Science.gov

Sample records for hidrogel steril radiasi

  1. Sterilization.

    PubMed

    Rioux, M H

    1979-05-01

    The history of sterilization in North America has included enactment of laws in 37 U. S. states and 2 Canadian provinces allowing the procedure to be performed to eliminate undesirable, genetically-transmitted traits. These eugenic laws applied to any of the following categories of persons: mentally regarded, mentally ill, epileptic, criminal, alcoholic, or poor people. Pressure from geneticists, lawyers, and others concerned with the implications of such laws, led to their repeal in many places. Noneugenic and nontherapeutic sterilization is today a recognized medical practice. Legally, such procedures must meet the following criteria: 1) informed consent; 2) individual benefit; and 3) performance with reasonable care and skill. If these criteria are met, doctors are protected from legal liability. The most legal, social, and ethical ambiguities arise in cases where nontherapeutic sterilization is performed on individuals unable to give consent, e.g., minors or mentally handicapped persons.

  2. Surgery, sterilization and sterility.

    PubMed

    Green, V W

    1993-03-01

    The history of sterilization was not linked from the first with surgery. Surgery came first, fully 600 years before the principles of asepsis and anesthesia were even introduced in the middle of the 1800s. Also in the 1800s, the beginnings of thermal sterilization were being developed in the food industry. The basic principles of antisepsis and prevention of wound suppuration, including the destruction of germs on instruments, dressings, the hands of the surgeon and his assistants, and everything else in contact with the wound were clearly elucidated by Lister in the 1870s and remain the inviolate principles of surgical asepsis today. In general, the marriage between the surgeons and the sterilizers was a successful one; the major handicap to eternal bliss and harmony, however, was an incompatibility between the partners. As in many marriages, the partners made unwarranted demands upon each other, and became frustrated when these demands were unfulfilled. The field of surgical sterilization and surgical safety is less confused by technical inconsistencies than it is by semantic nightmares, such that we will never reach a universal definition of sterility. However, we do not really need a universal definition of sterility. Rather we should learn how to translate sterility tests in terms of the real world infections hazards.

  3. Postpartum Sterilization

    MedlinePlus

    ... sterilization. In tubal sterilization, the fallopian tubes are closed off or removed. Tubal sterilization prevents the egg ... through the incision. The tubes are cut and closed with special thread or removed completely. The incision ...

  4. Spacecraft sterilization.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalfayan, S. H.

    1972-01-01

    Spacecraft sterilization is a vital factor in projects for the successful biological exploration of other planets. The microorganisms of major concern are the fungi and bacteria. Sterilization procedures are oriented toward the destruction of bacterial spores. Gaseous sterilants are examined, giving attention to formaldehyde, beta-propiolactone, ethylene oxide, and the chemistry of the bactericidal action of sterilants. Radiation has been seriously considered as another method for spacecraft sterilization. Dry heat sterilization is discussed together with the effects of ethylene oxide decontamination and dry heat sterilization on materials.

  5. Reversible Sterilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Largey, Gale

    1977-01-01

    Notes that difficult questions arise concerning the use of sterilization for alleged eugenic and euthenic purposes. Thus, how reversible sterilization will be used with relation to the poor, mentally ill, mentally retarded, criminals, and minors, is questioned. (Author/AM)

  6. Sterilization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Cox Sterile Products, Inc.'s Rapid Heat Transfer Sterilizer employs a heat exchange process that induces rapid air movement; the air becomes the heat transfer medium, maintaining a uniform temperature of 375 degrees Fahrenheit. It features pushbutton controls for three timing cycles for different instrument loads, a six-minute cycle for standard unpackaged instruments, eight minutes for certain specialized dental/medical instruments and 12 minutes for packaged instruments which can then be stored in a drawer in sterile condition. System will stay at 375 degrees all day. Continuous operation is not expensive because of the sterilizer's very low power requirements.

  7. Sterilization and "de facto" sterilization.

    PubMed

    Ross, L

    1994-01-01

    Many women of color have been sexually sterilized in the US over the past 70 years. A eugenics movement was created in the 1870s by Malthusianists and White nativist Protestants which led to the adoption of eugenics laws as part of national and state policy. 45,000 Americans were sterilized over the period 1907-45 under these laws. For example, Indiana and 30 other states legislated the compulsory sterilization of those deemed to be mentally deficient, those with certain types of mental illnesses, epileptics, sexual perverts, and criminals. The US Supreme Court in 1927 upheld the constitutionality of forced sterilization for the "feeble-minded", after which 25,000 such sterilization operations took place during the 1930s. Other abuses of the surgical sterilization of women dating through the late 1980s are described and are associated with threats of losing one's welfare benefits,m out-of-compliance consent forms for sterilization, and federal government financial support for sterilizations and not abortion. The unwritten policy in most major teaching hospitals in New York city to perform elective hysterectomies on poor Black and Puerto Rican women with minimal indications in order to train residents; use of the Dalkon Shield IUD in the US before it was eventually banned; Depo-Provera and its link to cancer; and the potentially misused Norplant are also described as practices and phenomena which have subjected many women of color to de facto sterilization.

  8. Sterile Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazzo, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    Several anomalies recorded in short-baseline neutrino experiments suggest the possibility that the standard 3-flavor framework may be incomplete and point towards a manifestation of new physics. Light sterile neutrinos provide a credible solution to these puzzling results. Here, we present a concise review of the status of the neutrino oscillations within the 3+1 scheme, the minimal extension of the standard 3-flavor framework endowed with one sterile neutrino species. We emphasize the potential role of LBL experiments in the searches of CP violation related to sterile neutrinos and their complementarity with the SBL experiments.

  9. Sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, J.; Machado, P. A. N.; Maltoni, M.; Schwetz, T.

    2016-06-01

    We characterize statistically the indications of a presence of one or more light sterile neutrinos from MiniBooNE and LSND data, together with the reactor and gallium anomalies, in the global context. The compatibility of the aforementioned signals with null results from solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator experiments is evaluated. We conclude that a severe tension is present in the global fit, and therefore the addition of eV-scale sterile neutrinos does not satisfactorily explain the anomalies.

  10. Hysteroscopic sterilization.

    PubMed

    Sciarra, J J; Keith, L

    1995-09-01

    Despite the numerous painstaking evaluative trials that were conducted for more than two decades, hysteroscopic sterilization techniques remain more of a concept than a reality. However, it is likely that transcervical methods will continue to attract the investigator who is interested in simple, inexpensive outpatient office or female sterilization procedures in the clinic. Regardless, the cost of clinical trials, required follow-up, and preclinical toxicologic evaluations may continue to inhibit further research in this area.

  11. Hysteroscopic sterilization.

    PubMed

    Cooper, J M

    1992-06-01

    After a brief history of sterilization, this article is devoted to hysteroscopic techniques and instrumentation, and a presentation of hysteroscopic sterilization techniques: electrocoagulation techniques, hysteroscopic injection of chemicals, and hysteroscopically directed placement of intratubal mechanical devices (ceramic plugs, polyethylene plugs, preformed silicone plugs, nylon intratubal plugs, and formed-in-place silicone rubber plugs. Problems are identified that are common to all hysteroscopic sterilization techniques. There are also practical considerations which limit the development of hysteroscopic sterilization techniques, and these considerations are presented. Various means have been used historically to block the tubal ostia, including the insertion of nitric acid in 1984, but it was not until 1927 that the hysteroscope was used for sterilization. Hysteroscopy itself was discovered in 1869 for diagnosis of intrauterine diseases. Even with the hysteroscope and the 1934 procedure of using an electric current in the tubal ostia, hysteroscopic sterilization was little used. In 1973 a convention was convened to discuss the use of the procedure and the ramifications. Currently, the hysteroscope is a modified cytoscope with a 4 mm wide telescope with a fore-oblique lens, a 7 mm wide metallic sheath, a fiberoptic bundle for transmission of light, and additional instruments for intrauterine manipulation or surgical intervention. Under local anesthesia, sterilization is effected by 1) destruction of the interstitial portion of the oviduct by thermal energy, 2) injection techniques for the delivery of sclerosing substances or tissue adhesives, or 3) mechanical occlusive devices or plugs to block the oviduct. Recent uterine, cervical, or adnexal infections and pregnancy prevent the performance of sterilization, because infections are exacerbated by the procedure. Uterine perforation is a complication. Other complications involve allergic reactions to the

  12. Sterilizing the Poor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Sheila M.

    1977-01-01

    Suggests that freedom for the middle classes may mean vulnerability for the poor. The enthusiasm for sterilization may be so intense as to deprive the poor of their right not to be sterilized. (Author/AM)

  13. Apparatus Circulates Sterilizing Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, John H.; Schwarz, Ray P.

    1991-01-01

    Apparatus circulates sterilizing gas containing ethylene oxide and chlorofluorocarbon through laboratory or medical equipment. Confines sterilizing gas, circulating it only through parts to be treated. Consists of two units. One delivers ethylene oxide/chlorofluorocarbon gas mixture and removes gas after treatment. Other warms, humidifies, and circulates gas through equipment to be treated. Process provides reliable sterilization with negligible residual toxicity from ethylene oxide. Particularly suitable for sterilization of interiors of bioreactors, heart/lung machines, dialyzers, or other equipment including complicated tubing.

  14. Sterilization. Disciplined microbial control.

    PubMed

    Miller, C H

    1991-04-01

    The goal of instrument processing is to protect patients by preventing cross-contamination from instruments. The processing involves a series of sequential steps aimed at removing and killing microbes on contaminated instruments and maintaining those instruments in an aseptic state until they are reused. These steps must be conducted carefully to assure success and to reduce chances of disease spread or physical injury to those handling the contaminated instruments. Presoaking begins the cleaning process and facilitates terminal cleaning by ultrasonic or manual scrubbing. If instruments are not properly cleaned, subsequent sterilization may be jeopardized by insulation of blood- or saliva-coated microbes from the sterilizing agent. Items that would be destroyed by heat should be cleaned and sterilized in a properly prepared glutaraldehyde solution. Cleaned instruments must be packaged prior to heat sterilization to protect them from recontamination after sterilization and before reuse. Sterilization of cleaned, packaged instruments in steam, chemical vapor, or dry heat sterilizers must involve proper loading, processing, drying, and cooling. Routine use of spore tests and chemical indicators will provide quality assessment of packaging procedures and operation of the sterilizer, as well as assist in identifying processed packages during distribution. Using the results of sterilization monitoring to adjust procedures as a means of assuring sterilization provides quality assurance to the office staff and to the patients that the instruments have been properly processed. Carefully handling storage and distribution of the sterilized instrument packs or trays reduces the chances for recontamination until the instruments are reused. Instrument processing is a major part of the office infection control program. It must be performed in a controlled manner with proper monitoring to achieve the desired outcome of patient protection. PMID:2032579

  15. Sterilization: who decides?

    PubMed

    Marine, G

    1974-09-01

    22 states permit forced sterilization of anyone the courts may find "mentally defective". The law has been applied to very young minors and to women just because they are collecting welfare. The American Civil Liberties Union has taken some forced sterilization cases, hoping to get general principles established.

  16. Sterilization for Women and Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... are rare. Can sterilization be reversed? Sterilization is permanent birth control and is not meant to be reversible. Before ... that can fertilize a female egg. Sterilization: A permanent method of birth control. Testes: Two male organs that produce sperm and ...

  17. [Sterilization and eugenics].

    PubMed

    Shasha, Shaul M

    2011-04-01

    The term "eugenics" was coined by Francis Galton in 1883 and was defined as the science of the improvement of the human race by better breeding. "Positive eugenics" referred to methods of encouraging the "most fit" to reproduce more often, while "negative eugenics" was related to ways of discouraging or preventing the "less fit" from reproducing by birth control and sterilization. Many western countries adopted eugenics programs including Britain, Canada, Norway, Australia, Switzerland and others. In Sweden more then 62,000 "unfits" were forcibly sterilized. Many states in the U.S.A. had adopted marriage laws with eugenics criteria including forced sterilization. Approximately 64,000 individuals were sterilized. Eugenics considerations also lay behind the adoption of the Immigration Restriction Act of 1924. The Largest plan on eugenics was adopted by the Nazi regime in Germany. Hundreds of thousands of people, who were viewed as being "unfit", were forcibly sterilized by different methods: Surgical sterilization or castration with severe complications and high mortality rates. X-ray irradiation. The method was suggested by Brack, and tested by Schuman using prisoners in Block No. 10 in Auschwitz and Birkenau. Experiments were also performed by Brack on prisoners using the "window method". "Klauberg method"--injection of irritating materials into the uterus. Experiments were conducted using the plant Caladium Seguinum which was believed to have sterilization and castration properties.

  18. Female Sterilization (Tubal Ligation)

    MedlinePlus

    ... when you want to have it done. Some women are sterilized right after they have a baby or an abortion, ... videos on Youtube © 1998-2016 | Center for Young Women's Health, Boston Children's Hospital. All rights reserved.

  19. Sterilization by Laparoscopy

    MedlinePlus

    ... sleep-like state to prevent pain during surgery. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A virus that attacks certain cells of the body’s immune system and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Hysteroscopic Sterilization: ...

  20. Sterilization of space hardware.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pflug, I. J.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of various techniques of sterilization of space flight hardware using either destructive heating or the action of chemicals. Factors considered in the dry-heat destruction of microorganisms include the effects of microbial water content, temperature, the physicochemical properties of the microorganism and adjacent support, and nature of the surrounding gas atmosphere. Dry-heat destruction rates of microorganisms on the surface, between mated surface areas, or buried in the solid material of space vehicle hardware are reviewed, along with alternative dry-heat sterilization cycles, thermodynamic considerations, and considerations of final sterilization-process design. Discussed sterilization chemicals include ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, methyl bromide, dimethyl sulfoxide, peracetic acid, and beta-propiolactone.

  1. Auditing radiation sterilization facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Jeffrey A.

    The diversity of radiation sterilization systems available today places renewed emphasis on the need for thorough Quality Assurance audits of these facilities. Evaluating compliance with Good Manufacturing Practices is an obvious requirement, but an effective audit must also evaluate installation and performance qualification programs (validation_, and process control and monitoring procedures in detail. The present paper describes general standards that radiation sterilization operations should meet in each of these key areas, and provides basic guidance for conducting QA audits of these facilities.

  2. Hysteroscopic Tubal Sterilization

    PubMed Central

    McMartin, K

    2013-01-01

    Background Hysteroscopic tubal sterilization is a minimally invasive alternative to laparoscopic tubal ligation for women who want permanent contraception. The procedures involves non-surgical placement of permanent microinserts into both fallopian tubes. Patients must use alternative contraception for at least 3 months postprocedure until tubal occlusion is confirmed. Compared to tubal ligation, potential advantages of the hysteroscopic procedure are that it can be performed in 10 minutes in an office setting without the use of general or even local anesthesia. Objective The objective of this analysis was to determine the effectiveness and safety of hysteroscopic tubal sterilization compared with tubal ligation for permanent female sterilization. Data Sources A standard systematic literature search was conducted for studies published from January 1, 2008, until December 11, 2012. Review Methods Observational studies, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), systematic reviews and meta-analyses with 1 month or more of follow-up were examined. Outcomes included failure/pregnancy rates, adverse events, and patient satisfaction. Results No RCTs were identified. Two systematic reviews covered 22 observational studies of hysteroscopic sterilization. Only 1 (N = 93) of these 22 studies compared hysteroscopic sterilization to laparoscopic tubal ligation. Two other noncomparative case series not included in the systematic reviews were also identified. In the absence of comparative studies, data on tubal ligation were derived for this analysis from the CREST study, a large, multicentre, prospective, noncomparative observational study in the United States (GRADE low). Overall, hysteroscopic sterilization is associated with lower pregnancy rates and lower complication rates compared to tubal ligation. No deaths have been reported for hysteroscopic sterilization. Limitations A lack of long-term follow-up for hysteroscopic sterilization and a paucity of studies that directly

  3. The emergence of load-oriented sterilization.

    PubMed

    Kolstad, R A

    1994-01-01

    Achieving maximum equipment sterilization is critical. Factors that contribute to sterilization efficiency are covered, including sterilization accuracy level, chamber loading and biological indicators. PMID:8031354

  4. Karlson ozone sterilizer. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karlson, E.

    1984-05-07

    The authors have a functional sterilization system employing ozone as a sterilization agent. This final report covers the work that led to the first medical sterilizer using ozone as the sterilizing agent. The specifications and the final design were set by hospital operating room personnel and public safety standards. Work on kill tests using bacteria, viruses and fungi determined the necessary time and concentration of ozone necessary for sterilization. These data were used in the Karlson Ozone Sterilizer to determine the length of the steps of the operating cycle and the concentration of ozone to be used. 27 references.

  5. Light sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gariazzo, S.; Giunti, C.; Laveder, M.; Li, Y. F.; Zavanin, E. M.

    2015-03-01

    The theory and phenomenology of light sterile neutrinos at the eV mass scale is reviewed. The reactor, gallium and Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector anomalies are briefly described and interpreted as indications of the existence of short-baseline oscillations which require the existence of light sterile neutrinos. The global fits of short-baseline oscillation data in 3 + 1 and 3 + 2 schemes are discussed, together with the implications for β-decay and neutrinoless double-β decay. The cosmological effects of light sterile neutrinos are briefly reviewed and the implications of existing cosmological data are discussed. The review concludes with a summary of future perspectives. This review is dedicated to the memory of Hai-Wei Long, our dear friend and collaborator, who passed away on 29 May 2015. He was an exceptionally kind person and an enthusiastic physicist. We deeply miss him.

  6. Light sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gariazzo, S.; Giunti, C.; Laveder, M.; Li, Y. F.; Zavanin, E. M.

    2016-03-01

    The theory and phenomenology of light sterile neutrinos at the eV mass scale is reviewed. The reactor, gallium and Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector anomalies are briefly described and interpreted as indications of the existence of short-baseline oscillations which require the existence of light sterile neutrinos. The global fits of short-baseline oscillation data in 3 + 1 and 3 + 2 schemes are discussed, together with the implications for β-decay and neutrinoless double-β decay. The cosmological effects of light sterile neutrinos are briefly reviewed and the implications of existing cosmological data are discussed. The review concludes with a summary of future perspectives. This review is dedicated to the memory of Hai-Wei Long, our dear friend and collaborator, who passed away on 29 May 2015. He was an exceptionally kind person and an enthusiastic physicist. We deeply miss him.

  7. Microwave sterilization of enterobacteria.

    PubMed

    Rosaspina, S; Anzanel, D; Salvatorelli, G

    1993-01-01

    A new method is described which makes it possible to treat metal materials with microwaves. In consequence scalpel blades as well as cover glasses contaminated with four species of bacteria (Salmonella typhi, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were sterilized. With this method sterilization can be achieved quite rapidly (1.5-2 min). Scanning electron microscopy revealed a progressive alteration in the morphology of micro-organisms and this proved proportional to the microwave exposure time. Only in Proteus mirabilis were no modifications found, even after long periods of microwave exposure. PMID:8302204

  8. Continuous sterilization of plumbing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, C. J.; Moyers, C. V.; Wright, E. E., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Continuous sterilization of plumbing, such as in hospitals, clinics, and biological testing laboratories is possible with ethylene oxide/Freon 12 (ETO/F-12) humidifier developed for sterilization of potable water systems.

  9. MINOS Sterile Neutrino Search

    SciTech Connect

    Koskinen, David Jason

    2009-02-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment designed to measure properties of neutrino oscillation. Using a high intensity muon neutrino beam, produced by the Neutrinos at Main Injector (NuMI) complex at Fermilab, MINOS makes two measurements of neutrino interactions. The first measurement is made using the Near Detector situated at Fermilab and the second is made using the Far Detector located in the Soudan Underground laboratory in northern Minnesota. The primary goal of MINOS is to verify, and measure the properties of, neutrino oscillation between the two detectors using the v μ→ Vτ transition. A complementary measurement can be made to search for the existence of sterile neutrinos; an oft theorized, but experimentally unvalidated particle. The following thesis will show the results of a sterile neutrino search using MINOS RunI and RunII data totaling ~2.5 x 1020 protons on target. Due to the theoretical nature of sterile neutrinos, complete formalism that covers transition probabilities for the three known active states with the addition of a sterile state is also presented.

  10. Radiation sterilization of ketoprofen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katušin-Ražem, Branka; Hamitouche, Katia; Maltar-Strmečki, Nadica; Kos, Karmen; Pucić, Irina; Britvić-Budicin, Smiljana; Ražem, Dušan

    2005-06-01

    Radiation sterilization of ketoprofen (KP) dry powder was investigated by selected physico-chemical methods. High-performance liquid chromatography, ultraviolet spectrophotometry, infrared spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and electron spin resonance spectroscopy did not show any significant degradation at sterilization dose 25 kGy. To determine the nature, extent and direction of radiation-induced changes, KP was irradiated to extremely high doses, much higher than necessary to achieve sterility. The irradiated KP did not show any difference of XRD patterns up to 200 kGy; with DSC and IR some changes were detected only above 1000 and 2000 kGy, respectively; HPLC has shown about 5% destruction at 2000 kGy. Acetyl benzophenon (AcBph) was generated by irradiation with G(AcBph)=(1.6±0.1)×10 -8 mol J -1. Ames test has shown no mutagenicity of KP irradiated with 3000 kGy or of the oily mixure of radiolytic products isolated from it. Solid KP has proven to be very stable on irradiation, and irradiation has been found to be a suitable method for its sterilization.

  11. Sterilization of Native Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillingham, Brint

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. State Department's Agency for International Development (AID) is spending more than $143 million this year for population control measures in over 70 nations around the world and it is estimated that as much as $10 million was spent in one year for surgical sterilization procedures. (JC)

  12. Sterility of packaged implant components.

    PubMed

    Worthington, Philip

    2005-01-01

    Several implant components in their original glass vial and peel-back packages were subjected to sterility testing to determine whether the contents remained sterile after the expiration date marked on the package had passed. The results from a university microbiology laboratory showed that the contents remained sterile for 6 to 11 years after the expiration dates. PMID:15973959

  13. [Sterilization and legal proceedings].

    PubMed

    Roscam Abbing, H D

    1992-06-01

    According to data of the central bureau of social insurance, during 1983-87 4 out of a total of 197 damage claims were related to sterilization, and in 2 cases payment was made. From 1976 to 1992 there were fewer than 10 verdicts in sterilization cases. What is charged also has to be proven. If damage is involved, the accused party has to prove that it was not caused by its own negligence. For instance, spontaneous recanalization is the case when usual controls did not take place. The onus of proof is on the patient who has to prove the damage (affecting health and physical integrity) and the causative connection between the service and the damage based on the guidelines of the Commission of the European Community. The provider has to show that no error was committed. The responsibility of doctors is larger because of the insight of science into information not in the public domain and higher expectations of them. A recent case seeking damages for a hemophilic patient who was infected with HIV in June 1983 by a blood preparation was rejected, because at that time the connection between a blood preparation and AIDS was not yet firm. If pregnancy occurs after sterilization, the liability of the doctor is not exclusive; the opposite facts also have to be proven, as spontaneous recanalization is possible. The compensation for damages after failed sterilization will only have a chance of succeeding when the failure was the consequence of a shortcoming of the provider of service. If it was provided in conformity with medical-professional standards then the damage is not accountable. A Maastricht court sentenced a doctor to compensation of damages who did not sterilize a woman completely because of insufficient information. Informing the patient about a procedure that went awry can help avoid unnecessary legal procedures. Defensive health care could have negative results for the doctor-patient relationship.

  14. 21 CFR 880.6850 - Sterilization wrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sterilization wrap. 880.6850 Section 880.6850 Food... § 880.6850 Sterilization wrap. (a) Identification. A sterilization wrap (pack, sterilization wrapper... sterilized by a health care provider. It is intended to allow sterilization of the enclosed medical...

  15. Outpatient laparoscopic sterilization.

    PubMed

    Hamid Arshat; Yuliawiratman

    1981-03-01

    This is a report on a pilot study conducted in Malaysia of outpatient sterilization utilizing laparoscopic technique under local anesthesia and sedation. The preliminary report based on 305 patients is presented with emphasis on the advantages and possible weaknesses of such procedure. Sterilization is performed in the Family Planning Specialist Center, Maternity Hospital. Patients are motivated towards sterilization during the immediate postpartum period in the Maternity Hospital and are counseled regarding the actual procedure. The mean age of the 305 patients was 32.08 years; the mean gravidity was 4.92; and the mean parity was 4.57. The majority of the patients came from the lower social strata with low educational attainment and low income. 253 cases of sterilizations were performed by laparoscopic procedures and 43 cases by minilaparotomy. In 9 cases difficulty was encountered with laparoscopy and subsequently the minilaparotomy was used. The majority of cases seemed to tolerate the sedation and local anesthesia fairly well and without much complaint of pain. Only a very small number of patients complained of pain particularly at the time when the Fallope or Lay rings were applied to the fallopian tubes. The overall complication rate was 14 (4.9%) and of these mild wound sepsis accounted for 6 (1.96%). Most of the wound sepsis was very mild and healed very quickly on daily dressing. No cases of pelvic sepsis were reported. There were 3 cases of uterine perforation by the uterine elevator. There were 2 cases where the fallopian tubes were traumatized and some degree of bleeding occurred. The bleeding was easily controlled by applying another Fallope ring. 2 patients had vomiting during the laparoscopic procedure. There were 7 cases of failed sterilization. 6 of the cases were performed by a trainee registrar in obstetrics and gynecology. The last was performed by a specialist gynecologist. Most of the failures were due to wrong application of rings. The cost

  16. [Permanent tubal hysteroscopic sterilization].

    PubMed

    Panel, P; Jost, S; Grosdemouge, I; Friederich, L; Niro, J; Le Tohic, A

    2012-01-01

    Tubal sterilization, of common practice all over the world, has had a quick spread in France since its legalization in 2001 and the income of a new hysteroscopic method. As a matter of fact, France is the second greater country for women having Essure® and the first country where Essure® method forestall surgical tubal ligation. Thus we focus on good practice and update knowledge about Essure® method.

  17. Hysteroscopic Tubal Sterilization

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hysteroscopic sterilization is a minimally invasive alternative to laparoscopic tubal ligation for women who want permanent contraception. In contrast to the laparoscopic technique, a hysteroscope is used to pass permanent microinserts through the cervix and place them in the fallopian tubes. This procedure does not require local or general anesthesia and can be performed in an office setting. Objectives The objective of this analysis was to determine, based on published literature, the cost-effectiveness of hysteroscopic tubal sterilization (HS) compared with laparoscopic tubal ligation (LS) for permanent female sterilization. Data Sources A systematic literature search was conducted for studies published between January 1, 2008, and December 11, 2012. Review Methods Potentially relevant studies were identified based on the title and abstract. Cost-utility analyses (studies that report outcomes in terms of costs and quality-adjusted life-years) were prioritized for inclusion. When not available, cost-effectiveness, cost-benefit, and cost-consequence analyses were considered. Costing studies were considered in the absence of all other analyses. Results A total of 33 abstracts were identified. Three cost analyses were included. A retrospective chart review from Canada found that HS was $111 less costly than LS; a prospective activity-based cost management study from Italy reported that it was €337 less costly than LS; and the results of an American decision model showed that HS was $1,178 less costly than LS. Limitations All studies had limited applicability to the Ontario health care system due to differences in setting, resource use, and costs. Conclusions Three cost analyses found that, although the HS procedure was more expensive due to the cost of the microinserts, HS was less costly than LS overall due to the shorter recovery time required. Plain Language Summary Hysteroscopic sterilization is a minimally invasive alternative to conventional tubal

  18. Effectiveness of dental office instrument sterilization procedures.

    PubMed

    Hastreiter, R J; Molinari, J A; Falken, M C; Roesch, M H; Gleason, M J; Merchant, V A

    1991-10-01

    To evaluate instrument sterilization procedures in Minnesota, biological indicators were used to monitor 406 sterilizers in 381 dental offices. Findings suggest a general improvement in instrument performance over that of a decade ago, but sterilization failure rates are still too high. Sterilizer operator errors are a major cause of sterilization failures. BIs are useful in monitoring sterilization performance only when sterilization procedures are performed consistently and competently by well-trained staff using adequately maintained equipment. PMID:1660501

  19. Sterilization in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bartz, Deborah; Greenberg, James A

    2008-01-01

    Unintended pregnancies are expensive for patients and for society in terms of medical costs, the cost of caring for more children, and the cost to personal and professional goals. Sterilization is the most common contraceptive method utilized by couples in the United States. Given technological advances over the past few decades, male and female surgical sterilization has become a safe, convenient, easy, and highly effective birth control method for the long term. This article reviews current male and female sterilization options. PMID:18701927

  20. New disinfection and sterilization methods.

    PubMed Central

    Rutala, W. A.; Weber, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    New disinfection methods include a persistent antimicrobial coating that can be applied to inanimate and animate objects (Surfacine), a high-level disinfectant with reduced exposure time (ortho-phthalaldehyde), and an antimicrobial agent that can be applied to animate and inanimate objects (superoxidized water). New sterilization methods include a chemical sterilization process for endoscopes that integrates cleaning (Endoclens), a rapid (4-hour) readout biological indicator for ethylene oxide sterilization (Attest), and a hydrogen peroxide plasma sterilizer that has a shorter cycle time and improved efficacy (Sterrad 50). PMID:11294738

  1. Bioequivalent chemical steam sterilization indicators.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, A; Manne, S

    1984-01-01

    Biological indicators used to monitor steam sterilization cycles have two major shortcomings--the incubation period needed to determine if sterilization was accomplished, and the reliance on test packs for gathering information in each load. Chemical indicators do not suffer from these shortcomings. Chemical indicators can respond to time, temperature, and steam parameters to thus parallel the BI reaction. Nine commercially available chemical indicators and four biological indicators were evaluated under the conditions of dry heat, in a biological indicator-evaluator resistometer vessel, and in a hospital sterilizer. The results indicate that wider use of integrated chemical steam sterilization indicators is recommended. PMID:6493101

  2. [Current legal problems of sterilization].

    PubMed

    Eser, A; Koch, H G

    1982-06-01

    Voluntary sterilization has not yet acquired comprehensive legal formulation. Thus there is a legal vacuum which physicians have attempted to fill by relying on their internal professional regulations. These provide for sterilization on an indication; however, an offense against this rule is not punishable in the courts. There is a prohibition, in particular, against so-called "courtesy sterilization," but this is of little significance today when so many social indications for sterilization can be found. But in general these professional regulations provide no useful assistance in deciding when a sterilization is permitted. In criminal law sterilization done by free will is not punishable nor is any indication required. The law deals in detail with the meaning and definition of the "free will" of the person being sterilized. This involves: capacity to have a free will, what to do about persons lacking that capacity (especially minors), and necessity to ensure that that woman understands all the consequences of sterilization. The civil courts have much more to do with sterilization than the criminal ones. One ground for suit is that the sterilization was "contrary to accepted morality," although the courts will generally hold that the woman herself cannot assert this claim. Another ground is lack of consent by the woman. Another ground is improper performance by the physician, i.e., malpractice. Thus the physician has to fear most the charges of no valid consent or malpractice. Questions of insurance law are also pertinent, since an insured person can be compensated for sterilization only if the procedure is legal.

  3. Sterilization of Extracted Human Teeth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantera, Eugene A., Jr.; Schuster, George S.

    1990-01-01

    At present, there is no specific recommendation for sterilization of extracted human teeth used in dental technique courses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether autoclaving would be effective in the sterilization of extracted teeth without compromising the characteristics that make their use in clinical simulations desirable. (MLW)

  4. Electrolytic silver ion cell sterilizes water supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albright, C. F.; Gillerman, J. B.

    1968-01-01

    Electrolytic water sterilizer controls microbial contamination in manned spacecraft. Individual sterilizer cells are self-contained and require no external power or control. The sterilizer generates silver ions which do not impart an unpleasant taste to water.

  5. Conditional sterility in plants

    DOEpatents

    Meagher, Richard B.; McKinney, Elizabeth; Kim, Tehryung

    2010-02-23

    The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic plant cells, plant tissue and plants which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic plants are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such plants are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic plants also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.

  6. Pain Associated With Hysteroscopic Sterilization

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Jenna; Childers, Meredith E.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The safety and efficacy of female hysteroscopic sterilization using the Essure system has been well documented. Given the marked differences in the execution of hysteroscopic and laparoscopic sterilization, the objective of this study was to assess the experience of pain postprocedure between the 2. Secondary end-points included postoperative pain medication, time to return to normal activities, postprocedure bleeding, and patient satisfaction. Methods: Twenty cases each of laparoscopic sterilization (LS) and hysteroscopic sterilization (HS) were performed. Patients were surveyed regarding their experience of pain immediately postoperatively, 1 week, and 4 weeks post-procedure. Results: The average pain score immediately postprocedure was significantly lower among HS patients than among LS patients (t=−8.17, P<.0001). One-week post-procedure, none of the patients in the HS group reported any pain, while the average pain score among the LS patients was 2.65 (t =−9.67, P<.0001). Four weeks post-procedure, women in the HS group continued to report no pain, 35% of the LS group continued to report some pain (t=−3.04, P=.004). Conclusions: Hysteroscopic sterilization offers a minimally invasive, less painful, equally efficacious modality for sterilization than laparoscopic sterilization and should be available to all women seeking permanent birth control. PMID:17651558

  7. Reproducibility of sterilized rubber impressions.

    PubMed

    Abdelaziz, Khalid M; Hassan, Ahmed M; Hodges, J S

    2004-01-01

    Impressions, dentures and other dental appliances may be contaminated with oral micro-flora or other organisms of varying pathogenicity from patient's saliva and blood. Several approaches have been tried to control the transmission of infectious organisms via dental impressions and because disinfection is less effective and has several drawbacks for impression characterization, several sterilization methods have been suggested. This study evaluated the reproducibility of rubber impressions after sterilization by different methods. Dimensional accuracy and wettability of two rubber impression materials (vinyl polysiloxane and polyether) were evaluated after sterilization by each of three well-known methods (immersion in 2% glutaraldehyde for 10 h, autoclaving and microwave radiation). Non-sterilized impressions served as control. The effect of the tray material on impression accuracy and the effect of topical surfactant on the wettability were also evaluated. One-way ANOVA with Dunnett's method was used for statistical analysis. All sterilizing methods reduced the reproducibility of rubber impressions, although not always significantly. Microwave sterilization had a small effect on both accuracy and wettability. The greater effects of the other methods could usually be overcome by using ceramic trays and by spraying impression surfaces with surfactant before pouring the gypsum mix. There was one exception: glutaraldehyde still degraded dimensional accuracy even with ceramic trays and surfactant. We conclude that a) sterilization of rubber impressions made on acrylic trays was usually associated with a degree of dimensional change; b) microwave energy seems to be a suitable technique for sterilizing rubber impressions; c) topical surfactant application helped restore wettability of sterilized impressions. PMID:15798825

  8. Case reports. II. Sterilization litigation.

    PubMed

    Soderstrom, R M

    1988-03-01

    Legal questions will continue to increase with this popular operation because sterilization is the second most common procedure performed by gynecologists. Because of patient's expectation, the sterilization patient is particularly vulnerable to suggestions of malpractice after a complication or failure. Careful preoperative preparation of the patient and family; strict attention to equipment, education and outcome statistics; a conscientious concern when complications do occur will help to reduce sterilization legal claims. A thorough knowledge of the proper management after a complication must be part of the education process. Success following legal defense will be measured by a proper preparation, good records, and an impressive, knowledgeable expert witness.

  9. Food irradiation and sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josephson, Edward S.

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25-70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning is achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70-80°C (bacon to 53°C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40°C to -20°C). Radappertozed foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for "wholesomeness" (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effecys of radappertization on the "wholesomeness" characteristics of these foods.

  10. Sterilization surgery - making a decision

    MedlinePlus

    ... can sometimes be reversed, both must be considered permanent forms of birth control. When deciding if you want to have a ... other options for preventing pregnancy that are not permanent. Talk ... before making the decision to have a sterilization procedure.

  11. 21 CFR 880.6880 - Steam sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Steam sterilizer. 880.6880 Section 880.6880 Food... § 880.6880 Steam sterilizer. (a) Identification. A steam sterilizer (autoclave) is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of pressurized steam....

  12. 21 CFR 880.6880 - Steam sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Steam sterilizer. 880.6880 Section 880.6880 Food... § 880.6880 Steam sterilizer. (a) Identification. A steam sterilizer (autoclave) is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of pressurized steam....

  13. 21 CFR 880.6880 - Steam sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Steam sterilizer. 880.6880 Section 880.6880 Food... § 880.6880 Steam sterilizer. (a) Identification. A steam sterilizer (autoclave) is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of pressurized steam....

  14. 21 CFR 880.6880 - Steam sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Steam sterilizer. 880.6880 Section 880.6880 Food... § 880.6880 Steam sterilizer. (a) Identification. A steam sterilizer (autoclave) is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of pressurized steam....

  15. 21 CFR 880.6880 - Steam sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Steam sterilizer. 880.6880 Section 880.6880 Food... § 880.6880 Steam sterilizer. (a) Identification. A steam sterilizer (autoclave) is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of pressurized steam....

  16. Radiation sterilization of skin allograft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kairiyama, E.; Horak, C.; Spinosa, M.; Pachado, J.; Schwint, O.

    2009-07-01

    In the treatment of burns or accidental loss of skin, cadaveric skin allografts provide an alternative to temporarily cover a wounded area. The skin bank facility is indispensable for burn care. The first human skin bank was established in Argentina in 1989; later, 3 more banks were established. A careful donor selection is carried out according to the national regulation in order to prevent transmissible diseases. As cadaveric human skin is naturally highly contaminated, a final sterilization is necessary to reach a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10 -6. The sterilization dose for 106 batches of processed human skin was determined on the basis of the Code of Practice for the Radiation Sterilization of Tissue Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control (2004) and ISO 11137-2 (2006). They ranged from 17.6 to 33.4 kGy for bioburdens of >10-162.700 CFU/100 cm 2. The presence of Gram negative bacteria was checked for each produced batch. From the analysis of the experimental results, it was observed that the bioburden range was very wide and consequently the estimated sterilization doses too. If this is the case, the determination of a tissue-specific dose per production batch is necessary to achieve a specified requirement of SAL. Otherwise if the dose of 25 kGy is preselected, a standardized method for substantiation of this dose should be done to confirm the radiation sterilization process.

  17. Neutrino Oscillations With Two Sterile Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisslinger, Leonard S.

    2016-10-01

    This work estimates the probability of μ to e neutrino oscillation with two sterile neutrinos using a 5×5 U-matrix, an extension of the previous estimate with one sterile neutrino and a 4×4 U-matrix. The sterile neutrino-active neutrino mass differences and the mixing angles of the two sterile neutrinos with the three active neutrinos are taken from recent publications, and the oscillation probability for one sterile neutrino is compared to the previous estimate.

  18. Neutrino Oscillations With Two Sterile Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisslinger, Leonard S.

    2016-06-01

    This work estimates the probability of μ to e neutrino oscillation with two sterile neutrinos using a 5×5 U-matrix, an extension of the previous estimate with one sterile neutrino and a 4×4 U-matrix. The sterile neutrino-active neutrino mass differences and the mixing angles of the two sterile neutrinos with the three active neutrinos are taken from recent publications, and the oscillation probability for one sterile neutrino is compared to the previous estimate.

  19. Genomic Networks of Hybrid Sterility

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Leslie M.; White, Michael A.; Tautz, Diethard; Payseur, Bret A.

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci (“Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities”). The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus) provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL). Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven ‘hotspots,’ seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL—but not cis eQTL—were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a ‘fertile’ subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is

  20. Genomic networks of hybrid sterility.

    PubMed

    Turner, Leslie M; White, Michael A; Tautz, Diethard; Payseur, Bret A

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci ("Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities"). The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus) provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL). Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven 'hotspots,' seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL-but not cis eQTL-were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a 'fertile' subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is applicable in a broad

  1. Sterilization in Finland: from eugenics to contraception.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, E; Rasimus, A; Forssas, E

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe the transition of sterilization in Finland from an eugenic tool to a contraceptive. Historical data were drawn from earlier reports in Finnish. Numbers of and reasons for sterilizations since 1950 were collected from nationwide sterilization statistics. Prevalence, characteristics of sterilized women, and women's satisfaction with sterilizations were studied from a 1994 nationwide survey (74% response rate). Logistic regression was used for adjustments. In the first half of the 20th century, eugenic ideology had influence in Finland as in other parts of Europe, and the 1935 and 1950 sterilization laws had an eugenic spirit. Regardless of this, the numbers of eugenic sterilizations remained low, and in practice, family planning was the main reason for sterilization. Nonetheless, prior to 1970 not all sterilizations were freely chosen, because sterilizations were sometimes used as a precondition for abortion. Female sterilizations showed remarkable fluctuation over time. Male sterilizations have been rare. The reasons stipulated by the law did not explain the numbers of sterilizations. In a 1994 survey, 9% of Finnish women reported they were using sterilization as their current contraceptive method (n = 189). Compared to women using other contraceptive methods, sterilized women were older, had had more births and pregnancies, and came from lower social classes. Sterilized women were satisfied with their sterilization, but there were women (8.5%) who regretted it. In conclusion, sterilizations have been and are likely to continue to be an important family planning method in Finland. The extreme gender ratio suggests a need for promoting male sterilizations, and women's expressed regrets suggest consideration of a higher age limit.

  2. Cytoplasmic Sterility Factors in VICIA FABA L

    PubMed Central

    Edwardson, J. R.; Bond, D. A.; Christie, R. G.

    1976-01-01

    Tissues of cytoplasmic male sterile, maintainer, restorer, and restored lines, and sterile plants which reverted to fertility in Vicia faba were examined in ultrathin sections. Cytoplasmic spherical bodies (CSB), ca. 70 nm in diameter, were observed in tissues of all sterile plants but not in tissues of maintainer, restorer or restored sterile plants. No CSB were observed in a reverted fertile branch of a tiller-sterile plant, nor in 5 of 6 reverted fertile plants. One reverted fertile plant contained CSB in ovules. It is proposed that the CSB are the sites of, or possibly, products of, sterility factors in Vicia faba. PMID:17248701

  3. Sterilization of Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Thomas E.; Andersen, H. Frank

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the historical, legal, and ethical concerns regarding sterilization for persons with mental retardation and offers guidelines to help counsel individuals with disabilities or their families regarding decision making about sterilization. (DB)

  4. Sterile Neutrino Search with MINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Devan, Alena V.

    2015-08-01

    MINOS, Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in the NuMI muon neutrino beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, IL. It consists of two detectors, a near detector positioned 1 km from the source of the beam and a far detector 734 km away in Minnesota. MINOS is primarily designed to observe muon neutrino disappearance resulting from three flavor oscillations. The Standard Model of Particle Physics predicts that neutrinos oscillate between three active flavors as they propagate through space. This means that a muon-type neutrino has a certain probability to later interact as a different type of neutrino. In the standard picture, the neutrino oscillation probabilities depend only on three neutrino flavors and two mass splittings, Δm2. An anomaly was observed by the LSND and MiniBooNE experiments that suggests the existence of a fourth, sterile neutrino flavor that does not interact through any of the known Standard Model interactions. Oscillations into a theoretical sterile flavor may be observed by a deficit in neutral current interactions in the MINOS detectors. A distortion in the charged current energy spectrum might also be visible if oscillations into the sterile flavor are driven by a large mass-squared difference, ms2 ~ 1 eV2. The results of the 2013 sterile neutrino search are presented here.

  5. Microwave powered sterile access port

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L. (Inventor); Atwater, James E. (Inventor); Dahl, Roger W. (Inventor); Garmon, Frank C. (Inventor); Lunsford, Teddie D. (Inventor); Michalek, William F. (Inventor); Wheeler, Jr., Richard R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A device and method for elimination of contamination during transfer of materials either into or from bioreactors, food containers, or other microbially vulnerable systems. Using microwave power, thermal sterilizations of mating fixtures are achieved simply, reliably, and quickly by the volatilization of small quantities of water to produce superheated steam which contacts all exposed surfaces.

  6. New developments in disinfection and sterilization.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Craig A

    2016-05-01

    A review of regulatory clearances for selected new sterilization and disinfection products for the period January 2012-June 2015 indicates continued leverage of established technologies for steam and low-temperature sterilization, and high-level disinfection. New products in these areas were typically modified and improved versions of existing products, with the exception of a new combination hydrogen peroxide/ozone sterilizer. Development of new low-temperature sterilization technologies to address continued evolution of complex medical devices is expected to continue.

  7. Plasma Sterilization Technology for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, S. J.; Olson, R. L.; Leavens, W. M.

    1975-01-01

    The application of plasma gas technology to sterilization and decontamination of spacecraft components is considered. Areas investigated include: effective sterilizing ranges of four separate gases; lethal constituents of a plasma environment; effectiveness of plasma against a diverse group of microorganisms; penetrating efficiency of plasmas for sterilization; and compatibility of spacecraft materials with plasma environments. Results demonstrated that plasma gas, specifically helium plasma, is a highly effective sterilant and is compatible with spacecraft materials.

  8. The limits of sterility assurance

    PubMed Central

    von Woedtke, Thomas; Kramer, Axel

    2008-01-01

    Sterility means the absence of all viable microorganisms including viruses. At present, a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10–6 is generally accepted for pharmacopoeial sterilization procedures, i.e., a probability of not more than one viable microorganism in an amount of one million sterilised items of the final product. By extrapolating the reduction rates following extreme artificial initial contamination, a theoretical overall performance of the procedure of at least 12 lg increments (overkill conditions) is demanded to verify an SAL of 10–6. By comparison, other recommendations for thermal sterilization procedures demand only evidence that the difference between the initial contamination and the number of test organisms at the end of the process amount to more than six orders of magnitude. However, a practical proof of the required level of sterility assurance of 10–6 is not possible. Moreover, the attainability of this condition is fundamentally dubious, at least in non-thermal procedures. Thus, the question is discussed whether the undifferentiated adherence to the concept of sterility assurance on the basis of a single SAL of 10–6 corresponds with the safety requirements in terms of patient or user safety, costs and energy efficiency. Therefore, in terms of practical considerations, a concept of tiered SALs is recommended, analogous to the comparable and well-established categorization into “High-level disinfection”, “Intermediate-level disinfection” and “Low-level disinfection”. The determination of such tiered SALs is geared both to the intended application of the sterilized goods, as well as to the characteristics of the products and the corresponding treatment options. In the case of aseptic preparation, filling and production procedures, a mean contamination probability of 10–3 is assumed. In automated processes, lower contamination rates can be realized. In the case of the production of re-usable medical devices, a reduction of

  9. Reionisation in sterile neutrino cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Sownak; Frenk, Carlos S.; Hou, Jun; Lacey, Cedric G.; Lovell, Mark R.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the process of reionisation in a model in which the dark matter is a warm elementary particle such as a sterile neutrino. We focus on models that are consistent with the dark matter decay interpretation of the recently detected line at 3.5 keV in the X-ray spectra of galaxies and clusters. In warm dark matter models the primordial spectrum of density perturbations has a cut-off on the scale of dwarf galaxies. Structure formation therefore begins later than in the standard cold dark matter (CDM) model and very few objects form below the cut-off mass scale. To calculate the number of ionising photons, we use the Durham semi-analytic model of galaxy formation, GALFORM. We find that even the most extreme 7 keV sterile neutrino we consider is able to reionise the Universe early enough to be compatible with the bounds on the epoch of reionisation from Planck. This, perhaps surprising, result arises from the rapid build-up of high redshift galaxies in the sterile neutrino models which is also reflected in a faster evolution of their far-UV luminosity function between 10 > z > 7 than in CDM. The dominant sources of ionising photons are systematically more massive in the sterile neutrino models than in CDM. As a consistency check on the models, we calculate the present-day luminosity function of satellites of Milky Way-like galaxies. When the satellites recently discovered in the DES survey are taken into account, strong constraints are placed on viable sterile neutrino models.

  10. Microwave Sterilization and Depyrogenation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Dahl, Roger W.; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    A fully functional, microgravity-compatible microwave sterilization and depyrogenation system (MSDS) prototype was developed that is capable of producing medical-grade water (MGW) without expendable supplies, using NASA potable water that currently is available aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and will be available for Lunar and planetary missions in the future. The microwave- based, continuous MSDS efficiently couples microwaves to a single-phase, pressurized, flowing water stream that is rapidly heated above 150 C. Under these conditions, water is rapidly sterilized. Endotoxins, significant biological toxins that originate from the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria and which represent another defining MGW requirement, are also deactivated (i.e., depyrogenated) albeit more slowly, with such deactivation representing a more difficult challenge than sterilization. Several innovations culminated in the successful MSDS prototype design. The most significant is the antenna-directed microwave heating of a water stream flowing through a microwave sterilization chamber (MSC). Novel antenna designs were developed to increase microwave transmission efficiency. These improvements resulted in greater than 95-percent absorption of incident microwaves. In addition, incorporation of recuperative heat exchangers (RHxs) in the design reduced the microwave power required to heat a water stream flowing at 15 mL/min to 170 C to only 50 W. Further improvements in energy efficiency involved the employment of a second antenna to redirect reflected microwaves back into the MSC, eliminating the need for a water load and simplifying MSDS design. A quick connect (QC) is another innovation that can be sterilized and depyrogenated at temperature, and then cooled using a unique flow design, allowing collection of MGW at atmospheric pressure and 80 C. The final innovation was the use of in-line mixers incorporated in the flow path to disrupt laminar flow and increase contact time

  11. Bisexual Hybrid Sterility in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    PubMed Central

    Colgan, D. J.; Angus, D. S.

    1978-01-01

    A new type of hybrid sterility was investigated in D. melanogaster . Matings between strain 27 males from Para Wirra, South Australia, and Canton-S females produce 70–80% fully sterile male and female progeny. Strain 27 males produce sterile progeny when crossed to females of other geographic origins, but produce fertile progeny when crossed to a second sympatric strain. The sterility is avoided by lower rearing temperatures. Heat shock and tetracycline produce no improvement in the fertility of the hybrids. Normal flies produce sterile progeny when injected with, or fed, homogenates of sterile flies. A combination of maternal and paternal factors may interact to produce sterile hybrids by inhibiting gonad development. PMID:17248832

  12. Implementing AORN recommended practices for sterilization.

    PubMed

    Graybill-D'Ercole, Patricia

    2013-05-01

    Any hospital or facility in which surgery and other invasive procedures are performed should have accommodations for cleaning, decontaminating, disinfecting, and sterilizing instruments, equipment, and other essential supplies that are used for patient procedures. Sterilization is essential to reducing or preventing the risk of surgical site infections. This is a collaborative process and should include all health care providers who handle these instruments, including perioperative nurses. The revised AORN "Recommended practices for sterilization," which became effective June 15, 2012, includes updates on sterilizing single-use items, inspecting critical items before sterilization, using low-temperature hydrogen peroxide vapor sterilization methods, and immediate use steam sterilization. This RP document is the first AORN document to be evidence rated and accepted for inclusion in the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality National Guideline Clearinghouse.

  13. Psychiatric Aspects of Female Sterilization

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Myre; Emens, J. M.; Jordan, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Follow-up of 151 women who had been sterilized for social or gynaecological reasons one to three years earlier showed that 146 were completely satisfied with the results of the operation on their health and on their sexual relationships with their husbands. The five who were dissatisfied either wished they could still conceive or found the operation had not produced the effect hoped for. On the basis of this study we believe that adverse psychiatric sequelae of sterilization can be kept to a minimum with careful selection of patients. Women should be over 30 or if younger should have had two or more children, and the operation should not be performed at childbirth, in the neonatal period, or during a postabortive depression. PMID:4718839

  14. Birth Control, Sterilization and Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Schneiderman, Lawrence J.; Prichard, Lorraine; Fuller, Scott; Atkinson, Leslie

    1974-01-01

    A questionnaire comprising case histories was administered to 27 Protestant and 27 Catholic clergymen in the San Diego area to test their attitudes toward the use of birth control, sterilization and abortion in families with specific genetic problems. The responses indicated: • Catholic and Protestant clergymen do not always follow the official positions of their churches in these matters, although the majority of them do. • Protestant clergymen were more likely to approve of birth control, sterilization, and abortion than Catholic clergymen. • The approval responses of Protestant and Catholic clergymen were not greatly influenced by whether the illness variables involved high Mendelian risk, high psychological cost, high social cost, or poor prognosis. • The approval responses of Protestant and Catholic clergymen were not significantly influenced by the socio-ethnic background of the families. PMID:4813802

  15. Interest for sterilization keeps increasing.

    PubMed

    1987-07-01

    Interest in sterilization continues to increase, as illustrated by the fact that some 50 doctors in Indonesia recently wanted to be trained in sterilization in order to meet the needs of transmigrants requesting this method. 1 objective of the National Family Planning Control Board is to help the younger generation understand the norm of a small, happy, and prosperous family. Another objective is to strengthen the family planning institutionalization process so that program utilization becomes an integral part of community activities. A 3rd objective is to strengthen the mental, spiritual, and psychological institutionalization process. Problems include the need to change attitudes toward contraceptives and to present all difficulties in the family planning program honestly. The role of the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association (IPPA) can stay the same, and the experience and capability of IPPA can be used to assist other implementing units and groups in the community in the transfer of their management.

