph))3 and Hpz(Ph), respectively (Hpz(Ph)=3-phenylpyrazole). The compounds were isolated as air-stable solids and fully characterized by IR and far-IR spectroscopy, MS(ESI+/-), elemental analysis, cyclic voltammetry (CV), controlled potential electrolysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Electrochemical studies showed that 1 and 2 undergo single-electron irreversible Co(II)→Co(III) oxidations and Co(II)→Co(I) reductions at potentials measured by CV, which also allowed, in the case of dinuclear complex 1, the detection of electronic communication between the Co centers through the chloride bridging ligands. The electrochemical behavior of models of 1 and 2 were also investigated by density functional theory (DFT) methods, which indicated that the vertical oxidation of 1 and 2 (that before structural relaxation) affects mostly the chloride and pyrazolyl ligands, whereas adiabatic oxidation (that after the geometry relaxation) and reduction are mostly metal centered. Compounds 1 and 2 and, for comparative purposes, other related scorpionate and pyrazole cobalt complexes, exhibit catalytic activity for the peroxidative oxidation of cyclohexane to cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone under mild conditions (room temperature, aqueous H2O2). In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies indicated that the species derived from complexes 1 and 2 during the oxidation of cyclohexane (i.e., Ox-1 and Ox-2, respectively) are analogous and contain a Co(III) site. Complex 2 showed low in vitro cytotoxicity toward the HCT116 colorectal carcinoma and MCF7 breast adenocarcinoma cell lines.

  11. Simultaneous absorption of NOx and SO2 from flue gas with pyrolusite slurry combined with gas-phase oxidation of NO using ozone.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei-yi; Ding, Sang-lan; Zeng, Shan-shan; Su, Shi-jun; Jiang, Wen-ju

    2011-08-15

    NO was oxidized into NO(2) first by injecting ozone into flue gas stream, and then NO(2) was absorbed from flue gas simultaneously with SO(2) by pyrolusite slurry. Reaction mechanism and products during the absorption process were discussed in the followings. Effects of concentrations of injected ozone, inlet NO, pyrolusite and reaction temperature on NO(x)/SO(2) removal efficiency and Mn extraction rate were also investigated. The results showed that ozone could oxidize NO to NO(2) with selectivity and high efficiency, furthermore, MnO(2) in pyrolusite slurry could oxidize SO(2) and NO(2) into MnSO(4) and Mn(NO(3))(2) in liquid phase, respectively. Temperature and concentrations of injected ozone and inlet NO had little impact on both SO(2) removal efficiency and Mn extraction rate. Specifically, Mn extraction rate remained steady at around 85% when SO(2) removal efficiency dropped to 90%. NO(x) removal efficiency increased with the increasing of ozone concentration, inlet NO concentration and pyrolusite concentration, however, it remained stable when reaction temperature increased from 20°C to 40°C and decreased when the flue gas temperature exceeded 40°C. NO(x) removal efficiency reached 82% when inlet NO at 750 ppm, injected ozone at 900 ppm, concentration of pyrolusite at 500 g/L and temperature at 25°C.

  12. Direct determination of silicon in powdered aluminium oxide by use of slurry sampling with in situ fusion graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Minami, H; Yoshida, T; Okutsu, K; Zhang, Q; Inoue, S; Atsuya, I

    2001-08-01

    A direct method for determination of silicon in powdered high-purity aluminium oxide samples, by slurry sampling with in situ fusion graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS), has been established. A slurry sample was prepared by 10-min ultrasonication of a powdered sample in an aqueous solution containing both sodium carbonate and boric acid as a mixed flux. An appropriate portion of the slurry was introduced into a pyrolytic graphite furnace equipped with a platform. Silicon compounds to be determined and aluminium oxide were fused by the in situ fusion process with the flux in the furnace under optimized heating conditions, and the silicon absorbance was then measured directly. The calibration curve was prepared by use of a silicon standard solution containing the same concentration of the flux as the slurry sample. The accuracy of the proposed method was confirmed by analysis of certified reference materials. The proposed method gave statistically accurate values at the 95% confidence level. The detection limit was 3.3 microg g(-1) in solid samples, when 300 mg/20 mL slurry was prepared and a 10 microL portion of the slurry was measured. The precision of the determination (RSD for more than four separate determinations) was 14% and 2%, respectively, for levels of 10 and 100 microg g(-1) silicon in aluminium oxide.

  13. A study of physical and optical absorption spectra of VO2+ ions in potassium and sodium oxide borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, G.; Ramesh, B.; Kumar, J. Siva; Shareefuddin, Md.; Chary, M. N.; Sayanna, R.

    2016-05-01

    Spectroscopic and physical properties of V2O5 doped mixed alkali borate glasses are investigated. Borate glasses containing fixed concentrations of alkaline earth oxides (MgO and BaO) and alkali oxides (K2O and Na2O) were changes and are prepared by melt quenching technique. The values of ri, rp, Rm, αm molar volume and Λth increase and oxygen packing density, density and dopant ion concentration decrease with increasing of K2O content. As a result there shall be an increase in the disorder of the glass network. The optical band gap energies, Urbach energy, boron-boron separation,refractive index, dielectric constant, electronic polarizability and reflection loss values are varies nonlinearly with the K2O content which manifests the mixed alkali effect.

  14. Absorption of calcium ions on oxidized graphene sheets and study its dynamic behavior by kinetic and isothermal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathy, Mahmoud; Abdel Moghny, Th.; Mousa, Mahmoud Ahmed; El-Bellihi, Abdel-Hameed A.-A.; Awadallah, Ahmed E.

    2016-11-01

    Sorption of calcium ion from the hard underground water using novel oxidized graphene (GO) sheets was studied in this paper. Physicochemical properties and microstructure of graphene sheets were investigated using Raman spectrometer, thermogravimetry analyzer, transmission electron microscope, scanning electron microscope. The kinetics adsorption of calcium on graphene oxide sheets was examined using Lagergren first and second orders. The results show that the Lagergren second-order was the best-fit model that suggests the conception process of calcium ion adsorption on the Go sheets. For isothermal studies, the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were used at temperatures ranging between 283 and 313 K. Thermodynamic parameters resolved at 283, 298 and 313 K indicating that the GO adsorption was exothermic spontaneous process. Finally, the graphene sheets show high partiality toward calcium particles and it will be useful in softening and treatment of hard water.

  15. Open-path quantum cascade laser-based system for simultaneous remote sensing of methane, nitrous oxide, and water vapor using chirped-pulse differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Paulo; Diaz, Adrian; Thomas, Benjamin; Gross, Barry; Moshary, Fred

    2015-10-01

    Methane and Nitrous Oxide are long-lived greenhouse gases in the atmosphere with significant global warming effects. We report on application of chirped-pulsed quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) to simultaneous measurements of these trace gases in both open-path fence-line and backscatter systems. The intra-pulse thermal frequency chip in a QCL can be time resolved and calibrated to allow for high resolution differential optical absorption spectroscopy over the spectral window of the chip, which for a DFB-QCL can be reach ~2cm-1 for a 500 nsec pulse. The spectral line-shape of the output from these lasers are highly stable from pulse to pulse over long period of time (> 1 day), and the system does not require frequent calibrations.

  16. Combined use of lightweight magnetic Fe3O4-coated hollow glass spheres and electrically conductive reduced graphene oxide in an epoxy matrix for microwave absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junpeng; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Bin; Sun, Yu; Chen, Wei; Wang, Tao

    2016-03-01

    Epoxy resin based lightweight composites comprising Fe3O4-coated hollow glass spheres (HGS@Fe3O4) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) were prepared. Impedance matching condition and electromagnetic wave attenuation characteristic are used for analysis of the reflection loss (RL) performance of the composites. Compared with pure HGS@Fe3O4 and RGO composite, the -10 dB absorption bandwidth and the minimum RL of the hybrid composites are enhanced. RL values less than -10 dB are obtained in a wide frequency range and the corresponding bandwidth can reach up to 3.6 GHz when an appropriate absorber thickness is chosen. The density of the hybrid composite is in the range of 0.57-0.72 g/cm3, which is attractive candidate for a new type of lightweight microwave absorber.

  17. SCR atmosphere induced reduction of oxidized mercury over CuO-CeO2/TiO2 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Li, Hailong; Wu, Shaokang; Wu, Chang-Yu; Wang, Jun; Li, Liqing; Shih, Kaimin

    2015-06-16

    CuO-CeO2/TiO2 (CuCeTi) catalyst synthesized by a sol-gel method was employed to investigate mercury conversion under a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) atmosphere (NO, NH3 plus O2). Neither NO nor NH3 individually exhibited an inhibitive effect on elemental mercury (Hg(0)) conversion in the presence of O2. However, Hg(0) conversion over the CuCeTi catalyst was greatly inhibited under SCR atmosphere. Systematic experiments were designed to investigate the inconsistency and explore the in-depth mechanisms. The results show that the copresence of NO and NH3 induced reduction of oxidized mercury (Hg(2+), HgO in this study), which offset the effect of catalytic Hg(0) oxidation, and hence resulted in deactivation of Hg(0) conversion. High NO and NH3 concentrations with a NO/NH3 ratio of 1.0 facilitated Hg(2+) reduction and therefore lowered Hg(0) conversion. Hg(2+) reduction over the CuCeTi catalyst was proposed to follow two possible mechanisms: (1) direct reaction, in which NO and NH3 react directly with HgO to form N2 and Hg(0); (2) indirect reaction, in which the SCR reaction consumed active surface oxygen on the CuCeTi catalyst, and reduced species on the CuCeTi catalyst surface such as Cu2O and Ce2O3 robbed oxygen from adjacent HgO. Different from the conventionally considered mechanisms, that is, competitive adsorption responsible for deactivation of Hg(0) conversion, this study reveals that oxidized mercury can transform into Hg(0) under SCR atmosphere. Such knowledge is of fundamental importance in developing efficient and economical mercury control technologies for coal-fired power plants.

  18. A feasibility study on oxidation state of arsenic in cut tobacco, mainstream cigarette smoke and cigarette ash by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.; Hu, J.; McAdam, K. G.

    2009-11-01

    This work describes the application of synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure spectroscopy to study the oxidation state of arsenic in cigarette mainstream smoke, cut tobacco and cigarette ash. The level of arsenic in the total particulate matter of the smoke is approximately 1 ppm for the standard research reference cigarette 2R4F and its replacement 3R4F. Smoke particulate samples collected by a conventional glass-fiber membrane (commercially known as Cambridge filter pad) and a jet-impaction method were analyzed and compared. In addition smoke particulate samples were aged either at ambient temperature or at 195 K. X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure spectroscopy results revealed that the cut tobacco powder and cigarette ash contained almost exclusively As V. The smoke particulate samples however contained a mixture of As III and As V. The As V in the smoke particulate was reduced to As III upon aging. Stabilizing the smoke particulate matter at 195 K by solid CO 2 slowed down this aging reaction and revealed a higher percentage of As V. This behavior is consistent with the redox properties of the arsenic species and the smoke particulate matrix.

  19. Improved microwave absorption and electromagnetic properties of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}-poly(vinylidene fluoride) composites by incorporating reduced graphene oxides

    SciTech Connect

    He, Hongcai; Luo, Feifei; Qian, Neng; Wang, Ning

    2015-02-28

    Three-phase composites of poly(vinylidene fluoride)-BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}-reduced graphene oxide (PVDF–BFO-RGO) were synthesized by a facile wet chemical method and hot-pressing approach. The phase structure, topography of the hybrid materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectra. Influence of RGO on their electromagnetic properties was investigated. Especially, improved microwave absorption and electromagnetic properties of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}–PVDF composites by incorporating RGO were obtained and studied. The PVDF/BFO/RGO sample with m(RGO):m(BFO) = 5:100 shows the best microwave absorption properties with a minimum RL = −32 dB at 11 GHz and with the bandwidth less than −20 dB from 9.6 to 12.8 GHz. The composites were believed to have potential applications as the microwave absorber.

  20. Chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) decoction extract inhibits in vitro intestinal glucose absorption and attenuates high fat diet-induced lipotoxicity and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Jabri, Mohamed-Amine; Sakly, Mohsen; Marzouki, Lamjed; Sebai, Hichem

    2017-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect of chamomile decoction extract (CDE) on intestinal glucose absorption as well as its protective role against high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and lipotoxicity in rats. We used the Ussing chamber system to investigate the effect of CDE on intestinal transport of glucose. Male Wistar rats were fed HFD for six weeks to provoke obesity. CDE (100mg/kg, b.w. p.o.) has been per orally administered to HFD fed rats. Ex vivo, we found that CDE significantly and dose-dependently increased intestinal absorption of glucose. In vivo, HFD increased the body, liver and kidney weights, while CDE treatment showed a significant protective effects. High fat diet induced also a lipid profiles disorder and a disturbances in kidney and liver function parameters. Moreover liver and kidney lipotoxicity is accompanied by an oxidative stress status characterized by increased lipoperoxidation, depletion of antioxidant enzymes activity and non-enzymatic antioxidant (-SH groups and GSH) levels as well as increased levels of free iron, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and calcium. However, treatment with CDE alleviated all the deleterious effects of HFD feed. These findings suggest that chamomile decoction extract can be used as functional beverage against obesity, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia.

  1. UV Absorption Cross Sections of Nitrous Oxide (N2O) and Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Between 210 and 350 K and the Atmospheric Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlon, Nabilah Rontu; Papanastasiou, Dimitrios K.; Fleming, Eric L.; Jackman, Charles H.; Newman, Paul A.; Burkholder, James B.

    2010-01-01

    Absorption cross sections of nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) are reported at five atomic UV lines (184.95, 202.548, 206.200, 213.857, and 228.8 nm) at 27 temperatures in the range 210-350 K. In addition, UV absorption spectra of CCl4 are reported between 200-235 nm as a function of temperature (225-350 K). The results from this work are critically compared with results from earlier studies. For N2O, the present results are in good agreement with the current JPL recommendation enabling a reduction in the estimated uncertainty in the N2O atmospheric photolysis rate. For CCl4, the present cross section results are systematically greater than the current recommendation at the reduced temperatures most relevant to stratospheric photolysis. The new cross sections result in a 5-7% increase in the modeled CCl4 photolysis loss, and a slight decrease in the stratospheric lifetime, from 51 to 50 years, for present day conditions. The corresponding changes in modeled inorganic chlorine and ozone in the stratosphere are quite small. A CCl4 cross section parameterization for use in 37 atmospheric model calculations is presented.

  2. Valence- and element-dependent water oxidation behaviors: in situ X-ray diffraction, absorption and electrochemical impedance spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chia-Shuo; Suen, Nian-Tzu; Hsu, Ying-Ya; Lin, Hsuan-Yu; Tung, Ching-Wei; Liao, Yen-Fa; Chan, Ting-Shan; Sheu, Hwo-Shuenn; Chen, San-Yuan; Chen, Hao Ming

    2017-03-08

    Metal oxides of the spinel family have shown great potential towards the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), but the fundamental OER mechanism of spinel oxides is still far from being completely understood, especially for the role of the metal ions. Owing to various coordinated sites of divalent/trivalent metals ions and surface conditions (morphology and defects), it is a great challenge to have a fair assessment of the electrocatalytic performance of spinel systems. Herein, we demonstrated a series of MFe2O4 (M = Fe, Co, Ni, Zn) with a well-controlled morphology to achieve a comprehensive study of electrocatalytic activity toward OER. By utilizing several in situ analyses, we could conclude a universal rule that the activities for OER in the metal oxide systems were determined by the occurrence of a phase transformation, and this structural transformation could work well in both crystallographic sites (Td and Oh sites). Additionally, the divalent metal ion significantly dominated the formation of oxyhydroxide through an epitaxial relationship, which depended on the atomic arrangement at the interface of spinel and metal oxyhydroxide, while trivalent metal ions remained unchanged as a host lattice. The metal oxyhydroxide was formed during a redox reaction rather than being formed during OER. The occurrence of the redox reaction seems to accompany a remarkable increase in resistance and capacitance might result from the structural transformation from spinel to metal oxyhydroxide. We believe that the approaching strategies and information obtained in the present study can offer a guide to designing a promising electrocatalytic system towards the oxygen evolution reaction and other fields.

  3. Time-Resolved Quantitative Measurement of OH HO2 and CH2O in Fuel Oxidation Reactions by High Resolution IR Absorption Spectroscopy.

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Haifeng; Rotavera, Brandon; Taatjes, Craig A.

    2014-08-01

    Combined with a Herriott-type multi-pass slow flow reactor, high-resolution differential direct absorption spectroscopy has been used to probe, in situ and quantitatively, hydroxyl (OH), hydroperoxy (HO 2 ) and formaldehyde (CH 2 O) molecules in fuel oxidation reactions in the reactor, with a time resolution of about 1 micro-second. While OH and CH 2 O are probed in the mid-infrared (MIR) region near 2870nm and 3574nm respectively, HO 2 can be probed in both regions: near-infrared (NIR) at 1509nm and MIR at 2870nm. Typical sensitivities are on the order of 10 10 - 10 11 molecule cm -3 for OH at 2870nm, 10 11 molecule cm -3 for HO 2 at 1509nm, and 10 11 molecule cm -3 for CH 2 O at 3574nm. Measurements of multiple important intermediates (OH and HO 2 ) and product (CH 2 O) facilitate to understand and further validate chemical mechanisms of fuel oxidation chemistry.

  4. Laser-Induced Hydrothermal Growth of Heterogeneous Metal-Oxide Nanowire on Flexible Substrate by Laser Absorption Layer Design.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Junyeob; Hong, Sukjoon; Kim, Gunho; Lee, Habeom; Suh, Young Duk; Park, Inkyu; Grigoropoulos, Costas P; Ko, Seung Hwan

    2015-06-23

    Recent development of laser-induced hydrothermal growth enabled direct digital growth of ZnO nanowire array at an arbitrary position even on 3D structures by creating a localized temperature field through a photothermal reaction in liquid environment. However, its spatial size was generally limited by the size of the focused laser spot and the thermal diffusion, and the target material has been limited to ZnO. In this paper, we demonstrated a next generation laser-induced hydrothermal growth method to grow nanowire on a selected area that is even smaller than the laser focus size by designing laser absorption layer. The control of laser-induced temperature field was achieved through adjusting the physical properties of the substrate (dimension and thermal conductivity), and it enabled a successful synthesis of smaller nanowire array without changing any complex optics. Through precise localized temperature control with laser, this approach could be extended to various nanowires including ZnO and TiO2 nanowires even on heat sensitive polymer substrate.

  5. Equilibrator-based measurements of dissolved nitrous oxide in the surface ocean using an integrated cavity output laser absorption spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grefe, I.; Kaiser, J.

    2013-07-01

    A laser-based analyser for nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide and water vapour was coupled to an equilibrator for continuous high-resolution dissolved gas measurements in the surface ocean. Results for nitrous oxide measurements from laboratory tests and field deployments are presented here. Short-term precision for 10 s-average N2O mole fractions at an acquisition rate of 1 Hz was better than 0.2 nmol mol-1 for standard gases and equilibrator measurements. The same precision was achieved for replicate standard gas analyses within 1 h of each other. The accuracy of the equilibrator measurements was verified by comparison with purge-and-trap GC-MS measurements of N2O concentrations in discrete samples from the Southern Ocean and showed agreement to within the 2% measurement uncertainty of the GC-MS method. Measured atmospheric N2O mole fractions agreed with AGAGE values to within 0.4%. The equilibrator response time to concentration changes in water was 142 to 203 s, depending on the headspace flow rate. The system was tested at sea during a north-to-south transect of the Atlantic Ocean. While the subtropical gyres were slightly undersaturated, the equatorial region was a source of nitrous oxide to the atmosphere. The ability to measure at high temporal and spatial resolution revealed sub-mesoscale variability in dissolved N2O concentrations. The magnitude of the observed saturation is in agreement with published data. Mean sea-to-air fluxes in the tropical and subtropical Atlantic ranged between -1.6 and 0.11 μmol m-2d-1 and confirm that the subtropical Atlantic is not an important source region for N2O to the atmosphere, compared to average global fluxes of 0.6 to 2.4 μmol m-2d-1. The system can be easily modified for autonomous operation on voluntary observing ships (VOS). Further work should include an interlaboratory comparison exercise with other methods of dissolved N2O analyses.

  6. In-operando synchronous time-multiplexed O K-edge x-ray absorption spectromicroscopy of functioning tantalum oxide memristors

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Suhas; Graves, Catherine E.; Strachan, John Paul Williams, R. Stanley; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Nishi, Yoshio

    2015-07-21

    Memristors are receiving keen interest because of their potential varied applications and promising large-scale information storage capabilities. Tantalum oxide is a memristive material that has shown promise for high-performance nonvolatile computer memory. The microphysics has been elusive because of the small scale and subtle physical changes that accompany conductance switching. In this study, we probed the atomic composition, local chemistry, and electronic structure of functioning tantalum oxide memristors through spatially mapped O K-edge x-ray absorption. We developed a time-multiplexed spectromicroscopy technique to enhance the weak and possibly localized oxide modifications with spatial and spectral resolutions of <30 nm and 70 meV, respectively. During the initial stages of conductance switching of a micrometer sized crosspoint device, the spectral changes were uniform within the spatial resolution of our technique. When the device was further driven with millions of high voltage-pulse cycles, we observed lateral motion and separation of ∼100 nm-scale agglomerates of both oxygen interstitials and vacancies. We also demonstrate a unique capability of this technique by identifying the relaxation behavior in the material during electrical stimuli by identifying electric field driven changes with varying pulse widths. In addition, we show that changes to the material can be localized to a spatial region by modifying its topography or uniformity, as against spatially uniform changes observed here during memristive switching. The goal of this report is to introduce the capability of time-multiplexed x-ray spectromicroscopy in studying weak-signal transitions in inhomogeneous media through the example of the operation and temporal evolution of a memristor.

  7. Photochemical Oxidation of Dissolved Elemental Mercury by Carbonate Radicals in Water

    SciTech Connect

    He, Feng; Zhao, Weirong; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua

    2014-11-11

    Photochemical oxidation of dissolved elemental mercury [Hg(0)] affects mercury chemical speciation and its transfer at the water-air interface in the aquatic environment. The mechanisms and factors that control Hg(0) photooxidation, however, are not completely understood, especially in natural freshwaters containing dissolved organic matter (DOM) and carbonate. Here, we evaluate Hg(0) photooxidation rates affected by various reactive ionic species [e.g., DOM, CO32-, NO3-] and free radicals in a creek water and a phosphate buffer solution (pH=8) under simulated solar irradiation. We report a high Hg(0) photooxidation rate (k = 1.44 h-1) in the presence of both HCO32- and NO3-, whereas HCO32-, NO3-, or DOM alone increased the oxidation rate slightly (k = 0.1 0.17 h-1). Using scavengers and enhancers for singlet oxygen (1O2) and hydroxyl (HO ) radicals, as well as electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we identify that carbonate radicals (CO3 ∙-) primarily drive the Hg(0) photooxidation, whereas addition of DOM resulted in a 2-fold decrease in Hg(0) oxidation. This study identifies an unrecognized pathway of Hg(0) photooxidation by CO3 ∙- radicals and the inhibitory effect of DOM, which could be important in assessing Hg transformation and fate in water containing carbonate such as hard water and seawater.

  8. Oxidation of elemental mercury vapor over gamma-Al2O3 supported CuCl2 catalyst for mercury emissions control

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zhouyang; Liu, Xin; Lee, Joo-Youp; Bolin, Trudy B.

    2015-09-01

    In our previous studies, CuCl2 demonstrated excellent Hg(0) oxidation capability and holds potential for Hg(0) oxidation in coal-fired power plants. In this study, the properties and performances of CuCl2 supported onto gamma-Al2O3 with high surface area were investigated. From various characterization techniques using XPS, XAFS, XRD, TPR, SEM and TGA, the existence of multiple copper species was identified. At low CuCl2 loadings, CuCl2 forms copper aluminate species with gamma-Al2O3 and is inactive for Hg(0) oxidation. At high loadings, amorphous CuCl2 forms onto the gamma-Al2O3 surface, working as a redox catalyst for Hg(0) oxidation by consuming Cl to be converted into CuCl and then being regenerated back into CuCl2 in the presence of O-2 and HCl gases. The 10%(wt) CuCl2/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst showed excellent Hg(0) oxidation performance and SO2 resistance at 140 degrees C under simulated flue gas conditions containing 6%(v) O-2 and 10 ppmv HCl. The oxidized Hg(0) in the form of HgCl2 has a high solubility in water and can be easily captured by other air pollution control systems such as wet scrubbers in coal-fired power plants. The CuCl2/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst can be used as a low temperature Hg(0) oxidation catalyst. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Performance evaluation of non-thermal plasma injection for elemental mercury oxidation in a simulated flue gas.

    PubMed

    An, Jiutao; Shang, Kefeng; Lu, Na; Jiang, Yuze; Wang, Tiecheng; Li, Jie; Wu, Yan

    2014-03-15

    The use of non-thermal plasma (NTP) injection approach to oxidize elemental mercury (Hg(0)) in simulated flue gas at 110°C was studied, where a surface discharge plasma reactor (SDPR) inserted in the simulated flue duct was used to generate and inject active species into the flue gas. Approximately 81% of the Hg(0) was oxidized and 20.5μgkJ(-1) of energy yield was obtained at a rate of 3.9JL(-1). A maximal Hg(0) oxidation efficiency was found with a change in the NTP injection air flow rate. A high Hg(0) oxidation efficiency was observed in the mixed flue gas that included O2, H2O, SO2, NO and HCl. Chemical and physical processes (e.g., ozone, N2 metastable states and UV-light) were found to contribute to Hg(0) oxidation, with ozone playing a dominant role. The deposited mercury species on the internal surface of the flue duct was analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electronic probe microanalysis (EPMA), and the deposit was identified as HgO. The mercury species is thought to primarily exist in the form of HgO(s) by adhering to the suspended aerosols in the gas-phase.

  10. Human systemic exposure to [¹⁴C]-paraphenylenediamine-containing oxidative hair dyes: Absorption, kinetics, metabolism, excretion and safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Nohynek, Gerhard J; Skare, Julie A; Meuling, Wim J A; Wehmeyer, Kenneth R; de Bie, Albertus Th H J; Vaes, Wouter H J; Dufour, Eric K; Fautz, Rolf; Steiling, Winfried; Bramante, Mario; Toutain, Herve

    2015-07-01

    Systemic exposure was measured in humans after hair dyeing with oxidative hair dyes containing 2.0% (A) or 1.0% (B) [(14)C]-p-phenylenediamine (PPD). Hair was dyed, rinsed, dried, clipped and shaved; blood and urine samples were collected for 48 hours after application. [(14)C] was measured in all materials, rinsing water, hair, plasma, urine and skin strips. Plasma and urine were also analysed by HLPC/MS/MS for PPD and its metabolites (B). Total mean recovery of radioactivity was 94.30% (A) or 96.21% (B). Mean plasma Cmax values were 132.6 or 97.4 ng [(14)C]-PPDeq/mL, mean AUC(0-∞) values 1415 or 966 ng [(14)C]-PPDeq/mL*hr in studies A or B, respectively. Urinary excretion of [(14)C] mainly occurred within 24 hrs after hair colouring with a total excretion of 0.72 or 0.88% of applied radioactivity in studies A or B, respectively. Only N,N'-diacetylated-PPD was detected in plasma and the urine. A TK-based human safety assessment estimated margins of safety of 23.3- or 65-fold relative to respective plasma AUC or Cmax values in rats at the NOAEL of a toxicity study. Overall, hair dyes containing PPD are unlikely to pose a health risk since they are used intermittently and systemic exposure is limited to the detoxified metabolite N,N'-diacetyl-PPD.

  11. Hard X-ray photoelectron and X-ray absorption spectroscopy characterization of oxidized surfaces of iron sulfides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhlin, Yuri; Tomashevich, Yevgeny; Vorobyev, Sergey; Saikova, Svetlana; Romanchenko, Alexander; Félix, Roberto

    2016-11-01

    Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) using an excitation energy range of 2 keV to 6 keV in combination with Fe K- and S K-edge XANES, measured simultaneously in total electron (TEY) and partial fluorescence yield (PFY) modes, have been applied to study near-surface regions of natural polycrystalline pyrite FeS2 and pyrrhotite Fe1-xS before and after etching treatments in an acidic ferric chloride solution. It was found that the following near-surface regions are formed owing to the preferential release of iron from oxidized metal sulfide lattices: (i) a thin, no more than 1-4 nm in depth, outer layer containing polysulfide species, (ii) a layer exhibiting less pronounced stoichiometry deviations and low, if any, concentrations of polysulfide, the composition and dimensions of which vary for pyrite and pyrrhotite and depend on the chemical treatment, and (iii) an extended almost stoichiometric underlayer yielding modified TEY XANES spectra, probably, due to a higher content of defects. We suggest that the extended layered structure should heavily affect the near-surface electronic properties, and processes involving the surface and interfacial charge transfer.

  12. Seasonal and Diurnal Variations of Hg(0) Over New England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, H.; Talbot, R.; Sigler, J.; Sive, B.; Hegarty, J.

    2007-12-01

    Diurnal to interannual variability of Hg° over New England was investigated using multiple years of Hg° measurements at two inland sites, Thompson Farm (TF, 43.11° N, 70.95° W, 24 m, 25 km inland) and Pac Monadnock (PM, 42.86° N, 71.88° W, 700 m, 180 km inland), and one summer of measurements from a marine site, Appledore Island (AI, 42.97° N, 70.62° W, sea level), from the University of New Hampshire AIRMAP observing network. Possible sources were identified via a thorough examination of relationships between Hg° and a number of trace gases, e.g., CO, CO2, CH4, NOy, NO, SO2, and VOCs. The measurements of Hg at TF showed distinct seasonality with an annual maxima in late winter - early spring and a minima in early fall, with large day-to-day variation. A decreasing trend in the mixing ratio of Hg over the time period of March - September occurred at a rate of 0.5 - 0.6 ppqv d-1 for all years except 2004 (0.3 ppqv d-1). Measurements of Hg° at the elevated site PM exhibited much smaller daily and annual variation, particularly reflected in the slower warm season decline (relative to TF) of 0.2 and 0.3 ppqv d-1 in 2005 and 2006 respectively. The AI data appeared to track the variation observed at TF albeit with much higher minima. Hg° was correlated most strongly with CO and NOy in winter suggesting that anthropogenic emissions were the primary source of Hg° . Applying the Hg° - CO relationship, we found that the seasonally averaged Hg° mixing ratio of ~160 ppqv at PM can be considered the regional background level. The positive Hg° -NOy correlation along the lower boundary of all data points indicated dry deposition as a stronger sink for Hg° than suggested by previous studies. We estimated a dry deposition velocity for Hg° of 0.17 - 0.20 cm s-1, and a lifetime of ~11 days in the local PBL at TF. Correlation between Hg° and CHBr3 at both TF and AI suggested a role of the oceanic source influencing the ambient levels of Hg° in the marine and coastal environments. It was also hypothesized that the overall significantly lower Hg° levels and steeper decreasing trend during the warm season at TF compared to those at PM may reflect the impact of marine halogen chemistry. The stronger decline in warm season Hg° during 2005 compared to 2004 may indicate that changes in precipitation played a role in mitigating evasion from the surface. Colder winter climate was found to be accompanied by higher levels of all anthropogenic tracers except Hg° , possibly a result of the predominant meridional flow that entrained fresh emissions during transport of the polluted Arctic air mass as it circulated over the eastern U.S. In contrast, little variation in Hg° indicates a homogeneous distribution of surface Hg° mixing ratios in winter and/or quick removal of mercury released from anthropogenic sources. During warmer winters the Hg° -CO slope value possibly reflects the ratio of Hg° loss relative to changes in CO more than their emission ratios.

  13. Laboratory simulation of Hg0 emissions from a snowpack.

    PubMed

    Dommergue, Aurélien; Bahlmann, Enno; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Ferrari, Christophe; Boutron, Claude

    2007-05-01

    Snow surfaces play an important role in the biogeochemical cycle of mercury in high-latitude regions. Snowpacks act both as sources and sinks for gaseous compounds. Surprisingly, the roles of each environmental parameter that can govern the air-surface exchange over snow are not well understood owing to the lack of systematic studies. A laboratory system called the laboratory flux measurement system was used to study the emission of gaseous elemental mercury from a natural snowpack under controlled conditions. The first results from three snowpacks originating from alpine, urban and polar areas are presented. Consistent with observations in the field, we were able to reproduce gaseous mercury emissions and showed that they are mainly driven by solar radiation and especially UV-B radiation. From these laboratory experiments, we derived kinetic constants which show that divalent mercury can have a short natural lifetime of about 4-6 h in snow.

  14. NOVEL OXIDANT FOR ELEMENTAL MERCURY CONTROL FROM FLUE GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of this study is to develop and test advanced noncarbonaceous solid sorbent materials suitable for removing the elemental form of mercury from power plant emissions. An efficient and cost-effective novel Hg(0) oxidant was evaluated in a lab-scale fixed-bed ...

  15. A full-dimensional multilayer multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree study on the ultraviolet absorption spectrum of formaldehyde oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qingyong; Meyer, Hans-Dieter

    2014-09-01

    Employing the multilayer multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree (ML-MCTDH) method in conjunction with the multistate multimode vibronic coupling Hamiltonian (MMVCH) model, we perform a full dimensional (9D) quantum dynamical study on the simplest Criegee intermediate, formaldehyde oxide, in five lower-lying singlet electronic states. The ultraviolet (UV) spectrum is then simulated by a Fourier transform of the auto-correlation function. The MMVCH model is built based on extensive MRCI(8e,8o)/aug-cc-pVTZ calculations. To ensure a fast convergence of the final calculations, a large number of ML-MCTDH test calculations is performed to find an appropriate multilayer separations (ML-trees) of the ML-MCTDH nuclear wave functions, and the dynamical calculations are carefully checked to ensure that the calculations are well converged. To compare the computational efficiency, standard MCTDH simulations using the same Hamiltonian are also performed. A comparison of the MCTDH and ML-MCTDH calculations shows that even for the present not-too-large system (9D here) the ML-MCTDH calculations can save a considerable amount of computational resources while producing identical spectra as the MCTDH calculations. Furthermore, the present theoretical tilde{B}{}^1A^' }leftarrow tilde{X}{}^1A^' } UV spectral band and the corresponding experimental measurements [J. M. Beames, F. Liu, L. Lu, and M. I. Lester, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 20045-20048 (2012); L. Sheps, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 4201-4205 (2013); W.-L. Ting, Y.-H. Chen, W. Chao, M. C. Smith, and J. J.-M. Lin, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16, 10438-10443 (2014)] are discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first theoretical UV spectrum simulated for this molecule including nuclear motion beyond an adiabatic harmonic approximation.

