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Sample records for hidroxichalconas em pseudomonas

  1. Rhamnolipid production with indigenous Pseudomonas aeruginosa EM1 isolated from oil-contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jane-Yii; Yeh, Kuei-Ling; Lu, Wei-Bin; Lin, Chung-Liang; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2008-03-01

    Rhamnolipid is one of the most effective and commonly used biosurfactant with wide industrial applications. Systematic strategies were applied to improve rhamnolipid (RL) production with a newly isolated indigenous strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa EM1 originating from an oil-contaminated site located in southern Taiwan. Seven carbon substrates and four nitrogen sources were examined for their effects on RL production. In addition, the effect of carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio on RL production was also studied. Single-factor experiments show that the most favorable carbon sources for RL production were glucose and glycerol (both at 40 g/L), giving a RL yield of 7.5 and 4.9 g/L, respectively. Meanwhile, sodium nitrate appeared to be the preferable nitrogen source, resulting in a RL production of 8.6g/L. Using NaNO(3) as the nitrogen source, an optimal C/N ratio of 26 and 52 was obtained for glucose- and glycerol-based culture, respectively. To further optimize the composition of fermentation medium, twenty experiments were designed by response surface methodology (RSM) to explore the favorable concentration of three critical components in the medium (i.e., glucose, glycerol, and NaNO(3)). The RSM analysis gave an optimal concentration of 30.5, 18.1, and 4.9 g/L for glucose, glycerol, and NaNO(3), respectively, predicting a maximum RL yield of 12.6 g/L, which is 47% higher than the best yield (8.6 g/L) obtained from preliminary selection tests and single factor experiments (glucose and NaNO(3) as the carbon and nitrogen source). The NMR and mass spectrometry analysis show that the purified RL product contained L-rhamnosyl-beta-hydroxydecanoyl-beta-hydroxydecanoate (RL1) and L-rhamnosyl L-rhamnosyl-beta-hydroxydecanoyl-beta-hydroxydecanoate (RL2). Meanwhile, HPLC analysis indicates that the molar ratio of RL1 and RL2 in the purified rhamnolipid product was ca. 1:1.

  2. The Ssr protein (T1E_1405) from Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E enables oligonucleotide-based recombineering in platform strain P. putida EM42.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Tomás; Jensen, Sheila I; Nielsen, Alex T; de Lorenzo, Victor; Martínez-García, Esteban

    2016-10-01

    Some strains of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida have become in recent years platforms of choice for hosting biotransformations of industrial interest. Despite availability of many genetic tools for this microorganism, genomic editing of the cell factory P. putida EM42 (a derivative of reference strain KT2440) is still a time-consuming endeavor. In this work we have investigated the in vivo activity of the Ssr protein encoded by the open reading frame T1E_1405 from Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E, a plausible functional homologue of the β protein of the Red recombination system of λ phage of Escherichia coli. A test based on the phenotypes of pyrF mutants of P. putida (the yeast's URA3 ortholog) was developed for quantifying the ability of Ssr to promote invasion of the genomic DNA replication fork by synthetic oligonucleotides. The efficiency of the process was measured by monitoring the inheritance of the changes entered into pyrF by oligonucleotides bearing mutated sequences. Ssr fostered short and long genomic deletions/insertions at considerable frequencies as well as single-base swaps not affected by mismatch repair. These results not only demonstrate the feasibility of recombineering in P. putida, but they also enable a suite of multiplexed genomic manipulations in this biotechnologically important bacterium.

  3. Pseudomonas chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Sampedro, Inmaculada; Parales, Rebecca E; Krell, Tino; Hill, Jane E

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonads sense changes in the concentration of chemicals in their environment and exhibit a behavioral response mediated by flagella or pili coupled with a chemosensory system. The two known chemotaxis pathways, a flagella-mediated pathway and a putative pili-mediated system, are described in this review. Pseudomonas shows chemotaxis response toward a wide range of chemicals, and this review includes a summary of them organized by chemical structure. The assays used to measure positive and negative chemotaxis swimming and twitching Pseudomonas as well as improvements to those assays and new assays are also described. This review demonstrates that there is ample research and intellectual space for future investigators to elucidate the role of chemotaxis in important processes such as pathogenesis, bioremediation, and the bioprotection of plants and animals. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permission@oup.com.

  4. Pseudomonas 2007 Meeting Review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pseudomonas is an important genus of bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the third most common nosocomial pathogen in our society, associated with chronic and eventually fatal lung disease in cystic fibrosis patients, while Pseudomonas syringae species are prominent plant pathogens. The fluorescen...

  5. Pseudomonas screening assay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margalit, Ruth (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A method for the detection of Pseudomonas bacteria is described where an Azurin-specific antibody is employed for detecting the presence of Azurin in a test sample. The detection of the presence of Azurin in the sample is a conclusive indicator of the presence of the Pseudomonas bacteria since the Azurin protein is a specific marker for this bacterial strain.

  6. Pseudomonas kuykendallii sp. nov.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This is a submission to the list of microorganisms with standing in nomenclature maintained by the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. We wish to have Pseudomonas kuykendallii sp. nov. added to the list as a valid species belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. Three str...

  7. Monocyte Profiles in Critically Ill Patients With Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Sepsis

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-02

    Pseudomonas Infections; Pseudomonas Septicemia; Pseudomonas; Pneumonia; Pseudomonal Bacteraemia; Pseudomonas Urinary Tract Infection; Pseudomonas Gastrointestinal Tract Infection; Sepsis; Sepsis, Severe; Critically Ill

  8. Indicator For Pseudomonas Bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margalit, Ruth

    1990-01-01

    Characteristic protein extracted and detected. Natural protein marker found in Pseudomonas bacteria. Azurin, protein containing copper readily extracted, purified, and used to prepare antibodies. Possible to develop simple, fast, and accurate test for marker carried out in doctor's office.

  9. Indicator For Pseudomonas Bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margalit, Ruth

    1990-01-01

    Characteristic protein extracted and detected. Natural protein marker found in Pseudomonas bacteria. Azurin, protein containing copper readily extracted, purified, and used to prepare antibodies. Possible to develop simple, fast, and accurate test for marker carried out in doctor's office.

  10. Pseudomonas orchitis in puberty.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Ambil S

    2004-10-01

    Acute epididymo-orchitis is a common cause of 'acute scrotum' in adolescence and young adults, and the common causative pathogens are Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. This is a rare case of acute epididymo-orchitis due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a pubertal boy with a history of 'ano-receptive' intercourse. On Medline search there are no reports of pseudomonas orchitis in this age group.

  11. 40 CFR 180.1114 - Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance... Tolerances § 180.1114 Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas...

  12. Polymicrobial ventriculitis involving Pseudomonas fulva.

    PubMed

    Rebolledo, Paulina A; Vu, Catphuong Cathy L; Carlson, Renee Donahue; Kraft, Colleen S; Anderson, Evan J; Burd, Eileen M

    2014-06-01

    Infections due to Pseudomonas fulva remain a rare but emerging concern. A case of ventriculitis due to Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas fulva following placement of an external ventricular drain is described. Similar to other reports, the organism was initially misidentified as Pseudomonas putida. The infection was successfully treated with levofloxacin.

  13. Biology of Pseudomonas stutzeri

    PubMed Central

    Lalucat, Jorge; Bennasar, Antoni; Bosch, Rafael; García-Valdés, Elena; Palleroni, Norberto J.

    2006-01-01

    Pseudomonas stutzeri is a nonfluorescent denitrifying bacterium widely distributed in the environment, and it has also been isolated as an opportunistic pathogen from humans. Over the past 15 years, much progress has been made in elucidating the taxonomy of this diverse taxonomical group, demonstrating the clonality of its populations. The species has received much attention because of its particular metabolic properties: it has been proposed as a model organism for denitrification studies; many strains have natural transformation properties, making it relevant for study of the transfer of genes in the environment; several strains are able to fix dinitrogen; and others participate in the degradation of pollutants or interact with toxic metals. This review considers the history of the discovery, nomenclatural changes, and early studies, together with the relevant biological and ecological properties, of P. stutzeri. PMID:16760312

  14. Pseudomonas folliculitis in Arabian baths.

    PubMed

    Molina-Leyva, Alejandro; Ruiz-Ruigomez, Maria

    2013-07-14

    A 35-year-old man presented with a painful cutaneous skin eruption that was localized on the upper trunk. He stated that the previous weekend he had attended an Arabian bath. The physical examination revealed multiple hair follicle-centered papulopustules surrounded by an erythematous halo. A clinical diagnosis of pseudomonas folliculitis was made and treatment was prescribed. Afterwards Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from a pustule culture. Pseudomonas folliculitis is a bacterial infection of the hair follicles. The most common reservoirs include facilities with hot water and complex piping systems that are difficult to clean, such as hot tubs and bathtubs. Despite adequate or high chlorine levels, Pseudomonas aeruginosa can grow within a biofilm.

  15. Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa cervical osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Meher, Sujeet Kumar; Jain, Harsh; Tripathy, Laxmi Narayan; Basu, Sunandan

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a rare cause of osteomyelitis of the cervical spine and is usually seen in the background of intravenous drug use and immunocompromised state. Very few cases of osteomyelitis of the cervical spine caused by pseudomonas aeruginosa have been reported in otherwise healthy patients. This is a case presentation of a young female, who in the absence of known risk factors for cervical osteomyelitis presented with progressively worsening neurological signs and symptoms. PMID:27891039

  16. "Hot Tub Rash" and "Swimmer's Ear" (Pseudomonas)

    MedlinePlus

    Facts About “Hot Tub Rash” and “Swimmer’s Ear” (Pseudomonas) What is Pseudomonas and how can it affect me? Pseudomonas (sue-doh- ... a major cause of infections commonly known as “hot tub rash” and “swimmer’s ear.” This germ is ...

  17. Cyanide production by Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Askeland, R A; Morrison, S M

    1983-01-01

    Of 200 water isolates screened, five strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were cyanogenic. Maximum cyanogenesis by two strains of P. fluorescens in a defined growth medium occurred at 25 to 30 degrees C over a pH range of 6.6 to 8.9. Cyanide production per cell was optimum at 300 mM phosphate. A linear relationship was observed between cyanogenesis and the log of iron concentration over a range of 3 to 300 microM. The maximum rate of cyanide production occurred during the transition from exponential to stationary growth phase. Radioactive tracer experiments with [1-14C]glycine and [2-14C]glycine demonstrated that the cyanide carbon originates from the number 2 carbon of glycine for both P. fluorescens and P. aeruginosa. Cyanide production was not observed in raw industrial wastewater or in sterile wastewater inoculated with pure cultures of cyanogenic Pseudomonas strains. Cyanide was produced when wastewater was amended by the addition of components of the defined growth medium. PMID:6410989

  18. Cyanide production by Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Askeland, R A; Morrison, S M

    1983-06-01

    Of 200 water isolates screened, five strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were cyanogenic. Maximum cyanogenesis by two strains of P. fluorescens in a defined growth medium occurred at 25 to 30 degrees C over a pH range of 6.6 to 8.9. Cyanide production per cell was optimum at 300 mM phosphate. A linear relationship was observed between cyanogenesis and the log of iron concentration over a range of 3 to 300 microM. The maximum rate of cyanide production occurred during the transition from exponential to stationary growth phase. Radioactive tracer experiments with [1-14C]glycine and [2-14C]glycine demonstrated that the cyanide carbon originates from the number 2 carbon of glycine for both P. fluorescens and P. aeruginosa. Cyanide production was not observed in raw industrial wastewater or in sterile wastewater inoculated with pure cultures of cyanogenic Pseudomonas strains. Cyanide was produced when wastewater was amended by the addition of components of the defined growth medium.

  19. LACTIC DEHYDROGENASES OF PSEUDOMONAS NATRIEGENS.

    PubMed

    WALKER, H; EAGON, R G

    1964-07-01

    Walker, Hazel (University of Georgia, Athens), and R. G. Eagon. Lactic dehydrogenases of Pseudomonas natriegens. J. Bacteriol. 88:25-30. 1964.-Lactic dehydrogenases specific for d- and l-lactate were demonstrated in Pseudomonas natriegens. The l-lactic dehydrogenase showed considerable heat stability, and 40% of the activity remained in extracts after heating at 60 C for 10 min. An essential thiol group for enzyme activity was noted. The results of these experiments were consistent with the view that lactate was dehydrogenated initially by a flavin cofactor and that electrons were transported through a complete terminal oxidase system to oxygen. The intracellular site of these lactic dehydrogenases was shown to be the cell membrane. It was suggested that the main physiological role of these lactic dehydrogenases is that of lactate utilization.

  20. LACTIC DEHYDROGENASES OF PSEUDOMONAS NATRIEGENS

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Hazel; Eagon, R. G.

    1964-01-01

    Walker, Hazel (University of Georgia, Athens), and R. G. Eagon. Lactic dehydrogenases of Pseudomonas natriegens. J. Bacteriol. 88:25–30. 1964.—Lactic dehydrogenases specific for d- and l-lactate were demonstrated in Pseudomonas natriegens. The l-lactic dehydrogenase showed considerable heat stability, and 40% of the activity remained in extracts after heating at 60 C for 10 min. An essential thiol group for enzyme activity was noted. The results of these experiments were consistent with the view that lactate was dehydrogenated initially by a flavin cofactor and that electrons were transported through a complete terminal oxidase system to oxygen. The intracellular site of these lactic dehydrogenases was shown to be the cell membrane. It was suggested that the main physiological role of these lactic dehydrogenases is that of lactate utilization. Images PMID:14197895

  1. Phosphate taxis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kato, J; Ito, A; Nikata, T; Ohtake, H

    1992-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa was shown to be attracted to phosphate. The chemotactic response was induced by phosphate starvation. The specificity of chemoreceptors for phosphate was high so that no other tested phosphorus compounds elicited a chemotactic response as strong as that elicited by phosphate. Competition experiments showed that the chemoreceptors for phosphate appeared to be different from those for the common amino acids. Mutants constitutive for alkaline phosphatase showed the chemotactic response to phosphate regardless of whether the cells were starved for phosphate.

  2. [Pseudomonas folliculitis after spa bath exposure].

    PubMed

    Uldall Pallesen, Kristine Appel; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Mørtz, Charlotte Gotthard

    2012-06-25

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a rare cause of folliculitis. Pseudomonas folliculitis can develop after contact with contaminated water from swimming pools, hot tubs and spa baths. Systemic therapy may be indicated in patients with widespread lesions, systemic symptoms or in immunosuppressed patients. We describe a 23-year-old healthy woman who developed a pustular rash and general malaise after using a spa bath contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bacterial culture from a pustule confirmed Pseudomonas folliculitis and the patient was treated with ciprofloxacin with rapid good effect.

  3. Antifungal characteristics of a fluorescent Pseudomonas strain involved in the biological control of Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Pal, K K; Tilak, K V; Saxena, A K; Dey, R; Singh, C S

    2000-09-01

    A plant growth-promoting isolate of a fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. EM85 was found strongly antagonistic to Rhizoctonia solani, a causal agent of damping-off of cotton. The isolate produced HCN (HCN+), siderophore (Sid+), fluorescent pigments (Flu+) and antifungal antibiotics (Afa+). Tn5::lacZ mutagenesis of isolate EM85 resulted in the production of a series of mutants with altered production of HCN, siderophore, fluorescent pigments and antifungal antibiotics. Characterisation of these mutants revealed that the fluorescent pigment produced in PDA and the siderophore produced in CAS agar were not the same. Afa- and Flu- mutants had a smaller inhibition zone when grown with Rhizoctonia solani than the EM85 wild type. Sid- and HCN mutants failed to inhibit the pathogen in vitro. In a pot experiment, mutants deficient in HCN and siderophore production could suppress the damping-off disease by 52%. However, mutants deficient in fluorescent pigments and antifungal antibiotics failed to reduce the disease severity. Treatments with mutants that produced enhanced amounts of fluorescent pigments and antibiotics compared with EM85 wild type, exhibited an increase in biocontrol efficiency. Monitoring of the mutants in the rhizosphere using the lacZ marker showed identical proliferation of mutants and wild type. Purified antifungal compounds (fluorescent pigment and antibiotic) also inhibited the fungus appreciably in a TLC bioassay. Thus, the results indicate that fluorescent pigment and antifungal antibiotic of the fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. EM85 might be involved in the biological suppression of Rhizoctonia-induced damping-off of cotton.

  4. Genomics of Secondary Metabolism in Pseudomonas spp.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pseudomonas is a heterogeneous genus of bacteria known for its ubiquity in natural habitats and its prolific production of secondary metabolites. The structurally diverse chemical structures produced by Pseudomonas spp. result from biosynthetic processes with unusual features that have revealed no...

  5. Pseudomonas blight discovered on raspberry in Watsonville

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the winter (February) of 2013, a field of raspberries in Watsonville was discovered to be infected with Pseudomonas syringae, the causal agent of Pseudomonas blight disease. This was the first documentation of this disease on raspberry in our region. The infection of raspberry plants is manifeste...

  6. Recent developments for Pseudomonas vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anurag; Krause, Anja

    2011-01-01

    Infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa are a major health problem for immune-compromised patients and individuals with cystic fibrosis. A vaccine against P. aeruginosa has long been sought after, but is so far not available. Several vaccine candidates have been assessed in experimental animals and humans, which include sub-cellular fractions, capsule components, purified and recombinant proteins. Unique characteristics of the host and the pathogen have complicated the vaccine development. This review summarizes the current state of vaccine development for this ubiquitous pathogen, in particular to provide mucosal immunity against infections of the respiratory tract in susceptible individuals with cystic fibrosis. PMID:21941090

  7. Enzyme distribution in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    CAMPBELL, J J; HOGGLA; STRASDINE, G A

    1962-05-01

    Campbell, J. J. R. (The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada), Loretta A. Hogg, and G. A. Strasdine. Enzyme distribution in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J. Bacteriol. 83:1155-1160. 1962.-Previous studies on the distribution of enzymes in bacteria have indicated that, although individual enzymes were predominantly associated with a particular cellular structure, nevertheless some of the enzyme appeared to be present in all cellular fractions. In the present work with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, it was shown that, in general, an enzyme is present in only one cellular component. Hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconic dehydrogenase, gluconic dehydrogenase, malic dehydrogenase, fumarase, isocitric dehydrogenase, isocitritase, and catalase were detected only in the soluble cytoplasm of the cell. Glucose oxidase and succinic dehydrogenase were detected only in the "ghost" fraction. Diphosphopyridine nucleotide oxidase was present in both "ghost" and ribosomal fractions but was most concentrated in the "ghost". Although adenylic kinase was found to be present in all fractions, it was possible to fractionate cells so that almost all of the activity was associated with the soluble cytoplasm a minor amount being associated with the "ghost." Adenosine triphosphatase was most concentrated in the "ghost" but appreciable activity appeared in the cytoplasm. Polynucleotide phosphorylase appeared to be the only enzyme that was convincingly associated with the ribosomes. However, a small amount of activity was associated with the soluble cytoplasm and with the "ghosts."

  8. Regulation of Pseudomonas quinolone signal synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Wade, Dana S; Calfee, M Worth; Rocha, Edson R; Ling, Elizabeth A; Engstrom, Elana; Coleman, James P; Pesci, Everett C

    2005-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients and is a major source of nosocomial infections. This bacterium controls many virulence factors by using two quorum-sensing systems, las and rhl. The las system is composed of the LasR regulator protein and its cell-to-cell signal, N-(3-oxododecanoyl) homoserine lactone, and the rhl system is composed of RhlR and the signal N-butyryl homoserine lactone. A third intercellular signal, the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS; 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone), also regulates numerous virulence factors. PQS synthesis requires the expression of multiple operons, one of which is pqsABCDE. Previous experiments showed that the transcription of this operon, and therefore PQS production, is negatively regulated by the rhl quorum-sensing system and positively regulated by the las quorum-sensing system and PqsR (also known as MvfR), a LysR-type transcriptional regulator protein. With the use of DNA mobility shift assays and beta-galactosidase reporter fusions, we have studied the regulation of pqsR and its relationship to pqsA, lasR, and rhlR. We show that PqsR binds the promoter of pqsA and that this binding increases dramatically in the presence of PQS, implying that PQS acts as a coinducer for PqsR. We have also mapped the transcriptional start site for pqsR and found that the transcription of pqsR is positively regulated by lasR and negatively regulated by rhlR. These results suggest that a regulatory chain occurs where pqsR is under the control of LasR and RhlR and where PqsR in turn controls pqsABCDE, which is required for the production of PQS.

  9. Effect of culture medium on biocalcification by Pseudomonas Putida, Lysinibacillus Sphaericus and Bacillus Subtilis.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, Márcia Aiko; Cincotto, Maria Alba; Atencio, Daniel; Gaylarde, Christine C; John, Vanderley M

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the efficiency of calcium carbonate bioprecipitation by Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida, obtained from the Coleção de Culturas do Instituto Nacional de Controle de Qualidade em Saúde (INCQS), as a first step in determining their potential to protect building materials against water uptake. Two culture media were studied: modified B4 containing calcium acetate and 295 with calcium chloride. Calcium consumption in the two media after incubation with and without the bacterial inoculum was determined by atomic absorption analysis. Modified B4 gave the best results and in this medium Pseudomonas putida INQCS 113 produced the highest calcium carbonate precipitation, followed by Lysinibacillus sphaericus INQCS 414; the lowest precipitation was produced by Bacillus subtilis INQCS 328. In this culture medium XRD analysis showed that Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis precipitated calcite and vaterite polymorphs while Lysinibacillus sphaericus produced only vaterite. The shape and size of the crystals were affected by culture medium, bacterial strain and culture conditions, static or shaken. In conclusion, of the three strains Pseudomonas putida INQCS 113 in modified B4 medium gave the best results precipitating 96% of the calcium, this strain thus has good potential for use on building materials.

  10. Effect of culture medium on biocalcification by Pseudomonas Putida, Lysinibacillus Sphaericus and Bacillus Subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Shirakawa, Márcia Aiko; Cincotto, Maria Alba; Atencio, Daniel; Gaylarde, Christine C.; John, Vanderley M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the efficiency of calcium carbonate bioprecipitation by Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida, obtained from the Coleção de Culturas do Instituto Nacional de Controle de Qualidade em Saúde (INCQS), as a first step in determining their potential to protect building materials against water uptake. Two culture media were studied: modified B4 containing calcium acetate and 295 with calcium chloride. Calcium consumption in the two media after incubation with and without the bacterial inoculum was determined by atomic absorption analysis. Modified B4 gave the best results and in this medium Pseudomonas putida INQCS 113 produced the highest calcium carbonate precipitation, followed by Lysinibacillus sphaericus INQCS 414; the lowest precipitation was produced by Bacillus subtilis INQCS 328. In this culture medium XRD analysis showed that Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis precipitated calcite and vaterite polymorphs while Lysinibacillus sphaericus produced only vaterite. The shape and size of the crystals were affected by culture medium, bacterial strain and culture conditions, static or shaken. In conclusion, of the three strains Pseudomonas putida INQCS 113 in modified B4 medium gave the best results precipitating 96% of the calcium, this strain thus has good potential for use on building materials. PMID:24031661

  11. [Pneumonia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa].

    PubMed

    Vallés, Jordi; Mariscal, Dolors

    2005-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the leading causes of Gram-negative nosocomial pneumonia. It is the most common cause of ventilator-associated pneumonia and carries the highest mortality among hospital-acquired infections. P. aeruginosa produces a large number of toxins and surface components that make it especially virulent compared with other microorganisms. These include pili, flagella, membrane bound lipopolysaccharide, and secreted products such as exotoxins A, S and U, elastase, alkaline protease, cytotoxins and phospholipases. The most common mechanism of infection in mechanically ventilated patients is through aspiration of upper respiratory tract secretions previously colonized in the process of routine nursing care or via contaminated hands of hospital personnel. Intravenous therapy with an antipseudomonal regimen should be started immediately when P. aeruginosa pneumonia is suspected or confirmed. Empiric therapy with drugs active against P. aeruginosa should be started, especially in patients who have received previous antibiotics or present late-onset pneumonia.

  12. [Pseudomonas genus bacteria on weeds].

    PubMed

    Gvozdiak, R I; Iakovleva, L M; Pasichnik, L A; Shcherbina, T N; Ogorodnik, L E

    2005-01-01

    It has been shown in the work that the weeds (couch-grass and ryegrass) may be affected by bacterial diseases in natural conditions, Pseudomonas genus bacteria being their agents. The isolated bacteria are highly-aggressive in respect of the host-plant and a wide range of cultivated plants: wheat, rye, oats, barley, apple-tree and pear-tree. In contrast to highly aggressive bacteria isolated from the affected weeds, bacteria-epi phytes isolated from formally healthy plants (common amaranth, orache, flat-leaved spurge, field sow thistle, matricary, common coltsfoot, narrow-leaved vetch) and identified as P. syringae pv. coronafaciens, were characterized by weak aggression. A wide range of ecological niches of bacteria evidently promote their revival and distribution everywhere in nature.

  13. Ice crystallization by Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Cochet, N; Widehem, P

    2000-08-01

    Several bacterial species can serve as biological ice nuclei. The best characterized of these is Pseudomonas syringae, a widely distributed bacterial epiphyte of plants. These biological ice nuclei find various applications in different fields, but an optimized production method was required in order to obtain the highly active cells which may be exploited as ice nucleators. The results presented here show that P. syringae cells reduce supercooling of liquid or solid media and enhance ice crystal formation at sub-zero temperatures, thus leading to a remarkable control of the crystallization phenomenon and a potential for energy savings. Our discussion focuses on recent and future applications of these ice nucleators in freezing operations, spray-ice technology and biotechnological processes.

  14. Glyphosate catabolism by Pseudomonas sp

    SciTech Connect

    Shinabarger, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The pathway for the degradation of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 has been determined using metabolic radiolabeling experiments. Radiorespirometry experiments utilizing (3-/sup 14/C) glyphosate revealed that approximately 50-59% of the C3 carbon was oxidized to CO/sub 2/. Fractionation of stationary phase cells labeled with (3-/sup 14/C)glyphosate revealed that from 45-47% of the assimilated C3 carbon is distributed to proteins and that amino acids methionine and serine are highly labeled. The nucleic acid bases adenine and guanine received 90% of the C3 label that was incorporated into nucleic acids, and the only pyrimidine base labeled was thymine. Pulse labeling of PG2982 cells with (3-/sup 14/C)glyphosate revealed that (3-/sup 14/C)sarcosine is an intermediate in glyphosate degradation. Examination of crude extracts prepared from PG2982 cells revealed the presence of an enzyme that oxidizes sarcosine to glycine and formaldehyde. These results indicate that the first step in glyphosate degradation by PG2982 is cleavage of the carbon-phosphorus bond, resulting in the release of sarcosine and a phosphate group. The phosphate group is utilized as a source of phosphorus, and the sarcosine is degraded to glycine and formaldehyde. Phosphonate utilization by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 was investigated. Each of the ten phosphonates tested were utilized as a sole source of phosphorus by PG2982. Representative compounds tested included alkylphosphonates, 1-amino-substituted alkylphosphonates, amino-terminal phosphonates, and an arylphosphonate. PG2982 cultures degraded phenylphosphonate to benzene and produced methane from methylphosphonate. The data indicate that PG2982 is capable of cleaving the carbon-phosphorus bond of several structurally different phosphonates.

  15. Antibiotic Conditioned Growth Medium of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benathen, Isaiah A.; Cazeau, Barbara; Joseph, Njeri

    2004-01-01

    A simple method to study the consequences of bacterial antibiosis after interspecific competition between microorganisms is presented. Common microorganisms are used as the test organisms and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are used as the source of the inhibitor agents.

  16. Antibiotic Conditioned Growth Medium of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benathen, Isaiah A.; Cazeau, Barbara; Joseph, Njeri

    2004-01-01

    A simple method to study the consequences of bacterial antibiosis after interspecific competition between microorganisms is presented. Common microorganisms are used as the test organisms and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are used as the source of the inhibitor agents.

  17. Reductive metabolism of aminoazobenzenes by Pseudomonas cepacia

    SciTech Connect

    Idaka, E.; Ogawa, T.; Horitsu, H.

    1987-07-01

    The authors earlier isolated a few strains of microbes in sludge from the sewage of an azo dye factory which had assimilability to azo dye. Among them, strain 13NA was identified as Pseudomonas cepacia based on Bergey's Manual and was named Pseudomonas cepacia 13NA. A model experiment for continuous treatment of dye waste was also reported. Some strain 13NA specificities for aminoazobenzenes and reductive and acetylating pathways are described in the present study.

  18. OXIDATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY PSEUDOMONAS SP. STRAIN LB400 AND PSEUDOMONAS PSEUDOALCALIGENES KF707

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biphenyl-grown cells and cell extracts prepared from biphenyl-grown cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 oxidize a much wider range of chlorinated biphenyls than do analogous preparations from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707. These results are attributed to differences in th...

  19. OXIDATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY PSEUDOMONAS SP. STRAIN LB400 AND PSEUDOMONAS PSEUDOALCALIGENES KF707

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biphenyl-grown cells and cell extracts prepared from biphenyl-grown cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 oxidize a much wider range of chlorinated biphenyls than do analogous preparations from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707. These results are attributed to differences in th...

  20. Oxidation of polychlorinated biphenyls by Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707.

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, D T; Cruden, D L; Haddock, J D; Zylstra, G J; Brand, J M

    1993-01-01

    Biphenyl-grown cells and cell extracts prepared from biphenyl-grown cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 oxidize a much wider range of chlorinated biphenyls than do analogous preparations from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707. These results are attributed to differences in the substrate specificity of the biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenases from both organisms. PMID:8331086

  1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa: breaking down barriers.

    PubMed

    Berube, Bryan J; Rangel, Stephanie M; Hauser, Alan R

    2016-02-01

    Many bacterial pathogens have evolved ingenious ways to escape from the lung during pneumonia to cause bacteremia. Unfortunately, the clinical consequences of this spread to the bloodstream are frequently dire. It is therefore important to understand the molecular mechanisms used by pathogens to breach the lung barrier. We have recently shown that Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one of the leading causes of hospital-acquired pneumonia, utilizes the type III secretion system effector ExoS to intoxicate pulmonary epithelial cells. Injection of these cells leads to localized disruption of the pulmonary-vascular barrier and dissemination of P. aeruginosa to the bloodstream. We put these data in the context of previous studies to provide a holistic model of P. aeruginosa dissemination from the lung. Finally, we compare P. aeruginosa dissemination to that of other bacteria to highlight the complexity of bacterial pneumonia. Although respiratory pathogens use distinct and intricate strategies to escape from the lungs, a thorough understanding of these processes can lay the foundation for new therapeutic approaches for bacterial pneumonia.

  2. Capsule production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    Mucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, associated almost exclusively with chronic respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis, possess a capsule composed of alginic acid similar to one produced by Azotobacter vinelandii. Recent reports have provided evidence that the biosynthetic pathway for alginate in P. aeruginosa may differ from the pathway proposed for A. vinelandii in that synthesis in P. aeruginosa may occur by way of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Incorporation of isotope from (6-/sup 14/C)glucose into alginate by both P. aueroginosa and A. vinelandii was 10-fold greater than that from either (1-/sup 14/C)/sup -/ or (2-/sup 14/C)glucose, indicating preferential utilization of the bottom half of the glucose molecule for alginate biosynthesis. These data strongly suggest that the Entner-Doudoroff pathway plays a major role in alginate synthesis in both P. aeruginosa and A. vinelandii. The enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in mucoid strains of P. aeruginosa appear to be unchanged whether alignate is actively produced or not and activities do not differ significantly from nonmucoid strain PAO.

  3. Sigma factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Potvin, Eric; Sanschagrin, François; Levesque, Roger C

    2008-01-01

    In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as in most bacterial species, the expression of genes is tightly controlled by a repertoire of transcriptional regulators, particularly the so-called sigma (sigma) factors. The basic understanding of these proteins in bacteria has initially been described in Escherichia coli where seven sigma factors are involved in core RNA polymerase interactions and promoter recognition. Now, 7 years have passed since the completion of the first genome sequence of the opportunistic pathogen P. aeruginosa. Information from the genome of P. aeruginosa PAO1 identified 550 transcriptional regulators and 24 putative sigma factors. Of the 24 sigma, 19 were of extracytoplasmic function (ECF). Here, basic knowledge of sigma and ECF proteins was reviewed with particular emphasis on their role in P. aeruginosa global gene regulation. Summarized data are obtained from in silico analysis of P. aeruginosasigma and ECF including rpoD (sigma(70)), RpoH (sigma(32)), RpoF (FliA or sigma(28)), RpoS (sigma(S) or sigma(38)), RpoN (NtrA, sigma(54) or sigma(N)), ECF including AlgU (RpoE or sigma(22)), PvdS, SigX and a collection of uncharacterized sigma ECF, some of which are implicated in iron transport. Coupled to systems biology, identification and functional genomics analysis of P. aeruginosasigma and ECF are expected to provide new means to prevent infection, new targets for antimicrobial therapy, as well as new insights into the infection process.

  4. Carbenicillin resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Tebar, A; Rojo, F; Dámaso, D; Vázquez, D

    1982-01-01

    Four strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa obtained from clinical isolates which are carbenicillin resistant were studied to find the cause(s) of resistance to this beta-lactam antibiotic. The electrophoresis patterns of the four strains (PH20610, PH20815, PH4011, and PH4301) were found to be different from those of a wild-type strain, P. aeruginosa NCTC 10662, and appeared to lack penicillin-binding protein 2. Affinity of other penicillin-binding proteins from strains PH20610 and PH20815 for carbenicillin seemed to be normal or slightly diminished. Electrophoretic patterns of penicillin-binding proteins from strains PH4011 and PH4301 had more profound differences, since the affinities of their penicillin-binding proteins 1a, 1b, and 4 for carbenicillin were decreased by nearly two orders of magnitude relative to the preparations from the wild-type strain. Kinetic studies on binding of carbenicillin to penicillin-binding proteins both in isolated membrane preparations and in intact cells revealed that carbenicillin penetration into resistant cells was a much slower process than in susceptible cells, suggesting that the outer envelope structures serve as an efficient barrier against carbenicillin entry into our P. aeruginosa strains from clinical isolates. PMID:6821456

  5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in disease

    PubMed Central

    Mulcahy, Lawrence R.; Isabella, Vincent M.; Lewis, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous organism that is the focus of intense research because of its prominent role in disease. Due to its relatively large genome and flexible metabolic capabilities, this organism exploits numerous environmental niches. It is an opportunistic pathogen that sets upon the human host when the normal immune defenses are disabled. It’s deadliness is most apparent in cystic fibrosis patients, but it also is a major problem in burn wounds, chronic wounds, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), surface growth on implanted biomaterials, and within hospital surface and water supplies where it poses a host of threats to vulnerable patients [1,2]. Once established in the patient, P. aeruginosa can be especially difficult to treat. The genome encodes a host of resistance genes, including multidrug efflux pumps [3]and enzymes conferring resistance to beta-lactam and aminoglycoside antibotics [4], making therapy against this gram-negative pathogen particularly challenging due to the lack of novel antimicrobial therapeutics [5]. This challenge is compounded by the ability of P. aerugionsa to grow in a biofilm, which may enhance its ability to cause infections by protecting bacteria from host defenses and chemotherapy. Here we review recent studies of P. aeruginosa biofilms with a focus on how this unique mode of growth contributes to its ability to cause recalcitrant infections. PMID:24096885

  6. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in disease.

    PubMed

    Mulcahy, Lawrence R; Isabella, Vincent M; Lewis, Kim

    2014-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous organism that is the focus of intense research because of its prominent role in disease. Due to its relatively large genome and flexible metabolic capabilities, this organism exploits numerous environmental niches. It is an opportunistic pathogen that sets upon the human host when the normal immune defenses are disabled. Its deadliness is most apparent in cystic fibrosis patients, but it also is a major problem in burn wounds, chronic wounds, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, surface growth on implanted biomaterials, and within hospital surface and water supplies, where it poses a host of threats to vulnerable patients (Peleg and Hooper, N Engl J Med 362:1804-1813, 2010; Breathnach et al., J Hosp Infect 82:19-24, 2012). Once established in the patient, P. aeruginosa can be especially difficult to treat. The genome encodes a host of resistance genes, including multidrug efflux pumps (Poole, J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 3:255-264, 2001) and enzymes conferring resistance to beta-lactam and aminoglycoside antibotics (Vahdani et al., Annal Burns Fire Disast 25:78-81, 2012), making therapy against this gram-negative pathogen particularly challenging due to the lack of novel antimicrobial therapeutics (Lewis, Nature 485: 439-440, 2012). This challenge is compounded by the ability of P. aeruginosa to grow in a biofilm, which may enhance its ability to cause infections by protecting bacteria from host defenses and chemotherapy. Here, we review recent studies of P. aeruginosa biofilms with a focus on how this unique mode of growth contributes to its ability to cause recalcitrant infections.

  7. Specific gonadotropin binding to Pseudomonas maltophilia.

    PubMed

    Richert, N D; Ryan, R J

    1977-03-01

    Binding of 125I-labeled human chorionic gonadotropin to Pseudomonas maltophilia is dependent on time, temperature, and pH and the binding to this procaryotic species is hormone-specific and saturable. The equilibrium dissociation constant is 2.3 X 10(-9) M. There are no cooperative interactions between binding sites (Hill coefficient, 1.05). The number of sites is estimaated as 240 fmol/100 mug of protein. NaCl and KCl, at concentrations from 1 to 10 mM, have no effect on binding. Divalent cations (Mg2+ and Ca2+) and 1 mM EDTA inhibit hormone binding. Binding is destroyed by heat or by treatment with Pronase of alpha-chymotrypsin and is increased by phospholipase C. Binding of the labeled gonadotropin is not observed with other gram-negative organisms--e.g., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas testosteroni, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, or Enterobacter cloacae.

  8. Comparison of aspartate transcarbamoylase regulation in Pseudomonas alcaligenes and Pseudomonas mendocina.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Manuel F; West, Thomas P

    2003-01-01

    The regulation of aspartate transcarbamoylase activity in cell extracts of Pseudomonas alcaligenes ATCC 14909 and Pseudomonas mendocina ATCC 25411 was compared. Under saturating substrate concentrations, pyrophosphate, CTP, UDP and ADP were highly inhibitory of the P. alcaligenes transcarbamoylase activity while pyrophosphate, UDP, ADP, ATP and GTP were the most effective inhibitors of the P. mendocina transcarbamoylase. By examining transcarbamoylase inhibition by ribonucleotide triphosphates, it was possible to differentiate these species assigned to different DNA homology groups and such an analysis might prove useful in the reclassification of Pseudomonas species.

  9. A new selective medium for isolating Pseudomonas spp. from water.

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, C L; Sheikh, W

    1987-01-01

    A new medium, pseudomonas selective isolation agar, was developed to isolate Pseudomonas spp. from water. It consists of 350 micrograms of nitrofurantoin per ml and 2 micrograms of crystal violet per ml in a nutrient agar base. It is more selective for Pseudomonas spp. than are available commercial media. Its ingredients are inexpensive and readily available, and it is easy to prepare. PMID:3579287

  10. Pseudomonas hussainii sp. nov., isolated from droppings of a seashore bird, and emended descriptions of Pseudomonas pohangensis, Pseudomonas benzenivorans and Pseudomonas segetis.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Asif; Shahina, Mariyam; Lin, Shih-Yao; Liu, You-Cheng; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2014-07-01

    Two Gram-staining-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterial strains that are motile by a monopolar flagellum, designated CC-AMH-11(T) and CC-AMHZ-5, were isolated from droppings of a seashore bird off the coast of Hualien, Taiwan. The strains showed 99.7% mutual pairwise 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, while exhibiting <96.2% sequence similarity to strains of other species of the genus Pseudomonas (95.7-95.9% similarity with type species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa LMG 1242T), and formed a distinct co-phyletic lineage in the phylogenetic trees. The common major fatty acids (>5% of the total) were C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c (summed feature 8), C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c (summed feature 3), C16 : 0 and C12 : 0. Phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylserine, an unidentified lipid and an unidentified phospholipid were detected as common polar lipids. The DNA G+C contents of strains CC-AMH-11(T) and CC-AMHZ-5 were 61.1 and 61.6 mol%, respectively. The common major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone 9 (Q-9), and the predominant polyamine was putrescine. The DNA-DNA hybridization obtained between the two strains was 79.0% (reciprocal value 89.4% using CC-AMHZ-5 DNA as the probe). The very high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and DNA-DNA relatedness and the poorly distinguishable phenotypic features witnessed between CC-AMH-11(T) and CC-AMHZ-5 suggested unambiguously that they are two distinct strains of a single genomic species. However, the strains also showed several genotypic and phenotypic characteristics that distinguished them from other closely related species of Pseudomonas. Thus, the strains are proposed to represent a novel species of Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas hussainii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CC-AMH-11(T) ( = JCM 19513(T) = BCRC 80696(T)); a second strain of the same species is CC-AMHZ-5 ( = JCM 19512 = BCRC 80697). In addition, emended descriptions

  11. Comparative in vitro exoenzyme-suppressing activities of azithromycin and other macrolide antibiotics against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Mizukane, R; Hirakata, Y; Kaku, M; Ishii, Y; Furuya, N; Ishida, K; Koga, H; Kohno, S; Yamaguchi, K

    1994-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of azithromycin (AZM), a new 15-membered macrolide antibiotic, on the production of exotoxin A, total protease, elastase, and phospholipase C by Pseudomonas aeruginosa were determined, and the virulence-suppressing effects of AZM were compared with those of erythromycin (EM), roxithromycin (RXM), and rokitamycin (RKM). The effect of exposure of P. aeruginosa PA103 or B16 in cultures to sub-MICs of these macrolide antibiotics on the production of exoenzymes was determined. AZM suppressed the in vitro production of extracellular and intracellular exotoxin A by P. aeruginosa PA103 more than did EM, even at a concentration of only 2 micrograms/ml. At concentrations of between 4 and 32 micrograms/ml, AZM also inhibited total protease, elastase, and phospholipase C production by P. aeruginosa B16 more than did EM, RXM, and RKM. AZM was effective in suppressing exotoxin A and total protease production through 24 h of incubation in the presence of drug at sub-MICs, but it had no significant effect on either the growth of P. aeruginosa or its total protein production. Moreover, at a concentration of 4 micrograms/ml, AZM suppressed exoenzyme production by other strains of P. aeruginosa more than did EM. These findings indicate that AZM, EM, RXM, and RKM each has an inhibitory effect on exoenzyme production separate from the antimicrobial effect and that, of these macrolides, AZM has the strongest virulence-suppressing effect. PMID:8203850

  12. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Population Structure Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Bilocq, Florence; Pot, Bruno; Cornelis, Pierre; Zizi, Martin; Van Eldere, Johan; Deschaght, Pieter; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Jennes, Serge; Pitt, Tyrone; De Vos, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    At present there are strong indications that Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibits an epidemic population structure; clinical isolates are indistinguishable from environmental isolates, and they do not exhibit a specific (disease) habitat selection. However, some important issues, such as the worldwide emergence of highly transmissible P. aeruginosa clones among cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and the spread and persistence of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains in hospital wards with high antibiotic pressure, remain contentious. To further investigate the population structure of P. aeruginosa, eight parameters were analyzed and combined for 328 unrelated isolates, collected over the last 125 years from 69 localities in 30 countries on five continents, from diverse clinical (human and animal) and environmental habitats. The analysed parameters were: i) O serotype, ii) Fluorescent Amplified-Fragment Length Polymorphism (FALFP) pattern, nucleotide sequences of outer membrane protein genes, iii) oprI, iv) oprL, v) oprD, vi) pyoverdine receptor gene profile (fpvA type and fpvB prevalence), and prevalence of vii) exoenzyme genes exoS and exoU and viii) group I pilin glycosyltransferase gene tfpO. These traits were combined and analysed using biological data analysis software and visualized in the form of a minimum spanning tree (MST). We revealed a network of relationships between all analyzed parameters and non-congruence between experiments. At the same time we observed several conserved clones, characterized by an almost identical data set. These observations confirm the nonclonal epidemic population structure of P. aeruginosa, a superficially clonal structure with frequent recombinations, in which occasionally highly successful epidemic clones arise. One of these clones is the renown and widespread MDR serotype O12 clone. On the other hand, we found no evidence for a widespread CF transmissible clone. All but one of the 43 analysed CF strains belonged to a ubiquitous P

  13. [A sarcoma-static new species of Pseudomonas, Pseudomonas jinanensis sp. nov].

    PubMed

    Cai, M Y; Lu, D S; Wang, D S; He, Z Z; Wang, J H

    1989-06-01

    A strain of Gram negative bacteria was isolated from the surface soil of Wuying Hill at Jinan, Shandong province with Gause's medium in 1973. It is a strain of antagonistic bacteria for hysterocervicoma, hepatoma and melanoma of mice screened from 2100 strains of bacteria. It is also antagonistic to Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus. It is a Gram negative bacterium with lophotrichous polar flagella. Straight rods in shape or with a little slightly curved rods, 0.5-0.6 X 1-2 microns, randomly arranged, poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate granules are accumulated in cells after 2-5 days cultivation. Water green soluble pigment and green fluorescent pigment are produced. Respiratory metabolism, chemoorganotroph, many carbon-containing organic compounds can be used as carbon sources, such as glucose, trehalose, ethanol, cellulobiose, fucose, arginine and betaine, but propionic acid or tartaric acid is not utilized. Inorganic nitrogen containing compounds can be used ae the sole source of nitrogen. No growth factor is necessary for growth. Gelatin is hydrolyzed. Starch and cellulose are not hydrolyzed. Nitrate is not reduced. Arginine dihydrolase is produced. Levan is produced from sucrose. Growth occurs from 7 degrees C to 37 degrees C and from pH 5.65-8.40. No growth occurs at 40 degrees C and at pH value below 4.86. It can not grow autotrophically with hydrogen. Its G + C contents in DNA is 58.1 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments reveals a relatedness value of 58.6% between this strain and Ps. fluorescens. The above evidence shows that this strain differs from all species known in Pseudomonas, such as Pseudomonas fluorescens group. Pseudomonas caryophylli, Pseudomonas cepacia, Pseudomonas marginata, Pseudomonas acidovorans, Pseudomonas testosteroni and Pseudomonas delafieldii.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. New Pseudomonas spp. Are Pathogenic to Citrus

    PubMed Central

    Beiki, Farid; Busquets, Antonio; Gomila, Margarita; Rahimian, Heshmat; Lalucat, Jorge; García-Valdés, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Five putative novel Pseudomonas species shown to be pathogenic to citrus have been characterized in a screening of 126 Pseudomonas strains isolated from diseased citrus leaves and stems in northern Iran. The 126 strains were studied using a polyphasic approach that included phenotypic characterizations and phylogenetic multilocus sequence analysis. The pathogenicity of these strains against 3 cultivars of citrus is demonstrated in greenhouse and field studies. The strains were initially grouped phenotypically and by their partial rpoD gene sequences into 11 coherent groups in the Pseudomonas fluorescens phylogenetic lineage. Fifty-three strains that are representatives of the 11 groups were selected and analyzed by partial sequencing of their 16S rRNA and gyrB genes. The individual and concatenated partial sequences of the three genes were used to construct the corresponding phylogenetic trees. The majority of the strains were identified at the species level: P. lurida (5 strains), P. monteilii (2 strains), P. moraviensis (1 strain), P. orientalis (16 strains), P. simiae (7 strains), P. syringae (46 strains, distributed phylogenetically in at least 5 pathovars), and P. viridiflava (2 strains). This is the first report of pathogenicity on citrus of P. orientalis, P. simiae, P. lurida, P. moraviensis and P. monteilii strains. The remaining 47 strains that could not be identified at the species level are considered representatives of at least 5 putative novel Pseudomonas species that are not yet described. PMID:26919540

  15. New Pseudomonas spp. Are Pathogenic to Citrus.

    PubMed

    Beiki, Farid; Busquets, Antonio; Gomila, Margarita; Rahimian, Heshmat; Lalucat, Jorge; García-Valdés, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Five putative novel Pseudomonas species shown to be pathogenic to citrus have been characterized in a screening of 126 Pseudomonas strains isolated from diseased citrus leaves and stems in northern Iran. The 126 strains were studied using a polyphasic approach that included phenotypic characterizations and phylogenetic multilocus sequence analysis. The pathogenicity of these strains against 3 cultivars of citrus is demonstrated in greenhouse and field studies. The strains were initially grouped phenotypically and by their partial rpoD gene sequences into 11 coherent groups in the Pseudomonas fluorescens phylogenetic lineage. Fifty-three strains that are representatives of the 11 groups were selected and analyzed by partial sequencing of their 16S rRNA and gyrB genes. The individual and concatenated partial sequences of the three genes were used to construct the corresponding phylogenetic trees. The majority of the strains were identified at the species level: P. lurida (5 strains), P. monteilii (2 strains), P. moraviensis (1 strain), P. orientalis (16 strains), P. simiae (7 strains), P. syringae (46 strains, distributed phylogenetically in at least 5 pathovars), and P. viridiflava (2 strains). This is the first report of pathogenicity on citrus of P. orientalis, P. simiae, P. lurida, P. moraviensis and P. monteilii strains. The remaining 47 strains that could not be identified at the species level are considered representatives of at least 5 putative novel Pseudomonas species that are not yet described.

  16. Innate immune responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection

    PubMed Central

    Lavoie, Elise G.; Wangdi, Tamding; Kazmierczak, Barbara I.

    2011-01-01

    Innate immune responses play a critical role in controlling acute infections due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in both mice and in humans. In this review we focus on innate immune recognition and clearance mechanisms that are important for controlling P. aeruginosa in the mammalian lung, with particular attention to those that influence the outcome of in vivo infection in murine models. PMID:21839853

  17. Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain 189.

    PubMed

    Town, Jennifer; Audy, Patrice; Boyetchko, Susan M; Dumonceaux, Tim J

    2016-06-23

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain 189 is a potent inhibitor of the growth of the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans We determined the complete, finished sequence of the 6.8-Mbp genome of this strain, consisting of a single contiguous molecule. Strain 189 is closely related to previously sequenced strains of P. chlororaphis. Copyright © 2016 Town et al.

  18. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by bacterial genus Pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Gilani, Razia Alam; Rafique, Mazhar; Rehman, Abdul; Munis, Muhammad Farooq Hussain; Rehman, Shafiq Ur; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2016-02-01

    Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus pesticide commonly used in agriculture. It is noxious to a variety of organisms that include living soil biota along with beneficial arthropods, fish, birds, humans, animals, and plants. Exposure to chlorpyrifos may cause detrimental effects as delayed seedling emergence, fruit deformities, and abnormal cell division. Contamination of chlorpyrifos has been found about 24 km from the site of its application. There are many physico-chemical and biological approaches to remove organophosphorus pesticides from the ecosystem, among them most promising is biodegradation. The 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and diethylthiophosphate (DETP) as primary products are made when chlorpyrifos is degraded by soil microorganisms which further break into nontoxic metabolites as CO(2), H(2)O, and NH(3). Pseudomonas is a diversified genus possessing a series of catabolic pathways and enzymes involved in pesticide degradation. Pseudomonas putida MAS-1 is reported to be more efficient in chlorpyrifos degradation by a rate of 90% in 24 h among Pseudomonas genus. The current review analyzed the comparative potential of bacterial species in Pseudomonas genus for degradation of chlorpyrifos thus, expressing an ecofriendly approach for the treatment of environmental contaminants like pesticides.

  19. Chemotaxis of Pseudomonas putida toward chlorinated benzoates

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, C.S.; Parales, R.E.; Dispensa, M. )

    1990-05-01

    The chlorinated aromatic acids 3-chlorobenzoate and 4-chlorobenzoate are chemoattractants for Pseudomonas putida PRS2000. These compounds are detected by a chromosomally encoded chemotactic response to benzoate which is inducible by {beta}-ketoadipate, and intermediate of benzoate catabolism. Plasmid pAC27, encoding enzymes for 3-chlorobenzoate degradation, does not appear to carry genes for chemotaxis toward chlorinated compounds.

  20. PSEUDOMONAS PYOCYANEA AND THE ARGININE DIHYDROLASE SYSTEM.

    PubMed

    TAYLOR, J J; WHITBY, J L

    1964-03-01

    Non-pigmented strains of Pseudomonas pyocyanea occur frequently and this organism has only limited activity in conventional biochemical tests; 50 strains were tested for the presence of arginine dihydrolase and found positive whereas only Salmonella sp. and Enterobacter sp. among other Gram-negative species were positive. The test for arginine dihydrolase is rapid and simple and suitable for routine use.

  1. High pressure inactivation of Pseudomonas in black truffle - comparison with Pseudomonas fluorescens in tryptone soya broth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballestra, Patricia; Verret, Catherine; Cruz, Christian; Largeteau, Alain; Demazeau, Gerard; El Moueffak, Abdelhamid

    2010-03-01

    Pseudomonas is one of the most common genera in black Perigord truffle. Its inactivation by high pressure (100-500 MPa/10 min) applied on truffles at sub-zero or low temperatures was studied and compared with those of Pseudomonas fluorescens in tryptone soya broth. Pressurization of truffles at 300 MPa/4 °C reduced the bacterial count of Pseudomonas by 5.3 log cycles. Higher pressures of 400 or 500 MPa, at 4 °C or 20 °C, allowed us to slightly increase the level of destruction to the value of ca. 6.5 log cycles but did not permit us to completely inactivate Pseudomonas. The results showed a residual charge of about 10 CFU/g. Pressure-shift freezing of truffles, which consists in applying a pressure of 200 MPa/-18 °C for 10 min and then quickly releasing this pressure to induce freezing, reduced the population of Pseudomonas by 3.3 log cycles. The level of inactivation was higher than those obtained with conventional freezing. Endogenous Pseudomonas in truffle was shown to be more resistant to high pressure treatments than P. fluorescens used for inoculation of broths.

  2. IS1491 from Pseudomonas alcaligenes NCIB 9867: characterization and distribution among Pseudomonas species.

    PubMed

    Yeo, C C; Wong, D T; Poh, C L

    1998-01-01

    A new insertion sequence, IS1491, has been cloned and sequenced. The 2489-bp IS1491 was isolated from a Pseudomonas alcaligenes NCIB 9867 (strain P25X) 4.8-kb PstI chromosomal fragment. IS1491 is flanked by an imperfect inverted repeat of 23 bp and carries two overlapping open reading frames, ORF1 and ORF2. Both ORF1 and ORF2 displayed homology to the IstA-like and IstB-like transposases encoded by the IS21 family of insertion sequences, which include two IS elements previously isolated from P. alcaligenes P25X, IS1474, and IS1475 (Yeo, C. C., and Poh, C. L. (1997). FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 149, 257-263). Transposition assays showed that IS1491 transposed at a frequency of approximately 1.4 x 10(-6). Transposition of IS1491 into the target pRK415 replicon was observed but when ORF2 was disrupted, a fusion between the donor and target replicons was detected. IS1491-like sequences were detected in total DNA of Pseudomonas putida NCIB 9869 (strain P35X), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas syringae, Pseudomonas mendocina, Comomonas acidovorans, and Comomonas testosteroni by hybridization with IS1491 DNA.

  3. Recharacterization of Pseudomonas fulva Iizuka and Komagata 1963, and proposals of Pseudomonas parafulva sp. nov. and Pseudomonas cremoricolorata sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Uchino, Masataka; Shida, Osamu; Uchimura, Tai; Komagata, Kazuo

    2001-10-01

    Seven Pseudomonas fulva strains obtained from culture collections were taxonomically studied. The seven strains were separated into three clusters (Clusters I to III) on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, and located phylogenetically in the genus Pseudomonas sensu stricto. Further, the strains were classified into 4 groups (Groups I to IV) on the basis of DNA-DNA similarity. As a result, Cluster I was split into Groups I and II. Group I included the type strain of P. fulva and two strains, and levels of DNA-DNA similarity ranged from 88 to 100% among the strains. Group II contained two strains, and the level between the two strains ranged from 91 to 100%. Group III consisted of one strain. Group IV included one strain, and this strain showed a high level of DNA-DNA similarity with the type strain of Pseudomonas straminea NRIC 0164(T). Clusters II and III corresponded to Groups III and IV, respectively. The four groups were separated from one another and from related Pseudomonas species at the level from 3 to 45% of DNA-DNA similarity. The strains of Groups I, II, and III had ubiquinone 9 as the major quinone. According to numerical analysis by the use of 133 phenotypic characteristics, the seven P. fulva strains were split into four phenons (Phenons I to IV). The groups by DNA-DNA similarity corresponded well with the phenons produced by numerical taxonomy, and differential characteristics were recognized. Consequently, Group I was regarded as P. fulva because the type strain (NRIC 0180(T)) of this species was included in this group. Strains in Group II were identified as a new species, Pseudomonas parafulva sp. nov., and the type strain is AJ 2129 (=IFO 16636=JCM 11244=NRIC 0501). NRIC 0181 in Group III was identified as a new species, Pseudomonas cremoricolorata sp. nov., and the type strain is NRIC 0181 (=IFO 16634=JCM 11246). NRIC 0182 in Group IV was identified as P. straminea on the basis of the high level of DNA-DNA similarity with the type strain of this

  4. Enhanced annotations and features for comparing thousands of Pseudomonas genomes in the Pseudomonas genome database.

    PubMed

    Winsor, Geoffrey L; Griffiths, Emma J; Lo, Raymond; Dhillon, Bhavjinder K; Shay, Julie A; Brinkman, Fiona S L

    2016-01-04

    The Pseudomonas Genome Database (http://www.pseudomonas.com) is well known for the application of community-based annotation approaches for producing a high-quality Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 genome annotation, and facilitating whole-genome comparative analyses with other Pseudomonas strains. To aid analysis of potentially thousands of complete and draft genome assemblies, this database and analysis platform was upgraded to integrate curated genome annotations and isolate metadata with enhanced tools for larger scale comparative analysis and visualization. Manually curated gene annotations are supplemented with improved computational analyses that help identify putative drug targets and vaccine candidates or assist with evolutionary studies by identifying orthologs, pathogen-associated genes and genomic islands. The database schema has been updated to integrate isolate metadata that will facilitate more powerful analysis of genomes across datasets in the future. We continue to place an emphasis on providing high-quality updates to gene annotations through regular review of the scientific literature and using community-based approaches including a major new Pseudomonas community initiative for the assignment of high-quality gene ontology terms to genes. As we further expand from thousands of genomes, we plan to provide enhancements that will aid data visualization and analysis arising from whole-genome comparative studies including more pan-genome and population-based approaches.

  5. Metabolism of Tryptophans by Pseudomonas aureofaciens

    PubMed Central

    Elander, Richard P.; Mabe, James A.; Hamill, Robert H.; Gorman, Marvin

    1968-01-01

    Twenty-nine strains of Pseudomonas, classified as P. fluorescens biotype D or E or as P. multivorans, were examined for the production of pyrrolnitrin, an antifungal agent synthesized in P. aureofaciens. Eight strains were shown to produce pyrrolnitrin in shake-flask fermentation. Four cultures were from the multivorans taxon, and the remaining four were members of the fluorescens group. The antifungal agent produced in these strains was isolated and shown to be pyrrolnitrin by comparison with an authentic sample. The strains differed markedly with respect to the amount of pyrrolnitrin produced and in their utilization of exogenous tryptophan. Secondary metabolites, not related to pyrrolnitrin, were also examined and compared with those synthesized in P. aureofaciens. Marked differences were noted in both phenazine pigments and phenolic metabolites. The results of the study suggest that the production of pyrrolnitrin may be widespread in selected taxonomic groups of Pseudomonas. Images Fig. 1 PMID:4968963

  6. Pseudomonas punonensis sp. nov., isolated from straw.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Elena; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Valverde, Angel; Velázquez, Encarna; Zúñiga, Doris; Velezmoro, Carmen; Peix, Alvaro

    2013-05-01

    During a study of the 'tunta' (frozen-dry potato) production process in Peru, a bacterial strain, LMT03(T), was isolated from the straw grass in which the potatoes are dried. This strain was classified into the genus Pseudomonas on the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and is most closely related to Pseudomonas argentinensis CH01(T) with 99.3 % identity in this gene and 96 %, 92 % and 86 % identities in rpoB, rpoD and gyrB genes, respectively. Strain LMT03(T) has a single polar flagellum, like other related yellow-pigment-producing pseudomonads. The major quinone is Q-9. The major fatty acids are C18 : 1ω7c in summed feature 8 (40.82 %), C16 : 1ω6c/C16 : 1ω6c in summed feature 3 (23.72 %) and C16 : 0 (15.20 %). The strain produces oxidase but it does not produce gelatinase, indole, urease, arginine dihydrolase or β-galactosidase. Catalase production was very weak after 28 and 48 h incubation on nutrient agar medium. Nitrate reduction is negative. It does not hydrolyse aesculin. The DNA G+C content is 57.8 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization results showed lower than 52 % relatedness with respect to the type strain of P. argentinensis, CH01(T). These results, together with other phenotypic characteristics, support the definition of a novel species within the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas punonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LMT03(T) ( = LMG 26839(T) = CECT 8089(T)).

  7. Nosocomial outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa endophthalmitis.

    PubMed

    Mateos, I; Valencia, R; Torres, M J; Cantos, A; Conde, M; Aznar, J

    2006-11-01

    We describe an outbreak of nosocomial endophthalmitis due to a common source, which was determined to be trypan blue solution prepared in the hospital's pharmacy service. We assume that viable bacteria probably gained access to the trypan blue stock solution during cooling after autoclaving. The temporal cluster of Pseudomonas aeruginosa endophthalmitis was readily perceived on the basis of clinical and microbiological findings, and an exogenous source of contamination was unequivocally identified by means of DNA fingerprinting.

  8. Adhesion of Pseudomonas fluorescens onto nanophase materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Thomas J.; Tong, Zonghua; Liu, Jin; Banks, M. Katherine

    2005-07-01

    Nanobiotechnology is a growing area of research, primarily due to the potentially numerous applications of new synthetic nanomaterials in engineering/science. Although various definitions have been given for the word 'nanomaterials' by many different experts, the commonly accepted one refers to nanomaterials as those materials which possess grains, particles, fibres, or other constituent components that have one dimension specifically less than 100 nm. In biological applications, most of the research to date has focused on the interactions between mammalian cells and synthetic nanophase surfaces for the creation of better tissue engineering materials. Although mammalian cells have shown a definite positive response to nanophase materials, information on bacterial interactions with nanophase materials remains elusive. For this reason, this study was designed to assess the adhesion of Pseudomonas fluorescens on nanophase compared to conventional grain size alumina substrates. Results provide the first evidence of increased adhesion of Pseudomonas fluorescens on alumina with nanometre compared to conventional grain sizes. To understand more about the process, polymer (specifically, poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid or PLGA) casts were made of the conventional and nanostructured alumina surfaces. Results showed similar increased Pseudomonas fluorescens capture on PLGA casts of nanostructured compared to conventional alumina as on the alumina itself. For these reasons, a key material property shown to enhance bacterial adhesion was elucidated in this study for both polymers and ceramics: nanostructured surface features.