  16. Validation of sterilizing grade filtration.

    PubMed

    Jornitz, M W; Meltzer, T H

    2003-01-01

    Validation consideration of sterilizing grade filters, namely 0.2 micron, changed when FDA voiced concerns about the validity of Bacterial Challenge tests performed in the past. Such validation exercises are nowadays considered to be filter qualification. Filter validation requires more thorough analysis, especially Bacterial Challenge testing with the actual drug product under process conditions. To do so, viability testing is a necessity to determine the Bacterial Challenge test methodology. Additionally to these two compulsory tests, other evaluations like extractable, adsorption and chemical compatibility tests should be considered. PDA Technical Report # 26, Sterilizing Filtration of Liquids, describes all parameters and aspects required for the comprehensive validation of filters. The report is a most helpful tool for validation of liquid filters used in the biopharmaceutical industry. It sets the cornerstones of validation requirements and other filtration considerations. PMID:14620854

  17. Method of sterilization using ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor); Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Methods of using ozone have been developed which sterilize instruments and medical wastes, oxidize, organics found in wastewater, clean laundry, break down contaminants in soil into a form more readily digested by microbes, kill microorganisms present in food products, and destroy toxins present in food products. The preferred methods for killing microorganism and destroying toxins use pressurized, humidified, and concentrated ozone produced by an electrochemical cell.

  18. Instrument sterilization in orthodontic offices.

    PubMed

    Matlack, R E

    1979-07-01

    1. Three different quaternary ammonium compound solutions remained bactericidal against specific vegetative bacteria in three orthodontic offices over a ten day working period. However, no spore formers or viruses were tested. 2. Bacterial contaminants were cultured on pliers and scalers at the chair at least once in each of three orthodontic offices sampled twice a day for ten working days. 3. Sampled chairside instruments wiped with an alcohol sponge only, between patients, were contaminated an excessive 32.5% of the time, too frequently to be seriously considered for routine disinfection of pliers. 4. Chairside instruments, sampled regardless of other means of disinfection or sterilization used, were contaminated from 3.5 to 15% of the time. Therefore, storage and handling of orthodontic instruments must be evaluated and upgraded to prevent recontamination of previously sterilized instruments. 5. Staff personnel need courses in sterilization and disinfection procedures to prevent cross contamination from patient to patient and to protect themselves. These courses should be related specifically to orthodontic practice procedures.

  19. Sterile Neutrinos in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Benjamin J.P.

    2015-09-01

    Measurements of neutrino oscillations at short baselines contain an intriguing set of experimental anomalies that may be suggestive of new physics such as the existence of sterile neutrinos. This three-part thesis presents research directed towards understanding these anomalies and searching for sterile neutrino oscillations. Part I contains a theoretical discussion of neutrino coherence properties. The open-quantum-system picture of neutrino beams, which allows a rigorous prediction of coherence distances for accelerator neutrinos, is presented. Validity of the standard treatment of active and sterile neutrino oscillations at short baselines is verified, and non-standard coherence loss effects at longer baselines are predicted. Part II concerns liquid argon detector development for the MicroBooNE experiment, which will search for short-baseline oscillations in the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab. Topics include characterization and installation of the MicroBooNE optical system; test-stand measurements of liquid argon optical properties with dissolved impurities; optimization of wavelength-shifting coatings for liquid argon scintillation light detection; testing and deployment of high-voltage surge arrestors to protect TPC field cages; and software development for optical and TPC simulation and reconstruction. Part III presents a search for sterile neutrinos using the IceCube neutrino telescope, which has collected a large sample of atmospheric-neutrino-induced events in the 1-10 TeV energy range. Sterile neutrinos would modify the detected neutrino flux shape via MSW-resonant oscillations. Following a careful treatment of systematic uncertainties in the sample, no evidence for MSW-resonant oscillations is observed, and exclusion limits on 3+1 model parameter space are derived. Under the mixing assumptions made, the 90% confidence level exclusion limit extends to sin224 ≤ 0.02 at m2 ~ 0.3 eV2, and the LSND and Mini

  20. Plasma Sterilization: New Epoch in Medical Textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, P.; Arun, N.; Vigneswaran, C.

    2015-04-01

    Clothing is perceived to be second skin to the human body since it is in close contact with the human skin most of the times. In hospitals, use of textile materials in different forms and sterilization of these materials is an essential requirement for preventing spread of germs. The need for appropriate disinfection and sterilization techniques is of paramount importance. There has been a continuous demand for novel sterilization techniques appropriate for use on various textile materials as the existing sterilization techniques suffer from various technical and economical drawbacks. Plasma sterilization is the alternative method, which is friendlier and more effective on the wide spectrum of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. Basically, the main inactivation factors for cells exposed to plasma are heat, UV radiation and various reactive species. Plasma exposure can kill micro-organisms on a surface in addition to removing adsorbed monolayer of surface contaminants. Advantages of plasma surface treatment are removal of contaminants from the surface, change in the surface energy and sterilization of the surface. Plasma sterilization aims to kill and/or remove all micro-organisms which may cause infection of humans or animals, or which can cause spoilage of foods or other goods. This review paper emphasizes necessity for sterilization, essentials of sterilization, mechanism of plasma sterilization and the parameters influencing it.

  1. Comparison of liquid chemical sterilization with peracetic acid and ethylene oxide sterilization for long narrow lumens.

    PubMed

    Alfa, M J; DeGagne, P; Olson, N; Hizon, R

    1998-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how well peracetic acid liquid chemical sterilization (LCPAS) killed test organisms in the presence of 10% fetal bovine serum and 0.65% salt challenge (RPMI-S) compared with a 100% ethylene oxide (ETO) sterilizer and an ETO hydrochlorofluorocarbon (ETO-HCFC) sterilization method with long (125 cm), narrow (3-mm internal diameter) flexible lumens as the test carrier. The inoculated lumens were dried overnight before processing. The test organisms included Mycobacterium chelonei, Enterococcus faecalis, and Bacillus subtilis. For all 3 organisms tested, the LCPAS process resulted in a 6 log10 reduction in bacterial load compared with a 2.5 log10 to 6 log10 reduction for the 100% ETO and ETO-HCFC sterilizers. Sterilization was achieved for 100%, 61%, and 67% of the lumen test carriers for the LCPAS, 100% ETO, and ETO-HCFC sterilizers, respectively. The data indicate that of the sterilization methods evaluated, LCPAS was the most effective for sterilizing narrow flexible lumens in the presence of residual inorganic and organic soil. This effectiveness was achieved through a combination of organism wash-off and peracetic acid sterilant killing of organisms. Salt was the major compounding factor for effective ETO gas sterilization, because carriers inoculated with organisms in 10% fetal bovine serum alone all were sterilized by both 100% ETO and ETO-HCFC sterilization methods. Our data support the critical need to ensure adequate precleaning of narrow flexible lumen endoscopes before any sterilization method. PMID:9795674

  2. Comparison of liquid chemical sterilization with peracetic acid and ethylene oxide sterilization for long narrow lumens.

    PubMed

    Alfa, M J; DeGagne, P; Olson, N; Hizon, R

    1998-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how well peracetic acid liquid chemical sterilization (LCPAS) killed test organisms in the presence of 10% fetal bovine serum and 0.65% salt challenge (RPMI-S) compared with a 100% ethylene oxide (ETO) sterilizer and an ETO hydrochlorofluorocarbon (ETO-HCFC) sterilization method with long (125 cm), narrow (3-mm internal diameter) flexible lumens as the test carrier. The inoculated lumens were dried overnight before processing. The test organisms included Mycobacterium chelonei, Enterococcus faecalis, and Bacillus subtilis. For all 3 organisms tested, the LCPAS process resulted in a 6 log10 reduction in bacterial load compared with a 2.5 log10 to 6 log10 reduction for the 100% ETO and ETO-HCFC sterilizers. Sterilization was achieved for 100%, 61%, and 67% of the lumen test carriers for the LCPAS, 100% ETO, and ETO-HCFC sterilizers, respectively. The data indicate that of the sterilization methods evaluated, LCPAS was the most effective for sterilizing narrow flexible lumens in the presence of residual inorganic and organic soil. This effectiveness was achieved through a combination of organism wash-off and peracetic acid sterilant killing of organisms. Salt was the major compounding factor for effective ETO gas sterilization, because carriers inoculated with organisms in 10% fetal bovine serum alone all were sterilized by both 100% ETO and ETO-HCFC sterilization methods. Our data support the critical need to ensure adequate precleaning of narrow flexible lumen endoscopes before any sterilization method.

  3. Surgical Sterilization, Regret, and Race: Contemporary Patterns*

    PubMed Central

    Shreffler, Karina M.; McQuillan, Julia; Greil, Arthur L.; Johnson, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Surgical sterilization is a relatively permanent form of contraception that has been disproportionately used by Black, Hispanic, and Native American women in the United States in the past. We use a nationally representative sample of 4,609 women ages 25 to 45 to determine whether sterilization continues to be more common and consequential by race for reproductive-age women. Results indicate that Native American and Black women are more likely to be sterilized than non-Hispanic White women, and Hispanic and Native American women are more likely than non-Hispanic White women to report that their sterilization surgeries prevent them from conceiving children they want. Reasons for sterilization differ significantly by race. These findings suggest that stratified reproduction has not ended in the United States and that the patterns and consequences of sterilization continue to vary by race. PMID:25592919

  4. Radiation sterilization of new drug delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Abuhanoğlu, Gürhan

    2014-01-01

    Radiation sterilization has now become a commonly used method for sterilization of several active ingredients in drugs or drug delivery systems containing these substances. In this context, many applications have been performed on the human products that are required to be sterile, as well as on pharmaceutical products prepared to be developed. The new drug delivery systems designed to deliver the medication to the target tissue or organ, such as microspheres, nanospheres, microemulsion, and liposomal systems, have been sterilized by gamma (γ) and beta (β) rays, and more recently, by e-beam sterilization. In this review, the sterilization of new drug delivery systems was discussed other than conventional drug delivery systems by γ irradiation. PMID:24936306

  5. Hysteroscopic Sterilization: History and Current Methods

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, James A

    2008-01-01

    For many practicing obstetrician-gynecologists, tubal ligation was the gold standard by which female sterilization techniques were measured. Yet gynecologic surgeons have simultaneously sought to occlude the fallopian tubes transcervically to avoid discomfort and complications associated with transabdominal approaches. In this review, the history of transcervical sterilization is discussed. Past, current, and upcoming techniques are reviewed. This article focuses on interval sterilization techniques, thus removing post-vaginal and post-cesarean delivery tubal ligations from the discussion. PMID:19015762

  6. Steam quality and effective sterilization.

    PubMed

    Sedlacek, R S; Rose, E F

    1985-01-01

    Faced with using steam from a commercial utility having boilers greater than 5 miles distant and being the last user on the system resulted in ineffective sterilization. A three phase testing program was established utilizing: Direct physical measurements - an Ellison model 915A portable steam calorimeter. Direct microbiology - Autoclaved feed pellets were aseptically placed in fluid thioglycolate medium and incubated at 37 degrees C. Indirect microbiology - Feces from "defined flora" mice fed the autoclaved pelleted feed were tested. Colorimetric measurements verified that the steam sometimes contained greater than 5% entrained water. During periods of wet steam it was impossible to maintain consistent sterility of the mouse pellets even using a cycle of 126 degrees C for 60 minutes. One spore-forming Gram positive rod, Clostridium perfringens type D was the predominant bacterium isolated. Lactating mice, or mice stressed experimentally came down with diarrhea within days of eating pellets treated with wet steam (calorimetric measurements) and a subsequent positive culture. These mice voided stools predominantly showing Clostridium perfringens type D. PMID:2862643

  7. Ramifications of a sterile Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Gilbert V.

    2011-10-01

    The seldom considered ramifications of a sterile Mars are explored. Very much is now known about the environment on Mars. Herein, the individual and collective environmental parameters are examined with particular consideration of those that might be inimical to life as we know it, or as might reasonably be assumed to be so to alien life. It is shown that no single measurement or combination of them precludes the ability of Mars to support even a wide number of terrestrial microbial species, let alone the likely greater tolerance and/or adaptability of possible alien life forms. Some yet unknown factor or combination of factors would have to be responsible for Mars' failure to generate life or to successfully harbor viable forms received from space. Since Mars is so Earth-like, the red planet's sterility could deliver a fatal blow to the growing concept of a cosmic Biologic Imperative, and would raise the daunting prospect that Earth is a unique or a very rare habitat.

  8. 21 CFR 610.12 - Sterility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... statement of any other function critical to the particular sterility test method to ensure consistent and...: (1) This section does not require sterility testing for Whole Blood, Cryoprecipitated Antihemophilic Factor, Platelets, Red Blood Cells, Plasma, Source Plasma, Smallpox Vaccine, Reagent Red Blood...

  9. 45 CFR 96.73 - Sterilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Social Services Block Grants § 96.73 Sterilization. If a State authorizes sterilization as a family planning service, it must comply with the provisions of 42 CFR Part 441, Subpart F, except that the State plan requirement under 42...

  10. 45 CFR 96.73 - Sterilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Social Services Block Grants § 96.73 Sterilization. If a State authorizes sterilization as a family planning service, it must comply with the provisions of 42 CFR Part 441, Subpart F, except that the State plan requirement under 42...

  11. 45 CFR 96.73 - Sterilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Social Services Block Grants § 96.73 Sterilization. If a State authorizes sterilization as a family planning service, it must comply with the provisions of 42 CFR Part 441, Subpart F, except that the State plan requirement under 42...

  12. 45 CFR 96.73 - Sterilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Social Services Block Grants § 96.73 Sterilization. If a State authorizes sterilization as a family planning service, it must comply with the provisions of 42 CFR Part 441, Subpart F, except that the State plan requirement under 42...

  13. 9 CFR 109.2 - Sterilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sterilizers. 109.2 Section 109.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STERILIZATION AND PASTEURIZATION...

  14. 9 CFR 109.2 - Sterilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sterilizers. 109.2 Section 109.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STERILIZATION AND PASTEURIZATION...

  15. Eugenics and Involuntary Sterilization: 1907-2015.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Philip R

    2015-01-01

    In England during the late nineteenth century, intellectuals, especially Francis Galton, called for a variety of eugenic policies aimed at ensuring the health of the human species. In the United States, members of the Progressive movement embraced eugenic ideas, especially immigration restriction and sterilization. Indiana enacted the first eugenic sterilization law in 1907, and the US Supreme Court upheld such laws in 1927. State programs targeted institutionalized, mentally disabled women. Beginning in the late 1930s, proponents rationalized involuntary sterilization as protecting vulnerable women from unwanted pregnancy. By World War II, programs in the United States had sterilized approximately 60,000 persons. After the horrific revelations concerning Nazi eugenics (German Hereditary Health Courts approved at least 400,000 sterilization operations in less than a decade), eugenic sterilization programs in the United States declined rapidly. Simplistic eugenic thinking has faded, but coerced sterilization remains widespread, especially in China and India. In many parts of the world, involuntary sterilization is still intermittently used against minority groups. PMID:26322647

  16. 21 CFR 886.1940 - Tonometer sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tonometer sterilizer. 886.1940 Section 886.1940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1940 Tonometer sterilizer. (a)...

  17. 9 CFR 109.2 - Sterilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sterilizers. 109.2 Section 109.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STERILIZATION AND PASTEURIZATION...

  18. 9 CFR 109.2 - Sterilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sterilizers. 109.2 Section 109.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STERILIZATION AND PASTEURIZATION...

  19. 9 CFR 109.2 - Sterilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sterilizers. 109.2 Section 109.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STERILIZATION AND PASTEURIZATION...

  20. Eugenics and Involuntary Sterilization: 1907-2015.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Philip R

    2015-01-01

    In England during the late nineteenth century, intellectuals, especially Francis Galton, called for a variety of eugenic policies aimed at ensuring the health of the human species. In the United States, members of the Progressive movement embraced eugenic ideas, especially immigration restriction and sterilization. Indiana enacted the first eugenic sterilization law in 1907, and the US Supreme Court upheld such laws in 1927. State programs targeted institutionalized, mentally disabled women. Beginning in the late 1930s, proponents rationalized involuntary sterilization as protecting vulnerable women from unwanted pregnancy. By World War II, programs in the United States had sterilized approximately 60,000 persons. After the horrific revelations concerning Nazi eugenics (German Hereditary Health Courts approved at least 400,000 sterilization operations in less than a decade), eugenic sterilization programs in the United States declined rapidly. Simplistic eugenic thinking has faded, but coerced sterilization remains widespread, especially in China and India. In many parts of the world, involuntary sterilization is still intermittently used against minority groups.

  1. Review of surface steam sterilization for validation purposes.

    PubMed

    van Doornmalen, Joost; Kopinga, Klaas

    2008-03-01

    Sterilization is an essential step in the process of producing sterile medical devices. To guarantee sterility, the process of sterilization must be validated. Because there is no direct way to measure sterility, the techniques applied to validate the sterilization process are based on statistical principles. Steam sterilization is the most frequently applied sterilization method worldwide and can be validated either by indicators (chemical or biological) or physical measurements. The steam sterilization conditions are described in the literature. Starting from these conditions, criteria for the validation of steam sterilization are derived and can be described in terms of physical parameters. Physical validation of steam sterilization appears to be an adequate and efficient validation method that could be considered as an alternative for indicator validation. Moreover, physical validation can be used for effective troubleshooting in steam sterilizing processes.

  2. Review of surface steam sterilization for validation purposes.

    PubMed

    van Doornmalen, Joost; Kopinga, Klaas

    2008-03-01

    Sterilization is an essential step in the process of producing sterile medical devices. To guarantee sterility, the process of sterilization must be validated. Because there is no direct way to measure sterility, the techniques applied to validate the sterilization process are based on statistical principles. Steam sterilization is the most frequently applied sterilization method worldwide and can be validated either by indicators (chemical or biological) or physical measurements. The steam sterilization conditions are described in the literature. Starting from these conditions, criteria for the validation of steam sterilization are derived and can be described in terms of physical parameters. Physical validation of steam sterilization appears to be an adequate and efficient validation method that could be considered as an alternative for indicator validation. Moreover, physical validation can be used for effective troubleshooting in steam sterilizing processes. PMID:18313509

  3. Disinfection, sterilization, and antisepsis: An overview.

    PubMed

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2016-05-01

    All invasive procedures involve contact by a medical device or surgical instrument with a patient's sterile tissue or mucous membranes. The level of disinfection or sterilization is dependent on the intended use of the object: critical (items that contact sterile tissue such as surgical instruments), semicritical (items that contact mucous membrane such as endoscopes), and noncritical (devices that contact only intact skin such as stethoscopes) items require sterilization, high-level disinfection and low-level disinfection, respectively. Cleaning must always precede high-level disinfection and sterilization. Antiseptics are essential to infection prevention as part of a hand hygiene program as well as several other uses such as surgical hand antisepsis and pre-operative skin preparation.

  4. Federally Funded Sterilization: Time to Rethink Policy?

    PubMed Central

    Zite, Nikki; Creinin, Mitchell D.

    2012-01-01

    In the 1970s, concern about coercive sterilization of low-income and minority women in the United States led the US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare to create strict regulations for federally funded sterilization procedures. Although these policies were instituted to secure informed consent and protect women from involuntary sterilization, there are significant data indicating that these policies may not, in fact, ensure that consent is truly informed and, further, may prevent many low-income women from getting a desired sterilization procedure. Given the alarmingly high rates of unintended pregnancy in the United States, especially among low-income populations, we feel that restrictive federal sterilization policies should be reexamined and modified to simultaneously ensure informed decision-making and honor women’s reproductive choices. PMID:22897531

  5. Viking heat sterilization - Progress and problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daspit, L. P.; Cortright, E. M.; Stern, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The Viking Mars landers to be launched in 1975 will carry experiments in biology, planetology, and atmospheric physics. A terminal dry-heat sterilization process using an inert gas was chosen to meet planetary quarantine requirements and preclude contamination of the biology experiment by terrestrial organisms. Deep sterilization is performed at the component level and terminal surface sterilization at the system level. Solutions to certain component problems relating to sterilization are discussed, involving the gyroscope, tape recorder, battery, electronic circuitry, and outgassing. Heat treatment placed special requirements on electronic packaging, including fastener preload monitoring and solder joints. Chemical and physical testing of nonmetallic materials was performed to establish data on their behavior in heat-treatment and vacuum environments. A Thermal Effects Test Model and a Proof Test Capsule were used. It is concluded that a space vehicle can be designed and fabricated to withstand heat sterilization requirements.

  6. Vapor Hydrogen Peroxide Sterilization Certification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fei; Chung, Shirley; Barengoltz, Jack

    For interplanetary missions landing on a planet of potential biological interest, United States NASA planetary protection currently requires that the flight system must be assembled, tested and ultimately launched with the intent of minimizing the bioload taken to and deposited on the planet. Currently the only NASA approved microbial reduction method is dry heat sterilization process. However, with utilization of such elements as highly sophisticated electronics and sensors in modern spacecraft, this process presents significant materials challenges and is thus an undesirable bioburden reduction method to design engineers. The objective of this work is to introduce vapor hydrogen peroxide (VHP) as an alternative to dry heat microbial reduction to meet planetary protection requirements. The VHP sterilization technology is widely used by the medical industry, but high doses of VHP may degrade the performance of flight hardware, or compromise material compatibility. The goal of our study is determine the minimum VHP process conditions for PP acceptable microbial reduction levels. A series of experiments were conducted using Geobacillus stearothermophilus to determine VHP process parameters that provided significant reductions in spore viability while allowing survival of sufficient spores for statistically significant enumeration. In addition to the obvious process parameters -hydrogen peroxide concentration, number of pulses, and exposure duration -the investigation also considered the possible effect of environmental pa-rameters. Temperature, relative humidity, and material substrate effects on lethality were also studied. Based on the results, a most conservative D value was recommended. This recom-mended D value was also validated using VHP "hardy" strains that were isolated from clean-rooms and environmental populations collected from spacecraft relevant areas. The efficiency of VHP at ambient condition as well as VHP material compatibility will also be

  7. EPR STUDIES OF THERMALLY STERILIZED VASELINUM ALBUM.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Paweł; Pilawa, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used for examination of free radicals in thermally treated vaselinum album (VA). Thermal treatment in hot air as sterilization process was tested. Conditions of thermal sterilization were chosen according to the pharmaceutical norms. Vaselinum album was heated at the following conditions (T--temperature, t--time): T = 160°C and t = 120 min, T = 170°C and t = 60 min and T = 180°C and t = 30 min. The aim of this work was to determine concentration and free radical properties of thermally sterilized VA. EPR analysis for VA was done 15 min after sterilization. EPR measurements were done at room temperature. EPR spectra were recorded in the range of microwave power of 2.2-70 mW. g-Factor, amplitudes (A) and line width (ΔBpp) of the spectra were determined. The shape of the EPR spectra was analyzed. Free radical concentration (N) in the heated samples was determined. EPR spectra were not obtained for the non heated VA. EPR spectra were detected for all thermally sterilized samples. The spectra revealed complex character, their asymmetry depends on microwave power. The lowest free radicals concentration was found for the VA sterilized at 180°C during 30 min. EPR spectroscopy is proposed as the method useful for optimization of sterilization process of drugs. PMID:26647625

  8. Problems in sterilization of unmanned space vehicles.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, L D

    1964-01-01

    The probability of achieving and maintaining sterility of an unmanned spacecraft with varied suggested procedures is examined in detail, as are alternative techniques for avoiding biological contamination of the planets. The required degree of assurance against contamination of Mars, Venus and the Moon with Earth organisms is also considered. For Mars landers and orbiters, sterilization of the spacecraft or capsule by dry heat, with no subsequent access, is found to be desirable. For the present, sterilization of Venus landers still seems desirable. For Mars flybys, and for Venus orbiters and flybys, control of the trajectory to minimize the chance of unintentionally entering the planetary atmosphere appears the method of choice. For the Moon, sterilization seems unnecessary, but microbial counts should be kept low. Sterilization lowers spacecraft and system reliability. It reduces the chance of launching within periods fixed by astronomical constraints and increases costs. The gain which should be achieved through spacecraft sterilization, in return of significant biological information about the planets, must be balanced against these losses. In particular, one should keep in mind the loss in return of biological data occasioned by failure of a spacecraft to fulfill its mission; the probability of such failure is increased by sterilization. PMID:11883447

  9. Characteristics of Surface Sterilization using ECR Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonesu, Akira; Hara, Kazufumi; Nishikawa, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2015-09-01

    Plasma sterilization techniques have superior characteristics such as a short treatment times, non-toxicity and low thermal damages on the sterilized materials. In plasma sterilization, microorganisms can be sterilized by active radicals, energetic charged particles, and vacuum UV radiation. The influence of each factor depends on the plasma operating parameters. Microwave discharges under the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) condition produce higher electron temperature and density plasma as compared with other plasma generation techniques. In the present study, characteristics of surface sterilization using ECR plasma have been investigated.The experiment was performed in the vacuum chamber which contains a magnet holder. A pair of rectangular Sm-Co permanent magnets is aligned parallel to each other within the magnet holder. The region of the magnetic field for ECR exists near the magnet holder surface. When the microwave is introduced into the vacuum chamber, a ECR plasma is produced around surface of the magnet holder. High energy electrons and oxygen radicals were observed at ECR zone by electric probe method and optical spectroscopic method. Biological indicators (B.I.) having spore of 106 was sterilized in 2min for oxygen discharge. The temperature of the B.I. installation position was about 55°. The sterilization was achieved by the effect of oxygen radicals and high energy electrons.

  10. An investigation of a sterile access technique for the repair and adjustment of sterile spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, F. H.; Fuller, H. V.; Hueschen, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    A description is presented of a unique system for the sterilization and sterile repair of spacecraft and the results of a test program designed to assess the biological integrity and engineering reliability of the system. This trailer-mounted system, designated the model assembly sterilizer for testing (MAST), is capable of the dry-heat sterilization of spacecraft and/or components less than 2.3 meters in diameter at temperatures up to 433 K and the steam sterilization of components less than 0.724 meter in diameter. Sterile access to spacecraft is provided by two tunnel suits, called the bioisolator suit systems (BISS), which are contiguous with the walls of the sterilization chambers. The test program was designed primarily to verify the biological and engineering reliability of the MAST system by processing simulated space hardware. Each test cycle simulated the initial sterilization of a spacecraft, sterile repair of a failed component, removal of the spacecraft from the MAST for mating with the bus, and a sterile recycle repair.

  11. Safety and efficacy of hysteroscopic sterilization compared with laparoscopic sterilization: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Jialin; Pfeifer, Samantha; Schlegel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the safety and efficacy of hysteroscopic sterilization with the “Essure” device with laparoscopic sterilization in a large, all-inclusive, state cohort. Design Population based cohort study. Settings Outpatient interventional setting in New York State. Participants Women undergoing interval sterilization procedure, including hysteroscopic sterilization with Essure device and laparoscopic surgery, between 2005 and 2013. Main outcomes measures Safety events within 30 days of procedures; unintended pregnancies and reoperations within one year of procedures. Mixed model accounting for hospital clustering was used to compare 30 day and 1 year outcomes, adjusting for patient characteristics and other confounders. Time to reoperation was evaluated using frailty model for time to event analysis. Results We identified 8048 patients undergoing hysteroscopic sterilization and 44 278 undergoing laparoscopic sterilization between 2005 and 2013 in New York State. There was a significant increase in the use of hysteroscopic procedures during this period, while use of laparoscopic sterilization decreased. Patients undergoing hysteroscopic sterilization were older than those undergoing laparoscopic sterilization and were more likely to have a history of pelvic inflammatory disease (10.3% v 7.2%, P<0.01), major abdominal surgery (9.4% v 7.9%, P<0.01), and cesarean section (23.2% v 15.4%, P<0.01). At one year after surgery, hysteroscopic sterilization was not associated with a higher risk of unintended pregnancy (odds ratio 0.84 (95% CI 0.63 to 1.12)) but was associated with a substantially increased risk of reoperation (odds ratio 10.16 (7.47 to 13.81)) compared with laparoscopic sterilization. Conclusions Patients undergoing hysteroscopic sterilization have a similar risk of unintended pregnancy but a more than 10-fold higher risk of undergoing reoperation compared with patients undergoing laparoscopic sterilization. Benefits and risks of both procedures

  12. Voluntary female sterilization programs in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Trias, M

    1976-10-01

    Profamilia, the Colombian planned parenthood association, instituted a female sterilization program in 1973. Under the program, laparoscopies and minilaparotomies are performed. The program has expanded yearly to the point that it is estimated more than 15,000 operations will be performed in 1976. Trained personnel, facilities, and demand are adequate to carry out more than 40,000 tubal ligations in 1977; only funding is lacking. Agency for International Development funds can no longer be used for sterilization programs. Rural mobile units and sterilization training sessions will suffer from funds shortages as well.

  13. Spore-Forming Bacteria that Resist Sterilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaDuc, Myron; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2003-01-01

    A report presents a phenotypic and genotypic characterization of a bacterial species that has been found to be of the genus Bacillus and has been tentatively named B. odysseensis because it was isolated from surfaces of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft as part of continuing research on techniques for sterilizing spacecraft to prevent contamination of remote planets by terrestrial species. B. odysseensis is a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that forms round spores. The exosporium has been conjectured to play a role in the elevated resistance to sterilization. Research on the exosporium is proposed as a path toward improved means of sterilization, medical treatment, and prevention of biofouling.

  14. Understanding current steam sterilization recommendations and guidelines.

    PubMed

    Spry, Cynthia

    2008-10-01

    Processing surgical instruments in preparation for surgery is a complex multistep practice. It is impractical to culture each and every item to determine sterility; therefore, the best assurance of a sterile product is careful execution of every step in the process coupled with an ongoing quality control program. Perioperative staff nurses and managers responsible for instrument processing, whether for a single instrument or multiple sets, must be knowledgeable with regard to cleaning; packaging; cycle selection; and the use of physical, chemical, and biological monitors. Nurses also should be able to resolve issues related to loaner sets, flash sterilization, and extended cycles. PMID:18942236

  15. [Cold sterilization of serums with peracetic acid].

    PubMed

    Sprössig, M; Wutzler, P; Schweizer, H; Mücke, H

    1976-01-01

    On the basis of broad antimicrobic effect including also bacterial spores, mycoplasmas and viruses, the peracetic acid suits to sterilize in cold. By means of the final 0,1 to 0.02% concentration of the peracetic acid acting for 30 min. up to 5 days, it succeeded in sterilizing the serum used to prepare culture medium for bacteria, mycoplasmas and tissue cultures. Growth controls shown at least as good results as were those in using filtered sera. Chemical sterilization by means of the peracetic acid leads to significant diminution of neutralization and complementfixation antibodies in serum. PMID:823257

  16. [Positive and negative aspects of Fallopian tube sterilization as viewed by sterilized women

    PubMed

    Minella

    1998-03-30

    The objective of this paper is to point out the positive and negative aspects of female sterilization as seen by two groups of sterilized women in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, based on a sociological discussion of their present health status, evaluating the associations that they generally make with the fact that they have been sterilized. The first group included mostly housewives from a low-income neighborhood, while the second involved upper-middle-class female public employees, students, and university professors, totaling 40 women. Data were obtained through a structured questionnaire with open-ended questions. Information on social, economic, and demographic variables was recorded, along with subjective data associated with women's representations of the post-sterilization period. We concluded that there was no consensus as to the consequences of sterilization, since a number of the women (11/40), mostly sterilized before the age of 30, perceived changes in their health status after surgery.

  17. Tissue sterility in uneviscerated carcasses.

    PubMed

    Gill, C O; Penney, N; Nottingham, P M

    1978-08-01

    Sheep muscle tissue removed aseptically from control carcasses, from uneviscerated carcasses held at 20 degrees C for 24 h, and from carcasses of sheep subjected to stress before slaughter was examined for the presence of bacteria. All samples from a total of 68 carcasses were sterile. Whole-body autoradiography of mouse carcasses showed that 14C-labeled fixed bacteria injected after death remained in the lumen of the intestine. Live bacteria did not penetrate the mucosal surface until the tissue structure had been disrupted by proteolytic enzymes. Bacteria were unable to penetrate sections of intestine longitudinally until considerable structural breakdown had occurred, indicating that blood and lymph vessels do not normally offer a pathway for microbial invasion from the intestine. Clostridia, which have been reported to be responsible for deep spoilage of meat, reached maximum numbers 24 to 28 h after death in the intestines of guinea pig carcasses stored at 20 degrees C, but did not invade carcass tissues until the stomach ruptured as a result of proteolysis between 2 and 3 days after death.

  18. Sterile post-traumatic immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Md Nahidul; Bradley, Benjamin A; Ceredig, Rhodri

    2016-01-01

    After major trauma, the human immune system initiates a series of inflammatory events at the injury site that is later followed by suppression of local inflammation favoring the repair and remodeling of the damaged tissues. This local immune response involves complex interactions between resident cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells, soluble mediators such as cytokines and chemokines, and recruited cells such as neutrophils, monocytes and mesenchymal stromal cells. If of sufficient magnitude, these initial immune responses nevertheless have systemic consequences resulting in a state called post-traumatic immunosuppression (PTI). However, controversy exists regarding the exact immunological changes occurring in systemic compartments triggered by these local immune responses. PTI is one of the leading causes of post-surgical mortality and makes patients vulnerable to hospital-acquired infections, multiple organ failure and many other complications. In addition, hemorrhage, blood transfusion, immunesenescence and immunosuppressant drugs aggravate PTI. PTI has been intensively studied, but published results are frequently cloudy. The purpose of this review is to focus on the contributions made by different responsive modalities to immunosuppression following sterile trauma and to try to integrate these into an overall scheme of PTI. PMID:27195120

  19. Hybrid sterility in plant: stories from rice.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Yidan; Liu, Yao-Guang; Zhang, Qifa

    2010-04-01

    Hybrid sterility is the most common form of postzygotic reproductive isolation in plants. The best-known example is perhaps the hybrid sterility between indica and japonica subspecies of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). Major progress has been reported recently in rice in identifying and cloning hybrid sterility genes at two loci regulating female and male fertility, respectively. Genetic analyses and molecular characterization of these genes, together with the results from other model organisms especially Drosophila, have advanced the understanding of the processes underlying reproductive isolation and speciation. These findings also have significant implications for crop genetic improvement, by providing the feasibility and strategies for overcoming intersubspecific hybrid sterility thus allowing the development of intersubspecific hybrids.

  20. Encapsulation process sterilizes and preserves surgical instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, L. C.; Morelli, F. A.

    1964-01-01

    Ethylene oxide is blended with an organic polymer to form a sterile material for encapsulating surgical instruments. The material does not bond to metal and can be easily removed when the instruments are needed.

  1. 21 CFR 522.44 - Sterile sodium acetazolamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sterile sodium acetazolamide. 522.44 Section 522....44 Sterile sodium acetazolamide. (a) Specifications. Sterile sodium acetazolamide contains acetazolamide sodium complying with United States Pharmacopeia as a sterile powder with directions...

  2. 21 CFR 880.6870 - Dry-heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dry-heat sterilizer. 880.6870 Section 880.6870... Devices § 880.6870 Dry-heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. A dry-heat sterilizer is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of dry heat....

  3. 21 CFR 880.6870 - Dry-heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dry-heat sterilizer. 880.6870 Section 880.6870... Devices § 880.6870 Dry-heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. A dry-heat sterilizer is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of dry heat....

  4. 21 CFR 880.6870 - Dry-heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dry-heat sterilizer. 880.6870 Section 880.6870... Devices § 880.6870 Dry-heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. A dry-heat sterilizer is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of dry heat....

  5. 21 CFR 880.6870 - Dry-heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dry-heat sterilizer. 880.6870 Section 880.6870... Devices § 880.6870 Dry-heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. A dry-heat sterilizer is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of dry heat....

  6. Neutrino Oscillations with Three Active and Three Sterile Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisslinger, Leonard S.

    2016-07-01

    This is an extension of estimates of the probability of μ to e neutrino oscillation with one sterile neutrino to three sterile neutrinos, using a 6x6 matrix. Since the mixing angle for only one sterile neutrino has been experimentally determined, we estimate the μ to e neutrino oscillation probability with different mixing angles for two of the sterile neutrinos.

  7. 21 CFR 872.6730 - Endodontic dry heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. 872.6730 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6730 Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. An endodontic dry heat sterilizer is a device intended to sterilize...

  8. 21 CFR 872.6730 - Endodontic dry heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. 872.6730 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6730 Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. An endodontic dry heat sterilizer is a device intended to sterilize...

  9. 21 CFR 872.6730 - Endodontic dry heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. 872.6730 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6730 Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. An endodontic dry heat sterilizer is a device intended to sterilize...

  10. 21 CFR 872.6730 - Endodontic dry heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. 872.6730 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6730 Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. An endodontic dry heat sterilizer is a device intended to sterilize...

  11. 21 CFR 872.6730 - Endodontic dry heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. 872.6730 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6730 Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. An endodontic dry heat sterilizer is a device intended to sterilize...

  12. [Experimental tests of a microwave sterilization system].

    PubMed

    Rosaspina, S; Liguori, G; Anzanel, D; Finzi, G; Salvatorelli, G

    1994-01-01

    Data obtained in our experiments indicate that the microwave sterilization system utilized may be considered as a practical and rapid method for decontaminating steel surgical instruments. For the tested organisms (7 Gram- and 2 Gram+ genera) a 3' exposure time to microwaves provides successful sterilization. Microwave irradiation also had a killing action against Bacillus subtilis spores. A study by SEM of microwave treated spores shows typical morphological alterations of spore surfaces. PMID:8170448

  13. Production of a sterile species: Quantum kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Chiu Man; Boyanovsky, D.; Ho, C.M.

    2007-04-23

    Production of a sterile species is studied within an effective model of active-sterile neutrino mixing in a medium in thermal equilibrium. The quantum kinetic equations for the distribution functions and coherences are obtained from two independent methods: the effective action and the quantum master equation. The decoherence time scale for active-sterile oscillations is tau(dec)=2/Gamma(aa), but the evolution of the distribution functions is determined by the two different time scales associated with the damping rates of the quasiparticle modes in the medium: Gamma(1)=Gamma(aa)cos^2theta(m); Gamma(2)=Gamma(aa)sin^2theta(m) where Gamma(aa) is the interaction rate of the active species in the absence of mixing and theta(m) the mixing angle in the medium. These two time scales are widely different away from Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein resonances and preclude the kinetic description of active-sterile production in terms of a simple rate equation. We give the complete set of quantum kinetic equations for the active and sterile populations and coherences and discuss in detail the various approximations. A generalization of the active-sterile transition probability in a medium is provided via the quantum master equation. We derive explicitly the usual quantum kinetic equations in terms of the"polarization vector" and show their equivalence to those obtained from the quantum master equation and effective action.

  14. Is cosmology compatible with sterile neutrinos?

    SciTech Connect

    Dodelson, Scott; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Slosar, Anze; /Ljubljana U.

    2005-11-01

    By combining data from cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments (including the recent BOOMERANG-2K2 results), large scale structure (LSS) and Lyman-{alpha} forest observations, we constrain the hypothesis of a fourth, sterile, massive neutrino. For the 3 massless + 1 massive neutrino case we bound the mass of the sterile neutrino to m{sub s} < 0.55eV at 95% c.l.. These results exclude at high significance the sterile neutrino hypothesis as an explanation of the LSND anomaly. We then generalize the analysis to account for active neutrino masses (which tightens the limit to m{sub s} < 0.51eV) and the possibility that the sterile abundance is not thermal. In the latter case, the constraints in the (mass, density) plane are non-trivial. For a mass of > 1eV or < 0.05eV the cosmological energy density in sterile neutrinos is always constrained to be {omega}{sub {nu}} < 0.005 at 95% c.l.. However, for a sterile neutrino mass of {approx} 0.25 eV, {omega}{sub {nu}} can be as large as 0.015.

  15. Multiple gamma radiation sterilization of polyester fibres.

    PubMed

    Nair, P D; Sreenivasan, K; Jayabalan, M

    1988-07-01

    Gamma radiation with a dose of 2.5 Mrad has been found to be suitable to sterilize polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bulk materials intended for biomedical applications. The radiation stability of PET bulk materials and fibre may not however be taken as identical due to the changes in the polymer structure during the processing of bulk materials for fibre. The chemical changes occurring in PET fibres during single and multiple (prolonged) sterilization in air were investigated. It was found that single sterilization (2.5 Mrad) itself affected the PET yarn and fibre. This was exhibited by the increase of crystallinity from 30.5 to 37% in the case of yarn and from 40 to 44% in the case of fibre. The breaking load of the yarn also increased from 441 g to 451 g. These changes were attributed to the degradation of PET in the amorphous region and the recombination of degraded aliphatic segments. Sterilization at higher doses affected the crystalline region which decreased the crystallinity, breaking load and molecular weight. For samples irradiated at 2.5 Mrad, the breaking load increased, though the dispersity increased. This was attributed to cross-linking by recombination. The increase in crystallinity also enhanced the breaking load of the samples. Higher doses of sterilization led to drastic microstructural and macrostructural changes as seen from the molecular weight. It was inferred that the changes in crystallinity and microstructure that occurred during multiple sterilization might affect the biocompatibility of the material. PMID:2975186

  16. Barriers to completion of desired postpartum sterilization.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Lori A; DeSimone, Michael; Allen, Rebecca H

    2013-02-01

    Tubal sterilization is a highly effective, permanent, and safe method of contraception. Many women who desire postpartum sterilization do not obtain the procedure due to barriers. We performed a retrospective cohort study examining patients from a single obstetrics practice who delivered between 1/1/07 and 6/30/07 at Women and Infants Hospital in Providence, RI. During the study period, 626 women in the practice delivered. Of these subjects, 87 (14%) desired postpartum sterilization. Of these 87, 45 (51.7%) underwent sterilization as planned. In multivariable analysis controlling for age, BMI, delivery mode and marital status, older age (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.12, 4.12, p=0.02) and cesarean delivery (OR 19.65, 95% CI 3.75, 103.1, p < 0.001) were associated with completion of postpartum sterilization and being married (OR 0.10, 95% CI 0.02, 0.56, p=0.009) and having a higher BMI (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.39, 0.91, p=0.02) were associated with incompletion. Only half of women who request postpartum sterilization antenatally end up obtaining the procedure.

  17. Health technology assessment: Off-site sterilization

    PubMed Central

    Dehnavieh, Reza; Mirshekari, Nadia; Ghasemi, Sara; Goudarzi, Reza; Haghdoost, AliAkbar; Mehrolhassani, Mohammad Hossain; Moshkani, Zahra; Noori Hekmat, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Every year millions of dollars are expended to equip and maintain the hospital sterilization centers, and our country is not an exception of this matter. According to this, it is important to use more effective technologies and methods in health system in order to reach more effectiveness and saving in costs. This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the technology of regional sterilization centers. Methods: This study was done in four steps. At the first step, safety and effectiveness of technology was studied via systematic study of evidence. The next step was done to evaluate the economical aspect of off-site sterilization technology using gathered data from systematic review of the texts which were related to the technology and costs of off-site and in-site hospital sterilization. Third step was conducted to collect experiences of using technology in some selected hospitals around the world. And in the last step different aspects of acceptance and use of this technology in Iran were evaluated. Results: Review of the selected articles indicated that efficacy and effectiveness of this technology is Confirmed. The results also showed that using this method is not economical in Iran. Conclusion: According to the revealed evidences and also cost analysis, due to shortage of necessary substructures and economical aspect, installing the off-site sterilization health technology in hospitals is not possible currently. But this method can be used to provide sterilization services for clinics and outpatients centers. PMID:27390714

  18. Sterilization of products contaminated with Pyronema domesticum.

    PubMed

    Lampe, Carol M; Hansen, Joyce M; Rymer, Therese M; Sargent, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Product recalls due to non-sterility occurred between 1993 and 1994 among manufacturers that were sterilizing cotton products sourced from China using ethylene oxide (EO). The primary contaminant was identified as a pyrophilous mold from the class Discomycetes, Pyronema domesticum. Multiple references suggest this organism has special needs for reproducing and maintaining the two assumed resistant stages of this organism (ascospores and sclerotia). Sterilization resistance studies were performed using a China-sourced cotton product that was naturally contaminated with P. domesticum. These studies showed the organisms to have: 1) a low resistance to moist heat sterilization at 250 degrees F (121 degrees C); a resistance to radiation no greater than that predicted by the bioburden-based resistance model (i.e., Population C) used for dose determination Method 1 described in ANSI/AAMI/ISO 11137-2:2006--Sterilization of health care products--Radiation--Part 2: Establishing the sterilization dose; and 3) a high resistance to EO processing. PMID:20041540

  19. Sterilization techniques for biodegradable scaffolds in tissue engineering applications

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zheng; Ronholm, Jennifer; Tian, Yiping; Sethi, Benu; Cao, Xudong

    2016-01-01

    Biodegradable scaffolds have been extensively studied due to their wide applications in biomaterials and tissue engineering. However, infections associated with in vivo use of these scaffolds by different microbiological contaminants remain to be a significant challenge. This review focuses on different sterilization techniques including heat, chemical, irradiation, and other novel sterilization techniques for various biodegradable scaffolds. Comparisons of these techniques, including their sterilization mechanisms, post-sterilization effects, and sterilization efficiencies, are discussed. PMID:27247758

  20. Using high-temperature formaldehyde sterilization as a model for studying gaseous sterilization.

    PubMed

    Mosley, Gregg A

    2008-01-01

    This study uses the high-temperature formaldehyde sterilization system provided by the Harvey Chemiclave, manufactured by Barnstead Thermolyne Corporation (Dubuque, IA), as a model to investigate certain phenomena associated with gaseous chemical sterilization systems. Although formaldehyde sterilization presents some unique and complex system attributes, the current studies provide helpful insights into general sterilization methods by chemicals in the gaseous state. Both population recovery and fraction negative (FN) techniques were used to assay surviving populations from biological indicators of the organism Geobacillus stearothermophilus following exposure to incremental Chemiclave cycles. Models 5500 and 6000 of the Barnstead/Thermolyne Chemiclave were used in the study. Reusable instruments such as scalers, explorers, and various hinged pieces were tested in minimum versus maximum load studies. Population recovery study results demonstrated that lethality rates increase with time throughout the Chemiclave sterilization process and that there are significant variations in lethality according to load location. The population recovery data in conjunction with the FN studies and temperature data confirm that one-half the full-cycle time is not a good estimator of one-half the full-cycle lethality because lethality curves are concave downward and lethality varies by load location. This conclusion can also be applied to other types of gaseous, chemical sterilization such as ethylene oxide. The work outlined in this study was a result of investigations into the parameters affecting formaldehyde chemical vapor sterilization with the Harvey Chemiclave sterilizer. During these studies, it became apparent that results clearly depicted the effects of continued acceleration of the rate of microbial lethality, as well as variations in delivered lethality as a function of position in the sterilizer load. This publication focuses on these observations because they are

  1. Electroporation System for Sterilizing Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlager, Kenneth J.

    2005-01-01

    A prototype of an electroporation system for sterilizing wastewater or drinking water has been developed. In electroporation, applied electric fields cause transient and/or permanent changes in the porosities of living cells. Electroporation at lower field strengths can be exploited to increase the efficiency of chemical disinfection (as in chlorination). Electroporation at higher field strengths is capable of inactivating and even killing bacteria and other pathogens, without use of chemicals. Hence, electroporation is at least a partial alternative to chlorination. The transient changes that occur in micro-organisms at lower electric-field strengths include significantly increased uptake of ions and molecules. Such increased uptake makes it possible to achieve disinfection at lower doses of chemicals (e.g., chlorine or ozone) than would otherwise be needed. Lower doses translate to lower costs and reduced concentrations of such carcinogenic chemical byproducts as trichloromethane. Higher electric fields cause cell membranes to lose semipermeability and thereby become unable to function as selective osmotic barriers between the cells and the environment. This loss of function is the cause of the cell death at higher electric-field intensities. Experimental evidence does not indicate cell lysis but, rather, combined leaking of cell proteins out of the cells as well as invasion of foreign chemical compounds into the cells. The concept of electroporation is not new: it has been applied in molecular biology and genetic engineering for decades. However, the laboratory-scale electroporators used heretofore have been built around small (400-microliter) cuvettes, partly because the smallness facilitates the generation of electric fields of sufficient magnitude to cause electroporation. Moreover, most laboratory- scale electroporators have been designed for testing static water. In contrast, the treatment cell in the present system is much larger and features a flow

  2. Sterilization Performance and Material Compatibility of Sterilizer for Dental Instruments using RF Oxygen Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Yasuhiro; Liu, Zhen; Hayashi, Nobuya; Goto, Masaaki

    2015-09-01

    The sterilization performance and material compatibility of low-pressure RF plasma sterilization method for dental instruments were investigated. RF electrode used in this experiment has been optimized for sterilization of dental instruments. The vial-type biological indicator (BI) simulating tiny space of dental instrument was used for evaluation of the sterilization performance. The pressure in the stainless chamber was fixed at 60 Pa. Sterilization of BI was achieved in shortest time 40 min at 80 W, and the sterilization effect was confirmed using three BIs. Light emission spectra of oxygen plasma indicated that production of atomic oxygen and excited oxygen molecule are maximum at pressure of 20 Pa and 200 Pa, respectively. Sterilization results of BIs indicated that successful rate increases with the oxygen pressure towards 200 Pa. Therefore, the excited oxygen molecule is deduced to be a major factor of the sterilization of BI. Surface morphology of dental instruments such as diamond bar was evaluated using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The deterioration of fine crystals of diamond bar has not observed after the plasma irradiation for 120 min with RF input power was 60W and pressure was 200 Pa.

  3. Experiences of coercion to sterilize and forced sterilization among women living with HIV in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Tamil; Albert, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Forced and coerced sterilization is an internationally recognized human rights violation reported by women living with HIV (WLHIV) around the globe. Forced sterilization occurs when a person is sterilized without her knowledge or informed consent. Coerced sterilization occurs when misinformation, intimidation tactics, financial incentives or access to health services or employment are used to compel individuals to accept the procedure. Methods Drawing on community-based research with 285 WLHIV from four Latin American countries (El Salvador, Honduras, Mexico and Nicaragua), we conduct thematic qualitative analysis of reports of how and when healthcare providers pressured women to sterilize and multivariate logistic regression to assess whether social and economic characteristics and fertility history were associated with pressure to sterilize. Results A quarter (23%) of the participant WLHIV experienced pressure to sterilize post-diagnosis. WLHIV who had a pregnancy during which they (and their healthcare providers) knew their HIV diagnosis were almost six times more likely to experience coercive or forced sterilization than WLHIV who did not have a pregnancy with a known diagnosis (OR 5.66 CI 95% 2.35–13.58 p≤0.001). WLHIV reported that healthcare providers told them that living with HIV annulled their right to choose the number and spacing of their children and their contraceptive method, employed misinformation about the consequences of a subsequent pregnancy for women's and children's health, and denied medical services needed to prevent vertical (mother-to-child) HIV transmission to coerce women into accepting sterilization. Forced sterilization was practiced during caesarean delivery. Conclusions The experiences of WLHIV indicate that HIV-related stigma and discrimination by healthcare providers is a primary driver of coercive and forced sterilization. WLHIV are particularly vulnerable when seeking maternal health services. Health worker

  4. Revisiting cosmological bounds on sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Aaron C.; Fernández Martínez, Enrique; Hernández, Pilar; Mena, Olga; Lattanzi, Massimiliano

    2015-04-01

    We employ state-of-the art cosmological observables including supernova surveys and BAO information to provide constraints on the mass and mixing angle of a non-resonantly produced sterile neutrino species, showing that cosmology can effectively rule out sterile neutrinos which decay between BBN and the present day. The decoupling of an additional heavy neutrino species can modify the time dependence of the Universe's expansion between BBN and recombination and, in extreme cases, lead to an additional matter-dominated period; while this could naively lead to a younger Universe with a larger Hubble parameter, it could later be compensated by the extra radiation expected in the form of neutrinos from sterile decay. However, recombination-era observables including the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), the shift parameter RCMB and the sound horizon rs from Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) severely constrain this scenario. We self-consistently include the full time-evolution of the coupled sterile neutrino and standard model sectors in an MCMC, showing that if decay occurs after BBN, the sterile neutrino is essentially bounded by the constraint sin2θ lesssim 0.026 (ms/eV)-2.

  5. Mercury release during autoclave sterilization of amalgam.

    PubMed

    Parsell, D E; Karns, L; Buchanan, W T; Johnson, R B

    1996-05-01

    Natural teeth are an invaluable teaching tool for preclinical instruction in operative dentistry and endodontic techniques. Cavity preparation in teeth containing amalgam restorations is a realistic simulation of an often experienced clinical situation. As various pathogens are contained in saliva, teeth must be disinfected before use by students. The purpose of this study is to indirectly evaluate whether mercury vapor is released from amalgam restorations in such teeth during steam autoclave sterilization. Mercury vapor detection, sample mass changes and x-ray fluorescence data were collected from experimental steam autoclave sterilization of amalgam samples sealed in autoclave bags. All of the data showed evidence of mercury vapor generation coincident to steam autoclave sterilization. Mercury vapor levels within the room where amalgam was exposed to steam autoclave sterilization reached levels that constitute an unnecessary health risk to dental personnel. The volume of amalgam tested simulated that contained in 175 amalgam restored teeth. Initial venting of the autoclave chamber produced mercury vapor concentrations significantly in excess of OSHA vapor concentration ceiling levels. Thus, the use of a steam autoclave for sterilization of amalgam containing teeth for use in preclinical laboratory exercises may be harmful to personnel involved.

