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Sample records for hidrogel steril radiasi

  1. Sterilization.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Herbert B

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide, sterilization (tubal sterilization and vasectomy) is used by more people than any other method of contraception. All techniques of tubal sterilization in widespread use in the United States have low risks of surgical complications. Although tubal sterilization is highly effective, the risk of pregnancy varies by age and method of occlusion. Pregnancies can occur many years after the procedure, and when they do, the risk of ectopic gestation is high. There is now strong evidence against the existence of a post-tubal ligation syndrome of menstrual abnormalities. Although women who have undergone tubal sterilization are more likely than other women to undergo hysterectomy subsequently, there is no known biologic basis for this relationship. Although sterilization is intended to be permanent, expressions of regret and requests for reversal are not uncommon and are much more likely to occur among women sterilized at young ages. Tubal sterilization has little or no effect on sexual function for most women. Vasectomy is less likely than tubal sterilization to result in serious complications. Minor complications, however, are not uncommon. Vasectomy does not increase the risk of heart disease, and available evidence argues against an increase in the risk of prostate cancer, testicular cancer, or overall mortality. Whether a postvasectomy pain syndrome exists remains controversial. Although the long-term effectiveness of vasectomy is less well-studied than that for tubal sterilization, it seems likely to be at least as effective. Intrauterine devices and progestin implants are long-acting, highly effective alternatives to sterilization.

  2. Sterilization.

    PubMed

    Rioux, M H

    1979-05-01

    The history of sterilization in North America has included enactment of laws in 37 U. S. states and 2 Canadian provinces allowing the procedure to be performed to eliminate undesirable, genetically-transmitted traits. These eugenic laws applied to any of the following categories of persons: mentally regarded, mentally ill, epileptic, criminal, alcoholic, or poor people. Pressure from geneticists, lawyers, and others concerned with the implications of such laws, led to their repeal in many places. Noneugenic and nontherapeutic sterilization is today a recognized medical practice. Legally, such procedures must meet the following criteria: 1) informed consent; 2) individual benefit; and 3) performance with reasonable care and skill. If these criteria are met, doctors are protected from legal liability. The most legal, social, and ethical ambiguities arise in cases where nontherapeutic sterilization is performed on individuals unable to give consent, e.g., minors or mentally handicapped persons.

  3. Postpartum Sterilization

    MedlinePlus

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ052 CONTRACEPTION Postpartum Sterilization • What is sterilization? • What is postpartum sterilization? • How is postpartum sterilization performed? • What kind of anesthesia is used for postpartum sterilization? • How ...

  4. Reversible Sterilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Largey, Gale

    1977-01-01

    Notes that difficult questions arise concerning the use of sterilization for alleged eugenic and euthenic purposes. Thus, how reversible sterilization will be used with relation to the poor, mentally ill, mentally retarded, criminals, and minors, is questioned. (Author/AM)

  5. Sterilization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Cox Sterile Products, Inc.'s Rapid Heat Transfer Sterilizer employs a heat exchange process that induces rapid air movement; the air becomes the heat transfer medium, maintaining a uniform temperature of 375 degrees Fahrenheit. It features pushbutton controls for three timing cycles for different instrument loads, a six-minute cycle for standard unpackaged instruments, eight minutes for certain specialized dental/medical instruments and 12 minutes for packaged instruments which can then be stored in a drawer in sterile condition. System will stay at 375 degrees all day. Continuous operation is not expensive because of the sterilizer's very low power requirements.

  6. Sterile Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazzo, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    Several anomalies recorded in short-baseline neutrino experiments suggest the possibility that the standard 3-flavor framework may be incomplete and point towards a manifestation of new physics. Light sterile neutrinos provide a credible solution to these puzzling results. Here, we present a concise review of the status of the neutrino oscillations within the 3+1 scheme, the minimal extension of the standard 3-flavor framework endowed with one sterile neutrino species. We emphasize the potential role of LBL experiments in the searches of CP violation related to sterile neutrinos and their complementarity with the SBL experiments.

  7. Sterile connector.

    PubMed

    Tenczar, F J

    1976-01-01

    Fabrication of a sterile connector for joining a supply source to an independent delivery location through a contaminated environment requires four design steps: 1) alignment of connector housings; 2) exclusion of the contaminated environment; 3) sterilization of the excluded region; and 4) penetration within the sterilized area followed by coupling of the protected internal conduits. Protective covers for connectors now in use may be modified to provide penetrable terminal barrier membranes that can be joined to exclude the environment. An adhesive containing an antimicrobiologic agent would set the stage for a controlled mechanical penetration of the decontaminated fused barriers. In another design concept, plastic barrier membranes without preliminary adhesions are simultaneously fused, sterilized, and penetrated by a nichrome wire heated to approximately 288 C. A system can be designed that is compatible, at the option of the user, with either of these methods. The more economical mechanical approach could then be used for parenteral fluid therapy while the nichrome wire technique would be reserved for more complex processing methods (frozen erythrocytes) or when storage of the resulting component is a factor.

  8. [Complications of tubal sterilization].

    PubMed

    Schreiner, W E

    1986-05-01

    In Europe and the US, tubal sterilization by laparoscopy has become the most widely used technique for female sterilization. The overall rate of intra- and postoperative complications differs between 0.145% and 0.85% in the numerous studies which have been done. This means 1 severe complication in 120-700 laparoscopic sterilizations. The lethality of tubal sterilization by laparoscopy lies between 3-10 deaths/100,000 interventions. The so-called "post-tubal ligation syndrome" is a rare complication. The overall pregnancy rate after tubal sterilization is 3-10/1000 women. The rate of ectopic pregnancy is very high and varies between 13.6% and 90%. Only 5% of the sterilized women show dissatisfaction. Several factors are relevant with regard to psychological sequelae and must be considered before tubal sterilization can be performed. 1 of the most important is the individual comprehensive counselling of the female or the couple prior to the sterilization.

  9. Plasma Sterilization Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-14

    aliquot of the S . epidermidis culture was withdrawn and used as the common source. The concentration of the common source was measured with each...sterilizer. Sterilization was checked by exposing vials containing solutions of 1E6 cfu/mL S . epidermidis to various sterilization procedures. For...Organogenesis) and were suspended over an isotonic saline solution to keep the skin samples from drying out. 2.00±0.05uL of the S . epidermidis source

  10. [Sterilization and eugenics].

    PubMed

    Shasha, Shaul M

    2011-04-01

    The term "eugenics" was coined by Francis Galton in 1883 and was defined as the science of the improvement of the human race by better breeding. "Positive eugenics" referred to methods of encouraging the "most fit" to reproduce more often, while "negative eugenics" was related to ways of discouraging or preventing the "less fit" from reproducing by birth control and sterilization. Many western countries adopted eugenics programs including Britain, Canada, Norway, Australia, Switzerland and others. In Sweden more then 62,000 "unfits" were forcibly sterilized. Many states in the U.S.A. had adopted marriage laws with eugenics criteria including forced sterilization. Approximately 64,000 individuals were sterilized. Eugenics considerations also lay behind the adoption of the Immigration Restriction Act of 1924. The Largest plan on eugenics was adopted by the Nazi regime in Germany. Hundreds of thousands of people, who were viewed as being "unfit", were forcibly sterilized by different methods: Surgical sterilization or castration with severe complications and high mortality rates. X-ray irradiation. The method was suggested by Brack, and tested by Schuman using prisoners in Block No. 10 in Auschwitz and Birkenau. Experiments were also performed by Brack on prisoners using the "window method". "Klauberg method"--injection of irritating materials into the uterus. Experiments were conducted using the plant Caladium Seguinum which was believed to have sterilization and castration properties.

  11. Female Sterilization (Tubal Ligation)

    MedlinePlus

    ... when you want to have it done. Some women are sterilized right after they have a baby or an abortion, ... videos on Youtube © 1998-2017 | Center for Young Women's Health, Boston Children's Hospital. All rights reserved.

  12. Sterilization by Laparoscopy

    MedlinePlus

    ... sleep-like state to prevent pain during surgery. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A virus that attacks certain cells of the body’s immune system and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Hysteroscopic Sterilization: ...

  13. Sterilization of space hardware.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pflug, I. J.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of various techniques of sterilization of space flight hardware using either destructive heating or the action of chemicals. Factors considered in the dry-heat destruction of microorganisms include the effects of microbial water content, temperature, the physicochemical properties of the microorganism and adjacent support, and nature of the surrounding gas atmosphere. Dry-heat destruction rates of microorganisms on the surface, between mated surface areas, or buried in the solid material of space vehicle hardware are reviewed, along with alternative dry-heat sterilization cycles, thermodynamic considerations, and considerations of final sterilization-process design. Discussed sterilization chemicals include ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, methyl bromide, dimethyl sulfoxide, peracetic acid, and beta-propiolactone.

  14. Auditing radiation sterilization facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Jeffrey A.

    The diversity of radiation sterilization systems available today places renewed emphasis on the need for thorough Quality Assurance audits of these facilities. Evaluating compliance with Good Manufacturing Practices is an obvious requirement, but an effective audit must also evaluate installation and performance qualification programs (validation_, and process control and monitoring procedures in detail. The present paper describes general standards that radiation sterilization operations should meet in each of these key areas, and provides basic guidance for conducting QA audits of these facilities.

  15. Hysteroscopic Tubal Sterilization

    PubMed Central

    McMartin, K

    2013-01-01

    Background Hysteroscopic tubal sterilization is a minimally invasive alternative to laparoscopic tubal ligation for women who want permanent contraception. The procedures involves non-surgical placement of permanent microinserts into both fallopian tubes. Patients must use alternative contraception for at least 3 months postprocedure until tubal occlusion is confirmed. Compared to tubal ligation, potential advantages of the hysteroscopic procedure are that it can be performed in 10 minutes in an office setting without the use of general or even local anesthesia. Objective The objective of this analysis was to determine the effectiveness and safety of hysteroscopic tubal sterilization compared with tubal ligation for permanent female sterilization. Data Sources A standard systematic literature search was conducted for studies published from January 1, 2008, until December 11, 2012. Review Methods Observational studies, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), systematic reviews and meta-analyses with 1 month or more of follow-up were examined. Outcomes included failure/pregnancy rates, adverse events, and patient satisfaction. Results No RCTs were identified. Two systematic reviews covered 22 observational studies of hysteroscopic sterilization. Only 1 (N = 93) of these 22 studies compared hysteroscopic sterilization to laparoscopic tubal ligation. Two other noncomparative case series not included in the systematic reviews were also identified. In the absence of comparative studies, data on tubal ligation were derived for this analysis from the CREST study, a large, multicentre, prospective, noncomparative observational study in the United States (GRADE low). Overall, hysteroscopic sterilization is associated with lower pregnancy rates and lower complication rates compared to tubal ligation. No deaths have been reported for hysteroscopic sterilization. Limitations A lack of long-term follow-up for hysteroscopic sterilization and a paucity of studies that directly

  16. The sterile inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Rock, Kenneth L; Latz, Eicke; Ontiveros, Fernando; Kono, Hajime

    2010-01-01

    The acute inflammatory response is a double-edged sword. On the one hand, it plays a key role in initial host defense, particularly against many infections. On the other hand, its aim is imprecise, and as a consequence, when it is drawn into battle, it can cause collateral damage in tissues. In situations where the inciting stimulus is sterile, the cost-benefit ratio may be high; because of this, sterile inflammation underlies the pathogenesis of a number of diseases. Although there have been major advances in our understanding of how microbes trigger inflammation, much less has been learned about this process in sterile situations. This review focuses on a subset of the many sterile stimuli that can induce inflammation-specifically dead cells and a variety of irritant particles, including crystals, minerals, and protein aggregates. Although this subset of stimuli is structurally very diverse and might appear to be unrelated, there is accumulating evidence that the innate immune system may recognize them in similar ways and stimulate the sterile inflammatory response via common pathways. Here we review established and emerging data about these responses.

  17. Karlson ozone sterilizer. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karlson, E.

    1984-05-07

    The authors have a functional sterilization system employing ozone as a sterilization agent. This final report covers the work that led to the first medical sterilizer using ozone as the sterilizing agent. The specifications and the final design were set by hospital operating room personnel and public safety standards. Work on kill tests using bacteria, viruses and fungi determined the necessary time and concentration of ozone necessary for sterilization. These data were used in the Karlson Ozone Sterilizer to determine the length of the steps of the operating cycle and the concentration of ozone to be used. 27 references.

  18. MINOS Sterile Neutrino Search

    SciTech Connect

    Koskinen, David Jason

    2009-02-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment designed to measure properties of neutrino oscillation. Using a high intensity muon neutrino beam, produced by the Neutrinos at Main Injector (NuMI) complex at Fermilab, MINOS makes two measurements of neutrino interactions. The first measurement is made using the Near Detector situated at Fermilab and the second is made using the Far Detector located in the Soudan Underground laboratory in northern Minnesota. The primary goal of MINOS is to verify, and measure the properties of, neutrino oscillation between the two detectors using the v μ→ Vτ transition. A complementary measurement can be made to search for the existence of sterile neutrinos; an oft theorized, but experimentally unvalidated particle. The following thesis will show the results of a sterile neutrino search using MINOS RunI and RunII data totaling ~2.5 x 1020 protons on target. Due to the theoretical nature of sterile neutrinos, complete formalism that covers transition probabilities for the three known active states with the addition of a sterile state is also presented.

  19. Radiation sterilization of ketoprofen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katušin-Ražem, Branka; Hamitouche, Katia; Maltar-Strmečki, Nadica; Kos, Karmen; Pucić, Irina; Britvić-Budicin, Smiljana; Ražem, Dušan

    2005-06-01

    Radiation sterilization of ketoprofen (KP) dry powder was investigated by selected physico-chemical methods. High-performance liquid chromatography, ultraviolet spectrophotometry, infrared spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and electron spin resonance spectroscopy did not show any significant degradation at sterilization dose 25 kGy. To determine the nature, extent and direction of radiation-induced changes, KP was irradiated to extremely high doses, much higher than necessary to achieve sterility. The irradiated KP did not show any difference of XRD patterns up to 200 kGy; with DSC and IR some changes were detected only above 1000 and 2000 kGy, respectively; HPLC has shown about 5% destruction at 2000 kGy. Acetyl benzophenon (AcBph) was generated by irradiation with G(AcBph)=(1.6±0.1)×10 -8 mol J -1. Ames test has shown no mutagenicity of KP irradiated with 3000 kGy or of the oily mixure of radiolytic products isolated from it. Solid KP has proven to be very stable on irradiation, and irradiation has been found to be a suitable method for its sterilization.

  20. Sterilization surgery - making a decision

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002138.htm Sterilization surgery - making a decision To use the sharing features on this page, ... about all the options available to you before making the decision to have a sterilization procedure. Alternative Names Deciding ...

  1. Sterilization of Medical Instruments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-06

    possible use with medical instruments and skin catheters. To address this challenge, MicroStructure Technologies (MicroST) is developing an...Project: DARPA - Sterilization of Medical Instruments Contract: # FA9550-06-C-0054 Principal Investigator: Joseph Birmingham Report: FINAL Report 1...as medical instruments and skin catheters. To address this challenge, MicroStructure Technologies (MicroST) is proposing a compact, low maintenance

  2. Hysteroscopic Tubal Sterilization

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hysteroscopic sterilization is a minimally invasive alternative to laparoscopic tubal ligation for women who want permanent contraception. In contrast to the laparoscopic technique, a hysteroscope is used to pass permanent microinserts through the cervix and place them in the fallopian tubes. This procedure does not require local or general anesthesia and can be performed in an office setting. Objectives The objective of this analysis was to determine, based on published literature, the cost-effectiveness of hysteroscopic tubal sterilization (HS) compared with laparoscopic tubal ligation (LS) for permanent female sterilization. Data Sources A systematic literature search was conducted for studies published between January 1, 2008, and December 11, 2012. Review Methods Potentially relevant studies were identified based on the title and abstract. Cost-utility analyses (studies that report outcomes in terms of costs and quality-adjusted life-years) were prioritized for inclusion. When not available, cost-effectiveness, cost-benefit, and cost-consequence analyses were considered. Costing studies were considered in the absence of all other analyses. Results A total of 33 abstracts were identified. Three cost analyses were included. A retrospective chart review from Canada found that HS was $111 less costly than LS; a prospective activity-based cost management study from Italy reported that it was €337 less costly than LS; and the results of an American decision model showed that HS was $1,178 less costly than LS. Limitations All studies had limited applicability to the Ontario health care system due to differences in setting, resource use, and costs. Conclusions Three cost analyses found that, although the HS procedure was more expensive due to the cost of the microinserts, HS was less costly than LS overall due to the shorter recovery time required. Plain Language Summary Hysteroscopic sterilization is a minimally invasive alternative to conventional tubal

  3. An international overview of sterilization.

    PubMed

    Dourlen-Rollier, A M

    1977-05-01

    Sterilization, both male and female, for family planning purposes developed very rapidly, beginning in Puerto Rico and Japan between 1940 and 1950 and continuing in India and Pakistan on a large scale after the mid-1950s. The legal status of voluntary sterilization around the world is confused, but recent developments show a trend toward liberalization of the laws. Certain countries still consider sterilization punishable under the criminal law, but there is a gap between the law and the practice. Certain countries have made the issue of consent relevant under the law. Certain other governments are studying the question of sterilization officially. Countries with heavy population pressures are employing incentives to encourage sterilization and others, specifically European countries, have legally authorized sterilization. The procedure is becoming increasingly accepted.

  4. Sterile neutrinos: fact or fiction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    In this talk I will critically review some of the anomalies which in combination could point to the existence of a eV-scale sterile neutrino. Each of these anomalies is well below the 5 sigma level individually and may have explanations besides sterile neutrinos. At the same time each anomaly requires a separate explanation if it is not caused by a sterile neutrino. To further complicate the gpicture, some data sets are in mutual disagreement.

  5. Post-tubal sterilization syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lethbridge, D J

    1992-01-01

    This article presents a review of the literature on post-tubal sterilization syndrome. Although studies have shortcomings they suggest the majority of women undergoing tubal sterilization do not experience changes in menstrual patterns after the procedure, but a minority do. Suggestions are made for further research, conducted from a nursing perspective. Implications for practice are suggested, given the tentative information on post-tubal sterilization syndrome.

  6. Sterilization in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bartz, Deborah; Greenberg, James A

    2008-01-01

    Unintended pregnancies are expensive for patients and for society in terms of medical costs, the cost of caring for more children, and the cost to personal and professional goals. Sterilization is the most common contraceptive method utilized by couples in the United States. Given technological advances over the past few decades, male and female surgical sterilization has become a safe, convenient, easy, and highly effective birth control method for the long term. This article reviews current male and female sterilization options. PMID:18701927

  7. Sterilization of Extracted Human Teeth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantera, Eugene A., Jr.; Schuster, George S.

    1990-01-01

    At present, there is no specific recommendation for sterilization of extracted human teeth used in dental technique courses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether autoclaving would be effective in the sterilization of extracted teeth without compromising the characteristics that make their use in clinical simulations desirable. (MLW)

  8. Electrolytic silver ion cell sterilizes water supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albright, C. F.; Gillerman, J. B.

    1968-01-01

    Electrolytic water sterilizer controls microbial contamination in manned spacecraft. Individual sterilizer cells are self-contained and require no external power or control. The sterilizer generates silver ions which do not impart an unpleasant taste to water.

  9. Conditional sterility in plants

    DOEpatents

    Meagher, Richard B.; McKinney, Elizabeth; Kim, Tehryung

    2010-02-23

    The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic plant cells, plant tissue and plants which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic plants are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such plants are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic plants also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.

  10. Pain Associated With Hysteroscopic Sterilization

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Jenna; Childers, Meredith E.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The safety and efficacy of female hysteroscopic sterilization using the Essure system has been well documented. Given the marked differences in the execution of hysteroscopic and laparoscopic sterilization, the objective of this study was to assess the experience of pain postprocedure between the 2. Secondary end-points included postoperative pain medication, time to return to normal activities, postprocedure bleeding, and patient satisfaction. Methods: Twenty cases each of laparoscopic sterilization (LS) and hysteroscopic sterilization (HS) were performed. Patients were surveyed regarding their experience of pain immediately postoperatively, 1 week, and 4 weeks post-procedure. Results: The average pain score immediately postprocedure was significantly lower among HS patients than among LS patients (t=−8.17, P<.0001). One-week post-procedure, none of the patients in the HS group reported any pain, while the average pain score among the LS patients was 2.65 (t =−9.67, P<.0001). Four weeks post-procedure, women in the HS group continued to report no pain, 35% of the LS group continued to report some pain (t=−3.04, P=.004). Conclusions: Hysteroscopic sterilization offers a minimally invasive, less painful, equally efficacious modality for sterilization than laparoscopic sterilization and should be available to all women seeking permanent birth control. PMID:17651558

  11. Food irradiation and sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josephson, Edward S.

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25-70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning is achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70-80°C (bacon to 53°C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40°C to -20°C). Radappertozed foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for "wholesomeness" (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effecys of radappertization on the "wholesomeness" characteristics of these foods.

  12. Synergistic Effects in Sonochemical Sterilization

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Raymond M. G.; Pisano, Michael A.; Tortora, George; Sawicki, Edward

    1967-01-01

    The synergistic effects observed during the sterilization of Bacillus subtilis var. niger ATCC 9372 by the combined action of ethylene or propylene oxide with high-intensity airborne sound waves (34.8 kc/sec) were investigated. It has been shown that the number of surviving spores deposited on paper strips decreases exponentially with the sound intensity at sample level. Reductions of the order of one-third of the time required for standard propylene oxide sterilization have been observed by using the combined action of sound waves with gaseous sterilization. At the present time, maximal synergistic effects seem to be achieved for the following experimental conditions: propylene oxide concentration, 500 to 1,000 mg/liter; acoustic intensity, 161 to 162 db; contact time, 80 min; temperature, 60 C; and relative humidity, 40%. The basic mechanism involved in sonochemical sterilization seems to be more of a physical (accelerated gas diffusion) than a chemical nature. PMID:4965941

  13. Sterilization 1. The changing attitude.

    PubMed

    Teper, S

    1977-01-01

    Since the end of World War 2 in the U.S., there has been a marked change in attitude towards and treatment of the mentally handicapped, and the result - in terms of sterilization - is that many States no longer use their compulsory sterilization laws and some have repealed them. In any event, the incidence of compulsory sterilization has decreased markedly. Yet, in the past decade there have been occasional attempts to resort to the procedure for punitive reasons. These efforts have generally involved women with illegitimate children who are supported by welfare payments. Over the same decade there has been in the U.S. a remarkable growth in the use of voluntary and contraceptive sterilization as the means of preventing additional children. Preliminary results from the national Survey of Family Growth 1973 revealed that 29% of couples between the ages of 15 and 44 years who did not want more children were sterilized - males and females about equally. In Britain the development of sterilization has followed a somewhat different path. During the 1st decades of the 20th century the people in Britain were very concerned about the extensiveness of mental subnormality in the population and with the care of this group. In 1930 the Eugenics society made its 1st formal statement on the use of sterilization, advocating its use for those individuals who might transmit severe physical or mental defects which might affect the health of their progeny. More evidence was determined needed before there would be an attempt made to initiate legislation, and no legislation was ever effected. Also, from 1925 onwards, there was a debate in medical and legal circles on the consequences for patients and doctors of sterilizing operations and on the risks of litigation in the criminal and civil courts. The most marked change came in 1972 when the National Health Service (Family Planning) Act empowered local authorities to provide facilities for vasectomy on the same basis as other

  14. 21 CFR 880.6880 - Steam sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Steam sterilizer. 880.6880 Section 880.6880 Food... § 880.6880 Steam sterilizer. (a) Identification. A steam sterilizer (autoclave) is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of pressurized steam....

  15. 21 CFR 880.6880 - Steam sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Steam sterilizer. 880.6880 Section 880.6880 Food... § 880.6880 Steam sterilizer. (a) Identification. A steam sterilizer (autoclave) is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of pressurized steam....

  16. 21 CFR 880.6880 - Steam sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Steam sterilizer. 880.6880 Section 880.6880 Food... § 880.6880 Steam sterilizer. (a) Identification. A steam sterilizer (autoclave) is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of pressurized steam....

  17. 21 CFR 880.6880 - Steam sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Steam sterilizer. 880.6880 Section 880.6880 Food... § 880.6880 Steam sterilizer. (a) Identification. A steam sterilizer (autoclave) is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of pressurized steam....

  18. 21 CFR 880.6880 - Steam sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Steam sterilizer. 880.6880 Section 880.6880 Food... § 880.6880 Steam sterilizer. (a) Identification. A steam sterilizer (autoclave) is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of pressurized steam....

  19. Radiation sterilization of skin allograft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kairiyama, E.; Horak, C.; Spinosa, M.; Pachado, J.; Schwint, O.

    2009-07-01

    In the treatment of burns or accidental loss of skin, cadaveric skin allografts provide an alternative to temporarily cover a wounded area. The skin bank facility is indispensable for burn care. The first human skin bank was established in Argentina in 1989; later, 3 more banks were established. A careful donor selection is carried out according to the national regulation in order to prevent transmissible diseases. As cadaveric human skin is naturally highly contaminated, a final sterilization is necessary to reach a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10 -6. The sterilization dose for 106 batches of processed human skin was determined on the basis of the Code of Practice for the Radiation Sterilization of Tissue Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control (2004) and ISO 11137-2 (2006). They ranged from 17.6 to 33.4 kGy for bioburdens of >10-162.700 CFU/100 cm 2. The presence of Gram negative bacteria was checked for each produced batch. From the analysis of the experimental results, it was observed that the bioburden range was very wide and consequently the estimated sterilization doses too. If this is the case, the determination of a tissue-specific dose per production batch is necessary to achieve a specified requirement of SAL. Otherwise if the dose of 25 kGy is preselected, a standardized method for substantiation of this dose should be done to confirm the radiation sterilization process.

  20. Costs of low-temperature plasma sterilization compared with other sterilization methods.

    PubMed

    Adler, S; Scherrer, M; Daschner, F D

    1998-10-01

    Plasma sterilization is a new technique for decontaminating thermolabile products without the severe drawbacks associated with gas sterilization methods (residues, environment compatibility). The actual costs, per sterilization unit, of three sterilization techniques--plasma, ethylene oxide and formaldehyde--were compared. As plasma sterilization is an alternative to steam sterilization for sterilizing thermostable but easily corroding products or electronic instruments, costs for steam sterilization were calculated and compared as well. If one considers only the cost of the sterilization procedure itself, without taking into account the time-saving element of plasma sterilization, then ethylene oxide sterilization proves to be the most expensive procedure, followed by plasma sterilization; sterilization with formaldehyde was the least expensive. Inclusion of the time required to sterilize an instruments, however, altered the relative costs of the three methods. Because plasma sterilization takes less time to perform than either ethylene oxide or formaldehyde sterilization, fewer instruments need be procured. In order to measure and compare the time-saving advantage that plasma sterilization affords, five groups of instruments were assembled and the total cost of sterilizing an instrument of each group was calculated. The five groups included (1) disposable, (2) electronic, (3) endoscopic, (4) sharp and (5) standard instruments. In all cases, ethylene oxide sterilization was the most expensive method. Formaldehyde sterilization was, in four out of five cases, more expensive than plasma sterilization. Steam sterilization proved to be the cheapest method of sterilizing a laparoscopic set, even when costs due to damage inflicted on the optical instruments were calculated. In the case of a vitrectome, however, plasma sterilization costs were nearly the same as steam sterilization when the lower rate of damage by plasma sterilization was taken into account.

  1. Genomic Networks of Hybrid Sterility

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Leslie M.; White, Michael A.; Tautz, Diethard; Payseur, Bret A.

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci (“Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities”). The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus) provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL). Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven ‘hotspots,’ seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL—but not cis eQTL—were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a ‘fertile’ subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is

  2. The limits of sterility assurance.

    PubMed

    von Woedtke, Thomas; Kramer, Axel

    2008-09-03

    Sterility means the absence of all viable microorganisms including viruses. At present, a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10(-6) is generally accepted for pharmacopoeial sterilization procedures, i.e., a probability of not more than one viable microorganism in an amount of one million sterilised items of the final product. By extrapolating the reduction rates following extreme artificial initial contamination, a theoretical overall performance of the procedure of at least 12 lg increments (overkill conditions) is demanded to verify an SAL of 10(-6). By comparison, other recommendations for thermal sterilization procedures demand only evidence that the difference between the initial contamination and the number of test organisms at the end of the process amount to more than six orders of magnitude. However, a practical proof of the required level of sterility assurance of 10(-6) is not possible. Moreover, the attainability of this condition is fundamentally dubious, at least in non-thermal procedures. Thus, the question is discussed whether the undifferentiated adherence to the concept of sterility assurance on the basis of a single SAL of 10(-6) corresponds with the safety requirements in terms of patient or user safety, costs and energy efficiency. Therefore, in terms of practical considerations, a concept of tiered SALs is recommended, analogous to the comparable and well-established categorization into "High-level disinfection", "Intermediate-level disinfection" and "Low-level disinfection". The determination of such tiered SALs is geared both to the intended application of the sterilized goods, as well as to the characteristics of the products and the corresponding treatment options.In the case of aseptic preparation, filling and production procedures, a mean contamination probability of 10(-3) is assumed. In automated processes, lower contamination rates can be realized. In the case of the production of re-usable medical devices, a reduction of at least 2

  3. Sterile versus non-sterile glove use and aseptic technique.

    PubMed

    Flores, Ashley

    There is evidence indicating that improvements in infection control practice can reduce the incidence of healthcare-associated infection. This article explores the evidence base for glove use and aseptic technique. There is a lack of evidence regarding the influence of sterile versus clean gloves in clinical care. Therefore in practice, clean and aseptic techniques are often used interchangeably. Nurses must learn to select clean or aseptic technique, and therefore clean or sterile gloves, using a risk assessment protocol. Regular audits of aseptic technique and education are needed to improve care.

  4. Cytoplasmic Sterility Factors in VICIA FABA L

    PubMed Central

    Edwardson, J. R.; Bond, D. A.; Christie, R. G.

    1976-01-01

    Tissues of cytoplasmic male sterile, maintainer, restorer, and restored lines, and sterile plants which reverted to fertility in Vicia faba were examined in ultrathin sections. Cytoplasmic spherical bodies (CSB), ca. 70 nm in diameter, were observed in tissues of all sterile plants but not in tissues of maintainer, restorer or restored sterile plants. No CSB were observed in a reverted fertile branch of a tiller-sterile plant, nor in 5 of 6 reverted fertile plants. One reverted fertile plant contained CSB in ovules. It is proposed that the CSB are the sites of, or possibly, products of, sterility factors in Vicia faba. PMID:17248701

  5. Microwave powered sterile access port

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L. (Inventor); Atwater, James E. (Inventor); Dahl, Roger W. (Inventor); Garmon, Frank C. (Inventor); Lunsford, Teddie D. (Inventor); Michalek, William F. (Inventor); Wheeler, Jr., Richard R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A device and method for elimination of contamination during transfer of materials either into or from bioreactors, food containers, or other microbially vulnerable systems. Using microwave power, thermal sterilizations of mating fixtures are achieved simply, reliably, and quickly by the volatilization of small quantities of water to produce superheated steam which contacts all exposed surfaces.

  6. Sterile pyuria: a forgotten entity

    PubMed Central

    Persad, Raj

    2015-01-01

    Sterile pyuria is a common entity. Yet there are no guidelines to address this issue. We have conducted a systematic review over 20 years and reviewed the results. Guidelines for assessment, diagnosis and management are developed based on these results. PMID:26425144

  7. Sterile Neutrino Search with MINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Devan, Alena V.

    2015-08-01

    MINOS, Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in the NuMI muon neutrino beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, IL. It consists of two detectors, a near detector positioned 1 km from the source of the beam and a far detector 734 km away in Minnesota. MINOS is primarily designed to observe muon neutrino disappearance resulting from three flavor oscillations. The Standard Model of Particle Physics predicts that neutrinos oscillate between three active flavors as they propagate through space. This means that a muon-type neutrino has a certain probability to later interact as a different type of neutrino. In the standard picture, the neutrino oscillation probabilities depend only on three neutrino flavors and two mass splittings, Δm2. An anomaly was observed by the LSND and MiniBooNE experiments that suggests the existence of a fourth, sterile neutrino flavor that does not interact through any of the known Standard Model interactions. Oscillations into a theoretical sterile flavor may be observed by a deficit in neutral current interactions in the MINOS detectors. A distortion in the charged current energy spectrum might also be visible if oscillations into the sterile flavor are driven by a large mass-squared difference, ms2 ~ 1 eV2. The results of the 2013 sterile neutrino search are presented here.

  8. New developments in disinfection and sterilization.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Craig A

    2016-05-02

    A review of regulatory clearances for selected new sterilization and disinfection products for the period January 2012-June 2015 indicates continued leverage of established technologies for steam and low-temperature sterilization, and high-level disinfection. New products in these areas were typically modified and improved versions of existing products, with the exception of a new combination hydrogen peroxide/ozone sterilizer. Development of new low-temperature sterilization technologies to address continued evolution of complex medical devices is expected to continue.

  9. Plasma Sterilization Technology for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, S. J.; Olson, R. L.; Leavens, W. M.

    1975-01-01

    The application of plasma gas technology to sterilization and decontamination of spacecraft components is considered. Areas investigated include: effective sterilizing ranges of four separate gases; lethal constituents of a plasma environment; effectiveness of plasma against a diverse group of microorganisms; penetrating efficiency of plasmas for sterilization; and compatibility of spacecraft materials with plasma environments. Results demonstrated that plasma gas, specifically helium plasma, is a highly effective sterilant and is compatible with spacecraft materials.

  10. Reionization in sterile neutrino cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Sownak; Frenk, Carlos S.; Hou, Jun; Lacey, Cedric G.; Lovell, Mark R.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the process of reionization in a model in which the dark matter is a warm elementary particle such as a sterile neutrino. We focus on models that are consistent with the dark matter decay interpretation of the recently detected line at 3.5 keV in the X-ray spectra of galaxies and clusters. In warm dark matter models, the primordial spectrum of density perturbations has a cut-off on the scale of dwarf galaxies. Structure formation therefore begins later than in the standard cold dark matter (CDM) model and very few objects form below the cut-off mass scale. To calculate the number of ionizing photons, we use the Durham semi-analytic model of galaxy formation, GALFORM. We find that even the most extreme 7 keV sterile neutrino we consider is able to reionize the Universe early enough to be compatible with the bounds on the epoch of reionization from Planck. This, perhaps surprising, result arises from the rapid build-up of high redshift galaxies in the sterile neutrino models which is also reflected in a faster evolution of their far-UV luminosity function between 10 > z > 7 than in CDM. The dominant sources of ionizing photons are systematically more massive in the sterile neutrino models than in CDM. As a consistency check on the models, we calculate the present-day luminosity function of satellites of Milky Way-like galaxies. When the satellites recently discovered in the Dark Energy Survey are taken into account, strong constraints are placed on viable sterile neutrino models.

  11. Sterile neutrinos at the CNGS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donini, Andrea; Maltoni, Michele; Meloni, Davide; Migliozzi, Pasquale; Terranova, Francesco

    2007-12-01

    We study the potential of the CNGS beam in constraining the parameter space of a model with one sterile neutrino separated from three active ones by an Script O(eV2) mass-squared difference, Δ mSBL2. We perform our analysis using the OPERA detector as a reference (our analysis can be upgraded including a detailed simulation of the ICARUS detector). We point out that the channel with the largest potential to constrain the sterile neutrino parameter space at the CNGS beam is νμ→ντ. The reason for that is twofold: first, the active-sterile mixing angle that governs this oscillation is the less constrained by present experiments; second, this is the signal for which both OPERA and ICARUS have been designed, and thus benefits from an extremely low background. In our analysis we also took into account νμ→νe oscillations. We find that the CNGS potential to look for sterile neutrinos is limited with nominal intensity of the beam, but it is significantly enhanced with a factor 2 to 10 increase in the neutrino flux. Data from both channels allow us, in this case, to constrain further the four-neutrino model parameter space. Our results hold for any value of Δ mSBL2gtrsim0.1 eV2, i.e. when oscillations driven by this mass-squared difference are averaged. We have also checked that the bound on θ13 that can be put at the CNGS is not affected by the possible existence of sterile neutrinos.

  12. Microwave Sterilization and Depyrogenation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Dahl, Roger W.; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    A fully functional, microgravity-compatible microwave sterilization and depyrogenation system (MSDS) prototype was developed that is capable of producing medical-grade water (MGW) without expendable supplies, using NASA potable water that currently is available aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and will be available for Lunar and planetary missions in the future. The microwave- based, continuous MSDS efficiently couples microwaves to a single-phase, pressurized, flowing water stream that is rapidly heated above 150 C. Under these conditions, water is rapidly sterilized. Endotoxins, significant biological toxins that originate from the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria and which represent another defining MGW requirement, are also deactivated (i.e., depyrogenated) albeit more slowly, with such deactivation representing a more difficult challenge than sterilization. Several innovations culminated in the successful MSDS prototype design. The most significant is the antenna-directed microwave heating of a water stream flowing through a microwave sterilization chamber (MSC). Novel antenna designs were developed to increase microwave transmission efficiency. These improvements resulted in greater than 95-percent absorption of incident microwaves. In addition, incorporation of recuperative heat exchangers (RHxs) in the design reduced the microwave power required to heat a water stream flowing at 15 mL/min to 170 C to only 50 W. Further improvements in energy efficiency involved the employment of a second antenna to redirect reflected microwaves back into the MSC, eliminating the need for a water load and simplifying MSDS design. A quick connect (QC) is another innovation that can be sterilized and depyrogenated at temperature, and then cooled using a unique flow design, allowing collection of MGW at atmospheric pressure and 80 C. The final innovation was the use of in-line mixers incorporated in the flow path to disrupt laminar flow and increase contact time

  13. Method of sterilization using ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor); Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Methods of using ozone have been developed which sterilize instruments and medical wastes, oxidize, organics found in wastewater, clean laundry, break down contaminants in soil into a form more readily digested by microbes, kill microorganisms present in food products, and destroy toxins present in food products. The preferred methods for killing microorganism and destroying toxins use pressurized, humidified, and concentrated ozone produced by an electrochemical cell.

  14. Observation of Effectiveness of Clinical Sterilization by CASP-80A Low-Temperature Plasma Sterilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Si; Zhang, Yangde; Liu, Weidong

    2006-09-01

    The influence on the effectiveness of sterilization by low-temperature plasma sterilizer CASP-80A was investigated so as to provide a theoretical basis for reducing medical costs and achieving ideal sterilization effectiveness. To conduct the on-site simulation test, a clinical material sterilization test and a test of the influence of organic substance were conducted, the former by using the representative of Bacillus Stearothermophilus, preparing the bacteria-contaminated carrier through polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) simulated hose endoscopes, and the latter by using calf serum as the influence factor of the organic substance. The results show that the CASP-80A low-temperature plasma sterilizer could achieve effective sterilization by either the short-cycle or the long-cycle sterilization method depending on different materials, apparatus, and extent of contamination. The organic substances could influence the effectiveness of sterilization by the low-temperature plasma (H2O2) sterilizer.

  15. Sterile Neutrinos in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Benjamin J.P.

    2015-09-01

    Measurements of neutrino oscillations at short baselines contain an intriguing set of experimental anomalies that may be suggestive of new physics such as the existence of sterile neutrinos. This three-part thesis presents research directed towards understanding these anomalies and searching for sterile neutrino oscillations. Part I contains a theoretical discussion of neutrino coherence properties. The open-quantum-system picture of neutrino beams, which allows a rigorous prediction of coherence distances for accelerator neutrinos, is presented. Validity of the standard treatment of active and sterile neutrino oscillations at short baselines is verified, and non-standard coherence loss effects at longer baselines are predicted. Part II concerns liquid argon detector development for the MicroBooNE experiment, which will search for short-baseline oscillations in the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab. Topics include characterization and installation of the MicroBooNE optical system; test-stand measurements of liquid argon optical properties with dissolved impurities; optimization of wavelength-shifting coatings for liquid argon scintillation light detection; testing and deployment of high-voltage surge arrestors to protect TPC field cages; and software development for optical and TPC simulation and reconstruction. Part III presents a search for sterile neutrinos using the IceCube neutrino telescope, which has collected a large sample of atmospheric-neutrino-induced events in the 1-10 TeV energy range. Sterile neutrinos would modify the detected neutrino flux shape via MSW-resonant oscillations. Following a careful treatment of systematic uncertainties in the sample, no evidence for MSW-resonant oscillations is observed, and exclusion limits on 3+1 model parameter space are derived. Under the mixing assumptions made, the 90% confidence level exclusion limit extends to sin224 ≤ 0.02 at m2 ~ 0.3 eV2, and the LSND and Mini

  16. Plasma Sterilization: New Epoch in Medical Textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, P.; Arun, N.; Vigneswaran, C.

    2015-04-01

    Clothing is perceived to be second skin to the human body since it is in close contact with the human skin most of the times. In hospitals, use of textile materials in different forms and sterilization of these materials is an essential requirement for preventing spread of germs. The need for appropriate disinfection and sterilization techniques is of paramount importance. There has been a continuous demand for novel sterilization techniques appropriate for use on various textile materials as the existing sterilization techniques suffer from various technical and economical drawbacks. Plasma sterilization is the alternative method, which is friendlier and more effective on the wide spectrum of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. Basically, the main inactivation factors for cells exposed to plasma are heat, UV radiation and various reactive species. Plasma exposure can kill micro-organisms on a surface in addition to removing adsorbed monolayer of surface contaminants. Advantages of plasma surface treatment are removal of contaminants from the surface, change in the surface energy and sterilization of the surface. Plasma sterilization aims to kill and/or remove all micro-organisms which may cause infection of humans or animals, or which can cause spoilage of foods or other goods. This review paper emphasizes necessity for sterilization, essentials of sterilization, mechanism of plasma sterilization and the parameters influencing it.

  17. Surgical Sterilization, Regret, and Race: Contemporary Patterns*

    PubMed Central

    Shreffler, Karina M.; McQuillan, Julia; Greil, Arthur L.; Johnson, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Surgical sterilization is a relatively permanent form of contraception that has been disproportionately used by Black, Hispanic, and Native American women in the United States in the past. We use a nationally representative sample of 4,609 women ages 25 to 45 to determine whether sterilization continues to be more common and consequential by race for reproductive-age women. Results indicate that Native American and Black women are more likely to be sterilized than non-Hispanic White women, and Hispanic and Native American women are more likely than non-Hispanic White women to report that their sterilization surgeries prevent them from conceiving children they want. Reasons for sterilization differ significantly by race. These findings suggest that stratified reproduction has not ended in the United States and that the patterns and consequences of sterilization continue to vary by race. PMID:25592919

  18. Radiation sterilization of new drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Abuhanoğlu, Gürhan; Ozer, A Yekta

    2014-06-01

    Radiation sterilization has now become a commonly used method for sterilization of several active ingredients in drugs or drug delivery systems containing these substances. In this context, many applications have been performed on the human products that are required to be sterile, as well as on pharmaceutical products prepared to be developed. The new drug delivery systems designed to deliver the medication to the target tissue or organ, such as microspheres, nanospheres, microemulsion, and liposomal systems, have been sterilized by gamma (γ) and beta (β) rays, and more recently, by e-beam sterilization. In this review, the sterilization of new drug delivery systems was discussed other than conventional drug delivery systems by γ irradiation.

  19. Hysteroscopic Sterilization: History and Current Methods

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, James A

    2008-01-01

    For many practicing obstetrician-gynecologists, tubal ligation was the gold standard by which female sterilization techniques were measured. Yet gynecologic surgeons have simultaneously sought to occlude the fallopian tubes transcervically to avoid discomfort and complications associated with transabdominal approaches. In this review, the history of transcervical sterilization is discussed. Past, current, and upcoming techniques are reviewed. This article focuses on interval sterilization techniques, thus removing post-vaginal and post-cesarean delivery tubal ligations from the discussion. PMID:19015762

  20. The Status of Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiuchi, Shunsaku

    2017-01-01

    The sterile neutrino is a particle dark matter candidate with a host of observable signatures that is close to being fully tested. I will first review the implications for structure formation, comparing predictions of sterile neutrino cosmologies against observations. I will then review analyses of X-rays from dark matter concentrations in search of mono-energetic photons predicted from sterile neutrino dark matter decays. Structure formation and X-rays offer important complementary probes, and I will highlight the recent rapid progress in testing the sterile neutrino parameter space. I will also discuss implications of analyses leading to the detection of X-ray lines from clusters of galaxies and Andromeda.

  1. Ramifications of a sterile Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Gilbert V.

    2011-10-01

    The seldom considered ramifications of a sterile Mars are explored. Very much is now known about the environment on Mars. Herein, the individual and collective environmental parameters are examined with particular consideration of those that might be inimical to life as we know it, or as might reasonably be assumed to be so to alien life. It is shown that no single measurement or combination of them precludes the ability of Mars to support even a wide number of terrestrial microbial species, let alone the likely greater tolerance and/or adaptability of possible alien life forms. Some yet unknown factor or combination of factors would have to be responsible for Mars' failure to generate life or to successfully harbor viable forms received from space. Since Mars is so Earth-like, the red planet's sterility could deliver a fatal blow to the growing concept of a cosmic Biologic Imperative, and would raise the daunting prospect that Earth is a unique or a very rare habitat.

  2. Steam quality and effective sterilization.

    PubMed

    Sedlacek, R S; Rose, E F

    1985-01-01

    Faced with using steam from a commercial utility having boilers greater than 5 miles distant and being the last user on the system resulted in ineffective sterilization. A three phase testing program was established utilizing: Direct physical measurements - an Ellison model 915A portable steam calorimeter. Direct microbiology - Autoclaved feed pellets were aseptically placed in fluid thioglycolate medium and incubated at 37 degrees C. Indirect microbiology - Feces from "defined flora" mice fed the autoclaved pelleted feed were tested. Colorimetric measurements verified that the steam sometimes contained greater than 5% entrained water. During periods of wet steam it was impossible to maintain consistent sterility of the mouse pellets even using a cycle of 126 degrees C for 60 minutes. One spore-forming Gram positive rod, Clostridium perfringens type D was the predominant bacterium isolated. Lactating mice, or mice stressed experimentally came down with diarrhea within days of eating pellets treated with wet steam (calorimetric measurements) and a subsequent positive culture. These mice voided stools predominantly showing Clostridium perfringens type D.

  3. 9 CFR 109.2 - Sterilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sterilizers. 109.2 Section 109.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STERILIZATION AND PASTEURIZATION...

  4. 9 CFR 109.2 - Sterilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sterilizers. 109.2 Section 109.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STERILIZATION AND PASTEURIZATION...

  5. 9 CFR 109.2 - Sterilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sterilizers. 109.2 Section 109.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STERILIZATION AND PASTEURIZATION...

  6. Eugenics and Involuntary Sterilization: 1907-2015.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Philip R

    2015-01-01

    In England during the late nineteenth century, intellectuals, especially Francis Galton, called for a variety of eugenic policies aimed at ensuring the health of the human species. In the United States, members of the Progressive movement embraced eugenic ideas, especially immigration restriction and sterilization. Indiana enacted the first eugenic sterilization law in 1907, and the US Supreme Court upheld such laws in 1927. State programs targeted institutionalized, mentally disabled women. Beginning in the late 1930s, proponents rationalized involuntary sterilization as protecting vulnerable women from unwanted pregnancy. By World War II, programs in the United States had sterilized approximately 60,000 persons. After the horrific revelations concerning Nazi eugenics (German Hereditary Health Courts approved at least 400,000 sterilization operations in less than a decade), eugenic sterilization programs in the United States declined rapidly. Simplistic eugenic thinking has faded, but coerced sterilization remains widespread, especially in China and India. In many parts of the world, involuntary sterilization is still intermittently used against minority groups.

  7. 9 CFR 109.2 - Sterilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sterilizers. 109.2 Section 109.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STERILIZATION AND PASTEURIZATION...

  8. 9 CFR 109.2 - Sterilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sterilizers. 109.2 Section 109.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STERILIZATION AND PASTEURIZATION...

  9. Disinfection, sterilization, and antisepsis: An overview.

    PubMed

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2016-05-02

    All invasive procedures involve contact by a medical device or surgical instrument with a patient's sterile tissue or mucous membranes. The level of disinfection or sterilization is dependent on the intended use of the object: critical (items that contact sterile tissue such as surgical instruments), semicritical (items that contact mucous membrane such as endoscopes), and noncritical (devices that contact only intact skin such as stethoscopes) items require sterilization, high-level disinfection and low-level disinfection, respectively. Cleaning must always precede high-level disinfection and sterilization. Antiseptics are essential to infection prevention as part of a hand hygiene program as well as several other uses such as surgical hand antisepsis and pre-operative skin preparation.

  10. Care and sterilization of endourologic instruments.

    PubMed

    Gregory, E; Simmons, D; Weinberg, J J

    1988-08-01

    All endourologic instruments must be handled properly if they are to continue to function properly. Care must be taken in washing and sterilizing of this equipment, as not all endoscopic equipment can endure all methods, and people who are working with these instruments must be taught the proper care and sterilization methods of each. For example, fiberoptic telescopes and light cables must never be autoclaved; ethylene oxide is the method of choice. Disinfectant is an alternative. Loops, sheaths, high-frequency cables, resectoscopes, and working elements should be sterilized by ethylene oxide. Loops and high-frequency cables should not be soaked in a disinfectant, but other instruments may be soaked. All instruments should be dried before sterilization. Too much emphasis cannot be placed on the importance of proper storage of these very fragile fiberoptic instruments. With proper care and sterilization, these instruments will need fewer repairs and function properly for a longer time.

  11. Higgs production through sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antusch, Stefan; Cazzato, Eros; Fischer, Oliver

    2016-10-01

    In scenarios with sterile (right-handed) neutrinos with an approximate “lepton-number-like” symmetry, the heavy neutrinos (the mass eigenstates) can have masses around the electroweak scale and couple to the Higgs boson with, in principle, unsuppressed Yukawa couplings, while the smallness of the light neutrinos’ masses is guaranteed by the approximate symmetry. The on-shell production of the heavy neutrinos at lepton colliders, together with their subsequent decays into a light neutrino and a Higgs boson, constitutes a resonant contribution to the Higgs production mechanism. This resonant mono-Higgs production mechanism can contribute significantly to the mono-Higgs observables at future lepton colliders. A dedicated search for the heavy neutrinos in this channel exhibits sensitivities for the electron neutrino Yukawa coupling as small as ˜ 5 × 10-3. Furthermore, the sensitivity is enhanced for higher center-of-mass energies, when identical integrated luminosities are considered.

  12. Vapor Hydrogen Peroxide Sterilization Certification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fei; Chung, Shirley; Barengoltz, Jack

    For interplanetary missions landing on a planet of potential biological interest, United States NASA planetary protection currently requires that the flight system must be assembled, tested and ultimately launched with the intent of minimizing the bioload taken to and deposited on the planet. Currently the only NASA approved microbial reduction method is dry heat sterilization process. However, with utilization of such elements as highly sophisticated electronics and sensors in modern spacecraft, this process presents significant materials challenges and is thus an undesirable bioburden reduction method to design engineers. The objective of this work is to introduce vapor hydrogen peroxide (VHP) as an alternative to dry heat microbial reduction to meet planetary protection requirements. The VHP sterilization technology is widely used by the medical industry, but high doses of VHP may degrade the performance of flight hardware, or compromise material compatibility. The goal of our study is determine the minimum VHP process conditions for PP acceptable microbial reduction levels. A series of experiments were conducted using Geobacillus stearothermophilus to determine VHP process parameters that provided significant reductions in spore viability while allowing survival of sufficient spores for statistically significant enumeration. In addition to the obvious process parameters -hydrogen peroxide concentration, number of pulses, and exposure duration -the investigation also considered the possible effect of environmental pa-rameters. Temperature, relative humidity, and material substrate effects on lethality were also studied. Based on the results, a most conservative D value was recommended. This recom-mended D value was also validated using VHP "hardy" strains that were isolated from clean-rooms and environmental populations collected from spacecraft relevant areas. The efficiency of VHP at ambient condition as well as VHP material compatibility will also be

  13. Sterilization: women fit to be tied.

    PubMed

    Caress, B

    1975-01-01

    Sterilization abuse is both systematic and widespread. Frequently, women are misled about the dangers of surgery, misinformed about its permanence, and coerced while under the stress of labor or abortion. Generally, instances of abuses in the health system are treated as illegitimate, illegal aberations of an otherwise decent health care system. Careful examination of these so called abuses would reveal that each can be causally connected to particular aspects of the care of America's health system. Sterilization abuse stems from a combination of factors inherent in the health system plus 1 critical additional factor. Besides resulting from teaching and research imperatives, profit making, and the fee for service systems, such abuse is the most widespread example of medicine as an instrument of social control. Sterilization is the most extreme form of birth control and birth control is official US government policy. There were about 500,000 sterilizations performed on American women in 1973. None of the sterilization methods is innocuous, and each is associated with some physical and psychological side effects. General agreement exists in the medical literature that some risk is attendant to each procedure. Sterilization is the most dangerous and the fastest growing method of birth control. Since 1970 the figures show an almost 3-fold increase in the incidence of female sterilization, from 192,000 in 1970 to 548,000 in 1974. Much evidence exists to suggest that the increase in the number of sterilizations has fueled a trend toward the sterilization of younger women with fewer children. Official accommodation to liberalization of sterilization practices in the US came in 1969, when the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) withdrew its age parity formula. This liberalization of sterilization guidelines opened the floodgates to abuse. Some of the increase in the number of operations performed is due to increased demand, some of it is the result

  14. Characteristics of Surface Sterilization using ECR Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonesu, Akira; Hara, Kazufumi; Nishikawa, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2015-09-01

    Plasma sterilization techniques have superior characteristics such as a short treatment times, non-toxicity and low thermal damages on the sterilized materials. In plasma sterilization, microorganisms can be sterilized by active radicals, energetic charged particles, and vacuum UV radiation. The influence of each factor depends on the plasma operating parameters. Microwave discharges under the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) condition produce higher electron temperature and density plasma as compared with other plasma generation techniques. In the present study, characteristics of surface sterilization using ECR plasma have been investigated.The experiment was performed in the vacuum chamber which contains a magnet holder. A pair of rectangular Sm-Co permanent magnets is aligned parallel to each other within the magnet holder. The region of the magnetic field for ECR exists near the magnet holder surface. When the microwave is introduced into the vacuum chamber, a ECR plasma is produced around surface of the magnet holder. High energy electrons and oxygen radicals were observed at ECR zone by electric probe method and optical spectroscopic method. Biological indicators (B.I.) having spore of 106 was sterilized in 2min for oxygen discharge. The temperature of the B.I. installation position was about 55°. The sterilization was achieved by the effect of oxygen radicals and high energy electrons.