  9. Pseudomonas biofilm matrix composition and niche biology

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Ethan E.; Wozniak, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Biofilms are a predominant form of growth for bacteria in the environment and in the clinic. Critical for biofilm development are adherence, proliferation, and dispersion phases. Each of these stages includes reinforcement by, or modulation of, the extracellular matrix. Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been a model organism for the study of biofilm formation. Additionally, other Pseudomonas species utilize biofilm formation during plant colonization and environmental persistence. Pseudomonads produce several biofilm matrix molecules, including polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins. Accessory matrix components shown to aid biofilm formation and adaptability under varying conditions are also produced by pseudomonads. Adaptation facilitated by biofilm formation allows for selection of genetic variants with unique and distinguishable colony morphology. Examples include rugose small-colony variants and wrinkly spreaders (WS), which over produce Psl/Pel or cellulose, respectively, and mucoid bacteria that over produce alginate. The well-documented emergence of these variants suggests that pseudomonads take advantage of matrix-building subpopulations conferring specific benefits for the entire population. This review will focus on various polysaccharides as well as additional Pseudomonas biofilm matrix components. Discussions will center on structure–function relationships, regulation, and the role of individual matrix molecules in niche biology. PMID:22212072

  10. Using Pseudomonas spp. for Integrated Biological Control.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Virginia O; Stack, James P

    2007-02-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas spp. have been studied for decades as model organisms for biological control of plant disease. Currently, there are three commercial formulations of pseudomonads registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for plant disease suppression, Bio-Save 10 LP, Bio-Save 11 LP, and BlightBan A506. Bio-Save 10 LP and Bio-Save 11 LP, products of Jet Harvest Solutions, Longwood, FL, contain Pseudomonas syringae strains ESC-10 and ESC-11, respectively. These products are applied in packinghouses to prevent postharvest fungal diseases during storage of citrus, pome, stone fruits, and potatoes. BlightBan A506, produced by NuFarm Americas, Burr Ridge, IL, contains P. fluorescens strain A506. BlightBan A506 is applied primarily to pear and apple trees during bloom to suppress the bacterial disease fire blight. Combining BlightBan A506 with the antibiotic streptomycin improves control of fire blight, even in areas with streptomycin-resistant populations of the pathogen. BlightBan A506 also may reduce fruit russet and mild frost injury. These biocontrol products consisting of Pseudomonas spp. provide moderate to excellent efficacy against multiple production constraints, are relatively easy to apply, and they can be integrated with conventional products for disease control. These characteristics will contribute to the adoption of these products by growers and packinghouses.

  11. High quality draft genome sequences of Pseudomonas fulva DSM 17717(T), Pseudomonas parafulva DSM 17004(T) and Pseudomonas cremoricolorata DSM 17059(T) type strains.

    PubMed

    Peña, Arantxa; Busquets, Antonio; Gomila, Margarita; Mulet, Magdalena; Gomila, Rosa M; Reddy, T B K; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia; Markowitz, Victor; García-Valdés, Elena; Göker, Markus; Woyke, Tanja; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos; Lalucat, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas has the highest number of species out of any genus of Gram-negative bacteria and is phylogenetically divided into several groups. The Pseudomonas putida phylogenetic branch includes at least 13 species of environmental and industrial interest, plant-associated bacteria, insect pathogens, and even some members that have been found in clinical specimens. In the context of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project, we present the permanent, high-quality draft genomes of the type strains of 3 taxonomically and ecologically closely related species in the Pseudomonas putida phylogenetic branch: Pseudomonas fulva DSM 17717(T), Pseudomonas parafulva DSM 17004(T) and Pseudomonas cremoricolorata DSM 17059(T). All three genomes are comparable in size (4.6-4.9 Mb), with 4,119-4,459 protein-coding genes. Average nucleotide identity based on BLAST comparisons and digital genome-to-genome distance calculations are in good agreement with experimental DNA-DNA hybridization results. The genome sequences presented here will be very helpful in elucidating the taxonomy, phylogeny and evolution of the Pseudomonas putida species complex.

  12. High quality draft genome sequences of Pseudomonas fulva DSM 17717T, Pseudomonas parafulva DSM 17004T and Pseudomonas cremoricolorata DSM 17059T type strains

    DOE PAGES

    Peña, Arantxa; Busquets, Antonio; Gomila, Margarita; ...

    2016-09-01

    Pseudomonas has the highest number of species out of any genus of Gram-negative bacteria and is phylogenetically divided into several groups. The Pseudomonas putida phylogenetic branch includes at least 13 species of environmental and industrial interest, plant-associated bacteria, insect pathogens, and even some members that have been found in clinical specimens. In the context of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project, we present the permanent, high-quality draft genomes of the type strains of 3 taxonomically and ecologically closely related species in the Pseudomonas putida phylogenetic branch: Pseudomonas fulva DSM 17717T, Pseudomonas parafulva DSM 17004T and Pseudomonas cremoricolorata DSMmore » 17059T. All three genomes are comparable in size (4.6-4.9Mb), with 4,119-4,459 protein-coding genes. Average nucleotide identity based on BLAST comparisons and digital genome-to-genome distance calculations are in good agreement with experimental DNA-DNA hybridization results. The genome sequences presented here will be very helpful in elucidating the taxonomy, phylogeny and evolution of the Pseudomonas putida species complex.« less

  13. Siderotyping of fluorescent pseudomonads: characterization of pyoverdines of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida strains from Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Meyer, J M; Stintzi, A; Coulanges, V; Shivaji, S; Voss, J A; Taraz, K; Budzikiewicz, H

    1998-11-01

    Five independent fluorescent pseudomonad isolates originating from Antarctica were analysed for their pyoverdine systems. A pyoverdine-related siderotyping, which involved pyoverdine-induced growth stimulation, pyoverdine-mediated iron uptake, pyoverdine analysis by electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing, revealed three different pyoverdine-related siderotypes among the five isolates. One siderotype, including Pseudomonas fluorescens 1W and P. fluorescens 10CW, was identical to that of P. fluorescens ATCC 13525. Two other strains, P. fluorescens 9AW and Pseudomonas putida 9BW, showed identical pyoverdine-related behaviour to each other, whereas the fifth strain, P. fluorescens 51W, had unique features compared to the other strains or to a set of 12 fluorescent Pseudomonas strains used as comparison material. Elucidation of the structure of the pyoverdines produced by the Antarctic strains supported the accuracy of the siderotyping methodology by confirming that pyoverdines from strains 1W and 10CW had the same structures as the P. fluorescens ATCC 13525 pyoverdine, whereas the 9AW and 9BW pyoverdines are probably identical with the pyoverdine of P. fluorescens strain 244. Pyoverdine from strain 51W appeared to be a novel pyoverdine since its structure was different from all previously established pyoverdine structures. Together with the conclusion that the Antarctic Pseudomonas strains have no special features at the level of their pyoverdines and pyoverdine-mediated iron metabolism compared to worldwide strains, the present work demonstrates that siderotyping provides a rapid means of screening for novel pyoverdines.

  14. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415 Section 866.3415 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES..., abscesses, and meningitis (inflammation of brain membranes). Pseudomonas pseudomallei causes melioidosis, a...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415 Section 866.3415 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES..., abscesses, and meningitis (inflammation of brain membranes). Pseudomonas pseudomallei causes melioidosis, a...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415 Section 866.3415 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES..., abscesses, and meningitis (inflammation of brain membranes). Pseudomonas pseudomallei causes melioidosis, a...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415 Section 866.3415 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES..., abscesses, and meningitis (inflammation of brain membranes). Pseudomonas pseudomallei causes melioidosis, a...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415 Section 866.3415 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES..., abscesses, and meningitis (inflammation of brain membranes). Pseudomonas pseudomallei causes melioidosis, a...

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas sp. nov. H2

    PubMed Central

    Loftie-Eaton, Wesley; Suzuki, Haruo; Bashford, Kelsie; Heuer, Holger; Stragier, Pieter; De Vos, Paul; Settles, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas sp. nov. H2, isolated from creek sediment in Moscow, ID, USA. The strain is most closely related to Pseudomonas putida. However, it has a slightly smaller genome that appears to have been impacted by horizontal gene transfer and poorly maintains IncP-1 plasmids. PMID:25838493

  20. Role of porins in intrinsic antibiotic resistance of Pseudomonas cepacia.

    PubMed Central

    Parr, T R; Moore, R A; Moore, L V; Hancock, R E

    1987-01-01

    The measured outer membrane permeability of Pseudomonas cepacia to the beta-lactam nitrocefin was low: approximately 10 times less than that of Escherichia coli and comparable to that of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The purified P. cepacia porin demonstrated an average single channel conductance in 1 M KCl of 0.23 nS. Images PMID:3032087

  1. Isolation and identification of Pseudomonas spp. from Schirmacher Oasis, Antarctica.

    PubMed Central

    Shivaji, S; Rao, N S; Saisree, L; Sheth, V; Reddy, G S; Bhargava, P M

    1989-01-01

    Ten cultures of Pseudomonas spp. were established from soil samples collected in and around a lake in Antarctica. Based on their morphology, biochemical and physiological characteristics, and moles percent G + C of their DNA, they were identified as P. fluorescens, P. putida, and P. syringae. This is the first report on the identification of Pseudomonas spp. from continental Antarctica. PMID:2930174

  2. Pseudomonas pachastrellae sp. nov., isolated from a marine sponge.

    PubMed

    Romanenko, Lyudmila A; Uchino, Masataka; Falsen, Enevold; Frolova, Galina M; Zhukova, Natalia V; Mikhailov, Valery V

    2005-03-01

    Two Gram-negative, non-fermentative, non-denitrifying, non-pigmented, rod-shaped bacteria that were motile by means of polar flagella, designated strains KMM 330(T) and KMM 331, were isolated from a deep-sea sponge specimen and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. The new isolates exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 99.9 %, and their mean level of DNA-DNA relatedness was 82 %. Phylogenetic analysis based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences placed the strains within the genus Pseudomonas as an independent deep clade. Strain KMM 330(T) shared highest sequence similarity (96.3 %) with each of Pseudomonas fulva NRIC 0180(T), Pseudomonas parafulva AJ 2129(T) and Pseudomonas luteola IAM 13000(T); sequence similarity to other recognized species of the genus Pseudomonas was below 95.7 %. The marine sponge isolates KMM 330(T) and KMM 331 could be distinguished from the other recognized Pseudomonas species based on a unique combination of their phenotypic characteristics, including growth in 8 or 10 % NaCl, the absence of pigments, the inability to denitrify and lack of carbohydrate utilization. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, physiological and biochemical characterization, strains KMM 330(T) and KMM 331 should be classified as a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas pachastrellae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KMM 330(T) (=JCM 12285(T)=NRIC 0583(T)=CCUG 46540(T)).

  3. Pseudomonas Exotoxin A: optimized by evolution for effective killing

    PubMed Central

    Michalska, Marta; Wolf, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas Exotoxin A (PE) is the most toxic virulence factor of the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This review describes current knowledge about the intoxication pathways of PE. Moreover, PE represents a remarkable example for pathoadaptive evolution, how bacterial molecules have been structurally and functionally optimized under evolutionary pressure to effectively impair and kill their host cells. PMID:26441897

  4. Pseudomonas salegens sp. nov., a halophilic member of the genus Pseudomonas isolated from a wetland.

    PubMed

    Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali; Shahinpei, Azadeh; Sepahy, Abbas Akhavan; Makhdoumi-Kakhki, Ali; Seyedmahdi, Shima Sadat; Schumann, Peter; Ventosa, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    A novel Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-endospore-forming, non-pigmented, rod-shaped, slightly halophilic bacterium, designated GBPy5(T), was isolated from aquatic plants of the Gomishan wetland, Iran. Cells of strain GBPy5(T) were motile. Growth occurred with between 1 and 10% (w/v) NaCl and the isolate grew optimally with 3% (w/v) NaCl. The optimum pH and temperature for growth of the strain were pH 8.0 and 30 °C, respectively, while it was able to grow over a pH range of 6.5-9.0 and a temperature range of 4-35 °C. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, revealed that strain GBPy5(T) is a member of the genus Pseudomonas forming a monophyletic branch. The novel strain exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 95.4% with type strains of Pseudomonas guariconensis PCAVU11(T) and Pseudomonas sabulinigri J64(T), respectively. The major cellular fatty acids of the isolate were C18:1ω7c (37.8%), C16:0 (14.9%), C16:1ω7c (12.9%), C12:0 3-OH (7.1%) and C12:0 (7.0%). The polar lipid pattern of strain GBPy5(T) comprised phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and one phospholipid. Ubiquinone 9 (Q-9) was the predominant lipoquinone. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain GBPy5(T) was 59.2 mol%. On the basis of the phenotypic and phylogenetic data, strain GBPY5(T) represents a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas salegens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GBPy5(T) ( = IBRC-M 10762(T) = CECT 8338(T)).

  5. Binding of germanium of Pseudomonas putida cells

    SciTech Connect

    Klapcinska, B.; Chmielowski, J.

    1986-05-01

    The binding of germanium to Pseudomonas putida ATCC 33015 was investigated by using whole intact cells grown in a medium supplemented with GeO/sub 2/ and catechol or acetate. Electron-microscopic examination of the control and metal-loaded samples revealed that germanium was bound within the cell envelope. A certain number of small electron-dense deposits of the bound element were found in the cytoplasm when the cells were grown in the presence of GeO/sub 2/ and catechol. The study of germanium distribution in cellular fractions revealed that catechol facilitated the intracellular accumulation of this element.

  6. A giant Pseudomonas phage from Poland.

    PubMed

    Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna; Olszak, Tomasz; Danis, Katarzyna; Majkowska-Skrobek, Grazyna; Ackermann, Hans-W

    2014-03-01

    A novel giant phage of the family Myoviridae is described. Pseudomonas phage PA5oct was isolated from a sewage sample from an irrigated field near Wroclaw, Poland. The virion morphology indicates that PA5oct differs from known giant phages. The phage has a head of about 131 nm in diameter and a tail of 136 × 19 nm. Phage PA5oct contains a genome of approximately 375 kbp and differs in size from any tailed phages known. PA5oct was further characterized by determination of its latent period and burst size and its sensitivity to heating, chloroform, and pH.

  7. Linkage map of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAT.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, J M; Holloway, B W

    1978-01-01

    The locations of new markers relative to markers previously mapped on the chromosome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAT were defined by generalized transduction with phage F116L and F1083. Although the marker orders of the various marker groups were deduced mainly from the results of two-factor crosses, the locations of a number of markers were confirmed by three-factor crosses. A linkage map of the chromosome of P. aeruginosa PAT was constructed which shows the relative locations of 50 genes. From the available data, the linkage maps of P. aeruginosa strains PAO and PAT appear to be similar. PMID:101525

  8. Biosynthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Abd El-Aziz, M.; Badr, Y.; Mahmoud, M. A.

    2007-02-14

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used for extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). Consequently, Au NPs were formed due to reduction of gold ion by bacterial cell supernatant of P. aeruginos ATCC 90271, P. aeruginos (2) and P. aeruginos (1). The UV-Vis. and fluorescence spectra of the bacterial as well as chemical prepared Au NPs were recorded. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrograph showed the formation of well-dispersed gold nanoparticles in the range of 15-30 nm. The process of reduction being extracellular and may lead to the development of an easy bioprocess for synthesis of Au NPs.

  9. Pseudomonas aeruginosa renews its virulence factors.

    PubMed

    Huber, Philippe; Basso, Pauline; Reboud, Emeline; Attrée, Ina

    2016-07-18

    Highly divergent strains of the major human opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been isolated around the world by different research laboratories. They came from patients with various types of infectious diseases or from the environment. These strains are devoid of the major virulence factor used by classical strains, the Type III secretion system, but possess additional putative virulence factors, including a novel two-partner secretion system, ExlBA, responsible for the hypervirulent behavior of some clinical isolates. Here, we review the genetic and phenotypic characteristics of these recently-discovered P. aeruginosa outliers. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Oxidation of 1-Tetradecene by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Markovetz, A. J.; Klug, M. J.; Forney, F. W.

    1967-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain Sol 20 was grown on 1-tetradecene as sole carbon source, and a vinyl-unsaturated 14-carbon monocarboxylic acid, 13-tetradecenoic acid, was identified from culture fluid. This acid was not produced when n-tetradecane served as substrate for growth. Oxidation of the methyl group represents one method of attack on the 1-alkene by this organism. Tentative identification of 2-tetradecanol indicates that an attack on the double bond is also occurring. α, ω-Dienes would not support growth. PMID:4962057

  11. Development and Dynamics of Pseudomonas sp. Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Brinch, Ulla C.; Ragas, Paula C.; Andersen, Jens Bo; Jacobsen, Carsten Suhr; Molin, Søren

    2000-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain B13 and Pseudomonas putida OUS82 were genetically tagged with the green fluorescent protein and the Discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein, and the development and dynamics occurring in flow chamber-grown two-colored monospecies or mixed-species biofilms were investigated by the use of confocal scanning laser microscopy. Separate red or green fluorescent microcolonies were formed initially, suggesting that the initial small microcolonies were formed simply by growth of substratum attached cells and not by cell aggregation. Red fluorescent microcolonies containing a few green fluorescent cells and green fluorescent microcolonies containing a few red fluorescent cells were frequently observed in both monospecies and two-species biofilms, suggesting that the bacteria moved between the microcolonies. Rapid movement of P. putida OUS82 bacteria inside microcolonies was observed before a transition from compact microcolonies to loose irregularly shaped protruding structures occurred. Experiments involving a nonflagellated P. putida OUS82 mutant suggested that the movements between and inside microcolonies were flagellum driven. The results are discussed in relation to the prevailing hypothesis that biofilm bacteria are in a physiological state different from planktonic bacteria. PMID:11053394

  12. Ethylene Glycol Metabolism by Pseudomonas putida

    PubMed Central

    Mückschel, Björn; Simon, Oliver; Klebensberger, Janosch; Graf, Nadja; Rosche, Bettina; Altenbuchner, Josef; Pfannstiel, Jens; Huber, Armin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the metabolism of ethylene glycol in the Pseudomonas putida strains KT2440 and JM37 by employing growth and bioconversion experiments, directed mutagenesis, and proteome analysis. We found that strain JM37 grew rapidly with ethylene glycol as a sole source of carbon and energy, while strain KT2440 did not grow within 2 days of incubation under the same conditions. However, bioconversion experiments revealed metabolism of ethylene glycol by both strains, with the temporal accumulation of glycolic acid and glyoxylic acid for strain KT2440. This accumulation was further increased by targeted mutagenesis. The key enzymes and specific differences between the two strains were identified by comparative proteomics. In P. putida JM37, tartronate semialdehyde synthase (Gcl), malate synthase (GlcB), and isocitrate lyase (AceA) were found to be induced in the presence of ethylene glycol or glyoxylic acid. Under the same conditions, strain KT2440 showed induction of AceA only. Despite this difference, the two strains were found to use similar periplasmic dehydrogenases for the initial oxidation step of ethylene glycol, namely, the two redundant pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent enzymes PedE and PedH. From these results we constructed a new pathway for the metabolism of ethylene glycol in P. putida. Furthermore, we conclude that Pseudomonas putida might serve as a useful platform from which to establish a whole-cell biocatalyst for the production of glyoxylic acid from ethylene glycol. PMID:23023748

  13. Review: Lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    King, Jerry D; Kocíncová, Dana; Westman, Erin L; Lam, Joseph S

    2009-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes serious nosocomial infections, and an important virulence factor produced by this organism is lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This review summarizes knowledge about biosynthesis of all three structural domains of LPS - lipid A, core oligosaccharide, and O polysaccharides. In addition, based on similarities with other bacterial species, this review proposes new hypothetical pathways for unstudied steps in the biosynthesis of P. aeruginosa LPS. Lipid A biosynthesis is discussed in relation to Escherichia coli and Salmonella, and the biosyntheses of core sugar precursors and core oligosaccharide are summarised. Pseudomonas aeruginosa attaches a Common Polysaccharide Antigen and O-Specific Antigen polysaccharides to lipid A-core. Both forms of O polysaccharide are discussed with respect to their independent synthesis mechanisms. Recent advances in understanding O-polysaccharide biosynthesis since the last major review on this subject, published nearly a decade ago, are highlighted. Since P. aeruginosa O polysaccharides contain unusual sugars, sugar-nucleotide biosynthesis pathways are reviewed in detail. Knowledge derived from detailed studies in the O5, O6 and O11 serotypes is applied to predict biosynthesis pathways of sugars in poorly-studied serotypes, especially O1, O4, and O13/O14. Although further work is required, a full understanding of LPS biosynthesis in P. aeruginosa is almost within reach.

  14. Ethylene glycol metabolism by Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Mückschel, Björn; Simon, Oliver; Klebensberger, Janosch; Graf, Nadja; Rosche, Bettina; Altenbuchner, Josef; Pfannstiel, Jens; Huber, Armin; Hauer, Bernhard

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the metabolism of ethylene glycol in the Pseudomonas putida strains KT2440 and JM37 by employing growth and bioconversion experiments, directed mutagenesis, and proteome analysis. We found that strain JM37 grew rapidly with ethylene glycol as a sole source of carbon and energy, while strain KT2440 did not grow within 2 days of incubation under the same conditions. However, bioconversion experiments revealed metabolism of ethylene glycol by both strains, with the temporal accumulation of glycolic acid and glyoxylic acid for strain KT2440. This accumulation was further increased by targeted mutagenesis. The key enzymes and specific differences between the two strains were identified by comparative proteomics. In P. putida JM37, tartronate semialdehyde synthase (Gcl), malate synthase (GlcB), and isocitrate lyase (AceA) were found to be induced in the presence of ethylene glycol or glyoxylic acid. Under the same conditions, strain KT2440 showed induction of AceA only. Despite this difference, the two strains were found to use similar periplasmic dehydrogenases for the initial oxidation step of ethylene glycol, namely, the two redundant pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent enzymes PedE and PedH. From these results we constructed a new pathway for the metabolism of ethylene glycol in P. putida. Furthermore, we conclude that Pseudomonas putida might serve as a useful platform from which to establish a whole-cell biocatalyst for the production of glyoxylic acid from ethylene glycol.

  15. Methylmercury degradation by Pseudomonas putida V1.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Lucélia; Yu, Ri-Qing; Crane, Sharron; Giovanella, Patricia; Barkay, Tamar; Camargo, Flávio A O

    2016-08-01

    Environmental contamination of mercury (Hg) has caused public health concerns with focuses on the neurotoxic substance methylmercury, due to its bioaccumulation and biomagnification in food chains. The goals of the present study were to examine: (i) the transformation of methylmercury, thimerosal, phenylmercuric acetate and mercuric chloride by cultures of Pseudomonas putida V1, (ii) the presence of the genes merA and merB in P. putida V1, and (iii) the degradation pathways of methylmercury by P. putida V1. Strain V1 cultures readily degraded methylmercury, thimerosal, phenylmercury acetate, and reduced mercuric chloride into gaseous Hg(0). However, the Hg transformation in LB broth by P. putida V1 was influenced by the type of Hg compounds. The merA gene was detected in P. putida V1, on the other hand, the merB gene was not detected. The sequencing of this gene, showed high similarity (100%) to the mercuric reductase gene of other Pseudomonas spp. Furthermore, tests using radioactive (14)C-methylmercury indicated an uncommon release of (14)CO2 concomitant with the production of Hg(0). The results of the present work suggest that P. putida V1 has the potential to remove methylmercury from contaminated sites. More studies are warranted to determine the mechanism of removal of methylmercury by P. putida V1.

  16. Plant perceptions of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas.

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Gail M

    2004-01-01

    Plant-associated Pseudomonas live as saprophytes and parasites on plant surfaces and inside plant tissues. Many plant-associated Pseudomonas promote plant growth by suppressing pathogenic micro-organisms, synthesizing growth-stimulating plant hormones and promoting increased plant disease resistance. Others inhibit plant growth and cause disease symptoms ranging from rot and necrosis through to developmental dystrophies such as galls. It is not easy to draw a clear distinction between pathogenic and plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas. They colonize the same ecological niches and possess similar mechanisms for plant colonization. Pathogenic, saprophytic and plant growth-promoting strains are often found within the same species, and the incidence and severity of Pseudomonas diseases are affected by environmental factors and host-specific interactions. Plants are faced with the challenge of how to recognize and exclude pathogens that pose a genuine threat, while tolerating more benign organisms. This review examines Pseudomonas from a plant perspective, focusing in particular on the question of how plants perceive and are affected by saprophytic and plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas (PGPP), in contrast to their interactions with plant pathogenic Pseudomonas. A better understanding of the molecular basis of plant-PGPP interactions and of the key differences between pathogens and PGPP will enable researchers to make more informed decisions in designing integrated disease-control strategies and in selecting, modifying and using PGPP for plant growth promotion, bioremediation and biocontrol. PMID:15306406

  17. Metabolism of tryptophans by Pseudomonas aureofaciens. VI. Production of pyrrolnitrin by selected Pseudomonas species.

    PubMed

    Elander, R P; Mabe, J A; Hamill, R H; Gorman, M

    1968-05-01

    Twenty-nine strains of Pseudomonas, classified as P. fluorescens biotype D or E or as P. multivorans, were examined for the production of pyrrolnitrin, an antifungal agent synthesized in P. aureofaciens. Eight strains were shown to produce pyrrolnitrin in shake-flask fermentation. Four cultures were from the multivorans taxon, and the remaining four were members of the fluorescens group. The antifungal agent produced in these strains was isolated and shown to be pyrrolnitrin by comparison with an authentic sample. The strains differed markedly with respect to the amount of pyrrolnitrin produced and in their utilization of exogenous tryptophan. Secondary metabolites, not related to pyrrolnitrin, were also examined and compared with those synthesized in P. aureofaciens. Marked differences were noted in both phenazine pigments and phenolic metabolites. The results of the study suggest that the production of pyrrolnitrin may be widespread in selected taxonomic groups of Pseudomonas.

  18. Biofilm formation and cellulose expression among diverse environmental Pseudomonas isolates.

    PubMed

    Ude, Susanne; Arnold, Dawn L; Moon, Christina D; Timms-Wilson, Tracey; Spiers, Andrew J

    2006-11-01

    The ability to form biofilms is seen as an increasingly important colonization strategy among both pathogenic and environmental bacteria. A survey of 185 plant-associated, phytopathogenic, soil and river Pseudomonas isolates resulted in 76% producing biofilms at the air-liquid (A-L) interface after selection in static microcosms. Considerable variation in biofilm phenotype was observed, including waxy aggregations, viscous and floccular masses, and physically cohesive biofilms with continuously varying strengths over 1500-fold. Calcofluor epifluorescent microscopy identified cellulose as the matrix component in biofilms produced by Pseudomonas asplenii, Pseudomonas corrugata, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas marginalis, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas savastanoi and Pseudomonas syringae isolates. Cellulose expression and biofilm formation could be induced by the constitutively active WspR19 mutant of the cyclic-di-GMP-associated, GGDEF domain-containing response regulator involved in the P. fluorescens SBW25 wrinkly spreader phenotype and cellular aggregation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01. WspR19 could also induce P. putida KT2440, which otherwise did not produce a biofilm or express cellulose, as well as Escherichia coli K12 and Salmonella typhimurium LT2, both of which express cellulose yet lack WspR homologues. Statistical analysis of biofilm parameters suggest that biofilm development is a more complex process than that simply described by the production of attachment and matrix components and bacterial growth. This complexity was also seen in multivariate analysis as a species-ecological habitat effect, underscoring the fact that in vitro biofilms are abstractions of those surface and volume colonization processes used by bacteria in their natural environments.

  19. Pseudomonas helmanticensis sp. nov., isolated from forest soil.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Cuesta, Maria José; Flores-Félix, José David; Mulas, Rebeca; Rivas, Raúl; Castro-Pinto, Joao; Brañas, Javier; Mulas, Daniel; González-Andrés, Fernando; Velázquez, Encarna; Peix, Alvaro

    2014-07-01

    A bacterial strain, OHA11(T), was isolated during the course of a study of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria occurring in a forest soil from Salamanca, Spain. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain OHA11(T) shared 99.1% similarity with respect to Pseudomonas baetica a390(T), and 98.9% similarity with the type strains of Pseudomonas jessenii, Pseudomonas moorei, Pseudomonas umsongensis, Pseudomonas mohnii and Pseudomonas koreensis. The analysis of housekeeping genes rpoB, rpoD and gyrB confirmed its phylogenetic affiliation to the genus Pseudomonas and showed similarities lower than 95% in almost all cases with respect to the above species. Cells possessed two polar flagella. The respiratory quinone was Q9. The major fatty acids were C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω7c and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c/iso-C15 : 0 2-OH). The strain was oxidase-, catalase- and urease-positive, positive for arginine dihydrolase but negative for nitrate reduction, β-galactosidase production and aesculin hydrolysis. It was able to grow at 31 °C and at pH 11. The DNA G+C content was 58.1 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization results showed values lower than 49% relatedness with respect to the type strains of the seven closest related species. Therefore, the combined genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data support the classification of strain OHA11(T) to a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas helmanticensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is OHA11(T) ( = LMG 28168(T) = CECT 8548(T)).

  20. Novel type III effectors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Burstein, David; Satanower, Shirley; Simovitch, Michal; Belnik, Yana; Zehavi, Meital; Yerushalmi, Gal; Ben-Aroya, Shay; Pupko, Tal; Banin, Ehud

    2015-03-17

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen that causes chronic and acute infections in immunocompromised patients. Most P. aeruginosa strains encode an active type III secretion system (T3SS), utilized by the bacteria to deliver effector proteins from the bacterial cell directly into the cytoplasm of the host cell. Four T3SS effectors have been discovered and extensively studied in P. aeruginosa: ExoT, ExoS, ExoU, and ExoY. This is especially intriguing in light of P. aeruginosa's ability to infect a wide range of hosts. We therefore hypothesized that additional T3SS effectors that have not yet been discovered are encoded in the genome of P. aeruginosa. Here, we applied a machine learning classification algorithm to identify novel P. aeruginosa effectors. In this approach, various types of data are integrated to differentiate effectors from the rest of the open reading frames of the bacterial genome. Due to the lack of a sufficient learning set of positive effectors, our machine learning algorithm integrated genomic information from another Pseudomonas species and utilized dozens of features accounting for various aspects of the effector coding genes and their products. Twelve top-ranking predictions were experimentally tested for T3SS-specific translocation, leading to the discovery of two novel T3SS effectors. We demonstrate that these effectors are not part of the injection structural complex and report initial efforts toward their characterization. Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) to secrete toxic proteins, termed effectors, directly into the cytoplasm of the host cell. The activation of this secretion system is correlated with disease severity and patient death. Compared with many other T3SS-utilizing pathogenic bacteria, P. aeruginosa has a fairly limited arsenal of effectors that have been identified. This is in sharp contrast with the wide range of hosts that this bacterium can infect. The discovery of

  1. Isolation and characterization of group II introns from Pseudomonas alcaligenes and Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Yeo, C C; Yiin, S; Tan, B H; Poh, C L

    2001-05-01

    Group II introns isolated from Pseudomonas alcaligenes NCIB 9867, Pseudomonas putida NCIB 9869, and P. putida KT2440 were closely related with nucleotide sequence identities of between 87 and 96%. The genome of P. alcaligenes also harbored a truncated group II intron of 682 bp that lacks the gene for the intron-encoded protein (IEP). Unlike most bacterial group II introns, the Pseudomonas introns were found to lack the Zn domains in their IEPs, did not appear to interrupt any genes, and were located downstream of open reading frames which were adjacent to hairpin loop structures that resemble rho-independent terminators. These structures also contain the intron binding sites 1 and 2 (IBS1 and IBS2 sequences) that were required for intron target site recognition in transposition. One of the group II introns found in P. alcaligenes, Xln3, was shown to have transposed from the chromosome to the endogenous pRA2 plasmid at a site adjacent to IBS1- and IBS2-like sequences.

  2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and fluoroquinolone use.

    PubMed

    MacDougall, Conan; Harpe, Spencer E; Powell, J Patrick; Johnson, Christopher K; Edmond, Michael B; Polk, Ron E

    2005-08-01

    Few long-term multicenter investigations have evaluated the relationships between aggregate antimicrobial drug use in hospitals and bacterial resistance. We measured fluoroquinolone use from 1999 through 2003 in a network of US hospitals. The percentages of fluoroquinolone-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were obtained from yearly antibiograms at each hospital. Univariate linear regression showed significant associations between a hospital's volume of fluoroquinolone use and percent resistance in most individual study years (1999-2001 for P. aeruginosa, 1999-2002 for S. aureus). When the method of generalized estimating equations was used, a population-averaged longitudinal model incorporating total fluoroquinolone use and the previous year's resistance (to account for autocorrelation) did not show a significant effect of fluoroquinolone use on percent resistance for most drug-organism combinations, except for the relationship between levofloxacin use and percent MRSA. The ecologic relationship between fluoroquinolone use and resistance is complex and requires further study.

  3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa ventilator-associated pneumonia management.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Estrada, Sergio; Borgatta, Bárbara; Rello, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia is the most common infection in intensive care unit patients associated with high morbidity rates and elevated economic costs; Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most frequent bacteria linked with this entity, with a high attributable mortality despite adequate treatment that is increased in the presence of multiresistant strains, a situation that is becoming more common in intensive care units. In this manuscript, we review the current management of ventilator-associated pneumonia due to P. aeruginosa, the most recent antipseudomonal agents, and new adjunctive therapies that are shifting the way we treat these infections. We support early initiation of broad-spectrum antipseudomonal antibiotics in present, followed by culture-guided monotherapy de-escalation when susceptibilities are available. Future management should be directed at blocking virulence; the role of alternative strategies such as new antibiotics, nebulized treatments, and vaccines is promising.

  4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa ventilator-associated pneumonia management

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Estrada, Sergio; Borgatta, Bárbara; Rello, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia is the most common infection in intensive care unit patients associated with high morbidity rates and elevated economic costs; Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most frequent bacteria linked with this entity, with a high attributable mortality despite adequate treatment that is increased in the presence of multiresistant strains, a situation that is becoming more common in intensive care units. In this manuscript, we review the current management of ventilator-associated pneumonia due to P. aeruginosa, the most recent antipseudomonal agents, and new adjunctive therapies that are shifting the way we treat these infections. We support early initiation of broad-spectrum antipseudomonal antibiotics in present, followed by culture-guided monotherapy de-escalation when susceptibilities are available. Future management should be directed at blocking virulence; the role of alternative strategies such as new antibiotics, nebulized treatments, and vaccines is promising. PMID:26855594

  5. Osmoregulation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa under hyperosmotic shock.

    PubMed

    Velasco, R; Burgoa, R; Flores, E; Hernández, E; Villa, A; Vaca, S

    1995-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 strain was found to be able to tolerate 700 mM NaCl. 0.5 mM of the osmoprotectant betaine restablished the growth of this strain in 1200 mM NaCl. Intracellular K+ and glutamate concentrations of P. aeruginosa PAO1 after an hyperosmotic shock (400 mM NaCl) showed a permanent increase. Adition of betaine (0.5 mM) to the medium with NaCl had an inhibitory effect on the intracellular accumulation of glutamate. The results indicate that P. aeruginosa PAO1 resists high NaCl concentrations, K+ accumulation and glutamate synthesis probably being the first mechanisms involved in adaptation to osmotic stress. Also is is demonstrated that betaine modulates intracellular glutamate levels in osmotically stressed P. aeruginosa PAO1.

  6. The Accessory Genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Vanderlene L.; Ozer, Egon A.; Hauser, Alan R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains exhibit significant variability in pathogenicity and ecological flexibility. Such interstrain differences reflect the dynamic nature of the P. aeruginosa genome, which is composed of a relatively invariable “core genome” and a highly variable “accessory genome.” Here we review the major classes of genetic elements comprising the P. aeruginosa accessory genome and highlight emerging themes in the acquisition and functional importance of these elements. Although the precise phenotypes endowed by the majority of the P. aeruginosa accessory genome have yet to be determined, rapid progress is being made, and a clearer understanding of the role of the P. aeruginosa accessory genome in ecology and infection is emerging. PMID:21119020

  7. Vesiculation from Pseudomonas aeruginosa under SOS

    PubMed Central

    Maredia, Reshma; Devineni, Navya; Lentz, Peter; Dallo, Shatha F.; Yu, JiehJuen; Guentzel, Neal; Chambers, James; Arulanandam, Bernard; Haskins, William E.; Weitao, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial infections can be aggravated by antibiotic treatment that induces SOS response and vesiculation. This leads to a hypothesis concerning association of SOS with vesiculation. To test it, we conducted multiple analyses of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) produced from the Pseudomonas aeruginosa wild type in which SOS is induced by ciprofloxacin and from the LexA noncleavable (lexAN) strain in which SOS is repressed. The levels of OMV proteins, lipids, and cytotoxicity increased for both the treated strains, demonstrating vesiculation stimulation by the antibiotic treatment. However, the further increase was suppressed in the lexAN strains, suggesting the SOS involvement. Obviously, the stimulated vesiculation is attributed by both SOS-related and unrelated factors. OMV subproteomic analysis was performed to examine these factors, which reflected the OMV-mediated cytotoxicity and the physiology of the vesiculating cells under treatment and SOS. Thus, SOS plays a role in the vesiculation stimulation that contributes to cytotoxicity. PMID:22448133

  8. Fluoranthene degradation in Pseudomonas alcaligenes PA-10.

    PubMed

    Gordon, L; Dobson, A D

    2001-01-01

    Pseudomonas alcaligenes strain PA-10 degrades the four-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon fluoranthene, co-metabolically. HPLC analysis of the growth medium identified four intermediates, 9-fluorenone-1-carboxylic acid; 9-hydroxy-1-fluorene carboxylic acid; 9-fluorenone and 9-fluorenol, formed during fluoranthene degradation. Pre-exposure of PA-10 to 9-fluorenone-1-carboxylic acid and 9-hydroxy-1-fluorene-carboxylic acid resulted in increases in fluoranthene removal, while pre-exposure to 9-fluorenone and 9-fluorenol resulted in a decrease in fluoranthene degradation. The rate of indole transformation was similarly affected by pre-exposure to these metabolic intermediates, indicating a link between fluoranthene degradation and indigo formation in this strain.

  9. Occurrence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Kuwait soil.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Esmaeil; Akbar, Abrar

    2015-02-01

    Environmentally ubiquitous bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa evolved mechanisms to adapt and prevail under diverse conditions. In the current investigation, strains of P. aeruginosa demonstrating high rates of crude oil utilization and tolerance to high concentrations of heavy metals were found in both crude oil-contaminated and uncontaminated sites in Kuwait, and were dominant in the contaminated sites. The incidence of P. aeruginosa in tested soils implies the definitive pattern of crude oil contamination in the selection of the bacterial population in petroleum-contaminated sites in Kuwait. Surprisingly, the unculturable P. aeruginosa in different soil samples showed significant high similarity coefficients based on 16S-RFLP analyses, implying that the unculturable fraction of existing bacterial population in environmental samples is more stable and, hence, reliable for phylogenetic studies compared to the culturable bacteria.

  10. Pseudomonas phage inhibition of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Nazik, Hasan; Joubert, Lydia-Marie; Secor, Patrick R; Sweere, Johanna M; Bollyky, Paul L; Sass, Gabriele; Cegelski, Lynette; Stevens, David A

    2017-10-06

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) and Candida albicans (Ca) are major bacterial and fungal pathogens in immunocompromised hosts, and notably in the airways of cystic fibrosis patients. The bacteriophages of Pa physically alter biofilms, and were recently shown to inhibit the biofilms of Aspergillus fumigatus. To understand the range of this viral-fungal interaction, we studied Pa phages Pf4 and Pf1, and their interactions with Ca biofilm formation and preformed Ca biofilm. Both forms of Ca biofilm development, as well as planktonic Ca growth, were inhibited by either phage. The inhibition of biofilm was reversed by the addition of iron, suggesting that the mechanism of phage action on Ca involves denial of iron. Birefringence studies on added phage showed an ordered structure of binding to Ca. Electron microscopic observations indicated phage aggregation in the biofilm extracellular matrix. Bacteriophage-fungal interactions may be a general feature with several pathogens in the fungal kingdom.

  11. Genetic construction of recombinant Pseudomonas chlororaphis for improved glycerol utilization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study is to improve by genetic engineering the glycerol metabolic capability of Pseudomonas chlororaphis which is capable of producing commercially valuable biodegradable poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) and biosurfactant rhamnolipids (RLs). In the study, glycerol uptake facilitat...

  12. New strategies for genetic engineering Pseudomonas syringae using recombination

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Here we report that DNA oligonucleotides (oligos) introduced directly into bacteria by electroporation can recombine with the bacterial chromosome. This phenomenon was identified in Pseudomonas syringae and we subsequently found that Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella flexneri are...

  13. Pseudomonas Folliculitis Associated with Use of Hot Tubs and Spas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Michael L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the history, etiology, diagnosis, histopathology, treatment, and prevention of Pseudomonas Folliculitis, an increasingly common skin infection contracted in hot tubs and, to some extent, in swimming pools. (Author/SM)

  14. Effect of Vincristine Sulfate on Pseudomonas Infections in Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Saslaw, Samuel; Carlisle, Harold N.; Moheimani, Mohammad

    1972-01-01

    In rhesus monkeys, intravenous challenge with 0.6 × 1010 to 2.2 × 1010Pseudomonas aeruginosa organisms caused acute illness of 4 to 5 days' duration with spontaneous recovery in 13 of 15 monkeys; blood cultures became negative 3 to 17 days after challenge. Leukocytosis was observed in all monkeys. Intravenous or intratracheal inoculation of 2.0 to 2.5 mg of vincristine sulfate was followed by leukopenia in 4 to 5 days. Intravenous inoculation of 4.2 × 1010 to 7.8 × 1010 pyocin type 6 Pseudomonas organisms in monkeys given vincristine sulfate 4 days previously resulted in fatal infection in 11 of 14 monkeys, whereas none of four receiving Pseudomonas alone died. These studies suggest that an antimetabolite-induced leukopenia predisposes to severe Pseudomonas sepsis and that such monkeys may serve as a biological model for study of comparative efficacy of antimicrobial agents. PMID:4631913

  15. Isolation of oxidase-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa from sputum culture.

    PubMed

    Hampton, K D; Wasilauskas, B L

    1979-05-01

    Two isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lacking characteristic indophenol oxidase were recovered from a sputum specimen. A discussion of the characteristic biochemical tests and antibiograms along with a possible explanation for this phenomenon is presented.

  16. Pseudomonas Folliculitis Associated with Use of Hot Tubs and Spas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Michael L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the history, etiology, diagnosis, histopathology, treatment, and prevention of Pseudomonas Folliculitis, an increasingly common skin infection contracted in hot tubs and, to some extent, in swimming pools. (Author/SM)

  17. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Dose-Response and Bathing Water Infection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most commonly identified opportunistic pathogen associated with pool acquired bather disease. To better understand why this microorganism poses this protracted problem we recently appraised P. aeruginosa pool risk management. Much is known about the ...

  18. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Dose-Response and Bathing Water Infection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most commonly identified opportunistic pathogen associated with pool acquired bather disease. To better understand why this microorganism poses this protracted problem we recently appraised P. aeruginosa pool risk management. Much is known about the ...

  19. Outbreak of hot-foot syndrome - caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Michl, R K; Rusche, T; Grimm, S; Limpert, E; Beck, J F; Dost, A

    2012-07-01

    Infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa can cause the hot-foot syndrome, presenting with painful plantar erythematous nodules. Particularly, the mechanically stressed areas of the foot are affected after contact with contaminated water from saunas, swimming pools, hot tubs, etc. We report an outbreak of hot-foot syndrome caused by Pseudomonas in 10 patients. The therapeutic regimens applied reached from local antiseptic therapy to systemic antibiotics. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Shanghai Fever: A Fatal Form of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Enteric Disease.

    PubMed

    Halder, Pankaj; Mandal, Kartik Chandra; Mukhopadhyay, Madhumita; Debnath, Bidyut

    2015-10-01

    Outcome of pseudomonas enteric fever is unpredictable as multiple systemic lethal complications occur abruptly. A 9-month-old girl with multiple ileal perforations, leukocoria, ecthyma gangrenosum, hemiplegia and a perforated ulcer in the soft palate. Blood culture suggested Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Operative repair of multiple ileal perforations and multidisciplinary management was provided. On 10th post-operative day, patient succumbed to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Early detection and management of complications of P. aeruginosa enteric disease is important.

  1. Spoilage potential of Pseudomonas species isolated from goat milk.

    PubMed

    Scatamburlo, T M; Yamazi, A K; Cavicchioli, V Q; Pieri, F A; Nero, L A

    2015-02-01

    Pseudomonas spp. are usually associated with spoilage microflora of dairy products due to their proteolytic potential. This is of particular concern for protein-based products, such as goat milk cheeses and fermented milks. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to characterize the proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from goat milk. Goat milk samples (n=61) were obtained directly from bulk tanks on dairy goat farms (n=12), and subjected to a modified International Organization for Standardization (ISO) protocol to determine the number and proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. Isolates (n=82) were obtained, identified by PCR, and subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with XbaI macro-restriction. Then, the isolates were subjected to PCR to detect the alkaline protease gene (apr), and phenotypic tests were performed to check proteolytic activity at 7°C, 25°C, and 35°C. Mean Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 2.9 to 4.8 log cfu/mL, and proteolytic Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 1.9 to 4.6 log cfu/mL. All isolates were confirmed to be Pseudomonas spp., and 41 were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens, which clustered into 5 groups sharing approximately 82% similarity. Thirty-six isolates (46.9%) were positive for the apr gene; and 57 (69.5%) isolates presented proteolytic activity at 7°C, 82 (100%) at 25°C, and 64 (78%) at 35°C. The isolates were distributed ubiquitously in the goat farms, and no relationship among isolates was observed when the goat farms, presence of apr, pulsotypes, and proteolytic activity were taken into account. We demonstrated proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. present in goat milk by phenotypic and genotypic tests and indicated their spoilage potential at distinct temperatures. Based on these findings and the ubiquity of Pseudomonas spp. in goat farm environments, proper monitoring and control of Pseudomonas spp. during production are critical.

  2. EMS Student Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogle, Patrick

    This student guide is one of a series of self-contained materials for students enrolled in an emergency medical services (EMS) training program. Discussed in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: the purpose and history of EMS professionals; EMS training, certification and examinations (national and state certification and…

  3. Degradation of nitrobenzene by a Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes.

    PubMed Central

    Nishino, S F; Spain, J C

    1993-01-01

    A Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes able to use nitrobenzene as the sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy was isolated from soil and groundwater contaminated with nitrobenzene. The range of aromatic substrates able to support growth was limited to nitrobenzene, hydroxylaminobenzene, and 2-aminophenol. Washed suspensions of nitrobenzene-grown cells removed nitrobenzene from culture fluids with the concomitant release of ammonia. Nitrobenzene, nitrosobenzene, hydroxylaminobenzene, and 2-aminophenol stimulated oxygen uptake in resting cells and in extracts of nitrobenzene-grown cells. Under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, crude extracts converted nitrobenzene to 2-aminophenol with oxidation of 2 mol of NADPH. Ring cleavage, which required ferrous iron, produced a transient yellow product with a maximum A380. In the presence of NAD, the product disappeared and NADH was produced. In the absence of NAD, the ring fission product was spontaneously converted to picolinic acid, which was not further metabolized. These results indicate that the catabolic pathway involves the reduction of nitrobenzene to nitrosobenzene and then to hydroxylaminobenzene; each of these steps requires 1 mol of NADPH. An enzyme-mediated Bamberger-like rearrangement converts hydroxylaminobenzene to 2-aminophenol, which then undergoes meta ring cleavage to 2-aminomuconic semialdehyde. The mechanism for release of ammonia and subsequent metabolism are under investigation. PMID:8368838

  4. Spaceflight Promotes Biofilm Formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wooseong; Tengra, Farah K.; Young, Zachary; Shong, Jasmine; Marchand, Nicholas; Chan, Hon Kit; Pangule, Ravindra C.; Parra, Macarena; Dordick, Jonathan S.; Plawsky, Joel L.; Collins, Cynthia H.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the effects of spaceflight on microbial communities is crucial for the success of long-term, manned space missions. Surface-associated bacterial communities, known as biofilms, were abundant on the Mir space station and continue to be a challenge on the International Space Station. The health and safety hazards linked to the development of biofilms are of particular concern due to the suppression of immune function observed during spaceflight. While planktonic cultures of microbes have indicated that spaceflight can lead to increases in growth and virulence, the effects of spaceflight on biofilm development and physiology remain unclear. To address this issue, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was cultured during two Space Shuttle Atlantis missions: STS-132 and STS-135, and the biofilms formed during spaceflight were characterized. Spaceflight was observed to increase the number of viable cells, biofilm biomass, and thickness relative to normal gravity controls. Moreover, the biofilms formed during spaceflight exhibited a column-and-canopy structure that has not been observed on Earth. The increase in the amount of biofilms and the formation of the novel architecture during spaceflight were observed to be independent of carbon source and phosphate concentrations in the media. However, flagella-driven motility was shown to be essential for the formation of this biofilm architecture during spaceflight. These findings represent the first evidence that spaceflight affects community-level behaviors of bacteria and highlight the importance of understanding how both harmful and beneficial human-microbe interactions may be altered during spaceflight. PMID:23658630

  5. Pseudomonas Aeruginosa: Resistance to the Max

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is intrinsically resistant to a variety of antimicrobials and can develop resistance during anti-pseudomonal chemotherapy both of which compromise treatment of infections caused by this organism. Resistance to multiple classes of antimicrobials (multidrug resistance) in particular is increasingly common in P. aeruginosa, with a number of reports of pan-resistant isolates treatable with a single agent, colistin. Acquired resistance in this organism is multifactorial and attributable to chromosomal mutations and the acquisition of resistance genes via horizontal gene transfer. Mutational changes impacting resistance include upregulation of multidrug efflux systems to promote antimicrobial expulsion, derepression of ampC, AmpC alterations that expand the enzyme's substrate specificity (i.e., extended-spectrum AmpC), alterations to outer membrane permeability to limit antimicrobial entry and alterations to antimicrobial targets. Acquired mechanisms contributing to resistance in P. aeruginosa include β-lactamases, notably the extended-spectrum β-lactamases and the carbapenemases that hydrolyze most β-lactams, aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes, and 16S rRNA methylases that provide high-level pan-aminoglycoside resistance. The organism's propensity to grow in vivo as antimicrobial-tolerant biofilms and the occurrence of hypermutator strains that yield antimicrobial resistant mutants at higher frequency also compromise anti-pseudomonal chemotherapy. With limited therapeutic options and increasing resistance will the untreatable P. aeruginosa infection soon be upon us? PMID:21747788

  6. Transport of glycerol by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Tsay, S S; Brown, K K; Gaudy, E T

    1971-10-01

    In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the transport of glycerol was shown to be genetically controlled and to be dependent on induction by glycerol. Accumulation of (14)C-glycerol was almost completely absent in uninduced cells and in a transport-negative mutant. Kinetic studies with induced cells suggested that glycerol may be transported by two systems with different affinities for glycerol. Osmotically shocked cells did not transport glycerol, and the supernatant fluid from shocked cells contained glycerol-binding activity demonstrable by equilibrium dialysis. The binding protein was not glycerol kinase. Binding activity was absent in shock fluids from the transport-negative mutant and from uninduced cells. The glycerol-binding protein was partially purified by precipitation with ammonium sulfate. Mild heat treatment completely eliminated the binding activity of shock fluid and of the partially purified protein. Sodium azide and N-ethylmaleimide inhibited both transport by whole cells and binding of glycerol by shock fluid. It is concluded that transport of glycerol by P. aeruginosa involves a binding protein responsible for recognition of glycerol and may occur by facilitated diffusion or active transport. A requirement for energy has not been demonstrated.

  7. [Characterization of the Lipopolysaccharides of Pseudomonas chlororaphis].

    PubMed

    Varbanets, L D; Zdorovenko, E L; Kiprianova, E A; Avdeeva, L V; Brovarskaya, O S; Rybalko, S L

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from two strains ot Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aureofaciens,UCM B-111 and UCM B-306, were isolated and characterized. The LPS preparations exhibited low toxicity, high pyrogenicity and high antiviral activity. Mild acid hydrolysis was used to obtain the O-specific polysaccharides. Their structures were established by monosaccharide analysis and determination of absolute configurations, as well as by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The O-polysaccharides were shown to contain the linear tri- or tetrasaccharide repeating units. Both O-polysaccharides were structurally heterogeneous: P. chlororaphis subsp. aureofaciens UCM B-111--> 4)-αD-GalpNAc6Ac-(1 --> 3)-β-D-QuipNAc-(1 --> 6)-αD-GlcpNAc-(l --> βD-GlcpNAc-(l --> 3)] GalNAc -60%; degree of the non-stoichiometric 6-O-acetylation of GalNAc -60%; P. chlorophis subsp. aureofaciens UCM B-306 --> 3)-α-D-Rhap-(1 --> 4)-α-D-GalpNAcAN-(1 --> 3)-αD-QuipNAc4NAc-(1 -->, where GalNAcAN is 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galacturonamide, the degree of non-stoichiometric amidation of the GalNAcA residue -60%.

  8. Hypochlorite scavenging by Pseudomonas aeruginosa alginate.

    PubMed Central

    Learn, D B; Brestel, E P; Seetharama, S

    1987-01-01

    Alginic acid was purified from a mucoid clinical isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Luminol-dependent chemiluminescence of phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated neutrophils was inhibited by this alginate, but oxygen consumption was unaffected. Further studies indicated that this effect was due to the ability of the pseudomonal alginate to scavenge hypochlorite. A seaweed alginate was less effective and dextran T500 was ineffective in hypochlorite scavenging. It appears that the uronic acid core and the O-acetyl groups of pseudomonal alginate are involved in its hypochlorite-scavenging ability. The relevance of this phenomenon was demonstrated by the greater resistance to killing by hypochlorite of mucoid P. aeruginosa compared with a nonmucoid revertant, and the addition of purified alginate to the nonmucoid revertant protected the organism from hypochlorite. Thus, this extracellular polysaccharide may enhance the virulence of P. aeruginosa by scavenging the phagocyte-generated oxidant HOCl. This enhanced virulence may be involved in disease processes in which mucoid organisms predominate, such as cystic fibrosis. PMID:3038752

  9. Purification of extracellular lipase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Stuer, W; Jaeger, K E; Winkler, U K

    1986-01-01

    Lipase (triacylglycerol acylhydrolase, EC 3.1.1.3) was excreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAC1R during the late logarithmic growth phase. Characterization of cell-free culture supernatants by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of significant amounts of lipopolysaccharide, part of which seemed to be tightly bound to lipase. After concentration of culture supernatants by ultrafiltration, lipase-lipopolysaccharide complexes were dissociated by treatment with EDTA-Tris buffer and subsequent sonication in the presence of the zwitterionic detergent 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate. The solubilized lipase was purified by isoelectric focusing in an agarose gel containing the same detergent; the lipase activity appeared in a single peak corresponding to a distinct band in the silver-stained gel. The isoelectric point was 5.8. Analysis of purified lipase by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and scanning revealed an apparent molecular weight of 29,000 and a specific activity of 760 mu kat/mg of protein. Estimations based on these data showed that a single P. aeruginosa cell excreted about 200 molecules of lipase, each having a molecular activity of 2.2 X 10(4) per s. Images PMID:3096967

  10. Regulation of Leucine Catabolism in Pseudomonas putida

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Linda K.; Conrad, Robert S.; Sokatch, John R.

    1974-01-01

    The generation time of Pseudomonas putida with l-leucine was 20 h in synthetic media but only 3 h with d-leucine. Slow growth in the presence of l-leucine was partially overcome by addition of 0.1 mM amounts of either d-valine, l-valine, or 2-ketoisovalerate. The activities of five enzymes which take part in the oxidation of leucine by P. putida were measured under various conditions of growth. Four enzymes were induced by growth with dl-leucine as sole source of carbon: d-amino acid dehydrogenase, branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase, 3-methylcrotonyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A lyase. The segment of the pathway required for oxidation of 3-methylcrotonate was induced by growth on isovalerate or 3-methylcrotonate without formation of the preceding enzymes. The synthesis of carboxylase and lyase appeared to have been repressed by the addition of l-glutamate or glucose to cells growing on dl-leucine as the sole carbon source. Mutants unable to grow at the expense of isovalerate had reduced levels of carboxylase and lyase, whereas the levels of three enzymes common to the catabolism of all three branched-chain amino acids and those of two isoleucine catabolic enzymes were normal. PMID:4150714

  11. Degradation of organic cyanides by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Nawaz, M.S.; Davis, J.W.; Chapatwala, K.D.; Wolfram, J.H.

    1991-12-31

    Most nitriles are health hazard materials. It has been reported that shale oil contains high concentrations of nitriles. Disposal of effluents containing nitriles is therefore of concern. A bacterium capable of utilizing acetonitrile (methyl cyanide) as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen was isolated from soil and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This bacterium could also utilize and oxidize numerous lower-mol-wt nitrile compounds and their corresponding amides as growth substrates. A metabolite of acetonitrile in the culture medium was determined to be ammonia. The accumulation of ammonia in the culture medium was proportional to the concentration of the substrate and the inoculum. Cell extracts of the bacterium contained activities corresponding to nitrile aminohydrolase (E C 3.5.5.1) and amidase (E C 3.5.1.4), which regulate the degradation of acetonitrile. Both enzymes were inducible and hydrolyzed a wide range of substrates, and it was determined that the specific activity of amidase was far greater than the activity of nitrile aminohydrolase.

  12. Spaceflight Effects on Virulence of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadway, S.; Goins, T.; Crandell, C.; Richards, C.; Patel, M.; Pyle, B.

    2008-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen found in the environment. It is known to infect the immunocompromised. The organism has about 25 virulence genes that play different roles in disease processes. Several exotoxin proteins may be produced, including ExoA, ExoS, ExoT and ExoY, and other virulence factors. In spaceflight, possible increased expression of P. aeruginosa virulence proteins could increase health risks for spaceflight crews who experience decreased immunity. Cultures of P. aeruginosa strains PA01 and PA103 grown on orbit on Shuttle Endeavour flight STS-123 vs. static ground controls were used for analysis. The production of ETA was quantitated using an ELISA procedure. Results showed that while flight cultures of PA103 produced slightly more ETA than corresponding ground controls, the opposite was found for PA01. While it appears that spaceflight has little effect on ETA, stimulation of other virulence factors could cause increased virulence of this organism in space flight. Similar increased virulence in spaceflight has been observed for other bacteria. This is important because astronauts may be more susceptible to opportunistic pathogens including P. aeruginosa.

  13. Comprehensive transposon mutant library of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Michael A.; Alwood, Ashley; Thaipisuttikul, Iyarit; Spencer, David; Haugen, Eric; Ernst, Stephen; Will, Oliver; Kaul, Rajinder; Raymond, Christopher; Levy, Ruth; Chun-Rong, Liu; Guenthner, Donald; Bovee, Donald; Olson, Maynard V.; Manoil, Colin

    2003-01-01

    We have developed technologies for creating saturating libraries of sequence-defined transposon insertion mutants in which each strain is maintained. Phenotypic analysis of such libraries should provide a virtually complete identification of nonessential genes required for any process for which a suitable screen can be devised. The approach was applied to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen with a 6.3-Mbp genome. The library that was generated consists of 30,100 sequence-defined mutants, corresponding to an average of five insertions per gene. About 12% of the predicted genes of this organism lacked insertions; many of these genes are likely to be essential for growth on rich media. Based on statistical analyses and bioinformatic comparison to known essential genes in E. coli, we estimate that the actual number of essential genes is 300-400. Screening the collection for strains defective in two defined multigenic processes (twitching motility and prototrophic growth) identified mutants corresponding to nearly all genes expected from earlier studies. Thus, phenotypic analysis of the collection may produce essentially complete lists of genes required for diverse biological activities. The transposons used to generate the mutant collection have added features that should facilitate downstream studies of gene expression, protein localization, epistasis, and chromosome engineering. PMID:14617778

  14. Comprehensive transposon mutant library of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Michael A; Alwood, Ashley; Thaipisuttikul, Iyarit; Spencer, David; Haugen, Eric; Ernst, Stephen; Will, Oliver; Kaul, Rajinder; Raymond, Christopher; Levy, Ruth; Chun-Rong, Liu; Guenthner, Donald; Bovee, Donald; Olson, Maynard V; Manoil, Colin

    2003-11-25

    We have developed technologies for creating saturating libraries of sequence-defined transposon insertion mutants in which each strain is maintained. Phenotypic analysis of such libraries should provide a virtually complete identification of nonessential genes required for any process for which a suitable screen can be devised. The approach was applied to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen with a 6.3-Mbp genome. The library that was generated consists of 30,100 sequence-defined mutants, corresponding to an average of five insertions per gene. About 12% of the predicted genes of this organism lacked insertions; many of these genes are likely to be essential for growth on rich media. Based on statistical analyses and bioinformatic comparison to known essential genes in E. coli, we estimate that the actual number of essential genes is 300-400. Screening the collection for strains defective in two defined multigenic processes (twitching motility and prototrophic growth) identified mutants corresponding to nearly all genes expected from earlier studies. Thus, phenotypic analysis of the collection may produce essentially complete lists of genes required for diverse biological activities. The transposons used to generate the mutant collection have added features that should facilitate downstream studies of gene expression, protein localization, epistasis, and chromosome engineering.

  15. Pseudomonas biofilms: possibilities of their control.

    PubMed

    Masák, Jan; Čejková, Alena; Schreiberová, Olga; Rezanka, Tomáš

    2014-07-01

    Genus Pseudomonas includes a large number of species that can be encountered in biotechnological processes as well as in the role of serious human or plant pathogens. Pseudomonads easily form biofilms on various types of surfaces. The biofilm phenotype is characterized by an increased resistance to environmental influences including resistance to antibiotics and other disinfectants, causing a number of problems in health care, food industry, and other areas. Considerable attention is therefore paid to the possibilities of eradication/destruction of pseudomonads biofilms both in terms of understanding the mechanisms of biofilm formation and at the level of finding suitable antibiofilm tools applicable in practice. The first part of this review is devoted to an overview of the regulatory mechanisms that are directly or indirectly involved in the formation of biofilm. The most effective approaches to suppressing the formation of biofilm that do not cause the development of resistance are based on the application of substances that interfere with the regulatory molecules or block the appropriate regulatory mechanisms involved in biofilm development by the cells. Pseudomonads biofilm formation is, similar to other microorganisms, a sophisticated process with many regulatory elements. The suppression of this process therefore also requires multiple antibiofilm tools.

  16. Metabolism of Tryptophan by Pseudomonas aureofaciens

    PubMed Central

    Hamill, R. L.; Elander, R. P.; Mabe, J. A.; Gorman, M.