  6. Vaporized hydrogen peroxide sterilization of freeze dryers.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J W; Arnold, J F; Nail, S L; Renzi, E

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of using vapor hydrogen peroxide (VHP) as an alternative to steam sterilization has been examined using a pilot plant freeze dryer equipped with a prototype vapor generator. Specific objectives of the study discussed in this presentation were to: 1. Identify critical process variables affecting the lethality of VHP to Bacillus stearothermophilus spores, particularly within dead legs in the system. 2. Measure the efficacy of system degassing after sterilization. 3. Determine the effect of repeated sterilization cycles on the integrity of elastomeric components of the freeze dryer. Penetration of adequate concentrations of hydrogen peroxide vapor into small diameter piping, such as tubing connected to pressure gauges, is the most challenging aspect of VHP sterilization of freeze dryers. Prior to equipment modifications, spore strips placed within such dead legs remained positive irrespective of the number of gas/degas pulses and system pressure. Equipment modifications necessary to effect complete kill of biological indicators placed in system dead legs is discussed. Results of this study support the conclusion that vaporized hydrogen peroxide shows promise as an alternative sterilization method for freeze dryers. PMID:1474433

  7. Light sterile neutrinos in the early universe

    SciTech Connect

    Lunardini, Cecilia

    2014-06-24

    Cosmological and terrestrial data suggests the number of light neutrinos may be greater than 3, motivating a careful reexamination of cosmological bounds on extra light species. Big bang nucleosynthesis constrains the number of relativistic neutrino species present during nucleosynthesis, N{sub eff}{sup BBN}, while measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) angular power spectrum constrain the effective energy density in relativistic neutrinos at the time of matter-radiation equality, N{sub eff}{sup CMB}. We review a scenario with two sterile neutrinos and explore whether partial thermalization of the sterile states can ease the tension between cosmological constraints on N{sub eff}{sup BBN} and terrestrial data. We conclude that, still, two additional light sterile neutrinos species cannot fit all the data at the 95% confidence level.

  8. Radiation sterilization of tissue allografts: A review

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rita; Singh, Durgeshwer; Singh, Antaryami

    2016-01-01

    Tissue substitutes are required in a number of clinical conditions for treatment of injured and diseased tissues. Tissues like bone, skin, amniotic membrane and soft tissues obtained from human donor can be used for repair or reconstruction of the injured part of the body. Allograft tissues from human donor provide an excellent alternative to autografts. However, major concern with the use of allografts is the risk of infectious disease transmission. Therefore, tissue allografts should be sterilized to make them safe for clinical use. Gamma radiation has several advantages and is the most suitable method for sterilization of biological tissues. This review summarizes the use of gamma irradiation technology as an effective method for sterilization of biological tissues and ensuring safety of tissue allografts. PMID:27158422

  9. Biological Sterilization of Returned Mars Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C. C.; Albert, F. G.; Combie, J.; Bodnar, R. J.; Hamilton, V. E.; Jolliff, B. L.; Kuebler, K.; Wang, A.; Lindstrom, D. J.; Morris, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    Martian rock and soil, collected by robotic spacecraft, will be returned to terrestrial laboratories early in the next century. Current plans call for the samples to be immediately placed into biological containment and tested for signs of present or past life and biological hazards. It is recommended that "Controlled distribution of unsterilized materials from Mars should occur only if rigorous analyses determine that the materials do not constitute a biological hazard. If any portion of the sample is removed from containment prior to completion of these analyses it should first be sterilized." While sterilization of Mars samples may not be required, an acceptable method must be available before the samples are returned to Earth. The sterilization method should be capable of destroying a wide range of organisms with minimal effects on the geologic samples. A variety of biological sterilization techniques and materials are currently in use, including dry heat, high pressure steam, gases, plasmas and ionizing radiation. Gamma radiation is routinely used to inactivate viruses and destroy bacteria in medical research. Many commercial sterilizers use Co-60 , which emits gamma photons of 1.17 and 1.33 MeV. Absorbed doses of approximately 1 Mrad (10(exp 8) ergs/g) destroy most bacteria. This study investigates the effects of lethal doses of Co-60 gamma radiation on materials similar to those anticipated to be returned from Mars. The goals are to determine the gamma dose required to kill microorganisms in rock and soil samples and to determine the effects of gamma sterilization on the samples' isotopic, chemical and physical properties. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  10. Effectiveness of two methods of denture sterilization.

    PubMed

    Webb, B C; Thomas, C J; Harty, D W; Willcox, M D

    1998-06-01

    Species of Candida and in particular Candida albicans may be involved in the aetiology of denture stomatitis. Studies have shown that Candida and other oral micro-organisms including Streptococcus gordonii are associated with denture plaque; hence denture hygiene is an important factor in the prevention and treatment of the disease. The aim of this investigation was to test in vitro the efficacy of two methods of denture sterilization: (1) microwave irradiation and (2) sodium hypochlorite soak. Twenty upper acrylic dentures were prepared for microbiological assay; 10 were inoculated with C. albicans H1 and 10 with S. gordonii LGR2. Within each group, five dentures were tested in a domestic microwave oven for optimal exposure time and temperature to ensure sterilization; the five control dentures were not microwaved. Microbiological analyses showed that the inoculated dentures became sterile after six min of irradiation at medium setting (2450 MHz, 350 W). Damage to the microorganisms after microwave irradiation was clearly visible by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Following the same protocol as above, experimental dentures were soaked for 8 h in either 0.02%, or 0.0125% sodium hypochlorite solution and control dentures soaked in distilled water. Microbiological analyses showed that the experimental dentures inoculated with C. albicans H1 became sterile. By contrast, those inoculated with S. gordonii LGR2 did not become sterile, and the SEM procedures confirmed these findings. The results of this study indicate that microwaving may be a more effective method of denture sterilization than denture soaking in sodium hypochlorite. However, compared with microwaving, hypochlorite reduces the levels of residual non-viable micro-organisms attached to the denture surface. PMID:9687113

  11. Decontamination formulations for disinfection and sterilization

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Mark D.; Engler, Daniel E.

    2007-09-18

    Aqueous decontamination formulations that neutralize biological pathogens for disinfection and sterilization applications. Examples of suitable applications include disinfection of food processing equipment, disinfection of areas containing livestock, mold remediation, sterilization of medical instruments and direct disinfection of food surfaces, such as beef carcasses. The formulations include at least one reactive compound, bleaching activator, inorganic base, and water. The formulations can be packaged as a two-part kit system, and can have a pH value in the range of 7-8.

  12. [Sterilization and disinfection in clinical orthodontics].

    PubMed

    Uzel, I; Haydar, B

    1989-11-01

    Recently a great deal of attention has been devoted to the spread of hepatitis b and aids viruses and the high risk of contamination of these viruses during the dental operations has made orthodontists more aware of the necessity of sterilization and disinfection. This article discusses the methods of sterilization and disinfection. Avoidance of corrosion of instruments and the use of a ultrasonic cleaner to avoid contamination has been explained. In the conclusion the measures that the orthodontist has to take in order to protect himself is discussed.

  13. STERILIZED in the Name of Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Alexandra Minna

    2005-01-01

    In exploring the history of involuntary sterilization in California, I connect the approximately 20 000 operations performed on patients in state institutions between 1909 and 1979 to the federally funded procedures carried out at a Los Angeles County hospital in the early 1970s. Highlighting the confluence of factors that facilitated widespread sterilization abuse in the early 1970s, I trace prosterilization arguments predicated on the protection of public health. This historical overview raises important questions about the legacy of eugenics in contemporary California and relates the past to recent developments in health care delivery and genetic screening. PMID:15983269

  14. Modeling the suppression of sea lamprey populations by the release of sterile males or sterile females

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klassen, Waldemar; Adams, Jean V.; Twohey, Michael B.

    2004-01-01

    The suppressive effects of trapping adult sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, and releasing sterile males (SMRT) or females (SFRT) into a closed system were expressed in deterministic models. Suppression was modeled as a function of the proportion of the population removed by trapping, the number of sterile animals released, the reproductive rate and sex ratio of the population, and (for the SFRT) the rate of polygyny. Releasing sterile males reduced populations more quickly than did the release of sterile females. For a population in which 30% are trapped, sterile animals are initially released at ratio of 10 sterile to 1 fertile animal, 5 adult progeny are produced per fertile mating, 60% are male, and males mate with an average of 1.65 females, the initial population is reduced 87% by SMRT and 68% by SFRT in one generation. The extent of suppression achieved is most sensitive to changes in the initial sterile release ratio. Given the current status of sea lamprey populations and trapping operations in the Great Lakes, the sterile-male-release technique has the best chance for success on a lake-wide basis if implemented in Lake Michigan. The effectiveness of the sterile-female-release technique should be investigated in a controlled study. Advancing trapping technology should be a high priority in the near term, and artificial rearing of sea lampreys to the adult stage should be a high priority in the long term. The diligent pursuit of sea lamprey suppression over a period of several decades can be expected to yield great benefits.

  15. Biological monitoring of sterilizers and sterilization failures in Norwegian dental offices in 1985 and 1996.

    PubMed

    Skaug, N; Lingaas, E; Nielsen, O; Palenik, C J

    1999-08-01

    It is essential that dental office sterilizers be regularly challenged with biological indicators (BIs) in order to prove that the test spores are being killed during sterilization. The aims of the study were to biologically monitor Norwegian dental office sterilizers and to identify factors contributing to sterilization failure. In 1985, participants received a packet containing: (i) 4 BI units; (ii) a set of instructions; (iii) a questionnaire concerning operation (including biological monitoring) of the office sterilizer(s), and (iv) a return-address envelope. In 1996, offices were sent (i) a survey which included demographic questions and inquiries concerning instrument sterilization processes; (ii) 2 sets of 3 BI units with instructions for their use on 2 different days; (iii) 1 control BI unit that was not to be processed, and (iv) a return-address envelope. Both private and public offices participated. Response rate to the 1996 study was 60%, which was 9.1% of all dental offices in Norway. Testing results indicated a 6.3% overall sterilization failure rate. Three out of 163 steam autoclaves (SAs) (1.8% of total) and 14 out of 109 dry heat (DH) ovens (12.8% of total) failed. DH ovens were over 7 times more likely to fail BI testing than were SAs (chi2, P < 0.01). Demographic or hygiene procedural factors could not be correlated to sterilization performance (chi2, P > 0.05). The failure rate for SAs (n = 216) in 1985 was almost 5 times greater than in 1996 (8.8% vs 1.8%). Improvement in sterilizer performance during the decade may be related to issuance in 1986 of Norway's 1st infection control guidelines for dentistry and greater awareness of infection control practices and/or to increases over the previous 10 years in the number of postgraduate courses offered in infection control. The current Norwegian guidelines on infection control practices in public health services, including dentistry, recommend regular biological monitoring of sterilizers without

  16. System for sterilizing objects. [cleaning space vehicle systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, C. J.; Wright, E. E., Jr.; Moyers, C. V. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A system for producing a stream of humidified sterilizing gas for sterilizing objects such as the water systems of space vehicles and the like includes a source of sterilant gas which is fed to a mixing chamber which has inlet and outlet ports. The level of the water only partially fills the mixing chamber so as to provide an empty space adjacent the top of the chamber. A heater is provided for heating the water in the chamber so as to produce a humidified atmosphere. The sterilant gas is fed through an arcuate shaped tubular member connected to the inlet port of the mixing chamber for producing a vortex type of flow of sterilant gas into the chamber for humidification. A tubular member extends from the mixing chamber for supplying the humidified sterilant gas to the object for being sterilized. Scrubbers are provided for removing the sterilant gas after use.

  17. Proper monitoring of sterilization procedures used in oral surgery.

    PubMed

    Skaug, N

    1983-06-01

    The sterilization procedures used by oral surgeons in Norway have been surveyed. In 22 of the 25 oral surgical clinics controlled, instruments were sterilized by saturated steam at 121 degrees C or 134 degrees C; 3 used a dry heat oven sterilizer; dry heat and/or gas sterilization procedures supplemented steam sterilization in 17 clinics. When these sterilization procedures were monitored with biological indicators, 5 autoclaves (challenged with B. stearothermophilus spores), 2 dry heat sterilizers (B. subtilis spores), and all the Harvey Chemiclaves tested (B. subtilis spores) did not inactivate the bacterial spores. A biological monitoring system that fulfills the valid requirements for sterilization procedures given by the national health authorities and that is reliable, convenient, economical and self-contained should be used routinely in oral surgery clinics. PMID:6411637

  18. Molecular analysis of cytoplasmic male sterility

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    The ultimate aims of the project are to understand the molecular mechanism of the disruption in pollen development which occurs in cytoplasmic male sterile plants and to understand the control of respiratory energy flow in the higher plant cell. A mitochondrial locus termed S-pcf segregates with sterility and with an alteration in respiration in Petunia. This cloned locus contains three genes, an abnormal fused gene termed pcf, a gene for a subunit of an NADH dehydrogenase complex, and a small ribosomal subunit protein. The pcf gene is comprised of partial sequences of ATPase subunit 9, cytochrome oxidase subunit II, and an unidentified reading frame. Components of the S-Pcf locus will be introduced into the nuclear of a fertile genotype under the control of appropriate regulatory signals, and polypeptide products of introduced genes will be directed to the mitochondrion with a transit peptide. By examining transgenic plants, we can determine what elements of the locus are critical for altered respiration or sterility. Such knowledge could explain how mitochondrial DNA affects pollen development in the large number of plant species which exhibit the agronomically important trait of male sterility. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Light sterile neutrinos after BICEP-2

    SciTech Connect

    Archidiacono, Maria; Hannestad, Steen; Fornengo, Nicolao; Gariazzo, Stefano; Giunti, Carlo; Laveder, Marco E-mail: fornengo@to.infn.it E-mail: giunti@to.infn.it E-mail: marco.laveder@pd.infn.it

    2014-06-01

    The recent discovery of B-modes in the polarization pattern of the Cosmic Microwave Background by the BICEP2 experiment has important implications for neutrino physics. We revisit cosmological bounds on light sterile neutrinos and show that they are compatible with all current cosmological data provided that the mass is relatively low. Using CMB data, including BICEP-2, we find an upper bound of m{sub s} < 0.85 eV (2σ Confidence Level). This bound is strengthened to 0.48 eV when HST measurements of H{sub 0} are included. However, the inclusion of SZ cluster data from the Planck mission and weak gravitational measurements from the CFHTLenS project favours a non-zero sterile neutrino mass of 0.44{sup +0.11}{sub −0.16} eV. Short baseline neutrino oscillations, on the other hand, indicate a new mass state around 1.2 eV. This mass is highly incompatible with cosmological data if the sterile neutrino is fully thermalised (Δχ{sup 2} > 10). However, if the sterile neutrino only partly thermalises it can be compatible with all current data, both cosmological and terrestrial.

  20. Male sterility and hybrid seed production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sexual reproduction in angiosperms is a complex process that includes a portion of the vegetative generation and all of the sexual generation. Coordination of both female and male reproduction ontogenies must occur. An abnormality anywhere in this process may lead to sterility. Genetic (nuclear) and...

  1. Advances in Sterilization and Decontamination: a Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Recent technical advances made in the field of sterilization and decontamination and their applicability to private and commercial interests are discussed. Government-sponsored programs by NASA produced the bulk of material presented in this survey. The summary of past and current research discussed is detailed to enhance an effective transfer of technology from NASA to potential users.

  2. Light sterile neutrinos: Status and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giunti, Carlo

    2016-07-01

    The indications in favor of the existence of light sterile neutrinos at the eV scale found in short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments is reviewed. The future perspectives of short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments and the connections with β-decay measurements of the neutrino masses and with neutrinoless double-β decay experiments are discussed.

  3. The Decision for Male versus Female Sterilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Margaret Pruitt; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The increasing popularity of sterilization underscores the need for knowledge about couples choosing male and female procedures. This research delineates four sets of variables that may be important for the decision and examines their relationship with the choice of male or female procedure among a sample of married couples. (Author)

  4. SPAN - Terminal sterilization process analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Computer program, SPAN, measures the dry heat thermal sterilization process applied to a planetary capsule and calculates the time required for heat application, steady state conditions, and cooling. The program is based on the logarithmic survival of micro-organisms. Temperature profiles must be input on tape.

  5. Sterilization: A Conference and a Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillingham, Brint

    1978-01-01

    This article continues a series on Native American sterilization, based on a conference of the National Council of Churches' Interreligious Foundation for Community Organization (IFCO). Also included are an article and a report by the American Civil Liberties Union. (Author/RTS)

  6. SPAN C - Terminal sterilization process analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Computer program, SPAN-C, measures the dry heat thermal sterilization process applied to a planetary capsule and calculates the time required for heat application, steady state conditions, and cooling. The program is based on the logarithmic survival of micro-organisms. Temperature profiles must be input on cards.

  7. Steam sterilization of air turbine dental handpieces.

    PubMed

    Edwardsson, S; Svensäter, G; Birkhed, D

    1983-12-01

    The efficacy of autoclaving high-speed dental handpieces was tested in two types of downward displacement steam sterilizers (instrument autoclaves), commonly used in the dentist's office. Eight series of experiments were performed with various sterilization schedules. Lubrication oils with or without antimicrobial agent were used in four of the series. Each handpiece was inoculated with 1 ml of a suspension containing equal amounts of saliva and spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus (approx. 10(6) spores/ml). Neither sterilization at 120-124 degrees C for 20 min nor at 134-136 degrees C for 10 min resulted in complete inactivation of the spores in series in which the instruments were tested without oil or with oil containing no antimicrobial agent. However, when the handpieces were lubricated with oil containing isopropanol and formaldehyde and the schedule 134-136 degrees C/10 min was used, no growth was observed. The results indicate that instrument autoclaves with built-in programs of 120-124 degrees C/20 min and 134-136 degrees C/10 min could have insufficient capacity to sterilize lubricated or unlubricated dental handpieces. The use of oils containing an antimicrobial agent can overcome this problem. PMID:6362319

  8. Root Cause Analysis, Part 2: STERILE COMPOUNDING.

    PubMed

    Cabaleiro, Joe; Jackson, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    When an adverse event or near miss occurs in a pharmacy, eliminating the root cause to prevent recurrence is critically important. Addressing the root cause of the problem reduces the recurrence of putting patients and the pharmacy at risk. This article proposes a method for performing Root Cause Analysis applicable to sterile compounding. PMID:27323421

  9. 21 CFR 610.12 - Sterility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... microorganisms. (3) The sterility test and test components must be verified to demonstrate that the test method... contaminating microorganisms. (2) The method of sampling, including the number, volume, and size of articles to... contaminating microorganisms. (e) Verification. (1) For culture-based test methods, studies must be conducted...

  10. [Anesthesia for laparoscopy in sterile patients].

    PubMed

    Schönrath, B; Borgwardt, D; Langanke, D; Alexander, H; Baier, D; Haake, K W

    1990-01-01

    During 5 years 382 laparoscopies were carried through in female patients with sterility in different kinds of anaesthesia (Intubation anaesthesia, spinal anaesthesia, and i.v. anaesthesia). We found the most advantageous results in the cases of i.v. anaesthesia with Ketamin and Diazepam.

  11. Basics of sterile compounding: aseptic processing.

    PubMed

    Akers, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses factors that affect the assurance of sterility of an aseptic process operation and balances what is required/practiced in the pharmaceutical industry via the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European aseptic processing guidelines and what is required/practiced in compounding pharmacies via the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) General Chapter <797>. PMID:25902628

  12. Perspectives: Eugenics and Sterilization in the Heartland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    Noting the Governor of Virginia's recent apology for his state's participation in eugenics, this article reviews the history of the sterilization of people with epilepsy and mental retardation in several states, and the importance of the Buck v. Bell (1927) Supreme Court decision in the promotion of eugenics. (Contains references.) (CR)

  13. Status of radiation sterilization of healthcare products in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Nankang; Wang, Chunlei; Teng, Weifang

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes the status of 60Co radiation facilities both in service and under construction in China and examines the future market for radiation sterilization of healthcare products. Policies for developing the industry of radiation sterilization are also put forward; these include implementation of appropriate quality systems, scale-up and merging of existing radiation facilities, development of electron beam radiation for sterilization purposes and increasing awareness of the technology of radiation sterilization.

  14. Gas plasma sterilization--application of space-age technology.

    PubMed

    Crow, S; Smith, J H

    1995-08-01

    Gas plasma sterilization is new to the healthcare field. The first such sterilizer has been manufactured by Advanced Sterilization Products (J&J, Irvine, CA). The system uses hydrogen peroxide as the substrate gas and radio frequency emissions to generate plasma. This system is a low-temperature, quick-acting process with no toxic residues. It appears that this sterilizer system holds promise in the healthcare field and could help to reduce the use of ethylene oxide.

  15. Trends in sterilization and disinfection procedures in orthodontic offices.

    PubMed

    Cash, R G

    1990-10-01

    The present survey is a repetition of a 1987 survey examining the sterilization/disinfection procedures of Georgia's orthodontists. The purpose of this study is to examine the trends in orthodontic sterilization/disinfection procedures. Orthodontists in Georgia have dramatically changed their sterilization and disinfection procedures. The major changes represented are greater use of protective barrier wear by doctor and staff members; increased heat sterilization methods for instruments, pliers, and handpieces; and increased disinfection of alginate impressions.

  16. Gas plasma sterilization--application of space-age technology.

    PubMed

    Crow, S; Smith, J H

    1995-08-01

    Gas plasma sterilization is new to the healthcare field. The first such sterilizer has been manufactured by Advanced Sterilization Products (J&J, Irvine, CA). The system uses hydrogen peroxide as the substrate gas and radio frequency emissions to generate plasma. This system is a low-temperature, quick-acting process with no toxic residues. It appears that this sterilizer system holds promise in the healthcare field and could help to reduce the use of ethylene oxide. PMID:7594394

  17. Sterilization Efficiency of Spore forming Bacteria in Powdery Food by Atmospheric Pressure Plasmas Sterilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Masashi; Kikuchi, Yusuke

    2015-09-01

    To provide food sterilization method capable of killing highly heat resistant spore forming bacteria, we have studied effects of plasma treatment method at atmospheric pressure in order to develop a new high speed plasma sterilization apparatus with a low cost and a high efficiency. It is also difficult even for the plasma treatment to sterilize powdery food including spices such as soybean, basil and turmeric. This paper describes that an introduction of mechanical rotation of a treatment space increases the efficiency so that perfect inactivation of spore forming bacteria in these materials by a short treatment time has been demonstrated in our experiments. We also will discuss the sterilization mechanism by dielectric barrier discharge.

  18. 21 CFR 872.6710 - Boiling water sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Boiling water sterilizer. 872.6710 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6710 Boiling water sterilizer. (a) Identification. A boiling water sterilizer is an AC-powered device that consists of a container for boiling...

  19. 21 CFR 872.6710 - Boiling water sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Boiling water sterilizer. 872.6710 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6710 Boiling water sterilizer. (a) Identification. A boiling water sterilizer is an AC-powered device that consists of a container for boiling...

  20. 21 CFR 872.6710 - Boiling water sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Boiling water sterilizer. 872.6710 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6710 Boiling water sterilizer. (a) Identification. A boiling water sterilizer is an AC-powered device that consists of a container for boiling...

  1. Sterilization in the Philippines: the score after half a decade.

    PubMed

    1978-06-01

    Since the initial use of sterilization in the Philippines in 1973 as a family planning method, it has become more and more widespread. A bar graph, giving yearly percentages of acceptors for 5 family planning methods, for the years 1974 -- 1977, shows sterilization increasing steadily in popularity, from 3% in 1974, to 12.7% in 1977. Objections to sterilization generally stem from sociocultural and religious considerations as well as misconceptions and fear. People have feared that sterilization is a form of mutilation and castration. Due perhaps to the male fears of castration, female sterilization acceptors account for 90.6% of sterilizations in the Philippines. In 1974, the Philippine government's Commission on Population set guidelines for the training of physicians and the setting up of sterilization centers. The guidelines also stipulated that the procedure would be undertaken on a voluntary basis, would not include abortion, and that clients would be informed of all medical implications, particularly the irreversibility of sterilization. Programs for sterilization in the Philippines have different requirements for acceptors; most stipulate parity of 2 to 4. Difficulties have also arisen from the uneven distribution of sterilization providers throughout the country as well as a lack of physicians trained in both male and female sterilization methods. The need to create effective linkages among the various agencies engaged in sterilization work is noted.

  2. 21 CFR 880.6870 - Dry-heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6870 Dry-heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. A dry-heat sterilizer is a device that is... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dry-heat sterilizer. 880.6870 Section...

  3. 21 CFR 872.6710 - Boiling water sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Boiling water sterilizer. 872.6710 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6710 Boiling water sterilizer. (a) Identification. A boiling water sterilizer is an AC-powered device that consists of a container for boiling...

  4. Suppression of Pest Lepidoptera by Releasing Partially Sterile Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knipling. E. F.

    1970-01-01

    Uses population growth models to calculate the theoretical suppression of reproduction achieved by releasing irradiated male moths carrying genetic sterility factors. Shows that releasing partially sterile males should be more effective than releasing fully sterile males. Discusses the costs and advantages of applying this approach to the control…

  5. 42 CFR 50.207 - Sterilization by hysterectomy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sterilization by hysterectomy. 50.207 Section 50... GENERAL APPLICABILITY Sterilization of Persons in Federally Assisted Family Planning Projects § 50.207 Sterilization by hysterectomy. (a) Programs or projects to which this subpart applies shall not perform...

  6. Committee opinion no. 530: access to postpartum sterilization.

    PubMed

    2012-07-01

    Postpartum tubal sterilization is one of the safest and most effective methods of contraception. Women who desire this type of sterilization typically undergo thorough counseling and informed consent during prenatal care and reiterate their desire for postpartum sterilization at the time of their hospital admission. Not all women who desire postpartum sterilization actually undergo the surgical procedure, and women with unfulfilled requests for postpartum sterilization have a high rate of repeat pregnancy (approaching 50%) within the following year. Potentially correctable barriers to obtaining postpartum sterilization include patient and health care provider factors, as well as hospital and health care system issues. Given the consequences of a missed procedure and the limited time frame in which it may be performed, postpartum sterilization should be considered an urgent surgical procedure. In addition, women with government insurance face barriers to sterilization procedures based on cumbersome consent requirements. The differences in the requirements surrounding consent for sterilization procedures based on the type of insurance a patient has must be addressed in order to establish fair and equitable access to sterilization procedures for all women. Policies and procedures that remove barriers to and increase efficiency in performing postpartum sterilization could reduce cancellations of the procedure. Improving consistency in accomplishing desired postpartum sterilization is an important strategy to reduce high rates of unintended pregnancy in the United States.

  7. 21 CFR 880.6860 - Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. 880.6860 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6860 Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. (a) Identification. An ethylene gas sterilizer is a nonportable device intended for use by a health care provider that uses ethylene oxide (ETO)...

  8. 21 CFR 880.6860 - Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. 880.6860 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6860 Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. (a) Identification. An ethylene gas sterilizer is a nonportable device intended for use by a health care provider that uses ethylene oxide (ETO)...

  9. 9 CFR 116.4 - Sterilization and pasteurization -records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sterilization and pasteurization... REPORTS § 116.4 Sterilization and pasteurization -records. Records shall be made by means of automatic... ingredients, equipment, or biological product subjected to sterilization or pasteurization. (Approved by...

  10. 9 CFR 116.4 - Sterilization and pasteurization -records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sterilization and pasteurization... REPORTS § 116.4 Sterilization and pasteurization -records. Records shall be made by means of automatic... ingredients, equipment, or biological product subjected to sterilization or pasteurization. (Approved by...

  11. 9 CFR 116.4 - Sterilization and pasteurization -records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sterilization and pasteurization... REPORTS § 116.4 Sterilization and pasteurization -records. Records shall be made by means of automatic... ingredients, equipment, or biological product subjected to sterilization or pasteurization. (Approved by...

  12. 9 CFR 116.4 - Sterilization and pasteurization -records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sterilization and pasteurization... REPORTS § 116.4 Sterilization and pasteurization -records. Records shall be made by means of automatic... ingredients, equipment, or biological product subjected to sterilization or pasteurization. (Approved by...

  13. 9 CFR 116.4 - Sterilization and pasteurization -records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sterilization and pasteurization... REPORTS § 116.4 Sterilization and pasteurization -records. Records shall be made by means of automatic... ingredients, equipment, or biological product subjected to sterilization or pasteurization. (Approved by...

  14. [Efficacy of the glass bead sterilizer on endodontic instruments].

    PubMed

    Canalda-Sahli, C; Pumarola-Suñe, J; Espias-Gomez, A; Jimenez-Polancos, P

    1989-12-01

    The time taken to achieve the sterilization of K files impregnated in a Bacillus subtilis culture was evaluated, placing the files in a glass bead sterilizer. The minimum time needed was 20 seconds at 240 degrees C and the previous cleaning of the file with a sterile wipe impregnated by alcohol reduced this time to 15 seconds.

  15. 21 CFR 872.6710 - Boiling water sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Boiling water sterilizer. 872.6710 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6710 Boiling water sterilizer. (a) Identification. A boiling water sterilizer is an AC-powered device that consists of a container for boiling...

  16. The Coercive Sterilization of Aboriginal Women in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stote, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the coercive sterilization of Aboriginal women in legislated and non-legislated form in Canada. I provide an historical and materialist critique of coercive sterilization. I argue for coercive sterilization to be understood as one of many policies employed to undermine Aboriginal women, to separate Aboriginal peoples from…

  17. Device and Container for Reheating and Sterilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastry, Sudhir K.; Heskitt, Brian F.; Jun, Soojin; Marcy, Joseph E.; Mahna, Ritesh

    2012-01-01

    Long-duration space missions require the development of improved foods and novel packages that do not represent a significant disposal issue. In addition, it would also be desirable if rapid heating technologies could be used on Earth as well, to improve food quality during a sterilization process. For this purpose, a package equipped with electrodes was developed that will enable rapid reheating of contents via ohmic heating to serving temperature during space vehicle transit. Further, the package is designed with a resealing feature, which enables the package, once used, to contain and sterilize waste, including human waste for storage prior to jettison during a long-duration mission. Ohmic heating is a technology that has been investigated on and off for over a century. Literature indicates that foods processed by ohmic heating are of superior quality to their conventionally processed counterparts. This is due to the speed and uniformity of ohmic heating, which minimizes exposure of sensitive materials to high temperatures. In principle, the material may be heated rapidly to sterilization conditions, cooled rapidly, and stored. The ohmic heating device herein is incorporated within a package. While this by itself is not novel, a reusable feature also was developed with the intent that waste may be stored and re-sterilized within the packages. These would then serve a useful function after their use in food processing and storage. The enclosure should be designed to minimize mass (and for NASA's purposes, Equivalent System Mass, or ESM), while enabling the sterilization function. It should also be electrically insulating. For this reason, Ultem high-strength, machinable electrical insulator was used.

  18. Orthodontic instrument sterilization with microwave irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Yezdani, Arif; Mahalakshmi, Krishnan; Padmavathy, Kesavaram

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of microwave sterilization of orthodontic instruments and molar bands immersed in plain distilled water with and without oral rinse, and to ascertain the minimum time of exposure required to sterilize. Materials and Methods: The orthodontic instruments (hinged and nonhinged), molar bands and mouth mirrorsused in the patient 's mouth were selected for the study. The instruments were divided into two groups – Group I with oral rinse-set A (0.01% chlorhexidine gluconate) and set B (0.025% betadine) and Group II (included sets C and D without oral rinse). The instruments of set A, B and C were microwaved at 2,450 MHz, 800 W for 5 min, whereas, set D was microwaved for 10 min at the same above mentioned specifications. The efficacy of sterilization was assessed by stab inoculation of the instruments onto trypticase soya agar plates. The plates were checked for bacterial growth following incubation at 37 °C for 24 h. For sterility control,Geobacillus stearothermophilus (MTCC 1518) was included. Results: No growth was observed in the plates that were inoculated with the microwaved orthodontic instruments of sets A, B and D, whereas scanty bacterial growth was observed in the plates inoculatedwith the microwaved set C instruments. Conclusion: Effective sterilization was achieved when the orthodontic instruments and molar bands were immersed in distilled water without oral rinse and microwaved for 10 min as also for those that were immersed in distilled water with oral rinse and microwaved for 5 min. PMID:26015686

  19. A male sterile pepper (C. annuum L.) mutant.

    PubMed

    Daskaloff, S

    1968-08-01

    1. After treatment of dry seeds of red pepperCapsicum annuum L. with X-rays a male-sterile mutant was discovered in the M2. 2. The male-sterile mutant segregates in a ratio of 3.28:1 (χ(2)=3.148, probability 0.07). 3. After an alternative cultivation of male-sterile plants and of a variety with good combining ability relatively good fruit-setting and seed production was obtained. 4. Grafting of male-sterile scions to normal stocks does not affect the male-sterile phenotype.

  20. Demographic trends in tubal sterilization: United States, 1970-1978.

    PubMed

    DeStefano, F; Greenspan, J R; Ory, H W; Peterson, H B; Maze, J M; Smith, J C

    1982-05-01

    In the period 1970-1977, an estimated 4,236,000 women 15-44 years of age had tubal sterilization operations in United States hospitals. Both the number and the rate of tubal sterilizations increased each year from 1970-1977, but in 1978 both declined. Tubal sterilization rates for Black women were higher than for White women. Black women also tended to be younger at the time of tubal sterilization. For the nation as a whole, the mean age at the time of tubal sterilization remained constant at about 30 with the youngest age group having the highest proportion of never-married women.

  1. Genetic complexity underlying hybrid male sterility in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Sawamura, Kyoichi; Roote, John; Wu, Chung-I; Yamamoto, Masa-Toshi

    2004-02-01

    Recent genetic analyses of closely related species of Drosophila have indicated that hybrid male sterility is the consequence of highly complex synergistic effects among multiple genes, both conspecific and heterospecific. On the contrary, much evidence suggests the presence of major genes causing hybrid female sterility and inviability in the less-related species, D. melanogaster and D. simulans. Does this contrast reflect the genetic distance between species? Or, generally, is the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility more complex than that of hybrid female sterility and inviability? To clarify this point, the D. simulans introgression of the cytological region 34D-36A to the D. melanogaster genome, which causes recessive male sterility, was dissected by recombination, deficiency, and complementation mapping. The 450-kb region between two genes, Suppressor of Hairless and snail, exhibited a strong effect on the sterility. Males are (semi-)sterile if this region of the introgression is made homozygous or hemizygous. But no genes in the region singly cause the sterility; this region has at least two genes, which in combination result in male sterility. Further, the males are less fertile when heterozygous with a larger introgression, which suggests that dominant modifiers enhance the effects of recessive genes of male sterility. Such an epistatic view, even in the less-related species, suggests that the genetic complexity is special to hybrid male sterility.

  2. Sterilization of dental instruments and devices: an update.

    PubMed

    Goodman, H S; Carpenter, R D; Cox, M R

    1994-04-01

    Dental sterilization techniques have become a focus of attention as a result of disclosure of occupational HIV transmission from an infected dentist to a cluster of patients. Although there has never been a confirmed report of a patient acquiring an infectious blood-borne disease from a dental instrument or device, recommendations for universal sterilization of dental handpieces and other devices have recently been implemented. Because of the higher rate of hepatitis B virus transmissability in the dental health care environment, an upgrade in sterilization protocols may be warranted. Stringent sterilization standards are especially necessary in higher-risk institutional dental care settings. However, a high rate of dental sterilization errors has been reported and traced to operator error. Recent institutional dental sterilization policy changes have been developed to reduce the chance of sterilization error, further diminishing the risk of cross contamination. PMID:8060010

  3. Molecular mapping of five soybean genes involved in male-sterility, female-sterility.

    PubMed

    Speth, Benjamin; Rogers, Joshua P; Boonyoo, Napatsakorn; VanMeter, A J; Baumbach, Jordan; Ott, Alina; Moore, Jerott; Cina, Tyler; Palmer, Reid; Sandhu, Devinder

    2015-04-01

    In soybean, asynaptic and desynaptic mutants lead to abnormal meiosis and fertility reduction. Several male-sterile, female-sterile mutants have been identified and studied in soybean, however, some of these mutants have not been mapped to locations on soybean chromosomes. The objectives of this study were to molecularly map five male-sterile, female-sterile genes (st2, st4, st5, st6, and st7) in soybean and compare the map locations of these genes with already mapped sterility genes. Microsatellite markers were used in bulked segregant analyses to locate all five male-sterile, female-sterile genes to soybean chromosomes, and markers from the corresponding chromosomes were used on F2 populations to generate genetic linkage maps. The st2, st4, st5, st6, and st7 genes were located on molecular linkage group (MLG) B1 (chromosome 11), MLG D1a (chromosome 01), MLG F (chromosome 13), MLG B2 (chromosome 14), and D1b (chromosome 02), respectively. The st2, st4, st5, st6, and st7 genes were flanked to 10.3 (∼ 399 kb), 6.3 (∼ 164 kb), 3.9 (∼ 11.8 Mb), 11.0 (∼ 409 kb), and 5.3 cM (∼ 224 kb), and the flanked regions contained 57, 17, 362, 52, and 17 predicted genes, respectively. Future characterization of candidate genes should facilitate identification of the male- and female-fertility genes, which may provide vital insights on structure and function of genes involved in the reproductive pathway in soybean.

  4. A Sterile Robotic Mars Soil Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Gilbert V.; Miller, Joseph D.; Straat, Patricia Ann; Hoover, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    Since the 1976 Viking Mission to Mars, follow-on efforts to resolve its controversial life detection results have been thwarted by two heretofore insurmountable difficulties: the huge expense of sterilizing the entire spacecraft to protect the integrity of life detection experiments; and the lack of a practical robotic life detection package that could produce results acceptable as unambiguous by the scientific community. We here present a method that assures sterility and the complete integrity of robotic life detection experiments, all at a negligible cost. Second, we propose a candidate set of integrated, highly sensitive experiments that we believe could produce results acceptable to the vast majority of scientists. In addition to the biology-chemistry issue, the extensively debated oxidative state of the Martian surface and other chemical and physical characteristics of the Martian soil would be determined. We present our concept for a miniaturized instrument that could carry out a number of candidate experiments to achieve the objective.

  5. A search for sterile neutrinos in MINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Osiecki, Thomas Henry

    2007-01-01

    MINOS, the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment based at Fermilab National Accelerator Laboratory. The experiment uses a neutrino beam, which is measured 1 km downstream from its origin in the Near detector at Fermilab and then 735 km later in the Far detector at the Soudan mine. By comparing these two measurements, MINOS can attain a very high precision for parameters in the atmospheric sector of neutrino oscillations. In addition to precisely determining Δm$2\\atop{23}$ and θ23 through the disappearance of vμ, MINOS is able to measure vμ → vsterile by looking for a deficit in the number of neutral current interactions seen in the Far detector. In this thesis, we present the results of a search for sterile neutrinos in MINOS.

  6. Can sterile neutrinos be the dark matter?

    PubMed

    Seljak, Uros; Makarov, Alexey; McDonald, Patrick; Trac, Hy

    2006-11-10

    We use the Ly-alpha forest power spectrum measured by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and high-resolution spectroscopy observations in combination with cosmic microwave background and galaxy clustering constraints to place limits on a sterile neutrino as a dark matter candidate in the warm dark matter scenario. Such a neutrino would be created in the early Universe through mixing with an active neutrino and would suppress structure on scales smaller than its free-streaming scale. We ran a series of high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations with varying neutrino masses to describe the effect of a sterile neutrino on the Ly-alpha forest power spectrum. We find that the mass limit is m(s) >13 keV at 95% C.L. (9 keV at 99.9%), which is above the upper limit allowed by x-ray constraints, excluding this candidate from being all of the dark matter in this model. PMID:17155611

  7. Microwave sterilization of femoral head allograft.

    PubMed

    Dunsmuir, Robert A; Gallacher, Grace

    2003-10-01

    The potential shortage of allograft bone has led to the need to investigate other sources of bone for allografts. Some allograft bone donated from primary total hip arthroplasty recipients must be discarded or treated to become usable as a result of bacterial contamination. Femoral head allografts were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. A domestic microwave oven was used. The contaminated bone was exposed to microwave irradiation for different time periods. The samples were then cultured to attempt to grow the two bacterial species. The contaminated bone samples failed to grow any organisms after 2 min of exposure to microwave irradiation. This study shows that sterilization of femoral head allografts contaminated with S. aureus and B. subtilis can be achieved with microwave irradiation in a domestic microwave oven. This method of sterilization of bone allografts is cheap, easily used, and an effective way to process contaminated bone. PMID:14532216

  8. Gas dynamics of ethylene oxide during sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Z.; Matthews, I. P.; Wang, C.

    1999-07-01

    This article reports a case study of the dynamics of ethylene oxide gas during sterilization using a microwave spectrometer. A diffusion equation is used to describe the processes of gas penetration, gas sorption, and chemical reactions. The three processes, although mathematically related, may be solved separately under simplified assumptions. This permits the prediction of gas penetration and sorption as well as the effect of chemical reactions upon the gas concentration for loads of differing dimensions and densities.

  9. Sterile neutrinos in the early universe

    SciTech Connect

    Malaney, R.A. ); Fuller, G.M. . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-11-14

    We discuss the role played by right-handed sterile neutrinos in the early universe. We show how well known {sup 4}He constraint on the number of relativistic degrees of freedom at early times limits the equilibration of the right handed neutrino sea with the background plasma. We discuss how this allows interesting constraints to be placed on neutrino properties. In particular, a new limit on the Dirac mass of the neutrino is presented. 12 refs.

  10. Sterilization: new method options, failure rate info.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses new sterilization methods for tubal ligation, failure rates, and risks for ectopic pregnancy in the US. The Filshie clip, which was developed by Femcare, Ltd. in Nottingham, England, and is distributed by Avalon Medical Corp of Vermont, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in September 1996. The company has provided training sessions at major universities nationwide and exhibited at national professional association meetings. A training video and two more films will be available in 1998. The new clip is considered a more modern approach to a tubal occlusion method, which relies on newer materials and solves prior problems. Physicians usually used Falope rings, which had better failure rates than the Hulka clip and bipolar coagulation methods. There is a need for more long-term and large scale information exchange about the new Filshie clip. Some physicians still use the Falope ring because it is cost effective and well-studied. Physicians are warned to continue to advise women about the potential failure rates up to 10 years after sterilization and the 1 in 3 risk of ectopic pregnancy. Counseling about failure rates and the risk of ectopic pregnancy should target women under 30 years old, who have the highest failure rates, and women 30-34 years old. All sterilized women should be advised to seek a provider immediately if they have pregnancy symptoms following sterilization. Counseling should include the issue of "regrets," since it is a permanent method. All women should know about nonpermanent methods and experience a basic informed consent process. Young women and newly divorced women are particularly vulnerable to the "regrets" syndrome.

  11. Sterile neutrinos as subdominant warm dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Palazzo, A.; Cumberbatch, D.; Slosar, A.; Silk, J.

    2007-11-15

    In light of recent findings which seem to disfavor a scenario with (warm) dark matter entirely constituted of sterile neutrinos produced via the Dodelson-Widrow mechanism, we investigate the constraints attainable for this mechanism by relaxing the usual hypothesis that the relic neutrino abundance must necessarily account for all of the dark matter. We first study how to reinterpret the limits attainable from x-ray nondetection and Lyman-{alpha} forest measurements in the case that sterile neutrinos constitute only a fraction f{sub s} of the total amount of dark matter. Then, assuming that sterile neutrinos are generated in the early universe solely through the Dodelson-Widrow mechanism, we show how the x-ray and Lyman-{alpha} results jointly constrain the mass-mixing parameters governing their production. Furthermore, we show how the same data allow us to set a robust upper limit f{sub s} < or approx. 0.7 at the 2{sigma} level, rejecting the case of dominant dark matter (f{sub s}=1) at the {approx}3{sigma} level.

  12. Sterile Insect Technique and F1 Sterility in the European Grapevine Moth, Lobesia botrana

    PubMed Central

    Saour, George

    2014-01-01

    Newly emerged adults of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were irradiated with various doses of gamma radiation and crossed to unirradiated counterparts of the opposite sex. Fecundity was decreased when unirradiated females were mated with either 300- or 350-Gy-irradiated males. Adult males that were irradiated with 400 Gy and mated with unirradiated females retained a residual fertility of 2.7%. The radiation dose at which irradiated females were found to be 100% sterile when mated with unirradiated males was 150 Gy. The inherited effects in the F1 progeny of irradiated male parents were examined at 100, 150, and 200 Gy. Fecundity and fertility of the F1 progeny of males irradiated with 150 Gy and inbred or crossed with irradiated and unirradiated moths were also recorded. A significant reduction in fertility was observed when F1 males mated with either F1 or unirradiated females. According to sterility index, F1 females who mated with F1 males had greater sterility than when F1 females were crossed to 150-Gy-irradiated males. Based upon the results of this study, 150 Gy of gamma radiation would be the optimal dose to use in a sterile insect technique and F1 sterility program against L. botrana. PMID:25373155

  13. Surgical sterilization: an underutilized procedure for evaluating the merits of induced sterility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennelly, James J.; Converse, Kathryn A.

    1993-01-01

    Despite more than 4 decades of effort, development of effective wildlife damage control programs based on sterilization of target species has met with limited success. This is partly due to the fact that investigators have assumed, rather than empirically tested, whether the reproductive strategies of the target populations were vulnerable to the planned treatment. Equally important, methods selected to include sterility usually involve a chemical agent that can affect sociosexual behaviors of the nuisance population. In this report, we illustrate how surgically induced sterility circumvents both problems--how the concept without the potentially confounding secondary effects of a chemical. We assessed the merits of initiating research to develop a male chemosterilant for Norway rats, red-winged blackbirds, beaver, and Canada geese by inducing sterility surgically. The infidelity of many red-winged females to their polygynous territorial male was surprising and argued against searching for a male sterilant. On the other hand, beaver and Canada goose studies confirmed previous reports that both form par-bonds and are monogamous. Both should be vulnerable to a male chemosterilant approach, and research toward this goal is justified.

  14. Degradation of chitosan-based materials after different sterilization treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San Juan, A.; Montembault, A.; Gillet, D.; Say, J. P.; Rouif, S.; Bouet, T.; Royaud, I.; David, L.

    2012-02-01

    Biopolymers have received in recent years an increasing interest for their potential applications in the field of biomedical engineering. Among the natural polymers that have been experimented, chitosan is probably the most promising in view of its exceptional biological properties. Several techniques may be employed to sterilize chitosan-based materials. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of common sterilization treatments on the degradation of chitosan-based materials in various physical states: solutions, hydrogels and solid flakes. Four sterilization methods were compared: gamma irradiation, beta irradiation, exposure to ethylene oxide and saturated water steam sterilization (autoclaving). Exposure to gamma or beta irradiation was shown to induce an important degradation of chitosan, regardless of its physical state. The chemical structure of chitosan flakes was preserved after ethylene oxide sterilization, but this technique has a limited use for materials in the dry state. Saturated water steam sterilization of chitosan solutions led to an important depolymerization. Nevertheless, steam sterilization of chitosan flakes bagged or dispersed in water was found to preserve better the molecular weight of the polymer. Hence, the sterilization of chitosan flakes dispersed in water would represent an alternative step for the preparation of sterilized chitosan solutions. Alternatively, autoclaving chitosan physical hydrogels did not significantly modify the macromolecular structure of the polymer. Thus, this method is one of the most convenient procedures for the sterilization of physical chitosan hydrogels after their preparation.

  15. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Recessive Male Sterility (RGMS) in Sterile and Fertile Brassica napus Lines

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huiyan; Liu, Chuan; Li, Jiana; Tang, Zhanglin; Xu, Xinfu; Qiu, Xiao; Wang, Rui; Lu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    The recessive genetic male sterility (RGMS) system plays a key role in the production of hybrid varieties in self-pollinating B. napus plants, and prevents negative cytoplasmic effects. However, the complete molecular mechanism of the male sterility during male-gametogenesis in RGMS remains to be determined. To identify transcriptomic changes that occur during the transition to male sterility in RGMS, we examined the male sterile line WSLA and male fertile line WSLB, which are near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing only in the fertility trait. We evaluated the phenotypic features and sterility stage using anatomical analysis. Comparative RNA sequencing analysis revealed that 3,199 genes were differentially expressed between WSLA and WSLB. Many of these genes are mainly involved in biological processes related to flowering, including pollen tube development and growth, pollen wall assembly and modification, and pollen exine formation and pollination. The transcript profiles of 93 genes associated with pollen wall and anther development were determined by quantitative RT-PCR in different flower parts, and classified into the following three major clades: 1) up-regulated in WSLA plants; 2) down-regulated in WSLA plants; and 3) down-regulated in buds, but have a higher expression in stigmas of WSLA than in WSLB. A subset of genes associated with sporopollenin accumulation were all up-regulated in WSLA. An excess of sporopollenin results in defective pollen wall formation, which leads to male sterility in WSLA. Some of the genes identified in this study are candidates for future research, as they could provide important insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying RGMS in WSLA. PMID:26656530

  16. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Recessive Male Sterility (RGMS) in Sterile and Fertile Brassica napus Lines.

    PubMed

    Qu, Cunmin; Fu, Fuyou; Liu, Miao; Zhao, Huiyan; Liu, Chuan; Li, Jiana; Tang, Zhanglin; Xu, Xinfu; Qiu, Xiao; Wang, Rui; Lu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    The recessive genetic male sterility (RGMS) system plays a key role in the production of hybrid varieties in self-pollinating B. napus plants, and prevents negative cytoplasmic effects. However, the complete molecular mechanism of the male sterility during male-gametogenesis in RGMS remains to be determined. To identify transcriptomic changes that occur during the transition to male sterility in RGMS, we examined the male sterile line WSLA and male fertile line WSLB, which are near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing only in the fertility trait. We evaluated the phenotypic features and sterility stage using anatomical analysis. Comparative RNA sequencing analysis revealed that 3,199 genes were differentially expressed between WSLA and WSLB. Many of these genes are mainly involved in biological processes related to flowering, including pollen tube development and growth, pollen wall assembly and modification, and pollen exine formation and pollination. The transcript profiles of 93 genes associated with pollen wall and anther development were determined by quantitative RT-PCR in different flower parts, and classified into the following three major clades: (1) up-regulated in WSLA plants; (2) down-regulated in WSLA plants; and 3) down-regulated in buds, but have a higher expression in stigmas of WSLA than in WSLB. A subset of genes associated with sporopollenin accumulation were all up-regulated in WSLA. An excess of sporopollenin results in defective pollen wall formation, which leads to male sterility in WSLA. Some of the genes identified in this study are candidates for future research, as they could provide important insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying RGMS in WSLA.

  17. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Recessive Male Sterility (RGMS) in Sterile and Fertile Brassica napus Lines.

    PubMed

    Qu, Cunmin; Fu, Fuyou; Liu, Miao; Zhao, Huiyan; Liu, Chuan; Li, Jiana; Tang, Zhanglin; Xu, Xinfu; Qiu, Xiao; Wang, Rui; Lu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    The recessive genetic male sterility (RGMS) system plays a key role in the production of hybrid varieties in self-pollinating B. napus plants, and prevents negative cytoplasmic effects. However, the complete molecular mechanism of the male sterility during male-gametogenesis in RGMS remains to be determined. To identify transcriptomic changes that occur during the transition to male sterility in RGMS, we examined the male sterile line WSLA and male fertile line WSLB, which are near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing only in the fertility trait. We evaluated the phenotypic features and sterility stage using anatomical analysis. Comparative RNA sequencing analysis revealed that 3,199 genes were differentially expressed between WSLA and WSLB. Many of these genes are mainly involved in biological processes related to flowering, including pollen tube development and growth, pollen wall assembly and modification, and pollen exine formation and pollination. The transcript profiles of 93 genes associated with pollen wall and anther development were determined by quantitative RT-PCR in different flower parts, and classified into the following three major clades: (1) up-regulated in WSLA plants; (2) down-regulated in WSLA plants; and 3) down-regulated in buds, but have a higher expression in stigmas of WSLA than in WSLB. A subset of genes associated with sporopollenin accumulation were all up-regulated in WSLA. An excess of sporopollenin results in defective pollen wall formation, which leads to male sterility in WSLA. Some of the genes identified in this study are candidates for future research, as they could provide important insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying RGMS in WSLA. PMID:26656530

  18. Considerations for implementing United States pharmacopeia chapter 797 pharmaceutical compounding-sterile preparations, part 5: verification of accuracy, sterility, and sterilization of compounded preparations.

    PubMed

    Allen, Loyd V; Okeke, Claudia C

    2008-01-01

    United States Pharmacopeia Chapter 797 Pharmaceutical Compounding-Sterile Preparations pertains to all preadministration manipulations and procedures involved in the preparation of sterile compounds for application, implantation, infusion, inhalation, injection, insertion, instillation, or irrigation, including preparation, storage, and transportation. The chapter does not pertain to actual clinical administation of compounded sterile preparations to patients. The intent of Chapter 797 is simply to prevent patient harm and fatalitites that may result from nosterility, excessive endotoxin load, large content errors in strength of correct ingredients, or the presence of incorrect ingredients. Because the achievement of sterility requires that facilities meet minimum cleanliness standards, that personnel be trained adequately and undergo periodic testing and training in sterilization techniques, and that appropriate principles and practices be applied to sustain solution stablity, compliance with Chapter 797 should be the goal of any facility where sterile preparations are compounded. Many pharmacies have already achieved compliance with Chapter 797, and those that have already met the new standards seem to support them strongly. This article discusses procedures for verification of the accuracy, sterility, and sterilization of compounded preparations. The importance of United States Pharmacopeia Chapter 71, 1035, and 1211, all of which contain vital information, is also discussed.

