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Sample records for high activity effluent

  1. Estrogenic activity in Finnish municipal wastewater effluents.

    PubMed

    Välitalo, Pia; Perkola, Noora; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Sillanpää, Markus; Kuckelkorn, Jochen; Mikola, Anna; Hollert, Henner; Schultz, Eija

    2016-01-01

    Effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are a major source of estrogenic compounds to the aquatic environment. In the present work, estrogenic activities of effluents from eight municipal WWTPs in Finland were studied. The main objectives of the study were to quantify the concentrations of selected estrogenic compounds, to evaluate their contribution to estrogenic potency and to test the feasibility of the commercial bioassays for wastewater analysis. The effluent samples were analyzed by two in vitro tests, i.e. ERα-CALUX(®) and ELISA-E2, and by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry for six estrogenic compounds: estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17α-estradiol and bisphenol A (BPA). Estrogenic effects were found in all of the effluent samples with both of the bioassays. The concentrations measured with ELISA-E2 (8.6-61.6 ng/L) were clearly higher but exhibited a similar pattern than those with chemical analysis (E2 high BPA contribution (17%). The contribution of E2 was significant in two samples where it was detected (28% and 67%). The results demonstrated that more comprehensive information on potential estrogenic activity of wastewater effluents can be achieved by using in vitro biotests in addition to chemical analysis and their use would be beneficial in monitoring and screening purposes. PMID:26584345

  2. Purification and characterization of a highly active chromate reductase from endophytic Bacillus sp. DGV19 of Albizzia lebbeck (L.) Benth. actively involved in phytoremediation of tannery effluent-contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, Muthu; Gopal, Judy; Kumaran, Rangarajulu Senthil; Kannan, Vijayaraghavan; Chun, Sechul

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation using timber-yielding tree species is considered to be the most efficient method for chromium/tannery effluent-contaminated sites. In this study, we have chosen Albizzia lebbeck, a chromium hyperaccumulator plant, and studied one of its chromium detoxification processes operated by its endophytic bacterial assemblage. Out of the four different groups of endophytic bacteria comprising Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, Bacillus, and Salinicoccus identified from A. lebbeck employed in phytoremediation of tannery effluent-contaminated soil, Bacillus predominated with three species, which exhibited not only remarkable chromium accumulation ability but also high chromium reductase activity. A chromate reductase was purified to homogeneity from the most efficient chromium accumulator, Bacillus sp. DGV 019, and the purified 34.2-kD enzyme was observed to be stable at temperatures from 20°C to 60°C. The enzyme was active over a wide range of pH values (4.0-9.0). Furthermore, the enzyme activity was enhanced with the electron donors NADH, followed by NADPH, not affected by glutathione and ascorbic acid. Cu(2+) enhanced the activity of the purified enzyme but was inhibited by Zn(2+) and etheylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). In conclusion, due to its versatile adaptability the chromate reductase can be used for chromium remediation. PMID:26444299

  3. Purification and characterization of a highly active chromate reductase from endophytic Bacillus sp. DGV19 of Albizzia lebbeck (L.) Benth. actively involved in phytoremediation of tannery effluent-contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, Muthu; Gopal, Judy; Kumaran, Rangarajulu Senthil; Kannan, Vijayaraghavan; Chun, Sechul

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation using timber-yielding tree species is considered to be the most efficient method for chromium/tannery effluent-contaminated sites. In this study, we have chosen Albizzia lebbeck, a chromium hyperaccumulator plant, and studied one of its chromium detoxification processes operated by its endophytic bacterial assemblage. Out of the four different groups of endophytic bacteria comprising Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, Bacillus, and Salinicoccus identified from A. lebbeck employed in phytoremediation of tannery effluent-contaminated soil, Bacillus predominated with three species, which exhibited not only remarkable chromium accumulation ability but also high chromium reductase activity. A chromate reductase was purified to homogeneity from the most efficient chromium accumulator, Bacillus sp. DGV 019, and the purified 34.2-kD enzyme was observed to be stable at temperatures from 20°C to 60°C. The enzyme was active over a wide range of pH values (4.0-9.0). Furthermore, the enzyme activity was enhanced with the electron donors NADH, followed by NADPH, not affected by glutathione and ascorbic acid. Cu(2+) enhanced the activity of the purified enzyme but was inhibited by Zn(2+) and etheylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). In conclusion, due to its versatile adaptability the chromate reductase can be used for chromium remediation.