    1970-01-01

    Exogenous tryptophan is metabolized by Pseudomonas aureofaciens to yield pyrrolnitrin [3-chloro-4-(2′-nitro-3′-chlorophenyl)-pyrrole], an antifungal agent. The ability of this culture to metabolize tryptophan analogues in a similar manner was investigated by addition of the appropriate compound to the fermentation. Tryptophan precursors and metabolites or nonphenyl-substituted tryptophans had little effect on pyrrolnitrin biosynthesis, but simple derivatives of indole inhibited the production of pyrrolnitrin. Tryptophans substituted at the 4 position decreased pyrrolnitrin production and were converted into the corresponding substituted indoles. Tryptophans substituted at the 5, 6, and 7 position with fluorine or at the 5 and 7 position with methyl yielded new pyrrolnitrin derivatives. Substitution of larger groups (such as chloro, bromo, trifluoromethyl, and methoxy) at these positions led to the formation of the intermediate, amino pyrrolnitrin [3-chloro-4-(2′-amino-3′-chlorophenyl)-pyrrole], with the appropriate new substituent. The trifluoromethyl group at the 6 position of tryptophan prevented chlorination at the 3 position of pyrrolnitrin. Images PMID:4316270

  17. Pseudomonas aeruginosa defense systems against microbicidal oxidants.

    PubMed

    Groitl, Bastian; Dahl, Jan-Ulrik; Schroeder, Jeremy W; Jakob, Ursula

    2017-08-10

    The most abundant oxidants controlling bacterial colonization on mucosal barrier epithelia are hypochlorous acid (HOCl), hypobromous acid (HOBr) and hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN). All three oxidants are highly antimicrobial but little is known about their relative efficacies, their respective cellular targets, or what specific responses they elicit in bacteria. To address these important questions, we directly tested the individual oxidants on the virulent Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14. We discovered that HOCl and HOBr work almost interchangeably, impacting non-growing bacterial cultures more significantly than actively growing bacteria, and eliciting similar stress responses, including the heat shock response. HOSCN treatment is distinctly different, affecting primarily actively growing PA14 and evoking stress responses suggestive of membrane damage. What all three oxidants have in common, however, is their ability to cause substantial protein aggregation. This effect became particularly obvious in strains lacking polyphosphate, a newly recognized chemical chaperone. Treatment of PA14 with the FDA-approved anti-inflammatory drug mesalamine, which has recently been shown to attenuate polyP production in a wide range of bacteria, effectively decreased the resistance of PA14 toward all three oxidants, suggesting that we have discovered a novel, targetable defense system in P. aeruginosa. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Development of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa Agmatine Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Gilbertsen, Adam; Williams, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Agmatine, decarboxylated arginine, is an important intermediary in polyamine production for many prokaryotes, but serves higher functions in eukaryotes such as nitric oxide inhibition and roles in neurotransmission. Pseudomonas aeruginosa relies on the arginine decarboxylase and agmatine deiminase pathways to convert arginine into putrescine. One of the two known agmatine deiminase operons, aguBA, contains an agmatine sensitive TetR promoter controlled by AguR. We have discovered that this promoter element can produce a titratable induction of its gene products in response to agmatine, and utilized this discovery to make a luminescent agmatine biosensor in P. aeruginosa. The genome of the P. aeruginosa lab strain UCBPP-PA14 was altered to remove both its ability to synthesize or destroy agmatine, and insertion of the luminescent reporter construct allows it to produce light in proportion to the amount of exogenous agmatine applied from ~100 nM to 1mM. Furthermore it does not respond to related compounds including arginine or putrescine. To demonstrate potential applications the biosensor was used to detect agmatine in spent supernatants, to monitor the development of arginine decarboxylase over time, and to detect agmatine in the spinal cords of live mice. PMID:25587430

  19. Spaceflight promotes biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wooseong; Tengra, Farah K; Young, Zachary; Shong, Jasmine; Marchand, Nicholas; Chan, Hon Kit; Pangule, Ravindra C; Parra, Macarena; Dordick, Jonathan S; Plawsky, Joel L; Collins, Cynthia H

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the effects of spaceflight on microbial communities is crucial for the success of long-term, manned space missions. Surface-associated bacterial communities, known as biofilms, were abundant on the Mir space station and continue to be a challenge on the International Space Station. The health and safety hazards linked to the development of biofilms are of particular concern due to the suppression of immune function observed during spaceflight. While planktonic cultures of microbes have indicated that spaceflight can lead to increases in growth and virulence, the effects of spaceflight on biofilm development and physiology remain unclear. To address this issue, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was cultured during two Space Shuttle Atlantis missions: STS-132 and STS-135, and the biofilms formed during spaceflight were characterized. Spaceflight was observed to increase the number of viable cells, biofilm biomass, and thickness relative to normal gravity controls. Moreover, the biofilms formed during spaceflight exhibited a column-and-canopy structure that has not been observed on Earth. The increase in the amount of biofilms and the formation of the novel architecture during spaceflight were observed to be independent of carbon source and phosphate concentrations in the media. However, flagella-driven motility was shown to be essential for the formation of this biofilm architecture during spaceflight. These findings represent the first evidence that spaceflight affects community-level behaviors of bacteria and highlight the importance of understanding how both harmful and beneficial human-microbe interactions may be altered during spaceflight.

  20. Evolutionary convergence in experimental Pseudomonas populations.

    PubMed

    Lind, Peter A; Farr, Andrew D; Rainey, Paul B

    2017-03-01

    Model microbial systems provide opportunity to understand the genetic bases of ecological traits, their evolution, regulation and fitness contributions. Experimental populations of Pseudomonas fluorescens rapidly diverge in spatially structured microcosms producing a range of surface-colonising forms. Despite divergent molecular routes, wrinkly spreader (WS) niche specialist types overproduce a cellulosic polymer allowing mat formation at the air-liquid interface and access to oxygen. Given the range of ways by which cells can form mats, such phenotypic parallelism is unexpected. We deleted the cellulose-encoding genes from the ancestral genotype and asked whether this mutant could converge on an alternate phenotypic solution. Two new traits were discovered. The first involved an exopolysaccharide encoded by pgaABCD that functions as cell-cell glue similar to cellulose. The second involved an activator of an amidase (nlpD) that when defective causes cell chaining. Both types form mats, but were less fit in competition with cellulose-based WS types. Surprisingly, diguanylate cyclases linked to cellulose overexpression underpinned evolution of poly-beta-1,6-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (PGA)-based mats. This prompted genetic analyses of the relationships between the diguanylate cyclases WspR, AwsR and MwsR, and both cellulose and PGA. Our results suggest that c-di-GMP regulatory networks may have been shaped by evolution to accommodate loss and gain of exopolysaccharide modules facilitating adaptation to new environments.

  1. Developing an international Pseudomonas aeruginosa reference panel.

    PubMed

    De Soyza, Anthony; Hall, Amanda J; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar; Drevinek, Pavel; Kaca, Wieslaw; Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna; Stoitsova, Stoyanka R; Toth, Veronika; Coenye, Tom; Zlosnik, James E A; Burns, Jane L; Sá-Correia, Isabel; De Vos, Daniel; Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Kidd, Timothy J; Reid, David; Manos, Jim; Klockgether, Jens; Wiehlmann, Lutz; Tümmler, Burkhard; McClean, Siobhán; Winstanley, Craig

    2013-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major opportunistic pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and causes a wide range of infections among other susceptible populations. Its inherent resistance to many antimicrobials also makes it difficult to treat infections with this pathogen. Recent evidence has highlighted the diversity of this species, yet despite this, the majority of studies on virulence and pathogenesis focus on a small number of strains. There is a pressing need for a P. aeruginosa reference panel to harmonize and coordinate the collective efforts of the P. aeruginosa research community. We have collated a panel of 43 P. aeruginosa strains that reflects the organism's diversity. In addition to the commonly studied clones, this panel includes transmissible strains, sequential CF isolates, strains with specific virulence characteristics, and strains that represent serotype, genotype or geographic diversity. This focussed panel of P. aeruginosa isolates will help accelerate and consolidate the discovery of virulence determinants, improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of infections caused by this pathogen, and provide the community with a valuable resource for the testing of novel therapeutic agents.

  2. Development of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa Agmatine Biosensor.

    PubMed

    Gilbertsen, Adam; Williams, Bryan

    2014-12-01

    Agmatine, decarboxylated arginine, is an important intermediary in polyamine production for many prokaryotes, but serves higher functions in eukaryotes such as nitric oxide inhibition and roles in neurotransmission. Pseudomonas aeruginosa relies on the arginine decarboxylase and agmatine deiminase pathways to convert arginine into putrescine. One of the two known agmatine deiminase operons, aguBA, contains an agmatine sensitive TetR promoter controlled by AguR. We have discovered that this promoter element can produce a titratable induction of its gene products in response to agmatine, and utilized this discovery to make a luminescent agmatine biosensor in P. aeruginosa. The genome of the P. aeruginosa lab strain UCBPP-PA14 was altered to remove both its ability to synthesize or destroy agmatine, and insertion of the luminescent reporter construct allows it to produce light in proportion to the amount of exogenous agmatine applied from ~100 nM to 1mM. Furthermore it does not respond to related compounds including arginine or putrescine. To demonstrate potential applications the biosensor was used to detect agmatine in spent supernatants, to monitor the development of arginine decarboxylase over time, and to detect agmatine in the spinal cords of live mice.

  3. Shear-enhanced adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecuyer, Sigolene; Rusconi, Roberto; Shen, Yi; Forsyth, Alison; Stone, Howard

    2010-03-01

    Bacterial adhesion is the first step in the development of surface-associated communities known as biofilms, which are the cause of many problems in medical devices and industrial water systems. However the underlying mechanisms of initial bacterial attachment are not fully understood. We have investigated the effects of hydrodynamics on the probability of adsorption and detachment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14 on model surfaces under flow, in straight microfluidic channels, and measured the distribution of bacteria residence time as a function of the shear rate. Our main discovery is a counter-intuitive enhanced adhesion as the shear stress is increased over a wide range of shear rates. In order to identify the origin of this phenomenon, we have performed experiments with several mutant strains. Our results show that shear-enhanced adhesion is not regulated by primary surface organelles, and that this process is not specific to a certain type of surface, but rather appears a general feature of the adhesive behavior of P. aeruginosa. These results suggest that shear-induced adhesion could be a very widespread strategy in nature.

  4. Pseudomonas biofilm formation after Haemophilus infection.

    PubMed

    Ojano-Dirain, Carolyn; Antonelli, Patrick J

    2011-09-01

    Tympanostomy tube (TT) biofilm formation may lead to refractory otorrhea and occlusion. Biofilms are commonly composed of multiple microbial species. One species may promote or inhibit biofilm formation by other species.The aim of this study was to determine if Haemophilus influenzae(HI) promotes the development of Pseudomonas aeruginosa(PA) biofilm on TTs. Controlled, in vitro. Academic research laboratory. Fluoroplastic TTs (20 per group) were exposed to plasma, allowed to dry, and cultured with HI for 7 days. TTs were either gas sterilized or treated for 24 hours with 10 or 3000 μg/mL ciprofloxacin. Half of the TTs from each treatment group underwent bacterial counts or scanning electron microscopy. The remainder, as well as TTs not exposed to HI, were cultured with PA for 4 days and treated with gentamicin to kill planktonic PA. Biofilm formation was quantified with bacterial counts. TTs treated with ciprofloxacin 3000 μg/mL had lower HI counts than TTs treated with 10 μg/mL (P = .0001), but viable HI persisted. PA biofilm formation on TTs with prior HI biofilm and treated with ciprofloxacin 10 μg/mL or gas sterilization was not different than TTs without HI. Less PA biofilm formed on TTs with HI treated with 3 mg/mL ciprofloxacin(P = .002). HI biofilm does not promote PA biofilm formation on TTs. Use of high-dose ototopical therapy to clear HI may reduce subsequent PA biofilm formation.

  5. Regulation of alkane oxidation in Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed Central

    Grund, A; Shapiro, J; Fennewald, M; Bacha, P; Leahy, J; Markbreiter, K; Nieder, M; Toepfer, M

    1975-01-01

    We have studied the appearance of whole-cell oxidizing activity for n-alkanes and their oxidation products in strains of Pseudomonas putida carrying the OCT plasmid. Our results indicate that the OCT plasmid codes for inducible alkane-hydroxylating and primary alcohol-dehydrogenating activities and that the chromosome codes for constitutive oxidizing activities for primary alcohols, aliphatic aldehydes, and fatty acids. Mutant isolation confirms the presence of an alcohol dehydrogenase locus on the OCT plasmid and indicated the presence of multiple alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase loci on the P. putida chromosome. Induction tests with various compounds indicate that inducer recognition has specificity for chain length and can be affected by the degree of oxidation of the carbon chain. Some inducers are neither growth nor respiration substrates. Growth tests with and without a gratuitous inducer indicate that undecane is not a growth substrate because it does not induce alkane hydroxylase activity. Using a growth test for determining induction of the plasmid alcohol dehydrogenase it is possible to show that heptane induces this activity in hydroxylase-negative mutants. This suggests that unoxidized alkane molecules are the physiological inducers of both plasmid activities. PMID:1150626

  6. Secretion of phospholipase C by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Stinson, M W; Hayden, C

    1979-01-01

    The conditions necessary for the secretion of phospholipase C (phosphatidylcholine cholinephosphohydrolase) by Pseudomonas aeruginosa were studied. Enzyme secretion by washed cell suspensions required a carbon source and ammonium, potassium, and calcium ions. The calcium requirement could be substituted by magnesium and strontium but not by copper, manganese, cobalt, or zinc. During growth in liquid medium, cells secreted phospholipase C during late logarithmic and early stationary phases. Secretion was repressed by the addition of inorganic phosphate but not by organic phosphates, glucose, or sodium succinate. Studies with tetracycline indicated that de novo protein synthesis was necessary for the secretion of phospholipase C and that the exoenzyme was not released from a preformed periplasmic pool. Similarly, extraction of actively secreting cells with 0.2 M MgCl2 at pH 8.4 solubilized large quantities of the periplasmic enzyme alkaline phosphatase but insignificant amounts of phospholipase C. Bacteria continued to secrete enzyme for nearly 45 min after the addition of inorganic phosphate or rifampin. Images PMID:114487

  7. Nitrite inhibition of denitrification by Pseudomonas fluorescens

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, J.S.; Julio, S.M.; Reis, M.A.M. |

    1995-05-05

    Using a pure culture of Pseudomonas fluorescens as a model system nitrite inhibition of denitrification was studied. A mineral media with acetate and nitrate as sole electron donor and acceptor, respectively, was used. Results obtained in continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTR) operated at pH values between 6.6 and 7.8 showed that growth inhibition depended only on the nitrite undissociated fraction concentration (nitrous acid). A mathematical model to describe this dependence is put forward. The maximum nitrous acid concentration compatible with cell growth and denitrification activity was found to be 66 {mu}g N/L. Denitrification activity was partially associated with growth, as described by the Luedeking-Piret equation. However, when the freshly inoculated reactor was operated discontinuously, nitrite accumulation caused growth uncoupling from denitrification activity. The authors suggest that these results can be interpreted considering that (a) nitrous acid acts as a proton uncoupler; and (b) cultures continuously exposed to nitrous acid prevent the uncoupling effect but not the growth inhibition. Examination of the growth dependence on nitrite concentration at pH 7.0 showed that adapted cultures (growth on CSTR) are less sensitive to nitrous acid inhibition than the ones cultivated in batch.

  8. Cell death in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm development.

    PubMed

    Webb, Jeremy S; Thompson, Lyndal S; James, Sally; Charlton, Tim; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Koch, Birgit; Givskov, Michael; Kjelleberg, Staffan

    2003-08-01

    Bacteria growing in biofilms often develop multicellular, three-dimensional structures known as microcolonies. Complex differentiation within biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs, leading to the creation of voids inside microcolonies and to the dispersal of cells from within these voids. However, key developmental processes regulating these events are poorly understood. A normal component of multicellular development is cell death. Here we report that a repeatable pattern of cell death and lysis occurs in biofilms of P. aeruginosa during the normal course of development. Cell death occurred with temporal and spatial organization within biofilms, inside microcolonies, when the biofilms were allowed to develop in continuous-culture flow cells. A subpopulation of viable cells was always observed in these regions. During the onset of biofilm killing and during biofilm development thereafter, a bacteriophage capable of superinfecting and lysing the P. aeruginosa parent strain was detected in the fluid effluent from the biofilm. The bacteriophage implicated in biofilm killing was closely related to the filamentous phage Pf1 and existed as a prophage within the genome of P. aeruginosa. We propose that prophage-mediated cell death is an important mechanism of differentiation inside microcolonies that facilitates dispersal of a subpopulation of surviving cells.

  9. Cell Death in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Development

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Jeremy S.; Thompson, Lyndal S.; James, Sally; Charlton, Tim; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Koch, Birgit; Givskov, Michael; Kjelleberg, Staffan

    2003-01-01

    Bacteria growing in biofilms often develop multicellular, three-dimensional structures known as microcolonies. Complex differentiation within biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs, leading to the creation of voids inside microcolonies and to the dispersal of cells from within these voids. However, key developmental processes regulating these events are poorly understood. A normal component of multicellular development is cell death. Here we report that a repeatable pattern of cell death and lysis occurs in biofilms of P. aeruginosa during the normal course of development. Cell death occurred with temporal and spatial organization within biofilms, inside microcolonies, when the biofilms were allowed to develop in continuous-culture flow cells. A subpopulation of viable cells was always observed in these regions. During the onset of biofilm killing and during biofilm development thereafter, a bacteriophage capable of superinfecting and lysing the P. aeruginosa parent strain was detected in the fluid effluent from the biofilm. The bacteriophage implicated in biofilm killing was closely related to the filamentous phage Pf1 and existed as a prophage within the genome of P. aeruginosa. We propose that prophage-mediated cell death is an important mechanism of differentiation inside microcolonies that facilitates dispersal of a subpopulation of surviving cells. PMID:12867469

  10. COMPARATIVE TAXONOMY OF CRYSTALLOGENIC STRAINS OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA AND PSEUDOMONAS CHLORORAPHIS

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, William C.; Rhodes, Lenora J.

    1962-01-01

    Haynes, William C. (Northern Utilization Research and Development Division, Peoria, Ill.) and Lenora J. Rhodes. Comparative taxonomy of crystallogenic strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas chlororaphis. J. Bacteriol. 84:1080–1084. 1962.—Only 11 of 39 strains received in the Agricultural Research Service Culture Collection under the designation Pseudonomas chlororaphis proved to be authentic; 28 were typical, pyocyanogenic strains of P. aeruginosa. The reason for this disproportionately high rate of misidentification apparently arises from an erroneous belief that the ability to produce green and yellow crystals of chlororaphin and oxychlororaphin is confined to P. chlororaphis. The ability of many strains of P. aeruginosa to do likewise is not well known. Inasmuch as the characteristic is not unique to P. chlororaphis, other criteria are required to distinguish crystallogenic strains of these species. After a taxonomic comparison of 18 strains of P. chlororaphis and 47 crystallogenic strains of P. aeruginosa, it was determined that there are three main distinctions: (i) P. aeruginosa grows well at 42 C but fails to grow upon serial transfer at 5 C, whereas P. chlororaphis fails to grow at 42 C, but grows well at 5 C: (ii) most strains of P. aeruginosa produce pyocyanin, whereas P. chlororaphis strains do not; (iii) P. aeruginosa cells possess only one or two polar flagella, whereas P. chlororaphis usually has at least four, sometimes as many as eight, polar flagella. PMID:13963593

  11. The evolutionary stability of cytochrome c-551 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas fluorescens biotype C

    PubMed Central

    Ambler, R. P.

    1974-01-01

    Cytochrome c-551 was prepared from nine different strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and six of Pseudomonas fluorescens biotype C, and their amino acid sequences were compared with the sequences previously determined for the cytochromes of type strains of each species. The standard of sequence examination was such that all single amino acid substitutions, delections or insertions ought to have been detected. Balanced double changes in sites in the same part of the sequence might have escaped detection. The standard of some of the quantitative amino acid analyses was not as high as would be required for the investigation of completely unknown sequences. Eight of the Ps. aeruginosa sequences could not be distinguished from the type sequence, whereas the ninth had a single amino acid substitution. The sequences from Ps. fluorescens biotype C were more varied, differing in from zero to four substitutions from the type sequence, with the most diverse sequences differing in seven positions. The results for Ps. aeruginosa are interpreted as evidence that neutral mutations are not responsible for much molecular evolution. The superficially paradoxical differences in the results for the two species are discussed. PMID:4362497

  12. Role of the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) in sensitising Pseudomonas aeruginosa to UVA radiation.

    PubMed

    Pezzoni, Magdalena; Meichtry, Martín; Pizarro, Ramón A; Costa, Cristina S

    2015-01-01

    One of the main stress factors that bacteria face in the environment is solar ultraviolet-A (UVA) radiation, which leads to lethal effects through oxidative damage. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of 2-heptyl-3-hydroxi-4-quinolone (the Pseudomonas quinolone signal or PQS) in the response of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to UVA radiation. PQS is an intercellular quorum sensing signal associated to membrane vesicles which, among other functions, regulates genes related to iron acquisition, forms stable complexes with iron and participates in oxidative phenomena. UVA exposure of the wild-type PAO1 strain and a pqsA mutant unable to produce PQS revealed a sensitising role for this signal. Research into the mechanism involved in this phenomenon revealed that catalase, an essential factor in the UVA defence, is not related to PQS-mediated UVA sensitivity. Absorption of UVA by PQS produced its own photo-degradation, oxidation of the probe 2',7'- dichlorodihydrofluorescein and generation of singlet oxygen and superoxide anion, suggesting that this signal could be acting as an endogenous photosensitiser. The results presented in this study could explain the high sensitivity to UVA of P. aeruginosa when compared to enteric bacteria.

  13. Dueling quorum sensing systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa control the production of the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS).

    PubMed

    McGrath, Stephen; Wade, Dana S; Pesci, Everett C

    2004-01-15

    The opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa regulates the production of numerous virulence factors via the action of two separate but coordinated quorum sensing systems, las and rhl. These systems control the transcription of genes in response to population density through the intercellular signals N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C(12)-HSL) and N-(butanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (C(4)-HSL). A third P. aeruginosa signal, 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone [Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS)], also plays a significant role in the transcription of multiple P. aeruginosa virulence genes. PQS is intertwined in the P. aeruginosa quorum sensing hierarchy with its production and bioactivity requiring the las and rhl quorum sensing systems, respectively. This report presents a preliminary transcriptional analysis of pqsA, the first gene of the recently discovered PQS biosynthetic gene cluster. We show that pqsA transcription required pqsR, a transcriptional activator protein encoded within the PQS biosynthetic gene cluster. It was also found that the transcription of pqsA and subsequent production of PQS was induced by the las quorum sensing system and repressed by the rhl quorum sensing system. In addition, PQS production was dependent on the ratio of 3-oxo-C(12)-HSL to C(4)-HSL, suggesting a regulatory balance between quorum sensing systems. These data are an important early step toward understanding the regulation of PQS synthesis and the role of PQS in P. aeruginosa intercellular signaling.

  14. EM International. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  15. Pseudomonas soli sp. nov., a novel producer of xantholysin congeners.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Javier; García-López, Marina; Carmona, Cristina; Sousa, Thiciana da S; de Pedro, Nuria; Cautain, Bastien; Martín, Jesús; Vicente, Francisca; Reyes, Fernando; Bills, Gerald F; Genilloud, Olga

    2014-09-01

    A chemoorganotrophic Gram-negative bacterium was isolated by means of a diffusion sandwich system from a soil sample from the Sierra Nevada National Park, Spain. Strain F-279,208(T) was oxidase and catalase positive, strictly aerobic, non-spore-forming and motile by single polar flagellum. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and rpoD genes revealed that strain F-279,208(T) belongs to the Pseudomonas putida group with Pseudomonas mosselii and Pseudomonas entomophila as its closest relatives. DNA-DNA hybridization assays and phenotypic traits confirmed that this strain belongs to a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas soli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is F-279,208(T) (=DSM 28043(T)=LMG 27941(T)), and during fermentation it produces xantholysins, a family of lipodepsipeptides. The major compound, xantholysin A, showed an interesting activity in a RCC4 kidney tumor cell line with inactivation of VHL linked with the HIF pathway, without any cytotoxic effects against other human tumor cell lines tested including, liver, pancreas and breast.

  16. Degradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons by two strains of Pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Nwinyi, Obinna C; Ajayi, Oluseyi O; Amund, Olukayode O

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to isolate competent polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons degraders that can utilize polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons of former industrial sites at McDoel Switchyard in Bloomington, Indiana. Using conventional enrichment method based on soil slurry, we isolated, screened and purified two bacterial species strains PB1 and PB2. Applying the ribotyping technique using the 16S rRNA gene analysis, the strains were assigned to the genus Pseudomonas (Pseudomonas plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2). Both isolates showed promising metabolic capacity on pyrene sprayed MS agar plates during the preliminary investigations. Using time course studies in the liquid cultures at calculated concentrations 123, 64, 97 and 94ppm for naphthalene, chrysene, fluroanthene and pyrene, P. plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2 showed partial utilization of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Naphthalene was degraded between 26% and 40%, chrysene 14% and 16%, fluroanthene 5% and 7%; pyrene 8% and 13% by P. plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2 respectively. Based on their growth profile, we developed a model R(2)=1 to predict the degradation rate of slow polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon-degraders where all the necessary parameters are constant. From this investigation, we confirm that the former industrial site soil microbial communities may be explored for the biorestoration of the industrial site.

  17. Diversity of small RNAs expressed in Pseudomonas species.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Lozano, María; Marvig, Rasmus L; Molina-Santiago, Carlos; Tribelli, Paula M; Ramos, Juan-Luis; Molin, Søren

    2015-04-01

    RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has revealed several hundreds of previously undetected small RNAs (sRNAs) in all bacterial species investigated, including strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas syringae. Nonetheless, only little is known about the extent of conservation of expressed sRNAs across strains and species. In this study, we have used RNA-seq to identify sRNAs in P. putida DOT-T1E and Pseudomonas extremaustralis 14-3b. This is the first strain of P. extremaustralis and the second strain of P. putida to have their transcriptomes analysed for sRNAs, and we identify the presence of around 150 novel sRNAs in each strain. Furthermore, we provide a comparison based on sequence conservation of all the sRNAs detected by RNA-seq in the Pseudomonas species investigated so far. Our results show that the extent of sRNA conservation across different species is very limited. In addition, when comparing the sRNAs expressed in different strains of the same species, we observe that numerous sRNAs exhibit a strain-specific expression pattern. These results support the idea that the evolution of most bacterial sRNAs is rapid, which limits the extent of both interspecies and intraspecies conservation.

  18. Susceptibility trends of pseudomonas species from corneal ulcers.

    PubMed

    Smitha, S; Lalitha, P; Prajna, V N; Srinivasan, M

    2005-07-01

    To assess the changing trends in the antibiotic susceptibility of Pseudomonas spp . isolated from bacterial keratitis over a nine year period with special emphasis on fluoroquinolone susceptibilities. All corneal scraping cultures positive for Pseudomonas spp. (n=585) isolated from patients with bacterial keratitis at the Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai from 1995-2003 were evaluated. Cultures were performed in liquid and solid media and susceptibility testing was done against amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The susceptibility of Pseudomonas spp. was over 90% from 1995-1998 to ciprofloxacin which decreased to 83% from 1999-2003. The total number of isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin was 51 (9.4%). No statistically significant increase in the number of isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin was noted. Ofloxacin showed 54% susceptibility from 1995-1998 but increased to 64% from 1999-2003. Analysis of in vitro activity of amikacin reveals that there was 43% sensitivity from 1995-1998 but later it increased to 76% from 1999-2003. In case of gentamicin, the sensitivity decreased marginally from 80% to 70% through the years. Tobramycin showed 45% sensitivity from 1995-1998 but increased to 75% from 1999-2003. The fluoroquinolones remain a good choice in the treatment of ocular infections, with high susceptibility of Pseudomonas spp. Among the aminoglycosides, gentamicin was found to be highly effective against Pseudomonas corneal ulcers when compared to amikacin and tobramycin. The results show a need for continuous monitoring of bacterial resistance trends.

  19. Ambroxol interferes with Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qi; Yu, Jialin; Yang, Xiqiang; Wang, Jiarong; Wang, Lijia; Lin, Yayin; Lin, Lihua

    2010-09-01

    The mucolytic agent ambroxol has been reported to interfere with the formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-derived biofilms in addition to reducing alginate production by undefined mechanisms. Since quorum sensing is a key regulator of virulence and biofilm formation, we examined the effects of ambroxol on P. aeruginosa PAO1 wild-type bacterial clearance rates, adhesion profiles and biofilm formation compared with the quorum sensing-deficient, double-mutant strains DeltalasR DeltarhlR and DeltalasI DeltarhlI. Data presented in this report demonstrated that ambroxol treatment reduced survival rates of the double-mutant strains compared with the wild-type strain in a dose-dependent manner even though the double-mutants had increased adhesion in the presence of ambroxol compared with the wild-type strain. The PAO1 wild-type strain produced a significantly thicker biofilm (21.64+/-0.57 microm) compared with the biofilms produced by the DeltalasR DeltarhlR (7.36+/-0.2 microm) and DeltalasI DeltarhlI (6.62+/-0.31 microm) isolates. Ambroxol treatment reduced biofilm thickness, increased areal porosity, and decreased the average diffusion distance and textual entropy of wild-type and double-mutant strains. However, compared with the double-mutant strains, the changes observed for the wild-type strain were more clearly defined. Finally, ambroxol exhibited significant antagonistic quorum-sensing properties, suggesting that it could be adapted for use clinically in the treatment of cystic fibrosis and to reduce biofilm formation and in the colonisation of indwelling devices. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  20. A Genomic Redefinition of Pseudomonas avellanae species

    PubMed Central

    Scortichini, Marco; Marcelletti, Simone; Ferrante, Patrizia; Firrao, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The circumscription of bacterial species is a complex task. So far, DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH), 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and multiocus sequence typing analysis (MLSA) are currently the preferred techniques for their genetic determination. However, the average nucleotide identity (ANI) analysis of conserved and shared genes between two bacterial strains based on the pair-wise genome comparisons, with support of the tetranucleotide frequency correlation coefficients (TETRA) value, has recently been proposed as a reliable substitute for DDH. The species demarcation boundary has been set to a value of 95-96% of the ANI identity, with further confirmation through the assessment of the corresponding TETRA value. In this study, we performed a genome-wide MLSA of 14 phytopathogenic pseudomonads genomes, and assessed the ANI and TETRA values of 27 genomes, representing seven out of the nine genomospecies of Pseudomonas spp. sensu Gardan et alii, and their phylogenetic relationships using maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. The results demonstrate the existence of a well demarcated genomic cluster that includes strains classified as P. avellanae, P. syringae pv. theae, P. s. pv. actinidiae and one P. s. pv. morsprunorum strain all belonging to the single species P. avellanae. In addition, when compared with P. avellanae, five strains of P. s. pv. tomato, including the model strain DC3000, and one P. s. pv. lachrymans strain, appear as very closely related to P. avellanae, with ANI values of nearly 96% as confirmed by the TETRA analysis. Conversely, one representative strain, previously classified as P. avellanae and isolated in central Italy, is a genuine member of the P. syringae species complex and can be defined as P. s. pv. avellanae. Currently. The core and pan genomes of P. avellanae species consist of 3,995 and 5,410 putative protein-coding genes, respectively. PMID:24086635

  1. Responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to antimicrobials

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Yuji; Tomida, Junko; Kawamura, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa often are hard to treat; inappropriate chemotherapy readily selects multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa. This organism can be exposed to a wide range of concentrations of antimicrobials during treatment; learning more about the responses of P. aeruginosa to antimicrobials is therefore important. We review here responses of the bacterium P. aeruginosa upon exposure to antimicrobials at levels below the inhibitory concentration. Carbapenems (e.g., imipenem) have been shown to induce the formation of thicker and more robust biofilms, while fluoroquinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin) and aminoglycosides (e.g., tobramycin) have been shown to induce biofilm formation. Ciprofloxacin also has been demonstrated to enhance the frequency of mutation to carbapenem resistance. Conversely, although macrolides (e.g., azithromycin) typically are not effective against P. aeruginosa because of the pseudomonal outer-membrane impermeability and efflux, macrolides do lead to a reduction in virulence factor production. Similarly, tetracycline is not very effective against this organism, but is known to induce the type-III secretion system and consequently enhance cytotoxicity of P. aeruginosa in vivo. Of special note are the effects of antibacterials and disinfectants on pseudomonal efflux systems. Sub-inhibitory concentrations of protein synthesis inhibitors (aminoglycosides, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, etc.) induce the MexXY multidrug efflux system. This response is known to be mediated by interference with the translation of the leader peptide PA5471.1, with consequent effects on expression of the PA5471 gene product. Additionally, induction of the MexCD-OprJ multidrug efflux system is observed upon exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of disinfectants such as chlorhexidine and benzalkonium. This response is known to be dependent upon the AlgU stress response factor. Altogether, these biological responses of P. aeruginosa provide useful

  2. Social cheating in Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing.

    PubMed

    Sandoz, Kelsi M; Mitzimberg, Shelby M; Schuster, Martin

    2007-10-02

    In a process termed quorum sensing, bacteria use diffusible chemical signals to coordinate cell density-dependent gene expression. In the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, quorum sensing controls hundreds of genes, many of which encode extracellular virulence factors. Quorum sensing is required for P. aeruginosa virulence in animal models. Curiously, quorum sensing-deficient variants, most of which carry a mutation in the gene encoding the central quorum sensing regulator lasR, are frequently isolated from acute and chronic infections. The mechanism for their emergence is not known. Here we provide experimental evidence suggesting that these lasR mutants are social cheaters that cease production of quorum-controlled factors and take advantage of their production by the group. We detected an emerging subpopulation of lasR mutants after approximately 100 generations of in vitro evolution of the P. aeruginosa wild-type strain under culture conditions that require quorum sensing for growth. Under such conditions, quorum sensing appears to impose a metabolic burden on the proliferating bacterial cell, because quorum-controlled genes not normally induced until cessation of growth were highly expressed early in growth, and a defined lasR mutant showed a growth advantage when cocultured with the parent strain. The emergence of quorum-sensing-deficient variants in certain environments is therefore an indicator of high quorum sensing activity of the bacterial population as a whole. It does not necessarily indicate that quorum sensing is insignificant, as has previously been suggested. Thus, novel antivirulence strategies aimed at disrupting bacterial communication may be particularly effective in such clinical settings.

  3. Pseudomonas fluorescens' view of the periodic table.

    PubMed

    Workentine, Matthew L; Harrison, Joe J; Stenroos, Pernilla U; Ceri, Howard; Turner, Raymond J

    2008-01-01

    Growth in a biofilm modulates microbial metal susceptibility, sometimes increasing the ability of microorganisms to withstand toxic metal species by several orders of magnitude. In this study, a high-throughput metal toxicity screen was initiated with the aim of correlating biological toxicity data in planktonic and biofilm cells to the physiochemical properties of metal ions. To this end, Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 was grown in the Calgary Biofilm Device (CBD) and biofilms and planktonic cells of this microorganism were exposed to gradient arrays of different metal ions. These arrays included 44 different metals with representative compounds that spanned every group of the periodic table (except for the halogens and noble gases). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) values were obtained after exposing the biofilms to metal ions for 4 h. Using these values, metal ion toxicity was correlated to the following ion-specific physicochemical parameters: standard reduction-oxidation potential, electronegativity, the solubility product of the corresponding metal-sulfide complex, the Pearson softness index, electron density and the covalent index. When the ions were grouped according to outer shell electron structure, we found that heavy metal ions gave the strongest correlations to these parameters and were more toxic on average than the other classes of the ions. Correlations were different for biofilms than for planktonic cells, indicating that chemical mechanisms of metal ion toxicity differ between the two modes of growth. We suggest that biofilms can specifically counter the toxic effects of certain physicochemical parameters, which may contribute to the increased ability of biofilms to withstand metal toxicity.

  4. Engineering Pseudomonas stutzeri as a biogeochemical biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boynton, L.; Cheng, H. Y.; Del Valle, I.; Masiello, C. A.; Silberg, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    Biogeochemical cycles are being drastically altered as a result of anthropogenic activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels and the industrial production of ammonia. We know microbes play a major part in these cycles, but the extent of their biogeochemical roles remains largely uncharacterized due to inadequacies with culturing and measurement. While metagenomics and other -omics methods offer ways to reconstruct microbial communities, these approaches can only give an indication of the functional roles of microbes in a community. These -omics approaches are rapidly being expanded to the point of outpacing our knowledge of functional genes, which highlights an inherent need for analytical methods that non-invasively monitor Earth's processes in real time. Here we aim to exploit synthetic biology methods in order to engineer a ubiquitous denitrifying microbe, Pseudomonas stutzeri that can act as a biosensor in soil and marine environments. By using an easily cultivated microbe that is also common in many environments, we hope to develop a tool that allows us to zoom in on specific aspects of the nitrogen cycle. In order to monitor processes occurring at the genetic level in environments that cannot be resolved with fluorescence-based methods, such as soils, we have developed a system that instead relies on gas production by engineered microbial biosensors. P. stutzeri has been successfully engineered to release a gas, methyl bromide, which can continuously and non-invasively be measured by GC-MS. Similar to using Green Fluorescent Protein, GFP, in the biological sciences, the gene controlling gas production can be linked to those involved in denitrification, thereby creating a quantifiable gas signal that is correlated with microbial activity in the soil. Synthetically engineered microbial biosensors could reveal key aspects of metabolism in soil systems and offer a tool for characterizing the scope and degree of microbial impact on major biogeochemical cycles.

  5. Esmolol: immunomodulator in pyelonephritis by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Dimopoulos, George; Theodorakopoulou, Maria; Armaganidis, Apostolos; Tzepi, Ira-Maria; Lignos, Michael; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J; Tsaganos, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Based on previous animal studies showing promising immunomodulatory efficacy esmolol, a selective β1-blocker, it was assumed that administration of esmolol in experimental pyelonephritis by multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa would prolong survival and modulate immune response. Acute pyelonephritis was induced in 80 rabbits and assigned to eight groups receiving normal saline (controls), esmolol, amikacin, or both agents as pretreatment and as treatment. Blood was sampled for measurement of malondialdehyde and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Animals were followed up for survival, and after death quantitative tissue cultures were performed. The in vitro effect of esmolol on bacterial growth and on the oxidative burst of neutrophils of healthy controls and of sepsis patients was studied. Survival of pretreatment groups administered single esmolol or esmolol and amikacin was prolonged compared with that of controls (P = 0.018 and P = 0.014, respectively); likewise, survival of treatment groups administered single esmolol or both agents was prolonged compared with that of controls (P = 0.007 and P = 0.014, respectively). Circulating malondialdehyde was significantly lower in pretreated animals administered esmolol or esmolol and amikacin compared with that in controls and in treated animals administered both agents compared with in controls (P = 0.020). In these groups, the bacterial load of the lung was significantly lower compared with controls. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha did not change. Amikacin was increased in serum of esmolol-treated animals at levels which inhibited the in vitro growth of the studied isolate. Esmolol did not modify the in vitro growth of P aeruginosa and the oxidative burst of neutrophils. It is concluded that esmolol prolonged survival after experimental infection by multidrug-resistant P aeruginosa. Survival benefit may be related with pleiotropic actions connected with modulation of pharmacokinetics and attenuation of inflammation

  6. The Regulatory Network of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important bacterial model due to its metabolic and pathogenic abilities, which allow it to interact and colonize a wide range of hosts, including plants and animals. In this work we compile and analyze the structure and organization of an experimentally supported regulatory network in this bacterium. Results The regulatory network consists of 690 genes and 1020 regulatory interactions between their products (12% of total genes: 54% sigma and 16% of transcription factors). This complex interplay makes the third largest regulatory network of those reported in bacteria. The entire network is enriched for activating interactions and, peculiarly, self-activation seems to occur more prominent for transcription factors (TFs), which contrasts with other biological networks where self-repression is dominant. The network contains a giant component of 650 genes organized into 11 hierarchies, encompassing important biological processes, such as, biofilms formation, production of exopolysaccharide alginate and several virulence factors, and of the so-called quorum sensing regulons. Conclusions The study of gene regulation in P. aeruginosa is biased towards pathogenesis and virulence processes, all of which are interconnected. The network shows power-law distribution -input degree -, and we identified the top ten global regulators, six two-element cycles, the longest paths have ten steps, six biological modules and the main motifs containing three and four elements. We think this work can provide insights for the design of further studies to cover the many gaps in knowledge of this important bacterial model, and for the design of systems strategies to combat this bacterium. PMID:22587778

  7. Regulation of Glucose Metabolism in Pseudomonas

    PubMed Central

    Daddaoua, Abdelali; Krell, Tino; Ramos, Juan-Luis

    2009-01-01

    In Pseudomonas putida, genes for the glucose phosphorylative pathway and the Entner-Doudoroff pathway are organized in two operons; one made up of the zwf, pgl, and eda genes and another consisting of the edd, glk, gltR2, and gltS genes. Divergently with respect to the edd gene is the gap-1 gene. Expression from Pzwf, Pedd, and Pgap is modulated by HexR in response to the availability of glucose in the medium. To study the regulatory process in greater detail we purified HexR and showed that it is a monomer in solution. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and isothermal titration calorimetry assays were done showing that HexR recognizes the Pedd, Pzwf, and Pgap-1 promoters with affinity in the nanomolar range. DNA footprinting assays identified the binding site between +30 and +1 at Pzwf, between +16 and +41 at Pedd, and between −6 and +18 at Pgap-1. Based on DNA sequence alignment of the target sites and isothermal titration calorimetry data, two monomers of HexR bind to a pseudopalindrome with a consensus sequence of 5′-TTGTN7–8ACAA-3′. Binding of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway intermediate 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate to HexR released the repressor from its target operators, whereas other chemicals such as glucose, glucose 6-phosphate, and 6-phosphogluconate did not induce complex dissociation. The phosphorylated effector is likely to be recognized by a sugar isomerase domain located at the C-terminal end of HexR, whereas the helix-turn-helix DNA binding domain of HexR exhibits high similarity to proteins of the RpiR family of regulators. PMID:19506074

  8. Cryptic transposable phages of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Krylov, V.N.; Mit`kina, L.N.; Pleteneva, E.A.; Aleshin, V.V.

    1995-11-01

    Frequencies of nucleotide sequences homologous to phage transposons (PT) of two species, D3112 and B3, were assessed in genomes of natural Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains by the dot-blot hybridization method. These strains were incapable of liberating viable phages on a lawn of the PA01 standard indicator strain of P. aeruginosa. It was shown that the homologies detected belong to two groups, high and intermediate, with respect to homology level. Homology patterns were classified as high when they provided signals comparable to those for hybridization in a positive control; patterns were classified as intermediate when the hybridization level was higher than the background level, but lower than in the positive control. Homologous PT sequences were designated as cryptic PT. Intact cryptic PT prophages were shown to exist in genomes of particular natural strains manifesting a higher level of hybridization. However, the growth of these phages was limited by the restriction system of strain PA01. It is possible to isolate strains maintaining the growth of some cryptic PT. These strains differed from P. aeruginosa with respect to the specificity of the restriction and modification system. Nevertheless, in most cases, the attempt to identify a novel host capable of maintaining growth of a cryptic PT failed. Natural strains often carry cryptic PT related to both known PT species, D3112 and B3. The frequency of cryptic PT is extremely high, reaching 30% in strains with a high level of homology only and up to 50% in all strains exhibiting homology. This high PT frequency is assumed to be associated with the considerable variation of P. aeruginosa. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  9. Risk assessment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in water.

    PubMed

    Mena, Kristina D; Gerba, Charles P

    2009-01-01

    from ingesting P. aeruginosa in drinking water is low. The risk is slightly higher if the subject is taking an antibiotic resisted by P. aeruginosa. The fact that individuals on ampicillin are more susceptible to Pseudomonas gastrointestinal infection probably results from suppression of normal intestinal flora, which would allow Pseudomonas to colonize. The process of estimating risk was significantly constrained because of the absence of specific (quantitative) occurrence data for Pseudomonas. Sensitivity analysis shows that the greatest source of variability/uncertainty in the risk assessment is from the density distribution in the exposure rather than the dose-response or water consumption distributions. In summary, two routes appear to carry the greatest health risks from contacting water contaminated with P. aeruginosa (1) skin exposure in hot tubs and (2) lung exposure from inhaling aerosols.

  10. Biological manganese oxidation by Pseudomonas putida in trickling filters.

    PubMed

    McKee, Kyle P; Vance, Cherish C; Karthikeyan, Raghupathy

    2016-01-01

    Biological oxidation has been researched as a viable alternative for treating waters with high manganese (Mn) concentrations, typically found in mine drainage or in some geological formations. In this study, laboratory-scale trickling filters were constructed to compare the Mn removal efficiency between filters inoculated with the Mn oxidizing bacteria, Pseudomonas putida, and filters without inoculation. Manganese oxidation and removal was found to be significantly greater in trickling filters with Pseudomonas putida after startup times of only 48 h. Mn oxidation in Pseudomonas putida inoculated trickling filters was up to 75% greater than non-inoculated filters. One-dimensional advective-dispersive models were formulated to describe the transport of Mn in trickling filter porous media. Based on the experimental transport parameters obtained, the model predicted that a filter depth of only 16 cm is needed to reduce influent concentration of 10 mg L(-1) to 0.05 mg L(-1).

  11. Subtilase SprP exerts pleiotropic effects in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Pelzer, Alexander; Polen, Tino; Funken, Horst; Rosenau, Frank; Wilhelm, Susanne; Bott, Michael; Jaeger, Karl-Erich

    2014-02-01

    The open reading frame PA1242 in the genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 encodes a putative protease belonging to the peptidase S8 family of subtilases. The respective enzyme termed SprP consists of an N-terminal signal peptide and a so-called S8 domain linked by a domain of unknown function (DUF). Presumably, this DUF domain defines a discrete class of Pseudomonas proteins as homologous domains can be identified almost exclusively in proteins of the genus Pseudomonas. The sprP gene was expressed in Escherichia coli and proteolytic activity was demonstrated. A P. aeruginosa ∆sprP mutant was constructed and its gene expression pattern compared to the wild-type strain by genome microarray analysis revealing altered expression levels of 218 genes. Apparently, SprP is involved in regulation of a variety of different cellular processes in P. aeruginosa including pyoverdine synthesis, denitrification, the formation of cell aggregates, and of biofilms.

  12. Biotransformation of Tributyltin chloride by Pseudomonas stutzeri strain DN2

    PubMed Central

    Khanolkar, Dnyanada S.; Naik, Milind Mohan; Dubey, Santosh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    A bacterial isolate capable of utilizing tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) as sole carbon source was isolated from estuarine sediments of west coast of India and identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri based on biochemical tests and Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. This isolate was designated as strain DN2. Although this bacterial isolate could resist up to 3 mM TBTCl level, it showed maximum growth at 2 mM TBTCl in mineral salt medium (MSM). Pseudomonas stutzeri DN2 exposed to 2 mM TBTCl revealed significant alteration in cell morphology as elongation and shrinkage in cell size along with roughness of cell surface. FTIR and NMR analysis of TBTCl degradation product extracted using chloroform and purified using column chromatography clearly revealed biotransformation of TBTCl into Dibutyltin dichloride (DBTCl2) through debutylation process. Therefore, Pseudomonas stutzeri strain DN2 may be used as a potential bacterial strain for bioremediation of TBTCl contaminated aquatic environmental sites. PMID:25763027

  13. Antiadhesive properties of glycoclusters against Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection.

    PubMed

    Boukerb, Amine M; Rousset, Audric; Galanos, Nicolas; Méar, Jean-Baptiste; Thépaut, Marion; Grandjean, Teddy; Gillon, Emilie; Cecioni, Samy; Abderrahmen, Claire; Faure, Karine; Redelberger, David; Kipnis, Eric; Dessein, Rodrigue; Havet, Stéphane; Darblade, Benoit; Matthews, Susan E; de Bentzmann, Sophie; Guéry, Benoit; Cournoyer, Benoit; Imberty, Anne; Vidal, Sébastien

    2014-12-26

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections are a major cause of death in cystic fibrosis and hospitalized patients. Treating these infections is becoming difficult due to the emergence of conventional antimicrobial multiresistance. While monosaccharides have proved beneficial against such bacterial lung infection, the design of several multivalent glycosylated macromolecules has been shown to be also beneficial on biofilm dispersion. In this study, calix[4]arene-based glycoclusters functionalized with galactosides or fucosides have been synthesized. The characterization of their inhibitory properties on Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregation, biofilm formation, adhesion on epithelial cells, and destruction of alveolar tissues were performed. The antiadhesive properties of the designed glycoclusters were demonstrated through several in vitro bioassays. An in vivo mouse model of lung infection provided an almost complete protection against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with the designed glycoclusters.

  14. Subtilase SprP exerts pleiotropic effects in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Pelzer, Alexander; Polen, Tino; Funken, Horst; Rosenau, Frank; Wilhelm, Susanne; Bott, Michael; Jaeger, Karl-Erich

    2014-01-01

    The open reading frame PA1242 in the genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 encodes a putative protease belonging to the peptidase S8 family of subtilases. The respective enzyme termed SprP consists of an N-terminal signal peptide and a so-called S8 domain linked by a domain of unknown function (DUF). Presumably, this DUF domain defines a discrete class of Pseudomonas proteins as homologous domains can be identified almost exclusively in proteins of the genus Pseudomonas. The sprP gene was expressed in Escherichia coli and proteolytic activity was demonstrated. A P. aeruginosa ΔsprP mutant was constructed and its gene expression pattern compared to the wild-type strain by genome microarray analysis revealing altered expression levels of 218 genes. Apparently, SprP is involved in regulation of a variety of different cellular processes in P. aeruginosa including pyoverdine synthesis, denitrification, the formation of cell aggregates, and of biofilms. PMID:24376018

  15. Diversity and antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas spp. from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M

    2012-06-01

    Pseudomonas spp. are common inhabitants of aquatic environments, including drinking water. Multi-antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa is widely reported and deeply characterized. However, the information regarding other species and environmental isolates of this genus is scant. This study was designed based on the hypothesis that members of the genus Pseudomonas given their high prevalence, wide distribution in waters and genetic plasticity can be important reservoirs of antibiotic resistance in drinking water. With this aim, the diversity and antibiotic resistance phenotypes of Pseudomonas isolated from different drinking water sources were evaluated. The genotypic diversity analyses were based on six housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, rpoD, rpoB, gyrB, recA and ITS) and on pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Susceptibility to 21 antibiotics of eight classes was tested using the ATB PSE EU (08) and disk diffusion methods. Pseudomonas spp. were isolated from 14 of the 32 sampled sites. A total of 55 non-repetitive isolates were affiliated to twenty species. Although the same species were isolated from different sampling sites, identical genotypes were never observed in distinct types of water (water treatment plant/distribution system, tap water, cup fillers, biofilm, and mineral water). In general, the prevalence of antibiotic resistance was low and often the resistance patterns were related with the species and/or the strain genotype. Resistance to ticarcillin, ticarcillin with clavulanic acid, fosfomycin and cotrimoxazol were the most prevalent (69-84%). No resistance to piperacillin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, imipenem or meropenem was observed. This study demonstrates that Pseudomonas spp. are not so widespread in drinking water as commonly assumed. Nevertheless, it suggests that water Pseudomonas can spread acquired antibiotic resistance, preferentially via vertical transmission. Copyright

  16. Pseudomonas chengduensis sp. nov., isolated from landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yong; Zhou, Yan; He, Xiaohong; Hu, Xiaohong; Li, Daping

    2014-01-01

    Strain MBR(T) was isolated from landfill leachate in a solid-waste disposal site in Chengdu, Sichuan, China. An analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolate was closely related to members of the genus Pseudomonas, sharing the highest sequence similarities with Pseudomonas toyotomiensis HT-3(T) (99.8 %), Pseudomonas alcaliphila AL15-21(T) (99.7 %) and Pseudomonas oleovorans ATCC 8062(T) (99.4 %). Multi-locus sequence analysis based on three housekeeping genes (gyrB, rpoB and rpoD) provided higher resolution at the species level than that based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, which was further confirmed by less than 70 % DNA-DNA relatedness between the new isolate and P. toyotomiensis HT-3(T) (61.3 %), P. alcaliphila AL15-21(T) (51.5 %) and P. oleovorans ATCC 8062(T) (57.8 %). The DNA G+C content of strain MBR(T) was 61.9 mol% and the major ubiquinone was Q-9. The major cellular fatty acids (>10 %) were C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c, C16 : 0, and C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c. Polyphasic analysis indicates that strain MBR(T) represents a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas chengduensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MBR(T) ( = CGMCC 2318(T) = DSM 26382(T)).

  17. identification of Pseudomonas spp. as amoeba-resistant microorganisms in isolates of Acanthamoeba.

    PubMed

    José Maschio, Vinicius; Corção, Gertrudes; Rott, Marilise Brittes

    2015-01-01

    Acanthamoeba is a "Trojan horse" of the microbial world. The aim of this study was to identify the presence of Pseudomonas as an amoeba-resistant microorganism in 12 isolates of Acanthamoeba. All isolates showed the genus Pseudomonas spp. as amoeba-resistant microorganisms. Thus, one can see that the Acanthamoeba isolates studied are hosts of Pseudomonas.

  18. Genetically enhanced cellulase production in Pseudomonas cellulosa using recombinant DNA technology

    DOEpatents

    Dees, H. Craig

    1999-01-01

    An enhanced strain of Pseudomonas celllulosa was obtained by introducing a recombinant genetic construct comprising a heterologous cellulase gene operably connected to a promoter into ATCC 55702, mutagenizing the transformants by treatment with MNNG, and selecting a high cellulase producing transformant. The transformant, designated Pseudomonas cellulosa ATCC XXXX, exhibits enhanced levels of cellulase production relative to the untransformed Pseudomonas cellulosa strain #142 ATCC 55702.

  19. Expansion of Antibacterial Spectrum of Muraymycins toward Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Takeoka, Yusuke; Tanino, Tetsuya; Sekiguchi, Mitsuaki; Yonezawa, Shuji; Sakagami, Masahiro; Takahashi, Fumiyo; Togame, Hiroko; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Takemoto, Hiroshi; Ichikawa, Satoshi; Matsuda, Akira

    2014-05-08

    It is urgent to develop novel anti-Pseudomonas agents that should also be active against multidrug resistant P. aeruginosa. Expanding the antibacterial spectrum of muraymycins toward P. aeruginosa was investigated by the systematic structure-activity relationship study. It was revealed that two functional groups, a lipophilic side chain and a guanidino group, at the accessory moiety of muraymycins were important for the anti-Pseudomonas activity, and analogue 29 exhibited antibacterial activity against a range of P. aeruginosa strains with the minimum inhibitory concentration values of 4-8 μg/mL.

  20. Pseudomonas creosotenesis sp. n., a Creosote-tolerant Marine Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Thomas B.; Drisko, Richard W.; Hochman, Harry

    1961-01-01

    In a study of the marine biological environment in which creosoted pilings are located, a previously unreported species of bacteria was isolated. This species was detected on creosoted piling from 11 widely differing locations and was the predominant species of bacteria found on these piling. The new organism was identified as a gram-negative rod belonging to the genus Pseudomonas and has been named Pseudomonas creosotensis. It has been completely described by the standard morphological and biochemical tests. Images FIG. 1 PMID:14480909

  1. Pseudomonas zhaodongensis sp. nov., isolated from saline and alkaline soils.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Pan, Yuanyuan; Wang, Kaibiao; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Shuang; Fu, Xiaowei; Jiang, Juquan

    2015-03-01

    Strain NEAU-ST5-21(T) was isolated from saline and alkaline soils in Zhaodong City, Heilongjiang Province, China. It was aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped and motile with a polar flagellum. It produced yellow-orange colonies with a smooth surface, and grew in the presence of 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0 %, w/v), at temperatures of 20-40 °C (optimum 28 °C) and at pH 7-11 (optimum pH 7). Phylogenetic analyses based on the separate 16S rRNA gene sequences and concatenated 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoD gene sequences indicated that strain NEAU-ST5-21(T) belongs to the genus Pseudomonas in the class Gammaproteobacteria. The most closely related species is Pseudomonas xanthomarina, whose type strain (KMM 1447(T)) showed gene sequence similarities of 99.0 % for 16S rRNA, 81.8 % for gyrB and 85.0 % for rpoD with strain NEAU-ST5-21(T). DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain NEAU-ST5-21(T) and P. xanthomarina DSM 18231(T), Pseudomonas kunmingensis CGMCC 1.12273(T), Pseudomonas stutzeri DSM 5190(T), Pseudomonas oleovorans subsp. lubricantis DSM 21016(T), Pseudomomas chengduensis CGMCC 2318(T), Pseudomonas alcaliphila DSM 17744(T) and Pseudomonas toyotomiensis DSM 26169(T) were 52±0 % to 25±2 %. The DNA G+C content of strain NEAU-ST5-21(T) was 65 mol%. The major fatty acids (>10 %) were C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c, C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c and C16 : 0, the predominant respiratory quinone was ubiquinone 9, and polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unknown phospholipid, phosphatidylglycerol, one unknown aminolipid, one unknown lipid and a glycolipid. The proposed name is Pseudomonas zhaodongensis sp. nov., NEAU-ST5-21(T) ( = ACCC 06362(T) = DSM 27559(T)) being the type strain.

  2. Anionic fluoroquinolones as antibacterials against biofilm-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Long, Timothy E; Keding, Lexie C; Lewis, Demetria D; Anstead, Michael I; Withers, T Ryan; Yu, Hongwei D

    2016-02-15

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common biofilm-forming bacterial pathogen implicated in diseases of the lungs. The extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of respiratory Pseudomonas biofilms are largely comprised of anionic molecules such as rhamnolipids and alginate that promote a mucoid phenotype. In this Letter, we examine the ability of negatively-charged fluoroquinolones to transverse the EPS and inhibit the growth of mucoid P. aeruginosa. Anionic fluoroquinolones were further compared with standard antibiotics via a novel microdiffusion assay to evaluate drug penetration through pseudomonal alginate and respiratory mucus from a patient with cystic fibrosis.

  3. Pseudomonas Biofilms, Cystic Fibrosis, and Phage: a Silver Lining?

    PubMed Central

    Brüssow, Harald

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT In contrast to usual laboratory conditions, most bacteria in the human body grow in biofilms. Encased in a structured matrix, many pathogens display heightened resistance to antibiotics. Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients represent a prime example of the clinical challenges that antibiotic resistance in biofilms can represent. In the March 6, 2012 issue of mBio, Colin Hill and his colleagues report on experiments that add to the evidence that Pseudomonas phages are a potential treatment option for these infections. PMID:22493030

  4. Survival of rifampin-resistant mutants of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida in soil systems.

    PubMed Central

    Compeau, G; Al-Achi, B J; Platsouka, E; Levy, S B

    1988-01-01

    The fate of spontaneous chromosomal rifampin-resistant (Rifr) mutants of Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens in sterile and live organic soil from which they were isolated was studied. In sterile native-soil assays, a Rifr mutant of P. putida showed no decrease in competitive fitness when compared with the wild-type parent. However, mutants of P. fluorescens were of two general categories. Group 1 showed no difference from the wild type in terms of growth rate, competitive fitness, and membrane protein composition. Group 2 showed a slower growth rate in both minimal and enriched media and an altered membrane protein profile. These mutants also demonstrated decreased competitive fitness compared with the wild-type strain. In live soil, the Rifr P. putida strain persisted throughout the 38-day test period with a decay rate of 0.7 log10 CFU/g of soil per 10 days. A group 1 Rifr P. fluorescens mutant maintained its inoculated titer for 7 to 10 days and then decayed at a rate of 0.2 to 0.4 log10 CFU/g of soil per 10 days. A group 2 Rifr P. fluorescens mutant remained at its titer for 1 to 5 days before decaying at a two- to threefold-faster rate. These findings indicate that rifampin resistance may not be an innocuous mutation in some pseudomonads and that marked strains should be compared with wild-type parents before being used as monitors of parental strain survival. Colonization of sterile soil with either the wild-type or mutant strain precluded normal colonization of the second added strain.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:3144244

  5. Secretion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type III Cytotoxins is Dependent on Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Singh, G.; Wu, B.; Baek, M.S.; Camargo, A.; Nguyen, A.; Slusher, N.A.; Srinivasan, R.; Wiener-Kronish, J.P.; Lynch, S.V.

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that can, like other bacterial species, exist in antimicrobial resistant sessile biofilms and as free-swimming, planktonic cells. Specific virulence factors are typically associated with each lifestyle and several two-component response regulators have been shown to reciprocally regulate transition between biofilm-associated chronic, and free-swimming acute infections. Quorum sensing (QS) signal molecules belonging to the las and rhl systems are known to regulate virulence gene expression by P. aeruginosa. However the impact of a recently described family of novel quorum sensing signals produced by the Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal (PQS) biosynthetic pathway, on the transition between these modes of infection is less clear. Using clonal isolates from a patient developing ventilator-associated pneumonia, we demonstrated that clinical observations were mirrored by an in vitro temporal shift in isolate phenotype from a non-secreting, to a Type III cytotoxin secreting (TTSS) phenotype and further, that this phenotypic change was PQS-dependent. While intracellular type III cytotoxin levels were unaffected by PQS concentration, cytotoxin secretion was dependent on this signal molecule. Elevated PQS concentrations were associated with inhibition of cytotoxin secretion coincident with expression of virulence factors such as elastase and pyoverdin. In contrast, low concentrations or the inability to biosynthesize PQS resulted in a reversal of this phenotype. These data suggest that expression of specific P. aeruginosa virulence factors appears to be reciprocally regulated and that an additional level of PQS-dependent posttranslational control, specifically governing type III cytotoxin secretion, exists in this species. PMID:20570614

  6. Expression of a fully functional cd1 nitrite reductase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Pseudomonas stutzeri.

    PubMed

    Arese, Marzia; Zumft, Walter G; Cutruzzolà, Francesca

    2003-01-01

    Nitrite reductases are redox enzymes catalysing the one electron reduction of nitrite to nitrogen monoxide (NO) within the bacterial denitrification process. We have cloned the gene for cd(1) nitrite reductase (Pa-nirS) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa into the NiRS(-) strain MK202 of Pseudomonas stutzeri and expressed the enzyme under denitrifying conditions. In the MK202 strain, denitrification is abolished by the disruption of the endogenous nitrite reductase gene; thus, cells can be grown only in the presence of oxygen. After complementation with Pa-nirS gene, cells supplemented with nitrate can be grown in the absence of oxygen. The presence of nitrite reductase was proven in vivo by the demonstration of NO production, showing that the enzyme was expressed in the active form, containing both heme c and d(1). A purification procedure for the recombinant PaNir has been developed, based on the P. aeruginosa purification protocol; spectroscopic analysis of the purified protein fully confirms the presence of the d(1) heme cofactor. Moreover, the functional characterisation of the recombinant NiR has been carried out by monitoring the production of NO by the purified NiR enzyme in the presence of nitrite by an NO electrode. The full recovery of the denitrification properties in the P. stutzeri MK202 strain by genetic complementation with Pa-NiR underlines the high homology between enzymes of nitrogen oxianion respiration. Our work provides an expression system for cd(1) nitrite reductase and its site-directed mutants in a non-pathogenic strain and is a starting point for the in vivo study of recombinant enzyme variants.

  7. Leveraging EMS and VPP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Elements of EMS  International Standards Organization ( ISO ) 14001 , Environmental Management Systems  The Key Elements of EMS: - Policy - Planning...wingman-- ON and OFF duty Fully Conforming vs. Fully Implemented  “Fully Conforming”  Meets standards established in ISO 14001  ESOH council...e n c e Every airman looking out for his wingman-- ON and OFF duty EMS & VPP Commonalities Environmental Management System ISO 14001 : 2004 Voluntary

  8. Resistance to pefloxacin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Michea-Hamzehpour, M; Lucain, C; Pechere, J C

    1991-01-01

    Mechanisms of resistance to pefloxacin were investigated in four isogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains: S (parent isolate; MIC, 2 micrograms/ml), PT1 and PT2 (posttherapy isolates obtained in animals; MICs, 32 and 128 micrograms/ml, respectively), and PT2-r (posttherapy isolate obtained after six in vitro subpassages of PT2; MIC, 32 micrograms/ml). [2-3H]adenine incorporation (indirect evidence of DNA gyrase activity) in EDTA-permeabilized cells was less affected by pefloxacin in PT2 and PT2-r (50% inhibitory concentration, 0.27 and 0.26 microgram/ml, respectively) than it was in S and PT1 (50% inhibitory concentration, 0.04 and 0.05 microgram/ml, respectively). Reduced [14C]pefloxacin labeling of intact cells in strains PT1 and PT2 correlated with more susceptibility to EDTA and the presence of more calcium (P less than 0.05) and phosphorus in the outer membrane fractions. Outer membrane protein analysis showed reduced expression of protein D2 (47 kDa) in strains PT1 and PT2. Other proteins were apparently similar in all strains. The addition of calcium chloride (2 mM) to the sodium dodecyl sulfate-solubilized samples of outer membrane proteins, before heating and Western blotting, probed with monoclonal antibody anti-OmpF showed electrophoretic mobility changes of OmpF in strains PT1 and PT2 which were not seen in strain S. Calcium-induced changes were reversed with ethyleneglycoltetraacetate. Decreased [14C]pefloxacin labeling was further correlated with an altered lipopolysaccharide pattern and increased 3-deoxy-D-mannooctulosonic acid concentration (P less than 0.01). These findings suggested that resistance to pefloxacin is associated with altered DNA gyrase in strain PT2-r, with altered permeability in PT1, and with both mechanisms in PT2. The decreased expression of protein D2 and the higher calcium and lipopolysaccharide contents of the outer membrane could be responsible for the permeability deficiency in P. aeruginosa. Images PMID:1645509

  9. Differential habitat use and niche partitioning by Pseudomonas species in human homes.

    PubMed

    Remold, Susanna K; Brown, Christopher K; Farris, Justin E; Hundley, Thomas C; Perpich, Jessica A; Purdy, Megan E

    2011-10-01

    Many species of Pseudomonas have the ability to use a variety of resources and habitats, and as a result Pseudomonas are often characterized as having broad fundamental niches. We questioned whether actual habitat use by Pseudomonas species is equally broad. To do this, we sampled extensively to describe the biogeography of Pseudomonas within the human home, which presents a wide variety of habitats for microbes that live in close proximity to humans but are not part of the human flora, and for microbes that are opportunistic pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. From 960 samples taken in 20 homes, we obtained 163 Pseudomonas isolates. The most prevalent based on identification using the SepsiTest BLAST analysis of 16S rRNA (http://www.sepsitest-blast.de) were Pseudomonas monteilii (42 isolates), Pseudomonas plecoglossicida, Pseudomonas fulva, and P. aeruginosa (approximately 25 each). Of these, all but P. fulva differed in recovery rates among evaluated habitat types (drains, soils, water, internal vertebrate sites, vertebrate skin, inanimate surfaces, and garbage/compost) and all four species also differed in recovery rates among subcategories of habitat types (e.g., types of soils or drains). We also found that at both levels of habitat resolution, each of these six most common species (the four above plus Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas oryzihabitans) were over- or under-represented in some habitats relative to their contributions to the total Pseudomonas collected across all habitats. This pattern is consistent with niche partitioning. These results suggest that, whereas Pseudomonas are often characterized as generalists with broad fundamental niches, these species in fact have more restricted realized niches. Furthermore, niche partitioning driven by competition among Pseudomonas species may be contributing to the observed variability in habitat use by Pseudomonas in this system.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens LMG 5329, a White Line-Inducing Principle-Producing Bioindicator for the Mushroom Pathogen Pseudomonas tolaasii

    PubMed Central

    Rokni-Zadeh, Hassan; Zarrineh, Peyman

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas tolaasii, the causative agent of Agaricus bisporus brown blotch disease, can be identified by the white line reaction, occurring upon confrontation of the tolaasin-producing mushroom pathogen with “Pseudomonas reactans,” producing the lipopeptide white line-inducing principle (WLIP). The draft genome sequence of the WLIP-producing indicator Pseudomonas fluorescens strain LMG 5329 is reported here. PMID:23887909

  11. Regiochemistry of Camphor Analog Oxidation by Pseudomonas putida

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sujit; Dombrowski, Anne E.; Scala, Anthony J.