  19. Sterilization among currently married men in the United States, 1991.

    PubMed

    Forste, R; Tanfer, K; Tedrow, L

    1995-01-01

    Data from the 1991 National Survey of Men indicate that about 12% of married men aged 20-39 have had a vasectomy and about 13% are married to a woman who is sterilized. Multivariate analyses indicate that the likelihood of sterilization rises with husband's age, wife's age, duration of marriage and number of children. Black couples are significantly less likely than white couples to rely on sterilization, and interracial couples are less likely than same-race couples to be sterilized. The likelihood of reliance on vasectomy rather than tubal ligation also rises with husband's age, while black men are significantly less likely than white men to elect male over female sterilization. Use of male sterilization is strongly associated with having had a recent contraceptive failure while using a male method.

  20. BEST sensitivity to O(1) eV sterile neutrino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barinov, Vladislav; Gavrin, Vladimir; Gorbunov, Dmitry; Ibragimova, Tatiana

    2016-04-01

    Numerous anomalous results in neutrino oscillation experiments can be attributed to the interference of an ˜1 eV sterile neutrino. The Baksan Experiment on Sterile Transitions (BEST), specially designed to fully explore the Gallium anomaly, starts next year. We investigate the sensitivity of BEST in search of a sterile neutrino mixed with an electron neutrino. Then, performing the combined analysis of all the Gallium experiments (SAGE, GALLEX, BEST), we find the region in the model parameter space (sterile neutrino mass and mixing angle) which will be excluded if BEST agrees with no sterile neutrino hypothesis. For the opposite case, if BEST observes the signal as it follows from the sterile neutrino explanation of the Gallium (SAGE and GALLEX) anomaly, we show how BEST will improve upon the present estimates of the model parameters.

  1. Eugenic Sterilization: Medico-Legal and Sociological Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Felipe C.; Robinson, Shirley W.; Williams, Loretta J.

    1979-01-01

    The court-ordered sterilization of a normal 18-year-old black female in North Carolina focused attention on the unfortunate impact of eugenic statutes that allow sterilization as a method of social control. The existence of these laws in many states allows misapplication and abuse of authority which, not infrequently, is directed liberally to blacks and other minority groups. Eugenic sterilization is, at this time, a legally accepted form of “medical treatment.” The justification of such sterilization is the vague concept that the presumed “mentally deficient” individual is probably a potential parent of socially inadequate offspring who would likewise be socially inadequate. Since there never has been factual substantiation of whether the sterilization of these individuals will diminish the incidence of mental retardation, it is necessary to focus attention on the concept of eugenic sterilization and point out its many fallacies. PMID:480398

  2. [Sterilization with ozone in health care: an integrative literature review].

    PubMed

    Sousa, Cristina Silva; Torres, Lilian Machado; Azevedo, Marcela Padilha Facetto; de Camargo, Tamara Carolina; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa; Lacerda, Rúbia Aparecida; Turrini, Ruth Natalia Teresa

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this integrative literature review was to find evidence to support using ozone as a sterilizing agent for health products. The search was performed on the following bases: MEDLINE, SCOPUS, COCHRANE, COMPENDEX, INSPEC and ENGINEERING RESEARCH DATABASE; using ozone and sterilization as descriptors. Five articles were found between 1990 and 2008, which tested ozone as a sterilizer. All studies used the same type of investigation (experimental laboratory study) and achieved sterilization with ozone, but with different scopes and products, besides using different methodological procedures. Considering the ever-growing technology for new products, with the vast range of forms and materials, the findings point at ozone sterilization as a promising method, but still in an initial phase of investigation. Further experimental studies are needed to provide broader evidence regarding the possibilities and limitations of ozone sterilization.

  3. Continuous-sterilization system that uses photosemiconductor powders.

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, T; Tomoda, R; Nakajima, T; Nakamura, N; Komine, T

    1988-01-01

    We report a novel photochemical sterilization system in which Escherichia coli cells were sterilized with photosemiconductor powders (titanium oxide). For sterilization that could be used in practice, it was necessary to separate the TiO2 powders from the cell suspension. Therefore, semiconductor powders were immobilized on acetylcellulose membranes. We constructed a continuous-sterilization system consisting of a TiO2-immobilized acetylcellulose membrane reactor, a mercury lamp, and a masterflex pump. As a result, under the various sterilization conditions examined, E. coli (10(2) cells per ml) was sterilized to less than 1% survival when the cell suspension flowed in this system at a mean residence time of 16.0 min under irradiation (1,800 microeinsteins/m2 per s). We found that this system was reusable. PMID:3046487

  4. Assessment of performance of UV sterilizer for room air bacteria.

    PubMed

    Joshi, P V

    2002-02-01

    Paper presents a technique for performance of UV sterilizer for room air bacteria. Patterns of decay of room air bacteria concentration during sterilization and build-up there after as a function of time is studied. Decay process seems to follow exponential pattern. Half-lives during decay are estimated. For single sterilizer unit with a dose of 16 W the decay half-life is around 8.6 min. For the dose of 32 W (2 sterilizers), half-life is estimated to be 6.18 min. The removal rates of room air bacteria due to sterilizer are compared with the natural decay of aerosols at steady state. The importance of decay half-life in the assessment has been stated. The bacteria concentration buildup process after putting off the sterilizers seems to be sigmoidal in nature. The buildup half-life is estimated to be around 53 min for present experimental conditions.

  5. [Sterilization as a reversible method: utopia or reality? (Author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Aguillaume, C J; Aubert, J M

    1981-02-01

    Recent technological improvements in the field of microsurgery have made reversibility of sexual sterilization possible in a great number of cases. It appears that female sterilization can be reversed in almost 60% of cases, while male sterilization can be reversed in 70% of cases. Certainly the results are good, but it would be a mistake to be too optimistic. Success rates are not the same for every surgical team, and few patients know that reverse sterilization greatly depends on the technique used for sterilization. In conclusion, sterilization should be advised and performed only when both partners are absolutely sure not to desire any more children, and must still be considered as a permanent contraceptive method.

  6. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 458: Hysterosalpingography after tubal sterilization.

    PubMed

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved two devices for hysteroscopic tubal sterilization. To minimize the failure rates of these effective methods, it is important for health care providers to understand the important role hysterosalpingography (HSG) plays in any hysteroscopic tubal sterilization procedure. The purpose of this Committee Opinion is to emphasize the necessity of performing HSG 3 months after hysteroscopic tubal sterilization and to identify factors that may interfere with performance of an adequate HSG assessment.

  7. Microwave sterilization of Candida on underwear fabric. A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, E G; Phillips, L E

    1988-05-01

    Candida-contaminated underwear might not be sterilized by ordinary laundering. The effectiveness of microwaving against Candida albicans on fabric was therefore determined. Swatches of Candida-impregnated cotton underpants fabric were subjected to domestic microwaving at the high setting for up to 30 minutes. If the fabric was microwaved dry, the Candida organisms survived. If the fabric was moistened, sterilization occurred within five minutes. Microwaving wet, freshly laundered cotton underpants should sterilize residual Candida and reduce the risk of reinfection. PMID:3290474

  8. Plant's sterilization rule for fertile women cited.

    PubMed

    1979-01-01

    The American Cyanamid Corporation has been cited by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for violating federal law by requiring female employees of childbearing age to be sterilized in order to continue working in areas of the plant where they would be exposed to high levels of airborne lead. High levels of airborne lead can cause damage to workers' reproductive systems and be responsible for birth defects in fetuses. The OSHA charged that American Cyanamid's policy constituted a "willful violation" of the 1970 Occupational Safety and Health Act. The Act requires employers to provide employment that is free from recognized hazards likely to cause death or physical harm. According to OSHA, the Act does not allow an employer to eliminate the hazard by compelling employees to choose between losing their jobs and undergoing sterilization. The reproductive health of workers is considered a valid part of OSHA's regulatory concern. The citation, which carries a $10,000 fine, grew out of a complaint that was filed by the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers Union on behalf of 5 female workers working in the lead pigment division of the company's Willow Island, West Virginia plant. The 5 employees alleged that they had themselves sterilized to avoid being transferred to other and possibly lower paying janitorial jobs or losing thier jobs completely. The company is appealing the citation. The union has also filed a complaint with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission charging American Cyanamid with sex discrimination, since only the women workers are at risk of being transferred to lower paying jobs.

  9. Possibility of heat sterilization of liposomes.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, H; Carlsson, A; Yachi, K; Hirota, S

    1991-04-01

    Several kinds of liposomes were sterilized at 121 degrees C for 20 min. They tended to aggregate after heat sterilization (HS) in saline, while no aggregation was observed in an isotonized sugar or polyol solution. The dispersions containing egg phosphatidylcholine (EggPC) with a high peroxide value (POV) turned slightly yellowish after HS. This color change was prevented by using EggPC with a low POV, hydrogenated EggPC (H-EggPC) or dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). Nitrogen gas bubbling at neutral pH also prevented the color change, but vitamin E did not. The particle size of the EggPC liposomes extruded through a 0.4 micron membrane filter did not change significantly after HS, whereas the H-EggPC or DPPC liposomes extruded through a 0.8 micron membrane filter tended to be reduced in size. On this change the type of medium had a considerable influence. The anionic 6-carboxyfluorescein leaked from the negatively charged liposomes (EggPC/cholesterol (Chol)/egg phosphatidylglycerol) during HS, while no leakage was observed from the positively charged liposomes (EggPC/Chol/stearylamine) not only during HS but also during a long period of storage. It was suggested that sterilization of liposomes by heating was practicable as well as that by filtration, if the liposomes were prepared as follows: the charged liposomes made of lipids with low POV's were dispersed in a sugar or polyol solution adjusted to nearly pH 6.5, where the amount of dissolved oxygen was minimized. An ionic water-soluble drug had to be encapsulated in the oppositely charged liposomes.

  10. Possibilities of sterilization by track membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudoyarov, M. F.; Vishnevskii, B. I.; Manicheva, O. A.; Myakotina, E. N.; Mukhin, S. A.; Patrova, M. Ya.; Vedmetskii, Yu. V.

    2011-09-01

    The possibility of using track membranes for the dimensional separation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MBT) species from liquid media has been studied. A set of track membranes with various pore diameters was prepared at the accelerator complex of the Ioffe Physical Technical Institute (St. Petersburg) and all samples were tested for their ability to separate MBT species of 13 strains from solutions. The results showed high ability of the track membranes with pore diameters from 180 to 300 nm to sterilize liquid media and confirmed the hypothesis concerning relatively high rigidity of these bacteria.

  11. Urinary mycobacterium avium presenting as sterile pyuria

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kai; Samplaski, Mary; Mazzulli, Tony; Lo, Kirk; Grober, Ethan; Jarvi, Keith Allen

    2016-01-01

    A 65-year-old healthy woman presented with persistent, asymptomatic sterile pyuria detected by her family physician. While she did not have symptoms, the patient recounts that she has had cloudy urine for years. Cultures of the urine for bacteria showed no growth and no fungi were identified. First-morning urine samples were sent for both tuberculosis and nontuberculosis mycobacterium species testing. The culture grew genotypically identified Mycobaterium avium complex (MAC). Mantoux skin testing was positive. No urological abnormalities were detected by ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) imaging of the urinary tract.

  12. Mitochondria and cytoplasmic male sterility in plants.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jun; Huang, Wenchao; Huang, Qi; Qin, Xiaojian; Yu, Changchun; Wang, Lili; Li, Shaoqing; Zhu, Renshan; Zhu, Yingguo

    2014-11-01

    Mitochondria are essential organelles in cells not only because they supply over 90% of the cell's energy but also because their dysfunction is associated with disease. Owing to the importance of mitochondria, there are many questions about mitochondria that must be answered. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a mysterious natural phenomenon, and the mechanism of the origin of CMS is unknown. Despite successful utilization of CMS and restoration of fertility (Rf) in practice, the underlying mechanisms of these processes remain elusive. This review summarizes the genes involved in CMS and Rf, with a special focus on recent studies reporting the mechanisms of the CMS and Rf pathways, and concludes with potential working models.

  13. 21 CFR 522.1862 - Sterile pralidoxime chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Before administration of the sterile pralidoxime chloride, atropine is administered intravenously at a... milligram of atropine per pound of body weight administered intramuscularly. Then the appropriate dosage...

  14. 21 CFR 522.1862 - Sterile pralidoxime chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Before administration of the sterile pralidoxime chloride, atropine is administered intravenously at a... milligram of atropine per pound of body weight administered intramuscularly. Then the appropriate dosage...

  15. Gene, protein, and network of male sterility in rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Peng, Xiaojue; Ji, Yanxiao; Yang, Pingfang; Zhu, Yingguo; Li, Shaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important model crop plants whose heterosis has been well-exploited in commercial hybrid seed production via a variety of types of male-sterile lines. Hybrid rice cultivation area is steadily expanding around the world, especially in Southern Asia. Characterization of genes and proteins related to male sterility aims to understand how and why the male sterility occurs, and which proteins are the key players for microspores abortion. Recently, a series of genes and proteins related to cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), photoperiod-sensitive male sterility, self-incompatibility, and other types of microspores deterioration have been characterized through genetics or proteomics. Especially the latter, offers us a powerful and high throughput approach to discern the novel proteins involving in male-sterile pathways which may help us to breed artificial male-sterile system. This represents an alternative tool to meet the critical challenge of further development of hybrid rice. In this paper, we reviewed the recent developments in our understanding of male sterility in rice hybrid production across gene, protein, and integrated network levels, and also, present a perspective on the engineering of male-sterile lines for hybrid rice production.

  16. System and method of applying energetic ions for sterilization

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, John A.

    2003-12-23

    A method of sterilization of a container is provided whereby a cold plasma is caused to be disposed near a surface to be sterilized, and the cold plasma is then subjected to a pulsed voltage differential for producing energized ions in the plasma. Those energized ions then operate to achieve spore destruction on the surface to be sterilized. Further, a system for sterilization of a container which includes a conductive or non-conductive container, a cold plasma in proximity to the container, and a high voltage source for delivering a pulsed voltage differential between an electrode and the container and across the cold plasma, is provided.

  17. Are there sterile neutrinos at the eV scale?

    PubMed

    Kopp, Joachim; Maltoni, Michele; Schwetz, Thomas

    2011-08-26

    New predictions for the antineutrino flux from nuclear reactors suggest that reactor experiments may have measured a deficit in this flux, which can be interpreted in terms of oscillations between the known active neutrinos and new sterile states. We perform a reanalysis of global short-baseline neutrino oscillation data in a framework with one or two sterile neutrinos. While one sterile neutrino is still not sufficient to reconcile the signals suggested by reactor experiments and by the LSND and MiniBooNE experiments with null results from other searches, we find that, with the new reactor flux prediction, the global fit improves considerably when two sterile neutrinos are introduced.

  18. End-preparation assessments and tests for compounded sterile preparations.

    PubMed

    McElhiney, Linda F

    2013-01-01

    Outsourcing has become a necessity to obtain sterile products that are currently on backorder. Because of the expense of outsourcing sterile compounding, pharmacy leadership in health systems are now considering the option of insourcing and batch preparing compounded sterile preparations, which can be a viable option for a health system. It can significantly decrease drug-spending costs, and the pharmacy has a complete record of the compounding process. The key to preparing high-quality, safe, sterile preparations and meeting United States Pharmacopeia standards is end-preparation assessments and tests.

  19. Self-interacting dark matter and sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yong

    2016-05-01

    We discuss some possible astrophysical and cosmological connections between dark matter and sterile neutrinos. Both the controversies at small scales for traditional cold dark matter (CDM) and anomalies in neutrino experiments seem to suggest that there might be new self-interactions for dark matter and sterile neutrinos. Surprisingly, if the new interaction also mediates between dark matter and sterile neutrinos, “missing satellite problem” in CDM paradigm can also be solved. On the other hand, light sterile neutrinos with self-interacting can also satisfy the cosmological bounds.

  20. Exploiting novel sterilization techniques for porous polyurethane scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Bertoldi, Serena; Farè, Silvia; Haugen, Håvard Jostein; Tanzi, Maria Cristina

    2015-05-01

    Porous polyurethane (PU) structures raise increasing interest as scaffolds in tissue engineering applications. Understanding the effects of sterilization on their properties is mandatory to assess their potential use in the clinical practice. The aim of this work is the evaluation of the effects of two innovative sterilization techniques (i.e. plasma, Sterrad(®) system, and ozone) on the morphological, chemico-physical and mechanical properties of a PU foam synthesized by gas foaming, using water as expanding agent. In addition, possible toxic effects of the sterilization were evaluated by in vitro cytotoxicity tests. Plasma sterilization did not affect the morphological and mechanical properties of the PU foam, but caused at some extent degradative phenomena, as detected by infrared spectroscopy. Ozone sterilization had a major effect on foam morphology, causing the formation of new small pores, and stronger degradation and oxidation on the structure of the material. These modifications affected the mechanical properties of the sterilized PU foam too. Even though, no cytotoxic effects were observed after both plasma and ozone sterilization, as confirmed by the good values of cell viability assessed by Alamar Blue assay. The results here obtained can help in understanding the effects of sterilization procedures on porous polymeric scaffolds, and how the scaffold morphology, in particular porosity, can influence the effects of sterilization, and viceversa. PMID:25893387

  1. Voluntary and involuntary sterilization: medical, ethical, legal and religious aspects.

    PubMed

    Fasouliotis, S J; Schenker, J G

    1999-08-01

    Surgical voluntary sterilization has become one of the most widely used methods of contraception, with vasectomy and tubal sterilization being the most commonly employed techniques, associated with a low failure, morbidity, mortality, and long-term sequelae rate. As sterilization is related with the elimination of the possibility for procreation, a number of ethical, legal and religious issues have arisen, leading often to personal misjudgements, legal disputes, and failures in applying family planning. Involuntary sterilization is currently not practiced, except in cases of severely mentally retarded people, who are unable to appreciate the consequences of their acts or care for their children and who may have a high likelihood of propagating hereditary disease.

  2. Recent developments in the radiation sterilization of pharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Geoffrey P.; Wills, Pamela A.

    Recent developments appear to have contributed to the increased interest in sterilization of pharmaceuticals by gamma irradiation. The choice of a sterilizing radiation dose is no longer fixed at 25 kGray (2.5 Mrad) but rather based on the initial microbial load (bioburden) coupled with the desired sterility assurance level. Our own efforts have focused on the irradiation of beta lactam antibiotics powders, most of which are radiation stable at commonly employed sterilization doses. In parallel, efforts have been directed at minimising radiolysis in aqueous solutions by the choice of appropriate irradiation conditions. A brief review of the literature on the irradiation of pharmaceuticals is given.

  3. Bactrocera dorsalis male sterilization by targeted RNA interference of spermatogenesis: empowering sterile insect technique programs

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yong-Cheng; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Chen, Zhen-Zhong; Clarke, Anthony R.; Niu, Chang-Ying

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a genetic technique which has novel application for sustainable pest control. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) uses releases of mass-produced, sterile male insects to out-compete wild males for mates to reduce pest populations. RNAi sterilization of SIT males would have several advantages over radiation sterilization, but to achieve this appropriate target genes must first be identified and then targeted with interference technology. With this goal, eight spermatogenesis related candidate genes were cloned and tested for potential activity in Bactrocera dorsalis. The knockdown of candidate genes by oral delivery of dsRNAs did not influence the mating of male flies, but significantly affected the daily average number of eggs laid by females, and reduced egg hatching rate by 16–60%. RNAi negatively affected spermatozoa quantitatively and qualitatively. Following the mating of lola-/topi-/rac-/rho-/upd-/magu-silenced males, we recorded a significant decrease in number and length of spermatozoa in female spermatheca compared to gfp-silenced control group. In a greenhouse trial, the number of damaged oranges and B. dorsalis larvae were significantly reduced in a dsrho-treated group compared with the dsgfp group. This study provides strong evidence for the use RNAi in pest management, especially for the improvement of SIT against B. dorsalis and other species. PMID:27767174

  4. Sterilization of skin allografts by ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Bourroul, Selma Cecília; Herson, Marisa Roma; Pino, Eddy; Matho, Monica Beatriz

    2002-11-01

    The skin has a fundamental role in the viability of human body. In the case of extensive wounds, skin allografts provide an alternative to cover temporarily the damaged areas. After donor screening and preservation in glycerol 85%, the skin can be stored in a Skin Bank. Glycerol at this concentration has a bacteriostatic effect after certain time of preservation. On the other hand, skin sterilization by ionizing radiation may reduce the quarentine period for transplantation in patients. The objective of this work was to evaluate allograft sterilization using two sources of ionizing radiation. Through the analysis of stress-strain, it was intended to verify possible effects of the radiation on the structure of preserved grafts. Three groups of skin samples were selected. The first group was maintained in the initial conditions, not irradiated. The second was exposed to cobalt-60, while the third one was irradiated using an Dynamitron Accelerator JOB188 electron beam. The irradiation dose was 25 kGy for both tests. Both irradiation sources, and the Instron Universal Machine used for biomechanical experiments, are installed at the Centro de Tecnologia das Radiações/Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (São Paulo, Brazil). According to the preliminary results, biomechanical characteristics of the samples irradiated seem to be maintained with regard to the non irradiated group.

  5. Cytoplasmic male sterility in Brassicaceae crops.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Bhat, Shripad R

    2014-05-01

    Brassicaceae crops display strong hybrid vigor, and have long been subject to F1 hybrid breeding. Because the most reliable system of F1 seed production is based on cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), various types of CMS have been developed and adopted in practice to breed Brassicaceae oil seed and vegetable crops. CMS is a maternally inherited trait encoded in the mitochondrial genome, and the male sterile phenotype arises as a result of interaction of a mitochondrial CMS gene and a nuclear fertility restoring (Rf) gene. Therefore, CMS has been intensively investigated for gaining basic insights into molecular aspects of nuclear-mitochondrial genome interactions and for practical applications in plant breeding. Several CMS genes have been identified by molecular genetic studies, including Ogura CMS from Japanese radish, which is the most extensively studied and most widely used. In this review, we discuss Ogura CMS, and other CMS systems, and the causal mitochondrial genes for CMS. Studies on nuclear Rf genes and the cytoplasmic effects of alien cytoplasm on general crop performance are also reviewed. Finally, some of the unresolved questions about CMS are highlighted. PMID:24987289

  6. Cytoplasmic male sterility in Brassicaceae crops

    PubMed Central

    Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Bhat, Shripad R.

    2014-01-01

    Brassicaceae crops display strong hybrid vigor, and have long been subject to F1 hybrid breeding. Because the most reliable system of F1 seed production is based on cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), various types of CMS have been developed and adopted in practice to breed Brassicaceae oil seed and vegetable crops. CMS is a maternally inherited trait encoded in the mitochondrial genome, and the male sterile phenotype arises as a result of interaction of a mitochondrial CMS gene and a nuclear fertility restoring (Rf) gene. Therefore, CMS has been intensively investigated for gaining basic insights into molecular aspects of nuclear-mitochondrial genome interactions and for practical applications in plant breeding. Several CMS genes have been identified by molecular genetic studies, including Ogura CMS from Japanese radish, which is the most extensively studied and most widely used. In this review, we discuss Ogura CMS, and other CMS systems, and the causal mitochondrial genes for CMS. Studies on nuclear Rf genes and the cytoplasmic effects of alien cytoplasm on general crop performance are also reviewed. Finally, some of the unresolved questions about CMS are highlighted. PMID:24987289

  7. Glucose stabilizes collagen sterilized with gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Ohan, Mark P; Dunn, Michael G

    2003-12-15

    Gamma irradiation sterilization (gamma-irradiation) fragments and denatures collagen, drastically decreasing critical physical properties. Our goal was to maintain strength and stability of gamma-irradiated collagen by adding glucose, which in theory can initiate crosslink formation in collagen during exposure to gamma-irradiation. Collagen films prepared with and without glucose were gamma-irradiated with a standard dose of 2.5 Mrad. Relative amounts of crosslinking and denaturation were approximated based on solubility and the mechanical properties of the films after hydration, heat denaturation, or incubation in enzymes (collagenase and trypsin). After exposure to gamma-irradiation, collagen films containing glucose had significantly higher mechanical properties, greater resistance to enzymatic degradation, and decreased solubility compared with control films. The entire experiment was repeated with a second set of films that were exposed first to ultraviolet irradiation (254 nm) to provide higher initial strength and then gamma-irradiated. Again, films containing glucose had significantly greater mechanical properties and resistance to enzymatic degradation compared with controls. Gel electrophoresis showed that glucose did not prevent peptide fragmentation; therefore, the higher strength and stability in glucose-incorporated films may be due to glucose-derived crosslinks. The results of this study suggest that glucose may be a useful additive to stabilize collagenous materials or tissues sterilized by gamma-irradiation.

  8. Daughters mimic sterile neutrinos (almost!) perfectly

    SciTech Connect

    Hasenkamp, Jasper

    2014-09-01

    Since only recently, cosmological observations are sensitive to hot dark matter (HDM) admixtures with sub-eV mass, m{sub hdm}{sup eff} < eV, that are not fully-thermalised, Δ N{sub eff} < 1. We argue that their almost automatic interpretation as a sterile neutrino species is neither from theoretical nor practical parsimony principles preferred over HDM formed by decay products (daughters) of an out-of-equilibrium particle decay. While daughters mimic sterile neutrinos in N{sub eff} and m{sub hdm}{sup eff}, there are opportunities to assess this possibility in likelihood analyses. Connecting cosmological parameters and moments of momentum distribution functions, we show that—also in the case of mass-degenerate daughters with indistinguishable main physical effects—the mimicry breaks down when the next moment, the skewness, is considered. Predicted differences of order one in the root-mean-squares of absolute momenta are too small for current sensitivities.

  9. A simple genetic incompatibility causes hybrid male sterility in mimulus.

    PubMed

    Sweigart, Andrea L; Fishman, Lila; Willis, John H

    2006-04-01

    Much evidence has shown that postzygotic reproductive isolation (hybrid inviability or sterility) evolves by the accumulation of interlocus incompatibilities between diverging populations. Although in theory only a single pair of incompatible loci is needed to isolate species, empirical work in Drosophila has revealed that hybrid fertility problems often are highly polygenic and complex. In this article we investigate the genetic basis of hybrid sterility between two closely related species of monkeyflower, Mimulus guttatus and M. nasutus. In striking contrast to Drosophila systems, we demonstrate that nearly complete hybrid male sterility in Mimulus results from a simple genetic incompatibility between a single pair of heterospecific loci. We have genetically mapped this sterility effect: the M. guttatus allele at the hybrid male sterility 1 (hms1) locus acts dominantly in combination with recessive M. nasutus alleles at the hybrid male sterility 2 (hms2) locus to cause nearly complete hybrid male sterility. In a preliminary screen to find additional small-effect male sterility factors, we identified one additional locus that also contributes to some of the variation in hybrid male fertility. Interestingly, hms1 and hms2 also cause a significant reduction in hybrid female fertility, suggesting that sex-specific hybrid defects might share a common genetic basis. This possibility is supported by our discovery that recombination is reduced dramatically in a cross involving a parent with the hms1-hms2 incompatibility.

  10. 21 CFR 880.6860 - Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. 880.6860 Section 880.6860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6860 Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. (a) Identification. An ethylene gas...

  11. 21 CFR 880.6860 - Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. 880.6860 Section 880.6860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6860 Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. (a) Identification. An ethylene gas...

  12. 21 CFR 880.6860 - Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. 880.6860 Section 880.6860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6860 Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. (a) Identification. An ethylene gas...

  13. 21 CFR 880.2800 - Sterilization process indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...—(1) Identification. A biological sterilization process indicator is a device intended for use by a... monitor adequacy of sterilization. The device consists of a known number of microorganisms, of known... growth or failure of the microorganisms to grow under suitable conditions indicates the adequacy...

  14. 21 CFR 880.2800 - Sterilization process indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...—(1) Identification. A biological sterilization process indicator is a device intended for use by a... monitor adequacy of sterilization. The device consists of a known number of microorganisms, of known... growth or failure of the microorganisms to grow under suitable conditions indicates the adequacy...

  15. 21 CFR 880.2800 - Sterilization process indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...—(1) Identification. A biological sterilization process indicator is a device intended for use by a... monitor adequacy of sterilization. The device consists of a known number of microorganisms, of known... growth or failure of the microorganisms to grow under suitable conditions indicates the adequacy...

  16. 21 CFR 880.2800 - Sterilization process indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...—(1) Identification. A biological sterilization process indicator is a device intended for use by a... monitor adequacy of sterilization. The device consists of a known number of microorganisms, of known... growth or failure of the microorganisms to grow under suitable conditions indicates the adequacy...

  17. 21 CFR 880.2800 - Sterilization process indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...—(1) Identification. A biological sterilization process indicator is a device intended for use by a... monitor adequacy of sterilization. The device consists of a known number of microorganisms, of known... growth or failure of the microorganisms to grow under suitable conditions indicates the adequacy...

  18. Efficacy in Microbial Sterilization of Pulsed Magnetic Field Treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sterilization effects of the pulsed magnetic field with a maximum intensity of 11.37 Tesla were investigated on Escherichia coli AS 1.129, Staphylococcus aureus AS 1.89, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATTC 7552 and Bacillus subtilis AS 1.921. The well-regulated fluctuations of sterilization effects with m...

  19. Future short-baseline sterile neutrino searches with accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Spitz, J.

    2015-07-15

    A number of experimental anomalies in neutrino oscillation physics point to the existence of at least one light sterile neutrino. This hypothesis can be precisely tested using neutrinos from reactors, radioactive isotopes, and particle accelerators. The focus of these proceedings is on future dedicated short-baseline sterile neutrino searches using accelerators.

  20. Sterilization of the Mentally Ill and the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors, Washington, DC.

    Reported were the results of a survey on the sterilization of the mentally ill and the mentally retarded. Thirty-three states responded to the survey. It was found that 17 states have a sterilization statute, but the existence of the statute was explained not to mean that the procedure was used. Sixteen states responded that they did not have a…

  1. Parents' Attitudes toward Sterilization of Their Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Lucille; Zarfas, Donald E.

    1982-01-01

    One hundred fifty-seven parents' attitudes toward sterilization and the sexuality of their retarded offspring were identified. Parent and child characteristics associated with these attitudes were investigated. Findings indicated that parents substantially concurred with the principle of sterilization (71 percent for involuntary, 67 percent for…

  2. Alternative methods of terminal sterilization for biologically active macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Yaman, A

    2001-11-01

    The traditional perception within the pharmaceutical industry of the manufacture of injectable drug products is that active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) that are peptides, proteins or biopolymers, such as poly(DL-lactide) (PLA) and poly(DL-lactideco-glycolide) (PLGA), cannot be terminally sterilized. This perception exists largely because terminal sterilization is assumed by many to be only carried out by steam sterilization in a standard autoclave. Thus, it is understood that these API candidates must be manufactured by aseptic techniques. With the current technological advances in the area of protein and peptide sterilization, which has largely come from the food industry and has in recent years been developed for pharmaceutical use, techniques have been developed for the terminal sterilization of thermally sensitive APIs and biopolymers. In this review, the focus will be on the four major types of sterilization that are presented in the literature: (i) gamma-irradiation; (ii) e-Beam; (iii) natural light; and (iv) microwave. Each of these sterilization techniques present advantages and disadvantages for use in large-scale terminal sterilization of bioactive macromolecules. PMID:11899616

  3. 21 CFR 800.10 - Contact lens solutions; sterility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Contact lens solutions; sterility. 800.10 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL Requirements for Specific Medical Devices § 800.10 Contact lens solutions... ophthalmic use, including contact lens solutions, should be sterile. It is further evident that...

  4. 21 CFR 800.10 - Contact lens solutions; sterility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contact lens solutions; sterility. 800.10 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL Requirements for Specific Medical Devices § 800.10 Contact lens solutions... ophthalmic use, including contact lens solutions, should be sterile. It is further evident that...

  5. Review of neutrino oscillations with sterile and active neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisslinger, Leonard S.

    2016-08-01

    Recently neutrino oscillation experiments have shown that it is very likely that there are one or two sterile neutrinos. In this review neutrino oscillations with one, two, three sterile and three active neutrinos, and parameters that are consistent with experiments, are reviewed.

  6. Long-term sterility of orthodontic-surgical appliances.

    PubMed

    Brusca, María I; Nastri, Natalia; Mosca, Christian O; Nastri, María L; Rosa, Alcira C

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term sterility of new dental appliances according to the non rigid wrapping employed and assess the effectiveness of sterilization in a steam autoclave at 134 degrees for 20 minutes using physical, chemical, and biological indicators. All the experimental (E) samples and the control samples (C) were assigned to one of three groups according to the type of packaging: paper bag (E1), paper/plastic pouch (E2), nylon tubing bag (E3). Each bag contained standardized orthodontic wires and brackets and sterility indicators. The samples were evaluated at the following experimental times: immediately, and 6, 12, 24 and 30 months post-sterilization. The samples were analyzed under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in keeping with the protocol currently in use at the Department of Microbiology, School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires. The group of control, non-sterilized samples (C1, C2, C3) were analyzed prior to the onset of the study, and were found to be contaminated. None of the sterilized samples in any of the three experimental groups evidenced contamination at any of the experimental times. The results showed that, under the present conditions, the packages and orthodontic appliances remained sterile for 30 months. These results show the importance of controlling sterility and the storage conditions over time for all the orthodontic/surgical appliances used in invasive treatments. PMID:15584258

  7. Low-temperature sterilization alternatives in the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, P. . Surgical Div.)

    1994-01-01

    Vapor phase hydrogen peroxide, gas plasma, ozone, and peracetic acids have been commercialized as alternative technologies for low-temperature sterilization. None are viewed as a total replacement for ethylene oxide for on-site sterilization of reusable, heat-sensitive medical materials in healthcare facilities.

  8. 21 CFR 522.2150 - Stanozolol sterile suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stanozolol sterile suspension. 522.2150 Section 522.2150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2150 Stanozolol sterile suspension....

  9. 21 CFR 522.1155 - Imidocarb dipropionate sterile powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Imidocarb dipropionate sterile powder. 522.1155 Section 522.1155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 522.1155 Imidocarb dipropionate sterile powder. (a) Specifications. Imidocarb dipropionate powder...

  10. 21 CFR 522.1155 - Imidocarb dipropionate sterile powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Imidocarb dipropionate sterile powder. 522.1155 Section 522.1155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 522.1155 Imidocarb dipropionate sterile powder. (a) Specifications. Imidocarb dipropionate powder...

  11. Post-sterilization autonomy among young mothers in South India.

    PubMed

    Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Rajan, Irudaya; Singh, Abhishek; Ogollah, Reuben; Page, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the post-sterilization autonomy of women in south India in the context of early sterilization and low fertility. Quantitative data were taken from the third round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) carried out in 2005-06, and qualitative data from one village each in Kerala and Tamil Nadu during 2010-11. The incident rate ratios and thematic analysis showed that among currently married women under the age of 30 years, those who had been sterilized had significantly higher autonomy in household decision-making and freedom of mobility compared with women who had never used any modern family planning method. Early age at sterilization and low fertility enables women to achieve the social status that is generally attained at later stages in the life-cycle. Policies to capitalize on women's autonomy and free time resulting from early sterilization and low fertility should be adopted in south India. PMID:25487194

  12. Sterilization of fermentation vessels by ethanol/water mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, C.E.

    1999-02-09

    A method is described for sterilizing process fermentation vessels with a concentrated alcohol and water mixture integrated in a fuel alcohol or other alcohol production facility. Hot, concentrated alcohol is drawn from a distillation or other purification stage and sprayed into the empty fermentation vessels. This sterilizing alcohol/water mixture should be of a sufficient concentration, preferably higher than 12% alcohol by volume, to be toxic to undesirable microorganisms. Following sterilization, this sterilizing alcohol/water mixture can be recovered back into the same distillation or other purification stage from which it was withdrawn. The process of this invention has its best application in, but is not limited to, batch fermentation processes, wherein the fermentation vessels must be emptied, cleaned, and sterilized following completion of each batch fermentation process. 2 figs.

  13. Sterilization of fermentation vessels by ethanol/water mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E.

    1999-02-09

    A method for sterilizing process fermentation vessels with a concentrated alcohol and water mixture integrated in a fuel alcohol or other alcohol production facility. Hot, concentrated alcohol is drawn from a distillation or other purification stage and sprayed into the empty fermentation vessels. This sterilizing alcohol/water mixture should be of a sufficient concentration, preferably higher than 12% alcohol by volume, to be toxic to undesirable microorganisms. Following sterilization, this sterilizing alcohol/water mixture can be recovered back into the same distillation or other purification stage from which it was withdrawn. The process of this invention has its best application in, but is not limited to, batch fermentation processes, wherein the fermentation vessels must be emptied, cleaned, and sterilized following completion of each batch fermentation process.

  14. Sterilization of fermentation vessels by ethanol/water mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Wyman, C.E.

    1991-03-20

    This invention is comprised of a method for sterilizing process fermentation vessels with a concentrated alcohol and water mixture integrated in a fuel alcohol or other alcohol production facility. Hot, concentrated alcohol is drawn from a distillation or other purification stage and sprayed into the empty fermentation vessels. This sterilizing alcohol/water mixture should be of a sufficient concentration, preferably higher than 12% alcohol by volume, to be toxic to undesirable microorganisms. Following sterilization, this sterilizing alcohol/water mixture can be recovered back into the same distillation or other purification stage from which it was withdrawn. The process of this invention has its best application in, but is not limited to, batch fermentation processes, wherein the fermentation vessels must be emptied, cleaned, and sterilized following completion of each batch fermentation process.

  15. Sterile working in ultrasonography: the use of dedicated ultrasound covers and sterile ultrasound gel.

    PubMed

    Marhofer, Peter; Fritsch, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound is currently an important tool for diagnostic and interventional procedures. Ultrasound imaging provides significant advantages as compared to other imaging methods. The widespread use of ultrasound also carries the risk of drawbacks such as cross-infections. A large body of literature reports this possibly life-threatening side effect and specific patient populations are particularly at risk (e.g., neonates). Various methods of ultrasound probe disinfection are described; however, none of the mechanical or chemical probe disinfection procedures is optimal and, in particular, disinfection with high concentration of alcohol might be associated with ultrasound probe damage. The preparation of ultrasound probes with dedicated probe covers is a useful alternative for sterile working conditions. One ultrasound probe cover discussed in this paper is directly glued on to the ultrasound probe without the use of ultrasound coupling gel. By the use of sterile ultrasound coupling gel at the outer surface, additional effects on aseptic working conditions can be obtained.

  16. Sterilization effects of atmospheric cold plasma brush

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Q.S.; Huang, C.; Hsieh, F.-H.; Huff, H.; Duan Yixiang

    2006-01-02

    This study investigated the sterilization effects of a brush-shaped plasma created at one atmospheric pressure. A population of 1.0x10{sup 4}-1.0x10{sup 5} Escherichia coli or Micrococcus luteus bacteria was seeded in filter paper media and then subjected to Ar and/or Ar+O{sub 2} plasmas. A complete kill of the Micrococcus luteus required about 3 min argon plasma exposures. With oxygen addition into the argon plasma gas streams, a complete kill of the bacteria needed only less than 1 min plasma exposure for Micrococcus luteus and about 2 min exposure for Escherichia coli. The plasma treatment effects on the different bacteria cell structures were examined using scanning electron microscopy.

  17. Radiation treatment for sterilization of packaging materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haji-Saeid, Mohammad; Sampa, Maria Helena O.; Chmielewski, Andrzej G.

    2007-08-01

    Treatment with gamma and electron radiation is becoming a common process for the sterilization of packages, mostly made of natural or synthetic plastics, used in the aseptic processing of foods and pharmaceuticals. The effect of irradiation on these materials is crucial for packaging engineering to understand the effects of these new treatments. Packaging material may be irradiated either prior to or after filling. The irradiation prior to filling is usually chosen for dairy products, processed food, beverages, pharmaceutical, and medical device industries in the United States, Europe, and Canada. Radiation effects on packaging material properties still need further investigation. This paper summarizes the work done by different groups and discusses recent developments in regulations and testing procedures in the field of packaging technology.

  18. Methane potential of sterilized solid slaughterhouse wastes.

    PubMed

    Pitk, Peep; Kaparaju, Prasad; Vilu, Raivo

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine chemical composition and methane potential of Category 2 and 3 solid slaughterhouse wastes rendering products (SSHWRP) viz. melt, decanter sludge, meat and bone meal (MBM), technical fat and flotation sludge from wastewater treatment. Chemical analyses showed that SSHWRP were high in protein and lipids with total solids (TS) content of 96-99%. Methane yields of the SSHWRP were between 390 and 978 m(3) CH(4)/t volatile solids (VS)(added). Based on batch experiments, anaerobic digestion of SSHWRP from the dry rendering process could recover 4.6 times more primary energy than the energy required for the rendering process. Estonia has technological capacity to sterilize all the produced Category 2 and 3 solid slaughterhouse wastes (SSHW) and if separated from Category 1 animal by-products (ABP), it could be further utilized as energy rich input material for anaerobic digestion.

  19. A stochastic bioburden model for spacecraft sterilization.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roark, A. L.

    1972-01-01

    Development of a stochastic model of the probability distribution for the random variable representing the number of microorganisms on a surface as a function of time. The first basic principle associated with bioburden estimation is that viable particles are removed from surfaces. The second notion important to the analysis is that microorganisms in environments and on surfaces occur in clumps. The last basic principle relating to bioburden modeling is that viable particles are deposited on a surface. The bioburden on a spacecraft is determined by the amount and kind of control exercised on the spacecraft assembly location, the shedding characteristics of the individuals in the vicinity of the spacecraft, its orientation, the geographical location in which the assembly takes place, and the steps in the assembly procedure. The model presented has many of the features which are desirable for its use in the spacecraft sterilization programs currently being planned by NASA.

  20. Sterile neutrino fits to short baseline data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collin, G. H.; Argüelles, C. A.; Conrad, J. M.; Shaevitz, M. H.

    2016-07-01

    Neutrino oscillation models involving extra mass eigenstates beyond the standard three (3 + N) are fit to global short baseline experimental data. We find that 3 + 1 has a best fit of Δ m412 = 1.75 eV2 with a Δ χnull-min2 (dof) of 52.34 (3). The 3 + 2 fit has a Δ χnull-min2 (dof) of 56.99 (7). For the first time, we show Bayesian credible intervals for a 3 + 1 model. These are found to be in agreement with frequentist intervals. The results of these new fits favor a higher Δm2 value than previous studies, which may have an impact on future sterile neutrino searches such as the Fermilab SBN program.

  1. Pressure-assisted thermal sterilization of soup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibeshi, Kidane; Farid, Mohammed M.

    2010-12-01

    The overall efficiency of an existing scale-up pressure-assisted thermal sterilization (PATS) unit was investigated with regards to inactivation of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores suspended in pumpkin soup. The PATS unit is a double pipe heat exchanger in which the soup is pumped into its inner high pressure tube and constrained by two high pressure valves, while steam is continuously passed through the annular region to heat the content. The technology is based on pressure generation by thermal expansion of the liquid in an enclosure. In this work, the addition of an air line to push the treated liquid food out of the existing PATS unit has improved the overall quality of the treated samples, as evidenced by achieving higher log reduction of the spores. Compared with thermal processing, the application of PATS shows the potential for lowering the thermal treatment temperature, offering improved food quality.

  2. Twenty years of radiation sterilization in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ražem, Dus̆an

    2004-09-01

    The development of radiation processing in Croatia is described from its inception 20 years ago up to the present time. Annual throughputs of treated materials are given by the categories of materials and pertaining volumes. The pasteurization of hard gelatine capsules occured during the early stages, while sterilization of disposable medical supplies has been dominant in the later stages. Irradiation of foods and of cosmetics and toiletries has been a minor fraction of the total throughput. Since the recovery of everyday life and economy of the country after the war, the total throughput has increased steadily to reach 13,000 m 3 kGy in 2002, 90% of which are medical supplies. Estimates of the present maximum capacity of 30,000 m 3 kGy and of future needs indicate that the present rate of growth could be sustained for the next several years only, unless a major upgrading is undertaken. An estimate of potential future needs is made.

  3. Microwave sterilization of hydrophilic contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Rohrer, M D; Terry, M A; Bulard, R A; Graves, D C; Taylor, E M

    1986-01-15

    We used standard 2,450-MHz microwave irradiation to achieve sterilization of hydrophilic contact lenses contaminated with a variety of bacterial, fungal, and viral corneal pathogens. A three-dimensional rotisserie was used to overcome the problem of "cold spots" within the microwave oven. The contact lenses became dehydrated in approximately two minutes. Rehydration with normal saline restored their shape and appearance. The time necessary to prohibit all growth of the bacterial and fungal organisms studied ranged from 45 seconds to eight minutes. All viral contaminants were completely inactivated after four minutes of microwave exposure. Refractive properties were unaffected after 101 exposures to microwaves for ten minutes. Slit-lamp examination and scanning electron microscopy disclosed minute particles on the surface of these contact lenses but no damage to the lens matrix from irradiation. PMID:3942177

  4. New sterilization techniques accent ease, speed.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    New techniques are being developed for permanent male and female sterilization. The new methods are cheaper, easier to use, and effective. Vassoclude, a device under development by the Population Council, is used in the no-scalpel vasectomy technique. A pin hole created by the Vassoclude opens the way to apply a staple-like mechanism to place clips on the vas deferens. The method requires less manual dexterity than other tools, and there is no puncture hole. A new female method uses quinacrine hydrochloride pellets, which are inserted into the uterus with an IUD inserter. Permanent scarring of the fallopian tubes prevents pregnancy. The method is cheap, safe, and easy to use. The disadvantage is that multiple visits are required before the fallopian tubes are blocked. About 500,000 women currently use quinacrine worldwide. There have been few clinical trials. Most of the women live in Vietnam and Pakistan. Toxicological tests conducted by the US Food and Drug Administration and the World Health Organization have shown the product not to be safe. The Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception reports that there are 140 million couples relying on female sterilization worldwide, while only 42 million men undergo vasectomies. In the US, reports are that 23% of American couples rely on tubal ligations, compared to 13% relying on vasectomy. 500,000 men underwent vasectomies in the US in 1991. Neither quinacrine nor the Vassoclude was available in the US in 1993. There is little interest in producing and marketing vasectomy tools, and studies continue to examine vasectomy's side effects or links with cancer, which discourages the choice of vasectomy as a contraceptive method.

  5. Sterile insect technique: A model for dose optimisation for improved sterile insect quality

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, A.

    2007-03-15

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environment-friendly pest control technique with application in the area-wide integrated control of key pests, including the suppression or elimination of introduced populations and the exclusion of new introductions. Reproductive sterility is normally induced by ionizing radiation, a convenient and consistent method that maintains a reasonable degree of competitiveness in the released insects. The cost and effectiveness of a control program integrating the SIT depend on the balance between sterility and competitiveness, but it appears that current operational programs with an SIT component are not achieving an appropriate balance. In this paper we discuss optimization of the sterilization process and present a simple model and procedure for determining the optimum dose. (author) [Spanish] La tecnica de insecto esteril (TIE) es una tecnologia de control de plagas favorable para el medio ambiente con una aplicacion de un control integrado de plagas claves para toda la area, incluyendo la supresion o eliminacion de poblaciones introducidas y la exclusion de nuevas introducciones. La esterilidad reproductiva es normalmente inducida por radiacion ionizada, un metodo conveniente y consistente que mantiene un grado razonable para la capacidad de competencia en insectos liberados. El costo y la eficacia de un programa de control que incluye TIE dependen en tener un balance entre la esterilidad y la capacidad para competir, pero parece que los programas operacionales corrientes con TIS como un componente no estan logrando el tener un balance apropiado. En esta publicacion, nosotros discutimos la optimizacion del proceso de esterilizacion y presentamos un modelo y procedimiento sencillos para determinar la dosis optima. (author)

  6. Atomic ionization by sterile-to-active neutrino conversion and constraints on dark matter sterile neutrinos with germanium detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Chi, Hsin-Chang; Lin, Shin-Ted; Liu, C.-P.; Singh, Lakhwinder; Wong, Henry T.; Wu, Chih-Liang; Wu, Chih-Pan

    2016-05-01

    The transition magnetic moment of a sterile neutrino can give rise to its conversion to an active neutrino through radiative decay or nonstandard interaction (NSI) with matter. For sterile neutrinos of keV-mass as dark matter candidates, their decay signals are actively searched for in cosmic x-ray spectra. In this work, we consider the NSI that leads to atomic ionization, which can be detected by direct dark matter experiments. It is found that this inelastic scattering process for a nonrelativistic sterile neutrino has a pronounced enhancement in the differential cross section at energy transfer about half of its mass, manifesting experimentally as peaks in the measurable energy spectra. The enhancement effects gradually smear out as the sterile neutrino becomes relativistic. Using data taken with low-threshold low-background germanium detectors, constraints on sterile neutrino mass and its transition magnetic moment are derived and compared with those from astrophysical observations.

  7. Influence of various sterilization procedures on TiO2 nanotubes used for biomedical devices.

    PubMed

    Junkar, Ita; Kulkarni, Mukta; Drašler, Barbara; Rugelj, Neža; Mazare, Anca; Flašker, Ajda; Drobne, Damjana; Humpolíček, Petr; Resnik, Matic; Schmuki, Patrik; Mozetič, Miran; Iglič, Aleš

    2016-06-01

    Sterilization is the final surface treatment procedure of all implantable devices and is one of the key factors which have to be considered before implementation. Since different sterilization procedures for all implantable devices influence mechanical properties as well as biological response, the influence of different sterilization techniques on titanium nanotubes was studied. Commonly used sterilization techniques such as autoclaving, ultra-violet light sterilization, hydrogen peroxide plasma sterilization as well as the not so frequently used gaseous oxygen plasma sterilization were used. Three different nanotube diameters; 15 nm, 50 nm and 100 nm were employed to study the effects of various sterilization techniques. It was observed that autoclave sterilization resulted in destruction of nanotubular features on all three studied nanotube diameters, while UV-light and both kinds of plasma sterilization did not cause any significant morphological changes on the surfaces. Differences between the sterilization techniques employed influenced cytocompatibility, especially in the case of nanotubes with 100 nm diameter.

  8. Ethylene oxide sterilization: how hospitals can adapt to the changes.

    PubMed

    1994-12-01

    Ethylene oxide (EtO) gas sterilizers have been used by hospitals for over 40 years to sterilize surgical equipment and supplies that are heat sensitive or that cannot tolerate excessive moisture. However, in recent decades, EtO has been recognized as a potential mutagenic, reproductive, neurologic, and fire and explosion hazard to workers, and one agency has reportedly voted to classify EtO as carcinogenic to humans. Strict regulations concerning EtO exposure have been imposed by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and the use of EtO, along with other toxic pollutants, is also being monitored by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Clean Air Act. In addition, the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as EtO diluents has focused attention on the EtO-CFC mixtures used in many sterilizers because CFCs have been linked to destruction of the ozone layer. Concerns about restrictive regulations related to these issues have prompted many hospitals to examine their use of EtO sterilization and propagated the misinformation that EtO sterilization is being phased out. In this article, we address some commonly asked questions regarding the use and regulation of EtO mixtures, as well as alternative sterilization agents and methods; provide two case studies illustrating how hospitals can evaluate various sterilization options; and summarize our conclusions and recommendations for hospitals facing decisions about sterilization techniques. For related topics, also see our Evaluation Update on endoscope reprocessors and our Hazard Report on improperly connected EtO-CFC cylinders to EtO sterilizers in this issue.

  9. Low reheating temperature and the visible sterile neutrino.

    PubMed

    Gelmini, Graciela; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio; Pascoli, Silvia

    2004-08-20

    We present here a scenario, based on a low reheating temperature T(R)<100 MeV at the end of (the last episode of) inflation, in which the coupling of sterile neutrinos to active neutrinos can be as large as experimental bounds permit (thus making this neutrino "visible" in future experiments). In previous models this coupling was forced to be very small to prevent a cosmological overabundance of sterile neutrinos. Here the abundance depends on how low the reheating temperature is. For example, the sterile neutrino required by the Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector result may not have any cosmological problem within our scenario.

  10. Macroscopic and microscopic studies of fallopian tube after laparoscopic sterilization.

    PubMed

    Donnez, J; Casanas-Roux, F; Ferin, J

    1979-11-01

    Histological study was carried out on human fallopian tubes one hour and one month after various methods of laparoscopic sterilization. Ciliated cells were counted and histological lesions were observed. Deciliation is proved at a distance from the site of sterilization. Taking into account these two data, it has been possible to display the substance loss provoked by each of the usual sterilization methods (unipolar electro-coagulation, bipolar electrocoagulation, silicone ring and Hulka-Clements clip) which have to be taken into consideration in case of surgical re-anastomosis. PMID:160861

  11. Sterile neutrinos as the origin of dark and baryonic matter.

    PubMed

    Canetti, Laurent; Drewes, Marco; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail

    2013-02-01

    We demonstrate for the first time that three sterile neutrinos alone can simultaneously explain neutrino oscillations, the observed dark matter, and the baryon asymmetry of the Universe without new physics above the Fermi scale. The key new point of our analysis is leptogenesis after sphaleron freeze-out, which leads to resonant dark matter production, evading thus the constraints on sterile neutrino dark matter from structure formation and x-ray searches. We identify the range of sterile neutrino properties that is consistent with all known constraints. We find a domain of parameters where the new particles can be found with present day experimental techniques, using upgrades to existing experimental facilities.