  4. High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    M. Clark Dale

    2006-10-30

    n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

  5. Management plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    SciTech Connect

    Nickels, J.M.; Pratt, D.R.

    1991-08-01

    The DOE/RL 89-19, United States Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (1989), requires the Hanford Site to prepare an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) by November 9, 1991. The DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (1991), provides additional guidance and requires implementation of the EMP within 36 months of the effective data of the rule. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, requires each US Department of Energy (DOE) site, facility, or activity that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant quantities of hazardous materials to prepare an EMP. This EMP is to identify and discuss two major activities: (1) effluent monitoring and (2) environmental surveillance. At the Hanford Site, the site-wide EMP will consist of the following elements: (1) A conceptual plan addressing effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance; (2) Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) site-wide environmental surveillance program; (3) Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) effluent monitoring program consisting of the near-field operations environmental monitoring activities and abstracts of each Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP). This management plan addresses the third of these three elements of the EMP, the FEMPs.

  6. ASSESSMENT OF IN VITRO ANDROGENIC ACTIVITY IN KRAFT MILL EFFLUENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detection of In Vitro Androgenic Activity in Feedlot Effluent. Lambright, CS 1 , Guillette, LJ, Jr.2, Gray, LE, Jr.1 , 1USEPA, NHEERL, RTP, NC, 2 University of Florida, Dept. of Zoology, Gainesville FL

    Recent studies have shown the presence of androgenic activity in water...

  7. Effect of textile auxiliaries on the biodegradation of dyehouse effluent in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Arslan Alaton, Idil; Insel, Güçlü; Eremektar, Gülen; Germirli Babuna, Fatos; Orhon, Derin

    2006-03-01

    The textile industry is confronted with serious environmental problems associated with its immense wastewater discharge, substantial pollution load, extremely high salinity, and alkaline, heavily coloured effluent. Particular sources of recalcitrance and toxicity in dyehouse effluent are two frequently used textile auxiliaries; i.e. dye carriers and biocidal finishing agents. The present experimental work reports the observation of scientific and practical significance related with the effect of two commercially important textile dye carriers and two biocidal finishing agents on biological activated sludge treatment at a textile preparation, dyeing and finishing plant in Istanbul. Respirometric measurements of the dyehouse effluent spiked with the selected textile chemicals were carried out for the assessment of the "readily biodegradable COD fraction" of the wastewater. The respirometric data obtained to visualize the effect of the selected textile auxiliaries on biomass activity was evaluated by an adopted activated sludge model. Results have indicated that the tested biocides did not exert any significant inhibitory effect on the treatment performance of the activated sludge reactor at the concentrations usually encountered in the final, total dyehouse effluent. The situation with the dye carriers was inherently different; one dye carrier appeared to be highly toxic and caused serious inhibition of the microbial respirometric activity, whereas the other dye carrier, also known as the more ecological alternative, i.e. the "Eco-Carrier", appeared to be biodegradable. Finally, the respirometric profile obtained for the Eco-Carrier was described by a simplified respirometric model. PMID:16098558

  8. A continuous active monitoring approach to identify cross-connections between potable water and effluent distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Friedler, E; Alfiya, Y; Shaviv, A; Gilboa, Y; Harussi, Y; Raize, O