    1983-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida cooxidized norcamphor and pericyclocamphanone to hydroxylated and lactonized products during growth on camphor. Norcamphor was hydroxylated at the 5 position, similar to the corresponding process in camphor, but pericyclocamphanone was oxidized at the 6 position. We conclude that the regiochemistry of the hydroxylation may be substrate controlled. PMID:16346279

  12. Genomic Analysis of Secondary Metabolite Production by Pseudomonas fluorescens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a diverse bacterial species known for its ubiquity in natural habitats and its production of secondary metabolites. The high degree of ecological and metabolic diversity represented in P. fluorescens is reflected in the genomic diversity displayed among strains. Certain st...

  13. Engineering the Soil Bacterium Pseudomonas putida for Arsenic Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian; Qin, Jie; Zhu, Yong-Guan; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of arsenic has potential health risks through consumption of food. Here, we inserted the arsenite [As(III)] S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase (ArsM) gene into the chromosome of Pseudomonas putida KT2440. Recombinant bacteria methylate inorganic arsenic into less toxic organoarsenicals. This has the potential for bioremediation of environmental arsenic and reducing arsenic contamination in food. PMID:23645194

  14. Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain PA23

    PubMed Central

    Loewen, Peter C.; Villenueva, Jacylyn; Fernando, W. G. Dilantha

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain PA23 is a plant-beneficial bacterium that is able to suppress disease caused by the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum through a process known as biological control. Here we present a 7.1-Mb assembly of the PA23 genome. PMID:25035328

  15. High Temperature Induced Antibiotic Sensitivity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    protoplasts by actinomycin-D. J. Mol. Biol. 6: 247 - 249. 6. Ingram, J.M., K.-J. Cheng and J.W. Costerton. 1973. Alkaline phosphatase of Pseudomonas...bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 111: 827 - 832. 11. Mach, B. and E.L. Tatum. 1963. Ribonucleic acid synthesis in protoplasts of Escherichia coli: inhibition by

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Rice Isolate Pseudomonas chlororaphis EA105

    PubMed Central

    McCully, Lucy M.; Bitzer, Adam S.; Spence, Carla A.; Bais, Harsh P.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis EA105, a strain isolated from rice rhizosphere, has shown antagonistic activities against a rice fungal pathogen, and could be important in defense against rice blast. We report the draft genome sequence of EA105, which is an estimated size of 6.6 Mb. PMID:25540352

  17. Functional bacterial amyloid increases Pseudomonas biofilm hydrophobicity and stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Guanghong; Vad, Brian S.; Dueholm, Morten S.; Christiansen, Gunna; Nilsson, Martin; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Nielsen, Per H.; Meyer, Rikke L.; Otzen, Daniel E.

    2015-01-01

    The success of Pseudomonas species as opportunistic pathogens derives in great part from their ability to form stable biofilms that offer protection against chemical and mechanical attack. The extracellular matrix of biofilms contains numerous biomolecules, and it has recently been discovered that in Pseudomonas one of the components includes β-sheet rich amyloid fibrils (functional amyloid) produced by the fap operon. However, the role of the functional amyloid within the biofilm has not yet been investigated in detail. Here we investigate how the fap-based amyloid produced by Pseudomonas affects biofilm hydrophobicity and mechanical properties. Using atomic force microscopy imaging and force spectroscopy, we show that the amyloid renders individual cells more resistant to drying and alters their interactions with hydrophobic probes. Importantly, amyloid makes Pseudomonas more hydrophobic and increases biofilm stiffness 20-fold. Deletion of any one of the individual members of in the fap operon (except the putative chaperone FapA) abolishes this ability to increase biofilm stiffness and correlates with the loss of amyloid. We conclude that amyloid makes major contributions to biofilm mechanical robustness. PMID:26500638

  18. Metabolism of glyphosate in Pseudomonas sp. strain LBr.

    PubMed

    Jacob, G S; Garbow, J R; Hallas, L E; Kimack, N M; Kishore, G M; Schaefer, J

    1988-12-01

    Metabolism of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) by Pseudomonas sp. strain LBr, a bacterium isolated from a glyphosate process waste stream, was examined by a combination of solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and analysis of the phosphonate composition of the growth medium. Pseudomonas sp. strain LBr was capable of eliminating 20 mM glyphosate from the growth medium, an amount approximately 20-fold greater than that reported for any other microorganism to date. The bacterium degraded high levels of glyphosate, primarily by converting it to aminomethylphosphonate, followed by release into the growth medium. Only a small amount of aminomethylphosphonate (about 0.5 to 0.7 mM), which is needed to supply phosphorus for growth, could be metabolized by the microorganism. Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of strain LBr grown on 1 mM [2-13C,15N]glyphosate showed that about 5% of the glyphosate was degraded by a separate pathway involving breakdown of glyphosate to glycine, a pathway first observed in Pseudomonas sp. strain PG2982. Thus, Pseudomonas sp. strain LBr appears to possess two distinct routes for glyphosate detoxification.

  19. Pseudomonas asturiensis sp. nov., isolated from soybean and weeds.

    PubMed

    González, Ana J; Cleenwerck, Ilse; De Vos, Paul; Fernández-Sanz, Ana M

    2013-07-01

    Five strains of gram negative bacteria, isolated from soybean (LPPA 221(T), 222 and 223) and weeds (LPPA 816 and 1442), were analyzed by a polyphasic approach. The isolates showed variation in their phenotypic traits and were placed in the Pseudomonas fluorescens lineage, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny, as a single but well separated cluster. MLSA analysis based on gyrB and rpoD sequences clustered the strains in a single branch in the Pseudomonas syringae group, and revealed P. viridiflava as closest relative. DNA-DNA hybridizations showed medium levels of DNA-DNA relatedness with the type strain of P. viridiflava (50%) and lower levels (<32%) with other type strains of the P. syringae group, supporting classification within a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas. The strains can be distinguished from species of the P. syringae group by the fatty acid C17:0 cyclo that is present in a low amount (2.5%) and from P. viridiflava by their inability to assimilate d-tartrate and d-sorbitol, and by the formation of red colonies on TTC medium. For this new species, the name Pseudomonas asturiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LPPA 221(T) (=LMG 26898(T)=CECT 8095(T)).

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Biocontrol Strain Pseudomonas fluorescens LBUM223

    PubMed Central

    Roquigny, Roxane; Arseneault, Tanya; Gadkar, Vijay J.; Novinscak, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens LBUM223 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with biocontrol activity against various plant pathogens. It produces the antimicrobial metabolite phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, which is involved in the biocontrol of Streptomyces scabies, the causal agent of common scab of potato. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of P. fluorescens LBUM223. PMID:25953163

  1. Pseudomonas seleniipraecipitans proteins potentially involved in selenite reduction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pseudomonas seleniipraecipitans grows in the presence of high levels of selenite and selenate and reduces both oxyanions to elemental selenium, a property that may make P. seleniipraecipitans useful as an inoculant for biobarriers designed to remove selenite or selenate from ground or surface-waters...

  2. Chemotaxis to furan compounds by furan-degrading Pseudomonas strains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two Pseudomonas strains known to utilize furan derivatives were shown to be attracted to furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, furfuryl alcohol, and 2-furoic acid in the absence of furan metabolism. In addition, a LysR-family regulatory protein known to regulate furan metabolic genes was found to be i...

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas moraviensis R28-S

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Hirokazu; Loftie-Eaton, Wesley; Hughes, Julie; De Gelder, Leen; Stragier, Pieter; De Vos, Paul; Settles, Matthew L.

    2014-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas moraviensis R28-S, isolated from the municipal wastewater treatment plant of Moscow, ID. The strain carries a native mercury resistance plasmid, poorly maintains introduced IncP-1 antibiotic resistance plasmids, and has been useful for studying the evolution of plasmid host range and stability. PMID:24558233

  4. First report of NDM-1-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Zafer, Mai Mahmoud; Amin, Mady; El Mahallawy, Hadir; Ashour, Mohammed Seif El-Din; Al Agamy, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    This work reports the occurrence of New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) in metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Egypt for the first time, and the presence of more than one blaMBL gene in carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa.

  5. Production of extracellular water-insoluble polysaccharide from Pseudomonas sp.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jian-Dong; Qiu, Ji Qing

    2012-05-16

    Curdlan is a microbial polysaccharide composed exclusively of β-(1,3)-linked glucose residues. Until now only bacteria belonging to the Alcaligenes and Agrobacterium species have been reported to produce Curdlan. In this study, a bacterium capable of producing extracellular Curdlan, identified as Pseudomonas sp. on the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequencing, was isolated from soil samples. From the HPLC, permethylation linkage analysis, (13)C NMR, and FT-IR analytical data, the polysaccharide consisted exclusively of glucose; the most prominent sugar was 1,3-linked glucose, and most glycosidic bonds joining these sugar residues were of the β-type. This also supported that the exopolysaccharide produced by Pseudomonas sp. was actually Curdlan. In addition, the Pseudomonas sp. was studied for the production of Curdlan by conventional "one-factor-at-a-time technique" and response surface methodology (RSM). It was observed that glucose and yeast extract were the most suitable carbon source and nitrogen source for Curdlan production, respectively. By using RSM, Curdlan production was increased significantly by 188%, from 1.25 to 2.35 g/L, when the strain was cultivated in the optimal condition developed by RSM, and the highest Curdlan production rate of 0.81 g/(L h) was obtained. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on Curdlan production by Pseudomonas sp.

  6. Antimicrobial properties of Pseudomonas strains producing the antibiotic mupirocin.

    PubMed

    Matthijs, Sandra; Vander Wauven, Corinne; Cornu, Bertrand; Ye, Lumeng; Cornelis, Pierre; Thomas, Christopher M; Ongena, Marc

    2014-10-01

    Mupirocin is a polyketide antibiotic with broad antibacterial activity. It was isolated and characterized about 40 years ago from Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB 10586. To study the phylogenetic distribution of mupirocin producing strains in the genus Pseudomonas a large collection of Pseudomonas strains of worldwide origin, consisting of 117 Pseudomonas type strains and 461 strains isolated from different biological origins, was screened by PCR for the mmpD gene of the mupirocin gene cluster. Five mmpD(+) strains from different geographic and biological origin were identified. They all produced mupirocin and were strongly antagonistic against Staphylococcus aureus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that mupirocin production is limited to a single species. Inactivation of mupirocin production leads to complete loss of in vitro antagonism against S. aureus, except on certain iron-reduced media where the siderophore pyoverdine is responsible for the in vitro antagonism of a mupirocin-negative mutant. In addition to mupirocin some of the strains produced lipopeptides of the massetolide group. These lipopeptides do not play a role in the observed in vitro antagonism of the mupirocin producing strains against S. aureus.

  7. Analysis of the core genome and pangenome of Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Udaondo, Zulema; Molina, Lázaro; Segura, Ana; Duque, Estrella; Ramos, Juan L

    2016-10-01

    Pseudomonas putida are strict aerobes that proliferate in a range of temperate niches and are of interest for environmental applications due to their capacity to degrade pollutants and ability to promote plant growth. Furthermore solvent-tolerant strains are useful for biosynthesis of added-value chemicals. We present a comprehensive comparative analysis of nine strains and the first characterization of the Pseudomonas putida pangenome. The core genome of P. putida comprises approximately 3386 genes. The most abundant genes within the core genome are those that encode nutrient transporters. Other conserved genes include those for central carbon metabolism through the Entner-Doudoroff pathway, the pentose phosphate cycle, arginine and proline metabolism, and pathways for degradation of aromatic chemicals. Genes that encode transporters, enzymes and regulators for amino acid metabolism (synthesis and degradation) are all part of the core genome, as well as various electron transporters, which enable aerobic metabolism under different oxygen regimes. Within the core genome are 30 genes for flagella biosynthesis and 12 key genes for biofilm formation. Pseudomonas putida strains share 85% of the coding regions with Pseudomonas aeruginosa; however, in P. putida, virulence factors such as exotoxins and type III secretion systems are absent.

  8. Detection of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. glycinea in soybean seeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter is one of 52 that will compose the second edition of the Laboratory Manual for the Detection of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria from Seeds and other Planting Material, to be published by the American Phytopathological Society. The chapter presents a description of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. ...

  9. Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Endocarditis in Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Rare Complication

    PubMed Central

    J, Barshay; A, Nemets; A, Ducach; G, Lugassy

    2008-01-01

    Infectious endocarditis is a rarely encountered complication among leukemia patient during induction therapy. We describe a young patient who developed prolonged high fever after aggressive chemotherapy for Acute Myeloid Leukemia. Pseudomonas Aeruginosa endocarditis was found to be the etiology for the febrile state. Our purpose is to emphasize the need for an early diagnosis of this rare, albeit treatable complication. PMID:23675106

  10. Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis in stem cell transplantation patients.

    PubMed

    Fanci, Rosa; Pecile, Patrizia; Casalone, Enrico; Mengoni, Alessio; Tamburini, Elena; Guidi, Stefano; Cecconi, Daniela; Bosi, Alberto; Nicoletti, Pierluigi; Mastromei, Giorgio

    2006-07-01

    We report the epidemiological investigation of an outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in 6 patients who shared, during different periods, the same 2 rooms of a bone marrow transplantation unit. Phenotypic and molecular analysis of isolates from patients and from the environment strongly suggested a single, environmental source of infection.

  11. Production of mucoid exopolysaccharide during development of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

    PubMed Central

    Hoyle, B D; Williams, L J; Costerton, J W

    1993-01-01

    Production of mucoid exopolysaccharide by planktonic, chemostat-derived, and adherent Pseudomonas aeruginosa 579 bacteria was separately monitored for 7 days by using a lacZ-algD promoter-reporter gene and assays of total carbohydrate and metabolic activity. Mucoid exopolysaccharide production was transiently elevated following adherence but declined to planktonic levels by day 7. PMID:8423105

  12. The Biology and Biological Activity of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tagetis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tagetis (Pst) is a disease of plants in the family Asteraceae. A distinctive characteristic of this bacterial pathogen is the symptom of apical chlorosis in infected plants, caused by the phytotoxin tagetitoxin. Strains of Pst have been isolated from several plant species ...

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage AAT-1.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Domínguez, Andrés; Kolter, Roberto

    2016-08-25

    Aspects of the interaction between phages and animals are of interest and importance for medical applications. Here, we report the genome sequence of the lytic Pseudomonas phage AAT-1, isolated from mammalian serum. AAT-1 is a double-stranded DNA phage, with a genome of 57,599 bp, containing 76 predicted open reading frames.

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas balearica DSM 6083T

    PubMed Central

    Salvà-Serra, Francisco; Jaén-Luchoro, Daniel; Seguí, Carolina; Aliaga, Francisco; Busquets, Antonio; Gomila, Margarita; Lalucat, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The whole-genome sequence of Pseudomonas balearica SP1402 (DSM 6083T) has been completed and annotated. It was isolated as a naphthalene degrader from water of a lagooning wastewater treatment plant. P. balearica strains tolerate up to 8.5% NaCl and are considered true marine denitrifiers. PMID:27103708

  15. First report of bloodstream infection caused by Pseudomonas fulva.

    PubMed

    Seok, Yoonmi; Shin, Heebong; Lee, Yangsoon; Cho, Injoo; Na, Sungwon; Yong, Dongeun; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Lee, Kyungwon

    2010-07-01

    Pseudomonas fulva has not yet been isolated from humans as a pathogen. Herein, we report the first case of P. fulva bacteremia in a patient hospitalized due to trauma. The species was identified using biochemical and molecular genetic analyses of the 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB, and rpoD genes.

  16. Enhanced alpha-galactosidase expression in pseudomonas chlororaphis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis is a non-pathogenic bacterium useful for fermentative production of biopolymer (i.e., poly(hydroxyalkanoates); PHA) and biosurfactant (i.e., rhamnolipid; RhL). In order to enable P. chlororaphis to better fermentatively utilize the residual soy sugars in soy molasses – a lo...

  17. Pseudomonas prosekii sp. nov., a novel psychrotrophic bacterium from Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Kosina, Marcel; Barták, Miloš; Mašlaňová, Ivana; Pascutti, Andrea Vávrová; Sedo, Ondrej; Lexa, Matej; Sedláček, Ivo

    2013-12-01

    During Czech expeditions at James Ross Island, Antarctica, in the years 2007-2009, the bacterial diversity of the genus Pseudomonas was studied. Twelve fluorescent Pseudomonas strains were isolated from various samples and were subjected to a detailed taxonomic study. A polyphasic approach included genotypic and phenotypic analyses. The genotypic analysis involved sequencing of rrs, rpoB and rpoD genes, DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) studies as well as manual ribotyping using HindIII endonuclease. The phenotypic characterization included conventional tests as well as biotyping using the Biolog system, protein profiling by SDS-PAGE, and MALDI-TOF MS analysis. Our taxonomic study revealed that all isolates belonged to the same Pseudomonas species with psychrotrophic growth not exceeding 37 °C. The cultures showed a unique position among the phylogenetically related pseudomonads. DDH experiment between the proposed type strain of the antarctic isolates and the closest neighbour P. arsenicoxydans CCM 8423(T) showed only 40.9-50.1 % similarity, thus confirming that the characterized strains do not belong to the P. arsenicoxydans species. According to the results obtained we propose the name P. prosekii sp. nov. for this novel Pseudomonas taxon with type strain AN/28/1(T) (=CCM 7990(T) and LMG 26867(T)).

  18. Specific Genomic Fingerprints of Phosphate Solubilizing Pseudomonas Strains Generated by Box Elements

    PubMed Central

    Javadi Nobandegani, Mohammad Bagher; Saud, Halimi Mohd; Yun, Wong Mui

    2014-01-01

    Primers corresponding to conserved bacterial repetitive of BOX elements were used to show that BOX-DNA sequences are widely distributed in phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas strains. Phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas was isolated from oil palm fields (tropical soil) in Malaysia. BOX elements were used to generate genomic fingerprints of a variety of Pseudomonas isolates to identify strains that were not distinguishable by other classification methods. BOX-PCR, that derived genomic fingerprints, was generated from whole purified genomic DNA by liquid culture of phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas. BOX-PCR generated the phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas specific fingerprints to identify the relationship between these strains. This suggests that distribution of BOX elements' sequences in phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas strains is the mirror image of their genomic structure. Therefore, this method appears to be a rapid, simple, and reproducible method to identify and classify phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas strains and it may be useful tool for fast identification of potential biofertilizer strains. PMID:25580434

  19. Poly(3-hydroxyvalerate) depolymerase of Pseudomonas lemoignei.

    PubMed

    Schöber, U; Thiel, C; Jendrossek, D

    2000-04-01

    Pseudomonas lemoignei is equipped with at least five polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) depolymerase structural genes (phaZ1 to phaZ5) which enable the bacterium to utilize extracellular poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), poly(3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHV), and related polyesters consisting of short-chain-length hxdroxyalkanoates (PHA(SCL)) as the sole sources of carbon and energy. Four genes (phaZ1, phaZ2, phaZ3, and phaZ5) encode PHB depolymerases C, B, D, and A, respectively. It was speculated that the remaining gene, phaZ4, encodes the PHV depolymerase (D. Jendrossek, A. Frisse, A. Behrends, M. Andermann, H. D. Kratzin, T. Stanislawski, and H. G. Schlegel, J. Bacteriol. 177:596-607, 1995). However, in this study, we show that phaZ4 codes for another PHB depolymeraes (i) by disagreement of 5 out of 41 amino acids that had been determined by Edman degradation of the PHV depolymerase and of four endoproteinase GluC-generated internal peptides with the DNA-deduced sequence of phaZ4, (ii) by the lack of immunological reaction of purified recombinant PhaZ4 with PHV depolymerase-specific antibodies, and (iii) by the low activity of the PhaZ4 depolymerase with PHV as a substrate. The true PHV depolymerase-encoding structural gene, phaZ6, was identified by screening a genomic library of P. lemoignei in Escherichia coli for clearing zone formation on PHV agar. The DNA sequence of phaZ6 contained all 41 amino acids of the GluC-generated peptide fragments of the PHV depolymerase. PhaZ6 was expressed and purified from recombinant E. coli and showed immunological identity to the wild-type PHV depolymerase and had high specific activities with PHB and PHV as substrates. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a PHA(SCL) depolymerase gene that is expressed during growth on PHV or odd-numbered carbon sources and that encodes a protein with high PHV depolymerase activity. Amino acid analysis revealed that PhaZ6 (relative molecular mass [M(r)], 43,610 Da) resembles precursors of other

  20. Inhibition of antibody response to Pseudomonas exotoxin and an immunotoxin containing Pseudomonas exotoxin by 15-deoxyspergualin in mice.

    PubMed

    Pai, L H; FitzGerald, D J; Tepper, M; Schacter, B; Spitalny, G; Pastan, I

    1990-12-15

    Immunotoxins are potent cell-killing agents that may be useful in the treatment of cancer. The early production of neutralizing antibodies to immunotoxins is one of the major limiting factors for their use in humans. 15-Deoxyspergualin (DSG), a derivative of spergualin, which is a metabolite of Bacillus laterosporus, has been found to have immunosuppressive activity in rodents, dogs, and primates. We examined the suppressive activity of DSG on the antibody response to Pseudomonas exotoxin in mice by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Male BDF1 mice were immunized with a single dose of a nontoxic mutant of Pseudomonas exotoxin (40 micrograms) and then treated with i.p. injections of DSF at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 3 days. Although antibodies to Pseudomonas exotoxin were observed within 7 days in the control group, there was complete suppression of antibody production in the DSG-treated group. Immunosuppression has also been observed in animals immunized with multiple doses (10 mg x 7 d) of Pseudomonas exotoxin and treated with DSG at a dose of 5 mg/kg for 21 days. Similar immunosuppression was observed in mice given multiple doses of the immunotoxin, anti-Tac-LysPE40. We conclude that the immunosuppressive activity of DSG may be useful in increasing the duration of immunotoxin treatment.

  1. Molecular cloning of the Pseudomonas carboxypeptidase G2 gene and its expression in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed Central

    Minton, N P; Atkinson, T; Sherwood, R F

    1983-01-01

    The gene coding for carboxypeptidase G2 was cloned from Pseudomonas sp. strain RS-16 into Escherichia coli W5445 by inserting Sau3A-generated DNA fragments into the BamHI site of pBR322. The plasmid isolated, pNM1, was restriction mapped, and the position of the gene on the 5.8-megadalton insert was pinpointed by subcloning. The expression of carboxypeptidase in E. coli was 100-fold lower than in the Pseudomonas sp. strain. When the cloned gene was subcloned into the Pseudomonas vector pKT230 and introduced into Pseudomonas putida 2440, a 30-fold increase in expression over that obtained in E. coli was observed. High expression (up to 5% soluble protein) was obtained in E. coli by subcloning a 3.1-megadalton Bg/II fragment into the BamHI site of pAT153. The increased expression was orientation dependent and is presumed to be due to transcriptional readthrough from the Tc promoter of the vector. Production of carboxypeptidase was shown to be induced (two-fold) by the presence of folic acid, and the mature protein was shown to be located in the periplasmic space of E. coli. Images PMID:6358192

  2. Fast and specific detection of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa from other pseudomonas species by PCR.

    PubMed

    Jami Al-Ahmadi, G; Zahmatkesh Roodsari, R

    2016-12-31

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important life-threatening nosocomial pathogen that plays a prominent role in wound infections of burned patients. We designed this study to identify the isolates of P. aeruginosa recovered from burned patients at the genus and species level through primers targeting oprI and oprL genes, and analyzed their antimicrobial resistance pattern. Over a 2-month period, wound samples were taken from burned patients and plated on MacConkey agar. All suspected colonies were primarily screened for P. aeruginosa by a combination of phenotypic tests. Molecular identifications of colonies were done using specific primers for oprI and oprL genes. Bacterial isolates were recovered from burn wound infections. Based on phenotypical identification tests, 138 (34%) P. aeruginosa isolates were identified; whereas by molecular techniques, just 128 P. aeruginosa yielded amplicon of oprL gene using species-specific primers, verifying the identity of P. aeruginosa; the others yielded amplicon of oprI gene using genus-specific primers, confirming the identity of fluorescent pseudomonads. This study indicates that molecular detection of P. aeruginosa in burn patients employing the OprL gene target is a useful technique for the early and precise detection of P. aeruginosa. PCR detection should be carried out as well as phenotypic testing for the best aggressive antibiotic treatment of P. aeruginosa strains at an earlier stage. It also has significant benefits on clinical outcomes.

  3. Sodium hexametaphosphate sensitizes Pseudomonas aeruginosa, several other species of Pseudomonas, and Escherichia coli to hydrophobic drugs.

    PubMed

    Vaara, M; Jaakkola, J

    1989-10-01

    Many gram-negative bacteria are known to be remarkably resistant to hydrophobic noxious agents by virtue of their outer membranes (OM). We investigated, by using four different assay methods, the ability of sodium hexametaphosphate (HMP) to disrupt this OM barrier. (i) In the growth inhibition assay, HMP was found to sensitize strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to all the hydrophobic probes tested (rifampin, fusidic acid, dactinomycin, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and Triton X-100). A concentration of 0.3% HMP decreased the MICs of the probes by a factor of approximately 10, and maximally even a 30-fold sensitization was found with 1% HMP. (ii) In the bactericidal assay, 0.3% HMP decreased the MBC of the hydrophobic probe rifampin by a factor of approximately 30. (iii) In the bacteriolytic assay, 0.1% HMP sensitized the target bacteria to lysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate and Triton X-100. (iv) In the fluorescent-probe binding assay, HMP drastically enhanced the binding of fluorescent N-phenyl naphthylamine to the membranes of the target cells. In addition to P. aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, P. putida, P. fragi, and Escherichia coli were susceptible to the OM permeability-increasing action of HMP, while P. cepacia was resistant.

  4. Sodium hexametaphosphate sensitizes Pseudomonas aeruginosa, several other species of Pseudomonas, and Escherichia coli to hydrophobic drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Vaara, M; Jaakkola, J

    1989-01-01

    Many gram-negative bacteria are known to be remarkably resistant to hydrophobic noxious agents by virtue of their outer membranes (OM). We investigated, by using four different assay methods, the ability of sodium hexametaphosphate (HMP) to disrupt this OM barrier. (i) In the growth inhibition assay, HMP was found to sensitize strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to all the hydrophobic probes tested (rifampin, fusidic acid, dactinomycin, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and Triton X-100). A concentration of 0.3% HMP decreased the MICs of the probes by a factor of approximately 10, and maximally even a 30-fold sensitization was found with 1% HMP. (ii) In the bactericidal assay, 0.3% HMP decreased the MBC of the hydrophobic probe rifampin by a factor of approximately 30. (iii) In the bacteriolytic assay, 0.1% HMP sensitized the target bacteria to lysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate and Triton X-100. (iv) In the fluorescent-probe binding assay, HMP drastically enhanced the binding of fluorescent N-phenyl naphthylamine to the membranes of the target cells. In addition to P. aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, P. putida, P. fragi, and Escherichia coli were susceptible to the OM permeability-increasing action of HMP, while P. cepacia was resistant. PMID:2511800

  5. Fast and specific detection of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa from other pseudomonas species by PCR

    PubMed Central

    Jami Al-Ahmadi, G.; Zahmatkesh Roodsari, R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important life-threatening nosocomial pathogen that plays a prominent role in wound infections of burned patients. We designed this study to identify the isolates of P. aeruginosa recovered from burned patients at the genus and species level through primers targeting oprI and oprL genes, and analyzed their antimicrobial resistance pattern. Over a 2-month period, wound samples were taken from burned patients and plated on MacConkey agar. All suspected colonies were primarily screened for P. aeruginosa by a combination of phenotypic tests. Molecular identifications of colonies were done using specific primers for oprI and oprL genes. Bacterial isolates were recovered from burn wound infections. Based on phenotypical identification tests, 138 (34%) P. aeruginosa isolates were identified; whereas by molecular techniques, just 128 P. aeruginosa yielded amplicon of oprL gene using species-specific primers, verifying the identity of P. aeruginosa; the others yielded amplicon of oprI gene using genus-specific primers, confirming the identity of fluorescent pseudomonads. This study indicates that molecular detection of P. aeruginosa in burn patients employing the OprL gene target is a useful technique for the early and precise detection of P. aeruginosa. PCR detection should be carried out as well as phenotypic testing for the best aggressive antibiotic treatment of P. aeruginosa strains at an earlier stage. It also has significant benefits on clinical outcomes. PMID:28289359

  6. EMS in the pueblos.

    PubMed

    Vigil, M A

    1994-02-01

    Imagine creating a movie by excerpting scenes from "Dances With Wolves," splicing it with footage from "Code 3" or "Emergency Response" and then flavoring the script with the mystery of a Tony Hillerman novel. A film producer would probably find it quite difficult to choreograph a finished product from such a compilation of material. To hundreds of Native American EMS providers, however, such a movie is played out every day in Indian country. And with this movie come some real-life problems, including trauma, which is the number-one cause of premature death among Native Americans. But a high trauma rate is just one of the challenges facing tribal EMS responders. There's also prolonged response and transport, the problems involved in maintaining the unique culture and standard of care, the challenges of tribal EMS administration and EMS education of Native American students, and the unsure future of Native American EMS. Beyond that, there's the fact that EMS is a s unique to each Indian reservation as are the cultures of the native peoples who reside on these lands. Yet while no two systems are alike, most tribal EMS providers face similar challenges.

  7. Defining the Pseudomonas genus: where do we draw the line with Azotobacter?

    PubMed

    Özen, Asli I; Ussery, David W

    2012-02-01

    The genus Pseudomonas has gone through many taxonomic revisions over the past 100 years, going from a very large and diverse group of bacteria to a smaller, more refined and ordered list having specific properties. The relationship of the Pseudomonas genus to Azotobacter vinelandii is examined using three genomic sequence-based methods. First, using 16S rRNA trees, it is shown that A. vinelandii groups within the Pseudomonas close to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Genomes from other related organisms (Acinetobacter, Psychrobacter, and Cellvibrio) are outside the Pseudomonas cluster. Second, pan genome family trees based on conserved gene families also show A. vinelandii to be more closely related to Pseudomonas than other related organisms. Third, exhaustive BLAST comparisons demonstrate that the fraction of shared genes between A. vinelandii and Pseudomonas genomes is similar to that of Pseudomonas species with each other. The results of these different methods point to a high similarity between A. vinelandii and the Pseudomonas genus, suggesting that Azotobacter might actually be a Pseudomonas.

  8. Influence of storage conditions on the growth of Pseudomonas species in refrigerated raw milk.

    PubMed

    De Jonghe, Valerie; Coorevits, An; Van Hoorde, Koenraad; Messens, Winy; Van Landschoot, Anita; De Vos, Paul; Heyndrickx, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The refrigerated storage of raw milk throughout the dairy chain prior to heat treatment creates selective conditions for growth of psychrotolerant bacteria. These bacteria, mainly belonging to the genus Pseudomonas, are capable of producing thermoresistant extracellular proteases and lipases, which can cause spoilage and structural defects in pasteurized and ultra-high-temperature-treated milk (products). To map the influence of refrigerated storage on the growth of these pseudomonads, milk samples were taken after the first milking turn and incubated laboratory scale at temperatures simulating optimal and suboptimal preprocessing storage conditions. The outgrowth of Pseudomonas members was monitored over time by means of cultivation-independent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Isolates were identified by a polyphasic approach. These incubations revealed that outgrowth of Pseudomonas members occurred from the beginning of the dairy chain (farm tank) under both optimal and suboptimal storage conditions. An even greater risk for outgrowth, as indicated by a vast increase of about 2 log CFU per ml raw milk, existed downstream in the chain, especially when raw milk was stored under suboptimal conditions. This difference in Pseudomonas outgrowth between optimal and suboptimal storage was already statistically significant within the farm tank. The predominant taxa were identified as Pseudomonas gessardii, Pseudomonas gessardii-like, Pseudomonas fluorescens-like, Pseudomonas lundensis, Pseudomonas fragi, and Pseudomonas fragi-like. Those taxa show an important spoilage potential as determined on elective media for proteolysis and lipolysis.

  9. Spoilage potentials and antimicrobial resistance of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from cheeses.

    PubMed

    Arslan, S; Eyi, A; Özdemir, F

    2011-12-01

    Pseudomonas spp. are aerobic, gram-negative bacteria that are recognized as major food spoilage microorganisms. A total of 32 (22.9%) Pseudomonas spp. from 140 homemade white cheese samples collected from the open-air public bazaar were isolated and characterized. The aim of the present study was to investigate the biochemical characteristics, the production of extracellular enzymes, slime and β-lactamase, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from cheeses. The identified isolates including Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens biovar V, and P. pseudoalcaligenes ssp. citrulli were found to produce extracellular enzymes, respectively: protease and lecithinase production (100%), and lipase activity (85.7, 42.9, 100, and 100%, and nonlipolytic, respectively). The isolates did not produce slime and had no detectable β-lactamase activity. The antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was tested using the disk diffusion method. Pseudomonas spp. had the highest resistance to penicillin G (100%), then sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (28.1%). However, all Pseudomonas spp. isolates were 100% susceptible to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, gentamicin, and imipenem. Multidrug-resistance patterns were not observed among these isolates. In this study, Pseudomonas spp., exhibiting spoilage features, were isolated mainly from cheeses. Isolation of this organism from processed milk highlights the need to improve the hygienic practices. All of the stages in the milk processing chain during manufacturing have to be under control to achieve the quality and safety of dairy products.

  10. Rapid adaptation drives invasion of airway donor microbiota by Pseudomonas after lung transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Beaume, M.; Köhler, T.; Greub, G.; Manuel, O.; Aubert, J-D.; Baerlocher, L.; Farinelli, L.; Buckling, A.; van Delden, C.; Achermann, Rita; Amico, Patrizia; Baumann, Philippe; Beldi, Guido; Benden, Christian; Berger, Christoph; Binet, Isabelle; Bochud, Pierre-Yves; Boely, Elsa; Bucher, Heiner; Bühler, Leo; Carell, Thierry; Catana, Emmanuelle; Chalandon, Yves; Geest, Sabina de; Rougemont, Olivier de; Dickenmann, Michael; Duchosal, Michel; Fehr, Thomas; Ferrari-Lacraz, Sylvie; Garzoni, Christian; Soccal, Paola Gasche; Giostra, Emiliano; Golshayan, Déla; Good, Daniel; Hadaya, Karine; Halter, Jörg; Heim, Dominik; Hess, Christoph; Hillinger, Sven; Hirsch, Hans H.; Hofbauer, Günther; Huynh-Do, Uyen; Immer, Franz; Klaghofer, Richard; Koller, Michael; Laesser, Bettina; Lehmann, Roger; Lovis, Christian; Marti, Hans-Peter; Martin, Pierre Yves; Martinolli, Luca; Meylan, Pascal; Mohacsi, Paul; Morard, Isabelle; Morel, Philippe; Mueller, Ulrike; Mueller, Nicolas J; Mueller-McKenna, Helen; Müller, Antonia; Müller, Thomas; Müllhaupt, Beat; Nadal, David; Pascual, Manuel; Passweg, Jakob; Ziegler, Chantal Piot; Rick, Juliane; Roosnek, Eddy; Rosselet, Anne; Rothlin, Silvia; Ruschitzka, Frank; Schanz, Urs; Schaub, Stefan; Seiler, Christian; Stampf, Susanne; Steiger, Jürg; Stirnimann, Guido; Toso, Christian; Tsinalis, Dimitri; Venetz, Jean-Pierre; Villard, Jean; Wick, Madeleine; Wilhelm, Markus; Yerly, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    In cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, chronic airway infection by Pseudomonas leads to progressive lung destruction ultimately requiring lung transplantation (LT). Following LT, CF-adapted Pseudomonas strains, potentially originating from the sinuses, may seed the allograft leading to infections and reduced allograft survival. We investigated whether CF-adapted Pseudomonas populations invade the donor microbiota and adapt to the non-CF allograft. We collected sequential Pseudomonas isolates and airway samples from a CF-lung transplant recipient during two years, and followed the dynamics of the microbiota and Pseudomonas populations. We show that Pseudomonas invaded the host microbiota within three days post-LT, in association with a reduction in richness and diversity. A dominant mucoid and hypermutator mutL lineage was replaced after 11 days by non-mucoid strains. Despite antibiotic therapy, Pseudomonas dominated the allograft microbiota until day 95. We observed positive selection of pre-LT variants and the appearance of novel mutations. Phenotypic adaptation resulted in increased biofilm formation and swimming motility capacities. Pseudomonas was replaced after 95 days by a microbiota dominated by Actinobacillus. In conclusion, mucoid Pseudomonas adapted to the CF-lung remained able to invade the allograft. Selection of both pre-existing non-mucoid subpopulations and of novel phenotypic traits suggests rapid adaptation of Pseudomonas to the non-CF allograft. PMID:28094327

  11. Rapid adaptation drives invasion of airway donor microbiota by Pseudomonas after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Beaume, M; Köhler, T; Greub, G; Manuel, O; Aubert, J-D; Baerlocher, L; Farinelli, L; Buckling, A; van Delden, C

    2017-01-17

    In cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, chronic airway infection by Pseudomonas leads to progressive lung destruction ultimately requiring lung transplantation (LT). Following LT, CF-adapted Pseudomonas strains, potentially originating from the sinuses, may seed the allograft leading to infections and reduced allograft survival. We investigated whether CF-adapted Pseudomonas populations invade the donor microbiota and adapt to the non-CF allograft. We collected sequential Pseudomonas isolates and airway samples from a CF-lung transplant recipient during two years, and followed the dynamics of the microbiota and Pseudomonas populations. We show that Pseudomonas invaded the host microbiota within three days post-LT, in association with a reduction in richness and diversity. A dominant mucoid and hypermutator mutL lineage was replaced after 11 days by non-mucoid strains. Despite antibiotic therapy, Pseudomonas dominated the allograft microbiota until day 95. We observed positive selection of pre-LT variants and the appearance of novel mutations. Phenotypic adaptation resulted in increased biofilm formation and swimming motility capacities. Pseudomonas was replaced after 95 days by a microbiota dominated by Actinobacillus. In conclusion, mucoid Pseudomonas adapted to the CF-lung remained able to invade the allograft. Selection of both pre-existing non-mucoid subpopulations and of novel phenotypic traits suggests rapid adaptation of Pseudomonas to the non-CF allograft.

  12. Major Products of Glucose Dissimilation by Pseudomonas natriegens

    PubMed Central

    Eagon, R. G.; Cho, H. W.

    1965-01-01

    Eagon, R. G. (University of Georgia, Athens), and H. W. Cho. Major products of glucose dissimilation by Pseudomonas natriegens. J. Bacteriol. 89:1209–1211. 1965.—Pseudomonas natriegens aerobically catabolized glucose to yield predominantly acetic acid, pyruvic acid, and CO2, whereas little or no lactic acid was formed. Under anaerobic conditions, glucose in an enriched medium was fermented to yield acetic acid and lactic acid but no pyruvic acid or CO2. Glucose in a basal salts medium was fermented to yield predominantly acetic acid, lactic acid, and CO2, while small amounts of pyruvic acid were detected. It was suggested that the aerobic accumulation of acidic products results from rapid glucose dissimilation to the oxidation level of pyruvic acid, followed by a less rapidly functioning tricarboxylic acid cycle. PMID:14292987

  13. MAJOR PRODUCTS OF GLUCOSE DISSIMILATION BY PSEUDOMONAS NATRIEGENS.

    PubMed

    EAGON, R G; CHO, H W

    1965-05-01

    Eagon, R. G. (University of Georgia, Athens), and H. W. Cho. Major products of glucose dissimilation by Pseudomonas natriegens. J. Bacteriol. 89:1209-1211. 1965.-Pseudomonas natriegens aerobically catabolized glucose to yield predominantly acetic acid, pyruvic acid, and CO(2), whereas little or no lactic acid was formed. Under anaerobic conditions, glucose in an enriched medium was fermented to yield acetic acid and lactic acid but no pyruvic acid or CO(2). Glucose in a basal salts medium was fermented to yield predominantly acetic acid, lactic acid, and CO(2), while small amounts of pyruvic acid were detected. It was suggested that the aerobic accumulation of acidic products results from rapid glucose dissimilation to the oxidation level of pyruvic acid, followed by a less rapidly functioning tricarboxylic acid cycle.

  14. Pseudomonas: a promising biocatalyst for the bioconversion of terpenes.

    PubMed

    Molina, Gustavo; Pimentel, Mariana R; Pastore, Gláucia M

    2013-03-01

    The Pseudomonas genus is one of the most diverse and ecologically significant groups of known bacteria, and it includes species that have been isolated worldwide in all types of environments. The bacteria from this genus are characterized by an elevated metabolic versatility, which is due to the presence of a complex enzymatic system. Investigations since the early 1960s have demonstrated their potential as biocatalysts for the production of industrially relevant and value-added flavor compounds from terpenes. Although terpenes are often removed from essential oils as undesirable components, its synthetic oxy-functionalized derivatives have broad applications in flavors/fragrances and pharmaceutical industries. Hence, biotransformation appears to be an effective tool for the structural modification of terpene hydrocarbons and terpenoids to synthesize novel and high-valued compounds. This review highlights the potential of Pseudomonas spp. as biocatalysts for the bioconversion of terpenes and summarizes the presently known bioflavors that are obtained from these processes.

  15. Structure of a putative acetyltransferase (PA1377) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, Anna M.; Tata, Renée; Chauviac, François-Xavier; Sutton, Brian J.; Brown, Paul R.

    2008-05-01

    The crystal structure of an acetyltransferase encoded by the gene PA1377 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been determined at 2.25 Å resolution. Comparison with a related acetyltransferase revealed a structural difference in the active site that was taken to reflect a difference in substrate binding and/or specificity between the two enzymes. Gene PA1377 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes a 177-amino-acid conserved hypothetical protein of unknown function. The structure of this protein (termed pitax) has been solved in space group I222 to 2.25 Å resolution. Pitax belongs to the GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase family and contains all four sequence motifs conserved among family members. The β-strand structure in one of these motifs (motif A) is disrupted, which is believed to affect binding of the substrate that accepts the acetyl group from acetyl-CoA.

  16. Neonatal Orbital Abscess Secondary to Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Yazici, Bulent; Orucov, Nesimi; Ibrahimzade, Gunay

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa conjunctivitis, although rare in healthy infants, may cause serious ocular and systemic complications. A 30-day-old, otherwise healthy male infant was referred with the diagnosis of right orbital abscess. The patient had been diagnosed as having Pseudomonas conjunctivitis 9 days previously at the referring center. Despite antibiotic treatment, his ocular findings had worsened and marked proptosis had developed. Other examination findings were ptosis, restriction of eye movements, periorbital erythema, and chemosis. Radiologic studies showed a large, homogenous mass with a thick capsule in the lateral retrobulbar orbit. The abscess was drained through a lateral orbitotomy. A culture of the abscess yielded P. aeruginosa. After surgery, the ocular findings improved rapidly without any complication. No other focus of infection or immune system abnormality was found. The patient did not experience any other significant disease during a follow up of 23 months.

  17. Complete genome sequence of the giant Pseudomonas phage Lu11.

    PubMed

    Adriaenssens, E M; Mattheus, W; Cornelissen, A; Shaburova, O; Krylov, V N; Kropinski, A M; Lavigne, R

    2012-06-01

    The complete genome sequence of the giant Pseudomonas phage Lu11 was determined, comparing 454 and Sanger sequencing. The double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome is 280,538 bp long and encodes 391 open reading frames (ORFs) and no tRNAs. The closest relative is Ralstonia phage ϕRSL1, encoding 40 similar proteins. As such, Lu11 can be considered phylogenetically unique within the Myoviridae and indicates the diversity of the giant phages within this family.

  18. Structure-activity analysis of the Pseudomonas quinolone signal molecule.

    PubMed

    Hodgkinson, James; Bowden, Steven D; Galloway, Warren R J D; Spring, David R; Welch, Martin

    2010-07-01

    We synthesized a range of PQS (Pseudomonas quinolone signal; 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone) analogues and tested them for their ability to stimulate MvfR-dependent pqsA transcription, MvfR-independent pyoverdine production, and membrane vesicle production. The structure-activity profile of the PQS analogues was different for each of these phenotypes. Certain inactive PQS analogues were also found to strongly synergize PQS-dependent pyoverdine production.

  19. [Pseudomonas syringae - the agent of bacterial diseases of weeds].

    PubMed

    Pasichnik, L A; Savenko, E A; Butsenko, L N; Shcherbina, T N; Patyka, V F

    2013-01-01

    The symptoms of bacterial diseases of the associated weeds have been identified and described in the wheat crops grown in different farming systems. On the basis of its morphological, biochemical and serological properties the agent isolated from frost-blite, barnyard grass, wild radish, couch grass, bottle-brush, bindweed and sow thistle has been identified as Pseudomonas syringae. Serological affinity between the weed bacteria and the agent of bacterial diseases of cereals has been established.

  20. Pyochelin Potentiates the Inhibitory Activity of Gallium on Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Frangipani, Emanuela; Bonchi, Carlo; Minandri, Fabrizia; Imperi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Gallium (Ga) is an iron mimetic that has successfully been repurposed for antibacterial chemotherapy. To improve the antibacterial potency of Ga on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the effect of complexation with a variety of siderophores and synthetic chelators was tested. Ga complexed with the pyochelin siderophore (at a 1:2 ratio) was more efficient than Ga(NO3)3 in inhibiting P. aeruginosa growth, and its activity was dependent on increased Ga entrance into the cell through the pyochelin translocon. PMID:24957826

  1. Inhibition of biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Medihoney in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R; Jenkins, L; Hooper, S

    2014-03-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been linked to chronic wound infections, where its ability to form biofilms and to tolerate antimicrobial agents helps to facilitate its persistence. This study aimed to investigate the susceptibility of biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Medihoney in vitro. Biofilms were cultivated in microtitre plates with and without a range of concentrations of Medihoney, and effects on biofilm were monitored by optical density (at 650nm), biomass (by staining with crystal violet), metabolic activity (using an esterase assay) and viability (by determining total cell counts). Structural effects on established biofilms were examined by scanning electron microscopy and epifluorescence following staining by LIVE/DEAD® BacLight, which also showed effects on vitality. The lowest concentration of Medihoney found to prevent biofilm formation was 17%(w/v), whereas on average 35.5%(w/v) of Medihoney was required to inhibit established biofilms. Susceptibility did not vary with length of biofilm establishment between 24 and 72 hours. Extensive structural changes in established biofilms were seen in the sample with less than or equal to 30%(w/v) Medihoney using scanning electron microscopy and loss of viability was found in test samples with less than or equal to 20%(w/v) Medihoney concentration using fluorescent staining, together with loss of biofilm structure. Using a range of methods to evaluate biofilm integrity, this study demonstrates that Medihoney inhibits Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in vitro at concentrations that are attainable in clinical use. Whether Medihoney has the potential to disrupt Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in cutaneous wounds must now be tested in patients. This study was sponsored by Derma Sciences Inc, NJ. An unrestricted grant was provided and the sponsors were not involved in the design of the experiments or the preparation of this manuscript.

  2. Description and Treatment of a Pseudomonas Infection in White Catfish

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, F. P.; Collar, J. D.

    1964-01-01

    A virulent organism of the genus Pseudomonas was isolated from the white catfish, Ictalurus catus. The bacterium was pathogenic to all species of fish tested. Symptoms of the disease, physiological characteristics of the pathogen, and treatment methods are presented. Kanamycin injected intraperitoneally or oxytetracycline used as a feed additive was effective in controlling the disease. The growth and biochemical characteristics do not fit any description in Bergey's Manual, but the organism appears to be closely related to P. fluorescens. PMID:14170955

  3. Enzymatic Transformation of Morphine by Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas testosteroni

    PubMed Central

    Liras, Paloma; Kasparian, Stephen S.; Umbreit, Wayne W.

    1975-01-01

    Enzyme preparations from Pseudomonas testosteroni containing α- and β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases catalyzed the oxidation of morphine and codeine by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. Morphine was converted in relatively low yield into 14-hydroxymorphinone probably via morphinone as an intermediate. Codeine was converted to codeinone and 14-hydroxycodeinone. Only the conversions at the 6-position were carried out by the hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Hydroxylation at the 14-position did occur spontaneously (or enzymatically with a contaminating enzyme) after oxidation at the 6-position. PMID:172013

  4. Recent advances in understanding Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Klockgether, Jens; Tümmler, Burkhard

    2017-01-01

    The versatile and ubiquitous Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen causing acute and chronic infections in predisposed human subjects. Here we review recent progress in understanding P. aeruginosa population biology and virulence, its cyclic di-GMP-mediated switches of lifestyle, and its interaction with the mammalian host as well as the role of the type III and type VI secretion systems in P. aeruginosa infection. PMID:28794863

  5. Membrane proteomes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Dé, E; Cosette, P; Coquet, L; Siroy, A; Alexandre, S; Duncan, A; Naudin, B; Rihouey, C; Schaumann, A; Junter, G A; Jouenne, T

    2011-12-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are known for their intrinsic resistance to antibiotics. Between mechanisms involved in this resistance, diminished expression of outer membrane proteins and up-regulation of efflux pumps play an important role. The characterization of membrane proteins is consequently necessary because of their importance in the antibiotic resistance but also in virulence. This review presents proteomic investigations aiming to describe the protein content of the membranes of these two bacterial species.

  6. [Properties of a nitrite reductase inhibitor protein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa].

    PubMed

    Karapetian, A V; Nalbandian, R M

    1993-08-01

    The amino acid composition and major physico-chemical properties of the "nonblue" copper protein isolated earlier from Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been determined. It has been found that the azurin oxidase, cytochrome c551 oxidase and superoxide dismutase activities of the enzyme are inhibited by this protein. The inhibition seems to be due to the protein interaction with the electron-accepting center of nitrite reductase.

  7. In vivo-induced genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Handfield, M; Lehoux, D E; Sanschagrin, F; Mahan, M J; Woods, D E; Levesque, R C

    2000-04-01

    In vivo expression technology was used for testing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the rat lung model of chronic infection and in a mouse model of systemic infection. Three of the eight ivi proteins found showed sequence identity to known virulence factors involved in iron acquisition via an open reading frame (called pvdI) implicated in pyoverdine biosynthesis, membrane biogenesis (FtsY), and adhesion (Hag2).

  8. In Vivo-Induced Genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Handfield, Martin; Lehoux, Dario E.; Sanschagrin, François; Mahan, Michael J.; Woods, Donald E.; Levesque, Roger C.

    2000-01-01

    In vivo expression technology was used for testing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the rat lung model of chronic infection and in a mouse model of systemic infection. Three of the eight ivi proteins found showed sequence identity to known virulence factors involved in iron acquisition via an open reading frame (called pvdI) implicated in pyoverdine biosynthesis, membrane biogenesis (FtsY), and adhesion (Hag2). PMID:10722644

  9. Comparative genomic analysis of multiple strains of two unusual plant pathogens: Pseudomonas corrugata and Pseudomonas mediterranea.

    PubMed

    Trantas, Emmanouil A; Licciardello, Grazia; Almeida, Nalvo F; Witek, Kamil; Strano, Cinzia P; Duxbury, Zane; Ververidis, Filippos; Goumas, Dimitrios E; Jones, Jonathan D G; Guttman, David S; Catara, Vittoria; Sarris, Panagiotis F

    2015-01-01

    The non-fluorescent pseudomonads, Pseudomonas corrugata (Pcor) and P. mediterranea (Pmed), are closely related species that cause pith necrosis, a disease of tomato that causes severe crop losses. However, they also show strong antagonistic effects against economically important pathogens, demonstrating their potential for utilization as biological control agents. In addition, their metabolic versatility makes them attractive for the production of commercial biomolecules and bioremediation. An extensive comparative genomics study is required to dissect the mechanisms that Pcor and Pmed employ to cause disease, prevent disease caused by other pathogens, and to mine their genomes for genes that encode proteins involved in commercially important chemical pathways. Here, we present the draft genomes of nine Pcor and Pmed strains from different geographical locations. This analysis covered significant genetic heterogeneity and allowed in-depth genomic comparison. All examined strains were able to trigger symptoms in tomato plants but not all induced a hypersensitive-like response in Nicotiana benthamiana. Genome-mining revealed the absence of type III secretion system and known type III effector-encoding genes from all examined Pcor and Pmed strains. The lack of a type III secretion system appears to be unique among the plant pathogenic pseudomonads. Several gene clusters coding for type VI secretion system were detected in all genomes. Genome-mining also revealed the presence of gene clusters for biosynthesis of siderophores, polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, and hydrogen cyanide. A highly conserved quorum sensing system was detected in all strains, although species specific differences were observed. Our study provides the basis for in-depth investigations regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying virulence strategies in the battle between plants and microbes.

  10. Comparative genomic analysis of multiple strains of two unusual plant pathogens: Pseudomonas corrugata and Pseudomonas mediterranea

    PubMed Central

    Trantas, Emmanouil A.; Licciardello, Grazia; Almeida, Nalvo F.; Witek, Kamil; Strano, Cinzia P.; Duxbury, Zane; Ververidis, Filippos; Goumas, Dimitrios E.; Jones, Jonathan D. G.; Guttman, David S.; Catara, Vittoria; Sarris, Panagiotis F.

    2015-01-01

    The non-fluorescent pseudomonads, Pseudomonas corrugata (Pcor) and P. mediterranea (Pmed), are closely related species that cause pith necrosis, a disease of tomato that causes severe crop losses. However, they also show strong antagonistic effects against economically important pathogens, demonstrating their potential for utilization as biological control agents. In addition, their metabolic versatility makes them attractive for the production of commercial biomolecules and bioremediation. An extensive comparative genomics study is required to dissect the mechanisms that Pcor and Pmed employ to cause disease, prevent disease caused by other pathogens, and to mine their genomes for genes that encode proteins involved in commercially important chemical pathways. Here, we present the draft genomes of nine Pcor and Pmed strains from different geographical locations. This analysis covered significant genetic heterogeneity and allowed in-depth genomic comparison. All examined strains were able to trigger symptoms in tomato plants but not all induced a hypersensitive-like response in Nicotiana benthamiana. Genome-mining revealed the absence of type III secretion system and known type III effector-encoding genes from all examined Pcor and Pmed strains. The lack of a type III secretion system appears to be unique among the plant pathogenic pseudomonads. Several gene clusters coding for type VI secretion system were detected in all genomes. Genome-mining also revealed the presence of gene clusters for biosynthesis of siderophores, polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, and hydrogen cyanide. A highly conserved quorum sensing system was detected in all strains, although species specific differences were observed. Our study provides the basis for in-depth investigations regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying virulence strategies in the battle between plants and microbes. PMID:26300874

  11. Homologous structural genes and similar induction patterns in Azotobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp.

    PubMed Central

    Durham, D R; Ornston, L N

    1980-01-01

    Intergeneric comparison of the three enzymes that initiate metabolism of protocatechuate in Azotobacter and Pseudomonas species revealed close immunological relatedness of isofunctional proteins. Furthermore, beta-ketoadipate induces all of the enzymes of the protocatechuate pathway (except protocatechuate oxygenase) in Azotobacter and in Pseudomonas species of the "fluorescent" and "cepacia" groups. This regulatory property sets the organisms apart from other bacteria. Protocatechuate oxygenase from Pseudomonas cepacia, like the enzyme from fluorescent Pseudomonas species, cross-reacts strongly with antiserum prepared against protocatechuate oxygenase from Azotobacter vinelandii. Double-diffusion experiments conducted with the antiserum revealed relatedness of Azotobacter spp. Protocatechuate oxygenases in the following order: A. vinelandii = Azotobacter miscellum greater than Azotobacter chroococcum greater than Azotobacter beijerinkii. The antiserum also revealed serological heterogeneity among Pseudomonas spp. protocatechuate oxygenases which were serologically indistinguishable in earlier studies using Pseudomonas aeruginosa protocatechuate oxygenase as reference protein. Images PMID:7204335

  12. Different Ancestries of R Tailocins in Rhizospheric Pseudomonas Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Ghequire, Maarten G.K.; Dillen, Yörg; Lambrichts, Ivo; Proost, Paul; Wattiez, Ruddy; De Mot, René

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial genomes accommodate a variety of mobile genetic elements, including bacteriophage-related clusters that encode phage tail-like protein complexes playing a role in interactions with eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells. Such tailocins are unable to replicate inside target cells due to the lack of a phage head with associated DNA. A subset of tailocins mediate antagonistic activities with bacteriocin-like specificity. Functional characterization of bactericidal tailocins of two Pseudomonas putida rhizosphere isolates revealed not only extensive similarity with the tail assembly module of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa R-type pyocins but also differences in genomic integration site, regulatory genes, and lytic release modules. Conversely, these three features are quite similar between strains of the P. putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens clades, although phylogenetic analysis of tail genes suggests them to have evolved separately. Unlike P. aeruginosa R pyocin elements, the tailocin gene clusters of other pseudomonads frequently carry cargo genes, including bacteriocins. Compared with P. aeruginosa, the tailocin tail fiber sequences that act as specificity determinants have diverged much more extensively among the other pseudomonad species, mostly isolates from soil and plant environments. Activity of the P. putida antibacterial particles requires a functional lipopolysaccharide layer on target cells, but contrary to R pyocins from P. aeruginosa, strain susceptibilities surpass species boundaries. PMID:26412856

  13. Regulation of biofilm formation in Pseudomonas and Burkholderia species.

    PubMed

    Fazli, Mustafa; Almblad, Henrik; Rybtke, Morten Levin; Givskov, Michael; Eberl, Leo; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2014-07-01

    In the present review, we describe and compare the molecular mechanisms that are involved in the regulation of biofilm formation by Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cenocepacia. Our current knowledge suggests that biofilm formation is regulated by cyclic diguanosine-5'-monophosphate (c-di-GMP), small RNAs (sRNA) and quorum sensing (QS) in all these bacterial species. The systems that employ c-di-GMP as a second messenger regulate the production of exopolysaccharides and surface proteins which function as extracellular matrix components in the biofilms formed by the bacteria. The systems that make use of sRNAs appear to regulate the production of exopolysaccharide biofilm matrix material in all these species. In the pseudomonads, QS regulates the production of extracellular DNA, lectins and biosurfactants which all play a role in biofilm formation. In B.cenocepacia QS regulates the expression of a large surface protein, lectins and extracellular DNA that all function as biofilm matrix components. Although the three regulatory systems all regulate the production of factors used for biofilm formation, the molecular mechanisms involved in transducing the signals into expression of the biofilm matrix components differ between the species. Under the conditions tested, exopolysaccharides appears to be the most important biofilm matrix components for P.aeruginosa, whereas large surface proteins appear to be the most important biofilm matrix components for P.putida, P.fluorescens, and B.cenocepacia.

  14. Host defense mechanisms against pneumonia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Pennington, J E; Ehrie, M G; Hickey, W F

    1984-01-01

    Pneumonia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa is associated with unusually high mortalities. Accordingly, efforts to define better the most important components of lung defenses against this infection are justified as a prelude to defining improved management strategies. In this report, a guinea pig model of experimental aspiration pseudomonas pneumonia was employed for studies of cellular and humoral mechanisms of pulmonary defense. Animals treated with cortisone acetate plus cyclophosphamide experienced decreased survival from pneumonia, and survival rates correlated directly with the degree of myelosuppression. Numbers of pulmonary macrophages and polymorphonuclear neutrophils were reduced in drug-treated animals before impairment of macrophage antibacterial function. Thus, a reduction in numbers of phagocytes alone was sufficient to markedly reduce lung defenses. In additional experiments, normal guinea pigs were vaccinated with a lipopolysaccharide pseudomonas vaccine. Improved survival from pneumonia correlated with high titers of type-specific, heat-stable opsonic antibody. It is concluded that adequate numbers of lung phagocytes, plus type-specific opsonic antibody, represent the ideal status for lung defense against P. aeruginosa infection.

  15. Contact lens surface deposits increase the adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Butrus, S I; Klotz, S A

    1990-08-01

    Soft contact lenses are bathed with tear components during wear and surface deposits accumulate. This report shows that Pseudomonas aeruginosa adheres to the surface of worn extended wear contact lenses in direct proportion to the amount of lens surface deposits as determined by the Rudko method (P less than .05). More hydrophobic bacteria adhered 10 times greater than bacteria which were relatively hydrophilic (P less than .005). The effect upon bacterial adhesion of enzyme and surfactant cleaning of worn extended wear contact lenses was investigated by two independent methods: one involving a high inoculum and the other a low inoculum of Pseudomonas. Treatment of worn lenses with commercially available enzymes such as papain and pork pancreatin as well as treatment with neuraminidase, mannosidase, glucosidase and alkylcarboxylic acid for as long as 48 hours failed to reduce subsequent bacterial adhesion in both the high and low inoculum experiments. We conclude that soft contact lens surface deposits are a major determinant in the adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to the worn lens surface and that enzyme cleaning of worn lenses does not significantly reduce bacterial adhesion.

  16. Uncommonly isolated clinical Pseudomonas: identification and phylogenetic assignation.

    PubMed

    Mulet, M; Gomila, M; Ramírez, A; Cardew, S; Moore, E R B; Lalucat, J; García-Valdés, E

    2017-02-01

    Fifty-two Pseudomonas strains that were difficult to identify at the species level in the phenotypic routine characterizations employed by clinical microbiology laboratories were selected for genotypic-based analysis. Species level identifications were done initially by partial sequencing of the DNA dependent RNA polymerase sub-unit D gene (rpoD). Two other gene sequences, for the small sub-unit ribosonal RNA (16S rRNA) and for DNA gyrase sub-unit B (gyrB) were added in a multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) study to confirm the species identifications. These sequences were analyzed with a collection of reference sequences from the type strains of 161 Pseudomonas species within an in-house multi-locus sequence analysis database. Whole-cell matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analyses of these strains complemented the DNA sequenced-based phylogenetic analyses and were observed to be in accordance with the results of the sequence data. Twenty-three out of 52 strains were assigned to 12 recognized species not commonly detected in clinical specimens and 29 (56 %) were considered representatives of at least ten putative new species. Most strains were distributed within the P. fluorescens and P. aeruginosa lineages. The value of rpoD sequences in species-level identifications for Pseudomonas is emphasized. The correct species identifications of clinical strains is essential for establishing the intrinsic antibiotic resistance patterns and improved treatment plans.