  16. A full-dimensional multilayer multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree study on the ultraviolet absorption spectrum of formaldehyde oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Qingyong; Meyer, Hans-Dieter

    2014-09-28

    Employing the multilayer multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree (ML-MCTDH) method in conjunction with the multistate multimode vibronic coupling Hamiltonian (MMVCH) model, we perform a full dimensional (9D) quantum dynamical study on the simplest Criegee intermediate, formaldehyde oxide, in five lower-lying singlet electronic states. The ultraviolet (UV) spectrum is then simulated by a Fourier transform of the auto-correlation function. The MMVCH model is built based on extensive MRCI(8e,8o)/aug-cc-pVTZ calculations. To ensure a fast convergence of the final calculations, a large number of ML-MCTDH test calculations is performed to find an appropriate multilayer separations (ML-trees) of the ML-MCTDH nuclear wave functions, and the dynamical calculations are carefully checked to ensure that the calculations are well converged. To compare the computational efficiency, standard MCTDH simulations using the same Hamiltonian are also performed. A comparison of the MCTDH and ML-MCTDH calculations shows that even for the present not-too-large system (9D here) the ML-MCTDH calculations can save a considerable amount of computational resources while producing identical spectra as the MCTDH calculations. Furthermore, the present theoretical B{sup ~} {sup 1}A{sup ′}←X{sup ~} {sup 1}A{sup ′} UV spectral band and the corresponding experimental measurements [J. M. Beames, F. Liu, L. Lu, and M. I. Lester, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 20045–20048 (2012); L. Sheps, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 4201–4205 (2013); W.-L. Ting, Y.-H. Chen, W. Chao, M. C. Smith, and J. J.-M. Lin, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16, 10438–10443 (2014)] are discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first theoretical UV spectrum simulated for this molecule including nuclear motion beyond an adiabatic harmonic approximation.

  17. Oxidation of elemental mercury by aqueous chlorine (HOCl/OCl-): Implications for tropospheric mercury chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Che-Jen; Pehkonen, Simo O.

    1998-11-01

    The stoichiometry and kinetics of elemental mercury (Hg0) oxidation by aqueous chlorine (HOCl/OCl-) have been investigated. The stoichiometric ratio of Hg0 to HOCl/OCl- is found to be 1:1, the same as the electron transfer ratio. The rate constants of the oxidation are measured in a novel fashion by using chloramine (NH2Cl) as the free chlorine reservoir. The rate constants at room temperature (23°˜ 25°C) for the Hg0-HOCl and Hg0-OCl- are measured to be (2.09±0.06)×106 and (1.99±0.05)×106 M-1 s-1, respectively. Based on the solubility data of chlorine, the intrinsic Henry's law constant of chlorine is calculated to be 7.61×10-2 M atm-1 at 25°C. Model study using the kinetic data in this investigation shows that the oxidation of Hg0 by aqueous chlorine is an important pathway contributing dissolved divalent mercury (Hg(II)) in atmospheric water, especially at higher cloud water pH when solubility of chlorine is greatly increased and before sunrise when chlorine reaches its peak concentrations in the marine troposphere.

  18. Role of Bi promotion and solvent in platinum-catalyzed alcohol oxidation probed by in situ X-ray absorption and ATR-IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mondelli, Cecilia; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Ferri, Davide; Baiker, Alfons

    2010-01-01

    Modification of 5 wt% Pt/Al(2)O(3) by Bi (0.9 wt%) affords a drastic improvement of catalytic activity in the liquid phase aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol. The nature of the solvent employed, cyclohexane or toluene, seems to influence the catalytic activity as well. We have investigated the catalysts under working conditions using in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR), aiming at uncovering the roles of the metal promoter and the reaction medium. XAS confirms that Bi is oxidized more easily than Pt, maintaining the catalytic activity of the metallic Pt sites for a longer period of time. Interestingly, toluene contrary to cyclohexane reduced Pt to a large extent. The freshly reduced noble metal sites seem to directly interact with the solvent, inducing an immediate poisoning of the material and limiting its performance. This behaviour is not observed in the presence of Bi, whose geometric effect (site blocking) is interpreted as additionally limiting the adsorption of toluene and the premature deactivation of Pt. ATR-IR spectroscopy during CO adsorption on Pt and during reaction indicates that Bi is located rather on extended surfaces than on step or kink sites. Side products, CO and benzoate species, appearing during the reaction reveal that the geometric suppression of undesired reactions does not occur to the same extent on Pt-based catalysts as on Pd, suggesting that decarbonylation of the produced aldehyde on Pt may occur also on sites other than the (111) terraces.

  19. Microwave absorption properties of lightweight absorber based on Fe50Ni50-coated poly(acrylonitrile) microspheres and reduced graphene oxide composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin; Wang, Jun; Wang, Junpeng; Huo, Siqi; Zhang, Bin; Tang, Yushan

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we proposed a facile method to obtain the lightweight composites consisting of surface modified Fe50Ni50-coated poly(acrylonitrile) microspheres (PANS@SMF), reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and epoxy resin. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and vector network analyzer (VNA). Impedance matching condition and electromagnetic wave attenuation characteristic were used for the reflection loss (RL) performance of the composites. Compared with pure PANS@SMF and RGO composites, the -10 dB absorption bandwidth and the minimum RL of the hybrid composites were enhanced. The bandwidth less than -10 dB was almost 4.5 GHz in the range of 10 GHz to 14.5 GHz, with a matching thickness of 2.5 mm. The density of the hybrid composites was in the range of 0.25-0.34 g/cm3. Therefore, the hybrid composite can be considered as a potential lightweight microwave absorber.

  20. Skeletal Ru/Cu catalysts prepared from crystalline and quasicrystalline ternary alloy precursors: characterization by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and CO oxidation.

    PubMed

    Highfield, James; Liu, Tao; Loo, Yook Si; Grushko, Benjamin; Borgna, Armando

    2009-02-28

    The Ru/Cu system is of historical significance in catalysis. The early development and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) led to the original 'bimetallic cluster" concept for highly-immiscible systems. This work explores alkali leaching of Al-based ternary crystalline and quasicrystalline precursors as a potential route to bulk Ru/Cu alloys. Single-phase ternary alloys at 3 trial compositions; Al(71)Ru(22)Cu(7), Al(70.5)Ru(17)Cu(12.5), and Al(70)Ru(10)Cu(20), were prepared by arc melting of the pure metal components. After leaching, the bimetallic residues were characterized principally by transmission XAS, "as-leached" and after annealing in H(2) (and passivation) in a thermobalance. XRD and BET revealed a nanocrystalline product with a native structure of hexagonal Ru. XPS surface analysis of Ru(22)Cu(7) and Ru(17)Cu(12.5) found only slight enrichment by Cu in the as-leached forms, with little change upon annealing. Ru(10)Cu(20) was highly segregated as-leached. XANES data showed preferential oxidation of Cu in Ru(22)Cu(7), implying that it exists as an encapsulating layer. TG data supports this view since it does not show the distinct two-stage O(2) uptake characteristic of skeletal Ru. Cu K-edge EXAFS data for Ru(22)Cu(7) were unique in showing a high proportion of Ru neighbours. The spacing, d(CuRu) = 2.65 A, was that expected from a hypothetical (ideal) solid solution at this composition, but this is unlikely in such a bulk-immiscible system and Ru K-edge EXAFS failed to confirm bulk alloying. Furthermore its invariance under annealing was more indicative of an interfacial bond between bulk components, although partial alloying with retention of local order cannot entirely be ruled out. The XAS and XPS data were reconciled in a model involving surface and bulk segregation, Cu being present at both the grain exterior and in ultra-fine internal pores. This structure can be considered as the 3-dimensional analogue of the classical type

  1. Vanadium K-edge X-ray-absorption spectroscopy of the functioning and thionine-oxidized forms of the VFe-protein of the vanadium nitrogenase from Azotobacter chroococcum.

    PubMed Central

    Arber, J M; Dobson, B R; Eady, R R; Hasnain, S S; Garner, C D; Matsushita, T; Nomura, M; Smith, B E

    1989-01-01

    Vanadium K-edge X-ray-absorption spectra were collected for samples of thionine-oxidized, super-reduced (during enzyme turnover) and dithionite-reduced VFe-protein of the vanadium nitrogenase of Azotobacter chroococcum (Acl*). Both the e.x.a.f.s and the x.a.n.e.s. (X-ray-absorption near-edge structure) are consistent with the vanadium being present as part of a VFeS cluster; the environment of the vanadium is not changed significantly in different oxidation states of the protein. The vanadium atom is bound to three oxygen (or nitrogen), three sulphur and three iron atoms at 0.215(3), 0.231(3) and 0.275(3) nm respectively. PMID:2730564

  2. The CO oxidation kinetics on supported Pd model catalysts: A molecular beam/in situ time-resolved infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libuda, J.; Meusel, I.; Hoffmann, J.; Hartmann, J.; Piccolo, L.; Henry, C. R.; Freund, H.-J.

    2001-03-01

    Combining molecular beam techniques and time-resolved infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (TR-IRAS) we have studied the kinetics of the CO oxidation reaction on an alumina-supported Pd model catalyst. The Pd particles are deposited by metal evaporation under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions onto a well-ordered alumina film, prepared on a NiAl(110) single crystal. Particle size, density and structure of the Pd deposits have been characterized in previous studies. In the low temperature region, transient and steady-state experiments have been performed over a wide range of CO and oxygen fluxes by crossing two effusive molecular beams on the sample surface. We determine the steady-state CO2 production rate as a function of the CO fraction in the impinging gas flux. Simultaneously, the occupation of CO adsorption sites under steady-state conditions is monitored by in situ IR spectroscopy. The origin of different types of CO2 transients is discussed. In particular we focus on the transient CO2 production after switching off the CO beam. For the model catalyst investigated, detailed reaction rate measurements in combination with time-resolved IRAS show that the origin of the particular transient behavior of the supported model system is not due to the presence of specific adsorption sites on small particles, as has been proposed previously. Instead, we show that the transient behavior can be semiquantitatively simulated on the basis of a simple kinetic model considering a homogeneous surface, and accounting for the inhibition of the dissociative adsorption of O2 at high CO coverage. Moreover, it is discussed how the inherent heterogeneity of the supported particle system can additionally enhance the observed effect.

  3. Graphene oxide-TiO2 composite solid phase extraction combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the speciation of inorganic selenium in water samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanan; Chen, Beibei; Wu, Shaowei; He, Man; Hu, Bin

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a method of graphene oxide (GO)-TiO2 composite solid phase extraction followed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) detection was proposed for the speciation of inorganic selenium in environmental waters. The adsorption behavior of inorganic Se(IV) and Se(VI) on the GO-TiO2(1:1) composite was investigated. It was found that Se(IV) was quantitatively retained on the GO-TiO2 composites within a wide pH range of 0.5-10, while Se(VI) was quantitatively adsorbed on GO-TiO2(1:1) composite at pH 0.5-2, and no obvious adsorption of Se(VI) within the pH range of 4-10 was found. By selecting pH 6.0, Se(IV) could be easily determined. After reduction of Se(VI), total Se was determined by the proposed method, and Se(VI) was calculated as the difference between the total Se and Se(IV). The factors affecting the separation/preconcentration of Se(IV) and Se(VI) were studied. Under the optimum conditions, the isothermal adsorption of Se(IV) on the GO-TiO2(1:1) composite fitted Langmuir model; a linear range over 0.1-12ngmL(-1) was obtained. The limit of detection (LOD) and precision of the method for Se(IV) was 0.04ngmL(-1) and 9.4% (cSe(IV)=0.5ngmL(-1), n=7), respectively. In order to verify the accuracy of the method, a standard water sample (GSBZ50031-94) was analyzed, and the determined value was in a good agreement to the certified value. The established method was applied to inorganic Se speciation in environmental water samples and the recovery of 87.4-102% was obtained for the spiked samples.

  4. Continuous measurements of nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, methane and carbon dioxide in the surface ocean with novel laser-absorption analysers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Jan; Grefe, Imke; Wager, Natalie; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Lee, Gareth A.

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, improvements in spectroscopic technology have revolutionised atmospheric trace gas research. In particular, cavity-based optical absorption analysers allow determination of gas concentrations with high frequency, repeatability, reproducibility and long-term stability. These qualities make them particularly suitable for autonomous measurements on voluntary observing ships (VOS). Here, we present results from three of the first deployments of such analysers on research ships, as a first step towards VOS installations. Los Gatos off-axis ICOS (Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy) analysers were used to measure nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratios in ocean surface water during research cruises in 2010, 2011 and 2012. The analysers were coupled to an equilibrator fed by the scientific seawater supply in the ship's laboratories. The equilibrator measurements were alternated with regular measurements of marine air and calibrated standard gases. Short-term precision for 10 s-average N2O mole fractions at an acquisition rate of 1 Hz was better than 0.2 nmol mol-1. The same value was achieved for duplicate measurements of a standard gas analysed within 1 hour of each other. The response time to concentration changes in water was 142-203 s, depending on the headspace flow rate. During the first deployment on the AMT20 cruise (Atlantic Meridional Transect, Southampton to Punta Arenas, 12 October to 25 November 2010), we unexpectedly found the subtropical gyres to be slightly undersaturated in N2O, implying that this region acted as a sink for this greenhouse gas. In contrast, the equatorial region was supersaturated and a source of nitrous oxide to the atmosphere. Mean sea-to-air fluxes were overall small and ranged between -1.6 and 0.11 μmol m-2 d-1 (negative fluxes imply an net uptake by the ocean). Despite the good short-term repeatability, significant calibration drift occurred between the six

  5. Elemental mercury oxidation and adsorption on magnesite powder modified by Mn at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yalin; Zhong, Qin; Liu, Xinya

    2015-01-01

    Mn modified the commercial magnesite powder prepared by wet impregnation method has been shown to be effective for gas-phase elemental mercury (Hg(0)) removal at low temperatures. The prepared samples are characterized in detail across multiform techniques: XRF, BET, SEM-EDX, XRD, H2-TPR, and XPS, and all the results show that the amorphous MnO2 impregnated on magnesite powder improves the removal efficiency of Hg(0). Through further analysis by TG and in situ FTIR, the reasonable removal mechanism is also speculated. The results indicate that chemisorbed oxygen is an important reactant in the heterogeneous reaction, and gas-phase Hg(0) is adsorbed and then oxidized to solid MnHgO3 on the surface of the adsorbent.

  6. PERITONEAL ABSORPTION

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, P. F.; Miller, L. L.; Robscheit-Robbins, F. S.; Bale, W. F.; Whipple, G. H.

    1944-01-01

    The absorption of red cells from the normal peritoneum of the dog can be demonstrated by means of red cells labeled with radio-iron incorporated in the hemoglobin of these red cells. Absorption in normal dogs runs from 20 to 100 per cent of the amount given within 24 hours. Dogs rendered anemic by bleeding absorb red cells a little less rapidly—ranging from 5 to 80 per cent of the injected red cells. Doubly depleted dogs (anemic and hypoproteinemic) absorb even less in the three experiments recorded. This peritoneal absorption varies widely in different dogs and even in the same dog at different times. We do not know the factors responsible for these variations but there is no question about active peritoneal absorption. The intact red cells pass readily from the peritoneal cavity into lymph spaces in diaphragm and other areas of the peritoneum. The red cells move along the lymphatics and through the lymph glands with little or no phagocytosis and eventually into the large veins through the thoracic ducts. PMID:19871404

  7. Nutrient absorption.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Deborah C

    2004-03-01

    Our understanding of nutrient absorption continues to grow, from the development of unique animal models and from studies in which cutting-edge molecular and cellular biologic approaches have been used to analyze the structure and function of relevant molecules. Studies of the molecular genetics of inherited disorders have also provided many new insights into these processes. A major advance in lipid absorption has been the cloning and characterization of several intestinal acyl CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferases; these may provide new targets for antiobesity drug therapy. Studies of intestinal cholesterol absorption and reverse cholesterol transport have encouraged the development of novel potential treatments for hyperlipidemia. Observations in genetically modified mice and in humans with mutations in glucose transporter 2 suggest the importance of a separate microsomal membrane transport pathway for glucose transport. The study of iron metabolism has advanced greatly with the identification of the hemochromatosis gene and the continued examination of the genetic regulation of iron absorptive pathways. Several human thiamine transporters have been identified, and their specific roles in different tissues are being explored.

  8. Enhanced microwave absorption performance of lightweight absorber based on reduced graphene oxide and Ag-coated hollow glass spheres/epoxy composite

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Junpeng; Sun, Yu; Chen, Wei; Wang, Tao; Xu, Renxin; Wang, Jun

    2015-04-21

    Using a combination of Ag-coated hollow glass spheres (HGS@Ag) and a small quantity of graphene sheets within the epoxy matrix, we have prepared a novel lightweight high efficiency microwave absorption composite. Compared with pure HGS@Ag and graphene composite, the −10 dB absorption bandwidth and the minimum reflection loss of the novel composite are improved. Reflection loss exceeding −20 dB is obtained for composites in a wide frequency range and the minimum reflection loss reaches −46 dB while bandwidth less than −10 dB can reach up to 4.1 GHz when an appropriate absorber thickness between 2 and 3.5 mm is chosen. The enhanced microwave absorption performance of the novel composite is due to the enhanced dielectric response, enhanced conductivity, and the trap of electromagnetic radiation with increased propagation paths by multiple reflections.

  9. High-Efficiency Nanowire Solar Cells with Omnidirectionally Enhanced Absorption Due to Self-Aligned Indium-Tin-Oxide Mie Scatterers.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Dick; van Hoof, Niels J J; Cui, Yingchao; van Veldhoven, Peter J; Bakkers, Erik P A M; Gómez Rivas, Jaime; Haverkort, Jos E M

    2016-12-27

    Photovoltaic cells based on arrays of semiconductor nanowires promise efficiencies comparable or even better than their planar counterparts with much less material. One reason for the high efficiencies is their large absorption cross section, but until recently the photocurrent has been limited to less than 70% of the theoretical maximum. Here we enhance the absorption in indium phosphide (InP) nanowire solar cells by employing broadband forward scattering of self-aligned nanoparticles on top of the transparent top contact layer. This results in a nanowire solar cell with a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 17.8% and a short-circuit current of 29.3 mA/cm(2) under 1 sun illumination, which is the highest reported so far for nanowire solar cells and among the highest reported for III-V solar cells. We also measure the angle-dependent photocurrent, using time-reversed Fourier microscopy, and demonstrate a broadband and omnidirectional absorption enhancement for unpolarized light up to 60° with a wavelength average of 12% due to Mie scattering. These results unambiguously demonstrate the potential of semiconductor nanowires as nanostructures for the next generation of photovoltaic devices.

  10. ABSORPTION ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Brooksbank, W.A. Jr.; Leddicotte, G.W.; Strain, J.E.; Hendon, H.H. Jr.

    1961-11-14

    A means was developed for continuously computing and indicating the isotopic assay of a process solution and for automatically controlling the process output of isotope separation equipment to provide a continuous output of the desired isotopic ratio. A counter tube is surrounded with a sample to be analyzed so that the tube is exactly in the center of the sample. A source of fast neutrons is provided and is spaced from the sample. The neutrons from the source are thermalized by causing them to pass through a neutron moderator, and the neutrons are allowed to diffuse radially through the sample to actuate the counter. A reference counter in a known sample of pure solvent is also actuated by the thermal neutrons from the neutron source. The number of neutrons which actuate the detectors is a function of a concentration of the elements in solution and their neutron absorption cross sections. The pulses produced by the detectors responsive to each neu tron passing therethrough are amplified and counted. The respective times required to accumulate a selected number of counts are measured by associated timing devices. The concentration of a particular element in solution may be determined by utilizing the following relation: T2/Ti = BCR, where B is a constant proportional to the absorption cross sections, T2 is the time of count collection for the unknown solution, Ti is the time of count collection for the pure solvent, R is the isotopic ratlo, and C is the molar concentration of the element to be determined. Knowing the slope constant B for any element and when the chemical concentration is known, the isotopic concentration may be readily determined, and conversely when the isotopic ratio is known, the chemical concentrations may be determined. (AEC)

  11. Room temperature redox reaction by oxide ion migration at carbon/Gd-doped CeO2 heterointerface probed by an in situ hard x-ray photoemission and soft x-ray absorption spectroscopies

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Takashi; Miyoshi, Shogo; Yamashita, Yoshiyuki; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Terabe, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Yamaguchi, Shu

    2013-01-01

    In situ hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HX-PES) and soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (SX-XAS) have been employed to investigate a local redox reaction at the carbon/Gd-doped CeO2 (GDC) thin film heterointerface under applied dc bias. In HX-PES, Ce3d and O1s core levels show a parallel chemical shift as large as 3.2 eV, corresponding to the redox window where ionic conductivity is predominant. The window width is equal to the energy gap between donor and acceptor levels of the GDC electrolyte. The Ce M-edge SX-XAS spectra also show a considerable increase of Ce3+ satellite peak intensity, corresponding to electrochemical reduction by oxide ion migration. In addition to the reversible redox reaction, two distinct phenomena by the electrochemical transport of oxide ions are observed as an irreversible reduction of the entire oxide film by O2 evolution from the GDC film to the gas phase, as well as a vigorous precipitation of oxygen gas at the bottom electrode to lift off the GDC film. These in situ spectroscopic observations describe well the electrochemical polarization behavior of a metal/GDC/metal capacitor-like two-electrode cell at room temperature. PMID:27877594

  12. An improved electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy method for the determination of lithium in molybdenum oxide using slurry sampling and a tungsten atomizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dočekal, Bohumil; Krivan, Viliam

    1993-11-01

    A transversely heated tungsten-tube atomizer, WETA 82, was used for the direct determination of lithium in ultra-high purity molybdenum trioxide by slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Optimized conditions with regard to sample preparation, temperature program, possible spectral interferences and depressive effects of sample matrix were presented. Analytical performance of the conventional graphite atomizer and the tungsten atomizer were compared. Using the WETA 82 atomizer, a detection limit for lithium of 2 ng g -1 can be achieved, which is one order of magnitude lower than that for conventional graphite atomizers.

  13. Infrared heterodyne spectroscopy of astronomical and laboratory sources at 8.5 micron. [absorption line profiles of nitrogen oxide and black body emission from Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mumma, M.; Kostiuk, T.; Cohen, S.; Buhl, D.; Vonthuna, P. C.

    1974-01-01

    The first infrared heterodyne spectrometer using tuneable semiconductor (PbSe) diode lasers has been constructed and was used near 8.5 micron to measure absorption line profiles of N2O in the laboratory and black body emission from the Moon and from Mars. Spectral information was recorded over a 200 MHz bandwidth using an 8-channel filter bank. The resolution was 25 MHz and the minimum detectable (black body) power was 1 x 10 to the minus 16th power watts for 8 minutes of integration. The results demonstrate the usefulness of heterodyne spectroscopy for the study of remote and local sources in the infrared.

  14. [Investigation of effect and process of nitric oxide removal in rotating drum biofilter coupled with absorption by Fe(II) (EDTA)].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Yang, Xuan; Yu, Jian-Ming; Jiang, Yi-Feng; Chen, Jian-Meng

    2012-02-01

    In order to accelerate the NO removal efficiency, a novel and effective system was developed for the complete treatment of NO from flue gases. The system features NO absorption by Fe(II) (EDTA) and biological denitrification in a rotating drum biofilter (RDB) so as to promote biological reduction. The experimental results show that a moderate amount of Fe(II) (EDTA) was added to the nutrient solution to improve the mass transfer efficiency of NO from gas to liquid, with the concomitant formation of nitrosyl complex Fe(II) (EDTA)-NO. Under the experimental conditions of rotational speed was at 0.5 r x min(-1), EBRT of 57.7 s, temperature was at 30 degrees C, pH was 7-8, with the increasing concentration of Fe(II) (EDTA) was from 0 mg x L(-1) to 500 mg x L(-1), the NO removal efficiency was improved from 61.1% to 97.6%, and the elimination capacity was from 16.2 g (m3 x h)(-1) to 26.7 g (m3 x h)(-1). In order to simulate the denitrifying process of waste gas containing NO by using RDB coupled with Fe(II) (EDTA) absorption, a tie-in equation of NO removal and the Fe(II) (EDTA) concentration added in RDB was established. The experimental NO removal efficiency change tendency agrees fairly with that predicted by the proposed equation.

  15. Acid-site characterization of water-oxidized alumina films by near-edge x-ray absorption and soft x-ray photoemission

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hagan, P.J.; Merrill, R.P.; Rhodin, T.N.; Woronick, S.W.; Shinn, N.D.; Woolery, G.L.; Chester, A.W.

    1994-12-01

    Hydroxylated alumina films have been synthesized by water oxidation of single crystal Al(110) surfaces. Thermal dehydroxylation results in anion vacancies which produce an Al(3s) defect state 3.5 eV below the conduction band edge. A maximum in the defect-DOS occurs for oxides heated to 350 to 400C, which is where the materials exhibit maximum Lewis acidity with respect to C{sub 2}H{sub 4}. Adsorbed C{sub 2}H{sub 4} produces thermally active C{sub 2} species which interact covalently with the defect-DOS and nonbonding O(2p) from the top of the valence band. C(1s) binding energies suggest significant charge transfer which is consistent with a carbenium ion. Ni evaporated onto the surface, however, transfers charge directly to Al species and does not interact with O atoms at the defect site. The defect-DOS is regenerated when the C{sub 2} species decomposes or when Ni migrates thermally through the oxide layer.

  16. Mechanistic studies of mercury adsorption and oxidation by oxygen over spinel-type MnFe2O4.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yingju; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Bingkai; Liu, Feng

    2017-01-05

    MnFe2O4 has been regarded as a very promising sorbent for mercury emission control in coal-fired power plants because of its high adsorption capacity, magnetic, recyclable and regenerable properties. First-principle calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) were used to elucidate the mercury adsorption and oxidation mechanisms on MnFe2O4 surface. DFT calculations show that Mn-terminated MnFe2O4 (1 0 0) surface is much more stable than Fe-terminated surface. Hg(0) is physically adsorbed on Fe-terminated MnFe2O4 (1 0 0) surface. Hg(0) adsorption on Mn-terminated MnFe2O4 (1 0 0) surface is a chemisorption process. The partial density of states (PDOS) analysis indicates that Hg atom interacts strongly with surface Mn atoms through the orbital hybridization. HgO is adsorbed on the MnFe2O4 surface in a chemical adsorption manner. The small HOMO-LUMO energy gap implies that HgO molecular shows high chemical reactivity for HgO adsorption on MnFe2O4 surface. The energy barriers of Hg(0) oxidation by oxygen on Fe- and Mn-terminated MnFe2O4 surfaces are 206.37 and 76.07kJ/mol, respectively. Mn-terminated surface is much more favorable for Hg(0) oxidation than Fe-terminated surface. In the whole Hg(0) oxidation process, the reaction between adsorbed mercury and surface oxygen is the rate-determining step.

  17. Interpreting the ultraviolet aerosol index observed with the OMI satellite instrument to understand absorption by organic aerosols: implications for atmospheric oxidation and direct radiative effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Melanie S.; Martin, Randall V.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Buchard, Virginie; Torres, Omar; Ridley, David A.; Spurr, Robert J. D.

    2016-03-01

    Satellite observations of the ultraviolet aerosol index (UVAI) are sensitive to absorption of solar radiation by aerosols; this absorption affects photolysis frequencies and radiative forcing. We develop a global simulation of the UVAI using the 3-D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem coupled with the Vector Linearized Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer model (VLIDORT). The simulation is applied to interpret UVAI observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for the year 2007. Simulated and observed values are highly consistent in regions where mineral dust dominates the UVAI, but a large negative bias (-0.32 to -0.97) exists between simulated and observed values in biomass burning regions. We determine effective optical properties for absorbing organic aerosol, known as brown carbon (BrC), and implement them into GEOS-Chem to better represent observed UVAI values over biomass burning regions. The inclusion of absorbing BrC decreases the mean bias between simulated and OMI UVAI values from -0.57 to -0.09 over West Africa in January, from -0.32 to +0.0002 over South Asia in April, from -0.97 to -0.22 over southern Africa in July, and from -0.50 to +0.33 over South America in September. The spectral dependence of absorption after including BrC in the model is broadly consistent with reported observations for biomass burning aerosol, with absorbing Ångström exponent (AAE) values ranging from 2.9 in the ultraviolet (UV) to 1.3 across the UV-Near IR spectrum. We assess the effect of the additional UV absorption by BrC on atmospheric photochemistry by examining tropospheric hydroxyl radical (OH) concentrations in GEOS-Chem. The inclusion of BrC decreases OH by up to 30 % over South America in September, up to 20 % over southern Africa in July, and up to 15 % over other biomass burning regions. Global annual mean OH concentrations in GEOS-Chem decrease due to the presence of absorbing BrC, increasing the methyl chloroform lifetime from 5.62 to 5.68 years

  18. Interpreting the Ultraviolet Aerosol Index observed with the OMI satellite instrument to understand absorption by organic aerosols: implications for atmospheric oxidation and direct radiative effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, M. S.; Martin, R. V.; van Donkelaar, A.; Buchard, V.; Torres, O.; Ridley, D. A.; Spurr, R. J. D.

    2015-10-01

    Satellite observations of the Ultraviolet Aerosol Index (UVAI) are sensitive to absorption of solar radiation by aerosols; this absorption affects photolysis frequencies and radiative forcing. We develop a global simulation of the UVAI using the 3-D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem coupled with the Vector Linearized Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer model (VLIDORT). The simulation is applied to interpret UVAI observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for the year 2007. Simulated and observed values are highly consistent in regions where mineral dust dominates the UVAI, but a large negative bias (-0.32 to -0.97) exists between simulated and observed values in biomass burning regions. We determine effective optical properties for absorbing organic aerosol, known as brown carbon (BrC), and implement them into GEOS-Chem to better represent observed UVAI values over biomass burning regions. The addition of absorbing BrC decreases the mean bias between simulated and OMI UVAI values from -0.57 to -0.09 over West Africa in January, from -0.32 to +0.0002 over South Asia in April, from -0.97 to -0.22 over southern Africa in July, and from -0.50 to +0.33 over South America in September. The spectral dependence of absorption after adding BrC to the model is broadly consistent with reported observations for biomass burning aerosol, with Absorbing Angstrom Exponent (AAE) values ranging from 2.9 in the ultraviolet (UV) to 1.3 across the UV-Near IR spectrum. We assess the effect of the additional UV absorption by BrC on atmospheric photochemistry by examining tropospheric hydroxyl radical (OH) concentrations in GEOS-Chem. The inclusion of BrC decreases OH by up to 35 % over South America in September, up to 25 % over southern Africa in July, and up to 20 % over other biomass burning regions. Global annual mean OH concentrations in GEOS-Chem decrease due to the presence of absorbing BrC, increasing the methyl chloroform lifetime from 5.62 to 5.68 years, thus

  19. The Be K-edge in beryllium oxide and chalcogenides: soft x-ray absorption spectra from first-principles theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Olovsson, W; Weinhardt, L; Fuchs, O; Tanaka, I; Puschnig, P; Umbach, E; Heske, C; Draxl, C

    2013-08-07

    We have carried out a theoretical and experimental investigation of the beryllium K-edge soft x-ray absorption fine structure of beryllium compounds in the oxygen group, considering BeO, BeS, BeSe, and BeTe. Theoretical spectra are obtained ab initio, through many-body perturbation theory, by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE), and by supercell calculations using the core-hole approximation. All calculations are performed with the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave method. It is found that the two different theoretical approaches produce a similar fine structure, in good agreement with the experimental data. Using the BSE results, we interpret the spectra, distinguishing between bound core-excitons and higher energy excitations.

  20. Interpreting the Ultraviolet Aerosol Index Observed with the OMI Satellite Instrument to Understand Absorption by Organic Aerosols: Implications for Atmospheric Oxidation and Direct Radiative Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Melanie S.; Martin, Randall V.; Donkelaar, Aaron van; Buchard, Virginie; Torres, Omar; Ridley, David A.; Spurr, Robert J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Satellite observations of the ultraviolet aerosol index (UVAI) are sensitive to absorption of solar radiation by aerosols; this absorption affects photolysis frequencies and radiative forcing. We develop a global simulation of the UVAI using the 3-D chemical transport model GEOSChem coupled with the Vector Linearized Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer model (VLIDORT). The simulation is applied to interpret UVAI observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for the year 2007. Simulated and observed values are highly consistent in regions where mineral dust dominates the UVAI, but a large negative bias (-0.32 to -0.97) exists between simulated and observed values in biomass burning regions. We determine effective optical properties for absorbing organic aerosol, known as brown carbon (BrC), and implement them into GEOS-Chem to better represent observed UVAI values over biomass burning regions. The inclusion of absorbing BrC decreases the mean bias between simulated and OMI UVAI values from -0.57 to -0.09 over West Africa in January, from -0.32 to +0.0002 over South Asia in April, from -0.97 to -0.22 over southern Africa in July, and from -0.50 to +0.33 over South America in September. The spectral dependence of absorption after including BrC in the model is broadly consistent with reported observations for biomass burning aerosol, with absorbing Angstrom exponent (AAE) values ranging from 2.9 in the ultraviolet (UV) to 1.3 across the UV-Near IR spectrum. We assess the effect of the additional UV absorption by BrC on atmospheric photochemistry by examining tropospheric hydroxyl radical (OH) concentrations in GEOS-Chem. The inclusion of BrC decreases OH by up to 30% over South America in September, up to 20% over southern Africa in July, and up to 15% over other biomass burning regions. Global annual mean OH concentrations in GEOS-Chem decrease due to the presence of absorbing BrC, increasing the methyl chloroform lifetime from 5.62 to 5.68 years, thus

  1. Visible light absorption ability and photocatalytic oxidation activity of various interstitial N-doped TiO2 prepared from different nitrogen dopants.

    PubMed

    Ananpattarachai, Jirapat; Kajitvichyanukul, Puangrat; Seraphin, Supapan

    2009-08-30

    Nitrogen-doped TiO(2) was developed to enable photocatalytic reactions using the visible range of the solar spectrum. This work reports on the synthesis, characterisation and kinetic study of interstitial N-doped TiO(2) prepared by the sol-gel method using three different types of nitrogen dopants: diethanolamine, triethylamine and urea. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV-visible spectroscopy were used to analyse the titania. Different interstitial N-doped TiO(2) properties, such as absorption ability in the UV-visible light region, redshift in adsorption edge, good crystallisation and composition ratio of titania structures (anatase and rutile) could be obtained from different nitrogen dopants. Amongst investigated nitrogen precursors, diethanolamine provided the highest visible light absorption ability of interstitial N-doped TiO(2) with the smallest energy bandgap and the smallest anatase crystal size, resulting in the highest efficiency in 2-chlorophenol degradation. The photocatalytic activity of all N-doped TiO(2) can be arranged in the following order: TiO(2)/diethanolamine>TiO(2)/triethylamine>TiO(2)/urea>un-doped TiO(2). The initial rate of 2-chlorophenol degradation using the interstitial N-doped TiO(2) with diethanolamine was 0.59 mg/L-min and the kinetic constant was 2.34 x 10(-2)min(-1) with a half-life of 98 min. In all cases, hydroquinone was detected as a major intermediate in the degradation of 2-chlorophenol.