    2015-03-01

    A continuous active monitoring approach was developed for identification of cross-connections between potable water supply systems and treated wastewater effluent reuse distribution systems. The approach is based on monitoring the oxidation reduction potential (ORP) at the potable water system while injecting sulfite (a reducing agent) into the effluent line. A sharp decrease in the ORP of the potable water would indicate a cross-connection event. The approach was tested in batch experiments on treated municipal wastewater effluent of varying degree of treatment, and at dilution ratios of up to 1:100 (effluent/potable). The approach was then examined under continuous flow conditions, which simulated cross-connection events at various dilution ratios (up to 1:100). In the continuous runs, differences between the potable water ORP and the effluent-potable water mixture (containing sulfite as sodium bisulfite (SBS)) ORP were 450-630 mV. This suggests high potential for identifying a cross-connection event. Implementation of the approach includes adding sulfite to effluent used for agricultural irrigation; hence, possible effects on soil and on crops were studied in soil columns and pots planted with basil (Ocimum basilicum) as a model plant. No negative effects of sulfite addition to the irrigation effluent were observed in the irrigated soils and plants, and therefore, it could be safely implemented also in agricultural applications. PMID:25701471

  9. A continuous active monitoring approach to identify cross-connections between potable water and effluent distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Friedler, E; Alfiya, Y; Shaviv, A; Gilboa, Y; Harussi, Y; Raize, O

    2015-03-01

    A continuous active monitoring approach was developed for identification of cross-connections between potable water supply systems and treated wastewater effluent reuse distribution systems. The approach is based on monitoring the oxidation reduction potential (ORP) at the potable water system while injecting sulfite (a reducing agent) into the effluent line. A sharp decrease in the ORP of the potable water would indicate a cross-connection event. The approach was tested in batch experiments on treated municipal wastewater effluent of varying degree of treatment, and at dilution ratios of up to 1:100 (effluent/potable). The approach was then examined under continuous flow conditions, which simulated cross-connection events at various dilution ratios (up to 1:100). In the continuous runs, differences between the potable water ORP and the effluent-potable water mixture (containing sulfite as sodium bisulfite (SBS)) ORP were 450-630 mV. This suggests high potential for identifying a cross-connection event. Implementation of the approach includes adding sulfite to effluent used for agricultural irrigation; hence, possible effects on soil and on crops were studied in soil columns and pots planted with basil (Ocimum basilicum) as a model plant. No negative effects of sulfite addition to the irrigation effluent were observed in the irrigated soils and plants, and therefore, it could be safely implemented also in agricultural applications.

  10. Rocket effluent - Its ice nucleation activity and related properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parungo, F. P.; Allee, P. A.

    1978-01-01

    To investigate the possibility of inadvertent weather modification from rocket effluent, aerosol samples were collected from an instrumented aircraft subsequent to the Voyager I and II launches. The aerosol's morphology, concentration and size distribution were examined with an electron microscope. The elemental compositions of individual particles were analyzed with an X-ray energy spectrometer. Ice nucleus concentration was measured with a subfreezing thermal diffusion chamber. The particles' physical and chemical properties were related to their ice nucleation activity. A laboratory experiment on rocket propellant exhaust was conducted under controlled conditions. Both laboratory and field experimental results indicated that rocket propellant exhaust can produce active ice nuclei. Their consequences for potential inadvertant weather modification demand additional study.

  11. Rocket effluent: Its ice nucleation activity and related properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parungo, F. P.; Allee, P. A.

    1978-01-01

    To investigate the possibility of inadvertent weather modification from rocket effluent, aerosol samples were collected from an instrumented aircraft subsequent to the Voyager 1 and 2 launches. The aerosol's morphology, concentration, and size distribution were examined with an electron microscope. The elemental compositions of individual particles were analyzed with an X-ray energy spectrometer. Ice nucleus concentration was measured with a thermal diffusion chamber. The particles' physical and chemical properties were related to their ice nucleation activity. A laboratory experiment on rocket propellant exhaust was conducted under controlled conditions. Both laboratory and field experimental results indicated that rocket propellant exhaust can produce active ice nuclei and modify local weather in suitable meteorological conditions.