  17. Experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa mediated rhino sinusitis in mink.

    PubMed

    Kirkeby, S; Hammer, A S; Høiby, N; Salomonsen, C M

    2017-05-01

    The nasal and sinus cavities in children may serve as reservoirs for microorganisms that cause recurrent and chronic lung infections. This study evaluates whether the mink can be used as an animal model for studying Pseudomonas aeruginosa mediated rhino-sinusitis since there is no suitable traditional animal model for this disease. Nasal tissue samples from infected and control mink were fixed in formalin, demineralized, and embedded in paraffin. A histological examination of sections from the infected animals revealed disintegration of the respiratory epithelium lining the nasal turbinates and swelling and edema of the submucosa. The expression of mucins and sialylated glycans was examined using immunohistochemistry. MUC1, MUC2 and MUC5AC were upregulated in the inoculated animals as a much stronger staining was present in the respiratory epithelium in the infected animals compared to the controls. The goblet cells in the nasal epithelium from the infected mink showed high affinity to the Maackia amurensis lectin and anti-asialo GM1 indicating a high concentration of α2-3 sialic acid respectively βGalNAc1-4Galβ containing glycans in these mucin producing cells. The nasal cavity in the infected mink shows features of carbohydrate expression comparable to what has been described in the respiratory system after Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in humans. It is suggested that the mink is suitable for studying Pseudomonas aeruginosa mediated rhino-sinusitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biomolecular Mechanisms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli Biofilm Formation.

    PubMed

    Laverty, Garry; Gorman, Sean P; Gilmore, Brendan F

    2014-07-18

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli are the most prevalent Gram-negative biofilm forming medical device associated pathogens, particularly with respect to catheter associated urinary tract infections. In a similar manner to Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative biofilm formation is fundamentally determined by a series of steps outlined more fully in this review, namely adhesion, cellular aggregation, and the production of an extracellular polymeric matrix. More specifically this review will explore the biosynthesis and role of pili and flagella in Gram-negative adhesion and accumulation on surfaces in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The process of biofilm maturation is compared and contrasted in both species, namely the production of the exopolysaccharides via the polysaccharide synthesis locus (Psl), pellicle Formation (Pel) and alginic acid synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose and colonic acid synthesis in Escherichia coli. An emphasis is placed on the importance of the LuxR homologue sdiA; the luxS/autoinducer-II; an autoinducer-III/epinephrine/norepinephrine and indole mediated Quorum sensing systems in enabling Gram-negative bacteria to adapt to their environments. The majority of Gram-negative biofilms consist of polysaccharides of a simple sugar structure (either homo- or heteropolysaccharides) that provide an optimum environment for the survival and maturation of bacteria, allowing them to display increased resistance to antibiotics and predation.

  19. Biomolecular Mechanisms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Laverty, Garry; Gorman, Sean P.; Gilmore, Brendan F.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli are the most prevalent Gram-negative biofilm forming medical device associated pathogens, particularly with respect to catheter associated urinary tract infections. In a similar manner to Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative biofilm formation is fundamentally determined by a series of steps outlined more fully in this review, namely adhesion, cellular aggregation, and the production of an extracellular polymeric matrix. More specifically this review will explore the biosynthesis and role of pili and flagella in Gram-negative adhesion and accumulation on surfaces in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The process of biofilm maturation is compared and contrasted in both species, namely the production of the exopolysaccharides via the polysaccharide synthesis locus (Psl), pellicle Formation (Pel) and alginic acid synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose and colonic acid synthesis in Escherichia coli. An emphasis is placed on the importance of the LuxR homologue sdiA; the luxS/autoinducer-II; an autoinducer-III/epinephrine/norepinephrine and indole mediated Quorum sensing systems in enabling Gram-negative bacteria to adapt to their environments. The majority of Gram-negative biofilms consist of polysaccharides of a simple sugar structure (either homo- or heteropolysaccharides) that provide an optimum environment for the survival and maturation of bacteria, allowing them to display increased resistance to antibiotics and predation. PMID:25438014

  20. Ribosomally encoded antibacterial proteins and peptides from Pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Ghequire, Maarten G K; De Mot, René

    2014-07-01

    Members of the Pseudomonas genus produce diverse secondary metabolites affecting other bacteria, fungi or predating nematodes and protozoa but are also equipped with the capacity to secrete different types of ribosomally encoded toxic peptides and proteins, ranging from small microcins to large tailocins. Studies with the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa have revealed that effector proteins of type VI secretion systems are part of the antibacterial armamentarium deployed by pseudomonads. A novel class of antibacterial proteins with structural similarity to plant lectins was discovered by studying antagonism among plant-associated Pseudomonas strains. A genomic perspective on pseudomonad bacteriocinogeny shows that the modular architecture of S pyocins of P. aeruginosa is retained in a large diversified group of bacteriocins, most of which target DNA or RNA. Similar modularity is present in as yet poorly characterized Rhs (recombination hot spot) proteins and CDI (contact-dependent inhibition) proteins. Well-delimited domains for receptor recognition or cytotoxicity enable the design of chimeric toxins with novel functionalities, which has been applied successfully for S and R pyocins. Little is known regarding how these antibacterials are released and ultimately reach their targets. Other remaining issues concern the identification of environmental triggers activating these systems and assessment of their ecological impact in niches populated by pseudomonads. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Production of inhibiting plant growth and development hormones by pathogenic for legumes Pseudomonas genus bacteria].

    PubMed

    Dankevich, L A

    2013-01-01

    It has been studied the ability of pathogenic for legumes pathovars of Pseudomonas genus to produce ethylene and abscisic acid in vitro. A direct correlation between the level of ethylene production by agent of bacterial pea burn--Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi and level of its aggressiveness for plants has been found. It is shown that the amount of abscisic acid synthesized by pathogenic for legumes Pseudomonas genus bacteria correlates with their aggressiveness for plants.

  2. Agricultural Use of Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) Cepacia: A Threat to Human Health?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    Benson D. Pyrrolnitrin and phenazine production by Pseudomonas cepacia strain 5.5B, a biocontrol agent of Rhizoctonia solani. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol...INTERNET DOCUMENT INFORMATION FORM A. Report Title: Agricultural Use of Burkholderia ( Pseudomonas ) cepacia: A Threat to Human Health? B. DATE...questions, contact the above OCA Representative for resolution. rIfllC QUALITY INSPECTED 1 O-* Synopses Agricultural Use of Burkholderia ( Pseudomonas

  3. Effect of green manure on the incidence of cyanogenic Pseudomonas strains in hop garden soils.

    PubMed

    Paszkowski, Wojciech L; Dwornikiewicz, Jerzy

    2003-05-01

    Incidence of cyanogenic Pseudomonas strains in hop garden soils in relation to the kind of fertilization was studied. Incidence differed with respect to the fertilization treatment and the age of the plantation. Amendment of soil with rye and with white mustard as green manures limited the number of cyanogenic Pseudomonas strains relative to farmyard manures and NPK fertilization. Among all fertilization treatments, cyanogenic Pseudomonas spp. strains had lowest populations in soils amended with white mustard.

  4. 2-Heptyl-4-Quinolone, a Precursor of the Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal Molecule, Modulates Swarming Motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa▿

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Dae-Gon; Merritt, Judith H.; Hampton, Thomas H.; Hodgkinson, James T.; Janecek, Matej; Spring, David R.; Welch, Martin; O'Toole, George A.

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen capable of group behaviors, including biofilm formation and swarming motility. These group behaviors are regulated by both the intracellular signaling molecule c-di-GMP and acylhomoserine lactone quorum-sensing systems. Here, we show that the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) system also contributes to the regulation of swarming motility. Specifically, our data indicate that 2-heptyl-4-quinolone (HHQ), a precursor of PQS, likely induces the production of the phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA), which in turn acts via an as-yet-unknown downstream mechanism to repress swarming motility. We show that this HHQ- and PCA-dependent swarming repression is apparently independent of changes in global levels of c-di-GMP, suggesting complex regulation of this group behavior. PMID:21965567

  5. Pseudomonas salina sp. nov., isolated from a salt lake.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Ying; Hou, Ting-Ting; Liu, Hong-Can; Zhou, Yu-Guang; Wang, Fang; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2015-09-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, facultatively aerobic bacterium, strain XCD-X85(T), was isolated from Xiaochaidan Lake, a salt lake (salinity 9.9%, w/v) in Qaidam basin, Qinghai province, China. Its taxonomic position was determined by using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain XCD-X85(T) were non-endospore-forming rods, 0.4-0.6 μm wide and 1.0-1.6 μm long, and motile by means of a single polar flagellum. Strain XCD-X85(T) was catalase- and oxidase-positive. Growth was observed in the presence of 0-12.0% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 1.0-2.0%) and at 4-35 °C (optimum, 25-30 °C) and pH 6.5-10.5 (optimum, pH 8.0-8.5). Strain XCD-X85(T) contained (>10%) summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c), C12 : 0, C16 : 0 and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) as the predominant fatty acids. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone 9 (Q-9). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The DNA G+C content was 57.4 mol%. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain XCD-X85(T) was associated with the genus Pseudomonas, and showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to Pseudomonas pelagia CL-AP6(T) (99.0%) and Pseudomonas bauzanensis BZ93(T) (96.8%). DNA-DNA relatedness of strain XCD-X85T to P. pelagia JCM 15562(T) was 19 ± 1%. On the basis of the data presented above, it is concluded that strain XCD-X85(T) represents a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas salina sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is XCD-X85(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12482(T) = JCM 19469(T)).

  6. Combined inoculation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum for enhancing plant growth of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia).

    PubMed

    Sandheep, A R; Asok, A K; Jisha, M S

    2013-06-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the plant growth promoting efficiency of combined inoculation of rhizobacteria on Vanilla plants. Based on the in vitro performance of indigenous Trichoderma spp. and Pseudomonas spp., four effective antagonists were selected and screened under greenhouse experiment for their growth enhancement potential. The maximum percentage of growth enhancement were observed in the combination of Trichoderma harzianum with Pseudomonas fluorescens treatment followed by Pseudomonas fluorescens, Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas putida and Trichoderma virens, respectively in decreasing order. Combined inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens registered the maximum length of vine (82.88 cm), highest number of leaves (26.67/plant), recorded the highest fresh weight of shoots (61.54 g plant(-1)), fresh weight of roots (4.46 g plant(-1)) and dry weight of shoot (4.56 g plant(-1)) where as the highest dry weight of roots (2.0806 g plant(-1)) were achieved with treatments of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Among the inoculated strains, combined inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens recorded the maximum nitrogen uptake (61.28 mg plant(-1)) followed by the combined inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum (std) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (std) (55.03 mg plant(-1)) and the highest phosphorus uptake (38.80 mg plant(-1)) was recorded in dual inoculation of Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens.

  7. Efficacy of lactoferricin B in controlling ready-to-eat vegetable spoilage caused by Pseudomonas spp.

    PubMed

    Federico, Baruzzi; Pinto, Loris; Quintieri, Laura; Carito, Antonia; Calabrese, Nicola; Caputo, Leonardo

    2015-12-23

    The microbial content of plant tissues has been reported to cause the spoilage of ca. 30% of chlorine-disinfected fresh vegetables during cold storage. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial peptides in controlling microbial vegetable spoilage under cold storage conditions. A total of 48 bacterial isolates were collected from ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetables and identified as belonging to Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Aeromonas media, Pseudomonas cichorii, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas jessenii, Pseudomonas koreensis, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas simiae and Pseudomonas viridiflava species. Reddish or brownish pigmentation was found when Pseudomonas strains were inoculated in wounds on leaves of Iceberg and Trocadero lettuce and escarole chicory throughout cold storage. Bovine lactoferrin (BLF) and its hydrolysates (LFHs) produced by pepsin, papain and rennin, were assayed in vitro against four Pseudomonas spp. strains selected for their heavy spoiling ability. As the pepsin-LFH showed the strongest antimicrobial effect, subsequent experiments were carried out using the peptide lactoferricin B (LfcinB), well known to be responsible for its antimicrobial activity. LfcinB significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05) spoilage by a mean of 36% caused by three out of four inoculated spoiler pseudomonads on RTE lettuce leaves after six days of cold storage. The reduction in the extent of spoilage was unrelated to viable cell density in the inoculated wounds. This is the first paper providing direct evidence regarding the application of an antimicrobial peptide to control microbial spoilage affecting RTE leafy vegetables during cold storage.

  8. A HIGHLY SELECTIVE PCR PROTOCOL FOR DETECTING 16S RRNA GENES OF THE GENUS PSEUDOMONAS (SENSU STRICTO) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pseudomonas species are plant, animal, and human pathogens; exhibit plant pathogen-suppressing properties useful in biological control; or express metabolic versatilities valued in biotechnology and bioremediation. Specific detection of Pseudomonas species in the environment may ...

  9. A HIGHLY SELECTIVE PCR PROTOCOL FOR DETECTING 16S RRNA GENES OF THE GENUS PSEUDOMONAS (SENSU STRICTO) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pseudomonas species are plant, animal, and human pathogens; exhibit plant pathogen-suppressing properties useful in biological control; or express metabolic versatilities valued in biotechnology and bioremediation. Specific detection of Pseudomonas species in the environment may ...

  10. EMS in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Ramalanjaona, Georges; Brogan, Gerald X

    2009-02-01

    Mauritius lies in the southwest Indian Ocean about 1250 miles from the African coast and 500 miles from Madagascar. Mauritius (estimated population 1,230,602) became independent from the United Kingdom in 1968 and has one of the highest GDP per capita in Africa. Within Mauritius there is a well established EMS system with a single 999 national dispatch system. Ambulances are either publicly or privately owned. Public ambulances are run by the Government (SAMU). Megacare is a private subscriber only ambulance service. The Government has recently invested in new technology such as telemedicine to further enhance the role of EMS on the island. This article describes the current state of EMS in Mauritius and depicts its development in the context of Government effort to decentralise and modernise the healthcare system.

  11. EMS -- Error Message Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, P. C. T.; Chipperfield, A. J.; Draper, P. W.

    This document describes the Error Message Service, EMS, and its use in system software. The purpose of EMS is to provide facilities for constructing and storing error messages for future delivery to the user -- usually via the Starlink Error Reporting System, ERR (see SUN/104). EMS can be regarded as a simplified version of ERR without the binding to any software environment (e.g., for message output or access to the parameter and data systems). The routines in this library conform to the error reporting conventions described in SUN/104. A knowledge of these conventions, and of the ADAM system (see SG/4), is assumed in what follows. This document is intended for Starlink systems programmers and can safely be ignored by applications programmers and users.

  12. Molecular and Phenotypic Characterization of Pseudomonas spp. Isolated from Milk

    PubMed Central

    Wiedmann, Martin; Weilmeier, Denise; Dineen, Sean S.; Ralyea, Robert; Boor, Kathryn J.

    2000-01-01

    Putative Pseudomonas spp. isolated predominantly from raw and processed milk were characterized by automated ribotyping and by biochemical reactions. Isolates were biochemically profiled using the Biolog system and API 20 NE and by determining the production of proteases, lipases, and lecithinases for each isolate. Isolates grouped into five coherent clusters, predominated by the species P. putida (cluster A), P. fluorescens (cluster B), P. fragi (as identified by Biolog) or P. fluorescens (as identified by API 20 NE) (cluster C), P. fragi (as identified by Biolog) or P. putida (as identified by API 20 NE) (cluster D), and P. fluorescens (cluster E). Isolates within each cluster also displayed similar enzyme activities. Isolates in clusters A, C, and D were generally negative for all three enzyme activities; isolates in cluster B were predominantly positive for all three enzyme activities; and isolates in cluster E were negative for lecithinase but predominantly positive for protease and lipase activities. Thus, only isolates from clusters B and E produced enzyme activities associated with dairy product flavor defects. Thirty-eight ribogroups were differentiated among the 70 isolates. Ribotyping was highly discriminatory for dairy Pseudomonas isolates, with a Simpson's index of discrimination of 0.955. Isolates of the same ribotype were never classified into different clusters, and ribotypes within a given cluster generally showed similar ribotype patterns; thus, specific ribotype fragments may be useful markers for tracking the sources of pseudomonads in dairy production systems. Our results suggest that ribogroups are generally homogeneous with respect to nomenspecies and biovars, confirming the identification potential of ribotyping for Pseudomonas spp. PMID:10788386

  13. Dienelactone hydrolase from Pseudomonas sp. strain B13.

    PubMed Central

    Ngai, K L; Schlömann, M; Knackmuss, H J; Ornston, L N

    1987-01-01

    Dienelactone hydrolase (EC 3.1.1.45) catalyzes the conversion of cis- or trans-4-carboxymethylenebut-2-en-4-olide (dienelactone) to maleylacetate. An approximately 24-fold purification from extracts of 3-chlorobenzoate-grown Pseudomonas sp. strain B13 yielded a homogeneous preparation of the enzyme. The purified enzyme crystallized readily and proved to be a monomer with a molecular weight of about 30,000. Each dienelactone hydrolase molecule contains two cysteinyl side chains. One of these was readily titrated by stoichiometric amounts of p-chloromercuribenzoate, resulting in inactivation of the enzyme; the inactivation could be reversed by the addition of dithiothreitol. The other cysteinyl side chain appeared to be protected in the native protein against chemical reaction with p-chloromercuribenzoate. The properties of sulfhydryl side chains in dienelactone hydrolase resembled those that have been characterized for bacterial 4-carboxymethylbut-3-en-4-olide (enol-lactone) hydrolases (EC 3.1.1.24), which also are monomers with molecular weights of about 30,000. The amino acid composition of the dienelactone hydrolase resembled the amino acid composition of enol-lactone hydrolase from Pseudomonas putida, and alignment of the NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of the dienelactone hydrolase with the corresponding sequence of an Acinetobacter calcoaceticus enol-lactone hydrolase revealed sequence identity at 8 of the 28 positions. These observations foster the hypothesis that the lactone hydrolases share a common ancestor. The lactone hydrolases differed in one significant property: the kcat of dienelactone hydrolase was 1,800 min-1, an order of magnitude below the kcat observed with enol-lactone hydrolases. The relatively low catalytic activity of dienelactone hydrolase may demand its production at the high levels observed for induced cultures of Pseudomonas sp. strain B13. PMID:3804973

  14. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia induce distinct host responses.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Kevin W; McDunn, Jonathan E; Clark, Andrew T; Dunne, W Michael; Dixon, David J; Turnbull, Isaiah R; Dipasco, Peter J; Osberghaus, William F; Sherman, Benjamin; Martin, James R; Walter, Michael J; Cobb, J Perren; Buchman, Timothy G; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2010-01-01

    Pathogens that cause pneumonia may be treated in a targeted fashion by antibiotics, but if this therapy fails, then treatment involves only nonspecific supportive measures, independent of the inciting infection. The purpose of this study was to determine whether host response is similar after disparate infections with similar mortalities. Prospective, randomized controlled study. Animal laboratory in a university medical center. Pneumonia was induced in FVB/N mice by either Streptococcus pneumoniae or two different concentrations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from septic animals was assayed by a microarray immunoassay measuring 18 inflammatory mediators at multiple time points. The host response was dependent on the causative organism as well as kinetics of mortality, but the pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses were independent of inoculum concentration or degree of bacteremia. Pneumonia caused by different concentrations of the same bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, also yielded distinct inflammatory responses; however, inflammatory mediator expression did not directly track the severity of infection. For all infections, the host response was compartmentalized, with markedly different concentrations of inflammatory mediators in the systemic circulation and the lungs. Hierarchical clustering analysis resulted in the identification of five distinct clusters of the host response to bacterial infection. Principal components analysis correlated pulmonary macrophage inflammatory peptide-2 and interleukin-10 with progression of infection, whereas elevated plasma tumor necrosis factor sr2 and macrophage chemotactic peptide-1 were indicative of fulminant disease with >90% mortality within 48 hrs. Septic mice have distinct local and systemic responses to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. Targeting specific host inflammatory responses induced by distinct bacterial infections could represent a

  15. Polytrauma Increases Susceptibility to Pseudomonas Pneumonia in Mature Mice.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Isaiah R; Ghosh, Sarbani; Fuchs, Anja; Hilliard, Julia; Davis, Christopher G; Bochicchio, Grant V; Southard, Robert E

    2016-05-01

    Pneumonia is the most common complication observed in patients with severe injuries. Although the average age of injured patients is 47 years, existing studies of the effect of injury on the susceptibility to infectious complications have focused on young animals, equivalent to a late adolescent human. We hypothesized that mature adult animals are more susceptible to infection after injury than younger counterparts. To test this hypothesis, we challenged 6 to 8-month-old mature mice to a polytrauma injury followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia and compared them to young (8-10-week-old) animals. We demonstrate that polytrauma injury increases mortality from pneumonia in mature animals (sham-pneumonia 21% vs. polytrauma-pneumonia 62%) but not younger counterparts. After polytrauma, pneumonia in mature mice is associated with higher bacterial burden in lung, increased incidence of bacteremia, and elevated levels of bacteria in the blood, demonstrating that injury decreases the ability to control the infectious challenge. We further find that polytrauma did not induce elevations in circulating cytokine levels (TNF-alpha, IL-6, KC, and IL-10) 24  h after injury. However, mature mice subjected to polytrauma demonstrated an exaggerated circulating inflammatory cytokine response to subsequent Pseudomonas pneumonia. Additionally, whereas prior injury increases LPS-stimulated IL-6 production by peripheral blood leukocytes from young (8-10-week-old) mice, injury does not prime IL-6 production by cell from mature adult mice. We conclude that in mature mice polytrauma results in increased susceptibility to Pseudomonas pneumonia while priming an exaggerated but ineffective inflammatory response.

  16. A Mathematical model to investigate quorum sensing regulation and its heterogenecity in pseudomonas syringae on leaves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The bacterium Pseudomonas syringae is a plant-pathogen, which through quorum sensing (QS), controls virulence. In this paper, by means of mathematical modeling, we investigate QS of this bacterium when living on leaf surfaces. We extend an existing stochastic model for the formation of Pseudomonas s...

  17. Pseudomonas sax genes overcome aliphatic isothiocyanate-mediated non-host resistance in Arabidopsis

    Treesearch

    Jun Fan; Casey Crooks; Gary Creissen; Lionel Hill; Shirley Fairhurst; Peter Doerner; Chris Lamb

    2011-01-01

    Most plant-microbe interactions do not result in disease; natural products restrict non-host pathogens. We found that sulforaphane (4-methylsulfinylbutyl isothiocyanate), a natural product derived from aliphatic glucosinolates, inhibits growth in Arabidopsis of non-host Pseudomonas bacteria in planta. Multiple sax genes (saxCAB/F/D/G) were identified in Pseudomonas...

  18. Effect of tannic acid on the transcriptome of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tannins are plant-produced organic compounds that are found in soils, are able to sequester iron, and have antimicrobial properties. We studied the effect of tannic acid on the molecular physiology of the soil-inhabiting biocontrol bacterium Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 (formerly Pseudomonas fluoresce...

  19. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of.... vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption from the requirement of... syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato. ...

  20. Plasmid-determined silver resistance in Pseudomonas stutzeri isolated from a silver mine.

    PubMed Central

    Haefeli, C; Franklin, C; Hardy, K

    1984-01-01

    A silver-resistant strain of Pseudomonas stutzeri was isolated from a silver mine. It harbored three plasmids, the largest of which (pKK1; molecular weight, 49.4 X 10(6)) specified silver resistance. Plasmid pKK1 was apparently nonconjugative but could be transferred to Pseudomonas putida by mobilization with plasmid R68.45. Images PMID:6715284

  1. Genomic Diversity of Biocontrol Strains of Pseudomonas spp. Isolated from Aerial or Root Surfaces of Plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The striking ecological, metabolic, and biochemical diversity of Pseudomonas has intrigued microbiologists for many decades. To explore the genomic diversity of biocontrol strains of Pseudomonas spp., we derived high quality draft sequences of seven strains known to suppress plant disease. The str...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of.... vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption from the requirement of... syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato....

  3. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of.... vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption from the requirement of... syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato....

  4. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of.... vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption from the requirement of... syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato....

  5. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of.... vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption from the requirement of... syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato....

  6. Antimicrobial resistance of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from wastewater and wastewater-impacted marine coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Luczkiewicz, Aneta; Kotlarska, Ewa; Artichowicz, Wojciech; Tarasewicz, Katarzyna; Fudala-Ksiazek, Sylwia

    2015-12-01

    In this study, species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of cultivated Pseudomonas spp. were studied in influent (INF), effluent (EFF), and marine outfall (MOut) of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The susceptibility was tested against 8 antimicrobial classes, active against Pseudomonas spp.: aminoglycosides, carbapenems, broad-spectrum cephalosporins from the 3rd and 4th generation, extended-spectrum penicillins, as well as their combination with the β-lactamase inhibitors, monobactams, fluoroquinolones, and polymyxins. Among identified species, resistance to all antimicrobials but colistin was shown by Pseudomonas putida, the predominant species in all sampling points. In other species, resistance was observed mainly against ceftazidime, ticarcillin, ticarcillin-clavulanate, and aztreonam, although some isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, and Pseudomonas protegens showed multidrug-resistance (MDR) phenotype. Among P. putida, resistance to β-lactams and to fluoroquinolones as well as multidrug resistance become more prevalent after wastewater treatment, but the resistance rate decreased in marine water samples. Obtained data, however, suggests that Pseudomonas spp. are equipped or are able to acquire a wide range of antibiotic resistance mechanisms, and thus should be monitored as possible source of resistance genes.

  7. pA506: A conjugative plasmid of the plant epiphyte Pseudomonas fluorescens A506

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pseudomonas fluorescens A506 is an plant-epiphytic bacterium that is used commercially in the United States for the biological control of fire blight disease of pear and apple. Here, we demonstrate that A506 has a 57 kB conjugative plasmid that can transfer to other strains of Pseudomonas spp. and ...

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas sp. LAB-08 Isolated from Trichloroethene-Contaminated Aquifer Soil.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kenshi; Aziz, Fatma A A; Inuzuka, Yuma; Tashiro, Yosuke; Futamata, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-22

    Pseudomonas sp. LAB-08 was isolated from a phenol-fed bioreactor constructed with contaminated aquifer soil as the inoculum. Strain LAB-08 utilized phenol as a sole carbon and energy source. Here, we report the genome sequence and annotation of Pseudomonas sp. LAB-08. Copyright © 2016 Suzuki et al.

  9. Identification of Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis previously isolated from diseased crucifers in Australia.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis causes bacterial blight on crucifers, a severe disease which can reduce crucifer yields and result in economic losses in the US. Prior to the late 1990s P. cannabina pv. alisalensis was not distinguished from the pepper spot pathogen of crucifers, Pseudomonas s...

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas sp. LAB-08 Isolated from Trichloroethene-Contaminated Aquifer Soil

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Fatma A. A.; Inuzuka, Yuma; Tashiro, Yosuke

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. LAB-08 was isolated from a phenol-fed bioreactor constructed with contaminated aquifer soil as the inoculum. Strain LAB-08 utilized phenol as a sole carbon and energy source. Here, we report the genome sequence and annotation of Pseudomonas sp. LAB-08. PMID:27660772

  11. Community-Acquired urinary tract infection by pseudomonas oryzihabitans.

    PubMed

    Bhatawadekar, Sunita M

    2013-04-01

    Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and Chrysomonas luteola has been placed in CDC group Ve2 and Ve1 respectively. These bacteria appear to be emerging pathogens. P. oryzihabitans was isolated from cases of bacteremia, CNS infections, wound infections, peritonitis, sinusitis, catheter associated infections in AIDS patient, and pneumonia. Most of the reports of P. oryzihabitans infection were of nosocomial origin in individuals with some predisposing factors. We report here a case of community acquired UTI by P. oryzihabitans in an immune-competent patient with stricture of urethra.

  12. Methods of detecting and controlling mucoid pseudomonas biofilm production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Hongwei D. (Inventor); Qiu, Dongru (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Compositions and methods for detecting and controlling the conversion to mucoidy in Pseudomonas aeruginosa are disclosed. The present invention provides for detecting the switch from nonmucoid to mucoid state of P. aeruginosa by measuring mucE expression or MucE protein levels. The interaction between MucE and AlgW controls the switch to mucoidy in wild type P. aeruginosa. Also disclosed is an alginate biosynthesis heterologous expression system for use in screening candidate substances that inhibit conversion to mucoidy.

  13. Methods of detecting and controlling mucoid Pseudomonas biofilm production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Hongwei D. (Inventor); Qiu, Dongru (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Compositions and methods for detecting and controlling the conversion to mucoidy in Pseudomonas aeruginosa are disclosed. The present invention provides for detecting the switch from nonmucoid to mucoid state of P. aeruginosa by measuring mucE expression or MucE protein levels. The interaction between MucE and AlgW controls the switch to mucoidy in wild type P. aeruginosa. Also disclosed is an alginate biosynthesis heterologous expression system for use in screening candidate substances that inhibit conversion to mucoidy.

  14. Electrical enhancement of biocide efficacy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

    PubMed Central

    Blenkinsopp, S A; Khoury, A E; Costerton, J W

    1992-01-01

    When applied within a low-strength electric field (+/- 12 V/cm) with a low current density (+/- 2.1 mA/cm2), several industrial biocides exhibited enhanced killing action against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms grown on stainless steel studs. Biocide concentrations lower than those necessary to kill planktonic cells of P. aeruginosa (1, 5, and 10 ppm of the active ingredients of kathon, glutaraldehyde, and quaternary ammonium compound, respectively) were bactericidal within 24 h when applied within our electrified device. PMID:1482196

  15. Vaccines for Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A long and winding road

    PubMed Central

    Priebe, Gregory P.; Goldberg, Joanna B.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Despite the recognition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen, no vaccine against this bacteria have come to market. This review describes the current state-of-the-art in vaccinology for this bacterium. This includes a discussion of those at risk for infection, the types of vaccines and the approaches for empirical and targeted antigen selection under development, as well as a perspective on where the field should go. In addition, the challenges in developing a vaccine for those individuals at risk are discussed. PMID:24575895

  16. Phosphorylated tyrosine in the flagellum filament protein of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly-Wintenberg, K.; Anderson, T.; Montie, T.C. )

    1990-09-01

    Purified flagella from two strains of {sup 32}P-labeled Pseudomonas aeruginosa were shown to be phosphorylated. This was confirmed by autoradiography of flagellin protein in polyacrylamide gels. Thin-layer electrophoresis and autoradiography of flagellin partial hydrolysates indicated that phosphotyrosine was the major phosphorylated amino acid. High-pressure liquid chromatographic analysis confirmed the presence of phosphotyrosine in flagellum filament protein. Preliminary data indicated that less than one tyrosine per subunit was phosphorylated. No evidence was found for phosphorylation of serine or threonine. A function related to tyrosine phosphorylation has not been determined.

  17. Nanoindentation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial biofilm using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baniasadi, Mahmoud; Xu, Zhe; Gandee, Leah; Du, Yingjie; Lu, Hongbing; Zimmern, Philippe; Minary-Jolandan, Majid

    2014-12-01

    Bacterial biofilms are a source of many chronic infections. Biofilms and their inherent resistance to antibiotics are attributable to a range of health issues including affecting prosthetic implants, hospital-acquired infections, and wound infection. Mechanical properties of biofilm, in particular, at micro- and nano-scales, are governed by microstructures and porosity of the biofilm, which in turn may contribute to their inherent antibiotic resistance. We utilize atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based nanoindentation and finite element simulation to investigate the nanoscale mechanical properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial biofilm. This biofilm was derived from human samples and represents a medically relevant model.

  18. Pseudomonas Folliculitis Associated With Use of Hot Tubs and Spas.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, M L

    1989-05-01

    In brief: Pseudomonas folliculitis is an increasingly common infection contracted in hot tubs, spas, and swimming pools. Diagnosis requires a thorough knowledge of the symptoms. Patients usually develop a pruritic skin eruption that involves areas abundant with apocrine glands such as the axillae, breasts, and pubic area. Symptoms include itching, pain, and redness of the eyes and ears. The physician should obtain a detailed history that focuses on the patient's recent use of hot tubs, spas, or swimming pools. Treatment is not usually necessary because the infection is most often self-limited and benign. The best preventive measures include chlorination, pH monitoring, and proper maintenance of the whirlpool.

  19. Pseudomonas infections associated with hot tubs and other environments.

    PubMed

    Gregory, D W; Schaffner, W

    1987-09-01

    Infections due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa are not confined to the hospital intensive care unit. This paper examines the association of P. aeruginosa and several community-acquired infections. Hot tub folliculitis is a recently described disorder occurring in outbreaks among persons who unknowingly immerse themselves in contaminated whirlpools, spas, or swimming pools. The green nail syndrome and other dermatoses are also reviewed. Infective endocarditis, invasive external otitis, and puncture would osteomyelitis are serious infections that carry high risks for the patient and challenge the physician's most potent therapies.

  20. Otitis externa due to Pseudomonas in swimming pool bathers

    PubMed Central

    Weingarten, Michael A.

    1977-01-01

    An outbreak of otitis externa was observed to affect one third of 230 swimmers using a new swimming pool within three weeks of its opening. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was grown from the water and from all of the nine swabs taken from the infected ears of the swimmers. During the same period only six other cases of otitis externa were seen in the local general practice serving 4,000 patients. The disinfection procedures were found to be defective and after they were corrected the outbreak subsided. PMID:408486

  1. A case of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa commercial tattoo infection.

    PubMed

    Maloberti, A; Betelli, M; Perego, M R; Foresti, S; Scarabelli, G; Grassi, G

    2015-11-18

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic Gram-negative bacterium that can cause disease in immunocompromised patients but also burn wounds and other cutaneous infections. We report the case of a 31 years old woman with a P. Aeruginosa commercial tattoo infection treated with intravenous antibiotic therapy. Today tattooing is increasingly common and despite specific regulations many cases of tattoo site infection are reported in the literature. Principal actual tattoo infective epidemiology includes Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and mycosis infections and parenteral transmission of HIV, HBV and HCV but also recently published cases of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and non tuberculous mycobacterium tattoo infection.

  2. Pseudomonas matsuisoli sp. nov., isolated from a soil sample.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Yao; Hameed, Asif; Hung, Mei-Hua; Liu, You-Cheng; Hsu, Yi-Han; Young, Li-Sen; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2015-03-01

    An aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped and polar-flagellated bacterium, designated strain CC-MHH0089(T), was isolated from a soil sample taken on Matsu Island (Taiwan). Strain CC-MHH0089(T) grew at 15-30 °C and pH 5.0-10.0 and tolerated ≤8 % (w/v) NaCl. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed high pairwise sequence similarity to Pseudomonas azotifigens 6H33b(T) (97.3 %) and Pseudomonas balearica SP1402(T) (96.7 %) and lower sequence similarity to other strains (<96.0 %). In DNA-DNA reassociation experiments, the relatedness of strain CC-MHH0089(T) to P. azotifigens JCM 12708(T) was 38.3 % (reciprocal value 19.5 %). Evolutionary trees reconstructed on the basis of 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoB gene sequences revealed a varying phylogenetic neighbourhood of strain CC-MHH0089(T) with regard to the most closely related type strains. The predominant quinone system was ubiquinone 9 (Q-9) and the DNA G+C content was 63.6 mol%. The major fatty acids were C12 : 0, C16 : 0, C17 : 0, C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c and summed features 2 (C14 : 0 3-OH/iso-C16 : 1 I), 3 (C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c) and 8 (C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and diphosphatidylglycerol. According to its distinct phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic features, strain CC-MHH0089(T) is proposed to represent a novel species within the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas matsuisoli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CC-MHH0089(T) ( = BCRC 80771(T) = JCM 30078(T)).

  3. Fatal suppurative nephritis caused by Pseudomonas in a chimpanzee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Migaki, G.; Asher, D.M.; Casey, H.W.; Locke, L.N.; Gibbs, C.J.; Gajdusek, C.

    1979-01-01

    Reports of nephritis in chimpanzees are relatively rare, compared with those in other nonhuman primates. McClure and Guilloud reported chronic pyelonephritis in a 35-year-old female chimpanzee; Schmidt and Butler reported glomerulonephritis in an 11-year-old female chimpanzee, and Kim reported on a 12-year-old male with subacute interstitial nephritis in a chimpanzee after the animal had recurrent hemolysis due to phenolic intoxication. The present report deals with supprative nephritis caused by Pseudomonas resulting in renal failure in a chimpanzee.

  4. The biosynthesis of brominated pyrrolnitrin derivatives by Pseudomonas aureofaciens.

    PubMed

    van Pée, K H; Salcher, O; Fischer, P; Bokel, M; Lingens, F

    1983-12-01

    The mutant strain ACN of Pseudomonas aureofaciens ATCC 15926 produces several bromo derivatives of pyrrolnitrin. Five brominated amino- and three brominated nitrophenyl pyrrole compounds could be isolated, and their structures were established by 1H NMR, UV and mass spectroscopy. The isolated amino compounds showed no biological activity; the nitro derivatives inhibited the growth of Neurospora crassa ATCC 9276, though not as effective as pyrrolnitrin itself. 2-Carboxy-4-(2-amino-3-bromophenyl)pyrrole (X) is demonstrated to be an intermediate in the biosynthesis of brominated pyrrolnitrin; the biosynthetic pathway to bromo derivatives of pyrrolnitrin is discussed.

  5. The Approach to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Talwalkar, Jaideep S; Murray, Thomas S

    2016-03-01

    There is a high prevalence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients with cystic fibrosis and clear epidemiologic links between chronic infection and morbidity and mortality exist. Prevention and early identification of infection are critical, and stand to improve with the advent of new vaccines and laboratory methods. Once the organism is identified, a variety of treatment options are available. Aggressive use of antipseudomonal antibiotics is the standard of care for acute pulmonary exacerbations in cystic fibrosis, and providers must take into account specific patient characteristics when making treatment decisions related to antibiotic selection, route and duration of administration, and site of care.

  6. Cyanide formation from oxidation of glycine of Pseudomonas species.

    PubMed

    Wissing, F

    1974-03-01

    With whole cells of a hydrogen cyanide-producing bacterium strain C, of the genus Pseudomonas, it was found that the oxygen necessary for the oxidation of glycine to cyanide could be replaced by various artificial electron acceptors. The order of reactivity was: oxygen > phenazine methosulphate > methylene blue > 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol > ferricyanide. Cyanide production was inhibited by pyrrolnitrin, a well-known inhibitor of many flavine enzymes. The molar ratio of added glycine to cyanide produced was found to be 1.09. With whole bacteria the apparent K(m) (glycine) for the cyanide production was found to be 5.0 x 10(-4) M.

  7. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  8. Crystal Structure of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence Factor Regulator

    SciTech Connect

    Cordes, Timothy J.; Worzalla, Gregory A.; Ginster, Aaron M.; Forest, Katrina T.

    2012-09-07

    Virulence factor regulator (Vfr) enhances Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogenicity through its role as a global transcriptional regulator. The crystal structure of Vfr shows that it is a winged-helix DNA-binding protein like its homologue cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP). In addition to an expected primary cyclic AMP-binding site, a second ligand-binding site is nestled between the N-terminal domain and the C-terminal helix-turn-helix domain. Unlike CRP, Vfr is a symmetric dimer in the absence of DNA. Removal of seven disordered N-terminal residues of Vfr prvents the growth of P. aeruginosa.

  9. Protective role of murine norovirus against Pseudomonas aeruginosa acute pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Thépaut, Marion; Grandjean, Teddy; Hober, Didier; Lobert, Pierre-Emmanuel; Bortolotti, Perrine; Faure, Karine; Dessein, Rodrigue; Kipnis, Eric; Guery, Benoit

    2015-09-04

    The murine norovirus (MNV) is a recently discovered mouse pathogen, representing the most common contaminant in laboratory mouse colonies. Nevertheless, the effects of MNV infection on biomedical research are still unclear. We tested the hypothesis that MNV infection could alter immune response in mice with acute lung infection. Here we report that co-infection with MNV increases survival of mice with Pseudomonas aeruginosa acute lung injury and decreases in vivo production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Our results suggest that MNV infection can deeply modify the parameters studied in conventional models of infection and lead to false conclusions in experimental models.

  10. [Necrotizing fasciitis caused by pseudomonas aeruginosa (an obervation)].

    PubMed

    Abada, A; Benhmidoune, L; Tahiri, H; Essalim, K; Chakib, A; Elbelhadji, M; Rachid, R; Zaghloul, K; Amraoui, A

    2007-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is an exceptional and severe form of subcutaneous gangrene which requires early diagnosis and emergency treatment. We report the case of a 24 year old woman presenting with necrotizing fasciitis after pansinusitis resistant to treatment. The germ detected was pseudomonas aeruginosa. The infection was controled with intensive care, antibiotics and surgical resection of necrotic tissues. The aim of this observation is to highlight the clinical characteristics of this disease, and to insist on the necessity to recognize the early symptoms and to start treatment as soon as possible.

  11. Monitoring for genetically engineered pseudomonas species in monterey county

    SciTech Connect

    Supkoff, D.; Opgenorth, D.; Lai, C.; Segawa, R.; Koehler, D.

    1987-01-01

    A field monitoring study was conducted to determine if genetically altered Pseudomonas fluorescens or P. syringae had been applied to sites in Monterey County. A series of diagnostic tests for antibiotic resistance, fluorescence ability, oxidase and arginine dihydrolase activities, hypersensitivity reaction and ice nucleation ability were conducted to screen bacteria isolated from field and control samples. No bacteria were detected from field samples which matched the expected test profiles of genetically altered bacterial products. In contrast, bacteria were consistently isolated from positive control samples with the expected characteristics of genetically altered bacteria.

  12. HOPM1 mediated disease resistance to Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis

    DOEpatents

    He, Sheng Yang [Okemos, MI; Nomura, Kinya [East Lansing, MI

    2011-11-15

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for enhancing plant defenses against pathogens. More particularly, the invention relates to enhancing plant immunity against bacterial pathogens, wherein HopM1.sub.1-300 mediated protection is enhanced, such as increased protection to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 HopM1 and/or there is an increase in activity of an ATMIN associated plant protection protein, such as ATMIN7. Reagents of the present invention further provide a means of studying cellular trafficking while formulations of the present inventions provide increased pathogen resistance in plants.

  13. Cyanide Formation from Oxidation of Glycine by a Pseudomonas Species

    PubMed Central

    Wissing, Frode

    1974-01-01

    With whole cells of a hydrogen cyanide-producing bacterium strain C, of the genus Pseudomonas, it was found that the oxygen necessary for the oxidation of glycine to cyanide could be replaced by various artificial electron acceptors. The order of reactivity was: oxygen > phenazine methosulphate > methylene blue > 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol > ferricyanide. Cyanide production was inhibited by pyrrolnitrin, a well-known inhibitor of many flavine enzymes. The molar ratio of added glycine to cyanide produced was found to be 1.09. With whole bacteria the apparent Km (glycine) for the cyanide production was found to be 5.0 × 10−4 M. PMID:4813896

  14. Acyloin formation by benzoylformate decarboxylase from Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed Central

    Wilcocks, R; Ward, O P; Collins, S; Dewdney, N J; Hong, Y; Prosen, E

    1992-01-01

    Whole cells and cell extracts of Pseudomonas putida grown in a medium containing ammonium mandelate have the capacity to produce the acyloin compound 2-hydroxypropiophenone when incubated with benzoylformate and acetaldehyde. Benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol were formed as reaction by-products. The enantiomeric excess of the 2-hydroxypropiophenone product was found to be 91 to 92%. The absolute configuration of the enzymatically prepared product at the carbinol carbon was found to be S. The thiamine PPi-linked enzyme benzoylformate decarboxylase, purified to give a single protein band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was shown to be responsible for the catalysis of this novel condensation reaction. Images PMID:1622241

  15. Infectious Pseudomonas and Bipolaris scleritis following history of pterygium surgery

    PubMed Central

    Abbey, Ashkan M; Shah, Nisha V; Forster, Richard K; Suh, Leejee H

    2016-01-01

    We report an interesting case of infectious scleritis from coinfection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bipolaris with no corneal infiltrate. A healthy 60-year-old man with a history of infectious scleritis following pterygium excision presented with purulent material growing P. aeruginosa and 1+ colonies of Bipolaris species of fungus. Broad spectrum treatment was initiated with hourly topical moxifloxacin, fortified tobramycin, and natamycin along with a subconjunctival injection of voriconazole and topical cyclosporine, with PO ketoconazole. After 10 weeks of aggressive empiric treatment, the patient's symptoms had resolved, and his vision returned to baseline although a scleral patch graft was utilized to stabilize scleral thinning. PMID:27853018

  16. National EMS Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Sayre, M R; White, L J; Brown, L H; McHenry, S D

    2002-01-01

    Now, more than ever before, the spirit of the emergency services professional is recognized by people everywhere. Individuals from every walk of life comprehend the reality of the job these professionals do each day. Placing the safety of others above their own is their acknowledged responsibility. Rescue and treatment of ill and injured patients are their purpose as well as their gratification. The men and women who provide prehospital care are well aware of the unpredictable nature of emergency medical services (EMS). Prehospital care is given when and where it is needed: in urban settings with vertical challenges and gridlock; in rural settings with limited access; in confined spaces; within entrapments; or simply in the street, exposed to the elements. Despite the challenges, EMS professionals rise to the occasion to do their best with the resources available. Despite more than 30 years of dedicated service by thousands of EMS professionals, academic researchers, and public policy makers, the nation's EMS system is treating victims of illness and injury with little or no evidence that the care they provide is optimal. A national investment in the EMS research infrastructure is necessary to overcome obstacles currently impeding the accumulation of essential evidence of the effectiveness of EMS practice. Funding is required to train new researchers and to help them establish their careers. Financial backing is needed to support the development of effective prehospital treatments for the diseases that drive the design of the EMS system, including injury and sudden cardiac arrest. Innovative strategies to make EMS research easier to accomplish in emergency situations must be implemented. Researchers must have access to patient outcome information in order to evaluate and improve prehospital care. New biomedical and technical advances must be evaluated using scientific methodology. Research is the key to maintaining focus on improving the overall health of the

  17. 40 CFR 180.1212 - Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain 63-28; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain 63-28... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1212 Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain 63-28; exemption... for residues of the microbial pesticide Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain 63-28 in or on all...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1200 - Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1200 Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary... established for residues of the microbial pesticide, pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25 when used on...

  19. The Nitrogen-Fixation Island Insertion Site Is Conserved in Diazotrophic Pseudomonas stutzeri and Pseudomonas sp. Isolated from Distal and Close Geographical Regions

    PubMed Central

    Venieraki, Anastasia; Dimou, Maria; Vezyri, Eleni; Vamvakas, Alexandros; Katinaki, Pagona-Artemis; Chatzipavlidis, Iordanis; Tampakaki, Anastasia; Katinakis, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    The presence of nitrogen fixers within the genus Pseudomonas has been established and so far most isolated strains are phylogenetically affiliated to Pseudomonas stutzeri. A gene ortholog neighborhood analysis of the nitrogen fixation island (NFI) in four diazotrophic P. stutzeri strains and Pseudomonas azotifigens revealed that all are flanked by genes coding for cobalamin synthase (cobS) and glutathione peroxidise (gshP). The putative NFIs lack all the features characterizing a mobilizable genomic island. Nevertheless, bioinformatic analysis P. stutzeri DSM 4166 NFI demonstrated the presence of short inverted and/or direct repeats within both flanking regions. The other P. stutzeri strains carry only one set of repeats. The genetic diversity of eleven diazotrophic Pseudomonas isolates was also investigated. Multilocus sequence typing grouped nine isolates along with P. stutzeri and two isolates are grouped in a separate clade. A Rep-PCR fingerprinting analysis grouped the eleven isolates into four distinct genotypes. We also provided evidence that the putative NFI in our diazotrophic Pseudomonas isolates is flanked by cobS and gshP genes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the putative NFI of Pseudomonas sp. Gr65 is flanked by inverted repeats identical to those found in P. stutzeri DSM 4166 and while the other P. stutzeri isolates harbor the repeats located in the intergenic region between cobS and glutaredoxin genes as in the case of P. stutzeri A1501. Taken together these data suggest that all putative NFIs of diazotrophic Pseudomonas isolates are anchored in an intergenic region between cobS and gshP genes and their flanking regions are designated by distinct repeats patterns. Moreover, the presence of almost identical NFIs in diazotrophic Pseudomonas strains isolated from distal geographical locations around the world suggested that this horizontal gene transfer event may have taken place early in the evolution. PMID:25251496

  20. The nitrogen-fixation island insertion site is conserved in diazotrophic Pseudomonas stutzeri and Pseudomonas sp. isolated from distal and close geographical regions.

    PubMed

    Venieraki, Anastasia; Dimou, Maria; Vezyri, Eleni; Vamvakas, Alexandros; Katinaki, Pagona-Artemis; Chatzipavlidis, Iordanis; Tampakaki, Anastasia; Katinakis, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    The presence of nitrogen fixers within the genus Pseudomonas has been established and so far most isolated strains are phylogenetically affiliated to Pseudomonas stutzeri. A gene ortholog neighborhood analysis of the nitrogen fixation island (NFI) in four diazotrophic P. stutzeri strains and Pseudomonas azotifigens revealed that all are flanked by genes coding for cobalamin synthase (cobS) and glutathione peroxidise (gshP). The putative NFIs lack all the features characterizing a mobilizable genomic island. Nevertheless, bioinformatic analysis P. stutzeri DSM 4166 NFI demonstrated the presence of short inverted and/or direct repeats within both flanking regions. The other P. stutzeri strains carry only one set of repeats. The genetic diversity of eleven diazotrophic Pseudomonas isolates was also investigated. Multilocus sequence typing grouped nine isolates along with P. stutzeri and two isolates are grouped in a separate clade. A Rep-PCR fingerprinting analysis grouped the eleven isolates into four distinct genotypes. We also provided evidence that the putative NFI in our diazotrophic Pseudomonas isolates is flanked by cobS and gshP genes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the putative NFI of Pseudomonas sp. Gr65 is flanked by inverted repeats identical to those found in P. stutzeri DSM 4166 and while the other P. stutzeri isolates harbor the repeats located in the intergenic region between cobS and glutaredoxin genes as in the case of P. stutzeri A1501. Taken together these data suggest that all putative NFIs of diazotrophic Pseudomonas isolates are anchored in an intergenic region between cobS and gshP genes and their flanking regions are designated by distinct repeats patterns. Moreover, the presence of almost identical NFIs in diazotrophic Pseudomonas strains isolated from distal geographical locations around the world suggested that this horizontal gene transfer event may have taken place early in the evolution.

  1. Characterization of Pseudomonas pathovars isolated from rosaceous fruit trees in East Algeria.

    PubMed

    Harzallah, D; Sadallah, S; Larous, L

    2004-01-01

    A survey of bacterial diseases due to Pseudomonas on rosaceous fruit trees was conducted. In forty two orchards located in the Constantine region ( East Algeria). Pseudomonas isolates were identified on the bases of their cultural and biochemical characteristics . A total of fifty nine phytopathogenic bacteria were isolated from diseased pome and stone fruit trees. Thirty one strains comparable to Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae were isolated from cherry (Prunus avium L.), plum (P. domestica L.), apricot (P. armeniaca L.), almond (P. dulcis L.) and pear trees (Pirus communis L.); sixteen strains comparable to Pseudomonas syringae pv. morsprunorum were obtained from samples of cherry and plum. Twelve strains of Pseudomonas viridiflava were isolated from cherry, apricot and peach (Prunus persica L.).

  2. Acyl-homoserine lactone production is more common among plant-associated Pseudomonas spp. than among soilborne Pseudomonas spp.

    PubMed

    Elasri, M; Delorme, S; Lemanceau, P; Stewart, G; Laue, B; Glickmann, E; Oger, P M; Dessaux, Y

    2001-03-01

    A total of 137 soilborne and plant-associated bacterial strains belonging to different Pseudomonas species were tested for their ability to synthesize N-acyl-homoserine lactones (NAHL). Fifty-four strains synthesized NAHL. Interestingly, NAHL production appears to be more common among plant-associated than among soilborne Pseudomonas spp. Indeed, 40% of the analyzed Pseudomonas syringae strains produced NAHL which were identified most often as the short-chain NAHL, N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone, N-(3-oxo-hexanoyl)-homoserine lactone, and N-(3-oxo-octanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (no absolute correlation between genomospecies of P. syringae and their ability to produce NAHL could be found). Six strains of fluorescent pseudomonads, belonging to the species P. chlororaphis, P. fluorescens, and P. putida, isolated from the plant rhizosphere produced different types of NAHL. In contrast, none of the strains isolated from soil samples were shown to produce NAHL. The gene encoding the NAHL synthase in P. syringae pv. maculicola was isolated by complementation of an NAHL-deficient Chromobacterium mutant. Sequence analysis revealed the existence of a luxI homologue that we named psmI. This gene is sufficient to confer NAHL synthesis upon its bacterial host and has strong homology to psyI and ahlI, two genes involved in NAHL production in P. syringae pv. tabaci and P. syringae pv. syringae, respectively. We identified another open reading frame that we termed psmR, transcribed convergently in relation to psmI and partly overlapping psmI; this gene encodes a putative LuxR regulatory protein. This gene organization, with luxI and luxR homologues facing each other and overlapping, has been found so far only in the enteric bacteria Erwinia and Pantoea and in the related species P. syringae pv. tabaci.

  3. Systematic investigations on the biodegradation and viscosity reduction of long chain hydrocarbons using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Sakthipriya, N; Doble, Mukesh; Sangwai, Jitendra S

    2016-03-01

    The use of microorganisms has been researched extensively for possible applications related to hydrocarbon degradation in the petroleum industry. However, attempts to improve the effect of microorganisms on the viscosity of hydrocarbons, which find potential use in the development of robust models for biodegradation, have been rarely documented. This study investigates the degradation of long chain hydrocarbons, such as hexadecane and eicosane using Pseudomonas fluorescens PMMD3 (P. fluorescens) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa CPCL (P. aeruginosa). P. aeruginosa used here is isolated from petroleum contaminated sediments and the P. fluorescens is from the coastal area, and both have hydrocarbon degrading genes. The degradation of hydrocarbons is studied using carbon profiling and reduction in viscosity pre- and post-degradation of hydrocarbons. The carbon profiling has been obtained using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) results. GC-MS results have indicated an improved biodegradation of hydrocarbons by 77-93% in one day. The yield coefficients of biomass (YX/S) for P. aeruginosa and P. fluorescens using hexadecane as a carbon source are 1.35 and 0.81 g g(-1), and the corresponding values with eicosane are 0.84 and 0.88 g g(-1). The viscosity of hexadecane is reduced by the order of 53 and 47%, while that of eicosane was reduced by 53 and 65%, using P. aeruginosa and P. fluorescens, respectively. This study also presents information on the activity of enzymes responsible for the hydrocarbon degradation. Pseudomonas species have shown their use in potential applications for bioremediation, oil-spill treatment, and flow assurance. We believe that this study will also provide stringent tests for possible model development for the bioremediation of long chain paraffins suitable for oilfield applications.

  4. A lung segmental model of chronic Pseudomonas infection in sheep.

    PubMed

    Collie, David; Govan, John; Wright, Steven; Thornton, Elisabeth; Tennant, Peter; Smith, Sionagh; Doherty, Catherine; McLachlan, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major contributor to morbidity, mortality and premature death in cystic fibrosis. A new paradigm for managing such infections is needed, as are relevant and translatable animal models to identify and test concepts. We sought to improve on limitations associated with existing models of infection in small animals through developing a lung segmental model of chronic Pseudomonas infection in sheep. Using local lung instillation of P. aeruginosa suspended in agar beads we were able to demonstrate that such infection led to the development of a suppurative, necrotising and pyogranulomatous pneumonia centred on the instilled beads. No overt evidence of organ or systemic compromise was apparent in any animal during the course of infection. Infection persisted in the lungs of individual animals for as long as 66 days after initial instillation. Quantitative microbiology applied to bronchoalveolar lavage fluid derived from infected segments proved an insensitive index of the presence of significant infection in lung tissue (>10(4) cfu/g). The agar bead model of chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection in sheep is a relevant platform to investigate both the pathobiology of such infections as well as novel approaches to their diagnosis and therapy. Particular ethical benefits relate to the model in terms of refining existing approaches by compromising a smaller proportion of the lung with infection and facilitating longitudinal assessment by bronchoscopy, and also potentially reducing animal numbers through facilitating within-animal comparisons of differential therapeutic approaches.

  5. Biodegradation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene by a Pseudomonas sp.

    PubMed Central

    Spanggord, R J; Spain, J C; Nishino, S F; Mortelmans, K E

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies of the biodegradation of nonpolar nitroaromatic compounds have suggested that microorganisms can reduce the nitro groups but cannot cleave the aromatic ring. We report here the initial steps in a pathway for complete biodegradation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) by a Pseudomonas sp. isolated from a four-member consortium enriched with DNT. The Pseudomonas sp. degraded DNT as the sole source of carbon and energy under aerobic conditions with stoichiometric release of nitrite. During induction of the enzymes required for growth on DNT, 4-methyl-5-nitrocatechol (MNC) accumulated transiently in the culture fluid when cells grown on acetate were transferred to medium containing DNT as the sole carbon and energy source. Conversion of DNT to MNC in the presence of 18O2 revealed the simultaneous incorporation of two atoms of molecular oxygen, which demonstrated that the reaction was catalyzed by a dioxygenase. Fully induced cells degraded MNC rapidly with stoichiometric release of nitrite. The results indicate an initial dioxygenase attack at the 4,5 position of DNT with the concomitant release of nitrite. Subsequent reactions lead to complete biodegradation and removal of the second nitro group as nitrite. PMID:1781682

  6. 4-quinolone signalling in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: old molecules, new perspectives.

    PubMed

    Diggle, Stephen P; Cornelis, Pierre; Williams, Paul; Cámara, Miguel

    2006-04-01

    In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, diverse virulence determinants and secondary metabolites are regulated via the action of a hierarchical quorum-sensing system which integrates two chemically distinct classes of signal molecules, the N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) and the 4-quinolones (4Qs). Synthesis of the pseudomonas quinolone signal, 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone (PQS) depends on the pqsABCDE locus which is responsible for generating multiple 4Qs including 2-heptyl-4-quinolone (HHQ), the immediate PQS precursor. Exported HHQ is taken up by adjacent bacterial cells and converted into PQS by PqsH, a putative mono-oxygenase. In addition, PQS regulates its own production by driving the expression of pqsABCDE through a direct interaction with PqsR (MvfR). PQS regulates diverse target genes including those coding for elastase, rhamnolipid, the PA-IL lectin and pyocyanin via the action of PqsE as well as influencing biofilm development and impacting on cellular fitness. Furthermore, 4Q signalling is not restricted to P. aeruginosa raising the possibility of cross-talk with other related bacterial species which occupy similar ecological niches.

  7. INHIBITION OF VIRULENCE FACTORS OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA BY DICLOFENAC SODIUM.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Hisham A

    2015-01-01

    Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to antibiotics is a major problem. Targeting virulence factors is an alternative option to avoid the emergence of resistance to antibiotics. The effect of sub-inhibitory concentration of diclofenac sodium on the production of virulence factors of P. aeruginosa was investigated. The virulence factors included protease, haemolysin, pyocyanin and pyoverdin, in addition to pathogenic behaviors such as swimming and twitching motilities and biofilm formation. Diclofenac sodium showed significant inhibition of virulence factors as compared to the control. Diclofenac sodium decreased twitching and swimming motilities by 29.27% and 45.36%, respectively. The percentage of inhibition of pyocyanin by diclofenac sodium was 42.32%. On the other hand, pyoverdin was inhibited to a lesser extent (36.72%). Diclofenac sodium reduced protease by 52.58% and biofilm formation by 58.37%. Moreover, haemolytic activity in the presence of diclofenac sodium was 15.64% as compared to the control (100% haemolytic activity). The inhibitory activities may be due to inhibition of quorum sensing that regulates the expression of virulence factors. This study suggests the potential for the use of diclofenac sodium as an anti-virulence agent in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.

  8. DISSIMILATION OF GLUCOSE AND GLUCONIC ACID BY PSEUDOMONAS NATRIEGENS1

    PubMed Central

    Eagon, R. G.; Wang, C. H.

    1962-01-01

    Eagon, R. G. (University of Georgia, Athens) and C. H. Wang. Dissimilation of glucose and gluconic acid by Pseudomonas natriegens. J. Bacteriol. 83:879–886. 1962—When glucose dissimilation of a marine pseudomonad, Pseudomonas natriegens, was studied, enzymes of both the glycolytic pathway and of the hexose monophosphate pathway were detected in extracts of glucose-grown cells. Enzymes of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway and phosphoketolase were not detected. Data from radiorespirometric experiments indicated that approximately 92 and 8% of glucose actually catabolized were routed via the glycolytic and the hexose monophosphate pathways, respectively. When P. natriegens was induced to utilize gluconate, it was demonstrated that gluconokinase and enzymes of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway were induced. Radiorespirometric experiments with cells under growing conditions revealed that gluconate was dissimilated predominantly (80%) via the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. This observation was in contrast to the observation that the glycolytic pathway is practically the exclusive catabolic pathway for glucose dissimilation. A minor portion of substrate gluconate was also catabolized by this organism via the hexosemonophosphate pathway. However, the pentose phosphate derived from substrate gluconate is believed not to be catabolized extensively. The important facet uncovered by these experiments was the extensive operation of the glycolytic route of glucose dissimilation. This is in contrast to other pseudomonads studied to date, which have been reported to dissimilate glucose predominantly via the Entner-Doudoroff pathway and which do not utilize the glycolytic pathway. PMID:13888944

  9. Dissimilation of glucose and gluconic acid by Pseudomonas natriegens.

    PubMed

    EAGON, R G; WANG, C H

    1962-04-01

    Eagon, R. G. (University of Georgia, Athens) and C. H. Wang. Dissimilation of glucose and gluconic acid by Pseudomonas natriegens. J. Bacteriol. 83:879-886. 1962-When glucose dissimilation of a marine pseudomonad, Pseudomonas natriegens, was studied, enzymes of both the glycolytic pathway and of the hexose monophosphate pathway were detected in extracts of glucose-grown cells. Enzymes of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway and phosphoketolase were not detected. Data from radiorespirometric experiments indicated that approximately 92 and 8% of glucose actually catabolized were routed via the glycolytic and the hexose monophosphate pathways, respectively. When P. natriegens was induced to utilize gluconate, it was demonstrated that gluconokinase and enzymes of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway were induced. Radiorespirometric experiments with cells under growing conditions revealed that gluconate was dissimilated predominantly (80%) via the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. This observation was in contrast to the observation that the glycolytic pathway is practically the exclusive catabolic pathway for glucose dissimilation. A minor portion of substrate gluconate was also catabolized by this organism via the hexosemonophosphate pathway. However, the pentose phosphate derived from substrate gluconate is believed not to be catabolized extensively.The important facet uncovered by these experiments was the extensive operation of the glycolytic route of glucose dissimilation. This is in contrast to other pseudomonads studied to date, which have been reported to dissimilate glucose predominantly via the Entner-Doudoroff pathway and which do not utilize the glycolytic pathway.

  10. Functional study of elafin cleaved by Pseudomonas aeruginosa metalloproteinases

    PubMed Central

    Guyot, Nicolas; Bergsson, Gudmundur; Butler, Marcus W.; Greene, Catherine M.; Weldon, Sinead; Kessler, Efrat; Levine, Rodney L.; O’Neill, Shane J.; Taggart, Clifford C.; McElvaney, Noel G.