  12. Deviations in tribimaximal mixing from sterile neutrino sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, S.; Raj, Desh; Gautam, Radha Raman

    2016-10-01

    We explore the possibility of generating a non-zero Ue3 element of the neutrino mixing matrix from tribimaximal neutrino mixing by adding a light sterile neutrino to the active neutrinos. Small active-sterile mixing can provide the necessary deviation from tribimaximal mixing to generate a non-zero θ13 and atmospheric mixing θ23 different from maximal. Assuming no CP-violation, we study the phenomenological impact of sterile neutrinos in the context of current neutrino oscillation data. The tribimaximal pattern is broken in such a manner that the second column of tribimaximal mixing remains intact in the neutrino mixing matrix.

  13. Macroscopic and microscopic studies of fallopian tube after laparoscopic sterilization.

    PubMed

    Donnez, J; Casanas-Roux, F; Ferin, J

    1979-11-01

    Histological study was carried out on human fallopian tubes one hour and one month after various methods of laparoscopic sterilization. Ciliated cells were counted and histological lesions were observed. Deciliation is proved at a distance from the site of sterilization. Taking into account these two data, it has been possible to display the substance loss provoked by each of the usual sterilization methods (unipolar electro-coagulation, bipolar electrocoagulation, silicone ring and Hulka-Clements clip) which have to be taken into consideration in case of surgical re-anastomosis.

  14. Nonthermal plasma sterilization of living and nonliving surfaces.

    PubMed

    De Geyter, N; Morent, R

    2012-01-01

    The recent tremendous progress in understanding physical plasma phenomena, together with the development of new plasma sources, has put a growing focus on the application of nonthermal plasmas in the biomedical domain. Among several novel applications, the inactivation of bacteria by nonthermal plasmas (so-called plasma sterilization) is particularly interesting. This introductory review provides a summary of the current status of this emerging research field. In addition to the inactivation of bacteria on nonliving surfaces, this review also focuses on the sterilization of living surfaces, such as animal and human tissues. Clearly, nonthermal plasmas have undoubtedly great potential as a novel method for low-temperature sterilization. PMID:22559318

  15. Resonant Production of Sterile Neutrinos in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Lauren; Grohs, Evan; Fuller, George M.

    2016-06-01

    This study examines the cosmological impacts of a light resonantly produced sterile neutrino in the early universe. Such a neutrino could be produced through lepton number-driven Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) conversion of active neutrinos around big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), resulting in a non-thermal spectrum of both sterile and electron neutrinos. During BBN, the neutron-proton ratio depends sensitively on the electron neutrino flux. If electron neutrinos are being converted to sterile neutrinos, this makes the n/p ratio a probe of possible new physics. We use observations of primordial Yp and D/H to place limits on this process.

  16. Rapid Sterilization of Escherichia coli by Solution Plasma Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Nina; Ishizaki, Takahiro; Baroch, Pavel; Saito, Nagahiro

    2012-12-01

    Solution plasma (SP), which is a discharge in the liquid phase, has the potential for rapid sterilization of water without chemical agents. The discharge showed a strong sterilization performance against Escherichia coli bacteria. The decimal value (D value) of the reduction time for E. coli by this system with an electrode distance of 1.0 mm was estimated to be approximately 1.0 min. Our discharge system in the liquid phase caused no physical damage to the E. coli and only a small increase in the temperature of the aqueous solution. The UV light generated by the discharge was an important factor in the sterilization of E. coli.

  17. [Serum sterilization in the cold with peracetic acid].

    PubMed

    Sprössig, M; Wutzler, P; Schweizer, H; Mücke, H

    1976-01-01

    On the basis of broad antimicrobic effect including also bacterial spores, mycoplasmas and viruses, the peracetic acid suits to sterilize in cold. By means of the final 0,1 to 0.02% concentration of the peracetic acid acting for 30 min. up to 5 days, it succeeded in sterilizing the serum used to prepare culture medium for bacteria, mycoplasmas and tissue cultures. Growth controls shown at least as good results as were those in using filtered sera. Chemical sterilization by means of the peracetic acid leads to significant diminution of neutralization and complementfixation antibodies in serum. PMID:987107

  18. Considerations for implementing United States pharmacopeia chapter 797 pharmaceutical compounding-sterile preparations, part 9: immediate use compounded sterile preparations.

    PubMed

    Allen, Loyd V; Okeke, Claudia C

    2008-01-01

    United States Pharmacopeia Chapter 797 Pharmaceutical Compounding-Sterile Preparations pertains to all preadministration manipulations and procedures involved in the preparation of sterile compounds of application, implantations, infusion, inhalation, injection, insertion, instillation, or irrigation, including preparation, storage, and transportation. The chapter does not pertain to actual clinical administration of compounded sterile preparations to patient. The intent of Chapter 797 is simply to prevent patient harm and fatalities that may result from nonsterility, excessive endotoxin load, large content errors in strength of correct ingredients, or the presence of incorrect ingredients. Because the achievement of sterility requires that facilities meet the minimum cleanliness standards, that personnel be trained adequately and undergo periodic testing and training in sterilization techniques, and that appropriate principles and practices be applied to sustain solution stability, compliance with Chapter 797, and those that have already met the new standards seem to support them strongly. Chapter 797 sets standards for all compounded sterile preparations, including those for immediate use. This article discusses the techniques and standards used when immediate-use compounded sterile preparations are needed.

  19. Neutron-based sterilization of anthrax contamination.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Qingfei

    2006-05-01

    With the anthrax threat becoming a reality, it is very important to have an effective way to sterilize areas contaminated by anthrax. Anthrax spores are the dormant form of the anthrax bacteria. They can germinate in tissues, producing new bacteria that release lethal toxins. Neutrons can be a powerful tool in our defense against anthrax contamination. Neutrons are elementary particles that have no charge, which allows them to be very penetrating, killing the anthrax spores on the surface and inside the containers. So neutrons have an advantage over other forms of radiation if deep penetration is required to kill biological organisms. A Cf neutron source allows for a low cost method of decontamination. It emits most neutrons in the 100 keV to 2 MeV energy regions, and a neutron in this energy region is 20 times more deadly than electrons or gamma rays in killing anthrax spores. If we just consider the first neutron collision with anthrax spores and that all the anthrax spores will not survive at the dose level above 2.0 x 10 Gy, our calculations show that a 0.5-g Cf neutron source within 20 min can generate 1.11 x 10 m fluence neutrons, which is good enough to kill the anthrax spores on the sample. An experimental confirmation of the above results may prove that to achieve 1.11 x 10 m fluence neutrons on the anthrax spore sample, the neutron irradiation time may be reduced dramatically or the Cf neutron source reduced to 0.1 g level or even less. The aim of this paper is to evaluate a feasible way to sterilize the anthrax contamination by using a Cf neutron source. Presently, we are mainly concentrating on the theoretical estimation of neutron fluence to see if the Cf neutron source can deliver enough neutron irradiation dose to kill the anthrax spores. Our future work will focus on experimental confirmation and Monte Carlo simulation by using Geant4 or MCNP codes. At that time, we will consider the effects of the real experimental setup, the shielding materials

  20. Neutron-based sterilization of anthrax contamination.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Qingfei

    2006-05-01

    With the anthrax threat becoming a reality, it is very important to have an effective way to sterilize areas contaminated by anthrax. Anthrax spores are the dormant form of the anthrax bacteria. They can germinate in tissues, producing new bacteria that release lethal toxins. Neutrons can be a powerful tool in our defense against anthrax contamination. Neutrons are elementary particles that have no charge, which allows them to be very penetrating, killing the anthrax spores on the surface and inside the containers. So neutrons have an advantage over other forms of radiation if deep penetration is required to kill biological organisms. A Cf neutron source allows for a low cost method of decontamination. It emits most neutrons in the 100 keV to 2 MeV energy regions, and a neutron in this energy region is 20 times more deadly than electrons or gamma rays in killing anthrax spores. If we just consider the first neutron collision with anthrax spores and that all the anthrax spores will not survive at the dose level above 2.0 x 10 Gy, our calculations show that a 0.5-g Cf neutron source within 20 min can generate 1.11 x 10 m fluence neutrons, which is good enough to kill the anthrax spores on the sample. An experimental confirmation of the above results may prove that to achieve 1.11 x 10 m fluence neutrons on the anthrax spore sample, the neutron irradiation time may be reduced dramatically or the Cf neutron source reduced to 0.1 g level or even less. The aim of this paper is to evaluate a feasible way to sterilize the anthrax contamination by using a Cf neutron source. Presently, we are mainly concentrating on the theoretical estimation of neutron fluence to see if the Cf neutron source can deliver enough neutron irradiation dose to kill the anthrax spores. Our future work will focus on experimental confirmation and Monte Carlo simulation by using Geant4 or MCNP codes. At that time, we will consider the effects of the real experimental setup, the shielding materials

  1. The Sterile Insect Technique for Controlling Populations of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) on Reunion Island: Mating Vigour of Sterilized Males

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Clelia F.; Jacquet, Maxime; Gilles, Jeremie; Lemperiere, Guy; Maquart, Pierre-Olivier; Quilici, Serge; Schooneman, François; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Boyer, Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    Reunion Island suffers from high densities of the chikungunya and dengue vector Aedes albopictus. The sterile insect technique (SIT) offers a promising strategy for mosquito-borne diseases prevention and control. For such a strategy to be effective, sterile males need to be competitive enough to fulfil their intended function by reducing wild mosquito populations in natura. We studied the effect of irradiation on sexual maturation and mating success of males, and compared the sexual competitiveness of sterile versus wild males in the presence of wild females in semi-field conditions. For all untreated or sterile males, sexual maturation was completed within 13 to 20 h post-emergence and some males were able to inseminate females when 15 h old. In the absence of competition, untreated and sterile males were able to inseminate the same number of virgin females during 48 h, in small laboratory cages: an average of 93% of females was inseminated no matter the treatment, the age of males, and the sex ratio. Daily mating success of single sterile males followed the same pattern as for untreated ones, although they inseminated significantly fewer females after the ninth day. The competitiveness index of sterile males in semi-field conditions was only 0.14 when they were released at 1-day old, but improved to 0.53 when the release occurred after a 5-day period in laboratory conditions. In SIT simulation experiments, a 5∶1 sterile to wild male ratio allowed a two-fold reduction of the wild population’s fertility. This suggests that sterile males could be sufficiently competitive to mate with wild females within the framework of an SIT component as part of an AW-IPM programme for suppressing a wild population of Ae. albopictus in Reunion Island. It will be of interest to minimise the pre-release period in controlled conditions to ensure a good competitiveness without increasing mass rearing costs. PMID:23185329

  2. Persistence of Ebola Virus in Sterilized Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In the wake of the ongoing 2014/2015 Ebola virus outbreak, significant questions regarding the appropriate handling of Ebola virus-contaminated liquid waste remain, including the persistence of Ebola virus in wastewater. To address these uncertainties, we evaluated the persistence of Ebola virus spiked in sterilized domestic sewage. The viral titer decreased approximately 99% within the first test day from an initial viral titer of 106 TCID50 mL–1; however, it could not be determined if this initial rapid decrease was due to aggregation or inactivation of the viral particles. The subsequent viral titer decrease was less rapid, and infectious Ebola virus particles persisted for all 8 days of the test. The inactivation constant (k) was determined to be −1.08 (2.1 days for a 90% viral titer decrease). Due to experimental conditions, we believe these results to be an upper bound for Ebola virus persistence in wastewater. Wastewater composition is inherently heterogeneous; subsequently, we caution that interpretation of these results should be made within a holistic assessment, including the effects of wastewater composition, dilution, and potential exposure routes within wastewater infrastructure. While it remains unknown if Ebola virus may be transmitted via wastewater, these data demonstrate a potential exposure route to infectious Ebola virus via wastewater and emphasize the value of a precautionary approach to wastewater handling in an epidemic response. PMID:26523283

  3. Upgrading sterilization in the orthodontic practice.

    PubMed

    Mulick, J F

    1986-04-01

    In today's orthodontic practice, disease control must undergo major reevaluation and restructuring. The knowledge of the natural history and treatment of many highly transmissible diseases to which orthodontic personnel are at high risk is changing rapidly. Among these diseases are acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), hepatitis B virus, and the herpesvirus complex (currently five types). If barrier techniques are not in place, it is possible to cross-infect orthodontic personnel and patients alike. Clinical orthodontics, with its higher volume of patients (on a daily basis) than other dental practices, requires a custom-made sterilization schema tailored to each office. Proper organization of instruments to permit orderly processing, storing, and use is even more important than before. Turnaround time of processing instruments, corrosion control, and minimizing of dulling of cutting edges are critical. Treatment of surfaces and chair/unit facilities with improved disinfection techniques is a necessity. Protection of hands and eyes by appropriate means is discussed with practical guidelines for the use of gloves by chairside personnel. Many fomites (inanimate disease transmitters) lurk in the orthodontic office and must be eliminated. Finally, the most important ingredient to any change--the orthodontic office staff--must be enlightened, trained, and supervised by the orthodontist to effectively and efficiently switch from the old to the new.

  4. [Packaging in the process of radiation sterilization. II. Physicochemical studies].

    PubMed

    Pekala, W; Burczak, K; Czerniawski, E

    1986-01-01

    The penetrability of the ionizing radiation through the matter makes possible the sterilization of the medical devices in the packed form by radiation method. The effect of the radiation should not bring any destructive changes in the material used for the package. In this paper have been discussed the results of the investigations of the one--and multilayer packaging materials from the point of view their utility for the radiation sterilization purposes. The changes of the useful parameters of the investigated materials have been determined in the dependence on the absorbed dose immediately after irradiation and the period of the durable keeping after the sterilization. The results of the mechanical investigations in the correlation to the results of the microbiological effects of the sterilized materials enabled to draw practical conclusions concerned the usability of the particular packages. PMID:3797357

  5. The role of meiotic drive in hybrid male sterility.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Shannon R; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2010-04-27

    Meiotic drive causes the distortion of allelic segregation away from Mendelian expected ratios, often also reducing fecundity and favouring the evolution of drive suppressors. If different species evolve distinct drive-suppressor systems, then hybrid progeny may be sterile as a result of negative interactions of these systems' components. Although the hypothesis that meiotic drive may contribute to hybrid sterility, and thus species formation, fell out of favour early in the 1990s, recent results showing an association between drive and sterility have resurrected this previously controversial idea. Here, we review the different forms of meiotic drive and their possible roles in speciation. We discuss the recent empirical evidence for a link between drive and hybrid male sterility, also suggesting a possible mechanistic explanation for this link in the context of chromatin remodelling. Finally, we revisit the population genetics of drive that allow it to contribute to speciation.

  6. 21 CFR 522.1085 - Guaifenesin sterile powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... indicated for intravenous use as a muscle relaxant in horses. (2) A solution is prepared by dissolving the drug in sterile water for injection to make a solution containing 50 milligrams of guaifenesin...

  7. 21 CFR 522.1085 - Guaifenesin sterile powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... indicated for intravenous use as a muscle relaxant in horses. (2) A solution is prepared by dissolving the drug in sterile water for injection to make a solution containing 50 milligrams of guaifenesin...

  8. Tips for maintaining sterilization in your orthodontic work station.

    PubMed

    Batra, Panchali; Jyothikiran, H

    2014-01-01

    Sterilization and disinfection have been a matter of concern amongst dental health care workers since long. Delicate materials, electrical parts, orthodontic pliers, orthodontic wire cutters, are to be treated according to the manufacturer's instructions to safe guard the life of the instrument as well as to claim warranty for any damage incurred. Sterilization procedures used in Orthodontics should be simple but effective and of relatively short duration so that there is a readily available supply of sterile instruments and materials. The procedure should not cause any appreciable damage to dental instruments and other materials. An attempt has been made through this article, to provide information concerning methods and means of disinfection and sterilization of orthodontic clinics, instruments, materials and also waste disposal which can be adopted in private clinics as well as in hospital set ups.

  9. Impact of sterile neutrinos in lepton flavour violating processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Romeri, Valentina

    2016-05-01

    We discuss charged lepton flavour violating processes occurring in minimal extensions of the Standard Model via the addition of sterile fermions. We firstly investigate the possibility of their indirect detection at a future high-luminosity Z-factory (such as FCC-ee). Rare decays such as Z → l 1 ± l 2 ± can indeed be complementary to low-energy (high-intensity) observables of lepton flavour violation. We further consider a sterile neutrino-induced charged lepton flavour violating process occurring in the presence of muonic atoms: their (Coulomb enhanced) decay into a pair of electrons μ¯e¯ → e¯e¯. Our study reveals that, depending on their mass range and on the active-sterile mixing angles, sterile neutrinos can give significant contributions to the above mentioned observables, some of them even lying within present and future sensitivity of dedicated cLFV experiments and of FCC-ee.

  10. Characteristics of surface sterilization using electron cyclotron resonance plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonesu, Akira; Hara, Kazufumi; Nishikawa, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of surface sterilization using electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma were investigated. High-energy electrons and oxygen radicals were observed in the ECR zone using electric probe and optical emission spectroscopic methods. A biological indicator (BI), Geobacillus stearothermophilus, containing 1 × 106 spores was sterilized in 120 s by exposure to oxygen discharges while maintaining a temperature of approximately 55 °C at the BI installation position. Oxygen radicals and high-energy electrons were found to be the sterilizing species in the ECR region. It was demonstrated that the ECR plasma could be produced in narrow tubes with an inner diameter of 5 mm. Moreover, sterilization tests confirmed that the spores present inside the narrow tube were successfully inactivated by ECR plasma irradiation.

  11. Influence of reactive oxygen species on the sterilization of microbes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of reactive oxygen species on living cells, including various microbes, is discussed. A sterilization experiment with bacterial endospores reveals that an argoneoxygen plasma jet very effectively kills endospores of Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372), thereby indicating that oxygen radic...

  12. Sterilization validation for medical compresses at IRASM multipurpose irradiation facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandru, Mioara; Ene, Mihaela

    2007-08-01

    In Romania, IRASM Radiation Processing Center is the unique supplier of radiation sterilization services—industrial scale (ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 13485:2003 certified). Its Laboratory of Microbiological Testing is the sole third party competent laboratory (GLPractice License, ISO 17025 certification in progress) for pharmaceutics and medical devices as well. We here refer to medical compresses as a distinct category of sterile products, made from different kind of hydrophilic materials (cotton, non-woven, polyurethane foam) with or without an impregnated ointment base (paraffin, plant extracts). These products are included in the class of medical devices, but for the sterilization validation, from microbiological point of view, there are important differences in testing method compared to the common medical devices (syringes, catheters, etc). In this paper, we present some results and practical solutions chosen to perform a sterilization validation, compliant with ISO 11137: 2006.

  13. Alternative control technology document: Ethylene oxide sterilization/fumigation operations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    This report presents technical information that State and local agencies can use to develop strategies for reducing VOC (i.e., EO) emissions for sterilization/fumigation facilities. The information in the document will allow planners to identify available control alternatives and evaluate the VOC reduction and cost of implementing controls. The document provides information on sterilization/fumigation processes, EO (ethylene oxide) emissions, and emission reductions, and cost associated with the application of control units. Section 2.0 presents a summary of the findings of the study. Section 3.0 provides a description of sterilization/fumigation facility operations and emission sources. Section 4.0 provides a description of alternative control techniques for the reduction of ethylene oxide emissions. Section 5.0 presents a cost analysis that includes a methodology for computing annualized equipment and operating costs. A list of contacts at various Federal agencies who are knowledgeable about sterilization/fumigation processes is presented in Appendix A.

  14. Compulsory Sterilization: The Change in India's Population Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulhati, Kaval

    1977-01-01

    Reviews India's previous stand regarding family planning which favored the notion that economic development would provide the incentive for fertility control. Recent recommendations, however, include raising minimum marriage age for girls and increasing incentives for acceptance of sterilization. (CS)

  15. 7 CFR 305.23 - Steam sterilization treatment schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...” air until steam vapor escapes). 1 Normal atmospheric pressure. ... Steam sterilization treatment schedules. Treatment schedule Temperature( °F) Pressure Exposure period... packages. Load with adequate spacing. Large commercial steam facilities that operate at pressures up to...

  16. Microbiologic evaluation of a hydrogen peroxide sterilization system.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, D L; Chung, P Y; Tsuchiya, P Y; Wessels, I F; Zuccarelli, A J

    1994-01-01

    The reliability of chemical sterilizers (acetone and/or 30-percent hydrogen peroxide at 25 degrees C and at 60 degrees C) was tested against Bacillus subtilis inoculated onto glass slides, commercial biological indicator discs (Bacillus stearothermophilus and B. subtilis), and B. subtilis spore survival. Acetone alone was not sporicidal. Hydrogen-peroxide-sterilized glass slides were sterile after 5 minutes. The indicator discs required 25 minutes at 25 degrees C, and less than 3 minutes at 60 degrees C (P < .0001). The D value of B. subtilis in 27-percent hydrogen peroxide at 25 degrees C is 2 minutes, with z values of 22 degrees C and 26 degrees C at 25 degrees C and 40 degrees C, respectively. For delicate instruments, a 30-percent peroxide solution followed by an acetone rinse provides an effective alternative to classic heat sterilization.

  17. [Voluntary versus compulsory sterilization in sweden then and now].

    PubMed

    Sjövall, H

    1975-01-22

    On June 27, 1974, the Commission on Sterilization submitted its report entitled "Voluntary Sterilization" to the Ministry of Justice. The present situation in Sweden exists because the original reasons for the law have been found untenable in practice, and the law itself is an obstacle to a sensible application. Consequently, the granting committee is now restricted as a practice which has "to a remarkable degree diverged from the working of the law and the intentions of the legislator" (Report, p. 82). The author illustrates this judgement by reviewing the Board of Health statistics on sterilization between 1935 and 1973, on legal abortion, including sterilizations compulsory for eugenically indicated abortion, and adds some critical comments on the proposals of the Commission. (Author's modified)

  18. [Sterilization--the microbiology between claim and reality].

    PubMed

    Spicher, G

    1993-05-01

    Sterilization means to free an object from all living and viable germs. To fulfill this claim, the microbiology is confronted with some fundamental problems. Under the action of a microbicidal agent the microorganisms do not die at the same time, even if there is a homogeneous population. The destruction of microorganisms follows a special destruction order. The number of dying organisms is always proportional to the number of viable organisms present. On theoretical grounds it is, therefore, impossible to free an object from all living and viable germs; there will ever be left a certain proportion of viable germs, even if this proportion may be very small. The aim of sterilization must be to keep that proportion very small. To reach this goal in a practical time without damaging the objects to be sterilized, microorganisms of high resistance should be excluded, i.e. the objects to be sterilized should not be contaminated by microorganisms of high resistance to the sterilizing agent(s). The assurance level that an object is free from all living and viable germs must be so high that it is practically impossible to proof this by a test for sterility. On the other hand, the absence of microorganisms of high resistance in the objects to be sterilized makes it feasible to use microorganisms of high resistance as test organisms for the manufacture of microbiologic indicators. Such indicators enable to record as an integral the action of all microbicidal parameters of the noxious agent(s) far beyond the region for which the application of a test for sterility is sensible. Nevertheless, bioindicators have a similar status as the physical and physico-chemical controlling instruments. Microbiological indicators make it possible to guarantee the application of a certain (minimal) efficacy of the microbicidal agent(s). Whether this efficacy is sufficient to reach the wanted sterility assurance level depends, last not least, on the microbiological contamination (bioburden) of

  19. Sterilization of Lung Matrices by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Balestrini, Jenna L; Liu, Angela; Gard, Ashley L; Huie, Janet; Blatt, Kelly M S; Schwan, Jonas; Zhao, Liping; Broekelmann, Tom J; Mecham, Robert P; Wilcox, Elise C; Niklason, Laura E

    2016-03-01

    Lung engineering is a potential alternative to transplantation for patients with end-stage pulmonary failure. Two challenges critical to the successful development of an engineered lung developed from a decellularized scaffold include (i) the suppression of resident infectious bioburden in the lung matrix, and (ii) the ability to sterilize decellularized tissues while preserving the essential biological and mechanical features intact. To date, the majority of lungs are sterilized using high concentrations of peracetic acid (PAA) resulting in extracellular matrix (ECM) depletion. These mechanically altered tissues have little to no storage potential. In this study, we report a sterilizing technique using supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO2) that can achieve a sterility assurance level 10(-6) in decellularized lung matrix. The effects of ScCO2 treatment on the histological, mechanical, and biochemical properties of the sterile decellularized lung were evaluated and compared with those of freshly decellularized lung matrix and with PAA-treated acellular lung. Exposure of the decellularized tissue to ScCO2 did not significantly alter tissue architecture, ECM content or organization (glycosaminoglycans, elastin, collagen, and laminin), observations of cell engraftment, or mechanical integrity of the tissue. Furthermore, these attributes of lung matrix did not change after 6 months in sterile buffer following sterilization with ScCO2, indicating that ScCO2 produces a matrix that is stable during storage. The current study's results indicate that ScCO2 can be used to sterilize acellular lung tissue while simultaneously preserving key biological components required for the function of the scaffold for regenerative medicine purposes.

  20. An evaluation of Profamilia's female sterilization program in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Williams, T; Ojeda, G; Trías, M

    1990-01-01

    The findings of three surveys and three studies used by Profamilia to evaluate and improve their voluntary female sterilization program are presented. The surveys measured sociodemographic characteristics of users, factors behind the sterilization decision, and user satisfaction with the operation in the short run and over time. The studies explored methodologies for more accurate cost-effectiveness analysis. Results of the projects were used by Profamilia management to identify areas of program strengths and weaknesses and to implement operational changes.

  1. How self-interactions can reconcile sterile neutrinos with cosmology.

    PubMed

    Hannestad, Steen; Hansen, Rasmus Sloth; Tram, Thomas

    2014-01-24

    Short baseline neutrino oscillation experiments have shown hints of the existence of additional sterile neutrinos in the eV mass range. However, such neutrinos seem incompatible with cosmology because they have too large of an impact on cosmic structure formation. Here we show that new interactions in the sterile neutrino sector can prevent their production in the early Universe and reconcile short baseline oscillation experiments with cosmology. PMID:24484130

  2. Ethical issues in male sterilization in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, S A; Naqvi, S A; Hussain, Z

    1995-11-01

    The history of sterilization dates back to the time of Hippocrates, when female sterilization was recommended for preventing hereditary mental diseases. James Blundell introduced surgical sterilization in 1823 for the prevention of high risk pregnancies. Vasectomy was first performed in the US at the end of the 19th century, mainly to prevent hereditary disorders. Male sterilization was a means of genocide during Nazi rule in Germany. Religious beliefs have the most powerful impact on the practice or nonpractice of family planning. In the teachings of Islam, Christianity, and Judaism, only sporadic references explicitly prohibit contraception, yet various religious edicts have interpreted these references too broadly by advocating prohibition of most contraceptive methods. Recently, the world community endorsed the basic right of couples to decide the number of children they want and the right to family planning with free informed choice. An integral part of a successful family planning program is voluntarism. In Europe and North America sterilization is legal, except in Italy, France, and Turkey. In Latin America sterilization is illegal in a number of countries; in Burma and Vietnam restrictions are in place; and in Africa fertility regulation is illegal in one-third of the countries. Informed consent before sterilization during counseling by a skilled, unbiased counselor is indispensable. All family planning services should be part of the national health care system including the voluntary contraception services. Incentives may compromise voluntarism. Most programs require a minimum age and a minimum number of children, marital status, and spousal consent. For sterilization, a waiting period of 1-30 days has been recommended. The exclusion of childless and single individuals has been challenged as a violation of human rights. For mentally retarded people parents or guardians provide consent. Major ethical issues in the future could emerge concerning novel

  3. Earth matter effect on active-sterile neutrino oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acero, Mario A.; Aguilar-Arevalo, Alexis A.; D'Olivo, J. C.

    2011-08-01

    Oscillations between active and sterile neutrinos remain as an open possibility to explain some experimental observations. In a four-neutrino mixing scheme, we use the Magnus expansion of the evolution operator to study the evolution of neutrino flavor amplitudes within the Earth. We apply this formalism to calculate the transition probabilities from active to sterile neutrinos taking into account the matter effect for a varying terrestrial density.

  4. How self-interactions can reconcile sterile neutrinos with cosmology.

    PubMed

    Hannestad, Steen; Hansen, Rasmus Sloth; Tram, Thomas

    2014-01-24

    Short baseline neutrino oscillation experiments have shown hints of the existence of additional sterile neutrinos in the eV mass range. However, such neutrinos seem incompatible with cosmology because they have too large of an impact on cosmic structure formation. Here we show that new interactions in the sterile neutrino sector can prevent their production in the early Universe and reconcile short baseline oscillation experiments with cosmology.

  5. Sterilization of air filters for high pre-vacuum autoclaves

    PubMed Central

    Fallon, R. J.

    1963-01-01

    Experiments are described with glass fibre filter paper and complete glass filters as fitted to high pre-vacuum autoclaves to determine whether organisms can grow or penetrate through the filters. A filter consisting of four layers of glass fibre paper fitted inside a sterilizer chamber for a year and used for 96 sterilization cycles was found to have retained its initial efficiency. PMID:16811010

  6. Sterilization of Lung Matrices by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Balestrini, Jenna L; Liu, Angela; Gard, Ashley L; Huie, Janet; Blatt, Kelly M S; Schwan, Jonas; Zhao, Liping; Broekelmann, Tom J; Mecham, Robert P; Wilcox, Elise C; Niklason, Laura E

    2016-03-01

    Lung engineering is a potential alternative to transplantation for patients with end-stage pulmonary failure. Two challenges critical to the successful development of an engineered lung developed from a decellularized scaffold include (i) the suppression of resident infectious bioburden in the lung matrix, and (ii) the ability to sterilize decellularized tissues while preserving the essential biological and mechanical features intact. To date, the majority of lungs are sterilized using high concentrations of peracetic acid (PAA) resulting in extracellular matrix (ECM) depletion. These mechanically altered tissues have little to no storage potential. In this study, we report a sterilizing technique using supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO2) that can achieve a sterility assurance level 10(-6) in decellularized lung matrix. The effects of ScCO2 treatment on the histological, mechanical, and biochemical properties of the sterile decellularized lung were evaluated and compared with those of freshly decellularized lung matrix and with PAA-treated acellular lung. Exposure of the decellularized tissue to ScCO2 did not significantly alter tissue architecture, ECM content or organization (glycosaminoglycans, elastin, collagen, and laminin), observations of cell engraftment, or mechanical integrity of the tissue. Furthermore, these attributes of lung matrix did not change after 6 months in sterile buffer following sterilization with ScCO2, indicating that ScCO2 produces a matrix that is stable during storage. The current study's results indicate that ScCO2 can be used to sterilize acellular lung tissue while simultaneously preserving key biological components required for the function of the scaffold for regenerative medicine purposes. PMID:26697757

  7. Gas plasma sterilization of microorganisms and mechanisms of action

    PubMed Central

    SHINTANI, HIDEHARU; SAKUDO, AKIKAZU; BURKE, PETER; McDONNELL, GERALD

    2010-01-01

    The use of true gas plasmas for the inactivation of microorganisms is an area of dynamic research. Many types of gases are used as a source of plasma, and different plasma production methods have been applied. The antimicrobial mechanisms of oxygen-based gas plasmas may be due to an etching effect on microbial structures, particularly bacterial endospores resulting in shrinkage. By contrast, the definite mechanisms of actions of other gas plasma sources, such as N2, He, Ne, Ar and Xe gases, have not been clearly defined and indeed may be distinct. The speculated mechanisms of these gas plasmas involve the direct attack of metastable (excited molecular), UV and/or VUV to microbial structures, specifically the inner membrane and DNA in the core of bacterial endospores. According to this speculation, sterilized spore figures would remain unchanged. However, these mechanisms remain to be clarified. Future perspectives on the use of gas plasma for sterilization are of interest, as it is possible that appropriate sterility assurance levels can be obtained in parallel with material and functional compatibility. Traditional sterilization methods are often limited in these requirements. Therefore, gas plasma sterilization may prove to be an appropriate alternative sterilization procedure. PMID:22993596

  8. Sterilizing elastomeric chains without losing mechanical properties. Is it possible?

    PubMed Central

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; Ferraz, Caio Souza; Rosa, Francine Cristina Silva; Rosa, Luciano Pereira

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of different sterilization/disinfection methods on the mechanical properties of orthodontic elastomeric chains. METHODS: Segments of elastomeric chains with 5 links each were sent for sterilization by cobalt 60 (Co60) (20 KGy) gamma ray technology. After the procedure, the elastomeric chains were contaminated with clinical samples of Streptococcus mutans. Subsequently, the elastomeric chains were submitted to sterilization/disinfection tests carried out by means of different methods, forming six study groups, as follows: Group 1 (control - without contamination), Group 2 (70°GL alcohol), Group 3 (autoclave), Group 4 (ultraviolet), Group 5 (peracetic acid) and Group 6 (glutaraldehyde). After sterilization/disinfection, the effectiveness of these methods, by Colony forming units per mL (CFU/mL), and the mechanical properties of the material were assessed. Student's t-test was used to assess the number of CFUs while ANOVA and Tukey's test were used to assess elastic strength. RESULTS: Ultraviolet treatment was not completely effective for sterilization. No loss of mechanical properties occurred with the use of the different sterilization methods (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Biological control of elastomeric chains does not affect their mechanical properties. PMID:26154462

  9. The ability of biological indicators to detect sterilization failures.

    PubMed

    Miller, C H; Sheldrake, M A

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a delay in analyzing biological indicators (BI's) after heat-processing prevents detection of sterilization failures. Sets of various types of BI's were processed through sublethal conditions in a steam, chemical vapor or dry heat sterilizer. Portions of each set of BI's were then analyzed for live spores immediately, after a 7-day delay at 27 degrees C, after a 7-day delay at 37 degrees C and in one instance after a 3-day mail delay. Of the 486 BI's exposed for sublethal times in steam at 250 degrees C, 483 (99.4%) exhibited spore growth (sterilization failure) after the 3-7 day delays before analysis. Of the 200 BI's exposed for sublethal times in the chemical vapor sterilizer, 193 (96.5%) exhibited spore growth after 7-day delays before analysis. All of the 120 (100%) BI's exposed for sublethal times in a static air dry heat sterilizer at 320 degrees F showed growth after 7-day delays before analysis. These results indicate that the delays before BI analysis described in this study do not cause any predictable pattern of preventing detection of sterilization failures. PMID:8054194

  10. The effect of sterilization on silk fibroin biomaterial properties.

    PubMed

    Rnjak-Kovacina, Jelena; DesRochers, Teresa M; Burke, Kelly A; Kaplan, David L

    2015-06-01

    The effects of common sterilization techniques on the physical and biological properties of lyophilized silk fibroin sponges are described. Sterile silk fibroin sponges were cast using a pre-sterilized silk fibroin solution under aseptic conditions or post-sterilized via autoclaving, γ radiation, dry heat, exposure to ethylene oxide, or hydrogen peroxide gas plasma. Low average molecular weight and low concentration silk fibroin solutions could be sterilized via autoclaving or filtration without significant loses of protein. However, autoclaving reduced the molecular weight distribution of the silk fibroin protein solution, and silk fibroin sponges cast from autoclaved silk fibroin were significantly stiffer compared to sponges cast from unsterilized or filtered silk fibroin. When silk fibroin sponges were sterilized post-casting, autoclaving increased scaffold stiffness, while decreasing scaffold degradation rate in vitro. In contrast, γ irradiation accelerated scaffold degradation rate. Exposure to ethylene oxide significantly decreased cell proliferation rate on silk fibroin sponges, which was rescued by leaching ethylene oxide into PBS prior to cell seeding. PMID:25761231

  11. Provision of female sterilization in Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Elisabeth Meloni; Ford, Nicholas John

    2004-01-01

    Forty percent of Brazilian married women from 15 to 49 years of age have undergone surgical sterilization. The 1988 Brazilian Constitution states that all scientifically proven contraceptive methods should be available to all citizens, but it was only in 1997 that specific family planning legislation was approved. This study examines physicians' perceptions and attitudes towards the current provision of female sterilization and its legal implications, as well as women's experience with obtaining and undergoing sterilization. The study design included: (1) an investigation of the hospitals and health professionals and (2) a survey of women sterilized in combination with cesarean delivery in 1998. The survey showed they had a median of 3 living children, 60.0% had been sterilized between 30 and 39 years of age, and 61.0% had paid for the procedure. Many women reported previous method failure and adverse effects with hormonal contraceptives. Women with less schooling and lower socioeconomic status had more children and had begun childbearing and had been sterilized at younger ages than women with more schooling and higher socioeconomic status. Inequalities related to reproduction were strongly associated with teenage pregnancy and inadequate knowledge about contraceptives.

  12. Material Compatibility of Medical Sterilizer Using Oxygen Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ono, Reoto; Hayashi, Nobuya; Hanada, Yasushi; Noda, Minoru; Goto, Masaaki

    2015-09-01

    Material compatibility of oxygen plasma sterilizer is investigated comparing with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sterilizers and a gaseous H2O2 sterilizer. Organic materials such as ABS, PE, PP, and PET are used as sample materials, and are irradiated by active oxygen species produced in oxygen plasma. After plasma irradiation, surface of the sample materials is observed using a scanning electron microscope and FTIR spectroscopy. Strengths of the organic materials are evaluated by the tension test. Also, H2O2 plasma sterilizer and a gaseous H2O2 sterilizer those are commercially available are utilized to compare the material compatibility, especially organic compounds. The ABS resin becomes slightly soft after irradiation by both plasmas and gaseous H2O2. Also, PET material becomes soften by each sterilization treatment. Decrease of peak heights of CH around 1200 and 1730 cm-1 and increase of that of OH at 3300 cm-1 in FTIR spectra indicates the oxidation of ABS resin by both plasma and gaseous H2O2. In the case of PET material, treatment by the plasma has not modified chemical composition but changed the crystal structure. The gaseous H2O2 is completely friendly for the PET material.

  13. The effect of sterilization on silk fibroin biomaterial properties

    PubMed Central

    Rnjak-Kovacina, Jelena; DesRochers, Teresa M; Burke, Kelly A; Kaplan, David L

    2015-01-01

    The effects of common sterilization techniques on the physical and biological properties of lyophilized silk fibroin sponges is described. Sterile silk fibroin sponges were cast using a pre-sterilized silk fibroin solution under aseptic conditions or post-sterilized via autoclaving, gamma radiation, dry heat, exposure to ethylene oxide or hydrogen peroxide gas plasma. Low average molecular weight and low concentration silk fibroin solutions could be sterilized via autoclaving or filtration without significant loses of protein. However, autoclaving reduced the molecular weight distribution of the silk fibroin protein solution and silk fibroin sponges cast from autoclaved silk fibroin were significantly stiffer compared to sponges cast from unsterilized or filtered silk fibroin. When silk fibroin sponges were sterilized post-casting, autoclaving increased scaffold stiffness, while decreasing scaffold degradation rate in vitro. In contrast, gamma irradiation accelerated scaffold degradation rate. Exposure to ethylene oxide significantly decreased cell proliferation rate on silk fibroin sponges, which was rescued by leaching ethylene oxide into PBS prior to cell seeding. PMID:25761231

  14. A novel steam explosion sterilization improving solid-state fermentation performance.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-Min; Wang, Lan; Chen, Hong-Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Traditional sterilization of solid medium (SM) requires lengthy time, degrades nutrients, and even sterilizes inadequately compared with that of liquid medium due to its low thermal conductivity. A novel sterilization strategy, high-temperature and short-time steam explosion (SE), was exploited for SM sterilization in this study. Results showed that SE conditions for complete sterilization were 172 °C for 2 min and 128 °C for 5 min. Glucose and xylose contents in medium after SE sterilization increased by 157% and 93% respectively compared with those after conventional sterilization (121 °C, 20 min) while fermentation inhibitors were not detected. FTIR spectra revealed that the mild SE conditions helped to release monosaccharides from the polysaccharides. Bacillus subtilis fermentation productivity on medium after SE sterilization was 3.83 times of that after conventional sterilization. Therefore, SE shortened sterilization time and improved SM nutrition, which facilitated fermentability of SM and should promote economy of solid-state fermentation.

  15. An outpatient program for laparoscopic sterilization.

    PubMed

    Mercer, J P; Lefler, H T; Hulka, J F; Fishburne, J I

    1973-05-01

    This is a report of a pilot program for laparoscopic sterilization with emphasis on surgical and anesthetic technics. In 1971 the program was developed at the North Carolina Memorial Hospital. Subjects were 129 private patients, mostly white, of middle income with 2 or more children, and from 19 to 47 years of age. Follow up of over 90% indicated high patient satisfaction. Complications were few but may occasionally require surgical management and the method should not be considered a minor procedure. At first patients were handled as inpatients for 1 day preceding surgery. Later an outpatient status was adopted. At an earlier visit a history is taken, instructions given by a nurse, the assigned physician (who may be a physician in training) reviews the history, performs a physical examination, and explains the operation to both the patient and her husband. Laboratory work is performed, operative permits are signed, and patients are asked at this time to agree to sterilization by laparotomy if the laparoscopic approach proves infeasible. On the morning of surgery suitable intravenous medication (Valium 5 mg), fentanyl, and atropine are given and followed by pure oxygen inhalation for 3-5 minutes. Pentothal followed by succinylcholine are given and the patient intubated. Anesthesia is maintained by succinylcholine drip and inhalation of nitrous oxide and oxygen. After surgical preparation with Betadine solution, a combination tenaculum-sound is placed in the cervical canal. Pneumoperitoneum is established with carbon dioxide gas through a Verres needle inserted through a small subumbilical incision. The laparoscopic trocar is introduced by enlarging the same incision. After inspection a second 6 mm trocar is inserted just about the tubes and biopsy forceps introduced. The tenaculum in the cervix is used to position the uterus and tubes. After cauterization tubes are divided with the biopsy forceps and a biopsy specimen obtained if possible without undue action on

  16. Sterilization of minors leads to controversy.

    PubMed

    1973-08-01

    The tubal sterilizations of Minnie and Mary Alice Relf, ages 14 and 12, on June 14, 1973, had been arranged by the Montgomery County Community Action Agency which is the largest organized provider of family planning services in Montgomery. In their class action suit the parents have charged that the operations were performed without their knowledge or consent. The mother, who is illiterate, claims that she approved "some shots" for her daughters. Both had been receiving Depo-Provera an injectable contraceptive drug, which has been withdrawn from use by the agency following Senate hearings conducted by the Health Subcommittee of the Senate Labor and Public Welfare Committee. The agency response is that the operation has been explained to the mother, that she understood the nature of the procedure, and consented to it by placing an "X" on the consent form. The 14-year-old daughter also gave her consent, and this is in accordance with Alabama law which allows competent persons over the age of 14 to consent to their own medical care. In separate letters to Dr. Alan F. Guttmacher, President of the Planned Parenthood A ssociation, and the 4 women members of the Black Caucus, Barbara Jordan, Yvonne Burke, Shirley Chisholm, and Cardiss Collins, urger Caspar Weinberber, secretary of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, to delay the July 5 deadline for guidelines in order to give the agency an opportunity to consult with leaders in the fields of medicine, law, psychiatry, family planning, and mental retardation. They raised the key issue of the problem of making family planning information and services available to all those who want and need them while assuring that the programs are totally voluntary. The women also favored a national program with uniform federal guidelines for the state delegated Medicaid programs as well as for the Office of Economic Opportunity and the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

  17. Guidelines for the Safe Preparation of Sterile Compounds: Results of the ISMP Sterile Preparation Compounding Safety Summit of October 2011

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Darryl S.; Fricker, Matthew P.; Cohen, Michael R.; Levine, Stuart R.

    2013-01-01

    Significant patient safety incidents related to sterile drug compounding have occurred for many years. Previous guidelines have focused on ensuring sterility, but serious compounding errors have occurred as well. National efforts are needed to identify and reduce the potential for such errors and their causative factors. In response, the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) convened in October 2011 a summit of 60 invited experts in the field for the purpose of establishing by consensus guidelines, safe practices, and standard operating procedures needed to ensure the safe preparation of compounded sterile preparations, especially intravenous admixtures. The resulting guidelines were categorized into 14 core processes: policies and procedures, order entry and verification, drug storage, assembling products and supplies, compounding, drug conservation during drug shortages, preparation of source/bulk containers, technology/automation used, IV workflow software, automated IV compounding devices, quality control/final verification, product labeling, record keeping, and staff management. They were also classified into 3 levels: mandatory, standard, and recommendation. The guidelines presented in this article were felt to be applicable to any health care organization that prepares sterile compounded products. The consensus of the group was that adherence to these guidelines will improve the safety of sterile product compounding and reduce harmful errors in patients receiving these products. Incorporation of these guidelines into sterile compounding practices of health care organizations is an important component of improving patient safety. PMID:24421477

  18. Comparative analysis of ampoules and vials in sterile and conventional packaging as to microbial load and sterility test

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Raphael Ribeiro de Aquino; Tardelli, Maria Angela

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To compare sterility and microbial (bacteria and fungi) load in the outer part of hyperbaric bupivacaine (Neocaína®) in ampoule and bupivacaine in vial, in conventional and sterile pack formulations. Methods The sterile packs were divided into two groups: G1 (n=16) with ampoules and G2 (n=16) with vials. Conventional formulations were divided into two groups, being G3 (n=16) with ampoules and G4 (n=16) with vials. The ampoules and vials were opened and had their content drawn. The empty bottles were then placed in sterile plastic bags and sent for analysis of microbial load (bacteria and fungi) and sterility testing. Data were analyzed using the χ2 test with Yates correction, and 95% confidence interval. Results G1 and G2 showed no bacterial growth when compared to conventional groups (p<0.001). The most common agent in conventional microbiological samples was Staphylococcus aureus. There was no fungal growth in both groups. Conclusion The use of (sterile pack) reduces the microbial load of bottles, and would decrease the chance of exposure to potential contamination of the anesthetic solution. PMID:27223307

  19. Specific expression in reproductive tissues and fate of a mitochondrial sterility-associated protein in cytoplasmic male-sterile bean.

    PubMed Central

    Abad, A R; Mehrtens, B J; Mackenzie, S A

    1995-01-01

    In common bean, cytoplasmic male sterility has been associated with a unique sequence found in the mitochondrial genome, designated pvs (for Phaseolus vulgaris sterility sequence). Within the pvs sequence, two open reading frames are encoded, ORF98 and ORF239. We have raised rabbit polyclonal antibodies against Pvs-ORF239 to evaluate the role of this putative male sterility-associated protein. Histological investigation of pollen development revealed that in the male-sterile bean line, callose deposition was abnormal and microspores remained as tetrads as previously reported. Pvs-ORF239 was found to be localized within the reproductive tissues of the male-sterile bean line, in contrast to all other cytoplasmic male sterility systems studied to date. This protein was associated with mitochondria, the callose layer, and developing primary cell walls during microsporogenesis. Expression of pvs-orf239 was not detected in fertile plants containing restorer gene Fr2. These observations, together with previous reports, suggest that nuclear restorer gene Fr2 interferes with expression of the pvs region post-transcriptionally. PMID:7734962

  20. Advanced retorting, microwave assisted thermal sterilization (MATS), and pressure assisted thermal sterilization (PATS) to process meat products.

    PubMed

    Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V; Medina-Meza, Ilce; Candoğan, Kezban; Bermúdez-Aguirre, Daniela

    2014-11-01

    Conventional thermal processes have been very reliable in offering safe sterilized meat products, but some of those products are of questionable overall quality. Flavor, aroma, and texture, among other attributes, are significantly affected during such processes. To improve those quality attributes, alternative approaches to sterilizing meat and meat products have been explored in the last few years. Most of the new strategies for sterilizing meat products rely on using thermal approaches, but in a more efficient way than in conventional methods. Some of these emerging technologies have proven to be reliable and have been formally approved by regulatory agencies such as the FDA. Additional work needs to be done in order for these technologies to be fully adopted by the food industry and to optimize their use. Some of these emerging technologies for sterilizing meat include pressure assisted thermal sterilization (PATS), microwaves, and advanced retorting. This review deals with fundamental and applied aspects of these new and very promising approaches to sterilization of meat products.

  1. Reliability of Laparoscopic Compared With Hysteroscopic Sterilization at One Year: A Decision Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gariepy, Aileen M.; Creinin, Mitchell D.; Schwarz, Eleanor B.; Smith, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the probability of successful sterilization after hysteroscopic or laparoscopic sterilization procedure. METHODS An evidence-based clinical decision analysis using a Markov model was performed to estimate the probability of a successful sterilization procedure using laparoscopic sterilization, hysteroscopic sterilization in the operating room, and hysteroscopic sterilization in the office. Procedure and follow-up testing probabilities for the model were estimated from published sources. RESULTS In the base case analysis, the proportion of women having a successful sterilization procedure on first attempt is 99% for laparoscopic, 88% for hysteroscopic in the operating room and 87% for hysteroscopic in the office. The probability of having a successful sterilization procedure within one year is 99% with laparoscopic, 95% for hysteroscopic in the operating room, and 94% for hysteroscopic in the office. These estimates for hysteroscopic success include approximately 6% of women who attempt hysteroscopically but are ultimately sterilized laparoscopically. Approximately 5% of women who have a failed hysteroscopic attempt decline further sterilization attempts. CONCLUSIONS Women choosing laparoscopic sterilization are more likely than those choosing hysteroscopic sterilization to have a successful sterilization procedure within one year. However, the risk of failed sterilization and subsequent pregnancy must be considered when choosing a method of sterilization. PMID:21775842

  2. Segregation of male-sterility alleles across a species boundary.

    PubMed

    Weller, S G; Sakai, A K; Culley, T M; Duong, L; Danielson, R E

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid zones may serve as bridges permitting gene flow between species, including alleles influencing the evolution of breeding systems. Using greenhouse crosses, we assessed the likelihood that a hybrid zone could serve as a conduit for transfer of nuclear male-sterility alleles between a gynodioecious species and a hermaphroditic species with very rare females in some populations. Segregation patterns in progeny of crosses between rare females of hermaphroditic Schiedea menziesii and hermaphroditic plants of gynodioecious Schiedea salicaria heterozygous at the male-sterility locus, and between female S. salicaria and hermaphroditic plants from the hybrid zone, were used to determine whether male-sterility was controlled at the same locus in the parental species and the hybrid zone. Segregations of females and hermaphrodites in approximately equal ratios from many of the crosses indicate that the same nuclear male-sterility allele occurs in the parent species and the hybrid zone. These rare male-sterility alleles in S. menziesii may result from gene flow from S. salicaria through the hybrid zone, presumably facilitated by wind pollination in S. salicaria. Alternatively, rare male-sterility alleles might result from a reversal from gynodioecy to hermaphroditism in S. menziesii, or possibly de novo evolution of male sterility. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that some species of Schiedea have probably evolved separate sexes independently, but not in the lineage containing S. salicaria and S. menziesii. High levels of selfing and expression of strong inbreeding depression in S. menziesii, which together should favour females in populations, argue against a reversal from gynodioecy to hermaphroditism in S. menziesii.

  3. Gonadal Transcriptome Analysis in Sterile Double Haploid Japanese Flounder

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guixing; Jiang, Hongbo; Wang, Yufen; Sun, Zhaohui; Jiang, Xiufeng; Yu, Qinghai; Liu, Haijin

    2015-01-01

    Sterility is a serious problem that can affect all bionts. In teleosts, double haploids (DHs) induced by mitogynogenesis are often sterile. This sterility severely restricts the further application of DHs for production of clones, genetic analysis, and breeding. However, sterile DH individuals are good source materials for investigation of the molecular mechanisms of gonad development, especially for studies into the role of genes that are indispensable for fish reproduction. Here, we used the Illumina sequencing platform to analyze the transcriptome of sterile female DH Japanese flounder in order to identify major genes that cause sterility and to provide a molecular basis for an intensive study of gonadal development in teleosts. Through sequencing, assembly, and annotation, we obtained 52,474 contigs and found that 60.7% of these shared homologies with existing sequences. A total of 1225 differentially expressed unigenes were found, including 492 upregulated and 733 downregulated genes. Gene Ontology and KEGG analyses showed that genes showing significant upregulation, such as CYP11A1, CYP11B2, CYP17, CYP21, HSD3β, bcl2l1, and PRLR, principally correlated with sterol metabolic process, steroid biosynthetic process, and the Jak-stat signaling pathway. The significantly downregulated genes were primarily associated with immune response, antigen processing and presentation, cytokine–cytokine receptor interaction, and protein digestion and absorption. Using a co-expression network analysis, we conducted a comprehensive comparison of gene expression in the gonads of fertile and sterile female DH Japanese flounder. Identification of genes showing significantly different expression will provide further insights into DH reproductive dysfunction and oocyte maturation processes in teleosts. PMID:26580217

  4. Gonadal Transcriptome Analysis in Sterile Double Haploid Japanese Flounder.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Hou, Jilun; Wang, Guixing; Jiang, Hongbo; Wang, Yufen; Sun, Zhaohui; Jiang, Xiufeng; Yu, Qinghai; Liu, Haijin

    2015-01-01

    Sterility is a serious problem that can affect all bionts. In teleosts, double haploids (DHs) induced by mitogynogenesis are often sterile. This sterility severely restricts the further application of DHs for production of clones, genetic analysis, and breeding. However, sterile DH individuals are good source materials for investigation of the molecular mechanisms of gonad development, especially for studies into the role of genes that are indispensable for fish reproduction. Here, we used the Illumina sequencing platform to analyze the transcriptome of sterile female DH Japanese flounder in order to identify major genes that cause sterility and to provide a molecular basis for an intensive study of gonadal development in teleosts. Through sequencing, assembly, and annotation, we obtained 52,474 contigs and found that 60.7% of these shared homologies with existing sequences. A total of 1225 differentially expressed unigenes were found, including 492 upregulated and 733 downregulated genes. Gene Ontology and KEGG analyses showed that genes showing significant upregulation, such as CYP11A1, CYP11B2, CYP17, CYP21, HSD3β, bcl2l1, and PRLR, principally correlated with sterol metabolic process, steroid biosynthetic process, and the Jak-stat signaling pathway. The significantly downregulated genes were primarily associated with immune response, antigen processing and presentation, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, and protein digestion and absorption. Using a co-expression network analysis, we conducted a comprehensive comparison of gene expression in the gonads of fertile and sterile female DH Japanese flounder. Identification of genes showing significantly different expression will provide further insights into DH reproductive dysfunction and oocyte maturation processes in teleosts. PMID:26580217

  5. Temperature Effects on Free Radicals in Gamma-sterilized Beef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, S. I.; Jahan, M. S.