  15. Problems in sterilization of unmanned space vehicles.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, L D

    1964-01-01

    The probability of achieving and maintaining sterility of an unmanned spacecraft with varied suggested procedures is examined in detail, as are alternative techniques for avoiding biological contamination of the planets. The required degree of assurance against contamination of Mars, Venus and the Moon with Earth organisms is also considered. For Mars landers and orbiters, sterilization of the spacecraft or capsule by dry heat, with no subsequent access, is found to be desirable. For the present, sterilization of Venus landers still seems desirable. For Mars flybys, and for Venus orbiters and flybys, control of the trajectory to minimize the chance of unintentionally entering the planetary atmosphere appears the method of choice. For the Moon, sterilization seems unnecessary, but microbial counts should be kept low. Sterilization lowers spacecraft and system reliability. It reduces the chance of launching within periods fixed by astronomical constraints and increases costs. The gain which should be achieved through spacecraft sterilization, in return of significant biological information about the planets, must be balanced against these losses. In particular, one should keep in mind the loss in return of biological data occasioned by failure of a spacecraft to fulfill its mission; the probability of such failure is increased by sterilization.

  16. An investigation of a sterile access technique for the repair and adjustment of sterile spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, F. H.; Fuller, H. V.; Hueschen, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    A description is presented of a unique system for the sterilization and sterile repair of spacecraft and the results of a test program designed to assess the biological integrity and engineering reliability of the system. This trailer-mounted system, designated the model assembly sterilizer for testing (MAST), is capable of the dry-heat sterilization of spacecraft and/or components less than 2.3 meters in diameter at temperatures up to 433 K and the steam sterilization of components less than 0.724 meter in diameter. Sterile access to spacecraft is provided by two tunnel suits, called the bioisolator suit systems (BISS), which are contiguous with the walls of the sterilization chambers. The test program was designed primarily to verify the biological and engineering reliability of the MAST system by processing simulated space hardware. Each test cycle simulated the initial sterilization of a spacecraft, sterile repair of a failed component, removal of the spacecraft from the MAST for mating with the bus, and a sterile recycle repair.

  17. The efficacy of low temperature plasma (LTP) sterilization, a new sterilization technique.

    PubMed

    Höller, C; Martiny, H; Christiansen, B; Rüden, H; Gundermann, K O

    1993-07-01

    The efficacy of low temperature plasma (LTP) sterilization, a newly developed sterilization procedure was tested. Following experiments were carried out: Determination of the most resistant test organism, influence of 10% and 20% defibrinated sheep blood or varying salt concentrations on the efficacy of the sterilization process, influence of the carrier position in the sterilization chamber and in the sterilization pouches, influence of a loaded sterilization chamber, comparative efficacy of EO and LTP, steel carriers with a blood burden of 0%, 5% and 10%, comparative efficacy of EO and LTP, strip carriers in endoscopes, blood burden 0% and 10%, with and without adaptors, evaluation of two bioindicator models. B. pumilus was the test spore that overall seemed to be most resistant to the sterilization procedure. Supplementation of the test suspension with blood or saline crystals resulted in significantly reduced efficacy and has to be avoided in practical operation. The fully loaded sterilization chamber or the position of germ carriers on the shelves had no negative influence on the effectivity of the sterilization process. There were no significant differences between EO and LTP, the blood burden not exceeding 5%. 10% blood burden resulted in a significantly weaker action of LTP. For sterilization of long lumens adaptors containing hydrogen peroxide are necessary. An appropriate bioindicator tube model is introduced.

  18. Safety and efficacy of hysteroscopic sterilization compared with laparoscopic sterilization: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Jialin; Pfeifer, Samantha; Schlegel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the safety and efficacy of hysteroscopic sterilization with the “Essure” device with laparoscopic sterilization in a large, all-inclusive, state cohort. Design Population based cohort study. Settings Outpatient interventional setting in New York State. Participants Women undergoing interval sterilization procedure, including hysteroscopic sterilization with Essure device and laparoscopic surgery, between 2005 and 2013. Main outcomes measures Safety events within 30 days of procedures; unintended pregnancies and reoperations within one year of procedures. Mixed model accounting for hospital clustering was used to compare 30 day and 1 year outcomes, adjusting for patient characteristics and other confounders. Time to reoperation was evaluated using frailty model for time to event analysis. Results We identified 8048 patients undergoing hysteroscopic sterilization and 44 278 undergoing laparoscopic sterilization between 2005 and 2013 in New York State. There was a significant increase in the use of hysteroscopic procedures during this period, while use of laparoscopic sterilization decreased. Patients undergoing hysteroscopic sterilization were older than those undergoing laparoscopic sterilization and were more likely to have a history of pelvic inflammatory disease (10.3% v 7.2%, P<0.01), major abdominal surgery (9.4% v 7.9%, P<0.01), and cesarean section (23.2% v 15.4%, P<0.01). At one year after surgery, hysteroscopic sterilization was not associated with a higher risk of unintended pregnancy (odds ratio 0.84 (95% CI 0.63 to 1.12)) but was associated with a substantially increased risk of reoperation (odds ratio 10.16 (7.47 to 13.81)) compared with laparoscopic sterilization. Conclusions Patients undergoing hysteroscopic sterilization have a similar risk of unintended pregnancy but a more than 10-fold higher risk of undergoing reoperation compared with patients undergoing laparoscopic sterilization. Benefits and risks of both procedures

  19. Complications of female sterilization: immediate and delayed.

    PubMed

    Huggins, G R; Sondheimer, S J

    1984-03-01

    Surgical sterilization in women has changed dramatically over the past 20 years. The development of laparoscopy and minilaparotomy have made the procedure readily available even in developing countries. In the United States, changing social values and changes in hospital regulations have done as much as technology to account for the tremendous increases in the number of women undergoing sterilization. Improved sterilization procedures have resulted in lower costs for sterilization and lowered morbidity and mortality rates. Hysterectomy for sterilization alone carries unacceptable morbidity and mortality rates. Originally, laparoscopic techniques utilized unipolar cautery. However, bowel burns, a rare but serious complication, were reported, and this led to newer techniques. These techniques, using bands, clips, and bipolar cautery, have gained increasing popularity and have eliminated many of the serious complications of female sterilization. Historically, there has been concern that tubal sterilization by any method produces, in significant numbers of patients, the subsequent gynecologic and psychologic problems called "post-tubal ligation syndrome." A review of earlier literature indicates that many of these studies have serious methodologic problems, including recall bias, inappropriate control groups, failure to elicit prior history of gynecologic or psychologic problems, and failure to account for the use of oral contraceptives or IUDs. More recent large prospective epidemiologic studies that have controlled for prior gynecologic problems and contraceptive usage have failed to show increased incidence of gynecologic sequelae in large numbers of women. However, there are some data to support the concept that in certain individuals, sterilization may result in disruption of ovarian blood or nerve supply, producing gynecologic sequelae. Additional data from these ongoing large-scale studies and others should help to elucidate this problem in the future. Pregnancy

  20. Basics of sterile compounding: bubble point testing.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Compounding pharmacies that compound sterile preparations must choose sterile filters that are approved for human use. They may rely on the filter manufacturer's Certificate of Quality to ensure the sterile filter is pyrogen free and has been tested for bacterial retention. The Certificate of Quality from the filter manufacturer also contains other useful information about the filter such as: flow rate and maximum pressure drop, thermal and hydraulic stress, and membrane results of the initial integrity test performed on the filter membrane with water, if a hydrophilic membrane. This article discusses the integrity test, which is often called the water bubble point test.

  1. Spore-Forming Bacteria that Resist Sterilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaDuc, Myron; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2003-01-01

    A report presents a phenotypic and genotypic characterization of a bacterial species that has been found to be of the genus Bacillus and has been tentatively named B. odysseensis because it was isolated from surfaces of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft as part of continuing research on techniques for sterilizing spacecraft to prevent contamination of remote planets by terrestrial species. B. odysseensis is a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that forms round spores. The exosporium has been conjectured to play a role in the elevated resistance to sterilization. Research on the exosporium is proposed as a path toward improved means of sterilization, medical treatment, and prevention of biofouling.

  2. Understanding current steam sterilization recommendations and guidelines.

    PubMed

    Spry, Cynthia

    2008-10-01

    Processing surgical instruments in preparation for surgery is a complex multistep practice. It is impractical to culture each and every item to determine sterility; therefore, the best assurance of a sterile product is careful execution of every step in the process coupled with an ongoing quality control program. Perioperative staff nurses and managers responsible for instrument processing, whether for a single instrument or multiple sets, must be knowledgeable with regard to cleaning; packaging; cycle selection; and the use of physical, chemical, and biological monitors. Nurses also should be able to resolve issues related to loaner sets, flash sterilization, and extended cycles.

  3. Sterile post-traumatic immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Md Nahidul; Bradley, Benjamin A; Ceredig, Rhodri

    2016-01-01

    After major trauma, the human immune system initiates a series of inflammatory events at the injury site that is later followed by suppression of local inflammation favoring the repair and remodeling of the damaged tissues. This local immune response involves complex interactions between resident cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells, soluble mediators such as cytokines and chemokines, and recruited cells such as neutrophils, monocytes and mesenchymal stromal cells. If of sufficient magnitude, these initial immune responses nevertheless have systemic consequences resulting in a state called post-traumatic immunosuppression (PTI). However, controversy exists regarding the exact immunological changes occurring in systemic compartments triggered by these local immune responses. PTI is one of the leading causes of post-surgical mortality and makes patients vulnerable to hospital-acquired infections, multiple organ failure and many other complications. In addition, hemorrhage, blood transfusion, immunesenescence and immunosuppressant drugs aggravate PTI. PTI has been intensively studied, but published results are frequently cloudy. The purpose of this review is to focus on the contributions made by different responsive modalities to immunosuppression following sterile trauma and to try to integrate these into an overall scheme of PTI. PMID:27195120

  4. [Positive and negative aspects of Fallopian tube sterilization as viewed by sterilized women

    PubMed

    Minella

    1998-03-30

    The objective of this paper is to point out the positive and negative aspects of female sterilization as seen by two groups of sterilized women in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, based on a sociological discussion of their present health status, evaluating the associations that they generally make with the fact that they have been sterilized. The first group included mostly housewives from a low-income neighborhood, while the second involved upper-middle-class female public employees, students, and university professors, totaling 40 women. Data were obtained through a structured questionnaire with open-ended questions. Information on social, economic, and demographic variables was recorded, along with subjective data associated with women's representations of the post-sterilization period. We concluded that there was no consensus as to the consequences of sterilization, since a number of the women (11/40), mostly sterilized before the age of 30, perceived changes in their health status after surgery.

  5. Cosmological and astrophysical implications of sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petraki, Kalliopi

    The discovery of neutrino masses suggests that the Standard Model should be supplemented with new gauge-singlet fermions, often called sterile neutrinos. The interplay among the new couplings introduced in the Standard Model can accommodate the neutrino oscillation data for a variety of choices: the new particles can be extremely heavy and practically unobservable, or they can be light, in which case they can solve several long-standing puzzles. It has been shown, for example, that sterile neutrinos in some range of masses can account for dark matter, their emission from a supernova can explain pulsar kicks, arid their decays can play an important role in the formation of the first stars. Though indirect, these clues indicate that sterile neutrinos can be the minimal solution to a variety of unsolved problems. This emphasizes the importance of investigating further the consequences of these new degrees of freedom for cosmology and astrophysics. In this dissertation, I explore the possible role of sterile neutrinos of different mass scales in some cosmological and astrophysical phenomena. A minimal extension of the Higgs sector of the Standard Model, with a gauge- singlet boson coupled to sterile neutrinos, can provide a consistent framework for the theory of neutrino masses, and can produce a relic population of keV sterile neutrinos via decays of the singlet Higgs. The latter can account for the dark matter of the universe. The mechanism operates around the electroweak scale, and has interesting consequences for the electroweak phase transition. Relic sterile neutrinos produced via decays at the electroweak scale constitute colder dark matter than those produced via other previously suggested mechanisms. The primordial thermal content of dark matter has important implications for the formation of cosmic structures, such as clusters and galaxies. The assessment of the relevant properties suggests that sterile neutrinos produced at the electroweak scale are a

  6. Low-energy sterile neutrinos: Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazzo, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Several experimental anomalies seem to point towards the existence of light sterile neutrinos. We focus on the low-energy anomalous results (the so-called gallium and reactor anomalies), which indicate a non-zero admixture U of the electron neutrino with a fourth (mostly) sterile mass eigenstate ν4. We point out that solar sector data, in combination with the precision measurement of θ13, provide the constraint |<0.041 (90% C.L.), independent of the reactor flux determinations.

  7. 21 CFR 872.6730 - Endodontic dry heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. 872.6730 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6730 Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. An endodontic dry heat sterilizer is a device intended to sterilize...

  8. 21 CFR 522.44 - Sterile sodium acetazolamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sterile sodium acetazolamide. 522.44 Section 522....44 Sterile sodium acetazolamide. (a) Specifications. Sterile sodium acetazolamide contains acetazolamide sodium complying with United States Pharmacopeia as a sterile powder with directions...

  9. 21 CFR 522.44 - Sterile sodium acetazolamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sterile sodium acetazolamide. 522.44 Section 522....44 Sterile sodium acetazolamide. (a) Specifications. Sterile sodium acetazolamide contains acetazolamide sodium complying with United States Pharmacopeia as a sterile powder with directions...

  10. 21 CFR 880.6870 - Dry-heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dry-heat sterilizer. 880.6870 Section 880.6870... Devices § 880.6870 Dry-heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. A dry-heat sterilizer is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of dry heat....

  11. 21 CFR 880.6870 - Dry-heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dry-heat sterilizer. 880.6870 Section 880.6870... Devices § 880.6870 Dry-heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. A dry-heat sterilizer is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of dry heat....

  12. Choosing a low-temperature sterilization technology.

    PubMed

    1999-11-01

    Low-temperature sterilization technologies are used instead of steam for sterilizing heat-sensitive or moisture-intolerant surgical equipment and supplies. In this Guidance Article, we describe several common alternatives, but we focus specifically on the two that have generated the most interest in recent years: ethylene oxide (EtO) and gas plasma sterilization. Ethylene oxide has been used as a low-temperature sterilization technology since the 1950s. Although EtO can be used safely, exposure to this gas is known to be a health hazard, and the emissions from certain EtO sterilizers are known to pollute the atmosphere. For these reasons, the use of EtO is regulated--more strictly in some regions than in others--and many healthcare facilities have decided to investigate alternative technologies. Gas plasma sterilization emerged in the 1990s as one promising alternative. This method appears to pose fewer health and environmental risks, and it offers faster turnaround times. However, this technology also has some limitations. We describe the advantages and disadvantages of both methods, along with the factors to consider when selecting from among these alternatives, in this Guidance Article.

  13. Performance evaluation of solar water sterilization system

    SciTech Connect

    Saitoh, Takeo; El-Ghetany, H.H.

    1998-07-01

    In most countries, the contaminated water is the major cause of most of the water-born diseases. Solar energy can be used in this field because the inactivation of micro-organisms is done by the ultraviolet solar radiation. A pilot solar system for sterilizing the contaminated water is designed, constructed and tested. The experimental data showed good viability for using solar energy in the sterilization process. A mathematical model of the solar sterilizer is also presented. The governing equations are solved numerically using fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The effects of environmental conditions (ambient temperature, wind speed and solar radiation) on the solar sterilizer performance are examined. It is found that the system is affected by the ambient temperature, wind speed, ultraviolet solar radiation intensity, level of contamination of water, quantity of water being exposed, contact area between the transparent water container in the solar sterilizer and absorber plate and system geometrical parameters. It is pointed that, for a partial cloud condition, low ambient temperature and high wind speed the thermal efficiency of the solar sterilizer was minimum.

  14. Is cosmology compatible with sterile neutrinos?

    SciTech Connect

    Dodelson, Scott; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Slosar, Anze; /Ljubljana U.

    2005-11-01

    By combining data from cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments (including the recent BOOMERANG-2K2 results), large scale structure (LSS) and Lyman-{alpha} forest observations, we constrain the hypothesis of a fourth, sterile, massive neutrino. For the 3 massless + 1 massive neutrino case we bound the mass of the sterile neutrino to m{sub s} < 0.55eV at 95% c.l.. These results exclude at high significance the sterile neutrino hypothesis as an explanation of the LSND anomaly. We then generalize the analysis to account for active neutrino masses (which tightens the limit to m{sub s} < 0.51eV) and the possibility that the sterile abundance is not thermal. In the latter case, the constraints in the (mass, density) plane are non-trivial. For a mass of > 1eV or < 0.05eV the cosmological energy density in sterile neutrinos is always constrained to be {omega}{sub {nu}} < 0.005 at 95% c.l.. However, for a sterile neutrino mass of {approx} 0.25 eV, {omega}{sub {nu}} can be as large as 0.015.

  15. Health technology assessment: Off-site sterilization

    PubMed Central

    Dehnavieh, Reza; Mirshekari, Nadia; Ghasemi, Sara; Goudarzi, Reza; Haghdoost, AliAkbar; Mehrolhassani, Mohammad Hossain; Moshkani, Zahra; Noori Hekmat, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Every year millions of dollars are expended to equip and maintain the hospital sterilization centers, and our country is not an exception of this matter. According to this, it is important to use more effective technologies and methods in health system in order to reach more effectiveness and saving in costs. This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the technology of regional sterilization centers. Methods: This study was done in four steps. At the first step, safety and effectiveness of technology was studied via systematic study of evidence. The next step was done to evaluate the economical aspect of off-site sterilization technology using gathered data from systematic review of the texts which were related to the technology and costs of off-site and in-site hospital sterilization. Third step was conducted to collect experiences of using technology in some selected hospitals around the world. And in the last step different aspects of acceptance and use of this technology in Iran were evaluated. Results: Review of the selected articles indicated that efficacy and effectiveness of this technology is Confirmed. The results also showed that using this method is not economical in Iran. Conclusion: According to the revealed evidences and also cost analysis, due to shortage of necessary substructures and economical aspect, installing the off-site sterilization health technology in hospitals is not possible currently. But this method can be used to provide sterilization services for clinics and outpatients centers. PMID:27390714

  16. Production of a sterile species: Quantum kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Chiu Man; Boyanovsky, D.; Ho, C.M.

    2007-04-23

    Production of a sterile species is studied within an effective model of active-sterile neutrino mixing in a medium in thermal equilibrium. The quantum kinetic equations for the distribution functions and coherences are obtained from two independent methods: the effective action and the quantum master equation. The decoherence time scale for active-sterile oscillations is tau(dec)=2/Gamma(aa), but the evolution of the distribution functions is determined by the two different time scales associated with the damping rates of the quasiparticle modes in the medium: Gamma(1)=Gamma(aa)cos^2theta(m); Gamma(2)=Gamma(aa)sin^2theta(m) where Gamma(aa) is the interaction rate of the active species in the absence of mixing and theta(m) the mixing angle in the medium. These two time scales are widely different away from Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein resonances and preclude the kinetic description of active-sterile production in terms of a simple rate equation. We give the complete set of quantum kinetic equations for the active and sterile populations and coherences and discuss in detail the various approximations. A generalization of the active-sterile transition probability in a medium is provided via the quantum master equation. We derive explicitly the usual quantum kinetic equations in terms of the"polarization vector" and show their equivalence to those obtained from the quantum master equation and effective action.

  17. Electroporation System for Sterilizing Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlager, Kenneth J.

    2005-01-01

    A prototype of an electroporation system for sterilizing wastewater or drinking water has been developed. In electroporation, applied electric fields cause transient and/or permanent changes in the porosities of living cells. Electroporation at lower field strengths can be exploited to increase the efficiency of chemical disinfection (as in chlorination). Electroporation at higher field strengths is capable of inactivating and even killing bacteria and other pathogens, without use of chemicals. Hence, electroporation is at least a partial alternative to chlorination. The transient changes that occur in micro-organisms at lower electric-field strengths include significantly increased uptake of ions and molecules. Such increased uptake makes it possible to achieve disinfection at lower doses of chemicals (e.g., chlorine or ozone) than would otherwise be needed. Lower doses translate to lower costs and reduced concentrations of such carcinogenic chemical byproducts as trichloromethane. Higher electric fields cause cell membranes to lose semipermeability and thereby become unable to function as selective osmotic barriers between the cells and the environment. This loss of function is the cause of the cell death at higher electric-field intensities. Experimental evidence does not indicate cell lysis but, rather, combined leaking of cell proteins out of the cells as well as invasion of foreign chemical compounds into the cells. The concept of electroporation is not new: it has been applied in molecular biology and genetic engineering for decades. However, the laboratory-scale electroporators used heretofore have been built around small (400-microliter) cuvettes, partly because the smallness facilitates the generation of electric fields of sufficient magnitude to cause electroporation. Moreover, most laboratory- scale electroporators have been designed for testing static water. In contrast, the treatment cell in the present system is much larger and features a flow

  18. Sterilization techniques for biodegradable scaffolds in tissue engineering applications

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zheng; Ronholm, Jennifer; Tian, Yiping; Sethi, Benu; Cao, Xudong

    2016-01-01

    Biodegradable scaffolds have been extensively studied due to their wide applications in biomaterials and tissue engineering. However, infections associated with in vivo use of these scaffolds by different microbiological contaminants remain to be a significant challenge. This review focuses on different sterilization techniques including heat, chemical, irradiation, and other novel sterilization techniques for various biodegradable scaffolds. Comparisons of these techniques, including their sterilization mechanisms, post-sterilization effects, and sterilization efficiencies, are discussed. PMID:27247758

  19. Thermal Profile of Metallic Beads in a Bead Sterilizer,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    another commonly used chairside sterilization method, principally for endodontic instruments. The bead sterilizer consists of a heated chamber containing...sterilization of endodontic instruments. However, several investigators have shown sterilization times ranging from 3 seconds to 14 minutes, are...et.al. The effect of autoclave sterilization on endodontic files. Oral Surg 55(2): 204-207, 1983. 3. Parkes, R. B. and Kolstad, R. A. Effects of

  20. Sterilization Performance and Material Compatibility of Sterilizer for Dental Instruments using RF Oxygen Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Yasuhiro; Liu, Zhen; Hayashi, Nobuya; Goto, Masaaki

    2015-09-01

    The sterilization performance and material compatibility of low-pressure RF plasma sterilization method for dental instruments were investigated. RF electrode used in this experiment has been optimized for sterilization of dental instruments. The vial-type biological indicator (BI) simulating tiny space of dental instrument was used for evaluation of the sterilization performance. The pressure in the stainless chamber was fixed at 60 Pa. Sterilization of BI was achieved in shortest time 40 min at 80 W, and the sterilization effect was confirmed using three BIs. Light emission spectra of oxygen plasma indicated that production of atomic oxygen and excited oxygen molecule are maximum at pressure of 20 Pa and 200 Pa, respectively. Sterilization results of BIs indicated that successful rate increases with the oxygen pressure towards 200 Pa. Therefore, the excited oxygen molecule is deduced to be a major factor of the sterilization of BI. Surface morphology of dental instruments such as diamond bar was evaluated using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The deterioration of fine crystals of diamond bar has not observed after the plasma irradiation for 120 min with RF input power was 60W and pressure was 200 Pa.

  1. Anesthesia for outpatient female sterilization.

    PubMed

    Fishburne, J I

    1983-04-01

    This issue of the Bulletin deals with the principles of anesthesia for outpatient female sterilization with emphasis on techniques for laparoscopy and minilaparotomy. General anesthesia techniques provide analgesia, amnesia, and muscle relaxation and are particularly useful for managing the anxious patient. Disadvantages include increased expense, need for specialized equipment, and highly trained personnel, and delayed recovery. Complications, though relatively rare, can be life-threatening and include aspiration of stomach contents, hypoxia, hypercarbia, hypotension, hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiorespiratory arrest, and death. There is no single preferred technique of general anesthesia, athough most anesthetists employ methods that allow rapid recovery of faculties, enabling the patient to be discharged soon after surgery. To accomplish this end, light anesthesia with sodium thiopental induction and nitrous oxide maintenance is often used. Short duration muscle relaxation with an agent such as succinylcholine supplements this technique. Other techniques include light anesthesia with inhalational anesthetic agents and the use of intravenous ketamine. Local anesthesia augmented by systemic and/or inhalational analgesia is supplanting general anesthesia techniques for laparoscopy in many locales. This approach is also particularly well-suited for minilaparotomy in developing countries, where it has achieved its greatest popularity. The local technique carries with it reduced morbidity and mortality but may not entirely relieve discomfort. The primary danger of local anesthesia is respiratory depression due to excessive narcosis and sedation. The operator must be alert to the action of the drugs and should always use the minimal effective dose. Although toxicity due to overdosage with local anesthetic drugs is occasionally experienced, allergic reactions to the amide-linkage drugs such as lidocaine or bupivacaine are exceedingly rare. For outpatient

  2. Experiences of coercion to sterilize and forced sterilization among women living with HIV in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Tamil; Albert, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Forced and coerced sterilization is an internationally recognized human rights violation reported by women living with HIV (WLHIV) around the globe. Forced sterilization occurs when a person is sterilized without her knowledge or informed consent. Coerced sterilization occurs when misinformation, intimidation tactics, financial incentives or access to health services or employment are used to compel individuals to accept the procedure. Methods Drawing on community-based research with 285 WLHIV from four Latin American countries (El Salvador, Honduras, Mexico and Nicaragua), we conduct thematic qualitative analysis of reports of how and when healthcare providers pressured women to sterilize and multivariate logistic regression to assess whether social and economic characteristics and fertility history were associated with pressure to sterilize. Results A quarter (23%) of the participant WLHIV experienced pressure to sterilize post-diagnosis. WLHIV who had a pregnancy during which they (and their healthcare providers) knew their HIV diagnosis were almost six times more likely to experience coercive or forced sterilization than WLHIV who did not have a pregnancy with a known diagnosis (OR 5.66 CI 95% 2.35–13.58 p≤0.001). WLHIV reported that healthcare providers told them that living with HIV annulled their right to choose the number and spacing of their children and their contraceptive method, employed misinformation about the consequences of a subsequent pregnancy for women's and children's health, and denied medical services needed to prevent vertical (mother-to-child) HIV transmission to coerce women into accepting sterilization. Forced sterilization was practiced during caesarean delivery. Conclusions The experiences of WLHIV indicate that HIV-related stigma and discrimination by healthcare providers is a primary driver of coercive and forced sterilization. WLHIV are particularly vulnerable when seeking maternal health services. Health worker

  3. Georgia Supreme Court invalidates involuntary sterilization statute.

    PubMed

    Harper, T D

    1983-11-01

    In the US, the concept of eugenics has been limited to restrictions on the reproductive capabilities of criminals and the mentally defective. Moreover, the rights of persons subject to this restriction have been enhanced by recent judicial recognition of procreation as a fundamental right. Constitutional challenges have been mounted on the grounds that sterilization statutes constitute cruel or unusual punishment, a violation of the Equal Protection clause, an unlawful delegation of legislative or judicial powers, a bill of attainder, or a violation of the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. These challenges have resulted in a reduction in the number of state-mandated sterilizations. This paper reviews the Georgia Supreme Court's recent invalidation of a 1970 statute authorizing the sterilization of mentally incompetent persons (O.C.G.A. 31-20-3). Motes v. Hall County Department of Family and Children Services, filed on behalf of a 21-year old retarded woman, challenged the statute as a violation of Motes' constitutional rights to due process and equal protection and contended that the state was required to prove the necessity of sterilization by more than a simple preponderance of the evidence. The Georgia Supreme Court negated both the sterilization order and the statute upon which it was based. In its decision, the Court recognized that an intrusion upon so fundamental a right as the ability to bear children requires proof by the state of at least "clear and convincing evidence" of the necessity of such an act.

  4. Radiation sterilization of tissue allografts: A review

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rita; Singh, Durgeshwer; Singh, Antaryami

    2016-01-01

    Tissue substitutes are required in a number of clinical conditions for treatment of injured and diseased tissues. Tissues like bone, skin, amniotic membrane and soft tissues obtained from human donor can be used for repair or reconstruction of the injured part of the body. Allograft tissues from human donor provide an excellent alternative to autografts. However, major concern with the use of allografts is the risk of infectious disease transmission. Therefore, tissue allografts should be sterilized to make them safe for clinical use. Gamma radiation has several advantages and is the most suitable method for sterilization of biological tissues. This review summarizes the use of gamma irradiation technology as an effective method for sterilization of biological tissues and ensuring safety of tissue allografts. PMID:27158422

  5. Female sterilization by Falope ring ligation.

    PubMed Central

    Lalonde, A. B.

    1982-01-01

    Sterilization with the Falope Ring may be performed by means of laparoscopy of the minilaparotomy. This technique avoids the potential hazards of electrocoagulation, such as intestinal burns. Among the 825 cases reported in this paper there was only one serious complication, an ectopic pregnancy. One other patient had an undetected early pregnancy at the time of sterilization. Two patients became pregnant 4 and 42 month after the procedure. In most cases a diagnostic dilatation and curettage was done before hand. Pathological study of the fallopian tubes of one patient 28 days after the ring was applied revealed complete occlusion of the buckled segment of each tube. Falope Ring sterilization is simple, effective and safe, and the rate of subsequent pregnancy is lower than with conventional burning or clipping techniques. Images FIG. 7 FIG. 8 PMID:7059889

  6. Radiation sterilization of tissue allografts: A review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rita; Singh, Durgeshwer; Singh, Antaryami

    2016-04-28

    Tissue substitutes are required in a number of clinical conditions for treatment of injured and diseased tissues. Tissues like bone, skin, amniotic membrane and soft tissues obtained from human donor can be used for repair or reconstruction of the injured part of the body. Allograft tissues from human donor provide an excellent alternative to autografts. However, major concern with the use of allografts is the risk of infectious disease transmission. Therefore, tissue allografts should be sterilized to make them safe for clinical use. Gamma radiation has several advantages and is the most suitable method for sterilization of biological tissues. This review summarizes the use of gamma irradiation technology as an effective method for sterilization of biological tissues and ensuring safety of tissue allografts.

  7. Light sterile neutrinos in the early universe

    SciTech Connect

    Lunardini, Cecilia

    2014-06-24

    Cosmological and terrestrial data suggests the number of light neutrinos may be greater than 3, motivating a careful reexamination of cosmological bounds on extra light species. Big bang nucleosynthesis constrains the number of relativistic neutrino species present during nucleosynthesis, N{sub eff}{sup BBN}, while measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) angular power spectrum constrain the effective energy density in relativistic neutrinos at the time of matter-radiation equality, N{sub eff}{sup CMB}. We review a scenario with two sterile neutrinos and explore whether partial thermalization of the sterile states can ease the tension between cosmological constraints on N{sub eff}{sup BBN} and terrestrial data. We conclude that, still, two additional light sterile neutrinos species cannot fit all the data at the 95% confidence level.

  8. About the Sterilization of Chitosan Hydrogel Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Galante, Raquel; Rediguieri, Carolina F.; Kikuchi, Irene Satiko; Vasquez, Pablo A. S.; Colaço, Rogério; Pinto, Terezinha J. A.

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, nanostructured biomaterials have raised a great interest as platforms for delivery of drugs, genes, imaging agents and for tissue engineering applications. In particular, hydrogel nanoparticles (HNP) associate the distinctive features of hydrogels (high water uptake capacity, biocompatibility) with the advantages of being possible to tailor its physicochemical properties at nano-scale to increase solubility, immunocompatibility and cellular uptake. In order to be safe, HNP for biomedical applications, such as injectable or ophthalmic formulations, must be sterile. Literature is very scarce with respect to sterilization effects on nanostructured systems, and even more in what concerns HNP. This work aims to evaluate the effect and effectiveness of different sterilization methods on chitosan (CS) hydrogel nanoparticles. In addition to conventional methods (steam autoclave and gamma irradiation), a recent ozone-based method of sterilization was also tested. A model chitosan-tripolyphosphate (TPP) hydrogel nanoparticles (CS-HNP), with a broad spectrum of possible applications was produced and sterilized in the absence and in the presence of protective sugars (glucose and mannitol). Properties like size, zeta potential, absorbance, morphology, chemical structure and cytotoxicity were evaluated. It was found that the CS-HNP degrade by autoclaving and that sugars have no protective effect. Concerning gamma irradiation, the formation of agglomerates was observed, compromising the suspension stability. However, the nanoparticles resistance increases considerably in the presence of the sugars. Ozone sterilization did not lead to significant physical adverse effects, however, slight toxicity signs were observed, contrarily to gamma irradiation where no detectable changes on cells were found. Ozonation in the presence of sugars avoided cytotoxicity. Nevertheless, some chemical alterations were observed in the nanoparticles. PMID:28002493

  9. Biological Sterilization of Returned Mars Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C. C.; Albert, F. G.; Combie, J.; Bodnar, R. J.; Hamilton, V. E.; Jolliff, B. L.; Kuebler, K.; Wang, A.; Lindstrom, D. J.; Morris, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    Martian rock and soil, collected by robotic spacecraft, will be returned to terrestrial laboratories early in the next century. Current plans call for the samples to be immediately placed into biological containment and tested for signs of present or past life and biological hazards. It is recommended that "Controlled distribution of unsterilized materials from Mars should occur only if rigorous analyses determine that the materials do not constitute a biological hazard. If any portion of the sample is removed from containment prior to completion of these analyses it should first be sterilized." While sterilization of Mars samples may not be required, an acceptable method must be available before the samples are returned to Earth. The sterilization method should be capable of destroying a wide range of organisms with minimal effects on the geologic samples. A variety of biological sterilization techniques and materials are currently in use, including dry heat, high pressure steam, gases, plasmas and ionizing radiation. Gamma radiation is routinely used to inactivate viruses and destroy bacteria in medical research. Many commercial sterilizers use Co-60 , which emits gamma photons of 1.17 and 1.33 MeV. Absorbed doses of approximately 1 Mrad (10(exp 8) ergs/g) destroy most bacteria. This study investigates the effects of lethal doses of Co-60 gamma radiation on materials similar to those anticipated to be returned from Mars. The goals are to determine the gamma dose required to kill microorganisms in rock and soil samples and to determine the effects of gamma sterilization on the samples' isotopic, chemical and physical properties. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  10. Decontamination formulations for disinfection and sterilization

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Mark D.; Engler, Daniel E.

    2007-09-18

    Aqueous decontamination formulations that neutralize biological pathogens for disinfection and sterilization applications. Examples of suitable applications include disinfection of food processing equipment, disinfection of areas containing livestock, mold remediation, sterilization of medical instruments and direct disinfection of food surfaces, such as beef carcasses. The formulations include at least one reactive compound, bleaching activator, inorganic base, and water. The formulations can be packaged as a two-part kit system, and can have a pH value in the range of 7-8.

  11. [Treatment of anovulatory cycle induced sterility].

    PubMed

    Botella Llusia, J

    1983-03-01

    Of all the clinical aspects of human sterility, the anovulatory cycle is undoubtedly 1 that has produced the widest range of therapuetic successes. While in other fields progress has been very slow (male sterility or tubal obstruction), ovarian pharmacoendocrinology has shown several advances over recent years. This progress is due partly to new chemicals such as urinary menopausal gonadotropins, LH-RH, and their analogues Clomiphene and Bromocriptine. Contributing further to these good results is a greater knowledge of the etiology of anovulation and a more accurate selection of cases for treatment.

  12. STERILIZED in the Name of Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Alexandra Minna

    2005-01-01

    In exploring the history of involuntary sterilization in California, I connect the approximately 20 000 operations performed on patients in state institutions between 1909 and 1979 to the federally funded procedures carried out at a Los Angeles County hospital in the early 1970s. Highlighting the confluence of factors that facilitated widespread sterilization abuse in the early 1970s, I trace prosterilization arguments predicated on the protection of public health. This historical overview raises important questions about the legacy of eugenics in contemporary California and relates the past to recent developments in health care delivery and genetic screening. PMID:15983269

  13. Modeling the suppression of sea lamprey populations by the release of sterile males or sterile females

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klassen, Waldemar; Adams, Jean V.; Twohey, Michael B.

    2004-01-01

    The suppressive effects of trapping adult sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, and releasing sterile males (SMRT) or females (SFRT) into a closed system were expressed in deterministic models. Suppression was modeled as a function of the proportion of the population removed by trapping, the number of sterile animals released, the reproductive rate and sex ratio of the population, and (for the SFRT) the rate of polygyny. Releasing sterile males reduced populations more quickly than did the release of sterile females. For a population in which 30% are trapped, sterile animals are initially released at ratio of 10 sterile to 1 fertile animal, 5 adult progeny are produced per fertile mating, 60% are male, and males mate with an average of 1.65 females, the initial population is reduced 87% by SMRT and 68% by SFRT in one generation. The extent of suppression achieved is most sensitive to changes in the initial sterile release ratio. Given the current status of sea lamprey populations and trapping operations in the Great Lakes, the sterile-male-release technique has the best chance for success on a lake-wide basis if implemented in Lake Michigan. The effectiveness of the sterile-female-release technique should be investigated in a controlled study. Advancing trapping technology should be a high priority in the near term, and artificial rearing of sea lampreys to the adult stage should be a high priority in the long term. The diligent pursuit of sea lamprey suppression over a period of several decades can be expected to yield great benefits.

  14. Sterilization of Microorganisms by Ozone and Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnyj, V. V.; Klosovskij, A. V.; Panasko, T. A.; Shvets, O. M.; Semenova, O. T.; Taran, V. S.; Tereshin, V. I.

    2008-03-01

    The results of recent experimental methods of sterilization of microorganisms with the use of ozone and ultrasound are presented. The main aim was to optimize the process of sterilization in water solution taking into account the ozone concentration, the power of ultrasonic emitter and the temperature of water. In the present work, the ultrasonic cavitation with simultaneous ozone generation has been used. The high ozone concentration in water solution was achieved by two-barrier glow discharge generated at atmospheric pressure and a cooling thermo-electric module. Such a sterilizer consists of ozone generator in a shape of flat electrodes covered with dielectric material and a high-voltage pulsed power supply of 250 W. The sterilization camera was equipped with ultrasonic source operated at 100 W. The experiments on the inactivation of bacteria of the Bacillus Cereus type were carried out in the distilled water saturated by ozone. The ozone concentration in the aqueous solution was 10 mg/1, whereas the ozone concentration at the output of ozone generator was 30 mg/1. The complete inactivation of spores took 15 min. Selection of the temperature of water, the ozone concentrations and ultrasonic power allowed to determine the time necessary for destroying the row of microorganisms.

  15. Sterile soil from Antarctica: organic analysis.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, N H; Bauman, A J; Cameron, R E; Geiger, P J; Hubbard, J S; Shulman, G P; Simmonds, P G; Westberg, K

    1969-05-30

    Soils from the dry-valley region of Antarctica can be sterile by the usual microbiological criteria and yet contain significant amounts of organic carbon. Examination of one such soil shows that the organic material is finely divided anthracite coal. These findings have significant implications for the biological exploration of Mars.

  16. [Laparoscopic sterilization using tubal rings and clips].

    PubMed

    Borko, E; Breznik, R; Ivanisević, V; Herzmansky, M

    1980-01-01

    From 1978 to April 1980, 36 laparoscopic sterilization procedures were completed at the Gynecological Department in Maribor. For tubal occlusion in 16 cases Tupla clips and in 20 cases the Tubal Falope ring were used. It appears that the incidence of complications and other technical difficulties is somewhat more frequent with clips. There have been no pregnancies in all these cases.

  17. New technology for sterilization and disinfection.

    PubMed

    Nyström, B

    1991-09-16

    Sterilization with low temperature steam and formaldehyde is a well-known process in many European countries, but little known in the United States. It sterilizes reliably and reproducibly at temperatures greater than or equal to 65 degrees C. With a well-designed cycle, it leaves residues of formaldehyde on sterilized items below 5 micrograms/cm2, measured on a standard filter paper. Formaldehyde levels in air near the autoclave are well below official exposure limits, if at all measurable. Occurrence of late growers in bioindicators, and penetration of the sterilizing media into long narrow lumina, should be validated for new processes. Automated cleaning and disinfection in closed washer-disinfectors and flushing disinfectors are likewise processes relatively little known in the United States. Disinfection is achieved by a final rinse with hot water or steam. Washer-disinfectors are used for surgical instruments, nondisposable anesthesia and other equipment, flushing disinfectors for nondisposable bedpans, wash-bowls, urinals, and similar equipment. They clean well, washer-disinfectors excellently so, and disinfect reliably. With the use of such equipment in wards, surgical departments, and other areas, reliance on chemical germicides can be dramatically reduced and disposables can be replaced by disinfectable nondisposables.

  18. Perspectives: Eugenics and Sterilization in the Heartland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    Noting the Governor of Virginia's recent apology for his state's participation in eugenics, this article reviews the history of the sterilization of people with epilepsy and mental retardation in several states, and the importance of the Buck v. Bell (1927) Supreme Court decision in the promotion of eugenics. (Contains references.) (CR)

  19. Molecular analysis of cytoplasmic male sterility

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    The ultimate aims of the project are to understand the molecular mechanism of the disruption in pollen development which occurs in cytoplasmic male sterile plants and to understand the control of respiratory energy flow in the higher plant cell. A mitochondrial locus termed S-pcf segregates with sterility and with an alteration in respiration in Petunia. This cloned locus contains three genes, an abnormal fused gene termed pcf, a gene for a subunit of an NADH dehydrogenase complex, and a small ribosomal subunit protein. The pcf gene is comprised of partial sequences of ATPase subunit 9, cytochrome oxidase subunit II, and an unidentified reading frame. Components of the S-Pcf locus will be introduced into the nuclear of a fertile genotype under the control of appropriate regulatory signals, and polypeptide products of introduced genes will be directed to the mitochondrion with a transit peptide. By examining transgenic plants, we can determine what elements of the locus are critical for altered respiration or sterility. Such knowledge could explain how mitochondrial DNA affects pollen development in the large number of plant species which exhibit the agronomically important trait of male sterility. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Steam sterilization of air turbine dental handpieces.

    PubMed

    Edwardsson, S; Svensäter, G; Birkhed, D

    1983-12-01

    The efficacy of autoclaving high-speed dental handpieces was tested in two types of downward displacement steam sterilizers (instrument autoclaves), commonly used in the dentist's office. Eight series of experiments were performed with various sterilization schedules. Lubrication oils with or without antimicrobial agent were used in four of the series. Each handpiece was inoculated with 1 ml of a suspension containing equal amounts of saliva and spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus (approx. 10(6) spores/ml). Neither sterilization at 120-124 degrees C for 20 min nor at 134-136 degrees C for 10 min resulted in complete inactivation of the spores in series in which the instruments were tested without oil or with oil containing no antimicrobial agent. However, when the handpieces were lubricated with oil containing isopropanol and formaldehyde and the schedule 134-136 degrees C/10 min was used, no growth was observed. The results indicate that instrument autoclaves with built-in programs of 120-124 degrees C/20 min and 134-136 degrees C/10 min could have insufficient capacity to sterilize lubricated or unlubricated dental handpieces. The use of oils containing an antimicrobial agent can overcome this problem.

  1. Advances in Sterilization and Decontamination: a Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Recent technical advances made in the field of sterilization and decontamination and their applicability to private and commercial interests are discussed. Government-sponsored programs by NASA produced the bulk of material presented in this survey. The summary of past and current research discussed is detailed to enhance an effective transfer of technology from NASA to potential users.

  2. Sterile Neutrino Experiments I: Accelerator-based

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toups, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The Standard Model is the theory that describes the fundamental constituents of matter and their interactions. Despite its great success, there still exists evidence for a wide range of phenomena, which lie outside the framework of the Standard Model. Among these, neutrino flavor oscillations hold great promise to bring insight to the field towards a theory that transcends the Standard Model. The discovery of light, sterile neutrinos that mix with the three active neutrino flavors and modify the standard three-neutrino oscillation probabilities in vacuum and matter would be a major breakthrough for the field and contribute to our overall understanding of neutrino mass and mixing. Current indications for light sterile neutrinos come from a variety of experiments reporting anomalies. The accelerator-based LSND and MiniBooNE experiments, for example, reported an excess of electron-type neutrinos over short baselines, which if interpreted as due to νμ ->νe (or νμ ->νe) oscillations, would imply the existence of a fourth light neutrino mass state. On the other hand, null results from other accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments searching for sterile neutrinos have put constraints on the possible existence of these particles. This talk will review the accelerator-based searches for light, sterile neutrinos as well as the prospects for confirming or refuting their existence in the coming years.

  3. 21 CFR 610.12 - Sterility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) The sterility test must be appropriate to the material being tested such that the material does not... inhibitors, neutralizers, and preservatives, if present, in the tested material; (5) For a culture-based test method, the volume of test material that results in a dilution of the product that is not...

  4. 21 CFR 610.12 - Sterility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) The sterility test must be appropriate to the material being tested such that the material does not... inhibitors, neutralizers, and preservatives, if present, in the tested material; (5) For a culture-based test method, the volume of test material that results in a dilution of the product that is not...

  5. Male sterility and hybrid seed production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sexual reproduction in angiosperms is a complex process that includes a portion of the vegetative generation and all of the sexual generation. Coordination of both female and male reproduction ontogenies must occur. An abnormality anywhere in this process may lead to sterility. Genetic (nuclear) and...

  6. SPAN C - Terminal sterilization process analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Computer program, SPAN-C, measures the dry heat thermal sterilization process applied to a planetary capsule and calculates the time required for heat application, steady state conditions, and cooling. The program is based on the logarithmic survival of micro-organisms. Temperature profiles must be input on cards.

  7. SPAN - Terminal sterilization process analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Computer program, SPAN, measures the dry heat thermal sterilization process applied to a planetary capsule and calculates the time required for heat application, steady state conditions, and cooling. The program is based on the logarithmic survival of micro-organisms. Temperature profiles must be input on tape.

  8. System for sterilizing objects. [cleaning space vehicle systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, C. J.; Wright, E. E., Jr.; Moyers, C. V. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A system for producing a stream of humidified sterilizing gas for sterilizing objects such as the water systems of space vehicles and the like includes a source of sterilant gas which is fed to a mixing chamber which has inlet and outlet ports. The level of the water only partially fills the mixing chamber so as to provide an empty space adjacent the top of the chamber. A heater is provided for heating the water in the chamber so as to produce a humidified atmosphere. The sterilant gas is fed through an arcuate shaped tubular member connected to the inlet port of the mixing chamber for producing a vortex type of flow of sterilant gas into the chamber for humidification. A tubular member extends from the mixing chamber for supplying the humidified sterilant gas to the object for being sterilized. Scrubbers are provided for removing the sterilant gas after use.

  9. Sterilization Efficiency of Spore forming Bacteria in Powdery Food by Atmospheric Pressure Plasmas Sterilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Masashi; Kikuchi, Yusuke

    2015-09-01

    To provide food sterilization method capable of killing highly heat resistant spore forming bacteria, we have studied effects of plasma treatment method at atmospheric pressure in order to develop a new high speed plasma sterilization apparatus with a low cost and a high efficiency. It is also difficult even for the plasma treatment to sterilize powdery food including spices such as soybean, basil and turmeric. This paper describes that an introduction of mechanical rotation of a treatment space increases the efficiency so that perfect inactivation of spore forming bacteria in these materials by a short treatment time has been demonstrated in our experiments. We also will discuss the sterilization mechanism by dielectric barrier discharge.

  10. Orthodontic instrument sterilization with microwave irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Yezdani, Arif; Mahalakshmi, Krishnan; Padmavathy, Kesavaram

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of microwave sterilization of orthodontic instruments and molar bands immersed in plain distilled water with and without oral rinse, and to ascertain the minimum time of exposure required to sterilize. Materials and Methods: The orthodontic instruments (hinged and nonhinged), molar bands and mouth mirrorsused in the patient 's mouth were selected for the study. The instruments were divided into two groups – Group I with oral rinse-set A (0.01% chlorhexidine gluconate) and set B (0.025% betadine) and Group II (included sets C and D without oral rinse). The instruments of set A, B and C were microwaved at 2,450 MHz, 800 W for 5 min, whereas, set D was microwaved for 10 min at the same above mentioned specifications. The efficacy of sterilization was assessed by stab inoculation of the instruments onto trypticase soya agar plates. The plates were checked for bacterial growth following incubation at 37 °C for 24 h. For sterility control,Geobacillus stearothermophilus (MTCC 1518) was included. Results: No growth was observed in the plates that were inoculated with the microwaved orthodontic instruments of sets A, B and D, whereas scanty bacterial growth was observed in the plates inoculatedwith the microwaved set C instruments. Conclusion: Effective sterilization was achieved when the orthodontic instruments and molar bands were immersed in distilled water without oral rinse and microwaved for 10 min as also for those that were immersed in distilled water with oral rinse and microwaved for 5 min. PMID:26015686

  11. Device and Container for Reheating and Sterilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastry, Sudhir K.; Heskitt, Brian F.; Jun, Soojin; Marcy, Joseph E.; Mahna, Ritesh

    2012-01-01

    Long-duration space missions require the development of improved foods and novel packages that do not represent a significant disposal issue. In addition, it would also be desirable if rapid heating technologies could be used on Earth as well, to improve food quality during a sterilization process. For this purpose, a package equipped with electrodes was developed that will enable rapid reheating of contents via ohmic heating to serving temperature during space vehicle transit. Further, the package is designed with a resealing feature, which enables the package, once used, to contain and sterilize waste, including human waste for storage prior to jettison during a long-duration mission. Ohmic heating is a technology that has been investigated on and off for over a century. Literature indicates that foods processed by ohmic heating are of superior quality to their conventionally processed counterparts. This is due to the speed and uniformity of ohmic heating, which minimizes exposure of sensitive materials to high temperatures. In principle, the material may be heated rapidly to sterilization conditions, cooled rapidly, and stored. The ohmic heating device herein is incorporated within a package. While this by itself is not novel, a reusable feature also was developed with the intent that waste may be stored and re-sterilized within the packages. These would then serve a useful function after their use in food processing and storage. The enclosure should be designed to minimize mass (and for NASA's purposes, Equivalent System Mass, or ESM), while enabling the sterilization function. It should also be electrically insulating. For this reason, Ultem high-strength, machinable electrical insulator was used.

  12. 21 CFR 522.1484 - Neomycin sulfate sterile solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. 522.1484... § 522.1484 Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of neomycin sulfate (equivalent to 35 milligrams of neomycin base).1...

  13. 21 CFR 522.1484 - Neomycin sulfate sterile solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. 522.1484... § 522.1484 Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of neomycin sulfate (equivalent to 35 milligrams of neomycin base).1...

  14. 21 CFR 522.1484 - Neomycin sulfate sterile solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. 522.1484... § 522.1484 Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of neomycin sulfate (equivalent to 35 milligrams of neomycin base).1...

  15. 21 CFR 522.1484 - Neomycin sulfate sterile solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. 522.1484... § 522.1484 Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of neomycin sulfate (equivalent to 35 milligrams of neomycin base).1...

  16. The Coercive Sterilization of Aboriginal Women in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stote, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the coercive sterilization of Aboriginal women in legislated and non-legislated form in Canada. I provide an historical and materialist critique of coercive sterilization. I argue for coercive sterilization to be understood as one of many policies employed to undermine Aboriginal women, to separate Aboriginal peoples from…

  17. 21 CFR 872.6710 - Boiling water sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Boiling water sterilizer. 872.6710 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6710 Boiling water sterilizer. (a) Identification. A boiling water sterilizer is an AC-powered device that consists of a container for boiling...

  18. 21 CFR 522.1862 - Sterile pralidoxime chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sterile pralidoxime chloride. 522.1862 Section 522....1862 Sterile pralidoxime chloride. (a) Chemical name. 2-Formyl-1-methylpyridinium chloride oxime. (b) Specifications. Sterile pralidoxime chloride is packaged in vials. Each vial contains 1 gram of...

  19. 21 CFR 522.1862 - Sterile pralidoxime chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sterile pralidoxime chloride. 522.1862 Section 522....1862 Sterile pralidoxime chloride. (a) Chemical name. 2-Formyl-1-methylpyridinium chloride oxime. (b) Specifications. Sterile pralidoxime chloride is packaged in vials. Each vial contains 1 gram of...

  20. 9 CFR 116.4 - Sterilization and pasteurization -records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sterilization and pasteurization... REPORTS § 116.4 Sterilization and pasteurization -records. Records shall be made by means of automatic... ingredients, equipment, or biological product subjected to sterilization or pasteurization. (Approved by...

  1. Development of male-sterile lines for breeding hybrid rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is a self-pollinated crop that depends on male-sterility for F1 hybrid seed production. As an alternative to accessing existing male-sterile lines from other hybrid breeding programs, the program in Arkansas has created its own novel male-sterile sources. These were developed out of germplasm...

  2. Suppression of Pest Lepidoptera by Releasing Partially Sterile Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knipling. E. F.

    1970-01-01

    Uses population growth models to calculate the theoretical suppression of reproduction achieved by releasing irradiated male moths carrying genetic sterility factors. Shows that releasing partially sterile males should be more effective than releasing fully sterile males. Discusses the costs and advantages of applying this approach to the control…

  3. MSI's unique, multi-functional contract sterilization facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morganstern, Kennard H.

    Medical Sterilization Inc. is a unique company supplying sterilization services to regional hospitals in the New York area and also providing contract sterilization and radiation processing services to industry. The evolution from a concept to an operational entity is reviewed in this report.

  4. Sterilization of compounded parenteral preparations: verification of autoclaves.

    PubMed

    Rahe, Hank

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the basic principles for verification of a sterilization process and provides a recommended approach to assure that autoclaves deliver the sterility-assured levels required for patient safety. Included is a summary of the protocol and verification (validation) results of a previously published case study involving autoclaves. To assure the sterility of compounded preparations, a verification procedure must be in place.

  5. 21 CFR 880.6860 - Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. 880.6860 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6860 Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. (a) Identification. An ethylene gas sterilizer is a nonportable device intended for use by a health care provider that uses ethylene oxide (ETO)...

  6. 21 CFR 880.6860 - Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. 880.6860 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6860 Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. (a) Identification. An ethylene gas sterilizer is a nonportable device intended for use by a health care provider that uses ethylene oxide (ETO)...

  7. 21 CFR 880.6860 - Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. 880.6860 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6860 Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. (a) Identification. An ethylene gas sterilizer is a nonportable device intended for use by a health care provider that uses ethylene oxide (ETO)...

  8. 21 CFR 880.6860 - Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. 880.6860 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6860 Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. (a) Identification. An ethylene gas sterilizer is a nonportable device intended for use by a health care provider that uses ethylene oxide (ETO)...