    2012-01-01

    Elafin is a 6 kDa innate immune protein present at several epithelial surfaces including the pulmonary epithelium. It is a canonical protease inhibitor of two neutrophil serine proteases (neutrophil elastase (NE) and proteinase 3) with the capacity to covalently bind extracellular matrix proteins by transglutamination. In addition to these properties, elafin also possesses antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa proteases on elafin function. We found that P. aeruginosa PAO1-conditioned medium and two purified Pseudomonas metalloproteases, pseudolysin (elastase) and aeruginolysin (alkaline protease), were able to cleave recombinant elafin. Pseudolysin was shown to inactivate the anti-NE activity of elafin by cleaving its protease-binding loop. Interestingly, antibacterial properties of elafin against PAO1 were found to be unaffected after pseudolysin treatment. In contrast to pseudolysin, aeruginolysin failed to inactivate the inhibitory properties of elafin against NE. Aeruginolysin cleaved elafin at the amino-terminal Lys6-Gly7 peptide bond resulting in a decreased ability to covalently bind purified fibronectin following transglutaminase activity. In conclusion, this study provides evidences that elafin is susceptible to proteolytic cleavage at alternative sites by P. aeruginosa metalloproteinases, which can affect different biological functions of elafin. PMID:20370321

  11. Bacteriophages for the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.

    PubMed

    Harper, D R; Enright, M C

    2011-07-01

    Bacteriophages were first identified in 1915 and were used as antimicrobial agents from 1919 onwards. Despite apparent successes and widespread application, early users did not understand the nature of these agents and their efficacy remained controversial. As a result, they were replaced in the west by chemical antibiotics once these became available. However, bacteriophages remained a common therapeutic approach in parts of Eastern Europe where they are still in use. Increasing levels of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections are now driving demand for novel therapeutic approaches. In cases where antibiotic options are limited or nonexistent, the pressure for new agents is greatest. One of the most prominent areas of concern is multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a prominent member of this class and is the cause of damaging infections that can be resistant to successful treatment with conventional antibiotics. At the same time, it exhibits a number of properties that make it a suitable target for bacteriophage-based approaches, including growth in biofilms that can hydrolyse following phage infection. Pseudomonas aeruginosa provides a striking example of an infection where clinical need and the availability of a practical therapy coincide.

  12. Expression, purification, and characterization of formaldehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wangluo; Chen, Shuai; Liao, Yuanping; Wang, Dingli; Ding, Jianfeng; Wang, Yingming; Ran, Xiaoyuan; Lu, Daru; Zhu, Huaxing

    2013-12-01

    As a member of zinc-containing medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenase family, formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FDH) can oxidize toxic formaldehyde to less active formate with NAD(+) as a cofactor and exists in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Most FDHs are well known to be glutathione-dependent in the catalysis of formaldehyde oxidation, but the enzyme from Pseudomonas putida is an exception, which is independent of glutathione. To identify novel glutathione-independent FDHs from other bacterial strains and facilitate the corresponding structural and enzymatic studies, high-level soluble expression and efficient purification of these enzymes need to be achieved. Here, we present molecular cloning, expression, and purification of the FDH from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is a Gram-negative pathogenic bacterium causing opportunistic human infection. The FDH of P. aeruginosa shows high sequence identity (87.97%) with that of P. putida. Our results indicated that coexpression with molecular chaperones GroES, GroEL, and Tig has significantly attenuated inclusion body formation and improved the solubility of the recombinant FDH in Escherichiacoli cells. A purification protocol including three chromatographic steps was also established to isolate the recombinant FDH to homogeneity with a yield of ∼3.2 mg from 1L of cell culture. The recombinant P. aeruginosa FDH was properly folded and biologically functional, as demonstrated by the mass spectrometric, crystallographic, and enzymatic characterizations of the purified proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Functions Encoded by Pyrrolnitrin Biosynthetic Genes from Pseudomonas fluorescens

    PubMed Central

    Kirner, Sabine; Hammer, Philip E.; Hill, D. Steven; Altmann, Annett; Fischer, Ilona; Weislo, Laura J.; Lanahan, Mike; van Pée, Karl-Heinz; Ligon, James M.

    1998-01-01

    Pyrrolnitrin is a secondary metabolite derived from tryptophan and has strong antifungal activity. Recently we described four genes, prnABCD, from Pseudomonas fluorescens that encode the biosynthesis of pyrrolnitrin. In the work presented here, we describe the function of each prn gene product. The four genes encode proteins identical in size and serology to proteins present in wild-type Pseudomonas fluorescens, but absent from a mutant from which the entire prn gene region had been deleted. The prnA gene product catalyzes the chlorination of l-tryptophan to form 7-chloro-l-tryptophan. The prnB gene product catalyzes a ring rearrangement and decarboxylation to convert 7-chloro-l-tryptophan to monodechloroaminopyrrolnitrin. The prnC gene product chlorinates monodechloroaminopyrrolnitrin at the 3 position to form aminopyrrolnitrin. The prnD gene product catalyzes the oxidation of the amino group of aminopyrrolnitrin to a nitro group to form pyrrolnitrin. The organization of the prn genes in the operon is identical to the order of the reactions in the biosynthetic pathway. PMID:9537395

  14. Chemically defined antimicrobial susceptibility test medium for Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, J H; Lee, J C; Jones, P M

    1977-03-01

    A chemically defined growth medium containing physiological concentrations of magnesium and calcium ions was utilized in a microdilution procedure for antimicrobial drug susceptibility testing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Determinations of growth end points were simplified by use of sodium citrate as a sole carbon source and bromothymol blue as a pH indicator. Growth of the test organisms was detectable by a change in the indicator color from green to blue after alkalinization of the medium due to citrate utilization. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of amikacin, carbenicillin, gentamicin, and tobramycin were determined on 100 recent clinical isolates of Pseudomonas. Parallel determinations using the microdilution procedure and a conventional tube-broth dilution technique incorporating Mueller-Hinton broth with identical magnesium and calcium content generally agreed within one twofold dilution. Modal minimal inhibitory concentrations for susceptible strains using the microdilution method were: amikacin, 6 mug/ml; carbenicillin, 50 mug/ml; gentamicin, 1.5 mug/ml; tobramycin, 1.5 mug/ml. This modified microdilution technique allowed rapid, definitive minimal inhibitory concentration determinations, using growth end points defined by a color indicator change.

  15. Quantifying Pseudomonas aeruginosa quinolones and examining their interactions with lipids.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Gregory C; Schertzer, Jeffrey W; Mashburn-Warren, Lauren; Whiteley, Marvin

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces a quorum sensing molecule termed the Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal (2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone; PQS) that regulates an array of genes involved in virulence. This chapter addresses four related techniques useful for detecting and quantifying PQS. First, extraction of PQS from complex mixtures (e.g. cell cultures) is described. Separation of PQS from extracts by Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC) is used in combination with the natural fluorescence of the molecule for quantification. A second separation technique for the PQS precursor HHQ using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) is also described, and this assay exploits the molecule's characteristic absorbance for quantification. A third method for quantification of PQS from simple mixtures (e.g. enzyme assays) using fluorescence is outlined. Finally, a protocol for determining PQS interactions with membrane lipids through Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) is presented. These techniques allow for quantification and characterization of PQS from diverse environments, a prerequisite to understanding the biological functions of QS molecules.

  16. Properties and Distribution of Intracellular Putrescine in a Pseudomonas

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Han

    1966-01-01

    Kim, Ki-Han (Wayne State University, Detroit, Mich.). Properties and distribution of intracellular putrescine in a Pseudomonas. J. Bacteriol. 91:193–197. 1966.—A Pseudomonas species which contains putrescine as the only intracellular polyamine was used to study the distribution of putrescine in the cells and the changes in putrescine content upon nitrogen or carbon and nitrogen starvation. In the cell-free extract, approximately 80 to 90% of the putrescine was found in the soluble fraction, and the rest was found in the ribosomal fraction; 50% of the putrescine could be removed from the cells by nitrogen starvation. Putrescine content in the ribosomes prepared from nitrogen-starved cells was about one-half of that in the unstarved cells. Putrescine was found in both 30S and 50S ribosomal particles. In the presence of 10−3m Mg++, the ribosomal particles did not exchange bound putrescine for free putrescine, but did incorporate free spermine from the medium. Cells grown on glucose-NH3 medium contained large amounts of acetyl putrescine. Cells grown on putrescine contained negligible amounts of acetyl putrescine, but readily formed acetyl putrescine when subjected to starvation. PMID:5903091

  17. Full Virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Requires OprF▿

    PubMed Central

    Fito-Boncompte, Laurène; Chapalain, Annelise; Bouffartigues, Emeline; Chaker, Hichem; Lesouhaitier, Olivier; Gicquel, Gwendoline; Bazire, Alexis; Madi, Amar; Connil, Nathalie; Véron, Wilfried; Taupin, Laure; Toussaint, Bertrand; Cornelis, Pierre; Wei, Qing; Shioya, Koki; Déziel, Eric; Feuilloley, Marc G. J.; Orange, Nicole; Dufour, Alain; Chevalier, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    OprF is a general outer membrane porin of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a well-known human opportunistic pathogen associated with severe hospital-acquired sepsis and chronic lung infections of cystic fibrosis patients. A multiphenotypic approach, based on the comparative study of a wild-type strain of P. aeruginosa, its isogenic oprF mutant, and an oprF-complemented strain, showed that OprF is required for P. aeruginosa virulence. The absence of OprF results in impaired adhesion to animal cells, secretion of ExoT and ExoS toxins through the type III secretion system (T3SS), and production of the quorum-sensing-dependent virulence factors pyocyanin, elastase, lectin PA-1L, and exotoxin A. Accordingly, in the oprF mutant, production of the signal molecules N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone and N-butanoyl-l-homoserine lactone was found to be reduced and delayed, respectively. Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) production was decreased, while its precursor, 4-hydroxy-2-heptylquinoline (HHQ), accumulated in the cells. Taken together, these results show the involvement of OprF in P. aeruginosa virulence, at least partly through modulation of the quorum-sensing network. This is the first study showing a link between OprF, PQS synthesis, T3SS, and virulence factor production, providing novel insights into virulence expression. PMID:21189321

  18. Pseudomonas Prosthetic Joint Infections: A Review of 102 Episodes.

    PubMed

    Shah, Neel B; Osmon, Douglas R; Steckelberg, James M; Sierra, Rafael J; Walker, Randall C; Tande, Aaron J; Berbari, Elie F

    2016-01-01

    Background: The outcome of patients with Pseudomonas prosthetic joint infection (PS PJI) has not been well studied. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to assess the outcome of patients with Pseudomonas PJI and to review risk factors associated with failure of therapy. Methods: Between 1/1969 and 12/2012, 102 episodes of PS PJI in 91 patients were identified. Results: The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 67.4 years; forty three percent had knee involvement. Over 40 percent had either diabetes mellitus or a history of gastrointestinal or genitourinary surgery. Nearly half (48 out of 102 episodes) received aminoglycoside monotherapy, while 25% received an anti-pseudomonal cephalosporin. The 2-year cumulative survival free from failure was 69% (95% CI, 56%-82%). Patients treated with resection arthroplasty, two-stage exchange, and debridement with implant retention had a 2-year cumulative survival free from failure of 80% (95% CI, 66%-95%), 83% (95% CI, 60%-100%), and 26% (95% CI, 23%-29%) respectively (P=0.0001). Conclusions: PS PJI's are associated with a high failure rate. Patients treated with debridement and implant retention had a worse outcome.

  19. Anthranilate degradation by a cold-adapted Pseudomonas sp.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dockyu; Yoo, Miyoun; Kim, Eungbin; Hong, Soon Gyu

    2015-03-01

    An alpine soil bacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain PAMC 25931 was characterized as eurypsychrophilic (both psychrophilic and mesotolerant) with a broad temperature range of 5-30 °C both for anthranilate (2-aminobenzoate) degradation and concomitant cell growth. Two degradative gene clusters (antABC and catBCA) were detected from a fosmid clone in the PAMC 25931 genomic library; each cluster was confirmed to be specifically induced by anthranilate. When expressed in Escherichia coli, the recombinant AntABC (anthranilate 1,2-dioxygenase, AntDO) converted anthranilate into catechol, exhibiting strict specificity toward anthranilate. Recombinant CatA (catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, C12O) from the organism was active over a broad temperature range (5-37 °C). However, CatA rapidly lost the enzyme activity when incubated at above 25 °C. For example, 1 h-preincubation at 37 °C resulted in 100% loss of enzyme activity, while a counterpart from mesophilic Pseudomonas putida mt-2 did not show any negative effect on the initial enzyme activity. These results suggest that CatA is a new cold-adapted thermolabile enzyme, which might be a product through the adaptation process of PAMC 25931 to naturally cold environments and contribute to its ability to grow on anthranilate there.

  20. [Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriaemia: new clinical and therapeutic aspects ].

    PubMed

    Janbon, F; Despaux, E; Lepeu, G; Jonquet, O; Santoni, A; Balmayer, B; Bertrand, A

    1982-06-01

    Fifty one cases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriaemia observed during the last 12 years are reported. Thirty five patients were over fifty years old; 92 p. cent were admitted for several days and about 50 p. cent were in post-operative period. A previous antibiotherapy and an impaired status are promotive factors. The respiratory or peritoneal origins are the most frequent. All patients were feverish; 24 have had an infectious shock which was inaugural in 12 cases. Seven pneumonitis, 3 endocarditis, one pericarditis and 2 osteitis were observed. An ecthyma gangrenosum was noted in three patients. Mortality was 70 p. cent. Comparison between recovered and died patients improved bad prognosis of old age, post operative period, neoplasic, previous organica weakness and pulmonary or peritoneal origins. Used alone, colimycin has seemed to be more effective than aminosid antibiotics; but their association with betalactamins was better. An in vitro study of the susceptibility of 100 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains has proved the interest of piperacillin and cefsulodin; azlocillin, cefoperazone and ceftriaxone are just less effective.

  1. Functions encoded by pyrrolnitrin biosynthetic genes from Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Kirner, S; Hammer, P E; Hill, D S; Altmann, A; Fischer, I; Weislo, L J; Lanahan, M; van Pée, K H; Ligon, J M

    1998-04-01

    Pyrrolnitrin is a secondary metabolite derived from tryptophan and has strong antifungal activity. Recently we described four genes, prnABCD, from Pseudomonas fluorescens that encode the biosynthesis of pyrrolnitrin. In the work presented here, we describe the function of each prn gene product. The four genes encode proteins identical in size and serology to proteins present in wild-type Pseudomonas fluorescens, but absent from a mutant from which the entire prn gene region had been deleted. The prnA gene product catalyzes the chlorination of L-tryptophan to form 7-chloro-L-tryptophan. The prnB gene product catalyzes a ring rearrangement and decarboxylation to convert 7-chloro-L-tryptophan to monodechloroaminopyrrolnitrin. The prnC gene product chlorinates monodechloroaminopyrrolnitrin at the 3 position to form aminopyrrolnitrin. The prnD gene product catalyzes the oxidation of the amino group of aminopyrrolnitrin to a nitro group to form pyrrolnitrin. The organization of the prn genes in the operon is identical to the order of the reactions in the biosynthetic pathway.

  2. Sodium ascorbate as a quorum sensing inhibitor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    El-Mowafy, S A; Shaaban, M I; Abd El Galil, K H

    2014-11-01

    Quorum sensing circuits regulate virulence factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and coordinate bacterial pathogenicity. We are interested in exploring available medications for their antiquorum sensing activity. First, we determined the MIC of ascorbate against Ps. aeruginosa strain PAO1, and all further experiments used concentrations below the MIC so that results could not be caused by reduced viability. Tests of subinhibitory concentrations of sodium ascorbate on cell signals were performed using a reporter strain assay. Sub-MICs of sodium ascorbate resulted in significant reduction of the signalling molecules C4-HSL and 3-oxo-C12-HSL (P < 0·01). The influence of sub-MIC of sodium ascorbate on virulence factors was also determined and ascorbate treatment led to significant depression of elastase, protease and haemolysin activities. In addition, inhibition of pyocyanin production, attenuation of biofilm formation and alteration of Pseudomonas motility was observed. Analysis by RT-PCR tested the effect of ascorbate on the expression of QS regulatory genes. Expression of QS regulatory genes, lasI, lasR, rhlI, rhlR, pqsR and pqsA, was repressed compared to untreated Ps. aeruginosa PAO1, confirming that ascorbate QS inhibition works on gene expression at the molecular level. Sodium ascorbate, even at low concentrations, inhibited QS and related virulence factors of Ps. aeruginosa PAO1. This study demonstrated that sodium ascorbate could function as signal modulator and virulence inhibitor in Ps. aeruginosa. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Pyrimidine biosynthesis in Pseudomonas veronii and its regulation by pyrimidines.

    PubMed

    West, Thomas P

    2012-05-20

    Pyrimidine biosynthesis in the nutritionally versatile bacterium Pseudomonas veronii ATCC 700474 appeared to be controlled by pyrimidines. When wild type cells were grown on glucose in the presence of uracil, four enzyme activities were depressed while all five enzyme activities increased in succinate-grown cells supplemented with uracil. Independent of carbon source, orotic acid-grown cells elevated aspartate transcarbamoylase, dihydroorotase, orotate phosphoribosyltransferase or OMP decarboxylase activity. Pyrimidine limitation of glucose-grown pyrimidine auxotrophic cells lacking OMP decarboxylase activity resulted in at least a doubling of the enzyme activities relative to their activities in uracil-grown cells. Less derepression of the enzyme activities was observed after pyrimidine limitation of succinate-grown mutant cells possibly due to catabolite repression. Aspartate transcarbamoylase activity in Ps. veronii was regulated at the level of enzyme activity since the enzyme was strongly inhibited by pyrophosphate, UDP, UTP, ADP, ATP and GTP. Overall, the regulation of pyrimidine biosynthesis in Ps. veronii could be used to differentiate it from other taxonomically related species of Pseudomonas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Interspecies Interaction between Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Other Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Tashiro, Yosuke; Yawata, Yutaka; Toyofuku, Masanori; Uchiyama, Hiroo; Nomura, Nobuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Microbes interact with each other in multicellular communities and this interaction enables certain microorganisms to survive in various environments. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a highly adaptable bacterium that ubiquitously inhabits diverse environments including soil, marine habitats, plants and animals. Behind this adaptivity, P. aeruginosa has abilities not only to outcompete others but also to communicate with each other to develop a multispecies community. In this review, we focus on how P. aeruginosa interacts with other microorganisms. P. aeruginosa secretes antimicrobial chemicals to compete and signal molecules to cooperate with other organisms. In other cases, it directly conveys antimicrobial enzymes to other bacteria using the Type VI secretion system (T6SS) or membrane vesicles (MVs). Quorum sensing is a central regulatory system used to exert their ability including antimicrobial effects and cooperation with other microbes. At least three quorum sensing systems are found in P. aeruginosa, Las, Rhl and Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) systems. These quorum-sensing systems control the synthesis of extracellular antimicrobial chemicals as well as interaction with other organisms via T6SS or MVs. In addition, we explain the potential of microbial interaction analysis using several micro devices, which would bring fresh sensitivity to the study of interspecies interaction between P. aeruginosa and other organisms. PMID:23363620

  5. Evaluation of the siderophores production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PSS.

    PubMed

    Díaz de Villegas, María Elena; Villa, Pilar; Frías, Alina

    2002-01-01

    Siderophores are compounds secreted under low iron stress, that act as a specific ferric iron chelate agents and due to their potentialities in the biological control of phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria, their study has been stimulated in recent years. Siderophores produced by different Pseudomonas species have been widely studied as biological agents and it is an alternative to take into account in the control of phytopathogenic microorganisms in agriculture. The purpose of this paper was to study the influence of some culture medium, and the iron concentration in the production of this metabolite. The experiments were carried out in a conventional batch system in succinate, glucose and glutamate medium. The highest metabolite concentration was obtained in glucose and glutamate medium. The increase of Fe(III) concentration, had a negative effect in siderophores production, especially above 10 microM. The evaluation of the studied media led to the conclusion that it is possible to increase the production of this metabolite by the strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PSS, in a glutamate medium without iron addition.

  6. Involvement of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Rhodanese in Protection from Cyanide Toxicity▿

    PubMed Central

    Cipollone, Rita; Frangipani, Emanuela; Tiburzi, Federica; Imperi, Francesco; Ascenzi, Paolo; Visca, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Cyanide is a serious environmental pollutant and a biocontrol metabolite in plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas species. Here we report on the presence of multiple sulfurtransferases in the cyanogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and investigate in detail RhdA, a thiosulfate:cyanide sulfurtransferase (rhodanese) which converts cyanide to less toxic thiocyanate. RhdA is a cytoplasmic enzyme acting as the principal rhodanese in P. aeruginosa. The rhdA gene forms a transcriptional unit with the PA4955 and psd genes and is controlled by two promoters located upstream of PA4955 and rhdA. Both promoters direct constitutive RhdA expression and show similar patterns of activity, involving moderate down-regulation at the stationary phase or in the presence of exogenous cyanide. We previously observed that RhdA overproduction protects Escherichia coli against cyanide toxicity, and here we show that physiological RhdA levels contribute to P. aeruginosa survival under cyanogenic conditions. The growth of a ΔrhdA mutant is impaired under cyanogenic conditions and fully restored upon complementation with rhdA. Wild-type P. aeruginosa outcompetes the ΔrhdA mutant in cyanogenic coculture assays. Hence, RhdA could be regarded as an effector of P. aeruginosa intrinsic resistance to cyanide, insofar as it provides the bacterium with a defense mechanism against endogenous cyanide toxicity, in addition to cyanide-resistant respiration. PMID:17098912

  7. Influence of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa on Exacerbation in Patients with Bronchiectasis

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Kiran; Vishwanath, Shashidhar; Manu, Mohan K; Lazer, Bernaitis

    2015-01-01

    Background: A majority of the studies done on the western population have shown that Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes many severe infections in patients with bronchiectasis as compared to other pathogens. There is scarcity of similar data from the Asian population. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was undertaken to identify the various pathogens isolated from the respiratory samples of 117 patients with bronchiectasis from south India and to compare the clinicomicrobiological profile of infections caused by P. aeruginosa and other respiratory pathogens. Results: The respiratory pathogens were isolated from 63 (53.8%) patients. P. aeruginosa was the most common isolate (46.0%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (14.3%) and other pathogenic bacteria. Patients included in the P. aeruginosa group had a higher number of exacerbations (p: 0.008), greater number of hospital admissions (p: 0.007), a prolonged hospital stay (p: 0.03), and poor lung function, compared to the patients infected with the non-Pseudomonas group. Conclusion: It is necessary to investigate the etiology of respiratory tract infections among bronchiectasis patients followed by the prompt management of cases diagnosed with P. aeruginosa infections, so as to lower the morbidity and have a better prognosis. PMID:25722615

  8. Autolysis and autoaggregation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa colony morphology mutants.

    PubMed

    D'Argenio, David A; Calfee, M Worth; Rainey, Paul B; Pesci, Everett C

    2002-12-01

    Two distinctive colony morphologies were noted in a collection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa transposon insertion mutants. One set of mutants formed wrinkled colonies of autoaggregating cells. Suppressor analysis of a subset of these mutants showed that this was due to the action of the regulator WspR and linked this regulator (and the chemosensory pathway to which it belongs) to genes that encode a putative fimbrial adhesin required for biofilm formation. WspR homologs, related in part by a shared GGDEF domain, regulate cell surface factors, including aggregative fimbriae and exopolysaccharides, in diverse bacteria. The second set of distinctive insertion mutants formed colonies that lysed at their center. Strains with the most pronounced lysis overproduced the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS), an extracellular signal that interacts with quorum sensing. Autolysis was suppressed by mutation of genes required for PQS biosynthesis, and in one suppressed mutant, autolysis was restored by addition of synthetic PQS. The mechanism of autolysis may involve activation of the endogenous prophage and phage-related pyocins in the genome of strain PAO1. The fact that PQS levels correlated with autolysis suggests a fine balance in natural populations of P. aeruginosa between survival of the many and persistence of the few.

  9. Degradation of parabens by Pseudomonas beteli and Burkholderia latens.

    PubMed

    Amin, Aeshna; Chauhan, Sateesh; Dare, Manish; Bansal, Arvind Kumar

    2010-06-01

    p-Hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens) are commonly used antimicrobial preservatives in pharmaceutical formulations. Two microorganisms, isolated from non-sterile methyl paraben (MP) and propyl paraben (PP) solutions, were found to degrade the respective parabens. Identification by 16S rRNA partial gene sequencing revealed them to be Pseudomonas beteli and Burkholderia latens, respectively. The present work describes a previously unreported interaction of the parabens with P. beteli and B. latens. Degradation of MP at various concentrations by P. beteli, followed a logarithmic pattern, while that of PP by B. latens was found to be linear. It was subsequently observed that P. beteli could degrade only MP, while B. latens could degrade both the parabens. Absence of HPLC chromatogram peaks of expected degradation products indicated that the parabens were used up as a carbon source. The behaviour of pathogens (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger) of the pharmacopoeial preservative effectiveness test (PET), towards MP, showed that none had the ability to degrade the paraben. It was concluded that, for a paraben-preserved multi-dose ophthalmic formulation, the sole use of the four pathogens that are recommended by the pharmacopoeia for PET can falsely indicate the formulation to be effective against 'in-use' contamination.

  10. QapR (PA5506) Represses an Operon That Negatively Affects the Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Tipton, Kyle A.; Coleman, James P.

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen that can cause disease in varied sites within the human body and is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in those afflicted with cystic fibrosis. P. aeruginosa is able to coordinate group behaviors, such as virulence factor production, through the process of cell-to-cell signaling. There are three intercellular signaling systems employed by P. aeruginosa, and one of these systems utilizes the small molecule 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone (Pseudomonas quinolone signal [PQS]). PQS is required for virulence in multiple infection models and has been found in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients colonized by P. aeruginosa. In this study, we have identified an RpiR family transcriptional regulator, QapR, which is an autoregulatory repressor. We found that mutation of qapR caused overexpression of the qapR operon. We characterized the qapR operon to show that it contains genes qapR, PA5507, PA5508, and PA5509 and that QapR directly controls the transcription of these genes in a negative manner. We also show that derepression of this operon greatly reduces PQS concentration in P. aeruginosa. Our results suggest that qapR affects PQS concentration by repressing an enzymatic pathway that acts on PQS or a PQS precursor to lower the PQS concentration. We believe that this operon comprises a novel mechanism to regulate PQS concentration in P. aeruginosa. PMID:23708133

  11. Membrane Distribution of the Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal Modulates Outer Membrane Vesicle Production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Florez, Catalina; Raab, Julie E.; Cooke, Adam C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) is an important quorum-sensing molecule in Pseudomonas aeruginosa that also mediates its own packaging and transport by stimulating outer membrane vesicle (OMV) formation. Because OMVs have been implicated in many virulence-associated behaviors, it is critical that we understand how they are formed. Our group proposed the bilayer-couple model for OMV biogenesis, where PQS intercalates into the outer membrane, causing expansion of the outer leaflet and consequently inducing curvature. In accordance with the model, we hypothesized that PQS must be transported from the cytoplasm to the outer membrane before it can initiate OMV formation. We initially examined two laboratory strains of P. aeruginosa and found significant strain-dependent differences. PQS export correlated strongly with OMV production, even though equivalent amounts of total PQS were produced by both strains. Interestingly, we discovered that poor OMV producers sequestered the majority of PQS in the inner membrane, which appeared to be the result of early saturation of the export pathway. Further analysis showed that strain-specific PQS export and OMV biogenesis patterns were stable once established but could be significantly altered by changing the growth medium. Finally, we demonstrated that the associations described for laboratory strains also held for three clinical strains. These results suggest that factors controlling the export of PQS dictate OMV biogenesis. This work provides new insight into PQS-controlled virulence in P. aeruginosa and provides important tools to further study signal export and OMV biogenesis. PMID:28790210

  12. Exchange of Xcp (Gsp) secretion machineries between Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas alcaligenes: species specificity unrelated to substrate recognition.

    PubMed

    de Groot, A; Koster, M; Gérard-Vincent, M; Gerritse, G; Lazdunski, A; Tommassen, J; Filloux, A

    2001-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas alcaligenes are gram-negative bacteria that secrete proteins using the type II or general secretory pathway, which requires at least 12 xcp gene products (XcpA and XcpP to -Z). Despite strong conservation of this secretion pathway, gram-negative bacteria usually cannot secrete exoproteins from other species. Based on results obtained with Erwinia, it has been proposed that the XcpP and/or XcpQ homologs determine this secretion specificity (M. Linderberg, G. P. Salmond, and A. Collmer, Mol. Microbiol. 20:175-190, 1996). In the present study, we report that XcpP and XcpQ of P. alcaligenes could not substitute for their respective P. aeruginosa counterparts. However, these complementation failures could not be correlated to species-specific recognition of exoproteins, since these bacteria could secrete exoproteins of each other. Moreover, when P. alcaligenes xcpP and xcpQ were expressed simultaneously in a P. aeruginosa xcpPQ deletion mutant, complementation was observed, albeit only on agar plates and not in liquid cultures. After growth in liquid culture the heat-stable P. alcaligenes XcpQ multimers were not detected, whereas monomers were clearly visible. Together, our results indicate that the assembly of a functional Xcp machinery requires species-specific interactions between XcpP and XcpQ and between XcpP or XcpQ and another, as yet uncharacterized component(s).

  13. Enzyme-Mediated Quenching of the Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal (PQS) Promotes Biofilm Formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Increasing Iron Availability

    PubMed Central

    Tettmann, Beatrix; Niewerth, Christine; Kirschhöfer, Frank; Neidig, Anke; Dötsch, Andreas; Brenner-Weiss, Gerald; Fetzner, Susanne; Overhage, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    The 2-alkyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone 2,4-dioxygenase HodC was previously described to cleave the Pseudomonas quinolone signal, PQS, which is exclusively used in the complex quorum sensing (QS) system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen employing QS to regulate virulence and biofilm development. Degradation of PQS by exogenous addition of HodC to planktonic cells of P. aeruginosa attenuated production of virulence factors, and reduced virulence in planta. However, proteolytic cleavage reduced the efficacy of HodC. Here, we identified the secreted protease LasB of P. aeruginosa to be responsible for HodC degradation. In static biofilms of the P. aeruginosa PA14 lasB::Tn mutant, the catalytic activity of HodC led to an increase in viable biomass in newly formed but also in established biofilms, and reduced the expression of genes involved in iron metabolism and siderophore production, such as pvdS, pvdL, pvdA, and pvdQ. This is likely due to an increase in the levels of bioavailable iron by degradation of PQS, which is able to sequester iron from the surrounding environment. Thus, HodC, despite its ability to quench the production of virulence factors, is contraindicated for combating P. aeruginosa biofilms. PMID:28018312

  14. QapR (PA5506) represses an operon that negatively affects the Pseudomonas quinolone signal in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Tipton, Kyle A; Coleman, James P; Pesci, Everett C

    2013-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen that can cause disease in varied sites within the human body and is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in those afflicted with cystic fibrosis. P. aeruginosa is able to coordinate group behaviors, such as virulence factor production, through the process of cell-to-cell signaling. There are three intercellular signaling systems employed by P. aeruginosa, and one of these systems utilizes the small molecule 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone (Pseudomonas quinolone signal [PQS]). PQS is required for virulence in multiple infection models and has been found in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients colonized by P. aeruginosa. In this study, we have identified an RpiR family transcriptional regulator, QapR, which is an autoregulatory repressor. We found that mutation of qapR caused overexpression of the qapR operon. We characterized the qapR operon to show that it contains genes qapR, PA5507, PA5508, and PA5509 and that QapR directly controls the transcription of these genes in a negative manner. We also show that derepression of this operon greatly reduces PQS concentration in P. aeruginosa. Our results suggest that qapR affects PQS concentration by repressing an enzymatic pathway that acts on PQS or a PQS precursor to lower the PQS concentration. We believe that this operon comprises a novel mechanism to regulate PQS concentration in P. aeruginosa.

  15. Simultaneous biodegradation of phenol and cyanide present in coke-oven effluent using immobilized Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas stutzeri.

    PubMed

    Singh, Utkarsh; Arora, Naveen Kumar; Sachan, Preeti

    2017-09-04

    Discharge of coke-oven wastewater to the environment may cause severe contamination to it and also threaten the flora and fauna, including human beings. Hence before dumping it is necessary to treat this dangerous effluent in order to minimize the damage to the environment. Conventional technologies have inherent drawbacks however, biological treatment is an advantageous alternative method. In the present study, bacteria were isolated from the soil collected from the sites contaminated by coke-oven effluent rich in phenol and cyanide. Nucleotides sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed the identity of the selected phenol and cyanide degrading isolates NAUN-16 and NAUN-1B as Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas stutzeri, respectively. These two isolates tolerated phenol up to 1800mgL(-1) and cyanide up to 340mgL(-1) concentrations. The isolates were immobilized on activated charcoal, saw dust and fly ash. The effluent was passed through the column packed with immobilized cells with a flow rate of 5mLmin(-1). The isolates showed degradation of phenol up to 80.5% and cyanide up to 80.6% and also had the ability to reduce biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand and lower the pH of effluent from alkaline to near neutral. The study suggests the utilization of such potential bacterial strains in treating industrial effluent containing phenol and cyanide, before being thrown in any ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Solubility and bioactivity of the Pseudomonas quinolone signal are increased by a Pseudomonas aeruginosa-produced surfactant.

    PubMed

    Calfee, M Worth; Shelton, John G; McCubrey, James A; Pesci, Everett C

    2005-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative bacterium that causes serious infections in immunocompromised individuals and cystic fibrosis patients. This opportunistic pathogen controls many of its virulence factors and cellular functions through the activity of three cell-to-cell signals, N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone, N-butyryl-L-homoserine lactone, and the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS). The activity of these signals is dependent upon their ability to dissolve in and freely diffuse through the aqueous solution in which P. aeruginosa happens to reside. Despite this, our data indicated that PQS was relatively insoluble in aqueous solutions, which led us to postulate that P. aeruginosa could be producing a PQS-solubilizing factor. In this report, we show that the P. aeruginosa-produced biosurfactant rhamnolipid greatly enhances the solubility of PQS in aqueous solutions. The enhanced solubility of PQS led to an increase in PQS bioactivity, as measured by both a gene induction assay and an apoptosis assay. This is the first demonstration of the importance of a bacterial surfactant in the solubilization and bioactivity of a cell-to-cell signal.

  17. The EM Earthquake Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

    2013-12-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two

  18. Pseudomonas diversity in crude-oil-contaminated intertidal sand samples obtained after the Prestige oil spill.

    PubMed

    Mulet, Magdalena; David, Zoyla; Nogales, Balbina; Bosch, Rafael; Lalucat, Jorge; García-Valdés, Elena

    2011-02-01

    The Galicia seashore, in northwestern Spain, was one of the shorelines affected by the Prestige oil spill in November 2002. The diversity of autochthonous Pseudomonas populations present at two beaches (Carnota municipality) was analyzed using culture-independent and culture-dependent methods. The first analysis involved the screening of an rpoD gene library. The second involved the isolation of 94 Pseudomonas strains that were able to grow on selective media by direct plating or after serial enrichments on several carbon sources: biphenyl, gentisate, hexadecane, methylnaphthalene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, salicylate, xylene, and succinate. Eight denitrifying Pseudomonas strains were also isolated by their ability to grow anaerobically with nitrate. The calculated coverage index for Pseudomonas species was 89% when clones and isolates were considered together, and there were 29 phylospecies detected. The most abundant were members of the species P. stutzeri, P. putida, P. anguilliseptica, and P. oleovorans. Thirty-one isolates could not be identified at the species level and were considered representatives of 16 putative novel Pseudomonas species. One isolate was considered representative of a novel P. stutzeri genomovar. Concordant results were obtained when the diversities of the cloned DNA library and the cultured strains were compared. The clone library obtained by the rpoD PCR method was a useful tool for evaluating Pseudomonas communities and also for microdiversity studies of Pseudomonas populations.

  19. Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis sp. nov., isolated from soil at a coal gasification site.

    PubMed

    Andersen, S M; Johnsen, K; Sørensen, J; Nielsen, P; Jacobsen, C S

    2000-11-01

    Phenotypic and genotypic characterization indicated that a group of 29 closely related phenanthrene-degrading bacteria from a coal gasification site in Frederiksberg, Copenhagen, Denmark, belonged to the genus Pseudomonas. The strains were isolated at two sampling occasions 2 years apart. The isolates were phenotypically different from any known species of the genus Pseudomonas and were therefore subject to further identification. Colonies were smooth and pale yellowish and did not produce pigments fluorescent in UV light when grown on King's B agar. Cells were rod-shaped, approximately 0.5-0.8 x 1.5-3.0 microm, and grew at 4 and 30 degrees C, but not 37 degrees C. The bacteria were oxidase- and catalase-positive, accumulated poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate and denitrified, but did not utilize D-xylose. The mean G+C content was 59.6 mol%. Phenotypic data and 16S rDNA sequence data information for Pseudomonas amygdali and Pseudomonas corrugata, and 16S rDNA sequence data for Pseudomonas chlororaphis and Pseudomonas syringae showed close relationships to these strains. However, DNA-DNA hybridization data showed that the isolates belong to a new species, for which the name Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JAJ28T (DSM 13022T).

  20. A purification procedure for the soluble cytochrome oxidase and some other respiratory proteins from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Parr, S R; Barber, D; Greenwood, C

    1976-08-01

    The production of the soluble cytochrome oxidase/nitrite reductase in the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is favoured by anaerobic conditions and the presence of KNO3(20g/l) in the culture medium. Of three methods commonly used for the disruption of bacterial suspensions (ultrasonication, liquid-shear homogenization and glass-bead grinding), sonication proved the most efficient in releasing the Pseudomonas cytochrome oxidase. A polarographic assay of Pseudomonas cytochrome oxidase activity with sodium ascorbate as substrate and NNN'N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride as electron mediator is described. A purification procedure was developed which can be used on the small scale (40-litre cultures) or the large scale (400-litre cultures) and provides high yields of three respiratory-chain proteins, Pseudomonas cytochrome oxidase, cytochrome c551 and azurin, in a pure state. A typical preparation of 250g of Ps.aeruginosa cell paste yielded 180mg of Pseudomonas cytochrome oxidase, 81 mg of Pseudomonas cytochrome c551 and 275mg of Pseudomonas azurin.

  1. High prevalence of Pseudomonas species in soil samples from Ternate Island-Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Noura; Salih, K M; Jusuf, N H; Hamid, A A; Yusoff, W M W

    2009-07-15

    In the present study, Ten soil samples were examined and the pH of the soil was recorded. For bacterial isolation, a sterile nutrient and blood agars were used. Gram stain and biochemical tests were done for identification. A total of 384 genus were isolated, 314 (81.8%) were identified as Pseudomonas species of which 245 (78.0%) were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 42 (13.4%) were Pseudomonas fluorescens, 13 (4.2%) were Pseudomonas mallei, 10 (3.1%) were Pseudomonas putida and 4 (1.3%) were Pseudomonas syringe and are regarded as pathogenic and harmful to man, animal and plants. This study shows that Pseudomonas aeruginosa had a high adaptation capability to grow in soil samples from Ternate, Indonesia. The rest of the bacterial isolates (18.2%) were identified as follows: 24 samples (6.2%) were Micrococcus, 23 samples (6.0%) were E. coli, 12 samples (3.1%) were Pasteurella and 11 samples (2.9%) were Staphylococcus. Pencillium was also isolated.

  2. Diversity of Pseudomonas Genomes, Including Populus-Associated Isolates, as Revealed by Comparative Genome Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jun, Se-Ran; Wassenaar, Trudy M; Nookaew, Intawat; Hauser, Loren; Wanchai, Visanu; Land, Miriam; Timm, Collin M; Lu, Tse-Yuan S; Schadt, Christopher W; Doktycz, Mitchel J; Pelletier, Dale A; Ussery, David W

    2015-10-30

    The Pseudomonas genus contains a metabolically versatile group of organisms that are known to occupy numerous ecological niches, including the rhizosphere and endosphere of many plants. Their diversity influences the phylogenetic diversity and heterogeneity of these communities. On the basis of average amino acid identity, comparative genome analysis of >1,000 Pseudomonas genomes, including 21 Pseudomonas strains isolated from the roots of native Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood) trees resulted in consistent and robust genomic clusters with phylogenetic homogeneity. All Pseudomonas aeruginosa genomes clustered together, and these were clearly distinct from other Pseudomonas species groups on the basis of pangenome and core genome analyses. In contrast, the genomes of Pseudomonas fluorescens were organized into 20 distinct genomic clusters, representing enormous diversity and heterogeneity. Most of our 21 Populus-associated isolates formed three distinct subgroups within the major P. fluorescens group, supported by pathway profile analysis, while two isolates were more closely related to Pseudomonas chlororaphis and Pseudomonas putida. Genes specific to Populus-associated subgroups were identified. Genes specific to subgroup 1 include several sensory systems that act in two-component signal transduction, a TonB-dependent receptor, and a phosphorelay sensor. Genes specific to subgroup 2 contain hypothetical genes, and genes specific to subgroup 3 were annotated with hydrolase activity. This study justifies the need to sequence multiple isolates, especially from P. fluorescens, which displays the most genetic variation, in order to study functional capabilities from a pangenomic perspective. This information will prove useful when choosing Pseudomonas strains for use to promote growth and increase disease resistance in plants.

  3. Biodegradation of nicotine by a newly isolated Pseudomonas stutzeri JZD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petricevic, Jelena; Gujanicic, Vera; Radic, Danka; Jovicic Petrovic, Jelena; Jovic, Jelena; Raicevic, Vera

    2013-04-01

    The tobacco-manufacturing process and all activities that use tobacco, produce solid or liquid wastes with high concentrations of nicotine. Nicotine is a significant toxic waste product in tobacco industry. This waste is classified as 'toxic and hazardous' by European Union regulations when the nicotine content exceeds 500 milligrams per kilogram dry weight. Therefore, there is a major environmental requirement to remove nicotine from tobacco wastes. Bioremediation techniques which involve nicotine degradation by microorganisms have attracted attention during the last years, because microorganisms have the potential to reduce nicotine levels in tobacco and to detoxify tobacco wastes. The aim of this study is isolation and identification of nicotine degraded bacteria and optimization of nicotine degradation in laboratory conditions. An aerobic bacterial strain capable of effectively degrading nicotine was isolated from the tobacco industry waste, Serbia. After isolation, the liquid culture was spread onto the solid plates of the nicotine inorganic salt medium using the dilution plate method. Cell morphology of strain was observed by a light microscope and physiological characteristics were determined by Api technique and sequence analyzes of 16S rDNA. This isolate was identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri based on morphology, physiological characteristics, and Apiweb technique. Comparison with sequences available in data library showed the 99% similarity with 16S rDNA gene sequence of the species Pseudomonas stutzeri ( GenBank Acc. No. CP003725). We analyzed the effect of initial nicotine concentration (1g/L, 1.5 g/L, 2.5 g/L) on microbial activity in aim to optimize biodegradation. The effect of cultivation temperature (25°C; 30°C; 37°C) on nicotine degradation by P. stutzeri was evaluated after 24 h of cultivation, with 1.5 g/L nicotine added as the sole carbon source. Effect of biodegradation has depended on initial concentration. During incubation, number of

  4. Iron Depletion Enhances Production of Antimicrobials by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Angela T.; Jones, Jace W.; Ruge, Max A.; Kane, Maureen A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a heritable disease characterized by chronic, polymicrobial lung infections. While Staphylococcus aureus is the dominant lung pathogen in young CF patients, Pseudomonas aeruginosa becomes predominant by adulthood. P. aeruginosa produces a variety of antimicrobials that likely contribute to this shift in microbial populations. In particular, secretion of 2-alkyl-4(1H)-quinolones (AQs) contributes to lysis of S. aureus in coculture, providing an iron source to P. aeruginosa both in vitro and in vivo. We previously showed that production of one such AQ, the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS), is enhanced by iron depletion and that this induction is dependent upon the iron-responsive PrrF small RNAs (sRNAs). Here, we demonstrate that antimicrobial activity against S. aureus during coculture is also enhanced by iron depletion, and we provide evidence that multiple AQs contribute to this activity. Strikingly, a P. aeruginosa ΔprrF mutant, which produces very little PQS in monoculture, was capable of mediating iron-regulated growth suppression of S. aureus. We show that the presence of S. aureus suppresses the ΔprrF1,2 mutant's defect in iron-regulated PQS production, indicating that a PrrF-independent iron regulatory pathway mediates AQ production in coculture. We further demonstrate that iron-regulated antimicrobial production is conserved in multiple P. aeruginosa strains, including clinical isolates from CF patients. These results demonstrate that iron plays a central role in modulating interactions of P. aeruginosa with S. aureus. Moreover, our studies suggest that established iron regulatory pathways of these pathogens are significantly altered during polymicrobial infections. IMPORTANCE Chronic polymicrobial infections involving Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, as the interplay between these two organisms exacerbates infection. This is in part due to enhanced

  5. EMS & the DEA.

    PubMed

    Beeson, Jeff; Ayres, Chris

    2010-01-01

    It's clear that EMS medical directors and management staff must be vigilant in their oversight of implementation, administration and monitoring of controlled substances within their agencies to best serve the public and avoid running afoul of investigation and incurring significant penalties. Those potentially affected by the need for individual registrations of both emergency vehicles and central inventory systems should carefully monitor upcoming developments in the interpretation od DEA regulations.

  6. Interactions between plants and beneficial Pseudomonas spp.: exploiting bacterial traits for crop protection.

    PubMed

    Mercado-Blanco, Jesús; Bakker, Peter A H M

    2007-11-01

    Specific strains of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. inhabit the environment surrounding plant roots and some even the root interior. Introducing such bacterial strains to plant roots can lead to increased plant growth, usually due to suppression of plant pathogenic microorganisms. We review the modes of action and traits of these beneficial Pseudomonas bacteria involved in disease suppression. The complex regulation of biological control traits in relation to the functioning in the root environment is discussed. Understanding the complexity of the interactions is instrumental in the exploitation of beneficial Pseudomonas spp. in controlling plant diseases.

  7. Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing modulates immune responses: An updated review article.

    PubMed

    Kariminik, Ashraf; Baseri-Salehi, Majid; Kheirkhah, Babak

    2017-07-08

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic bacterium which induces some complications in immunocompromised patients. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a quorum-sensing using bacterium which regulates its genes expression. The bacterium uses two famous pathways for quorum sensing entitled LasI/LasR and RhlI/RhlR systems. It has been documented that the bacteria which use quorum sensing are able to overcome immune responses. This review article aims to present recent information regarding the effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing systems on the host immune responses. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Pseudomonas yangmingensis sp. nov., an alkaliphilic denitrifying species isolated from a hot spring.

    PubMed

    Wong, Biing-Teo; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2014-01-01

    This study isolated and identified a facultative, alkaliphilic, denitrifying Pseudomonas strain designed as CRS1 from a hot spring, Yang-Ming Mountain, Taiwan. The biochemical characterization, phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic relationship of strain CRS1 were studied. On the basis of the 16S rRNA sequence similarity, phenotypic and genotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data, the strain CRS1 represents a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas yangmingensis sp. nov., is proposed. The strain CRS1 is a facultative autotrophic bacterium that has capability of mixotrophic and heterotrophic denitrification. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of phenanthrene-degrading fluorescent Pseudomonas biovars

    SciTech Connect

    Johnsen, K.; Andersen, S.; Jacobsen, C.S.

    1996-10-01

    The genus Pseudomonas is a group of gram-negative motile rods know for large metabolic versatility as well as pathogenicity to plants, animals and humans. A large number of bacteria from this group capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been isolated in soils and aquifers, but the identification is often conducted only to the Pseudomonas sp. level. This study aims to characterize a group of bacteria from the fluorescent Pseudomonas group degrading phenanthrene by four different methods to assess the bacterial diversity of the closely related group. 37 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Phenazines affect biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in similar ways at various scales

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Itzel; Dietrich, Lars E. P.; Price-Whelan, Alexa; Newman, Dianne K.

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonads produce phenazines, a group of small, redox-active compounds with diverse physiological functions. In this study, we compared the phenotypes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14 and a mutant unable to synthesize phenazines in flow cell and colony biofilms quantitatively. Although phenazine production does not impact the ability of PA14 to attach to surfaces, as has been shown for Pseudomonas chlororaphis (Maddula, 2006; Maddula, 2008), it influences swarming motility and the surface-to-volume ratio of mature biofilms. These results indicate that phenazines affect biofilm development across a large range of scales, but in unique ways for different Pseudomonas species. PMID:20123017

  11. Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteraemia in an adult with cystic fibrosis and acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Francis J; Doherty, Catherine J; Govan, John R; Webb, A Kevin; Jones, Andrew M

    2011-12-01

    Despite their high bacterial load, bacteraemia is rare in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). We report an adult with CF who developed Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteraemia during an episode of acute appendicitis. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from the blood culture was confirmed by molecular typing to be the same transmissible strain responsible for the patient's chronic pulmonary infection. We hypothesise that this patient's bacteraemia was caused by Pseudomonas aerunginosa in swallowed sputum, crossing the inflamed appendiceal wall and entering the blood stream. Copyright © 2011 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemical and Metabolic Aspects of Antimetabolite Toxins Produced by Pseudomonas syringae Pathovars

    PubMed Central

    Arrebola, Eva; Cazorla, Francisco M.; Perez-García, Alejandro; de Vicente, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae is a phytopathogenic bacterium present in a wide variety of host plants where it causes diseases with economic impact. The symptoms produced by Pseudomonas syringae include chlorosis and necrosis of plant tissues, which are caused, in part, by antimetabolite toxins. This category of toxins, which includes tabtoxin, phaseolotoxin and mangotoxin, is produced by different pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae. These toxins are small peptidic molecules that target enzymes of amino acids’ biosynthetic pathways, inhibiting their activity and interfering in the general nitrogen metabolism. A general overview of the toxins’ chemistry, biosynthesis, activity, virulence and potential applications will be reviewed in this work. PMID:22069758

  13. Chemical and metabolic aspects of antimetabolite toxins produced by Pseudomonas syringae pathovars.

    PubMed

    Arrebola, Eva; Cazorla, Francisco M; Perez-García, Alejandro; de Vicente, Antonio

    2011-09-01

    Pseudomonas syringae is a phytopathogenic bacterium present in a wide variety of host plants where it causes diseases with economic impact. The symptoms produced by Pseudomonas syringae include chlorosis and necrosis of plant tissues, which are caused, in part, by antimetabolite toxins. This category of toxins, which includes tabtoxin, phaseolotoxin and mangotoxin, is produced by different pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae. These toxins are small peptidic molecules that target enzymes of amino acids' biosynthetic pathways, inhibiting their activity and interfering in the general nitrogen metabolism. A general overview of the toxins' chemistry, biosynthesis, activity, virulence and potential applications will be reviewed in this work.

  14. Biodegradation of 2-nitrotoluene by Pseudomonas sp. strain JS42.

    PubMed Central

    Haigler, B E; Wallace, W H; Spain, J C

    1994-01-01

    A strain of Pseudomonas sp. was isolated from nitrobenzene-contaminated soil and groundwater on 2-nitrotoluene as the sole source of carbon, energy, and nitrogen. Bacterial cells growing on 2-nitrotoluene released nitrite into the growth medium. The isolate also grew on 3-methylcatechol, 4-methylcatechol, and catechol. 2-Nitrotoluene, 3-methylcatechol, and catechol stimulated oxygen consumption by intact cells regardless of the growth substrate. Crude extracts from the isolate contained catechol 2,3-dioxygenase and 2-hydroxy-6-oxohepta-2,4-dienoate hydrolase activity. The results suggest that 2-nitrotoluene is subject to initial attack by a dioxygenase enzyme that forms 3-methylcatechol with concomitant release of nitrite. The 3-methylcatechol is subsequently degraded via the meta ring fission pathway. PMID:7944378

  15. Camphor Plasmid-Mediated Chromosomal Transfer in Pseudomonas putida

    PubMed Central

    Shaham, M.; Chakrabarty, A. M.; Gunsalus, I. C.

    1973-01-01

    Camphor-utilizing strains of Pseudomonas putida have been shown to carry the genetic information required for camphor degradation on a plasmid. The plasmid-carrying strains can serve as donors of both plasmid-borne and chromosomal genes. As recipients, plasmid-deleted strains are much superior to those carrying the camphor pathway genes. The transfer frequency of chromosomal, but not plasmid-borne, genes is markedly enhanced if the donor cells are irradiated with ultraviolet light followed by 3-h of growth on a rich medium in the dark. Recombinants selected for prototrophy are stable and most acquire the camphor (CAM) plasmid concomitantly; only a few of the Cam+ recombinants inherit the donor's ability to transfer chromosomal genes at a high frequency. Transfer-defective mutations occur on the CAM plasmid, affecting both CAM and chromosomal gene transfer. PMID:4745436

  16. Fusion and Compatibility of Camphor and Octane Plasmids in Pseudomonas

    PubMed Central

    Chou, George I. N.; Katz, Dvorah; Gunsalus, I. C.

    1974-01-01

    The octane (OCT) plasmid in Pseudomonas putida derived from the ω-hydroxylase-carrying strain of Coon and coworkers is transferable to the camphor (CAM) plasmid-bearing strain by conjugation or by transduction. While the majority of the Cam +Oct+ exconjugants segregate Cam+ or Oct+ cells, exconjugants with stable Cam +Oct+ phenotype (CAM-OCT) can be detected at a low frequency. The transductants are all of the CAM-OCT phenotype. In the stable Cam +Oct+ strains, the OCT plasmid resembles the CAM plasmid with respect to curing by mitomycin C, transfer in conjugation, and reaction to ts (temperature-sensitive) mutation specifically affecting CAM plasmid replication. Therefore, it is suggested that certain regions of homology exist between the CAM and OCT plasmids that enable them to recombine to form a single plasmid, and to overcome the incompatibility barrier that prevents their coexisting. PMID:4527812

  17. Production of proteinase on noncarbohydrate carbon sources by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Morihara, K

    1965-09-01

    Proteinase production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied in medium containing noncarbohydrate materials, especially various hydrocarbons, as the sole carbon source. On heavy oil, kerosene, n-paraffinic hydrocarbon of C(12), C(14), or C(16), and propylene glycol, the bacteria grew well and high protinase production was observed. However, production on paraffinic hydrocarbon differed remarkably with strains of varied origins. The elastase-positive strain, IFO 3455, showed abundant growth and high proteinase production on medium containing a paraffin of C(12), C(14), or C(16), whereas the elastase-negative strain, IFO 3080, showed little growth on the same medium. Neither elastase-positive nor elastase-negative strains, however, utilized n-paraffins of C(5) to C(10), or various aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and anthracene. The proteinases produced on the noncarbohydrate medium were identical with those produced in glucose medium.

  18. Glycine metabolism by Pseudomonas aeruginosa: hydrogen cyanide biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Castric, P A

    1977-01-01

    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a synthetic medium is stimulated by the presence of glycine. Methionine enhances this stimulation but will not substitute for glycine as a stimulator of cyanogenesis. Threonine and phenylalanine are effective substitutes for glycine in the stimulation of HCN production. Glycine, threonine, and serine are good radioisotope precursors of HCN, but methionine and phenylalanine are not. Cell extracts of P. aeruginosa convert [14C]threonine to [14C]glycine. H14CN is produced with low dilution of label from either [1-14C]glycine or [2-14C]glycine, indicating a randomization of label either in the primary or secondary metabolism of glycine. When whole cells were fed [1,2-14C]glycine, cyanide and bicarbonate were the only radioactive extracellular products observed. PMID:233722

  19. Airway epithelial control of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Campόdonico, Victoria L; Gadjeva, Mihaela; Paradis-Bleau, Catherine; Uluer, Ahmet; Pier, Gerald B

    2013-01-01

    Defective expression or function of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) underlies the hypersusceptibility of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients to chronic airway infections, particularly with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. CFTR is involved in the specific recognition of P. aeruginosa, thereby contributing to effective innate immunity and proper hydration of the airway surface layer (ASL). In CF, the airway epithelium fails to initiate an appropriate innate immune response, allowing the microbe to bind to mucus plugs that are then not properly cleared because of the dehydrated ASL. Recent studies have identified numerous CFTR-dependent factors that are recruited to the epithelial plasma membrane in response to infection and that are needed for bacterial clearance, a process that is defective in CF patients hypersusceptible to infection with this organism. PMID:18262467

  20. Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Treated with Azithromycin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelan, Vanessa V.; Fang, Jinshu; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2015-06-01

    In microbiology, changes in specialized metabolite production (cell-to-cell signaling metabolites, virulence factors, and natural products) are measured using phenotypic assays. However, advances in mass spectrometry-based techniques including imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) now allow researchers to directly visualize the production of specialized metabolites from microbial colony biofilms. In this study, a combination of IMS and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to visualize the effect of the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin (AZM) on colony biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Although previous research suggested that AZM may inhibit cell-to-cell signaling of P. aeruginosa and thereby reduce pathogenicity, we observed no clear decrease in specialized metabolite production.

  1. Acquisition and role of molybdate in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Pederick, Victoria G; Eijkelkamp, Bart A; Ween, Miranda P; Begg, Stephanie L; Paton, James C; McDevitt, Christopher A

    2014-11-01

    In microaerophilic or anaerobic environments, Pseudomonas aeruginosa utilizes nitrate reduction for energy production, a process dependent on the availability of the oxyanionic form of molybdenum, molybdate (MoO4 (2-)). Here, we show that molybdate acquisition in P. aeruginosa occurs via a high-affinity ATP-binding cassette permease (ModABC). ModA is a cluster D-III solute binding protein capable of interacting with molybdate or tungstate oxyanions. Deletion of the modA gene reduces cellular molybdate concentrations and results in inhibition of anaerobic growth and nitrate reduction. Further, we show that conditions that permit nitrate reduction also cause inhibition of biofilm formation and an alteration in fatty acid composition of P. aeruginosa. Collectively, these data highlight the importance of molybdate for anaerobic growth of P. aeruginosa and reveal novel consequences of nitrate reduction on biofilm formation and cell membrane composition.

  2. Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Treated With Azithromycin

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Vanessa V.; Fang, Jinshu; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2015-01-01

    In microbiology, changes in specialized metabolite production (cell-to-cell signaling metabolites, virulence factors and natural products) are measured using phenotypic assays. However, advances in mass spectrometry based techniques including imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) now allow researchers to directly visualize the production of specialized metabolites from microbial colony biofilms. In this study, a combination of IMS and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to visualize the effect of the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin (AZM) on colony biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. While previous research suggested that AZM may inhibit cell-to-cell signaling of P. aeruginosa and thereby reducing pathogenicity, we observed no clear decrease in specialized metabolite production. PMID:25801585

  3. Decrease of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation by food waste materials.

    PubMed

    Maderova, Zdenka; Horska, Katerina; Kim, Sang-Ryoung; Lee, Chung-Hak; Pospiskova, Kristyna; Safarikova, Mirka; Safarik, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    The formation of bacterial biofilm on various surfaces has significant negative economic effects. The aim of this study was to find a simple procedure to decrease the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation in a water environment by using different food waste biological materials as signal molecule adsorbents. The selected biomaterials did not reduce the cell growth but affected biofilm formation. Promising biomaterials were magnetically modified in order to simplify manipulation and facilitate their magnetic separation. The best biocomposite, magnetically modified spent grain, exhibited substantial adsorption of signal molecules and decreased the biofilm formation. These results suggest that selected food waste materials and their magnetically responsive derivatives could be applied to solve biofilm problems in water environment.

  4. Transport of Aromatic Amino Acids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Kay, W. W.; Gronlund, Audrey F.

    1971-01-01

    Kinetic studies of the transport of aromatic amino acids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa revealed the existence of two high-affinity transport systems which recognized the three aromatic amino acids. From competition data and studies on the exchange of preformed aromatic amino acid pools, the first transport system was found to be functional with phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan (in order of decreasing activity), whereas the second system was active with tryptophan, phenylalanine, and tyrosine. The two systems also transported a number of aromatic amino acid analogues but not other amino acids. Mutants defective in each of the two and in both transport systems were isolated and described. When the amino acids were added at low external concentrations to cells growing logarithmically in glucose minimal medium, the tryptophan pool very quickly became saturated. Under identical conditions, phenylalanine and tyrosine each accumulated in the intracellular pool of P. aeruginosa at a concentration which was 10 times greater than that of tryptophan. PMID:4994029

  5. Decolorization of anaerobically digested molasses spent wash by Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, M; Ganguli, A; Tripathi, A K

    2009-01-01

    The distillery wastewater (spent wash) contains dark-brown colored recalcitrant organic compounds that are not amenable to conventional biological treatment. The characteristic recalcitrance to decolorization is due to the presence of brown melanoidin polymers. In the present study, feasibility of using Pseudomonas putida strain U for decolorization of spent wash was demonstrated. Batch cultures of P. putida decolourized spent wash by 24%, 2- fold higher decolorization was achieved following immobilization in calcium alginate beads. Glucose concentration was critical for decolourization and improved color removal efficiency was obtained by periodic replenishment of glucose. Decolourization was also observed with lactose or whey as alternative carbon sources. The results of our study suggest that P. putida could be used for biological decolorization of molasses spent washes and that supplementation with whey (a by-product from cheese industry) can offer economical viability to the process.

  6. [Water used for hemodialysis equipment: where is Pseudomonas aeruginosa?].

    PubMed

    Ducki, Sébastien; Francini, Nicolas; Blech, Marie-Françoise

    2005-05-01

    The water used in dilution of the dialysis solutions constitutes an essential element of the efficiency and the safety of this therapeutics. Water must be specifically treated, and some technical rules must be respected, such as disinfection of the equipment for water treatment, to guarantee a satisfying level for whole the installation. This article reports the investigations, which were led to find the spring of Pseudomonas aeruginosa which contamined in a recurring way the water feeding dialysis equipment. The observation of samples'chronology and an analysis of the sanitary pad suggested a contamination during disinfection. Sample of residual water from the pump used for the injection of Dialox identified this reservoir as origin of the contamination. To stop this contamination by P. aeruginosa, a pump maintenance revision and purges of the system were used.

  7. Pseudomonas aeruginosa essentials: an update on investigation of essential genes.

    PubMed

    Juhas, Mario

    2015-11-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the leading cause of nosocomial infections, particularly in immunocompromised, cancer, burn and cystic fibrosis patients. Development of novel antimicrobials against P. aeruginosa is therefore of the highest importance. Although the first reports on P. aeruginosa essential genes date back to the early 2000s, a number of more sensitive genomic approaches have been used recently to better define essential genes in this organism. These analyses highlight the evolution of the definition of an 'essential' gene from the traditional to the context-dependent. Essential genes, particularly those indispensable under the clinically relevant conditions, are considered to be promising targets of novel antibiotics against P. aeruginosa. This review provides an update on the investigation of P. aeruginosa essential genes. Special focus is on recently identified P. aeruginosa essential genes and their exploitation for the development of antimicrobials.

  8. Electrochemically monitoring the antibiotic susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

    PubMed

    Webster, Thaddaeus A; Sismaet, Hunter J; Chan, I-ping J; Goluch, Edgar D

    2015-11-07

    The condition of cells in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms was monitored via the electrochemical detection of the electro-active virulence factor pyocyanin in a fabricated microfluidic growth chamber coupled with a disposable three electrode cell. Cells were exposed to 4, 16, and 100 mg L(-1) colistin sulfate after overnight growth. At the end of testing, the measured maximum peak current (and therefore pyocyanin concentration) was reduced by approximately 68% and 82% in P. aeruginosa exposed to 16 and 100 mg L(-1) colistin sulfate, respectively. Samples were removed from the microfluidic chamber, analyzed for viability using staining, and streaked onto culture plates to confirm that the P. aeruginosa cells were affected by the antibiotics. The correlation between electrical signal drop and the viability of P. aeruginosa cells after antibiotic exposure highlights the usefulness of this approach for future low cost antibiotic screening applications.