  12. Combined fenton oxidation and biological activated carbon process for recycling of coking plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen-xin; Zhang, Wei; Li, Bing-jing; Duan, Jun; Lv, Yan; Liu, Wan-dong; Ying, Wei-chi

    2011-05-15

    Fenton oxidation and coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation (CFS) were both effective in removing many organic constituents of the biotreated coking plant effluent before the final treatment in an activated carbon adsorber. Fenton oxidation broke down most persistent organic pollutants and complex cyanides present in the feed stream and caused the eventual biodegradation of the organic residues in the adsorber. The results of Fenton oxidation followed by adsorption and biodegradation in two biological activated carbon (BAC) adsorbers show that the combined treatment consistently produced a high quality final effluent of <50mg/L in COD(Cr) and <0.5mg/L in total cyanide during the 70-d study without replacing any activated carbon. The BAC function of the adsorber substantially reduced the need for replacing activated carbon making the combined Fenton oxidation-BAC treatment process a cost effective treatment process to recycle the final effluent for many beneficial reuses while meeting the much more stringent discharge limits of the future.

  13. Degradation of antibiotic activity during UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation and photolysis in wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Keen, Olya S; Linden, Karl G

    2013-11-19

    Trace levels of antibiotics in treated wastewater effluents may present a human health risk due to the rise of antibacterial activity in the downstream environments. Advanced oxidation has a potential to become an effective treatment technology for transforming trace antibiotics in wastewater effluents, but residual or newly generated antibacterial properties of transformation products are a concern. This study demonstrates the effect of UV photolysis and UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation on transformation of 6 antibiotics, each a representative of a different structural class, in pure water and in two different effluents and reports new or confirmatory photolysis quantum yields and hydroxyl radical rate constants. The decay of the parent compound was monitored with HPLC/ITMS, and the corresponding changes in antibacterial activity were measured using bacterial inhibition assays. No antibacterially active products were observed following treatment for four of the six antibiotics (clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, penicillin-G, and trimethoprim). The remaining two antibiotics (erythromycin and doxycycline) showed some intermediates with antibacterial activity at low treatment doses. The antibacterially active products lost activity as the UV dose increased past 500 mJ/cm(2). Active products were observed only in wastewater effluents and not in pure water, suggesting that complex secondary reactions controlled by the composition of the matrix were responsible for their formation. This outcome emphasizes the importance of bench-scale experiments in realistic water matrices. Most importantly, the results indicate that photosensitized processes during high dose wastewater disinfection may be creating antibacterially active transformation products from some common antibiotics.

  14. Impacts of powdered activated carbon addition on trihalomethane formation reactivity of dissolved organic matter in membrane bioreactor effluent.

    PubMed

    Ma, Defang; Gao, Yue; Gao, Baoyu; Wang, Yan; Yue, Qinyan; Li, Qian

    2014-12-01

    Characteristics and trihalomethane (THM) formation reactivity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in effluents from two membrane bioreactors (MBRs) with and without powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition (referred to as PAC/MBR and MBR, respectively) were examined to investigate the effects of PAC addition on THM formation of MBR effluent during chlorination. PAC addition increased the specific UV absorbance. Hydrophobic DOM especially hydrophobic acids in PAC/MBR effluent (50%) were more than MBR effluent (42%). DOM with molecular weight <1 kDa constituted 12% of PAC/MBR effluent DOM, which was less than that of MBR effluent (16%). Data obtained from excitation and emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that PAC/MBR effluent DOM contained more simple aromatic protein, but had less fulvic acid-like and soluble microbial by-product-like. PAC addition reduced the formation of bromine-containing THMs during chlorination of effluents, but increased THM formation reactivity of effluent DOM. PMID:25150685

  15. INHIBITION OF RETINOID ACTIVITY BY COMPONENTS OF A PAPER MILL EFFLUENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A cell line stably transfected with reporter genes activated by retinoic acid was used to test a paper mill effluent for the presence of retinoids or components that interfere with retinoic acid-stimulated gene transcription.