  9. 21 CFR 880.6860 - Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. 880.6860 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6860 Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. (a) Identification. An ethylene gas sterilizer is a nonportable device intended for use by a health care provider that uses ethylene oxide (ETO)...

  10. 21 CFR 872.6710 - Boiling water sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Boiling water sterilizer. 872.6710 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6710 Boiling water sterilizer. (a) Identification. A boiling water sterilizer is an AC-powered device that consists of a container for boiling...

  11. 21 CFR 872.6710 - Boiling water sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Boiling water sterilizer. 872.6710 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6710 Boiling water sterilizer. (a) Identification. A boiling water sterilizer is an AC-powered device that consists of a container for boiling...

  12. 21 CFR 872.6710 - Boiling water sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Boiling water sterilizer. 872.6710 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6710 Boiling water sterilizer. (a) Identification. A boiling water sterilizer is an AC-powered device that consists of a container for boiling...

  13. 21 CFR 872.6710 - Boiling water sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Boiling water sterilizer. 872.6710 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6710 Boiling water sterilizer. (a) Identification. A boiling water sterilizer is an AC-powered device that consists of a container for boiling...

  14. Sterilization project offers model for better care.

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1993-08-01

    India's experiences with sterilization indicate that quality of care is an essential feature of appropriate, voluntary family planning services. Good quality of care reduces the problems associated with services and increases client's acceptability and continuation rates. The Center for Excellence in India has established a model that emphasis matching the right method with each client's circumstances. The model first developed standards, which were based on international guidelines and expertise, and then developed and implemented a training program for providers; finally, a quality assurance system was established in order to promote compliance with standards. At present, there is not 100% agreement among international guidelines on standards for sterilization or other methods. In 1992, Family Health International (FHI) published a comparison on 8 major sets of service, delivery, guidelines, and were used around the world; FHI world wide variations in guidelines. A USAID study group is currently reviewing scientific evidence on oral contraceptives, injectables, Norplant, and IUDS. There is difficulty in reaching international consensus and even greater difficulty in changing approaches and policies of specific countries. It is much easier to institute quality of care issues at the beginning of program development or when methods are first introduced. In India, the Centers of Excellence program developed its own national standards on sterilization, and the resulting document is specifically suited to India. The standards emphasize the client's choice and human issues such as counseling and communication. Sterilization reversal, which is not always successful, will be provided, even though sterilization will be promoted as a permanent procedure. 4 regional centers have been set up through medical colleges in Delhi, Calcutta, Bombay and Madras. 12 additional state level centers will be established in the future. Good training was considered an essential part of the

  15. A double inductively coupled plasma for sterilization of medical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halfmann, H.; Bibinov, N.; Wunderlich, J.; Awakowicz, P.

    2007-07-01

    A double inductively coupled low pressure plasma for sterilization of bio-medical materials is introduced. It is developed for homogeneous treatment of three-dimensional objects. The short treatment times and low temperatures allow the sterilization of heat sensitive materials like ultra-high-molecular-weight-polyethylene or polyvinyl chloride. Using a non-toxic atmosphere reduces the total process time in comparision with common methods. Langmuir probe measurements are presented to show the difference between ICP- and CCP-mode discharges, the spatial homogeneity and the influence on the sterilization efficiency. To know more about the sterilization mechanisms optical emission is measured and correlated with sterilization results.

  16. Application of a Dense Gas Technique for Sterilizing Soft Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Karajanagi, Sandeep S.; Yoganathan, Roshan; Mammucari, Raffaella; Park, Hyoungshin; Cox, Julian; Zeitels, Steven M.; Langer, Robert; Foster, Neil R.

    2017-01-01

    Sterilization of soft biomaterials such as hydrogels is challenging because existing methods such as gamma irradiation, steam sterilization, or ethylene oxide sterilization, while effective at achieving high sterility assurance levels (SAL), may compromise their physicochemical properties and biocompatibility. New methods that effectively sterilize soft biomaterials without compromising their properties are therefore required. In this report, a dense-carbon dioxide (CO2)-based technique was used to sterilize soft polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based hydrogels while retaining their structure and physicochemical properties. Conventional sterilization methods such as gamma irradiation and steam sterilization severely compromised the structure of the hydrogels. PEG hydrogels with high water content and low elastic shear modulus (a measure of stiffness) were deliberately inoculated with bacteria and spores and then subjected to dense CO2. The dense CO2-based methods effectively sterilized the hydrogels achieving a SAL of 10−7 without compromising the viscoelastic properties, pH, water-content, and structure of the gels. Furthermore, dense CO2-treated gels were biocompatible and non-toxic when implanted subcutaneously in ferrets. The application of novel dense CO2-based methods to sterilize soft biomaterials has implications in developing safe sterilization methods for soft biomedical implants such as dermal fillers and viscosupplements. PMID:21337339

  17. A Sterile Robotic Mars Soil Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Gilbert V.; Miller, Joseph D.; Straat, Patricia Ann; Hoover, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    Since the 1976 Viking Mission to Mars, follow-on efforts to resolve its controversial life detection results have been thwarted by two heretofore insurmountable difficulties: the huge expense of sterilizing the entire spacecraft to protect the integrity of life detection experiments; and the lack of a practical robotic life detection package that could produce results acceptable as unambiguous by the scientific community. We here present a method that assures sterility and the complete integrity of robotic life detection experiments, all at a negligible cost. Second, we propose a candidate set of integrated, highly sensitive experiments that we believe could produce results acceptable to the vast majority of scientists. In addition to the biology-chemistry issue, the extensively debated oxidative state of the Martian surface and other chemical and physical characteristics of the Martian soil would be determined. We present our concept for a miniaturized instrument that could carry out a number of candidate experiments to achieve the objective.

  18. Light sterile neutrinos and inflationary freedom

    SciTech Connect

    Gariazzo, S.; Giunti, C.; Laveder, M. E-mail: giunti@to.infn.it

    2015-04-01

    We perform a cosmological analysis in which we allow the primordial power spectrum of scalar perturbations to assume a shape that is different from the usual power-law predicted by the simplest models of cosmological inflation. We parameterize the free primordial power spectrum with a ''piecewise cubic Hermite interpolating polynomial'' (PCHIP). We consider a 3+1 neutrino mixing model with a sterile neutrino having a mass at the eV scale, which can explain the anomalies observed in short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. We find that the freedom of the primordial power spectrum allows to reconcile the cosmological data with a fully thermalized sterile neutrino in the early Universe. Moreover, the cosmological analysis gives us some information on the shape of the primordial power spectrum, which presents a feature around the wavenumber k=0.002 Mpc{sup −1}.

  19. A search for sterile neutrinos in MINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Osiecki, Thomas Henry

    2007-01-01

    MINOS, the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment based at Fermilab National Accelerator Laboratory. The experiment uses a neutrino beam, which is measured 1 km downstream from its origin in the Near detector at Fermilab and then 735 km later in the Far detector at the Soudan mine. By comparing these two measurements, MINOS can attain a very high precision for parameters in the atmospheric sector of neutrino oscillations. In addition to precisely determining Δm$2\\atop{23}$ and θ23 through the disappearance of vμ, MINOS is able to measure vμ → vsterile by looking for a deficit in the number of neutral current interactions seen in the Far detector. In this thesis, we present the results of a search for sterile neutrinos in MINOS.

  20. Daughters mimic sterile neutrinos (almost!) perfectly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasenkamp, Jasper

    2014-09-01

    Since only recently, cosmological observations are sensitive to hot dark matter (HDM) admixtures with sub-eV mass, mhdmeff < eV, that are not fully-thermalised, Δ Neff < 1. We argue that their almost automatic interpretation as a sterile neutrino species is neither from theoretical nor practical parsimony principles preferred over HDM formed by decay products (daughters) of an out-of-equilibrium particle decay. While daughters mimic sterile neutrinos in Neff and mhdmeff, there are opportunities to assess this possibility in likelihood analyses. Connecting cosmological parameters and moments of momentum distribution functions, we show that—also in the case of mass-degenerate daughters with indistinguishable main physical effects—the mimicry breaks down when the next moment, the skewness, is considered. Predicted differences of order one in the root-mean-squares of absolute momenta are too small for current sensitivities.

  1. Sterile neutrinos in the early universe

    SciTech Connect

    Malaney, R.A. ); Fuller, G.M. . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-11-14

    We discuss the role played by right-handed sterile neutrinos in the early universe. We show how well known {sup 4}He constraint on the number of relativistic degrees of freedom at early times limits the equilibration of the right handed neutrino sea with the background plasma. We discuss how this allows interesting constraints to be placed on neutrino properties. In particular, a new limit on the Dirac mass of the neutrino is presented. 12 refs.

  2. Portable Chemical Sterilizer (PCS) for Surgical Instruments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    reactions, either individually or in combination, to effect sterilization of contaminated objects. The first system is a scaled up version of the...production by chemical reaction Ti quantities of heat, steam, and chlorine dioxide are produce that act in concert to effect the destruction of the...contaminating microorganisms. In fact, the conditions of heat and humidity created inside the PCS intensify the effectiveness of ClO2 as a lethal

  3. A Flash Sterilizer using Peracetic Acid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-01

    REPORT 7606 / A FLASH STERILIZER USING PERACETIC ACID H. BRUCE CRANFORD, JR. C Reproduced From Best Available Copy US ARMY MEDICAL BIOENGINEERING...Operating Room area whereby an accidentally contaminated Instrument can be * rapidly resterilized using peracetic acid and returned to use was designedand...Pvoperties of Peracetic Acid 5 S..Proposed Design Approach 6 "Equipment 11 SUMM•ARY 17 BIBLIOGRAPHY 19 A*?ENDICES 23 A. Ltr, HQDA. (SGRD-SDM), WASH, DC, A-1

  4. Radiation Sterilization of Prototype Military Foods

    PubMed Central

    Anellis, Abe; Berkowitz, D.; Jarboe, C.; El-Bisi, H. M.

    1967-01-01

    Ten lots of diced cured ham, packed in cans, were inoculated with approximately 106Clostridium botulinum spores per can. Each lot was seeded with a different strain (five type A and five type B strains). All cans were irradiated to various dose levels with Co60. Evidence provided by swelling, toxicity, and recoverable C. botulinum with 6,350 cans demonstrated that: (i) 4.5 Mrad was more than adequate as a sterilization dose; (ii) the minimal experimental sterilizing dose (ESD) based on nonswollen nontoxic endpoints was 2.0 < ESD ≤ 2.5 Mrad, and based on non-spoiled sterile cans was 3.0 < ESD ≤ 3.5 Mrad (the latter was supported by the computed theoretical 12D dose); (iii) D values calculated from botulinal survival data indicated that, as a group, the type A strains were more radioresistant than type B strains; strains 12885A and 41B, with respective D values of 0.242 and 0.175, represented the most resistant of each type; (iv) swollen cans did not always contain toxin, nor were toxic cans always swollen; (v) viable C. botulinum can exist for 6 months at 30 C without producing visible or toxic spoilage at doses of 3.0 Mrad and lower, including, in some instances, 0.0 Mrad; and (vi) a phenomenon similar to heat activation of spores occurred at sublethal radiation doses. Images Fig. 1 PMID:5340164

  5. [Principles of antisepsis, disinfection and sterilization].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Navarrete, María-Jesús; Celorrio-Pascual, José-Miguel; Lapresta Moros, Carlos; Solano Bernad, Victor-Manuel

    2014-12-01

    This article aims to provide a brief review of the main concepts on which the prevention and control of infection are based. Antisepsis comprises a set of techniques aimed at the total sterilization, or at most, disinfection, removing germs that contaminate an environment. Both procedures must be preceded by an environmental cleanup in the location in which they intend to be applied. The disinfection is carried out using biocides or germicides. Antimicrobial chemicals, that have mechanisms of action and resistances very similar to antibiotics, are generating concern due to the possibility of crossing genetic information that aggravates the problem of bacterial resistance. Most biocides can act as antiseptics, and applied to skin tissue, or disinfectants on inanimate materials. The spectrum of action of germicides depends on the product itself and external controllable factors: temperature, concentration, exposure time, etc. Sterilization techniques are primarily physical, by exposing the material to steam, or sterilizing gas, using autoclaves. Major advances are the use of low temperatures with shorter exposure times, in parallel with technological advances in instrumentation in order to avoid high temperatures and high use rotations due to workload.

  6. Plasma sterilization using the RF glow discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liqing; Chen, Jierong; Gao, Junling; Guo, Yafei

    2009-08-01

    In the present work, glow discharge oxygen plasma was used to sterilize the Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheets. In a self-designed plasma reaction equipment, active species (electron, ion, radical, UV light, etc.) were separated effectively, and the discharge area, afterglow area and remote area were plotted out in the plasma field. Before and after plasma treatment the cell morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that after treatment of 30 s the germicidal effect is 4.26, 3. 84, 2.61, respectively in the three areas on the following conditions: discharge power was 40 W and gas flux was 20 cm 3/min. SEM results revealed the cell morphology before and after plasma treatment. The walls or cell membrane cracking was testified by determining the content of protein using coomassie light blue technique. The results from electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) and double Langmuir electron probe showed that electron, ion and oxygen free radical played important roles in sterilization in the discharge area, but only oxygen radicals acted to sterilize the bacteria in the afterglow area and the remote area.

  7. Sterile Neutrino Search with the PROSPECT Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surukuchi Venkata, Pranava Teja

    2017-01-01

    PROSPECT is a multi-phased short-baseline reactor antineutrino experiment with primary goals of performing a search for sterile neutrinos and making a precise measurement of 235U reactor antineutrino spectrum from the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. PROSPECT will provide a model independent oscillation measurement of electron antineutrinos by performing relative spectral comparison between a wide range of baselines. By covering the baselines of 7-12 m with Phase-I and extending the coverage to 19m with Phase-II, the PROSPECT experiment will be able to address the current eV-scale sterile neutrino oscillation best-fit region within a single year of data-taking and covers a major portion of suggested parameter space within 3 years of Phase-II data-taking. Additionally, with a Phase-II detector PROSPECT will be able to distinguish between 3+1 mixing, 3+N mixing and other non-standard oscillations. In this talk, we describe the PROSPECT oscillation fitting framework and expected detector sensitivity to the oscillations arising from eV-scale sterile neutrinos. DOE

  8. Sterilization of women: benefits vs risks.

    PubMed

    Rioux, J E

    Voluntary sterilization is the birth control method most widely practiced throughout the world. The last ten years have witnessed great improvements in techniques and perfection of innovations, explaining the important role that it now plays in the regulation of fertility. Different methods are examined and it is concluded that hysterectomy is the best, if medically indicated; conventional laparotomy is not justified unless required by concomitant intraabdominal pathology; minilaparotomy is mostly suitable postpartum; colpotomy is better left to specialists; laparoscopy is ideal for nonpregnant patients; culdoscopy is a relic of the past; and hysteroscopy, although still experimental, may be the way of the future. The advantages of voluntary sterilization lie in its remarkable and immediate efficiency, freedom from ongoing motivation, the convenience of a one-time operation, the absence of side effects and the reduction of total costs. Its disadvantages are the complexity of any surgical intervention for a woman, its indisputable finality, its uncertain legality and the risks inherent in any operation. Hysterectomy and tubal ligation are practically never fatal, so this argument does not influence the choice of either method. However, incidence of morbidity is higher following hysterectomies, which must therefore be justified. The balance is clearly in favor of voluntary sterilization for the woman who is convinced that the size of her family is complete.

  9. Sterile neutrinos as subdominant warm dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Palazzo, A.; Cumberbatch, D.; Slosar, A.; Silk, J.

    2007-11-15

    In light of recent findings which seem to disfavor a scenario with (warm) dark matter entirely constituted of sterile neutrinos produced via the Dodelson-Widrow mechanism, we investigate the constraints attainable for this mechanism by relaxing the usual hypothesis that the relic neutrino abundance must necessarily account for all of the dark matter. We first study how to reinterpret the limits attainable from x-ray nondetection and Lyman-{alpha} forest measurements in the case that sterile neutrinos constitute only a fraction f{sub s} of the total amount of dark matter. Then, assuming that sterile neutrinos are generated in the early universe solely through the Dodelson-Widrow mechanism, we show how the x-ray and Lyman-{alpha} results jointly constrain the mass-mixing parameters governing their production. Furthermore, we show how the same data allow us to set a robust upper limit f{sub s} < or approx. 0.7 at the 2{sigma} level, rejecting the case of dominant dark matter (f{sub s}=1) at the {approx}3{sigma} level.

  10. Theory of oscillations and sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazzo, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    We present a concise review of the theoretical status of neutrino oscillations within the (standard) 3-flavor framework and the (non-standard) 4-flavor scheme endowed with one additional sterile species (the so-called 3+1 scheme). We emphasize the slight overall preference that recently emerged for CP-violation in the 3-flavor analysis and highlight the unique role of the global data combination in the near future. After a brief introduction of the motivations for light (eV) sterile neutrinos, we discuss the bounds on their mixing with the electron neutrinos, attainable from the solar sector. The upper limit so obtained is independent of the reactor neutrino fluxes, whose calculations are affected by systematic uncertainties not completely under control. Finally, we highlight the possibility to explore sub-eV "super-light" sterile neutrinos exploiting the θ13-dedicated reactor experiments also commenting on the robustness of the 3- flavor results within the enlarged 3+1 scheme.

  11. Sterile Insect Technique and F1 Sterility in the European Grapevine Moth, Lobesia botrana

    PubMed Central

    Saour, George

    2014-01-01

    Newly emerged adults of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were irradiated with various doses of gamma radiation and crossed to unirradiated counterparts of the opposite sex. Fecundity was decreased when unirradiated females were mated with either 300- or 350-Gy-irradiated males. Adult males that were irradiated with 400 Gy and mated with unirradiated females retained a residual fertility of 2.7%. The radiation dose at which irradiated females were found to be 100% sterile when mated with unirradiated males was 150 Gy. The inherited effects in the F1 progeny of irradiated male parents were examined at 100, 150, and 200 Gy. Fecundity and fertility of the F1 progeny of males irradiated with 150 Gy and inbred or crossed with irradiated and unirradiated moths were also recorded. A significant reduction in fertility was observed when F1 males mated with either F1 or unirradiated females. According to sterility index, F1 females who mated with F1 males had greater sterility than when F1 females were crossed to 150-Gy-irradiated males. Based upon the results of this study, 150 Gy of gamma radiation would be the optimal dose to use in a sterile insect technique and F1 sterility program against L. botrana. PMID:25373155

  12. Sterile insect technique and F₁ sterility in the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana.

    PubMed

    Saour, George

    2014-01-23

    Newly emerged adults of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were irradiated with various doses of gamma radiation and crossed to unirradiated counterparts of the opposite sex. Fecundity was decreased when unirradiated females were mated with either 300-or 350-Gy-irradiated males. Adult males that were irradiated with 400 Gy and mated with unirradiated females retained a residual fertility of 2.7%. The radiation dose at which irradiated females were found to be 100% sterile when mated with unirradiated males was 150 Gy. The inherited effects in the F1 progeny of irradiated male parents were examined at 100, 150, and 200 Gy. Fecundity and fertility of the F1 progeny of males irradiated with 150 Gy and inbred or crossed with irradiated and unirradiated moths were also recorded. A significant reduction in fertility was observed when F1 males mated with either F1 or unirradiated females. According to sterility index, F1 females who mated with F1 males had greater sterility than when F1 females were crossed to 150-Gy-irradiated males. Based upon the results of this study, 150 Gy of gamma radiation would be the optimal dose to use in a sterile insect technique and F1 sterility program against L. botrana.

  13. [Calcium distribution in fertile and sterile anthers of a genic male sterile Chinese cabbage].

    PubMed

    Xie, Chao-Tian; Yang, Yan-Hong; Qiu, Yi-Lan; Ge, Li-Li; Tian, Hui-Qiao

    2005-12-01

    Potassium antimonite was used to locate calcium in the fertile and sterile anthers of a genic male sterile Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino) to probe the relation between Ca(2+) and fertility and sterility of anthers of the cabbage. During fertile anther development, calcium granules increase in number in anther wall cells after meiosis, and then appeared also in locule, suggesting a calcium influx into locule from anther wall cells (Plate I-4). Then the number of calcium granules in microspore cytoplasm also increased at early stage (Plate II-1), accumulated mainly on the membrane of small vacuoles which were fusing to form big ones to make a polarity in the cell and to prepare asymmetric division of microspore (Plate II-3,4). After microspore division and the big vacuole decomposition, many calcium granules accumulated again on the membrane of the vacuoles (Plate III-1,2), displaying calcium regulates vacuole formation and decomposition during pollen development. In sterile anthers, abnormal distribution of calcium granules first appeared in callus wall of microspore mother cell (Plate IV-1). However, only a few calcium granules appeared in early microspores, which then could not form small vacuoles and finally a big vacuole (Plate IV-2,3). The aborting microspores degenerate by cytoplasm shrinking (Plate IV-5,6). The difference pattern of distribution of calcium granules between the fertile and sterile anthers indicates that anomalies in the distribution of calcium accumulation are correlated with the failure of pollen development and pollen abortion.

  14. Surgical sterilization: an underutilized procedure for evaluating the merits of induced sterility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennelly, James J.; Converse, Kathryn A.

    1993-01-01

    Despite more than 4 decades of effort, development of effective wildlife damage control programs based on sterilization of target species has met with limited success. This is partly due to the fact that investigators have assumed, rather than empirically tested, whether the reproductive strategies of the target populations were vulnerable to the planned treatment. Equally important, methods selected to include sterility usually involve a chemical agent that can affect sociosexual behaviors of the nuisance population. In this report, we illustrate how surgically induced sterility circumvents both problems--how the concept without the potentially confounding secondary effects of a chemical. We assessed the merits of initiating research to develop a male chemosterilant for Norway rats, red-winged blackbirds, beaver, and Canada geese by inducing sterility surgically. The infidelity of many red-winged females to their polygynous territorial male was surprising and argued against searching for a male sterilant. On the other hand, beaver and Canada goose studies confirmed previous reports that both form par-bonds and are monogamous. Both should be vulnerable to a male chemosterilant approach, and research toward this goal is justified.

  15. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Recessive Male Sterility (RGMS) in Sterile and Fertile Brassica napus Lines

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huiyan; Liu, Chuan; Li, Jiana; Tang, Zhanglin; Xu, Xinfu; Qiu, Xiao; Wang, Rui; Lu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    The recessive genetic male sterility (RGMS) system plays a key role in the production of hybrid varieties in self-pollinating B. napus plants, and prevents negative cytoplasmic effects. However, the complete molecular mechanism of the male sterility during male-gametogenesis in RGMS remains to be determined. To identify transcriptomic changes that occur during the transition to male sterility in RGMS, we examined the male sterile line WSLA and male fertile line WSLB, which are near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing only in the fertility trait. We evaluated the phenotypic features and sterility stage using anatomical analysis. Comparative RNA sequencing analysis revealed that 3,199 genes were differentially expressed between WSLA and WSLB. Many of these genes are mainly involved in biological processes related to flowering, including pollen tube development and growth, pollen wall assembly and modification, and pollen exine formation and pollination. The transcript profiles of 93 genes associated with pollen wall and anther development were determined by quantitative RT-PCR in different flower parts, and classified into the following three major clades: 1) up-regulated in WSLA plants; 2) down-regulated in WSLA plants; and 3) down-regulated in buds, but have a higher expression in stigmas of WSLA than in WSLB. A subset of genes associated with sporopollenin accumulation were all up-regulated in WSLA. An excess of sporopollenin results in defective pollen wall formation, which leads to male sterility in WSLA. Some of the genes identified in this study are candidates for future research, as they could provide important insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying RGMS in WSLA. PMID:26656530

  16. Electron sterilization validation techniques using the controlled depth of sterilization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleghorn, Denise A.; Nablo, Sam V.

    Many pharmaceutical products, especially parenteral drugs, cannot be sterilized with gamma rays or high energy electrons due to the concomitant product degradation. most of these products are filled under aseptic conditions so that for qualification as a sterile product, techniques are often required only for treatment of the container surfaces and package interior. Gas sterilization (ETO) is often used for this purpose but is beset with difficulties known to the reader, especially for critical "contact" products such as in the ophthalmic field. In view of the well-controlled electron energy spectrum available in modern electron processors, it is practical to deliver sterilizing doses over depths considerably less than those defining the thickness of blister-pack constructions or pharmaceutical containers. Because bremsstrahlung and x-ray production are minimized at these low electron energies and in these low Z materials, very high electron: penetrating x-ray dose ratios are possible for the application of the technique. Some of these data illustrating package: parenteral ratios of 10 5:1 have been reported (Rangwalla et al, 1985; Aaronson and Nablo, 1988). Standard techniques have been developed for the validation of the process and are reported here. Thin film dosimetric techniques have been developed utilizing radiochromic film in the 10-60 g/m 2 range for determining the surface dose distribution in occluded surface areas where direct electron illumination is not possible. Procedures for validation of the process using dried spore inoculum on the product as well as in good geometry are employed to determine the process lethality and its dependence on product surface geometry. Applications of the process to labile pharmaceuticals in glass and polystyrene syringes are reviewed. It has been applied to the sterilization of commercial sterile products since 1987, and the advantages and the natural limitations of the technique are discussed.

  17. Continuous-sterilization system that uses photosemiconductor powders. [Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunaga, T.; Tomoda, R.; Nakajima, T.; Nakamura, N.; Komine, T.

    1988-06-01

    We report a novel photochemical sterilization system in which Escherichia coli cells were sterilized with photosemiconductor powders (titanium oxide). For sterilization that could be used in practice, it was necessary to separate the TiO/sub 2/ powders from the cell suspension. Therefore, semiconductor powders were immobilized on acetylcellulose membranes. We constructed a continuous-sterilization system consisting of TiO/sub 2/-immobilized acetylcellulose membrane reactor, a mercury lamp, and a masterflex pump. As a result, under the various sterilization conditions examined, E.coli (10/sup 2/ cells per ml) was sterilized to < 1% survival when the cell suspension flowed in this system at a mean residence time of 16.0 min under irradiation (1800 microeinsteins/m/sup 2/ per s). We found that this system was reusable.

  18. BEST sensitivity to O(1) eV sterile neutrino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barinov, Vladislav; Gavrin, Vladimir; Gorbunov, Dmitry; Ibragimova, Tatiana

    2016-04-01

    Numerous anomalous results in neutrino oscillation experiments can be attributed to the interference of an ˜1 eV sterile neutrino. The Baksan Experiment on Sterile Transitions (BEST), specially designed to fully explore the Gallium anomaly, starts next year. We investigate the sensitivity of BEST in search of a sterile neutrino mixed with an electron neutrino. Then, performing the combined analysis of all the Gallium experiments (SAGE, GALLEX, BEST), we find the region in the model parameter space (sterile neutrino mass and mixing angle) which will be excluded if BEST agrees with no sterile neutrino hypothesis. For the opposite case, if BEST observes the signal as it follows from the sterile neutrino explanation of the Gallium (SAGE and GALLEX) anomaly, we show how BEST will improve upon the present estimates of the model parameters.

  19. Assessment of performance of UV sterilizer for room air bacteria.

    PubMed

    Joshi, P V

    2002-02-01

    Paper presents a technique for performance of UV sterilizer for room air bacteria. Patterns of decay of room air bacteria concentration during sterilization and build-up there after as a function of time is studied. Decay process seems to follow exponential pattern. Half-lives during decay are estimated. For single sterilizer unit with a dose of 16 W the decay half-life is around 8.6 min. For the dose of 32 W (2 sterilizers), half-life is estimated to be 6.18 min. The removal rates of room air bacteria due to sterilizer are compared with the natural decay of aerosols at steady state. The importance of decay half-life in the assessment has been stated. The bacteria concentration buildup process after putting off the sterilizers seems to be sigmoidal in nature. The buildup half-life is estimated to be around 53 min for present experimental conditions.

  20. Possibilities of sterilization by track membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudoyarov, M. F.; Vishnevskii, B. I.; Manicheva, O. A.; Myakotina, E. N.; Mukhin, S. A.; Patrova, M. Ya.; Vedmetskii, Yu. V.

    2011-09-01

    The possibility of using track membranes for the dimensional separation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MBT) species from liquid media has been studied. A set of track membranes with various pore diameters was prepared at the accelerator complex of the Ioffe Physical Technical Institute (St. Petersburg) and all samples were tested for their ability to separate MBT species of 13 strains from solutions. The results showed high ability of the track membranes with pore diameters from 180 to 300 nm to sterilize liquid media and confirmed the hypothesis concerning relatively high rigidity of these bacteria.

  1. Detecting sterile neutrinos with KATRIN like experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Riis, Anna Sejersen; Hannestad, Steen E-mail: sth@phys.au.dk

    2011-02-01

    A sterile neutrino with mass in the eV range, mixing with ν-bar {sub e}, is allowed and possibly even preferred by cosmology and oscillation experiments. If such eV-mass neutrinos exist they provide a much better target for direct detection in beta decay experiments than the active neutrinos which are expected to have sub-eV masses. Their relatively high mass would allow for an easy separation from the primary decay signal in experiments such as KATRIN.

  2. [Laparoscopic abdominal drainage by sterile destructive pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, N A; Rodoman, G V; Shalaeva, T I; Trefilova, O I; Sosikova, N L

    2009-01-01

    90 patients with acute pancreatitis were observed, in 60 of them laparoscopic drainage was performed. The procedure by sterile pancreatonecrosis is indicated only in presence of extent amount of exudate in abdominal cavity. Duration of draining the abdominal cavity should be strictly limited because of the high risk of septic complications. Contraindications for the abdominal drainage by acute necrotic pancreatitis are not only adhesions in the abdomen and shock state of the patient at the moment of procedure necessity, but also unstable hemodynamics in anamnesis and even by the arterial pressure downtrend.

  3. Mitochondria and cytoplasmic male sterility in plants.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jun; Huang, Wenchao; Huang, Qi; Qin, Xiaojian; Yu, Changchun; Wang, Lili; Li, Shaoqing; Zhu, Renshan; Zhu, Yingguo

    2014-11-01

    Mitochondria are essential organelles in cells not only because they supply over 90% of the cell's energy but also because their dysfunction is associated with disease. Owing to the importance of mitochondria, there are many questions about mitochondria that must be answered. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a mysterious natural phenomenon, and the mechanism of the origin of CMS is unknown. Despite successful utilization of CMS and restoration of fertility (Rf) in practice, the underlying mechanisms of these processes remain elusive. This review summarizes the genes involved in CMS and Rf, with a special focus on recent studies reporting the mechanisms of the CMS and Rf pathways, and concludes with potential working models.

  4. Sterilization of the biological safety cabinet

    PubMed Central

    Newsom, S. W. B.; Walsingham, B. M.

    1974-01-01

    Test strips comprising B subtilis spores or M phlei cells dried on aluminium foil (some serum-coated) were used to test sterilizing processes currently advised for safety cabinets. Exposure to formalin from a bowl, boiling excess formalin with the fan running, and ultraviolet radiation were all found to be unreliable, as was glutaraldehyde. Vaporization of 2 ml of formalin per 0·028 m3 followed by exposure for 18 hours at ambient temperatures was 100% successful, and the depolymerization of paraformaldehyde tablets with a hair drier was a simple, very effective alternative method. PMID:4216601

  5. Investigating CPT Conservation in Sterile Neutrino Fits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignarra, Christina

    2010-02-01

    We investigate compatibility between neutrino and antineutrino short-baseline oscillation experiments under a two-neutrino oscillation hypothesis due to a sterile neutrino at δm^2˜1 eV^2. We explore the preliminary MINOS antineutrino disappearance results as well as antineutrino oscillation results from LSND, MiniBooNE, KARMEN, Bugey, and Chooz, and neutrino oscillation results from NOMAD, MiniBooNE, CCFR84, and CDHS. We find that a combined fit of the antineutrino data yields a high chi-squared probability, while the global fit including neutrino and antineutrino data yields high incompatibility. CPT-violating fits within this scenario are also explored. )

  6. Search for sterile neutrinos at reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Osamu

    2011-09-01

    The sensitivity to the sterile neutrino mixing at very short baseline reactor neutrino experiments is investigated. In the case of conventional (thermal neutron) reactors it is found that the sensitivity is lost for ∆ m 2 ≳ 1 eV2 due to smearing of the reactor core size. On the other hand, in the case of an experimental fast neutron reactor Joyo, because of its small size, sensitivity to sin2 2 θ 14 can be as good as 0.03 for ∆ m 2 ˜ several eV2 with the Bugey-like detector setup.

  7. On the intrinsic sterility of 3D printing

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Kaitlin J.; Zaman, Luis; Tung, Emily; Pudlo, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    3D printers that build objects using extruded thermoplastic are quickly becoming commonplace tools in laboratories. We demonstrate that with appropriate handling, these devices are capable of producing sterile components from a non-sterile feedstock of thermoplastic without any treatment after fabrication. The fabrication process itself results in sterilization of the material. The resulting 3D printed components are suitable for a wide variety of applications, including experiments with bacteria and cell culture. PMID:27920950

  8. Microwave sterilization of Candida on underwear fabric. A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, E.G. Jr.; Phillips, L.E.

    1988-05-01

    Candida-contaminated underwear might not be sterilized by ordinary laundering. The effectiveness of microwaving against Candida albicans on fabric was therefore determined. Swatches of Candida-impregnated cotton underpants fabric were subjected to domestic microwaving at the high setting for up to 30 minutes. If the fabric was microwaved dry, the Candida organisms survived. If the fabric was moistened, sterilization occurred within five minutes. Microwaving wet, freshly laundered cotton underpants should sterilize residual Candida and reduce the risk of reinfection.

  9. Bactrocera dorsalis male sterilization by targeted RNA interference of spermatogenesis: empowering sterile insect technique programs

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yong-Cheng; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Chen, Zhen-Zhong; Clarke, Anthony R.; Niu, Chang-Ying

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a genetic technique which has novel application for sustainable pest control. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) uses releases of mass-produced, sterile male insects to out-compete wild males for mates to reduce pest populations. RNAi sterilization of SIT males would have several advantages over radiation sterilization, but to achieve this appropriate target genes must first be identified and then targeted with interference technology. With this goal, eight spermatogenesis related candidate genes were cloned and tested for potential activity in Bactrocera dorsalis. The knockdown of candidate genes by oral delivery of dsRNAs did not influence the mating of male flies, but significantly affected the daily average number of eggs laid by females, and reduced egg hatching rate by 16–60%. RNAi negatively affected spermatozoa quantitatively and qualitatively. Following the mating of lola-/topi-/rac-/rho-/upd-/magu-silenced males, we recorded a significant decrease in number and length of spermatozoa in female spermatheca compared to gfp-silenced control group. In a greenhouse trial, the number of damaged oranges and B. dorsalis larvae were significantly reduced in a dsrho-treated group compared with the dsgfp group. This study provides strong evidence for the use RNAi in pest management, especially for the improvement of SIT against B. dorsalis and other species. PMID:27767174

  10. Evaluation of sterility and fertility of male sterile lines in the USPB farm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybrid rice has proven to have a yield advantage of 15–20% over the best inbred cultivars at the commercial scale worldwide. At present, two methods have been successfully commercialized; the three-line and two-line systems. The three-line system consists of the male sterile (MS), maintainer and res...

  11. Defective pollen wall contributes to male sterility in the male sterile line 1355A of cotton

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuanlong; Min, Ling; Wu, Zancheng; Yang, Li; Zhu, Longfu; Yang, Xiyan; Yuan, Daojun; Guo, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xianlong

    2015-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms of male sterility in cotton (Gossypium spp.), combined histological, biochemical and transcription analysis using RNA-Seq was carried out in the anther of the single-gene recessive genic male sterility system of male sterile line 1355A and male fertile line 1355B, which are near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing only in the fertility trait. A total of 2,446 differentially expressed genes were identified between the anthers of 1355AB lines, at three different stages of development. Cluster analysis and functional assignment of differentially expressed genes revealed differences in transcription associated with pollen wall and anther development, including the metabolism of fatty acids, glucose, pectin and cellulose. Histological and biochemical analysis revealed that a major cellular defect in the 1355A was a thicker nexine, consistent with the RNA-seq data, and further gene expression studies implicated differences in fatty acids synthesis and metabolism. This study provides insight into the phenotypic characteristics and gene regulatory network of the genic male sterile line 1355A in upland cotton. PMID:26043720

  12. Bactrocera dorsalis male sterilization by targeted RNA interference of spermatogenesis: empowering sterile insect technique programs.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yong-Cheng; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Chen, Zhen-Zhong; Clarke, Anthony R; Niu, Chang-Ying

    2016-10-21

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a genetic technique which has novel application for sustainable pest control. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) uses releases of mass-produced, sterile male insects to out-compete wild males for mates to reduce pest populations. RNAi sterilization of SIT males would have several advantages over radiation sterilization, but to achieve this appropriate target genes must first be identified and then targeted with interference technology. With this goal, eight spermatogenesis related candidate genes were cloned and tested for potential activity in Bactrocera dorsalis. The knockdown of candidate genes by oral delivery of dsRNAs did not influence the mating of male flies, but significantly affected the daily average number of eggs laid by females, and reduced egg hatching rate by 16-60%. RNAi negatively affected spermatozoa quantitatively and qualitatively. Following the mating of lola-/topi-/rac-/rho-/upd-/magu-silenced males, we recorded a significant decrease in number and length of spermatozoa in female spermatheca compared to gfp-silenced control group. In a greenhouse trial, the number of damaged oranges and B. dorsalis larvae were significantly reduced in a dsrho-treated group compared with the dsgfp group. This study provides strong evidence for the use RNAi in pest management, especially for the improvement of SIT against B. dorsalis and other species.

  13. 21 CFR 522.1862 - Sterile pralidoxime chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Before administration of the sterile pralidoxime chloride, atropine is administered intravenously at a... milligram of atropine per pound of body weight administered intramuscularly. Then the appropriate dosage...

  14. System and method of applying energetic ions for sterilization

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, John A.

    2003-12-23

    A method of sterilization of a container is provided whereby a cold plasma is caused to be disposed near a surface to be sterilized, and the cold plasma is then subjected to a pulsed voltage differential for producing energized ions in the plasma. Those energized ions then operate to achieve spore destruction on the surface to be sterilized. Further, a system for sterilization of a container which includes a conductive or non-conductive container, a cold plasma in proximity to the container, and a high voltage source for delivering a pulsed voltage differential between an electrode and the container and across the cold plasma, is provided.

  15. Are there sterile neutrinos at the eV scale?

    PubMed

    Kopp, Joachim; Maltoni, Michele; Schwetz, Thomas

    2011-08-26

    New predictions for the antineutrino flux from nuclear reactors suggest that reactor experiments may have measured a deficit in this flux, which can be interpreted in terms of oscillations between the known active neutrinos and new sterile states. We perform a reanalysis of global short-baseline neutrino oscillation data in a framework with one or two sterile neutrinos. While one sterile neutrino is still not sufficient to reconcile the signals suggested by reactor experiments and by the LSND and MiniBooNE experiments with null results from other searches, we find that, with the new reactor flux prediction, the global fit improves considerably when two sterile neutrinos are introduced.

  16. Dark matter relic abundance and light sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yi-Lei; Zhu, Shou-hua

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we calculate the relic abundance of the dark matter particles when they can annihilate into sterile neutrinos with the mass ≲ 100 GeV in a simple model. Unlike the usual standard calculations, the sterile neutrino may fall out of the thermal equilibrium with the thermal bath before the dark matter freezes out. In such a case, if the Yukawa coupling y N between the Higgs and the sterile neutrino is small, this process gives rise to a larger ΩDM h 2 so we need a larger coupling between the dark matter and the sterile neutrino for a correct relic abundance.

  17. Targeted Gene Silencing to Induce Permanent Sterility

    PubMed Central

    Dissen, Gregory A.; Lomniczi, Alejandro; Boudreau, Ryan L.; Chen, Yong Hong; Davidson, Beverly L.; Ojeda, Sergio R.

    2012-01-01

    Contents A nonsurgical method to induce sterility would be a useful tool to control feral populations of animals. Our laboratories have experience with approaches aimed at targeting brain cells in vivo with vehicles that deliver a payload of either inhibitory RNAs or genes intended to correct cellular dysfunction. A combination/modification of these methods may provide a useful framework for the design of approaches that can be used to sterilize cats and dogs. For this approach to succeed it has to meet several conditions: It needs to target a gene essential for fertility. It must involve a method that can selectively silence the gene of interest. It also needs to deliver the silencing agent via a minimally invasive method. Finally, the silencing effect needs to be sustained for many years, so that expansion of the targeted population can be effectively prevented. In this article we discuss this subject and provide a succinct account of our previous experience with: a) molecular reagents able to disrupt reproductive cyclicity when delivered to regions of the brain involved in the control of reproduction, and b) molecular reagents able to ameliorate neuronal disease when delivered systemically using a novel approach of gene therapy. PMID:22827375

  18. Sterile Neuroinflammation and Strategies for Therapeutic Intervention

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Sterile neuroinflammation is essential for the proper brain development and tissue repair. However, uncontrolled neuroinflammation plays a major role in the pathogenesis of various disease processes. The endogenous intracellular molecules so called damage-associated molecular patterns or alarmins or damage signals that are released by activated or necrotic cells are thought to play a crucial role in initiating an immune response. Sterile inflammatory response that occurs in Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), stroke, hemorrhage, epilepsy, or traumatic brain injury (TBI) creates a vicious cycle of unrestrained inflammation, driving progressive neurodegeneration. Neuroinflammation is a key mechanism in the progression (e.g., AD and PD) or secondary injury development (e.g., stroke, hemorrhage, stress, and TBI) of multiple brain conditions. Hence, it provides an opportunity for the therapeutic intervention to prevent progressive tissue damage and loss of function. The key for developing anti-neuroinflammatory treatment is to minimize the detrimental and neurotoxic effects of inflammation while promoting the beneficial and neurotropic effects, thereby creating ideal conditions for regeneration and repair. This review outlines how inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of major nonpathogenic neuroinflammatory conditions and discusses the complex response of glial cells to damage signals. In addition, emerging experimental anti-neuroinflammatory drug treatment strategies are discussed. PMID:28127491

  19. Sterile antineutrino search in the MINOS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rui; Minos Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The MINOS experiment is a long-baseline on-axis neutrino oscillation experiment. The two detectors are separated by 734km and optimised for sensitivity to the disappearance of muon neutrinos and antineutrinos delivered by the NuMI beam at Fermilab. The MINOS detectors are magnetised, giving the experiment a unique ability to separate neutrinos and antineutrinos on an event-by-event basis. Thanks to the different possible NuMI beam configurations, MINOS has accumulated 10 . 56 ×1020 POT from a muon neutrino dominated beam and 3 . 36 ×1020 POT from a muon antineutrino enhanced beam. In this talk I will present an analysis of the muon antineutrino interactions collected in both beam configurations. The LSND and MiniBooNE experiments have observed non-standard electron antineutrino appearance in their oscillation analyses. A possible explanation for this is the 3+1 sterile neutrino model where one adds an additional neutrino to the current three-flavour model. MINOS is sensitive to this model through looking at the charged current neutrino and antineutrino energy spectra to probe any deviations from the three-flavour muon neutrino and antineutrino survival probabilities. In this talk, I will present new limits on sterile antineutrinos, using this 3+1 model.

  20. Daughters mimic sterile neutrinos (almost!) perfectly

    SciTech Connect

    Hasenkamp, Jasper

    2014-09-01

    Since only recently, cosmological observations are sensitive to hot dark matter (HDM) admixtures with sub-eV mass, m{sub hdm}{sup eff} < eV, that are not fully-thermalised, Δ N{sub eff} < 1. We argue that their almost automatic interpretation as a sterile neutrino species is neither from theoretical nor practical parsimony principles preferred over HDM formed by decay products (daughters) of an out-of-equilibrium particle decay. While daughters mimic sterile neutrinos in N{sub eff} and m{sub hdm}{sup eff}, there are opportunities to assess this possibility in likelihood analyses. Connecting cosmological parameters and moments of momentum distribution functions, we show that—also in the case of mass-degenerate daughters with indistinguishable main physical effects—the mimicry breaks down when the next moment, the skewness, is considered. Predicted differences of order one in the root-mean-squares of absolute momenta are too small for current sensitivities.

  1. Sterile neutrinos at a Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Pavon, Jacobo

    2010-03-30

    We study the potential of a Neutrino Factory (NF) to constrain the parameters of the (3+1)-scheme with a O(1)eV{sup 2} largest mass square difference, considering two set-ups: a NF with 50 GeV (20 GeV) stored muons, with two detectors of the Hybrid-MIND type located at L = 3000(4000), 7500 km. We show that the best sensitivity to sterile neutrinos can be achieved through the nu{sub m}u->nu{sub m}u and the nu{sub m}u->nu{sub t}au channels which can constrain theta{sub 34}<=12 deg. (14 deg.) and theta{sub 24}<=7.5 deg. (8 deg.) with the 50 GeV (20 GeV) NF. We also study the CP-violation in this new context showing that the CP-asymmetries in the nu{sub m}u->nu{sub t}au channel can give us the chance to see a clear new CP-violation signal associated with the sterile neutrinos.

  2. Cytoplasmic male sterility in Brassicaceae crops.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Bhat, Shripad R

    2014-05-01

    Brassicaceae crops display strong hybrid vigor, and have long been subject to F1 hybrid breeding. Because the most reliable system of F1 seed production is based on cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), various types of CMS have been developed and adopted in practice to breed Brassicaceae oil seed and vegetable crops. CMS is a maternally inherited trait encoded in the mitochondrial genome, and the male sterile phenotype arises as a result of interaction of a mitochondrial CMS gene and a nuclear fertility restoring (Rf) gene. Therefore, CMS has been intensively investigated for gaining basic insights into molecular aspects of nuclear-mitochondrial genome interactions and for practical applications in plant breeding. Several CMS genes have been identified by molecular genetic studies, including Ogura CMS from Japanese radish, which is the most extensively studied and most widely used. In this review, we discuss Ogura CMS, and other CMS systems, and the causal mitochondrial genes for CMS. Studies on nuclear Rf genes and the cytoplasmic effects of alien cytoplasm on general crop performance are also reviewed. Finally, some of the unresolved questions about CMS are highlighted.

  3. Sterile Neutrino Search at the NEOS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Y. J.; Kim, B. R.; Kim, J. Y.; Han, B. Y.; Jang, C. H.; Jeon, E. J.; Joo, K. K.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, Y. D.; Lee, Jaison; Lee, J. Y.; Lee, M. H.; Oh, Y. M.; Park, H. K.; Park, H. S.; Park, K. S.; Seo, K. M.; Siyeon, Kim; Sun, G. M.; NEOS Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    An experiment to search for light sterile neutrinos is conducted at a reactor with a thermal power of 2.8 GW located at the Hanbit nuclear power complex. The search is done with a detector consisting of a ton of Gd-loaded liquid scintillator in a tendon gallery approximately 24 m from the reactor core. The measured antineutrino event rate is 1976 per day with a signal to background ratio of about 22. The shape of the antineutrino energy spectrum obtained from the eight-month data-taking period is compared with a hypothesis of oscillations due to active-sterile antineutrino mixing. No strong evidence of 3 +1 neutrino oscillation is found. An excess around the 5 MeV prompt energy range is observed as seen in existing longer-baseline experiments. The mixing parameter sin22 θ14 is limited up to less than 0.1 for Δ m412 ranging from 0.2 to 2.3 eV2 with a 90% confidence level.

  4. Puzzles in modern biology. I. Male sterility, failure reveals design.

    PubMed

    Frank, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Many human males produce dysfunctional sperm. Various plants frequently abort pollen. Hybrid matings often produce sterile males. Widespread male sterility is puzzling. Natural selection prunes reproductive failure. Puzzling failure implies something that we do not understand about how organisms are designed. Solving the puzzle reveals the hidden processes of design.

  5. Sterilization/disinfection: correcting common misconceptions in the office setting.

    PubMed

    Springer, Rachelle

    2002-01-01

    Nurses in office surgical facilities are often responsible for the processing of instruments and supplies for intraoperative use. Decontamination, preparation and packaging, sterilization, monitoring of the sterilization process, and storage are all key elements in infection control. Practices should be continually updated based on the latest research to enable the office surgical facility to provide the patient with the highest quality of care.

  6. Puzzles in modern biology. I. Male sterility, failure reveals design

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Many human males produce dysfunctional sperm. Various plants frequently abort pollen. Hybrid matings often produce sterile males. Widespread male sterility is puzzling. Natural selection prunes reproductive failure. Puzzling failure implies something that we do not understand about how organisms are designed. Solving the puzzle reveals the hidden processes of design. PMID:28004842

  7. 42 CFR 50.207 - Sterilization by hysterectomy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL APPLICABILITY Sterilization of Persons in Federally Assisted Family Planning Projects § 50.207 Sterilization by hysterectomy. (a) Programs or projects to which this subpart applies shall not perform or... reproducing. (b) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, programs or projects to which...

  8. 42 CFR 50.207 - Sterilization by hysterectomy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GENERAL APPLICABILITY Sterilization of Persons in Federally Assisted Family Planning Projects § 50.207 Sterilization by hysterectomy. (a) Programs or projects to which this subpart applies shall not perform or... reproducing. (b) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, programs or projects to which...

  9. 21 CFR 880.2800 - Sterilization process indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sterilization process indicator. 880.2800 Section 880.2800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... monitor adequacy of sterilization. The device consists of a known number of microorganisms, of...

  10. 21 CFR 880.2800 - Sterilization process indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sterilization process indicator. 880.2800 Section 880.2800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... monitor adequacy of sterilization. The device consists of a known number of microorganisms, of...

  11. 21 CFR 880.2800 - Sterilization process indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sterilization process indicator. 880.2800 Section 880.2800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... monitor adequacy of sterilization. The device consists of a known number of microorganisms, of...

  12. 21 CFR 880.2800 - Sterilization process indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sterilization process indicator. 880.2800 Section 880.2800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... monitor adequacy of sterilization. The device consists of a known number of microorganisms, of...

  13. 21 CFR 880.2800 - Sterilization process indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sterilization process indicator. 880.2800 Section 880.2800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... monitor adequacy of sterilization. The device consists of a known number of microorganisms, of...

  14. 21 CFR 800.10 - Contact lens solutions; sterility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contact lens solutions; sterility. 800.10 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL Requirements for Specific Medical Devices § 800.10 Contact lens solutions... ophthalmic use, including contact lens solutions, should be sterile. It is further evident that...

  15. 21 CFR 800.10 - Contact lens solutions; sterility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Contact lens solutions; sterility. 800.10 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL Requirements for Specific Medical Devices § 800.10 Contact lens solutions... ophthalmic use, including contact lens solutions, should be sterile. It is further evident that...

  16. 21 CFR 800.10 - Contact lens solutions; sterility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Contact lens solutions; sterility. 800.10 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL Requirements for Specific Medical Devices § 800.10 Contact lens solutions... ophthalmic use, including contact lens solutions, should be sterile. It is further evident that...

  17. 21 CFR 800.10 - Contact lens solutions; sterility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Contact lens solutions; sterility. 800.10 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL Requirements for Specific Medical Devices § 800.10 Contact lens solutions... ophthalmic use, including contact lens solutions, should be sterile. It is further evident that...

  18. Irradiation of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) revisited: optimizing sterility induction.

    PubMed

    Rull, Juan; Diaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Arredondo, Jose

    2007-08-01

    Irradiation doses currently applied to sterilize Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), for release under the sterile insect technique eradication campaign in Mexico, were reviewed in an effort to increase sterile male performance in the field. A dose maximizing sterility induction into wild populations was sought by balancing somatic fitness with genetic sterility. Doses of 40, 60, and 80 Gy induced 95% or more sterility in all males, which in turn induced similar degrees of sterility into a cohort of wild flies in the laboratory. However, a low dose of 40 Gy was sufficient to completely suppress egg production in females. Similarly, a mild carryover of genetic damage might have been transferred to the F1 progeny of males irradiated at 40 Gy crossed with fertile wild females. Our results suggest that the 80-Gy dose currently applied in Mexico can be lowered substantially without jeopardizing program goals. This view could be strengthened by comparing performance of males irradiated at different doses under more natural settings. In general, we discuss the value of determining irradiation doses for pest species where females are more radiosensitive than males, by selecting the dose that causes 100% sterility in females.

  19. Future short-baseline sterile neutrino searches with accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Spitz, J.

    2015-07-15

    A number of experimental anomalies in neutrino oscillation physics point to the existence of at least one light sterile neutrino. This hypothesis can be precisely tested using neutrinos from reactors, radioactive isotopes, and particle accelerators. The focus of these proceedings is on future dedicated short-baseline sterile neutrino searches using accelerators.

  20. [Research on sterilization of pathogens by high electrostatic voltage method].

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Wu, Y; Ni, X; Xia, B; Xu, J; Du, Q

    1992-10-01

    An experimental research has been carried out on the sterilization of four kinds of pathogens by high electrostatic method along with an inquiry into the influence of voltage waveform and the treated time on sterilization. It is concluded that pathogens can be killed efficiently by corona discharge field.

  1. Efficacy in Microbial Sterilization of Pulsed Magnetic Field Treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sterilization effects of the pulsed magnetic field with a maximum intensity of 11.37 Tesla were investigated on Escherichia coli AS 1.129, Staphylococcus aureus AS 1.89, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATTC 7552 and Bacillus subtilis AS 1.921. The well-regulated fluctuations of sterilization effects with m...

  2. Low-temperature sterilization alternatives in the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, P. . Surgical Div.)

    1994-01-01

    Vapor phase hydrogen peroxide, gas plasma, ozone, and peracetic acids have been commercialized as alternative technologies for low-temperature sterilization. None are viewed as a total replacement for ethylene oxide for on-site sterilization of reusable, heat-sensitive medical materials in healthcare facilities.

  3. Lightest sterile neutrino abundance within the νMSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaka, Takehiko; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Laine, Mikko

    2007-01-01

    We determine the abundance of the lightest (dark matter) sterile neutrinos created in the Early Universe due to active-sterile neutrino transitions from the thermal plasma. Our starting point is the field-theoretic formula for the sterile neutrino production rate, derived in our previous work [JHEP 06(2006)053], which allows to systematically incorporate all relevant effects, and also to analyse various hadronic uncertainties. Our numerical results differ moderately from previous computations in the literature, and lead to an absolute upper bound on the mixing angles of the dark matter sterile neutrino. Comparing this bound with existing astrophysical X-ray constraints, we find that the Dodelson-Widrow scenario, which proposes sterile neutrinos generated by active-sterile neutrino transitions to be the sole source of dark matter, is only possible for sterile neutrino masses lighter than 3.5 keV (6 keV if all hadronic uncertainties are pushed in one direction and the most stringent X-ray bounds are relaxed by a factor of two). This upper bound may conflict with a lower bound from structure formation, but a definitive conclusion necessitates numerical simulations with the non-equilibrium momentum distribution function that we derive. If other production mechanisms are also operative, no upper bound on the sterile neutrino mass can be established.