  2. Detection of nitric oxide pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chackerian, C., Jr.; Weisbach, M. F.

    1973-01-01

    Studies of absorption spectra enhancement of certain atomic and molecular species inserter in dye-laser cavities have indicated that nitric oxide can be determined at low concentrations. Absorption coefficient of small amounts of nitric oxide in intra-laser-cavity absorption cell containing helium is enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude.

  3. Absorption and metabolism of cis-9,trans-11-CLA and of its oxidation product 9,11-furan fatty acid by Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Buhrke, Thorsten; Merkel, Roswitha; Lengler, Imme; Lampen, Alfonso

    2012-04-01

    Furan fatty acids (furan-FA) can be formed by auto-oxidation of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and may therefore be ingested when CLA-containing foodstuff is consumed. Due to the presence of a furan ring structure, furan-FA may have toxic properties, however, these substances are toxicologically not well characterized so far. Here we show that 9,11-furan-FA, the oxidation product of the major CLA isomer cis-9,trans-11-CLA (c9,t11-CLA), is not toxic to human intestinal Caco-2 cells up to a level of 100 μM. Oil-Red-O staining indicated that 9,11-furan-FA as well as c9,t11-CLA and linoleic acid are taken up by the cells and stored in the form of triglycerides in lipid droplets. Chemical analysis of total cellular lipids revealed that 9,11-furan-FA is partially elongated probably by the enzymatic activity of cellular fatty acid elongases whereas c9,t11-CLA is partially converted to other isomers such as c9,c11-CLA or t9,t11-CLA. In the case of 9,11-furan-FA, there is no indication for any modification or activation of the furan ring system. From these results, we conclude that 9,11-furan-FA has no properties of toxicological relevance at least for Caco-2 cells which serve as a model for enterocytes of the human small intestine.

  4. New methodological approach for the vanadium K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure interpretation: application to the speciation of vanadium in oxide phases from steel slag.

    PubMed

    Chaurand, Perrine; Rose, Jérôme; Briois, Valérie; Salome, Murielle; Proux, Olivier; Nassif, Vivian; Olivi, Luca; Susini, Jean; Hazemann, Jean-Louis; Bottero, Jean-Yves

    2007-05-17

    This paper presents a comparison between several methods dedicated to the interpretation of V K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) features. V K-edge XANES spectra of several V-bearing standard compounds were measured in an effort to evaluate advantages and limits of each method. The standard compounds include natural minerals and synthetic compounds containing vanadium at various oxidation state (from +3 to +5) and in different symmetry (octahedral, tetrahedral, and square pyramidal). Correlations between normalized pre-edge peak area and its centroid position have been identified as the most reliable method for determining quantitative and accurate redox and symmetry information for vanadium. This methodology has been previously developed for the Fe K edge. It is also well adapted for the V K edge and is less influenced by the standard choice than other methods. This methodology was applied on an "environmental sample," i.e., a well-crystallized leached steel slag containing vanadium as traces. Micro-XANES measurements allowed elucidating the microdistribution of vanadium speciation in leached steel slag. The vanadium exhibits an important evolution from the unaltered to the altered phases. Its oxidation state increases from +3 to +5 together with the decrease of its symmetry (from octahedral to tetrahedral).

  5. Frequency dependence of two-photon absorption in InSb and Hg1-xCdxTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, A. M.; Pidgeon, C. R.; Dempsey, J.

    1980-07-01

    The frequency dependence of two-photon absorption is measured over a wide range in InSb and Hg0.78Cd0.22Te, showing good agreement with a nonparabolic-band perturbation calculation and wide divergence from "tunneling" theory. Associated photoconductivity measurements, required in the analysis, confirm that Auger scattering is the dominant process at room temperature in n-InSb, but at low temperatures have yielded a direct value of the lifetime of τ(77 K)=143 ns for radiative recombination.

  6. Absorptive coating for aluminum solar panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desmet, D.; Jason, A.; Parr, A.

    1979-01-01

    Method for coating forming coating of copper oxide from copper component of sheet aluminum/copper alloy provides strong durable solar heat collector panels. Copper oxide coating has solar absorption characteristics similar to black chrome and is much simpler and less costly to produce.

  7. Studies of nitride- and oxide-based materials as absorptive shifters for embedded attenuated phase-shifting mask in 193 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Cheng-ming; Chang, Keh-wen; Lee, Ming-der; Loong, Wen-An

    1999-07-01

    Abstract-Five materials which are PdSixOy, CrAlxOy, SiNx, TiSixNy, and TiSixOyNz as absorptive shifters for attenuated phase-shifting mask in 193 nm wavelength lithography are presented. PdSixOy films were deposited by dual e-gun evaporation. CrAlxOy, TiSixNy and TiSixOyNz films were formed by plasma sputtering and SiNx films were formed with LPCVD. All of these materials are shown to be capable of achieving 4 percent - 15 percent transmittance in 193 nm with thickness that produce a 180 degrees phase shift. Under BCl3:Cl2 equals 14:70 sccm; chamber pressure 5 mtorr and RF power 1900W, the dry etching selectivity of TiSixNy over DQN positive resist and fused silica, were found to be 2:1 and 4,8:1 respectively. An embedded layer TiSixNy with 0.5 micrometers line/space was successfully patterned.

  8. Synthesis temperature effect on the structural features and optical absorption of Zn(1-x)Co(x)Al2O4 oxides.

    PubMed

    Gaudon, M; Apheceixborde, A; Ménétrier, M; Le Nestour, A; Demourgues, A

    2009-10-05

    Zinc/cobalt aluminates with spinel-type structure were prepared by a polymeric route, leading to a pure phase with controlled grain size. The prepared pigments were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction Rietveld analyses in order to determine structural features, scanning electron microscopy for morphological investigation, helium pycnometry and (27)Al MAS NMR in order to highlight the occurrence of defects inside the structure, and UV-visible-near-IR spectroscopy to identify electronic transitions responsible for the compounds' color. The green-blue coloration of these pigments is known to be dependent on the sample thermal history. Here, for the first time, the Zn(1-x)Co(x)Al(2)O(4) color is newly interpreted. The pigment is green once synthesized at low temperature (i.e., with diminution of the pigment grain size); this variation was attributed to the appearance of a new absorption band located at about 500 nm, linked to a complex network feature involving Co ions in octahedral sites as well as oxygen and cationic vacancies. Hence, this work shows the possibility of easily getting a nonstoichiometric network with an abnormal cationic distribution from "chimie douce" processes with moderate synthesis temperature, and so various colorations for the same composition.

  9. Sequential and Coupled Proton and Electron Transfer Events in the S2 → S3 Transition of Photosynthetic Water Oxidation Revealed by Time-Resolved X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zaharieva, Ivelina; Dau, Holger; Haumann, Michael

    2016-12-20

    The choreography of electron transfer (ET) and proton transfer (PT) in the S-state cycle at the manganese-calcium (Mn4Ca) complex of photosystem II (PSII) is pivotal for the mechanism of photosynthetic water oxidation. Time-resolved room-temperature X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the Mn K-edge was employed to determine the kinetic isotope effect (KIE = τD2O/τH2O) of the four S transitions in a PSII membrane particle preparation in H2O and D2O buffers. We found a small KIE (1.2-1.4) for manganese oxidation by ET from Mn4Ca to the tyrosine radical (YZ(•+)) in the S0(n) → S1(+) and S1(n) → S2(+) transitions and for manganese reduction by ET from substrate water to manganese ions in the O2-evolving S3(n) → S0(n) step, but a larger KIE (∼1.8) for manganese oxidation in the S2(n) → S3(+) step (subscript, number of accumulated oxidizing equivalents; superscript, charge of Mn4Ca). Kinetic lag phases detected in the XAS transients prior to the respective ET steps were assigned to S3(+) → S3(n) (∼150 μs, H2O; ∼380 μs, D2O) and S2(+) → S2(n) (∼25 μs, H2O; ∼120 μs, D2O) steps and attributed to PT events according to their comparatively large KIE (∼2.4, ∼4.5). Our results suggest that proton movements and molecular rearrangements within the hydrogen-bonded network involving Mn4Ca and its bound (substrate) water ligands and the surrounding amino acid/water matrix govern to different extents the rates of all ET steps but affect particularly strongly the S2(n) → S3(+) transition, assigned as proton-coupled electron transfer. Observation of a lag phase in the classical S2 → S3 transition verifies that the associated PT is a prerequisite for subsequent ET, which completes Mn4Ca oxidation to the all-Mn(IV) level.

  10. Systematic Oxidation of Polystyrene by Ultraviolet-Ozone, Characterized by Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure and Contact Angle

    SciTech Connect

    Klein,R.; Fischer, D.; Lenhart, J.

    2008-01-01

    The process of implanting oxygen in polystyrene (PS) via exposure to ultraviolet-ozone (UV-O) was systematically investigated using the characterization technique of near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). Samples of PS exposed to UV-O for 10-300 s and washed with isopropanol were analyzed using the carbon and oxygen K-edge NEXAFS partial electron yields, using various retarding bias voltages to depth-profile the oxygen penetration into the surface. Evaluation of reference polymers provided a scale to quantify the oxygen concentration implanted by UV-O treatment. We find that ozone initially reacts with the double bonds on the phenyl rings, forming carbonyl groups, but within 1 min of exposure, the ratio of double to single oxygen bonds stabilizes at a lower value. Oxygen penetrates the film with relative ease, creating a fairly uniform distribution of oxygen within at least the first 4 nm (the effective depth probed by NEXAFS here). Before oxygen accumulates in large concentrations, however, it preferentially degrades the uppermost layer of the film by removing oxygenated low-molecular-weight oligomers. The failure to accumulate high concentrations of oxygen is seen in the nearly constant carbon edge jump, the low concentration of oxygen even at 5 min exposure (58% of that in poly(4-acetoxystyrene), the polymer with the most similarities to UV-O-treated PS), and the relatively high contact angles. At 5 min exposure the oxygen concentration contains ca. 7 atomic % oxygen. The oxygen species that are implanted consist predominantly of single O-C bonds and double OC bonds but also include a small fraction of O-H. UV-O treatment leads a plateau after 2 min exposure in the water contact angle hysteresis, at a value of 67 {+-} 2, due primarily to chemical heterogeneity. Annealing above Tg allows oxygenated species to move short distances away from the surface but not diffuse further than 1-2 nm.

  11. Solar Absorption in a Stratosphere Perturbed by NOx Injection.

    PubMed

    Luther, F M

    1976-04-02

    The changes in the solar absorption by nitrogen dioxide and ozone induced by the injection of NO(x) (oxides of nitrogen) in the stratosphere are complementary, even though the nitrogen dioxide absorption is only a small fraction of the ozone absorption for an unperturbed stratosphere. The factors causing this effect are described, and an analysis is made of the perturbed solar radiation budget.

  12. Mercury oxidation and adsorption characteristics of potassium permanganate modified lignite semi-coke.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huawei; Chen, Jitao; Liang, Peng; Wang, Li

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption characteristics of virgin and potassium permanganate modified lignite semi-coke (SC) for gaseous Hg0 were investigated in an attempt to produce more effective and lower price adsorbents for the control of elemental mercury emission. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to analyze the surface physical and chemical properties of SC, Mn-SC and Mn-H-SC before and after mercury adsorption. The results indicated that potassium permanganate modification had significant influence on the properties of semi-coke, such as the specific surface area, pore structure and surface chemical functional groups. The mercury adsorption efficiency of modified semi-coke was lower than that of SC at low temperature, but much higher at high temperature. Amorphous Mn7+, Mn6+ and Mn4+ on the surface of Mn-SC and Mn-H-SC were the active sites for oxidation and adsorption of gaseous Hg0, which oxidized the elemental mercury into Hg2+ and captured it. Thermal treatment reduced the average oxidation degree of Mn(x+) on the surface of Mn-SC from 3.80 to 3.46. However, due to the formation of amorphous MnOx, the surface oxidation active sites for gaseous Hg0 increased, which gave Mn-H-SC higher mercury adsorption efficiency than that of Mn-SC at high temperature.

  13. Absorption and Metabolism of Xanthophylls

    PubMed Central

    Kotake-Nara, Eiichi; Nagao, Akihiko

    2011-01-01

    Dietary carotenoids, especially xanthophylls, have attracted significant attention because of their characteristic biological activities, including anti-allergic, anti-cancer, and anti-obese actions. Although no less than forty carotenoids are ingested under usual dietary habits, only six carotenoids and their metabolites have been found in human tissues, suggesting selectivity in the intestinal absorption of carotenoids. Recently, facilitated diffusion in addition to simple diffusion has been reported to mediate the intestinal absorption of carotenoids in mammals. The selective absorption of carotenoids may be caused by uptake to the intestinal epithelia by the facilitated diffusion and an unknown excretion to intestinal lumen. It is well known that β-carotene can be metabolized to vitamin A after intestinal absorption of carotenoids, but little is known about the metabolic transformation of non provitamin A xanthophylls. The enzymatic oxidation of the secondary hydroxyl group leading to keto-carotenoids would occur as a common pathway of xanthophyll metabolism in mammals. This paper reviews the absorption and metabolism of xanthophylls by introducing recent advances in this field. PMID:21747746

  14. Dynamic oxidation of gaseous mercury in the Arctic troposphere at polar sunrise.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Steve E; Brooks, Steve; Lin, C J; Scott, Karen J; Landis, Matthew S; Stevens, Robert K; Goodsite, Mike; Richter, Andreas

    2002-03-15

    Gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) is a globally distributed air toxin with a long atmospheric residence time. Any process that reduces its atmospheric lifetime increases its potential accumulation in the biosphere. Our data from Barrow, AK, at 71 degrees N show that rapid, photochemically driven oxidation of boundary-layer Hg0 after polar sunrise, probably by reactive halogens, creates a rapidly depositing species of oxidized gaseous mercury in the remote Arctic troposphere at concentrations in excess of 900 pg m(-3). This mercury accumulates in the snowpack during polar spring at an accelerated rate in a form that is bioavailable to bacteria and is released with snowmelt during the summer emergence of the Arctic ecosystem. Evidence suggests that this is a recent phenomenon that may be occurring throughout the earth's polar regions.

  15. Study of the OH and Cl-initiated oxidation, IR absorption cross-section, radiative forcing, and global warming potential of four C4-hydrofluoroethers.

    PubMed

    Oyaro, Nathan; Sellevåg, Stig R; Nielsen, Claus J

    2004-11-01

    Infrared absorption cross-sections and OH and Cl reaction rate coefficients for four C4-hydrofluoroethers (CF3)2CHOCH3, CF3CH2OCH2CF3, CF3CF2CH2OCH3, and CHF2CF2CH2OCH3 are reported. Relative rate measurements at 298 K and 1013 hPa of OH and Cl reaction rate coefficients give k(OH+(CF3)2CHOCH3) = (1.27+/-0.13) x 10(-13), k(OH+CF3CH2OCH2CF3) = (1.51+/-0.24) x 10(-13), k(OH+CF3CF2CH2OCH3) = (6.42+/-0.33) x 10(-13), k(OH+CHF2CF2CH2OCH3) = (8.7 +/-0.5) x 10(-13), k(Cl+(CF3)2CHOCH3) = (8.4+/-1.3) x 10(-12), k(Cl+CF3CH2OCH2CF3) = (6.5+/-1.7) x 10(-13), k(Cl+CF3CF2CH2OCH3) = (4.0+/-0.8) x 10(-11), and k(Cl+CHF2CF2CH2OCH3) = (2.65+/-0.17) x 10(-11) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1). The primary products of the OH and Cl reactions with the fluorinated ethers have been identified as esters, and OH and Cl reaction rate coefficients for one of these, CF3CH2OCHO, are reported: k(OH+CF3CH2OCHO) = (7.7+/-0.9) x 10(-14) and kCl+CF3CH2OCHO) = (6.3+/-1.9) x 10(-14) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1) The rate coefficient for the Cl-atom reaction with CHF2CH2F is derived as k(Cl+CHF2CH2F) = (3.0+/-0.9) x 10(-14) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1) at 298 K. The error limits include 3sigma from the statistical data analyses as well as the errors in the rate coefficients of the reference compounds employed. The tropospheric lifetimes of the hydrofluoroethers are estimated to be short tauOH((CF3)2CHOCH3) approximately 100 days, tauOH(CF3CH2OCH2CF3) approximately 80 days, tauOH(CF3CF2CH2OCH3) approximately 20 days, and tauOH(CHF2CF2CH2OCH3) approximately 14 days, and their global warming potentials are small compared to CFC-11.

  16. A photo-oxidation procedure using UV radiation/H 2O 2 for decomposition of wine samples — Determination of iron and manganese content by flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Walter N. L.; Brandão, Geovani C.; Portugal, Lindomar A.; David, Jorge M.; Ferreira, Sérgio L. C.

    2009-06-01

    This paper proposes the use of photo-oxidation with UV radiation/H 2O 2 as sample pretreatment for the determination of iron and manganese in wines by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The optimization involved the study of the following variables: pH and concentration of buffer solution, concentrated hydrogen peroxide volume and irradiation time. The evaluation of sample degradation was monitored by measuring the absorbance at the maximum wavelength of red wine (530 nm). Using the experimental conditions established during the optimization (irradiation time of 30 min, oxidant volume of 2.5 mL, pH 10, and a buffer concentration of 0.15 mol L - 1 ), this procedure allows the determination of iron and manganese with limits of detection of 30 and 22 μg L - 1 , respectively, for a 5 mL volume of digested sample. The precision levels, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), were 2.8% and 0.65% for iron and 2.7% and 0.54% for manganese for concentrations of 0.5 and 2.0 mg L - 1 , respectively. Addition/recovery tests for evaluation of the accuracy were in the ranges of 90%-111% and 95%-107% for iron and manganese, respectively. This digestion procedure has been applied for the determination of iron and manganese in six wine samples. The concentrations varied from 1.58 to 2.77 mg L - 1 for iron and from 1.30 to 1.91 mg L - 1 for manganese. The results were compared with those obtained by an acid digestion procedure and determination of the elements by FAAS. There was no significant difference between the results obtained by the two methods based on a paired t-test (at 95% confidence level).

  17. Layered structure of the near-surface region of oxidized chalcopyrite (CuFeS2): hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and DFT+U studies.

    PubMed

    Mikhlin, Yuri; Nasluzov, Vladimir; Romanchenko, Alexander; Tomashevich, Yevgeny; Shor, Alexey; Félix, Roberto

    2017-01-25

    The depletion of oxidized metal sulfide surfaces in metals due to the preferential release of cations is a common, but as yet poorly understood phenomenon. Herein, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy using excitation energies from 1.25 keV to 6 keV, and Fe K- and S K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectra in total electron and partial fluorescence yield modes was employed to study natural chalcopyrite oxidized in air and etched in an acidic ferric sulfate solution. The metal-depleted undersurface formed was found to consist of a thin, 1-4 nm, outer layer containing polysulfide species, a layer with a pronounced deficiency of metals, mainly iron, and an abundant disulfide content but negligible polysulfide content (about 20 nm thick after the chemical etching), and a defective underlayer which extended down to about a hundred nm. DFT+U was used to simulate chalcopyrite with increasing numbers of removed Fe atoms. It was found that the structure with disulfide anion near double Fe vacancies, and the 'defective' structure comprising Cu in the position of Fe and Cu vacancy are most energetically favorable, especially when using a higher Hubbard-type parameter U, and have a large density of states at the Fermi level, whereas polysulfide anions are stable only near the surface. We propose a mechanism explaining the formation of the layered undersurface and 'passivation' of metal sulfides by (i) arrested decomposition of a nearly stoichiometric sulfide surface, and (ii) faster interfacial transfer and solid diffusion of cations towards the surface; (iii) stability limits for specific defect structures, promoting their expansion in depth rather than through compositional changes, excluding surface layers; (iv) decay of surface polysulfide layer yielding elemental sulfur.

  18. Absorption of Thermal Neutrons in Uranium

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Creutz, E. C.; Wilson, R. R.; Wigner, E. P.

    1941-09-26

    A knowledge of the absorption processes for neutrons in uranium is important for planning a chain reaction experiment. The absorption of thermal neutrons in uranium and uranium oxide has been studied. Neutrons from the cyclotron were slowed down by passage through a graphite block. A uranium or uranium oxide sphere was placed at various positions in the block. The neutron intensity at different points in the sphere and in the graphite was measured by observing the activity induced in detectors or uranium oxide or manganese. It was found that both the fission activity in the uranium oxide and the activity induced in manganese was affected by non-thermal neutrons. An experimental correction for such effects was made by making measurements with the detectors surrounded by cadmium. After such corrections the results from three methods of procedure with the uranium oxide detectors and from the manganese detectors were consistent to within a few per cent.

  19. Use of Doehlert and constrained mixture designs in the development of a photo-oxidation procedure using UV radiation/H₂O₂ for decomposition of landfill leachate samples and determination of metals by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Marcos A; Souza, Antônio D S; Oliveira, Rafael V; Oliveira, Djalma M; Cardoso, Luiz A M; Sousa Filho, Hélio R

    2015-03-01

    This work proposes the use of photo-oxidation degradation with UV radiation/H2O2 as sample treatment for the determination of Fe, Zn, Mn, Ni and Co in municipal solid waste landfill leachate by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Three variables (pH, irradiation time and buffer concentration) were optimized using Doehlert design and the proportions of mixture components submitted to UV radiation (leachate sample, buffer solution and H2O2 30%, v/v) were optimized using a constrained mixture design. Using the experimental conditions established, this procedure allows limits of detection of 0.075, 0.025, 0.010, 0.075 and 0.041 µg mL-1, and the precision levels expressed as relative standard (%RSD, 0.5 µg mL-1) were 3.6, 1.8, 1.3, 3.3 and 1.7%, for Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni and Co respectively. Recovery tests were carried out for evaluation of the procedure accuracy and recoveries were between 92 and 106% for the studied metals. This procedure has been applied for the analysis of the landfill leachate collected in Jequié, a city of the southwestern region of the State of Bahia, Brazil. The results were compared with those obtained by acid digestion. There was no significant difference between the results obtained by the two methods based on paired t-test at 95% confidence level.

  20. Soft X-ray absorption and photoemission spectroscopy study of semiconductor oxide nanoparticles for dye-sensitized solar cell: ZnSnO3 and Zn2SnO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun Woo; Lee, Eunsook; Kim, D. H.; Seong, Seungho; Moon, Soo Yeon; Shin, Yu-Ju; Baik, J.; Shin, H. J.; Kang, J.-S.

    2016-06-01

    The electronic structures of the Zn-stannate nanoparticles of ZnSnO3 and Zn2SnO4, which are the potential nano-structured semiconductor oxides for a dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC), have been investigated by employing photoemission spectroscopy (PES) and soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and compared to those of reference materials. The divalent and tetravalent valence states of Zn2+ and Sn4+ ions are confirmed experimentally. The energy levels of both the valence-band and conduction-band edges are determined experimentally. The top of the valence band in PES is slightly higher in Zn2SnO4 than in ZnSnO3. The onset energies of the O 1s XAS spectra of the Zn-stannates are found to be similar to each other, but higher than that of TiO2. The O 1 s XAS spectrum of ZnSnO3 exhibits the higher unoccupied density of states near the bottom of the conduction band than those of Zn2SnO4, SnO2 and ZnO, reflecting the larger number of holes in the Zn 3 d bands of ZnSnO3. Hence, the easier electron transfer is expected from the LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) of a dye molecule to the conduction band of ZnSnO3 nanoparticles on the transparent conductive electrode of a DSSC.

  1. Catalytic oxidation of elemental mercury over the modified catalyst Mn/alpha-Al2O3 at lower temperatures.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfeng; Yan, Naiqiang; Qu, Zan; Qiao, Shaohua; Yang, Shijian; Guo, Yongfu; Liu, Ping; Jia, Jinping

    2010-01-01

    In order to facilitate the removal of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) from coal-fired flue gas, catalytic oxidation of Hg(0) with manganese oxides supported on inert alumina (alpha-Al2O3) was investigated at lower temperatures (373-473 K). To improve the catalytic activity and the sulfur-tolerance of the catalysts at lower temperatures, several metal elements were employed as dopants to modify the catalyst of Mn/alpha-Al2O3. The best performance among the tested elements was achieved with molybdenum (Mo) as the dopant in the catalysts. It can work even better than the noble metal catalyst Pd/alpha-Al2O3. Additionally, the Mo doped catalyst displayed excellent sulfur-tolerance performance at lower temperatures, and the catalytic oxidation efficiency for Mo(0.03)-Mn/alpha-Al2O3 was over 95% in the presence of 500 ppm SO2 versus only about 48% for the unmodified catalyst. The apparent catalytic reaction rate constant increased by approximately 5.5 times at 423 K. In addition, the possible mechanisms involved in Hg(0) oxidation and the reaction with the Mo modified catalyst have been discussed.

  2. Origin of oxidized mercury in the summertime free troposphere over the southeastern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, V.; Jaeglé, L.; Gratz, L. E.; Ambrose, J. L.; Jaffe, D. A.; Selin, N. E.; Song, S.; Campos, T. L.; Flocke, F. M.; Reeves, M.; Stechman, D.; Stell, M.; Festa, J.; Stutz, J.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Knapp, D. J.; Montzka, D. D.; Tyndall, G. S.; Apel, E. C.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Hills, A. J.; Riemer, D. D.; Blake, N. J.; Cantrell, C. A.; Mauldin, R. L., III

    2015-10-01

    We collected mercury observations as part of the Nitrogen, Oxidants, Mercury, and Aerosol Distributions, Sources, and Sinks (NOMADSS) aircraft campaign over the southeastern US between 1 June and 15 July 2013. We use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to interpret these observations and place new constraints on bromine radical initiated mercury oxidation chemistry in the free troposphere. We find that the model reproduces the observed mean concentration of total atmospheric mercury (THg) (observations: 1.49 ± 0.16 ng m-3, model: 1.51 ± 0.08 ng m-3), as well as the vertical profile of THg. The majority (65 %) of observations of oxidized mercury (Hg(II)) are below the instrument's detection limit (detection limit per flight: 58-228 pg m-3), consistent with model-calculated Hg(II) concentrations of 0-196 ng m-3. However, for observations above the detection limit we find that modeled Hg(II) concentrations are a factor of 3 too low (observations: 212 ± 112 ng m-3, model: 67 ± 44 ng m-3). The highest Hg(II) concentrations, 300-680 pg m-3, were observed in dry (RH < 35 %) and clean air masses during two flights over Texas at 5-7 km altitude and off the North Carolina coast at 1-3 km. The GEOS-Chem model, back trajectories and observed chemical tracers for these air masses indicate subsidence and transport from the upper and middle troposphere of the subtropical anticyclones, where fast oxidation of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) to Hg(II) and lack of Hg(II) removal lead to efficient accumulation of Hg(II). We hypothesize that the most likely explanation for the model bias is a systematic underestimate of the Hg(0)+Br reaction rate. We find that sensitivity simulations with tripled bromine radical concentrations or a faster oxidation rate constant for Hg(0)+Br, result in 1.5-2 times higher modeled Hg(II) concentrations and improved agreement with the observations. The modeled tropospheric lifetime of Hg(0) against oxidation to Hg(II) decreases from 5 months in the base

  3. Origin of oxidized mercury in the summertime free troposphere over the southeastern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, V.; Jaeglé, L.; Gratz, L. E.; Ambrose, J. L.; Jaffe, D. A.; Selin, N. E.; Song, S.; Campos, T. L.; Flocke, F. M.; Reeves, M.; Stechman, D.; Stell, M.; Festa, J.; Stutz, J.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Knapp, D. J.; Montzka, D. D.; Tyndall, G. S.; Apel, E. C.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Hills, A. J.; Riemer, D. D.; Blake, N. J.; Cantrell, C. A.; Mauldin, R. L., III

    2016-02-01

    We collected mercury observations as part of the Nitrogen, Oxidants, Mercury, and Aerosol Distributions, Sources, and Sinks (NOMADSS) aircraft campaign over the southeastern US between 1 June and 15 July 2013. We use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to interpret these observations and place new constraints on bromine radical initiated mercury oxidation chemistry in the free troposphere. We find that the model reproduces the observed mean concentration of total atmospheric mercury (THg) (observations: 1.49 ± 0.16 ng m-3, model: 1.51 ± 0.08 ng m-3), as well as the vertical profile of THg. The majority (65 %) of observations of oxidized mercury (Hg(II)) were below the instrument's detection limit (detection limit per flight: 58-228 pg m-3), consistent with model-calculated Hg(II) concentrations of 0-196 pg m-3. However, for observations above the detection limit we find that modeled Hg(II) concentrations are a factor of 3 too low (observations: 212 ± 112 pg m-3, model: 67 ± 44 pg m-3). The highest Hg(II) concentrations, 300-680 pg m-3, were observed in dry (RH < 35 %) and clean air masses during two flights over Texas at 5-7 km altitude and off the North Carolina coast at 1-3 km. The GEOS-Chem model, back trajectories and observed chemical tracers for these air masses indicate subsidence and transport from the upper and middle troposphere of the subtropical anticyclones, where fast oxidation of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) to Hg(II) and lack of Hg(II) removal lead to efficient accumulation of Hg(II). We hypothesize that the most likely explanation for the model bias is a systematic underestimate of the Hg(0) + Br reaction rate. We find that sensitivity simulations with tripled bromine radical concentrations or a faster oxidation rate constant for Hg(0) + Br, result in 1.5-2 times higher modeled Hg(II) concentrations and improved agreement with the observations. The modeled tropospheric lifetime of Hg(0) against oxidation to Hg(II) decreases from 5 months in the

  4. Hg⁰ removal from flue gas by ionic liquid/H₂O₂.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Guangwen; Bai, Bofeng; Zhang, Qiang; Cai, Ming

    2014-09-15

    1-Alkyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquids ([Cnmim] Cl, n=4, 6, 8) were prepared. The ionic liquid was then mixed with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to form an absorbent. The Hg(0) removal performance of the absorbent was investigated in a gas/liquid scrubber using simulated flue gas. It was found that the ionic liquid/H2O2 mixture was an excellent absorbent and could be used to remove Hg(0) from flue gas. When the mass ratio of H2O2 to ionic liquid was 0.5, the absorbent showed high Hg(0) removal efficiency (up to 98%). The Hg(0) removal efficiency usually increased with the absorption temperature, while decreased with the increase of alkyl chain length in ionic liquid molecule. The Hg(0) removal mechanism involved with Hg(0) oxidation by H2O2 and Hg(2+) transfer from aqueous phase to ionic liquid phase.

  5. Redox chemistry of a binary transition metal oxide (AB 2 O 4 ): a study of the Cu 2+ /Cu 0 and Fe 3+ /Fe 0 interconversions observed upon lithiation in a CuFe 2 O 4 battery using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Cama, Christina A.; Pelliccione, Christopher J.; Brady, Alexander B.; ...

    2016-06-06

    Copper ferrite, CuFe2 O 4, is a promising candidate for application as a high energy electrode material in lithium based batteries. Mechanistic insight on the electrochemical reduction and oxidation processes was gained through the first X-ray absorption spectroscopic study of lithiation and delithiation of CuFe2 O 4. A phase pure tetragonal CuFe2 O 4 material was prepared and characterized using laboratory and synchrotron X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. We used ex situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements to study the battery redox processes at the Fe and Cu K-edges, using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), extended X-raymore » absorption fine structure (EXAFS), and transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) spectroscopies. EXAFS analysis showed upon discharge, an initial conversion of 50% of the copper(II) to copper metal positioned outside of the spinel structure, followed by a migration of tetrahedral iron(III) cations to octahedral positions previously occupied by copper(II). Then, upon charging to 3.5 V, the copper metal remained in the metallic state, while iron metal oxidation to iron(III) was achieved. Our results provide new mechanistic insight regarding the evolution of the local coordination environments at the iron and copper centers upon discharging and charging.« less

  6. Redox chemistry of a binary transition metal oxide (AB 2 O 4 ): a study of the Cu 2+ /Cu 0 and Fe 3+ /Fe 0 interconversions observed upon lithiation in a CuFe 2 O 4 battery using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Cama, Christina A.; Pelliccione, Christopher J.; Brady, Alexander B.; Li, Jing; Stach, Eric A.; Wang, Jiajun; Wang, Jun; Takeuchi, Esther S.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Marschilok, Amy C.

    2016-06-06

    Copper ferrite, CuFe2 O 4, is a promising candidate for application as a high energy electrode material in lithium based batteries. Mechanistic insight on the electrochemical reduction and oxidation processes was gained through the first X-ray absorption spectroscopic study of lithiation and delithiation of CuFe2 O 4. A phase pure tetragonal CuFe2 O 4 material was prepared and characterized using laboratory and synchrotron X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. We used ex situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements to study the battery redox processes at the Fe and Cu K-edges, using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), and transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) spectroscopies. EXAFS analysis showed upon discharge, an initial conversion of 50% of the copper(II) to copper metal positioned outside of the spinel structure, followed by a migration of tetrahedral iron(III) cations to octahedral positions previously occupied by copper(II). Then, upon charging to 3.5 V, the copper metal remained in the metallic state, while iron metal oxidation to iron(III) was achieved. Our results provide new mechanistic insight regarding the evolution of the local coordination environments at the iron and copper centers upon discharging and charging.

  7. Survey of catalysts for oxidation of mercury in flue gas.

    PubMed

    Presto, Albert A; Granite, Evan J

    2006-09-15

    Methods for removing mercury from flue gas have received increased attention because of recent limitations placed on mercury emissions from coal-fired utility boilers by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and various states. A promising method for mercury removal is catalytic oxidation of elemental mercury (Hg0) to oxidized mercury (Hg2+), followed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). FGD cannot remove Hg0, but easily removes Hg2+ because of its solubility in water. To date, research has focused on three broad catalyst areas: selective catalytic reduction catalysts, carbon-based materials, and metals and metal oxides. We review published results for each type of catalyst and also present a discussion on the possible reaction mechanisms in each case. One of the major sources of uncertainty in understanding catalytic mercury oxidation is a lack of knowledge of the reaction mechanisms and kinetics. Thus, we propose that future research in this area should focus on two major aspects: determining the reaction mechanism and kinetics and searching for more cost-effective catalyst and support materials.