  9. Acquisition and Role of Molybdate in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Pederick, Victoria G.; Eijkelkamp, Bart A.; Ween, Miranda P.; Begg, Stephanie L.; Paton, James C.

    2014-01-01

    In microaerophilic or anaerobic environments, Pseudomonas aeruginosa utilizes nitrate reduction for energy production, a process dependent on the availability of the oxyanionic form of molybdenum, molybdate (MoO42−). Here, we show that molybdate acquisition in P. aeruginosa occurs via a high-affinity ATP-binding cassette permease (ModABC). ModA is a cluster D-III solute binding protein capable of interacting with molybdate or tungstate oxyanions. Deletion of the modA gene reduces cellular molybdate concentrations and results in inhibition of anaerobic growth and nitrate reduction. Further, we show that conditions that permit nitrate reduction also cause inhibition of biofilm formation and an alteration in fatty acid composition of P. aeruginosa. Collectively, these data highlight the importance of molybdate for anaerobic growth of P. aeruginosa and reveal novel consequences of nitrate reduction on biofilm formation and cell membrane composition. PMID:25172858

  10. Nitrogen Mineralization by Acanthamoeba polyphaga in Grazed Pseudomonas paucimobilis Populations

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, James L.; McClellan, J. Forbes; Coleman, David C.

    1981-01-01

    Nitrogen mineralization was studied in a simple grazing system in which the protozoan Acanthamoeba polyphaga was grown with the bacterium Pseudomonas paucimobilis (two soil organisms isolated from the shortgrass prairie in northern Colorado). In different experiments, either carbon or nitrogen was adjusted to be in limiting amounts. When carbon was limiting, grazers were almost entirely responsible for nitrogen mineralization, with bacteria themselves contributing little. When nitrogen was limiting, nitrogen mineralization by grazers permitted continued growth by the grazed bacteria and a greater bacterial biomass production. The increased growth of the grazed bacteria did not result in an increased total amount of carbon used, but the grazed bacteria used carbon more efficiently than the ungrazed bacteria. PMID:16345864

  11. Pseudomonas aeruginosa dose response and bathing water infection.

    PubMed

    Roser, D J; van den Akker, B; Boase, S; Haas, C N; Ashbolt, N J; Rice, S A

    2014-03-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the opportunistic pathogen mostly implicated in folliculitis and acute otitis externa in pools and hot tubs. Nevertheless, infection risks remain poorly quantified. This paper reviews disease aetiologies and bacterial skin colonization science to advance dose-response theory development. Three model forms are identified for predicting disease likelihood from pathogen density. Two are based on Furumoto & Mickey's exponential 'single-hit' model and predict infection likelihood and severity (lesions/m2), respectively. 'Third-generation', mechanistic, dose-response algorithm development is additionally scoped. The proposed formulation integrates dispersion, epidermal interaction, and follicle invasion. The review also details uncertainties needing consideration which pertain to water quality, outbreaks, exposure time, infection sites, biofilms, cerumen, environmental factors (e.g. skin saturation, hydrodynamics), and whether P. aeruginosa is endogenous or exogenous. The review's findings are used to propose a conceptual infection model and identify research priorities including pool dose-response modelling, epidermis ecology and infection likelihood-based hygiene management.

  12. Bioengineered lysozyme in combination therapies for Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections

    PubMed Central

    Griswold, Karl E; Bement, Jenna L; Teneback, Charlotte C; Scanlon, Thomas C; Wargo, Matthew J; Leclair, Laurie W

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing urgency in the battle against drug-resistant bacterial pathogens, and this public health crisis has created a desperate need for novel antimicrobial agents. Recombinant human lysozyme represents one interesting candidate for treating pulmonary infections, but the wild type enzyme is subject to electrostatic mediated inhibition by anionic biopolymers that accumulate in the infected lung. We have redesigned lysozyme’s electrostatic potential field, creating a genetically engineered variant that is less susceptible to polyanion inhibition, yet retains potent bactericidal activity. A recent publication demonstrated that the engineered enzyme outperforms wild type lysozyme in a murine model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection. Here, we expand upon our initial studies and consider dual therapies that combine lysozymes with an antimicrobial peptide. Consistent with our earlier results, the charge modified lysozyme combination outperformed its wild type counterpart, yielding more than an order-of-magnitude reduction in bacterial burden following treatment with a single dose. PMID:24637705

  13. Selection of DNA aptamers specific for live Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Soundy, Jennifer; Day, Darren

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, particular cystic fibrosis sufferers, burns victims, diabetics and neonates. It thrives in moist places where it forms biofilms that are exceedingly difficult to eradicate on hospital surfaces, in water supplies and implanted biomaterials. Using a live cell SELEX approach we selected DNA aptamers to P. aeruginosa grown as biofilms in microfluidic cells. From a pool of aptamer candidates showing tight binding a stem-loop structure was identified as being important for binding. Enhanced binding and increased specificity was achieved by truncating structures and generating chimeric aptamers from the pool of top candidates. The top candidates have low nanomolar binding constants and high discrimination for P. aeruginosa over other Gram-negative bacteria. The aptamers bind both planktonic grown and biofilm grown cells. They do not have intrinsic bacteriostatic or bactericidal activity, but are ideal candidates for modification for use as aptamer-drug conjugates and in biosensors.

  14. Flagellation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in newly divided cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kun; Lee, Calvin; Anda, Jaime; Wong, Gerard

    2015-03-01

    For monotrichous bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, after cell division, one daughter cell inherits the old flagellum from its mother cell, and the other grows a new flagellum during or after cell division. It had been shown that the new flagellum grows at the distal pole of the dividing cell when the two daughter cells haven't completely separated. However, for those daughter cells who grow new flagella after division, it still remains unknown at which pole the new flagellum will grow. Here, by combining our newly developed bacteria family tree tracking techniques with genetic manipulation method, we showed that for the daughter cell who did not inherit the old flagellum, a new flagellum has about 90% chances to grow at the newly formed pole. We proposed a model for flagellation of P. aeruginosa.

  15. Heat shock mediated labelling of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Natasha; Wiraja, Christian; Palanisamy, Kannan; Marsili, Enrico; Xu, Chenjie

    2016-06-01

    Biocompatible nanoparticles are good candidates to label bacteria for imaging and diagnosis purposes. A high labeling efficiency reduces the concentration of nanoparticles required for labeling and allows the labeled bacteria to be tracked for longer periods. This report explores the optimal labeling strategy for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a common gram-negative opportunistic pathogen, with quantum dots. Three strategies including direct incubation, calcium chloride treatment, and heat shock are compared and the labeling efficiency is assessed through fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry analysis. Of the three, heat shock is finally selected due to its comparable labeling efficiency and simplicity. Through the assay of the respiration rate of bacteria together with morphology analysis, the heat shock process does not show any negative effect over the cells activity even at sub-toxic concentrations.

  16. Does Pseudomonas aeruginosa use intercellular signalling to build biofilm communities?

    PubMed

    Kirisits, Mary Jo; Parsek, Matthew R

    2006-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterial species that causes several opportunistic human infections. This organism is also found in the environment, where it is renowned (like other Pseudomonads) for its ability to use a wide variety of compounds as carbon and energy sources. It is a model species for studying group-related behaviour in bacteria. Two types of group behaviour it engages in are intercellular signalling, or quorum sensing, and the formation of surface-associated communities called biofilms. Both quorum sensing and biofilm formation are important in the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa infections. Quorum sensing regulates the expression of several secreted virulence factors and quorum sensing mutant strains are attenuated for virulence in animal models. Biofilms have been implicated in chronic infections. Two examples are the chronic lung infections afflicting people suffering from cystic fibrosis and colonization of indwelling medical devices. This review will discuss quorum sensing and biofilm formation and studies that link these two processes.

  17. A physical genome map of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO.

    PubMed Central

    Römling, U; Grothues, D; Bautsch, W; Tümmler, B

    1989-01-01

    A complete macrorestriction map of the 5.9 Mb genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO (DSM 1707) was constructed by the combination of various one- and two-dimensional pulsed field gel electrophoresis techniques. A total of 51 restriction sites (36 SpeI sites, 15 DpnI sites) were placed on the physical map yielding an average resolution of 110 kb. Several genes encoding virulence factors and enzymes of metabolic pathways were located on the anonymous map by Southern hybridization. Distances between the gene loci were similar on the genetic and physical maps, suggesting an even distribution of genome mobility throughout the bacterial chromosome. The four rRNA operons were organized in pairs of inverted repeats. The two-dimensional macro-restriction techniques described herein are generally applicable for the genome mapping of any prokaryote and lower eukaryote which yields resolvable fragment patterns on two-dimensional pulsed field gels. Images PMID:2512121

  18. Antibiotics from Pseudomonas reptilivora II. Isolation, Purification, and Properties1

    PubMed Central

    Del Rio, Luís A.; Gorgé, J. López; Olivares, J.; Mayor, F.

    1972-01-01

    Under well-established culture conditions, Pseudomonas reptilivora produced several antibiotics that have been purified by solvent extraction, chromatography in Sephadex G-25, electrophoresis, and paper chromatography in different solvent systems. Activity has been monitored at the different steps of isolation and purification by measurement of the inhibition of the growth of Staphylococcus aureus by the cylinder-plate method, as well as by bioautography of chromatograms and electropherograms. Three antibiotics have been isolated and named A, B1, and B2. The B1 and B2 activities were studied in greater detail than A. The B1 substance was crystallized, and its chemical properties were found to coincide with those of YC 73 or fluopsin C described by Egawa et al. and Itoh et al., respectively. Images PMID:4790558

  19. Alginate Overproduction Affects Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Hentzer, Morten; Teitzel, Gail M.; Balzer, Grant J.; Heydorn, Arne; Molin, Søren; Givskov, Michael; Parsek, Matthew R.

    2001-01-01

    During the course of chronic cystic fibrosis (CF) infections, Pseudomonas aeruginosa undergoes a conversion to a mucoid phenotype, which is characterized by overproduction of the exopolysaccharide alginate. Chronic P. aeruginosa infections involve surface-attached, highly antibiotic-resistant communities of microorganisms organized in biofilms. Although biofilm formation and the conversion to mucoidy are both important aspects of CF pathogenesis, the relationship between them is at the present unclear. In this study, we report that the overproduction of alginate affects biofilm development on an abiotic surface. Biofilms formed by an alginate-overproducing strain exhibit a highly structured architecture and are significantly more resistant to the antibiotic tobramycin than a biofilm formed by an isogenic nonmucoid strain. These results suggest that an important consequence of the conversion to mucoidy is an altered biofilm architecture that shows increasing resistance to antimicrobial treatments. PMID:11514525

  20. Isolation of an iron-binding compound from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, C D; Graham, R

    1979-01-01

    An iron-binding compound was isolated from ethyl acetate extracts of culture supernatant fluids of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and was purified by successive paper and thin-layer chromatographic procedures. The purified compound was characterized by UV, visible, infrared, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The compound possesses phenolic characteristics, with little or no similarity to dihydroxybenzoates and no indication of a hydroxamate group. P. aeruginosa synthesized the compound during active growth in culture media containing less than 5 X 10(-6) M added FeCl3. When added to iron-poor cultures of P. aeruginosa, the compound promoted the growth of the bacterium and also reversed growth inhibition by the iron chelator ethylenediamine-di-(o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid). PMID:104968

  1. Crystal structure of PvdO from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zenglin; Gao, Fei; Bai, Guohui; Xia, Hengchuan; Gu, Lichuan; Xu, Sujuan

    2017-02-26

    Pyoverdine I (PVDI) is a water-soluble fluorescein siderophore with strong iron chelating ability from the gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Compared to common siderophores, PVDI is a relatively large compound whose synthesis requires a group of enzymes with different catalytic activities. In addition to four nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) which are responsible for the production of the peptide backbone of PVDI, several additional enzymes are associated with the modification of the side chains. PvdO is one of these enzymes and participates in PVDI precursor maturation in the periplasm. We determined the crystal structure of PvdO at 1.24 Å resolution. The PvdO structure shares a common fold with some FGly-generating enzymes (FGE) and is stabilized by Ca(2+). However, the catalytic residues in FGE are not observed in PvdO, indicating PvdO adopts a unique catalytic mechanism.

  2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa KUCD1, a possible candidate for cadmium bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Sangram; Mukherjee, Samir Kumar

    2009-01-01

    A cadmium (8 mM) resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain KUCd1 exhibiting high Cd accumulation under in vitro aerobic condition has been reported. The isolate showed a significant ability to remove more than 75% and 89% of the soluble cadmium during the active growth phase from the growth medium and from Cd-amended industrial wastewater under growth supportive condition. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) suggest the presence of Cd in the cells from mid stationary phase. The cell fractionation study revealed membrane and periplasm to be the major accumulating site in this strain. The chemical nature of the accumulated Cd was studied by X-ray powder diffraction analysis. PMID:24031411

  3. Degradation of Alkyl Benzene Sulfonate by Pseudomonas Species1

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, R. S.; Koft, B. W.

    1972-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. HK-1 showed a direct relation between the concentration of alkyl benzene sulfonate (ABS) supplied and cell yields. Since growth on ABS alone did not occur, it was necessary to correlate the total energy obtained by the cells to the ABS concentration when glucose was supplied in a limiting concentration. Several types of metabolic attack in addition to the sulfonate removal were noted: (i) side-chain utilization as indicated by the production of tertiarybutyl alcohol and isopropanol and (ii) ring metabolism as indicated by the presence of phenol, catechol, mandelic acid, benzyl alcohol, and benzoic acid in spent growth media. Utilization of ABS was greatly enhanced by the presence of phenol. This enhancement suggests co-metabolism and that limited concentrations of phenolic products derived from ABS must be accumulated to get active metabolism of the ABS molecule. PMID:5017680

  4. Oxidation of C1 compounds by Pseudomonas sp. MS

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Wagner, Conrad

    1970-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. MS is capable of growth on a number of compounds containing only C1 groups. They include trimethylsulphonium salts, methylamine, dimethylamine and trimethylamine. Although formaldehyde and formate will not support growth they are rapidly oxidized by intact cells. Methanol neither supports growth nor is oxidized. A particulate fraction of the cell oxidizes methylamine to carbon dioxide in the absence of any external electron acceptor. Formaldehyde and formate are more slowly oxidized to carbon dioxide by the particulate fraction, although they do not appear to be free intermediates in the oxidation of methylamine. Soluble NAD-linked formaldehyde dehydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase are also present. The particulate methylamine oxidase is induced by growth on methylamine, dimethylamine and trimethylamine, whereas the soluble formaldehyde dehydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase are induced by trimethylsulphonium nitrate as well as the aforementioned amines. PMID:5435683

  5. Biofilm Matrix and Its Regulation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Qing; Ma, Luyan Z.

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms are communities of microorganisms embedded in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) matrix. Bacteria in biofilms demonstrate distinct features from their free-living planktonic counterparts, such as different physiology and high resistance to immune system and antibiotics that render biofilm a source of chronic and persistent infections. A deeper understanding of biofilms will ultimately provide insights into the development of alternative treatment for biofilm infections. The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a model bacterium for biofilm research, is notorious for its ability to cause chronic infections by its high level of drug resistance involving the formation of biofilms. In this review, we summarize recent advances in biofilm formation, focusing on the biofilm matrix and its regulation in P. aeruginosa, aiming to provide resources for the understanding and control of bacterial biofilms. PMID:24145749

  6. Production and characterization of the slime polysaccharide of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Evans, L R; Linker, A

    1973-11-01

    The slime polysaccharides produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from a variety of human infections were investigated. Slime production in culture seemed optimal when adequate amounts of carbohydrate were present and under conditions of either high osmotic pressure or inadequate protein supply. The polysaccharides produced by the organisms were similar to each other, to the slime of Azotobacter vinelandii, and to seaweed alginic acids. They were composed of beta-1,4-linked d-mannuronic acid residues and variable amounts of its 5-epimer l-guluronic acid. All bacterial polymers contained o-acetyl groups which are absent in the alginates. The polysaccharides differed considerably in the ratio of mannuronic to guluronic acid content and in the number of o-acetyl groups. The particular composition of the slime was not found to be characteristic for the disease process from which the mucoid variants of P. aeruginosa were obtained.

  7. A new mechanism for membrane iron transport in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Schalk, I J; Abdallah, M A; Pattus, F

    2002-08-01

    Various biochemical and biophysical studies have demonstrated the existence of a novel iron-uptake mechanism in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, different from that generally described for ferrichrome and ferric-enterobactin in Escherichia coli. This new iron-uptake mechanism involves all the proteins generally reported to be involved in the uptake of ferric-siderophore complexes in Gram-negative bacteria (i.e. the outer membrane receptor, periplasmic binding protein and ATP-binding-cassette transporter), but differs in the behaviour of the siderophore. One of the key features of this process is the binding of iron-free pyoverdin to the outer membrane receptor FpvA in conditions of iron deficiency.

  8. Oxylipins produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa promote biofilm formation and virulence

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Eriel; Campos-Gómez, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The oxygenation of unsaturated fatty acids by dioxygenases occurs in all kingdoms of life and produces physiologically important lipids called oxylipins. The biological roles of oxylipins have been extensively studied in animals, plants, algae and fungi, but remain largely unidentified in prokaryotes. The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa displays a diol synthase activity that transforms several monounsaturated fatty acids into mono- and di-hydroxylated derivatives. Here we show that oxylipins derived from this activity inhibit flagellum-driven motility and upregulate type IV pilus-dependent twitching motility of P. aeruginosa. Consequently, these oxylipins promote bacterial organization in microcolonies, increasing the ability of P. aeruginosa to form biofilms in vitro and in vivo (in Drosophila flies). We also demonstrate that oxylipins produced by P. aeruginosa promote virulence in Drosophila flies and lettuce. Our study thus uncovers a role for prokaryotic oxylipins in the physiology and pathogenicity of bacteria. PMID:27929111

  9. Regulation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence by Distinct Iron Sources

    PubMed Central

    Reinhart, Alexandria A.; Oglesby-Sherrouse, Amanda G.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous environmental bacterium and versatile opportunistic pathogen. Like most other organisms, P. aeruginosa requires iron for survival, yet iron rapidly reacts with oxygen and water to form stable ferric (FeIII) oxides and hydroxides, limiting its availability to living organisms. During infection, iron is also sequestered by the host innate immune system, further limiting its availability. P. aeruginosa’s capacity to cause disease in diverse host environments is due to its ability to scavenge iron from a variety of host iron sources. Work over the past two decades has further shown that different iron sources can affect the expression of distinct virulence traits. This review discusses how the individual components of P. aeruginosa’s iron regulatory network allow this opportunist to adapt to a multitude of host environments during infection. PMID:27983658

  10. Evolution of plant pathogenesis in Pseudomonas syringae: a genomics perspective.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Heath E; Thakur, Shalabh; Guttman, David S

    2011-01-01

    The phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae causes serious diseases in a wide range of important crop plants, with recent severe outbreaks on the New Zealand kiwifruit crop and among British horse chestnut trees. Next-generation genome sequencing of over 25 new strains has greatly broadened our understanding of how this species adapts to a diverse range of plant hosts. Not unexpectedly, the genomes were found to be highly dynamic, and extensive polymorphism was found in the distribution of type III secreted effectors (T3SEs) and other virulence-associated genes, even among strains within the same pathovar. An underexplored area brought to light by these data is the specific metabolic adaptations required for growth on woody hosts. These studies provide a tremendous wealth of candidates for more refined functional characterization, which is greatly enhancing our ability to disentangle the web of host-pathogen interactions that determine disease outcomes. Copyright © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  11. Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain Sm3, Bacterial Antagonist of Pratylenchus penetrans

    PubMed Central

    Hackenberg, Clemens; Muehlkchen, Andrea; Forge, Thomas; Vrain, Thierry

    2000-01-01

    The interaction of Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain Sm3 and the root-lesion nematode Pratylenchus penetrans was investigated in three separate greenhouse experiments with soils from southern British Columbia, Canada. The bacteria were applied to the roots of strawberry plants and planted in unpasteurized field soils, with natural or supplemented infestation of P. penetrans. Nematode suppression in roots was evident after 6 or 10 weeks in all experiments. Root or shoot growth were increased after 10 weeks in two experiments. Population dynamics of P. chlororaphis Sm3 in the rhizosphere was followed using an antibiotic-resistant mutant of P. chlororaphis Sm3. There was no apparent correlation between bacterial density in the rhizosphere and P. penetrans suppression in strawberry roots and rhizosphere soil, although the soil with the highest nematode reduction also had the largest P. chlororaphis Sm3 population in the rhizosphere. PMID:19270964

  12. Control of pyrimidine nucleotide formation in Pseudomonas fulva.

    PubMed

    West, Thomas P

    2010-03-01

    Control of pyrimidine formation was examined in Pseudomonas fulva ATCC 31418. Pyrimidine supplementation lowered pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway enzyme activities in cells grown on glucose or succinate as a carbon source indicating possible repression of enzyme synthesis. Pyrimidine limitation experiments were conducted using an orotidine 50-monophosphate decarboxylase mutant strain isolated in this study. Compared to uracil-supplemented, glucose-grown mutant cells, pyrimidine limitation of this strain caused aspartate transcarbamoylase, dihydroorotase, dihydroorotate dehydrogenase and orotate phosphoribosyltransferase activities to increase about 6-, 13-, 3-, 15-fold, respectively, which confirmed regulation of enzyme synthesis by pyrimidines. At the level of enzyme activity, transcarbamoylase activity in Ps. fulva was strongly inhibited by pyrophosphate, CTP, GTP and GDP under saturating substrate concentrations.

  13. [Antibiotic susceptibility and identification of clinical Pseudomonas fulva isolates].

    PubMed

    Sivolodsky, E P; Gorelova, G V; Bogoslovskaya, S P; Zueva, E V

    2014-01-01

    The earliest eight clinical strains of Pseudomonas fulva were identified in the culture collection of pseudomonads isolated in St. Petersburg in 1995-2005, that confirmed the medical importance of the species. A high level of the species identification of all the strains of P. fulva by MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometry with the use of Microflex device with database MALDI Biotyper (Bruker Daltonics Inc.) was shown. Tests for routine studies providing identification of P. fulva without the use of genetic methods were approved. The profile of the antibiotic susceptibility of the clinical strains of P. fulva was described. Acquired resistance of two P. fulva isolates to the 3rd generation cephalosporins and chloramphenicol was detected.

  14. Sphingoid long chain bases prevent lung infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Pewzner-Jung, Yael; Tavakoli Tabazavareh, Shaghayegh; Grassmé, Heike; Becker, Katrin Anne; Japtok, Lukasz; Steinmann, Jörg; Joseph, Tammar; Lang, Stephan; Tuemmler, Burkhard; Schuchman, Edward H; Lentsch, Alex B; Kleuser, Burkhard; Edwards, Michael J; Futerman, Anthony H; Gulbins, Erich

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis patients and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, trauma, burn wound, or patients requiring ventilation are susceptible to severe pulmonary infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Physiological innate defense mechanisms against this pathogen, and their alterations in lung diseases, are for the most part unknown. We now demonstrate a role for the sphingoid long chain base, sphingosine, in determining susceptibility to lung infection by P. aeruginosa. Tracheal and bronchial sphingosine levels were significantly reduced in tissues from cystic fibrosis patients and from cystic fibrosis mouse models due to reduced activity of acid ceramidase, which generates sphingosine from ceramide. Inhalation of mice with sphingosine, with a sphingosine analog, FTY720, or with acid ceramidase rescued susceptible mice from infection. Our data suggest that luminal sphingosine in tracheal and bronchial epithelial cells prevents pulmonary P. aeruginosa infection in normal individuals, paving the way for novel therapeutic paradigms based on inhalation of acid ceramidase or of sphingoid long chain bases in lung infection. PMID:25085879

  15. Covalent immobilization of Pseudomonas cepacia lipase on semiconducting materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Renny Edwin; Bhattacharya, Enakshi; Chadha, Anju

    2008-05-01

    Lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia was covalently immobilized on crystalline silicon, porous silicon and silicon nitride surfaces. The various stages of immobilization were characterized using FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy. The surface topography of the enzyme immobilized surfaces was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The quantity of the immobilized active enzyme was estimated by the para-nitrophenyl palmitate (pNPP) assay. The immobilized lipase was used for triglyceride hydrolysis and the acid produced was detected by a pH sensitive silicon nitride surface as a shift in the C- V (capacitance-voltage) characteristics of an electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor capacitor (EISCAP) thus validating the immobilization method for use as a biosensor.

  16. Biodesulfurization using Pseudomonas delafieldii in magnetic polyvinyl alcohol beads.

    PubMed

    Guobin, S; Jianmin, X; Chen, G; Huizhou, L; Jiayong, C

    2005-01-01

    To immobilize Pseudomonas delafieldii R-8 cells in magnetic polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) beads for biodesulfurization. Magnetic PVA beads were prepared by a freezing-thawing technique under liquid nitrogen. The beads have distinct super-paramagnetic properties and their saturation magnetization is 8.02 emu g(-1). The desulfurization rate of the immobilized cells could reach 40.2 mmol kg(-1) h(-1). Desulfurization patterns of dibenzothiophene in model oil with the immobilized and free cells were represented by the Michaelis-Menten equation. The Michaelis constant for both immobilized and free cells was 1.3 mmol l(-1). The cells immobilized in magnetic PVA beads could be stably stored and be repeatedly used over 12 times for biodesulfurization. The immobilized cells could be easily separated by magnetic field. Magnetic PVA beads are easy to prepare. The immobilization process in the paper is to increase the efficiency of cells and to decrease the cost of operations.

  17. Effects of norfloxacin on DNA metabolism in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Benbrook, D M; Miller, R V

    1986-01-01

    Norfloxacin is a quinolone (pyridonecarboxylic acid derivative) effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. We studied the effects of this drug on DNA metabolism in P. aeruginosa. Norfloxacin inhibits DNA replication immediately on its addition to a logarithmically growing culture of P. aeruginosa. It inhibits the ability of P. aeruginosa DNA gyrase to supercoil relaxed, closed circular DNA in vitro. At intermediate concentrations of the drug, inhibition of DNA replication in vivo is followed by secondary (recovery) synthesis. Both recovery synthesis and the bactericidal effects of norfloxacin are dependent on continued protein synthesis, suggesting that these are inducible functions. Neither norfloxacin nor nalidixic acid induces Weigle-reactivation (inducible DNA repair) or mutagenesis in P. aeruginosa. Images PMID:3015000

  18. Glycerol metabolism promotes biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Scoffield, Jessica; Silo-Suh, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes persistent infections in the airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Airway sputum contains various host-derived nutrients that can be utilized by P. aeruginosa, including phosphotidylcholine, a major component of host cell membranes. Phosphotidylcholine can be degraded by P. aeruginosa to glycerol and fatty acids to increase the availability of glycerol in the CF lung. In this study, we explored the role that glycerol metabolism plays in biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa. We report that glycerol metabolism promotes biofilm formation by both a chronic CF isolate (FRD1) and a wound isolate (PAO1) of P. aeruginosa. Moreover, loss of the GlpR regulator, which represses the expression of genes involved in glycerol metabolism, enhances biofilm formation in FRD1 through the upregulation of Pel polysaccharide. Taken together, our results suggest that glycerol metabolism may be a key factor that contributes to P. aeruginosa persistence by promoting biofilm formation.

  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm, a programmed bacterial life for fitness.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keehoon; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2017-03-17

    Biofilm is a community of microbes that typically inhabits on surfaces and is encased in an extracellular matrix. Biofilms display very dissimilar characteristics to their planktonic counterparts. Biofilms are ubiquitous in the environments and influence our life tremendously in both positive and negative ways. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a bacterium, known to produce robust biofilms. P. aeruginosa biofilms cause severe problems in immunocompromised patients including those with cystic fibrosis or wound infection. Moreover, the unique biofilm properties further complicates the eradication of the biofilm infection and leading to the development of chronic infections. In this review, we discuss a history of biofilm research and general characteristics of bacterial biofilms. Then, distinct features pertaining to each stage of P. aeruginosa biofilm development are highlighted. Furthermore, infections caused by biofilms of its own or in association with other bacterial species (i.e., multi-species biofilms) are discussed in detail.

  20. Pseudomonas cepacia colonization and infection in intensive care units.

    PubMed Central

    Conly, J M; Klass, L; Larson, L; Kennedy, J; Low, D E; Harding, G K

    1986-01-01

    Pseudomonas cepacia has become a prominent epidemic nosocomial pathogen over the past 15 years. Between December 1982 and September 1983 it was isolated from 29 patients in two intensive care units (ICUs) at one hospital. Twelve infections--five bacteremias, four pneumonias and three urinary tract infections--occurred. Most of the isolates (25/29) were from the respiratory tract, and most (23/29) had the same antibiogram as the only environmental isolate, which was cultured from a contaminated ventilator thermometer, a previously unrecognized source of nosocomial infection. The ventilator thermometers were calibrated in a bath whose water had not been changed for months and contained P. cepacia. Despite elimination of this reservoir, P. cepacia was eradicated from the ICUs only after intensive infection control efforts were instituted. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3455834

  1. End-products diacylglycerol and ceramide modulate membrane fusion induced by a phospholipase C/sphingomyelinase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Ibarguren, Maitane; Bomans, Paul H. H.; Frederik, Peter M.; Stonehouse, Martin; Vasil, Michael L.; Alonso, Alicia; Goñi, Félix M.

    2009-01-01

    A phospholipase C/ sphingomyelinase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been assayed on vesicles containing phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylethanolamine and cholesterol, at equimolar ratios. The enzyme activity modifies the bilayer chemical composition giving rise to diacylglycerol (DAG) and ceramide (Cer). Assays of enzyme activity, enzyme-induced aggregation and fusion have been performed. Ultrastructural evidence of vesicle fusion at various stages of the process is presented, based on cryo-EM observations. The two enzyme lipidic end-products, DAG and Cer, have opposite effects on the bilayer physical properties, the former abolishes lateral phase separation, while the latter generates a new gel phase [Sot et al., FEBS Lett. 582, 3230–3236 (2008)]. Addition of either DAG, or Cer, or both to the liposome mixture causes an increase in enzyme binding to the bilayers and a decrease in lag time of hydrolysis. These two lipids also have different effects on the enzyme activity, DAG enhancing enzyme-induced vesicle aggregation and fusion, Cer inhibiting the hydrolytic activity. These effects are explained in terms of the different physical properties of the two lipids. DAG increases bilayers fluidity and decreases lateral separation of lipids, thus increasing enzyme activity and substrate accessibility to the enzyme. Cer has the opposite effect mainly because of its tendency to sequester sphingomyelin, an enzyme substrate, into rigid domains, presumably less accessible to the enzyme. PMID:19891956

  2. End-products diacylglycerol and ceramide modulate membrane fusion induced by a phospholipase C/sphingomyelinase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Ibarguren, Maitane; Bomans, Paul H H; Frederik, Peter M; Stonehouse, Martin; Vasil, Adriana I; Vasil, Michael L; Alonso, Alicia; Goñi, Félix M

    2010-01-01

    A phospholipase C/sphingomyelinase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been assayed on vesicles containing phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylethanolamine and cholesterol at equimolar ratios. The enzyme activity modifies the bilayer chemical composition giving rise to diacylglycerol (DAG) and ceramide (Cer). Assays of enzyme activity, enzyme-induced aggregation and fusion have been performed. Ultrastructural evidence of vesicle fusion at various stages of the process is presented, based on cryo-EM observations. The two enzyme lipidic end-products, DAG and Cer, have opposite effects on the bilayer physical properties; the former abolishes lateral phase separation, while the latter generates a new gel phase [Sot et al., FEBS Lett. 582, 3230-3236 (2008)]. Addition of either DAG, or Cer, or both to the liposome mixture causes an increase in enzyme binding to the bilayers and a decrease in lag time of hydrolysis. These two lipids also have different effects on the enzyme activity, DAG enhancing enzyme-induced vesicle aggregation and fusion, Cer inhibiting the hydrolytic activity. These effects are explained in terms of the different physical properties of the two lipids. DAG increases bilayers fluidity and decreases lateral separation of lipids, thus increasing enzyme activity and substrate accessibility to the enzyme. Cer has the opposite effect mainly because of its tendency to sequester sphingomyelin, an enzyme substrate, into rigid domains, presumably less accessible to the enzyme.

  3. Intrinsic Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants in the Superbug Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Murray, Justine L; Kwon, Taejoon; Marcotte, Edward M; Whiteley, Marvin

    2015-10-27

    Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria pose a serious threat in the clinic. This is particularly true for opportunistic pathogens that possess high intrinsic resistance. Though many studies have focused on understanding the acquisition of bacterial resistance upon exposure to antimicrobials, the mechanisms controlling intrinsic resistance are not well understood. In this study, we subjected the model opportunistic superbug Pseudomonas aeruginosa to 14 antimicrobials under highly controlled conditions and assessed its response using expression- and fitness-based genomic approaches. Our results reveal that gene expression changes and mutant fitness in response to sub-MIC antimicrobials do not correlate on a genomewide scale, indicating that gene expression is not a good predictor of fitness determinants. In general, fewer fitness determinants were identified for antiseptics and disinfectants than for antibiotics. Analysis of gene expression and fitness data together allowed the prediction of antagonistic interactions between antimicrobials and insight into the molecular mechanisms controlling these interactions. Infections involving multidrug-resistant pathogens are difficult to treat because the therapeutic options are limited. These infections impose a significant financial burden on infected patients and on health care systems. Despite years of antimicrobial resistance research, we lack a comprehensive understanding of the intrinsic mechanisms controlling antimicrobial resistance. This work uses two fine-scale genomic approaches to identify genetic loci important for antimicrobial resistance of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our results reveal that antibiotics have more resistance determinants than antiseptics/disinfectants and that gene expression upon exposure to antimicrobials is not a good predictor of these resistance determinants. In addition, we show that when used together, genomewide gene expression and fitness profiling can provide

  4. Global Genomic Analysis of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi Plasmids▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Martínez, Isabel; Zhao, Youfu; Murillo, Jesús; Sundin, George W.; Ramos, Cayo

    2008-01-01

    Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi strains harbor native plasmids belonging to the pPT23A plasmid family (PFPs) which are detected in all pathovars of the related species Pseudomonas syringae examined and contribute to the ecological and pathogenic fitness of their host. However, there is a general lack of information about the gene content of P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi plasmids and their role in the interaction of this pathogen with olive plants. We designed a DNA macroarray containing 135 plasmid-borne P. syringae genes to conduct a global genetic analysis of 32 plasmids obtained from 10 P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi strains. Hybridization results revealed that the number of PFPs per strain varied from one to four. Additionally, most strains contained at least one plasmid (designated non-PFP) that did not hybridize to the repA gene of pPT23A. Only three PFPs contained genes involved in the biosynthesis of the virulence factor indole-3-acetic acid (iaaM, iaaH, and iaaL). In contrast, ptz, a gene involved in the biosynthesis of cytokinins, was found in five PFPs and one non-PFP. Genes encoding a type IV secretion system (T4SS), type IVA, were found in both PFPs and non-PFPs; however, type IVB genes were found only on PFPs. Nine plasmids encoded both T4SSs, whereas seven other plasmids carried none of these genes. Most PFPs and non-PFPs hybridized to at least one putative type III secretion system effector gene and to a variety of additional genes encoding known P. syringae virulence factors and one or more insertion sequence transposase genes. These results indicate that non-PFPs may contribute to the virulence and fitness of the P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi host. The overall gene content of P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi plasmids, with their repeated information, mosaic arrangement, and insertion sequences, suggests a possible role in adaptation to a changing environment. PMID:17993520

  5. Stress-induced outer membrane vesicle production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Ian A; Kuehn, Meta J

    2013-07-01

    As an opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa must be able to adapt and survive changes and stressors in its environment during the course of infection. To aid survival in the hostile host environment, P. aeruginosa has evolved defense mechanisms, including the production of an exopolysaccharide capsule and the secretion of a myriad of degradative proteases and lipases. The production of outer membrane-derived vesicles (OMVs) serves as a secretion mechanism for virulence factors as well as a general bacterial response to envelope-acting stressors. This study investigated the effect of sublethal physiological stressors on OMV production by P. aeruginosa and whether the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) and the MucD periplasmic protease are critical mechanistic factors in this response. Exposure to some environmental stressors was determined to increase the level of OMV production as well as the activity of AlgU, the sigma factor that controls MucD expression. Overexpression of AlgU was shown to be sufficient to induce OMV production; however, stress-induced OMV production was not dependent on activation of AlgU, since stress caused increased vesiculation in strains lacking algU. We further determined that MucD levels were not an indicator of OMV production under acute stress, and PQS was not required for OMV production under stress or unstressed conditions. Finally, an investigation of the response of P. aeruginosa to oxidative stress revealed that peroxide-induced OMV production requires the presence of B-band but not A-band lipopolysaccharide. Together, these results demonstrate that distinct mechanisms exist for stress-induced OMV production in P. aeruginosa.

  6. Stress-Induced Outer Membrane Vesicle Production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Ian A.

    2013-01-01

    As an opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa must be able to adapt and survive changes and stressors in its environment during the course of infection. To aid survival in the hostile host environment, P. aeruginosa has evolved defense mechanisms, including the production of an exopolysaccharide capsule and the secretion of a myriad of degradative proteases and lipases. The production of outer membrane-derived vesicles (OMVs) serves as a secretion mechanism for virulence factors as well as a general bacterial response to envelope-acting stressors. This study investigated the effect of sublethal physiological stressors on OMV production by P. aeruginosa and whether the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) and the MucD periplasmic protease are critical mechanistic factors in this response. Exposure to some environmental stressors was determined to increase the level of OMV production as well as the activity of AlgU, the sigma factor that controls MucD expression. Overexpression of AlgU was shown to be sufficient to induce OMV production; however, stress-induced OMV production was not dependent on activation of AlgU, since stress caused increased vesiculation in strains lacking algU. We further determined that MucD levels were not an indicator of OMV production under acute stress, and PQS was not required for OMV production under stress or unstressed conditions. Finally, an investigation of the response of P. aeruginosa to oxidative stress revealed that peroxide-induced OMV production requires the presence of B-band but not A-band lipopolysaccharide. Together, these results demonstrate that distinct mechanisms exist for stress-induced OMV production in P. aeruginosa. PMID:23625841

  7. Genomic and Genetic Diversity within the Pseudomonas fluorescens Complex.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Sanz, Daniel; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; Göker, Markus; Martín, Marta; Rivilla, Rafael; Redondo-Nieto, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The Pseudomonas fluorescens complex includes Pseudomonas strains that have been taxonomically assigned to more than fifty different species, many of which have been described as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) with potential applications in biocontrol and biofertilization. So far the phylogeny of this complex has been analyzed according to phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA, MLSA and inferred by whole-genome analysis. However, since most of the type strains have not been fully sequenced and new species are frequently described, correlation between taxonomy and phylogenomic analysis is missing. In recent years, the genomes of a large number of strains have been sequenced, showing important genomic heterogeneity and providing information suitable for genomic studies that are important to understand the genomic and genetic diversity shown by strains of this complex. Based on MLSA and several whole-genome sequence-based analyses of 93 sequenced strains, we have divided the P. fluorescens complex into eight phylogenomic groups that agree with previous works based on type strains. Digital DDH (dDDH) identified 69 species and 75 subspecies within the 93 genomes. The eight groups corresponded to clustering with a threshold of 31.8% dDDH, in full agreement with our MLSA. The Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI) approach showed inconsistencies regarding the assignment to species and to the eight groups. The small core genome of 1,334 CDSs and the large pan-genome of 30,848 CDSs, show the large diversity and genetic heterogeneity of the P. fluorescens complex. However, a low number of strains were enough to explain most of the CDSs diversity at core and strain-specific genomic fractions. Finally, the identification and analysis of group-specific genome and the screening for distinctive characters revealed a phylogenomic distribution of traits among the groups that provided insights into biocontrol and bioremediation applications as well as their role as PGPR.

  8. PATTERNS OF OXIDATIVE ASSIMILATION IN STRAINS OF PSEUDOMONAS AND ACHROMOBACTER

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, Geraldine A.; Campbell, J. J. R.

    1963-01-01

    Tomlinson, Geraldine A. (University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada) and J. J. R. Campbell. Patterns of oxidative assimilation in strains of Pseudomonas and Achromobacter. J. Bacteriol. 86:434–444. 1963.—Oxidative assimilation of glucose-U-C14 in the absence of added nitrogen was studied by use of washed-cell suspensions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, Achromobacter strain B81, and Achromobacter viscosus (Alcaligenes viscolactis). The suggestion that oxidative assimilation in these organisms is the reincorporation of endogenously produced ammonia by way of α-ketoglutarate is tenable. Each of the four organisms accumulated intermediate compounds which acted as pacemakers for the oxidation of glucose. This phenomenon, partly because it ensured the availability of additional ammonia, undoubtedly increased the degree of oxidative assimilation. Products accumulating in the supernatant fluids during glucose oxidation were α-ketoglutarate, pyruvate, gluconate, a low molecular weight carbohydrate, and dicarboxylic acids. No two bacteria formed the same products. Assimilation of radioactivity into the cells, which accounted for 12 to 26% of the available C14, continued as long as an oxidizable substrate was present, and was paralleled by uptake of endogenously produced ammonia. During the early stages of glucose oxidation, compounds of the cold trichloroacetic acid-soluble pool constituted a major portion of the total radioactivity of the cells. The lipid fractions of P. aeruginosa and Achromobacter B81 were also of high relative activity during this time. The labeling of the nucleic acid fractions of all four bacteria increased with time, more radioactivity being found in fractions from the two Achromobacter species than in those from the pseudomonads. At the completion of the experiment, the largest percentage of incorporated radioactivity was present in the protein fractions. One of the organisms, Achromobacter B81, synthesized a high

  9. Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoenzyme S induces proliferation of human T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Mody, C H; Buser, D E; Syme, R M; Woods, D E

    1995-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative bacterium that is responsible for devastating acute and chronic infections, which include bronchiectasis in cystic fibrosis, nosocomial pneumonia, and infection of burn wounds. Previous studies have demonstrated that these patients have impaired host responses, including cell-mediated immune responses, which are important in anti-Pseudomonas host defense. The P. aeruginosa exoproduct, exoenzyme S, has a number of characteristics which suggest that it might be important in cell-mediated immunity. To determine whether exoenzyme S activates lymphocytes to proliferate, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from normal volunteers were stimulated with purified exoenzyme S, and the lymphocyte response was assessed by measuring [3H]thymidine uptake and by counting the number of cells after various times in culture. Ninety-five percent of healthy adult donors had a lymphocyte response to exoenzyme S. The optimal lymphocyte response occurred on day 7, with 4 x 10(5) PBMC per microtiter well when cells were stimulated with 10 micrograms exoenzyme S per ml. [3H]thymidine uptake correlated with an increase in the number of mononuclear cells, indicating that proliferation occurred. In unseparated PBMC, T cells, and to a lesser extent B cells, proliferated. Purified T cells proliferated, while purified B cells proliferated only after the addition of irradiated T cells. Thus, T lymphocytes are necessary and sufficient for the proliferative response to exoenzyme S. We speculate that exoenzyme S from P. aeruginosa is important in T-lymphocyte-mediated host defense to P. aeruginosa. In strategies to enhance impaired cell-mediated immunity, exoenzyme S should be considered as a potential stimulant. PMID:7537248

  10. Genomic and Genetic Diversity within the Pseudomonas fluorescens Complex

    PubMed Central

    Garrido-Sanz, Daniel; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P.; Göker, Markus; Martín, Marta; Rivilla, Rafael; Redondo-Nieto, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The Pseudomonas fluorescens complex includes Pseudomonas strains that have been taxonomically assigned to more than fifty different species, many of which have been described as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) with potential applications in biocontrol and biofertilization. So far the phylogeny of this complex has been analyzed according to phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA, MLSA and inferred by whole-genome analysis. However, since most of the type strains have not been fully sequenced and new species are frequently described, correlation between taxonomy and phylogenomic analysis is missing. In recent years, the genomes of a large number of strains have been sequenced, showing important genomic heterogeneity and providing information suitable for genomic studies that are important to understand the genomic and genetic diversity shown by strains of this complex. Based on MLSA and several whole-genome sequence-based analyses of 93 sequenced strains, we have divided the P. fluorescens complex into eight phylogenomic groups that agree with previous works based on type strains. Digital DDH (dDDH) identified 69 species and 75 subspecies within the 93 genomes. The eight groups corresponded to clustering with a threshold of 31.8% dDDH, in full agreement with our MLSA. The Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI) approach showed inconsistencies regarding the assignment to species and to the eight groups. The small core genome of 1,334 CDSs and the large pan-genome of 30,848 CDSs, show the large diversity and genetic heterogeneity of the P. fluorescens complex. However, a low number of strains were enough to explain most of the CDSs diversity at core and strain-specific genomic fractions. Finally, the identification and analysis of group-specific genome and the screening for distinctive characters revealed a phylogenomic distribution of traits among the groups that provided insights into biocontrol and bioremediation applications as well as their role as PGPR. PMID:26915094

  11. Lipopolysaccharides as Determinants of Serological Variability in Pseudomonas corrugata

    PubMed Central

    Siverio, F.; Cambra, M.; Gorris, M. T.; Corzo, J.; Lopez, M. M.

    1993-01-01

    The variation in biochemical and serological features of 128 isolates of Pseudomonas corrugata has been studied with 56 isolates from Spain and 72 isolates from other countries. Isolates were analyzed with common diagnostic tests and with the AP150CHE system. Variability among isolates for some standard tests usually listed as positive or negative for this species, such as arginine dihydrolase and gelatin hydrolysis, lipase and lecithinase activities, pigment production, and wrinkled colony morphology, was observed. Three antisera were raised against the type strain and two Spanish isolates from tomato and pepper plants. Serological reactions were studied by indirect immunofluorescence and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Eighty-three isolates reacted with a single antiserum, 6 reacted with two antisera, and none reacted with three antisera. Thirty-nine isolates did not react with any of the three antisera. These results suggest that serology will not be a useful method for routine diagnosis of P. corrugata unless common antigens can be identified. Electrophoresis and immunoelectrotransfer were used to study the antigens involved. Each antiserum reacted with whole-cell lysates, giving two common bands for P. corrugata isolates and other Pseudomonas species and a ladder-like pattern characteristic of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Common bands were not observed after proteinase K treatment. More than 10 LPS patterns were distinguished in 98 isolates after silver staining of polyacrylamide gels. There was no correlation between the geographical origin or host of the isolates and the LPS patterns. A correlation between LPS groups and serological reaction was observed. Images PMID:16348957

  12. Kinetics of styrene biodegradation by Pseudomonas sp. E-93486.

    PubMed

    Gąszczak, Agnieszka; Bartelmus, Grażyna; Greń, Izabela

    2012-01-01

    The research into kinetics of styrene biodegradation by bacterial strain Pseudomonas sp. E-93486 coming from VTT Culture Collection (Finland) was presented in this work. Microbial growth tests in the presence of styrene as the sole carbon and energy source were performed both in batch and continuous cultures. Batch experiments were conducted for initial concentration of styrene in the liquid phase changed in the range of 5-90 g m(-3). The Haldane model was found to be the best to fit the kinetic data, and the estimated constants of the equation were: μ (m) = 0.1188 h(-1), K(S) = 5.984 mg l(-1), and K (i) = 156.6 mg l(-1). The yield coefficient mean value [Formula in text] for the batch culture was 0.72 g(dry cells weight) (g(substrate))(-1). The experiments conducted in a chemostat at various dilution rates (D = 0.035-0.1 h(-1)) made it possible to determine the value of the coefficient for maintenance metabolism m (d) = 0.0165 h(-1) and the maximum yield coefficient value [Formula in text]. Chemostat experiments confirmed the high value of yield coefficient [Formula in text] observed in the batch culture. The conducted experiments showed high activity of the examined strain in the styrene biodegradation process and a relatively low sensitivity to inhibition of its growth at higher concentrations of styrene in the solution. Such exceptional features of Pseudomonas sp. E-93486 make this bacterial strain the perfect candidate for technical applications.

  13. Membrane Distribution of the Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal Modulates Outer Membrane Vesicle Production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Florez, Catalina; Raab, Julie E; Cooke, Adam C; Schertzer, Jeffrey W

    2017-08-08

    The Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) is an important quorum-sensing molecule in Pseudomonas aeruginosa that also mediates its own packaging and transport by stimulating outer membrane vesicle (OMV) formation. Because OMVs have been implicated in many virulence-associated behaviors, it is critical that we understand how they are formed. Our group proposed the bilayer-couple model for OMV biogenesis, where PQS intercalates into the outer membrane, causing expansion of the outer leaflet and consequently inducing curvature. In accordance with the model, we hypothesized that PQS must be transported from the cytoplasm to the outer membrane before it can initiate OMV formation. We initially examined two laboratory strains of P. aeruginosa and found significant strain-dependent differences. PQS export correlated strongly with OMV production, even though equivalent amounts of total PQS were produced by both strains. Interestingly, we discovered that poor OMV producers sequestered the majority of PQS in the inner membrane, which appeared to be the result of early saturation of the export pathway. Further analysis showed that strain-specific PQS export and OMV biogenesis patterns were stable once established but could be significantly altered by changing the growth medium. Finally, we demonstrated that the associations described for laboratory strains also held for three clinical strains. These results suggest that factors controlling the export of PQS dictate OMV biogenesis. This work provides new insight into PQS-controlled virulence in P. aeruginosa and provides important tools to further study signal export and OMV biogenesis.IMPORTANCE Bacterial secretion has been recognized as an essential facet of microbial pathogenesis and human disease. Numerous virulence factors have been found to be transported within outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), and delivery using these biological nanoparticles often results in increased potency. OMV biogenesis is an important but poorly

  14. Degradation of 3-Phenoxybenzoic Acid in Soil by Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes POB310(pPOB) and Two Modified Pseudomonas Strains

    PubMed Central

    Halden, Rolf U.; Tepp, Sandra M.; Halden, Barbara G.; Dwyer, Daryl F.

    1999-01-01

    Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes POB310(pPOB) and Pseudomonas sp. strains B13-D5(pD30.9) and B13-ST1(pPOB) were introduced into soil microcosms containing 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-POB) in order to evaluate and compare bacterial survival, degradation of 3-POB, and transfer of plasmids to a recipient bacterium. Strain POB310 was isolated for its ability to use 3-POB as a growth substrate; degradation is initiated by POB-dioxygenase, an enzyme encoded on pPOB. Strain B13-D5 contains pD30.9, a cloning vector harboring the genes encoding POB-dioxygenase; strain B13-ST1 contains pPOB. Degradation of 3-POB in soil by strain POB310 was incomplete, and bacterial densities decreased even under the most favorable conditions (100 ppm of 3-POB, supplementation with P and N, and soil water-holding capacity of 90%). Strains B13-D5 and B13-ST1 degraded 3-POB (10 to 100 ppm) to concentrations of <50 ppb with concomitant increases in density from 106 to 108 CFU/g (dry weight) of soil. Thus, in contrast to strain POB310, the modified strains had the following two features that are important for in situ bioremediation: survival in soil and growth concurrent with removal of an environmental contaminant. Strains B13-D5 and B13-ST1 also completely degraded 3-POB when the inoculum was only 30 CFU/g (dry weight) of soil. This suggests that in situ bioremediation may be effected, in some cases, with low densities of introduced bacteria. In pure culture, transfer of pPOB from strains POB310 and B13-ST1 to Pseudomonas sp. strain B13 occurred at frequencies of 5 × 10−7 and 10−1 transconjugant per donor, respectively. Transfer of pPOB from strain B13-ST1 to strain B13 was observed in autoclaved soil but not in nonautoclaved soil; formation of transconjugant bacteria was more rapid in soil containing clay and organic matter than in sandy soil. Transfer of pPOB from strain POB310 to strain B13 in soil was never observed. PMID:10427019

  15. Reclassification of Serpens flexibilis Hespell 1977 as Pseudomonas flexibilis comb. nov., with Pseudomonas tuomuerensis Xin et al. 2009 as a later heterotypic synonym.

    PubMed

    Shin, Su-Kyoung; Hwang, Chung Yeon; Cho, Yong-Joon; Yi, Hana

    2015-12-01

    Serpens flexibilis was proposed in 1977 and approved in 1980 without the 16S rRNA gene sequence information. The sequence of S. flexibilis became available in 2010, after the publication of Pseudomonas tuomuerensis in 2009. Our preliminary phylogenetic analyses indicated that these two strains share high sequence similarity and therefore showed strong potential to be united into a single species. To clarify the taxonomic status of the two species, a polyphasic taxonomy study was conducted including whole genome sequencing. The value of average nucleotide identity (ANI) and digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) between the genome sequences of S. flexibilis ATCC 29606(T) and P. tuomuerensis JCM 14085(T) were 98.1% and 89.0%, respectively. The phenotypic and chemotaxonomic properties including enzymatic activities, substrate utilization profiles, and fatty acids, supported that the two taxa have no pronounced difference and should thus constitute a single species. Therefore, we propose to transfer Serpens flexibilis Hespell 1977 to the genus Pseudomonas as Pseudomonas flexibilis comb. nov. (type strain=ATCC 29606(T)), with Pseudomonas tuomuerensis Xin et al. 2009 as a later heterotypic synonym of Pseudomonas flexibilis.

  16. Characterization of fluorescent pseudomonas spp. associated with roots and soil of two sorghum genotypes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sorghum, useful for bioenergy feedstock, animal feed, and food, requires economical methods for disease prevention and control. Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. were isolated from sorghum roots and adherent soil to identify isolates that inhibited sorghum fungal pathogens. Pseudomonads were collected fr...

  17. Lichen secondary metabolite evernic acid as potential quorum sensing inhibitor against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Gökalsın, Barış; Sesal, Nüzhet Cenk

    2016-09-01

    Cystic Fibrosis is a genetic disease and it affects the respiratory and digestive systems. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in Cystic Fibrosis are presented as the main cause for high mortality and morbidity rates. Pseudomonas aeruginosa populations can regulate their virulence gene expressions via the bacterial communication system: quorum sensing. Inhibition of quorum sensing by employing quorum sensing inhibitors can leave the bacteria vulnerable. Therefore, determining natural sources to obtain potential quorum sensing inhibitors is essential. Lichens have ethnobotanical value for their medicinal properties and it is possible that their secondary metabolites have quorum sensing inhibitor properties. This study aims to investigate an alternative treatment approach by utilizing lichen secondary metabolite evernic acid to reduce the expressions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence factors by inhibiting quorum sensing. For this purpose, fluorescent monitor strains were utilized for quorum sensing inhibitor screens and quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR analyses were conducted for comparison. Results indicate that evernic acid is capable of inhibiting Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing systems.

  18. Mining Genomes of Biological Control Strains of Pseudomonas spp.: Unexpected Gems and Tailings

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The biocontrol bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 suppresses numerous soilborne plant diseases and produces an array of structurally-characterized secondary metabolites that are toxic to plant pathogenic bacteria, fungi and Oomycetes. Biosynthetic gene clusters for these metabolites compose nea...

  19. Epidemiology and Ecology of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs) that persist and grow in household plumbing, habitats they share with humans. Infections caused by these OPPPs involve individuals with preexis...

  20. Physiological and biochemical characterization of a novel nicotine-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas geniculata N1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanghui; Wang, Lijuan; Huang, Kaiming; Wang, Weiwei; Nie, Xueling; Jiang, Yi; Li, Pengpeng; Liu, Shanshan; Xu, Ping; Tang, Hongzhi

    2014-01-01

    Management of solid wastes with high nicotine content, such as those accumulated during tobacco manufacturing, poses a major challenge, which can be addressed by using bacteria such as Pseudomonas and Arthrobacter. In this study, a new species of Pseudomonas geniculata, namely strain N1, which is capable of efficiently degrading nicotine, was isolated and identified. The optimal growth conditions for strain N1 are a temperature of 30°C, and a pH 6.5, at a rotation rate of 120 rpm min(-1) with 1 g l(-1) nicotine as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Myosmine, cotinine, 6-hydroxynicotine, 6-hydroxy-N-methylmyosmine, and 6-hydroxy-pseudooxynicotine were detected as the five intermediates through gas chromatography-mass and liquid chromatography-mass analyses. The identified metabolites were different from those generated by Pseudomonas putida strains. The analysis also highlighted the bacterial metabolic diversity in relation to nicotine degradation by different Pseudomonas strains.

  1. Influence of the hydrodynamic environment on quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

    PubMed

    Kirisits, Mary Jo; Margolis, Jeffrey J; Purevdorj-Gage, Boloroo L; Vaughan, Benjamin; Chopp, David L; Stoodley, Paul; Parsek, Matthew R

    2007-11-01

    We provide experimental and modeling evidence that the hydrodynamic environment can impact quorum sensing (QS) in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm. The amount of biofilm biomass required for full QS induction of the population increased as the flow rate increased.

  2. The rice inoculant strain Alcaligenes faecalis A15 is a nitrogen-fixing Pseudomonas stutzeri.

    PubMed

    Vermeiren, H; Willems, A; Schoofs, G; de Mot, R; Keijers, V; Hai, W; Vanderleyden, J

    1999-05-01

    The taxonomic position of the nitrogen-fixing rice isolate A15, previously classified as Alcaligenes faecalis, was reinvestigated. On the basis of its small subunit ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) sequence this strain identifies as Pseudomonas stutzeri. Phenotyping and fatty acid profiling confirm this result. DNA:DNA hybridisations, using the optical renaturation rate method, between strain A15 and Pseudomonas stutzeri LMG 11199T revealed a mean DNA-binding of 77%. The identification was further corroborated by comparative sequence analysis of the oprF gene, which encodes the major outer membrane protein of rRNA homology group I pseudomonads. Furthermore we determined the nifH sequence of this strain and of two putative diazotrophic Pseudomonas spp. and made a comparative analysis with sequences of other diazotrophs. These Pseudomonas NifH sequences cluster with NifH sequences isolated from the rice rhizosphere by PCR and of proteobacteria from the beta and gamma subclasses.

  3. Hydroxylamine metabolism in Pseudomonas PB16: involvement of a novel hydroxylamine oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Jetten, M S; de Bruijn, P; Kuenen, J G

    1997-02-01

    Pseudomonas strain PB16, a Gram-negative heterotrophic nitrifying bacterium closely related to Pseudomonas azalaica on the basis of 16 S rDNA analysis, was able to use hydroxylamine as an additional energy source during growth in acetate limited chemostat cultures giving an increased biomass yield. In aerobically growing cells of Pseudomonas PB16 only 50% of supplemented hydroxylamine could be recovered as nitrite. In addition to nitrite, N2O could be detected in the chemostat off-gas, indicating combined heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification. The maximum specific hydroxylamine oxidizing activity observed was 450 nmol per min per mg dry weight, with a Ks of approximately 40 microM. Upon addition of hydroxylamine to the medium, Pseudomonas PB16 induced a soluble 132 KDa dimeric hydroxylamine oxidoreductase. The enzyme had a pH optimum of 9, and did not contain spectroscopic features typical for cytochromes, which is in contrast to hydroxylamine oxidoreductases found in autotrophic bacteria.

  4. Identification and genomic analysis of antifungal property of a tomato root endophyte Pseudomonas sp. p21.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rongqin; Cao, Yi; Cheng, Zhiqiang; Lei, Shaonan; Huang, Wei; Li, Xin; Song, Yongkang; Tian, Baoyu

    2017-03-01

    Pseudomonas sp., which occupy a variety of ecological niches, have been widely studied for their versatile metabolic capacity to promote plant growth, suppress microbial pathogens, and induce systemic resistance in plants. In this study, a Pseudomonas sp. strain p21, which was isolated from tomato root endophytes, was identified as having antagonism against Aspergillus niger. Further analysis showed that this strain had the ability to biosynthesise siderophores and was less effective in inhibiting the growth of A. niger with the supplementation of Fe(3+) in the agar medium. Genomic sequencing and the secondary metabolite cluster analysis demonstrated that Pseudomonas sp. p21 harboured 2 pyoverdine biosynthetic gene clusters, which encode compounds with predicted core structures and two variable tetra-peptide or eleven-peptide chains. The results indicated that siderophore-mediated competition for iron might be an important mechanism in Pseudomonas suppression of the fungal pathogen A. niger and in microbe-pathogen-plant interactions.

  5. Enhancement of cytotoxicities of ricin and Pseudomonas toxin in Chinese hamster ovary cells by nigericin.

    PubMed Central

    Ray, B; Wu, H C

    1981-01-01

    Nigericin and monensin, ionophores for Na+ and K+, have been found to enhance the cytotoxicities of abrin, ricin, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. They do not affect the cytotoxicity of diphtheria toxin in the same cell line. Maximal sensitization of the CHO cells toward ricin and Pseudomonas toxin requires preculture of CHO cells in the presence of nigericin. Inhibition of protein synthesis in CHO cells by ricin or Pseudomonas toxin is also enhanced by preculture of CHO cells in the presence of nigericin. These results suggest a common step in the intoxication process of ricin and Pseudomonas toxin, the rate of which is facilitated by pretreatment with nigericin. This step is, however, not shared by the intoxication of CHO cells with diphtheria toxin. PMID:6965108

  6. Plant lectin-like antibacterial proteins from phytopathogens Pseudomonas syringae and Xanthomonas citri.

    PubMed

    Ghequire, Maarten G K; Li, Wen; Proost, Paul; Loris, Remy; De Mot, René

    2012-08-01

    The genomes of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae 642 and Xanthomonas citri pv. malvacearum LMG 761 each carry a putative homologue of the plant lectin-like bacteriocin (llpA) genes previously identified in the rhizosphere isolate Pseudomonas putida BW11M1 and the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5. The respective purified recombinant proteins, LlpAPss642 and LlpAXcm761 , display genus-specific antibacterial activity across species boundaries. The inhibitory spectrum of the P. syringae bacteriocin overlaps partially with those of the P. putida and P. fluorescens LlpAs. Notably, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri str. 306 secretes a protein identical to LlpAXcm761 . The functional characterization of LlpA proteins from two different phytopathogenic γ-proteobacterial species expands the lectin-like bacteriocin family beyond the Pseudomonas genus and suggests its involvement in competition among closely related plant-associated bacteria with different lifestyles.

  7. Epidemiology and Ecology of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs) that persist and grow in household plumbing, habitats they share with humans. Infections caused by these OPPPs involve individuals with preexis...

  8. 40 CFR 180.1145 - Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN... tolerance. Pseudomonas syringae is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance on all raw agricultural commodities when applied postharvest according to good agricultural practices....

  9. Carbapenem stewardship: does ertapenem affect Pseudomonas susceptibility to other carbapenems? A review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Nicolau, David P; Carmeli, Yehuda; Crank, Christopher W; Goff, Debra A; Graber, Christopher J; Lima, Ana Lucia L; Goldstein, Ellie J C

    2012-01-01

    The group 2 carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem and, more recently, doripenem) have been a mainstay of treatment for patients with serious hospital infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae and other difficult-to-treat Gram-negative pathogens as well as mixed aerobic/anaerobic infections. When ertapenem, a group 1 carbapenem, was introduced, questions were raised about the potential for ertapenem to select for imipenem- and meropenem-resistant Pseudomonas. Results from ten clinical studies evaluating the effect of ertapenem use on the susceptibility of Pseudomonas to carbapenems have uniformly shown that ertapenem use does not result in decreased Pseudomonas susceptibility to these antipseudomonal carbapenems. Here we review these studies evaluating the evidence of how ertapenem use affects P. aeruginosa as well as provide considerations for ertapenem use in the context of institutional stewardship initiatives.