    1999-11-01

    Gamma irradiation has become the method of choice for sterilizing frozen meat and their products to reduce levels of food-borne pathogens and to extend shelf life. In this report we have employed ESR technique for detection of free radicals in sterilized and non-sterilized dry beef without bone. We have also determined the heating effects on free radicals at temperatures 176^°C and 250^°C. Meat samples were dried in a food dehydrator at 60^°C and were packaged in dry N_2. They were then sterilized by γ-irradiation (2.5 MRad), ground into powder, and placed in ESR sample tubes. Non-sterilized powder samples were used as control. While all powder samples, sterilized or not, produced a broad single line in the ESR spectra with (Δ H_pp ~ 9 G) and g = 2.013, the radical concentration in the sterilized samples increased by a factor of five. Heat treatment at 176^°C produced similar radicals. But, when samples were heated 250^°C different radical species were formed which are characterized by narrow width (Δ H_pp ~ 6 G) and lower g-value (g =2.010). In contrast with previous work, where free radicals in chicken bones were reduced by heating [1], we observed an increase in concentration. Results of structural analyses of the radicals will be presented. Ref.[1]: Radiat. Phys. Chem., 49, 477-481, 1997. Work supported by Grants from the University of Memphis

  6. Dark radiation sterile neutrino candidates after Planck data

    SciTech Connect

    Valentino, Eleonora Di; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Mena, Olga E-mail: alessandro.melchiorri@roma1.infn.it

    2013-11-01

    Recent Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) results from the Planck satellite, combined with previous CMB data and Hubble constant measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope, provide a constraint on the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom 3.62{sup +0.50}{sub −0.48} at 95% CL. New Planck data provide a unique opportunity to place limits on models containing relativistic species at the decoupling epoch. We present here the bounds on sterile neutrino models combining Planck data with galaxy clustering information. Assuming N{sub eff} active plus sterile massive neutrino species, in the case of a Planck+WP+HighL+HST analysis we find m{sub ν,} {sub sterile}{sup eff} < 0.36 eV and 3.14 < N{sub eff} < 4.15 at 95% CL, while using Planck+WP+HighL data in combination with the full shape of the galaxy power spectrum from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey BOSS Data Relase 9 measurements, we find that 3.30 < N{sub eff} < 4.43 and m{sub ν,} {sub sterile}{sup eff} < 0.33 eV both at 95% CL with the three active neutrinos having the minimum mass allowed in the normal hierarchy scheme, i.e. ∑m{sub ν} ∼ 0.06 eV. These values compromise the viability of the (3+2) massive sterile neutrino models for the parameter region indicated by global fits of neutrino oscillation data. Within the (3+1) massive sterile neutrino scenario, we find m{sub ν,} {sub sterile}{sup eff} < 0.34 eV at 95% CL. While the existence of one extra sterile massive neutrino state is compatible with current oscillation data, the values for the sterile neutrino mass preferred by oscillation analyses are significantly higher than the current cosmological bound. We review as well the bounds on extended dark sectors with additional light species based on the latest Planck CMB observations.

  7. Superior osteogenesis in transplanted allogeneic canine skull following chemical sterilization

    SciTech Connect

    Prolo, D.J.; Pedrotti, P.W.; Burres, K.P.; Oklund, S.

    1982-08-01

    Sterilization of allogeneic bone increases the availability of this tissue for supplanting skeletal defects and effecting fusions. The optimal sterilant destroys micro-organisms, preserves the physical and chemical integrity of bone and possibly even reduces immunogenicity. Cortical bone of skull heals slowly and is variably resorbed. Of 36 dogs, spontaneous regeneration in 72 paired 20 mm defects was constant but always incomplete, and restored only about one third of the cross-sectional area of the defect at six months. The repair in defects replaced with canine allogeneic bony disc, sterilized with ethylene oxide (n . 9), gamma irradiation (n . 7), or methanol/chloroform/iodoacetic acid (n . 7) and then lyophilizedd, was compared with repair in defects filled with aseptically procured lyophilized only (n . 23) discs from the same donor. Criteria for evaluation of implants at six months included volume of defect filled, radiodensity, extent of fusion around circumference, revascularization, and remodeling. Bony discs sterilized with methanol/chloroform/iodoacetic acid remodeled at a superior rate (p less than 0.01). Radiation sterilization resulted in diminished density and inferentially reduced protection of the brain (p less than 0.025). Ethylene oxide, lyophilized implants, and implants lyophilized only produced comparable repair. Whereas an acceptable cranioplasty was achieved in 86% of methanol/chloroform/iodoacetic acid, lyophilize implants, all other alloimplants served an osteoconductive function with a successful repair occurring in 56% to 58%.

  8. Sterile Neutrino Searches in MINOS and MINOS+ Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Junting

    2015-05-01

    This dissertation presents the searches on sterile neutrinos using the data collected in MINOS+ Experiment from September 2013 to September 2014, and the full data set of MINOS Experiment collected from 2005 to 2012. Anomalies in short baseline experiments, such as LSND and MiniBooNE, showed hints of sterile neutrinos, a type of neutrino that does not interact with the Standard Model particles. In this work, two models are considered: 3+1 and large extra dimension (LED). In the 3+1 model, one sterile neutrino state is added into the standard oscillation scheme consisting of three known active neutrino states ve, vμ and vτ. In the LED model, sterile neutrinos arise as Kaluza-Klein (KK) states due to assumed large extra dimensions. Mixing between sterile and active neutrino states may modify the oscillation patterns observed in the MINOS detectors. Both searches yield null results. For 3+1, a combined fit of MINOS and MINOS+ data gives a stronger limit on θ24 in the range of 10-2 eV2 < Δm412 < 1 eV2 than previous experiments. For LED, with the complete MINOS data set, the size of extra dimensions is constrained to be smaller than ~ 0.35 μm at 90% C.L. in the limit of a vanishing lightest neutrino mass.

  9. Restrictions on the lifetime of sterile neutrinos from primordial nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ruchayskiy, Oleg; Ivashko, Artem E-mail: ivashko@lorentz.leidenuniv.nl

    2012-10-01

    We analyze the influence of sterile neutrinos with the masses in the MeV range on the primordial abundances of Helium-4 and Deuterium. We solve explicitly the Boltzmann equations for all particle species, taking into account neutrino flavour oscillations and demonstrate that the abundances are sensitive mostly to the sterile neutrino lifetime and only weakly to the way the active-sterile mixing is distributed between flavours. The decay of these particles also perturbs the spectra of (decoupled) neutrinos and heats photons, changing the ratio of neutrino to photon energy density, that can be interpreted as extra neutrino species at the recombination epoch. We derive upper bounds on the lifetime of sterile neutrinos based on both astrophysical and cosmological measurements of Helium-4 and Deuterium. We also demonstrate that the recent results of Izotov and Thuan [1], who find 2σ higher than predicted by the standard primordial nucleosynthesis value of Helium-4 abundance, are consistent with the presence in the plasma of sterile neutrinos with the lifetime 0.01–2 seconds.

  10. Fracture of Polymer-Coated Nitinol During Gamma Sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norwich, Dennis W.

    2012-12-01

    After gamma sterilization of a packaged medical device, fractures were discovered in the superelastic nitinol wire used as part of the assembly. The nitinol wire was encased in fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) shrink tube. The only fractures occurred where the encased wire was held under strain during gamma sterilization. A study was conducted to determine the susceptibility of nitinol to this type of failure. The variables studied included wire diameter, wire surface finish, wire oxide layer, quantity of wires encased, type of tubing, and strain level during gamma sterilization. The greatest susceptibility to fracture occurred to single wire samples with a light oxide layer held under high strain in FEP shrink tube. Gamma sterilization experiments were conducted to isolate and confirm this failure mechanism. Scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze the fractured samples. Chemical analysis was performed in an attempt to detect trace elements to determine the root cause of the failures. Stress corrosion cracking caused by the liberation of fluorine due to the degradation of the polymer during gamma sterilization is suspected.

  11. Cutting effectiveness of diamond instruments subjected to cyclic sterilization methods.

    PubMed

    Gureckis, K M; Burgess, J O; Schwartz, R S

    1991-12-01

    The effect of repeated sterilization on the cutting effectiveness of one brand of rotary dental diamond cutting instruments was measured. Four groups of five diamond burs were sterilized by four methods: (1) sterilization with a chemical agent (Sporicidin); (2) steam under pressure (autoclave); (3) dry heat (Dri-Clave); or (4) chemical vapor (Chemiclave). Each group of diamond instruments made a timed cut in a ceramic block. This cut and all subsequent cuts were measured and were used to determine a baseline cutting effectiveness. Each group of diamond burs was then ultrasonically cleaned, sterilized, and another cut was made. At the end of 10 cycles there was no difference in cutting efficiency of the dental diamond instruments. However, there are differences in the cutting efficiency of individual diamond instruments. The SEM evaluation made prior to cutting and at the end of the 10 cycles of sterilization demonstrated that diamond wear was similar in all groups and that little diamond particle loss occurred in any group. PMID:1666657

  12. Low-pressure microwave plasma sterilization of polyethylene terephthalate bottles.

    PubMed

    Deilmann, Michael; Halfmann, Helmut; Bibinov, Nikita; Wunderlich, Joachim; Awakowicz, Peter

    2008-10-01

    A low-pressure microwave plasma reactor was developed for sterilization of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. In contrast to the established method using aseptic filling machines based on toxic sterilants, here a microwave plasma is ignited inside a bottle by using a gas mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen. To that effect, a reactor setup was developed based on a Plasmaline antenna allowing for plasma ignition inside three-dimensional packages. A treatment time below 5 s is provided for a reduction of 10(5) and 10(4) CFU of Bacillus atrophaeus and Aspergillus niger, respectively, verified by means of a count reduction test. The sterilization results obtained by means of this challenge test are in accordance with requirements for aseptic packaging machines as defined by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the German Engineering Federation. The plasma sterilization process developed here for aseptic filling of beverages is a dry process that avoids residues and the use of maximum allowable concentrations of established sterilants, e.g., hydrogen peroxide.

  13. Outcome of sterilization by steam autoclaves in Danish dental offices.

    PubMed

    Scheutz, F; Reinholdt, J

    1988-04-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the performance of autoclaves and the use of biologic indicators for sterilization control, and to look for predictor variables for improperly functioning autoclaves in Danish dental offices. The study population comprised 314 Danish dental offices (participation rate 94%); 177 from the public Child Dental Service (CDS) and 137 from private practice. A minor questionnaire and five biologic indicators (Attest Biological Indicator for Steam Sterilization, 3M) were sent to the participants. CDS offices were found more inclined to use biologic indicators than PP offices (P less than 0.00001). Among CDS autoclaves 2.3% (95% confidence limit: 0.9-5.7%) failed to sterilize compared to 7.3% (95% confidence limit: 4.0-12.9) of the PP autoclaves. This difference is not statistically significant, but the confidence intervals indicate a possible true difference in favor of a better outcome in the CDS offices. Looking at the whole sample no other predictor variable for inadequate sterilization could be determined as differences were statistically insignificant with regard to years of professional experience, age and brand of autoclave, and use of biological control. Recommendations from an official body stating the approved types of sterilization control in dental offices would be of value. PMID:3162602

  14. A Shipping Container-Based Sterile Processing Unit for Low Resources Settings.

    PubMed

    Boubour, Jean; Jenson, Katherine; Richter, Hannah; Yarbrough, Josiah; Oden, Z Maria; Schuler, Douglas A

    2016-01-01

    Deficiencies in the sterile processing of medical instruments contribute to poor outcomes for patients, such as surgical site infections, longer hospital stays, and deaths. In low resources settings, such as some rural and semi-rural areas and secondary and tertiary cities of developing countries, deficiencies in sterile processing are accentuated due to the lack of access to sterilization equipment, improperly maintained and malfunctioning equipment, lack of power to operate equipment, poor protocols, and inadequate quality control over inventory. Inspired by our sterile processing fieldwork at a district hospital in Sierra Leone in 2013, we built an autonomous, shipping-container-based sterile processing unit to address these deficiencies. The sterile processing unit, dubbed "the sterile box," is a full suite capable of handling instruments from the moment they leave the operating room to the point they are sterile and ready to be reused for the next surgery. The sterile processing unit is self-sufficient in power and water and features an intake for contaminated instruments, decontamination, sterilization via non-electric steam sterilizers, and secure inventory storage. To validate efficacy, we ran tests of decontamination and sterilization performance. Results of 61 trials validate convincingly that our sterile processing unit achieves satisfactory outcomes for decontamination and sterilization and as such holds promise to support healthcare facilities in low resources settings.

  15. A Shipping Container-Based Sterile Processing Unit for Low Resources Settings.

    PubMed

    Boubour, Jean; Jenson, Katherine; Richter, Hannah; Yarbrough, Josiah; Oden, Z Maria; Schuler, Douglas A

    2016-01-01

    Deficiencies in the sterile processing of medical instruments contribute to poor outcomes for patients, such as surgical site infections, longer hospital stays, and deaths. In low resources settings, such as some rural and semi-rural areas and secondary and tertiary cities of developing countries, deficiencies in sterile processing are accentuated due to the lack of access to sterilization equipment, improperly maintained and malfunctioning equipment, lack of power to operate equipment, poor protocols, and inadequate quality control over inventory. Inspired by our sterile processing fieldwork at a district hospital in Sierra Leone in 2013, we built an autonomous, shipping-container-based sterile processing unit to address these deficiencies. The sterile processing unit, dubbed "the sterile box," is a full suite capable of handling instruments from the moment they leave the operating room to the point they are sterile and ready to be reused for the next surgery. The sterile processing unit is self-sufficient in power and water and features an intake for contaminated instruments, decontamination, sterilization via non-electric steam sterilizers, and secure inventory storage. To validate efficacy, we ran tests of decontamination and sterilization performance. Results of 61 trials validate convincingly that our sterile processing unit achieves satisfactory outcomes for decontamination and sterilization and as such holds promise to support healthcare facilities in low resources settings. PMID:27007568

  16. A Shipping Container-Based Sterile Processing Unit for Low Resources Settings

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Deficiencies in the sterile processing of medical instruments contribute to poor outcomes for patients, such as surgical site infections, longer hospital stays, and deaths. In low resources settings, such as some rural and semi-rural areas and secondary and tertiary cities of developing countries, deficiencies in sterile processing are accentuated due to the lack of access to sterilization equipment, improperly maintained and malfunctioning equipment, lack of power to operate equipment, poor protocols, and inadequate quality control over inventory. Inspired by our sterile processing fieldwork at a district hospital in Sierra Leone in 2013, we built an autonomous, shipping-container-based sterile processing unit to address these deficiencies. The sterile processing unit, dubbed “the sterile box,” is a full suite capable of handling instruments from the moment they leave the operating room to the point they are sterile and ready to be reused for the next surgery. The sterile processing unit is self-sufficient in power and water and features an intake for contaminated instruments, decontamination, sterilization via non-electric steam sterilizers, and secure inventory storage. To validate efficacy, we ran tests of decontamination and sterilization performance. Results of 61 trials validate convincingly that our sterile processing unit achieves satisfactory outcomes for decontamination and sterilization and as such holds promise to support healthcare facilities in low resources settings. PMID:27007568

  17. Estimation of populations and sterility induction in Anastrepha luden (Diptera: Tephritidae) fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo; Toledo, Jorge; Enkerlin, Walther; Liedo, Pablo

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between different release densities of sterile flies and fly trap captures, expressed as flies per trap per day, in the monitoring of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) populations was evaluated in mango orchards. The induction of sterility in fertile females was evaluated using different ratios of sterile: fertile males under field cage conditions. A direct relationship between recaptured flies and densities of release sterile flies was found. However, trap efficiency, expressed as percentage of recaptured flies, decreased as the density of released flies increased. Sterility induction was positively correlated to the ratio of sterile: fertile flies. A significant difference in egg fertility among treatments was observed. The trajectory of sterility induction slowed down after a sterile: wild ratio of 30:1, which suggests that this ratio could be appropriate in an sterile insect technique program with A. ludens. Sterility induction was greater when only sterile males were released than when releasing both sterile males and females, but the differences were not significant. Our findings contribute to a better interpretation of fly captures obtained from the field trapping networks, and to an improvement in the efficiency of sterile insect technique against A. ludens fruit flies, through the implementation of more rational sterile fly release densities.

  18. The prevalence of bacterial contamination of surgical cold sterile solutions from community companion animal veterinary practices in southern Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Colleen P.; Weese, J. Scott; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; McEwen, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    Surgical cold sterile solutions are commonly used in veterinary practice, yet sterility cannot be verified under practical clinical conditions. Surgical cold sterile solutions were sampled and bacteria, including opportunistic pathogens, were recovered from 13% of the sampled solutions. Attempts to sterilize surgical instruments with cold sterile solutions should be avoided. PMID:20808576

  19. Disinfection and Sterilization in Health Care Facilities: An Overview and Current Issues.

    PubMed

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2016-09-01

    When properly used, disinfection and sterilization can ensure the safe use of invasive and noninvasive medical devices. The method of disinfection and sterilization depends on the intended use of the medical device: critical items (contact sterile tissue) must be sterilized before use; semicritical items (contact mucous membranes or nonintact skin) must be high-level disinfected; and noncritical items (contact intact skin) should receive low-level disinfection. Cleaning should always precede high-level disinfection and sterilization. Current disinfection and sterilization guidelines must be strictly followed. PMID:27515140

  20. Troubleshooting failed sterilization loads: Process failures and wet packs/loads.

    PubMed

    Seavey, Rose

    2016-05-01

    Sterilization process failures may place patients at risk. It is important that IPs, managers, educators, and staff members responsible for sterilization in health care facilities understand what to do if there is a biological, chemical, or mechanical sterilization monitor failure, or a wet pack. Sterilization process failures occur for many reasons: a malfunctioning sterilizer, user error (eg, incorrect packaging or loading procedures or incorrect cycle selection), poor steam quality, and others. All process failures should be investigated and the root cause of the failure identified. Understanding the possible causes of sterilization process failures and investigating tools for failed loads can help with risk assessment and necessary corrective action.

  1. Contraception or eugenics? Sterilization and "mental retardation" in the 1970s and 1980s.

    PubMed

    Ladd-Taylor, Molly

    2014-01-01

    Nonconsensual sterilization is usually seen as the by-product of a classist and racist society; disability is ignored. This article examines the 1973 sterilization of two young black girls from Alabama and other precedent-setting court cases involving the sterilization of "mentally retarded" white women to make disability more central to the historical analysis of sterilization. It analyzes the concept of mental retardation and the appeal of a surgical solution to birth control, assesses judicial deliberations over the "right to choose" contraceptive sterilization when the capacity to consent is in doubt, and reflects on the shadow of eugenics that hung over the sterilization debate in the 1970s and 1980s.

  2. Troubleshooting failed sterilization loads: Process failures and wet packs/loads.

    PubMed

    Seavey, Rose

    2016-05-01

    Sterilization process failures may place patients at risk. It is important that IPs, managers, educators, and staff members responsible for sterilization in health care facilities understand what to do if there is a biological, chemical, or mechanical sterilization monitor failure, or a wet pack. Sterilization process failures occur for many reasons: a malfunctioning sterilizer, user error (eg, incorrect packaging or loading procedures or incorrect cycle selection), poor steam quality, and others. All process failures should be investigated and the root cause of the failure identified. Understanding the possible causes of sterilization process failures and investigating tools for failed loads can help with risk assessment and necessary corrective action. PMID:27131132

  3. Sterile inflammation in acute liver injury: myth or mystery?

    PubMed

    Woolbright, Benjamin L; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation during liver injury normally serves as a mechanism for cleaning up debris and as a stimulant for regeneration. However, aberrant levels of inflammation can provoke further liver injury and inhibit regeneration through the release of damaging reactive oxygen species. Considerable effort has gone into understanding the mechanisms that control the switch between healthy and pathological inflammation. The identification of a receptor system that detects damage-associated molecular patterns and stimulates inflammation has led to the idea of sterile inflammation. This article will focus on the role of sterile inflammation during liver injury in three models where sterile inflammation has been presumed to mediate a portion of the injury mechanism and its potential relevance for the human pathophysiology. PMID:26186639

  4. inv(9)(p24q13) in three sterile brothers.

    PubMed

    Dávalos, I P; Rivas, F; Ramos, A L; Galaviz, C; Sandoval, L; Rivera, H

    2000-01-01

    Only nine non-polymorphic constitutional pericentric inversions of chromosome 9 have been described. We report on a familial inv(9)(p24q13) associated with sterility in three brothers. The mother's chromosomes were normal in blood lymphocytes (n=130); the father was already deceased and his karyotype unknown. However, the presence of any of the maternal chromosomes 9 (as assessed by C-banding) in her carrier children is inconsistent with the assumption of maternal mosaicism. Two single sisters were also carriers. The same rearranged chromosome 9 in the three sterile brothers can hardly be regarded as a fortuitous association, especially when the breakpoints are almost identical to those of the sole inversion previously found in an azoospermic male. If their father was a carrier, the observed sterility may be the result of 'chromosome anticipation', a phenomenon already invoked for certain familial chromosomal rearrangements.

  5. Design Considerations of a Compounded Sterile Preparations Course

    PubMed Central

    Petraglia, Christine; Mattison, Melissa J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To design a comprehensive learning and assessment environment for the practical application of compounded sterile preparations using a constructivist approach. Design. Compounded Sterile Preparations Laboratory is a required 1-credit course that builds upon the themes of training aseptic technique typically used in health system settings and threads application of concepts from other courses in the curriculum. Students used critical-thinking skills to devise appropriate strategies to compound sterile preparations. Assessment. Aseptic technique skills were assessed with objective, structured, checklist-based rubrics. Most students successfully completed practical assessments using appropriate technique (mean assessment grade=83.2%). Almost all students passed the practical media fill (98%) and gloved fingertip sampling (86%) tests on the first attempt; all passed on the second attempt. Conclusion. Employing a constructivist scaffold approach to teaching proper hygiene and aseptic technique prepared students to pass media fill and gloved fingertip tests and to perform well on practical compounding assessments. PMID:26941438

  6. Thermalisation of light sterile neutrinos in the early universe

    SciTech Connect

    Hannestad, Steen; Tram, Thomas; Tamborra, Irene E-mail: tamborra@mpp.mpg.de

    2012-07-01

    Recent cosmological data favour additional relativistic degrees of freedom beyond the three active neutrinos and photons, often referred to as ''dark'' radiation. Light sterile neutrinos is one of the prime candidates for such additional radiation. However, constraints on sterile neutrinos based on the current cosmological data have been derived using simplified assumptions about thermalisation of ν{sub s} at the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) epoch. These assumptions are not necessarily justified and here we solve the full quantum kinetic equations in the (1 active + 1 sterile) scenario and derive the number of thermalised species just before BBN begins (T ≅ 1 MeV) for null (L = 0) and large (L = 10{sup −2}) initial lepton asymmetry and for a range of possible mass-mixing parameters. We find that the full thermalisation assumption during the BBN epoch is justified for initial small lepton asymmetry only. Partial or null thermalisation occurs when the initial lepton asymmetry is large.

  7. Physical structure changes of solid medium by steam explosion sterilization.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-Min; Wang, Lan; Chen, Hong-Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Physical structure changes of solid medium were investigated to reveal effects of steam explosion sterilization on solid-state fermentation (SSF). Results indicated that steam explosion changed the structure of solid medium at both molecular and three-dimensional structural levels, which exposed hydrophilic groups and enlarged pores and cavities. It was interesting to find that pores where capillary water located were the active sites for SSF, due to the close relationship among capillary water relaxation time, specific surface area and fermentation performance. Therefore, steam explosion sterilization increased the effective contact area for microbial cells on solid medium, which contributed to improving SSF performance. Combined with the previous research, mechanisms of SSF improvement by steam explosion sterilization contained both chemical and physical effects. PMID:26724552

  8. Sterilization of Turmeric by Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setareh, Salarieh; Davoud, Dorranian

    2013-11-01

    In this study atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma has been employed for sterilizing dry turmeric powders. A 6 kV, 6 kHz frequency generator was used to generate plasma with Ar, Ar/O2, He, and He/O2 gases between the 5 mm gap of two quartz covered electrodes. The complete sterilization time of samples due to plasma treatment was measured. The most important contaminant of turmeric is bacillus subtilis. The results show that the shortest sterilization time of 15 min is achieved by exposing the samples to Ar/O2 plasma. Survival curves of samples are exponential functions of time and the addition of oxygen to plasma leads to a significant increase of the absolute value of time constant of the curves. Magnitudes of protein and DNA in treated samples were increased to a similar value for all samples. Taste, color, and solubility of samples were not changed after the plasma treatment.

  9. Selection of sterilization methods for planetary return missions.

    PubMed

    Trofimov, V I; Victorov, A; Ivanov, M

    1996-01-01

    Two tasks must be accomplished to provide planetary protection for Mars return missions: (1) sterilization of the scientific module to be landed on Mars and (2) reliable sterilization of all material returned to Earth, while ensuring the scientific integrity of martian samples. This paper examines similarity and differences between these two tasks, and includes a discussion of technological implementation conditions and the nature of terrestrial and hypothesized martian microflora. The feasibility of a number of chemical and physical (ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and heating) methods of sterilization for use on the ground and onboard are discussed and compared. A combination of different methods will probably be selected as the most appropriate for ensuring planetary protection on the return mission.

  10. Antioxidant properties of sterilized yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) tuber flour.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Sérgio; Pinto, Jorge; Rodrigues, César; Gião, Maria; Pereira, Claúdia; Tavaria, Freni; Malcata, F Xavier; Gomes, Ana; Bertoldo Pacheco, M T; Pintado, Manuela

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this research work was to investigate the antioxidant properties of sterilized yacon tuber flour. The results revealed for the first time the high antioxidant activity of sterilized yacon flour. The best extract obtained by boiling 8.9% (w/v) of yacon flour in deionised water for 10 min exhibited a total antioxidant capacity of 222±2 mg (ascorbic acid equivalent)/100 g DW and a total polyphenol content of 275±3 mg (gallic acid equivalent)/100 g DW associated to the presence of four main phenolic compounds: chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, coumaric acid and protocatechuic acid, as well as the amino acid tryptophan. The most abundant was chlorogenic acid, followed by caffeic acid. Biological assays revealed that the extract had indeed antioxidant protection, and no pro-oxidant activity. In conclusion, sterilized yacon tuber flour has the potential to be used in the food industry as a food ingredient to produce functional food products.

  11. Indirect dark matter detection in the light of sterile neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Esmaili, Arman; Peres, O.L.G. E-mail: orlando@ifi.unicamp.br

    2012-05-01

    The recent global fit of short baseline neutrino oscillation data favors the presence of one (or more) sterile neutrino state which leads to new mass splitting Δm{sup 2} ∼ 1 eV{sup 2}. We consider the effect of this new states on the evolution of neutrinos from the dark matter annihilation inside the Sun. We show that neutrinos with energy E{sub ν}∼>100 GeV undergo resonant active-sterile oscillation which depletes the flux of neutrinos arriving at the Earth. As an example of this effect, we present the oscillation probabilities for the case of monochromatic neutrinos from the direct annihilation of dark matter particles to neutrinos and the depletion due to the presence of sterile neutrinos. We discuss the seasonal variation of oscillation probabilities which is expected for the case of monochromatic neutrinos.

  12. Self-sterilization of bodies during outer planet entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Jaworski, W.; Taylor, D. M.

    1974-01-01

    A body encountering the atmosphere of an outer planet is subjected to heat loads which could result in high temperature conditions that render terrestrial organisms on or within the body nonviable. To determine whether an irregularly shaped entering body, consisting of several different materials, would be sterilized during inadvertent entry at high velocity, the thermal response of a typical outer planet spacecraft instrument was studied. The results indicate that the Teflon insulated cable and electronic circuit boards may not experience sterilizing temperatures during a Jupiter, Saturn, or Titan entry. Another conclusion of the study is that small plastic particles entering Saturn from outer space have wider survival corridors than do those at Jupiter.

  13. Mathematical model in controlling dengue transmission with sterile mosquito strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldila, D.; Nuraini, N.; Soewono, E.

    2015-09-01

    In this article, we propose a mathematical model for controlling dengue disease transmission with sterile mosquito techniques (SIT). Sterile male introduced from lab in to habitat to compete with wild male mosquito for mating with female mosquito. Our aim is to displace gradually the natural mosquito from the habitat. Mathematical model analysis for steady states and the basic reproductive ratio are performed analytically. Numerical simulation are shown in some different scenarios. We find that SIT intervention is potential to controlling dengue spread among humans population

  14. Tight bonds between sterile neutrinos and dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Bringmann, Torsten; Hasenkamp, Jasper; Kersten, Jörn E-mail: Jasper.Hasenkamp@nyu.edu

    2014-07-01

    Despite the astonishing success of standard ΛCDM cosmology, there is mounting evidence for a tension with observations at small and intermediate scales. We introduce a simple model where both cold dark matter (DM) and sterile neutrinos are charged under a new U(1){sub X} gauge interaction. The resulting DM self-interactions resolve the tension with the observed abundances and internal density structures of dwarf galaxies. At the same time, the sterile neutrinos can account for both the small hot DM component favored by cosmological observations and the neutrino anomalies found in short-baseline experiments.

  15. [Medico-legal risks of human voluntary sterilization].

    PubMed

    Le Quinquis, P; Chevrant-Breton, O

    1986-01-01

    There has been no legislation in France explicitly authorizing voluntary sterilization, so that a practitioner carrying out a voluntary surgical sterilization runs a theoretical risk of lawsuit. Concern about the legal status of voluntary sterilization stems from 2 articles in the French penal code, article 16 which forbids the crime of castration, defined as the intentional complete and definitive amputation or removal of an organ necessary for procreation; and article 309 which forbids voluntary assault and battery resulting in death or inability to work for 8 days, or a lesser incapacity if the violence was premeditated. Vasectomy and tubal ligation differ from castration in that they do not involve removal or mutilation of the genital organs. Article 309 has been applied to a sterilization case only once. The criminal chamber of the Court of Cassation, France's highest appeals court, ruled in 1937 that the consent of the victim had no effect on penal responsibility, since individuals have no right to violate on their own persons the rules of public order by undergoing corporal injuries unjustified by medical need. There has been no penal judgment since 1937 in a voluntary sterilization case. In a 1983 judgment, the Court of Cassation upheld the responsibility of a surgeon for not informing a 28-year-old mother of 5 of the possibility of failure of the sterilization operation he performed on her. The patient found herself pregnant once again less than 1 month after the operation. Had she been informed of the possibility of pregnancy, she might have taken further precautions to avoid it. The court established a causal link between the problems created by the pregnancy and the fault of the physician in not providing adequate information. The court's decision was of interest because it included tubal ligation among surgical interventions condoned by the common law of medical responsibility, thereby implying acceptance of voluntary sterilization. The plaintiff

  16. Constraining sterile neutrino dark matter with phase space density observations

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbunov, D; Khmelnitsky, A; Rubakov, V E-mail: khmeln@ms2.inr.ac.ru

    2008-10-15

    We apply phase space density considerations to obtain lower bounds on the mass of the sterile neutrino as a dark matter candidate. The bounds are different for non-resonant production, resonant production in the presence of lepton asymmetry and production in decays of heavier particles. In the former case our bound is comparable to but independent of the Lyman-{alpha} bound, and together with the x-ray upper limit it disfavors non-resonantly produced sterile neutrino dark matter. An interesting feature of the latter case is that warm dark matter may be composed of heavy particles.

  17. Revision of the ISO and EN radiation sterilization standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Arne; Hansen, Joyce

    2002-03-01

    The radiation sterilization standards, ISO 11137 and EN 552, are now being revised under "ISO lead", with the aim of producing only one international standard, although in four parts: (1) requirements, (2) dose-setting methods, (3) dose-substantiation methods and (4) dosimetry. Several aspects of the old standards that have caused problems, when they were used in practice, are addressed in the revision. Input from users of the standards is necessary in order that the standards be developed as useful tools in the documentation of radiation sterilization.

  18. Nanomaterials for fresh-keeping and sterilization in food preservation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongfang; Gu, Ning

    2009-06-01

    Food sterilizing and antistaling technologies are very important to the public's health and safety and have been attracting more and more attentions. In the past several years, new development chance was created by the introduction of nanomaterials to this critical field. Nanomaterials possess lots of outstanding properties, such as unique quantum size effect, large surface area and catalytic properties, which jointly facilitate high effective fresh-keeping, and thus were considered as promising materials in food sterilization and antistale. This review article focuses on the patented applications of nanomaterials as food biocidal agents, bacteriostatic agents, catalysts and carriers for antistaling agents.

  19. Hybrid male sterility and genome-wide misexpression of male reproductive proteases.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Suzanne; Civetta, Alberto

    2015-07-06

    Hybrid male sterility is a common barrier to gene flow between species. Previous studies have posited a link between misregulation of spermatogenesis genes in interspecies hybrids and sterility. However, in the absence of fully fertile control hybrids, it is impossible to differentiate between misregulation associated with sterility vs. fast male gene regulatory evolution. Here, we differentiate between these two possibilities using a D. pseudoobscura species pair that experiences unidirectional hybrid sterility. We identify genes uniquely misexpressed in sterile hybrid male reproductive tracts via RNA-seq. The sterile male hybrids had more misregulated and more over or under expressed genes relative to parental species than the fertile male hybrids. Proteases were the only gene ontology class overrepresented among uniquely misexpressed genes, with four located within a previously identified hybrid male sterility locus. This result highlights the potential role of a previously unexplored class of genes in interspecific hybrid male sterility and speciation.

  20. [Biological and chemical indicators of thermal sterilization and their possible effect on its general concept].

    PubMed

    Horn, H; Machmerth, R; Witthauer, J

    1976-01-01

    Regarding to ignorance of germ thermoresistance occurring in hospital environment, the effect of sterilization in medicine is determined occasionally on samples of medium with high number of germs or tests are performed to determine the sterilization success (in pharmacy) by examining samples of sterile badges, although their degrees of contamination (mostly low) before sterilization are not known. Instead of fixed sterilization parameters, the new second Pharmacopoeia of the German Democratic Republic (1976 seqq.) allows a free choise of sterilization parameters ingeniously spaced (110 degrees C--140 degrees C vapour, 160 degrees C--200 degrees C hot air) according to diagrams. The mentioned methods both imperfect and expensive ones should be replaced by introducing sterilization indicators whose changes might render the designation "sterile" possible. Substantial differencies between biological and chemical indicators are shown. PMID:987099

  1. 21 CFR 522.1881 - Sterile prednisolone acetate aqueous suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... milliliter of sterile aqueous suspension contains 25 milligrams of prednisolone acetate. (b) Sponsor. See No.... (1) The drug is indicated in the treatment of dogs, cats, and horses for conditions requiring an anti... therapy. The drug is administered to dogs and cats intramuscularly at a dosage level of 10 to...

  2. 21 CFR 522.1881 - Sterile prednisolone acetate aqueous suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... milliliter of sterile aqueous suspension contains 25 milligrams of prednisolone acetate. (b) Sponsor. See No.... (1) The drug is indicated in the treatment of dogs, cats, and horses for conditions requiring an anti... therapy. The drug is administered to dogs and cats intramuscularly at a dosage level of 10 to...

  3. Beyond Mortality: Sterility As a Neglected Component of Parasite Virulence.

    PubMed

    Abbate, Jessica L; Kada, Sarah; Lion, Sébastien

    2015-12-01

    Virulence is generally defined as the reduction in host fitness following infection by a parasite (see Box 1 for glossary) [1]. In general, parasite exploitation of host resources may reduce host survival (mortality virulence), decrease host fecundity (sterility virulence), or even have sub-lethal effects that disturb the way individuals interact within a community (morbidity) [2,3]. In fact, the virulence of many parasites involves a combination of these various effects (Box 2). In practice, however, virulence is most often defined as disease-induced mortality [1, 4-6]. This is especially true in the theoretical literature, where the evolution of sterility virulence, morbidity, and mixed strategies of host exploitation have received relatively little attention. While the focus on mortality effects has allowed for easy comparison between models and, thus, rapid advancement of the field, we ask whether these theoretical simplifications have led us to inadvertently minimize the evolutionary importance of host sterilization and secondary virulence effects. As explicit theoretical work on morbidity is currently lacking (but see [7]), our aim in this Opinion piece is to discuss what is understood about sterility virulence evolution, its adaptive potential, and the implications for parasites that utilize a combination of host survival and reproductive resources.

  4. Mechanisms Underlying Mammalian Hybrid Sterility in Two Feline Interspecies Models

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Brian W.; Seabury, Christopher M.; Brashear, Wesley A.; Li, Gang; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Murphy, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of male sterility in interspecies hybrids has been observed for over a century, however, few genes influencing this recurrent phenotype have been identified. Genetic investigations have been primarily limited to a small number of model organisms, thus limiting our understanding of the underlying molecular basis of this well-documented “rule of speciation.” We utilized two interspecies hybrid cat breeds in a genome-wide association study employing the Illumina 63 K single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Collectively, we identified eight autosomal genes/gene regions underlying associations with hybrid male sterility (HMS) involved in the function of the blood-testis barrier, gamete structural development, and transcriptional regulation. We also identified several candidate hybrid sterility regions on the X chromosome, with most residing in close proximity to complex duplicated regions. Differential gene expression analyses revealed significant chromosome-wide upregulation of X chromosome transcripts in testes of sterile hybrids, which were enriched for genes involved in chromatin regulation of gene expression. Our expression results parallel those reported in Mus hybrids, supporting the “Large X-Effect” in mammalian HMS and the potential epigenetic basis for this phenomenon. These results support the value of the interspecies feline model as a powerful tool for comparison to rodent models of HMS, demonstrating unique aspects and potential commonalities that underpin mammalian reproductive isolation. PMID:26006188

  5. Genetics and evolution of hybrid male sterility in house mice.

    PubMed

    White, Michael A; Stubbings, Maria; Dumont, Beth L; Payseur, Bret A

    2012-07-01

    Comparative genetic mapping provides insights into the evolution of the reproductive barriers that separate closely related species. This approach has been used to document the accumulation of reproductive incompatibilities over time, but has only been applied to a few taxa. House mice offer a powerful system to reconstruct the evolution of reproductive isolation between multiple subspecies pairs. However, studies of the primary reproductive barrier in house mice-hybrid male sterility-have been restricted to a single subspecies pair: Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus. To provide a more complete characterization of reproductive isolation in house mice, we conducted an F(2) intercross between wild-derived inbred strains from Mus musculus castaneus and M. m. domesticus. We identified autosomal and X-linked QTL associated with a range of hybrid male sterility phenotypes, including testis weight, sperm density, and sperm morphology. The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) was strongly associated with hybrid sterility phenotypes when heterozygous. We compared QTL found in this cross with QTL identified in a previous F(2) intercross between M. m. musculus and M. m. domesticus and found three shared autosomal QTL. Most QTL were not shared, demonstrating that the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility largely differs between these closely related subspecies pairs. These results lay the groundwork for identifying genes responsible for the early stages of speciation in house mice.

  6. Proteomic Analysis of Pachytene Spermatocytes of Sterile Hybrid Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Guo, Yueshuai; Liu, Wenjing; Zhao, Weidong; Song, Gendi; Zhou, Tao; Huang, Hefeng; Guo, Xuejiang; Sun, Fei

    2016-09-01

    Incompatibilities in interspecific hybrids, such as reduced hybrid fertility and lethality, are common features resulting from reproductive isolation that lead to speciation. Subspecies crosses of house mice produce offspring in which one sex is infertile or absent, yet the molecular mechanisms of hybrid sterility are poorly understood. In this study, we observed extensive asynapsis of chromosomes and disturbance of the sex body in pachytene spermatocytes of sterile F1 males (PWK/Ph female × C57BL/6J male). We report the high-confidence identification of 4005 proteins in the pachytene spermatocytes of fertile F1 males (PWK/Ph male × C57BL/6J female) and sterile F1 males (PWK/Ph female × C57BL/6J male), of which 215 were upregulated and 381 were downregulated. Bioinformatics analysis of the proteome led to the identification of 43 and 59 proteins known to be essential for male meiosis and spermatogenesis in mice, respectively. Characterization of the proteome of pachytene spermatocytes associated with hybrid male sterility provides an inventory of proteins that is useful for understanding meiosis and the mechanisms of hybrid male infertility.

  7. Characterization of Prdm9 in equids and sterility in mules.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Cynthia C; Ryder, Oliver A

    2013-01-01

    Prdm9 (Meisetz) is the first speciation gene discovered in vertebrates conferring reproductive isolation. This locus encodes a meiosis-specific histone H3 methyltransferase that specifies meiotic recombination hotspots during gametogenesis. Allelic differences in Prdm9, characterized for a variable number of zinc finger (ZF) domains, have been associated with hybrid sterility in male house mice via spermatogenic failure at the pachytene stage. The mule, a classic example of hybrid sterility in mammals also exhibits a similar spermatogenesis breakdown, making Prdm9 an interesting candidate to evaluate in equine hybrids. In this study, we characterized the Prdm9 gene in all species of equids by analyzing sequence variation of the ZF domains and estimating positive selection. We also evaluated the role of Prdm9 in hybrid sterility by assessing allelic differences of ZF domains in equine hybrids. We found remarkable variation in the sequence and number of ZF domains among equid species, ranging from five domains in the Tibetan kiang and Asiatic wild ass, to 14 in the Grevy's zebra. Positive selection was detected in all species at amino acid sites known to be associated with DNA-binding specificity of ZF domains in mice and humans. Equine hybrids, in particular a quartet pedigree composed of a fertile mule showed a mosaic of sequences and number of ZF domains suggesting that Prdm9 variation does not seem by itself to contribute to equine hybrid sterility.

  8. Metabolically engineered male sterility in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Engelke, Thomas; Hirsche, J; Roitsch, T

    2011-01-01

    Male sterility is of special interest as a mechanism allowing hybrid breeding, especially in important crops such as rapeseed (Brassica napus). Male sterile plants are also suggested to be used as a biological safety method to prevent the spread of transgenes, a risk that is high in the case of rapeseed due to the mode of pollination, out-crossing by wind or insects, and the presence of related, cross-pollinating species in the surrounding ecosystem in Europe. Different natural occurring male sterilities and alloplasmic forms have been tried to be used in rapeseed with more or less success. Due to the difficulties and limitations with these systems, we present a biotechnological alternative: a metabolically engineered male sterility caused by interference with anther-specific cell wall-bound invertase. This is an essential enzyme for carbohydrate supply of the symplastically isolated pollen. The activity of this enzyme is reduced either by antisense interference or by expressing an invertase inhibitor under control of the anther-specific promoter of the invertase with the consequence of a strong decrease of pollen germination ability. PMID:20821307

  9. 21 CFR 800.10 - Contact lens solutions; sterility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL Requirements for Specific Medical Devices § 800.10 Contact lens solutions... for ophthalmic use that are regulated as medical devices, i.e., contact lens solutions. By the... not sterile. These articles, which are regulated as medical devices unless packaged with the...

  10. 21 CFR 800.10 - Contact lens solutions; sterility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL Requirements for Specific Medical Devices § 800.10 Contact lens solutions... for ophthalmic use that are regulated as medical devices, i.e., contact lens solutions. By the... not sterile. These articles, which are regulated as medical devices unless packaged with the...

  11. Fast Sterility Assessment by Germinable-Endospore Biodosimetry▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Yung, Pun To; Ponce, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    The increased demand for sterile products has created the need for rapid technologies capable of validating the hygiene of industrial production processes. Bacillus endospores are in standard use as biological indicators for evaluating the effectiveness of sterilization processes. Currently, culture-based methods, requiring more than 2 days before results become available, are employed to verify endospore inactivation. We describe a rapid, microscopy-based endospore viability assay (μEVA) capable of enumerating germinable endospores in less than 15 min. μEVA employs time-gated luminescence microscopy to enumerate single germinable endospores via terbium-dipicolinate (Tb-DPA) luminescence, which is triggered under UV excitation as 108 DPA molecules are released during germination on agarose containing Tb3+ and a germinant (e.g., l-alanine). Inactivation of endospore populations to sterility was monitored with μEVA as a function of thermal and UV dosage. A comparison of culturing results yielded nearly identical decimal reduction values, thus validating μEVA as a rapid biodosimetry method for monitoring sterilization processes. The simple Tb-DPA chemical test for germinability is envisioned to enable fully automated instrumentation for in-line monitoring of hygiene in industrial production processes. PMID:18836020

  12. Spacecraft Sterilization Using Non-Equilibrium Atmospheric Pressure Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Moogega; Vaze, Nachiket; Anderson, Shawn; Fridman, Gregory; Vasilets, Victor N.; Gutsol, Alexander; Tsapin, Alexander; Fridman, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    As a solution to chemically and thermally destructive sterilization methods currently used for spacecraft, non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasmas are used to treat surfaces inoculated with Bacillus subtilis and Deinococcus radiodurans. Evidence of significant morphological changes and reduction in viability due to plasma exposure will be presented, including a 4-log reduction of B. subtilis after 2 minutes of dielectric barrier discharge treatment.

  13. A novel approach to sterile pharmaceutical freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Christopher Lee Albert; Millward, Huw; Cooper, Rose; Landon, John

    2014-02-01

    A novel approach has been developed that enables sterile pharmaceutical products to be freeze-dried in the open laboratory without specialist facilities. The product is filled into vials, semi-stoppered and sealed inside one, followed by a second, sterilization pouch under class 100 conditions. The product is then freeze-dried in the laboratory where the vials are shelf-stoppered before being returned to class 100, unwrapped and crimped. The sterilization pouches increased the resistance to water vapor movement during sublimation, thereby increasing the sublimation time and product temperature. Ovine immunoglobulins were double wrapped and lyophilized (as above) adjusting the primary drying time and shelf temperature for increased product temperature and, therefore, prevention of collapse. Ovine immunoglobulin G formulations freeze-dried to ≤ 1.1% residual moisture with no effect on protein aggregation or biological activity. The process was simulated with tryptone soya broth and no growth of contaminating microbial cells was observed after incubation at 35 °C for 2 weeks. Although increasing lyophilization time, this approach offers significant plant and validation cost savings when sterile freeze-drying small numbers of vials thereby making the manufacture of treatments for neglected and orphan diseases more viable economically.

  14. Quinacrine pellet nonsurgical female sterilization in Wonosobo, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Suhadi, A; Soejoenoes, A

    1997-05-01

    A female sterilization regimen involving transcervical insertion of pellets containing 252 mg of quinacrine and 55.5 mg of ibuprofen in the proliferative phase of 2 consecutive menstrual cycles was found to be safe, acceptable, and effective. Subjects included 200 healthy volunteers (mean age, 33.2 years) who presented to a family planning clinic in Central Java Province, Indonesia, seeking sterilization. The insertion procedure (Kimia Farma) is similar to that for the Copper-T IUD. Only 3 women declined the second insertion. One month after insertion, side effects included lower abdominal pain (58.0%), fever (13.5%), and leukorrhea; however, these rates decreased to 0.5%, 2.0%, and 2.0%, respectively, 1 year after the second insertion and to 0.5%, 0.0%, and 1.6%, respectively, after 2 years. During the 2-year study period, 4 women became pregnant 4, 5, 14, and 18 months after the second insertion. The cumulative pregnancy rate was 1.0% 0-12 months after insertion and 2.0% in the second year. One of these women selected pregnancy termination; no malformations were noted in the 3 infants delivered. Quinacrine sterilization has the potential to meet the unmet need for female sterilization in developing countries without access to trained personnel and sophisticated surgical equipment.

  15. Checking T and CPT violation with sterile neutrino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, Yogita; Diwakar, Sujata; Singh, Jyotsna; Singh, R. B.

    2016-08-01

    Post LSND results, sterile neutrinos have drawn attention and motivated the high energy physics, astronomy and cosmology to probe physics beyond the standard model considering minimal 3 + 1 (3 active and 1 sterile) to 3 + N neutrino schemes. The analytical equations for neutrino conversion probabilities are developed in this work for 3 + 1 neutrino scheme. Here, we have tried to explore the possible signals of T and CPT violations with four flavor neutrino scheme at neutrino factory. Values of sterile parameters considered in this analysis are taken from two different types of neutrino experiments viz. long baseline experiments and reactor+atmospheric experiments. In this work golden and discovery channels are selected for the investigation of T violation. While observing T violation we stipulate that neutrino factory working at 50 GeV energy has the potential to observe the signatures of T violation through discovery channel if sterile parameter values are equal to that taken from reactor+atmospheric experiments. The ability of neutrino factory for constraining CPT violation is enhanced with increase in energy for normal neutrino mass hierarchy (NH). Neutrino factory with the exposure time of 500 kt-yr will be able to capture CPT violation with δc31 ≥ 3.6 ×10-23 GeV at 3σ level for NH and for IH with δc31 ≥ 4 ×10-23 GeV at 3σ level.

  16. 7 CFR 305.28 - Kiln sterilization treatment schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kiln sterilization treatment schedule. 305.28 Section 305.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS Heat Treatments § 305.28...

  17. Heat Sterilization of Water in a Large Open Vessel

    PubMed Central

    Yale, Charles E.; Linsley, James G.; Anderson, Lawrence C.

    1968-01-01

    A safe, convenient, and economical method of preparing and dispensing a large volume of sterile water in a movable container is described. A caster-mounted, rectangular, 100-gal, stainless-steel water tank was fabricated. An audible, solid-state water-level alarm was developed for use with a detachable sensing probe that could be autoclaved. A filter system was constructed to allow the tank to be autoclaved as an open vessel. Thermocouples were mounted within the tank of water to study the time-temperature relationships of the water during the sterilization cycle. In a downward displacement autoclave with a hot jacket, 75 min were required for the water temperature to rise from 140 to 240 F (60 to 116 C). A total of 3 hr for heating and holding includes an adequate safety factor to insure the sterility of the water immediately after autoclaving. The long-term sterility of the water and the safety of the system were verified by using the water to maintain a germ-free animal colony. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:5647520

  18. Sterile neutrinos with secret interactions—lasting friendship with cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Xiaoyong; Dasgupta, Basudeb; Kopp, Joachim E-mail: bdasgupta@theory.tifr.res.in

    2015-10-01

    Sterile neutrinos with mass ≅ 1 eV and order 10% mixing with active neutrinos have been proposed as a solution to anomalies in neutrino oscillation data, but are tightly constrained by cosmological limits. It was recently shown that these constraints are avoided if sterile neutrinos couple to a new MeV-scale gauge boson A'. However, even this scenario is restricted by structure formation constraints when A'-mediated collisional processes lead to efficient active-to-sterile neutrino conversion after neutrinos have decoupled. In view of this, we reevaluate in this paper the viability of sterile neutrinos with such ''secret'' interactions. We carefully dissect their evolution in the early Universe, including the various production channels and the expected modifications to large scale structure formation. We argue that there are two regions in parameter space—one at very small A' coupling, one at relatively large A' coupling—where all constraints from big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), cosmic microwave background (CMB), and large scale structure (LSS) data are satisfied. Interestingly, the large A' coupling region is precisely the region that was previously shown to have potentially important consequences for the small scale structure of dark matter halos if the A' boson couples also to the dark matter in the Universe.

  19. Sterile neutrinos with secret interactions — lasting friendship with cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Xiaoyong; Dasgupta, Basudeb; Kopp, Joachim

    2015-10-06

    Sterile neutrinos with mass ≃1 eV and order 10% mixing with active neutrinos have been proposed as a solution to anomalies in neutrino oscillation data, but are tightly constrained by cosmological limits. It was recently shown that these constraints are avoided if sterile neutrinos couple to a new MeV-scale gauge boson A{sup ′}. However, even this scenario is restricted by structure formation constraints when A{sup ′}-mediated collisional processes lead to efficient active-to-sterile neutrino conversion after neutrinos have decoupled. In view of this, we reevaluate in this paper the viability of sterile neutrinos with such “secret” interactions. We carefully dissect their evolution in the early Universe, including the various production channels and the expected modifications to large scale structure formation. We argue that there are two regions in parameter space — one at very small A{sup ′} coupling, one at relatively large A{sup ′} coupling — where all constraints from big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), cosmic microwave background (CMB), and large scale structure (LSS) data are satisfied. Interestingly, the large A{sup ′} coupling region is precisely the region that was previously shown to have potentially important consequences for the small scale structure of dark matter halos if the A{sup ′} boson couples also to the dark matter in the Universe.