  4. Safe use of chemicals for sterilization in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Warburton, P Richard

    2012-01-01

    Chemical sterilization is necessary for temperature sensitive items that cannot be sterilized with steam. These chemical sterilants are by their nature hazardous; otherwise, they would not function well. Modern sterilizers and associated equipment are designed so that these chemicals can be used safely. Whether through mechanical failure, wear and tear, or user error, leaks do sometimes occur. The maximum chemical exposure is determined by OSHA permissible exposure limits, if available, and if not available, employers should use recognized standards. Employers have a duty to ensure safe work environment and take appropriate action to mitigate potential risks. Employers should therefore assess the hazards of the chemicals used, the potential modes for leakage, means for identifying leaks and the risk of exposure of employees. Ideally, work practices should be developed by healthcare facilities so that sterile processing employees know what to do in case of a chemical leak or spill, and how to safely use these chemicals to ensure their own, and patient safety.

  5. Sterilization of fermentation vessels by ethanol/water mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Wyman, C.E.

    1991-03-20

    This invention is comprised of a method for sterilizing process fermentation vessels with a concentrated alcohol and water mixture integrated in a fuel alcohol or other alcohol production facility. Hot, concentrated alcohol is drawn from a distillation or other purification stage and sprayed into the empty fermentation vessels. This sterilizing alcohol/water mixture should be of a sufficient concentration, preferably higher than 12% alcohol by volume, to be toxic to undesirable microorganisms. Following sterilization, this sterilizing alcohol/water mixture can be recovered back into the same distillation or other purification stage from which it was withdrawn. The process of this invention has its best application in, but is not limited to, batch fermentation processes, wherein the fermentation vessels must be emptied, cleaned, and sterilized following completion of each batch fermentation process.

  6. Sex and the Mentally Retarded: Is Sterilization the Answer?

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Ronald J.; McCracken, Eric C.

    1983-01-01

    The sexuality of the mentally handicapped concerns them, their parents, their family physicians and other health professionals. Parents need advice, and the well-informed family physician who has the family's trust is in a good position to give it. However, the physician must protect the rights and autonomy of the mentally handicapped patient concerning contraception, surgical sterilization and hysterectomy. Before recommending a method of contraception, the physician must identify any medical risks and be satisfied that the patient clearly understands risks and advantages. Sterilization as a method of contraception should never be considered unless the patient chooses it; involuntary sterilization can produce serious and significant psychological damage. The physician must give a detailed explanation to make sure the patient electing to be surgically sterilized understands the procedure and has fully consented without coercion. Hysterectomy should never be used as a method of sterilization. PMID:21283285

  7. Sterilization of fermentation vessels by ethanol/water mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, C.E.

    1999-02-09

    A method is described for sterilizing process fermentation vessels with a concentrated alcohol and water mixture integrated in a fuel alcohol or other alcohol production facility. Hot, concentrated alcohol is drawn from a distillation or other purification stage and sprayed into the empty fermentation vessels. This sterilizing alcohol/water mixture should be of a sufficient concentration, preferably higher than 12% alcohol by volume, to be toxic to undesirable microorganisms. Following sterilization, this sterilizing alcohol/water mixture can be recovered back into the same distillation or other purification stage from which it was withdrawn. The process of this invention has its best application in, but is not limited to, batch fermentation processes, wherein the fermentation vessels must be emptied, cleaned, and sterilized following completion of each batch fermentation process. 2 figs.

  8. Sterilization of fermentation vessels by ethanol/water mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E.

    1999-02-09

    A method for sterilizing process fermentation vessels with a concentrated alcohol and water mixture integrated in a fuel alcohol or other alcohol production facility. Hot, concentrated alcohol is drawn from a distillation or other purification stage and sprayed into the empty fermentation vessels. This sterilizing alcohol/water mixture should be of a sufficient concentration, preferably higher than 12% alcohol by volume, to be toxic to undesirable microorganisms. Following sterilization, this sterilizing alcohol/water mixture can be recovered back into the same distillation or other purification stage from which it was withdrawn. The process of this invention has its best application in, but is not limited to, batch fermentation processes, wherein the fermentation vessels must be emptied, cleaned, and sterilized following completion of each batch fermentation process.

  9. Color stability of shade guides after autoclave sterilization.

    PubMed

    Schmeling, Max; Sartori, Neimar; Monteiro, Sylvio; Baratieri, Luiz

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of 120 autoclave sterilization cycles on the color stability of two commercial shade guides (Vita Classical and Vita System 3D-Master). The specimens were evaluated by spectrophotometer before and after the sterilization cycles. The color was described using the three-dimensional CIELab system. The statistical analysis was performed in three chromaticity coordinates, before and after sterilization cycles, using the paired samples t test. All specimens became darker after autoclave sterilization cycles. However, specimens of Vita Classical became redder, while those of the Vita System 3D-Master became more yellow. Repeated cycles of autoclave sterilization caused statistically significant changes in the color coordinates of the two shade guides. However, these differences are considered clinically acceptable.

  10. Post-sterilization autonomy among young mothers in South India.

    PubMed

    Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Rajan, Irudaya; Singh, Abhishek; Ogollah, Reuben; Page, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the post-sterilization autonomy of women in south India in the context of early sterilization and low fertility. Quantitative data were taken from the third round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) carried out in 2005-06, and qualitative data from one village each in Kerala and Tamil Nadu during 2010-11. The incident rate ratios and thematic analysis showed that among currently married women under the age of 30 years, those who had been sterilized had significantly higher autonomy in household decision-making and freedom of mobility compared with women who had never used any modern family planning method. Early age at sterilization and low fertility enables women to achieve the social status that is generally attained at later stages in the life-cycle. Policies to capitalize on women's autonomy and free time resulting from early sterilization and low fertility should be adopted in south India.

  11. Microwave sterilization of nitrous oxide nasal hoods contaminated with virus

    SciTech Connect

    Young, S.K.; Graves, D.C.; Rohrer, M.D.; Bulard, R.A.

    1985-12-01

    Although there exists a desire to eliminate the possibility of cross-infection from microbial contaminated nitrous oxide nasal hoods, effective and practical methods of sterilization in a dental office are unsatisfactory. Microwaves have been used to sterilize certain contaminated dental instruments without damage. In this study nasal hoods contaminated with rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, and herpes simplex virus were sterilized in a modified microwave oven. Ninety-five percent of the virus activity was destroyed after 1 minute of exposure of the contaminated nasal hoods to microwaves. By the end of 4 minutes, complete inactivation of all four viruses was found. Repeated exposure of the nasal hoods to microwaves resulted in no damage to their texture and flexibility. Microwave sterilization may potentially provide a simple and practical method of sterilizing nitrous oxide anesthesia equipment in a dental or medical practice.

  12. Twenty years of radiation sterilization in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ražem, Dus̆an

    2004-09-01

    The development of radiation processing in Croatia is described from its inception 20 years ago up to the present time. Annual throughputs of treated materials are given by the categories of materials and pertaining volumes. The pasteurization of hard gelatine capsules occured during the early stages, while sterilization of disposable medical supplies has been dominant in the later stages. Irradiation of foods and of cosmetics and toiletries has been a minor fraction of the total throughput. Since the recovery of everyday life and economy of the country after the war, the total throughput has increased steadily to reach 13,000 m 3 kGy in 2002, 90% of which are medical supplies. Estimates of the present maximum capacity of 30,000 m 3 kGy and of future needs indicate that the present rate of growth could be sustained for the next several years only, unless a major upgrading is undertaken. An estimate of potential future needs is made.

  13. Sterilization effects of atmospheric cold plasma brush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Q. S.; Huang, C.; Hsieh, F.-H.; Huff, H.; Duan, Yixiang

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the sterilization effects of a brush-shaped plasma created at one atmospheric pressure. A population of 1.0×104-1.0×105 Escherichia coli or Micrococcus luteus bacteria was seeded in filter paper media and then subjected to Ar and/or Ar +O2 plasmas. A complete kill of the Micrococcus luteus required about 3 min argon plasma exposures. With oxygen addition into the argon plasma gas streams, a complete kill of the bacteria needed only less than 1 min plasma exposure for Micrococcus luteus and about 2 min exposure for Escherichia coli. The plasma treatment effects on the different bacteria cell structures were examined using scanning electron microscopy.

  14. Cosmological and Astrophysical Implications of Sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abazajian, Kevork

    2014-03-01

    Cosmology has entered an even more precision-driven epoch, with many of the basic parameters of cosmology being known to the few-percent level. However, some unresolved tensions remain between large scale structure measures of cosmology and primary cosmic microwave background measures. This may indicate new physics in the neutrino sector, since neutrinos are the second most abundant particle in the Universe, and the least quantified. New neutrino physics may include extra (sterile) species of neutrinos, massive neutrinos, or both. I will review the status of these measures as well as the prospects for the resolution of the tension(s). Neutrinos also play a dominant energetics role in Type II supernova explosions, and the presence of new neutrino physics also has implications for supernova physics, which I will also review. Supported in part by the NSF CAREER Program.

  15. [The psychosocial background of sterile patients].

    PubMed

    Pusch, H H; Urdl, W; Walcher, W

    1989-01-01

    The psychosocial background of 300 childless couples from the Infertility Clinic of the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Graz, was evaluated by means of a questionnaire and statistical analysis of data from their files. Points of special interest were problems such as interactions of the couple, motivations for the desire of children, psychosomatics, andrological investigation within the gynecological department, sexual habits and motivation and compliance concerning investigations and treatment. 72% of the questionnaires were returned. 50% of the sterile couples preferred to attend the infertility clinic together. 26% felt restrictions in their sexual behaviour due to the unrealized desire of children, 48% expected improvements in their partnership if they could have children. Compliance of male partners concerning the regular intake of prescribed medicaments was 83%, 63% accepted to stop smoking in cases of pathospermia.

  16. Sterilization effects of atmospheric cold plasma brush

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Q.S.; Huang, C.; Hsieh, F.-H.; Huff, H.; Duan Yixiang

    2006-01-02

    This study investigated the sterilization effects of a brush-shaped plasma created at one atmospheric pressure. A population of 1.0x10{sup 4}-1.0x10{sup 5} Escherichia coli or Micrococcus luteus bacteria was seeded in filter paper media and then subjected to Ar and/or Ar+O{sub 2} plasmas. A complete kill of the Micrococcus luteus required about 3 min argon plasma exposures. With oxygen addition into the argon plasma gas streams, a complete kill of the bacteria needed only less than 1 min plasma exposure for Micrococcus luteus and about 2 min exposure for Escherichia coli. The plasma treatment effects on the different bacteria cell structures were examined using scanning electron microscopy.

  17. Pressure-assisted thermal sterilization of soup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibeshi, Kidane; Farid, Mohammed M.

    2010-12-01

    The overall efficiency of an existing scale-up pressure-assisted thermal sterilization (PATS) unit was investigated with regards to inactivation of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores suspended in pumpkin soup. The PATS unit is a double pipe heat exchanger in which the soup is pumped into its inner high pressure tube and constrained by two high pressure valves, while steam is continuously passed through the annular region to heat the content. The technology is based on pressure generation by thermal expansion of the liquid in an enclosure. In this work, the addition of an air line to push the treated liquid food out of the existing PATS unit has improved the overall quality of the treated samples, as evidenced by achieving higher log reduction of the spores. Compared with thermal processing, the application of PATS shows the potential for lowering the thermal treatment temperature, offering improved food quality.

  18. Sterile working in ultrasonography: the use of dedicated ultrasound covers and sterile ultrasound gel.

    PubMed

    Marhofer, Peter; Fritsch, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound is currently an important tool for diagnostic and interventional procedures. Ultrasound imaging provides significant advantages as compared to other imaging methods. The widespread use of ultrasound also carries the risk of drawbacks such as cross-infections. A large body of literature reports this possibly life-threatening side effect and specific patient populations are particularly at risk (e.g., neonates). Various methods of ultrasound probe disinfection are described; however, none of the mechanical or chemical probe disinfection procedures is optimal and, in particular, disinfection with high concentration of alcohol might be associated with ultrasound probe damage. The preparation of ultrasound probes with dedicated probe covers is a useful alternative for sterile working conditions. One ultrasound probe cover discussed in this paper is directly glued on to the ultrasound probe without the use of ultrasound coupling gel. By the use of sterile ultrasound coupling gel at the outer surface, additional effects on aseptic working conditions can be obtained.

  19. [Mechanisms of urinary tract sterility maintenance].

    PubMed

    Okrągła, Emilia; Szychowska, Katarzyna; Wolska, Lidia

    2014-06-02

    Physiologically, urine and the urinary tract are maintained sterile because of physical and chemical properties of urine and the innate immune system's action. The urinary tract is constantly exposed to the invasion of microorganisms from the exterior environment, also because of the anatomical placement of the urethra, in the vicinity of the rectum. Particularly vulnerable to urinary tract infections (UTI) are women (an additional risk factor is pregnancy), but also the elderly and children. The main pathogens causing UTI are bacteria; in 70-95% of cases it is the bacterium Escherichia coli. Infections caused by viruses and fungi are less common and are associated with decreased immunity, pharmacotherapy, or some diseases. Bacteria have evolved a number of factors that facilitate the colonization of the urinary tract: the cover and cell membrane antigens O and K1, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), fimbriae, pile and cilia. On the other hand, the human organism has evolved mechanisms to hinder colonization of the urinary tract: mechanisms arising from the anatomical structure of the urinary tract, the physicochemical properties of the urine and the activity of the innate immune system, also known as non-specific, which isolates and destroys pathogens using immunological processes, and the mechanisms for release of antimicrobial substances such as Tamm-Horsfall protein, mucopolysaccharides, immunoglobulins IgA and IgG, lactoferrin, lipocalin, neutrophils, cytokines and antimicrobial peptides. This review aims to analyze the state of knowledge on the mechanisms to maintain the sterility of the urinary tract used by the human organism and bacterial virulence factors to facilitate the colonization of the urinary tract.

  20. Sterile insect technique: A model for dose optimisation for improved sterile insect quality

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, A.

    2007-03-15

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environment-friendly pest control technique with application in the area-wide integrated control of key pests, including the suppression or elimination of introduced populations and the exclusion of new introductions. Reproductive sterility is normally induced by ionizing radiation, a convenient and consistent method that maintains a reasonable degree of competitiveness in the released insects. The cost and effectiveness of a control program integrating the SIT depend on the balance between sterility and competitiveness, but it appears that current operational programs with an SIT component are not achieving an appropriate balance. In this paper we discuss optimization of the sterilization process and present a simple model and procedure for determining the optimum dose. (author) [Spanish] La tecnica de insecto esteril (TIE) es una tecnologia de control de plagas favorable para el medio ambiente con una aplicacion de un control integrado de plagas claves para toda la area, incluyendo la supresion o eliminacion de poblaciones introducidas y la exclusion de nuevas introducciones. La esterilidad reproductiva es normalmente inducida por radiacion ionizada, un metodo conveniente y consistente que mantiene un grado razonable para la capacidad de competencia en insectos liberados. El costo y la eficacia de un programa de control que incluye TIE dependen en tener un balance entre la esterilidad y la capacidad para competir, pero parece que los programas operacionales corrientes con TIS como un componente no estan logrando el tener un balance apropiado. En esta publicacion, nosotros discutimos la optimizacion del proceso de esterilizacion y presentamos un modelo y procedimiento sencillos para determinar la dosis optima. (author)

  1. Implementing AORN recommended practices for selection and use of packaging systems for sterilization.

    PubMed

    Morton, Paula J; Conner, Ramona

    2014-04-01

    The delivery of sterile products to the sterile field is essential to perioperative practice. The use of protective packaging for sterilized items is crucial to helping ensure that patients receive sterile items for surgical procedures. AORN's "Recommended practices for selection and use of packaging systems for sterilization" offers guidance to perioperative team members in evaluating, selecting, and using packaging systems that permit sterilization of the contents, prevent contamination of sterilized items until the package is opened for use, protect the items from damage during transport and storage, and permit aseptic delivery of the items to the sterile field.

  2. Sterile, injectable cyclodextrin nanoparticles: effects of gamma irradiation and autoclaving.

    PubMed

    Memisoglu-Bilensoy, Erem; Hincal, A Atilla

    2006-03-27

    Sterility is required as stated by compendial requirements and registration authorities worldwide for an injectable drug carrier system. In this study, injectable nanospheres and nanocapsules prepared from amphiphilic beta-cyclodextrin, beta-CDC6, were assessed for their in vitro properties such as particle size distribution, zeta potential, nanoparticle yield (%), drug entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release profiles. Different sterilization techniques such as gamma irradiation and autoclaving were evaluated for their feasibility regarding the maintenance of the above mentioned nanoparticle properties after sterilization. It was found that amount these techniques, sterilization with gamma irradiation seemed to be the most appropriate technique with no effect on particle size, drug loading and drug release properties. Gamma irradiation causes some chemical changes on beta-CDC6 observed as changes in zeta potential but this does not lead to any significant changes for nanoparticle properties. Autoclaving caused massive aggregation for the nanoparticles followed by precipitation, which led to the conclusion that excessive heat disrupted nanoparticle integrity. Sterile filtration was not feasible since nanoparticle sizes were larger than the filter pore size and the yield after sterilization was very low. Thus, it can be concluded that blank and drug loaded beta-CDC6 nanospheres and nanocapsules are capable of being sterilized by gamma irradiation.

  3. Effects of sterilization on the Tekscan digital pressure sensor.

    PubMed

    Agins, Howard J; Harder, Valerie S; Lautenschlager, Eugene P; Kudrna, James C

    2003-11-01

    Investigations into the effects of sterilization on a new biomechanical pressure sensor are necessary before contemplating in vivo use. Ten, designated Experimental, "K-Scan" digital pressure sensor arrays were sterilized with ethylene oxide gas (EtO), and their ability to accurately and reproducibly measure an applied load of 2225 N (500 lb) was assessed. Simultaneously, 10 un-sterilized sensor arrays, designated Control, were assessed. Each array was loaded 10 times inside a two-dimensional curved surface, and all arrays exhibited high reproducibility (coefficients of variation<2.0%). Following sterilization, the Experimental sensors showed a 22.2% average decrease in recorded force, a statistically significant difference from the pre-sterile data (p<0.002). However, when the Experimental sensors were re-calibrated post-sterilization, they showed only a 0.1% average decrease in recorded force, not a statistically significant difference (p>0.05, beta<0.05). Following 1-week storage, trial 2 data of the Control sensors showed a less dramatic yet significant 3.4% average decrease in recorded force when compared to trial 1 data (p<0.02). Control trial 2, once re-calibrated, showed a 0.5% average decrease in recorded force, not a statistically significant difference (p>0.05, beta<0.05). Results suggest that, following EtO sterilization, accurate and reproducible pressure measurements can be obtained from K-Scan sensors when calibration is performed at time of use.

  4. Influence of various sterilization procedures on TiO2 nanotubes used for biomedical devices.

    PubMed

    Junkar, Ita; Kulkarni, Mukta; Drašler, Barbara; Rugelj, Neža; Mazare, Anca; Flašker, Ajda; Drobne, Damjana; Humpolíček, Petr; Resnik, Matic; Schmuki, Patrik; Mozetič, Miran; Iglič, Aleš

    2016-06-01

    Sterilization is the final surface treatment procedure of all implantable devices and is one of the key factors which have to be considered before implementation. Since different sterilization procedures for all implantable devices influence mechanical properties as well as biological response, the influence of different sterilization techniques on titanium nanotubes was studied. Commonly used sterilization techniques such as autoclaving, ultra-violet light sterilization, hydrogen peroxide plasma sterilization as well as the not so frequently used gaseous oxygen plasma sterilization were used. Three different nanotube diameters; 15 nm, 50 nm and 100 nm were employed to study the effects of various sterilization techniques. It was observed that autoclave sterilization resulted in destruction of nanotubular features on all three studied nanotube diameters, while UV-light and both kinds of plasma sterilization did not cause any significant morphological changes on the surfaces. Differences between the sterilization techniques employed influenced cytocompatibility, especially in the case of nanotubes with 100 nm diameter.

  5. Non-incineration microwave assisted sterilization of medical waste.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Paolo; Leonelli, Cristina; Moscato, Umberto; Cappi, Angelo; Figurelli, Ornella

    2007-01-01

    A non-incineration method for sterilizing hospital infectious wastes has been studied and realized. A small apparatus operating at 2.45 GHz and at a power of 3 kW was designed to optimize power transfer from the electromagnetic field to the infectious materials, which have been previously shredded and moisture-corrected. The high pressure reached in the reactor, 7 atm, was enough to ensure complete sterilization in just a few minutes for a batch of several hundred grams of waste. Sterilization efficacy during microwave irradiation was also optimized with a new procedure using thermal, microbiological and water vapour sensors in a single test.

  6. Sterile neutrinos as the origin of dark and baryonic matter.

    PubMed

    Canetti, Laurent; Drewes, Marco; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail

    2013-02-08

    We demonstrate for the first time that three sterile neutrinos alone can simultaneously explain neutrino oscillations, the observed dark matter, and the baryon asymmetry of the Universe without new physics above the Fermi scale. The key new point of our analysis is leptogenesis after sphaleron freeze-out, which leads to resonant dark matter production, evading thus the constraints on sterile neutrino dark matter from structure formation and x-ray searches. We identify the range of sterile neutrino properties that is consistent with all known constraints. We find a domain of parameters where the new particles can be found with present day experimental techniques, using upgrades to existing experimental facilities.

  7. Rapid Sterilization of Escherichia coli by Solution Plasma Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Nina; Ishizaki, Takahiro; Baroch, Pavel; Saito, Nagahiro

    2012-12-01

    Solution plasma (SP), which is a discharge in the liquid phase, has the potential for rapid sterilization of water without chemical agents. The discharge showed a strong sterilization performance against Escherichia coli bacteria. The decimal value (D value) of the reduction time for E. coli by this system with an electrode distance of 1.0 mm was estimated to be approximately 1.0 min. Our discharge system in the liquid phase caused no physical damage to the E. coli and only a small increase in the temperature of the aqueous solution. The UV light generated by the discharge was an important factor in the sterilization of E. coli.

  8. Using simulation to design a central sterilization department.

    PubMed

    Lin, Feng; Lawley, Mark; Spry, Charlie; McCarthy, Kelly; Coyle-Rogers, Patricia G; Yih, Yuehwern

    2008-10-01

    A simulation project was performed to assist with redesign of the surgery department of a large tertiary hospital and to help administrators make the best decisions about relocating, staffing, and equipping the central sterilization department. A simulation model was created to analyze department configurations, staff schedules, equipment capacities, and cart-washing requirements. Performance measures examined include tray turnaround time, surgery-delay rate, and work-in-process levels. The analysis provides significant insight into how the proposed system will perform, allowing planning for expected patient volume increases. This work illustrates how simulation can facilitate the design of a central sterilization department and improve surgical sterilization operations.

  9. Neutron-based sterilization of anthrax contamination.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Qingfei

    2006-05-01

    With the anthrax threat becoming a reality, it is very important to have an effective way to sterilize areas contaminated by anthrax. Anthrax spores are the dormant form of the anthrax bacteria. They can germinate in tissues, producing new bacteria that release lethal toxins. Neutrons can be a powerful tool in our defense against anthrax contamination. Neutrons are elementary particles that have no charge, which allows them to be very penetrating, killing the anthrax spores on the surface and inside the containers. So neutrons have an advantage over other forms of radiation if deep penetration is required to kill biological organisms. A Cf neutron source allows for a low cost method of decontamination. It emits most neutrons in the 100 keV to 2 MeV energy regions, and a neutron in this energy region is 20 times more deadly than electrons or gamma rays in killing anthrax spores. If we just consider the first neutron collision with anthrax spores and that all the anthrax spores will not survive at the dose level above 2.0 x 10 Gy, our calculations show that a 0.5-g Cf neutron source within 20 min can generate 1.11 x 10 m fluence neutrons, which is good enough to kill the anthrax spores on the sample. An experimental confirmation of the above results may prove that to achieve 1.11 x 10 m fluence neutrons on the anthrax spore sample, the neutron irradiation time may be reduced dramatically or the Cf neutron source reduced to 0.1 g level or even less. The aim of this paper is to evaluate a feasible way to sterilize the anthrax contamination by using a Cf neutron source. Presently, we are mainly concentrating on the theoretical estimation of neutron fluence to see if the Cf neutron source can deliver enough neutron irradiation dose to kill the anthrax spores. Our future work will focus on experimental confirmation and Monte Carlo simulation by using Geant4 or MCNP codes. At that time, we will consider the effects of the real experimental setup, the shielding materials

  10. The Sterile Insect Technique for Controlling Populations of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) on Reunion Island: Mating Vigour of Sterilized Males

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Clelia F.; Jacquet, Maxime; Gilles, Jeremie; Lemperiere, Guy; Maquart, Pierre-Olivier; Quilici, Serge; Schooneman, François; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Boyer, Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    Reunion Island suffers from high densities of the chikungunya and dengue vector Aedes albopictus. The sterile insect technique (SIT) offers a promising strategy for mosquito-borne diseases prevention and control. For such a strategy to be effective, sterile males need to be competitive enough to fulfil their intended function by reducing wild mosquito populations in natura. We studied the effect of irradiation on sexual maturation and mating success of males, and compared the sexual competitiveness of sterile versus wild males in the presence of wild females in semi-field conditions. For all untreated or sterile males, sexual maturation was completed within 13 to 20 h post-emergence and some males were able to inseminate females when 15 h old. In the absence of competition, untreated and sterile males were able to inseminate the same number of virgin females during 48 h, in small laboratory cages: an average of 93% of females was inseminated no matter the treatment, the age of males, and the sex ratio. Daily mating success of single sterile males followed the same pattern as for untreated ones, although they inseminated significantly fewer females after the ninth day. The competitiveness index of sterile males in semi-field conditions was only 0.14 when they were released at 1-day old, but improved to 0.53 when the release occurred after a 5-day period in laboratory conditions. In SIT simulation experiments, a 5∶1 sterile to wild male ratio allowed a two-fold reduction of the wild population’s fertility. This suggests that sterile males could be sufficiently competitive to mate with wild females within the framework of an SIT component as part of an AW-IPM programme for suppressing a wild population of Ae. albopictus in Reunion Island. It will be of interest to minimise the pre-release period in controlled conditions to ensure a good competitiveness without increasing mass rearing costs. PMID:23185329

  11. Construction of a male sterility system for hybrid rice breeding and seed production using a nuclear male sterility gene

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Zhenyi; Chen, Zhufeng; Wang, Na; Xie, Gang; Lu, Jiawei; Yan, Wei; Zhou, Junli; Tang, Xiaoyan; Deng, Xing Wang

    2016-01-01

    The breeding and large-scale adoption of hybrid seeds is an important achievement in agriculture. Rice hybrid seed production uses cytoplasmic male sterile lines or photoperiod/thermo-sensitive genic male sterile lines (PTGMS) as female parent. Cytoplasmic male sterile lines are propagated via cross-pollination by corresponding maintainer lines, whereas PTGMS lines are propagated via self-pollination under environmental conditions restoring male fertility. Despite huge successes, both systems have their intrinsic drawbacks. Here, we constructed a rice male sterility system using a nuclear gene named Oryza sativa No Pollen 1 (OsNP1). OsNP1 encodes a putative glucose–methanol–choline oxidoreductase regulating tapetum degeneration and pollen exine formation; it is specifically expressed in the tapetum and miscrospores. The osnp1 mutant plant displays normal vegetative growth but complete male sterility insensitive to environmental conditions. OsNP1 was coupled with an α-amylase gene to devitalize transgenic pollen and the red fluorescence protein (DsRed) gene to mark transgenic seed and transformed into the osnp1 mutant. Self-pollination of the transgenic plant carrying a single hemizygous transgene produced nontransgenic male sterile and transgenic fertile seeds in 1:1 ratio that can be sorted out based on the red fluorescence coded by DsRed. Cross-pollination of the fertile transgenic plants to the nontransgenic male sterile plants propagated the male sterile seeds of high purity. The male sterile line was crossed with ∼1,200 individual rice germplasms available. Approximately 85% of the F1s outperformed their parents in per plant yield, and 10% out-yielded the best local cultivars, indicating that the technology is promising in hybrid rice breeding and production. PMID:27864513

  12. Allelic interaction of F1 pollen sterility loci and abnormal chromosome behaviour caused pollen sterility in intersubspecific autotetraploid rice hybrids.

    PubMed

    He, J H; Shahid, M Q; Li, Y J; Guo, H B; Cheng, X A; Liu, X D; Lu, Y G

    2011-08-01

    The intersubspecific hybrids of autotetraploid rice has many features that increase rice yield, but lower seed set is a major hindrance in its utilization. Pollen sterility is one of the most important factors which cause intersubspecific hybrid sterility. The hybrids with greater variation in seed set were used to study how the F(1) pollen sterile loci (S-a, S-b, and S-c) interact with each other and how abnormal chromosome behaviour and allelic interaction of F(1) sterility loci affect pollen fertility and seed set of intersubspecific autotetraploid rice hybrids. The results showed that interaction between pollen sterility loci have significant effects on the pollen fertility of autotetraploid hybrids, and pollen fertility further decreased with an increase in the allelic interaction of F(1) pollen sterility loci. Abnormal ultra-structure and microtubule distribution patterns during pollen mother cell (PMC) meiosis were found in the hybrids with low pollen fertility in interphase and leptotene, suggesting that the effect-time of pollen sterility loci interaction was very early. There were highly significant differences in the number of quadrivalents and bivalents, and in chromosome configuration among all the hybrids, and quadrivalents decreased with an increase in the seed set of autotetraploid hybrids. Many different kinds of chromosomal abnormalities, such as chromosome straggling, chromosome lagging, asynchrony of chromosome disjunction, and tri-fission were found during the various developmental stages of PMC meiosis. All these abnormalities were significantly higher in sterile hybrids than in fertile hybrids, suggesting that pollen sterility gene interactions tend to increase the chromosomal abnormalities which cause the partial abortion of male gametes and leads to the decline in the seed set of the autotetraploid rice hybrids.

  13. Persistence of Ebola Virus in Sterilized Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In the wake of the ongoing 2014/2015 Ebola virus outbreak, significant questions regarding the appropriate handling of Ebola virus-contaminated liquid waste remain, including the persistence of Ebola virus in wastewater. To address these uncertainties, we evaluated the persistence of Ebola virus spiked in sterilized domestic sewage. The viral titer decreased approximately 99% within the first test day from an initial viral titer of 106 TCID50 mL–1; however, it could not be determined if this initial rapid decrease was due to aggregation or inactivation of the viral particles. The subsequent viral titer decrease was less rapid, and infectious Ebola virus particles persisted for all 8 days of the test. The inactivation constant (k) was determined to be −1.08 (2.1 days for a 90% viral titer decrease). Due to experimental conditions, we believe these results to be an upper bound for Ebola virus persistence in wastewater. Wastewater composition is inherently heterogeneous; subsequently, we caution that interpretation of these results should be made within a holistic assessment, including the effects of wastewater composition, dilution, and potential exposure routes within wastewater infrastructure. While it remains unknown if Ebola virus may be transmitted via wastewater, these data demonstrate a potential exposure route to infectious Ebola virus via wastewater and emphasize the value of a precautionary approach to wastewater handling in an epidemic response. PMID:26523283

  14. Transcriptional regulation of male-sterility in 7B-1 male-sterile tomato mutant

    PubMed Central

    Omidvar, Vahid; Mohorianu, Irina; Dalmay, Tamas; Zheng, Yi; Fei, Zhangjun; Pucci, Anna; Mazzucato, Andrea; Večeřová, Vendula; Sedlářova, Michaela; Fellner, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The 7B-1 tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv Rutgers) is a male-sterile mutant with enhanced tolerance to abiotic stress, which makes it a potential candidate for hybrid seed breeding and stress engineering. To underline the molecular mechanism regulating the male-sterility in 7B-1, transcriptomic profiles of the 7B-1 male-sterile and wild type (WT) anthers were studied using mRNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). In total, 768 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 132 up-regulated and 636 down-regulated transcripts. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of DEGs suggested a general impact of the 7B-1 mutation on metabolic processes, such as proteolysis and carbohydrate catabolic process. Sixteen candidates with key roles in regulation of anther development were subjected to further analysis using qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization. Cytological studies showed several defects associated with anther development in the 7B-1 mutant, including unsynchronized anther maturation, dysfunctional meiosis, arrested microspores, defect in callose degradation and abnormal tapetum development. TUNEL assay showed a defect in programmed cell death (PCD) of tapetal cells in 7B-1 anthers. The present study provides insights into the transcriptome of the 7B-1 mutant. We identified several genes with altered expression level in 7B-1 (including beta-1,3 glucanase, GA2oxs, cystatin, cysteine protease, pectinesterase, TA29, and actin) that could potentially regulate anther developmental processes, such as meiosis, tapetum development, and cell-wall formation/degradation. PMID:28178307

  15. 21 CFR 880.6870 - Dry-heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of dry heat. (b...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use...

  16. 21 CFR 880.6870 - Dry-heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of dry heat. (b...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use...

  17. 21 CFR 880.6870 - Dry-heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of dry heat. (b...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use...

  18. The role of meiotic drive in hybrid male sterility

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Shannon R.; Noor, Mohamed A. F.

    2010-01-01

    Meiotic drive causes the distortion of allelic segregation away from Mendelian expected ratios, often also reducing fecundity and favouring the evolution of drive suppressors. If different species evolve distinct drive-suppressor systems, then hybrid progeny may be sterile as a result of negative interactions of these systems' components. Although the hypothesis that meiotic drive may contribute to hybrid sterility, and thus species formation, fell out of favour early in the 1990s, recent results showing an association between drive and sterility have resurrected this previously controversial idea. Here, we review the different forms of meiotic drive and their possible roles in speciation. We discuss the recent empirical evidence for a link between drive and hybrid male sterility, also suggesting a possible mechanistic explanation for this link in the context of chromatin remodelling. Finally, we revisit the population genetics of drive that allow it to contribute to speciation. PMID:20308102

  19. Radiation sterilization of traditional medicine drugs in Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hang, N. D.; Canh, T. T.; Thuy, T. T.

    1995-02-01

    With the application of Gamma Co-60 radiation sterilization in pharmaceutical industry, attention should be paid to the possibilities of sterilizing traditional medicine drugs produced in Vietnam. In this paper the opinion which traditional medicine drugs can be satisfactorily sterilized by irradiation is based on the changes of physical and chemical properties of the products and microbiological examinations. The sterilizing radiation dose were calculated and the results are the following (in Mrad) Rheumatine-2.2, Hasinh-3.3, snake extract-1.8, Samcotgiao-2.2. The changes of physical and chemical properties of the products and their toxicity after irradiation have been shown to be not over the levels of allowance.

  20. Light sterile neutrinos from a late phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecchi, Luca

    2016-12-01

    Light sterile neutrinos represent a well-motivated extension of the 3-neutrino paradigm. However, the impressive agreement between standard cosmology and data casts doubts on their existence. Here, we present a class of scenarios that robustly avoids this tension. In these models the sterile neutrinos are light, chiral states of a new sector interacting with the Standard Model via the right-handed neutrino portal, and crucially active-sterile neutrino oscillations require a phase transition in the hidden sector. We explore the hidden-couplings/critical-temperature plane and identify regions where several sterile neutrinos can be accommodated. A late phase transition is usually preferred and may also ward off a potential threat posed by the formation of topologically stable defects.

  1. Sterile chamber operation with bio-isolator suit system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueschen, R. M.

    1972-01-01

    Development and characteristics of protective suit to permit man to operate in biologically sterile environment are described. Construction of tunnel, flexible seals, and cooling system are analyzed. Illustration of isolation suit is provided.

  2. 7 CFR 305.23 - Steam sterilization treatment schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...” air until steam vapor escapes). 1 Normal atmospheric pressure. ... Steam sterilization treatment schedules. Treatment schedule Temperature( °F) Pressure Exposure period... packages. Load with adequate spacing. Large commercial steam facilities that operate at pressures up to...

  3. IL-1 family cytokines trigger sterile inflammatory disease

    PubMed Central

    Lukens, John R.; Gross, Jordan M.; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation plays vital roles in protective responses against pathogens and tissue repair, however, improper resolution of inflammatory networks is centrally involved in the pathogenesis of many acute and chronic diseases. Extensive advances have been made in recent years to define the inflammatory processes that are required for pathogen clearance, however, in comparison, less is known about the regulation of inflammation in sterile settings. Over the past decade non-communicable chronic diseases that are potentiated by sterile inflammation have replaced infectious diseases as the major threat to global human health. Thus, improved understanding of the sterile inflammatory process has emerged as one of the most important areas of biomedical investigation during our time. In this review we highlight the central role that interleukin-1 family cytokines play in sterile inflammatory diseases. PMID:23087690

  4. Bioluminescence for USP sterility testing of pharmaceutical suspension products.

    PubMed Central

    Bussey, D M; Tsuji, K

    1986-01-01

    Bioluminescence measurement significantly improved the accuracy, sensitivity, precision, and reliability of the current visual endpoint determination for the USP sterility test and eliminated the day 7 transfer/dilution step required for testing suspension products. Thirteen strains of bacteria and fungi (representing potential contaminants in sterile products), three pharmaceutical suspension products, and four media were used in the experiment. No interference from suspension products was encountered in the detection of microbial growth by the bioluminescence measurement. The poor fungal growth encountered was attributed to insufficient diffusion of oxygen into the medium and was circumvented by use of a large tube size (38 by 200 mm) or by vortexing the medium once during the 2-week incubation period. Bioluminescence measurement would facilitate automated handling of the sterility test endpoint readout operation. The optimum parameters of bioluminescence measurement for application in sterility testing were determined. PMID:3954348

  5. Compulsory Sterilization: The Change in India's Population Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulhati, Kaval

    1977-01-01

    Reviews India's previous stand regarding family planning which favored the notion that economic development would provide the incentive for fertility control. Recent recommendations, however, include raising minimum marriage age for girls and increasing incentives for acceptance of sterilization. (CS)

  6. Characteristics of surface sterilization using electron cyclotron resonance plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonesu, Akira; Hara, Kazufumi; Nishikawa, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of surface sterilization using electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma were investigated. High-energy electrons and oxygen radicals were observed in the ECR zone using electric probe and optical emission spectroscopic methods. A biological indicator (BI), Geobacillus stearothermophilus, containing 1 × 106 spores was sterilized in 120 s by exposure to oxygen discharges while maintaining a temperature of approximately 55 °C at the BI installation position. Oxygen radicals and high-energy electrons were found to be the sterilizing species in the ECR region. It was demonstrated that the ECR plasma could be produced in narrow tubes with an inner diameter of 5 mm. Moreover, sterilization tests confirmed that the spores present inside the narrow tube were successfully inactivated by ECR plasma irradiation.

  7. Sterilization validation for medical compresses at IRASM multipurpose irradiation facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandru, Mioara; Ene, Mihaela

    2007-08-01

    In Romania, IRASM Radiation Processing Center is the unique supplier of radiation sterilization services—industrial scale (ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 13485:2003 certified). Its Laboratory of Microbiological Testing is the sole third party competent laboratory (GLPractice License, ISO 17025 certification in progress) for pharmaceutics and medical devices as well. We here refer to medical compresses as a distinct category of sterile products, made from different kind of hydrophilic materials (cotton, non-woven, polyurethane foam) with or without an impregnated ointment base (paraffin, plant extracts). These products are included in the class of medical devices, but for the sterilization validation, from microbiological point of view, there are important differences in testing method compared to the common medical devices (syringes, catheters, etc). In this paper, we present some results and practical solutions chosen to perform a sterilization validation, compliant with ISO 11137: 2006.

  8. Clean Air Act Standards and Guidelines for Sterilizers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains the stationary sources of air pollution for the sterilizer industries, and their corresponding air pollution regulations. To learn more about the regulations for each industry, just click on the links below.

  9. Influence of reactive oxygen species on the sterilization of microbes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of reactive oxygen species on living cells, including various microbes, is discussed. A sterilization experiment with bacterial endospores reveals that an argoneoxygen plasma jet very effectively kills endospores of Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372), thereby indicating that oxygen radic...

  10. Tips for maintaining sterilization in your orthodontic work station.

    PubMed

    Batra, Panchali; Jyothikiran, H

    2014-01-01

    Sterilization and disinfection have been a matter of concern amongst dental health care workers since long. Delicate materials, electrical parts, orthodontic pliers, orthodontic wire cutters, are to be treated according to the manufacturer's instructions to safe guard the life of the instrument as well as to claim warranty for any damage incurred. Sterilization procedures used in Orthodontics should be simple but effective and of relatively short duration so that there is a readily available supply of sterile instruments and materials. The procedure should not cause any appreciable damage to dental instruments and other materials. An attempt has been made through this article, to provide information concerning methods and means of disinfection and sterilization of orthodontic clinics, instruments, materials and also waste disposal which can be adopted in private clinics as well as in hospital set ups.

  11. Testing light sterile neutrino species with the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazzo, Antonio

    2012-07-01

    Several pieces of data seem to point towards new light sterile neutrino species. Here we show that the solar sector is able to provide stringent constraints on the most general schemes endowed with such new particles.

  12. Planned condom use among women undergoing tubal sterilization.

    PubMed

    Sangi-Haghpeykar, H; Poindexter, A N

    1998-08-01

    Women undergoing tubal sterilization are at risk of various sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) if they do not use a barrier method of contraception. The authors investigated the planned use of condoms for protection against STDs among 2782 women undergoing surgical sterilization during 1991-96 at the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas. The women were 18-50 years old (mean age, 30.3 years); 62% were Hispanic, 20% Black, and 17% White. 31% reported being unmarried, the mean level of educational attainment was 9.8 years, and 20% had a known risk factor for HIV. 646 of the women reported regular condom use during the 3 months before being sterilized, of whom 45% had no plans to continue their practice after becoming sterilized. 11% of the total sample therefore planned to stop using condoms once sterilized. Among Hispanic, White, and Black women, respectively, 55%, 36%, and 18% planned to stop condom use once sterilized. Also, among former condom users, 54% of married women and 21% of unmarried women planned to abandon condom use. Factors found through multiple regression analysis to be associated with future condom use were younger age, being Black, unmarried status, having previously had a STD, not having a steady sex partner, having a relatively higher number of previous sex partners, having ever used condoms to prevent disease, and lack of partner involvement in the decision to be sterilized. The planned future use of condoms among women undergoing sterilization increased steadily and significantly from 1991 to 1996, irrespective of age, marital status, or ethnic background.

  13. Developing a central sterile surgical instrument technician program.

    PubMed

    Garner, Marie; Collins, Angela; Dunphy, Sallie; Bullock, Patricia; Wright, Deborah

    2004-08-01

    Many hospitals report high vacancy rates in their central sterile processing departments related to the lack of a workforce that is knowledgeable about instrument processing and medical terminology. Creating an education course that focused on the knowledge and skills necessary for success in this vocation provided a solution to this problem for one facility. Outcomes included a dramatic decrease in the number of vacancies in the central sterile processing department and an increase in community awareness of employment options available in perioperative services.

  14. How self-interactions can reconcile sterile neutrinos with cosmology.

    PubMed

    Hannestad, Steen; Hansen, Rasmus Sloth; Tram, Thomas

    2014-01-24

    Short baseline neutrino oscillation experiments have shown hints of the existence of additional sterile neutrinos in the eV mass range. However, such neutrinos seem incompatible with cosmology because they have too large of an impact on cosmic structure formation. Here we show that new interactions in the sterile neutrino sector can prevent their production in the early Universe and reconcile short baseline oscillation experiments with cosmology.

  15. Earth matter effect on active-sterile neutrino oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acero, Mario A.; Aguilar-Arevalo, Alexis A.; D'Olivo, J. C.

    2011-08-01

    Oscillations between active and sterile neutrinos remain as an open possibility to explain some experimental observations. In a four-neutrino mixing scheme, we use the Magnus expansion of the evolution operator to study the evolution of neutrino flavor amplitudes within the Earth. We apply this formalism to calculate the transition probabilities from active to sterile neutrinos taking into account the matter effect for a varying terrestrial density.

  16. Sterilization of Lung Matrices by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Balestrini, Jenna L.; Liu, Angela; Gard, Ashley L.; Huie, Janet; Blatt, Kelly M.S.; Schwan, Jonas; Zhao, Liping; Broekelmann, Tom J.; Mecham, Robert P.; Wilcox, Elise C.

    2016-01-01

    Lung engineering is a potential alternative to transplantation for patients with end-stage pulmonary failure. Two challenges critical to the successful development of an engineered lung developed from a decellularized scaffold include (i) the suppression of resident infectious bioburden in the lung matrix, and (ii) the ability to sterilize decellularized tissues while preserving the essential biological and mechanical features intact. To date, the majority of lungs are sterilized using high concentrations of peracetic acid (PAA) resulting in extracellular matrix (ECM) depletion. These mechanically altered tissues have little to no storage potential. In this study, we report a sterilizing technique using supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO2) that can achieve a sterility assurance level 10−6 in decellularized lung matrix. The effects of ScCO2 treatment on the histological, mechanical, and biochemical properties of the sterile decellularized lung were evaluated and compared with those of freshly decellularized lung matrix and with PAA-treated acellular lung. Exposure of the decellularized tissue to ScCO2 did not significantly alter tissue architecture, ECM content or organization (glycosaminoglycans, elastin, collagen, and laminin), observations of cell engraftment, or mechanical integrity of the tissue. Furthermore, these attributes of lung matrix did not change after 6 months in sterile buffer following sterilization with ScCO2, indicating that ScCO2 produces a matrix that is stable during storage. The current study's results indicate that ScCO2 can be used to sterilize acellular lung tissue while simultaneously preserving key biological components required for the function of the scaffold for regenerative medicine purposes. PMID:26697757

  17. Integrating augmentative biocontrol and inherited sterility for management of lepidopteran pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect pest management can benefit from the integration of biological control agents and the release of sterile insect pests (hosts). Released sterile or semi-sterile insects and their sterile progeny may augment natural enemies by serving as hosts for build-up of the natural enemies prior to the t...

  18. Sterilizing elastomeric chains without losing mechanical properties. Is it possible?

    PubMed Central

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; Ferraz, Caio Souza; Rosa, Francine Cristina Silva; Rosa, Luciano Pereira

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of different sterilization/disinfection methods on the mechanical properties of orthodontic elastomeric chains. METHODS: Segments of elastomeric chains with 5 links each were sent for sterilization by cobalt 60 (Co60) (20 KGy) gamma ray technology. After the procedure, the elastomeric chains were contaminated with clinical samples of Streptococcus mutans. Subsequently, the elastomeric chains were submitted to sterilization/disinfection tests carried out by means of different methods, forming six study groups, as follows: Group 1 (control - without contamination), Group 2 (70°GL alcohol), Group 3 (autoclave), Group 4 (ultraviolet), Group 5 (peracetic acid) and Group 6 (glutaraldehyde). After sterilization/disinfection, the effectiveness of these methods, by Colony forming units per mL (CFU/mL), and the mechanical properties of the material were assessed. Student's t-test was used to assess the number of CFUs while ANOVA and Tukey's test were used to assess elastic strength. RESULTS: Ultraviolet treatment was not completely effective for sterilization. No loss of mechanical properties occurred with the use of the different sterilization methods (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Biological control of elastomeric chains does not affect their mechanical properties. PMID:26154462

  19. The effect of sterilization on silk fibroin biomaterial properties.

    PubMed

    Rnjak-Kovacina, Jelena; DesRochers, Teresa M; Burke, Kelly A; Kaplan, David L

    2015-06-01

    The effects of common sterilization techniques on the physical and biological properties of lyophilized silk fibroin sponges are described. Sterile silk fibroin sponges were cast using a pre-sterilized silk fibroin solution under aseptic conditions or post-sterilized via autoclaving, γ radiation, dry heat, exposure to ethylene oxide, or hydrogen peroxide gas plasma. Low average molecular weight and low concentration silk fibroin solutions could be sterilized via autoclaving or filtration without significant loses of protein. However, autoclaving reduced the molecular weight distribution of the silk fibroin protein solution, and silk fibroin sponges cast from autoclaved silk fibroin were significantly stiffer compared to sponges cast from unsterilized or filtered silk fibroin. When silk fibroin sponges were sterilized post-casting, autoclaving increased scaffold stiffness, while decreasing scaffold degradation rate in vitro. In contrast, γ irradiation accelerated scaffold degradation rate. Exposure to ethylene oxide significantly decreased cell proliferation rate on silk fibroin sponges, which was rescued by leaching ethylene oxide into PBS prior to cell seeding.

  20. Material Compatibility of Medical Sterilizer Using Oxygen Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ono, Reoto; Hayashi, Nobuya; Hanada, Yasushi; Noda, Minoru; Goto, Masaaki

    2015-09-01

    Material compatibility of oxygen plasma sterilizer is investigated comparing with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sterilizers and a gaseous H2O2 sterilizer. Organic materials such as ABS, PE, PP, and PET are used as sample materials, and are irradiated by active oxygen species produced in oxygen plasma. After plasma irradiation, surface of the sample materials is observed using a scanning electron microscope and FTIR spectroscopy. Strengths of the organic materials are evaluated by the tension test. Also, H2O2 plasma sterilizer and a gaseous H2O2 sterilizer those are commercially available are utilized to compare the material compatibility, especially organic compounds. The ABS resin becomes slightly soft after irradiation by both plasmas and gaseous H2O2. Also, PET material becomes soften by each sterilization treatment. Decrease of peak heights of CH around 1200 and 1730 cm-1 and increase of that of OH at 3300 cm-1 in FTIR spectra indicates the oxidation of ABS resin by both plasma and gaseous H2O2. In the case of PET material, treatment by the plasma has not modified chemical composition but changed the crystal structure. The gaseous H2O2 is completely friendly for the PET material.

  1. The effect of sterilization on silk fibroin biomaterial properties

    PubMed Central

    Rnjak-Kovacina, Jelena; DesRochers, Teresa M; Burke, Kelly A; Kaplan, David L

    2015-01-01

    The effects of common sterilization techniques on the physical and biological properties of lyophilized silk fibroin sponges is described. Sterile silk fibroin sponges were cast using a pre-sterilized silk fibroin solution under aseptic conditions or post-sterilized via autoclaving, gamma radiation, dry heat, exposure to ethylene oxide or hydrogen peroxide gas plasma. Low average molecular weight and low concentration silk fibroin solutions could be sterilized via autoclaving or filtration without significant loses of protein. However, autoclaving reduced the molecular weight distribution of the silk fibroin protein solution and silk fibroin sponges cast from autoclaved silk fibroin were significantly stiffer compared to sponges cast from unsterilized or filtered silk fibroin. When silk fibroin sponges were sterilized post-casting, autoclaving increased scaffold stiffness, while decreasing scaffold degradation rate in vitro. In contrast, gamma irradiation accelerated scaffold degradation rate. Exposure to ethylene oxide significantly decreased cell proliferation rate on silk fibroin sponges, which was rescued by leaching ethylene oxide into PBS prior to cell seeding. PMID:25761231

  2. Quantitative evaluation of prion inactivation comparing steam sterilization and chemical sterilants: proposed method for test standardization.

    PubMed

    Vadrot, C; Darbord, J-C

    2006-10-01

    Prions are notoriously resistant to inactivation. To prevent accidental transmission of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), various decontamination procedures have been adopted for re-usable medical devices by the authorities of countries at risk. As the vCJD agent in humans has a wide tissue distribution, practical methods of prion decontamination urgently need to be standardized, as do other sterilization and disinfection procedures (European Committee for Standardization). This article proposes a method using a quantitative murine model, combining observations of the decrease in the infection rate, the increase in the incubation period and a simultaneously performed chemical protein fixation control. In terms of practical application, autoclaving at 134 degrees C for 18 min or 121 degrees C for 30 min, and 1N sodium hydroxide for 15 min reduced the transmission of infectivity by a factor of at least 10(6). Partial efficacy can also be identified by the methodology, particularly for liquid cold sterilants such as glutaraldehyde and peracetic acid solutions.

  3. A novel steam explosion sterilization improving solid-state fermentation performance.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-Min; Wang, Lan; Chen, Hong-Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Traditional sterilization of solid medium (SM) requires lengthy time, degrades nutrients, and even sterilizes inadequately compared with that of liquid medium due to its low thermal conductivity. A novel sterilization strategy, high-temperature and short-time steam explosion (SE), was exploited for SM sterilization in this study. Results showed that SE conditions for complete sterilization were 172 °C for 2 min and 128 °C for 5 min. Glucose and xylose contents in medium after SE sterilization increased by 157% and 93% respectively compared with those after conventional sterilization (121 °C, 20 min) while fermentation inhibitors were not detected. FTIR spectra revealed that the mild SE conditions helped to release monosaccharides from the polysaccharides. Bacillus subtilis fermentation productivity on medium after SE sterilization was 3.83 times of that after conventional sterilization. Therefore, SE shortened sterilization time and improved SM nutrition, which facilitated fermentability of SM and should promote economy of solid-state fermentation.

  4. Tubal sterilization by lararoscopy. Simplified technique.

    PubMed

    Singh, K B

    1977-02-01

    A method of laparoscopic tubal sterilization which has been proven to be simple, safe, and effective in over 1000 patients is described. General anesthesia has usually been used. After the usual preparations, a Semm uterine probe connected with an 80-100 mm of Hg suction is inserted into the uterus for subsequent manipulation. A Veress needle is inserted and 2-3 liters of carbon dioxide gas insufflated into the abdomen. A trocar and cannula are then inserted through an 8 mm intraumbilical incision. A single-incision technique is used. In obese patients, a suprapubic route may be selected. Body weight over 300 pounds is a contraindication. The 170-degree, 10 mm Palmer-Jacobs operating laparoscope with 5.5 mm fibrooptic bundle is inserted into the cannula. A routine survey of the pelvis is made 1st. The insulated grasping forceps, as active electrode, is then introduced into the operating channel. Once identified, each tube is grasped at 2-5 cm from the cornual end, avoiding prominent blood vessels. Coagulation of a small segment of each tube is done without coagulation of the mesosalpinx. Severing of the tubes is done mechanically by push-pull leverage. Blood loss is minimal. Chances of inadvertent bowel burns are reduced due to short duration of RF current use. To use RF current for cutting or severing tubes may injure blood vessels and extensive tissue damage may lead to flare-up of pelvic inflammatory disease. Subsequent tubal patency tests have not been needed. The separated segments of the tubes are protected from mucosal spread of any endometrial infection. Appropriate tubal reconstruction surgery is favored in selected patients. Tubal specimens removed have usually shown good morphological details.