  8. Effects of H ₂SO₄ and O ₂ on Hg⁰ uptake capacity and reversibility of sulfur-impregnated activated carbon under dynamic conditions.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuanyang; Yu, Danqing; Tong, Shitang; Jia, Charles Q

    2015-02-03

    Powder activated carbon (AC) injection is widely considered as the most viable technology for removing gaseous elemental mercury (Hg(0)) in flue gases of coal-fired power plants. However, sulfuric acid (H2SO4) can form on the external and internal surfaces of AC particles due to the presence of sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, oxygen, and moisture in flue gases. This work focuses on the effects of H2SO4 and O2 on the Hg(0) uptake capacity and reversibility of sulfur impregnated activated carbon (SIAC) under dynamic conditions. Experiments were conducted with 25 μg-Hg(0)/m(3) of nitrogen or air, using a semicontinuous flow fixed-bed reactor kept at 120 or 180 °C. H2SO4 had a profound hindering effect on Hg(0) uptake due to pore blockage. O2 significantly enhanced Hg(0) uptake and its reversibility, via the oxidation of Hg(0) which facilitated chemisorption and the subsequent physisorption onto chemically adsorbed Hg. Absorption of Hg in H2SO4 was unlikely a significant contributor, when Hg(0) concentrations were at levels of typical power plants (tens of ppb). The reversibility of and relative contributions of physisorption and chemisorption to Hg(0) uptake would change with Hg(0) concentrations in flue gases. These findings could be significant in developing a complete solution for Hg capture where the handling of spent sorbent materials and the possible secondary pollution need to be considered.

  9. X-ray absorption spectroscopy on layered photosystem II membrane particles suggests manganese-centered oxidation of the oxygen-evolving complex for the S0-S1, S1-S2, and S2-S3 transitions of the water oxidation cycle.

    PubMed

    Iuzzolino, L; Dittmer, J; Dörner, W; Meyer-Klaucke, W; Dau, H

    1998-12-08

    By application of microsecond light flashes the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) was driven through its functional cycle, the S-state cycle. The S-state population distribution obtained by the application of n flashes (n = 0. 6) was determined by analysis of EPR spectra; Mn K-edge X-ray absorption spectra were collected. Taking into consideration the likely statistical error in the data and the variability stemming from the use of three different approaches for the determination of edge positions, we obtained an upshift of the edge position by 0.8-1.5, 0.5-0.9, and 0.6-1.3 eV for the S0-S1, S1-S2, and S2-S3 transitions, respectively, and a downshift by 2.3-3.1 eV for the S3-S0 transition. These results are highly suggestive of Mn oxidation state changes for all four S-state transitions. In the S0-state spectrum, a clearly resolved shoulder in the X-ray spectrum around 6555 eV points toward the presence of Mn(II). We propose that photosynthetic oxygen evolution involves cycling of the photosystem II manganese complex through four distinct oxidation states of this tetranuclear complex: Mn(II)-Mn(III)-Mn(IV)2 in the S0-state, Mn(III)2-Mn(IV)2 in the S1-state, Mn(III)1-Mn(IV)3 in the S2-state, and Mn(IV)4 in the S3-state.

  10. Mercury Adsorption and Oxidation over Cobalt Oxide Loaded Magnetospheres Catalyst from Fly Ash in Oxyfuel Combustion Flue Gas.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianping; Zhao, Yongchun; Chang, Lin; Zhang, Junying; Zheng, Chuguang

    2015-07-07

    Cobalt oxide loaded magnetospheres catalyst from fly ash (Co-MF catalyst) showed good mercury removal capacity and recyclability under air combustion flue gas in our previous study. In this work, the Hg(0) removal behaviors as well as the involved reactions mechanism were investigated in oxyfuel combustion conditions. Further, the recyclability of Co-MF catalyst in oxyfuel combustion atmosphere was also evaluated. The results showed that the Hg(0) removal efficiency in oxyfuel combustion conditions was relative high compared to that in air combustion conditions. The presence of enriched CO2 (70%) in oxyfuel combustion atmosphere assisted the mercury oxidation due to the oxidation of function group of C-O formed from CO2. Under both atmospheres, the mercury removal efficiency decreased with the addition of SO2, NO, and H2O. However, the enriched CO2 in oxyfuel combustion atmosphere could somewhat weaken the inhibition of SO2, NO, and H2O. The multiple capture-regeneration cycles demonstrated that the Co-MF catalyst also present good regeneration performance in oxyfuel combustion atmosphere.

  11. Solar absorption surface panel

    DOEpatents

    Santala, Teuvo J.

    1978-01-01

    A composite metal of aluminum and nickel is used to form an economical solar absorption surface for a collector plate wherein an intermetallic compound of the aluminum and nickel provides a surface morphology with high absorptance and relatively low infrared emittance along with good durability.

  12. Rectal absorption of propylthiouracil.

    PubMed

    Bartle, W R; Walker, S E; Silverberg, J D

    1988-06-01

    The rectal absorption of propylthiouracil (PTU) was studied and compared to oral absorption in normal volunteers. Plasma levels of PTU after administration of suppositories of PTU base and PTU diethanolamine were significantly lower compared to the oral route. Elevated plasma reverse T3 levels were demonstrated after each treatment, however, suggesting a desirable therapeutic effect at this dosage level for all preparations.

  13. Petawatt laser absorption bounded

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Matthew C.; Wilks, Scott C.; Tabak, Max; Libby, Stephen B.; Baring, Matthew G.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of petawatt (1015 W) lasers with solid matter forms the basis for advanced scientific applications such as table-top particle accelerators, ultrafast imaging systems and laser fusion. Key metrics for these applications relate to absorption, yet conditions in this regime are so nonlinear that it is often impossible to know the fraction of absorbed light f, and even the range of f is unknown. Here using a relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot-like analysis, we show for the first time that f exhibits a theoretical maximum and minimum. These bounds constrain nonlinear absorption mechanisms across the petawatt regime, forbidding high absorption values at low laser power and low absorption values at high laser power. For applications needing to circumvent the absorption bounds, these results will accelerate a shift from solid targets, towards structured and multilayer targets, and lead the development of new materials. PMID:24938656

  14. Thermophysical Properties and Structural Transition of Hg(0.8)Cd(0.2)Te Melt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, C.; Scripa, R. N.; Ban, H.; Lin, B.; Su, C.; Lehoczky, S. L.

    2004-01-01

    Thermophysical properties, namely, density, viscosity, and electrical conductivity of Hg(sub o.8)Cd(sub 0.2)Te melt were measured as a function of temperature. A pycnometric method was used to measure the melt density in the temperature range of 1072 to 1122 K. The viscosity and electrical conductivity were simultaneously determined using a transient torque method from 1068 to 1132 K. The density result from this study is within 0.3% of the published data. However, the current viscosity result is approximately 30% lower than the existing data. The electrical conductivity of Hg(sub o.8)Cd(sub 0.2)Te melt as a function of temperature, which is not available in the literature, is also determined. The analysis of the temperature dependent electrical conductivity and the relationship between the kinematic viscosity and density indicated that the structure of the melt appeared to be homogeneous when the temperature was above 1090 K. A structural transition occurred in the Hg(sub 0.8)Cd(0.2)Te melt as the temperature was decreased from 1090 K to the liquidus temperature.

  15. Binding of Vapour-Phase Mercury (Hg0) on Chemically Treated Bauxite Residues (Red Mud)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, Hg capture using red mud, seawater-neutralized red mud, and acid-treated red mud is evaluated and compared to other, more conventional sorbent materials. Red mud (also known as bauxite residue) is a by-product of extracting alumina from ground bauxite ore by treati...

  16. PERFORMANCE OF A NEW DIFFUSIVE SAMPLER FOR HG0 DETERMINATION IN THE TROPOSPHERE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury behaves uniquely in the atmosphere due to its volatility and long lifetime. The existing methods for measuring atmospheric mercury are either expensive or labour intensive. The present paper presents a new measurement technique, the diffusive sampler, that is portable, in...

  17. AQUEOUS REDUCTION OF HG2+ TO HG0 BY HO2 IN THE CMAQ-MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerical models of atmospheric mercury are formulated based on the current understanding of mercury chemistry in air and in atmospheric water. Recent evidence that significant reduction of Hg2+ by reaction with HO2 may not actually occur in natural atmospheric water has obviou...

  18. Quasar Absorption Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Elvis, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the proposal is to investigate the absorption properties of a sample of inter-mediate redshift quasars. The main goals of the project are: Measure the redshift and the column density of the X-ray absorbers; test the correlation between absorption and redshift suggested by ROSAT and ASCA data; constrain the absorber ionization status and metallicity; constrain the absorber dust content and composition through the comparison between the amount of X-ray absorption and optical dust extinction. Unanticipated low energy cut-offs where discovered in ROSAT spectra of quasars and confirmed by ASCA, BeppoSAX and Chandra. In most cases it was not possible to constrain adequately the redshift of the absorber from the X-ray data alone. Two possibilities remain open: a) absorption at the quasar redshift; and b) intervening absorption. The evidences in favour of intrinsic absorption are all indirect. Sensitive XMM observations can discriminate between these different scenarios. If the absorption is at the quasar redshift we can study whether the quasar environment evolves with the Cosmic time.

  19. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  20. Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Duy H. (Inventor); Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  1. Soliton absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kalashnikov, V. L.; Sorokin, E.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze optical soliton propagation in the presence of weak absorption lines with much narrower linewidths as compared to the soliton spectrum width using the novel perturbation analysis technique based on an integral representation in the spectral domain. The stable soliton acquires spectral modulation that follows the associated index of refraction of the absorber. The model can be applied to ordinary soliton propagation and to an absorber inside a passively modelocked laser. In the latter case, a comparison with water vapor absorption in a femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser yields a very good agreement with experiment. Compared to the conventional absorption measurement in a cell of the same length, the signal is increased by an order of magnitude. The obtained analytical expressions allow further improving of the sensitivity and spectroscopic accuracy making the soliton absorption spectroscopy a promising novel measurement technique. PMID:21151755

  2. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  3. Spectral dependences of extrinsic optical absorption in sillenite crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Kisteneva, M G; Khudyakova, E S; Shandarov, S M; Akrestina, A S; Dyu, V G; Kargin, Yu F

    2015-07-31

    The influence of laser irradiation at wavelengths of 532 and 655 nm and annealing in air at temperatures from 200 to 370 °C on optical absorption spectra of undoped bismuth silicon oxide and bismuth germanium oxide and aluminium-doped bismuth titanium oxide crystals has been studied experimentally. The experimental data have been interpreted in terms of a model for extrinsic absorption that takes into account not only the contribution of the photoexcitation of electrons from deep donor centres with a normal distribution of their concentration with respect to ionisation energy but also that of intracentre transitions. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  4. Optical absorption measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Draggoo, Vaughn G.; Morton, Richard G.; Sawicki, Richard H.; Bissinger, Horst D.

    1989-01-01

    The system of the present invention contemplates a non-intrusive method for measuring the temperature rise of optical elements under high laser power optical loading to determine the absorption coefficient. The method comprises irradiating the optical element with a high average power laser beam, viewing the optical element with an infrared camera to determine the temperature across the optical element and calculating the absorption of the optical element from the temperature.

  5. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOEpatents

    Mahoney, Alan R.; Reed, Scott T.; Ashley, Carol S.; Martinez, F. Edward

    2003-10-14

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  6. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOEpatents

    Mahoney, Alan R.; Reed, Scott T.; Ashley, Carol S.; Martinez, F. Edward

    2004-08-31

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  7. Intranasal absorption of oxymorphone.

    PubMed

    Hussain, M A; Aungst, B J

    1997-08-01

    The nasal bioavailability of oxymorphone HCI was determined. Rats were surgically prepared to isolate the nasal cavity, into which a solution of oxymorphone was administered. A reference group of rats was administered oxymorphone HCl intravenously. Plasma oxymorphone concentrations were determined by HPLC. Nasal absorption was rapid, nasal bioavailability was 43%, and the iv and nasal elimination profiles were similar. Oxymorphone HCI appears to have the solubility, potency, and absorption properties required for efficient nasal delivery, which is an alternative to injections.

  8. Optical absorption spectra of dications of carotenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Jeevarajan, J.A.; Wei, C.C.; Jeevarajan, A.S.; Kispert, L.D.

    1996-04-04

    Quantitative optical absorption spectra of the cation radicals and the dications of canthaxanthin (I), {beta}carotene (II), 7`-cyano-7`-ethoxycarbonyl-7`-apo-{beta}-carotene (III), and 7`,7`-dimethyl-7`-apo-{beta}-carotene (IV) in dichloromethane solution are reported. Exclusive formation of dications occurs when the carotenoids are oxidized with ferric chloride. Addition of neutral carotenoid to the dications results in equilibrium formation of cation radicals. Oxidation with iodine in dichloromethane affords only cation radicals; electrochemical oxidation under suitable conditions yields both dications and cation radicals. Values of the optical parameters depend on the nature of the oxidative medium. The oscillator strengths calculated for gas phase cation radicals and dications of I-IV using the INDO/S method show the same trend as the experimental values. 31 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Ultraviolet Absorption by Secondary Organic Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madronich, S.; Lee-Taylor, J. M.; Hodzic, A.; Aumont, B.

    2014-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are typically formed in the atmosphere by the condensation of a myriad of intermediates from the photo-oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Many of these partly oxidized molecules have functional groups (chromophores) that absorb at the ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths available in the troposphere (λ ≳ 290 nm). We used the explicit chemical model GECKO-A (Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics for Organics in the Atmosphere) to estimate UV absorption cross sections for the gaseous and particulate components of SOA from different precursors (biogenic and anthropogenic) and formed in different environments (low and high NOx, day and night). Model predictions are evaluated with laboratory and field measurements of SOA UV optical properties (esp. mass absorption coefficients and single scattering albedo), and implications are presented for surface UV radiation trends, urban actinic flux modification, and SOA lifetimes.

  10. Coupled Mercury–Cell Sorption, Reduction, and Oxidation on Methylmercury Production by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Hui; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L.; Rao, Balaji; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua

    2014-09-30

    G. sulfurreducens PCA cells have been shown to reduce, sorb, and methylate Hg(II) species, but it is unclear whether this organism can oxidize and methylate dissolved elemental Hg(0) as shown for Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132. Using Hg(II) and Hg(0) separately as Hg sources in washed cell assays in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4), in this paper we report how cell-mediated Hg reduction and oxidation compete or synergize with sorption, thus affecting the production of toxic methylmercury by PCA cells. Methylation is found to be positively correlated to Hg sorption (r = 0.73) but negatively correlated to Hg reduction (r = -0.62). These reactions depend on the Hg and cell concentrations or the ratio of Hg to cellular thiols (-SH). Oxidation and methylation of Hg(0) are favored at relatively low Hg to cell–SH molar ratios (e.g., <1). Increasing Hg to cell ratios from 0.25 × 10–19 to 25 × 10–19 moles-Hg/cell (equivalent to Hg/cell–SH of 0.71 to 71) shifts the major reaction from oxidation to reduction. In the absence of five outer membrane c-type cytochromes, mutant ΔomcBESTZ also shows decreases in Hg reduction and increases in methylation. However, the presence of competing thiol-binding ions such as Zn2+ leads to increased Hg reduction and decreased methylation. Finally, these results suggest that the coupled cell-Hg sorption and redox transformations are important in controlling the rates of Hg uptake and methylation by G. sulfurreducens PCA in anoxic environments.

  11. Coupled mercury-cell sorption, reduction, and oxidation on methylmercury production by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L; Rao, Balaji; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua

    2014-10-21

    G. sulfurreducens PCA cells have been shown to reduce, sorb, and methylate Hg(II) species, but it is unclear whether this organism can oxidize and methylate dissolved elemental Hg(0) as shown for Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132. Using Hg(II) and Hg(0) separately as Hg sources in washed cell assays in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4), we report how cell-mediated Hg reduction and oxidation compete or synergize with sorption, thus affecting the production of toxic methylmercury by PCA cells. Methylation is found to be positively correlated to Hg sorption (r = 0.73) but negatively correlated to Hg reduction (r = -0.62). These reactions depend on the Hg and cell concentrations or the ratio of Hg to cellular thiols (-SH). Oxidation and methylation of Hg(0) are favored at relatively low Hg to cell-SH molar ratios (e.g., <1). Increasing Hg to cell ratios from 0.25 × 10(-19) to 25 × 10(-19) moles-Hg/cell (equivalent to Hg/cell-SH of 0.71 to 71) shifts the major reaction from oxidation to reduction. In the absence of five outer membrane c-type cytochromes, mutant ΔomcBESTZ also shows decreases in Hg reduction and increases in methylation. However, the presence of competing thiol-binding ions such as Zn(2+) leads to increased Hg reduction and decreased methylation. These results suggest that the coupled cell-Hg sorption and redox transformations are important in controlling the rates of Hg uptake and methylation by G. sulfurreducens PCA in anoxic environments.

  12. Coupled Mercury–Cell Sorption, Reduction, and Oxidation on Methylmercury Production by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Hui; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L.; Rao, Balaji; ...

    2014-09-30

    G. sulfurreducens PCA cells have been shown to reduce, sorb, and methylate Hg(II) species, but it is unclear whether this organism can oxidize and methylate dissolved elemental Hg(0) as shown for Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132. Using Hg(II) and Hg(0) separately as Hg sources in washed cell assays in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4), in this paper we report how cell-mediated Hg reduction and oxidation compete or synergize with sorption, thus affecting the production of toxic methylmercury by PCA cells. Methylation is found to be positively correlated to Hg sorption (r = 0.73) but negatively correlated to Hg reduction (r = -0.62).more » These reactions depend on the Hg and cell concentrations or the ratio of Hg to cellular thiols (-SH). Oxidation and methylation of Hg(0) are favored at relatively low Hg to cell–SH molar ratios (e.g., <1). Increasing Hg to cell ratios from 0.25 × 10–19 to 25 × 10–19 moles-Hg/cell (equivalent to Hg/cell–SH of 0.71 to 71) shifts the major reaction from oxidation to reduction. In the absence of five outer membrane c-type cytochromes, mutant ΔomcBESTZ also shows decreases in Hg reduction and increases in methylation. However, the presence of competing thiol-binding ions such as Zn2+ leads to increased Hg reduction and decreased methylation. Finally, these results suggest that the coupled cell-Hg sorption and redox transformations are important in controlling the rates of Hg uptake and methylation by G. sulfurreducens PCA in anoxic environments.« less

  13. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

    1989-05-09

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit. 1 fig.

  14. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, Robert C.; Biermann, Wendell J.

    1989-01-01

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit.

  15. Accumulation and oxidation of elemental mercury in tropical soils.

    PubMed

    Soares, Liliane Catone; Egreja Filho, Fernando Barboza; Linhares, Lucília Alves; Windmoller, Cláudia Carvalhinho; Yoshida, Maria Irene

    2015-09-01

    The role of chemical and mineralogical soil properties in the retention and oxidation of atmospheric mercury in tropical soils is discussed based on thermal desorption analysis. The retention of gaseous mercury by tropical soils varied greatly both quantitatively and qualitatively with soil type. The average natural mercury content of soils was 0.08 ± 0.06 μg g(-1) with a maximum of 0.215 ± 0.009 μg g(-1). After gaseous Hg(0) incubation experiments, mercury content of investigated soils ranged from 0.6 ± 0.2 to 735 ± 23 μg g(-1), with a mean value of 44 ± 146 μg g(-1). Comparatively, A horizon of almost all soil types adsorbed more mercury than B horizon from the same soil, which demonstrates the key role of organic matter in mercury adsorption. In addition to organic matter, pH and CEC also appear to be important soil characteristics for the adsorption of mercury. All thermograms showed Hg(2+) peaks, which were predominant in most of them, indicating that elemental mercury oxidized in tropical soils. After four months of incubation, the thermograms showed oxidation levels from 70% to 100%. As none of the samples presented only the Hg(0) peak, and the soils retained varying amounts of mercury despite exposure under the same incubation conditions, it became clear that oxidation occurred on soil surface. Organic matter seemed to play a key role in mercury oxidation through complexation/stabilization of the oxidized forms. The lower percentages of available mercury (extracted with KNO3) in A horizons when compared to B horizons support this idea.

  16. An investigation of the Fe and Mo oxidation states in Sr[subscript 2]Fe[subscript 2]Mo[subscript x]O[subscript 6] (0.25 [less than] x [less than] 1.0) double perovskites by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, John R.; Grosvenor, Andrew P.

    2012-10-25

    Sr{sub 2}FeMoO{sub 6} double perovskite systems are widely studied because of their interesting and technologically relevant physical properties. Sr{sub 2}FeMoO{sub 6} is just a single composition in the Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2-x}Mo{sub x}O{sub 6} solid-solution, and it is important to understand how the composition impacts the transition-metal valence states. Variations in the lattice parameters of these materials were studied using powder X-ray diffraction and it was found that a large change in the lattice constant occurs between Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 1.50}Mo{sub 0.50}O{sub 6} and Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 1.35}Mo{sub 0.65}O{sub 6} that likely coincides with a transition from a cubic to a tetragonal unit cell, in agreement with previous studies. Fe K- and Mo K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectra were also collected to investigate how the oxidation state and coordination environment change with composition. When the Mo content is low, Fe adopts a 3+ oxidation state and Mo adopts a 6+ oxidation state. As the Mo content is increased, the Fe and Mo cations are both partially reduced, resulting in a mixture of Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+} and Mo{sup 5+} and Mo{sup 6+}. The reduction of the metal centers apparently drives the change in unit cell. The influence of preparation method on the oxidation states of Fe and Mo was also investigated by annealing the materials under vacuum. The results reported here show that the oxidation states of Fe and Mo are strongly impacted by both composition and preparation method, which may account for the wide variety of oxidation state and magnetic properties that have been reported previously.

  17. The two-photon absorptivity of rotational transitions in the A2 Sigma hyperon + (v prime = O) - X-2 pion (v prime prime = O) gamma band of nitric oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, K. P.; Mckenzie, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    A predominantly single-mode pulsed dye laser system giving a well characterized spatial and temporal output suitable for absolute two-photon absorptivity measurements was used to study the NO gamma(0,0) S11 + R21 (J double prime = 7-1/2) transition. Using a calibrated induced-fluorescence technique, an absorptivity parameter of 2.8 + or - 1.4 x 10 to the minus 51st power cm to the 6th power was obtained. Relative strengths of other rotational transitions in the gamma(0,0) band were also measured and shown to compare well with predicted values in all cases except the O12 (J double prime = 10-1/2) transition.

  18. Structural effect of the in situ generated titania on its ability to oxidize and capture the gas-phase elemental mercury.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tai Gyu; Hyun, Jung Eun

    2006-01-01

    Structural effect of the in situ generated TiO(2) sorbent particle was examined for its ability to capture elemental mercury under UV irradiation in a simulated combustion flue gas. Titania particles were prepared by thermal gas-phase oxidation of Titanium (IV) isopropoxide (TTIP) using a high temperature electric furnace reactor. The structural characteristics of the in situ generated TiO(2) at various synthesis temperatures were investigated; size distribution and the geometric mean diameter were measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer, while fractal dimension and radius of gyration were evaluated from the transmission electron microscopy images. Results from the Hg(0) capture experiment show that with increasing titania synthesis temperature, the overall aggregate size increases and the morphology becomes more open-structured to gas-phase Hg(0) and UV light, resulting in the improved mercury removal capability.

  19. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon; Perez-Blanco, Horacio

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  20. Absorption Heat Pump Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunugi, Yoshifumi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    Various advanced absorption cycles are studied, developed and invented. In this paper, their cycles are classified and arranged using the three categories: effect, stage and loop, then an outline of the cycles are explained on the Duehring diagram. Their cycles include high COP cycles for refrigerations and heat pumps, high temperature lift cycles for heat transformer, absorption-compression hybrid cycles and heat pump transformer cycle. The highest COPi is attained by the seven effect cycle. In addition, the cycles for low temperature are invented and explained. Furthermore the power generation • refrigeration cycles are illustrated.

  1. Mercury (II) reduction and co-precipitation of metallic mercury on hydrous ferric oxide in contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Richard, Jan-Helge; Bischoff, Cornelia; Ahrens, Christian G M; Biester, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) speciation and sorption analyses in contaminated aquifers are useful for understanding transformation, retention, and mobility of Hg in groundwater. In most aquifers hydrous ferric oxides (HFOs) are among the most important sorbents for trace metals; however, their role in sorption or mobilization of Hg in aquifers has been rarely analyzed. In this study, we investigated Hg chemistry and Hg sorption to HFO under changing redox conditions in a highly HgCl2-contaminated aquifer (up to 870μgL(-1) Hg). Results from aqueous and solid phase Hg measurements were compared to modeled (PHREEQC) data. Speciation analyses of dissolved mercury indicated that Hg(II) forms were reduced to Hg(0) under anoxic conditions, and adsorbed to or co-precipitated with HFO. Solid phase Hg thermo-desorption measurements revealed that between 55 and 93% of Hg bound to HFO was elemental Hg (Hg(0)). Hg concentrations in precipitates reached more than 4 weight %, up to 7000 times higher than predicted by geochemical models that do not consider unspecific sorption to and co-precipitation of elemental Hg with HFO. The observed process of Hg(II) reduction and Hg(0) formation, and its retention and co-precipitation by HFO is thought to be crucial in HgCl2-contaminated aquifers with variable redox-conditions regarding the related decrease in Hg solubility (factor of ~10(6)), and retention of Hg in the aquifer.

  2. Nitrogen dioxide absorption in aqueous sodium sulfite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chen Hua

    The Clean Air Act of 1990 requires additional reduction of acid gases, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides released into the atmosphere from coal-fired electric power plants. In the case of older existing power plants, a possible retrofit strategy is to oxidize nitric oxide (NO, the major constituent of NOsbX in flue gas) to nitrogen dioxide (NOsb2) by the addition of methanol or other hydrocarbons into the duct at an optimum temperature regime. NOsb2 can then be removed by either modifying existing SOsb2 control equipment or by adding a limestone (CaCOsb3) slurry scrubbing process. Limestone reacts with SOsb2 to from CaSOsb3, and the free sulfite (SO{sb3sp{=}}) in the solution is reactive toward NOsb2. The focus of this research is to study the reaction between NOsb2 and aqueous sulfite at elevated temperature and in the presence of gas phase Osb2. The removal of NOsb2 by limestone slurry scrubbing involves the reaction between NOsb2 and SO{sb3sp{=}}, bisulfite (HSO{sb3sp{-}}) and water. The reactions between NOsb2 and SO{sb3sp{=}}/HSO{sb3sp{-}} are first order in both reactants, while the NOsb2-water reaction is second order in NOsb2 concentration. The rate constants of the above reactions and the NOsb2-thiosulfate (Ssb2O{sb3sp{=}}) reaction were determined at 55sp°C. SO{sb3sp{=}} was found to be the most reactive toward NOsb2, while the contribution of chemical reaction still dominated in the absorption of NOsb2 into water. The effect of gas phase SOsb2 and Osb2, and liquid phase additives such as Ssb2O{sb3sp{=}}, Casp{++}, Mgsp{++}, and Clsp{-} on NOsb2 absorption was also investigated. The absorption of NOsb2 catalyzes free radical reactions that lead to sulfite oxidation. A semi-empirical model was proposed to relate the rate of sulfite oxidation to the rate of NOsb2 absorption. Thiosulfate inhibits sulfite oxidation by providing an alternative route for the termination of the free radical reactions, and a fundamental model was derived to quantify the effect

  3. Removing sulphur oxides from a fluid stream

    DOEpatents

    Katz, Torsten; Riemann, Christian; Bartling, Karsten; Rigby, Sean Taylor; Coleman, Luke James Ivor; Lail, Marty Alan

    2014-04-08

    A process for removing sulphur oxides from a fluid stream, such as flue gas, comprising: providing a non-aqueous absorption liquid containing at least one hydrophobic amine, the liquid being incompletely miscible with water; treating the fluid stream in an absorption zone with the non-aqueous absorption liquid to transfer at least part of the sulphur oxides into the non-aqueous absorption liquid and to form a sulphur oxide-hydrophobic amine-complex; causing the non-aqueous absorption liquid to be in liquid-liquid contact with an aqueous liquid whereby at least part of the sulphur oxide-hydrophobic amine-complex is hydrolyzed to release the hydrophobic amine and sulphurous hydrolysis products, and at least part of the sulphurous hydrolysis products is transferred into the aqueous liquid; separating the aqueous liquid from the non-aqueous absorption liquid. The process mitigates absorbent degradation problems caused by sulphur dioxide and oxygen in flue gas.

  4. Two-Phonon Absorption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, M. W.

    2007-01-01

    A nonlinear aspect of the acousto-optic interaction that is analogous to multi-photon absorption is discussed. An experiment is described in which the second-order acousto-optically scattered intensity is measured and found to scale with the square of the acoustic intensity. This experiment using a commercially available acousto-optic modulator is…

  5. Absorption of Deuterium Fluoride Laser Radiation by the Atmosphere

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-01

    spectroscopy technique was used to determine the frequencies of the 3-2 P(7) and 2-1 P(10) lines by measuring their separation from N2O absorption lines...19. KEY WORDS ( Continue on reverse aide il necessary and (den(//y by bloc* number) Absorption DF laser Laser Propagation Molecular... Spectroscopy HDO Water Vapor Methane Nitrous Oxide Spectra Atmosphere ■jr—.„sTRACT rConllnue on reverse side 1/necessary and Identity by block number

  6. 69. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE ABSORPTION TOWER BUILDING, ABSORPTION TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE ABSORPTION TOWER BUILDING, ABSORPTION TOWER UNDER CONSTRUCTION. (DATE UNKNOWN). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  7. Quantum absorption refrigerator.

    PubMed

    Levy, Amikam; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2012-02-17

    A quantum absorption refrigerator driven by noise is studied with the purpose of determining the limitations of cooling to absolute zero. The model consists of a working medium coupled simultaneously to hot, cold, and noise baths. Explicit expressions for the cooling power are obtained for Gaussian and Poisson white noise. The quantum model is consistent with the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The third law is quantified; the cooling power J(c) vanishes as J(c) ∝ T(c)(α), when T(c)→0, where α=d+1 for dissipation by emission and absorption of quanta described by a linear coupling to a thermal bosonic field, where d is the dimension of the bath.

  8. Acoustic absorption by sunspots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, D. C.; Labonte, B. J.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents the initial results of a series of observations designed to probe the nature of sunspots by detecting their influence on high-degree p-mode oscillations in the surrounding photosphere. The analysis decomposes the observed oscillations into radially propagating waves described by Hankel functions in a cylindrical coordinate system centered on the sunspot. From measurements of the differences in power between waves traveling outward and inward, it is demonstrated that sunspots appear to absorb as much as 50 percent of the incoming acoustic waves. It is found that for all three sunspots observed, the amount of absorption increases linearly with horizontal wavenumber. The effect is present in p-mode oscillations with wavelengths both significantly larger and smaller than the diameter of the sunspot umbrae. Actual absorption of acoustic energy of the magnitude observed may produce measurable decreases in the power and lifetimes of high-degree p-mode oscillations during periods of high solar activity.

  9. Bioacoustic Absorption Spectroscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    seas in co-operation with fisheries biologists. The first planned experiment will be in the seas off California in co-operation with the Southwest... Fisheries Science Center of NOAA’s National Marine Fisheries Service. These experiments will be designed to investigate the “signatures” of the two major...formulating environmental adaptation strategies for tactical sonars. Fisheries applications: These results suggest that bioacoustic absorptivity can be used to

  10. Vehicular impact absorption system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoell, A. C.; Wilson, A. H. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An improved vehicular impact absorption system characterized by a plurality of aligned crash cushions of substantially cubic configuration is described. Each consists of a plurality of voided aluminum beverage cans arranged in substantial parallelism within a plurality of superimposed tiers and a covering envelope formed of metal hardware cloth. A plurality of cables is extended through the cushions in substantial parallelism with an axis of alignment for the cushions adapted to be anchored at each of the opposite end thereof.

  11. Hydrogen Absorption by Niobium.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-13

    incorporate an independent means for ascertaining surface cleanliness (e.g. AES). The form of the absorption curve in Fig. 7 appears to agree with that...very interesting study and is well within the capabilities of the systen designed, if the surface cleanliness can be assured. Wire specimens have a...assessing surface cleanliness would be an important supporting technique for understanding the results of these measurements. The simple kinetic

  12. Relic Neutrino Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Eberle, b

    2004-01-28

    Resonant annihilation of extremely high-energy cosmic neutrinos on big-bang relic anti-neutrinos (and vice versa) into Z-bosons leads to sizable absorption dips in the neutrino flux to be observed at Earth. The high-energy edges of these dips are fixed, via the resonance energies, by the neutrino masses alone. Their depths are determined by the cosmic neutrino background density, by the cosmological parameters determining the expansion rate of the universe, and by the large redshift history of the cosmic neutrino sources. We investigate the possibility of determining the existence of the cosmic neutrino background within the next decade from a measurement of these absorption dips in the neutrino flux. As a by-product, we study the prospects to infer the absolute neutrino mass scale. We find that, with the presently planned neutrino detectors (ANITA, Auger, EUSO, OWL, RICE, and SalSA) operating in the relevant energy regime above 10{sup 21} eV, relic neutrino absorption spectroscopy becomes a realistic possibility. It requires, however, the existence of extremely powerful neutrino sources, which should be opaque to nucleons and high-energy photons to evade present constraints. Furthermore, the neutrino mass spectrum must be quasi-degenerate to optimize the dip, which implies m{sub {nu}} 0.1 eV for the lightest neutrino. With a second generation of neutrino detectors, these demanding requirements can be relaxed considerably.

  13. Corrosion Problems in Absorption Chillers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetson, Bruce

    1978-01-01

    Absorption chillers use a lithium bromide solution as the medium of absorption and water as the refrigerant. Discussed are corrosion and related problems, tests and remedies, and cleaning procedures. (Author/MLF)

  14. Determination of the molar absorptivity of NADH.

    PubMed

    McComb, R B; Bond, L W; Burnett, R W; Keech, R C; Bowers, G N

    1976-02-01

    The molar absorptivity of NADH at 340 nm has been determined by an indirect procedure in which high-purity glucose is phosphorylated by ATP in the presence of hexokinase, coupled to oxidation of the glucose-6-phosphate by NAD+ in the presence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. The average value from 85 independent determinations is 6317 liter mol-1 cm-1 at 25 degrees C and pH 7.8. The overall uncertainty is -4.0 to +5.5 ppt (6292 to 6352 liter mol-1 cm-1), based on a standard error of the mean of 0.48 ppt and an estimate of systematic error of -2.6 to +4.1 ppt. Effects of pH, buffer, and temperature on the molar absorptivity are also reported.