  16. Identification of estrogenic activity change in sewage, industrial and livestock effluents by gamma-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Byeong-Yong; Kang, Sung-Wook; Yoo, Jisu; Kim, Woong-Ki; Bae, Paek-Hyun; Jung, Jinho

    2012-11-01

    In this study, reduction of estrogenic activity in three different types of effluents from sewage, industrial and livestock wastewater treatment plants by gamma-irradiation was investigated using the yeast two-hybrid assay. After gamma-ray treatment at a dose of 10 kGy, estrogenic activities of sewage, industrial and livestock effluents decreased from 4.4 to 3.0, 1.5 to 1.0 and 16 to 9.9 ng-EEQ L-1, respectively. The substantial reduction of estrogenic activity in livestock effluent was attributable to the degradation of 17β-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2). Although bisphenol A (BPA) was found at the highest concentration in all effluents, its contribution to the estrogenic activity was not significant due to its low relative estrogenic potency. Meanwhile, the calculated estrogenic activity based on concentrations of E2, E1, EE2 and BPA in the effluents significantly differed from the measured ones. Overestimation may have resulted by dissolved organic matters in effluents inhibiting the estrogenic activity of E2, E1, EE2 and BPA, whereas underestimation was likely due to estrogenic by-products generated by gamma-irradiation.

  17. Highly dealuminated Y zeolite as efficient adsorbent for the hydrophobic fraction from wastewater treatment plants effluents.

    PubMed

    Navalon, Sergio; Alvaro, Mercedes; Garcia, Hermenegildo

    2009-07-15

    In this work we report that highly dealuminated zeolite Y is a hydrophobic material that is able to remove selectively fatty acids and hydrocarbon compounds from the effluent of an urban wastewater treatment plant (UWTP). This adsorbent capability of zeolite Y could lead to an improved quality of UWTP effluents. Typical domestic wastewaters contain detergents, soaps and surfactants that are only partially removed in conventional UWTP. In the present work using an effluent from a UWTP located at Ribarroja del Turia (Valencia, Spain) containing 10 ppm of total organic carbon, we have been able to retain by adsorption on the dealuminated Y zeolite up to 16 and 60% of the organic matter of the effluent at pH values 7.2 and 4, respectively. Characterization of the adsorbed organic matter by Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR), (1)H NMR and GC-MS after derivatization has shown that the zeolite adsorbs selectively the hydrophobic compounds of the effluent.

  18. The attenuation of microorganisms in on-site wastewater effluent discharged into highly permeable subsoils.

    PubMed

    O'Luanaigh, N D; Gill, L W; Misstear, B D R; Johnston, P M

    2012-11-01

    An extensive field study on percolation areas receiving both septic tank and secondary treated on-site effluents from single houses in Ireland was carried out to investigate the attenuation capacity of highly permeable subsoils with respect to E. coli bacteria and spiked bacteriophages (MS2, ΦX174 and PR772). The development of biomats across the percolation areas receiving the secondary effluent was restricted compared to the percolation area receiving septic tank effluent, promoting a much higher areal hydraulic loading which created significant differences in the potential microbiological loading to groundwater. Greatest E. coli removal in the subsoil occurred within the first 0.35 m of unsaturated subsoil for all effluent types. Analysis showed, however, that more evidence of faecal contamination occurred at depth in the subsoils receiving secondary treated effluents than that receiving septic tank effluent, despite the lower bacterial influent load. All three bacteriophages were reduced to their minimum detection limit (<10 PFU/mL) at a depth of 0.95 m below the percolation trenches receiving septic tank effluent, although isolated incidences of ΦX174 and PR772 were measured below one trench. However again, slightly higher breakthroughs of MS2 and PR772 contamination were detected at the same depth under the trenches receiving secondary treated effluent.

  19. The attenuation of microorganisms in on-site wastewater effluent discharged into highly permeable subsoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Luanaigh, N. D.; Gill, L. W.; Misstear, B. D. R.; Johnston, P. M.