  20. Beyond Mortality: Sterility As a Neglected Component of Parasite Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Abbate, Jessica L.; Kada, Sarah; Lion, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Virulence is generally defined as the reduction in host fitness following infection by a parasite (see Box 1 for glossary) [1]. In general, parasite exploitation of host resources may reduce host survival (mortality virulence), decrease host fecundity (sterility virulence), or even have sub-lethal effects that disturb the way individuals interact within a community (morbidity) [2,3]. In fact, the virulence of many parasites involves a combination of these various effects (Box 2). In practice, however, virulence is most often defined as disease-induced mortality [1, 4–6]. This is especially true in the theoretical literature, where the evolution of sterility virulence, morbidity, and mixed strategies of host exploitation have received relatively little attention. While the focus on mortality effects has allowed for easy comparison between models and, thus, rapid advancement of the field, we ask whether these theoretical simplifications have led us to inadvertently minimize the evolutionary importance of host sterilization and secondary virulence effects. As explicit theoretical work on morbidity is currently lacking (but see [7]), our aim in this Opinion piece is to discuss what is understood about sterility virulence evolution, its adaptive potential, and the implications for parasites that utilize a combination of host survival and reproductive resources. PMID:26632822

  1. Mechanisms Underlying Mammalian Hybrid Sterility in Two Feline Interspecies Models.

    PubMed

    Davis, Brian W; Seabury, Christopher M; Brashear, Wesley A; Li, Gang; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Murphy, William J

    2015-10-01

    The phenomenon of male sterility in interspecies hybrids has been observed for over a century, however, few genes influencing this recurrent phenotype have been identified. Genetic investigations have been primarily limited to a small number of model organisms, thus limiting our understanding of the underlying molecular basis of this well-documented "rule of speciation." We utilized two interspecies hybrid cat breeds in a genome-wide association study employing the Illumina 63 K single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Collectively, we identified eight autosomal genes/gene regions underlying associations with hybrid male sterility (HMS) involved in the function of the blood-testis barrier, gamete structural development, and transcriptional regulation. We also identified several candidate hybrid sterility regions on the X chromosome, with most residing in close proximity to complex duplicated regions. Differential gene expression analyses revealed significant chromosome-wide upregulation of X chromosome transcripts in testes of sterile hybrids, which were enriched for genes involved in chromatin regulation of gene expression. Our expression results parallel those reported in Mus hybrids, supporting the "Large X-Effect" in mammalian HMS and the potential epigenetic basis for this phenomenon. These results support the value of the interspecies feline model as a powerful tool for comparison to rodent models of HMS, demonstrating unique aspects and potential commonalities that underpin mammalian reproductive isolation. PMID:26006188

  2. Professionals' Attitudes toward the Sterilization of People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantlinger, Ellen

    1992-01-01

    Semistructured interviews with 50 professionals found that opinions about sterilization of people with disabilities were integrally related to attitudes toward individuals with disabilities, as well as toward their parenting skills and general sexuality. Interviewees were concerned about present practices, but little consensus was exhibited about…

  3. Cutaneous sterile pyogranuloma/granuloma syndrome in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Domenico; Spaterna, Andrea; Mechelli, Luca; Ciaramella, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    A case of canine cutaneous sterile pyogranuloma/granuloma syndrome (SPGS) with generalized asymmetrical alopecia and plaques is described. Results from histopathologic examination were suggestive of SPGS and failed to demonstrate any etiological agent. A systematic approach on how to definitively rule out infectious skin diseases is discussed. PMID:19252712

  4. Mechanisms Underlying Mammalian Hybrid Sterility in Two Feline Interspecies Models.

    PubMed

    Davis, Brian W; Seabury, Christopher M; Brashear, Wesley A; Li, Gang; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Murphy, William J

    2015-10-01

    The phenomenon of male sterility in interspecies hybrids has been observed for over a century, however, few genes influencing this recurrent phenotype have been identified. Genetic investigations have been primarily limited to a small number of model organisms, thus limiting our understanding of the underlying molecular basis of this well-documented "rule of speciation." We utilized two interspecies hybrid cat breeds in a genome-wide association study employing the Illumina 63 K single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Collectively, we identified eight autosomal genes/gene regions underlying associations with hybrid male sterility (HMS) involved in the function of the blood-testis barrier, gamete structural development, and transcriptional regulation. We also identified several candidate hybrid sterility regions on the X chromosome, with most residing in close proximity to complex duplicated regions. Differential gene expression analyses revealed significant chromosome-wide upregulation of X chromosome transcripts in testes of sterile hybrids, which were enriched for genes involved in chromatin regulation of gene expression. Our expression results parallel those reported in Mus hybrids, supporting the "Large X-Effect" in mammalian HMS and the potential epigenetic basis for this phenomenon. These results support the value of the interspecies feline model as a powerful tool for comparison to rodent models of HMS, demonstrating unique aspects and potential commonalities that underpin mammalian reproductive isolation.

  5. The mechanically stable steam sterilization of bone grafts.

    PubMed

    Draenert, G F; Delius, M

    2007-03-01

    Bone allografts are the standard material used in augmentative bone surgery. However, steam-sterilized bone has a low mechanical stability and limited ossification based on low strain-adapted bone remodelling. Here we describe a new technique which allows the bone to be autoclaved without losing its mechanical stability and osteoconductivity. The compression strength of the new material was compared with steam-sterilized and fresh bone based on mechanical testing using bone cylinders (n=30/group). Allogeneic new material and fresh bone were press-fit implanted into rabbit patellar grooves and examined under fluorescent light and conventional microscopy. Initial healing was assessed after 30 d (n=5/group). Osseous integration and remodelling was studied after 100 d (n=12/group). Steam-sterilized bone showed no mechanical stability, whereas the new material was stiff and had compression curves similar to fresh bone; both groups showed equal degrees of direct ossification after 30 d, advanced bony ingrowth and remodelling after 100 d, and similar ingrowth depths on histomorphometric analysis. The new method preserved the stiffness and osteoconductivity of bone after steam sterilization, and microstructure, mineralization, and composition were conserved. This technique could be useful for bone banking in Third World countries.

  6. 21 CFR 522.44 - Sterile sodium acetazolamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sterile sodium acetazolamide. 522.44 Section 522.44 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... milligrams acetazolamide activity per milliliter. (b) Sponsor. See No. 010042 in § 510.600(c) of this...

  7. Properties of resonantly produced sterile neutrino dark matter subhaloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiuchi, Shunsaku; Bozek, Brandon; Abazajian, Kevork N.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Bullock, James S.; Garrison-Kimmel, Shea; Onorbe, Jose

    2016-03-01

    The anomalous 3.55 keV X-ray line recently detected towards a number of massive dark matter objects may be interpreted as the radiative decays of 7.1 keV mass sterile neutrino dark matter. Depending on its parameters, the sterile neutrino can range from cold to warm dark matter with small-scale suppression that differs in form from commonly adopted thermal warm dark matter. Here, we numerically investigate the subhalo properties for 7.1 keV sterile neutrino dark matter produced via the resonant Shi-Fuller mechanism. Using accurate matter power spectra, we run cosmological zoom-in simulations of a Milky Way-sized halo and explore the abundance of massive subhaloes, their radial distributions, and their internal structure. We also simulate the halo with thermal 2.0 keV warm dark matter for comparison and discuss quantitative differences. We find that the resonantly produced sterile neutrino model for the 3.55 keV line provides a good description of structures in the Local Group, including the number of satellite dwarf galaxies and their radial distribution, and largely mitigates the too-big-to-fail problem. Future searches for satellite galaxies by deep surveys, such as the Dark Energy Survey, Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, and Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope, will be a strong direct test of warm dark matter scenarios.

  8. 21 CFR 522.1484 - Neomycin sulfate sterile solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. 522.1484 Section 522.1484 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... dogs and cats for the treatment of acute and chronic bacterial infections due to organisms...

  9. 21 CFR 522.1484 - Neomycin sulfate sterile solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. 522.1484 Section 522.1484 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... dogs and cats for the treatment of acute and chronic bacterial infections due to organisms...

  10. Feasibility of sterilizing traditional Chinese medicines by gamma-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xingwang; Wu, Jilan

    1998-06-01

    The feasibility of sterilizing traditional Chinese medicine (TCMs) by γ-irradiation has been systematically evaluated by the biological, toxicological and physicochemical tests on irradiated hundreds of TCMs. Those TCMs investigated in general show no significant biological or toxicological changes after irradiation, yet physicochemical changes are detectable in some irradiated TCMs, and water in TCMs enhances the effects. Those results obtained from radiolysis of some major effective components of TCMs in aqueous or ethanolic solutions reveal that the site selection of radiolytically generated radicals follows the example of simple compounds with same function groups. Wholesomeness and chemical clearance present a bright future to sterilizing TCMs by γ irradiation, however, some important measures and steps should be adopted: (1) The producers must strictly execute manufacturing procedure to reduce microbiological contamination thus lower the applied dose for sterilization which is recommended to be controlled under 5, 7 or 10 kGy, 10 kGy for dry herb, 7 kGy for herbal medicine and 5 kGy for some special herbal medicine; (2) Herb to be sterilized by γ-irradiation should exist in possible dry state; (3) Powder TCMs is recommended to mix with honey forming bolus, which can minimize the decomposition of herb.

  11. 42 CFR 441.255 - Sterilization by hysterectomy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sterilization by hysterectomy. 441.255 Section 441.255 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... description of the nature of the emergency. (e) Effective March 8, 1979, or any date thereafter through...

  12. QTL analysis of fertility restoration in cytoplasmic male sterile pepper.

    PubMed

    Wang, L H; Zhang, B X; Lefebvre, V; Huang, S W; Daubèze, A M; Palloix, A

    2004-09-01

    Fertility restoration of Peterson's cytoplasmic male-sterility in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is quantitative and environment-dependent. QTL analysis of fertility restoration was performed based on the test-cross progeny of 77013A (a strict cytoplasmic-genetic male sterile line) and a doubled haploid population of 114 lines obtained from an F1 hybrid between Yolo wonder (a sterility maintainer line) and Perennial (a fertility-restorer line). The fertility of the test-crossed lines was assessed under greenhouse and open field conditions using three criteria related to pollen or seed production. One major QTL for fertility restoration was mapped to chromosome P6. It was significant in all the environments and for all the traits, accounting for 20-69% of the phenotypic variation, depending on the trait. Four additional minor QTLs were also detected on chromosomes P5, P2, and linkage groups PY3 and PY1, accounting for 7-17% of the phenotypic variation. Most of the alleles increasing fertility originated from the restorer parent, except for two alleles at minor QTLs. Phenotypic analysis and genetic dissection indicated that breeding pepper for complete sterility of female lines and high hybrid fertility requires complex combinations of alleles from both parents and a strict control of the environment. PMID:15173931

  13. The Neutrophil Btk Signalosome Regulates Integrin Activation during Sterile Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Volmering, Stephanie; Block, Helena; Boras, Mark; Lowell, Clifford A.; Zarbock, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Neutrophils are recruited from the blood to sites of sterile inflammation, where they are involved in wound healing but can also cause tissue damage. During sterile inflammation, necrotic cells release pro-inflammatory molecules including formylated peptides. However, the signaling pathway triggered by formylated peptides to integrin activation and leukocyte recruitment is unknown. By using spinning-disk confocal intravital microscopy, we examined the molecular mechanisms of leukocyte recruitment to sites of focal hepatic necrosis in vivo. We demonstrated that the Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk) was required for multiple Mac-1 activation events involved in neutrophil recruitment and functions during sterile inflammation triggered by fMLF. The Src family kinase Hck, Wiskott-Aldrich-syndrome protein, and phospholipase Cγ2 were also involved in this pathway required for fMLF-triggered Mac-1 activation and neutrophil recruitment. Thus, we have identified a neutrophil Btk signalosome that is involved in a signaling pathway triggered by formylated peptides leading to the selective activation of Mac-1 and neutrophil recruitment during sterile inflammation. PMID:26777396

  14. Developing the Use of Quality Indicators in Sterilization Practices

    PubMed Central

    Jabbari, H; Alikhah, H; Sahebkaram Alamdari, N; Behzad, M Naghavi; Mehrabi, E; Borzui, L; Bakhshian, F

    2012-01-01

    Background: Health-care-associated infections are a major threat to the safety of patient care. Control of such problem is a major criterion for hospital accreditation. This study was aimed to determine the developing use of chemical (class 6 products) and biological indicators in Tabriz district hospitals since 1997 to 2011. Methods: We conducted this time-trend interventional study with all of the public and private hospitals, which counted to 21 in Tabriz district as a sample. The situations of indicator use were presented for each time in the base of indicator groups. Furthermore, the results were showed in the base of hospital groups. Results: All of district hospital (n=21) with 74 autoclave machine and 22 central sterilization room were studied. The result of second time study in 2008 showed a markedly improvement in the control of sterilization processes. Furthermore, we continued our intervention results 6 month later in 2009 and 2 years later in 2011. The most striking result were use of chemical indicator in 100% of hospitals. However, there are defects in the use of biological indicators (63.65%). Conclusion: The most obvious finding was significant improvement in sterilization control especially in development the use of chemical indicators. The finding of this study has a number of important implications for hospital managers and infection control practitioners such as continuous practical training of CSSD personnel in hospitals and mandating of indicator using in all sterilization process with controlling of this subject in evaluation and accreditation of hospital programs. PMID:23113212

  15. On the reanastomosis of fallopian tubes after surgical sterilization.

    PubMed

    Jones, H W; Rock, J A

    1978-06-01

    A macrosurgical technique for tubal reanastomosis is described in detail. It has been used successfully on 12 patients in the last year, 10 of whom have already become pregnant. The technique is suitable for different methods of sterilization, sites of anastomosis, and lengths of segments. The procedures are characterized as isthmic-isthmic, isthmic-ampullary, and ampullary-ampullary. 2 patients had isthmic-isthmic operations; both had had Pomeroy sterilizations. Both became pregnant and delivered at term. 7 patients had isthmic-ampullary operations; 2 had had Pomeroy sterilization and 5 had had laparoscopic diathermy. 5 have normal pregnancies at the time of report; the 2 nonpregnant women have at least 1 patent tube. 3 patients had ampullary-ampullary operations; all had had Pomeroy sterilizations involving only the ampulla. All have become pregnant but 1 had a tubal pregnancy distal to the site of the anastomosis, which was somewhat constricted while the other tube was patent. Intervals from operation to pregnancy were 6 and 9 months for isthmic-isthmic; 2, 3, 7, 9, and 10 months for isthmic-ampullary; and 2, 3, and 7 months for ampullary-ampullary. The procedure should be carried out in the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle.

  16. A new integrator for monitoring time and temperature of steam sterilizers.

    PubMed

    Beck, W C

    1976-01-01

    Steam sterilization is the simplest and most useful method of sterilization of thermostable materials. Sterilization depends upon three factors: time, temperature, and the presence of live steam. For the first time an instrument can be employed to monitor these three factors with immediate readout. This paper contrasts the advantages of this integrator with sterilizer controls, and biological and chemical indicators; and describes methods utilized in testing the integrator. PMID:1012107

  17. [Assessment of the sterilization of medical devices--an important challenge to health care in Poland].

    PubMed

    Röhm-Rodowald, Ewa; Jakimiak, Bozenna

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was the evaluation of sterilization of medical devices in Polish hospitals. The system that we use to establish which sterilization procedures should be employed to reduce the risk of hospital infections associated with medical devices. Based on inquiries, the conditions for the sterilization of medical devices in 21 Warsaw hospitals were assessed. The following issues were taken into consideration: preparation of medical supplies for sterilization, methods of sterilization and the monitoring system. In order to evaluate hygienic conditions due to sterilization points system was applied. 10% of the hospitals had Central Sterilization Service Department with 3 zones where automatic washing and disinfection, sorting, packaging, sterilization and storage of medical devices had been performed. The other 20% had CSSD without zones. In more than 65% there were common services for sterilization only. Instruments were delivered already prepared for sterilization. In remaining hospitals all steps, including sterilization were performed in words. According preparation of medical devices for sterilization it was established that mainly chemical disinfection just after use and than manual cleaning was used; the automatic cleaning in washer-disinfectors is used mainly in CSSD. Steam was the preferred method of sterilization, but also low temperature methods were used for heat sensitive devices. The monitoring of sterilization processes was satisfactory. There were first trials of the validation of the sterilization processes. There is still a need for improvement in the sterilization of medical devices, especially including: the organisation of CSSD in all Polish hospitals; replacement of manual cleaning processes by automatic cleaning; organisation of advanced training courses for the heads and staff of the CSSD. PMID:15730015

  18. Development and Validation of Sterility Systems for Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, Steve; Shevchenko, Olga; Ma, Caiping

    2007-03-30

    The overall goal of this project was to develop and validate sterility systems in poplar with the ultimate goal of fulfilling the basic requirements for commercial use. For this, sterility must be complete and stable over multiple growing seasons, cause no detrimental effects on vegetative growth, and successful transformation events must be identifiable via molecular tests when trees are still juvenile. Because of the inherent difficulties in achieving and demonstrating complete sterility in trees, our approach was to study alternate sterility systems in Arabidopsis and/or early-flowering tree systems. The public benefit from this work is the capacity for containment of genes or exotic forms of trees so they can be of benefit for industry for production of wood, energy, and renewable products, while having minimal impact on wild populations of trees. We tested three methods for engineering sterility: dominant negative mutant (DNM) proteins, floral tissue ablation, and RNA interference (RNAi) to suppress the expression of several floral regulatory genes. The ultimate goal of this work was to produce a number of transgenic poplars that could be outplanted to enable future assessments of the effectiveness of these transgenic sterility methods. Our attempts to produce ablation constructs that did not interfere with tree health were partially successful. Using the poplar LEAFY gene promoter and the barnase/barstar system, we were able to regenerate plants that grew well in the greenhouse, but they showed poor health in the field. Four of seven DNM genes tested were considered promising enough, based on results in Arabidopsis, to produce transgenic poplars. Single, double, and triple RNAi genes were produced and transformed into poplar. Over all, we produced 1,964 PCR-confirmed transgenic events with 19 different kinds of sterility genes and several kinds of control genes. We propagated 5,640, 6,820, and 7,055 trees for each of three test poplar genotypes, and field

  19. 42 CFR 50.206 - Sterilization of a mentally incompetent individual or of an institutionalized individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sterilization of a mentally incompetent individual..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS POLICIES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY Sterilization of Persons in Federally Assisted Family Planning Projects § 50.206 Sterilization of a mentally incompetent individual...

  20. Development of vapor phase hydrogen peroxide sterilization process for spacecraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, N.; Schubert, W.; Knight, J.; Quigley, M.; Forsberg, G.; Ganapathi, G.; Yarbrough, C.; Koukol, R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper will present test data and discussion on the work we are conducting at JPL to address the following issues: 1) efficacy of sterilization process; 2) diffusion of hydrogen peroxide under sterilization process conditions into hard to reach places; 3) materials and components compatibility with the sterilization process and 4) development of methodology to protect sensitive components from hydrogen peroxide vapor.

  1. 42 CFR 441.253 - Sterilization of a mentally competent individual aged 21 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sterilization of a mentally competent individual aged 21 or older. 441.253 Section 441.253 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... LIMITS APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Sterilizations § 441.253 Sterilization of a mentally...

  2. 42 CFR 441.253 - Sterilization of a mentally competent individual aged 21 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sterilization of a mentally competent individual aged 21 or older. 441.253 Section 441.253 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... LIMITS APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Sterilizations § 441.253 Sterilization of a mentally...

  3. 42 CFR 441.253 - Sterilization of a mentally competent individual aged 21 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sterilization of a mentally competent individual aged 21 or older. 441.253 Section 441.253 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... LIMITS APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Sterilizations § 441.253 Sterilization of a mentally...

  4. 42 CFR 441.253 - Sterilization of a mentally competent individual aged 21 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sterilization of a mentally competent individual aged 21 or older. 441.253 Section 441.253 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... LIMITS APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Sterilizations § 441.253 Sterilization of a mentally...

  5. 21 CFR 880.6885 - Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid chemical sterilants/high level... and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6885 Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants. (a) Identification. A liquid chemical sterilant/high level disinfectant is a germicide that...

  6. 21 CFR 880.6885 - Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Liquid chemical sterilants/high level... and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6885 Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants. (a) Identification. A liquid chemical sterilant/high level disinfectant is a germicide that...

  7. 21 CFR 880.6885 - Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Liquid chemical sterilants/high level... and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6885 Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants. (a) Identification. A liquid chemical sterilant/high level disinfectant is a germicide that...

  8. 21 CFR 880.6885 - Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Liquid chemical sterilants/high level... and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6885 Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants. (a) Identification. A liquid chemical sterilant/high level disinfectant is a germicide that...

  9. 21 CFR 880.6885 - Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Liquid chemical sterilants/high level... and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6885 Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants. (a) Identification. A liquid chemical sterilant/high level disinfectant is a germicide that...

  10. Sterilization Effect of Wet Oxygen Plasma in the Bubbling Method.

    PubMed

    Tamazawa, Kaoru; Shintani, Hideharu; Tamazawa, Yoshinori; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi

    2015-01-01

    A new low-temperature sterilization method to replace the ethylene oxide gas sterilization is needed. Strong bactericidal effects of OH and O2H radicals are well known. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sterilization effect of wet oxygen ("O2+H2O") plasma in the bubbling method, confirming the effect of humidity. Sterility assurance was confirmed by using a biological indicator (Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC7953, Namsa, USA). One hundred and eight samples (10(5) spores/carrier) were divided into three groups of 36 in each for treatment with a different type of gas (O2, O2+H2O, Air+H2O). Plasma processing was conducted using a plasma ashing apparatus (13.56 MHz, PACK-3(®), Y. A. C., Japan) under various gas pressures (13, 25, 50 Pa) and gas flows (50, 100, 200 sccm). Fixed plasma treatment parameters were power at 150 W, temperature of 60 ℃, treatment time of 10 min. The samples after treatment were incubated in trypticase soy broth at 58 ℃ for 72 h. The negative culture rate in the "O2+H2O" group was significantly (Mantel-Haenszel procedure, p<0.001) higher than in the other gas groups. It is suggested that the significant sterilization effect of the "O2+H2O" group depends on the bubbling method which is the method of introducing vapor into the chamber. The bubbling method seems able to generate OH and O2H radicals in a stable way.

  11. Viable spore counts in biological controls pre-sterilization.

    PubMed

    Brusca, María I; Bernat, María I; Turcot, Liliana; Nastri, Natalia; Nastri, Maria; Rosa, Alcira

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the total count of viable spores in standardized inoculated carriers pre-sterilization. Samples of "Bacterial Spore Sterilization Strip" (R Biological Laboratories) (well before their expiry date) were divided into Group A (B. subtilis) and Group B (B. stearothermophylus). Twenty-four strips were tested per group. The strips were minced in groups of three, placed in chilled sterile water and vortexed for 5 minutes to obtain a homogenous suspension. Ten ml of the homogenous suspension were transferred to two sterile jars, i.e. one jar per group. The samples were then heated in a water bath at 95 degrees C (Group A) or 80 degrees C (Group B) for 15 minutes and cooled rapidly in an ice bath at 0- 4 degrees C during 15 minutes. Successive dilutions were performed until a final aliquot of 30 to 300 colony-forming units (CFU) was obtained. The inoculums were placed in Petri dishes with culture medium (soy extract, casein agar adapted for spores, melted and cooled to 45-50 degrees C) and incubated at 55 degrees C or 37 degrees C. Statistical analysis of the data was performed. A larger number of spores were found at 48 hours than at 24 hours. However, this finding did not hold true for all the groups. The present results show that monitoring viable spores pre-sterilization would guarantee the accuracy of the data. Total spore counts must be within 50 and 300% of the number of spores indicated in the biological control. The procedure is essential to guarantee the efficacy of the biological control. PMID:16673791

  12. Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of the successful sterilization of Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann) utilized in maggot debridement therapy (mdt).

    PubMed

    Yeong, Y S; Nazni, W A; Santana, R L; Mohd Noor, I; Lee, H L; Mohd Sofian, A

    2011-08-01

    In Malaysia, maggot debridement therapy (MDT) utilizes maggots of Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann) to debride necrotic tissue from wound surface, reduce bacterial infection and therefore, enhance wound healing process. To evaluate the sterility of the sterile maggots produced after sterilization process before delivering onto patient wounds. Sterility of sterile maggots is crucial in ensuring the safe usage of MDT and patient's health. Eggs of L. cuprina collected from a laboratory colony were divided into treated group (sterilized) and control group (non-sterilized). Treated group underwent sterilization while eggs from control group were allowed to hatch without sterilization. Sodium hypochlorite and formaldehyde were the main disinfectants used in this sterilization process. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to examine and ascertain the sterility of sterile maggots. SEM results showed that all sterilized L. cuprina eggs and maggots achieved sterility and all were cleared from bacterial contamination. In contrast, all non-sterilized eggs and maggots were found to be colonized by microorganisms. Sterilization method employed to sterilize eggs and maggots used in Malaysia MDT was proven successful and MDT is safe to be used as wound management tools.

  13. Determination of radiation sterilization dose of disposable needles based on D 10 values and AAMI recommendation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazsó, L. G.; Dám, A.; Molnár, A.; Daróczy, E.

    The initial microbiological contamination and the radiosensitivity of micro-organisms isolated from disposable needles were studied. Radiation sterilization dose was calculated from maximum initial count, D 10 values and according to the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation Process Control Guidelines for Radiation Sterilization of Medical Devices, respectively. For complete sterilization these doses vary between 16.6 to 17.2 kGy, including 10 -6 sterility assurance level. Consideration was given to decrease the "magic" 25 kGy as a minimum radiation sterilization dose.

  14. [Genetic analysis of maize cytoplasmic male sterile mutants obtained by space flight].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cai-Bo; Yuan, Guo-Zhao; Wang, Jing; Pan, Guang-Tang; Rong, Ting-Zhao; Cao, Mo-Ju

    2011-02-01

    Three maize male sterile mutants were obtained from the offsprings of two maize inbred lines 18-599 and 08-641, which were carried into space by the Shijian 8 Satellite. The stability of male sterile expression was observed in different locations, years, and seasons. In order to analyze the genetic characteristic of male sterility, testcross, backcross and reciprocal cross were made with these male sterile plants. The results showed that the male sterility character was stable in different locations, years, and seasons, and the sterility was inheritable. Because the maintainer lines and restorer lines for these sterile materials were found, and there was no male sterile plant separated among the reciprocal cross F2. Thus, we concluded that these mutants could be cytoplasmic male sterile. Combining the results of male fertility restoration test and PCR analysis, we could conclude that the three male sterile mutants were classified into the CMS-C type in maize. Owing to their difference in fertility restoration, these mutants may belong to different subgroups of CMS-C type. The discovery of the three male sterile mutants increased the genetic diversity of CMS-C type, improved the tolerance to Bipolaris maydis, and laid a foundation for extensive application of CMS-C in seeds production.

  15. [Genetic analysis about maize male sterile mutant obtained by space flight].

    PubMed

    Cao, Mo-Ju; Rong, Ting-Zhao; Pan, Guang-Tang

    2003-09-01

    The seeds of maize single hybrid Chuandan No. 9 were carried into space in 1996 by satellite. After the seeds were planted in field in comparison with travel in space seeds which was not carried into space. Fortunately, male sterile plants were discovered in one of the ear rows. The stability of male sterile expression was observed in different years, different locations and different generations. In order to analysis the genetic characteristic of male sterility, test cross, sister cross, back cross, reciprocal cross and self-pollination were conducted with these male sterile plants. The results showed that the male sterility was stable in different years and different locations, it is inheritable from generation to generation. The sterility is controlled by a single nuclear recessive gene. The appearance of male sterile mutant is the conclusion of gene mutation which happened in nuclear by space flight. This mutant material always accompanies with lower plant height.

  16. [The Clinical Application Status and Development Trends of Hydrogen Peroxide Low Temperature Plasma Sterilizers].

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Min; Zheng, Yunxin; Chen, Ying; Hou, Bin; Xu, Zitian

    2016-01-01

    The hydrogen peroxide low temperature plasma sterilization technology solved the problems of thermo-sensitive materials' disinfection and sterilization based on its development and unique characteristics. This paper introduced the researches of clinical application quality control, and showed the hydrogen peroxide low temperature plasma sterilizers were being widely used in hospitals and highly recognized. According to the clinical data and the literatures of the domestic equipment in preliminary application, it could be concluded that the technology maturity of domestic hydrogen peroxide low temperature plasma sterilizers was in a high level. The advantages of using domestic hydrogen peroxide low temperature plasma sterilizers to do disinfection and sterilization included lower cost, safer, faster and non-toxic, etc. Also the management system should be improved and the clinical staff should master the technical essentials, obey the procedures strictly, verify periodically and offer full monitoring to upgrade the quality of sterilization. PMID:27197500

  17. [The Clinical Application Status and Development Trends of Hydrogen Peroxide Low Temperature Plasma Sterilizers].

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Min; Zheng, Yunxin; Chen, Ying; Hou, Bin; Xu, Zitian

    2016-01-01

    The hydrogen peroxide low temperature plasma sterilization technology solved the problems of thermo-sensitive materials' disinfection and sterilization based on its development and unique characteristics. This paper introduced the researches of clinical application quality control, and showed the hydrogen peroxide low temperature plasma sterilizers were being widely used in hospitals and highly recognized. According to the clinical data and the literatures of the domestic equipment in preliminary application, it could be concluded that the technology maturity of domestic hydrogen peroxide low temperature plasma sterilizers was in a high level. The advantages of using domestic hydrogen peroxide low temperature plasma sterilizers to do disinfection and sterilization included lower cost, safer, faster and non-toxic, etc. Also the management system should be improved and the clinical staff should master the technical essentials, obey the procedures strictly, verify periodically and offer full monitoring to upgrade the quality of sterilization.

  18. Multilevel Perspectives on Female Sterilization in Low-Income Communities in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Brault, Marie A; Schensul, Stephen L; Singh, Rajendra; Verma, Ravi K; Jadhav, Kalpita

    2016-09-01

    Surgical sterilization is the primary method of contraception among low-income women in India. This article, using qualitative analysis of key informant, in-depth interviews, and quantitative analyses, examines the antecedents, process, and outcomes of sterilization for women in a low-income area in Mumbai, India. Family planning policies, socioeconomic factors, and gender roles constrain women's reproductive choices. Procedures for sterilization rarely follow protocol, particularly during pre-procedure counseling and consent. Women who choose sterilization often marry early, begin conceiving soon after marriage, and reach or exceed ideal family size early due to problems in accessing reversible contraceptives. Despite these constraints, this study indicates that from the perspective of women, the decision to undergo sterilization is empowering, as they have fulfilled their reproductive duties and can effectively exercise control over their fertility and sexuality. This empowerment results in little post-sterilization regret, improved emotional health, and improved sexual relationships following sterilization.

  19. Preliminary survey report: control technology for ethylene oxide sterilization at Selby General Hospital, Marietta, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Kercher, S.L.; Mortimer, V.D.; Todd, W.F.

    1985-08-01

    A survey of control technology for reducing exposure during ethylene oxide sterilization was conducted at Selby General Hospital, Marietta, Ohio on August 30, 1984. The Central Services Department performed ethylene oxide sterilization for obstetrics, neonatal care, respiratory therapy, cytology, isolation cases, and surgery. Engineering controls consisted of isolation of the sterilizer and aerators, local exhaust ventilation, a continuous fresh air purge on the sterilization cycle, in chamber aeration of the sterilizers, and general exhaust ventilation of the Central Services Department and the sterilizer room. The author concludes that the Central Services Department has instituted control technology that minimizes employee exposure to ethylene-oxide. The hospital should be considered a candidate for an in-depth survey in a NIOSH study of control technology for ethylene oxide sterilization in hospitals.

  20. Hybrid male sterility is caused by mitochondrial DNA deletion.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Kenji; Kohno, Shigeru

    2009-07-01

    Although it is known that the hybrid male mouse is sterile just like any other animal's heterogametic sex, the reason why only the male germ cells are impaired has yet to be discovered. TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay using a confocal fluorescence microscope and DNA fragmentation assay of hybrid testis indicated destruction of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) rather than the nuclear DNA. Previously we reported that maternal mtDNA inheritance is through selective sperm mtDNA elimination based on the sperm factor and two egg factors, and expression of these three factors was recognized in the hybrid testis. It was thereby assumed that mtDNA destruction caused by the expression of maternal mtDNA inheritance system in male germ cells is implicated in the hybrid male sterility of mice.

  1. Physiological sex predicts hybrid sterility regardless of genotype.

    PubMed

    Malone, John H; Michalak, P

    2008-01-01

    Reproductive isolation between biological species is characterized by Haldane's rule, which states that the heterogametic sex (XY or ZW) suffers the most dysfunctional effects of hybridization. It has been hypothesized that, in addition to X-linked recessive genes, Haldane's rule also reflects the faster evolution of genes related to male reproduction (faster-male evolution). We used sex-reversed hybrid Xenopus to test faster-male evolution by examining the fertility of sex-reversed individuals with the genotype of the inverse phenotypic sex. Hybrid males are sterile and hybrid females are fertile irrespective of their genotypic sex. Gene expression profiles match these adult phenotypes, and our results demonstrate that faster-male evolution is the most likely mechanism producing hybrid male sterility.

  2. Omnibus experiment: CPT and CP violation with sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loo, K. K.; Novikov, N. Yu; Smirnov, M. V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Wurm, M.

    2016-05-01

    We propose to probe both the CPT and CP violation together with the search for sterile neutrinos in one do-it-all experiment. This omnibus experiment would utilize neutrino oscillometry with large scintillator detectors like LENA, JUNO or RENO-50 and manmade radioactive sources similar to the ones used by the GALLEX experiment. Our calculations indicate that such an experiment is realistic and could be performed in parallel to the main research plan for JUNO, LENA, or RENO-50. Assuming as the starting point the values of the oscillation parameters indicated by the current global fit (in 3 active + 1 sterile scenario) and requiring at least 5 sigma confidence level, we estimate that with the proposed experiment we would be able to detect CPT mass anomalies of the order of 1% or larger.

  3. Active and sterile neutrino mass effects on beta decay spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Boillos, Juan Manuel; Moya de Guerra, Elvira

    2013-06-10

    We study the spectra of the emitted charged leptons in charge current weak nuclear processes to analyze the effect of neutrino masses. Standard active neutrinos are studied here, with masses of the order of 1 eV or lower, as well as sterile neutrinos with masses of a few keV. The latter are warm dark matter (WDM) candidates hypothetically produced or captured as small mixtures with the active neutrinos. We compute differential decay or capture rates spectra in weak charged processes of different nuclei ({sup 3}H, {sup 187}Re, {sup 107}Pd, {sup 163}Ho, etc) using different masses of both active and sterile neutrinos and different values of the mixing parameter.

  4. Search for Sterile Neutrinos Mixing with Muon Neutrinos in MINOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamson, P.; Anghel, I.; Aurisano, A.; Barr, G.; Bishai, M.; Blake, A.; Bock, G. J.; Bogert, D.; Cao, S. V.; Carroll, T. J.; Castromonte, C. M.; Chen, R.; Childress, S.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Corwin, L.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; de Jong, J. K.; de Rijck, S.; Devan, A. V.; Devenish, N. E.; Diwan, M. V.; Escobar, C. O.; Evans, J. J.; Falk, E.; Feldman, G. J.; Flanagan, W.; Frohne, M. V.; Gabrielyan, M.; Gallagher, H. R.; Germani, S.; Gomes, R. A.; Goodman, M. C.; Gouffon, P.; Graf, N.; Gran, R.; Grzelak, K.; Habig, A.; Hahn, S. R.; Hartnell, J.; Hatcher, R.; Holin, A.; Huang, J.; Hylen, J.; Irwin, G. M.; Isvan, Z.; James, C.; Jensen, D.; Kafka, T.; Kasahara, S. M. S.; Koizumi, G.; Kordosky, M.; Kreymer, A.; Lang, K.; Ling, J.; Litchfield, P. J.; Lucas, P.; Mann, W. A.; Marshak, M. L.; Mayer, N.; McGivern, C.; Medeiros, M. M.; Mehdiyev, R.; Meier, J. R.; Messier, M. D.; Miller, W. H.; Mishra, S. R.; Moed Sher, S.; Moore, C. D.; Mualem, L.; Musser, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Newman, H. B.; Nichol, R. J.; Nowak, J. A.; O'Connor, J.; Orchanian, M.; Pahlka, R. B.; Paley, J.; Patterson, R. B.; Pawloski, G.; Perch, A.; Pfützner, M. M.; Phan, D. D.; Phan-Budd, S.; Plunkett, R. K.; Poonthottathil, N.; Qiu, X.; Radovic, A.; Rebel, B.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rubin, H. A.; Sail, P.; Sanchez, M. C.; Schneps, J.; Schreckenberger, A.; Schreiner, P.; Sharma, R.; Sousa, A.; Tagg, N.; Talaga, R. L.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M. A.; Tian, X.; Timmons, A.; Todd, J.; Tognini, S. C.; Toner, R.; Torretta, D.; Tzanakos, G.; Urheim, J.; Vahle, P.; Viren, B.; Weber, A.; Webb, R. C.; White, C.; Whitehead, L.; Whitehead, L. H.; Wojcicki, S. G.; Zwaska, R.; Minos Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    We report results of a search for oscillations involving a light sterile neutrino over distances of 1.04 and 735 km in a νμ-dominated beam with a peak energy of 3 GeV. The data, from an exposure of 10.56 ×1 020 protons on target, are analyzed using a phenomenological model with one sterile neutrino. We constrain the mixing parameters θ24 and Δ m412 and set limits on parameters of the four-dimensional Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata matrix, |Uμ 4|2 and |Uτ 4|2, under the assumption that mixing between νe and νs is negligible (|Ue 4|2=0 ). No evidence for νμ→νs transitions is found and we set a world-leading limit on θ24 for values of Δ m412 ≲1 eV2 .

  5. [Sterilizing effect of atmospheric pressure plasma jet on microbes].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xu-Qin; Wang, Shou-guo; Han, Li; Zhao, Ling-li; Chang, Xiao; Chen, Geng; Suo, Ji-jiang; Xing, Yu-bin; Chen, Shi-ping

    2005-04-01

    To study the sterilizing effect and mechanism of APPJ on microbes preliminarily, three representative bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis var. niger were treated by two kinds of plasma, DBD (dielectric barrier discharge) and APPJ. The survival curves of different microbes were compared and analyzed; Furthermore, the morphological change to cell walls and cell membranes were studied by scanning electric microscope. These results demonstrated that in the beginning phase the sterilizing effect of two kinds of plasmas on three microorganisms was stronger than in the later phase, and APPJ was more effective than DBD (D value of DBD on Bacillus subtilis var. niger was 70 s, whereas APPJ's was 4 s, much more efficient). Meanwhile, the gross morphological damage of E. coli cells under SEM after APPJ treatment was observed. These gave the obvious evidence that APPJ can destroy the microbes very efficiently, and more likely through the damage of cell walls and membranes of microbes treated by APPJ. PMID:15989284

  6. Radiation sterilization of enzyme hybrids with biodegradable polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuta, Masakazu; Oka, Masahito; Hayashi, Toshio

    2002-03-01

    Ionizing radiations, which have already been utilized for the sterilization of medical supplies as well as gas fumigation, should be the final candidate to decontaminate "hybrid" biomaterials containing bio-active materials including enzymes because irradiation induces neither heat nor substances affecting the quality of the materials and our health. In order to check the feasibility of 60Co-gamma rays on these materials, we selected commercial proteases including papain and bromelain hybridized with commercial activated chitosan beads and demonstrated that these enzyme-hybrids suspended in water showed the significant radiation durability of more than twice as much as free enzyme solution at 25-kGy irradiation. Enhanced thermal and storage stability of the enzyme hybrids were not affected by the same dose level of irradiation, either, indicating that commercial irradiation sterilization method is applicable to enzyme hybrids without modification.

  7. Search for a Light Sterile Neutrino at Daya Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, F. P.; Balantekin, A. B.; Band, H. R.; Beriguete, W.; Bishai, M.; Blyth, S.; Butorov, I.; Cao, G. F.; Cao, J.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, J. F.; Chang, L. C.; Chang, Y.; Chasman, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, Q. Y.; Chen, S. M.; Chen, X.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y. X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, Y. P.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, M. C.; Cummings, J. P.; de Arcos, J.; Deng, Z. Y.; Ding, Y. Y.; Diwan, M. V.; Draeger, E.; Du, X. F.; Dwyer, D. A.; Edwards, W. R.; Ely, S. R.; Fu, J. Y.; Ge, L. Q.; Gill, R.; Gonchar, M.; Gong, G. H.; Gong, H.; Grassi, M.; Gu, W. Q.; Guan, M. Y.; Guo, X. H.; Hackenburg, R. W.; Han, G. H.; Hans, S.; He, M.; Heeger, K. M.; Heng, Y. K.; Hinrichs, P.; Hor, Y. K.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hu, B. Z.; Hu, L. M.; Hu, L. J.; Hu, T.; Hu, W.; Huang, E. C.; Huang, H.; Huang, X. T.; Huber, P.; Hussain, G.; Isvan, Z.; Jaffe, D. E.; Jaffke, P.; Jen, K. L.; Jetter, S.; Ji, X. P.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, H. J.; Jiao, J. B.; Johnson, R. A.; Kang, L.; Kettell, S. H.; Kramer, M.; Kwan, K. K.; Kwok, M. W.; Kwok, T.; Lai, W. C.; Lau, K.; Lebanowski, L.; Lee, J.; Lei, R. T.; Leitner, R.; Leung, A.; Leung, J. K. C.; Lewis, C. A.; Li, D. J.; Li, F.; Li, G. S.; Li, Q. J.; Li, W. D.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y. F.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Lin, C. J.; Lin, G. L.; Lin, P. Y.; Lin, S. K.; Lin, Y. C.; Ling, J. J.; Link, J. M.; Littenberg, L.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Liu, D. W.; Liu, H.; Liu, J. L.; Liu, J. C.; Liu, S. S.; Liu, Y. B.; Lu, C.; Lu, H. Q.; Luk, K. B.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, X. B.; Ma, Y. Q.; McDonald, K. T.; McFarlane, M. C.; McKeown, R. D.; Meng, Y.; Mitchell, I.; Monari Kebwaro, J.; Nakajima, Y.; Napolitano, J.; Naumov, D.; Naumova, E.; Nemchenok, I.; Ngai, H. Y.; Ning, Z.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Olshevski, A.; Patton, S.; Pec, V.; Peng, J. C.; Piilonen, L. E.; Pinsky, L.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, F. Z.; Qi, M.; Qian, X.; Raper, N.; Ren, B.; Ren, J.; Rosero, R.; Roskovec, B.; Ruan, X. C.; Shao, B. B.; Steiner, H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. L.; Tam, Y. H.; Tang, X.; Themann, H.; Tsang, K. V.; Tsang, R. H. M.; Tull, C. E.; Tung, Y. C.; Viren, B.; Vorobel, V.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, L. Y.; Wang, M.; Wang, N. Y.; Wang, R. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. W.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. M.; Webber, D. M.; Wei, H. Y.; Wei, Y. D.; Wen, L. J.; Whisnant, K.; White, C. G.; Whitehead, L.; Wise, T.; Wong, H. L. H.; Wong, S. C. F.; Worcester, E.; Wu, Q.; Xia, D. M.; Xia, J. K.; Xia, X.; Xing, Z. Z.; Xu, J. Y.; Xu, J. L.; Xu, J.; Xu, Y.; Xue, T.; Yan, J.; Yang, C. C.; Yang, L.; Yang, M. S.; Yang, M. T.; Ye, M.; Yeh, M.; Yeh, Y. S.; Young, B. L.; Yu, G. Y.; Yu, J. Y.; Yu, Z. Y.; Zang, S. L.; Zeng, B.; Zhan, L.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, F. H.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, Q. M.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, Y. C.; Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. X.; Zhang, Z. J.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, J.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zheng, L.; Zhong, W. L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, Z. Y.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zou, J. H.; Daya Bay Collaboration

    2014-10-01

    A search for light sterile neutrino mixing was performed with the first 217 days of data from the Daya Bay Reactor Antineutrino Experiment. The experiment's unique configuration of multiple baselines from six 2.9 GWth nuclear reactors to six antineutrino detectors deployed in two near (effective baselines 512 m and 561 m) and one far (1579 m) underground experimental halls makes it possible to test for oscillations to a fourth (sterile) neutrino in the 10-3 eV2<|Δm412|<0.3 eV2 range. The relative spectral distortion due to the disappearance of electron antineutrinos was found to be consistent with that of the three-flavor oscillation model. The derived limits on sin22θ14 cover the 10-3 eV2≲|Δm412|≲0.1 eV2 region, which was largely unexplored.

  8. Sterilization for family planning in a Third World country.

    PubMed

    Reichert, J A; Nagel, L W; Solberg, N S

    1997-07-01

    Outpatient laparoscopy procedures have made sterilization possible for millions of women in developing countries. This report describes the experience of a team of doctors, nurses, and support staff that performed 107 laparoscopic tubal sterilizations during on eight-day sojourn in a remote north-central area of Nicaragua. Minimal analgesia (oral ibuprofen) and anesthesia (1% lidocaine) were used since most of the patients walked to and from the hospital-some up to 15 miles. Because the Nicaraguan government's support for birth-control programs is unreliable and because illegal abortion is the leading cause of maternal mortality in Nicaragua, this safe, minimally invasive surgical method is the favored means of birth control. PMID:9242025

  9. Condensable chemical vapors for sterilization of freeze dryers.

    PubMed

    Bardat, A; Schmitthaeusler, R; Renzi, E

    1996-01-01

    Sterilization of freeze dryers is usually performed by subjecting them to saturated steam under pressure by steam (121 degrees C, 2 bar a., 30 minutes). In order to avoid such stressful conditions, another process was designed on the basis of a strong oxidizing mixture of condensable chemical vapors, consisting of ozone and hydrogen peroxide in acidic conditions. This process works at sub-zero temperatures up to 30 degrees C and under negative pressure. 10(6), inoculum of standard biological indicators as well as wild types of bioburden were easely sterilized from 2 minutes up to 10 minutes. Other parameters were studied, in order to optimize the main process conditions: temperature, pressure, concentration of chemicals, type of micro-organisms and their environmental surroundings. PMID:8935775

  10. Dental instrument sterilization: a six-step process.

    PubMed

    Palenik, C J

    2001-02-15

    The recycling of orally soiled dental instruments and pieces of equipment involves a collection of procedures that prepare those items for reuse. The process must be performed properly each time - so, that patients and dental office staff are not placed at risk. For the sterilization effort to be successful, it must also be efficient and as benign as possible to items being treated. The overall process involves six basic steps. The procedures involve a smooth step-to-step flow and a dedicated location. The ideal flow is as follows: (1) receive dirty items at designated "dirty area, (2) move to soaking (holding) area, (3) move onto scrubbing/ultrasonic (cleaning) area, (4) move onto packaging, (5) sterilize, and (6) finally storage and distribution. PMID:12167946

  11. Residual formaldehyde after low-temperature steam and formaldehyde sterilization

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, G. L.; Johnston, H. P.; Turkington, V. E.

    1968-01-01

    The levels of formaldehyde remaining in various articles have been estimated immediately after a low-temperature steam and formaldehyde sterilizing process and after various periods of aeration. These levels have been compared with the levels of ethylene oxide remaining after exposure to an ethylene oxide sterilizing process. In rubber and polythene and a plastic, formaldehyde levels are low and slowly fall even further. Ethylene oxide levels are relatively much higher even after seven days' aeration. It is not considered that the residual levels of formaldehyde in rubber, polythene, and a plastic should constitute a danger. Residual levels of formaldehyde in fabrics and paper are higher but this may be of value by giving a self-disinfecting action on storage. PMID:5717551

  12. Light sterile neutrino sensitivity at the nuSTORM facility

    SciTech Connect

    Adey, D.; Agarwalla, S. K.; Ankenbrandt, C. M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Back, J. J.; Barker, G.; Baussan, E.; Bayes, R.; Bhadra, S.; Blackmore, V.; Blondel, A.; Bogacz, S. A.; Booth, C.; Boyd, S. B.; Bramsiepe, S. G.; Bravar, A.; Brice, S. J.; Bross, A. D.; Cadoux, F.; Cease, H.; Cervera, A.; Cobb, J.; Colling, D.; Coloma, P.; Coney, L.; Dobbs, A.; Dobson, J.; Donini, A.; Dornan, P.; Dracos, M.; Dufour, F.; Edgecock, R.; Geelhoed, M.; Uchida, M. A.; Ghosh, T.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; de Gouvêa, A.; Haesler, A.; Hanson, G.; Harrison, P. F.; Hartz, M.; Hernández, P.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; Hodgson, P.; Huber, P.; Izmaylov, A.; Karadzhov, Y.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kopp, J.; Kormos, L.; Korzenev, A.; Kuno, Y.; Kurup, A.; Kyberd, P.; Lagrange, J. B.; Laing, A.; Liu, A.; Link, J. M.; Long, K.; Mahn, K.; Mariani, C.; Martin, C.; Martin, J.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, K. T.; Mena, O.; Mishra, S. R.; Mokhov, N.; Morfín, J.; Mori, Y.; Murray, W.; Neuffer, D.; Nichol, R.; Noah, E.; Palmer, M. A.; Parke, S.; Pascoli, S.; Pasternak, J.; Plunkett, R.; Popovic, M.; Ratoff, P.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M.; Ricciardi, S.; Rogers, C.; Rubinov, P.; Santos, E.; Sato, A.; Sen, T.; Scantamburlo, E.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Smith, D. R.; Smith, P. J.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Søby, L.; Soler, F. J. P.; Sorel, M.; Snopok, P.; Stamoulis, P.; Stanco, L.; Striganov, S.; Tanaka, H. A.; Taylor, I. J.; Touramanis, C.; Tunnell, C. D.; Uchida, Y.; Vassilopoulos, N.; Wascko, M. O.; Weber, A.; Wilking, M. J.; Wildner, E.; Winter, W.

    2014-04-01

    A facility that can deliver beams of electron and muon neutrinos from the decay of a stored muon beam has the potential to unambiguously resolve the issue of the evidence for light sterile neutrinos that arises in short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments and from estimates of the effective number of neutrino flavors from fits to cosmological data. In this paper, we show that the nuSTORM facility, with stored muons of 3.8GeV/c±10%, will be able to carry out a conclusive muon neutrino appearance search for sterile neutrinos and test the LSND and MiniBooNE experimental signals with 10σ sensitivity, even assuming conservative estimates for the systematic uncertainties. This experiment would add greatly to our knowledge of the contribution of light sterile neutrinos to the number of effective neutrino flavors from the abundance of primordial helium production and from constraints on neutrino energy density from the cosmic microwave background. The appearance search is complemented by a simultaneous muon neutrino disappearance analysis that will facilitate tests of various sterile neutrino models.

  13. Mars Sample Handling Protocol Workshop Series: Workshop 2a (Sterilization)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, John D. (Editor); Brunch, Carl W. (Editor); Setlow, Richard B. (Editor); DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Studies Board of the National Research Council provided a series of recommendations to NASA on planetary protection requirements for future Mars sample return missions. One of the Board's key findings suggested, although current evidence of the martian surface suggests that life as we know it would not tolerate the planet's harsh environment, there remain 'plausible scenarios for extant microbial life on Mars.' Based on this conclusion, all samples returned from Mars should be considered potentially hazardous until it has been demonstrated that they are not. In response to the National Research Council's findings and recommendations, NASA has undertaken a series of workshops to address issues regarding NASA's proposed sample return missions. Work was previously undertaken at the Mars Sample Handling and Protocol Workshop 1 (March 2000) to formulate recommendations on effective methods for life detection and/or biohazard testing on returned samples. The NASA Planetary Protection Officer convened the Mars Sample Sterilization Workshop, the third in the Mars Sample Handling Protocol Workshop Series, on November 28-30, 2000 at the Holiday Inn Rosslyn Westpark, Arlington, Virginia. Because of the short timeframe between this Workshop and the second Workshop in the Series, which was convened in October 2000 in Bethesda, Maryland, they were developed in parallel, so the Sterilization Workshop and its report have therefore been designated as '2a'). The focus of Workshop 2a was to make recommendations for effective sterilization procedures for all phases of Mars sample return missions, and to answer the question of whether we can sterilize samples in such a way that the geological characteristics of the samples are not significantly altered.

  14. Gamma-Ray Sterilization of Mars Analog Rocks and Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, C. C.

    1998-01-01

    Samples of rock and soil, collected by robotic spacecraft on Mars, will be returned to terrestrial laboratories early in the next century. Plans call for the samples to be placed immediately in biological containment and tested for signs of present or past life and biological hazard. It is recommended that "controlled distribution of unsterilized materials from Mars should occur only if rigorous analyses determine that the materials do not constitute a biological hazard. If any portion of the sample is removed from containment prior to completion of these analyses it should first be sterilized." While sterilization of Mars samples may not be required, an acceptable method must be available before the samples are returned to Earth. Various techniques are routinely used to sterilize biological samples. These include dry heating to temperatures of 150C or higher, heating in the presence of steam, exposure to poisonous gases such as formaldehyde and propiolactone, exposure to H2O2 vapor or plasma, exposure to ultraviolet light, and exposure to gamma radiation. The appropriate technique depends on the physical characteristics of the sample and the desired results. Gamma radiation is routinely used to inactivate viruses and destroy bacteria in medical research. The most commercial sterilizers use Cobalt 60, which emits gamma photons with energies of 1. 173 and 1. 332 MeV. Absorbed doses of approximately 106 rad (104 gamma ray is equal to 104 ergs/gm) are sufficient to destroy most bacteria. The current study is designed to investigate the effects of lethal doses of Cobalt 60 gamma radiation on geologic materials analogous to the first samples to be returned from Mars. The goals are (1) to determine the gamma ray dose required to kill microorganisms within geologic samples, and (2) to determine the effects of lethal doses of gamma radiation on the physical and chemical properties of the samples.