  15. Stabilization of mercury over Mn-based oxides: Speciation and reactivity by temperature programmed desorption analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haomiao; Ma, Yongpeng; Huang, Wenjun; Mei, Jian; Zhao, Songjian; Qu, Zan; Yan, Naiqiang

    2017-01-05

    Mercury temperature-programmed desorption (Hg-TPD) method was employed to clarify mercury species over Mn-based oxides. The elemental mercury (Hg(0)) removal mechanism over MnOx was ascribed to chemical-adsorption. HgO was the primary mercury chemical compound adsorbed on the surface of MnOx. Rare earth element (Ce), main group element (Sn) and transition metal elements (Zr and Fe) were chosen for the modification of MnOx. Hg-TPD results indicated that the binding strength of mercury on these binary oxides followed the order of Sn-MnOxHg(0) removal, and the weak bond of mercury can be easily destroyed by SO2. NO was favorable for Hg(0) removal, and the bond strength of mercury was enhanced.

  16. Tin Oxide Crystals Exposed by Low-Energy {110} Facets for Enhanced Electrochemical Heavy Metal Ions Sensing: X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Experimental Combined with Density-Functional Theory Evidence.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhen; Yang, Meng; Chen, Shao-Hua; Liu, Jin-Huai; Li, Qun-Xiang; Huang, Xing-Jiu

    2017-02-21

    Herein, we revealed that the electrochemical behaviors on the detection of heavy metal ions (HMIs) would largely rely on the exposed facets of SnO2 nanoparticles. Compared to the high-energy {221} facet, the low-energy {110} facet of SnO2 possessed better electrochemical performance. The adsorption/desorption tests, density-functional theory (DFT) calculations, and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) studies showed that the lower barrier energy of surface diffusion on {110} facet was critical for the superior electrochemical property, which was favorable for the ions diffusion on the electrode, and further leading the enhanced electrochemical performance. Through the combination of experiments and theoretical calculations, a reliable interpretation of the mechanism for electroanalysis of HMIs with nanomaterials exposed by different crystal facets has been provided. Furthermore, it provides a deep insight into understanding the key factor to improve the electrochemical performance for HMIs detection, so as to design high-performance electrochemical sensors.

  17. Acoustic Absorption Characteristics of People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsbury, H. F.; Wallace, W. J.

    1968-01-01

    The acoustic absorption characteristics of informally dressed college students in typical classroom seating are shown to differ substantially from data for formally dressed audiences in upholstered seating. Absorption data, expressed as sabins per person or absorption coefficient per square foot, shows that there is considerable variation between…

  18. Ultraviolet absorption hygrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gersh, Michael E.; Bien, Fritz; Bernstein, Lawrence S.

    1986-01-01

    An ultraviolet absorption hygrometer is provided including a source of pulsed ultraviolet radiation for providing radiation in a first wavelength region where water absorbs significantly and in a second proximate wavelength region where water absorbs weakly. Ultraviolet radiation in the first and second regions which has been transmitted through a sample path of atmosphere is detected. The intensity of the radiation transmitted in each of the first and second regions is compared and from this comparison the amount of water in the sample path is determined.

  19. Ultraviolet absorption hygrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gersh, M.E.; Bien, F.; Bernstein, L.S.

    1986-12-09

    An ultraviolet absorption hygrometer is provided including a source of pulsed ultraviolet radiation for providing radiation in a first wavelength region where water absorbs significantly and in a second proximate wavelength region where water absorbs weakly. Ultraviolet radiation in the first and second regions which has been transmitted through a sample path of atmosphere is detected. The intensity of the radiation transmitted in each of the first and second regions is compared and from this comparison the amount of water in the sample path is determined. 5 figs.

  20. Modular total absorption spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karny, M.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Fijałkowska, A.; Rasco, B. C.; Wolińska-Cichocka, M.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Goetz, K. C.; Miller, D.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2016-11-01

    The design and performance of the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer built and commissioned at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is presented. The active volume of the detector is approximately one ton of NaI(Tl), which results in very high full γ energy peak efficiency of 71% at 6 MeV and nearly flat efficiency of around 81.5% for low energy γ-rays between 300 keV and 1 MeV. In addition to the high peak efficiency, the modular construction of the detector permits the use of a γ-coincidence technique in data analysis as well as β-delayed neutron observation.

  1. Absorption of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, ethane and nitrogen by 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium (C(n)mim, n = 2,4,6) tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate ionic liquids (eFAP).

    PubMed

    Almantariotis, D; Stevanovic, S; Fandiño, O; Pensado, A S; Padua, A A H; Coxam, J-Y; Costa Gomes, M F

    2012-07-05

    We measured the densities of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium (C(n)mim, n = 2,4,6) tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate ionic liquids (eFAP) as a function of temperature and pressure and their viscosities as a function of temperature. These ionic liquids are less viscous than those based in the same cations but with other anions such as bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide. The ionic liquids studied are only partially miscible with water, their solubility increasing with the size of the alkyl side-chain of the cation and with temperature (from x(H(2)O) = 0.20 ± 0.03 for [C(4)mim][eFAP] at 303.10 K to x(H(2)O) = 0.49 ± 0.07 for [C(6)mim][eFAP] at 315.10 K). The solubility of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, ethane, and nitrogen in the three ionic liquids was measured as a function of temperature and at pressures close to atmospheric. Carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide are the more soluble gases with mole fraction solubilities of the order of 3 × 10(-2) at 303 K. The solubility of these gases does not increase linearly with the size of the alkyl-side chain of the cation. The solubilities of ethane and nitrogen are much lower than those of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide (mole fractions 60% and 90% lower, respectively). The higher solubility of CO(2) and N(2)O can be explained by more favorable interactions between the solutes and the polar region of the ionic liquids as shown by the enthalpies of solvation determined experimentally and by the calculation of the site-site solute-solvent radial distribution functions using molecular simulation.

  2. The HI absorption "Zoo"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geréb, K.; Maccagni, F. M.; Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T. A.

    2015-03-01

    We present an analysis of the H I 21 cm absorption in a sample of 101 flux-selected radio AGN (S1.4 GHz> 50 mJy) observed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). We detect H I absorption in 32 objects (30% of the sample). In a previous paper, we performed a spectral stacking analysis on the radio sources, while here we characterize the absorption spectra of the individual detections using the recently presented busy function. The H I absorption spectra show a broad variety of widths, shapes, and kinematical properties. The full width half maximum (FWHM) of the busy function fits of the detected H I lines lies in the range 32 km s-1absorption (FW20) lies in the range 63 km s-1 200 km s-1). We study the kinematical and radio source properties of each group, with the goal of identifying different morphological structures of H I. Narrow lines mostly lie at the systemic velocity and are likely produced by regularly rotating H I disks or gas clouds. More H I disks can be present among galaxies with lines of intermediate widths; however, the H I in these sources is more unsettled. We study the asymmetry parameter and blueshift/redshift distribution of the lines as a function of their width. We find a trend for which narrow profiles are also symmetric, while broad lines are the most asymmetric. Among the broadest lines, more lines appear blueshifted than redshifted, similarly to what was found by previous studies. Interestingly, symmetric broad lines are absent from the sample. We argue that if a profile is broad, it is also asymmetric and shifted relative to the systemic velocity because it is tracing unsettled H I gas. In particular, besides three of the broadest (up to FW20 = 825 km s-1

  3. SEM-EDX, water absorption, and wetting capability studies on evaluation of the influence of nano-zinc oxide as additive to paraloid B72 solutions used for wooden artifacts consolidation.

    PubMed

    Tuduce Traistaru, Ana-Adriana; Crina Anca Sandu, Irina; Cristina Timar, Maria; Lucia Dumitrescu, Georgeta; Sandu, Ion

    2013-02-01

    Consolidation of frail, degraded wood is a key issue of wooden cultural heritage conservation. Paraloid B72 is one of the most often used consolidant in conservation practice. The present research aimed at formulating stable consolidation solutions of Paraloid B72 with ZnO nano-additives and at determining the influence of these additives on the penetration pathways, retention of the consolidation material into wood and on the water behavior of the treated wood. The experiments were performed on sound samples of aspen (Populus tremula). The addition of nano-ZnO slightly increased the uptake and retention of the consolidant within the wooden structure and led to hydrophobic surfaces. However, the influence of nano-ZnO additives to the water absorption was not conclusive. Scanning Electron Microscope coupled with an EDX Detector investigation proved vessels, fibers, and interconnecting pits as main pathways of consolidant penetration into the wooden structure as well as the presence and distribution of nano-ZnO.

  4. Solid state synthesis of layered sodium manganese oxide for sodium-ion battery by in-situ high energy X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Tianyuan; Xu, Gui-Liang; Zeng, Xiaoqiao; Li, Yan; Ren, Yang; Sun, Chengjun; Heald, Steve M.; Jorne, Jacob; Amine, Khalil; Chen, Zonghai

    2017-02-01

    In situ high energy X-ray diffraction (HEXRD) and in situ X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) were carried out to understand the solid state synthesis of NaxMnO2, with particular interest on the synthesis of P2 type Na2/3MnO2. It was found that there were multi intermediate phases formed before NaMnO2 appeared at about 600 °C. And the final product after cooling process is a combination of O‧3 NaMnO2 with P2 Na2/3MnO2. A P2 type Na2/3MnO2 was synthesized at reduced temperature (600 °C). The influence of Na2CO3 impurity on the electrochemical performance of P2 Na2/3MnO2 was thoroughly investigated in our work. It was found that the content of Na2CO3 can be reduced by optimizing Na2CO3/MnCO3 ratio during the solid state reaction or other post treatment such as washing with water. We expected our results could provide a good guide for future development of high performance cathode materials for sodium-ion batteries.

  5. Absorption of sulfur dioxide from gases by ferrous sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, B.J.; Zambrano, A.R.

    1980-12-09

    This application is directed to the use of ferrous sulfate for absorption of sulfur from gases containing the same. The invention is predicated on the reaction of the sulfur oxides with ferrous sulfate in the presence of oxygen to form principally ferric sulfate.

  6. [High-order derivative spectroscopy of infrared absorption spectra of the reaction centers from Rhodobacter sphaeroides].

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    The infrared absorption spectra of reduced and chemically oxidized reaction center preparations from the purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides were investigated by means of high-order derivative spectroscopy. The model Gaussian band with a maximum at 810 nm and a half-band of 15 nm found in the absorption spectrum of the reduced reaction center preparation is eliminated after the oxidation of photoactive bacteriochlorophyll dimer (P). This band was related to the absorption of the P(+)y excitonic band of P. On the basis of experimental results, it was concluded that the bleaching of the P(+)y absorption band at 810 nm in the oxidized reaction center preparations gives the main contribution to the blue shift of the 800 nm absorption band of Rb. sphaeroides reaction centers.

  7. Generation of oxoiron (IV) tetramesitylporphyrin pi-cation radical complexes by m-CPBA oxidation of ferric tetramesitylporphyrin derivatives in butyronitrile at - 78 degrees C. Evidence for the formation of six-coordinate oxoiron (IV) tetramesitylporphyrin pi-cation radical complexes FeIV = O(tmp*)X (X = Cl-, Br-), by Mössbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wolter, T; Meyer-Klaucke, W; Müther, M; Mandon, D; Winkler, H; Trautwein, A X; Weiss, R

    2000-01-30

    The generation of six-coordinate oxoiron (IV) tetramesitylporphyrin pi-caption radical complexes by m-CPBA (meta-chloroperbenzoic acid) oxidation of ferric tetramesitylporphyrin derivatives in butyronitrile at - 78 degrees C was investigated. UV-Vis and EPR spectroscopies indicate that the axial ligand present in the ferric starting derivatives is retained in the high-valent iron complexes. Indirect evidence for the formation of six-coordinate oxoiron (IV) tetramesitylporphyrin complexes FeIV = O(tmp*)X (X=Cl-, Br-) by m-CPBA oxidation of FeX(tmp) (X=Cl-, Br-) in butyronitrile at - 78 degrees C was also obtained by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Direct confirmation of the presence of a halide ion as second axial ligand of iron in these high-valent iron species was obtained by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The EXAFS spectra of the samples obtained by m-CPBA oxidation of FeX(tmp) (X=Cl-, Br-) were refined using two different coordination models including both four porphyrinato-nitrogens and the axial oxo group. The two models include (model I) or exclude (model II) the axial halogen. The statistical tests indicate the presence of a halide ion as second axial ligand of iron in both derivatives. The refinements led to the following bond distances: FeIV=O(tmp*)Cl(3):Fe-O=1.66(1),Fe-Cl=2.39(2) and Fe-Np=1.99(1) A;FeIV=O(tmp*)Br(4):Fe-O=1.65(1),Fe-Br=2.93(2), Fe-Np=2.02(1) A. The lengthening of the Fe-X(X=Cl-, Br-) distances relative to those occurring in the ferric precursor porphyrins is, most probably, related to the strong trans influence of the oxoiron(IV) fragment present in 3 or 4.

  8. Analyzing Water's Optical Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A cooperative agreement between World Precision Instruments (WPI), Inc., and Stennis Space Center has led the UltraPath(TM) device, which provides a more efficient method for analyzing the optical absorption of water samples at sea. UltraPath is a unique, high-performance absorbance spectrophotometer with user-selectable light path lengths. It is an ideal tool for any study requiring precise and highly sensitive spectroscopic determination of analytes, either in the laboratory or the field. As a low-cost, rugged, and portable system capable of high- sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters, UltraPath will help scientists examine the role that coastal ocean environments play in the global carbon cycle. UltraPath(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc. LWCC(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc.

  9. Differential optoacoustic absorption detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shumate, M. S. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A differential optoacoustic absorption detector employed two tapered cells in tandem or in parallel. When operated in tandem, two mirrors were used at one end remote from the source of the beam of light directed into one cell back through the other, and a lens to focus the light beam into the one cell at a principal focus half way between the reflecting mirror. Each cell was tapered to conform to the shape of the beam so that the volume of one was the same as for the other, and the volume of each received maximum illumination. The axes of the cells were placed as close to each other as possible in order to connect a differential pressure detector to the cells with connecting passages of minimum length. An alternative arrangement employed a beam splitter and two lenses to operate the cells in parallel.

  10. Two absorption furosemide prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Mombrú, A W; Mariezcurrena, R A; Suescun, L; Pardo, H; Manta, E; Prandi, C

    1999-03-15

    The structures of two absorption furosemide prodrugs, hexanoyloxymethyl 4-chloro-N-furfuryl-5-sulfamoyl-anthranilate (C19H23CIN2O7S), (I), and benzoyloxymethyl 4-chloro-N-furfuryl-5-sulfamoylanthranilate (C20H17CIN2O7S), (II), are described in this paper and compared with furosemide and four other prodrugs. The molecular conformations of both compounds are similar to those of the other prodrugs; the packing and the crystal system are the primary differences. Compound (I) crystallizes in the trigonal space group R3 and compound (II) in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/n. The packing of both structures is stabilized by a three-dimensional hydrogen-bond network.

  11. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  12. BASIC STUDIES IN PERCUTANEOUS ABSORPTION.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    FATTY ACIDS, *SKIN(ANATOMY), ABSORPTION, ALKYL RADICALS, AMIDES, DIFFUSION, ELECTRON MICROSCOPY, HUMIDITY, LABORATORY ANIMALS, LIPIDS, ORGANIC SOLVENTS, PENETRATION, PRIVATION, PROTEINS, RATS, TEMPERATURE, WATER

  13. Investigation of the Structural Stability of Ion-Implanted Gd2Ti2-xSnxO7 Pyrochlore-Type Oxides by Glancing Angle X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Aluri, Esther Rani; Hayes, John R.; Walker, James D.S.; Grosvenor, Andrew P.

    2016-03-24

    Rare-earth titanate and stannate pyrochlore-type oxides have been investigated in the past for the sequestration of nuclear waste elements because of their resistance to radiation-induced structural damage. In order to enhance this property, it is necessary to understand the effect of radioactive decay of the incorporated actinide elements on the local chemical environment. In this study, Gd2Ti2–xSnxO7 materials have been implanted with Au– ions to simulate radiation-induced structural damage. Glancing angle X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (GA-XANES), glancing angle X-ray absorption fine structure (GA-EXAFS) analysis, and powder X-ray diffraction have been used to investigate changes in the local coordination environment of the metal atoms in the damaged surface layer. Examination of GA-XANES/EXAFS spectra from the implanted Gd2Ti2–xSnxO7 materials collected at various glancing angles allowed for an investigation of how the local coordination environment around the absorbing atoms changed at different depths in the damaged surface layer. This study has shown the usefulness of GA-XANES to the examination of ion-implanted materials and has suggested that Gd2Ti2–xSnxO7 becomes more susceptible to ion-beam-induced structural damage with increasing Sn concentration.

  14. Adsorption studies of Cd(II) onto Al 2O 3/Nb 2O 5 mixed oxide dispersed on silica matrix and its on-line preconcentration and determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonça Costa, Lucimara; Ribeiro, Emerson Schwingel; Segatelli, Mariana Gava; do Nascimento, Danielle Raphael; de Oliveira, Fernanda Midori; Tarley, César Ricardo Teixeira

    2011-05-01

    The present study describes the adsorption characteristic of Cd(II) onto Nb 2O 5/Al 2O 3 mixed oxide dispersed on silica matrix. The characterization of the adsorbent has been carried out by infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (EDXRF) and specific surface area ( SBET). From batch experiments, adsorption kinetic of Cd(II) was described by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The Langmuir linear isotherm fitted to the experimental adsorption isotherm very well, and the maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 17.88 mg g -1. Using the effective material, a method for Cd(II) preconcentration at trace level was developed. The method was based on on-line adsorption of Cd(II) onto SiO 2/Al 2O 3/Nb 2O 5 at pH 8.64, in which the quantitative desorption occurs with 1.0 mol L -1 hydrochloric acid towards FAAS detector. The experimental parameters related to the system were studied by means of multivariate analysis, using 2 4 full factorial design and Doehlert matrix. The effect of SO 42-, Cu 2+, Zn 2+ and Ni 2+ foreign ions showed no interference at 1:100 analyte:interferent proportion. Under the most favorable experimental conditions, the preconcentration system provided a preconcentration factor of 18.4 times, consumption index of 1.08 mL, sample throughput of 14 h -1, concentration efficiency of 4.35 min -1, linear range from 5.0 up to 35.0 μg L -1 and limits of detection and quantification of 0.19 and 0.65 μg L -1 respectively. The feasibility of the proposed method for Cd(II) determination was assessed by analysis of water samples, cigarette sample and certified reference materials TORT-2 (Lobster hepatopancreas) and DOLT-4 (Dogfish liver).

  15. Excitonic effects from geometric order and disorder explain broadband optical absorption in eumelanin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Teh; Chuang, Chern; Cao, Jianshu; Ball, Vincent; Ruch, David; Buehler, Markus J

    2014-05-22

    Eumelanin is a ubiquitous biological pigment, and the origin of its broadband absorption spectrum has long been a topic of scientific debate. Here, we report a first-principles computational investigation to explain its broadband absorption feature. These computations are complemented by experimental results showing a broadening of the absorption spectra of dopamine solutions upon their oxidation. We consider a variety of eumelanin molecular structures supported by experiments or theoretical studies, and calculate the absorption spectra with proper account of the excitonic couplings based on the Frenkel exciton model. The interplay of geometric order and disorder of eumelanin aggregate structures broadens the absorption spectrum and gives rise to a relative enhancement of absorption intensity at the higher-energy end, proportional to the cube of absorption energy. These findings show that the geometric disorder model is as able as the chemical disorder model, and complements this model, to describe the optical properties of eumelanin.

  16. Solar Absorption in Cloudy Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harshvardhan; Ridgway, William; Ramaswamy, V.; Freidenreich, S. M.; Batey, Michael

    1996-01-01

    The theoretical computations used to compute spectral absorption of solar radiation are discussed. Radiative properties relevant to the cloud absorption problem are presented and placed in the context of radiative forcing. Implications for future measuring programs and the effect of horizontal inhomogeneities are discussed.

  17. Atmospheric absorption of sound - Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bass, H. E.; Sutherland, L. C.; Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    Best current expressions for the vibrational relaxation times of oxygen and nitrogen in the atmosphere are used to compute total absorption. The resulting graphs of total absorption as a function of frequency for different humidities should be used in lieu of the graph published earlier by Evans et al (1972).

  18. Subgap Absorption in Conjugated Polymers

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Sinclair, M.; Seager, C. H.; McBranch, D.; Heeger, A. J; Baker, G. L.

    1991-01-01

    Along with X{sup (3)}, the magnitude of the optical absorption in the transparent window below the principal absorption edge is an important parameter which will ultimately determine the utility of conjugated polymers in active integrated optical devices. With an absorptance sensitivity of < 10{sup {minus}5}, Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS) is ideal for determining the absorption coefficients of thin films of transparent'' materials. We have used PDS to measure the optical absorption spectra of the conjugated polymers poly(1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (and derivitives) and polydiacetylene-4BCMU in the spectral region from 0.55 eV to 3 eV. Our spectra show that the shape of the absorption edge varies considerably from polymer to polymer, with polydiacetylene-4BCMU having the steepest absorption edge. The minimum absorption coefficients measured varied somewhat with sample age and quality, but were typically in the range 1 cm{sup {minus}1} to 10 cm{sup {minus}1}. In the region below 1 eV, overtones of C-H stretching modes were observed, indicating that further improvements in transparency in this spectral region might be achieved via deuteration of fluorination.

  19. Optical absorption of silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, T.; Lambert, Y.; Krzeminski, C.; Grandidier, B.; Stievenard, D.; Leveque, G.; Akjouj, A.; Pennec, Y.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.

    2012-08-01

    We report on simulations and measurements of the optical absorption of silicon nanowires (NWs) versus their diameter. We first address the simulation of the optical absorption based on two different theoretical methods: the first one, based on the Green function formalism, is useful to calculate the scattering and absorption properties of a single or a finite set of NWs. The second one, based on the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, is well-adapted to deal with a periodic set of NWs. In both cases, an increase of the onset energy for the absorption is found with increasing diameter. Such effect is experimentally illustrated, when photoconductivity measurements are performed on single tapered Si nanowires connected between a set of several electrodes. An increase of the nanowire diameter reveals a spectral shift of the photocurrent intensity peak towards lower photon energies that allow to tune the absorption onset from the ultraviolet radiations to the visible light spectrum.

  20. Ultraviolet absorption spectrum of HOCl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkholder, James B.

    1993-01-01

    The room temperature UV absorption spectrum of HOCl was measured over the wavelength range 200 to 380 nm with a diode array spectrometer. The absorption spectrum was identified from UV absorption spectra recorded following UV photolysis of equilibrium mixtures of Cl2O/H2O/HOCl. The HOCl spectrum is continuous with a maximum at 242 nm and a secondary peak at 304 nm. The measured absorption cross section at 242 nm was (2.1 +/- 0.3) x 10 exp -19/sq cm (2 sigma error limits). These results are in excellent agreement with the work of Knauth et al. (1979) but in poor agreement with the more recent measurements of Mishalanie et al. (1986) and Permien et al. (1988). An HOCl nu2 infrared band intensity of 230 +/- 35/sq cm atm was determined based on this UV absorption cross section. The present results are compared with these previous measurements and the discrepancies are discussed.

  1. Gas-absorption process

    DOEpatents

    Stephenson, Michael J.; Eby, Robert S.

    1978-01-01

    This invention is an improved gas-absorption process for the recovery of a desired component from a feed-gas mixture containing the same. In the preferred form of the invention, the process operations are conducted in a closed-loop system including a gas-liquid contacting column having upper, intermediate, and lower contacting zones. A liquid absorbent for the desired component is circulated through the loop, being passed downwardly through the column, regenerated, withdrawn from a reboiler, and then recycled to the column. A novel technique is employed to concentrate the desired component in a narrow section of the intermediate zone. This technique comprises maintaining the temperature of the liquid-phase input to the intermediate zone at a sufficiently lower value than that of the gas-phase input to the zone to effect condensation of a major part of the absorbent-vapor upflow to the section. This establishes a steep temperature gradient in the section. The stripping factors below this section are selected to ensure that virtually all of the gases in the downflowing absorbent from the section are desorbed. The stripping factors above the section are selected to ensure re-dissolution of the desired component but not the less-soluble diluent gases. As a result, a peak concentration of the desired component is established in the section, and gas rich in that component can be withdrawn therefrom. The new process provides important advantages. The chief advantage is that the process operations can be conducted in a single column in which the contacting zones operate at essentially the same pressure.

  2. Gastrointestinal citrate absorption in nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fegan, J.; Khan, R.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    Gastrointestinal absorption of citrate was measured in stone patients with idiopathic hypocitraturia to determine if citrate malabsorption could account for low urinary citrate. Citrate absorption was measured directly from recovery of orally administered potassium citrate (40 mEq.) in the intestinal lavage fluid, using an intestinal washout technique. In 7 stone patients citrate absorption, serum citrate levels, peak citrate concentration in serum and area under the curve were not significantly different from those of 7 normal subjects. Citrate absorption was rapid and efficient in both groups, with 96 to 98% absorbed within 3 hours. The absorption of citrate was less efficient from a tablet preparation of potassium citrate than from a liquid preparation, probably due to a delayed release of citrate from wax matrix. However, citrate absorption from solid potassium citrate was still high at 91%, compared to 98% for a liquid preparation. Thus, hypocitraturia is unlikely to be due to an impaired gastrointestinal absorption of citrate in stone patients without overt bowel disease.

  3. Determination of mercury in carbon black by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hepp, Nancy M

    2006-01-01

    Recently, a new color additive, D&C Black No. 2, a high-purity furnace black in the general category of carbon blacks, was listed as a color subject to batch certification by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. A simple procedure was developed to determine mercury (Hg) in D&C Black No. 2, which is limited by specification to not more than 1 ppm Hg. The method uses partial acid digestion followed by cold vapor atomic absorption and was developed by modifying a method used for other color additives. The carbon black samples are treated with a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids and heated by microwave in sealed Teflon vessels. The resulting solutions, which are stable to Hg loss for at least 1 week, are diluted and analyzed for Hg using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Validation was performed by spiking carbon black samples with inorganic Hg (HgNO3) at levels from 0.1 to 1.5 microg/g, and by analyzing 2 standard reference materials. At the specification level of 1 ppm Hg (1 microg Hg/g), the 95% confidence interval was +/-0.01 ppm Hg (0.01 microg Hg/g). The method developed in this study gave good results for very difficult-to-analyze materials, such as coal standard reference materials and carbon black. By eliminating volatility and adsorption factors through the formation of HgCl4(-2) complexes, one can avoid using extremely hazardous acids such as HF and HClO4.

  4. FTIR-spectrometer-determined absorption coefficients of seven hydrazine fuel gases - Implications for laser remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molina, L. T.; Grant, W. B.

    1984-01-01

    The absorption spectra of three hydrazines and four of their air-oxidation products were measured in the 9-12-micron spectral region with a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer with a 0.05-kayser resolution to determine absorption coefficients at CO2 and tunable diode laser wavelengths. The measurements agreed well with published CO2 laser determinations for many of the absorption coefficients, except where the published values are thought to be in error. The coefficients were then used to estimate the sensitivity for remote detection of these gases using CO2 and tunable diode lasers in long-path differential absorption measurements.

  5. Temperature-dependent 780-nm laser absorption by engineering grade aluminum, titanium, and steel alloy surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Wu, Sheldon S. Q.; Kanz, V. Keith; LeBlanc, Mary M.; Lowdermilk, W. Howard; Rotter, Mark D.; Stanley, Joel R.

    2014-07-17

    When modeling laser interaction with metals for various applications it requires a knowledge of absorption coefficients for real, commercially available materials with engineering grade (unpolished, oxidized) surfaces. But, most currently available absorptivity data pertain to pure metals with polished surfaces or vacuum-deposited thin films in controlled atmospheres. A simple laboratory setup is developed for the direct calorimetric absorptivity measurements using a diode-array laser emitting at 780 nm. A scheme eliminating the effect of convective and radiative losses is implemented. Futhermore, the obtained absorptivity results differ considerably from existing data for polished pure metals and are essential for the development of predictive laser-material interaction models.

  6. Molecular aspects of intestinal calcium absorption.

    PubMed

    Diaz de Barboza, Gabriela; Guizzardi, Solange; Tolosa de Talamoni, Nori

    2015-06-21

    Intestinal Ca(2+) absorption is a crucial physiological process for maintaining bone mineralization and Ca(2+) homeostasis. It occurs through the transcellular and paracellular pathways. The first route comprises 3 steps: the entrance of Ca(2+) across the brush border membranes (BBM) of enterocytes through epithelial Ca(2+) channels TRPV6, TRPV5, and Cav1.3; Ca(2+) movement from the BBM to the basolateral membranes by binding proteins with high Ca(2+) affinity (such as CB9k); and Ca(2+) extrusion into the blood. Plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase (PMCA1b) and sodium calcium exchanger (NCX1) are mainly involved in the exit of Ca(2+) from enterocytes. A novel molecule, the 4.1R protein, seems to be a partner of PMCA1b, since both molecules co-localize and interact. The paracellular pathway consists of Ca(2+) transport through transmembrane proteins of tight junction structures, such as claudins 2, 12, and 15. There is evidence of crosstalk between the transcellular and paracellular pathways in intestinal Ca(2+) transport. When intestinal oxidative stress is triggered, there is a decrease in the expression of several molecules of both pathways that inhibit intestinal Ca(2+) absorption. Normalization of redox status in the intestine with drugs such as quercetin, ursodeoxycholic acid, or melatonin return intestinal Ca(2+) transport to control values. Calcitriol [1,25(OH)₂D₃] is the major controlling hormone of intestinal Ca(2+) transport. It increases the gene and protein expression of most of the molecules involved in both pathways. PTH, thyroid hormones, estrogens, prolactin, growth hormone, and glucocorticoids apparently also regulate Ca(2+) transport by direct action, indirect mechanism mediated by the increase of renal 1,25(OH)₂D₃ production, or both. Different physiological conditions, such as growth, pregnancy, lactation, and aging, adjust intestinal Ca(2+) absorption according to Ca(2+) demands. Better knowledge of the molecular details of intestinal Ca(2

  7. Absorption of Bile Pigments by the Gall Bladder*

    PubMed Central

    Ostrow, J. Donald

    1967-01-01

    A technique is described for preparation in the guinea pig of an in situ, isolated, vascularized gall bladder that exhibits normal absorptive functions. Absorption of labeled bile pigments from the gall bladder was determined by the subsequent excretion of radioactivity in hepatic bile. Over a wide range of concentrations, unconjugated bilirubin-14C was well absorbed, whereas transfer of conjugated bilirubin proceeded slowly. Mesobilirubinogen-3H was absorbed poorly from whole bile, but was absorbed as rapidly as unconjugated bilirubin from a solution of pure conjugated bile salt. Bilirubin absorption was not impaired by iodoacetamide, 1.5 mM, or dinitrophenol, 1.0 mM, even though water transport was affected. This indicated that absorption of bilirubin was not dependent upon water transport, nor upon energy-dependent processes. The linear relationship between absorption and concentration of pigment at low concentrations in bile salt solutions suggested that pigment was transferred by passive diffusion. At higher pigment concentrations or in whole bile, this simple relationship was modified by interactions of pigment with bile salts and other constituents of bile. These interactions did not necessarily involve binding of bilirubin in micelles. The slow absorption of the more polar conjugates and photo-oxidative derivatives of bilirubin suggested that bilirubin was absorbed principally by nonionic, and partially, by ionic diffusion. Concentrations of pure conjugated bile salts above 3.5 mM were found to be injurious to the gall bladder mucosa. This mucosal injury did not affect the kinetics of bilirubin absorption. During in vitro incubation of bile at 37°C, decay of bilirubin and hydrolysis of the conjugate proceeded as first-order reactions. The effects of these processes on the kinetics of bilirubin absorption, and their possible role in the formation of “white bile” and in the demonstrated appearance of unconjugated bilirubin in hepatic bile, are discussed

  8. Microwave radiation absorption: behavioral effects.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, J A

    1991-07-01

    The literature contains much evidence that absorption of microwave energy will lead to behavioral changes in man and laboratory animals. The changes include simple perturbations or outright stoppage of ongoing behavior. On one extreme, intense microwave absorption can result in seizures followed by death. On the other extreme, man and animals can hear microwave pulses at very low rates of absorption. Under certain conditions of exposure, animals will avoid microwaves, while under other conditions, they will actively work to obtain warmth produced by microwaves. Some research has shown behavioral effects during chronic exposure to low-level microwaves. The specific absorption rates that produce behavioral effects seem to depend on microwave frequency, but controversy exists over thresholds and mechanism of action. In all cases, however, the behavioral disruptions cease when chronic microwave exposure is terminated. Thermal changes in man and animals during microwave exposure appear to account for all reported behavioral effects.

  9. Kinetic and Product Studies of the Reaction Between Oxidized Mercury Species and Selected Thiols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, L.; Ariya, P.

    2008-12-01

    Mercury is a global pollutant with severe potential toxicity. The reduction of oxidized mercury species (Hg(II)) to elemental mercury (Hg(0)) affects the global distribution of mercury and competes for methylation processes of mercury in aquatic environment. This study focused on the reduction of Hg(II) by several selected thiols using a suite of complementary mass spectrometry and cold vapor fluorescence spectroscopy (CVAFS). Previous studies showed that irradiation of benzene solution of six mercury dimercaptides (benzyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, cyclopentyl, t-butyl and phenyl sulfide) at part-per-million level by a mercury arc lamp under a nitrogen atmosphere caused the formation of Hg(0) to occur. The reaction kinetics was studied using CVAFS, and the products of the reaction were analyzed using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The kinetic data were obtained for 1-butanethiol, and 1-pentanethiol, 1-hexanethiol at environmental relevant conditions. The effects of light, pH, dissolved oxygen and chloride ion on reaction rates were also investigated. We will present our results and discuss their potential environmental implications on mercury cycling.

  10. Solar Absorptance of Cermet Coatings Evaluated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.

    2004-01-01

    Cermet coatings, molecular mixtures of metal and ceramic, are being considered for the heat inlet surface of solar Stirling convertors. In this application, the key role of the cermet coating is to absorb as much of the incident solar energy as possible. To achieve this objective, the cermet coating has a high solar absorptance value. Cermet coatings are manufactured utilizing sputter deposition, and many different metal and ceramic combinations can be created. The ability to mix metal and ceramic at the atomic level offers the opportunity to tailor the composition, and hence, the optical properties of these coatings. The NASA Glenn Research Center has prepared and characterized a wide variety of cermet coatings utilizing different metals deposited in an aluminum oxide ceramic matrix. In addition, the atomic oxygen durability of these coatings has been evaluated.