  5. Advanced retorting, microwave assisted thermal sterilization (MATS), and pressure assisted thermal sterilization (PATS) to process meat products.

    PubMed

    Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V; Medina-Meza, Ilce; Candoğan, Kezban; Bermúdez-Aguirre, Daniela

    2014-11-01

    Conventional thermal processes have been very reliable in offering safe sterilized meat products, but some of those products are of questionable overall quality. Flavor, aroma, and texture, among other attributes, are significantly affected during such processes. To improve those quality attributes, alternative approaches to sterilizing meat and meat products have been explored in the last few years. Most of the new strategies for sterilizing meat products rely on using thermal approaches, but in a more efficient way than in conventional methods. Some of these emerging technologies have proven to be reliable and have been formally approved by regulatory agencies such as the FDA. Additional work needs to be done in order for these technologies to be fully adopted by the food industry and to optimize their use. Some of these emerging technologies for sterilizing meat include pressure assisted thermal sterilization (PATS), microwaves, and advanced retorting. This review deals with fundamental and applied aspects of these new and very promising approaches to sterilization of meat products.

  6. Comparative analysis of ampoules and vials in sterile and conventional packaging as to microbial load and sterility test

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Raphael Ribeiro de Aquino; Tardelli, Maria Angela

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To compare sterility and microbial (bacteria and fungi) load in the outer part of hyperbaric bupivacaine (Neocaína®) in ampoule and bupivacaine in vial, in conventional and sterile pack formulations. Methods The sterile packs were divided into two groups: G1 (n=16) with ampoules and G2 (n=16) with vials. Conventional formulations were divided into two groups, being G3 (n=16) with ampoules and G4 (n=16) with vials. The ampoules and vials were opened and had their content drawn. The empty bottles were then placed in sterile plastic bags and sent for analysis of microbial load (bacteria and fungi) and sterility testing. Data were analyzed using the χ2 test with Yates correction, and 95% confidence interval. Results G1 and G2 showed no bacterial growth when compared to conventional groups (p<0.001). The most common agent in conventional microbiological samples was Staphylococcus aureus. There was no fungal growth in both groups. Conclusion The use of (sterile pack) reduces the microbial load of bottles, and would decrease the chance of exposure to potential contamination of the anesthetic solution. PMID:27223307

  7. Guidelines for the Safe Preparation of Sterile Compounds: Results of the ISMP Sterile Preparation Compounding Safety Summit of October 2011.

    PubMed

    Rich, Darryl S; Fricker, Matthew P; Cohen, Michael R; Levine, Stuart R

    2013-04-01

    Significant patient safety incidents related to sterile drug compounding have occurred for many years. Previous guidelines have focused on ensuring sterility, but serious compounding errors have occurred as well. National efforts are needed to identify and reduce the potential for such errors and their causative factors. In response, the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) convened in October 2011 a summit of 60 invited experts in the field for the purpose of establishing by consensus guidelines, safe practices, and standard operating procedures needed to ensure the safe preparation of compounded sterile preparations, especially intravenous admixtures. The resulting guidelines were categorized into 14 core processes: policies and procedures, order entry and verification, drug storage, assembling products and supplies, compounding, drug conservation during drug shortages, preparation of source/bulk containers, technology/automation used, IV workflow software, automated IV compounding devices, quality control/final verification, product labeling, record keeping, and staff management. They were also classified into 3 levels: mandatory, standard, and recommendation. The guidelines presented in this article were felt to be applicable to any health care organization that prepares sterile compounded products. The consensus of the group was that adherence to these guidelines will improve the safety of sterile product compounding and reduce harmful errors in patients receiving these products. Incorporation of these guidelines into sterile compounding practices of health care organizations is an important component of improving patient safety.

  8. Reliability of Laparoscopic Compared With Hysteroscopic Sterilization at One Year: A Decision Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gariepy, Aileen M.; Creinin, Mitchell D.; Schwarz, Eleanor B.; Smith, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the probability of successful sterilization after hysteroscopic or laparoscopic sterilization procedure. METHODS An evidence-based clinical decision analysis using a Markov model was performed to estimate the probability of a successful sterilization procedure using laparoscopic sterilization, hysteroscopic sterilization in the operating room, and hysteroscopic sterilization in the office. Procedure and follow-up testing probabilities for the model were estimated from published sources. RESULTS In the base case analysis, the proportion of women having a successful sterilization procedure on first attempt is 99% for laparoscopic, 88% for hysteroscopic in the operating room and 87% for hysteroscopic in the office. The probability of having a successful sterilization procedure within one year is 99% with laparoscopic, 95% for hysteroscopic in the operating room, and 94% for hysteroscopic in the office. These estimates for hysteroscopic success include approximately 6% of women who attempt hysteroscopically but are ultimately sterilized laparoscopically. Approximately 5% of women who have a failed hysteroscopic attempt decline further sterilization attempts. CONCLUSIONS Women choosing laparoscopic sterilization are more likely than those choosing hysteroscopic sterilization to have a successful sterilization procedure within one year. However, the risk of failed sterilization and subsequent pregnancy must be considered when choosing a method of sterilization. PMID:21775842

  9. Temperature Effects on Free Radicals in Gamma-sterilized Beef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, S. I.; Jahan, M. S.

    1999-11-01

    Gamma irradiation has become the method of choice for sterilizing frozen meat and their products to reduce levels of food-borne pathogens and to extend shelf life. In this report we have employed ESR technique for detection of free radicals in sterilized and non-sterilized dry beef without bone. We have also determined the heating effects on free radicals at temperatures 176^°C and 250^°C. Meat samples were dried in a food dehydrator at 60^°C and were packaged in dry N_2. They were then sterilized by γ-irradiation (2.5 MRad), ground into powder, and placed in ESR sample tubes. Non-sterilized powder samples were used as control. While all powder samples, sterilized or not, produced a broad single line in the ESR spectra with (Δ H_pp ~ 9 G) and g = 2.013, the radical concentration in the sterilized samples increased by a factor of five. Heat treatment at 176^°C produced similar radicals. But, when samples were heated 250^°C different radical species were formed which are characterized by narrow width (Δ H_pp ~ 6 G) and lower g-value (g =2.010). In contrast with previous work, where free radicals in chicken bones were reduced by heating [1], we observed an increase in concentration. Results of structural analyses of the radicals will be presented. Ref.[1]: Radiat. Phys. Chem., 49, 477-481, 1997. Work supported by Grants from the University of Memphis

  10. Dark radiation sterile neutrino candidates after Planck data

    SciTech Connect

    Valentino, Eleonora Di; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Mena, Olga E-mail: alessandro.melchiorri@roma1.infn.it

    2013-11-01

    Recent Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) results from the Planck satellite, combined with previous CMB data and Hubble constant measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope, provide a constraint on the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom 3.62{sup +0.50}{sub −0.48} at 95% CL. New Planck data provide a unique opportunity to place limits on models containing relativistic species at the decoupling epoch. We present here the bounds on sterile neutrino models combining Planck data with galaxy clustering information. Assuming N{sub eff} active plus sterile massive neutrino species, in the case of a Planck+WP+HighL+HST analysis we find m{sub ν,} {sub sterile}{sup eff} < 0.36 eV and 3.14 < N{sub eff} < 4.15 at 95% CL, while using Planck+WP+HighL data in combination with the full shape of the galaxy power spectrum from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey BOSS Data Relase 9 measurements, we find that 3.30 < N{sub eff} < 4.43 and m{sub ν,} {sub sterile}{sup eff} < 0.33 eV both at 95% CL with the three active neutrinos having the minimum mass allowed in the normal hierarchy scheme, i.e. ∑m{sub ν} ∼ 0.06 eV. These values compromise the viability of the (3+2) massive sterile neutrino models for the parameter region indicated by global fits of neutrino oscillation data. Within the (3+1) massive sterile neutrino scenario, we find m{sub ν,} {sub sterile}{sup eff} < 0.34 eV at 95% CL. While the existence of one extra sterile massive neutrino state is compatible with current oscillation data, the values for the sterile neutrino mass preferred by oscillation analyses are significantly higher than the current cosmological bound. We review as well the bounds on extended dark sectors with additional light species based on the latest Planck CMB observations.

  11. Minilaparotomy, laparoscopic sterilization accepted enthusiastically by women in Mexico, Columbia.

    PubMed

    1976-03-01

    Reports from voluntary sterilization programs in Mexico and Colombia show that significant numbers of poor, uneducated Latin American women take advantage of this family planning method. Data from 56 Mexican women show that they married young, had more than 6 children on the average by the time they were 30-34 years old, were poor, and had received little education. These women sought to limit their family size out of concern for their health and because of their proverty. At follow-up, almost all reported that they had recommended the procedure to others. In the 1st 2 years of the Colombia program, 10,000 women (approximately 1200/day) have been sterilized. These women are an average of 32 years old and have 5 living children. Sterilizations have been performed on an outpatient basis with good results. In order to institute such a program, the need must be assessed so that trained personnel can be available. By keeping sterilization within the purview of family planning services, the cost/benefit ratio will remain favorable. The provision of sterilization services will generate debate, the consequence of which is, ironically, an increased demand for the services.

  12. Fracture of Polymer-Coated Nitinol During Gamma Sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norwich, Dennis W.

    2012-12-01

    After gamma sterilization of a packaged medical device, fractures were discovered in the superelastic nitinol wire used as part of the assembly. The nitinol wire was encased in fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) shrink tube. The only fractures occurred where the encased wire was held under strain during gamma sterilization. A study was conducted to determine the susceptibility of nitinol to this type of failure. The variables studied included wire diameter, wire surface finish, wire oxide layer, quantity of wires encased, type of tubing, and strain level during gamma sterilization. The greatest susceptibility to fracture occurred to single wire samples with a light oxide layer held under high strain in FEP shrink tube. Gamma sterilization experiments were conducted to isolate and confirm this failure mechanism. Scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze the fractured samples. Chemical analysis was performed in an attempt to detect trace elements to determine the root cause of the failures. Stress corrosion cracking caused by the liberation of fluorine due to the degradation of the polymer during gamma sterilization is suspected.

  13. Developing transgenic Anopheles mosquitoes for the sterile insect technique.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Tony; Papathanos, Philippos; Windbichler, Nikolai; Magnusson, Kalle; Benton, Jason; Catteruccia, Flaminia; Crisanti, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    In the last 10 years the availability of the genome sequence of Anopheles gambiae and the development of a transgenic technology for several species of Anopheles mosquitoes have, in combination, helped in enabling us to gain several insights into the biology of these mosquitoes that is relevant to their capacity as vectors of the malaria parasite. While this information is anticipated to inform many novel vector control strategies, the technique most likely to benefit in the near future from the availability of a reliable transgenic technology is the sterile insect technique (SIT), which relies on releasing large numbers of sterile insects to compete for mates in the wild, leading to population suppression. Although SIT has been proven to work reliably for many insects, the construction of suitable strains, and induction of sterility, has until now been a laborious process, combining classical genetics with radiation-induced sterility. Using transgenesis to create strains of Anopheles suitable for SIT could potentially offer several advantages over current approaches, in that the basic design of transgenic constructs designed for other insects should be rapidly transferable to mosquitoes, and induction of sterility as a product of the transgenic modification could obviate the requirement for radiation and its associated deleterious effects. In this paper the progress of different transgenic approaches in constructing tools for SIT will be reviewed.

  14. Sterilization of extracted human teeth: A comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Simarpreet V.; Tiwari, Rajiv; Bhullar, RamanPreet K.; Bansal, Himanta; Bhandari, Rajat; Kakkar, Tushaar; Bhusri, Ridhima

    2012-01-01

    Background Extracted human teeth are regularly used for practice and educational purposes in dental institutions at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Different materials and methods are used for sterilizing extracted teeth to avoid infection from them. Aims The present study was done to determine the efficacy of some frequently used methods for disinfection/sterilization of extracted human teeth. Materials and methods A total of 120 intact, non-carious teeth extracted due to periodontal or orthodontic purpose were divided randomly into 8 groups consisting of 15 teeth in each group. Agents used for sterilization included 10% formalin, 0.1% thymol in distilled water, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, 2% glutaraldehyde, 3% hydrogen peroxide, boiled in water (100 °C), autoclave (121 °C, 15 lbs psi), normal saline. Samples were collected with the help of inoculating loop and then streaked over the surface of Mc-Conkey agar medium and Blood agar medium. The media were then incubated at 37 °C for 24 h. No visible growth in the culture medium was considered as the method of effective sterilization. Results 10% formalin, autoclaving, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite could be efficiently used for sterilization and disinfection of extracted human teeth. Conclusion Extracted teeth should be handled with extreme care as these are potential source of infection and need to be disinfected before they are used in the laboratories. PMID:25737861

  15. Sterile Neutrinos in a 6x6 Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, T.; McKellar, B. H. J.; Stephenson, G. J., Jr.

    2006-10-01

    An early study of neutrino mixing within the see-saw framework considered random mass matrices in what is now known as the sterile sector[1]. The mixing angles in the lepton sector were found to be closely distributed about the CKM angles that were assumed. In that work, rank 3 was assumed for the weak isospin zero Majorana mass matrix in the sterile neutrino sector. We report here on the character of new results using a reduced rank (``singular'') sterile matrix. We find that an additional flavor misalignment in the sterile sector can produce several interesting effects, including: 1) mass eigenstates that lead to very large flavor mixing among active neutrinos, and 2) small values for the 1-3 mixing angle parameter[2]. We also discuss the limits that current observations place on the mass scale of light sterile neutrinos in this model. [1]T. Goldman and G. J. Stephenson, Jr., ``How Large Are the Neutrino Mixing Angles?'' Phys. Rev. D 24, 236 (1981). [2]G. J. Stephenson, Jr. , T. Goldman, B. H. J. McKellar and M. Garbutt, ``Large Mixing from Small: Pseudo-Dirac Neutrinos and the Singular Seesaw,'' Int. J.Mod.Phys.A20 (2005) 6373; [hep-ph/0404015].

  16. Sterile Neutrino Searches in MINOS and MINOS+ Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Junting

    2015-05-01

    This dissertation presents the searches on sterile neutrinos using the data collected in MINOS+ Experiment from September 2013 to September 2014, and the full data set of MINOS Experiment collected from 2005 to 2012. Anomalies in short baseline experiments, such as LSND and MiniBooNE, showed hints of sterile neutrinos, a type of neutrino that does not interact with the Standard Model particles. In this work, two models are considered: 3+1 and large extra dimension (LED). In the 3+1 model, one sterile neutrino state is added into the standard oscillation scheme consisting of three known active neutrino states ve, vμ and vτ. In the LED model, sterile neutrinos arise as Kaluza-Klein (KK) states due to assumed large extra dimensions. Mixing between sterile and active neutrino states may modify the oscillation patterns observed in the MINOS detectors. Both searches yield null results. For 3+1, a combined fit of MINOS and MINOS+ data gives a stronger limit on θ24 in the range of 10-2 eV2 < Δm412 < 1 eV2 than previous experiments. For LED, with the complete MINOS data set, the size of extra dimensions is constrained to be smaller than ~ 0.35 μm at 90% C.L. in the limit of a vanishing lightest neutrino mass.

  17. Decaying sterile neutrino dark matter in the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozek, Brandon; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Horiuchi, Shunsaku; Garrison-Kimmel, Shea; Abazajian, Kevork; Bullock, James

    2017-01-01

    The detection of a 3.55 keV X-ray line in clusters of galaxies and the Andromeda and Milky Way galaxies, while contentious, can be explained by the decay of resonantly-produced 7.1 keV sterile neutrinos. If the X-ray line is confirmed to be the result of dark matter decay, then it is the first non-gravitational signal of dark matter and groundbreaking evidence of physics beyond the standard model. We use simulations that accurately model the dark matter distribution of the Local Group in realistic sterile neutrino cosmologies to study the dark matter interpretation of the X-ray flux. We present the sterile neutrino dark matter models that are consistent with the observed M31 flux profile and discuss the predictions of these models for X-ray observations of classical Milky Way dwarf galaxies. We discuss how these results relate to Lyman-alpha forest constraints of sterile neutrino models and predictions for satellite galaxy counts in future surveys, which may be able to rule out 7.1 keV sterile neutrinos as a dark matter candidate.

  18. A Shipping Container-Based Sterile Processing Unit for Low Resources Settings.

    PubMed

    Boubour, Jean; Jenson, Katherine; Richter, Hannah; Yarbrough, Josiah; Oden, Z Maria; Schuler, Douglas A

    2016-01-01

    Deficiencies in the sterile processing of medical instruments contribute to poor outcomes for patients, such as surgical site infections, longer hospital stays, and deaths. In low resources settings, such as some rural and semi-rural areas and secondary and tertiary cities of developing countries, deficiencies in sterile processing are accentuated due to the lack of access to sterilization equipment, improperly maintained and malfunctioning equipment, lack of power to operate equipment, poor protocols, and inadequate quality control over inventory. Inspired by our sterile processing fieldwork at a district hospital in Sierra Leone in 2013, we built an autonomous, shipping-container-based sterile processing unit to address these deficiencies. The sterile processing unit, dubbed "the sterile box," is a full suite capable of handling instruments from the moment they leave the operating room to the point they are sterile and ready to be reused for the next surgery. The sterile processing unit is self-sufficient in power and water and features an intake for contaminated instruments, decontamination, sterilization via non-electric steam sterilizers, and secure inventory storage. To validate efficacy, we ran tests of decontamination and sterilization performance. Results of 61 trials validate convincingly that our sterile processing unit achieves satisfactory outcomes for decontamination and sterilization and as such holds promise to support healthcare facilities in low resources settings.

  19. Estimation of populations and sterility induction in Anastrepha luden (Diptera: Tephritidae) fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo; Toledo, Jorge; Enkerlin, Walther; Liedo, Pablo

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between different release densities of sterile flies and fly trap captures, expressed as flies per trap per day, in the monitoring of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) populations was evaluated in mango orchards. The induction of sterility in fertile females was evaluated using different ratios of sterile: fertile males under field cage conditions. A direct relationship between recaptured flies and densities of release sterile flies was found. However, trap efficiency, expressed as percentage of recaptured flies, decreased as the density of released flies increased. Sterility induction was positively correlated to the ratio of sterile: fertile flies. A significant difference in egg fertility among treatments was observed. The trajectory of sterility induction slowed down after a sterile: wild ratio of 30:1, which suggests that this ratio could be appropriate in an sterile insect technique program with A. ludens. Sterility induction was greater when only sterile males were released than when releasing both sterile males and females, but the differences were not significant. Our findings contribute to a better interpretation of fly captures obtained from the field trapping networks, and to an improvement in the efficiency of sterile insect technique against A. ludens fruit flies, through the implementation of more rational sterile fly release densities.

  20. A Shipping Container-Based Sterile Processing Unit for Low Resources Settings

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Deficiencies in the sterile processing of medical instruments contribute to poor outcomes for patients, such as surgical site infections, longer hospital stays, and deaths. In low resources settings, such as some rural and semi-rural areas and secondary and tertiary cities of developing countries, deficiencies in sterile processing are accentuated due to the lack of access to sterilization equipment, improperly maintained and malfunctioning equipment, lack of power to operate equipment, poor protocols, and inadequate quality control over inventory. Inspired by our sterile processing fieldwork at a district hospital in Sierra Leone in 2013, we built an autonomous, shipping-container-based sterile processing unit to address these deficiencies. The sterile processing unit, dubbed “the sterile box,” is a full suite capable of handling instruments from the moment they leave the operating room to the point they are sterile and ready to be reused for the next surgery. The sterile processing unit is self-sufficient in power and water and features an intake for contaminated instruments, decontamination, sterilization via non-electric steam sterilizers, and secure inventory storage. To validate efficacy, we ran tests of decontamination and sterilization performance. Results of 61 trials validate convincingly that our sterile processing unit achieves satisfactory outcomes for decontamination and sterilization and as such holds promise to support healthcare facilities in low resources settings. PMID:27007568

  1. The prevalence of bacterial contamination of surgical cold sterile solutions from community companion animal veterinary practices in southern Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Colleen P.; Weese, J. Scott; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; McEwen, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    Surgical cold sterile solutions are commonly used in veterinary practice, yet sterility cannot be verified under practical clinical conditions. Surgical cold sterile solutions were sampled and bacteria, including opportunistic pathogens, were recovered from 13% of the sampled solutions. Attempts to sterilize surgical instruments with cold sterile solutions should be avoided. PMID:20808576

  2. Axion-Assisted Production of Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Berlin, Asher; Hooper, Dan

    2016-10-12

    Sterile neutrinos can be generated in the early universe through oscillations with active neutrinos and represent a popular and well-studied candidate for our universe's dark matter. Stringent constraints from X-ray and gamma-ray line searches, however, have excluded the simplest of such models. In this letter, we propose a novel alternative to the standard scenario in which the mixing angle between the sterile and active neutrinos is a dynamical quantity, induced through interactions with a light axion-like field. As the energy density of the axion-like particles is diluted by Hubble expansion, the degree of mixing is reduced at late times, suppressing the decay rate and easily alleviating any tension with X-ray or gamma-ray constraints. We present a simple model which illustrates the phenomenology of this scenario, and also describe a framework in which the QCD axion is responsible for the production of sterile neutrinos in the early universe.

  3. Design Considerations of a Compounded Sterile Preparations Course

    PubMed Central

    Petraglia, Christine; Mattison, Melissa J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To design a comprehensive learning and assessment environment for the practical application of compounded sterile preparations using a constructivist approach. Design. Compounded Sterile Preparations Laboratory is a required 1-credit course that builds upon the themes of training aseptic technique typically used in health system settings and threads application of concepts from other courses in the curriculum. Students used critical-thinking skills to devise appropriate strategies to compound sterile preparations. Assessment. Aseptic technique skills were assessed with objective, structured, checklist-based rubrics. Most students successfully completed practical assessments using appropriate technique (mean assessment grade=83.2%). Almost all students passed the practical media fill (98%) and gloved fingertip sampling (86%) tests on the first attempt; all passed on the second attempt. Conclusion. Employing a constructivist scaffold approach to teaching proper hygiene and aseptic technique prepared students to pass media fill and gloved fingertip tests and to perform well on practical compounding assessments. PMID:26941438

  4. Sterilization of Turmeric by Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setareh, Salarieh; Davoud, Dorranian

    2013-11-01

    In this study atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma has been employed for sterilizing dry turmeric powders. A 6 kV, 6 kHz frequency generator was used to generate plasma with Ar, Ar/O2, He, and He/O2 gases between the 5 mm gap of two quartz covered electrodes. The complete sterilization time of samples due to plasma treatment was measured. The most important contaminant of turmeric is bacillus subtilis. The results show that the shortest sterilization time of 15 min is achieved by exposing the samples to Ar/O2 plasma. Survival curves of samples are exponential functions of time and the addition of oxygen to plasma leads to a significant increase of the absolute value of time constant of the curves. Magnitudes of protein and DNA in treated samples were increased to a similar value for all samples. Taste, color, and solubility of samples were not changed after the plasma treatment.

  5. Thermalisation of light sterile neutrinos in the early universe

    SciTech Connect

    Hannestad, Steen; Tram, Thomas; Tamborra, Irene E-mail: tamborra@mpp.mpg.de

    2012-07-01

    Recent cosmological data favour additional relativistic degrees of freedom beyond the three active neutrinos and photons, often referred to as ''dark'' radiation. Light sterile neutrinos is one of the prime candidates for such additional radiation. However, constraints on sterile neutrinos based on the current cosmological data have been derived using simplified assumptions about thermalisation of ν{sub s} at the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) epoch. These assumptions are not necessarily justified and here we solve the full quantum kinetic equations in the (1 active + 1 sterile) scenario and derive the number of thermalised species just before BBN begins (T ≅ 1 MeV) for null (L = 0) and large (L = 10{sup −2}) initial lepton asymmetry and for a range of possible mass-mixing parameters. We find that the full thermalisation assumption during the BBN epoch is justified for initial small lepton asymmetry only. Partial or null thermalisation occurs when the initial lepton asymmetry is large.

  6. Sterile neutrinos and right-handed currents in KATRIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, James; Heeck, Julian; Rodejohann, Werner

    2014-07-01

    Kurie-plot experiments allow for neutrino-mass measurements based on kinematics in an almost model-independent manner. A future tritium-based KATRIN-like experiment can be sensitive to light sterile neutrinos with masses below 18 keV, which are among the prime candidates for warm dark matter. Here we consider such keV neutrinos in left-right symmetric extensions, i.e. coupled to right-handed currents, which allow for an enhanced contribution to beta decay even for small active-sterile mixing, without violating astrophysical X-ray constraints. The modified spectral shape is in principle distinguishable from the standard contribution — especially for sterile neutrino masses below 9 keV, which can lead to a distinct peak. We compare the sensitivity to constraints from the LHC and neutrinoless double beta decay.

  7. Sterilization, Catholic health care, and the legitimate autonomy of culture.

    PubMed

    Cowdin, Daniel M; Tuohey, John F

    1998-04-01

    Disagreement over the legitimacy of direct sterilization continues within Catholic moral debate, with painful and at times confusing ramifications for Catholic healthcare systems. This paper argues that the medical profession should be construed as a key moral authority in this debate, on two grounds. First, the recent revival of neo-Aristotelianism in moral philosophy as applied to medical ethics has brought out the inherently moral dimensions of the history and current practice of medicine. Second, this recognition can be linked to Catholic morality through Vatican II's affirmation of the legitimate autonomy of culture, including the sciences. A partial precedent for understanding the moral authority of medicine can be found in the recent history of Catholic medical morality, and we further argue that a full contemporary recognition of that authority would weigh against an absolute prohibition of direct sterilizations. Institutionally, we propose the allowance of direct sterilizations in cases where the clinically perceived biomedical good of the patient is at stake.

  8. Design and evaluation of a sterile compounding facility.

    PubMed

    Allan, E L; Barker, K N; Severson, R W; Lane, J M; Wilson, J M; Mangum, D A

    1995-07-01

    The design and evaluation of a sterile compounding center for a large community teaching hospital are described. The new sterile products area was redesigned to improve efficiency by minimizing staff travel and to incorporate recommendations of the ASHP Technical Assistance Bulletin on Quality Assurance for Pharmacy-prepared Sterile Products. The design approach combined strategic planning with master facilities planning. The process began with a systems analysis, followed by the development of a functional program (a comprehensive list of design specifications). Travel studies were performed before and after renovation to determine gains in efficiency; technician travel decreased 29% and pharmacist travel, 42%. The new facility design met the specifications in the functional program and appeared to comply with all recommendations in the ASHP document for all risk levels of preparations.

  9. Displaced vertex searches for sterile neutrinos at future lepton colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antusch, Stefan; Cazzato, Eros; Fischer, Oliver

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of future lepton colliders to displaced vertices from the decays of long-lived heavy (almost sterile) neutrinos with electroweak scale masses and detectable time of flight. As future lepton colliders we consider the FCC-ee, the CEPC, and the ILC, searching at the Z-pole and at the center-of-mass energies of 240, 350 and 500 GeV. For a realistic discussion of the detector response to the displaced vertex signal and the Standard Model background we consider the ILC's Silicon Detector (SiD) as benchmark for the future lepton collider detectors. We find that displaced vertices constitute a powerful search channel for sterile neutrinos, sensitive to squared active-sterile mixing angles as small as 10-11.

  10. Sterile Neutrino Search with Starting Events in IceCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorbani, Kevin; Halzen, Francis; IceCube Collaboration Meeting Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    IceCube is a cubic kilometer neutrino detector at the South Pole which is sensitive to sterile neutrinos with masses and mixing angles at and around the range of LSND/MiniBooNE anomaly. In this analysis, we measure the up-going atmospheric neutrinos with energies from approximately 100 GeV to 20 TeV as a function of zenith angle which reflects the distance that the neutrinos traveled through the Earth. In the case of 3 + 1 sterile neutrino model, we anticipate a strong matter resonance resulting into the disappearance of muon anti-neutrinos and a weak disappearance of muon neutrinos, due to MSW-resonant oscillation. In this analysis we specialize to contained neutrino events with secondary muons that start in the detector to obtain a superior measurement of energy compared to previous analyses. I will present the event selection process and sensitivity to sterile neutrinos with IceCube starting events. NSF

  11. Antioxidant properties of sterilized yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) tuber flour.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Sérgio; Pinto, Jorge; Rodrigues, César; Gião, Maria; Pereira, Claúdia; Tavaria, Freni; Malcata, F Xavier; Gomes, Ana; Bertoldo Pacheco, M T; Pintado, Manuela

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this research work was to investigate the antioxidant properties of sterilized yacon tuber flour. The results revealed for the first time the high antioxidant activity of sterilized yacon flour. The best extract obtained by boiling 8.9% (w/v) of yacon flour in deionised water for 10 min exhibited a total antioxidant capacity of 222±2 mg (ascorbic acid equivalent)/100 g DW and a total polyphenol content of 275±3 mg (gallic acid equivalent)/100 g DW associated to the presence of four main phenolic compounds: chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, coumaric acid and protocatechuic acid, as well as the amino acid tryptophan. The most abundant was chlorogenic acid, followed by caffeic acid. Biological assays revealed that the extract had indeed antioxidant protection, and no pro-oxidant activity. In conclusion, sterilized yacon tuber flour has the potential to be used in the food industry as a food ingredient to produce functional food products.

  12. Physical structure changes of solid medium by steam explosion sterilization.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-Min; Wang, Lan; Chen, Hong-Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Physical structure changes of solid medium were investigated to reveal effects of steam explosion sterilization on solid-state fermentation (SSF). Results indicated that steam explosion changed the structure of solid medium at both molecular and three-dimensional structural levels, which exposed hydrophilic groups and enlarged pores and cavities. It was interesting to find that pores where capillary water located were the active sites for SSF, due to the close relationship among capillary water relaxation time, specific surface area and fermentation performance. Therefore, steam explosion sterilization increased the effective contact area for microbial cells on solid medium, which contributed to improving SSF performance. Combined with the previous research, mechanisms of SSF improvement by steam explosion sterilization contained both chemical and physical effects.

  13. Improved determination of sterile neutrino dark matter spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghiglieri, J.; Laine, M.

    2015-11-01

    The putative recent indication of an unidentified 3.55 keV X-ray line in certain astrophysical sources is taken as a motivation for an improved theoretical computation of the cosmological abundance of 7.1 keV sterile neutrinos. If the line is interpreted as resulting from the decay of Warm Dark Matter, the mass and mixing angle of the sterile neutrino are known. Our computation then permits for a determination of the lepton asymmetry that is needed for producing the correct abundance via the Shi-Fuller mechanism, as well as for an estimate of the non-equilibrium spectrum of the sterile neutrinos. The latter plays a role in structure formation simulations. Results are presented for different flavour structures of the neutrino Yukawa couplings and for different types of pre-existing lepton asymmetries, accounting properly for the charge neutrality of the plasma and incorporating approximately hadronic contributions.

  14. Modelling and analysis of impulsive releases of sterile mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mingzhan; Song, Xinyu; Li, Jia

    2017-12-01

    To study the impact of releasing sterile mosquitoes on mosquito-borne disease transmissions, we propose two mathematical models with impulsive releases of sterile mosquitoes. We consider periodic impulsive releases in the first model and obtain the existence, uniqueness, and globally stability of a wild-mosquito-eradication periodic solution. We also establish thresholds for the control of the wild mosquito population by selecting the release rate and the release period. In the second model, the impulsive releases are determined by the closely monitored wild mosquito density, or the state feedback. We prove the existence of an order one periodic solution and find a relatively small attraction region, which ensures the wild mosquito population is under control. We provide numerical analysis which shows that a smaller release rate and more frequent releases are more efficient in controlling the wild mosquito population for the periodic releases, but an early release of sterile mosquitoes is more effective for the state feedback releases.

  15. Clinical experience with heat sterilization for reprocessing dialyzers.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, A M; Frinak, S; Godmere, R O; Levin, N W

    1992-01-01

    Use of heat sterilization for dialysis reprocessing offers significant advantages over chemical germicides. Polysulfone dialyzers (Fresenius 60M or 80M) can be sterilized by heating to 105 degrees C for 20 hr, thus permitting clinical trials of this method. One hundred eighty patients received 9,000 treatments. Pyrogenic reactions, sepsis, and subjective symptoms have not occurred. In vitro clearances (Qb 500 ml/min, Qd 800 ml/min) at baseline and after 2-8 uses did not differ (340 +/- 29 vs. 352 +/- 4 ml/min, respectively). KoA determined in vivo did not decrease (baseline 709 +/- 131 vs. 7th use 632 +/- 50 ml/min). Kt/V for urea was not different in 18 patients treated with heat sterilized dialyzers over 6 months when compared with a baseline period with formaldehyde sterilized dialyzers (1.37 +/- 0.12 vs. 1.32 +/- 0.11 at similar time and blood flows). Mean use number was 7.4 (dialyzers limited to 11 uses). Of discarded dialyzers, 44% failed a bedside integrity test (blood side pressurized at > 400 mmHg for 1 min), 36% failed automated fiber bundle or pressure holding tests, 8% had a blood leak, and 12% reached 11 uses. Clinical blood leaks occur in < 0.5% of treatments. Heat sterilization is a safe and effective method of dialysis reprocessing, but quality control of the process is essential. Based on initial clinical experience, heat sterilization of dialyzers for reuse is a promising alternative to chemical disinfection.

  16. Dark radiation sterile neutrino candidates after Planck data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Valentino, Eleonora; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Mena, Olga

    2013-11-01

    Recent Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) results from the Planck satellite, combined with previous CMB data and Hubble constant measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope, provide a constraint on the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom 3.62+0.50-0.48 at 95% CL. New Planck data provide a unique opportunity to place limits on models containing relativistic species at the decoupling epoch. We present here the bounds on sterile neutrino models combining Planck data with galaxy clustering information. Assuming Neff active plus sterile massive neutrino species, in the case of a Planck+WP+HighL+HST analysis we find mν, sterileeff < 0.36 eV and 3.14 < Neff < 4.15 at 95% CL, while using Planck+WP+HighL data in combination with the full shape of the galaxy power spectrum from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey BOSS Data Relase 9 measurements, we find that 3.30 < Neff < 4.43 and mν, sterileeff < 0.33 eV both at 95% CL with the three active neutrinos having the minimum mass allowed in the normal hierarchy scheme, i.e. ∑mν ~ 0.06 eV. These values compromise the viability of the (3+2) massive sterile neutrino models for the parameter region indicated by global fits of neutrino oscillation data. Within the (3+1) massive sterile neutrino scenario, we find mν, sterileeff < 0.34 eV at 95% CL. While the existence of one extra sterile massive neutrino state is compatible with current oscillation data, the values for the sterile neutrino mass preferred by oscillation analyses are significantly higher than the current cosmological bound. We review as well the bounds on extended dark sectors with additional light species based on the latest Planck CMB observations.

  17. Contraception or eugenics? Sterilization and "mental retardation" in the 1970s and 1980s.

    PubMed

    Ladd-Taylor, Molly

    2014-01-01

    Nonconsensual sterilization is usually seen as the by-product of a classist and racist society; disability is ignored. This article examines the 1973 sterilization of two young black girls from Alabama and other precedent-setting court cases involving the sterilization of "mentally retarded" white women to make disability more central to the historical analysis of sterilization. It analyzes the concept of mental retardation and the appeal of a surgical solution to birth control, assesses judicial deliberations over the "right to choose" contraceptive sterilization when the capacity to consent is in doubt, and reflects on the shadow of eugenics that hung over the sterilization debate in the 1970s and 1980s.

  18. Bringing men to the table: sterilization can be for him or for her.

    PubMed

    Shih, Grace; Zhang, Ying; Bukowski, Kyle; Chen, Angela

    2014-12-01

    Sterilization, male and female combined, is the most common use of contraception in the United States. Despite the lower risk, higher cost-efficacy, and high efficacy of vasectomy compared with female sterilization, more US women rely on female sterilization than male sterilization. Reasons for low use of vasectomy include lack of knowledge and misconceptions about the procedure, lack of access, provider bias, and patient preferences. This article will provide a basic overview of male and female sterilization, an exploration of vasectomy barriers, and ways obstetrician-gynecologists can increase vasectomy uptake including regular recommendation of vasectomy to patients in long-term committed relationships considering sterilization.

  19. Mathematical model in controlling dengue transmission with sterile mosquito strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldila, D.; Nuraini, N.; Soewono, E.

    2015-09-01

    In this article, we propose a mathematical model for controlling dengue disease transmission with sterile mosquito techniques (SIT). Sterile male introduced from lab in to habitat to compete with wild male mosquito for mating with female mosquito. Our aim is to displace gradually the natural mosquito from the habitat. Mathematical model analysis for steady states and the basic reproductive ratio are performed analytically. Numerical simulation are shown in some different scenarios. We find that SIT intervention is potential to controlling dengue spread among humans population

  20. Tight bonds between sterile neutrinos and dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Bringmann, Torsten; Hasenkamp, Jasper; Kersten, Jörn E-mail: Jasper.Hasenkamp@nyu.edu

    2014-07-01

    Despite the astonishing success of standard ΛCDM cosmology, there is mounting evidence for a tension with observations at small and intermediate scales. We introduce a simple model where both cold dark matter (DM) and sterile neutrinos are charged under a new U(1){sub X} gauge interaction. The resulting DM self-interactions resolve the tension with the observed abundances and internal density structures of dwarf galaxies. At the same time, the sterile neutrinos can account for both the small hot DM component favored by cosmological observations and the neutrino anomalies found in short-baseline experiments.

  1. Consignment trays and the hidden costs of sterilization.

    PubMed

    Ricupito, Gene

    2006-12-01

    Consignment implant trays are often an overlooked facet of the supply chain. If not handled properly, they can cost a hospital thousands of dollars in delivery charges as well as potentially decreasing the level of patient safety. It is critical that value analysis committees have input from central service and that time is taken to consider logistics before signing agreements, especially with regard to proper sterilization instructions and delivery method. If trays arrive too late, it is more likely that corners will be cut with the sterilization process.

  2. Nanomaterials for fresh-keeping and sterilization in food preservation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongfang; Gu, Ning

    2009-06-01

    Food sterilizing and antistaling technologies are very important to the public's health and safety and have been attracting more and more attentions. In the past several years, new development chance was created by the introduction of nanomaterials to this critical field. Nanomaterials possess lots of outstanding properties, such as unique quantum size effect, large surface area and catalytic properties, which jointly facilitate high effective fresh-keeping, and thus were considered as promising materials in food sterilization and antistale. This review article focuses on the patented applications of nanomaterials as food biocidal agents, bacteriostatic agents, catalysts and carriers for antistaling agents.

  3. [Medico-legal risks of human voluntary sterilization].

    PubMed

    Le Quinquis, P; Chevrant-Breton, O

    1986-01-01

    There has been no legislation in France explicitly authorizing voluntary sterilization, so that a practitioner carrying out a voluntary surgical sterilization runs a theoretical risk of lawsuit. Concern about the legal status of voluntary sterilization stems from 2 articles in the French penal code, article 16 which forbids the crime of castration, defined as the intentional complete and definitive amputation or removal of an organ necessary for procreation; and article 309 which forbids voluntary assault and battery resulting in death or inability to work for 8 days, or a lesser incapacity if the violence was premeditated. Vasectomy and tubal ligation differ from castration in that they do not involve removal or mutilation of the genital organs. Article 309 has been applied to a sterilization case only once. The criminal chamber of the Court of Cassation, France's highest appeals court, ruled in 1937 that the consent of the victim had no effect on penal responsibility, since individuals have no right to violate on their own persons the rules of public order by undergoing corporal injuries unjustified by medical need. There has been no penal judgment since 1937 in a voluntary sterilization case. In a 1983 judgment, the Court of Cassation upheld the responsibility of a surgeon for not informing a 28-year-old mother of 5 of the possibility of failure of the sterilization operation he performed on her. The patient found herself pregnant once again less than 1 month after the operation. Had she been informed of the possibility of pregnancy, she might have taken further precautions to avoid it. The court established a causal link between the problems created by the pregnancy and the fault of the physician in not providing adequate information. The court's decision was of interest because it included tubal ligation among surgical interventions condoned by the common law of medical responsibility, thereby implying acceptance of voluntary sterilization. The plaintiff

  4. [Methods of contraception, with special reference to sterilization].

    PubMed

    Lampé, L

    1980-09-28

    Broader use of sterilization as a method of family planning and population control is favored. The author points out all the dangers and side effects associated with various methods of contraception, i.e., the higher death and damage rate with increasing age, and smoking. Even with the IUD the death rate is low but not negligible; 3-4% have complications, while 0.4% require surgery (laparotomy, removal of uterus, removal of uterine appendix). For women over 35 or for mothers with 2-3 children, sterilization is the best method of contraception.

  5. Product Sterility Testing . . . To Test or Not to Test? That Is the Question.

    PubMed

    Daniell, Elaine; Bryans, Trabue; Darnell, Kimbrell; Hansen, Joyce; Hitchins, Victoria M; Saavedra, Manuel

    2016-04-02

    The applications for sterility testing in the validation and routine control of sterilization of medical devices have changed dramatically over the years. As the definition of sterility assurance has evolved, so has the state of the science associated with product sterility testing. Historically, product sterility testing has been applied to such things as sterilization validation, sterilization lot release, packaging qualification, aseptic processing qualification, and determination of shelf life for the packaged medical device. In most of these cases, however, the results obtained from performing sterility testing on products do not provide the desired confirmation and assurance. Utilizing sterility testing on fully processed finished product is not appropriate for determination of sterilization process effectiveness, sterility assurance level, package integrity, or shelf life. The industry has developed more robust methods for validation of these applications to assure sterility and package performance. This article outlines the appropriate applications for sterility testing and highlight the applications currently in use that have significant limitations within the results and introduce undesirable risk to the validity of the data.

  6. Pathological evaluation for sterilization of routinely used prosthodontic and endodontic instruments

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, K. Vinay; Kiran Kumar, K.S.; Supreetha, S.; Raghu, K.N.; Veerabhadrappa, Anusha Channabasappa; Deepthi, S

    2015-01-01

    Background: In daily practice of dentistry, we use same instruments on many patients. Before use, all instruments must be cleaned, disinfected, and sterilized to prevent any contamination. Pre-cleaning and sterilization of some devices can be difficult because of their small size and complex architecture. Dental burs and endodontic files are such instruments. Dental burs come in a variety of shapes and sizes, all with highly complex and detailed surface features. Aim: To determine the effectiveness of various disinfectants and sterilization techniques for disinfection and resterilization of dental burs and endodontic files. Materials and Methods: The materials used for the study were dental burs and endodontic files. Disinfectants used were Quitanet plus, glutaraldehyde, glass-bead sterilizer, and autoclave. The sterility of used dental burs and endodontic files was analyzed. Burs and files that had been used were pre-cleaned, resterilized, and then tested for various pathogens. Each item was transferred by sterile technique into Todd-Hewitt broth, incubated at 37°C for 72 h, and observed for bacterial growth. Results: The present study shows that the endodontic files and burs sterilized by autoclaving and glutaraldehyde showed complete sterilization. Burs and files immersed in glutaraldehyde (2.4%) for 12 h showed complete sterilization, whereas Quitanet plus solution and glass-bead sterilizer showed incomplete sterilization. Conclusion: The present study results indicate that autoclaving and glutaraldehyde (2.4%) showed complete sterilization. Other methods cannot be relied upon for sterilization. PMID:26236684

  7. Feasibility of sterilizing traditional Chinese medicines by gamma-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xingwang; Wu, Jilan

    1998-06-01

    The feasibility of sterilizing traditional Chinese medicine (TCMs) by γ-irradiation has been systematically evaluated by the biological, toxicological and physicochemical tests on irradiated hundreds of TCMs. Those TCMs investigated in general show no significant biological or toxicological changes after irradiation, yet physicochemical changes are detectable in some irradiated TCMs, and water in TCMs enhances the effects. Those results obtained from radiolysis of some major effective components of TCMs in aqueous or ethanolic solutions reveal that the site selection of radiolytically generated radicals follows the example of simple compounds with same function groups. Wholesomeness and chemical clearance present a bright future to sterilizing TCMs by γ irradiation, however, some important measures and steps should be adopted: (1) The producers must strictly execute manufacturing procedure to reduce microbiological contamination thus lower the applied dose for sterilization which is recommended to be controlled under 5, 7 or 10 kGy, 10 kGy for dry herb, 7 kGy for herbal medicine and 5 kGy for some special herbal medicine; (2) Herb to be sterilized by γ-irradiation should exist in possible dry state; (3) Powder TCMs is recommended to mix with honey forming bolus, which can minimize the decomposition of herb.

  8. Light sterile neutrino sensitivity at the nuSTORM facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adey, D.; Agarwalla, S. K.; Ankenbrandt, C. M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Back, J. J.; Barker, G.; Baussan, E.; Bayes, R.; Bhadra, S.; Blackmore, V.; Blondel, A.; Bogacz, S. A.; Booth, C.; Boyd, S. B.; Bramsiepe, S. G.; Bravar, A.; Brice, S. J.; Bross, A. D.; Cadoux, F.; Cease, H.; Cervera, A.; Cobb, J.; Colling, D.; Coloma, P.; Coney, L.; Dobbs, A.; Dobson, J.; Donini, A.; Dornan, P.; Dracos, M.; Dufour, F.; Edgecock, R.; Geelhoed, M.; Uchida, M. A.; Ghosh, T.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; de Gouvêa, A.; Haesler, A.; Hanson, G.; Harrison, P. F.; Hartz, M.; Hernández, P.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; Hodgson, P.; Huber, P.; Izmaylov, A.; Karadzhov, Y.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kopp, J.; Kormos, L.; Korzenev, A.; Kuno, Y.; Kurup, A.; Kyberd, P.; Lagrange, J. B.; Laing, A.; Liu, A.; Link, J. M.; Long, K.; Mahn, K.; Mariani, C.; Martin, C.; Martin, J.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, K. T.; Mena, O.; Mishra, S. R.; Mokhov, N.; Morfín, J.; Mori, Y.; Murray, W.; Neuffer, D.; Nichol, R.; Noah, E.; Palmer, M. A.; Parke, S.; Pascoli, S.; Pasternak, J.; Plunkett, R.; Popovic, M.; Ratoff, P.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M.; Ricciardi, S.; Rogers, C.; Rubinov, P.; Santos, E.; Sato, A.; Sen, T.; Scantamburlo, E.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Smith, D. R.; Smith, P. J.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Søby, L.; Soler, F. J. P.; Sorel, M.; Snopok, P.; Stamoulis, P.; Stanco, L.; Striganov, S.; Tanaka, H. A.; Taylor, I. J.; Touramanis, C.; Tunnell, C. D.; Uchida, Y.; Vassilopoulos, N.; Wascko, M. O.; Weber, A.; Wilking, M. J.; Wildner, E.; Winter, W.; Nustorm Collaboration

    2014-04-01

    A facility that can deliver beams of electron and muon neutrinos from the decay of a stored muon beam has the potential to unambiguously resolve the issue of the evidence for light sterile neutrinos that arises in short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments and from estimates of the effective number of neutrino flavors from fits to cosmological data. In this paper, we show that the nuSTORM facility, with stored muons of 3.8 GeV/c ± 10%, will be able to carry out a conclusive muon neutrino appearance search for sterile neutrinos and test the LSND and MiniBooNE experimental signals with 10σ sensitivity, even assuming conservative estimates for the systematic uncertainties. This experiment would add greatly to our knowledge of the contribution of light sterile neutrinos to the number of effective neutrino flavors from the abundance of primordial helium production and from constraints on neutrino energy density from the cosmic microwave background. The appearance search is complemented by a simultaneous muon neutrino disappearance analysis that will facilitate tests of various sterile neutrino models.

  9. Spacecraft Sterilization Using Non-Equilibrium Atmospheric Pressure Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Moogega; Vaze, Nachiket; Anderson, Shawn; Fridman, Gregory; Vasilets, Victor N.; Gutsol, Alexander; Tsapin, Alexander; Fridman, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    As a solution to chemically and thermally destructive sterilization methods currently used for spacecraft, non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasmas are used to treat surfaces inoculated with Bacillus subtilis and Deinococcus radiodurans. Evidence of significant morphological changes and reduction in viability due to plasma exposure will be presented, including a 4-log reduction of B. subtilis after 2 minutes of dielectric barrier discharge treatment.

  10. Radiation sterilization of medical products in the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singson, C.; Carmona, C.; de Guzman, Z.; Barrun, W.; Lanuza, L.

    This paper presents the results of a comprehensive investigation of the biological, microbiological, physico-chemical, and dosimetry aspects of using gamma irradiation for the sterilization of locally manufactured medical products and pharmaceuticals. The objective of this study is to determine the technological feasibility of radiation sterilization for the said products in the Philippines. Hence, the materials used were directly obtained from local manufacturers. They are polyvinyl chloride or polyethylene based medical plastic disposables namely: absorbent cotton, surgical gauze, bandage, visceral packs, and some antibiotics and opthalmic ointments. The gamma facility of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission was used for the irradiation. Result of biological studies indicate no signs of toxicity on experimental mice injected with extracts from irradiated samples. The contaminants are identified as Pseudomonas Sp. Staphyloccocus Aureus and Bacillus Subtilis. The D 10 values of survivors of higher doses ranged below 0.235 Megarad suggesting that these contaminants can be eliminated by the generally used sterilizing dose of 2.5 Mrads. The physico-chemical tests did not indicate any significant degradation of the irradiated products. Opthalmic and topical antibiotic ointments showed no marked decrease in potency. Fading tests on dosimeters used showed that red perspex is a more efficient dosimeter than clear perspex when irradiation time is prolonged. These studies indicated that radiation sterilization is technically feasible for locally manufactured medical products.

  11. 7 CFR 305.28 - Kiln sterilization treatment schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kiln sterilization treatment schedule. 305.28 Section 305.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS Heat Treatments § 305.28...

  12. Genetics and evolution of hybrid male sterility in house mice.

    PubMed

    White, Michael A; Stubbings, Maria; Dumont, Beth L; Payseur, Bret A

    2012-07-01

    Comparative genetic mapping provides insights into the evolution of the reproductive barriers that separate closely related species. This approach has been used to document the accumulation of reproductive incompatibilities over time, but has only been applied to a few taxa. House mice offer a powerful system to reconstruct the evolution of reproductive isolation between multiple subspecies pairs. However, studies of the primary reproductive barrier in house mice-hybrid male sterility-have been restricted to a single subspecies pair: Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus. To provide a more complete characterization of reproductive isolation in house mice, we conducted an F(2) intercross between wild-derived inbred strains from Mus musculus castaneus and M. m. domesticus. We identified autosomal and X-linked QTL associated with a range of hybrid male sterility phenotypes, including testis weight, sperm density, and sperm morphology. The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) was strongly associated with hybrid sterility phenotypes when heterozygous. We compared QTL found in this cross with QTL identified in a previous F(2) intercross between M. m. musculus and M. m. domesticus and found three shared autosomal QTL. Most QTL were not shared, demonstrating that the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility largely differs between these closely related subspecies pairs. These results lay the groundwork for identifying genes responsible for the early stages of speciation in house mice.

  13. Mechanisms Underlying Mammalian Hybrid Sterility in Two Feline Interspecies Models

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Brian W.; Seabury, Christopher M.; Brashear, Wesley A.; Li, Gang; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Murphy, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of male sterility in interspecies hybrids has been observed for over a century, however, few genes influencing this recurrent phenotype have been identified. Genetic investigations have been primarily limited to a small number of model organisms, thus limiting our understanding of the underlying molecular basis of this well-documented “rule of speciation.” We utilized two interspecies hybrid cat breeds in a genome-wide association study employing the Illumina 63 K single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Collectively, we identified eight autosomal genes/gene regions underlying associations with hybrid male sterility (HMS) involved in the function of the blood-testis barrier, gamete structural development, and transcriptional regulation. We also identified several candidate hybrid sterility regions on the X chromosome, with most residing in close proximity to complex duplicated regions. Differential gene expression analyses revealed significant chromosome-wide upregulation of X chromosome transcripts in testes of sterile hybrids, which were enriched for genes involved in chromatin regulation of gene expression. Our expression results parallel those reported in Mus hybrids, supporting the “Large X-Effect” in mammalian HMS and the potential epigenetic basis for this phenomenon. These results support the value of the interspecies feline model as a powerful tool for comparison to rodent models of HMS, demonstrating unique aspects and potential commonalities that underpin mammalian reproductive isolation. PMID:26006188

  14. Characterization of Prdm9 in Equids and Sterility in Mules

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Cynthia C.; Ryder, Oliver A.

    2013-01-01

    Prdm9 (Meisetz) is the first speciation gene discovered in vertebrates conferring reproductive isolation. This locus encodes a meiosis-specific histone H3 methyltransferase that specifies meiotic recombination hotspots during gametogenesis. Allelic differences in Prdm9, characterized for a variable number of zinc finger (ZF) domains, have been associated with hybrid sterility in male house mice via spermatogenic failure at the pachytene stage. The mule, a classic example of hybrid sterility in mammals also exhibits a similar spermatogenesis breakdown, making Prdm9 an interesting candidate to evaluate in equine hybrids. In this study, we characterized the Prdm9 gene in all species of equids by analyzing sequence variation of the ZF domains and estimating positive selection. We also evaluated the role of Prdm9 in hybrid sterility by assessing allelic differences of ZF domains in equine hybrids. We found remarkable variation in the sequence and number of ZF domains among equid species, ranging from five domains in the Tibetan kiang and Asiatic wild ass, to 14 in the Grevy’s zebra. Positive selection was detected in all species at amino acid sites known to be associated with DNA-binding specificity of ZF domains in mice and humans. Equine hybrids, in particular a quartet pedigree composed of a fertile mule showed a mosaic of sequences and number of ZF domains suggesting that Prdm9 variation does not seem by itself to contribute to equine hybrid sterility. PMID:23613924

  15. 21 CFR 872.6730 - Endodontic dry heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. 872.6730 Section 872.6730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... of completion of a PDP is required to be filed with the Food and Drug Administration on or...

  16. Sterile neutrinos with secret interactions—lasting friendship with cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Xiaoyong; Dasgupta, Basudeb; Kopp, Joachim E-mail: bdasgupta@theory.tifr.res.in

    2015-10-01

    Sterile neutrinos with mass ≅ 1 eV and order 10% mixing with active neutrinos have been proposed as a solution to anomalies in neutrino oscillation data, but are tightly constrained by cosmological limits. It was recently shown that these constraints are avoided if sterile neutrinos couple to a new MeV-scale gauge boson A'. However, even this scenario is restricted by structure formation constraints when A'-mediated collisional processes lead to efficient active-to-sterile neutrino conversion after neutrinos have decoupled. In view of this, we reevaluate in this paper the viability of sterile neutrinos with such ''secret'' interactions. We carefully dissect their evolution in the early Universe, including the various production channels and the expected modifications to large scale structure formation. We argue that there are two regions in parameter space—one at very small A' coupling, one at relatively large A' coupling—where all constraints from big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), cosmic microwave background (CMB), and large scale structure (LSS) data are satisfied. Interestingly, the large A' coupling region is precisely the region that was previously shown to have potentially important consequences for the small scale structure of dark matter halos if the A' boson couples also to the dark matter in the Universe.