  15. The pros and cons of polyethylene sterilization with gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Hopper, Robert H; Engh, C Anderson; Fowlkes, LaTonya B; Engh, Charles A

    2004-12-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the implant, patient and surgical factors associated with polyethylene wear for one type of porous-coated hemispheric total hip arthroplasty cup. Radiographic wear measurements among 567 Duraloc cups (512 patients) revealed that liners sterilized by gamma-irradiation wore 0.085 mm/year less than those that were sterilized by gas-plasma, a noncross-linking chemical surface treatment. The substantially decreased wear rate associated with gamma-irradiation was attributed to sterilization-induced polyethylene cross-linking. Shelf-aging adversely affected liners that were gamma irradiated in air. On average, highly crystalline Hylamer liners showed a 0.064 mm/year increase in wear rates for each year of shelf storage after terminal sterilization with gamma-irradiation in air. Among conventional Enduron liners, the effect of shelf aging after gamma-irradiation in air was more modest, increasing wear rates by 0.014 mm/year for each year of shelf storage. Because Hylamer's wear performance degraded at about five times the rate of Enduron's, the improved wear resistance associated with gamma-irradiation in air would be lost after 1.3 years of shelf aging for Hylamer compared with 6.1 years for Enduron. For every additional year of age at the time of surgery, the wear rate decreased by 0.003 mm/year. Increased body mass index, a preoperative diagnosis of inflammatory arthritis, and a ceramic femoral head also were associated with decreased wear rates. PMID:15577466

  16. Sterilizing tissue-materials using pulsed power plasma.

    PubMed

    Heidarkhan Tehrani, Ashkan; Davari, Pooya; Singh, Sanjleena; Oloyede, Adekunle

    2014-04-01

    This paper investigates the potential of pulsed power to sterilize hard and soft tissues and its impact on their physico-mechanical properties. It hypothesizes that pulsed plasma can sterilize both vascular and avascular tissues and the transitive layers in between without deleterious effects on their functional characteristics. Cartilage/bone laminate was chosen as a model to demonstrate the concept, treated at low temperature, at atmospheric pressure, in short durations and in buffered environment using a purposed-built pulsed power unit. Input voltage and time of exposure were assigned as controlling parameters in a full factorial design of experiment to determine physical and mechanical alteration pre- and post-treatment. The results demonstrated that, discharges of 11 kV sterilized samples in 45 s, reducing intrinsic elastic modules from 1.4 ± 0.9 to 0.9 ± 0.6 MPa. There was a decrease of 14.1 % in stiffness and 27.8 % in elastic-strain energy for the top quartile. Mechanical impairment was directly proportional to input voltage (P value < 0.05). Bacterial inactivation was proportional to treatment time for input voltages above 32 V (P < 0.001; R Sq = 0.98). Thermal analysis revealed that helix-coil transition decelerated with exposure time and collagen fibrils were destabilized as denaturation enthalpy reduced by 200 μV. We concluded by presenting a safe operating threshold for pulsed power plasma as a feasible protocol for effective sterilization of connective tissues with varying level of loss in mechanical robustness which we argue to be acceptable in certain medical and tissue engineering application.

  17. Searching for sterile neutrinos from π and K decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lello, Louis; Boyanovsky, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The production of heavy sterile neutrinos from π-, K- decay at rest yields charged leptons with negative helicity (positive for π+, K+). We obtain the branching ratio for this process and argue that a Stern-Gerlach filter with a magnetic field gradient leads to spatially separated domains of both helicity components with abundances determined by the branching ratio. Complemented with a search of the monochromatic peak, this setup can yield both the mass and mixing angles for sterile neutrinos with masses in the range 3MeV≲ms≲414MeV in next generation high intensity experiments. We also study oscillations of light Dirac and Majorana sterile neutrinos with ms≃eV produced in meson decays including decoherence aspects arising from lifetime effects of the decaying mesons and the stopping distance of the charged lepton in short baseline experiments. We obtain the transition probability from production to detection via charged current interactions including these decoherence effects for 3+1 and 3+2 scenarios, also studying |ΔL|=2 transitions from ν¯↔ν oscillations for Majorana neutrinos and the impact of these effects on the determination of CP-violating amplitudes. We argue that decoherence effects are important in current short baseline accelerator experiments, leading to an underestimate of masses, mixing and CP-violating angles. At MiniBooNE/SciBooNE we estimate that these effects lead to an ˜15% underestimate for sterile neutrino masses ms≳3eV. We argue that reactor and current short baseline accelerator experiments are fundamentally different and suggest that in future high intensity experiments with neutrinos produced from π, K decay at rest, stopping the charged leptons on distances much smaller than the decay length of the parent meson suppresses considerably these decoherence effects.

  18. Principles of Sterilization of Mars Descent Vehicle Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vladislav; Deshevaya, Elena; Khamidullina, N.; Kalashnikov, Viktor

    Due to COSPAR severe requirements to permissible microbiological contamination of elements of down-to-Mars S/C as well as complexity of their chemical composition and structure the exposure of such S/C elements to antimicrobial treatment (sterilization) at their integration requires application of a wide set of methods: chemical, ultraviolet, radiation. The report describes the analysis of all the aspects of applicable methods of treatment for cleaning of elements’ surfaces and inner contents from microbiota. The analysis showed that the most important, predictable and controllable method is radiation processing (of the elements which don’t change their properties after effective treatment). The experience of ionizing radiation application for sterilization of products for medicine, etc. shows that, depending on initial microbial contamination of lander elements, the required absorbed dose can be within the range 12 ÷ 35 kGr. The analysis of the effect of irregularity of radiation absorption in complex structure elements to the choice of radiation methodology was made and the algorithm of the choice of effective conditions of radiation treatment and control of sterilization efficiency was suggested. The important phase of establishing of the effective condition of each structure element treatment is experimental verification of real microbiological contamination in terms of S/C integration, contamination maximum decrease using another cleaning procedures (mechanical, chemical, ultraviolet) and determination of radiation resistance of spore microorganisms typical for the shops of space technology manufacturing and assembling. Proceeding from three parameters (irregularity of radiation absorption in a concrete element, its initial microbial contamination and resistance of microorganisms to the effect of radiation) the condition of the packed object sterilization is chosen, the condition that prevents secondary contamination, ensures given reliability of the

  19. Identification of molecular markers linked to a new nuclear male-sterility gene ms7 in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nuclear male sterility (NMS) is an important alternative system to the cytoplasm male sterility (CMS) in hybrid breeding programs because of its stable male sterility and abundant available restorer resources. For sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), NMS 89-552, a nuclear male-sterile mutant induced by...

  20. Mechanical properties of tendons: changes with sterilization and preservation.

    PubMed

    Smith, C W; Young, I S; Kearney, J N

    1996-02-01

    Tendon allografts are commonly used to replace damaged anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL). Some of the sterilization and preservation techniques used by tissue banks with tendon allografts are thought to impair the mechanical properties of graft tissues. The tensile mechanical properties of porcine toe extensor tendons were measured using a dynamic testing machine following either freezing, freeze-drying, freezing then irradiation at 25 kGy (2.5 MRad), freeze-drying then irradiation, or freeze-drying then ethylene oxide gas sterilization. There was a small but significant difference in Young's modulus between the frozen group (0.88 GPa + 0.09 SD) and both the fresh group (0.98 GPa 1 0.12 SD) and the frozen irradiated group (0.97 GPa 1 0.08 SD). No values of Young's modulus were obtained for the freeze-dried irradiated tendons. The ultimate tensile stress (UTS) of the freeze-dried irradiated group (4.7 MPa 1 4.8 SD) was significantly different from both the fresh and the frozen irradiated groups, being reduced by approximately 90 percent. There were no significant changes in UTS or Young's modulus between any of the other groups. If irradiation is to be used to sterilize a tendon replacement for an ACL it must take place after freeze-drying to maintain mechanical properties.

  1. Atmospheric-pressure plasma decontamination/sterilization chamber

    DOEpatents

    Herrmann, Hans W.; Selwyn, Gary S.

    2001-01-01

    An atmospheric-pressure plasma decontamination/sterilization chamber is described. The apparatus is useful for decontaminating sensitive equipment and materials, such as electronics, optics and national treasures, which have been contaminated with chemical and/or biological warfare agents, such as anthrax, mustard blistering agent, VX nerve gas, and the like. There is currently no acceptable procedure for decontaminating such equipment. The apparatus may also be used for sterilization in the medical and food industries. Items to be decontaminated or sterilized are supported inside the chamber. Reactive gases containing atomic and metastable oxygen species are generated by an atmospheric-pressure plasma discharge in a He/O.sub.2 mixture and directed into the region of these items resulting in chemical reaction between the reactive species and organic substances. This reaction typically kills and/or neutralizes the contamination without damaging most equipment and materials. The plasma gases are recirculated through a closed-loop system to minimize the loss of helium and the possibility of escape of aerosolized harmful substances.

  2. High-mobility group box-1 in sterile inflammation.

    PubMed

    Tsung, A; Tohme, S; Billiar, T R

    2014-11-01

    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) was originally defined as a ubiquitous nuclear protein, but it was later determined that the protein has different roles both inside and outside of cells. Nuclear HMGB1 regulates chromatin structure and gene transcription, whereas cytosolic HMGB1 is involved in inflammasome activation and autophagy. Extracellular HMGB1 has drawn attention because it can bind to related cell signalling transduction receptors, such as the receptor for advanced glycation end products, Toll-like receptor (TLR)2, TLR4 and TLR9. It also participates in the development and progression of a variety of diseases. HMGB1 is actively secreted by stimulation of the innate immune system, and it is passively released by ischaemia or cell injury. This review focuses on the important role of HMGB1 in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic sterile inflammatory conditions. Strategies that target HMGB1 have been shown to significantly decrease inflammation in several disease models of sterile inflammation, and this may represent a promising clinical approach for treatment of certain conditions associated with sterile inflammation. PMID:24935761

  3. No new cosmological concordance with massive sterile neutrinos.

    PubMed

    Leistedt, Boris; Peiris, Hiranya V; Verde, Licia

    2014-07-25

    It has been claimed recently that massive sterile neutrinos could bring about a new concordance between observations of the cosmic microwave background, the large-scale structure of the Universe, and local measurements of the Hubble constant, H(0). We demonstrate that this apparent concordance results from combining data sets which are in significant tension, even within this extended model, possibly indicating remaining systematic biases in the measurements. We further show that this tension remains when the cosmological model is further extended to include significant tensor modes, as suggested by the recent BICEP2 results. Using the Bayesian evidence, we show that the cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant is strongly favored over its neutrino extensions by various combinations of data sets. Robust data combinations yield stringent limits of ∑m(ν) ≲ 0.3 eV and m(ν,sterile)(eff) ≲ 0.3 eV at 95% C.L. for the sum of active and sterile neutrinos, respectively. PMID:25105605

  4. Distinguishing Dirac/Majorana sterile neutrinos at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dib, Claudio O.; Kim, C. S.; Wang, Kechen; Zhang, Jue

    2016-07-01

    We study the purely leptonic decays of W±→e±e±μ∓ν and μ±μ±e∓ν produced at the LHC, induced by sterile neutrinos with mass mN below MW in the intermediate state. Since the final state neutrino escapes detection, one cannot tell whether this process violates lepton number, which would indicate a Majorana character for the intermediate sterile neutrino. Our study shows that when the sterile neutrino mixings with electrons and muons are different enough, one can still discriminate between the Dirac and Majorana character of this intermediate neutrino by simply counting and comparing the above decay rates. After performing collider simulations and statistical analysis, we find that at the 14 TeV LHC with an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1, for two benchmark scenarios mN=20 and 50 GeV, at least a 3 σ level of exclusion on the Dirac case can be achieved for disparities as mild as, e.g., |UN e|2<0.7 |UN μ|2 or |UN μ|2<0.7 |UN e|2 , provided that |UN e|2 and |UN μ|2 are both above ˜2 ×10-6.

  5. Surface characterization of titanium alloys sterilized for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández de Gatica, Norma L.; Jones, Gary L.; Gardella, Joseph A.

    1993-05-01

    The high biocompatibility of Ti and Ti-based implants is closely related to the properties of the surface oxide formed during the implant preparation stages. During the machining process, the metal is exposed to the ambient atmosphere and oxidized. This surface oxide layer may be modified during the subsequent implant preparation steps: cleaning and sterilization. In this study, surface elemental and chemical information as well as the thickness of the oxide layer are evaluated for the Ti-6Al-4V alloy before and after different sterilization procedures: UV radiation, steam autoclaving, and radio-frequency glow-discharge (RFGD) treatment in argon atmosphere. The analytical techniques used are: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS or ESCA) and the scanning Auger microprobe (SAM). The results of this study indicate that among steam autoclaving, UV radiation and RFGD treatment, the latter yields cleaner surfaces. Also, depth profiles of the specimens treated with RFGD in argon showed an increase in the oxide layer thickness with respect to the values observed for non-sterilized samples.

  6. Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation: Mexican clinical experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Pardo, M. E.; Ley-Chávez, E.; Reyes-Frías, M. L.; Rodríguez-Ferreyra, P.; Vázquez-Maya, L.; Salazar, M. A.

    2007-11-01

    Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation, such as amnion and pig skin, are a reality in Mexico. These tissues are currently processed in the tissue bank and sterilized in the Gamma Industrial Irradiation Plant; both facilities belong to the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) (National Institute of Nuclear Research). With the strong support of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the bank was established at the ININ and the Mexican Ministry of Health issued its sanitary license on July 7, 1999. The Quality Management System of the bank was certified by ISO 9001:2000 on August 1, 2003; the scope of the system is "Research, Development and Processing of Biological Tissues Sterilized with Gamma Radiation". At present, more than 150 patients from 16 hospitals have been successfully treated with these tissues. This paper presents a brief description of the tissue processing, as well as the present Mexican clinical experience with children and adult patients who underwent medical treatment with radiosterilized amnion and pig skin, used as biological wound dressings on burns and ocular surface disorders.

  7. Comparison of the efficacy of steam sterilization indicators.

    PubMed

    Lee, C H; Montville, T J; Sinskey, A J

    1979-06-01

    Twenty-one commercially available chemical steam sterilization indicators were processed in an empty autoclave for various times at temperatures between 240 and 270 degrees F (ca. 116 and 132 degrees C). The time required to reach a sterilized reading at each temperature was plotted on a semilogarithmic time-temperature plot and compared with the time-temperature sterilization curve for Bacillus stearothermophilus. Five of the indicators had time-temperature kinetics similar to those of B. stearothermophilus, but three of these overestimated the effect of processing. Two of the indicators overestimated the effect of processing and were less sensitive to temperature changes when was B. stearothermophilus. Thirteen of the indicators had time-temperature curves that crossed the B. stearothermophilus plot. One indicator produced such ambiguous results that no determinations could be made with it. Out of 21 indicators tested, only 2 appear to be capable of accurately integrating the time-temperature effect at temperatures between 240 and 270 degrees F. The other indicators should be used only after careful analysis of their suitability for use at a given temperature. PMID:485144

  8. No new cosmological concordance with massive sterile neutrinos.

    PubMed

    Leistedt, Boris; Peiris, Hiranya V; Verde, Licia

    2014-07-25

    It has been claimed recently that massive sterile neutrinos could bring about a new concordance between observations of the cosmic microwave background, the large-scale structure of the Universe, and local measurements of the Hubble constant, H(0). We demonstrate that this apparent concordance results from combining data sets which are in significant tension, even within this extended model, possibly indicating remaining systematic biases in the measurements. We further show that this tension remains when the cosmological model is further extended to include significant tensor modes, as suggested by the recent BICEP2 results. Using the Bayesian evidence, we show that the cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant is strongly favored over its neutrino extensions by various combinations of data sets. Robust data combinations yield stringent limits of ∑m(ν) ≲ 0.3 eV and m(ν,sterile)(eff) ≲ 0.3 eV at 95% C.L. for the sum of active and sterile neutrinos, respectively.

  9. Identification of an ant queen pheromone regulating worker sterility.

    PubMed

    Holman, Luke; Jørgensen, Charlotte G; Nielsen, John; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2010-12-22

    The selective forces that shape and maintain eusocial societies are an enduring puzzle in evolutionary biology. Ordinarily sterile workers can usually reproduce given the right conditions, so the factors regulating reproductive division of labour may provide insight into why eusociality has persisted over evolutionary time. Queen-produced pheromones that affect worker reproduction have been implicated in diverse taxa, including ants, termites, wasps and possibly mole rats, but to date have only been definitively identified in the honeybee. Using the black garden ant Lasius niger, we isolate the first sterility-regulating ant queen pheromone. The pheromone is a cuticular hydrocarbon that comprises the majority of the chemical profile of queens and their eggs, and also affects worker behaviour, by reducing aggression towards objects bearing the pheromone. We further show that the pheromone elicits a strong response in worker antennae and that its production by queens is selectively reduced following an immune challenge. These results suggest that the pheromone has a central role in colony organization and support the hypothesis that worker sterility represents altruistic self-restraint in response to an honest quality signal. PMID:20591861

  10. Vegetable surface sterilization system using UVA light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Aihara, Mutsumi; Lian, Xin; Shimohata, Takaaki; Uebanso, Takashi; Mawatari, Kazuaki; Harada, Yumi; Akutagawa, Masatake; Kinouchi, Yohsuke; Takahashi, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Surface sterilization of fresh produce has been needed in the food manufacturing/processing industry. Here we report a UVA-LED (Ultra Violet A-Light Emitting Diode) system for surface sterilization that is safe, efficacious, low cost, and apparently harmless to fresh produce. To test the system, Escherichia coli strain DH5α was spot-inoculated onto vegetable tissues, and treated under UVA-LED. Tissues were homogenized and bacteria quantified by colony-forming assay. Possible effects of UVA-LED on vegetable quality were evaluated by HPLC. Tissue weight changes were checked after treatment at 4℃, 15℃, and 30℃. Bacterial inactivation by UVA-LED radiation was observed after a 10 min treatment and increased with increasing time of irradiation. The log survival ratio reached -3.23 after a 90 min treatment. Bacterial cells surviving treatment grew slowly compared to non-irradiated control cells. Cabbage tissue lost weight over time after treatment, and weight loss increased with increasing incubation temperature, but there was no difference between losses by UVA-LED treated and control tissues at any temperature tested. In addition, no differences of Vitamin C content in cabbage tissue were detected by HPLC after UVA-LED treatment. These results suggest that UVA-LED treatment has great potential for vegetable surface sterilization in the food manufacturing/processing industry.

  11. A Sterile-Neutrino Search with the MINOS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, Philip

    2010-01-01

    The MINOS experiment is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in the the NuMI beamline at Fermilab, USA. Using a near detector at 1 km distance from the neutrino production target, and a far detector at 735 km from the target, it is designed primarily to measure the disappearance of muon neutrinos. This thesis presents an analysis using MINOS data of the possibility of oscil- lation of the neutrinos in the NuMI beam to a hypothetical sterile flavour, which would have no Standard Model couplings. Such oscillations would result in a deficit in the neutral current interaction rate in the MINOS far detector relative to the expectation derived from the near detector data. The method used to identify neutral current and charged current events in the MINOS detectors is described and a new method of predicting and fitting the far detector spectrum presented, along with the effects of systematic uncertainties on the sterile neutrino oscillation analysis. Using this analysis, the fraction fs of the disappearing neutrinos that go to steriles is constrained to be below 0.15 at the 90% confidence level in the absence of electron neutrino appearance in the NuMI beam. With electron appearance at the CHOOZ limit, fs < 0.41 at 90% C.L.

  12. Soft electron processor for surface sterilization of food material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Takashi; Kaneko, Hiromi; Taniguchi, Shuichi

    2004-09-01

    As frozen or chilled foods have become popular nowadays, it has become very important to provide raw materials with lower level microbial contamination to food processing companies. Consequently, the sterilization of food material is one of the major topics for food processing. Dried materials like grains, beans and spices, etc., are not typically deeply contaminated by microorganisms, which reside on the surfaces of materials, so it is very useful to take low energetic, lower than 300 keV, electrons with small penetration power (Soft-Electrons), as a sterilization method for such materials. Soft-Electrons is researched and named by Dr. Hayashi et al. This is a non-thermal method, so one can keep foods hygienic without serious deterioration. It is also a physical method, so is free from residues of chemicals in foods. Recently, Nissin-High Voltage Co., Ltd. have developed and manufactured equipment for commercial use of Soft-Electrons (Soft Electron Processor), which can process 500 kg/h of grains. This report introduces the Soft Electron Processor and shows the results of sterilization of wheat and brown rice by the equipment.

  13. Public funding of contraceptive, sterilization and abortion services, 1983.

    PubMed

    Gold, R B; Nestor, B

    1985-01-01

    In 1983, the federal and state governments spent +340 million to provide contraceptive services--four percent more than they spent during the previous year. Title X of the Public Health Service Act, still the leading source of funding, accounted for +117 million, or 34 percent of all public expenditures. Almost as important was the +108 million (32 percent of total expenditures) provided through Title XIX of the Social Security Act (Medicaid). Two block-grant programs--Social Services and Maternal and Child Health--provided +38 million and +19 million, respectively; together, the two were responsible for 17 percent of public support for contraceptive services. State governments, which spent +58 million of their own revenues, provided an additional 17 percent of funding. Some public expenditures for contraceptive services were made in all the states. Nearly all of the four percent increase in total public funds between 1982 and 1983 was due to a 15 percent rise in Medicaid reimbursements. The federal and state governments together spent +69 million to provide about 73,000 sterilizations in 1983. Ninety percent of sterilization expenditures were made by the federal government--86 percent through the Medicaid program. In addition, the states and the federal government spent +71 million to provide 216,000 abortions in 1983. Unlike public funding for either contraceptive services or sterilization, almost all of the funding for abortion came from the states rather than from the federal government.

  14. Comparison of the efficacy of steam sterilization indicators.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C H; Montville, T J; Sinskey, A J

    1979-01-01

    Twenty-one commercially available chemical steam sterilization indicators were processed in an empty autoclave for various times at temperatures between 240 and 270 degrees F (ca. 116 and 132 degrees C). The time required to reach a sterilized reading at each temperature was plotted on a semilogarithmic time-temperature plot and compared with the time-temperature sterilization curve for Bacillus stearothermophilus. Five of the indicators had time-temperature kinetics similar to those of B. stearothermophilus, but three of these overestimated the effect of processing. Two of the indicators overestimated the effect of processing and were less sensitive to temperature changes when was B. stearothermophilus. Thirteen of the indicators had time-temperature curves that crossed the B. stearothermophilus plot. One indicator produced such ambiguous results that no determinations could be made with it. Out of 21 indicators tested, only 2 appear to be capable of accurately integrating the time-temperature effect at temperatures between 240 and 270 degrees F. The other indicators should be used only after careful analysis of their suitability for use at a given temperature. PMID:485144

  15. On-line sterilization of cheese whey using ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, N S; Ghaly, A E

    2004-01-01

    The effectiveness of ultraviolet radiation for on-line sterilization of cheese whey was investigated. The effects of flow rate and residence time on the performance of three UV reactors having different gap sizes (18, 13, and 6 mm) were studied. Six flow rates and six residence times were tested with the three UV reactors. The cheese whey used in this study had a very high turbidity (4317 NTU), very poor transmittance in the UV radiation germicidal range ( approximately 0%), and high percentage of large solid particles ( approximately 20% > 100 microm). Although the cheese whey physical characteristics showed low probability of sterilization using UV radiation, the study showed that UV radiation can be used on-line to sterilize cheese whey if the proper reactor gap size and the appropriate residence time are used. There were combined effects of the flow rate and gap size. The cell removal efficiency increased with increases in residence time and decreases in the UV reactor gap size. Removal efficiency of 100% was not achieved in this study with the first UV reactor (18-mm gap size), whereas 100% removal efficiency was achieved with the second (13-mm gap size) and third (6-mm gap size) UV reactors at residence times of 2.0 and 0.5 h, respectively. The microbial decay rates achieved in this study were 4.94, 7.62, and 20.9 h(-)(1) using the first, second, and third UV reactor, respectively. Residence times of 3.3, 2.1, and 0.8 h would be required to completely destruct a microbial population of 5.95 x 10(6) cells/mL using the first, second, and third UV reactors, respectively. Although cheese whey sterilization using UV radiation seems to be a good alternative to pasteurization, increases in cheese whey temperature resulted in lamp fouling. If online sterilization is to be used, the fouling problem should be investigated and a maintenance scheme for the UV reactor should be developed.

  16. Polyploidy Enhances F1 Pollen Sterility Loci Interactions That Increase Meiosis Abnormalities and Pollen Sterility in Autotetraploid Rice1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jinwen; Chen, Lin; Chen, Zhixiong; Wang, Lan; Lu, Yonggen

    2015-01-01

    Intersubspecific autotetraploid rice (Oryza sativa ssp. indica × japonica) hybrids have greater biological and yield potentials than diploid rice. However, the low fertility of intersubspecific autotetraploid hybrids, which is largely caused by high pollen abortion rates, limits their commercial utility. To decipher the cytological and molecular mechanisms underlying allelic interactions in autotetraploid rice, we developed an autotetraploid rice hybrid that was heterozygous (SiSj) at F1 pollen sterility loci (Sa, Sb, and Sc) using near-isogenic lines. Cytological studies showed that the autotetraploid had higher percentages (>30%) of abnormal chromosome behavior and aberrant meiocytes (>50%) during meiosis than did the diploid rice hybrid control. Analysis of gene expression profiles revealed 1,888 genes that were differentially expressed between the autotetraploid and diploid hybrid lines at the meiotic stage, among which 889 and 999 were up- and down-regulated, respectively. Of the 999 down-regulated genes, 940 were associated with the combined effect of polyploidy and pollen sterility loci interactions (IPE). Gene Ontology enrichment analysis identified a prominent functional gene class consisting of seven genes related to photosystem I (Gene Ontology 0009522). Moreover, 55 meiosis-related or meiosis stage-specific genes were associated with IPE in autotetraploid rice, including Os02g0497500, which encodes a DNA repair-recombination protein, and Os02g0490000, which encodes a component of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. These results suggest that polyploidy enhances epistatic interactions between alleles of pollen sterility loci, thereby altering the expression profiles of important meiosis-related or meiosis stage-specific genes and resulting in high pollen sterility. PMID:26511913

  17. Polyploidy Enhances F1 Pollen Sterility Loci Interactions That Increase Meiosis Abnormalities and Pollen Sterility in Autotetraploid Rice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinwen; Shahid, Muhammad Qasim; Chen, Lin; Chen, Zhixiong; Wang, Lan; Liu, Xiangdong; Lu, Yonggen

    2015-12-01

    Intersubspecific autotetraploid rice (Oryza sativa ssp. indica × japonica) hybrids have greater biological and yield potentials than diploid rice. However, the low fertility of intersubspecific autotetraploid hybrids, which is largely caused by high pollen abortion rates, limits their commercial utility. To decipher the cytological and molecular mechanisms underlying allelic interactions in autotetraploid rice, we developed an autotetraploid rice hybrid that was heterozygous (S(i)S(j)) at F1 pollen sterility loci (Sa, Sb, and Sc) using near-isogenic lines. Cytological studies showed that the autotetraploid had higher percentages (>30%) of abnormal chromosome behavior and aberrant meiocytes (>50%) during meiosis than did the diploid rice hybrid control. Analysis of gene expression profiles revealed 1,888 genes that were differentially expressed between the autotetraploid and diploid hybrid lines at the meiotic stage, among which 889 and 999 were up- and down-regulated, respectively. Of the 999 down-regulated genes, 940 were associated with the combined effect of polyploidy and pollen sterility loci interactions (IPE). Gene Ontology enrichment analysis identified a prominent functional gene class consisting of seven genes related to photosystem I (Gene Ontology 0009522). Moreover, 55 meiosis-related or meiosis stage-specific genes were associated with IPE in autotetraploid rice, including Os02g0497500, which encodes a DNA repair-recombination protein, and Os02g0490000, which encodes a component of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. These results suggest that polyploidy enhances epistatic interactions between alleles of pollen sterility loci, thereby altering the expression profiles of important meiosis-related or meiosis stage-specific genes and resulting in high pollen sterility.

  18. Genetic analysis of X-linked hybrid sterility in the house mouse.

    PubMed

    Storchová, Radka; Gregorová, Sona; Buckiová, Daniela; Kyselová, Vendula; Divina, Petr; Forejt, Jirí

    2004-07-01

    Hybrid sterility is a common postzygotic reproductive isolation mechanism that appears in the early stages of speciation of various organisms. Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus represent two recently separated mouse subspecies particularly suitable for genetic studies of hybrid sterility. Here we show that the introgression of Chr X of M. m. musculus origin (PWD/Ph inbred strain, henceforth PWD) into the genetic background of the C57BL/6J (henceforth B6) inbred strain (predominantly of M. m. domesticus origin) causes male sterility. The X-linked hybrid sterility is associated with reduced testes weight, lower sperm count, and morphological abnormalities of sperm heads. The analysis of recombinant Chr Xs in sterile and fertile males as well as quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of several fertility parameters revealed an oligogenic nature of the X-linked hybrid sterility. The Hstx1 locus responsible for male sterility was mapped near DXMit119 in the central part of Chr X. To ensure full sterility, the PWD allele of Hstx1 has to be supported with the PWD allelic form of loci in at least one proximal and/or one distal region of Chr X. Mapping and cloning of Hstx1 and other genes responsible for sterility of B6-X PWD Y B6 males could help to elucidate the special role of Chr X in hybrid sterility and consequently in speciation.

  19. Racial variation in tubal sterilization rates: The role of patient-level factors

    PubMed Central

    Borrero, Sonya; Abebe, Kaleab; Dehlendorf, Christine; Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla; Creinin, Mitchell D.; Nikolajski, Cara; Ibrahim, Said

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess racial differences in attitudes and knowledge about sterilization. Design Cross-sectional survey Setting Questionnaires were mailed to participants’ home addresses Patients 193 women aged 18–45 who had undergone tubal sterilization. Intervention(s) None Main Outcome Measure Attitudes and knowledge about tubal sterilization and awareness of contraceptive alternatives Results We received 193 completed surveys (64% response rate). AA woman were more likely to have a family member who had undergone tubal sterilization, to report that their mothers influenced their sterilization decisions, and to report that prior unintended pregnancy and desire to avoid insertion of a foreign object were very important factors in their decision to choose sterilization over other methods. Compared to white women, AA women more often thought that sterilization reversal could easily restore fertility (62 % vs 36%); that a woman’s sterilization would reverse itself after 5 years (60% vs 23%); and that a man cannot ejaculate after vasectomy (38% vs 13%). Fewer AA women had ever heard of intrauterine contraception (90% vs 98%). Racial differences in knowledge remained statistically significant after adjusting for socioeconomic confounders. Conclusions Misinformation about sterilization and limited awareness of contraceptive alternatives among AA women may contribute to racial disparities in tubal sterilization rates. PMID:20579640

  20. Incidence of opioid-managed pelvic pain after hysteroscopic sterilization versus laparoscopic sterilization, U.S. 2005-2012

    PubMed Central

    Conover, Mitchell M.; Howell, Jennifer O.; Wu, Jennifer M.; Kinlaw, Alan C.; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Funk, Michele Jonsson

    2015-01-01

    Objective Compare incidence of opioid-managed pelvic pain within 12-months after hysteroscopic and laparoscopic sterilization. Methods Using administrative claims, we identified women age 18-49 without recent history of childbirth who underwent hysteroscopic or laparoscopic sterilization between 2005-2012. We defined the outcome as ≥2 diagnoses for pelvic pain and ≥2 prescription fills for opioids. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HR) using Cox models and propensity score methods (matching and inverse-probability-of-treatment-weighting [IPTW]). Results We identified 71,875 eligible women (hysteroscopic n=26,927 [37.5%], laparoscopic n=44,948 [62.5%]). Of those, 236 (0.88%) hysteroscopic patients and 420 (0.93%) laparoscopic patients experienced the outcome (crude HR=0.97, [95%CI: 0.83, 1.14]). Adjusted analyses also yielded near-null results (matched HR=1.08 [95%CI: 0.90, 1.31]; IPTW HR=0.97 [95%CI: 0.80, 1.18]). While most sensitivity analyses generated results close to the null, hazard ratios estimated using propensity score matching ranged from 0.65 to 1.53. Conclusions Among women without recent history of childbirth, we did not find compelling evidence of a clinically meaningful increase in the incidence of pelvic pain requiring opioids during the year after hysteroscopic sterilization. However, effects observed in sensitivity analyses may merit further investigation. PMID:25832014

  1. Effects of plant growth-promoting bacteria isolated from copper tailings on plants in sterilized and non-sterilized tailings.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiqiu; Yang, Chao; Shi, Si; Shu, Wensheng

    2014-02-01

    Ten strains of Cu-tolerant bacteria with potential plant growth-promoting ability were isolated by selecting strains with the ability to use 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate as a sole nitrogen source (designated ACC-B) or fix nitrogen (designated FLN-B) originating from the rhizosphere of plants growing on copper tailings. All 10 strains proved to have intrinsic ability to produce indole acetic acid and siderophores, and most of them could mobilize insoluble phosphate. In addition, a greenhouse study showed that ACC-B, FLN-B and a mixture of both had similar, potent ability to stimulate growth of Pennisetum purpureum, Medicago sativa and Oenothera erythrosepala plants grown on sterilized tailings. For instance, above-ground biomass of P. purpureum was 278-357% greater after 60d growth on sterilized tailings in their presence. They could also significantly promote the growth of the plants grown on non-sterilized tailings, though the growth-promoting effects were much weaker. So, strategies for using of the plant growth-promoting bacteria in the practice of phytoremediation deserve further studies to get higher growth-promoting efficiency.

  2. A Molecular Method to Discriminate between Mass-Reared Sterile and Wild Tsetse Flies during Eradication Programmes That Have a Sterile Insect Technique Component

    PubMed Central

    Pagabeleguem, Soumaïla; Gimonneau, Geoffrey; Seck, Momar Talla; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Sall, Baba; Rayaissé, Jean-Baptiste; Sidibé, Issa; Bouyer, Jérémy; Ravel, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Background The Government of Senegal has embarked several years ago on a project that aims to eradicate Glossina palpalis gambiensis from the Niayes area. The removal of the animal trypanosomosis would allow the development more efficient livestock production systems. The project was implemented using an area-wide integrated pest management strategy including a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. The released sterile male flies originated from a colony from Burkina Faso. Methodology/Principal Findings Monitoring the efficacy of the sterile male releases requires the discrimination between wild and sterile male G. p. gambiensis that are sampled in monitoring traps. Before being released, sterile male flies were marked with a fluorescent dye powder. The marking was however not infallible with some sterile flies only slightly marked or some wild flies contaminated with a few dye particles in the monitoring traps. Trapped flies can also be damaged due to predation by ants, making it difficult to discriminate between wild and sterile males using a fluorescence camera and / or a fluorescence microscope. We developed a molecular technique based on the determination of cytochrome oxidase haplotypes of G. p. gambiensis to discriminate between wild and sterile males. DNA was isolated from the head of flies and a portion of the 5’ end of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I was amplified to be finally sequenced. Our results indicated that all the sterile males from the Burkina Faso colony displayed the same haplotype and systematically differed from wild male flies trapped in Senegal and Burkina Faso. This allowed 100% discrimination between sterile and wild male G. p. gambiensis. Conclusions/Significance This tool might be useful for other tsetse control campaigns with a SIT component in the framework of the Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) and, more generally, for other vector or insect pest control programs. PMID:26901049

  3. A sterilization system using ultraviolet photochemical reactions based on nitrous oxide and oxygen gases.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Yasutaka; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Iwamori, Satoru

    2016-03-01

    Active oxygen species (AOS) generated under ultraviolet (UV) lamps can be applied for various industrial processes owing to extremely strong oxidative abilities. We have already reported on an application of the AOS for a sterilization process of microorganisms. Here, a sterilization method using active oxygen generated under ultraviolet (UV) lamps introducing nitrous oxide (N2O) and oxygen gases into a vacuum chamber was investigated. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) gas was readily produced from N2O by UV photochemical reactions under the low-pressure mercury lamp and then used to sterilize medical devices. We compared the ability of the N2O gas to sterilize Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores with those of conventional methods. Successful sterilization of spores on various biological indicators was achieved within 60 min, not only in sterilization bags but also in a lumen device. PMID:26812575

  4. Altered heterochromatin binding by a hybrid sterility protein in Drosophila sibling species.

    PubMed

    Bayes, Joshua J; Malik, Harmit S

    2009-12-11

    Hybrid sterility of the heterogametic sex is one of the first postzygotic reproductive barriers to evolve during speciation, yet the molecular basis of hybrid sterility is poorly understood. We show that the hybrid male sterility gene Odysseus-site homeobox (OdsH) encodes a protein that localizes to evolutionarily dynamic loci within heterochromatin and leads to their decondensation. In Drosophila mauritiana x Drosophila simulans male hybrids, OdsH from D. mauritiana (OdsHmau) acts as a sterilizing factor by associating with the heterochromatic Y chromosome of D. simulans, whereas D. simulans OdsH (OdsHsim) does not. Characterization of sterile hybrid testes revealed that OdsH abundance and localization in the premeiotic phases of spermatogenesis differ between species. These results reveal that rapid heterochromatin evolution affects the onset of hybrid sterility.

  5. Effects of kination and scalar-tensor cosmologies on sterile neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Rehagen, Thomas; Gelmini, Graciela B. E-mail: gelmini@physics.ucla.edu

    2014-06-01

    We study the effects of kination and scalar-tensor pre-Big Bang Nucleosynthesis cosmologies on the non-resonant production of sterile neutrinos. We show that if the peak of the production rate of sterile neutrinos occurs during a non-standard cosmological phase, the relic number density of sterile neutrinos could be reduced with respect to the number expected in the standard cosmology. Consequently, current bounds on active-sterile neutrino mixing derived from the relic energy density of sterile neutrinos could be greatly relaxed. In particular, we show that the sterile neutrinos which could explain the anomalies found in short-baseline neutrino experiments are compatible with recent joint Planck upper limits on their contribution to the energy density of the Universe in a scalar-tensor or a low-reheating temperature pre-Big Bang Nucleosynthesis cosmology.

  6. The perplexing links between contraceptive sterilization and (dis)advantage in ten low-fertility countries.

    PubMed

    Eeckhaut, Mieke C W; Sweeney, Megan M

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the association between contraceptive sterilization and socio-economic status (measured by educational attainment) in ten countries, using data from the 2006-10 National Survey of Family Growth and the 2004-10 Generations and Gender Surveys. The findings confirm that a long-standing association between socio-economic status and sterilization persists in the contemporary United States: female sterilization is associated with economic disadvantage, whereas male sterilization is associated with economic advantage. The latter association is found to be unique to the United States, but female sterilization is associated with disadvantage in most of the other countries studied. While basic demographic background factors such as early childbearing and parity can explain the observed associations in most of the countries, a strong gendered association between sterilization and socio-economic status remains in the United States and Belgium even after adjusting for these factors.

  7. Optimal sterilization method for the zirconia/alumina composites used for total hip replacements.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kwang Woo; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Koo, Kyung-Hoi; Yoon, Kang Sup; Kim, Hee Joong

    2009-08-01

    Zirconia/alumina composite ceramics have been recently developed for total hip arthroplasty because of their excellent mechanical properties and tribologic characteristics. All such materials used clinically must be easily sterilized, but no report has been issued concerning methods for sterilizing zirconia/alumina composite hip prostheses. Here, we show that 50 kGy of gamma irradiation effectively sterilizes both the surfaces and interiors of these materials. In addition, it was found that the commonly used ethylene oxide and 25-kGy gamma irradiation sterilization methods inadequately sterilize deep inside the femoral head. Moreover, no changes in the chemical or mechanical properties of the composites were noted after exposure to 50-kGy gamma irradiation. We suggest that 50-kGy gamma irradiation is an optimal sterilization method for zirconia/alumina composite total hip replacements. PMID:19441113

  8. Sterilization characteristics of dental instruments using oxygen plasma produced by narrow gap RF discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Yasuhiro; Liu, Zhen; Goto, Masaaki; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2016-07-01

    Sterilization characteristics and material compatibility of low-pressure RF oxygen plasma sterilization method for dental instruments are investigated. Regarding the characteristics of the plasma sterilizer for dental instruments, it is small and can rapidly sterilize owing to a narrow gap discharge. Sterilization of vial-type biological indicators is achieved for the shortest treatment period of 40 min at an RF power of 80 W at a temperature of 70 °C. At a temperature lower than 60 °C, a sterilization period of 90 min is required using a water-cooled electrode. No surface modifications of dental instruments such as chemical composition and deterioration of fine crystals of a diamond bar were observed under a scanning electron microscope.

  9. The search for new sterilizing anti-tuberculosis drugs.

    PubMed

    Mitchison, Denis A

    2004-05-01

    To be of use in the control of tuberculosis, any new drug must be capable of shortening the duration of treatment by accelerating sterilizing activity, that is the rate at which Mycobacterium tuberculosis is killed in the lesions. The most difficult to kill are the extra-cellular bacilli in cavities. Persistence during therapy arises because there is a proportion of slowly metabolising bacilli (persisters) in the cavitary bacterial population at the start of treatment. Bacterial growth is slowed by low oxygen tension, quorum sensing and old age, but probably not by cellular immunity, since there are few professional phagocytic cells in cavities. The degree of phenotypic resistance to the bactericidal action of drugs can go through several stages: (i) the non-replicating stages 1 and 2 of micro-aerophilic adaptation, described by Wayne; (ii) a "tolerant" population that survives exposure to high rifampicin concentrations and is capable of growth in liquid medium but not on solid medium; and (iii) a population found in the sterile state of Cornell model mice which cannot grow initially in either liquid or solid medium but will eventually cause re-activation of tuberculosis. In all of these stages the bacilli are phenotypically resistant; there is no selection for genomic drug resistance. Rifampicin and pyrazinamide are the two drugs largely responsible for sterilizing activity during current treatment. Pyrazinamide is unique amongst anti-tuberculosis drugs in having no genomic site of action and having greater bactericidal activity as bacillary metabolism slows down; it is remarkably effective in human disease. The development of a new drug with a similar mode of activity might be very fruitful, especially if there were no need for an acid environment. Current methods advocated for drug development pass through a number of complex stages: choice of a genomic target, development of an in vitro assay, high throughput screening and identification of lead compounds

  10. Effects of sterilization methods on key properties of specialty optical fibers used in medical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolov, Andrei A.; Slyman, Brian E.; Burgess, David T.; Hokansson, Adam S.; Li, Jie; Allen, R. Steve

    2013-03-01

    Optical fibers with different types of polymer coatings were exposed to three sterilization conditions: multiple autoclaving, treatment with ethylene oxide and treatment with gamma rays. Effects of different sterilization techniques on key optical and mechanical properties of the fibers are reported. The primary attention is given to behavior of the coatings in harsh sterilization environments. The following four coating/buffer types were investigated: (i) dual acrylate, (ii) polyimide, (iii) silicone/PEEK and (iv) fluoroacrylate hard cladding/ETFE.

  11. Suitability of peracetic acid for sterilization of media for mycoplasma cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Wutzler, P; Sprössig, M; Peterseim, H

    1975-01-01

    The utility of peracetic acid for sterilization of serum and yeast extract additions to mycoplasma medium was studied by culturing six Mycoplasma species. Culture media containing additions that had been sterilized with peracetic acid proved to be as good as filtered components. The use of 0.05 to 0.1% peracetic acid is recommended to sterilize the serum and yeast extract additions since savings in time and equipment can be accomplished. PMID:1100656

  12. [Mechanization of the work of the personnel of the sterilization service of therapeutic-preventive institutions].

    PubMed

    Rabin'kiĭ, B Ia

    1978-01-01

    The presently functioning service of central sterilization departments at medical institutions has presented itself in a good light. The home industry already puts out the necessary basic facilities and is putting into production the ancillary ones to equip them. Further development of the sterilization service centralization follows the way of setting up sterilization centres organized on the principle of highly mechanized and automated industrial enterprises.

  13. [Radiolysis of acrinol in radio-sterilization of acrinol pharmaceuticals].

    PubMed

    Kimura, S; Nishimura, R; Kanbashi, T; Jo, H; Koide, H

    1983-11-01

    Acrinol in dry solid state after gamma irradiation with 80 kGy (8 Mrad) undergoes 8% decomposition, with G(-M)=30, and in wet solid state (10% moisture content) undergoes 15% decomposition, with G(-M)=56, as shown by absorbed spectrometric measurement. From these results, it is estimated that the irradiation dose of 25 kGy (2.5 Mrad) prefered by many countries as sterilization dose will achieve the radiolysis rate of 2.8% or 4.7% for dry solid state or wet solid state acrinol, respectively. The stickiness power of plaster tape made of raw rubber and polyterpene resin don't decrease with irradiation dose of less than 40 kGy (4 Mrad). Then, the radio-sterilization on the dose of 25 kGy (2.5 Mrad) may be applied to solid pharmaceuticals such as commercial rubber adhesive plaster with acrinol pad. Besides, acrinol in 0.1% aqueous solution after irradiation of 10 kGy (1 Mrad) at room temperature undergoes 20% decomposition, with G(-M)=0.5. The radiolysis rate in this state is estimated 45% with the dose of 25 kGy (2.5 Mrad). Then, the radio-sterilization with this dose must not be applied to liquid pharmaceuticals such as 0.1% acrinol aqueous solution. While, it was reported by Hosobuchi and Sato that the antimicrobial effect of irradiated acrinol to Staphlococcus aureus increased with irradiation dose. Then, it is expectable that some materials with antimicrobial activity are prodused by gamma irradiation.

  14. Heterogeneity of Maize Cytoplasmic Genomes among Male-Sterile Cytoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Pring, D. R.; Levings, C. S.

    1978-01-01

    Maize mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA's were prepared from normal (fertile) lines or single crosses and from members of the T, C, and S groups of male-sterile cytoplasms. Restriction endonucleases HindIII, BamI, EcoRI, and SalI were used to restrict the DNA, and the resultant fragments were electrophoresed in agarose gels. The results show that the N (fertile), T, C, and S cytoplasms each contained distinct mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). These distinctive patterns were unaffected by nuclear genotype. No evidence of paternal inheritance of mtDNA was observed. Chloroplast DNA (ctDNA) from the N, C, and T cytoplasms was indistinguishable by HindIII, SalI, or EcoRI endonuclease digestion. The S cytoplasm ctDNA, however, was slightly different from that of other cytoplasms, as indicated by a slight displacement of one band in HindIII digests. The molecular weight of maize ctDNA was estimated to be as high as 88 x 106. Estimates of the minimum molecular weight of maize mtDNA ranged from 116–131 x 106, but the patterns were to complex for an unambiguous determination. Based on HindIII data, a comparison of the molecular weight of mtDNA bands common to the N, T. C, and S cytoplasms suggests that C cytoplasm most closely resembles N cytoplasm. The T and S sources are more divergent from the C and N cytoplasms. These results indicate a possible gradation of relatedness among male-sterile cytoplasms. The marked variation in mtDNA, with apparently less variation in ctDNA, represents circumstantial, but compelling, evidence that mtDNA may be involved in the male sterility and disease susceptibility traits in maize. PMID:17248823

  15. Medicine Delivery Device with Integrated Sterilization and Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheam, Michael J.; Greer, Harold F.; Manohara, Harish

    2013-01-01

    Sterile delivery devices can be created by integrating a medicine delivery instrument with surfaces that are coated with germicidal and anti-fouling material. This requires that a large-surface-area template be developed within a constrained volume to ensure good contact between the delivered medicine and the germicidal material. Both of these can be integrated using JPL-developed silicon nanotip or cryo-etch black silicon technologies with atomic layer deposition (ALD) coating of specific germicidal layers. Nanofabrication techniques that are used to produce a microfluidics device are also capable of synthesizing extremely hig-hsurface-area templates in precise locations, and coating those surfaces with conformal films to manipulate their surface properties. This methodology has been successfully applied at JPL to produce patterned and coated silicon nanotips (also known as black silicon) to manipulate the hydrophilicity of surfaces to direct the spreading of fluids in microdevices. JPL s ALD technique is an ideal method to produce the highly conformal coatings required for this type of application. Certain materials, such as TiO2, have germicidal and anti-fouling properties when they are illuminated with UV light. The proposed delivery device contacts medicine with this high-surface-area black silicon surface coated with a thin-film germicidal deposited conformally with ALD. The coating can also be illuminated with ultraviolet light for the purpose of sterilization or identification of the medicine itself. This constrained volume that is located immediately prior to delivery into a patient, ensures that the medicine delivery device is inherently sterile.

  16. The safety of field tubal sterilization: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Siswosudarmo, R

    1991-01-01

    A cohort study on female sterilization has been carried out to compare the safety of field-based procedures with hospital-based procedures. A total of 217 women were recruited, consisting of 103 field-based and 114 hospital-based acceptors. Married and healthy women 20-45 years of age, having at least two living children, not obese, no history of major abdominal surgery, no signs of acute pelvic inflammatory disease, and no contraindication to ketamin were included in the study. Women with severe pelvic adhesions encountered during surgery were excluded from the study. The ambulatory procedure was used for all acceptors except those who were sterilized in hospital immediately after delivery. They were asked to come to th Sarjito Hospital (hospital-based) or Puskesmas (primary health care center or field-based), after fasting the night before. Ketamin, 50-100 mg, was used intravenously for general anesthesia. Minilaparotomy followed by the Pomeroy method was used for standard female tubal sterilization. Tetracycline, 3 x 500 mg was given for five days prophylactically. Follow-up was carried out one and six weeks after the day of operation. Data were processed with an IBM-compatible PC, using version 3.0 SPSS program. Students t-test, chi-square test and relative risk (95% confidence limit (CL)) were used for statistical analysis. Both groups were comparable in terms of age, parity, body weight, and body height. The duration of operation in the field was somewhat longer than that in the hospital, i.e. 24.58 vs 21.14 minutes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. The effect of commercial sterilization regimens on micellar casein concentrates.

    PubMed

    Beliciu, C M; Sauer, A; Moraru, C I

    2012-10-01

    This work focused on evaluating the effects of UHT sterilization and in-container retorting on the stability and physical properties of micellar casein concentrates (MCC). The study was performed on MCC obtained by membrane separation, with casein concentrations between 5 and 10%. The UHT and retorting regimens were designed to achieve the same microbial inactivation effect. Ultra-high temperature treatment was performed in a pilot-scale MicroThermics heating system (MicroThermics Inc., Raleigh, NC), and retorting in an FMC multipurpose laboratory retort (Steritort; FMC Corp., San Jose, CA). The heat-treated and the non-heat-treated MCC controls were evaluated for pH, mineral profile, ζ-potential, particle size, and rheological properties for up to 24h after heat treatment. The treatments were performed in triplicate, and differences among samples were evaluated using statistical analyses. Retorting resulted in slight aggregation in the MCC, whereas UHT caused the formation of visible aggregates and coagulation. The UHT-treated MCC had higher viscosity than retorted MCC, and displayed predominantly solid-like rheological behavior, indicative of structure formation. These effects were, at least in part, attributed to a change in mineral equilibrium, which affected the stability of the casein micelles, but additional mechanisms such as κ-casein dissociation may also play a significant role in these heat-induced changes. Drying of MCC accentuated the observed instabilities, as dried and reconstituted micellar casein concentrates (R-MCC) were more unstable to UHT sterilization than the MCC that had not undergone drying. The results of this study provide valuable information about the sterilization behavior and physical properties of MCC, which can be useful to processors in the development and manufacture of shelf-stable casein-based products and beverages.

  18. Direct detection of relic active and sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu-Feng

    2016-05-01

    Both active and sterile sub-eV neutrinos can form the cosmic neutrino background in the early Universe. We consider the beta-decaying (e.g., 3H) and EC-decaying (e.g., 163Ho) nuclei as the promising targets to capture relic neutrinos in the laboratory. We calculate the capture rates of relic electron neutrinos and antineutrinos against the corresponding beta decay or electron capture (EC) decay backgrounds in the (3+Ns) flavor mixing scheme, and discuss the future prospect in terms of the PTOLEMY project. We stress that such direct measurements of hot DM might not be hopeless in the long term.

  19. Sealing and External Sterilization of a Sample Container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Sherrit, Stewart; Olorunsola, Ayoola

    2008-01-01

    A method of (1) sealing a sample of material acquired in a possibly b iologically contaminated ("dirty") environment into a hermetic conta iner, (2) sterilizing the outer surface of the container, then (3) d elivering the sealed container to a clean environment has been propos ed. The method now proposed was originally intended to be used to ret urn samples from Mars to Earth, but could also be used on Earth to t ransport material samples acquired in environments that contain biol ogical hazards and/or, in some cases, chemical hazards.

  20. Assessing risks of changing sterile drug manufacturing sites.

    PubMed

    Langille, Stephen E; Campbell, Cliff

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes a recently completed research assignment conducted on behalf of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Office of Pharmaceutical Science. The assignment addressed the issue of changing sterile drug manufacturing sites from the point of view of both synthetic and biotech drug products. The article is intended to provide readers with an overview of the assignment and to summarize a recommended approach whereby the use of a comparability protocol can satisfy the FDA's review expectations on the one hand, and facilitate streamlined compliance and faster product to market by manufacturers on the other.