  11. Combined tween 20-stabilized gold nanoparticles and reduced graphite oxide-Fe3O4 nanoparticle composites for rapid and efficient removal of mercury species from a complex matrix.

    PubMed

    Shih, Ya-Chen; Ke, Chen-Yi; Yu, Cheng-Ju; Lu, Chi-Yu; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2014-10-22

    This study describes a simple method for removing mercuric ions (Hg(2+)) from a high-salt matrix based on the use of Tween-20-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Tween 20-Au NPs) as Hg(2+) adsorbents and composites of reduced graphite oxide and Fe3O4 NPs as NP collectors. Citrate ions adsorbed on the surface of the Tween 20-Au NPs reduced Hg(2+) to Hg(0), resulting in the deposition of Hg(0) on the surface of the NPs. To circumvent time-consuming centrifugation and transfer steps, the Hg(0)-containing gold NPs were collected using reduced graphite oxide-Fe3O4 NP composites. Compared with the reported NP-based methods for removing Hg(2+), Tween 20-Au NPs offered the rapid (within 30 min), efficient (>99% elimination efficiency), durable (>10 cycles), and selective removal of Hg(2+), CH3Hg(+), and C2H5Hg(+) in a high-salt matrix without the interference of other metal ions. This was attributed to the fact that the dispersed Tween 20-Au NPs exhibited large surface-area-to-volume ratio to bind Hg(2+) through Hg(2+)-Au(+) metallophilic interactions in a high-salt matrix. The formation of graphite oxide sheets and reduced graphite oxide-Fe3O4 NP composites was demonstrated using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy. The mechanism of interaction between Tween 20-Au NPs and Hg(2+) was studied using visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  12. Absorption behavior of vanadium in Nafion®

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hyun-Seok; Ohashi, Masato; Van Zee, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    The absorption of vanadium to Nafion® was investigated through ex-situ isotherm and conductivity measurements at 23 °C. The data show a maximum loss of ion exchange capacity (IEC) of 30% for all four oxidation states of vanadium. The affinity of vanadium for N115 was measured by back titration and atomic absorption (AA) and characterized by isotherms at 23 °C, and the affinity is highest for the divalent species and lowest for the pentavalent species in the following order: VO2+ (V5+) < VO2+ (V4+) < V3+ < V2+. Steric hindrance from the associated water complex may explain the lower absorption of vanadium compared to alkali metals. The conductivity for the VO2+ (minimum affinity)-exchanged membrane was 2-3× lower than the sodium-exchanged membrane at an approximate RH = 100%.

  13. Incomplete intestinal absorption of fructose.

    PubMed Central

    Kneepkens, C M; Vonk, R J; Fernandes, J

    1984-01-01

    Intestinal D-fructose absorption in 31 children was investigated using measurements of breath hydrogen. Twenty five children had no abdominal symptoms and six had functional bowel disorders. After ingestion of fructose (2 g/kg bodyweight), 22 children (71%) showed a breath hydrogen increase of more than 10 ppm over basal values, indicating incomplete absorption: the increase averaged 53 ppm, range 12 to 250 ppm. Four of these children experienced abdominal symptoms. Three of the six children with bowel disorders showed incomplete absorption. Seven children were tested again with an equal amount of glucose, and in three of them also of galactose, added to the fructose. The mean maximum breath hydrogen increases were 5 and 10 ppm, respectively, compared with 103 ppm after fructose alone. In one boy several tests were performed with various sugars; fructose was the only sugar incompletely absorbed, and the effect of glucose on fructose absorption was shown to be dependent on the amount added. It is concluded that children have a limited absorptive capacity for fructose. We speculate that the enhancing effect of glucose and galactose on fructose absorption may be due to activation of the fructose carrier. Apple juice in particular contains fructose in excess of glucose and could lead to abdominal symptoms in susceptible children. PMID:6476870

  14. Reflective-tube absorption meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaneveld, J. Ronald V.; Bartz, Robert; Kitchen, James C.

    1990-09-01

    The design and calibration of a proposed in situ spectral absorption meter is evaluated using a laboratory prototype. The design includes a silver coated (second-surface) glass tube, a tungsten light source (stabilized by means of optical feedback), a monochromator, and a solid state detector. The device measures the absorption coefficient plus a portion of the volume scattering function. Theoretical analyses and laboratory experiments which explore the magnitude and variation of the errors due to scattering and internal reflections are described. Similar analyses are performed on the Cary 1 18 Spectrophotometer to allow cross calibration. Algorithms to yield the abscrption coefficient and the zenith-sun diffuse attenuation coefficient are presented and evaluated. Simultaneous measurement of the beam attenuation or backscattering coefficient allows use of algoriThms with much narrower error bands. The various methods of obtaining absorption and diffuse attenuation values are compared. Procedures for using reverse osmosis filtration to produce a clean water calibration standard are described. An absorption spectrum for pure water is obtained. Development of the absorption meter is proceeding along two lines: 1) a two-wavelength side-by-side LED is being fabricated to allow an in situ chlorophyll a absorption meter to be constructed, and 2) scientific projects using a shipboard or laboratory flow.-through pumping system are being planned.

  15. Effect of oxy-combustion flue gas on mercury oxidation.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Miranda, Nuria; Lopez-Anton, M Antonia; Díaz-Somoano, Mercedes; Martínez-Tarazona, M Rosa

    2014-06-17

    This study evaluates the effect of the gases present in a typical oxy-coal combustion atmosphere on mercury speciation and compares it with the mercury speciation produced in conventional air combustion atmospheres. The work was performed at laboratory scale at 150 °C. It was found that the minor constituents (SO2, NOx, and HCl) significantly modify the percentages of Hg(2+) in the gas. The influence of these species on mercury oxidation was demostrated when they were tested individually and also when they were blended in different gas compositions, although the effect was different to the sum of their individual effects. Of the minor constituents, NOx were the main species involved in oxidation of mercury. Moreover, it was found that a large concentration of H2O vapor also plays an important role in mercury oxidation. Around 50% of the total mercury was oxidized in atmospheres with H2O vapor concentrations typical of oxy-combustion conditions. When the atmospheres have similar concentrations of SO2, NO, NO2, HCl, and H2O, the proportion of Hg(0)/Hg(2+) is similar regardless of whether CO2 (oxy-fuel combustion) or N2 (air combustion) are the main components of the gas.

  16. Fat-soluble vitamin intestinal absorption: absorption sites in the intestine and interactions for absorption.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Aurélie; Roi, Stéphanie; Nowicki, Marion; Dhaussy, Amélie; Huertas, Alain; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2015-04-01

    The interactions occurring at the intestinal level between the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K (FSVs) are poorly documented. We first determined each FSV absorption profile along the duodenal-colonic axis of mouse intestine to clarify their respective absorption sites. We then investigated the interactions between FSVs during their uptake by Caco-2 cells. Our data show that vitamin A was mostly absorbed in the mouse proximal intestine, while vitamin D was absorbed in the median intestine, and vitamin E and K in the distal intestine. Significant competitive interactions for uptake were then elucidated among vitamin D, E and K, supporting the hypothesis of common absorption pathways. Vitamin A also significantly decreased the uptake of the other FSVs but, conversely, its uptake was not impaired by vitamins D and K and even promoted by vitamin E. These results should be taken into account, especially for supplement formulation, to optimise FSV absorption.

  17. Near-perfect broadband absorption from hyperbolic metamaterial nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Conor T.; Smalley, Joseph S. T.; Brodie, Jeffrey R. J.; Fainman, Yeshaiahu; Sirbuly, Donald J.; Liu, Zhaowei

    2017-02-01

    Broadband absorbers are essential components of many light detection, energy harvesting, and camouflage schemes. Current designs are either bulky or use planar films that cause problems in cracking and delamination during flexing or heating. In addition, transferring planar materials to flexible, thin, or low-cost substrates poses a significant challenge. On the other hand, particle-based materials are highly flexible and can be transferred and assembled onto a more desirable substrate but have not shown high performance as an absorber in a standalone system. Here, we introduce a class of particle absorbers called transferable hyperbolic metamaterial particles (THMMP) that display selective, omnidirectional, tunable, broadband absorption when closely packed. This is demonstrated with vertically aligned hyperbolic nanotube (HNT) arrays composed of alternating layers of aluminum-doped zinc oxide and zinc oxide. The broadband absorption measures >87% from 1,200 nm to over 2,200 nm with a maximum absorption of 98.1% at 1,550 nm and remains large for high angles. Furthermore, we show the advantages of particle-based absorbers by transferring the HNTs to a polymer substrate that shows excellent mechanical flexibility and visible transparency while maintaining near-perfect absorption in the telecommunications region. In addition, other material systems and geometries are proposed for a wider range of applications.

  18. Near-perfect broadband absorption from hyperbolic metamaterial nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Riley, Conor T; Smalley, Joseph S T; Brodie, Jeffrey R J; Fainman, Yeshaiahu; Sirbuly, Donald J; Liu, Zhaowei

    2017-02-07

    Broadband absorbers are essential components of many light detection, energy harvesting, and camouflage schemes. Current designs are either bulky or use planar films that cause problems in cracking and delamination during flexing or heating. In addition, transferring planar materials to flexible, thin, or low-cost substrates poses a significant challenge. On the other hand, particle-based materials are highly flexible and can be transferred and assembled onto a more desirable substrate but have not shown high performance as an absorber in a standalone system. Here, we introduce a class of particle absorbers called transferable hyperbolic metamaterial particles (THMMP) that display selective, omnidirectional, tunable, broadband absorption when closely packed. This is demonstrated with vertically aligned hyperbolic nanotube (HNT) arrays composed of alternating layers of aluminum-doped zinc oxide and zinc oxide. The broadband absorption measures >87% from 1,200 nm to over 2,200 nm with a maximum absorption of 98.1% at 1,550 nm and remains large for high angles. Furthermore, we show the advantages of particle-based absorbers by transferring the HNTs to a polymer substrate that shows excellent mechanical flexibility and visible transparency while maintaining near-perfect absorption in the telecommunications region. In addition, other material systems and geometries are proposed for a wider range of applications.

  19. Atomic absorption determination of tin in foods: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Elkins, E R; Sulek, A

    1979-09-01

    Samples of green beans, applesauce, and a fruit juice were fortified with tin at 3 levels. Collaborators were asked to digest the samples, using HNO3-H2SO4, add methanol to enhance the absorption signal, and aspirate directly, using a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame. Results were received from 8 laboratories including 4 from Europe. However, only 6 laboratories used the prescribed methodology. All results were considered acceptable. The method has been adopted as interim official first action.

  20. Ursodeoxycholic and deoxycholic acids: A good and a bad bile acid for intestinal calcium absorption.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Valeria; Rivoira, María; Marchionatti, Ana; Pérez, Adriana; Tolosa de Talamoni, Nori

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on intestinal Ca(2+) absorption and to find out whether the inhibition of this process caused by NaDOC could be prevented by UDCA. Chicks were employed and divided into four groups: (a) controls, (b) treated with 10mM NaDOC, (c) treated with 60 μg UDCA/100g of b.w., and (d) treated with 10mM NaDOC and 60 μg UDCA/100g of b.w. UDCA enhanced intestinal Ca(2+) absorption, which was time and dose-dependent. UDCA avoided the inhibition of intestinal Ca(2+) absorption caused by NaDOC. Both bile acids altered protein and gene expression of molecules involved in the transcellular pathway of intestinal Ca(2+) absorption, but in the opposite way. UDCA aborted the oxidative stress produced by NaDOC in the intestine. UDCA and UDCA plus NaDOC increased vitamin D receptor protein expression. In conclusion, UDCA is a beneficial bile acid for intestinal Ca(2+) absorption. Contrarily, NaDOC inhibits the intestinal cation absorption through triggering oxidative stress. The use of UDCA in patients with cholestasis would be benefited because of the protective effect on the intestinal Ca(2+) absorption, avoiding the inhibition caused by hydrophobic bile acids and neutralizing the oxidative stress.

  1. The distribution of absorptive power dissipation in irradiated nanoparticulate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiayu; Yang, Jian; Gu, Xiaobing

    2016-10-01

    The knowledge of local radiant absorption is important to the nanostructure optimization, it is beneficial to the applications in energy harvesting, optical heating, photocatalysis, etc. In this paper, FDTD model is constructed for the distribution of absorptive power dissipation in irradiated nanoparticulate system. The theoretical model extended from Mie theory is used to examine the FDTD model, the parameters and conditions set for FDTD simulation are confirmed based on the comparison. Then, the influence of Ag nanoparticle on the absorptive properties of nearby TiO2 nanoparticle is investigated by FDTD simulation at the wavelength of 0.25 μm. It is indicated that suitable distance between TiO2 and Ag particles is beneficial to the spectral radiant absorption of TiO2 particle. Considering the agglomeration of nanoparticles and the oxidation at the TiO2-Ag interface, the Ag core coated with Al2O3 shell is suggested, and the simulated results indicated that the shell thickness and the Ag core size need to be optimized for enhancing the radiant absorption of TiO2 particle.

  2. Enhanced absorption cycle computer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, G.; Wilk, M.

    1993-09-01

    Absorption heat pumps have received renewed and increasing attention in the past two decades. The rising cost of electricity has made the particular features of this heat-powered cycle attractive for both residential and industrial applications. Solar-powered absorption chillers, gas-fired domestic heat pumps, and waste-heat-powered industrial temperature boosters are a few of the applications recently subjected to intensive research and development. The absorption heat pump research community has begun to search for both advanced cycles in various multistage configurations and new working fluid combinations with potential for enhanced performance and reliability. The development of working absorption systems has created a need for reliable and effective system simulations. A computer code has been developed for simulation of absorption systems at steady state in a flexible and modular form, making it possible to investigate various cycle configurations with different working fluids. The code is based on unit subroutines containing the governing equations for the system's components and property subroutines containing thermodynamic properties of the working fluids. The user conveys to the computer an image of his cycle by specifying the different subunits and their interconnections. Based on this information, the program calculates the temperature, flow rate, concentration, pressure, and vapor fraction at each state point in the system, and the heat duty at each unit, from which the coefficient of performance (COP) may be determined. This report describes the code and its operation, including improvements introduced into the present version. Simulation results are described for LiBr-H2O triple-effect cycles, LiCl-H2O solar-powered open absorption cycles, and NH3-H2O single-effect and generator-absorber heat exchange cycles. An appendix contains the user's manual.

  3. Absorption-heat-pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, G.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1983-06-16

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  4. Transient absorption spectroscopy of laser shocked explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Mcgrane, Shawn D; Dang, Nhan C; Whitley, Von H; Bolome, Cindy A; Moore, D S

    2010-01-01

    Transient absorption spectra from 390-890 nm of laser shocked RDX, PETN, sapphire, and polyvinylnitrate (PVN) at sub-nanosecond time scales are reported. RDX shows a nearly linear increase in absorption with time after shock at {approx}23 GPa. PETN is similar, but with smaller total absorption. A broad visible absorption in sapphire begins nearly immediately upon shock loading but does not build over time. PVN exhibits thin film interference in the absorption spectra along with increased absorption with time. The absorptions in RDX and PETN are suggested to originate in chemical reactions happening on picosecond time scales at these shock stresses, although further diagnostics are required to prove this interpretation.

  5. Characteristic features of optical absorption for Gd2O3 and NiO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatsepin, A. F.; Kuznetsova, Yu. A.; Rychkov, V. N.; Sokolov, V. I.

    2017-03-01

    The technical approach to determination of the structural and optical parameters of oxides with reduced dimensionality based on optical absorption measurements is described by example of gadolinium and nickel oxides. It was established that the temperature behavior of fundamental absorption edge for oxide nanoparticles is similar with the bulk materials with crystal structure. At the same time, the energy characteristics (band gap and effective phonon energies) for low-dimensional oxides are found to be significantly different from their bulk counterparts. The presented methodological method to obtain of qualitative and quantitative correlations of structural and optical characteristics provides novel reliable knowledge of nanoscaled 3d and 4f-metal oxide materials that is useful for development of their practical applications.

  6. Aerosol Absorption Measurements in MILAGRO.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Arnott, W. P.; Paredes-Miranda, L.; Barnard, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    During the month of March 2006, a number of instruments were used to determine the absorption characteristics of aerosols found in the Mexico City Megacity and nearby Valley of Mexico. These measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy's Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City (MAX-Mex) that was carried out in collaboration with the Megacity Interactions: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign. MILAGRO was a joint effort between the DOE, NSF, NASA, and Mexican agencies aimed at understanding the impacts of a megacity on the urban and regional scale. A super-site was operated at the Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City (designated T-0) and at the Universidad Technologica de Tecamac (designated T-1) that was located about 35 km to the north east of the T-0 site in the State of Mexico. A third site was located at a private rancho in the State of Hidalgo approximately another 35 km to the northeast (designated T-2). Aerosol absorption measurements were taken in real time using a number of instruments at the T-0 and T-1 sites. These included a seven wavelength aethalometer, a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP), and a photo-acoustic spectrometer. Aerosol absorption was also derived from spectral radiometers including a multi-filter rotating band spectral radiometer (MFRSR). The results clearly indicate that there is significant aerosol absorption by the aerosols in the Mexico City megacity region. The absorption can lead to single scattering albedo reduction leading to values below 0.5 under some circumstances. The absorption is also found to deviate from that expected for a "well-behaved" soot anticipated from diesel engine emissions, i.e. from a simple 1/lambda wavelength dependence for absorption. Indeed, enhanced absorption is seen in the region of 300-450 nm in many cases, particularly in the afternoon periods indicating that secondary organic aerosols are contributing to the aerosol absorption. This is likely due

  7. Metal powder absorptivity: Modeling and experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Boley, C. D.; Mitchell, S. C.; Rubenchik, A. M.; ...

    2016-08-10

    Here, we present results of numerical modeling and direct calorimetric measurements of the powder absorptivity for a number of metals. The modeling results generally correlate well with experiment. We show that the powder absorptivity is determined, to a great extent, by the absorptivity of a flat surface at normal incidence. Our results allow the prediction of the powder absorptivity from normal flat-surface absorptivity measurements.

  8. Determination of heavy metal contents by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) in some medicinal plants from Pakistani and Malaysian origin.

    PubMed

    Akram, Sobia; Najam, Rahila; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Abbas, Syed Atif

    2015-09-01

    This study depicts a profile of existence of heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, Hg, Mn, Fe, Na, Ca, and Mg) in some important herbal plants like (H. Integrifolia, D. regia, R. communis, C. equisetifolia, N. oleander, T. populnea, M. elengi, H. schizopetalus, P. pterocarpum) from Pakistan and an antidiabetic Malaysian herbal drug product containing (Punica granatum L. (Mast) Hook, Momordica charantia L., Tamarindus indica L., Lawsonia inermis L.) using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Heavy metals in these herbal plants and Malaysian product were in the range of 0.02-0.10 ppm of Cu, 0.00-0.02 ppm of Ni, 0.02-0.29 ppm of Zn, 0.00-0.04 ppm of Cd, 0.00-1.33 ppm of Hg, 0.00-0.54 ppm of Mn, 0.22-3.16 ppm of Fe, 0.00-9.17 ppm of Na, 3.27-15.63 ppm of Ca and 1.85-2.03 ppm of Mg. All the metals under study were within the prescribed limits except mercury. Out of 10 medicinal plants/product under study 07 were beyond the limit of mercury permissible limits. Purpose of this study is to determine heavy metals contents in selected herbal plants and Malaysian product, also to highlight the health concerns related to the presence of toxic levels of heavy metals.

  9. Theory of graphene saturable absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marini, A.; Cox, J. D.; García de Abajo, F. J.

    2017-03-01

    Saturable absorption is a nonperturbative nonlinear optical phenomenon that plays a pivotal role in the generation of ultrafast light pulses. Here we show that this effect emerges in graphene at unprecedentedly low light intensities, thus opening avenues to new nonlinear physics and applications in optical technology. Specifically, we theoretically investigate saturable absorption in extended graphene by developing a semianalytical nonperturbative single-particle approach, describing electron dynamics in the atomically-thin material using the two-dimensional Dirac equation for massless Dirac fermions, which is recast in the form of generalized Bloch equations. By solving the electron dynamics nonperturbatively, we account for both interband and intraband contributions to the intensity-dependent saturated conductivity and conclude that the former dominates regardless of the intrinsic doping state of the material. We obtain results in qualitative agreement with atomistic quantum-mechanical simulations of graphene nanoribbons including electron-electron interactions, finite-size, and higher-band effects. Remarkably, such effects are found to affect mainly the linear absorption, while the predicted saturation intensities are in good quantitative agreement in the limit of extended graphene. Additionally, we find that the modulation depth of saturable absorption in graphene can be electrically manipulated through an externally applied gate voltage. Our results are relevant for the development of graphene-based optoelectronic devices, as well as for applications in mode-locking and random lasers.

  10. Migrant labor absorption in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nayagam, J

    1992-01-01

    The use of migrant workers to ease labor shortages caused by rapid industrialization in Malaysia during the twentieth century is examined. "This paper will focus on: (1) the extent, composition and distribution of migrant workers; (2) the labor shortage and absorption of migrant workers; and (3) the role of migrant workers in the government's economic restructuring process."

  11. Quasistellar Objects: Intervening Absorption Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlton, J.; Churchill, C.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Every parcel of gas along the line of sight to a distant QUASAR will selectively absorb certain wavelengths of continuum light of the quasar due to the presence of the various chemical elements in the gas. Through the analysis of these quasar absorption lines we can study the spatial distributions, motions, chemical enrichment and ionization histories of gaseous structures from REDSHIFT five unti...

  12. Oxygen Absorption in Cooling Flows.

    PubMed

    Buote

    2000-04-01

    The inhomogeneous cooling flow scenario predicts the existence of large quantities of gas in massive elliptical galaxies, groups, and clusters that have cooled and dropped out of the flow. Using spatially resolved, deprojected X-ray spectra from the ROSAT PSPC, we have detected strong absorption over energies approximately 0.4-0.8 keV intrinsic to the central approximately 1&arcmin; of the galaxy NGC 1399, the group NGC 5044, and the cluster A1795. These systems have among the largest nearby cooling flows in their respective classes and low Galactic columns. Since no excess absorption is indicated for energies below approximately 0.4 keV, the most reasonable model for the absorber is warm, collisionally ionized gas with T=105-106 K in which ionized states of oxygen provide most of the absorption. Attributing the absorption only to ionized gas reconciles the large columns of cold H and He inferred from Einstein and ASCA with the lack of such columns inferred from ROSAT and also is consistent with the negligible atomic and molecular H inferred from H i and CO observations of cooling flows. The prediction of warm ionized gas as the product of mass dropout in these and other cooling flows can be verified by Chandra and X-Ray Multimirror Mission.

  13. Neutron Absorption in Geological Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Løvhøiden, G.; Andersen, E.

    1990-01-01

    Thermal neutron absorption cross section of geological samples is determined with the steady state neutron source method. Cross section measurements of North Sea sediments demonstrate that also materials with high contents of clay minerals may be investigated with the steady state method.

  14. Ultraviolet and Light Absorption Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargis, L. G.; Howell, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews developments in ultraviolet and light absorption spectrometry from December 1981 through November 1983, focusing on the chemistry involved in developing suitable reagents, absorbing systems, and methods of determination, and on physical aspects of the procedures. Includes lists of spectrophotometric methods for metals, non-metals, and…

  15. Slow light and saturable absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selden, A. C.

    2009-06-01

    Quantitative analysis of slow light experiments utilising coherent population oscillation (CPO) in a range of saturably absorbing media, including ruby and alexandrite, Er3+:Y2SiO5, bacteriorhodopsin, semiconductor quantum devices and erbium-doped optical fibres, shows that the observations may be more simply interpreted as saturable absorption phenomena. A basic two-level model of a saturable absorber displays all the effects normally associated with slow light, namely phase shift and modulation gain of the transmitted signal, hole burning in the modulation frequency spectrum and power broadening of the spectral hole, each arising from the finite response time of the non-linear absorption. Only where hole-burning in the optical spectrum is observed (using independent pump and probe beams), or pulse delays exceeding the limits set by saturable absorption are obtained, can reasonable confidence be placed in the observation of slow light in such experiments. Superluminal (“fast light”) phenomena in media with reverse saturable absorption (RSA) may be similarly explained.

  16. Light Absorption By Coated Soot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlacek, A. J.; Lee, J.; Onasch, T. B.; Davidovits, P.; Cross, E. S.

    2009-12-01

    The contribution of aerosol absorption on direct radiative forcing is still an active area of research, in part, because aerosol extinction is dominated by light scattering and, in part, because the primary absorbing aerosol of interest, soot, exhibits complex aging behavior that alters its optical properties. The consequences of this can be evidenced by the work of Ramanathan and Carmichael (2008) who suggest that incorporating the atmospheric heating due to brown clouds will increase black carbon (BC) radiative forcing from the IPCC best estimate of 0.34 Wm-2 (±0.25 Wm-2) (IPCC 2007) to 0.9 Wm-2. This noteworthy degree of the uncertainty is due largely to the interdependence of BC optical properties on particle mixing state and aggregate morphology, each of which changes as the particle ages in the atmosphere and becomes encapsulated within a coating of inorganic and/or organic substances. With the advent of techniques that can directly measure aerosol light absorption without influences due to collection substrate or light scattering (e.g., photoacoustic spectroscopy (Arnott et al., 2005; Lack et al., 2006) and photothermal interferometry (Sedlacek and Lee 2007)) the potential exists for quantifying this interdependence. In July 2008, a laboratory-based measurement campaign, led by Boston College and Aerodyne, was initiated to begin addressing this interdependence. To achieve this objective measurements of both the optical and physical properties of flame-generated soot under nascent, coated and denuded conditions were conducted. In this paper, light absorption by dioctyl sebacate (DOS) encapsulated soot and sulfuric acid coated soot using the technique of photothermal interferometry will be presented. In the case of DOS-coated soot, a monotonic increase in light absorption as a function DOS coating thickness to nearly 100% is observed. This observation is consistent with a coating-induced amplification in particle light absorption. (Bond et al. 2006) However

  17. Optical absorptions of polyfluorene transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yvonne Y.; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2005-07-01

    Conjugated polymers are a promising class of materials for organic electronics. While the progress in device performance is impressive, the basics of charge transport still pose many open questions. Specifically, conduction at the comparatively rough polymer-polymer interface in an all-polymer field-effect transistor is expected to be different from a sharp interface with an inorganic dielectric, such as silicon dioxide. In this work, charge modulation spectroscopy (CMS) is used to study the optical absorptions in the presence of charges in situ in the transistor structure. This allows direct observation of the charge carriers in the operational device via their spectroscopic signature; the technique is by design very sensitive to the properties of the semiconductor-dielectric interface. The semiconducting copolymer poly( 9,9' -dioctyl-fluorene-co-bithiophene) (F8T2) is incorporated into a top-gate thin-film transistor structure with a polymer dielectric layer deposited by spin coating and inkjet-printed polymer electrodes. A prominent charge-induced absorption at 1.65eV is observed as well as a shoulder at 1.3eV and a tail extending toward the absorption edge. The bias dependence of the CMS signature confirms that intermixing of the polymer layers is minimal, as expected from the excellent transistor characteristics. Polarization-dependent CMS measurements on aligned transistors show that the main feature at 1.65eV is strongly polarized whereas the shoulder is unpolarized. This observation, as well as further experimental evidence, lead to the conclusion that while the main absorption is attributable to the intrinsic, polaronic absorption in F8T2, the shoulder is likely to originate from a defect state.

  18. Spectral effects on direct-insolation absorptance of five collector coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hotchkiss, G. B.; Simon, F. F.; Burmeister, L. C.

    1979-01-01

    Absorptances for direct insolation of black chrome, black nickel, copper oxide, and two black zinc conversion selective coatings were calculated for a number of typical solar spectrums. Measured spectral reflectances were used while the effects of atmospheric ozone density, turbidity, and air mass were incorporated in calculated direct solar spectrums. Absorptance variation for direct insolation was found to be of the order of 1 percent for a typical range of clear-sky atmospheric conditions.

  19. Determination of gold in geologic materials by solvent extraction and atomic-absorption spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huffman, Claude; Mensik, J.D.; Riley, L.B.

    1967-01-01

    The two methods presented for the determination of traces of gold in geologic materials are the cyanide atomic-absorption method and the fire-assay atomic-absorption method. In the cyanide method gold is leached with a sodium-cyanide solution. The monovalent gold is then oxidized to the trivalent state and concentrated by extracting into methyl isobutyl ketone prior to estimation by atomic absorption. In the fire-assay atomic-absorption method, the gold-silver bead obtained from fire assay is dissolved in nitric and hydrochloric acids. Gold is then concentrated by extracting into methyl isobutyl ketone prior to determination by atomic absorption. By either method concentrations as low as 50 parts per billion of gold can be determined in a 15-gram sample.

  20. Infrasound absorption by atmospheric clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudoin, Michael; Coulouvrat, Francois; Thomas, Jean-Louis

    2010-05-01

    A model is developed for the absorption of infrasound by atmospheric clouds made of a suspension of liquid water droplets within a gaseous mixture of water vapor and air. The model is based on the work of D.A. Gubaidullin and R.I. Nigmatulin [Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 26, 207-228, 2000], which is applied to atmospheric clouds. Three physical mechanisms are included : unsteady viscous drag associated with momentum transfers due to the translation of water droplets, unsteady thermal transfers between the liquid and gaseous phases, and mass transfers due to the evaporation or condensation of the water phase. For clouds, in the infrasonic frequency range, phase changes are the dominant mechanisms (around 1 Hz), while viscous and heat transfers become significant only around 100 Hz. Mass transfers involve two physical effects : evaporation and condensation of the water phase at the droplet surface, and diffusion of the water vapor within the gaseous phase. The first one is described through the Hertz-Knudsen-Langmuir theory based on kinetic theory. It involves a little known coefficient known as coefficient of accommodation. The second one is the classical Fick diffusion. For clouds, and unless the coefficient of accommodation is very small (far from the generally recommended value is close to one), diffusion is the main limiting effects for mass transfers. In a second stage, the sound and infrasound absorption is evaluated for various typical clouds up to about 4 km altitude. Above this altitude, the ice content of clouds is dominant compared to their water content, and the present model is not applicable. Cloud thickness, water content, and droplets size distribution are shown to be the major factors influencing the infrasound absorption. A variety of clouds have been analyzed. In most cases, it is shown that infrasound absorption within clouds is several orders larger than classical absorption (due to molecular relaxation of nitrogen and oxygen molecules in presence

  1. Comparative Investigation of the Efficiency of Absorption of Solar Energy by Carbon Composite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prikhod‧ko, N. G.; Smagulova, G. T.; Rakhymzhan, N. B.; Kim, S.; Lesbaev, B. T.; Nazhipkyzy, M.; Mansurov, Z. A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of research on the efficiency of absorption of solar energy by various carbon materials (soot, carbonized apricot pits and rice husks, and carbon nanotubes in the form of a ″forest″), as well as by composites based on them with inclusions of metal oxide nanoparticles. An analysis of the efficiency of absorption of solar energy by various carbon materials has demonstrated the advantage of the carbon material from carbonized apricot pits. The results of the comparative investigation of the absorptivity of apricot pits with that of the coating of a production prototype of solar collector are presented.

  2. Broadband light absorption enhancement in polymer photovoltaics using metal nanowall gratings as transparent electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Zhuo; Chaudhary, Sumit; Kuang, Ping; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2012-05-15

    The authors investigate light absorption in organic solar cells in which indium tin oxide (ITO) is replaced by a new metallic architecture (grating) as a transparent electrode. Different from typical metal nanowire gratings, our gratings consist of metal nanowalls with nanoscale footprint and (sub)microscale height [Adv. Mater. 23, 2469 (2011)], thus ensuring high optical transmittance and electrical conductivity. Simulations reveal that a broadband and polarization-insensitive light absorption enhancement is achieved via two mechanisms, when such silver nanowall gratings are employed in P3HT:PCBM based solar cells. Overall absorption enhanced by ~23% compared to a reference cell with ITO electrode.

  3. Intracellular nanoparticles mass quantification by near-edge absorption soft X-ray nanotomography

    PubMed Central

    Conesa, Jose Javier; Otón, Joaquín; Chiappi, Michele; Carazo, Jose María; Pereiro, Eva; Chichón, Francisco Javier; Carrascosa, José L.

    2016-01-01

    We used soft X-ray three-dimensional imaging to quantify the mass of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) within whole cells, by exploiting the iron oxide differential absorption contrast. Near-edge absorption soft X-ray nanotomography (NEASXT) combines whole-cell 3D structure determination at 50 nm resolution, with 3D elemental mapping and high throughput. We detected three-dimensional distribution of SPIONs within cells with 0.3 g/cm3 sensitivity, sufficient for detecting the density corresponding to a single nanoparticle. PMID:26960695

  4. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing.

    PubMed

    Hrabina, Jan; Zucco, Massimo; Philippe, Charles; Pham, Tuan Minh; Holá, Miroslava; Acef, Ouali; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2017-01-06

    This article deals with the evaluation of the chemical purity of iodine-filled absorption cells and the optical frequency references used for the frequency locking of laser standards. We summarize the recent trends and progress in absorption cell technology and we focus on methods for iodine cell purity testing. We compare two independent experimental systems based on the laser-induced fluorescence method, showing an improvement of measurement uncertainty by introducing a compensation system reducing unwanted influences. We show the advantages of this technique, which is relatively simple and does not require extensive hardware equipment. As an alternative to the traditionally used methods we propose an approach of hyperfine transitions' spectral linewidth measurement. The key characteristic of this method is demonstrated on a set of testing iodine cells. The relationship between laser-induced fluorescence and transition linewidth methods will be presented as well as a summary of the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed technique (in comparison with traditional measurement approaches).

  5. Landing gear energy absorption system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Christopher P. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A landing pad system is described for absorbing horizontal and vertical impact forces upon engagement with a landing surface where circumferentially arranged landing struts respectively have a clevis which receives a slidable rod member and where the upper portion of a slidable rod member is coupled to the clevis by friction washers which are force fit onto the rod member to provide for controlled constant force energy absorption when the rod member moves relative to the clevis. The lower end of the friction rod is pivotally attached by a ball and socket to a support plate where the support plate is arranged to slide in a transverse direction relative to a housing which contains an energy absorption material for absorbing energy in a transverse direction.