  17. A light sterile neutrino from Friedberg-Lee symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Gang; Liao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Light sterile neutrinos of mass about an eV with mixing U of a few percent to active neutrinos may solve some anomalies shown in experimental data related to neutrino oscillation. How to have light sterile neutrinos is one of the theoretical problems which have attracted a lot of attentions. In this article we show that such an eV scale light sterile neutrino candidate can be obtained in a seesaw model in which the right-handed neutrinos satisfy a softly-broken Friedberg-Lee (FL) symmetry. In this model a right-handed neutrino is guaranteed by the FL symmetry to be light comparing with other two heavy right-handed neutrinos. It can be of eV scale when the FL symmetry is softly broken and can play the role of eV scale sterile neutrino needed for explaining the anomalies of experimental data. This model predicts that one of the active neutrino is massless. We find that this model prefers inverted hierarchy mass pattern of active neutrinos than normal hierarchy. An interesting consequence of this model is that realizing relatively large |U| and relatively small |U| in this model naturally leads to a relatively small |U|. This interesting prediction can be tested in future atmospheric or solar neutrino experiments.

  18. 21 CFR 522.1862 - Sterile pralidoxime chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Conditions of use. (1) It is used in horses, dogs, and cats as an antidote in the treatment of poisoning due to those pesticides and chemicals of the organophosphate class which have anticholinesterase activity... for at least 48 hours. Following severe poisoning, a second dose of sterile pralidoxime chloride...

  19. Microbiological quality of non-sterile pharmaceutical products

    PubMed Central

    Ratajczak, M.; Kubicka, M.M.; Kamińska, D.; Sawicka, P.; Długaszewska, J.

    2014-01-01

    In microbiological terms, pharmaceutical products can be divided into two groups: sterile and non-sterile. Non-sterile drugs must satisfy the appropriate microbiological purity criteria which are included in pharmacopoeial monographs. Pharmacopoeial studies are prepared specifically with a view to ensuring that the medicinal product is therapeutically effective and safe for the patient. The analysis comprised the results of microbiological purity tests performed before the products are marketed. Total of 1285 samples of non-sterile drugs manufactured by different pharmaceutical plants in Polish were taken into study. The microbiological quality of drugs was assessed in accordance with the criteria included in the European Pharmacopoeia (EP). An analysis of test results demonstrated that the percentage of non-compliant samples was 1.87%. The groups of drugs, which the most often did not satisfy EPs’ requirements, were drugs containing raw materials of natural origin (5.7%). The samples of studied drugs that did not meet the criteria contained in EP, exceed the maximum allowable microbiological count limits and contained microbes whose presence is prohibited. The most common non-compliance was the excessive levels of the maximum acceptable fungal count (n = 12) and the excessive the maximum acceptable aerobic microbial count (n = 10). PMID:26106278

  20. Characterization of Prdm9 in equids and sterility in mules.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Cynthia C; Ryder, Oliver A

    2013-01-01

    Prdm9 (Meisetz) is the first speciation gene discovered in vertebrates conferring reproductive isolation. This locus encodes a meiosis-specific histone H3 methyltransferase that specifies meiotic recombination hotspots during gametogenesis. Allelic differences in Prdm9, characterized for a variable number of zinc finger (ZF) domains, have been associated with hybrid sterility in male house mice via spermatogenic failure at the pachytene stage. The mule, a classic example of hybrid sterility in mammals also exhibits a similar spermatogenesis breakdown, making Prdm9 an interesting candidate to evaluate in equine hybrids. In this study, we characterized the Prdm9 gene in all species of equids by analyzing sequence variation of the ZF domains and estimating positive selection. We also evaluated the role of Prdm9 in hybrid sterility by assessing allelic differences of ZF domains in equine hybrids. We found remarkable variation in the sequence and number of ZF domains among equid species, ranging from five domains in the Tibetan kiang and Asiatic wild ass, to 14 in the Grevy's zebra. Positive selection was detected in all species at amino acid sites known to be associated with DNA-binding specificity of ZF domains in mice and humans. Equine hybrids, in particular a quartet pedigree composed of a fertile mule showed a mosaic of sequences and number of ZF domains suggesting that Prdm9 variation does not seem by itself to contribute to equine hybrid sterility.

  1. Sterile neutrinos with secret interactions — lasting friendship with cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Xiaoyong; Dasgupta, Basudeb; Kopp, Joachim

    2015-10-06

    Sterile neutrinos with mass ≃1 eV and order 10% mixing with active neutrinos have been proposed as a solution to anomalies in neutrino oscillation data, but are tightly constrained by cosmological limits. It was recently shown that these constraints are avoided if sterile neutrinos couple to a new MeV-scale gauge boson A{sup ′}. However, even this scenario is restricted by structure formation constraints when A{sup ′}-mediated collisional processes lead to efficient active-to-sterile neutrino conversion after neutrinos have decoupled. In view of this, we reevaluate in this paper the viability of sterile neutrinos with such “secret” interactions. We carefully dissect their evolution in the early Universe, including the various production channels and the expected modifications to large scale structure formation. We argue that there are two regions in parameter space — one at very small A{sup ′} coupling, one at relatively large A{sup ′} coupling — where all constraints from big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), cosmic microwave background (CMB), and large scale structure (LSS) data are satisfied. Interestingly, the large A{sup ′} coupling region is precisely the region that was previously shown to have potentially important consequences for the small scale structure of dark matter halos if the A{sup ′} boson couples also to the dark matter in the Universe.

  2. Microbicidal effectiveness of X-rays used for sterilization purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallentire, Alan; Miller, Arne

    2015-02-01

    The radiation response of spores of Bacillus pumilus was examined for irradiation with 5-7 MeV X-ray at commercial sterilization facilities. The response was found to be the same as that for irradiation with cobalt 60 photons, 10 MeV electrons and low energy electrons at 100 and 80 keV.

  3. 21 CFR 522.82 - Aminopropazine fumarate sterile solution injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aminopropazine fumarate sterile solution injection. 522.82 Section 522.82 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM...

  4. 21 CFR 522.82 - Aminopropazine fumarate sterile solution injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aminopropazine fumarate sterile solution injection. 522.82 Section 522.82 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM...

  5. 21 CFR 522.82 - Aminopropazine fumarate sterile solution injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aminopropazine fumarate sterile solution injection. 522.82 Section 522.82 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM...

  6. 21 CFR 522.44 - Sterile sodium acetazolamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sterile sodium acetazolamide. 522.44 Section 522.44 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  7. 21 CFR 522.1085 - Guaifenesin sterile powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Guaifenesin sterile powder. 522.1085 Section 522.1085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  8. 21 CFR 522.1155 - Imidocarb dipropionate sterile powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Imidocarb dipropionate sterile powder. 522.1155 Section 522.1155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL...

  9. 21 CFR 522.44 - Sterile sodium acetazolamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sterile sodium acetazolamide. 522.44 Section 522.44 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  10. 21 CFR 522.1085 - Guaifenesin sterile powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guaifenesin sterile powder. 522.1085 Section 522.1085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  11. 21 CFR 522.1085 - Guaifenesin sterile powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Guaifenesin sterile powder. 522.1085 Section 522.1085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  12. 21 CFR 522.1085 - Guaifenesin sterile powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Guaifenesin sterile powder. 522.1085 Section 522.1085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  13. 21 CFR 522.1155 - Imidocarb dipropionate sterile powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Imidocarb dipropionate sterile powder. 522.1155 Section 522.1155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL...

  14. 21 CFR 522.1155 - Imidocarb dipropionate sterile powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Imidocarb dipropionate sterile powder. 522.1155 Section 522.1155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL...

  15. 21 CFR 522.1155 - Imidocarb dipropionate sterile powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Imidocarb dipropionate sterile powder. 522.1155 Section 522.1155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL...

  16. 21 CFR 522.82 - Aminopropazine fumarate sterile solution injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aminopropazine fumarate sterile solution injection. 522.82 Section 522.82 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM...

  17. Heat Sterilization of Water in a Large Open Vessel

    PubMed Central

    Yale, Charles E.; Linsley, James G.; Anderson, Lawrence C.

    1968-01-01

    A safe, convenient, and economical method of preparing and dispensing a large volume of sterile water in a movable container is described. A caster-mounted, rectangular, 100-gal, stainless-steel water tank was fabricated. An audible, solid-state water-level alarm was developed for use with a detachable sensing probe that could be autoclaved. A filter system was constructed to allow the tank to be autoclaved as an open vessel. Thermocouples were mounted within the tank of water to study the time-temperature relationships of the water during the sterilization cycle. In a downward displacement autoclave with a hot jacket, 75 min were required for the water temperature to rise from 140 to 240 F (60 to 116 C). A total of 3 hr for heating and holding includes an adequate safety factor to insure the sterility of the water immediately after autoclaving. The long-term sterility of the water and the safety of the system were verified by using the water to maintain a germ-free animal colony. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:5647520

  18. Sterile neutrinos and flavor ratios in IceCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brdar, Vedran; Kopp, Joachim; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2017-01-01

    The flavor composition of astrophysical neutrinos observed in neutrino telescopes is a powerful discriminator between different astrophysical neutrino production mechanisms and can also teach us about the particle physics properties of neutrinos. In this paper, we investigate how the possible existence of light sterile neutrinos can affect these flavor ratios. We consider two scenarios: (i) neutrino production in conventional astrophysical sources, followed by partial oscillation into sterile states; (ii) neutrinos from dark matter decay with a primary flavor composition enhanced in tau neutrinos or sterile neutrinos. Throughout the paper, we constrain the sterile neutrino mixing parameters from a full global fit to short and long baseline data. We present our results in the form of flavor triangles and, for scenario (ii), as exclusion limits on the dark matter mass and lifetime, derived from a fit to IceCube high energy starting events and through-going muons. We argue that identifying a possible flux of neutrinos from dark matter decay may require analyzing the flavor composition as a function of neutrino energy.

  19. Mechanisms Underlying Mammalian Hybrid Sterility in Two Feline Interspecies Models.

    PubMed

    Davis, Brian W; Seabury, Christopher M; Brashear, Wesley A; Li, Gang; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Murphy, William J

    2015-10-01

    The phenomenon of male sterility in interspecies hybrids has been observed for over a century, however, few genes influencing this recurrent phenotype have been identified. Genetic investigations have been primarily limited to a small number of model organisms, thus limiting our understanding of the underlying molecular basis of this well-documented "rule of speciation." We utilized two interspecies hybrid cat breeds in a genome-wide association study employing the Illumina 63 K single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Collectively, we identified eight autosomal genes/gene regions underlying associations with hybrid male sterility (HMS) involved in the function of the blood-testis barrier, gamete structural development, and transcriptional regulation. We also identified several candidate hybrid sterility regions on the X chromosome, with most residing in close proximity to complex duplicated regions. Differential gene expression analyses revealed significant chromosome-wide upregulation of X chromosome transcripts in testes of sterile hybrids, which were enriched for genes involved in chromatin regulation of gene expression. Our expression results parallel those reported in Mus hybrids, supporting the "Large X-Effect" in mammalian HMS and the potential epigenetic basis for this phenomenon. These results support the value of the interspecies feline model as a powerful tool for comparison to rodent models of HMS, demonstrating unique aspects and potential commonalities that underpin mammalian reproductive isolation.

  20. A Novel Sterilization Method Using Pulsed Discharge Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xi-lu; Akira, Mizuno; Shijin, Katsura

    1998-01-01

    Pulsed discharge plasma(PDP) has been used to kill bacteria and the curves of the survival rate of bacteria against treatment time are obtained. Irreversible structural change in the cell membrane is caused by PDP and the cell is thus killed. The sterilization mechanism is analyzed.

  1. Is a foetus developing in a sterile environment?

    PubMed

    Wassenaar, T M; Panigrahi, P

    2014-12-01

    Novel findings in microbiology question the long-standing paradigm that a healthy pregnancy implies a sterile uterus. It now seems that the placenta is frequently colonized with bacteria, and a placental microbiome has been identified. Recent literature findings are summarized here, and an attempt is made to separate pathological bacterial presence from a naturally occurring microbiome.

  2. Phenomenology of Light Sterile Neutrinos: a Brief Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazzo, Antonio

    2013-03-01

    An increasing number of anomalous experimental results are emerging, which cannot be described within the standard three-neutrino framework. We present a concise discussion of the most popular phenomenological interpretation of such findings, based on a hypothetical flavor conversion phenomenon of the ordinary "active" neutrinos into new light "sterile" species having mass m ˜{O}(1) eV.

  3. The Neutrophil Btk Signalosome Regulates Integrin Activation during Sterile Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Volmering, Stephanie; Block, Helena; Boras, Mark; Lowell, Clifford A.; Zarbock, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Neutrophils are recruited from the blood to sites of sterile inflammation, where they are involved in wound healing but can also cause tissue damage. During sterile inflammation, necrotic cells release pro-inflammatory molecules including formylated peptides. However, the signaling pathway triggered by formylated peptides to integrin activation and leukocyte recruitment is unknown. By using spinning-disk confocal intravital microscopy, we examined the molecular mechanisms of leukocyte recruitment to sites of focal hepatic necrosis in vivo. We demonstrated that the Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk) was required for multiple Mac-1 activation events involved in neutrophil recruitment and functions during sterile inflammation triggered by fMLF. The Src family kinase Hck, Wiskott-Aldrich-syndrome protein, and phospholipase Cγ2 were also involved in this pathway required for fMLF-triggered Mac-1 activation and neutrophil recruitment. Thus, we have identified a neutrophil Btk signalosome that is involved in a signaling pathway triggered by formylated peptides leading to the selective activation of Mac-1 and neutrophil recruitment during sterile inflammation. PMID:26777396

  4. Compounding USP <797>: inspection, regulation, and oversight of sterile compounding pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Kastango, Eric S

    2012-03-01

    Using USP Chapter <797> Pharmaceutical Compounding-Sterile Preparations (CSP) is now considered the standard for sterile compounding practice and safety in the United States. This is particularly important in compounding the complex formulation of parenteral nutrition.

  5. Sterile Neutrino Production Through a Matter Effect Enhancement at Long Baselines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramante, Joseph

    2013-06-01

    If sterile neutrinos have a neutral coupling to standard model fermions, matter effect resonant transitions to sterile neutrinos and excess neutral-current events could manifest at long baseline experiments. Assuming a single sterile neutrino with a neutral coupling to fermionic matter, we re-examine bounds on sterile neutrino production at long baselines from the MINOS result Pνμ →νs < 0.22 (90% CL). We demonstrate that sterile neutrinos with a neutral vector coupling to fermionic matter could evade the MINOS limit, allowing a higher fraction of active to sterile neutrino conversion at long baselines. Scanning the parameter space of sterile neutrino matter effect fits of the LSND and MiniBooNe data, we show that in the case of a vector singlet coupling of sterile neutrinos to matter, some favored parametrizations of these fits would create neutral-current event excesses above standard model predictions at long baseline experiments (e.g. MINOS and OPERA).

  6. Assessment of the efficacy of a low temperature hydrogen peroxide gas plasma sterilization system.

    PubMed

    Kyi, M S; Holton, J; Ridgway, G L

    1995-12-01

    The STERRAD 100 sterilization system (Johnson & Johnson Medical Ltd) uses low temperature hydrogen peroxide gas plasma for sterilization of heat labile equipment. The efficacy of the machine was tested by contaminating a standard set of instruments with different organisms and using a filtration method to assess recovery of organisms from the wash fluids of instruments post-sterilization. Experiments were performed under clean (the organism only) and dirty (organism mixed with egg protein) conditions. A parallel study conducted using a 3M STERIVAC ethylene oxide sterilizer could not be completed owing to closure of the ethylene oxide plant. For sterilization of instruments with long and narrow lumens, hydrogen peroxide adaptors are necessary. The STERRAD 100 sterilizer can achieve effective sterilization of heat labile instruments with a reduction of 6 log10 cfu/mL of organisms tested. This method has the advantages over ethylene oxide sterilization of safety, ease of maintenance and no requirement for aeration time.

  7. Development and Validation of Sterility Systems for Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, Steve; Shevchenko, Olga; Ma, Caiping

    2007-03-30

    The overall goal of this project was to develop and validate sterility systems in poplar with the ultimate goal of fulfilling the basic requirements for commercial use. For this, sterility must be complete and stable over multiple growing seasons, cause no detrimental effects on vegetative growth, and successful transformation events must be identifiable via molecular tests when trees are still juvenile. Because of the inherent difficulties in achieving and demonstrating complete sterility in trees, our approach was to study alternate sterility systems in Arabidopsis and/or early-flowering tree systems. The public benefit from this work is the capacity for containment of genes or exotic forms of trees so they can be of benefit for industry for production of wood, energy, and renewable products, while having minimal impact on wild populations of trees. We tested three methods for engineering sterility: dominant negative mutant (DNM) proteins, floral tissue ablation, and RNA interference (RNAi) to suppress the expression of several floral regulatory genes. The ultimate goal of this work was to produce a number of transgenic poplars that could be outplanted to enable future assessments of the effectiveness of these transgenic sterility methods. Our attempts to produce ablation constructs that did not interfere with tree health were partially successful. Using the poplar LEAFY gene promoter and the barnase/barstar system, we were able to regenerate plants that grew well in the greenhouse, but they showed poor health in the field. Four of seven DNM genes tested were considered promising enough, based on results in Arabidopsis, to produce transgenic poplars. Single, double, and triple RNAi genes were produced and transformed into poplar. Over all, we produced 1,964 PCR-confirmed transgenic events with 19 different kinds of sterility genes and several kinds of control genes. We propagated 5,640, 6,820, and 7,055 trees for each of three test poplar genotypes, and field

  8. [Assessment of the sterilization of medical devices--an important challenge to health care in Poland].

    PubMed

    Röhm-Rodowald, Ewa; Jakimiak, Bozenna

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was the evaluation of sterilization of medical devices in Polish hospitals. The system that we use to establish which sterilization procedures should be employed to reduce the risk of hospital infections associated with medical devices. Based on inquiries, the conditions for the sterilization of medical devices in 21 Warsaw hospitals were assessed. The following issues were taken into consideration: preparation of medical supplies for sterilization, methods of sterilization and the monitoring system. In order to evaluate hygienic conditions due to sterilization points system was applied. 10% of the hospitals had Central Sterilization Service Department with 3 zones where automatic washing and disinfection, sorting, packaging, sterilization and storage of medical devices had been performed. The other 20% had CSSD without zones. In more than 65% there were common services for sterilization only. Instruments were delivered already prepared for sterilization. In remaining hospitals all steps, including sterilization were performed in words. According preparation of medical devices for sterilization it was established that mainly chemical disinfection just after use and than manual cleaning was used; the automatic cleaning in washer-disinfectors is used mainly in CSSD. Steam was the preferred method of sterilization, but also low temperature methods were used for heat sensitive devices. The monitoring of sterilization processes was satisfactory. There were first trials of the validation of the sterilization processes. There is still a need for improvement in the sterilization of medical devices, especially including: the organisation of CSSD in all Polish hospitals; replacement of manual cleaning processes by automatic cleaning; organisation of advanced training courses for the heads and staff of the CSSD.

  9. Operative vs Non-Operative Management in Sterile Necrotizing Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    1997-01-01

    Background: The clinical management of sterile pancreatic necrosis is still a matter of debate. In this study we analyzed the clinical course and outcome of patients with sterile necrotizing pancreatitis treated surgically versus nonsurgically. Study Design: Between May 1982 and December 1993, 249 patients with necrotizing pancreatitis (NP) entered this study, of which 172 (69 percent) had intraoperatively or fine needle aspiration-proven sterile NP. One hundred seven of 172 patients underwent surgery (S group) with necrosectomy and continuous postoperative closed lavage and 65 of 172 were treated by nonsurgical means (NS group). Results: Median Ranson and admission APACHE II scores were 4.7 (range, 1 to 10) and 11 (range, 1 to 29) in the S group, significantly higher than those in the NS group with 3.0 (range, 0 to 6) (p=0.022) and 8 (range, 1 to 23) (p=0.036). After 48 hours of intensive care treatment, APACHE II scores persisted at 10.5 (range, 1 to 29) in the S group and decreased to 6 (range, 0 to 15) (p=0.013) in the NS patients. Median Creactive protein (CRP) levels on admission were 179 mg/L and 68.5 mg/L (p=0.023), respectively. Within 72 hours, 61 (94 percent) of 65 NS-managed patients responded to intensive care therapy, whereas organ complications persisted or increased and thus led to surgery in the S group. Mortality rates were 13.1 percent in the surgically treated patients and 6.2 percent in the nonsurgically treated patients (p=NS). Conclusions: Most patients with limited and sterile pancreatic necrosis respond to intensive care treatment. Indication for surgery in sterile NP should be based on persisting or advancing organ complications despite intensive care therapy. APACHE II scores and adraission CRP levels represent a helpful tool in decision making for surgical or nonsurgical management of NP. PMID:9174870

  10. Acute sterile endophthalmitis following intravitreal bevacizumab: case series

    PubMed Central

    Orozco-Hernández, Axel; Ortega-Larrocea, Ximena; Sánchez-Bermúdez, Gustavo; García-Aguirre, Gerardo; Cantón, Virgilio Morales; Velez-Montoya, Raul

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the ophthalmological community adopted the use of intravitreal bevacizumab as an accepted off-label treatment for neovascular diseases, the amount of knowledge regarding its effects and properties has been increasing continually. In the last few years, there have been an increasing number of reports about sterile intraocular inflammation and intraocular pressure elevations after intravitreal bevacizumab. In the following case series, we describe the clinical presentation and outcomes of ten consecutive cases of patients developing mild-to-severe sterile intraocular inflammation after intravitreal bevacizumab and their management. Methods This report presents a retrospective case series. We reviewed the medical records of ten consecutive patients from a group of 46, in whom repackaged bevacizumab in individual aliquots from two vials from the same batch were used. All surgical procedures were performed using standard sterile techniques in the operating room. At each follow-up visit, patients underwent a complete ophthalmological examination including visual acuity assessment, intraocular pressure, biomicroscopy, and posterior fundus examination. Results Ten patients presented sterile endophthalmitis with an onset time of 3.5±1.95 days. The clinical characteristics were mild pain, slight visual loss, conjunctival hyperemia, and various degrees of intraocular inflammation with microhypopyon. All cultures were negative. All patients were managed with topical steroids and antibiotics, except two, in whom, due to severe vitreous cells, intravitreal antibiotics were used. Three patients showed a transient elevation of intraocular pressure. Only 50% of the patients regained a visual acuity equal or better to the baseline visual acuity on file. Conclusion The increasing number of intravitreal injections of bevacizumab applied every day, due to its widespread acceptance, might be one reason why the number of cases of sterile endophthalmitis is rising. Fast

  11. Sterilization Effect of Wet Oxygen Plasma in the Bubbling Method.

    PubMed

    Tamazawa, Kaoru; Shintani, Hideharu; Tamazawa, Yoshinori; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi

    2015-01-01

    A new low-temperature sterilization method to replace the ethylene oxide gas sterilization is needed. Strong bactericidal effects of OH and O2H radicals are well known. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sterilization effect of wet oxygen ("O2+H2O") plasma in the bubbling method, confirming the effect of humidity. Sterility assurance was confirmed by using a biological indicator (Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC7953, Namsa, USA). One hundred and eight samples (10(5) spores/carrier) were divided into three groups of 36 in each for treatment with a different type of gas (O2, O2+H2O, Air+H2O). Plasma processing was conducted using a plasma ashing apparatus (13.56 MHz, PACK-3(®), Y. A. C., Japan) under various gas pressures (13, 25, 50 Pa) and gas flows (50, 100, 200 sccm). Fixed plasma treatment parameters were power at 150 W, temperature of 60 ℃, treatment time of 10 min. The samples after treatment were incubated in trypticase soy broth at 58 ℃ for 72 h. The negative culture rate in the "O2+H2O" group was significantly (Mantel-Haenszel procedure, p<0.001) higher than in the other gas groups. It is suggested that the significant sterilization effect of the "O2+H2O" group depends on the bubbling method which is the method of introducing vapor into the chamber. The bubbling method seems able to generate OH and O2H radicals in a stable way.

  12. Development of vapor phase hydrogen peroxide sterilization process for spacecraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, N.; Schubert, W.; Knight, J.; Quigley, M.; Forsberg, G.; Ganapathi, G.; Yarbrough, C.; Koukol, R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper will present test data and discussion on the work we are conducting at JPL to address the following issues: 1) efficacy of sterilization process; 2) diffusion of hydrogen peroxide under sterilization process conditions into hard to reach places; 3) materials and components compatibility with the sterilization process and 4) development of methodology to protect sensitive components from hydrogen peroxide vapor.

  13. Progress in development of male sterile germplasm for hybrid rice breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, there are two types of male sterility mainly commercialized in hybrid rice production, three-line type or cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and two-line type or environmental male sterility (EMS). The great majority belongs to the CMS and there are four strategies that have been proven suc...

  14. 21 CFR 880.6885 - Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid chemical sterilants/high level... and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6885 Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants. (a) Identification. A liquid chemical sterilant/high level disinfectant is a germicide that...

  15. 21 CFR 880.6885 - Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Liquid chemical sterilants/high level... and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6885 Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants. (a) Identification. A liquid chemical sterilant/high level disinfectant is a germicide that...

  16. 21 CFR 880.6885 - Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Liquid chemical sterilants/high level... and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6885 Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants. (a) Identification. A liquid chemical sterilant/high level disinfectant is a germicide that...

  17. 21 CFR 880.6885 - Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Liquid chemical sterilants/high level... and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6885 Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants. (a) Identification. A liquid chemical sterilant/high level disinfectant is a germicide that...

  18. 21 CFR 880.6885 - Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Liquid chemical sterilants/high level... and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6885 Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants. (a) Identification. A liquid chemical sterilant/high level disinfectant is a germicide that...

  19. 77 FR 26162 - Amendments to Sterility Test Requirements for Biological Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... situations when the quality control unit conclusively determines, after conducting an investigation upon... ensure the reliability of the growth-promoting qualities of the sterility test culture media and to... prescribed sterility tests for both bulk and final container material, unless different sterility tests...

  20. On the 100th anniversary of sterile catgut kuhn: Franz Kuhn (1866-1929) and the epistemology of catgut sterilization.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Ulrich A; Kehl, Franz; Hamelmann, Wulf; Weisser, Christoph

    2007-12-01

    The long road to effective catgut sterilization began with the work of Lord Joseph Lister (1867) and did not end until 40 years later. At the end of the nineteenth century dozens of different techniques were used to "sterilize" catgut, by immersing the cord in a cold chemical solution, by exposing it to steam, or by a combination of the two techniques, yet none of these approaches offered the ultimate solution. One of the many physicians working on the catgut problem at that time was the German surgeon Franz Kuhn (1866-1929), best known as a pioneer of intubation anesthesia. This review offers a brief biographical sketch of Kuhn's life and career on the occasion of the centenary of Sterile Catgut Kuhn. The goal of the present study is to describe several landmarks in the development of the catgut sterilization method. To explain this process, two approaches are taken: first, an analysis to see whether the character traits of the typical surgeon at that time provided the soil in which innovation could thrive, and second, an epistemological examination of the conceptual models for the attainment of knowledge current at that time. Perspectives for the future are explored in light of the "imperative of responsibility" of Hans Jonas.

  1. Radiation and ethylene oxide terminal sterilization experiences with drug eluting stent products.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Byron J; Mendelson, Todd A; Craven, Michael D

    2011-12-01

    Radiation and ethylene oxide terminal sterilization are the two most frequently used processes in the medical device industry to render product within the final sterile barrier package free from viable microorganisms. They are efficacious, safe, and efficient approaches to the manufacture of sterile product. Terminal sterilization is routinely applied to a wide variety of commodity healthcare products (drapes, gowns, etc.) and implantable medical devices (bare metal stents, heart valves, vessel closure devices, etc.) along with products used during implantation procedures (catheters, guidewires, etc.). Terminal sterilization is also routinely used for processing combination products where devices, drugs, and/or biologics are combined on a single product. High patient safety, robust standards, routine process controls, and low-cost manufacturing are appealing aspects of terminal sterilization. As the field of combination products continues to expand and evolve, opportunity exists to expand the application of terminal sterilization to new combination products. Material compatibility challenges must be overcome to realize these opportunities. This article introduces the reader to terminal sterilization concepts, technologies, and the related standards that span different industries (pharmaceutical, medical device, biopharmaceuticals, etc.) and provides guidance on the application of these technologies. Guidance and examples of the application of terminal sterilization are discussed using experiences with drug eluting stents and bioresorbable vascular restoration devices. The examples provide insight into selecting the sterilization method, developing the process around it, and finally qualifying/validating the product in preparation for regulatory approval and commercialization. Future activities, including new sterilization technologies, are briefly discussed.

  2. Radiation sterilization of enzyme hybrids with biodegradable polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuta, Masakazu; Oka, Masahito; Hayashi, Toshio

    2002-03-01

    Ionizing radiations, which have already been utilized for the sterilization of medical supplies as well as gas fumigation, should be the final candidate to decontaminate "hybrid" biomaterials containing bio-active materials including enzymes because irradiation induces neither heat nor substances affecting the quality of the materials and our health. In order to check the feasibility of 60Co-gamma rays on these materials, we selected commercial proteases including papain and bromelain hybridized with commercial activated chitosan beads and demonstrated that these enzyme-hybrids suspended in water showed the significant radiation durability of more than twice as much as free enzyme solution at 25-kGy irradiation. Enhanced thermal and storage stability of the enzyme hybrids were not affected by the same dose level of irradiation, either, indicating that commercial irradiation sterilization method is applicable to enzyme hybrids without modification.

  3. Assessment of Sterility in Fluid Bags Maintained for Chronic Use

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Kristin A; Taylor, Douglas K

    2011-01-01

    Fluid therapy is an integral component of standard supportive care in veterinary medicine and is often given subcutaneously for ease of administration. Multiple animals may be treated by using the same bag. These bags often are used repeatedly until they are empty or until a time specified by an IACUC or similar advisory group. This practice introduces the risk of contamination. Here we assessed the sterility of multiple-use fluid bags in the laboratory setting for a maximum of 60 d. Bags were manipulated to mimic infrequent and frequent use. Bacterial cultures of fluid and bag wall and assays for endotoxin and ATP activity were negative at all time points through 30 d. Two fluid samples yielded bacterial growth at 60 d, although all other tests were negative. These results suggest that fluid bags used chronically can be maintained in a sterile condition for a maximum of 30 d. PMID:22330719

  4. Comparative approaches to the nonconsensual sterilization of the mentally retarded.

    PubMed

    Price, D P

    1990-01-01

    Laws governing the sterilization of persons so mentally retarded as to be unable themselves to consent to the procedure have left a trail of manifest abuses right around the globe, and no less in North America than elsewhere. Ostensibly, as a kind of rebound effect, courts in North America, and most obviously in Canada, have erected substantial legal obstacles in the path of those seeking the sterilization of such a retarded individual. Historically, such abuses have been of a lesser scale, or at least have been much less manifest, in Great Britain. In the absence of any significant negative legacy, courts in Britain would seem to have developed a more balanced and equitable, although not necessarily more reasoned, approach to the determination of such cases to the seeming benefit of many seriously retarded persons. Ironically, these same courts hinder their own efforts in relation to retarded adults by denying jurisdiction in such cases and refusing to seek an adequate remedy for the lacuna.

  5. Mechanism of microwave sterilization in the dry state

    SciTech Connect

    Jeng, D.K.H.; Kaczmarek, K.A.; Woodworth, A.G.; Balasky, G.

    1987-09-01

    With an automated computerized temperature control and a specialized temperature measurement system, dry spores of Bacillus subtilis subsp. niger were treated with heat simultaneously in a convection dry-heat oven and a microwave oven. The temperature of the microwave oven was monitored such that the temperature profiles of the spore samples in both heat sources were nearly identical. Under these experimental conditions, they unequivocally demonstrated that the mechanism of sporicidal action of the microwaves was caused solely by thermal effects. Nonthermal effects were not significant in a dry microwave sterilization process. Both heating systems showed that a dwelling time of more than 45 min was required to sterilize 10/sup 5/ inoculated spores in dry glass vials at 137/sup 0/C. The D values of both heating systems were 88, 14, and 7 min at 117, 130, and 137/sup 0/C, respectively. The Z value was estimated to be 18/sup 0/C.

  6. Omnibus experiment: CPT and CP violation with sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loo, K. K.; Novikov, N. Yu; Smirnov, M. V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Wurm, M.

    2016-05-01

    We propose to probe both the CPT and CP violation together with the search for sterile neutrinos in one do-it-all experiment. This omnibus experiment would utilize neutrino oscillometry with large scintillator detectors like LENA, JUNO or RENO-50 and manmade radioactive sources similar to the ones used by the GALLEX experiment. Our calculations indicate that such an experiment is realistic and could be performed in parallel to the main research plan for JUNO, LENA, or RENO-50. Assuming as the starting point the values of the oscillation parameters indicated by the current global fit (in 3 active + 1 sterile scenario) and requiring at least 5 sigma confidence level, we estimate that with the proposed experiment we would be able to detect CPT mass anomalies of the order of 1% or larger.

  7. Search for Sterile Neutrinos Mixing with Muon Neutrinos in MINOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamson, P.; Anghel, I.; Aurisano, A.; Barr, G.; Bishai, M.; Blake, A.; Bock, G. J.; Bogert, D.; Cao, S. V.; Carroll, T. J.; Castromonte, C. M.; Chen, R.; Childress, S.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Corwin, L.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; de Jong, J. K.; de Rijck, S.; Devan, A. V.; Devenish, N. E.; Diwan, M. V.; Escobar, C. O.; Evans, J. J.; Falk, E.; Feldman, G. J.; Flanagan, W.; Frohne, M. V.; Gabrielyan, M.; Gallagher, H. R.; Germani, S.; Gomes, R. A.; Goodman, M. C.; Gouffon, P.; Graf, N.; Gran, R.; Grzelak, K.; Habig, A.; Hahn, S. R.; Hartnell, J.; Hatcher, R.; Holin, A.; Huang, J.; Hylen, J.; Irwin, G. M.; Isvan, Z.; James, C.; Jensen, D.; Kafka, T.; Kasahara, S. M. S.; Koizumi, G.; Kordosky, M.; Kreymer, A.; Lang, K.; Ling, J.; Litchfield, P. J.; Lucas, P.; Mann, W. A.; Marshak, M. L.; Mayer, N.; McGivern, C.; Medeiros, M. M.; Mehdiyev, R.; Meier, J. R.; Messier, M. D.; Miller, W. H.; Mishra, S. R.; Moed Sher, S.; Moore, C. D.; Mualem, L.; Musser, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Newman, H. B.; Nichol, R. J.; Nowak, J. A.; O'Connor, J.; Orchanian, M.; Pahlka, R. B.; Paley, J.; Patterson, R. B.; Pawloski, G.; Perch, A.; Pfützner, M. M.; Phan, D. D.; Phan-Budd, S.; Plunkett, R. K.; Poonthottathil, N.; Qiu, X.; Radovic, A.; Rebel, B.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rubin, H. A.; Sail, P.; Sanchez, M. C.; Schneps, J.; Schreckenberger, A.; Schreiner, P.; Sharma, R.; Sousa, A.; Tagg, N.; Talaga, R. L.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M. A.; Tian, X.; Timmons, A.; Todd, J.; Tognini, S. C.; Toner, R.; Torretta, D.; Tzanakos, G.; Urheim, J.; Vahle, P.; Viren, B.; Weber, A.; Webb, R. C.; White, C.; Whitehead, L.; Whitehead, L. H.; Wojcicki, S. G.; Zwaska, R.; Minos Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    We report results of a search for oscillations involving a light sterile neutrino over distances of 1.04 and 735 km in a νμ-dominated beam with a peak energy of 3 GeV. The data, from an exposure of 10.56 ×1 020 protons on target, are analyzed using a phenomenological model with one sterile neutrino. We constrain the mixing parameters θ24 and Δ m412 and set limits on parameters of the four-dimensional Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata matrix, |Uμ 4|2 and |Uτ 4|2, under the assumption that mixing between νe and νs is negligible (|Ue 4|2=0 ). No evidence for νμ→νs transitions is found and we set a world-leading limit on θ24 for values of Δ m412 ≲1 eV2 .

  8. Search for a Light Sterile Neutrino at Daya Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, F. P.; Balantekin, A. B.; Band, H. R.; Beriguete, W.; Bishai, M.; Blyth, S.; Butorov, I.; Cao, G. F.; Cao, J.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, J. F.; Chang, L. C.; Chang, Y.; Chasman, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, Q. Y.; Chen, S. M.; Chen, X.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y. X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, Y. P.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, M. C.; Cummings, J. P.; de Arcos, J.; Deng, Z. Y.; Ding, Y. Y.; Diwan, M. V.; Draeger, E.; Du, X. F.; Dwyer, D. A.; Edwards, W. R.; Ely, S. R.; Fu, J. Y.; Ge, L. Q.; Gill, R.; Gonchar, M.; Gong, G. H.; Gong, H.; Grassi, M.; Gu, W. Q.; Guan, M. Y.; Guo, X. H.; Hackenburg, R. W.; Han, G. H.; Hans, S.; He, M.; Heeger, K. M.; Heng, Y. K.; Hinrichs, P.; Hor, Y. K.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hu, B. Z.; Hu, L. M.; Hu, L. J.; Hu, T.; Hu, W.; Huang, E. C.; Huang, H.; Huang, X. T.; Huber, P.; Hussain, G.; Isvan, Z.; Jaffe, D. E.; Jaffke, P.; Jen, K. L.; Jetter, S.; Ji, X. P.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, H. J.; Jiao, J. B.; Johnson, R. A.; Kang, L.; Kettell, S. H.; Kramer, M.; Kwan, K. K.; Kwok, M. W.; Kwok, T.; Lai, W. C.; Lau, K.; Lebanowski, L.; Lee, J.; Lei, R. T.; Leitner, R.; Leung, A.; Leung, J. K. C.; Lewis, C. A.; Li, D. J.; Li, F.; Li, G. S.; Li, Q. J.; Li, W. D.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y. F.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Lin, C. J.; Lin, G. L.; Lin, P. Y.; Lin, S. K.; Lin, Y. C.; Ling, J. J.; Link, J. M.; Littenberg, L.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Liu, D. W.; Liu, H.; Liu, J. L.; Liu, J. C.; Liu, S. S.; Liu, Y. B.; Lu, C.; Lu, H. Q.; Luk, K. B.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, X. B.; Ma, Y. Q.; McDonald, K. T.; McFarlane, M. C.; McKeown, R. D.; Meng, Y.; Mitchell, I.; Monari Kebwaro, J.; Nakajima, Y.; Napolitano, J.; Naumov, D.; Naumova, E.; Nemchenok, I.; Ngai, H. Y.; Ning, Z.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Olshevski, A.; Patton, S.; Pec, V.; Peng, J. C.; Piilonen, L. E.; Pinsky, L.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, F. Z.; Qi, M.; Qian, X.; Raper, N.; Ren, B.; Ren, J.; Rosero, R.; Roskovec, B.; Ruan, X. C.; Shao, B. B.; Steiner, H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. L.; Tam, Y. H.; Tang, X.; Themann, H.; Tsang, K. V.; Tsang, R. H. M.; Tull, C. E.; Tung, Y. C.; Viren, B.; Vorobel, V.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, L. Y.; Wang, M.; Wang, N. Y.; Wang, R. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. W.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. M.; Webber, D. M.; Wei, H. Y.; Wei, Y. D.; Wen, L. J.; Whisnant, K.; White, C. G.; Whitehead, L.; Wise, T.; Wong, H. L. H.; Wong, S. C. F.; Worcester, E.; Wu, Q.; Xia, D. M.; Xia, J. K.; Xia, X.; Xing, Z. Z.; Xu, J. Y.; Xu, J. L.; Xu, J.; Xu, Y.; Xue, T.; Yan, J.; Yang, C. C.; Yang, L.; Yang, M. S.; Yang, M. T.; Ye, M.; Yeh, M.; Yeh, Y. S.; Young, B. L.; Yu, G. Y.; Yu, J. Y.; Yu, Z. Y.; Zang, S. L.; Zeng, B.; Zhan, L.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, F. H.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, Q. M.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, Y. C.; Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. X.; Zhang, Z. J.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, J.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zheng, L.; Zhong, W. L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, Z. Y.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zou, J. H.; Daya Bay Collaboration

    2014-10-01

    A search for light sterile neutrino mixing was performed with the first 217 days of data from the Daya Bay Reactor Antineutrino Experiment. The experiment's unique configuration of multiple baselines from six 2.9 GWth nuclear reactors to six antineutrino detectors deployed in two near (effective baselines 512 m and 561 m) and one far (1579 m) underground experimental halls makes it possible to test for oscillations to a fourth (sterile) neutrino in the 10-3 eV2<|Δm412|<0.3 eV2 range. The relative spectral distortion due to the disappearance of electron antineutrinos was found to be consistent with that of the three-flavor oscillation model. The derived limits on sin22θ14 cover the 10-3 eV2≲|Δm412|≲0.1 eV2 region, which was largely unexplored.

  9. [Juvenile sterile granulomatous dermatitis and lymphadenitis in the dog].

    PubMed

    Weingart, C; Eule, C; Welle, M; Kohn, B

    2011-04-01

    Juvenile sterile granulomatous dermatitis and lymphadenitis is a rare immune-mediated skin disease in young dogs. History, signalment, diagnostics, treatment, and outcome in 10 dogs are described. The age ranged from 8 - 36 weeks. The lymph nodes were enlarged in all dogs, especially the mandibular and prescapular lymph nodes. Systemic signs including fever were present in 8 dogs. Seven dogs suffered from blepharitis and painful edema of the muzzle with hemorrhagic discharge, pustules and papules. Cytology of pustules and lymph node aspirates revealed a pyogranulomatous inflammation. In 7 cases the diagnosis of juvenile sterile granulomatous dermatitis and lymphadenitis was confirmed by histology. Nine dogs were treated with prednisolone (0.5 - 1.25 mg/kg BID), H2-receptor antagonists and analgetics; all dogs were treated with antibiotics. Four dogs were treated with eye ointment containing antibiotics and glucocorticoids. The prednisolone dosage was tapered over 3 - 8 weeks. One dog had a relapse.

  10. Search for a light sterile neutrino at Daya Bay.

    PubMed

    An, F P; Balantekin, A B; Band, H R; Beriguete, W; Bishai, M; Blyth, S; Butorov, I; Cao, G F; Cao, J; Chan, Y L; Chang, J F; Chang, L C; Chang, Y; Chasman, C; Chen, H; Chen, Q Y; Chen, S M; Chen, X; Chen, X; Chen, Y X; Chen, Y; Cheng, Y P; Cherwinka, J J; Chu, M C; Cummings, J P; de Arcos, J; Deng, Z Y; Ding, Y Y; Diwan, M V; Draeger, E; Du, X F; Dwyer, D A; Edwards, W R; Ely, S R; Fu, J Y; Ge, L Q; Gill, R; Gonchar, M; Gong, G H; Gong, H; Grassi, M; Gu, W Q; Guan, M Y; Guo, X H; Hackenburg, R W; Han, G H; Hans, S; He, M; Heeger, K M; Heng, Y K; Hinrichs, P; Hor, Y K; Hsiung, Y B; Hu, B Z; Hu, L M; Hu, L J; Hu, T; Hu, W; Huang, E C; Huang, H; Huang, X T; Huber, P; Hussain, G; Isvan, Z; Jaffe, D E; Jaffke, P; Jen, K L; Jetter, S; Ji, X P; Ji, X L; Jiang, H J; Jiao, J B; Johnson, R A; Kang, L; Kettell, S H; Kramer, M; Kwan, K K; Kwok, M W; Kwok, T; Lai, W C; Lau, K; Lebanowski, L; Lee, J; Lei, R T; Leitner, R; Leung, A; Leung, J K C; Lewis, C A; Li, D J; Li, F; Li, G S; Li, Q J; Li, W D; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, Y F; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Lin, C J; Lin, G L; Lin, P Y; Lin, S K; Lin, Y C; Ling, J J; Link, J M; Littenberg, L; Littlejohn, B R; Liu, D W; Liu, H; Liu, J L; Liu, J C; Liu, S S; Liu, Y B; Lu, C; Lu, H Q; Luk, K B; Ma, Q M; Ma, X Y; Ma, X B; Ma, Y Q; McDonald, K T; McFarlane, M C; McKeown, R D; Meng, Y; Mitchell, I; Monari Kebwaro, J; Nakajima, Y; Napolitano, J; Naumov, D; Naumova, E; Nemchenok, I; Ngai, H Y; Ning, Z; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Olshevski, A; Patton, S; Pec, V; Peng, J C; Piilonen, L E; Pinsky, L; Pun, C S J; Qi, F Z; Qi, M; Qian, X; Raper, N; Ren, B; Ren, J; Rosero, R; Roskovec, B; Ruan, X C; Shao, B B; Steiner, H; Sun, G X; Sun, J L; Tam, Y H; Tang, X; Themann, H; Tsang, K V; Tsang, R H M; Tull, C E; Tung, Y C; Viren, B; Vorobel, V; Wang, C H; Wang, L S; Wang, L Y; Wang, M; Wang, N Y; Wang, R G; Wang, W; Wang, W W; Wang, X; Wang, Y F; Wang, Z; Wang, Z; Wang, Z M; Webber, D M; Wei, H Y; Wei, Y D; Wen, L J; Whisnant, K; White, C G; Whitehead, L; Wise, T; Wong, H L H; Wong, S C F; Worcester, E; Wu, Q; Xia, D M; Xia, J K; Xia, X; Xing, Z Z; Xu, J Y; Xu, J L; Xu, J; Xu, Y; Xue, T; Yan, J; Yang, C C; Yang, L; Yang, M S; Yang, M T; Ye, M; Yeh, M; Yeh, Y S; Young, B L; Yu, G Y; Yu, J Y; Yu, Z Y; Zang, S L; Zeng, B; Zhan, L; Zhang, C; Zhang, F H; Zhang, J W; Zhang, Q M; Zhang, Q; Zhang, S H; Zhang, Y C; Zhang, Y M; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Y X; Zhang, Z J; Zhang, Z Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhao, Q W; Zhao, Y; Zhao, Y B; Zheng, L; Zhong, W L; Zhou, L; Zhou, Z Y; Zhuang, H L; Zou, J H

    2014-10-03

    A search for light sterile neutrino mixing was performed with the first 217 days of data from the Daya Bay Reactor Antineutrino Experiment. The experiment's unique configuration of multiple baselines from six 2.9 GW(th) nuclear reactors to six antineutrino detectors deployed in two near (effective baselines 512 m and 561 m) and one far (1579 m) underground experimental halls makes it possible to test for oscillations to a fourth (sterile) neutrino in the 10(-3) eV(2)<|Δm(41)(2) |< 0.3 eV(2) range. The relative spectral distortion due to the disappearance of electron antineutrinos was found to be consistent with that of the three-flavor oscillation model. The derived limits on sin(2) 2θ(14) cover the 10(-3) eV(2) ≲ |Δm(41)(2)| ≲ 0.1 eV(2) region, which was largely unexplored.

  11. Active and sterile neutrino mass effects on beta decay spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Boillos, Juan Manuel; Moya de Guerra, Elvira

    2013-06-10

    We study the spectra of the emitted charged leptons in charge current weak nuclear processes to analyze the effect of neutrino masses. Standard active neutrinos are studied here, with masses of the order of 1 eV or lower, as well as sterile neutrinos with masses of a few keV. The latter are warm dark matter (WDM) candidates hypothetically produced or captured as small mixtures with the active neutrinos. We compute differential decay or capture rates spectra in weak charged processes of different nuclei ({sup 3}H, {sup 187}Re, {sup 107}Pd, {sup 163}Ho, etc) using different masses of both active and sterile neutrinos and different values of the mixing parameter.

  12. Post-tubal sterilization problems correlated with ovarian steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cattanach, J F; Milne, B J

    1988-11-01

    Mid-luteal phase total urinary oestrogen excretion was found to be significantly reduced in women who had previously undergone tubal sterilization at least two years before assay; pregnanediol levels at or below 2.0 mg/24 hrs were significantly more frequent for the study group. These findings indicate that reduced ovarian function is associated with that procedure. The major problems declared as having been experienced subsequent to tubal sterilization were classified into three categories; some women declared problems in more than one category: (1) Abnormal uterine bleeding and/or menorrhagia, (2) Physical problems, (3) Psychological and/or psychiatric problems. Category 1 was associated with a significant fall in total oestrogen excretion, and category 2 with a significant fall in both total oestrogen and pregnanediol excretion. Analysis of category 3 will be published elsewhere. A negative correlation between total oestrogens and cholesterol was observed.

  13. [Sterilizing effect of atmospheric pressure plasma jet on microbes].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xu-Qin; Wang, Shou-guo; Han, Li; Zhao, Ling-li; Chang, Xiao; Chen, Geng; Suo, Ji-jiang; Xing, Yu-bin; Chen, Shi-ping

    2005-04-01

    To study the sterilizing effect and mechanism of APPJ on microbes preliminarily, three representative bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis var. niger were treated by two kinds of plasma, DBD (dielectric barrier discharge) and APPJ. The survival curves of different microbes were compared and analyzed; Furthermore, the morphological change to cell walls and cell membranes were studied by scanning electric microscope. These results demonstrated that in the beginning phase the sterilizing effect of two kinds of plasmas on three microorganisms was stronger than in the later phase, and APPJ was more effective than DBD (D value of DBD on Bacillus subtilis var. niger was 70 s, whereas APPJ's was 4 s, much more efficient). Meanwhile, the gross morphological damage of E. coli cells under SEM after APPJ treatment was observed. These gave the obvious evidence that APPJ can destroy the microbes very efficiently, and more likely through the damage of cell walls and membranes of microbes treated by APPJ.

  14. Principles of Sterilization of Mars Descent Vehicle Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vladislav; Deshevaya, Elena; Khamidullina, N.; Kalashnikov, Viktor

    Due to COSPAR severe requirements to permissible microbiological contamination of elements of down-to-Mars S/C as well as complexity of their chemical composition and structure the exposure of such S/C elements to antimicrobial treatment (sterilization) at their integration requires application of a wide set of methods: chemical, ultraviolet, radiation. The report describes the analysis of all the aspects of applicable methods of treatment for cleaning of elements’ surfaces and inner contents from microbiota. The analysis showed that the most important, predictable and controllable method is radiation processing (of the elements which don’t change their properties after effective treatment). The experience of ionizing radiation application for sterilization of products for medicine, etc. shows that, depending on initial microbial contamination of lander elements, the required absorbed dose can be within the range 12 ÷ 35 kGr. The analysis of the effect of irregularity of radiation absorption in complex structure elements to the choice of radiation methodology was made and the algorithm of the choice of effective conditions of radiation treatment and control of sterilization efficiency was suggested. The important phase of establishing of the effective condition of each structure element treatment is experimental verification of real microbiological contamination in terms of S/C integration, contamination maximum decrease using another cleaning procedures (mechanical, chemical, ultraviolet) and determination of radiation resistance of spore microorganisms typical for the shops of space technology manufacturing and assembling. Proceeding from three parameters (irregularity of radiation absorption in a concrete element, its initial microbial contamination and resistance of microorganisms to the effect of radiation) the condition of the packed object sterilization is chosen, the condition that prevents secondary contamination, ensures given reliability of the

  15. Mars Sample Handling Protocol Workshop Series: Workshop 2a (Sterilization)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, John D. (Editor); Brunch, Carl W. (Editor); Setlow, Richard B. (Editor); DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Studies Board of the National Research Council provided a series of recommendations to NASA on planetary protection requirements for future Mars sample return missions. One of the Board's key findings suggested, although current evidence of the martian surface suggests that life as we know it would not tolerate the planet's harsh environment, there remain 'plausible scenarios for extant microbial life on Mars.' Based on this conclusion, all samples returned from Mars should be considered potentially hazardous until it has been demonstrated that they are not. In response to the National Research Council's findings and recommendations, NASA has undertaken a series of workshops to address issues regarding NASA's proposed sample return missions. Work was previously undertaken at the Mars Sample Handling and Protocol Workshop 1 (March 2000) to formulate recommendations on effective methods for life detection and/or biohazard testing on returned samples. The NASA Planetary Protection Officer convened the Mars Sample Sterilization Workshop, the third in the Mars Sample Handling Protocol Workshop Series, on November 28-30, 2000 at the Holiday Inn Rosslyn Westpark, Arlington, Virginia. Because of the short timeframe between this Workshop and the second Workshop in the Series, which was convened in October 2000 in Bethesda, Maryland, they were developed in parallel, so the Sterilization Workshop and its report have therefore been designated as '2a'). The focus of Workshop 2a was to make recommendations for effective sterilization procedures for all phases of Mars sample return missions, and to answer the question of whether we can sterilize samples in such a way that the geological characteristics of the samples are not significantly altered.

  16. Phenomenological study of extended seesaw model for light sterile neutrino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Newton; Ghosh, Monojit; Goswami, Srubabati; Gupta, Shivani

    2017-03-01

    We study the zero textures of the Yukawa matrices in the minimal extended type-I seesaw (MES) model which can give rise to ˜ eV scale sterile neutrinos. In this model, three right handed neutrinos and one extra singlet S are added to generate a light sterile neutrino. The light neutrino mass matrix for the active neutrinos, m ν , depends on the Dirac neutrino mass matrix ( M D ), Majorana neutrino mass matrix ( M R ) and the mass matrix ( M S ) coupling the right handed neutrinos and the singlet. The model predicts one of the light neutrino masses to vanish. We systematically investigate the zero textures in M D and observe that maximum five zeros in M D can lead to viable zero textures in m ν . For this study we consider four different forms for M R (one diagonal and three off diagonal) and two different forms of ( M S ) containing one zero. Remarkably we obtain only two allowed forms of m ν ( m eτ = 0 and m ττ = 0) having inverted hierarchical mass spectrum. We re-analyze the phenomenological implications of these two allowed textures of m ν in the light of recent neutrino oscillation data. In the context of the MES model, we also express the low energy mass matrix, the mass of the sterile neutrino and the active-sterile mixing in terms of the parameters of the allowed Yukawa matrices. The MES model leads to some extra correlations which disallow some of the Yukawa textures obtained earlier, even though they give allowed one-zero forms of m ν . We show that the allowed textures in our study can be realized in a simple way in a model based on MES mechanism with a discrete Abelian flavor symmetry group Z 8 × Z 2.