  10. The Pseudomonas community in metal-contaminated sediments as revealed by quantitative PCR: a link with metal bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Roosa, Stéphanie; Wauven, Corinne Vander; Billon, Gabriel; Matthijs, Sandra; Wattiez, Ruddy; Gillan, David C

    2014-10-01

    Pseudomonas bacteria are ubiquitous Gram-negative and aerobic microorganisms that are known to harbor metal resistance mechanisms such as efflux pumps and intracellular redox enzymes. Specific Pseudomonas bacteria have been quantified in some metal-contaminated environments, but the entire Pseudomonas population has been poorly investigated under these conditions, and the link with metal bioavailability was not previously examined. In the present study, quantitative PCR and cell cultivation were used to monitor and characterize the Pseudomonas population at 4 different sediment sites contaminated with various levels of metals. At the same time, total metals and metal bioavailability (as estimated using an HCl 1 m extraction) were measured. It was found that the total level of Pseudomonas, as determined by qPCR using two different genes (oprI and the 16S rRNA gene), was positively and significantly correlated with total and HCl-extractable Cu, Co, Ni, Pb and Zn, with high correlation coefficients (>0.8). Metal-contaminated sediments featured isolates of the Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas lutea and Pseudomonas aeruginosa groups, with other bacterial genera such as Mycobacterium, Klebsiella and Methylobacterium. It is concluded that Pseudomonas bacteria do proliferate in metal-contaminated sediments, but are still part of a complex community.

  11. Distribution of Pseudomonas-Derived Cephalosporinase and Metallo-β-Lactamases in Carbapenem-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hye Hyun; Kwon, Gye Cheol; Kim, Semi; Koo, Sun Hoe

    2015-07-01

    The emergence of carbapenem resistance among Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an increasing problem in many parts of the world. In particular, metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) and AmpC β- lactamases are responsible for high-level resistance to carbapenem and cephalosporin. We studied the diversity and frequency of β-lactamases and characterized chromosomal AmpC β- lactamase from carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates. Sixty-one carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates were collected from patients in a tertiary hospital in Daejeon, Korea, from January 2011 to June 2014. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of four antimicrobial agents were determined using the agar-dilution method. Polymerase chain reaction and sequencing were used to identify the various β-lactamase genes, class 1 integrons, and chromosomally encoded and plasmid-mediated ampC genes. In addition, the epidemiological relationship was investigated by multilocus sequence typing. Among 61 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates, 25 isolates (41.0%) were MBL producers. Additionally, 30 isolates producing PDC (Pseudomonas-derived cephalosporinase)-2 were highly resistant to ceftazidime (MIC50 = 256 μg/ml) and cefepime (MIC50 = 256 μg/ml). Of all the PDC variants, 25 isolates harboring MBL genes showed high levels of cephalosporin and carbapenem resistance, whereas 36 isolates that did not harbor MBL genes revealed relatively low-level resistance (ceftazidime, p < 0.001; cefepime, p < 0.001; imipenem, p = 0.003; meropenem, p < 0.001). The coexistence of MBLs and AmpC β-lactamases suggests that these may be important contributing factors for cephalosporin and carbapenem resistance. Therefore, efficient detection and intervention to control drug resistance are necessary to prevent the emergence of P. aeruginosa possessing this combination of β-lactamases.

  12. Survival and Plant Growth Promotion of Detergent-Adapted Pseudomonas fluorescens ANP15 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK2

    PubMed Central

    Devliegher, W.; Arif, M.; Verstraete, W.

    1995-01-01

    Four detergents were tested as selective C sources for the plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK2 and Pseudomonas fluorescens ANP15. CO-720 (Igepal CO-720) or DOS (dioctyl sulfosuccinate), applied at 0.2% to the soil, increased the number of detergent-adapted, inoculated strains by almost 1.5 log units after 25 days, accounting for virtually the entire increase in total bacteria. The same dose of Tween 80 or N-laurylsarcosine, on the other hand, increased the indigenous populations by almost 2.5 log units, with only minor increases in the number of detergent-adapted inoculated strains. When CO-720 or DOS was initially supplied, the number of detergent-adapted 7NSK2 organisms was about 2 log units higher after 3 months of incubation than for the detergent-unadapted strain. This better survival resulted in a significantly higher root colonization of maize in a pot experiment with soil inoculation, with a significantly (P <= 0.05) higher shoot dry weight (18 to 33%). In a first field experiment with rhizosphere inoculation of 1-month-old maize plants, no effects on the height of two maize cultivars could be observed 1 month after inoculation. In a second field experiment, leaf and stem dry weights of yellow mustard and grass dry weight were increased in the treatments with seed and soil inoculation of the detergent-adapted 7NSK2 in combination with CO-720 application by, respectively, 7 to 8%, 19 to 23%, and 20 to 31%, although only the increases in grass dry weight were statistically significant at P <= 0.1. To some extent, 7NSK2 and DOS application also positively affected the mineral content of yellow mustard. PMID:16535159

  13. Survival and Plant Growth Promotion of Detergent-Adapted Pseudomonas fluorescens ANP15 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK2.

    PubMed

    Devliegher, W; Arif, M; Verstraete, W

    1995-11-01

    Four detergents were tested as selective C sources for the plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK2 and Pseudomonas fluorescens ANP15. CO-720 (Igepal CO-720) or DOS (dioctyl sulfosuccinate), applied at 0.2% to the soil, increased the number of detergent-adapted, inoculated strains by almost 1.5 log units after 25 days, accounting for virtually the entire increase in total bacteria. The same dose of Tween 80 or N-laurylsarcosine, on the other hand, increased the indigenous populations by almost 2.5 log units, with only minor increases in the number of detergent-adapted inoculated strains. When CO-720 or DOS was initially supplied, the number of detergent-adapted 7NSK2 organisms was about 2 log units higher after 3 months of incubation than for the detergent-unadapted strain. This better survival resulted in a significantly higher root colonization of maize in a pot experiment with soil inoculation, with a significantly (P <= 0.05) higher shoot dry weight (18 to 33%). In a first field experiment with rhizosphere inoculation of 1-month-old maize plants, no effects on the height of two maize cultivars could be observed 1 month after inoculation. In a second field experiment, leaf and stem dry weights of yellow mustard and grass dry weight were increased in the treatments with seed and soil inoculation of the detergent-adapted 7NSK2 in combination with CO-720 application by, respectively, 7 to 8%, 19 to 23%, and 20 to 31%, although only the increases in grass dry weight were statistically significant at P <= 0.1. To some extent, 7NSK2 and DOS application also positively affected the mineral content of yellow mustard.

  14. Pseudomonas tarimensis sp. nov., an endophytic bacteria isolated from Populus euphratica.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Nusratgul; Rozahon, Manziram; Zayadan, Bolatkhan; Mamtimin, Hormathan; Abdurahman, Mehfuzem; Kurban, Marygul; Abdurusul, Mihribangul; Mamtimin, Tursunay; Abdukerim, Muhtar; Rahman, Erkin

    2017-10-06

    An endophytic bacterium, MA-69(T), was isolated from the storage liquid in the stems of Populuseuphratica trees at the ancient Ugan River in Xinjiang, PR China. Strain MA-69(T) was found to be short rod-shaped, Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, aerobic and motile by means of a monopolar flagellum. According to phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain MA-69(T) was assigned to the genus Pseudomonas with highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 97.5 % to Pseudomonas azotifigens JCM 12708(T), followed by Pseudomonas matsuisoli JCM 30078(T) (97.5 %), Pseudomonas balearica DSM 6083(T) (97.1 %), Azotobacter salinestris ATCC 49674(T) (96.1 %) and Pseudomonas indica DSM 14015(T) (95.9 %). Analysis of strain MA-69(T) based on the three housekeeping genes, rpoB, rpoD and gyrB, further confirmed the isolate to be distinctly delineated from species of the genus Pseudomonas. The DNA G+C content of strain MA-69(T) was 64.1 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization with Pseudomonas azotifigens JCM 12708(T), Pseudomonas matsuisoli JCM 30078(T) and Pseudomonas balearica DSM 6083(T) revealed 62.9, 60.1 and 49.0 % relatedness, respectively. The major fatty acids in strain MA-69(T) were summed feature 3 (25.7 %), summed feature 8 (24.0 %), C19 : 0cyclo ω8c (19.9 %), C16 : 0 (14.6 %) and C12 : 0 (6.3 %). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. Q-9 was the major quinone in strain MA-69(T). Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties, strain MA-69(T) represents a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas tarimensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MA-69(T) (=CCTCC AB 2013065(T)=KCTC 42447(T)).

  15. Why do Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Professionals Leave EMS?

    PubMed

    Blau, Gary; Chapman, Susan A

    2016-12-01

    The objective was to determine why Emergency Medical Technician (EMT)-Basics and Paramedics leave the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) workforce. Data were collected through annual surveys of nationally registered EMT-Basics and Paramedics from 1999 to 2008. Survey items dealing with satisfaction with the EMS profession, likelihood of leaving the profession, and likelihood of leaving their EMS job were assessed for both EMT-Basics and Paramedics, along with reasons for leaving the profession. Individuals whose responses indicated that they were not working in EMS were mailed a special exit survey to determine the reasons for leaving EMS. The likelihood of leaving the profession in the next year was low for both EMT-Basics and Paramedics. Although overall satisfaction levels with the profession were high, EMT-Basics were significantly more satisfied than Paramedics. The most important reasons for leaving the profession were choosing to pursue further education and moving to a new location. A desire for better pay and benefits was a significantly more important reason for EMT-Paramedics' exit decisions than for EMT-Basics. Given the anticipated increased demand for EMS professionals in the next decade, continued study of issues associated with retention is strongly recommended. Some specific recommendations and suggestions for promoting retention are provided. Blau G , Chapman SA . Why do Emergency Medical Services (EMS) professionals leave EMS? Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(Suppl. 1):s105-s111.

  16. Occurrence of multi-antibiotic resistant Pseudomonas spp. in drinking water produced from karstic hydrosystems.

    PubMed

    Flores Ribeiro, Angela; Bodilis, Josselin; Alonso, Lise; Buquet, Sylvaine; Feuilloley, Marc; Dupont, Jean-Paul; Pawlak, Barbara

    2014-08-15

    Aquatic environments could play a role in the spread of antibiotic resistance genes by enabling antibiotic-resistant bacteria transferred through wastewater inputs to connect with autochthonous bacteria. Consequently, drinking water could be a potential pathway to humans and animals for antibiotic resistance genes. The aim of this study was to investigate occurrences of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas spp. in drinking water produced from a karst, a vulnerable aquifer with frequent increases in water turbidity after rainfall events and run-offs. Water samples were collected throughout the system from the karstic springs to the drinking water tap during three non-turbid periods and two turbid events. E. coli densities in the springs were 10- to 1000-fold higher during the turbid events than during the non-turbid periods, indicating that, with increased turbidity, surface water had entered the karstic system and contaminated the spring water. However, no E. coli were isolated in the drinking water. In contrast, Pseudomonas spp. were isolated from the drinking water only during turbid events, while the densities in the springs were from 10- to 100-fold higher than in the non-turbid periods. All the 580 Pseudomonas spp. isolates obtained from the sampling periods were resistant (to between 1 and 10 antibiotics), with similar resistance patterns. Among all the Pseudomonas isolated throughout the drinking water production system, between 32% and 86% carried the major resistance pattern: ticarcillin, ticarcillin-clavulanic acid, cefsulodin, and/or aztreonam, and/or sulfamethoxazol-trimethoprim, and/or fosfomycin. Finally, 8 Pseudomonas spp. isolates, related to the Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens species, were isolated from the drinking water. Thus, Pseudomonas could be involved in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance via drinking water during critical periods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mechanism of Flagellar Vaccine Protection Related to Pseudomonas Pathogenesis in Trauma Burns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-19

    0 MECHANISM OF FLAGELLAR VACCINE PROTECTION RELATED6TO PSEUDOMONAS PATHOGENESIS IN TRAUMA BURNS Annual and Final Report Thomas C. Montie, Ph.D...Classificaun) Mechanism of Flagellar Vaccine Protection Related to Pseudomonas Pathogenesis itr Trauma ( Burns ) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Thomas C. Montie, Ph.D. 13a...virulence. Isolated flagellar preparations have provided active protection in a burned mouse model. Passive protection with anti-flagellar sera (anti-LPS-free

  18. Pseudomonas natriegens, a marine bacterium with a generation time of less than 10 minutes.

    PubMed

    EAGON, R G

    1962-04-01

    Eagon, R. G. (University of Georgia, Athens). Pseudomonas natriegens, a marine bacterium with a generation time of less than 10 minutes. J. Bacteriol. 83:736-737. 1962.-Pseudomonas natriegens, a marine microorganism, was demonstrated to have a generation time of 9.8 min. This is the shortest generation time reported to date. Optimal growth occurred at 37 C in brain heart infusion broth supplemented with 1.5% sea salt.

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. lapsa Strain ATCC 10859, Isolated from Infected Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Jun; Jiang, Hongshan; Li, Baiyun; Zhao, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. lapsa is a pathovar of Pseudomonas syringae that can infect wheat. The complete genome of P. syringae pv. lapsa strain ATCC 10859 contains a 5,918,899-bp circular chromosome with 4,973 coding sequences, 16 rRNAs, 69 tRNAs, and an average GC content of 59.13%. The analysis of this genome revealed several gene clusters that are related to pathogenesis and virulence. PMID:26941133

  20. Draft Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Wounded Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Arivett, Brock A; Ream, Dave C; Fiester, Steven E; Kidane, Destaalem; Actis, Luis A

    2016-08-11

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium that causes severe hospital-acquired infections, is grouped as an ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) pathogen because of its extensive drug resistance phenotypes and effects on human health worldwide. Five multidrug resistant P. aeruginosa strains isolated from wounded military personnel were sequenced and annotated in this work.

  1. Pseudomonas sagittaria sp. nov., a siderophore-producing bacterium isolated from oil-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Yao; Hameed, Asif; Liu, You-Cheng; Hsu, Yi-Han; Lai, Wei-An; Chen, Wen-Ming; Shen, Fo-Ting; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2013-07-01

    An aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterium with a single polar flagellum, designated CC-OPY-1(T), was isolated from an oil-contaminated site in Taiwan. CC-OPY-1(T) produces siderophores, and can grow at temperatures of 25-37 °C and pH 5.0-9.0 and tolerate <5 % (w/v) NaCl. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of CC-OPY-1(T) showed high pairwise sequence similarity to Pseudomonas alcaligenes BCRC 11893(T) (97.1 %), Pseudomonas. alcaliphila DSM 17744(T) (97.1 %), Pseudomonas tuomuerensis JCM 14085(T) (97.1 %), Pseudomonas toyotomiensis JCM 15604(T) (96.9 %) and lower sequence similarity to remaining species of the genus Pseudomonas. The phylogenetic trees reconstructed based on gyrB and rpoB gene sequences supported the classification of CC-OPY-1(T) as a novel member of the genus Pseudomonas. The predominant quinone system of strain CC-OPY-1T was ubiquinone (Q-9) and the DNA G+C content was 68.4 ± 0.3 mol%. The major fatty acids were C12 : 0, C16 : 0, C17 : 0 cyclo and summed features 3 and 8 consisting of C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c and C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c, respectively. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylcholine (PC) and two unknown phospholipids (PL1-2). Due to distinct phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic features, CC-OPY-1(T) is proposed to represent a novel species within the genus Pseudomonas for which the name Pseudomonas sagittaria sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CC-OPY-1(T) ( = BCRC 80399(T) = JCM 18195(T)).

  2. Pseudomonas hunanensis sp. nov., isolated from soil subjected to long-term manganese pollution.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jian; Li, Bai-Yuan; Wang, Hai-Hua; Liu, Zhi-Qiang

    2014-07-01

    A Gram-negative, polar flagella, rod-shaped bacterium LV (T) was isolated from a soil sample subjected to long-term manganese pollution in Hunan Province, China. Cells grow optimally on Luria-Bertani agar medium at 30 °C in the presence of 0-5.0 % (w/v) NaCl and pH 7-8. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain LV (T) belonged to the genus Pseudomonas, with sequence similarity values of 98.6, 98.2, 98.7, and 97.3 % to Pseudomonas monteilii BCRC 17520 (T) , Pseudomonas putida BCRC 10459 (T) , Pseudomonas plecoglossicida BCRC 17517 (T) , and Pseudomonas asplenii BCRC 17131 (T) , respectively. The level of DNA-DNA relatedness between the five strains was <30 %. The DNA G+C content of strain LV (T) is 68.8 mol%. Chemotaxonomic data revealed that the strain LV(T) possesses ubiquinone Q-9. The polar lipid profile of strain LV (T) contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylethanolamine. The major cellular fatty acids present are C10:03-OH (12.33 %), C16:0 (23.99 %), summed feature 3(C16:1ω7c and/or C16:1ω6c), and summed feature 8(C18:1 ω7c and C18:1 ω6c). Based on the genotypic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data, strain LV (T) is distinguishable from related members of the genus Pseudomonas. Thus, strain LV (T) represents a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas hunanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LV (T) (=CICC 10558(T) = NCCB 100446(T)).

  3. Complete Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas fluorescens Bacteriophages Isolated from Freshwater Samples in Omaha, Nebraska

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Guoqing; Luhr, Jamie; Stoecklein, Andrew; Warner, Paige

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The complete genome sequences of four Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteriophages, UNO-SLW1 to UNO-SLW4, isolated from freshwater samples, are 39,092 to 39,215 bp long. The genomes are highly similar (identity, >0.995) but dissimilar from that of Pseudomonas phage Pf-10 (the closest relative, 0.685 to 0.686 identity), with 48 to 49 protein-coding genes and 66 regulatory sites predicted. PMID:28336602

  4. Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Pseudomonas spp. Isolated from the River Danube

    PubMed Central

    Kittinger, Clemens; Lipp, Michaela; Baumert, Rita; Folli, Bettina; Koraimann, Günther; Toplitsch, Daniela; Liebmann, Astrid; Grisold, Andrea J.; Farnleitner, Andreas H.; Kirschner, Alexander; Zarfel, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    Spread and persistence of antibiotic resistance pose a severe threat to human health, yet there is still lack of knowledge about reservoirs of antibiotic resistant bacteria in the environment. We took the opportunity of the Joint Danube Survey 3 (JDS3), the world's biggest river research expedition of its kind in 2013, to analyse samples originating from different sampling points along the whole length of the river. Due to its high clinical relevance, we concentrated on the characterization of Pseudomonas spp. and evaluated the resistance profiles of Pseudomonas spp. which were isolated from eight sampling points. In total, 520 Pseudomonas isolates were found, 344 (66.0%) isolates were identified as Pseudomonas putida, and 141 (27.1%) as Pseudomonas fluorescens, all other Pseudomonas species were represented by less than five isolates, among those two P. aeruginosa isolates. Thirty seven percent (37%) of all isolated Pseudomonas species showed resistance to at least one out of 10 tested antibiotics. The most common resistance was against meropenem (30.4%/158 isolates) piperacillin/tazobactam (10.6%/55 isolates) and ceftazidime (4.2%/22 isolates). 16 isolates (3.1%/16 isolates) were multi-resistant. For each tested antibiotic at least one resistant isolate could be detected. Sampling points from the upper stretch of the River Danube showed more resistant isolates than downriver. Our results suggest that antibiotic resistance can be acquired by and persists even in Pseudomonas species that are normally not in direct contact with humans. A possible scenario is that these bacteria provide a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes that can spread to related human pathogens by horizontal gene transfer. PMID:27199920

  5. Genome sequence of Pseudomonas parafulva CRS01-1, an antagonistic bacterium isolated from rice field.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qunen; Zhang, Yingxin; Yu, Ning; Bi, Zhenzhen; Zhu, Aike; Zhan, Xiaodeng; Wu, Weixun; Yu, Ping; Chen, Daibo; Cheng, Shihua; Cao, Liyong

    2015-07-20

    Pseudomonas parafulva (formerly known as Pseudomonas fulva) is an antagonistic bacterium against several rice bacterial and fungal diseases. The total genome size of P. parafulva CRS01-1 is 5,087,619 bp with 4389 coding sequences (CDSs), 77 tRNAs, and 7 rRNAs. The annotated full genome sequence of the P. parafulva CRS01-1 strain might shed light on its role as an antagonistic bacterium.

  6. Photodynamic antimicrobial therapy to inhibit pseudomonas aeruginosa of corneal isolates (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durkee, Heather A.; Relhan, Nidhi; Arboleda, Alejandro; Halili, Francisco; De Freitas, Carolina; Alawa, Karam; Aguilar, Mariela C.; Amescua, Guillermo; Miller, Darlene; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2016-03-01

    Keratitis associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is difficult to manage. Treatment includes antibiotic eye drops, however, some strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are resistant. Current research efforts are focused on finding alternative and adjunct therapies to treat multi-drug resistant bacteria. One promising alternate technique is photodynamic therapy (PDT). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of riboflavin- and rose bengal-mediated PDT on Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis isolates in vitro. Two isolates (S+U- and S-U+) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were derived from keratitis patients and exposed to five experimental groups: (1) Control (dark, UV-A irradiation, 525nm irradiation); (2) 0.1% riboflavin (dark, UV-A irradiation); and (3) 0.1% rose bengal, (4) 0.05% rose bengal and (5) 0.01% rose bengal (dark, 525nm irradiation). Three days after treatment, in dark conditions of all concentration of riboflavin and rose bengal showed no inhibition in both S+U- and S-U+ strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In 0.1% and 0.05% rose bengal irradiated groups, for both S+U- and S-U+ strains, there was complete inhibition of bacterial growth in the central 50mm zone corresponding to the diameter of the green light source. These in vitro results suggest that rose bengal photodynamic therapy may be an effective adjunct treatment for Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis.

  7. An rpoD gene sequence based evaluation of cultured Pseudomonas diversity on different growth media.

    PubMed

    Ghyselinck, Jonas; Coorevits, An; Van Landschoot, Anita; Samyn, Emly; Heylen, Kim; De Vos, Paul

    2013-10-01

    The last decade has shown an increased interest in the utilization of bacteria for applications ranging from bioremediation to wastewater purification and promotion of plant growth. In order to extend the current number of micro-organism mediated applications, a continued quest for new agents is required. This study focused on the genus Pseudomonas, which is known to harbour strains with a very diverse set of interesting properties. The aim was to identify growth media that allow retrieval of a high Pseudomonas diversity, as such increasing the chance of isolating isolates with beneficial properties. Three cultivation media: trypticase soy agar (TSA), potato dextrose agar (PDA) and Pseudomonas isolation agar (PIA) were evaluated for their abilities to grow Pseudomonas strains. TSA and PDA were found to generate the largest Pseudomonas diversity. However, communities obtained with both media overlapped. Communities obtained with PIA, on the other hand, were unique. This indicated that the largest diversity is obtained by sampling from either PDA or TSA and from PIA in parallel. To evaluate biodiversity of the isolated Pseudomonas members on the media, an appropriate biomarker had to be identified. Hence, an introductory investigation of the taxonomic resolution of the 16S rRNA, rpoD, gyrB and rpoB genes was performed. The rpoD gene sequences not only had a high phylogenetic content and the highest taxonomic resolution amongst the genes investigated, it also had a gene phylogeny that related well with that of the 16S rRNA gene.

  8. Isolation and evaluation of potent Pseudomonas species for bioremediation of phorate in amended soil.

    PubMed

    Jariyal, Monu; Gupta, V K; Jindal, Vikas; Mandal, Kousik

    2015-12-01

    Use of phorate as a broad spectrum pesticide in agricultural crops is finding disfavor due to persistence of both the principal compound as well as its toxic residues in soil. Three phorate utilizing bacterial species (Pseudomonas sp. strain Imbl 4.3, Pseudomonas sp. strain Imbl 5.1, Pseudomonas sp. strain Imbl 5.2) were isolated from field soils. Comparative phorate degradation analysis of these species in liquid cultures identified Pseudomonas sp. strain Imbl 5.1 to cause complete metabolization of phorate during seven days as compared to the other two species in 13 days. In soils amended with phorate at different levels (100, 200, 300 mg kg(-1) soil), Pseudomonas sp. strain Imbl 5.1 resulted in active metabolization of phorate by between 94.66% and 95.62% establishing the same to be a potent bacterium for significantly relieving soil from phorate residues. Metabolization of phorate to these phorate residues did not follow the first order kinetics. This study proves that Pseudomonas sp. strain Imbl 5.1 has huge potential for active bioremediation of phorate both in liquid cultures and agricultural soils.

  9. Pseudomonas cannabina pv.cannabina pv. nov., and Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis(Cintas Koike and Bull 2000)comb. nov., are members of the emended species Pseudomonas cannabina(ex Šutic & Dowson 1959)Gardan et al., 1999

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phenotypic data suggested that the crucifer pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. alisalensis belongs to P. syringae sensu lato and this was confirmed by sequence similarity in the 16S rDNA gene demonstrated in this research. Labeled DNA from P. syringae pv. alisalensis was used as a probe in DNA/DNA hy...

  10. Identified EM Earthquake Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for

  11. Links between Anr and Quorum Sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Hammond, John H; Dolben, Emily F; Smith, T Jarrod; Bhuju, Sabin; Hogan, Deborah A

    2015-09-01

    In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the transcription factor Anr controls the cellular response to low oxygen or anoxia. Anr activity is high in oxygen-limited environments, including biofilms and populations associated with chronic infections, and Anr is necessary for persistence in a model of pulmonary infection. In this study, we characterized the Anr regulon in biofilm-grown cells at 1% oxygen in the laboratory strain PAO1 and in a quorum sensing (QS)-deficient clinical isolate, J215. As expected, transcripts related to denitrification, arginine fermentation, high-affinity cytochrome oxidases, and CupA fimbriae were lower in the Δanr derivatives. In addition, we observed that transcripts associated with quorum sensing regulation, iron acquisition and storage, type VI secretion, and the catabolism of aromatic compounds were also differentially expressed in the Δanr strains. Prior reports have shown that quorum sensing-defective mutants have higher levels of denitrification, and we found that multiple Anr-regulated processes, including denitrification, were strongly inversely proportional to quorum sensing in both transcriptional and protein-based assays. We also found that in LasR-defective strains but not their LasR-intact counterparts, Anr regulated the production of the 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinolines, which play roles in quorum sensing and interspecies interactions. These data show that Anr was required for the expression of important metabolic pathways in low-oxygen biofilms, and they reveal an expanded and compensatory role for Anr in the regulation of virulence-related genes in quorum sensing mutants, such as those commonly isolated from infections. Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes acute ocular, soft tissue, and pulmonary infections, as well as chronic infections in the airways of cystic fibrosis patients. P. aeruginosa uses quorum sensing (QS) to regulate virulence, but mutations in the gene encoding the master regulator of QS, lasR, are frequently observed in

  12. Effect of Human Burn Wound Exudate on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Manuel R; Fleuchot, Betty; Lauciello, Leonardo; Jafari, Paris; Applegate, Lee Ann; Raffoul, Wassim; Que, Yok-Ai; Perron, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Burn wound sepsis is currently the main cause of morbidity and mortality after burn trauma. Infections by notorious pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Acinetobacter baumannii impair patient recovery and can even lead to fatality. In this study, we investigated the effect of burn wound exudates (BWEs) on the virulence of those pathogens. BWEs were collected within 7 days after burn trauma from 5 burn patients. We first monitored their effect on pathogen growth. In contrast to A. baumannii and S. aureus, P. aeruginosa was the only pathogen able to grow within these human fluids. Expression of typical virulence factors such as pyocyanin and pyoverdine was even enhanced compared the levels seen with standard laboratory medium. A detailed chemical composition analysis of BWE was performed, which enabled us to determine the major components of BWE and underline the metabolic modifications induced by burn trauma. These data are essential for the development of an artificial medium mimicking the burn wound environment and the establishment of an in vitro system to analyze the initial steps of burn wound infections. IMPORTANCE Microbial infection of severe burn wounds is currently a major medical challenge. Of the infections by bacteria able to colonize such injuries, those by Pseudomonas aeruginosa are among the most severe, causing major delays in burn patient recovery or leading to fatal issues. In this study, we investigated the growth properties of several burn wound pathogens in biological fluids secreted from human burn wounds. We found that P. aeruginosa strains were able to proliferate but not those of the other pathogens tested. In addition, burn wound exudates (BWEs) stimulate the expression of virulence factors in P. aeruginosa. The chemical composition analysis of BWEs enabled us to determine the major components of these fluids. These data are essential for the development of an artificial medium mimicking the burn wound

  13. Effect of Human Burn Wound Exudate on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Manuel R.; Fleuchot, Betty; Lauciello, Leonardo; Jafari, Paris; Applegate, Lee Ann; Raffoul, Wassim; Que, Yok-Ai

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Burn wound sepsis is currently the main cause of morbidity and mortality after burn trauma. Infections by notorious pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Acinetobacter baumannii impair patient recovery and can even lead to fatality. In this study, we investigated the effect of burn wound exudates (BWEs) on the virulence of those pathogens. BWEs were collected within 7 days after burn trauma from 5 burn patients. We first monitored their effect on pathogen growth. In contrast to A. baumannii and S. aureus, P. aeruginosa was the only pathogen able to grow within these human fluids. Expression of typical virulence factors such as pyocyanin and pyoverdine was even enhanced compared the levels seen with standard laboratory medium. A detailed chemical composition analysis of BWE was performed, which enabled us to determine the major components of BWE and underline the metabolic modifications induced by burn trauma. These data are essential for the development of an artificial medium mimicking the burn wound environment and the establishment of an in vitro system to analyze the initial steps of burn wound infections. IMPORTANCE Microbial infection of severe burn wounds is currently a major medical challenge. Of the infections by bacteria able to colonize such injuries, those by Pseudomonas aeruginosa are among the most severe, causing major delays in burn patient recovery or leading to fatal issues. In this study, we investigated the growth properties of several burn wound pathogens in biological fluids secreted from human burn wounds. We found that P. aeruginosa strains were able to proliferate but not those of the other pathogens tested. In addition, burn wound exudates (BWEs) stimulate the expression of virulence factors in P. aeruginosa. The chemical composition analysis of BWEs enabled us to determine the major components of these fluids. These data are essential for the development of an artificial medium mimicking the

  14. Protein Network of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Denitrification Apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Borrero-de Acuña, José Manuel; Rohde, Manfred; Wissing, Josef; Jänsch, Lothar; Schobert, Max; Molinari, Gabriella; Timmis, Kenneth N.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oxidative phosphorylation using multiple-component, membrane-associated protein complexes is the most effective way for a cell to generate energy. Here, we systematically investigated the multiple protein-protein interactions of the denitrification apparatus of the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. During denitrification, nitrate (Nar), nitrite (Nir), nitric oxide (Nor), and nitrous oxide (Nos) reductases catalyze the reaction cascade of NO3− → NO2− → NO → N2O → N2. Genetic experiments suggested that the nitric oxide reductase NorBC and the regulatory protein NosR are the nucleus of the denitrification protein network. We utilized membrane interactomics in combination with electron microscopy colocalization studies to elucidate the corresponding protein-protein interactions. The integral membrane proteins NorC, NorB, and NosR form the core assembly platform that binds the nitrate reductase NarGHI and the periplasmic nitrite reductase NirS via its maturation factor NirF. The periplasmic nitrous oxide reductase NosZ is linked via NosR. The nitrate transporter NarK2, the nitrate regulatory system NarXL, various nitrite reductase maturation proteins, NirEJMNQ, and the Nos assembly lipoproteins NosFL were also found to be attached. A number of proteins associated with energy generation, including electron-donating dehydrogenases, the complete ATP synthase, almost all enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and the Sec system of protein transport, among many other proteins, were found to interact with the denitrification proteins. This deduced nitrate respirasome is presumably only one part of an extensive cytoplasmic membrane-anchored protein network connecting cytoplasmic, inner membrane, and periplasmic proteins to mediate key activities occurring at the barrier/interface between the cytoplasm and the external environment. IMPORTANCE The processes of cellular energy generation are catalyzed by large multiprotein enzyme complexes

  15. Dirhamnose-lipid production by recombinant nonpathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas chlororaphis.

    PubMed

    Solaiman, Daniel K Y; Ashby, Richard D; Gunther, Nereus W; Zerkowski, Jonathan A

    2015-05-01

    We previously discovered that Pseudomonas chlororaphis NRRL B-30761 produces monorhamnolipids (R1Ls) with predominantly 3-hydroxydodecenoyl-3-hydroxydecanoate (C12:1-C10) or 3-hydroxydodecanoyl-3-hydroxydecanoate (C12-C10) as the lipid moiety under static growth conditions only. We have now cloned, sequenced, and analyzed in silico the gene locus of NRRL B-30761 containing the putative coding sequences of rhamnosyltransferase chain A (rhlA Pch , 894 bps), rhamnosyltransferase chain B (rhlB Pch , 1272 bps), and N-acyl-homoserine lactone-dependent transcriptional regulatory protein (rhlR Pch , 726 bps). The putative gene products RhlAPch (297 amino acid residues or a.a.), RhlBPch (423 a.a.), and RhlRPch (241 a.a.) only have between 60 and 65% a.a. identities to their respective closest matched homologs in P. aeruginosa. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay did not detect the presence of rhamnosyltransferase C gene (rhlC) in P. chlororaphis, suggesting a genetic basis for the lack of dirhamnose-lipid (R2L) synthesis in this organism. We thus genetically constructed an R2L-synthesizing P. chlororaphis by expressing a rhamnosyltransferase C (rhlC) gene of P. aeruginosa using an expression vector (pBS29-P2-gfp) containing a Pseudomonas syringae promoter. The R2L/R1L ratio is 2.4 in the rhamnolipid (RL) sample isolated from the genetically engineered (GE) P. chlororaphis [pBS29-P2-rhlC], in contrast to undetectable R2L in the GE P. chlororaphis [pBS29-P2-gfp] control cells based on LC-MS analysis. The critical micelle concentrations of the R2L and R1L samples from GE P. chlororaphis [pBS29-P2-rhlC] and the control [pBS29-P2-gfp] cells were ca. 0.1 mM, and their minimum surface tensions were ca. 26 mN/m with no significant difference.

  16. Detection of extended spectrum beta lactamases, ampc beta lactamases and metallobetalactamases in clinical isolates of ceftazidime resistant Pseudomonas Aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Umadevi, Sivaraman; Joseph, Noyal M; Kumari, Kandha; Easow, Joshy M; Kumar, Shailesh; Stephen, Selvaraj; Srirangaraj, Sreenivasan; Raj, Sruthi

    2011-10-01

    We studied the prevalence of ceftazidime resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the rates of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC β-lactamase (AmpC) and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) production among the ceftazidime resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A very high rate of MBL production was observed, which suggested it to be an important contributing factor for ceftazidime resistance among Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  17. Pseudomonas aeruginosa outbreak in a pediatric oncology care unit caused by an errant water jet into contaminated siphons.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Henriette; Geginat, Gernot; Hogardt, Michael; Kramer, Alexandra; Dürken, Matthias; Schroten, Horst; Tenenbaum, Tobias

    2012-06-01

    We analyzed an outbreak of invasive infections with an exotoxin U positive Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain within a pediatric oncology care unit. Environmental sampling and molecular characterization of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains led to identification of the outbreak source. An errant water jet into the sink within patient rooms was observed. Optimized outbreak management resulted in an abundance of further Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections within the pediatric oncology care unit.

  18. An rpoD-based PCR procedure for the identification of Pseudomonas species and for their detection in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Mulet, Magdalena; Bennasar, Antonio; Lalucat, Jorge; García-Valdés, Elena

    2009-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction-based approach was developed for species identification of Pseudomonas strains and for the direct detection of Pseudomonas populations in their natural environment. A highly selective set of primers (PsEG30F and PsEG790R), giving an amplicon of 760 nucleotides in length, was designed based on the internal conserved sequences of 33 selected rpoD gene sequences (the sigma 70 factor subunit of the DNA polymerase) of Pseudomonas type strains, representing the entire intrageneric phylogenetic clusters described in the genus. The utility of the primer set was verified on 96 Pseudomonas type strains and on another 112 recognised Pseudomonas strains. The specificity of the primer set was also tested against strains from species not belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. These primers were also shown to be useful for the direct detection of Pseudomonas species in environmental DNA after a cloning procedure. These results were compared in parallel with other cloning procedures described previously, based on the analysis of other genes (16S rDNA and ITS1) and also by using primers designed for rpoD on sequences from gamma-proteobacteria. All of the cultured Pseudomonas strains tested could be amplified with these novel primers, indicating that this method is also a useful tool for the specific analysis of Pseudomonas populations from environmental samples without the need for cultivation.

  19. Mechanism of resistance to benzalkonium chloride by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Sakagami, Y; Yokoyama, H; Nishimura, H; Ose, Y; Tashima, T

    1989-01-01

    The mechanisms of resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to benzalkonium chloride (BC) were studied. The effluence of cell components was observed in susceptible P. aeruginosa by electron microscopy, but resistant P. aeruginosa seemed to be undamaged. No marked changes in cell surface potential between Escherichia coli NIHJC-2 and a spheroplast strain were found. The contents of phospholipids (PL) and fatty and neutral lipids (FNL) in the cell walls of resistant P. aeruginosa were higher than those in the cell walls of susceptible P. aeruginosa. The amounts of BC adsorbed to PL and FNL of cell walls of BC-resistant P. aeruginosa were lower than those for BC-susceptible P. aeruginosa. Fifteen species of cellular fatty acids were identified by capillary gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The ability of BC to permeate the cell wall was reduced because of the increase in cellular fatty acids. These results suggested that the resistance of P. aeruginosa to BC is mainly a result of increased in the contents of PL and FNL. In resistant P. aeruginosa, the decrease in the amount of BC adsorbed is likely to be the result of increases in the contents of PL and FNL. Images PMID:2506813

  20. Origin and Impact of Nitric Oxide in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The formation of the organized bacterial community called biofilm is a crucial event in bacterial physiology. Given that biofilms are often refractory to antibiotics and disinfectants to which planktonic bacteria are susceptible, their formation is also an industrially and medically relevant issue. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a well-known human pathogen causing acute and chronic infections, is considered a model organism to study biofilms. A large number of environmental cues control biofilm dynamics in bacterial cells. In particular, the dispersal of individual cells from the biofilm requires metabolic and morphological reprogramming in which the second messenger bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) plays a central role. The diatomic gas nitric oxide (NO), a well-known signaling molecule in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, is able to induce the dispersal of P. aeruginosa and other bacterial biofilms by lowering c-di-GMP levels. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms connecting NO sensing to the activation of c-di-GMP-specific phosphodiesterases in P. aeruginosa, ultimately leading to c-di-GMP decrease and biofilm dispersal. PMID:26260455

  1. Phospholipid biosynthesis and solvent tolerance in Pseudomonas putida strains.

    PubMed

    Pinkart, H C; White, D C

    1997-07-01

    The role of the cell envelope in the solvent tolerance mechanisms of Pseudomonas putida was investigated. The responses of a solvent-tolerant strain, P. putida Idaho, and a solvent-sensitive strain, P. putida MW1200, were examined in terms of phospholipid content and composition and of phospholipid biosynthetic rate following exposure to a nonmetabolizable solvent, o-xylene. Following o-xylene exposure, P. putida MW1200 exhibited a decrease in total phospholipid content. In contrast, P. putida Idaho demonstrated an increase in phospholipid content 1 to 6 h after exposure. Analysis of phospholipid biosynthesis showed P. putida Idaho to have a higher basal rate of phospholipid synthesis than MW1200. This rate increased significantly following exposure to xylene. Both strains showed little significant turnover of phospholipid in the absence of xylene. In the presence of xylene, both strains showed increased phospholipid turnover. The rate of turnover was significantly greater in P. putida Idaho than in P. putida MW1200. These results suggest that P. putida Idaho has a greater ability than the solvent-sensitive strain MW1200 to repair damaged membranes through efficient turnover and increased phospholipid biosynthesis.

  2. Phospholipid biosynthesis and solvent tolerance in Pseudomonas putida strains.

    PubMed Central

    Pinkart, H C; White, D C

    1997-01-01

    The role of the cell envelope in the solvent tolerance mechanisms of Pseudomonas putida was investigated. The responses of a solvent-tolerant strain, P. putida Idaho, and a solvent-sensitive strain, P. putida MW1200, were examined in terms of phospholipid content and composition and of phospholipid biosynthetic rate following exposure to a nonmetabolizable solvent, o-xylene. Following o-xylene exposure, P. putida MW1200 exhibited a decrease in total phospholipid content. In contrast, P. putida Idaho demonstrated an increase in phospholipid content 1 to 6 h after exposure. Analysis of phospholipid biosynthesis showed P. putida Idaho to have a higher basal rate of phospholipid synthesis than MW1200. This rate increased significantly following exposure to xylene. Both strains showed little significant turnover of phospholipid in the absence of xylene. In the presence of xylene, both strains showed increased phospholipid turnover. The rate of turnover was significantly greater in P. putida Idaho than in P. putida MW1200. These results suggest that P. putida Idaho has a greater ability than the solvent-sensitive strain MW1200 to repair damaged membranes through efficient turnover and increased phospholipid biosynthesis. PMID:9209036

  3. Biodegradation of 4-nitrotoluene by Pseudomonas sp. strain 4NT.

    PubMed Central

    Haigler, B E; Spain, J C

    1993-01-01

    A strain of Pseudomonas spp. was isolated from nitrobenzene-contaminated soil on 4-nitrotoluene as the sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. The organism also grew on 4-nitrobenzaldehyde, and 4-nitrobenzoate. 4-Nitrobenzoate and ammonia were detected in the culture fluid of glucose-grown cells after induction with 4-nitrotoluene. Washed suspensions of 4-nitrotoluene- or 4-nitrobenzoate-grown cells oxidized 4-nitrotoluene, 4-nitrobenzaldehyde, 4-nitrobenzyl alcohol, and protocatechuate. Extracts from induced cells contained 4-nitrobenzaldehyde dehydrogenase, 4-nitrobenzyl alcohol dehydrogenase, and protocatechuate 4,5-dioxygenase activities. Under anaerobic conditions, cell extracts converted 4-nitrobenzoate or 4-hydroxylaminobenzoate to protocatechuate. Conversion of 4-nitrobenzoate to protocatechuate required NADPH. These results indicate that 4-nitrotoluene was degraded by an initial oxidation of the methyl group to form 4-nitrobenzyl alcohol, which was converted to 4-nitrobenzoate via 4-nitrobenzaldehyde. The 4-nitrobenzoate was reduced to 4-hydroxylaminobenzoate, which was converted to protocatechuate. A protocatechuate 4,5-dioxygenase catalyzed meta-ring fission of the protocatechuate. The detection of 4-nitrobenzaldehyde and 4-nitrobenzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and 4-nitrotoluene oxygenase activities in 4-nitrobenzoate-grown cells suggests that 4-nitrobenzoate is an inducer of the 4-nitrotoluene degradative pathway. PMID:8357257

  4. Enzymatic detoxification of cyanide: clues from Pseudomonas aeruginosa Rhodanese.

    PubMed

    Cipollone, Rita; Ascenzi, Paolo; Tomao, Paola; Imperi, Francesco; Visca, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Cyanide is a dreaded chemical because of its toxic properties. Although cyanide acts as a general metabolic inhibitor, it is synthesized, excreted and metabolized by hundreds of organisms, including bacteria, algae, fungi, plants, and insects, as a mean to avoid predation or competition. Several cyanide compounds are also produced by industrial activities, resulting in serious environmental pollution. Bioremediation has been exploited as a possible alternative to chemical detoxification of cyanide compounds, and various microbial systems allowing cyanide degradation have been described. Enzymatic pathways involving hydrolytic, oxidative, reductive, and substitution/transfer reactions are implicated in detoxification of cyanide by bacteria and fungi. Amongst enzymes involved in transfer reactions, rhodanese catalyzes sulfane sulfur transfer from thiosulfate to cyanide, leading to the formation of the less toxic thiocyanate. Mitochondrial rhodanese has been associated with protection of aerobic respiration from cyanide poisoning. Here, the biochemical and physiological properties of microbial sulfurtransferases are reviewed in the light of the importance of rhodanese in cyanide detoxification by the cyanogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Critical issues limiting the application of a rhodanese-based cellular system to cyanide bioremediation are also discussed. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Quorum sensing and policing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa social cheaters

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meizhen; Schaefer, Amy L.; Dandekar, Ajai A.; Greenberg, E. Peter

    2015-01-01

    The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that uses a quorum sensing signal cascade to activate expression of dozens of genes when sufficient population densities have been reached. Quorum sensing controls production of several key virulence factors, including secreted proteases such as elastase. Cooperating groups of bacteria growing on protein are susceptible to social cheating by quorum-sensing defective mutants. A possible way to restrict cheater emergence is by policing where cooperators produce costly goods to sanction or punish cheats. The P. aeruginosa LasR-LasI quorum sensing system controls genes including those encoding proteases and also those encoding a second quorum-sensing system, the RhlR-RhlI system, which controls numerous genes including those for cyanide production. By using RhlR quorum sensing mutants and cyanide synthesis mutants, we show that cyanide production is costly and cyanide-producing cooperators use cyanide to punish LasR-null social cheaters. Cooperators are less susceptible to cyanide than are LasR mutants. These experiments demonstrate policing in P. aeruginosa, provide a mechanistic understanding of policing, and show policing involves the cascade organization of the two quorum sensing systems in this bacterium. PMID:25646454

  6. Mechanisms of resistance to fluoroquinolones and carbapenems in Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Horii, Toshinobu; Muramatsu, Hideaki; Iinuma, Yoshitsugu

    2005-10-01

    Pseudomonas putida is an uncommon opportunistic pathogen, usually susceptible to antimicrobial agents. Data concerning resistance to antimicrobial agents in clinical P. putida isolates are limited. Susceptibilities to fluoroquinolones, carbapenems and other antibiotics were characterized in five clinical isolates of P. putida recovered from different patients with urinary tract infections as causative pathogens. Fluoroquinolone and carbapenem resistance were characterized genetically by the methods of PCR and DNA sequencing. Outer membrane protein (OMP) profiles were characterized by SDS-PAGE. Four of five isolates were resistant or intermediate to both fluoroquinolones and carbapenems. Nucleotide sequences in the quinolone resistance-determining regions suggested that amino acid mutations such as Thr-83-->Ile in GyrA and Glu-469-->Asp in GyrB may contribute to high resistance to fluoroquinolones. Four metallo-beta-lactamase-producing isolates that showed resistance to carbapenems carried the IMP-type metallo-beta-lactamase genes. A combined effect of reduced production of 46 kDa OMP and metallo-beta-lactamase production was shown by a P. putida isolate exhibiting the highest MICs of carbapenems. This study identified mechanisms of resistance to fluoroquinolones and carbapenems in clinical P. putida isolates.

  7. Mutations producing resistance to norfloxacin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, K; Suzue, S; Irikura, T; Iyobe, S; Mitsuhashi, S

    1987-01-01

    Two genetically distinct classes of norfloxacin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO4009 mutants were isolated spontaneously. Two norfloxacin resistance genes, nfxA and nfxB, were mapped hex-9001 and leu-9005 and between pro-9031 and ilv-9023, respectively, on the P. aeruginosa PAO chromosome. The nfxA gene was shown to be an allele of nalA by transductional analysis with bacteriophage F116L. The nfxB mutant showed a 16-fold increase in resistance to norfloxacin and a slight increase in resistance to nalidixic acid. The nfxB mutant was unique in that it showed hypersusceptibility to beta-lactam and aminoglycoside antibiotics. This mutant had about a threefold-lower rate of norfloxacin uptake than that of the wild-type strain or nfxA mutant. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of outer membrane proteins demonstrated the appearance of a 54,000-dalton protein in the nfxB mutant. These findings suggested that the norfloxacin resistance mechanism in the nfxB mutant might be an alteration in outer membrane permeability to norfloxacin. Images PMID:3111356

  8. Pseudomonas syringae Catalases Are Collectively Required for Plant Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ming; Block, Anna; Bryan, Crystal D; Becker, Donald F; Alfano, James R

    2012-09-01

    The bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 must detoxify plant-produced hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in order to survive in its host plant. Candidate enzymes for this detoxification include the monofunctional catalases KatB and KatE and the bifunctional catalase-peroxidase KatG of DC3000. This study shows that KatG is the major housekeeping catalase of DC3000 and provides protection against menadione-generated endogenous H(2)O(2). In contrast, KatB rapidly and substantially accumulates in response to exogenous H(2)O(2). Furthermore, KatB and KatG have nonredundant roles in detoxifying exogenous H(2)O(2) and are required for full virulence of DC3000 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Therefore, the nonredundant ability of KatB and KatG to detoxify plant-produced H(2)O(2) is essential for the bacteria to survive in plants. Indeed, a DC3000 catalase triple mutant is severely compromised in its ability to grow in planta, and its growth can be partially rescued by the expression of katB, katE, or katG. Interestingly, our data demonstrate that although KatB and KatG are the major catalases involved in the virulence of DC3000, KatE can also provide some protection in planta. Thus, our results indicate that these catalases are virulence factors for DC3000 and are collectively required for pathogenesis.

  9. Quorum sensing and policing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa social cheaters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meizhen; Schaefer, Amy L; Dandekar, Ajai A; Greenberg, E Peter

    2015-02-17

    The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that uses a quorum sensing signal cascade to activate expression of dozens of genes when sufficient population densities have been reached. Quorum sensing controls production of several key virulence factors, including secreted proteases such as elastase. Cooperating groups of bacteria growing on protein are susceptible to social cheating by quorum-sensing defective mutants. A possible way to restrict cheater emergence is by policing where cooperators produce costly goods to sanction or punish cheats. The P. aeruginosa LasR-LasI quorum sensing system controls genes including those encoding proteases and also those encoding a second quorum-sensing system, the RhlR-RhlI system, which controls numerous genes including those for cyanide production. By using RhlR quorum sensing mutants and cyanide synthesis mutants, we show that cyanide production is costly and cyanide-producing cooperators use cyanide to punish LasR-null social cheaters. Cooperators are less susceptible to cyanide than are LasR mutants. These experiments demonstrate policing in P. aeruginosa, provide a mechanistic understanding of policing, and show policing involves the cascade organization of the two quorum sensing systems in this bacterium.

  10. The Genomic Basis of Evolutionary Innovation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Toll-Riera, Macarena; San Millan, Alvaro; Wagner, Andreas; MacLean, R Craig

    2016-05-01

    Novel traits play a key role in evolution, but their origins remain poorly understood. Here we address this problem by using experimental evolution to study bacterial innovation in real time. We allowed 380 populations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to adapt to 95 different carbon sources that challenged bacteria with either evolving novel metabolic traits or optimizing existing traits. Whole genome sequencing of more than 80 clones revealed profound differences in the genetic basis of innovation and optimization. Innovation was associated with the rapid acquisition of mutations in genes involved in transcription and metabolism. Mutations in pre-existing duplicate genes in the P. aeruginosa genome were common during innovation, but not optimization. These duplicate genes may have been acquired by P. aeruginosa due to either spontaneous gene amplification or horizontal gene transfer. High throughput phenotype assays revealed that novelty was associated with increased pleiotropic costs that are likely to constrain innovation. However, mutations in duplicate genes with close homologs in the P. aeruginosa genome were associated with low pleiotropic costs compared to mutations in duplicate genes with distant homologs in the P. aeruginosa genome, suggesting that functional redundancy between duplicates facilitates innovation by buffering pleiotropic costs.

  11. Child abuse followed by fatal systemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.

    PubMed

    Senati, Massimo; Polacco, Matteo; Grassi, Vincenzo M; Carbone, Arnaldo; De-Giorgio, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    Child abuse has become an increasingly serious diagnostic challenge for physicians. The clinical manifestations include malnutrition and sometimes infection. In fact, stress in children has been reported to increase corticosteroid levels. As a consequence, the thymus begins an involution process, producing a severe impairment in cellular and humoral immunity. Here, we report the case of a 7-year-old child who suffered a prolonged history of abuse and died from a systemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. An initial local chronic infection propagated to the pelvic lymph nodes in an immunologically weak body and evolved into abscesses/phlegmons of the pelvic tissue, sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, multiple organ failure and finally, death. Abused children have to be considered as potentially immunologically impaired patients; therefore, it is very important to screen them for opportunistic infections. Moreover, a history of unusual or recurring infections may indicate abuse, especially neglect or malnutrition. In these cases, further investigations should be conducted to determine if a protective service case should be opened. Thus, there is a need for multidisciplinary cooperation to ensure the early identification and prevention of child abuse.

  12. Effects of Antibiotics on Quorum Sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa▿

    PubMed Central

    Skindersoe, Mette E.; Alhede, Morten; Phipps, Richard; Yang, Liang; Jensen, Peter O.; Rasmussen, Thomas B.; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Høiby, Niels; Givskov, Michael

    2008-01-01

    During infection, Pseudomonas aeruginosa employs bacterial communication (quorum sensing [QS]) to coordinate the expression of tissue-damaging factors. QS-controlled gene expression plays a pivotal role in the virulence of P. aeruginosa, and QS-deficient mutants cause less severe infections in animal infection models. Treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients chronically infected with P. aeruginosa with the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin (AZM) has been demonstrated to improve the clinical outcome. Several studies indicate that AZM may accomplish its beneficial action in CF patients by impeding QS, thereby reducing the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa. This led us to investigate whether QS inhibition is a common feature of antibiotics. We present the results of a screening of 12 antibiotics for their QS-inhibitory activities using a previously described QS inhibitor selector 1 strain. Three of the antibiotics tested, AZM, ceftazidime (CFT), and ciprofloxacin (CPR), were very active in the assay and were further examined for their effects on QS-regulated virulence factor production in P. aeruginosa. The effects of the three antibiotics administered at subinhibitory concentrations were investigated by use of DNA microarrays. Consistent results from the virulence factor assays, reverse transcription-PCR, and the DNA microarrays support the finding that AZM, CFT, and CPR decrease the expression of a range of QS-regulated virulence factors. The data suggest that the underlying mechanism may be mediated by changes in membrane permeability, thereby influencing the flux of N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl-l-homoserine lactone. PMID:18644954

  13. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosain kefir and fish meal

    PubMed Central

    Kaskatepe, Banu; Yildiz, Sulhiye; Gumustas, Mehmet; Ozkan, Sibel A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase rhamnolipid production by formulating media using kefir and fish meal for Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from different environmental resources. The strains, named as H1, SY1, and ST1, capable of rhamnolipid production were isolated from soil contaminated with wastes originating from olive and fish oil factories. Additionally, P. aeruginosa ATCC 9027 strain, which is known as rhamnolipid producer, was included in the study. Initially, rhamnolipid production by the strains was determined in Mineral Salt Medium (MSM) and then in media prepared by using kefir and fish meal. The obtained rhamnolipids were purified and quantified according to Dubois et al. (1956). The quantity of rhamnolipids of ATCC, H1 and SY1 strains in kefir media were determined as 11.7 g/L, 10.8 g/L and 3.2 g/L, respectively, and in fish meal media as 12.3 g/L, 9.3 g/L and 10.3 g/L, respectively. In addition, effect of UV light exposure on rhamnolipid production was also investigated but contrary a decrease was observed. The results indicate that P. aeruginosa strains isolated from various environmental resources used in this study can be important due to their rhamnolipid yield, and fish meal, which is obtained from waste of fish, can be an alternative source in low cost rhamnolipid production. PMID:26413070

  14. Product Repression of Alkane Monooxygenase Expression in Pseudomonas butanovora

    PubMed Central

    Doughty, D. M.; Sayavedra-Soto, L. A.; Arp, D. J.; Bottomley, P. J.

    2006-01-01

    Physiological and regulatory mechanisms that allow the alkane-oxidizing bacterium Pseudomonas butanovora to consume C2 to C8 alkane substrates via butane monooxygenase (BMO) were examined. Striking differences were observed in response to even- versus odd-chain-length alkanes. Propionate, the downstream product of propane oxidation and of the oxidation of other odd-chain-length alkanes following β-oxidation, was a potent repressor of BMO expression. The transcriptional activity of the BMO promoter was reduced with as little as 10 μM propionate, even in the presence of appropriate inducers. Propionate accumulated stoichiometrically when 1-propanol and propionaldehyde were added to butane- and ethane-grown cells, indicating that propionate catabolism was inactive during growth on even-chain-length alkanes. In contrast, propionate consumption was induced (about 80 nmol propionate consumed · min−1 · mg protein−1) following growth on the odd-chain-length alkanes, propane and pentane. The induction of propionate consumption could be brought on by the addition of propionate or pentanoate to the growth medium. In a reporter strain of P. butanovora in which the BMO promoter controls β-galactosidase expression, only even-chain-length alcohols (C2 to C8) induced β-galactosidase following growth on acetate or butyrate. In contrast, both even- and odd-chain-length alcohols (C3 to C7) were able to induce β-galactosidase following the induction of propionate consumption by propionate or pentanoate. PMID:16547046

  15. Degradation of 2-methylbenzoic acid by Pseudomonas cepacia MB2

    SciTech Connect

    Higson, F.K.; Focht, D.D. )

    1992-01-01

    The authors report the isolation of Pseudomonas cepacia MB2, believed to be the first microorganism to utilize 2-methylbenzoic acid as the sole carbon source. Its growth range included all mono- and dimethylbenzoates (with the exception of 2,5- and 2,6-dimethylbenzoates) and 3-chloro-2-methylbenzoate (but not 4- or 5-chloro-2-methylbenzoate) but not chlorobenzoates lacking a methyl group. 2-Chlorobenzoate, 3-chlorobenzoate, and 2,3-, 2,4-, and 3,4-dichlorobenzoates inhibited growth of MB2 on 2-methylbenzoate as a result of cometabolism to the corresponding chlorinated catechols which blocked the key enzyme catechol 2,3-dioxygenase. A metapyrocatechase-negative mutant, MB2-G5, showed accumulation of dimethylcatechols from 2,3- and 3,4-dimethylbenzoates, and phenols were detected in resting-cell transformation extracts bearing the same substitution pattern as the original substrate, presumably following thermal degradation of the intermediate dihydrodiol. 2-Methylphenol was also found in extracts of the mutant cells with 2-methylbenzoate. These observations suggested a major route of methylbenzoate metabolism to be dioxygenation to a carboxy-hydrodiol which then forms a catechol derivative. In addition, the methyl group of 2-methylbenzoate was oxidized to isobenzofuranone (by cells of MB2-G5) and to phthalate (by cells of a separate mutant that could not utilize phthalate, MB2-D2). This pathway also generated a chlorinated isobenzofuranone from 3-chloro-2-methylbenzoate.

  16. Inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation on wound dressings

    PubMed Central

    Brandenburg, Kenneth S.; Calderon, Diego F.; Kierski, Patricia R.; Brown, Amanda L.; Shah, Nihar M.; Abbott, Nicholas L.; Schurr, Michael J.; Murphy, Christopher J.; McAnulty, Jonathan F.; Czuprynski, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic non-healing skin wounds often contain bacterial biofilms that prevent normal wound healing and closure and present challenges to the use of conventional wound dressings. We investigated inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation, a common pathogen of chronic skin wounds, on a commercially available biological wound dressing. Building upon prior reports, we examined whether the amino acid tryptophan would inhibit P. aeruginosa biofilm formation on the 3-dimensional surface of the biological dressing. Bacterial biomass and biofilm polysaccharides were quantified using crystal violet staining or an enzyme linked lectin, respectively. Bacterial cells and biofilm matrix adherent to the wound dressing were visualized through scanning electron microscopy. D-/L-tryptophan inhibited P. aeruginosa biofilm formation on the wound dressing in a dose dependent manner and was not directly cytotoxic to immortalized human keratinocytes although there was some reduction in cellular metabolism or enzymatic activity. More importantly, D-/L-tryptophan did not impair wound healing in a splinted skin wound murine model. Furthermore, wound closure was improved when D-/L-tryptophan treated wound dressing with P. aeruginosa biofilms were compared with untreated dressings. These findings indicate that tryptophan may prove useful for integration into wound dressings to inhibit biofilm formation and promote wound healing. PMID:26342168

  17. Plasmid-mediated degradation of dibenzothiophene by Pseudomonas species.

    PubMed

    Monticello, D J; Bakker, D; Finnerty, W R

    1985-04-01

    The microbial transformation of dibenzothiophene (DBT) is of interest in the potential desulfurization of oil. We isolated three soil Pseudomonas species which oxidized DBT to characteristic water-soluble, sulfur-containing products. Two of our isolates harbored a 55-megadalton plasmid; growth in the presence of novobiocin resulted in both loss of the plasmid and loss of the ability to oxidize DBT. Reintroduction of the plasmid restored the ability to oxidize DBT to water-soluble products. The products resulting from the oxidation of DBT were characterized and included 3-hydroxy-2-formyl benzothiophene, 3-oxo-[3'-hydroxy-thionaphthenyl-(2)-methylene]-dihydrothionaph thene, and the hemiacetal and trans forms of 4-[2-(3-hydroxy)-thianaphthenyl]-2-oxo-3-butenoic acid. The products of DBT oxidation were inhibitory to cell growth and further DBT oxidation. DBT oxidation in our soil isolates was induced by naphthalene or salicylate and to a much lesser extent by DBT and was repressed by succinate.

  18. Interactions between Neutrophils and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Rada, Balázs

    2017-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) affects 70,000 patients worldwide. Morbidity and mortality in CF is largely caused by lung complications due to the triad of impaired mucociliary clearance, microbial infections and chronic inflammation. Cystic fibrosis airway inflammation is mediated by robust infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes (PMNs, neutrophils). Neutrophils are not capable of clearing lung infections and contribute to tissue damage by releasing their dangerous cargo. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen causing infections in immunocompromised individuals. P. aeruginosa is a main respiratory pathogen in CF infecting most patients. Although PMNs are key to attack and clear P. aeruginosa in immunocompetent individuals, PMNs fail to do so in CF. Understanding why neutrophils cannot clear P. aeruginosa in CF is essential to design novel therapies. This review provides an overview of the antimicrobial mechanisms by which PMNs attack and eliminate P. aeruginosa. It also summarizes current advances in our understanding of why PMNs are incapable of clearing P. aeruginosa and how this bacterium adapts to and resists PMN-mediated killing in the airways of CF patients chronically infected with P. aeruginosa. PMID:28282951

  19. Outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteraemia in a haematology department.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Benjamin Schnack; Christensen, Nikolas; Sørensen, Jan; Rosenvinge, Flemming S; Kolmos, Hans Jørn; Skov, Marianne N

    2015-04-01

    Infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients. In Denmark, an increase in P. aeruginosa isolates from blood cultures from a haematology department prompted a hygienic audit in 2007. Blood cultures that tested positive for P. aeruginosa were collected from the laboratory information system (MADS, Skejby Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark). Environmental samples were obtained from shower heads in the department. The genotype was established by pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). An audit was conducted during the outbreak and 12 months later. The audits were conducted by the method of direct observation. Several PFGE types were involved with no clear association to isolates from environmental samples. The audit revealed poor hygiene related to the handling of central venous catheters. After optimising catheter hygiene, the number of P. aeruginosa bacteraemia cases fell significantly. Since no clear association between patient and environmental genotype was established, it was suspected that central venous catheters were the main portal of entry. This was further supported by a simultaneous decline in bacteraemia cases with coagulase-negative staphylococci. Though several hygienic precautions were taken, the increased focus on disinfection of hubs and injection ports was presumably the more important element. not relevant. not relevant.

  20. Quantitative proteomics of tomato defense against Pseudomonas syringae infection.

    PubMed

    Parker, Jennifer; Koh, Jin; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Zhu, Ning; Feole, Michelle; Yi, Sarah; Chen, Sixue

    2013-06-01

    Genetic and microarray analyses have provided useful information in the area of plant and pathogen interactions. Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst) causes bacterial speck disease in tomato. Previous studies have shown that changes in response to pathogen infection at transcript level are variable at different time points. This study provides information not only on proteomic changes between a resistant and a susceptible genotype, but also information on changes between an early and a late time point. Using the iTRAQ quantitative proteomics approach, we have identified 2369 proteins in tomato leaves, and 477 of them were determined to be responsive to Pst inoculation. Unique and differential proteins after each comparison were further analyzed to provide information about protein changes and the potential functions they play in the pathogen response. This information is applicable not only to tomato proteomics, but also adds to the repertoire of proteins now available for crop proteomic analysis and how they change in response to pathogen infection. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.