  6. The Intestinal Absorption of Folates

    PubMed Central

    Visentin, Michele; Diop-Bove, Ndeye; Zhao, Rongbao; Goldman, I. David

    2014-01-01

    The properties of intestinal folate absorption were documented decades ago. However, it was only recently that the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) was identified and its critical role in folate transport across the apical brush-border membrane of the proximal small intestine established by the loss-of-function mutations identified in the PCFT gene in subjects with hereditary folate malabsorption and, more recently, by the Pcft-null mouse. This article reviews the current understanding of the properties of PCFT-mediated transport and how they differ from those of the reduced folate carrier. Other processes that contribute to the transport of folates across the enterocyte, along with the contribution of the enterohepatic circulation, are considered. Important unresolved issues are addressed, including the mechanism of intestinal folate absorption in the absence of PCFT and regulation of PCFT gene expression. The impact of a variety of ions, organic molecules, and drugs on PCFT-mediated folate transport is described. PMID:24512081

  7. Optical absorption in trilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao; Zhang, Fan; Niu, Qian

    2013-03-01

    We use a low energy effective model to analyze the optical responses of trilayer graphene samples. We first show that optical absorption of the ABA-stacked trilayer has strong dependence on both the Fermi energy and optical frequency, which is in sharp contrast to that of ABC-stacked trilayer graphene. Secondly, we are able to determine the possible existence of trigonal warping effects in the bandstructure of ABC-stacked trilayer graphene by a divergence in the absorption spectra at around 10 meV. In addition, we can partially distinguish the vairious broken symmetry states driven by electron-electron interactions in ABC-stacked trilayer graphene. In particular, the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) state is sensitive to the polarization of the incident light, giving a way to detect its possible existence.

  8. Olestra ingestion and dietary fat absorption in humans.

    PubMed

    Daher, G C; Cooper, D A; Zorich, N L; King, D; Riccardi, K A; Peters, J C

    1997-08-01

    The effect of olestra, a zero-calorie fat replacement, on the absorption of dietary fat was determined with a dual-isotope technique in 67 healthy male subjects. After a 30-d adaptation period in which they consumed potato chips which delivered either 10 g/d olestra or 10 g/d triglyceride under free-living conditions, the subjects were housed in a metabolic ward and given 0, 8, 20 or 32 g olestra in potato chips. The chips were eaten as part of a breakfast containing about 38 g of fat, about 0.16 mg of 14C-triolein, and a nonabsorbable marker, 51CrCl3. Feces were collected for 7 d, and aliquots of the two daily collections containing the highest levels of 51Cr were oxidized. The CO2 was collected, and 14C content was determined by liquid scintillation spectrometry. The fractional absorption of 14C-triolein was calculated from the average ratios of 14C/51Cr dosed and measured in the feces. Olestra had a slight but significant dose-response effect on triglyceride absorption: the highest olestra dose (32 g) reduced absorption by 1.2%. This effect is not nutritionally significant with respect to either availability of essential fatty acids or energy intake.

  9. Optical Absorption Characteristics of Aerosols.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-11

    properties of the powder as well as the thickness of the layer. For a layer that is thick enough so that no light is transmitted, the Kubelka -- Munk theory...which is a two stream radiative transfer model, relates the reflectance to the ratio of the absorption to the scattering. The Kubelka - Munk theory has...of the aerosol material is known. Under the assumptions of the Kubelka - Munk . theory, the imaginary component of the refractive index is deter- mined

  10. Photodetector with enhanced light absorption

    DOEpatents

    Kane, James

    1985-01-01

    A photodetector including a light transmissive electrically conducting layer having a textured surface with a semiconductor body thereon. This layer traps incident light thereby enhancing the absorption of light by the semiconductor body. A photodetector comprising a textured light transmissive electrically conducting layer of SnO.sub.2 and a body of hydrogenated amorphous silicon has a conversion efficiency about fifty percent greater than that of comparative cells. The invention also includes a method of fabricating the photodetector of the invention.

  11. Geometrical interpretation of optical absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Monzon, J. J.; Barriuso, A. G.; Sanchez-Soto, L. L.; Montesinos-Amilibia, J. M.

    2011-08-15

    We reinterpret the transfer matrix for an absorbing system in very simple geometrical terms. In appropriate variables, the system appears as performing a Lorentz transformation in a (1 + 3)-dimensional space. Using homogeneous coordinates, we map that action on the unit sphere, which is at the realm of the Klein model of hyperbolic geometry. The effects of absorption appear then as a loxodromic transformation, that is, a rhumb line crossing all the meridians at the same angle.

  12. Absorption Spectroscopy in Homogeneous and Micellar Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, S. Sadiq; Henscheid, Leonard G.

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment which has helped physical chemistry students learn principles of absorption spectroscopy, the effect of solvent polarity on absorption spectra, and some micellar chemistry. Background information and experimental procedures are provided. (JN)

  13. Selective Inhibition of Absorption and Long Distance Transport in Relation to the Dual Mechanisms of Ion Absorption in Maize Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Luttge, Ulrich; Laties, George G.

    1967-01-01

    The influence of several uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation and inhibitors of terminal electron transport was studied on absorption and long distance transport of both K and C1 at concentrations within each range of the dual isotherm typical of ion uptake by maize roots. At low concentrations in the range of system 1, the system considered to implement ion movement through the plasma membrane, root absorption and long distance transport are equally inhibited by a given inhibitor. In the high range of system 2, the system considered to mediate ion passage through the tonoplast, long distance transport is markedly less sensitive to inhibitors than is absorption. The observations are in accord with the hypothesis that only system 1 is involved in the uptake of ions from the external solution into the symplast, and hence into the xylem. At high concentrations, entrance into the symplasm is deemed to be largely by diffusion and therefore less inhibitor sensitive. With respect to absorption by the roots, the plasma membrane system is more inhibitor sensitive than is the tonoplast system. It is suggested that the difference in sensitivity is real, and not the consequence of an inequality of inhibitor concentration in the vicinity of the plasma membrane and tonoplast respectively. Images PMID:6040889

  14. Absorption enhancement by textured InP in solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Seokhun; Ji, Taeksoo

    2016-03-01

    III-V compound semiconductors seem to be the ideal materials for photovoltaic devices because they exhibit fast carrier velocity. III-V compound semiconductors, however, are unfavorable materials to be commercialized on large scale photovoltaic devices because of their high material cost. The textured surface shows the potential to increase the performance of solar cells because of the properties such as high absorption and longer light path length. These properties can overcome the disadvantage of the III-V compound semiconductors through thin thickness use when producing solar cells. In this study, we demonstrate that textured surfaces on InP formed by nano-sphere lithography and plasma etching process can enhance the absorption effectively in comparison with planar surface. The power conversion efficiency of InP solar cells using the textured InP and the aluminum doped zinc oxide was achieved up to 8%.

  15. The determination of vanadium in brines by atomic absorption spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crump-Wiesner, Hans J.; Feltz, H.R.; Purdy, W.C.

    1971-01-01

    A standard addition method is described for the determination of vanadium in brines by atomic absorption spectroscopy with a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame. Sample pH is adjusted to 1.0 with concentrated hydrochloric acid and the vanadium is directly extracted with 5% cupferron in methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). The ketone layer is then aspirated into the flame and the recorded absorption values are plotted as a function of the concentration of the added metal. As little as 2.5 ??g l-1 of vanadium can be detected under the conditions of the procedure. Tungsten and tin interfere when present in excess of 5 and 10 ??g ml-1, respectively. The concentrations of the two interfering ions normally found in brines are well below interference levels. ?? 1971.

  16. Microwave Power Absorption in Materials for Ferrous Metallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhiwei; Li, Zhizhong; Lin, Xiaolong; Yang, Mengshen; Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Zhang, Yuanbo; Li, Guanghui; Jiang, Tao

    2017-02-01

    The characteristics of microwave power absorption in materials for ferrous metallurgy, including iron oxides (Fe2O3, Fe3O4 and Fe0.925O) and bitumite, were explored by evaluating their dielectric loss ( Q E) and/or magnetic loss ( Q H) distributions in the 0.05-m-thick slabs of the corresponding materials exposed to 1.2-kW and 2.45-GHz microwave radiation at temperatures below 1100°C. It is revealed that the dielectric loss contributes primarily to the power absorption in Fe2O3, Fe0.925O and the bitumite at all of the examined temperatures. Their Q E values at room temperature and slab surface are 9.1311 × 103 W m-3, 23.7025 × 103 W m-3, and 49.5999 × 103 W m-3, respectively, showing that the materials have the following heating rate initially under microwave irradiation: bitumite > Fe0.925O > Fe2O3. Compared with the other materials, Fe3O4 has much stronger power absorption, primarily originated from its magnetic loss (e.g., Q H = 1.0615 × 106 W m-3, Q H/ Q E = 2.4185 at 24°C and slab surface), below its Curie point, above which the magnetic susceptibility approaches to zero, thereby causing a very small Q H value at even the surface ( Q H = 1.0416 × 105 W m-3 at 880°C). It is also demonstrated that inhomogeneous power distributions occur in all the slabs and become more pronounced with increasing temperature mainly due to rapid increase in permittivity. Characterizing power absorption in the oxides and the coal is expected to offer a strategic guide for improving use of microwave energy in ferrous metallurgy.

  17. Microwave Power Absorption in Materials for Ferrous Metallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhiwei; Li, Zhizhong; Lin, Xiaolong; Yang, Mengshen; Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Zhang, Yuanbo; Li, Guanghui; Jiang, Tao

    2016-11-01

    The characteristics of microwave power absorption in materials for ferrous metallurgy, including iron oxides (Fe2O3, Fe3O4 and Fe0.925O) and bitumite, were explored by evaluating their dielectric loss (Q E) and/or magnetic loss (Q H) distributions in the 0.05-m-thick slabs of the corresponding materials exposed to 1.2-kW and 2.45-GHz microwave radiation at temperatures below 1100°C. It is revealed that the dielectric loss contributes primarily to the power absorption in Fe2O3, Fe0.925O and the bitumite at all of the examined temperatures. Their Q E values at room temperature and slab surface are 9.1311 × 103 W m-3, 23.7025 × 103 W m-3, and 49.5999 × 103 W m-3, respectively, showing that the materials have the following heating rate initially under microwave irradiation: bitumite > Fe0.925O > Fe2O3. Compared with the other materials, Fe3O4 has much stronger power absorption, primarily originated from its magnetic loss (e.g., Q H = 1.0615 × 106 W m-3, Q H/Q E = 2.4185 at 24°C and slab surface), below its Curie point, above which the magnetic susceptibility approaches to zero, thereby causing a very small Q H value at even the surface (Q H = 1.0416 × 105 W m-3 at 880°C). It is also demonstrated that inhomogeneous power distributions occur in all the slabs and become more pronounced with increasing temperature mainly due to rapid increase in permittivity. Characterizing power absorption in the oxides and the coal is expected to offer a strategic guide for improving use of microwave energy in ferrous metallurgy.

  18. Absorption, Creativity, Peak Experiences, Empathy, and Psychoticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathes, Eugene W.; And Others

    Tellegen and Atkinson suggested that the trait of absorption may play a part in meditative skill, creativity, capacity for peak experiences, and empathy. Although the absorption-meditative skill relationship has been confirmed, other predictions have not been tested. Tellegen and Atkinson's Absorption Scale was completed by undergraduates in four…

  19. Glucagon receptor antagonism induces increased cholesterol absorption[S

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Hong-Ping; Yang, Xiaodong; Lu, Ku; Wang, Sheng-Ping; Castro-Perez, Jose M.; Previs, Stephen; Wright, Michael; Shah, Vinit; Herath, Kithsiri; Xie, Dan; Szeto, Daphne; Forrest, Gail; Xiao, Jing Chen; Palyha, Oksana; Sun, Li-Ping; Andryuk, Paula J.; Engel, Samuel S.; Xiong, Yusheng; Lin, Songnian; Kelley, David E.; Erion, Mark D.; Davis, Harry R.; Wang, Liangsu

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon and insulin have opposing action in governing glucose homeostasis. In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), plasma glucagon is characteristically elevated, contributing to increased gluconeogenesis and hyperglycemia. Therefore, glucagon receptor (GCGR) antagonism has been proposed as a pharmacologic approach to treat T2DM. In support of this concept, a potent small-molecule GCGR antagonist (GRA), MK-0893, demonstrated dose-dependent efficacy to reduce hyperglycemia, with an HbA1c reduction of 1.5% at the 80 mg dose for 12 weeks in T2DM. However, GRA treatment was associated with dose-dependent elevation of plasma LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c). The current studies investigated the cause for increased LDL-c. We report findings that link MK-0893 with increased glucagon-like peptide 2 and cholesterol absorption. There was not, however, a GRA-related modulation of cholesterol synthesis. These findings were replicated using structurally diverse GRAs. To examine potential pharmacologic mitigation, coadministration of ezetimibe (a potent inhibitor of cholesterol absorption) in mice abrogated the GRA-associated increase of LDL-c. Although the molecular mechanism is unknown, our results provide a novel finding by which glucagon and, hence, GCGR antagonism govern cholesterol metabolism. PMID:26373568

  20. Gastrointestinal absorption of neptunium in primates: effect of ingested mass, diet, and fasting

    SciTech Connect

    Metivier, H.; Bourges, J.; Fritsch, P.; Nolibe, D.; Masse, R.

    1986-05-01

    Absorption and retention of neptunium were determined in baboons after intragastric administration of neptunium nitrate solutions at pH 1. The effects of mass, diet, and fasting on absorption were studied. At higher mass levels (400-800 micrograms Np/kg), absorption was about 1%; at lower mass intakes (0.0009-0.005 micrograms Np/kg), absorption was reduced by 10- to 20-fold. The addition of an oxidizing agent (Fe3+) increased gastrointestinal absorption and supported the hypothesis of a reduction of Np (V) when loss masses were ingested. Diets depleted of or enriched with hydroxy acids did not modify retention of neptunium but increased urinary excretion with increasing hydroxy acid content. The diet enriched with milk components reduced absorption by a factor of 5. Potatoes increased absorption and retention by a factor 5, not necessarily due to the effect of phytate. Fasting for 12 or 24 h increased retention and absorption by factors of about 3 and 10, respectively. Data obtained in baboons when low masses of neptunium were administered suggest that the f1 factor used by ICRP should be decreased. However, fasting as encountered in certain nutritional habits is a factor to be taken into consideration.

  1. Advanced regenerative absorption refrigeration cycles

    DOEpatents

    Dao, Kim

    1990-01-01

    Multi-effect regenerative absorption cycles which provide a high coefficient of performance (COP) at relatively high input temperatures. An absorber-coupled double-effect regenerative cycle (ADR cycle) (10) is provided having a single-effect absorption cycle (SEA cycle) (11) as a topping subcycle and a single-effect regenerative absorption cycle (1R cycle) (12) as a bottoming subcycle. The SEA cycle (11) includes a boiler (13), a condenser (21), an expansion device (28), an evaporator (31), and an absorber (40), all operatively connected together. The 1R cycle (12) includes a multistage boiler (48), a multi-stage resorber (51), a multisection regenerator (49) and also uses the condenser (21), expansion device (28) and evaporator (31) of the SEA topping subcycle (11), all operatively connected together. External heat is applied to the SEA boiler (13) for operation up to about 500 degrees F., with most of the high pressure vapor going to the condenser (21) and evaporator (31) being generated by the regenerator (49). The substantially adiabatic and isothermal functioning of the SER subcycle (12) provides a high COP. For higher input temperatures of up to 700 degrees F., another SEA cycle (111) is used as a topping subcycle, with the absorber (140) of the topping subcycle being heat coupled to the boiler (13) of an ADR cycle (10). The 1R cycle (12) itself is an improvement in that all resorber stages (50b-f) have a portion of their output pumped to boiling conduits (71a-f) through the regenerator (49), which conduits are connected to and at the same pressure as the highest pressure stage (48a) of the 1R multistage boiler (48).

  2. Plasmonic absorption enhancement in organic solar cells by nano disks in a buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Inho; Seok Jeong, Doo; Seong Lee, Taek; Seong Lee, Wook; Lee, Kyeong-Seok

    2012-05-01

    We demonstrate using finite-difference-time-domain calculations that embedding Ag nano disks (NDs) in the buffer layers of thin P3HT:PCBM organic solar cells can enhance optical absorption in the active layers at specific wavelength range. We show that the aspect ratio of the NDs is a key parameter for strong plasmonic absorption enhancement. Two different plasmonic absorption bands are observed stemming from optical refractive index differences among the layers surrounding the NDs in the solar cell devices. One absorption band by the surface plasmon mode localized at the interface of indium tin oxide/ND, which is undesirable for plasmonic absorption enhancement in the active layer, become negligible as the aspect ratio of the diameter-to-height increased. The other absorption band by the dipole-like surface plasmon mode, which plays a main role in enhancing the absorption in the active layer, is spectrally tunable by adjusting the aspect ratio of the NDs. The influences of diameter, height, and coverage of the NDs on optical absorption in the active layer are discussed. Embedding the optimal size NDs in the buffer layer leads to the enhanced total absorption in the 50 nm thick active layer by 16% relative to that without the NDs, and the optical absorption keeps enhanced with increasing the active layer thickness up to 90 nm. However, further increases in the active layer thickness are detrimental to absorption enhancement, which is considered to be caused by destructive interference between scattered light by the NDs and incident light.

  3. Energy Absorption of Composite Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    34 tion in a helicopter crash is accomplished Foye , et al. [4 an 5] examlnei th, primarily through three mechanisms; strok- energy absorption chara"tr...irar [3] and Foye , et al. [4]. No significant o. ’, energy release was obse:’viV-cirur, i m: rcg . . the Gr/FE tubes s .. 0T Fu!.A 4r /-e 45rK r5 1...K/E, GI/E, hybrid com- posite tubes and aluminum tubes. The 5. R. L. Foye , and W. T. H,.dg, " r following statements are based on results Results from

  4. Carbon Dioxide Absorption Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A carbon dioxide absorption heat pump cycle is disclosed using a high pressure stage and a super-critical cooling stage to provide a non-toxic system. Using carbon dioxide gas as the working fluid in the system, the present invention desorbs the CO2 from an absorbent and cools the gas in the super-critical state to deliver heat thereby. The cooled CO2 gas is then expanded thereby providing cooling and is returned to an absorber for further cycling. Strategic use of heat exchangers can increase the efficiency and performance of the system.

  5. NEUTRON ABSORPTION AND SHIELDING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Axelrad, I.R.

    1960-06-21

    A neutron absorption and shielding device is described which is adapted for mounting in a radiation shielding wall surrounding a radioactive area through which instrumentation leads and the like may safely pass without permitting gamma or neutron radiation to pass to the exterior. The shielding device comprises a container having at least one nonrectilinear tube or passageway means extending therethrough, which is adapted to contain instrumentation leads or the like, a layer of a substance capable of absorbing gamma rays, and a solid resinous composition adapted to attenuate fast-moving neutrons and capture slow- moving or thermal neutrons.

  6. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; J. Tim Cullinane; Marcus Hilliard; Babatunde Oyenekan; Terraun Jones

    2003-07-28

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. A rigorous thermodynamic model has been further developed with a standalone FORTRAN code to represent the CO{sub 2} vapor pressure and speciation of the new solvent. Gas chromatography has been used to measure the oxidative degradation of piperazine. The heat exchangers for the pilot plant have been received. The modifications are on schedule for start-up in November 2003.

  7. Analysis of cement by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and volumetric method.

    PubMed

    Choi, K K; Lam, L; Luk, S F

    1994-01-01

    A new method to determine the composition of cement raw mix and cement is devised. The sample was fused with a mixture of sodium carbonate and lithium tetraborate (3:1) at 925 degrees C for 10 min. The fusion cake was dissolved in hydrochloric acid. The concentration of analyte in solution was either determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry or titrimetry. The proposed method is quick and the analysis for interested oxides (SiO(2), Al(2)O(3), Fe(2)O(3), and CaO) can be completed within 1 hr. The accuracy and precision are comparable to that of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

  8. Tunneling induced absorption with competing Nonlinearities

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yandong; Yang, Aihong; Xu, Yan; Wang, Peng; Yu, Yang; Guo, Hongju; Ren, Tingqi

    2016-01-01

    We investigate tunneling induced nonlinear absorption phenomena in a coupled quantum-dot system. Resonant tunneling causes constructive interference in the nonlinear absorption that leads to an increase of more than an order of magnitude over the maximum absorption in a coupled quantum dot system without tunneling. Resonant tunneling also leads to a narrowing of the linewidth of the absorption peak to a sublinewidth level. Analytical expressions show that the enhanced nonlinear absorption is largely due to the fifth-order nonlinear term. Competition between third- and fifth-order nonlinearities leads to an anomalous dispersion of the total susceptibility. PMID:27958303

  9. Absorption of CO laser radiation by NO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, R. K.; Monat, J. P.; Kruger, C. H.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes absorption calculations and measurements at selected infrared CO laser wavelengths which are nearly coincident with absorption lines in the fundamental vibration-rotation band of NO near 5.3 microns. Initial work was directed towards establishing the optimal CO laser-NO absorption line coincidence for high temperature applications. Measurements of the absorption coefficient at this optimal laser wavelength were carried out, first using a room-temperature absorption cell for high-temperature calculations and then using a shock tube, for the temperature range 630-4000 K, to validate the high temperature calculations.

  10. Fundamental limits on transparency: first-principles calculations of absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peelaers, Hartwin

    2013-03-01

    Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are a technologically important class of materials with applications ranging from solar cells, displays, smart windows, and touch screens to light-emitting diodes. TCOs combine high conductivity, provided by a high concentration of electrons in the conduction band, with transparency in the visible region of the spectrum. The requirement of transparency is usually tied to the band gap being sufficiently large to prevent absorption of visible photons. This is a necessary but not sufficient condition: indeed, the high concentration of free carriers can also lead to optical absorption by excitation of electrons to higher conduction-band states. A fundamental understanding of the factors that limit transparency in TCOs is essential for further progress in materials and applications. The Drude theory is widely used, but it is phenomenological in nature and tends to work poorly at shorter wavelengths, where band-structure effects are important. First-principles calculations have been performed, but were limited to direct transitions; as we show in the present work, indirect transitions assisted by phonons or defects actually dominate. Our calculations are the first to address indirect free-carrier absorption in a TCO completely from first principles. We present results for SnO2, but the methodology is general and is also being applied to ZnO and In2O3. The calculations provide not just quantitative results but also deeper insights in the mechanisms that govern absorption processes in different wavelength regimes, which is essential for engineering improved materials to be used in more efficient devices. For SnO2, we find that absorption is modest in the visible, and much stronger in the ultraviolet and infrared. Work performed in collaboration with E. Kioupakis and C.G. Van de Walle, and supported by DOE, NSF, and BAEF.

  11. Examination of the titanium environment in a Rene 41 nickel base superalloy by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lytle, F.; Greegor, R.B.; Luhman, T.

    1986-04-01

    Results of an X-ray absorption study show that titanium has acted as an internal getter of oxygen, confirming the conjecture that the diminished performance of Rene 41 honeycomb panels was related to internal oxidation during the prebrazing oxidation heat treatment. Two Rene 41 0.0015-in. foils were examined after mill-annealing at 1975 F with and without being air oxidized in an electric furnace at 1600 F for 14 minutes.

  12. Five-Photon Absorption and Selective Enhancement of Multiphoton Absorption Processes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We study one-, two-, three-, four-, and five-photon absorption of three centrosymmetric molecules using density functional theory. These calculations are the first ab initio calculations of five-photon absorption. Even- and odd-order absorption processes show different trends in the absorption cross sections. The behavior of all even- and odd-photon absorption properties shows a semiquantitative similarity, which can be explained using few-state models. This analysis shows that odd-photon absorption processes are largely determined by the one-photon absorption strength, whereas all even-photon absorption strengths are largely dominated by the two-photon absorption strength, in both cases modulated by powers of the polarizability of the final excited state. We demonstrate how to selectively enhance a specific multiphoton absorption process. PMID:26120588

  13. Five-Photon Absorption and Selective Enhancement of Multiphoton Absorption Processes.

    PubMed

    Friese, Daniel H; Bast, Radovan; Ruud, Kenneth

    2015-05-20

    We study one-, two-, three-, four-, and five-photon absorption of three centrosymmetric molecules using density functional theory. These calculations are the first ab initio calculations of five-photon absorption. Even- and odd-order absorption processes show different trends in the absorption cross sections. The behavior of all even- and odd-photon absorption properties shows a semiquantitative similarity, which can be explained using few-state models. This analysis shows that odd-photon absorption processes are largely determined by the one-photon absorption strength, whereas all even-photon absorption strengths are largely dominated by the two-photon absorption strength, in both cases modulated by powers of the polarizability of the final excited state. We demonstrate how to selectively enhance a specific multiphoton absorption process.

  14. Multi-phase functionalization of titanium for enhanced photon absorption in the vis-NIR region

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Pooja; Tan, Bo; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate absorption of Near Infrared (NIR) photons by conventional silicon solar cells has been a major stumbling block towards the attainment of a high efficiency “full spectrum” solar cell. An effective enhancement in the absorption of such photons is desired as they account for a considerable portion of the tappable solar energy. In this work, we report a remarkable gain observed in the absorption of photons in the near infrared and visible region (400 nm–1000 nm) by a novel multi-phased oxide of titanium. Synthesised via a single step ultra-fast laser pulse interaction with pure titanium, characterisation studies have identified this oxide of titanium to be multi-phased and composed of Ti3O, (TiO.716)3.76 and TiO2 (rutile). Computed to have an average band gap value of 2.39 eV, this ultrafast laser induced multi-phased titanium oxide has especially exhibited steady absorption capability in the NIR range of 750–1000 nm, which to the best of our knowledge, was never reported before. The unique NIR absorption properties of the laser functionalised titanium coupled with the simplicity and versatility of the ultrafast laser interaction process involved thereby provides tremendous potential towards the photon sensitization of titanium and thereafter for the inception of a “full spectrum” solar device. PMID:26477578

  15. Sulphate absorption across biological membranes.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2016-01-01

    1. Sulphonation is unusual amongst the common Phase II (condensation; synthetic) reactions experienced by xenobiotics, in that the availability of the conjugating agent, sulphate, may become a rate-limiting factor. This sulphate is derived within the body via the oxygenation of sulphur moieties liberated from numerous ingested compounds including the sulphur-containing amino acids. Preformed inorganic sulphate also makes a considerable contribution to this pool. 2. There has been a divergence of opinion as to whether or not inorganic sulphate may be readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and this controversy still continues in some quarters. Even more so, is the vexing question of potential absorption of inorganic sulphate via the lungs and through the skin. 3. This review examines the relevant diverse literature and concludes that sulphate ions may move across biological membranes by means of specific transporters and, although the gastrointestinal tract is by far the major portal of entry, some absorption across the lungs and the skin may take place under appropriate circumstances.

  16. Formaldehyde Absorption toward W51

    SciTech Connect

    Kogut, A.; Smoot, G.F.; Bennett, C.L.; Petuchowski, S.J.

    1988-04-01

    We have measured formaldehyde (H{sub 2}CO) absorption toward the HII region complex W51A (G49.5-0.4) in the 6 cm and 2 cm wavelength rotational transitions with angular resolution of approximately 4 inch. The continuum HII region shows a large, previously undetected shell structure 5.5 pc along the major axis. We observe no H{sub 2}CO emission in regions of low continuum intensity. The absorption, converted to optical depth, shows a higher degree of clumping than previous maps at lower resolution. The good S/N of the maps allows accurate estimation of the complicated line profiles, showing some of the absorbing clouds to be quite patchy. We list the properties of the opacity spectra for a number of positions both in the clumps and in the more diffuse regions of the absorbing clouds, and derive column densities for the 1{sub 11} and 2{sub 12} rotational levels of ortho-formaldehyde.

  17. QED-driven laser absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Matthew; Blackburn, T.; Ratan, N.; Sadler, J.; Ridgers, C.; Kasim, M.; Ceurvorst, L.; Holloway, J.; Baring, M.; Bell, A.; Glenzer, S.; Gregori, G.; Ilderton, A.; Marklund, M.; Tabak, M.; Wilks, S.; Norreys, P.

    2016-10-01

    Absorption covers the physical processes which convert intense photon flux into energetic particles when a high-power laser (I >1018 W cm-2 where I is intensity at 1 μm wavelength) illuminates optically-thick matter. It underpins important applications of petawatt laser systems today, e.g., in isochoric heating of materials. Next-generation lasers such as ELI are anticipated to produce quantum electrodynamical (QED) bursts of γ-rays and anti-matter via the multiphoton Breit-Wheeler process which could enable scaled laboratory probes, e.g., of black hole winds. Here, applying strong-field QED to advances in plasma kinematic theory, we present a model elucidating absorption limited only by an avalanche of self-created electron-positron pairs at ultra-high-field. The model, confirmed by multidimensional QED-PIC simulations, works over six orders of magnitude in optical intensity and reveals this cascade is initiated at 1.8 x 1025 W cm-2 using a realistic linearly-polarized laser pulse. Here the laser couples its energy into highly-collimated electrons, ions, γ-rays, and positrons at 12%, 6%, 58% and 13% efficiency, respectively. We remark on attributes of the QED plasma state and possible applications.

  18. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Hrabina, Jan; Zucco, Massimo; Philippe, Charles; Pham, Tuan Minh; Holá, Miroslava; Acef, Ouali; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with the evaluation of the chemical purity of iodine-filled absorption cells and the optical frequency references used for the frequency locking of laser standards. We summarize the recent trends and progress in absorption cell technology and we focus on methods for iodine cell purity testing. We compare two independent experimental systems based on the laser-induced fluorescence method, showing an improvement of measurement uncertainty by introducing a compensation system reducing unwanted influences. We show the advantages of this technique, which is relatively simple and does not require extensive hardware equipment. As an alternative to the traditionally used methods we propose an approach of hyperfine transitions’ spectral linewidth measurement. The key characteristic of this method is demonstrated on a set of testing iodine cells. The relationship between laser-induced fluorescence and transition linewidth methods will be presented as well as a summary of the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed technique (in comparison with traditional measurement approaches). PMID:28067834

  19. Iron Absorption in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Mandilaras, Konstantinos; Pathmanathan, Tharse; Missirlis, Fanis

    2013-01-01

    The way in which Drosophila melanogaster acquires iron from the diet remains poorly understood despite iron absorption being of vital significance for larval growth. To describe the process of organismal iron absorption, consideration needs to be given to cellular iron import, storage, export and how intestinal epithelial cells sense and respond to iron availability. Here we review studies on the Divalent Metal Transporter-1 homolog Malvolio (iron import), the recent discovery that Multicopper Oxidase-1 has ferroxidase activity (iron export) and the role of ferritin in the process of iron acquisition (iron storage). We also describe what is known about iron regulation in insect cells. We then draw upon knowledge from mammalian iron homeostasis to identify candidate genes in flies. Questions arise from the lack of conservation in Drosophila for key mammalian players, such as ferroportin, hepcidin and all the components of the hemochromatosis-related pathway. Drosophila and other insects also lack erythropoiesis. Thus, systemic iron regulation is likely to be conveyed by different signaling pathways and tissue requirements. The significance of regulating intestinal iron uptake is inferred from reports linking Drosophila developmental, immune, heat-shock and behavioral responses to iron sequestration. PMID:23686013

  20. Iron absorption in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Mandilaras, Konstantinos; Pathmanathan, Tharse; Missirlis, Fanis

    2013-05-17

    The way in which Drosophila melanogaster acquires iron from the diet remains poorly understood despite iron absorption being of vital significance for larval growth. To describe the process of organismal iron absorption, consideration needs to be given to cellular iron import, storage, export and how intestinal epithelial cells sense and respond to iron availability. Here we review studies on the Divalent Metal Transporter-1 homolog Malvolio (iron import), the recent discovery that Multicopper Oxidase-1 has ferroxidase activity (iron export) and the role of ferritin in the process of iron acquisition (iron storage). We also describe what is known about iron regulation in insect cells. We then draw upon knowledge from mammalian iron homeostasis to identify candidate genes in flies. Questions arise from the lack of conservation in Drosophila for key mammalian players, such as ferroportin, hepcidin and all the components of the hemochromatosis-related pathway. Drosophila and other insects also lack erythropoiesis. Thus, systemic iron regulation is likely to be conveyed by different signaling pathways and tissue requirements. The significance of regulating intestinal iron uptake is inferred from reports linking Drosophila developmental, immune, heat-shock and behavioral responses to iron sequestration.

  1. Absorption in Extended Inhomogeneous Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joiner, Joanna; Vasilkov, Alexander; Spurr, Robert; Bhartia, P. K.; Krotkov, Nick

    2008-01-01

    The launch of several different sensors, including CloudSat, into the A-train constellation of satellites allows us for the first time to compute absorption that can occur in realistic vertically inhomogeneous clouds including multiple cloud decks. CloudSat data show that these situations are common. Therefore, understanding vertically inhomogeneous clouds is important from both climate and satellite atmospheric composition remote sensing perspectives. Satellite passive sensors that operate from the near IR to the UV often rely on radiative cloud pressures derived from absorption in oxygen bands (A, B, gamma, or O2-O2 bands) or from rotational-Raman scattering in order to retrieve information about atmospheric trace gases. The radiative cloud pressure is distinct from the physical cloud top derived from thermal infrared measurements. Therefore, the combination of information from different passive sensors yields some information about the cloud vertical profile. When either or both the clouds or atmospheric absorbers (trace gases and aerosols) are vertically inhomogeneous, the use of an effective cloud pressure derived from these approaches may lead to errors. Here, we focus on several scenarios (deep convective clouds and distinct two layer clouds) based on realistic cloud optical depth vertical profiles derived from the CloudSatfMODIS combination. We focus on implications for trace-gas column amount retrievals (specifically ozone and NO2) and derived surface UV irradiance from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Atrain Aura platform.

  2. Energy absorption of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, G. L.

    1983-01-01

    Results of a study on the energy absorption characteristics of selected composite material systems are presented and the results compared with aluminum. Composite compression tube specimens were fabricated with both tape and woven fabric prepreg using graphite/epoxy (Gr/E), Kevlar (TM)/epoxy (K/E) and glass/epoxy (Gl/E). Chamfering and notching one end of the composite tube specimen reduced the peak load at initial failure without altering the sustained crushing load, and prevented catastrophic failure. Static compression and vertical impact tests were performed on 128 tubes. The results varied significantly as a function of material type and ply orientation. In general, the Gr/E tubes absorbed more energy than the Gl/E or K/E tubes for the same ply orientation. The 0/ + or - 15 Gr/E tubes absorbed more energy than the aluminum tubes. Gr/E and Gl/E tubes failed in a brittle mode and had negligible post crushing integrity, whereas the K/E tubes failed in an accordian buckling mode similar to the aluminum tubes. The energy absorption and post crushing integrity of hybrid composite tubes were not significantly better than that of the single material tubes.

  3. X-ray absorption studies of battery materials

    SciTech Connect

    McBreen, J.