  17. Light sterile neutrino sensitivity at the nuSTORM facility

    SciTech Connect

    Adey, D.; Agarwalla, S. K.; Ankenbrandt, C. M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Back, J. J.; Barker, G.; Baussan, E.; Bayes, R.; Bhadra, S.; Blackmore, V.; Blondel, A.; Bogacz, S. A.; Booth, C.; Boyd, S. B.; Bramsiepe, S. G.; Bravar, A.; Brice, S. J.; Bross, A. D.; Cadoux, F.; Cease, H.; Cervera, A.; Cobb, J.; Colling, D.; Coloma, P.; Coney, L.; Dobbs, A.; Dobson, J.; Donini, A.; Dornan, P.; Dracos, M.; Dufour, F.; Edgecock, R.; Geelhoed, M.; Uchida, M. A.; Ghosh, T.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; de Gouvêa, A.; Haesler, A.; Hanson, G.; Harrison, P. F.; Hartz, M.; Hernández, P.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; Hodgson, P.; Huber, P.; Izmaylov, A.; Karadzhov, Y.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kopp, J.; Kormos, L.; Korzenev, A.; Kuno, Y.; Kurup, A.; Kyberd, P.; Lagrange, J. B.; Laing, A.; Liu, A.; Link, J. M.; Long, K.; Mahn, K.; Mariani, C.; Martin, C.; Martin, J.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, K. T.; Mena, O.; Mishra, S. R.; Mokhov, N.; Morfín, J.; Mori, Y.; Murray, W.; Neuffer, D.; Nichol, R.; Noah, E.; Palmer, M. A.; Parke, S.; Pascoli, S.; Pasternak, J.; Plunkett, R.; Popovic, M.; Ratoff, P.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M.; Ricciardi, S.; Rogers, C.; Rubinov, P.; Santos, E.; Sato, A.; Sen, T.; Scantamburlo, E.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Smith, D. R.; Smith, P. J.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Søby, L.; Soler, F. J. P.; Sorel, M.; Snopok, P.; Stamoulis, P.; Stanco, L.; Striganov, S.; Tanaka, H. A.; Taylor, I. J.; Touramanis, C.; Tunnell, C. D.; Uchida, Y.; Vassilopoulos, N.; Wascko, M. O.; Weber, A.; Wilking, M. J.; Wildner, E.; Winter, W.

    2014-04-01

    A facility that can deliver beams of electron and muon neutrinos from the decay of a stored muon beam has the potential to unambiguously resolve the issue of the evidence for light sterile neutrinos that arises in short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments and from estimates of the effective number of neutrino flavors from fits to cosmological data. In this paper, we show that the nuSTORM facility, with stored muons of 3.8GeV/c±10%, will be able to carry out a conclusive muon neutrino appearance search for sterile neutrinos and test the LSND and MiniBooNE experimental signals with 10σ sensitivity, even assuming conservative estimates for the systematic uncertainties. This experiment would add greatly to our knowledge of the contribution of light sterile neutrinos to the number of effective neutrino flavors from the abundance of primordial helium production and from constraints on neutrino energy density from the cosmic microwave background. The appearance search is complemented by a simultaneous muon neutrino disappearance analysis that will facilitate tests of various sterile neutrino models.

  18. [Microcontroller temperature regulator MPT110 for drying-sterilizing cabinets].

    PubMed

    Kostin, N N; Gavrishchuk, V I; Zelepukin, S A; Shkulepa, V M; Zharov, E N

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes a MPT-110 temperature microcontroller developed by the closed joint-stock company "OPLEKS" (Orel, Russia) and the results of comparative tests performed in the @IIICC-80 drying sterilizing cabinet. The use of the MPT-110 controller is shown to improve the quality of control and to shorten the times that is taken for the cabinet to reach the preset temperature point.

  19. Autograft versus sterilized allograft for lateral calcaneal lengthening osteotomies

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Sebastian A.; Barg, Alexej; Vavken, Patrick; Valderrabano, Victor; Müller, Andreas M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sterilized allografts may be less resistant to collapse and prone to nonunion leading to loss of correction in open wedge osteotomies. These adverse events usually occur at early time points (i.e., < 9 months postoperatively). The goal of this study was to compare sterilized allografts to autologous grafts in respect to secondary loss of hindfoot alignment and graft incorporation after lateral calcaneal lengthening osteotomies. Fifty patients (22 F/ 28 M, age: 16–69 years) who had undergone 50 lateral calcaneal lengthening osteotomies for adult flatfoot deformity were included in this retrospective study. Cortical sterilized allografts were used in 25 patients, autologous grafts in the remaining 25. Patients’ preoperative, 6 and 12 weeks, and 6 to 9 months follow-up weight-bearing radiographs of the affected foot were analyzed by 2 blinded radiologists: on each radiograph, graft incorporation, the talo-first metatarsal angle (TFMA), the talo-navicular coverage angle (TNCA), and the calcaneal pitch angle (CPA) were assessed. Loss of hindfoot alignment was defined as an increase of the TFMA or the TNCA or a decrease of the CPA, each by 5°. Inter- and intraclass correlation coefficients for TFMA, TNCA, and CPA measurements ranged from 0.93 to 0.99. At all follow-up visits, the ratio of patients with loss of hindfoot alignment and graft incorporation was not significantly different between the allograft and autograft group. However, loss of correction was associated with failure of graft incorporation. Compared with autografts, sterilized allografts do not increase the risk for loss of hindfoot alignment in lateral column lengthening of the calcaneus. With respect to mechanical resistance, allografts thus mean an equal and valid alternative without risk of donor site morbidities. PMID:27472719

  20. Expression of Engineered Nuclear Male Sterility in Brassica napus (Genetics, Morphology, Cytology, and Sensitivity to Temperature).

    PubMed Central

    Denis, M.; Delourme, R.; Gourret, J. P.; Mariani, C.; Renard, M.

    1993-01-01

    A dominant genetic male sterility trait obtained through transformation in rapeseed (Brassica napus) was studied in the progenies of 11 transformed plants. The gene conferring the male sterility consists of a ribonuclease gene under the control of a tapetum-specific promoter. Two ribonuclease genes, RNase T1 and barnase, were used. The chimaeric ribonuclease gene was linked to the bialophos-resistance gene, which confers resistance to the herbicide phosphinotricine (PPT). The resistance to the herbicide was used as a dominant marker for the male sterility trait. The study presented here concerns three aspects of this engineered male sterility: genetics correlated with the segregation of the T-DNA in the progenies; expression of the male sterility in relation to the morphology and cytology of the androecium; and stability of the engineered male sterility under different culture conditions. Correct segregation, 50% male-sterile, PPT-resistant plants, and 50% male-fertile, susceptible plants were observed in the progeny of seven transformants. The most prominent morphological change in the male-sterile flowers was a noticeable reduction in the length of the stamen filament. The first disturbances of microsporogenesis were observed from the free microspore stage and were followed by a simultaneous degeneration of microspore and tapetal cell content. At anthesis, the sterile anthers contained only empty exines. In some cases, reversion to fertility of male-sterile plants has been observed. Both ribonuclease genes are susceptible to instability. Instability of the RNase T1-male sterility trait increased at temperatures higher than 25[deg] C. Our results do not allow us to confirm this observation for the barnase male-sterile plants. However, the male-sterile plants of the progeny of two independent RNase T1 transformants were stably male sterile under all conditions studied. PMID:12231785

  1. Rates of ectopic pregnancy, sterility follow PID rise.

    PubMed

    1980-05-01

    500,000 cases of PID (pelvic inflammatory disease) are reported annually in the US, with 34,000 to 92,000 women becoming sterile as a consequence of the disease. In addition, the contraceptive methods women use during their exposure to PID-causing agents may directly affect their relative risk of developing PID, at an annual cost of $2.7 billion in health-care expenses. Another sequelae of PID is ectopic pregnancy. The STD epidemic years from 1965 to 1975 are projected to increase the rate of ectopic pregnancies to 50,000 a year, or one for every 60 live births before leveling off. By 1990, 1 out of 32 women will have had an ectopic pregnancy. Tubal occlusion can result in involuntary infertility. The National Survey of Family Growth estimates that the prevalence of infertile women aged 15 to 44 who are married and use no contraceptive method has increased in the past 2-1/2 years from 2.7% to 6.1%. These women number 142,000 annually and resort to nonsurgical sterilization, with PID as a major reason. Gonococcal PID accounts for 34,000 to 92,000 women becoming involuntarily sterile each year. However, over 80% of PID is nongonococcal PID, which is a worst disease. Chronic PID and infertility are found "more often in women who have had nongonococcal PID than in women who have had gonococcal PID." Etiologic organisms of PID include gonorrhea; E. coli, anaerobes and Chlamydia trachomatis.

  2. Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation: Mexican clinical experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Pardo, M. E.; Ley-Chávez, E.; Reyes-Frías, M. L.; Rodríguez-Ferreyra, P.; Vázquez-Maya, L.; Salazar, M. A.

    2007-11-01

    Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation, such as amnion and pig skin, are a reality in Mexico. These tissues are currently processed in the tissue bank and sterilized in the Gamma Industrial Irradiation Plant; both facilities belong to the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) (National Institute of Nuclear Research). With the strong support of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the bank was established at the ININ and the Mexican Ministry of Health issued its sanitary license on July 7, 1999. The Quality Management System of the bank was certified by ISO 9001:2000 on August 1, 2003; the scope of the system is "Research, Development and Processing of Biological Tissues Sterilized with Gamma Radiation". At present, more than 150 patients from 16 hospitals have been successfully treated with these tissues. This paper presents a brief description of the tissue processing, as well as the present Mexican clinical experience with children and adult patients who underwent medical treatment with radiosterilized amnion and pig skin, used as biological wound dressings on burns and ocular surface disorders.

  3. Atmospheric-pressure plasma decontamination/sterilization chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, Hans W.; Selwyn, Gary S.

    2001-01-01

    An atmospheric-pressure plasma decontamination/sterilization chamber is described. The apparatus is useful for decontaminating sensitive equipment and materials, such as electronics, optics and national treasures, which have been contaminated with chemical and/or biological warfare agents, such as anthrax, mustard blistering agent, VX nerve gas, and the like. There is currently no acceptable procedure for decontaminating such equipment. The apparatus may also be used for sterilization in the medical and food industries. Items to be decontaminated or sterilized are supported inside the chamber. Reactive gases containing atomic and metastable oxygen species are generated by an atmospheric-pressure plasma discharge in a He/O.sub.2 mixture and directed into the region of these items resulting in chemical reaction between the reactive species and organic substances. This reaction typically kills and/or neutralizes the contamination without damaging most equipment and materials. The plasma gases are recirculated through a closed-loop system to minimize the loss of helium and the possibility of escape of aerosolized harmful substances.

  4. Genetics and Evolution of Hybrid Male Sterility in House Mice

    PubMed Central

    White, Michael A.; Stubbings, Maria; Dumont, Beth L.; Payseur, Bret A.

    2012-01-01

    Comparative genetic mapping provides insights into the evolution of the reproductive barriers that separate closely related species. This approach has been used to document the accumulation of reproductive incompatibilities over time, but has only been applied to a few taxa. House mice offer a powerful system to reconstruct the evolution of reproductive isolation between multiple subspecies pairs. However, studies of the primary reproductive barrier in house mice—hybrid male sterility—have been restricted to a single subspecies pair: Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus. To provide a more complete characterization of reproductive isolation in house mice, we conducted an F2 intercross between wild-derived inbred strains from Mus musculus castaneus and M. m. domesticus. We identified autosomal and X-linked QTL associated with a range of hybrid male sterility phenotypes, including testis weight, sperm density, and sperm morphology. The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) was strongly associated with hybrid sterility phenotypes when heterozygous. We compared QTL found in this cross with QTL identified in a previous F2 intercross between M. m. musculus and M. m. domesticus and found three shared autosomal QTL. Most QTL were not shared, demonstrating that the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility largely differs between these closely related subspecies pairs. These results lay the groundwork for identifying genes responsible for the early stages of speciation in house mice. PMID:22554891

  5. Distinguishing Dirac/Majorana sterile neutrinos at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dib, Claudio O.; Kim, C. S.; Wang, Kechen; Zhang, Jue

    2016-07-01

    We study the purely leptonic decays of W±→e±e±μ∓ν and μ±μ±e∓ν produced at the LHC, induced by sterile neutrinos with mass mN below MW in the intermediate state. Since the final state neutrino escapes detection, one cannot tell whether this process violates lepton number, which would indicate a Majorana character for the intermediate sterile neutrino. Our study shows that when the sterile neutrino mixings with electrons and muons are different enough, one can still discriminate between the Dirac and Majorana character of this intermediate neutrino by simply counting and comparing the above decay rates. After performing collider simulations and statistical analysis, we find that at the 14 TeV LHC with an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1, for two benchmark scenarios mN=20 and 50 GeV, at least a 3 σ level of exclusion on the Dirac case can be achieved for disparities as mild as, e.g., |UN e|2<0.7 |UN μ|2 or |UN μ|2<0.7 |UN e|2 , provided that |UN e|2 and |UN μ|2 are both above ˜2 ×10-6.

  6. No new cosmological concordance with massive sterile neutrinos.

    PubMed

    Leistedt, Boris; Peiris, Hiranya V; Verde, Licia

    2014-07-25

    It has been claimed recently that massive sterile neutrinos could bring about a new concordance between observations of the cosmic microwave background, the large-scale structure of the Universe, and local measurements of the Hubble constant, H(0). We demonstrate that this apparent concordance results from combining data sets which are in significant tension, even within this extended model, possibly indicating remaining systematic biases in the measurements. We further show that this tension remains when the cosmological model is further extended to include significant tensor modes, as suggested by the recent BICEP2 results. Using the Bayesian evidence, we show that the cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant is strongly favored over its neutrino extensions by various combinations of data sets. Robust data combinations yield stringent limits of ∑m(ν) ≲ 0.3 eV and m(ν,sterile)(eff) ≲ 0.3 eV at 95% C.L. for the sum of active and sterile neutrinos, respectively.

  7. A Sterile-Neutrino Search with the MINOS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, Philip

    2010-01-01

    The MINOS experiment is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in the the NuMI beamline at Fermilab, USA. Using a near detector at 1 km distance from the neutrino production target, and a far detector at 735 km from the target, it is designed primarily to measure the disappearance of muon neutrinos. This thesis presents an analysis using MINOS data of the possibility of oscil- lation of the neutrinos in the NuMI beam to a hypothetical sterile flavour, which would have no Standard Model couplings. Such oscillations would result in a deficit in the neutral current interaction rate in the MINOS far detector relative to the expectation derived from the near detector data. The method used to identify neutral current and charged current events in the MINOS detectors is described and a new method of predicting and fitting the far detector spectrum presented, along with the effects of systematic uncertainties on the sterile neutrino oscillation analysis. Using this analysis, the fraction fs of the disappearing neutrinos that go to steriles is constrained to be below 0.15 at the 90% confidence level in the absence of electron neutrino appearance in the NuMI beam. With electron appearance at the CHOOZ limit, fs < 0.41 at 90% C.L.

  8. Join the "Club of the Sterilized" Hanoi urges.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    In Viet Nam, the government has mounted a program of encouraging sterilization to control population growth. Peasants who have been sterilized are being urged to form and join special motivational clubs to give momentum to the initiative, and financial incentives are provided to those who accept sterilization after having two children. The government action follows concerns that rapid population growth will strain the country's newly achieved economic gains and ability to produce enough food. Until recently, large families were eligible for greater amounts of land being allocated, and the government's new initiative faces challenges in districts that are prosperous or are predominantly Roman Catholic. With domestic funds in short supply, Viet Nam has depended upon the UN Population Fund for training, equipment supply, and development of an assembly line at a condom factory. The government plans to screen pregnant women for fetal anomalies to insure that only healthy fetuses are carried to term. For several decades, Viet Nam will be suffering from the effects of the spraying of herbicides undertaken by the US during the war. Miscarriages, stillbirths, and fetal deformities are among those effects.

  9. Mechanistic Differences Leading to Infectious and Sterile Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Behnia, Faranak; Sheller, Samantha; Menon, Ramkumar

    2016-05-01

    Inflammation is a physiologic component of pregnancy and parturition. Overwhelming intrauterine inflammatory load promotes quiescent feto-maternal tissues into a contractile phenotype. Like inflammation, oxidative stress is an inevitable component of both pregnancy and parturition. Pathologic activation of host innate immune response to adverse pregnancy conditions can lead to premature activation of inflammatory and oxidative stress. Inflammation and oxidative stress markers seen with both sterile and infectious inflammation are often similar; therefore, it is difficult to understand causality of conditions like spontaneous preterm birth. This review demonstrates potential mechanistic pathways of activation of sterile and infectious inflammation. We demonstrate the activation of two unique pathways of inflammation by factors that are well-documented proxies for oxidative stress (cigarette smoke extract) and infection (lipopolysaccharide). Sterile inflammation seen after exposure to an oxidative stress inducer is due to cellular elemental damage resulting in p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) induced cellular senescence. Infectious inflammation is through activation of transcription factor NF-κB and independent of oxidative stress-associated damages and p38 MAPK-induced senescence. Understanding the differences in the inflammatory pathway activation by various risk factors is important to design better screening, diagnostic and intervention strategies to reduce the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  10. Fecundity compensation and tolerance to a sterilizing pathogen in Daphnia.

    PubMed

    Vale, P F; Little, T J

    2012-09-01

    Hosts are armed with several lines of defence in the battle against parasites: they may prevent the establishment of infection, reduce parasite growth once infected or persevere through mechanisms that reduce the damage caused by infection, called tolerance. Studies on tolerance in animals have focused on mortality, and sterility tolerance has not been investigated experimentally. Here, we tested for genetic variation in the multiple steps of defence when the invertebrate Daphnia magna is infected with the sterilizing bacterial pathogen Pasteuria ramosa: anti-infection resistance, anti-growth resistance and the ability to tolerate sterilization once infected. When exposed to nine doses of a genetically diverse pathogen inoculum, six host genotypes varied in their average susceptibility to infection and in their parasite loads once infected. How host fecundity changed with increasing parasite loads did not vary between genotypes, indicating that there was no genetic variation for this measure of fecundity tolerance. However, genotypes differed in their level of fecundity compensation under infection, and we discuss how, by increasing host fitness without targeting parasite densities, fecundity compensation is consistent with the functional definition of tolerance. Such infection-induced life-history shifts are not traditionally considered to be part of the immune response, but may crucially reduce harm (in terms of fitness loss) caused by disease, and are a distinct source of selection on pathogens.

  11. Fecundity compensation and tolerance to a sterilizing pathogen in Daphnia

    PubMed Central

    Vale, P F; Little, T J

    2012-01-01

    Hosts are armed with several lines of defence in the battle against parasites: they may prevent the establishment of infection, reduce parasite growth once infected or persevere through mechanisms that reduce the damage caused by infection, called tolerance. Studies on tolerance in animals have focused on mortality, and sterility tolerance has not been investigated experimentally. Here, we tested for genetic variation in the multiple steps of defence when the invertebrate Daphnia magna is infected with the sterilizing bacterial pathogen Pasteuria ramosa: anti-infection resistance, anti-growth resistance and the ability to tolerate sterilization once infected. When exposed to nine doses of a genetically diverse pathogen inoculum, six host genotypes varied in their average susceptibility to infection and in their parasite loads once infected. How host fecundity changed with increasing parasite loads did not vary between genotypes, indicating that there was no genetic variation for this measure of fecundity tolerance. However, genotypes differed in their level of fecundity compensation under infection, and we discuss how, by increasing host fitness without targeting parasite densities, fecundity compensation is consistent with the functional definition of tolerance. Such infection-induced life-history shifts are not traditionally considered to be part of the immune response, but may crucially reduce harm (in terms of fitness loss) caused by disease, and are a distinct source of selection on pathogens. PMID:22856460

  12. Space hardware compatibility tests with hydrogen peroxide gas plasma sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faye, Delphine; Aguila, Alexandre; Debus, Andre; Remaury, Stephanie; Nabarra, Pascale; Darbord, Jacques C.; Soufflet, Caroline; Destrez, Philippe; Coll, Patrice; Coscia, David

    The exploration of the Solar System shall comply with planetary protection requirements handled presently by the Committee of Space Research (COSPAR). The goal of planetary protection is to protect celestial bodies from terrestrial contamination and also to protect the Earth environment from an eventual contamination carried by return samples or by space systems. For project teams, avoiding the biological contamination of other Solar System bodies such as Mars imposes to perform unusual tasks at technical and operational constraints point of view. The main are the reduction of bioburden on space hardware, the sterile integration of landers, the control of the biological cleanliness and the limitation of crash probability. In order to reduce the bioburden on spacecraft, the use of qualified sterilization processes may be envisaged. Since 1992 now, with the Mars96 mission, one of the most often used is the Sterrad(R) process working with hydrogen peroxide gas plasma. In the view of future Mars exploration programs, after tests performed in the frame of previous missions, a new test campaign has been performed on thermal coatings and miscellaneous materials coming from an experiment in order to assess the compatibility of space hardware and material with this sterilization process.

  13. Inbreeding effects on fertility and sterility in southern India

    PubMed Central

    Rao, P. S. S.; Inbaraj, S. G.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of consanguineous marriages on couples' fertility and sterility were explored through an interview survey of 20 626 women, chosen randomly from the rural and urban areas of the North Arcot District of Tamil Nadu State. Qualified women investigators obtained relevant information about reproductive performances of all married women resident in well defined rural and urban samples chosen randomly from North Arcot District. For each marriage, a family pedigree was drawn, extending upwards to two earlier generations on both sides of each spouse, in order to determine the existence and type of consanguinity involved. Of marriages in rural areas, 46·9% were consanguineous, and in urban areas, 29·1%. In more than 80% of the consanguineous marriages, the spouses were first cousins or more closely related. The extent of primary and secondary sterility and the level of fertility were examined in relation to each type of consanguineous marriage with the duration of the marriage and the age of the woman. The frequency of primary sterility appeared to be lower in the consanguineous marriages compared to that in the non-consanguineous marriages. However, the differences were only marginal and only occasionally attained statistical significance. No trends were seen in the degree of consanguineous relationship, and there did not appear to be any association with the duration of marriage or the age of the woman. The frequencies of secondary sterility did not differ significantly in consanguineous marriages in either the rural or the urban areas. No consistent associations were observed with degree of relationship. There were no specific associations in terms of the duration of marriage or the age of the woman observed in the frequencies of secondary sterility. The mean levels of fertility were slightly raised among the consanguineous marriages and attained significance merely because of the large sample sizes involved. These findings are discussed and compared with

  14. Polyploidy Enhances F1 Pollen Sterility Loci Interactions That Increase Meiosis Abnormalities and Pollen Sterility in Autotetraploid Rice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinwen; Shahid, Muhammad Qasim; Chen, Lin; Chen, Zhixiong; Wang, Lan; Liu, Xiangdong; Lu, Yonggen

    2015-12-01

    Intersubspecific autotetraploid rice (Oryza sativa ssp. indica × japonica) hybrids have greater biological and yield potentials than diploid rice. However, the low fertility of intersubspecific autotetraploid hybrids, which is largely caused by high pollen abortion rates, limits their commercial utility. To decipher the cytological and molecular mechanisms underlying allelic interactions in autotetraploid rice, we developed an autotetraploid rice hybrid that was heterozygous (S(i)S(j)) at F1 pollen sterility loci (Sa, Sb, and Sc) using near-isogenic lines. Cytological studies showed that the autotetraploid had higher percentages (>30%) of abnormal chromosome behavior and aberrant meiocytes (>50%) during meiosis than did the diploid rice hybrid control. Analysis of gene expression profiles revealed 1,888 genes that were differentially expressed between the autotetraploid and diploid hybrid lines at the meiotic stage, among which 889 and 999 were up- and down-regulated, respectively. Of the 999 down-regulated genes, 940 were associated with the combined effect of polyploidy and pollen sterility loci interactions (IPE). Gene Ontology enrichment analysis identified a prominent functional gene class consisting of seven genes related to photosystem I (Gene Ontology 0009522). Moreover, 55 meiosis-related or meiosis stage-specific genes were associated with IPE in autotetraploid rice, including Os02g0497500, which encodes a DNA repair-recombination protein, and Os02g0490000, which encodes a component of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. These results suggest that polyploidy enhances epistatic interactions between alleles of pollen sterility loci, thereby altering the expression profiles of important meiosis-related or meiosis stage-specific genes and resulting in high pollen sterility.

  15. Effects of plant growth-promoting bacteria isolated from copper tailings on plants in sterilized and non-sterilized tailings.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiqiu; Yang, Chao; Shi, Si; Shu, Wensheng

    2014-02-01

    Ten strains of Cu-tolerant bacteria with potential plant growth-promoting ability were isolated by selecting strains with the ability to use 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate as a sole nitrogen source (designated ACC-B) or fix nitrogen (designated FLN-B) originating from the rhizosphere of plants growing on copper tailings. All 10 strains proved to have intrinsic ability to produce indole acetic acid and siderophores, and most of them could mobilize insoluble phosphate. In addition, a greenhouse study showed that ACC-B, FLN-B and a mixture of both had similar, potent ability to stimulate growth of Pennisetum purpureum, Medicago sativa and Oenothera erythrosepala plants grown on sterilized tailings. For instance, above-ground biomass of P. purpureum was 278-357% greater after 60d growth on sterilized tailings in their presence. They could also significantly promote the growth of the plants grown on non-sterilized tailings, though the growth-promoting effects were much weaker. So, strategies for using of the plant growth-promoting bacteria in the practice of phytoremediation deserve further studies to get higher growth-promoting efficiency.

  16. Incidence of opioid-managed pelvic pain after hysteroscopic sterilization versus laparoscopic sterilization, U.S. 2005-2012

    PubMed Central

    Conover, Mitchell M.; Howell, Jennifer O.; Wu, Jennifer M.; Kinlaw, Alan C.; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Funk, Michele Jonsson

    2015-01-01

    Objective Compare incidence of opioid-managed pelvic pain within 12-months after hysteroscopic and laparoscopic sterilization. Methods Using administrative claims, we identified women age 18-49 without recent history of childbirth who underwent hysteroscopic or laparoscopic sterilization between 2005-2012. We defined the outcome as ≥2 diagnoses for pelvic pain and ≥2 prescription fills for opioids. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HR) using Cox models and propensity score methods (matching and inverse-probability-of-treatment-weighting [IPTW]). Results We identified 71,875 eligible women (hysteroscopic n=26,927 [37.5%], laparoscopic n=44,948 [62.5%]). Of those, 236 (0.88%) hysteroscopic patients and 420 (0.93%) laparoscopic patients experienced the outcome (crude HR=0.97, [95%CI: 0.83, 1.14]). Adjusted analyses also yielded near-null results (matched HR=1.08 [95%CI: 0.90, 1.31]; IPTW HR=0.97 [95%CI: 0.80, 1.18]). While most sensitivity analyses generated results close to the null, hazard ratios estimated using propensity score matching ranged from 0.65 to 1.53. Conclusions Among women without recent history of childbirth, we did not find compelling evidence of a clinically meaningful increase in the incidence of pelvic pain requiring opioids during the year after hysteroscopic sterilization. However, effects observed in sensitivity analyses may merit further investigation. PMID:25832014

  17. Impact of Sterilization Method on Protein Aggregation and Particle Formation in Polymer-Based Syringes.

    PubMed

    Kiminami, Hideaki; Krueger, Aaron B; Abe, Yoshihiko; Yoshino, Keisuke; Carpenter, John F

    2017-04-01

    The effects of sterilization methods on the storage stability of erythropoietin (EPO) in polymer-based syringes were assessed by quantifying protein oxidation, aggregation, and particle formation. Micro-particle counting and size exclusion chromatography coupled with a multi-angle light scattering detector demonstrated much lower levels of protein particles and aggregates for EPO stored for 12 weeks in steam-sterilized than in radiation (Rad)-sterilized syringes. Intermediate levels of damage were observed for EPO stored in ethylene oxide-sterilized syringes. HPLC analysis documented that the Rad-sterilized syringes caused increased oxidation of the protein during storage. In contrast, in the steam- and ethylene oxide-sterilized syringes EPO oxidation did not change. Analysis with electron spin resonance revealed that only Rad-sterilized syringes formed radicals in the syringe body, which persisted over the 12-week storage period. These results demonstrated that Rad-sterilization generated radicals in the syringes which in turn caused increased EPO oxidation, particle formation, and protein aggregation. Therefore, steam sterilization was shown to be a preferable sterilization method for the polymer-based syringe system when using biopharmaceutical drugs highly sensitive to oxidation, and particle formation and aggregation.

  18. Effect of surface roughness and sterilization on bacterial adherence to ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Kinnari, T J; Esteban, J; Zamora, N; Fernandez, R; López-Santos, C; Yubero, F; Mariscal, D; Puertolas, J A; Gomez-Barrena, E

    2010-07-01

    Sterilization with ethylene oxide (EO) and gas plasma (GP) are well-known methods applied to ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) surfaces in the belief that they prevent major material changes caused by gamma irradiation. However, the influence of these surface sterilization methods on bacterial adherence to UHMWPE is unknown. UHMWPE samples with various degrees of roughness (0.3, 0.8 and 2.0 μm) were sterilized with either GP or EO. The variations in hydrophobicity, surface free energy and surface functional groups were investigated before and after sterilization. Sterilized samples were incubated with either Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis in order to study bacterial adherence to these materials. Fewer bacteria adhered to UHMWPE after sterilization with EO than after sterilization with GP, especially to the smoothest surfaces. No changes in chemical composition of the UHMWPE surface due to sterilization were observed using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy analysis. The decreased bacterial adherence to UHMWPE found at the smoothest surfaces after sterilization with EO was not directly related to changes in chemical composition. Increased bacterial adherence to rougher surfaces was associated with increased polar surface energy of EO-sterilized surfaces.

  19. Racial variation in tubal sterilization rates: The role of patient-level factors

    PubMed Central

    Borrero, Sonya; Abebe, Kaleab; Dehlendorf, Christine; Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla; Creinin, Mitchell D.; Nikolajski, Cara; Ibrahim, Said

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess racial differences in attitudes and knowledge about sterilization. Design Cross-sectional survey Setting Questionnaires were mailed to participants’ home addresses Patients 193 women aged 18–45 who had undergone tubal sterilization. Intervention(s) None Main Outcome Measure Attitudes and knowledge about tubal sterilization and awareness of contraceptive alternatives Results We received 193 completed surveys (64% response rate). AA woman were more likely to have a family member who had undergone tubal sterilization, to report that their mothers influenced their sterilization decisions, and to report that prior unintended pregnancy and desire to avoid insertion of a foreign object were very important factors in their decision to choose sterilization over other methods. Compared to white women, AA women more often thought that sterilization reversal could easily restore fertility (62 % vs 36%); that a woman’s sterilization would reverse itself after 5 years (60% vs 23%); and that a man cannot ejaculate after vasectomy (38% vs 13%). Fewer AA women had ever heard of intrauterine contraception (90% vs 98%). Racial differences in knowledge remained statistically significant after adjusting for socioeconomic confounders. Conclusions Misinformation about sterilization and limited awareness of contraceptive alternatives among AA women may contribute to racial disparities in tubal sterilization rates. PMID:20579640

  20. A Molecular Method to Discriminate between Mass-Reared Sterile and Wild Tsetse Flies during Eradication Programmes That Have a Sterile Insect Technique Component

    PubMed Central

    Pagabeleguem, Soumaïla; Gimonneau, Geoffrey; Seck, Momar Talla; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Sall, Baba; Rayaissé, Jean-Baptiste; Sidibé, Issa; Bouyer, Jérémy; Ravel, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Background The Government of Senegal has embarked several years ago on a project that aims to eradicate Glossina palpalis gambiensis from the Niayes area. The removal of the animal trypanosomosis would allow the development more efficient livestock production systems. The project was implemented using an area-wide integrated pest management strategy including a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. The released sterile male flies originated from a colony from Burkina Faso. Methodology/Principal Findings Monitoring the efficacy of the sterile male releases requires the discrimination between wild and sterile male G. p. gambiensis that are sampled in monitoring traps. Before being released, sterile male flies were marked with a fluorescent dye powder. The marking was however not infallible with some sterile flies only slightly marked or some wild flies contaminated with a few dye particles in the monitoring traps. Trapped flies can also be damaged due to predation by ants, making it difficult to discriminate between wild and sterile males using a fluorescence camera and / or a fluorescence microscope. We developed a molecular technique based on the determination of cytochrome oxidase haplotypes of G. p. gambiensis to discriminate between wild and sterile males. DNA was isolated from the head of flies and a portion of the 5’ end of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I was amplified to be finally sequenced. Our results indicated that all the sterile males from the Burkina Faso colony displayed the same haplotype and systematically differed from wild male flies trapped in Senegal and Burkina Faso. This allowed 100% discrimination between sterile and wild male G. p. gambiensis. Conclusions/Significance This tool might be useful for other tsetse control campaigns with a SIT component in the framework of the Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) and, more generally, for other vector or insect pest control programs. PMID:26901049

  1. Effects of kination and scalar-tensor cosmologies on sterile neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Rehagen, Thomas; Gelmini, Graciela B. E-mail: gelmini@physics.ucla.edu

    2014-06-01

    We study the effects of kination and scalar-tensor pre-Big Bang Nucleosynthesis cosmologies on the non-resonant production of sterile neutrinos. We show that if the peak of the production rate of sterile neutrinos occurs during a non-standard cosmological phase, the relic number density of sterile neutrinos could be reduced with respect to the number expected in the standard cosmology. Consequently, current bounds on active-sterile neutrino mixing derived from the relic energy density of sterile neutrinos could be greatly relaxed. In particular, we show that the sterile neutrinos which could explain the anomalies found in short-baseline neutrino experiments are compatible with recent joint Planck upper limits on their contribution to the energy density of the Universe in a scalar-tensor or a low-reheating temperature pre-Big Bang Nucleosynthesis cosmology.

  2. System for creating at a site, remote from a sterile environment, a parenteral solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharf, Mike (Inventor); Finley, Mike (Inventor); Veillon, Joe (Inventor); Kipp, Jim (Inventor); Dudar, Tom (Inventor); Owens, Jim (Inventor); Ogle, Jim (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention relates to a container, system, and method for creating parenteral solutions at a site, remote from sterile environments. The system includes a flexible container that is empty except for a prepackaged amount of a solute that is housed in the interior of the container. The container includes at least one port and a sterilizing filter in communication with an interior of the port. The container is so constructed and arranged that a fluid flow path is created from the port through the filter and into the interior of the container. A sterile water source including means for establishing fluid flow from the sterile water source into the port is provided. Accordingly, sterile water can flow from the sterile water source through the filter into the container where it is mixed with the solute to create a parenteral solution that can then be infused into a patient. A method and container are also provided.

  3. Sterilization characteristics of dental instruments using oxygen plasma produced by narrow gap RF discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Yasuhiro; Liu, Zhen; Goto, Masaaki; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2016-07-01

    Sterilization characteristics and material compatibility of low-pressure RF oxygen plasma sterilization method for dental instruments are investigated. Regarding the characteristics of the plasma sterilizer for dental instruments, it is small and can rapidly sterilize owing to a narrow gap discharge. Sterilization of vial-type biological indicators is achieved for the shortest treatment period of 40 min at an RF power of 80 W at a temperature of 70 °C. At a temperature lower than 60 °C, a sterilization period of 90 min is required using a water-cooled electrode. No surface modifications of dental instruments such as chemical composition and deterioration of fine crystals of a diamond bar were observed under a scanning electron microscope.

  4. A sterilization system using ultraviolet photochemical reactions based on nitrous oxide and oxygen gases.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Yasutaka; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Iwamori, Satoru

    2016-03-01

    Active oxygen species (AOS) generated under ultraviolet (UV) lamps can be applied for various industrial processes owing to extremely strong oxidative abilities. We have already reported on an application of the AOS for a sterilization process of microorganisms. Here, a sterilization method using active oxygen generated under ultraviolet (UV) lamps introducing nitrous oxide (N2O) and oxygen gases into a vacuum chamber was investigated. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) gas was readily produced from N2O by UV photochemical reactions under the low-pressure mercury lamp and then used to sterilize medical devices. We compared the ability of the N2O gas to sterilize Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores with those of conventional methods. Successful sterilization of spores on various biological indicators was achieved within 60 min, not only in sterilization bags but also in a lumen device.

  5. The effectiveness of a program to reduce the rate of flash sterilization.

    PubMed

    Smart, Julia D; Belkoff, Stephen M; Mears, Simon C

    2012-08-01

    Flash sterilization of surgical instruments has been a common practice, but patient safety and quality assurance health care groups have recently recommended minimizing its use. Our goals were to describe the implementation and effectiveness of our institution's program for reducing the flash sterilization rate of instruments used for total hip and knee arthroplasties. We reviewed flash sterilization logs of all hip and knee arthroplasties from the program's implementation in July 2009 through August 2010 (N = 555) and calculated the monthly percentage of cases using flash sterilization. From the first to the last month, the amount of flash sterilization decreased significantly (P < .05): 6 of 34 to 0 of 41, respectively. Our results show that the rate of flash sterilization can be reduced with this strategic program.

  6. Altered heterochromatin binding by a hybrid sterility protein in Drosophila sibling species.

    PubMed

    Bayes, Joshua J; Malik, Harmit S

    2009-12-11

    Hybrid sterility of the heterogametic sex is one of the first postzygotic reproductive barriers to evolve during speciation, yet the molecular basis of hybrid sterility is poorly understood. We show that the hybrid male sterility gene Odysseus-site homeobox (OdsH) encodes a protein that localizes to evolutionarily dynamic loci within heterochromatin and leads to their decondensation. In Drosophila mauritiana x Drosophila simulans male hybrids, OdsH from D. mauritiana (OdsHmau) acts as a sterilizing factor by associating with the heterochromatic Y chromosome of D. simulans, whereas D. simulans OdsH (OdsHsim) does not. Characterization of sterile hybrid testes revealed that OdsH abundance and localization in the premeiotic phases of spermatogenesis differ between species. These results reveal that rapid heterochromatin evolution affects the onset of hybrid sterility.

  7. The effect of commercial sterilization regimens on micellar casein concentrates.

    PubMed

    Beliciu, C M; Sauer, A; Moraru, C I

    2012-10-01

    This work focused on evaluating the effects of UHT sterilization and in-container retorting on the stability and physical properties of micellar casein concentrates (MCC). The study was performed on MCC obtained by membrane separation, with casein concentrations between 5 and 10%. The UHT and retorting regimens were designed to achieve the same microbial inactivation effect. Ultra-high temperature treatment was performed in a pilot-scale MicroThermics heating system (MicroThermics Inc., Raleigh, NC), and retorting in an FMC multipurpose laboratory retort (Steritort; FMC Corp., San Jose, CA). The heat-treated and the non-heat-treated MCC controls were evaluated for pH, mineral profile, ζ-potential, particle size, and rheological properties for up to 24h after heat treatment. The treatments were performed in triplicate, and differences among samples were evaluated using statistical analyses. Retorting resulted in slight aggregation in the MCC, whereas UHT caused the formation of visible aggregates and coagulation. The UHT-treated MCC had higher viscosity than retorted MCC, and displayed predominantly solid-like rheological behavior, indicative of structure formation. These effects were, at least in part, attributed to a change in mineral equilibrium, which affected the stability of the casein micelles, but additional mechanisms such as κ-casein dissociation may also play a significant role in these heat-induced changes. Drying of MCC accentuated the observed instabilities, as dried and reconstituted micellar casein concentrates (R-MCC) were more unstable to UHT sterilization than the MCC that had not undergone drying. The results of this study provide valuable information about the sterilization behavior and physical properties of MCC, which can be useful to processors in the development and manufacture of shelf-stable casein-based products and beverages.

  8. Medicine Delivery Device with Integrated Sterilization and Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheam, Michael J.; Greer, Harold F.; Manohara, Harish

    2013-01-01

    Sterile delivery devices can be created by integrating a medicine delivery instrument with surfaces that are coated with germicidal and anti-fouling material. This requires that a large-surface-area template be developed within a constrained volume to ensure good contact between the delivered medicine and the germicidal material. Both of these can be integrated using JPL-developed silicon nanotip or cryo-etch black silicon technologies with atomic layer deposition (ALD) coating of specific germicidal layers. Nanofabrication techniques that are used to produce a microfluidics device are also capable of synthesizing extremely hig-hsurface-area templates in precise locations, and coating those surfaces with conformal films to manipulate their surface properties. This methodology has been successfully applied at JPL to produce patterned and coated silicon nanotips (also known as black silicon) to manipulate the hydrophilicity of surfaces to direct the spreading of fluids in microdevices. JPL s ALD technique is an ideal method to produce the highly conformal coatings required for this type of application. Certain materials, such as TiO2, have germicidal and anti-fouling properties when they are illuminated with UV light. The proposed delivery device contacts medicine with this high-surface-area black silicon surface coated with a thin-film germicidal deposited conformally with ALD. The coating can also be illuminated with ultraviolet light for the purpose of sterilization or identification of the medicine itself. This constrained volume that is located immediately prior to delivery into a patient, ensures that the medicine delivery device is inherently sterile.

  9. Sealing and External Sterilization of a Sample Container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Sherrit, Stewart; Olorunsola, Ayoola

    2008-01-01

    A method of (1) sealing a sample of material acquired in a possibly b iologically contaminated ("dirty") environment into a hermetic conta iner, (2) sterilizing the outer surface of the container, then (3) d elivering the sealed container to a clean environment has been propos ed. The method now proposed was originally intended to be used to ret urn samples from Mars to Earth, but could also be used on Earth to t ransport material samples acquired in environments that contain biol ogical hazards and/or, in some cases, chemical hazards.

  10. Nitrogen photoreduction on desert sands under sterile conditions

    PubMed Central

    Schrauzer, Gerhard N.; Strampach, Norman; Hui, Liu Nan; Palmer, Miles R.; Salehi, Jahanshah

    1983-01-01

    Sands from various geographic locations reduce N2 from the air to NH3 and traces of N2H4 on exposure to sunlight. This N2 photofixation occurs under sterile conditions on the surface of finely dispersed titanium minerals such as rutile, utilizing reducing equivalents generated through the photolysis of chemisorbed H2O. Abiological N2 photofixation is suggested to be part of the nitrogen cycle in arid and semiarid regions. It is estimated that about 10 × 105 tons of N2 is photoreduced on the total surface of the earth's deserts per year. PMID:16593330

  11. The search for sterile neutrinos at reactors and underground laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langford, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    From the initial discovery of neutrinos to the observation of neutrino oscillations, unexpected results have lead to deeper understanding of physics. However, as experiments and theoretical predictions have improved, new anomalies have surfaced that could point to beyond the Standard Model physics. Leading hypotheses invoke a new form of matter, sterile neutrinos, as a possible resolution of these outstanding questions. New experimental efforts are underway to probe short-baseline neutrino oscillations with reactors and radioactive sources. This talk will highlight developments in current and next generation experiments and present possible outcomes for the next few years.

  12. Study on sterilization and storage of enzymatic preparations by irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dengyi, Xu; Guangzheng, Liu; Yunsen, Long; Xiaoping, Liu; Fengxin, Yi; Xiaqdong, Zhao

    1993-10-01

    Effects of irradiation with cobalt-60 γ-rays on sterilization, storage and enzymes activity of four kinds of biological enzymatic preparations, namely trypsin, pepsin, amylase and liquid carbohydrase, were investigated. The results showed that these enzymes have different sensitivity to irradiation, amylase being the most sensitive. The enzyme activity and enzyme effect of amylase were lowered with irradiation dose higher than 7 KGY. With irradiation doses between 7-10 KGY, enzyme activity of trypsin and pepsin were stable. Liquid carbohydrase can be stored more than half a year under a natural temperature with a stable enzyme activity without molding.

  13. Direct detection of relic active and sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu-Feng

    2016-05-01

    Both active and sterile sub-eV neutrinos can form the cosmic neutrino background in the early Universe. We consider the beta-decaying (e.g., 3H) and EC-decaying (e.g., 163Ho) nuclei as the promising targets to capture relic neutrinos in the laboratory. We calculate the capture rates of relic electron neutrinos and antineutrinos against the corresponding beta decay or electron capture (EC) decay backgrounds in the (3+Ns) flavor mixing scheme, and discuss the future prospect in terms of the PTOLEMY project. We stress that such direct measurements of hot DM might not be hopeless in the long term.

  14. Evaluation of sterilization of dental handpieces by heating in synthetic compressor lubricant.

    PubMed

    Silverstone, S E; Hill, D E

    1999-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Dental Association guidelines recommend sterilization of dental handpieces after each use. Steam autoclaving is the most commonly used sterilization method. However, pressurized steam causes corrosion and partial combustion of the handpiece lubricant, leaving a sticky carbon residue on the turbine which must then be replaced after several usages. Replacement of autoclave-damaged dental handpieces represents a major expense for dentists that may be avoided through the use of less destructive sterilization techniques.

  15. Function and evolution of sterile sex organs in cryptically dioecious Petasites tricholobus (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qian; Li, Deng-Xiu; Luo, Wei; Guo, You-Hao

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Why are sterile anthers and carpels retained in some flowering plants, given their likely costs? To address this question, a cryptically dioecious species, Petasites tricholobus, in which male and female plants each have two floret types that appear pistillate and hermaphroditic, was studied. The aim was to understand the function of sterile hermaphroditic florets in females. In addition, the first examination of functions of sterile female structures in male plants was conducted in the hermaphroditic florets on males of this species. These female structures are exceptionally large in this species despite being sterile. Methods Differences in floret morphology between the sex morphs were documented and the possible functions of sterile sex organs investigated using manipulative experiments. Tests were carried out to find out if sterile female structures in male florets attract pollinators and if they aid in pollen dispersal, also to find out if the presence and quantity of sterile hermaphroditic florets in females increase pollinator attraction and reproductive success. To investigate what floret types provide nectar, all types of florets were examined under a scanning electron microscope to search for nectaries. Key Results The sterile female structures in male florets did not increase pollinator visits but were essential to secondary pollen presentation, which significantly enhanced pollen dispersal. Sterile pistillate florets on male plants did not contribute to floral display and disappeared in nearly half of the male plants. The sterile hermaphroditic florets on female plants attracted pollinators by producing nectar and enhanced seed production. Conclusions The presence of female structures in male florets and hermaphroditic florets on female plants is adaptive despite being sterile, and may be evolutionarily stable. However, the pistillate florets on male plants appear non-adaptive and are presumably in decline. Differential fates of the

  16. Apollo experience report: Processing of lunar samples in a sterile nitrogen atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpherson, T. M.

    1972-01-01

    A sterile nitrogen atmosphere processing cabinet line was installed in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory to process returned lunar samples with minimum organic contamination. Design and operation of the cabinet line were complicated by the requirement for biological sterilization and isolation, which necessitated extensive filtration, leak-checking, and system sterilization before use. Industrial techniques were applied to lunar sample processing to meet requirements for time-critical experiments while handling a large flow of samples.

  17. [Radiation sterilization of units of a Mars descent module--a miniature meteorological station].

    PubMed

    Paramonov, D V; Trofimov, V I; Aleksashkin, S N; Khamidullina, N M; Novikova, N D; Deshevaia, E A; Polikarpov, N A

    2010-01-01

    Subject of the test was a procedure of electron sterilization of Mars descent module units. As a result, data on distribution of absorbed dose field across the surface and by the entire volume of the mockup of a miniature meteorological station (MMS) were obtained In addition, electron sterilization technology was developed and the range of absorbed dose from electron radiation that will sterilize reliably packaged MMS hardware were defined in the interval from 30 to 40 kGy.

  18. Reason behind wet pack after steam sterilization and its consequences: An overview from Central Sterile Supply Department of a cancer center in eastern India.

    PubMed

    Basu, Debabrata

    Wet pack after steam sterilization process that means there are surely obtain millions of microorganisms that can breed and multiply rapidly and objects are unsterile and can never be used for further procedure. There are many reasons behind the wet pack occurrences after autoclaving like poor quality of wrapping materials, faulty valves of rigid container, faulty loading and packaging technique, poor steam quality, sterilizer malfunction and may be design related problems in CSSD sterile storage area. Cause of wet pack after steam sterilization processes may occur severe problems because of wasted time and effort, increased work load, increased cost, potentially contaminated instruments, infection risk to the patient, poor patient outcomes and delayed or cancellation of procedures. But such wet pack scenario can be avoided by various methods by using good steam (water) quality, performing periodic maintenance of the Autoclaves, avoidance of sterilizer overloading, allowing adequate post sterilization time to cool down the materials to room temperature, using good quality wrapping materials, properly maintain temperature and humidity of sterile storage area etc.

  19. Degradation of Biochemical Activity in Soil Sterilized by Dry Heat and Gamma Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, K. L.; Souza, K. A.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of soil sterilization by dry heat (0.08% relative humidity), gamma radiation, or both on soil phosphatase, urease, and decarboxylase activity was studied. Soil sterilized by a long exposure to dry heat at relatively low temperatures (eight weeks at 100.5 C) retained higher activities than did soil exposed to a higher temperature (two weeks at 124.5 C), while all activity was destroyed by four days at 148.5 C. Sterilization with 7.5 Mrads destroyed less activity than did heat sterilization. The effect of several individually nonsterizing doses of heat radiation is described.

  20. Hybrid sterility, Haldane's rule and speciation in Heliconius cydno and H. melpomene.

    PubMed Central

    Naisbit, Russell E; Jiggins, Chris D; Linares, Mauricio; Salazar, Camilo; Mallet, James

    2002-01-01

    Most genetic studies of Haldane's rule, in which hybrid sterility or inviability affects the heterogametic sex preferentially, have focused on Drosophila. It therefore remains unclear to what extent the conclusions of that work apply more generally, particularly in female-heterogametic taxa such as birds and Lepidoptera. Here we present a genetic analysis of Haldane's rule in Heliconius butterflies. Female F(1) hybrids between Heliconius melpomene and H. cydno are completely sterile, while males have normal to mildly reduced fertility. In backcrosses of male F(1) hybrids, female offspring range from completely sterile to fully fertile. Linkage analysis using the Z-linked triose-phosphate isomerase locus demonstrates a "large X" (Z) effect on sterility. Expression of female sterility varies among crosses in this and a previous study of Heliconius. Sterility may result from the production of normal but infertile eggs, production of small infertile eggs, or from a complete failure to develop ovarioles, which suggests multiple routes to the evolution of hybrid sterility in these Heliconius species. These results conform to the expectations of the "dominance" rather than "faster male" theories of Haldane's rule and suggest that relatively few loci are responsible. The two species are broadly sympatric and hybridize in the wild, so that female hybrid sterility forms one of several strong but incomplete barriers to gene flow in nature. The effect of female sterility is comparable to that of selection against non-mimetic hybrids, while mate choice forms a much stronger barrier to gene transfer. PMID:12196397

  1. The research of using Co-60 γ ray to sterilize different mediums for edible fungus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guozhu, Li; Zhenqian, Guan; Hengshou, Zhao

    1993-10-01

    The present experiment has been carried out by using different dosage of Co—60 γ ray for radiation sterilization of five kinds of cultural materials of edible fungus, The results indicated that sterilization dosage of sawdust is 22 kGy. that of cotton—seed shell and the rest are 26 kGy. We conclude that using Co-60 γ ray to sterilize the cultura 1 materials of edible fungus is a secure and saving labor and energy new method which could sterilize thoroughly.

  2. Improved osseointegration of long-term stored SLA implant by hydrothermal sterilization.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xingling; Xu, Lingli; Violin, Kalan Bastos; Lu, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The sandblasted, large-grit and acid-etched (SLA) surface is easy to be contaminated during storage and its surface chemical state is usually changed by different sterilization methods. This causes an undesirable increase in surface hydrophobicity and results in osseointegration degradation. To overcome this problem, a low temperature hydrothermal (HT) sterilization method was proposed in this study. Briefly, 4 weeks-stored pure titanium SLA specimens were sterilized using a sealed glass bottle with pure water in an autoclave set at 121 °C for 20 min. Results showed that, stored SLA specimens were superhydrophobic before and after conventional autoclaving, whereas, HT sterilization decontaminated and endowed stored SLA surface with superhydrophilicity. Osteoblast spreading was greatly enhanced, ALP expression was upgraded and bone nodule formation was obviously promoted on HT sterilized specimens compared with autoclaved ones. More bone formation around HT sterilized specimens was observed and HT sterilization increased bonding strength of implant to bone by 95% and 127% after 2 and 4 weeks of healing, respectively. The simple, feasible HT sterilization restored osseointegration of SLA implant while diminishing recontamination as much as possible. Therefore, it is proposed as a standard sterilization method for implant practitioners and researches.

  3. INFLUENCE OF MICROWAVE STERILIZATION ON THE CUTTING CAPACITY OF CARBIDE BURS

    PubMed Central

    Fais, Laiza Maria Grassi; Pinelli, Lígia Antunes Pereira; Adabo, Gelson Luis; da Silva, Regina Helena Barbosa Tavares; Marcelo, Caroline Canhizares; Guaglianoni, Dalton Geraldo

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the cutting capacity of carbide burs sterilized with microwaves and traditional sterilization methods. Material and Methods: Sixty burs were divided into 5 groups according to the sterilization methods: dry heat (G1), autoclave (G2), microwave irradiation (G3), glutaraldehyde (G4) or control – no sterilization (G5). The burs were used to cut glass plates in a cutting machine set for twelve 2.5-min periods and, after each period, they were sterilized (except G5) following the protocol established for each group. The cutting capacity of the burs was determined by a weight-loss method. Data were analyzed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's test. Results: The means of the cutting amount performed by each group after the 12 periods were G1 = 0.2167 ± 0.0627 g; G2 = 0.2077 ± 0.0231 g; G3 = 0.1980 ± 0.0326 g; G4 = 0.1203 ± 0.0459 g; G5 = 0.2642 ± 0.0359 g. There were statistically significant differences among the groups (p<0.05); only dry heat sterilization was similar to the control. Conclusion: Sterilization by dry heat was the method that least affected the cutting capacity of the carbide burs and microwave sterilization was not better than traditional sterilization methods. PMID:20027431

  4. Testing keV sterile neutrino dark matter in future direct detection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Miguel D.; Rodejohann, Werner

    2016-11-01

    We determine constraints on sterile neutrino warm dark matter through direct detection experiments, taking XENON100, XENON1T, and DARWIN as examples. If keV-scale sterile neutrinos scatter inelastically with bound electrons of the target material, an electron recoil signal is generated. This can be used to set limits on the sterile neutrino mass and its mixing with the active sector. While not competitive with astrophysical constraints from x-ray data, the constraints are the first direct laboratory bounds on sterile neutrino warm dark matter and will be in some parts of parameter space the strongest limits on keV-scale neutrinos.

  5. Investigation of methods for sterilization of potting compounds and mated surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tulius, J. J.; Daley, D. J.; Phillips, G. B.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of using formaldehyde-liberating synthetic resins or polymers for the sterilization of potting compounds, mated and occluded areas, and spacecraft surfaces was demonstrated. The detailed study of interrelated parameters of formaldehyde gas sterilization revealed that efficient cycle conditions can be developed for the sterilization of spacecraft components. It was determined that certain parameters were more important than others in the development of cycles for specific applications. The use of formaldehyde gas for the sterilization of spacecraft components provides NASA with a highly efficient method which is inexpensive, reproducible, easily quantitated, materials compatible, operationally simple, generally non-hazardous and not thermally destructive.

  6. Wide Range Concentration Control of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Generated Ozone for Soil Sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebihara, Kenji; Takayama, Masahiro; Strycewska, Henryka Danuta; Ikegami, Tomoaki; Gyoutoku, Yutaka; Tachibana, Masahiro

    We have developed ozone (O3) generation system suitable to soil sterilization. Wide range concentration control of O3 is required for the sterilization treatment depending on the soil property and plant growth. The dielectric barrier discharges using electrode such as Pyramid type is studied. Surface discharges are also applied to generate high concentration for quick sterilization of the agricultural soil. The treated soil properties under ozone sterilization were evaluated using pH and electrical conductivity. It is shown that ozone distribution in the soil is controlled mostly by the conditions such as concentration and flow rate as well as soil conditions of moisture and compositions.

  7. Effect of high-power microwave on indicator bacteria for sterilization.

    PubMed

    Wu, Q

    1996-07-01

    According to the superiority sterilization, a specially-designed microwave disinfector using high-power microwave energy was made. A series of sterilizing experiments have been made to determine the effect of microwave energy on several typical indicator bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis var. niger, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Bacillus pumilus E601, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus. Under the conditions of different sterilization duration and unequal intensity of microwave power irradiation onto the bacteria, a useful result of killing bacteria has been observed, i.e., the Bacillus subtilis can be considered as an optimum indicator bacterium for microwave sterilization.

  8. X-ray-induced sterility in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and male longevity following irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yamada, H; Parker, A G; Oliva, C F; Balestrino, F; Gilles, J R L

    2014-07-01

    The mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895) is a potent vector of several arboviral diseases, most notably chikungunya and dengue fever. In the context of the sterile insect technique (SIT), the sterilization of the male mosquitoes before their release can be achieved by gamma-ray irradiation. As gamma-ray irradiators are becoming increasingly problematic to purchase and transport, the suitability of an X-ray irradiator as an alternative for the sterilization of Ae. albopictus males was studied. The sterilization of up to 200,000 pupae at one time can be achieved with relative ease, and the sterility results obtained were comparable with those achieved by gamma irradiation, where 99% sterility is induced with a dose of 40 Gy. A significant reduction of longevity was observed in the latter stages of the males' life after irradiation treatments, especially at doses > 40 Gy, which is consistent with the negative effects on longevity induced by similar radiation doses using gamma rays. Females irradiated at 40 Gy were not only 100% sterile, but also failed to oviposit entirely, i.e., all of the females laid 0 eggs. Overall, it was found that the X-ray irradiator is generally suitable for the sterilization process for sterile insect technique programs, as it showed a high processing capacity, practicality, high effectiveness, and reproducibility.

  9. Sterile particles from the flavor gauge model of masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smetana, Adam

    2013-04-01

    Our motivation is to study a dynamics which has the ambition to underlie models of the electroweak symmetry breaking via the condensation of known fermions. The right-handed neutrinos and the seesaw mechanism are necessary ingredients for viability of this scenario. The existence of right-handed neutrinos follows from theoretical consistence of a model based on dynamical flavor gauge symmetry breaking. The model is defined by a particular flavor representation setting of electroweakly charged fermions. Only finite number of versions of the model exists. They differ by the number and the flavor structure of the right-handed neutrino sector. We choose for inspection one of them, the non-minimal version with right-handed neutrinos in one sextet and four anti-triplet flavor representations. We show that a Majorana pairing of the sextet right-handed neutrinos is responsible for the flavor symmetry breaking and for the seesaw pattern of the neutrino mass matrix. The dynamically generated neutrino mass matrix spontaneously breaks the lepton number and the chiral sterility symmetry of the right-handed neutrino sector. As a result, a spectrum of majorons, neutrino composites, manifests. We study main characteristics of both massive sterile neutrinos and majorons.

  10. Genetic studies on cytoplasmic male sterility in maize

    SciTech Connect

    Laughnan, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Our research concerns the basic mechanisms of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and fertility restoration in maize. The molecular determination of CMS is in the DNA of the mitochondria (mtDNA) but specific nuclear restorer-of-fertility (Rf) genes can overrule the male-sterile effect of the cytoplasm. Our approach to the study of the Rf genes is threefold. We are attempting to tag the cms-S Rf genes and the cms-T Rf2 gene with controlling elements (CEs). Since we have identified a number of spontaneous Rf genes for cms-S and have demonstrated that they are themselves transposable, we are also searching for cases in which an Rf gene is inserted into a wild-type gene. The other aspect of our research involves the nuclear control over the organization of the mitochondrial genome. We found that the changes in mtDNA organization upon cytoplasmic reversion to fertility were characteristic of the nuclear background in which the reversion event occurred. We have investigated whether these differences are a reflection of differences in the organization of the mtDNA genome before reversion.

  11. Physical and biological characterization of a seawater ultraviolet radiation sterilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrentera, Laura; Uribe, Roberto M.; Rodríguez, Romana R.; Carrillo, Ricardo E.

    1994-03-01

    The physical and biological characterization of a seawater ultraviolet (UV) sterilizer is described. The physical characterization was performed using radiochromic dye films by evaluating the uniformity of the radiant exposure along each lamp, the effect of the radiation from one lamp on the array of adjacent lamps, and by measuring the UV radiation absorption of seawater with respect to distilled water. The biological characterization was performed by measuring the amount of reduction of bacteria in stored seawater after different filtration and UV treatments. Among the filtration methods tested, differential filtration (5, 3 and 0.45 μm filters connected in series) caused the highest bacterial reduction factor of 60%. UV radiant exposures of 212, 424, 636 and 848 J m -2 yielded bacteria reduction factors of 99.86, 99.969, 99.997 and 100%, respectively, for populations of Vibrio and Pseudomonas bacteria present in stored seawater. It is concluded that the system is useful for water disinfection when 1, 2 or 3 lamps are on; when 4 lamps are used the treated water becomes sterile.

  12. Mitochondrion role in molecular basis of cytoplasmic male sterility.

    PubMed

    Horn, Renate; Gupta, Kapuganti J; Colombo, Noemi

    2014-11-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility and its fertility restoration via nuclear genes offer the possibility to understand the role of mitochondria during microsporogenesis. In most cases rearrangements in the mitochondrial DNA involving known mitochondrial genes as well as unknown sequences result in the creation of new chimeric open reading frames, which encode proteins containing transmembrane domains. So far, most of the CMS systems have been characterized via restriction fragment polymorphisms followed by transcript analysis. However, whole mitochondrial genome sequence analyses comparing male sterile and fertile cytoplasm open options for deeper insights into mitochondrial genome rearrangements. We more and more start to unravel how mitochondria are involved in triggering death of the male reproductive organs. Reduced levels of ATP accompanied by increased concentrations of reactive oxygen species, which are produced more under conditions of mitochondrial dysfunction, seem to play a major role in the fate of pollen production. Nuclear genes, so called restorer-of-fertility are able to restore the male fertility. Fertility restoration can occur via pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins or via different mechanisms involving non-PPR proteins.

  13. Ultraviolet radiation for the sterilization of contact lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Gritz, D.C.; Lee, T.Y.; McDonnell, P.J.; Shih, K.; Baron, N. )

    1990-10-01

    Two sources of ultraviolet (UV) radiation with peak wavelengths in the UV-C or UV-B ranges were compared for their ability to sterilize contact lenses infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Acanthamoeba castellani, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger. Also examined was the effect of prolonged UV light exposure on soft and rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lenses. The UV-C lamp (253.7 nm, 250 mW/cm2 at 1 cm) was germicidal for all organisms within 20 minutes but caused destruction of the soft lens polymers within 6 hours of cumulative exposure. UV-C caused damage to RGP lenses in less than 100 hours. The UV-B lamp (290-310 nm, 500 mW/cm2 at 1 cm) was germicidal for all organisms tested (except Aspergillus) with a 180-minute exposure and caused less severe changes in the soft lens polymers than did the UV-C lamp, although cumulative exposure of 300 hours did substantially weaken the soft lens material. RGP materials were minimally affected by exposure to 300 hours of UV-B. Ultraviolet light is an effective germicidal agent but is injurious to soft lens polymers; its possible utility in the sterilization of RGP lenses and lens cases deserves further study.

  14. Post-irradiation stability of polyvinyl chloride at sterilizing doses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naimian, F.; Katbab, A. A.; Nazokdast, H.

    1994-12-01

    Post-irradiation stability of plasticized PVC irradiated by 60Co gamma ray at sterilizing doses has been studied. Effects of irradiation upon chemical structure, mechanical properties and rheological behaviour of samples contained different amounts of Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate as plasticizer have been investigated. Formation of conjugated double bonds, carbonyl and hydroxyl groups have been followed by UV and FTIR spectrometers up to 6 months after irradiation. FTIR spectra of irradiated samples showed no significant changes in carbonyl and hydroxyl groups even 6 months after irradiation. However, changes in UV-visible spectra was observed for the irradiated samples up to 6 months post-irradiation. This has been attributed to the formation of polyenes which leads to the discoloration of this polymer. Despite a certain degree of discoloration, it appears that the mechanical properties of PVC are not affected by irradiation at sterilizing doses. No change in the melt viscosity of the irradiated PVC samples with post-irradiation was observed, which is in consistent with the IR results.

  15. Search for sterile neutrinos mixing with muon neutrinos in MINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, P.; Anghel, I.; Aurisano, A.; Barr, G.; Bishai, M.; Blake, A.; Bock, G. J.; Bogert, D.; Cao, S. V.; Carroll, T. J.; Castromonte, C. M.; Chen, R.; Childress, S.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Corwin, L.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; de Jong, J. K.; De Rijck, S.; Devan, A. V.; Devenish, N. E.; Diwan, M. V.; Escobar, C. O.; Evans, J. J.; Falk, E.; Feldman, G. J.; Flanagan, W.; Frohne, M. V.; Gabrielyan, M.; Gallagher, H. R.; Germani, S.; Gomes, R. A.; Goodman, M. C.; Gouffon, P.; Graf, N.; Gran, R.; Grzelak, K.; Habig, A.; Hahn, S. R.; Hartnell, J.; Hatcher, R.; Holin, A.; Huang, J.; Hylen, J.; Irwin, G. M.; Isvan, Z.; James, C.; Jensen, D.; Kafka, T.; Kasahara, S. M. S.; Koizumi, G.; Kordosky, M.; Kreymer, A.; Lang, K.; Ling, J.; Litchfield, P. J.; Lucas, P.; Mann, W. A.; Marshak, M. L.; Mayer, N.; McGivern, C.; Medeiros, M. M.; Mehdiyev, R.; Meier, J. R.; Messier, M. D.; Miller, W. H.; Mishra, S. R.; Moed Sher, S.; Moore, C. D.; Mualem, L.; Musser, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Newman, H. B.; Nichol, R. J.; Nowak, J. A.; O’Connor, J.; Orchanian, M.; Pahlka, R. B.; Paley, J.; Patterson, R. B.; Pawloski, G.; Perch, A.; Pfützner, M. M.; Phan, D. D.; Phan-Budd, S.; Plunkett, R. K.; Poonthottathil, N.; Qiu, X.; Radovic, A.; Rebel, B.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rubin, H. A.; Sail, P.; Sanchez, M. C.; Schneps, J.; Schreckenberger, A.; Schreiner, P.; Sharma, R.; Sousa, A.; Tagg, N.; Talaga, R. L.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M. A.; Tian, X.; Timmons, A.; Todd, J.; Tognini, S. C.; Toner, R.; Torretta, D.; Tzanakos, G.; Urheim, J.; Vahle, P.; Viren, B.; Weber, A.; Webb, R. C.; White, C.; Whitehead, L.; Whitehead, L. H.; Wojcicki, S. G.; Zwaska, R.

    2016-10-07

    Here, we report results of a search for oscillations involving a light sterile neutrino over distances of 1.04 and 735 km in a νμ-dominated beam with a peak energy of 3 GeV. The data, from an exposure of 10.56 × 1020 protons on target, are analyzed using a phenomenological model with one sterile neutrino. We constrain the mixing parameters θ24 and Δm412 and set limits on parameters of the four-dimensional Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata matrix, |Uμ4|2 and |Uτ4|2, under the assumption that mixing between νe and νs is negligible (|Ue4|2=0). No evidence for νμ → νs transitions is found and we set a world-leading limit on θ24 for values of Δm412 ≲ 1 eV2.

  16. Search for Sterile Neutrinos Mixing with Muon Neutrinos in MINOS.

    PubMed

    Adamson, P; Anghel, I; Aurisano, A; Barr, G; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bock, G J; Bogert, D; Cao, S V; Carroll, T J; Castromonte, C M; Chen, R; Childress, S; Coelho, J A B; Corwin, L; Cronin-Hennessy, D; de Jong, J K; De Rijck, S; Devan, A V; Devenish, N E; Diwan, M V; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Falk, E; Feldman, G J; Flanagan, W; Frohne, M V; Gabrielyan, M; Gallagher, H R; Germani, S; Gomes, R A; Goodman, M C; Gouffon, P; Graf, N; Gran, R; Grzelak, K; Habig, A; Hahn, S R; Hartnell, J; Hatcher, R; Holin, A; Huang, J; Hylen, J; Irwin, G M; Isvan, Z; James, C; Jensen, D; Kafka, T; Kasahara, S M S; Koizumi, G; Kordosky, M; Kreymer, A; Lang, K; Ling, J; Litchfield, P J; Lucas, P; Mann, W A; Marshak, M L; Mayer, N; McGivern, C; Medeiros, M M; Mehdiyev, R; Meier, J R; Messier, M D; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Moed Sher, S; Moore, C D; Mualem, L; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nichol, R J; Nowak, J A; O'Connor, J; Orchanian, M; Pahlka, R B; Paley, J; Patterson, R B; Pawloski, G; Perch, A; Pfützner, M M; Phan, D D; Phan-Budd, S; Plunkett, R K; Poonthottathil, N; Qiu, X; Radovic, A; Rebel, B; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Sail, P; Sanchez, M C; Schneps, J; Schreckenberger, A; Schreiner, P; Sharma, R; Sousa, A; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Thomas, J; Thomson, M A; Tian, X; Timmons, A; Todd, J; Tognini, S C; Toner, R; Torretta, D; Tzanakos, G; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Viren, B; Weber, A; Webb, R C; White, C; Whitehead, L; Whitehead, L H; Wojcicki, S G; Zwaska, R

    2016-10-07

    We report results of a search for oscillations involving a light sterile neutrino over distances of 1.04 and 735 km in a ν_{μ}-dominated beam with a peak energy of 3 GeV. The data, from an exposure of 10.56×10^{20} protons on target, are analyzed using a phenomenological model with one sterile neutrino. We constrain the mixing parameters θ_{24} and Δm_{41}^{2} and set limits on parameters of the four-dimensional Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata matrix, |U_{μ4}|^{2} and |U_{τ4}|^{2}, under the assumption that mixing between ν_{e} and ν_{s} is negligible (|U_{e4}|^{2}=0). No evidence for ν_{μ}→ν_{s} transitions is found and we set a world-leading limit on θ_{24} for values of Δm_{41}^{2}≲1  eV^{2}.

  17. Search for sterile neutrinos mixing with muon neutrinos in MINOS

    DOE PAGES

    Adamson, P.; Anghel, I.; Aurisano, A.; ...

    2016-10-07

    Here, we report results of a search for oscillations involving a light sterile neutrino over distances of 1.04 and 735 km in a νμ-dominated beam with a peak energy of 3 GeV. The data, from an exposure of 10.56 × 1020 protons on target, are analyzed using a phenomenological model with one sterile neutrino. We constrain the mixing parameters θ24 and Δm412 and set limits on parameters of the four-dimensional Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata matrix, |Uμ4|2 and |Uτ4|2, under the assumption that mixing between νe and νs is negligible (|Ue4|2=0). No evidence for νμ → νs transitions is found and we set a world-leading limitmore » on θ24 for values of Δm412 ≲ 1 eV2.« less

  18. Kinetic equations for baryogenesis via sterile neutrino oscillation

    SciTech Connect

    Asaka, Takehiko; Eijima, Sintaro; Ishida, Hiroyuki E-mail: eijima@muse.sc.niigata-u.ac.jp

    2012-02-01

    We investigate baryogenesis in the νMSM (neutrino Minimal Standard Model), which is the SM extended by three right-handed neutrinos with masses below the electroweak scale. The baryon asymmetry of the universe can be generated by the mechanism via flavor oscillation of right-handed (sterile) neutrinos which are responsible to masses of active neutrinos confirmed by various experiments. We present the kinetic equations for the matrix of densities of leptons which describe the generation of asymmetries. Especially, the momentum dependence of the matrix of densities is taken into account. By solving these equations numerically, it is found that the momentum distribution is significantly distorted from the equilibrium one, since the production for the modes with lower momenta k << T (T is the temperature of the universe) is enhanced, while suppressed for higher modes. As a result, the most important mode for the yields of sterile neutrinos as well as the baryon asymmetry is k ≅ 2T, which is smaller than (k) inferred from the thermal average. The comparison with the previous works is also discussed.

  19. Tropics accelerate the evolution of hybrid male sterility in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Yukilevich, Roman

    2013-06-01

    Understanding the evolutionary mechanisms that facilitate speciation and explain global patterns of species diversity has remained a challenge for decades. The most general pattern of species biodiversity is the latitudinal gradient, whereby species richness increases toward the tropics. Although such a global pattern probably has a multitude of causes, recent attention has focused on the hypothesis that speciation and the evolution of reproductive isolation occur faster in the tropics. Here, I tested this prediction using a dataset on premating and postzygotic isolation between recently diverged Drosophila species. Results showed that while the evolution of premating isolation was not greater between tropical Drosophila relative to nontropical species, postzygotic isolation evolved faster in the tropics. In particular, hybrid male sterility was much greater among tropical Drosophila compared to nontropical species pairs of similar genetic age. Several testable explanations for the novel pattern are discussed, including greater role for sterility-inducing bacterial endosymbionts in the tropics and more intense sperm-sperm competition or sperm-egg sexual conflict in the tropics. The results imply that processes of speciation in the tropics may evolve at different rates or may even be somewhat different from those at higher latitudes.

  20. Evaluation of a device for monitoring sterility of injectable fluids.

    PubMed

    Mayhall, C G; Pierpaoli, P G; Hall, G O; Thomas, R B

    1981-08-01

    An evaluation of a sterility-testing device (Addi-Chek) that uses total-sample membrane filtration is presented. Parenteral nutrition solutions were deliberately contaminated at low levels with 16 bacterial and four fungal strains. Some contaminated solutions were stored at 20 degrees C or 4 degrees C for up to 24 hours before testing; the rest were tested immediately. Additionally, one liter of pharmacy-prepared infusion fluid was tested each day for 100 days. Broth (added to the Addi-Chek unit after filtration to permit microbial growth) was cultured when it became turbid or after a 10-day incubation. Fifty-nine deliberate-inoculation tests were done. The organism was recovered from 56 of these; the other three tests may have been negative because no organisms were present in the aliquot used for inoculation or because of experimental error. The number of organisms used for inoculation varied from 1 to 80; 86% of the tests used 25 organisms or less. Storage for up to 24 hours at 20 degrees C and 4 degrees C had no effect on the results of sterility testing. In testing 100 units of pharmacy-prepared fluid (not deliberately contaminated), one unit (1%) was found to be contaminated. Pharmacy personnel correctly identified positive and negative Addi-Chek units based on visual turbidity of the broth. It is concluded that Addi-Chek is easy to use and effective in detecting low-level contamination in intravenous fluids.

  1. Long-distance oxygen plasma sterilization: Effects and mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongxia; Chen, Jierong; Yang, Liqing; Zhou, Yuan

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of electrons, ions and oxygen radicals in long-distance oxygen plasma and the germicidal effect (GE) of Escherichia coli on the surface of medical poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) film were studied. The quantity of protein leakage and the production of lipid peroxide in bacterial suspension as well as the state of DNA were measured after sterilization to analyse the inactivation mechanisms. The results showed that the concentration of electrons and ions decreased rapidly with increasing the distance from the center of induction coil, which approximated to 0 at 30 cm, whereas the concentration of oxygen radicals reduced slowly, i.e. decreased 30% within 40 cm. GE value reached 3.42 in the active discharge zone (0 cm) and exceeded 3.32 within 40 cm when plasma treatment parameters were set as follows: plasma rf power at 100 W, treatment time at 60 s and oxygen flux at 40 cm 3/min. Fast etching action on cell membrane by electrons, ions and attacking polyunsaturation fatty acid (PUFA) in cell membrane by oxygen radicals are primary reasons of oxygen plasma sterilization in the active discharge and the afterglow zone, respectively. The GE of UV radiation in long-distance oxygen plasma is feebleness.

  2. Histones trigger sterile inflammation by activating the NLRP3 inflammasome.

    PubMed

    Allam, Ramanjaneyulu; Darisipudi, Murthy Narayana; Tschopp, Jurg; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2013-12-01

    Sterile cell death mediated inflammation is linked to several pathological disorders and involves danger recognition of intracellular molecules released by necrotic cells that activate different groups of innate pattern recognition receptors. Toll-like receptors directly interact with their extrinsic or intrinsic agonists and induce multiple proinflammatory mediators. In contrast, the NLRP3 inflammasome is rather thought to represent a downstream element integrating various indirect stimuli into proteolytic cleavage of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Here, we report that histones released from necrotic cells induce IL-1β secretion in an NLRP3-ASC-caspase-1-dependent manner. Genetic deletion of NLRP3 in mice significantly attenuated histone-induced IL-1β production and neutrophil recruitment. Furthermore, necrotic cells induced neutrophil recruitment, which was significantly reduced by histone-neutralizing antibodies or depleting extracellular histones via enzymatic degradation. These results identify cytosolic uptake of necrotic cell-derived histones as a triggering mechanism of sterile inflammation, which involves NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1β secretion via oxidative stress.

  3. Constraints on sterile neutrino oscillations using DUNE near detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choubey, Sandhya; Pramanik, Dipyaman

    2017-01-01

    DUNE (Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment) is a proposed long-baseline neutrino experiment in the US with a baseline of 1300 km from Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) to Sanford Underground Research Facility, which will house a 40 kt Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC) as the far detector. The experiment will also have a fine grained near detector for accurately measuring the initial fluxes. We show that the energy range of the fluxes and baseline of the DUNE near detector is conducive for observing νμ →νe oscillations of Δm2 ∼ eV2 scale sterile neutrinos, and hence can be effectively used for testing to very high accuracy the reported oscillation signal seen by the LSND and MiniBooNE experiments. We study the sensitivity of the DUNE near detector to sterile neutrino oscillations by varying the baseline, detector fiducial mass and systematic uncertainties. We find that the detector mass and baseline of the currently proposed near detector at DUNE will be able to test the entire LSND parameter region with good precision. The dependence of sensitivity on baseline and detector mass is seen to give interesting results, while dependence on systematic uncertainties is seen to be small.

  4. Fundamental aspects in the plasma surface interaction during plasma sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Keudell, A.

    2008-07-01

    The inactivation of bacteria in oxygen or hydrogen containing low pressure plasmas is investigated by mimicking the plasma exposure with a dedicated beam experiment employing argon ions, oxygen molecules/atoms and hydrogen atoms . Thereby, fundamental inactivation mechanisms can be revealed. It is shown that the impact of O atoms or H atoms has no effect on the viability of bacterial spores and that no etching of the spore coat occurs up to an O and H atom fluence of 3.5 x 10^19 cm^-2. The impact of argon ions with an energy of 200 eV does not cause significant erosion for fluences up to 1.15 x 10^18 cm^-2. However, the combined impact of argon ions and oxygen molecules/atoms or H atoms causes significant etching of the spores and significant inactivation. This is explained by the process of chemical sputtering, where an ion induced defect at the surface of the spore reacts with either the incident bi-radical O_2 or with an incident O atom or H atom. This leads to the formation of CO, CO_2 and H_2O and thus to erosion. This beam results are compared to a broad sterilization campaign using an ICP reactor in a European round robin experiment BIODECON. Strategies for optimizing the plasma sterilization processes will be presented.

  5. Dehydrating and Sterilizing Wastes Using Supercritical CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Ian J.

    2006-01-01

    A relatively low-temperature process for dehydrating and sterilizing biohazardous wastes in an enclosed life-support system exploits (1) the superior mass-transport properties of supercritical fluids in general and (2) the demonstrated sterilizing property of supercritical CO2 in particular. The wastes to be treated are placed in a chamber. Liquid CO2, drawn from storage at a pressure of 850 psi (approx.=5.9 MPa) and temperature of 0 C, is compressed to pressure of 2 kpsi (approx.=14 MPa) and made to flow into the chamber. The compression raises the temperature to 10 C. The chamber and its contents are then further heated to 40 C, putting the CO2 into a supercritical state, in which it kills microorganisms in the chamber. Carrying dissolved water, the CO2 leaves the chamber through a back-pressure regulator, through which it is expanded back to the storage pressure. The expanded CO2 is refrigerated to extract the dissolved water as ice, and is then returned to the storage tank at 0 C

  6. Nurses and the sterilization experiments of Auschwitz: a postmodernist perspective.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Susan; Georges, Jane M

    2006-12-01

    The medical experiments conducted on non-consenting prisoners of Nazi concentration camps during World War II necessitated the codification of principles to protect human subjects of research. Auschwitz was the largest and one of the most infamous of the camps and the site of numerous 'medical' experiments. This historical study uses primary source documents obtained from archives in England and Germany to describe one type of experiment carried out at Auschwitz - the sterilization experiments. The purpose of these experiments was to perfect a technique in which non-Aryans could be prevented from reproducing while still being able to work as slave laborers. These narratives regarding the sterilization experiments at Auschwitz are remarkable in that they contain previously undocumented information regarding the voluntary and involuntary involvement of nurses. Following these narratives, a discussion of ethics in relation to the Holocaust is presented with a specific focus on the work of Agamben. Implications of the Auschwitz narratives for the application of codes of ethical principles and contemporary nursing are discussed from a postmodernist perspective.

  7. Nanoscale topographic changes on sterilized glass surfaces affect cell adhesion and spreading.

    PubMed

    Wittenburg, Gretel; Lauer, Günter; Oswald, Steffen; Labudde, Dirk; Franz, Clemens M

    2014-08-01

    Producing sterile glass surfaces is of great importance for a wide range of laboratory and medical applications, including in vitro cell culture and tissue engineering. However, sterilization may change the surface properties of glass and thereby affect its use for medical applications, for instance as a substrate for culturing cells. To investigate potential effects of sterilization on glass surface topography, borosilicate glass coverslips were left untreated or subjected to several common sterilization procedures, including low-temperature plasma gas, gamma irradiation and steam. Imaging by atomic force microscopy demonstrated that the surface of untreated borosilicate coverslips features a complex landscape of microislands ranging from 1000 to 3000 nm in diameter and 1 to 3 nm in height. Steam treatment completely removes these microislands, producing a nanosmooth glass surface. In contrast, plasma treatment partially degrades the microisland structure, while gamma irradiation has no effect on microisland topography. To test for possible effects of the nanotopographic structures on cell adhesion, human gingival fibroblasts were seeded on untreated or sterilized glass surfaces. Analyzing fibroblast adhesion 3, 6, and 24 h after cell seeding revealed significant differences in cell attachment and spreading depending on the sterilization method applied. Furthermore, single-cell force spectroscopy revealed a connection between the nanotopographic landscape of glass and the formation of cellular adhesion forces, indicating that fibroblasts generally adhere weakly to nanosmooth but strongly to nanorough glass surfaces. Nanotopographic changes induced by different sterilization methods may therefore need to be considered when preparing sterile glass surfaces for cell culture or biomedical applications.

  8. Tetracycline-suppressible female lethality and sterility in the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) involves the mass release of sterile males to suppress insect pest populations, which has been improved for larval pests by development of strains for female-specific tetracycline-suppressible (Tet-off) embryonic lethal systems for male-only populations. Here we de...

  9. DNA methylation affected by male sterile cytoplasm in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male sterile cytoplasm plays an important role in hybrid rice and cytoplasmic effects are sufficiently documented. However, no reports are available on DNA methylation affected by male sterile cytoplasm in hybrid rice. We used a methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique to charac...

  10. Hybrid male sterility in rice controlled by interaction between divergent alleles of two adjacent genes.

    PubMed

    Long, Yunming; Zhao, Lifeng; Niu, Baixiao; Su, Jing; Wu, Hao; Chen, Yuanling; Zhang, Qunyu; Guo, Jingxin; Zhuang, Chuxiong; Mei, Mantong; Xia, Jixing; Wang, Lan; Wu, Haibin; Liu, Yao-Guang

    2008-12-02

    Sterility is common in hybrids between divergent populations, such as the indica and japonica subspecies of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa). Although multiple loci for plant hybrid sterility have been identified, it remains unknown how alleles of the loci interact at the molecular level. Here we show that a locus for indica-japonica hybrid male sterility, Sa, comprises two adjacent genes, SaM and SaF, encoding a small ubiquitin-like modifier E3 ligase-like protein and an F-box protein, respectively. Most indica cultivars contain a haplotype SaM(+)SaF(+), whereas all japonica cultivars have SaM(-)SaF(-) that diverged by nucleotide variations in wild rice. Male semi-sterility in this heterozygous complex locus is caused by abortion of pollen carrying SaM(-). This allele-specific gamete elimination results from a selective interaction of SaF(+) with SaM(-), a truncated protein, but not with SaM(+) because of the presence of an inhibitory domain, although SaM(+) is required for this male sterility. Lack of any one of the three alleles in recombinant plants does not produce male sterility. We propose a two-gene/three-component interaction model for this hybrid male sterility system. The findings have implications for overcoming male sterility in inter-subspecific hybrid rice breeding.

  11. Diverse germplasm to devleop male-sterile lines for hybrid breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybrid rice breeding in the US has depended largely upon male-sterile lines originating in China or from other Asian sources. By contrast, the program in Arkansas has developed all of its male-sterile lines at Stuttgart,AR using germplasm accessions available in the USDA Rice Germplasm Collection st...

  12. Terminal sterilization of alginate hydrogels: efficacy and impact on mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Stoppel, Whitney L; White, Joseph C; Horava, Sarena D; Henry, Anna C; Roberts, Susan C; Bhatia, Surita R

    2014-05-01

    Terminal, or postprocessing, sterilization of composite biomaterials is crucial for their use in wound healing and tissue-engineered devices. Recent research has focused on optimizing traditional biomaterial formulations to create better products for commercial and academic use which incorporate hydrophobic compounds or secondary gel networks. To use a hydrogel in a clinical setting, terminal sterilization is necessary to ensure patient safety. Lyophilization, gamma-irradiation, and ethylene oxide treatment all have negative consequences when applied to alginate scaffolds for clinical use. Here, we aim to find alternative terminal sterilization methods for alginate and alginate-based composite hydrogels which maintain the structure of composite alginate networks for use in biomedical applications. A thorough investigation of the effect of common sterilization methods on swollen alginate-based hydrogels has not been reported and therefore, this work examines autoclaving, ethanol washing, and ultraviolet light as sterilization techniques for alginate and alginate/Pluronic® F68 composite hydrogels. Preservation of structural integrity is evaluated using shear rheology and analysis of water retention, and efficacy of sterilization is determined via bacterial persistence within the hydrogel. Results indicate that ethanol sterilization is the best method of those investigated because ethanol washing results in minimal effects on mechanical properties and water retention and eliminates bacterial persistence. Furthermore, this study suggests that ethanol treatment is an efficacious method for terminally sterilizing interpenetrating networks or other composite hydrogel systems.

  13. Sterilization of Bacillus atrophaeus using OH radicals supplied by vacuum ultraviolet method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonetamari, Kenta; Tokumitsu, Yusuke; Yonemori, Seiya; Ono, Ryo; Yasuda, Hachiro; Mizuno, Akira

    2015-09-01

    Sterilization by cold plasma has widely been performed. It is well known that reactive oxygen species (ROS) has a potential of sterilization. However, it is not clear which ROS is effective on sterilization because a lot of types of ROS are produced in plasma. In this study, sterilization effect of OH radicals by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) method was investigated. This method utilizes photodissociation reaction to produce ROS so it can produce ROS selectively. Wet and dry helium with and without 1% O2 gas was used to demonstrate sterilization effect of OH radicals. Gases were flowed in a quartz tube (inner diameter 2 mm, outer diameter 4 mm) at a flow rate of 1.5 L/min. The produced ROS flowed out of the quartz tube nozzle. A Xe2 excimer lamp emitting 172 +/- 7 nm VUV light was placed parallel to the quartz tube with a distance of 8 mm. The distance between the lower end of the lamp and the nozzle of quartz tube was changed from 3 to 15 cm. As a target of sterilization, Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) was used. The density of OH radicals was measured using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). As a result, sterilization using VUV method was verified. This result showed that OH radicals sterilized the bacteria.

  14. 21 CFR 526.464c - Cloxacillin sodium for intramammary infusion, sterile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cloxacillin sodium for intramammary infusion, sterile. 526.464c Section 526.464c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... DRUGS § 526.464c Cloxacillin sodium for intramammary infusion, sterile. (a) Specifications....

  15. 21 CFR 526.464c - Cloxacillin sodium for intramammary infusion, sterile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cloxacillin sodium for intramammary infusion, sterile. 526.464c Section 526.464c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... DRUGS § 526.464c Cloxacillin sodium for intramammary infusion, sterile. (a) Specifications....

  16. 21 CFR 526.464c - Cloxacillin sodium for intramammary infusion, sterile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cloxacillin sodium for intramammary infusion, sterile. 526.464c Section 526.464c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... DRUGS § 526.464c Cloxacillin sodium for intramammary infusion, sterile. (a) Specifications....

  17. 21 CFR 526.464c - Cloxacillin sodium for intramammary infusion, sterile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cloxacillin sodium for intramammary infusion, sterile. 526.464c Section 526.464c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... DRUGS § 526.464c Cloxacillin sodium for intramammary infusion, sterile. (a) Specifications....

  18. 21 CFR 526.464c - Cloxacillin sodium for intramammary infusion, sterile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cloxacillin sodium for intramammary infusion, sterile. 526.464c Section 526.464c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND....464c Cloxacillin sodium for intramammary infusion, sterile. (a) Specifications. Each...

  19. Methoprene treatment reduces the pre-copulatory period in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile males

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anastrepha fraterculus is a major fruit pest in South America. Ongoing studies encourage the implementation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against this pest. Sexual readiness of sterile males is a key point for SIT. The time required for A. fraterculus males to become sexually mature is unkn...

  20. Shelf-stable egg-based products processed by high pressure thermal sterilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producing a thermally sterilized egg-based product with increased shelf life without losing the sensory and nutritional properties of the freshly prepared product is challenging. Until recently, all commercial shelf-stable egg-based products were sterilized using conventional thermal processing; how...

  1. Long-term elastic durability of polymer matrix composite materials after repeated steam sterilization.

    PubMed

    Chong, Alexander C M; Fischer, Gustav; Dart, Bradley R; Wooley, Paul H

    2015-11-01

    We compared the durability of 3 different selected composite materials that underwent repeated steam sterilization with the durability of traditional metal materials. Composite materials Tepex, CFR-PPS (carbon-fiber-reinforced polyphenylene sulfide), and HTN-53 (Zytel HTN53G50HSLR NC010) were evaluated for durability and water retention after repeated steam sterilization. These composites were compared with stainless steel and aluminum. The structural properties of these materials were measured (short-beam load-to-failure and cyclic compression loading tests) before, during, and after repeated steam sterilization. The relative radiographic density of these materials was also compared. There was no significant difference in the moisture retention of these composite materials before and after repeated sterilization. The composite materials were significantly more radiolucent than the metals. For all the composite materials, load to failure deteriorated after repeated sterilization. The cyclic compression loading tests showed HTN-53 had the poorest performance, with complete failure after 400 cycles of repeated sterilization. CFR-PPS performed slightly better, with 33% failure at final testing. Tepex had no failures at final testing. Although HTN-53 has shown promise in other orthopedic applications, its performance after repeated sterilization was relatively poor. Tepex showed the most potential for durability after repeated sterilization. Further study is needed to identify specific applications for these materials in the orthopedic industry.

  2. Sterilization using a microwave-induced argon plasma system at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Bong Joo; Lee, D. H.; Park, J.-C.; Lee, I.-S.; Lee, K.-Y.; Hyun, S. O.; Chun, M.-S.; Chung, K.-H.

    2003-11-01

    The use of microwave plasma for sterilization is relatively new. The advantages of this method are the relatively low temperature, time-savings and its nontoxic nature, in contrast to traditional methods such as heat and gas treatment, and radiation. This study investigated the sterilization effects of microwave-induced argon plasma at atmospheric pressure on materials contaminated with various microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi. A low-cost and reliable 2.45 GHz, waveguide-based applicator was designed to generate microwave plasma at atmospheric pressure. This system consisted of a 1 kW magnetron power supply, a WR-284 copper waveguide, an applicator including a tuning section, and a nozzle section. Six bacterial and fungal strains were used for the sterilization test. The results showed that regardless of the strain, all the bacteria used in this study were fully sterilized within 20 seconds and all the fungi were sterilized within 1 second. These results show that this sterilization method is easy to use, requires significantly less time than the other traditional methods and established plasma sterilization methods, and it is nontoxic. It can be used in the field of sterilization in medical and dental clinics as well as in laboratory settings.

  3. Sterilization of Exopolysaccharides Produced by Deep-Sea Bacteria: Impact on Their Stability and Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Rederstorff, Emilie; Fatimi, Ahmed; Sinquin, Corinne; Ratiskol, Jacqueline; Merceron, Christophe; Vinatier, Claire; Weiss, Pierre; Colliec-Jouault, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    Polysaccharides are highly heat-sensitive macromolecules, so high temperature treatments are greatly destructive and cause considerable damage, such as a great decrease in both viscosity and molecular weight of the polymer. The technical feasibility of the production of exopolysaccharides by deep-sea bacteria Vibrio diabolicus and Alteromonas infernus was previously demonstrated using a bioproduct manufacturing process. The objective of this study was to determine which sterilization method, other than heat sterilization, was the most appropriate for these marine exopolysaccharides and was in accordance with bioprocess engineering requirements. Chemical sterilization using low-temperature ethylene oxide and a mixture of ionized gases (plasmas) was compared to the sterilization methods using gamma and beta radiations. The changes to both the physical and chemical properties of the sterilized exopolysaccharides were analyzed. The use of ethylene oxide can be recommended for the sterilization of polysaccharides as a weak effect on both rheological and structural properties was observed. This low-temperature gas sterilizing process is very efficient, giving a good Sterility Assurance Level (SAL), and is also well suited to large-scale compound manufacturing in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:21566796

  4. Sterilization of soybean powder with plasma treatment in atmospheric humid air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwami, R.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.; Nakayama, A.; Nakagawa, K.

    2013-10-01

    Sterilization of foods has been performed by conventional methods such as heat, steam and chemical solutions. However, these sterilization techniques could cause damages to the food material. It is considered that plasma sterilization at atmospheric pressure is one of the promising alternative methods because of the low temperature process. In our previous study, the inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeusspores by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma produced in atmospheric humid air was investigated in order to develop low-temperature, low-cost and high-speed plasma sterilization technique. The results showed that the inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeusspores was found to be dependent strongly on the humidity. In the present study, the plasma treatment technique in humid air is applied to sterilization of soybean powder. Effects of plasma sterilization were successfully confirmed by a colony counting method. It was found that the sterilization efficiency was increased by using the humid air as the discharge gas. In the conference, an improvement of the plasma treatment system to enhance the sterilization efficiency will be shown.

  5. [Preliminary study on suitability of ozone sterilization in traditional Chinese medicine and its preparation].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yan-jun; Wang, Ya-qi; Wu, Zhen-feng; Lan, Ji-ping; Zhang, Li-guo; Yang, Ming

    2015-08-01

    Microbial contamination, growth and reproduction have a great influence on the quality of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and its preparation. TCM may be polluted by microbial in the production process due to ambient air, facilities and appliances and operating personnel, which affects the quality and efficacy of the final product. The GMP certification inspection standard of TCM manufacturing enterprises clearly established: "Sterilization methods of Chinese herbal medicine, intermediate products, finished products should follow the principle whether or not to change its quality", "TCM powder that used as medicine directly should follow the principle whether to do microbiological examinations". So it's particularly important for product quality, corporate energy consumption and its efficiency to choose the scientific and effective sterilization techniques and methods. Ozone is a kind of safe, environmentally friendly, efficient and no residue emerging sterilization technology. It has been widely applied in various fields of medical and health care and production and living. This paper mainly analyzed the ozone sterilization technology of TCM, aiming to explore the principle of ozone sterilization, the advantages, application status and existing problems and so on. The management regulations and implementation rules of ozone sterilization were summarized to make sterilization of Chinese medicine in the production, management, quality control and other aspects standardized, reasonable and scientific, and to provide the theoretical reference of the ozone sterilization technology for TCM and its preparation.

  6. IV (Intravenous) Fluidmaker: Preparation of Sterile Water for Injection in a Field Setting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-16

    was prepared by amending tapwater with 900 mg/L of sodium chloride and 500 mgIL of anhydrous sodium sulfate. Synthetic ROWPU water was similarly...requirements under Sterility Tests ិ>. Amonia -- For Sterile Water for Injection in glass containers holding a volume up to 50 mL, dilute 50 m-1 wizh 50 mL of

  7. Laparoscopic Management of Tubo-Ovarian Stitch Abscess after Tubal Sterilization

    PubMed Central

    Ghongdemath, Jyoti S; Shindholimath, Vishwanath V; Krishna, L

    2011-01-01

    Tubo-ovarian abscess usually results from ascending infection of the lower genital tract. In few cases, it can occur as a result of direct contamination at the time of tubal sterilization. We describe two rare cases of “tubo-ovarian stitch abscess” after post-partum tubal sterilization and managed successfully by laparoscopy at a tertiary care teaching hospital. PMID:26085757

  8. Dog and cat management through sterilization: Implications for population dynamics and veterinary public policies.

    PubMed

    Dias, Ricardo Augusto; Baquero, Oswaldo Santos; Guilloux, Aline Gil Alves; Moretti, Caio Figueiredo; de Lucca, Tosca; Rodrigues, Ricardo Conde Alves; Castagna, Cláudio Luiz; Presotto, Douglas; Kronitzky, Yury Cezar; Grisi-Filho, José Henrique Hildebrand; Ferreira, Fernando; Amaku, Marcos

    2015-11-01

    The present study aimed to compare different sterilization scenarios allowing the adoption of the most adequate strategy to control owned dog and cat population sizes as the official veterinary public policy for animal control in an urban area of Campinas municipality, Brazil. To achieve this goal, the vital parameters of the owned pet population were measured in a neighborhood of Campinas called Jardim Vila Olimpia through questionnaires used in two census studies performed in February 2012 and June 2013. Different hypothetical sterilization scenarios were compared with the scenario of a single sterilization campaign performed in the study area between the census studies. Using a deterministic mathematical model, population dynamics were simulated for these different scenarios. We have observed that for both owned dogs and cats, the impact on the population size achieved by a single sterilization campaign would be diluted over the years, equating to the impact achieved by the usual sterilization rate practiced before the sterilization campaign yearly. Moreover, using local and global sensitivity analyses, we assessed the relative influence on animal population evolution of each vital parameter used in the mathematical models. The more influential parameters for both species were the carrying capacity of the environment and sterilization rates of males and females (for both species). We observed that even with sterilizing 100% of the intact animals annually, it would not be possible to obtain proportions greater than 86% and 88% of sterilized dogs and cats, respectively, after 20 years due to the high introduction of new intact animals. There is no public dog and cat sterilization service in place in the city, and sporadic and local sterilization campaigns are performed with a prior communication to the owners to bring their animals to be sterilized in a selected veterinary facility. If a sterilization campaign was performed annually in the study area, it would

  9. FREE RADICALS IN THERMALLY STERILIZED ACIDUM BORICUM AND OPTIMIZATION OF THIS PROCESS.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Paweł; Pilawa, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Free radicals formation in the acidum boricum (AB) during thermal sterilization process was examined by an X-band (9.3 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Acidum boricum was sterilized according to the pharmacopea norms at temperatures 160°C (120 min), 170°C (60 min), and 180°C (30 min). Free radicals (~10(17) spin/g) were thermally formed in these drug. The free radicals system revealed complex character, and the asymmetrical EPR spectra were measured. Mainly oxygen free radicals exist in the tested heated AB. Slower spin-lattice relaxation processes exist in AB sterilized at 160, 170 and 180°C. AB may be sterilized at temperatures 160, 170 and 180°C. For AB thermal sterilization at temperature 170°C is recommended. Free radicals concentrations changes during storage of the examined AB, and probably interactions with oxygen molecules may be responsible for this effect.

  10. Research to support sterile-male-release and genetic alteration techniques for sea lamprey control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, Roger A.; Twohey, Michael B.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated pest management of sea lampreys in the Laurentian Great Lakes has recently been enhanced by addition of a sterile-male-release program, and future developments in genetic approaches may lead to additional methods for reducing sea lamprey reproduction. We review the development, implementation, and evaluation of the sterile-male-release technique (SMRT) as it is being applied against sea lampreys in the Great Lakes, review the current understanding of SMRT efficacy, and identify additional research areas and topics that would increase either the efficacy of the SMRT or expand its geographic potential for application. Key areas for additional research are in the sterilization process, effects of skewed sex ratios on mating behavior, enhancing attractiveness of sterilized males, techniques for genetic alteration of sea lampreys, and sources of animals to enhance or expand the use of sterile lampreys.

  11. Neutrino fluxes from a core-collapse supernova in a model with three sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudin, A. V.; Nadyozhin, D. K.; Khruschov, V. V.; Fomichev, S. V.

    2016-12-01

    The characteristics of the gravitational collapse of a supernova and the fluxes of active and sterile neutrinos produced during the formation of its protoneutron core have been calculated numerically. The relative yields of active and sterile neutrinos in corematter with different degrees of neutronization have been calculated for various input parameters and various initial conditions. A significant increase in the fraction of sterile neutrinos produced in superdense core matter at the resonant degree of neutronization has been confirmed. The contributions of sterile neutrinos to the collapse dynamics and the total flux of neutrinos produced during collapse have been shown to be relatively small. The total luminosity of sterile neutrinos is considerably lower than the luminosity of electron neutrinos, but their spectrum is considerably harder at high energies.

  12. Degradation of 316L stainless steel sternal wire by steam sterilization.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chun-Che; Su, Yea-Yang; Chen, Lung-Ching; Shih, Chun-Ming; Lin, Shing-Jong

    2010-06-01

    Sterilization is an important step prior to the implantation of medical devices inside the human body. In this work we studied the influence of steam sterilization cycles on the oxide film properties of stainless steel sternal wire. Characterization techniques such as open- circuit potential, potentiodynamic measurement, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cathodic stripping, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were employed to investigate the cycles of steam sterilization on the corrosion behavior of sternal wire. The results showed that the oxide properties are a function of the number of steam sterilization cycles and deteriorate as the number of cycles increases. Steam sterilization might damage the implant integrity and heavy metals could be released to the surrounding tissues due to deterioration of the oxide film.

  13. Simultaneous Sterilization With Surface Modification Of Plastic Bottle By Plasma-Based Ion Implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakudo, N.; Ikenaga, N.; Ikeda, F.; Nakayama, Y.; Kishi, Y.; Yajima, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Dry sterilization of polymeric material is developed. The technique utilizes the plasma-based ion implantation which is same as for surface modification of polymers. Experimental data for sterilization are obtained by using spores of Bacillus subtilis as samples. On the other hand we previously showed that the surface modification enhanced the gas barrier characteristics of plastic bottles. Comparing the implantation conditions for the sterilization experiment with those for the surface modification, we find that both sterilization and surface modification are simultaneously performed in a certain range of implantation conditions. This implies that the present bottling system for plastic vessels will be simplified and streamlined by excluding the toxic peroxide water that has been used in the traditional sterilization processes.

  14. Pest persistence and eradication conditions in a deterministic model for sterile insect release.

    PubMed

    Gordillo, Luis F

    2015-01-01

    The release of sterile insects is an environment friendly pest control method used in integrated pest management programmes. Difference or differential equations based on Knipling's model often provide satisfactory qualitative descriptions of pest populations subject to sterile release at relatively high densities with large mating encounter rates, but fail otherwise. In this paper, I derive and explore numerically deterministic population models that include sterile release together with scarce mating encounters in the particular case of species with long lifespan and multiple matings. The differential equations account separately the effects of mating failure due to sterile male release and the frequency of mating encounters. When insects spatial spread is incorporated through diffusion terms, computations reveal the possibility of steady pest persistence in finite size patches. In the presence of density dependence regulation, it is observed that sterile release might contribute to induce sudden suppression of the pest population.

  15. Simultaneous Sterilization With Surface Modification Of Plastic Bottle By Plasma-Based Ion Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Sakudo, N.; Ikenaga, N.; Ikeda, F.; Nakayama, Y.; Kishi, Y.; Yajima, Z.

    2011-01-07

    Dry sterilization of polymeric material is developed. The technique utilizes the plasma-based ion implantation which is same as for surface modification of polymers. Experimental data for sterilization are obtained by using spores of Bacillus subtilis as samples. On the other hand we previously showed that the surface modification enhanced the gas barrier characteristics of plastic bottles. Comparing the implantation conditions for the sterilization experiment with those for the surface modification, we find that both sterilization and surface modification are simultaneously performed in a certain range of implantation conditions. This implies that the present bottling system for plastic vessels will be simplified and streamlined by excluding the toxic peroxide water that has been used in the traditional sterilization processes.

  16. Effect of sterilization on osteoinduction. Comparison of five methods in demineralized rat bone.

    PubMed

    Munting, E; Wilmart, J F; Wijne, A; Hennebert, P; Delloye, C

    1988-02-01

    The aim of this study was to find a safe, effective sterilization method that does not destroy the bone-inductive capacity of demineralized bone implants. Five sterilizing agents were tested in rats. Implants procured and processed under sterile conditions served as controls. New bone formation was evaluated by determining dry weight, calcium content, and Sr-85 incorporation of the induced ossicles. Glutaraldehyde solution, formaldehyde gas, and ethylene oxide destroyed almost all the bone-inductive capacity. Irradiation by 2.5 Mrads Co-60 resulted in a loss of about half of the inductive capacity. Merthiolate (0.18 per cent) was the only sterilizing agent that did not reduce the bone-inductive capacity of the demineralized implants. Because merthiolate is not sporicidal, gamma irradiation appears to be the most appropriate sterilizing agent for demineralized bone in clinical use.

  17. Lessons from the recent rise in use of female sterilization in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Jacobstein, Roy

    2013-03-01

    Although female sterilization is the most widely used modern contraceptive method in the world, most family planning programs in Africa have had difficulty providing it. Malawi, however, despite daunting constraints, has made female sterilization widely and equitably accessible, thereby increasing method choice and helping its citizens better meet their reproductive intentions. Ten percent of currently married Malawian women of reproductive age rely on female sterilization for contraceptive protection, compared with less than 2 percent across Africa, and demand to limit births now exceeds demand to space births. Malawi's female sterilization prevalence surpasses that of some high-resource countries. Key service-delivery factors enabling this achievement include supportive policies, strong public-private partnerships, and mobile services delivered at no cost by dedicated providers. Challenges remain, but Malawi's achievement offers lessons for other countries with low availability of female sterilization and similar resource constraints.

  18. Sterilizing effects of cobalt-60 and cesium-137 radiation on male sea lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, L.H.

    1990-01-01

    Male spawning-run sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus were exposed to various doses of cobalt-60 or cesium-137 radiation in an attempt to sterilize them for use in a program for controlling sea lampreys through the release of sterile males. Males captured and irradiated during the early part of the upstream migration were not effectively sterilized at the doses tested. After irradiation, the sea lampreys were more susceptible to fungal infections by Saprolegnia sp., and many died without attempting to spawn. Males captured and irradiated during the middle and late parts of the spawning migration were effectively sterilized at a dose of 2,000 rads. However, some radiation-induced mortality was observed in males captured and irradiated during the middle part of the spawning migration. Radiation is not as effective as the chemosterilant bisazir for sterilizing male sea lampreys.

  19. Control and Constraint for Low-Income Women Choosing Outpatient Sterilization

    PubMed Central

    Leyser-Whalen, Ophra; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about Hispanics and their contraceptive choices in general, with some past studies detailing non-consensual sterilization. This article is based on interviews with a mostly Hispanic sample of 44 women being sterilized at a public clinic in southeast Texas with the Essure device, which entails a new outpatient sterilization procedure. These women cited relationship factors, wanting to better their and their children’s lives, and past reproductive histories as reasons for deciding on sterilization. They specifically chose Essure as a result of an apprehension of surgery and potential side effects from tubal ligation. Their choices, however, were limited by larger structural factors of work, family, the political economy, and the health care system. We conclude that this new sterilization technique provided more contraceptive choices for these women, yet more contraceptive decision making autonomy, as well as more equitable social structures, are still needed. PMID:23761929

  20. Auxins reverse plant male sterility caused by high temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Sakata, Tadashi; Oshino, Takeshi; Miura, Shinya; Tomabechi, Mari; Tsunaga, Yuta; Higashitani, Nahoko; Miyazawa, Yutaka; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Masao; Higashitani, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    With global warming, plant high temperature injury is becoming an increasingly serious problem. In wheat, barley, and various other commercially important crops, the early phase of anther development is especially susceptible to high temperatures. Activation of auxin biosynthesis with increased temperatures has been reported in certain plant tissues. In contrast, we here found that under high temperature conditions, endogenous auxin levels specifically decreased in the developing anthers of barley and Arabidopsis. In addition, expression of the YUCCA auxin biosynthesis genes was repressed by increasing temperatures. Application of auxin completely reversed male sterility in both plant species. These findings suggest that tissue-specific auxin reduction is the primary cause of high temperature injury, which leads to the abortion of pollen development. Thus, the application of auxin may help sustain steady yields of crops despite future climate change. PMID:20421476