    1996-10-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is ideal for {ital in}{ital situ} studies of battery materials because both the probe and signal are penetrating x rays. The advantage of XAS being element specific permits investigation of the environment of a constituent element in a composite material. This makes it very powerful for studying electrode additives and corrosion of individual components of complex metal hydride alloys. The near edge part of the spectrum (XANES) provides information on oxidation state and site symmetry of the excited atom. This is particularly useful in study of corrosion and oxidation changes in cathode materials during charge/discharge cycle. Extended fine structure (EXAFS) gives structural information. Thus the technique provides both chemical and structural information. Since XAS probes only short range order, it can be applied to study of amorphous electrode materials and electrolytes. This paper discusses advantages and limitations of the method, as well as some experimental aspects.

  4. The Use of an Air-Natural Gas Flame in Atomic Absorption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melucci, Robert C.

    1983-01-01

    Points out that excellent results are obtained using an air-natural gas flame in atomic absorption experiments rather than using an air-acetylene flame. Good results are obtained for alkali metals, copper, cadmium, and zinc but not for the alkaline earths since they form refractory oxides. (Author/JN)

  5. Assessing the absorption of new pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, I J

    2001-11-01

    The advent of more efficient methods to synthesize and screen new chemical compounds is increasing the number of chemical leads identified in the drug discovery phase. Compounds with good biological activity may fail to become drugs due to insufficient oral absorption. Selection of drug development candidates with adequate absorption characteristics should increase the probability of success in the development phase. To assess the absorption potential of new chemical entities numerous in vitro and in vivo model systems have been used. Many laboratories rely on cell culture models of intestinal permeability such as, Caco-2, HT-29 and MDCK. To attempt to increase the throughput of permeability measurements, several physicochemical methods such as, immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) columns and parallel artificial membrane permeation assay (PAMPA) have been used. More recently, much attention has been given to the development of computational methods to predict drug absorption. However, it is clear that no single method will sufficient for studying drug absorption, but most likely a combination of systems will be needed. Higher throughput, less reliable methods could be used to discover 'loser' compounds, whereas lower throughput, more accurate methods could be used to optimize the absorption properties of lead compounds. Finally, accurate methods are needed to understand absorption mechanisms (efflux-limited absorption, carrier-mediated, intestinal metabolism) that may limit intestinal drug absorption. This information could be extremely valuable to medicinal chemists in the selection of favorable chemo-types. This review describes different techniques used for evaluating drug absorption and indicates their advantages and disadvantages.

  6. Influence of chemical form, feeding regimen, and animal species on the gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Larsen, R.P.; Cohen, N.; Ralston, L.G.; Oldham, R.D.; Moretti, E.S.; Ayres, L.

    1985-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of chemical form and feeding regimen on the gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of plutonium in adult mice at plutonium concentrations relevant to the establishment of drinking water standards. Mean fractional GI absorption values in fasted adult mice were: Pu(VI) bicarbonate, 15 x 10/sup -4/; Pu(IV) bicarbonate, 20 x 10/sup -4/; Pu(IV) nitrate (pH2), 17 x 10/sup -4/; Pu(IV) citrate, 24 x 10/sup -4/; and Pu(IV) polymer, 3 x 10/sup -4/. Values in fed adult mice were: Pu(VI) bicarbonate, 1.4 x 10/sup -4/; Pu(IV) polymer, 0.3 x 10/sup -4/. Pu(VI) is the oxidation state in chlorinated drinking waters and Pu(IV) is the oxidation state in many untreated natural waters. To assess the validity of extrapolating data from mice to humans, we also determined the GI absorption of Pu(VI) bicarbonate in adult baboons with a dual-isotope method that does not require animal sacrifice. Fractional GI absorption values obtained by this method were 23 +- 10 x 10/sup -4/ for fasted baboons (n=5) and 1.4 +- 0.9 x 10/sup -4/ for fed baboons (n=3). We have so far validated this method in one baboon and are currently completing validation in two additional animals. At low plutonium concentrations, plutonium oxidation state (Pu(VI) vs Pu(IV)) and administration medium (bicarbonate vs nitrate vs citrate) had little effect on the GI absorption of plutonium in mice. Formation of Pu(IV) polymers and animal feeding decreased the GI absorption of plutonium 5- to 10-fold. The GI absorption of Pu(VI) bicarbonate in both fed and fasted adult baboons appeared to be the same as in fed and fasted adult mice, respectively. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Optical design of transparent metal grids for plasmonic absorption enhancement in ultrathin organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Inho; Lee, Taek Seong; Jeong, Doo Seok; Lee, Wook Seong; Kim, Won Mok; Lee, Kyeong-Seok

    2013-07-01

    Transparent metal grid combining with plasmonic absorption enhancement is a promising replacement to indium tin oxide thin films. We numerically demonstrate metal grids in one or two dimension lead to plasmonic absorption enhancements in ultrathin organic solar cells. In this paper, we study optical design of metal grids for plasmonic light trapping and identify different plasmonic modes of the surface plasmon polaritons excited at the interfaces of glass/metal grids, metal grids/active layers, and the localized surface plasmon resonance of the metal grids using numerical calculations. One dimension metal grids with the optimal design of a width and a period lead to the absorption enhancement in the ultrathin active layers of 20 nm thickness by a factor of 2.6 under transverse electric polarized light compared to the case without the metal grids. Similarly, two dimensional metal grids provide the absorption enhancement by a factor of 1.8 under randomly polarized light.

  8. Synthesis and microwave absorption properties of graphene/nickel composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Yu, Mingxun; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Baoqin; Dong, Lifeng

    2015-03-01

    Graphene/nickel composite materials were successfully prepared via a one-step in situ reduction from nickel chloride, graphene oxide, and hydrazine at 80 °C for 3 h. Face-centered cubic Ni nanostructures with uniform size and high dispersion assembled on graphene sheets. Through the measurement of complex relative permittivity and permeability, their microwave absorption properties were evaluated. In comparison with pure Ni nanoparticles and graphene, the composite materials demonstrated much better characteristics of microwave absorption. The lowest reflection loss value of the composites with a thickness of 3 mm can reach -23.3 dB at 7.5 GHz. Our research reveals that graphene/Ni composites are promising microwave absorption materials with desirable absorption properties and reduced material weight.

  9. The widetilde{A}←widetilde{X} ABSORPTION SPECTRUM OF 2-NITROOXYBUTYL PEROXY RADICAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eddingsaas, Nathan; Takematsu, Kana; Okumura, Mitchio

    2009-06-01

    The nitrate radical is an important atmospheric oxidant in the nighttime sky. Nitrate radicals react by addition to alkenes, and in the presence of oxygen form nitrooxyalkyl peroxy radicals. The peroxy radical formed from the reaction of 2-butene, nitrate radical, and oxygen was detected by cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS) via its widetilde{A}←widetilde{X} electronic absorption spectrum. The widetilde{A}←widetilde{X} electronic transition is a bound-bound transition with enough structure to distinguish between different peroxy radicals as well as different conformers of the same peroxy radical. Two conformers of the nitrooxybutyl peroxy radical have been observed; the absorption features are red shifted from the same absorption features of sec-butyl peroxy radical. Calculations on the structure of nitrooxyalkyl peroxy radicals and general trends of the position of the widetilde{A}←widetilde{X} absorption transitions have also been performed and compared to those of unsubstituted peroxy radicals.

  10. Computer programs for absorption spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Jones, R N

    1969-03-01

    Brief descriptions are given of twenty-two modular computer programs for performing the basic numerical computations of absorption spectrophotometry. The programs, written in Fortran IV for card input and output, are available from the National Research Council of Canada. The input and output formats are standardized to permit easy interfacing to yield more complex data processing systems. Though these programs were developed for ir spectrophotometry, they are readily modified for use with digitized visual and uv spectrophotometers. The operations covered include ordinate and abscissal unit and scale interconversions, ordinate addition and subtraction, location of band maxima and minima, smoothing and differentiation, slit function convolution and deconvolution, band profile analysis and asymmetry quantification, Fourier transformation to time correlation curves, multiple overlapping band separation in terms of Cauchy (Lorentz), Gauss, Cauchy-Gauss product, and Cauchy-Gauss sum functions and cell path length determination from fringe spacing analysis.

  11. Backscatter absorption gas imaging system

    DOEpatents

    McRae, T.G. Jr.

    A video imaging system for detecting hazardous gas leaks. Visual displays of invisible gas clouds are produced by radiation augmentation of the field of view of an imaging device by radiation corresponding to an absorption line of the gas to be detected. The field of view of an imager is irradiated by a laser. The imager receives both backscattered laser light and background radiation. When a detectable gas is present, the backscattered laser light is highly attenuated, producing a region of contrast or shadow on the image. A flying spot imaging system is utilized to synchronously irradiate and scan the area to lower laser power requirements. The imager signal is processed to produce a video display.

  12. Backscatter absorption gas imaging system

    DOEpatents

    McRae, Jr., Thomas G.

    1985-01-01

    A video imaging system for detecting hazardous gas leaks. Visual displays of invisible gas clouds are produced by radiation augmentation of the field of view of an imaging device by radiation corresponding to an absorption line of the gas to be detected. The field of view of an imager is irradiated by a laser. The imager receives both backscattered laser light and background radiation. When a detectable gas is present, the backscattered laser light is highly attenuated, producing a region of contrast or shadow on the image. A flying spot imaging system is utilized to synchronously irradiate and scan the area to lower laser power requirements. The imager signal is processed to produce a video display.

  13. HI Absorption in Merger Remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Veileux, Sylvain; Baker, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) pass through a luminous starburst phase, followed by a dust-enshrouded AGN phase, and finally evolve into optically bright "naked" quasars once they shed their gas/dust reservoirs through powerful wind events. We present the results of our recent 21- cm HI survey of 21 merger remnants with the Green Bank Telescope. These remnants were selected from the QUEST (Quasar/ULIRG Evolution Study) sample of ULIRGs and PG quasars; our targets are all bolometrically dominated by AGN and sample all phases of the proposed ULIRG -> IR-excess quasar -> optical quasar sequence. We explore whether there is an evolutionary connection between ULIRGs and quasars by looking for the occurrence of HI absorption tracing neutral gas outflows; our results will allow us to identify where along the sequence the majority of a merger's gas reservoir is expelled.

  14. Multistage quantum absorption heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Luis A.

    2014-04-01

    It is well known that heat pumps, while being all limited by the same basic thermodynamic laws, may find realization on systems as "small" and "quantum" as a three-level maser. In order to quantitatively assess how the performance of these devices scales with their size, we design generalized N-dimensional ideal heat pumps by merging N -2 elementary three-level stages. We set them to operate in the absorption chiller mode between given hot and cold baths and study their maximum achievable cooling power and the corresponding efficiency as a function of N. While the efficiency at maximum power is roughly size-independent, the power itself slightly increases with the dimension, quickly saturating to a constant. Thus, interestingly, scaling up autonomous quantum heat pumps does not render a significant enhancement beyond the optimal double-stage configuration.

  15. Multistage quantum absorption heat pumps.

    PubMed

    Correa, Luis A

    2014-04-01

    It is well known that heat pumps, while being all limited by the same basic thermodynamic laws, may find realization on systems as "small" and "quantum" as a three-level maser. In order to quantitatively assess how the performance of these devices scales with their size, we design generalized N-dimensional ideal heat pumps by merging N-2 elementary three-level stages. We set them to operate in the absorption chiller mode between given hot and cold baths and study their maximum achievable cooling power and the corresponding efficiency as a function of N. While the efficiency at maximum power is roughly size-independent, the power itself slightly increases with the dimension, quickly saturating to a constant. Thus, interestingly, scaling up autonomous quantum heat pumps does not render a significant enhancement beyond the optimal double-stage configuration.

  16. Quantum-enhanced absorption refrigerators

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Luis A.; Palao, José P.; Alonso, Daniel; Adesso, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamics is a branch of science blessed by an unparalleled combination of generality of scope and formal simplicity. Based on few natural assumptions together with the four laws, it sets the boundaries between possible and impossible in macroscopic aggregates of matter. This triggered groundbreaking achievements in physics, chemistry and engineering over the last two centuries. Close analogues of those fundamental laws are now being established at the level of individual quantum systems, thus placing limits on the operation of quantum-mechanical devices. Here we study quantum absorption refrigerators, which are driven by heat rather than external work. We establish thermodynamic performance bounds for these machines and investigate their quantum origin. We also show how those bounds may be pushed beyond what is classically achievable, by suitably tailoring the environmental fluctuations via quantum reservoir engineering techniques. Such superefficient quantum-enhanced cooling realises a promising step towards the technological exploitation of autonomous quantum refrigerators. PMID:24492860

  17. Acoustic Absorption in Porous Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Johnston, James C.

    2011-01-01

    An understanding of both the areas of materials science and acoustics is necessary to successfully develop materials for acoustic absorption applications. This paper presents the basic knowledge and approaches for determining the acoustic performance of porous materials in a manner that will help materials researchers new to this area gain the understanding and skills necessary to make meaningful contributions to this field of study. Beginning with the basics and making as few assumptions as possible, this paper reviews relevant topics in the acoustic performance of porous materials, which are often used to make acoustic bulk absorbers, moving from the physics of sound wave interactions with porous materials to measurement techniques for flow resistivity, characteristic impedance, and wavenumber.

  18. Quantum-enhanced absorption refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Luis A.; Palao, José P.; Alonso, Daniel; Adesso, Gerardo

    2014-02-01

    Thermodynamics is a branch of science blessed by an unparalleled combination of generality of scope and formal simplicity. Based on few natural assumptions together with the four laws, it sets the boundaries between possible and impossible in macroscopic aggregates of matter. This triggered groundbreaking achievements in physics, chemistry and engineering over the last two centuries. Close analogues of those fundamental laws are now being established at the level of individual quantum systems, thus placing limits on the operation of quantum-mechanical devices. Here we study quantum absorption refrigerators, which are driven by heat rather than external work. We establish thermodynamic performance bounds for these machines and investigate their quantum origin. We also show how those bounds may be pushed beyond what is classically achievable, by suitably tailoring the environmental fluctuations via quantum reservoir engineering techniques. Such superefficient quantum-enhanced cooling realises a promising step towards the technological exploitation of autonomous quantum refrigerators.

  19. Speciation analysis of arsenic in biological matrices by automated hydride generation-cryotrapping-atomic absorption spectrometry with multiple microflame quartz tube atomizer (multiatomizer).

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes an automated system for the oxidation state specific speciation of inorganic and methylated arsenicals by selective hydride generation - cryotrapping- gas chromatography - atomic absorption spectrometry with the multiatomizer. The corresponding arsines are ge...

  20. Effect of diet on triolein absorption in weanling rats

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, C.A.; Brannon, P.M.; Wells, M.A.; Morrill, M.; Koldovsky, O. )

    1990-01-01

    To determine the effect of altered dietary fat intake on the rate of fat absorption in the intact animal, we fed male weanling rats either a high fat-low carbohydrate (HF-LC) (calories: 67% fat, 10% carbohydrate, 20% protein) or low fat-high carbohydrate (LF-HC) (calories: 10% fat, 67% carbohydrate, 20% protein) diet for 8 days. Absorption of ({sup 14}C)triolein was estimated by determining (1) {sup 14}CO{sub 2} expiration in breath, (2) intestinal triglyceride output using Triton WR-1339, an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase, and (3) quantitating the disappearance of labeled triolein from the gastrointestinal tract. Changes in the activity of pancreatic lipase and amylase confirmed the adaptation to altered fat and carbohydrate intake. Animals fed the HF-LC diet exhibited approximately twofold greater triolein disappearance, oxidation, and intestinal triglyceride output compared with animals fed LF-HC. There was also a highly significant linear relationship between {sup 14}CO{sub 2} excretion and intestinal triglyceride output in both diet groups. These data show that high dietary fat content markedly enhances in vivo fat absorption in the weanling rat.

  1. Intestinal Cgi-58 deficiency reduces postprandial lipid absorption.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ping; Guo, Feng; Ma, Yinyan; Zhu, Hongling; Wang, Freddy; Xue, Bingzhong; Shi, Hang; Yang, Jian; Yu, Liqing

    2014-01-01

    Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58), a lipid droplet (LD)-associated protein, promotes intracellular triglyceride (TG) hydrolysis in vitro. Mutations in human CGI-58 cause TG accumulation in numerous tissues including intestine. Enterocytes are thought not to store TG-rich LDs, but a fatty meal does induce temporary cytosolic accumulation of LDs. Accumulated LDs are eventually cleared out, implying existence of TG hydrolytic machinery in enterocytes. However, identities of proteins responsible for LD-TG hydrolysis remain unknown. Here we report that intestine-specific inactivation of CGI-58 in mice significantly reduces postprandial plasma TG concentrations and intestinal TG hydrolase activity, which is associated with a 4-fold increase in intestinal TG content and large cytosolic LD accumulation in absorptive enterocytes during the fasting state. Intestine-specific CGI-58 knockout mice also display mild yet significant decreases in intestinal fatty acid absorption and oxidation. Surprisingly, inactivation of CGI-58 in intestine significantly raises plasma and intestinal cholesterol, and reduces hepatic cholesterol, without altering intestinal cholesterol absorption and fecal neutral sterol excretion. In conclusion, intestinal CGI-58 is required for efficient postprandial lipoprotein-TG secretion and for maintaining hepatic and plasma lipid homeostasis. Our animal model will serve as a valuable tool to further define how intestinal fat metabolism influences the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  2. Analysis of frequency dependent pump light absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlmuth, Matthias; Pflaum, Christoph

    2011-03-01

    Simulations have to accurately model thermal lensing in order to help improving resonator design of diode pumped solid state lasers. To this end, a precise description of the pump light absorption is an important prerequisite. In this paper, we discuss the frequency dependency of the pump light absorption in the laser crystal and its influence on the simulated laser performance. The results show that the pump light absorption has to include the spectral overlap of the emitting pump source and the absorbing laser material. This information can either be used for a fully frequency dependent absorption model or, at least in the shown examples, to compute an effective value for an exponential Beer-Lambert law of absorption. This is particularly significant at pump wavelengths coinciding with a peak of absorption. Consequences for laser stability and performance are analyzed for different pump wavelengths in a Nd:YAG laser.

  3. THE ABSORPTION OF HYDROGEN ON LOW PRESSURE HYDRIDE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, G.; Korinko, P.

    2012-04-03

    For this study, hydrogen getter materials (Zircaloy-4 and pure zirconium) that have a high affinity for hydrogen (and low overpressure) have been investigated to determine the hydrogen equilibrium pressure on Zircaloy-4 and pure zirconium. These materials, as with most getter materials, offered significant challenges to overcome given the low hydrogen equilibrium pressure for the temperature range of interest. Hydrogen-zirconium data exists for pure zirconium at 500 C and the corresponding hydrogen overpressure is roughly 0.01 torr. This manuscript presents the results of the equilibrium pressures for the absorption and desorption of hydrogen on zirconium materials at temperatures ranging from 400 C to 600 C. The equilibrium pressures in this temperature region range from 150 mtorr at 600 C to less than 0.1 mtorr at 400 C. It has been shown that the Zircaloy-4 and zirconium samples are extremely prone to surface oxidation prior to and during heating. This oxidation precludes the hydrogen uptake, and therefore samples must be heated under a minimum vacuum of 5 x 10{sup -6} torr. In addition, the Zircaloy-4 samples should be heated at a sufficiently low rate to maintain the system pressure below 0.5 mtorr since an increase in pressure above 0.5 mtorr could possibly hinder the H{sub 2} absorption kinetics due to surface contamination. The results of this study and the details of the testing protocol will be discussed.

  4. Novel regenerable sorbent based on Zr-Mn binary metal oxides for flue gas mercury retention and recovery.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jiangkun; Qu, Zan; Yan, Naiqiang; Yang, Shijian; Chen, Wanmiao; Hu, Lingang; Huang, Wenjun; Liu, Ping

    2013-10-15

    To capture and recover mercury from coal-fired flue gas, a series of novel regenerable sorbents based on Zr-Mn binary metal oxides were prepared and employed at a relatively low temperature. PXRD, TEM, TPR, XPS, and N2-adsorption methods were employed to characterize the sorbents. The Hg(0) adsorption performance of the sorbents was tested, and the effects of the main operation parameters and the gas components on the adsorption were investigated. Zr significantly improved the sorbent's mercury capacity, which was nearly 5mg/g for Zr0.5Mn0.5Oy. Furthermore, the spent sorbent could be regenerated by heating to 350°C, and the highly concentrated elemental mercury released could be facilely recycled. Therefore, a much greener process for mercury capture and recovery could be anticipated based on this regenerable sorbent.

  5. Modified Sagnac interferometer for contact-free length measurement of a direct absorption cell.

    PubMed

    Elandaloussi, Hadj; Rouillé, Christian; Marie-Jeanne, Patrick; Janssen, Christof

    2016-03-10

    Accurate path length measurements in absorption cells are recurrent requirements in quantitative molecular absorption spectroscopy. A new twin path laser interferometer for length measurements in a simple direct path absorption geometry is presented, along with a full uncertainty budget. The path in an absorption cell is determined by measuring the optical path length change due to the diminution of the refractive index when the cell originally filled with nitrogen gas is evacuated. The performance of the instrument based on a stabilized HeNe laser is verified by comparison with the results of direct mechanical length measurements of a roughly 45 mm long, specially designed absorption cell. Due to a resolution of about 1/300 of a HeNe fringe, an expanded (coverage factor k=2) uncertainty of 16 μm in the length measurement is achieved, providing an expanded relative uncertainty of 3.6·10⁻⁴ for the length of our test absorption cell. This value is about 8 times lower than what has been reported previously. The instrument will be useful for precision measurements of absorption cross sections of strong absorbers which require short light paths, such as ozone, halogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds in the UV.

  6. Studies of cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy for weak absorption gas measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liucheng; Duo, Liping; Gong, Deyu; Ma, Yanhua; Zhang, Zhiguo; Wang, Yuanhu; Zhou, Dongjian; Jin, Yuqi

    2017-01-01

    In order to determine the concentrations of trace amount metastable species in chemical lasers, an off-axis cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer for the detection of weak absorption gases has been built with a noise equivalent absorption sensitivity of 1.6x10-8 cm-1. The absorption spectrum of trace amount gaseous ammonia and water vapor was obtained with a spectral resolution of about 78 MHz. A multiple-line absorption spectroscopic method to determine the temperature of gaseous ammonia has been developed by use of multiple lines of ammonia molecule absorption spectrum.

  7. Atomic absorption spectroscopy in ion channel screening.

    PubMed

    Stankovich, Larisa; Wicks, David; Despotovski, Sasko; Liang, Dong

    2004-10-01

    This article examines the utility of atomic absorption spectroscopy, in conjunction with cold flux assays, to ion channel screening. The multiplicity of ion channels that can be interrogated using cold flux assays and atomic absorption spectroscopy is summarized. The importance of atomic absorption spectroscopy as a screening tool is further elaborated upon by providing examples of the relevance of ion channels to various physiological processes and targeted diseases.

  8. Absorption Coefficient of Alkaline Earth Halides.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    levels . As a natural consequence, the magnitude of the absorption coefficient is the key parameter in selecting laser window materials. Over the past...of as can be achieved through improved crystal growing techniques and surface polishing. 2.5. Urbach’s Rule A central question for the development of...high absorption levels , inaccuracies progressively increasing with decreasing absorption level , a natural consequence of decreasing in instrumental

  9. Neural regulation of intestinal nutrient absorption.

    PubMed

    Mourad, Fadi H; Saadé, Nayef E

    2011-10-01

    The nervous system and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract share several common features including reciprocal interconnections and several neurotransmitters and peptides known as gut peptides, neuropeptides or hormones. The processes of digestion, secretion of digestive enzymes and then absorption are regulated by the neuro-endocrine system. Luminal glucose enhances its own absorption through a neuronal reflex that involves capsaicin sensitive primary afferent (CSPA) fibres. Absorbed glucose stimulates insulin release that activates hepatoenteric neural pathways leading to an increase in the expression of glucose transporters. Adrenergic innervation increases glucose absorption through α1 and β receptors and decreases absorption through activation of α2 receptors. The vagus nerve plays an important role in the regulation of diurnal variation in transporter expression and in anticipation to food intake. Vagal CSPAs exert tonic inhibitory effects on amino acid absorption. It also plays an important role in the mediation of the inhibitory effect of intestinal amino acids on their own absorption at the level of proximal or distal segment. However, chronic extrinsic denervation leads to a decrease in intestinal amino acid absorption. Conversely, adrenergic agonists as well as activation of CSPA fibres enhance peptides uptake through the peptide transporter PEPT1. Finally, intestinal innervation plays a minimal role in the absorption of fat digestion products. Intestinal absorption of nutrients is a basic vital mechanism that depends essentially on the function of intestinal mucosa. However, intrinsic and extrinsic neural mechanisms that rely on several redundant loops are involved in immediate and long-term control of the outcome of intestinal function.

  10. Sulphur trioxide absorption apparatus and process

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, G.M.

    1987-03-31

    This patent describes a contact process for producing a concentrated sulphuric acid from dry sulphur dioxide and oxygen containing mixtures which employs the absorption of sulphur trioxide from a hot, dry gas stream containing sulphur trioxide into at least one sulphuric acid stream. The improvement described here comprises: (a) feeding the gas stream to a lower packed absorption zone contained within an absorption tower; (b) feeding a first sulphuric acid stream to the lower absorption zone to effect absorption of a major portion of the sulphur trioxide from the gas stream into the first sulphuric acid stream to produce a first enriched sulphuric acid stream and a depleted sulphur trioxide gas stream; (c) feeding the depleted sulphur trioxide gas stream to an upper packed absorption zone above the lower absorption zone within the tower; and (d) feeding a second sulphuric acid stream to the upper absorption zone to effect absorption of substantially all of the sulphur trioxide remaining in the depleted sulphur trioxide gas stream to produce a second enriched sulphuric acid stream and a substantially sulphur trioxide-free gas stream.

  11. Study of Evanescence Wave Absorption in Lindane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzuki, A.; Prasetyo, E.; Gitrin, M. P.; Suryanti, V.

    2017-02-01

    Evanescent wave field has been studied for the purpose of tailoring fiber sensor capable of detecting lindane concentration in a solution. The mounted fiber was optically polished such that part of the fiber clad is stripped off. To study the evanescent wave field absorption in lindane solution, the unclad fiber was immersed in the solution. Light coming out of the fiber was studied at different wavelength each for different lindane concentration. It was shown that evanescent wave field absorption is stronger at wavelength corresponding to lindane absorption band as has been shown from absorption studies lindane in UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer.

  12. Terahertz wave absorption via preformed air plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ji; Zhang, LiangLiang; Wu, Tong; Zhang, CunLin; Zhao, YueJin

    2016-12-01

    Terahertz wave generation from laser-induced air plasma has continued to be an exciting field of research over the course of the past decade. In this paper, we report on an investigation concerning terahertz wave absorption with preformed plasma created by another laser pulse. We examine terahertz absorption behavior by varying the pump power and then analyze the polarization effect of the preplasma beam on terahertz wave absorption. The results of experiments conducted in which a type-I beta barium borate (BBO) crystal is placed before the preformed air plasma indicate that the fundamental (ω) and second harmonic (2ω) pulses can also influence terahertz absorption.

  13. Non-conventional halide oxidation pathways : oxidation by imidazole triplet and surface specific oxidation by ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammann, Markus; Corral-Arroyo, Pablo; Aellig, Raphael; Orlando, Fabrizio; Lee, Ming-Tao; Artiglia, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Oxidation of halide ions (chloride, bromide, iodide) are the starting point of halogen release mechanisms out of sea water, marine aerosol or other halide containing continental aerosols. Slow oxidation of chloride and bromide by ozone in the bulk aqueous phase is of limited relevance. Faster surface specific oxidation has been suggested based on heterogeneous kinetics experiments. We provide first insight into very efficient bromide oxidation by ozone at the aqueous solution - air interface by surface sensitive X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicating significant build-up of an oxidized intermediate at the surface within millisecond time scales. The second source of oxidants in the condensed we have considered is the absorption of light by triplet forming photosensitizers at wavelengths longer than needed for direct photolysis and radical formation. We have performed coated wall flow tube experiments with mixtures of citric acid (CA) and imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde (IC) to represent secondary organic material rich marine aerosol. The halide ions bromide and iodide have been observed to act as efficient electron donors leading to their oxidation, HO2 formation and finally release of molecular halogen compounds. The photosensitization of imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde (IC) involves a well-known mechanism where the triplet excited state of IC is reduced by citric acid to a reduced ketyl radical that reacts with halide ions. A competition kinetics approach has been used to evaluate the rate limiting steps and to assess the significance of this source of halogens to the gas phase.

  14. Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy of silanized silicon quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntermann, Volker; Cimpean, Carla; Brehm, Georg; Sauer, Guido; Kryschi, Carola; Wiggers, Hartmut

    2008-03-01

    Excitonic properties of colloidal silicon quantum dots (Si qdots) with mean sizes of 4nm were examined using stationary and time-resolved optical spectroscopy. Chemically stable silicon oxide shells were prepared by controlled surface oxidation and silanization of HF-etched Si qdots. The ultrafast relaxation dynamics of photogenerated excitons in Si qdot colloids were studied on the picosecond time scale from 0.3psto2.3ns using femtosecond-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy. The time evolution of the transient absorption spectra of the Si qdots excited with a 150fs pump pulse at 390nm was observed to consist of decays of various absorption transitions of photoexcited electrons in the conduction band which overlap with both the photoluminescence and the photobleaching of the valence band population density. Gaussian deconvolution of the spectroscopic data allowed for disentangling various carrier relaxation processes involving electron-phonon and phonon-phonon scatterings or arising from surface-state trapping. The initial energy and momentum relaxation of hot carriers was observed to take place via scattering by optical phonons within 0.6ps . Exciton capturing by surface states forming shallow traps in the amorphous SiOx shell was found to occur with a time constant of 4ps , whereas deeper traps presumably localized in the Si-SiOx interface gave rise to exciton trapping processes with time constants of 110 and 180ps . Electron transfer from initially populated, higher-lying surface states to the conduction band of Si qdots (>2nm) was observed to take place within 400 or 700fs .

  15. [Nitric oxide].

    PubMed

    Rovira, I

    1995-01-01

    Nitric oxide was identified as the relaxing factor derived from the endothelium in 1987. Nitric oxide synthesis allows the vascular system to maintain a state of vasodilation, thereby regulating arterial pressure. Nitric oxide is also found in platelets, where it inhibits adhesion and aggregation; in the immune system, where it is responsible for the cytotoxic action of macrophages; and in the nervous system, where it acts as neurotransmitter. A deficit in endogenous synthesis of nitric oxide contributes to such conditions as essential arterial hypertension, pulmonary hypertension and heart disease. An excess of nitrous oxide induced by endotoxins and cytokinins, meanwhile, is believed to be responsible for hypotension in septic shock and for hyperdynamic circulatory state in cirrhosis of the liver. Nitric oxide has also been implicated in the rejection of transplanted organs and in cell damage after reperfusion. Inhaled nitrous oxide gas reduces pulmonary hypertension without triggering systemic hypotension in both experimental and clinical conditions. It also produces selective vasodilation when used to ventilate specific pulmonary areas, thereby improving the ventilation/perfusion ratio and, hence, oxygenation. Nitric oxide inhalation is effective in pulmonary hypertension-coincident with chronic obstructive lung disease, in persistent neonatal pulmonary hypertension and in pulmonary hypertension with congenital or acquired heart disease. Likewise, it reduces intrapulmonary shunt in acute respiratory failure and improves gas exchange. Under experimental conditions nitric oxide acts as a bronchodilator, although it seems to be less effective for this purpose in clinical use.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Simultaneous removal of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides from combustion gases

    DOEpatents

    Clay, David T.; Lynn, Scott

    1976-10-19

    A process for the simultaneous removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides from power plant stack gases comprising contacting the stack gases with a supported iron oxide catalyst/absorbent in the presence of sufficient reducing agent selected from the group consisting of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and mixtures thereof, to provide a net reducing atmosphere in the SO.sub.x /NO.sub.x removal zone. The sulfur oxides are removed by absorption substantially as iron sulfide, and nitrogen oxides are removed by catalytic reduction to nitrogen and ammonia. The spent iron oxide catalyst/absorbent is regenerated by oxidation and is recycled to the contacting zone. Sulfur dioxide is also produced during regeneration and can be utilized in the production of sulfuric acid and/or sulfur.

  17. Role of Microstructure in High Temperature Oxidation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    following paragraphs: (1) Stage One: 02 Absorption - - Oxygen Pressure Control The onset of oxidation occurs by the fast chemisorption of oxygen which...a l’Energie Atomique 7th Colloque de Metallurgie, Saclay, p. 71 (1963). 92. P. M. Holloway and J. B. Hudson,Suiface Sci., 43, 123 (1974).- 93. D. F

  18. Nitrous Oxide In The Antarctic Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podolske, J. R.; Loewenstein, M.; Strahan, S. E.; Chan, K. R.

    1991-01-01

    Paper reports on measurements of nitrous oxide (N2O) in upper atmosphere of Southern Hemisphere, made by tunable-laser absorption spectrometer on airplane. Measurements fill gap in information about distribution of N2O over Antarctic while ozone hole forming.

  19. Apparatus for lube oil oxidation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Klimov, A.K.; Baranov, V.A.; Ivanov, V.I.; Turskii, Yu.I.

    1983-01-01

    This article describes work aimed at developing apparatus and procedures with which the kinetics of oxygen absorption in the course of oil oxidation could be investigated simultaneously with the kinetics of changes in the oil viscosity, acidity, corrosivity, and quantity of volatile products formed. Explains that in laboratory research practice, more and more use is being made of methods for evaluating thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of oils on the basis of the oxygen absorption rate. Finds that with this apparatus, not only can the kinetics of oxygen absorption by oils and changes in their viscosity, acidity, and corrosivity be investigated, but the interrelation of these characteristics can also be studied (e.g., the degree of dependence of the viscosity and acidity on the quantity of oxygen absorbed, the dependence of the corrosivity on the acidity, etc.).

  20. Chemical shifts of K-X-ray absorption edges on copper in different compounds by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with Synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, D.; Basu, S.; Jha, S. N.; Bhattacharyya, D.

    2012-03-01

    Cu K X-ray absorption edges were measured in compounds such as CuO, Cu(CH3CO2)2, Cu(CO3)2, and CuSO4 where Cu is present in oxidation state of 2+, using the energy dispersive EXAFS beamline at INDUS-2 Synchrotron radiation source at RRCAT, Indore. Energy shifts of ˜4-7 eV were observed for Cu K X-ray absorption edge in the above compounds compared to its value in elemental copper. The difference in the Cu K edge energy shifts in the different compounds having same oxidation state of Cu shows the effect of different chemical environments surrounding the cation in the above compounds. The above chemical effect has been quantitatively described by determining the effective charges on Cu cations in the above compounds.