    2012-11-01

    An extensive field study on percolation areas receiving both septic tank and secondary treated on-site effluents from single houses in Ireland was carried out to investigate the attenuation capacity of highly permeable subsoils with respect to E. coli bacteria and spiked bacteriophages (MS2, ΦX174 and PR772). The development of biomats across the percolation areas receiving the secondary effluent was restricted compared to the percolation area receiving septic tank effluent, promoting a much higher areal hydraulic loading which created significant differences in the potential microbiological loading to groundwater. Greatest E. coli removal in the subsoil occurred within the first 0.35 m of unsaturated subsoil for all effluent types. Analysis showed, however, that more evidence of faecal contamination occurred at depth in the subsoils receiving secondary treated effluents than that receiving septic tank effluent, despite the lower bacterial influent load. All three bacteriophages were reduced to their minimum detection limit (< 10 PFU/mL) at a depth of 0.95 m below the percolation trenches receiving septic tank effluent, although isolated incidences of ΦX174 and PR772 were measured below one trench. However again, slightly higher breakthroughs of MS2 and PR772 contamination were detected at the same depth under the trenches receiving secondary treated effluent.

  20. Transformation of anti-estrogenic-activity related dissolved organic matter in secondary effluents during ozonation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xin; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Zhao, Xin; Du, Ye; Huang, Huang; Shi, Xiao-Lei; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Anti-estrogenic activity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in reclaimed water is gaining increasing attention. In this study, anti-estrogenic activity removal efficiency by ozonation in the tertiary treatment process of domestic wastewater was investigated. The anti-estrogenic activity in the secondary effluents used in this study ranged between 0.95 and 2.00 mg-TAM L(-1) and decreased significantly after ozonation. The removal efficiency of anti-estrogenic activity at a dose of 10 mg-O3 L(-1) was 65-87%. The removal of the anti-estrogenic activity was highly correlated with the removal of UV254, suggesting that UV254 can be used as a surrogate for anti-estrogenic activity during ozonation. The results of size exclusion chromatography of the wastewater samples during ozonation showed that the UV254 absorbance of the DOM fraction with large apparent molecular weight (MW) around 7.6 k Da dropped significantly, and the DOM fraction was suspected to be humic substances which have been previously identified as anti-estrogenic constituents in secondary effluents. The excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectra of the wastewater samples proved that humic substances existed in the DOM and indeed reacted with the ozone. With the help of two-dimensional correlation of Fourier transform infrared, it was confirmed that the aromatic structures in the DOM were largely destroyed by ozonation. Therefore, it was suggested that the destruction of the aromatic structures in the DOM was related to the removal of the anti-estrogenic activity. PMID:24183562

  1. Prioritization methodology for the monitoring of active pharmaceutical ingredients in hospital effluents.

    PubMed

    Daouk, Silwan; Chèvre, Nathalie; Vernaz, Nathalie; Bonnabry, Pascal; Dayer, Pierre; Daali, Youssef; Fleury-Souverain, Sandrine

    2015-09-01

    The important number of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) available on the market along with their potential adverse effects in the aquatic ecosystems, lead to the development of prioritization methods, which allow choosing priority molecules to monitor based on a set of selected criteria. Due to the large volumes of API used in hospitals, an increasing attention has been recently paid to their effluents as a source of environmental pollution. Based on the consumption data of a Swiss university hospital, about hundred of API has been prioritized following an OPBT approach (Occurrence, Persistence, Bioaccumulation and Toxicity). In addition, an Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) allowed prioritizing API based on predicted concentrations and environmental toxicity data found in the literature for 71 compounds. Both prioritization approaches were compared. OPBT prioritization results highlight the high concern of some non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antiviral drugs, whereas antibiotics are revealed by ERA as potentially problematic to the aquatic ecosystems. Nevertheless, according to the predicted risk quotient, only the hospital fraction of ciprofloxacin represents a risk to the aquatic organisms. Some compounds were highlighted as high-priority with both methods: ibuprofen, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, ritonavir, gabapentin, amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, raltegravir, propofol, etc. Analyzing consumption data and building prioritization lists helped choosing about 15 API to be monitored in hospital wastewaters. The API ranking approach adopted in this study can be easily transposed to any other hospitals, which have the will to look at the contamination of their effluents.

  2. Monitoring endocrine activity in kraft mill effluent treated by aerobic moving bed bioreactor system.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, S; Pozo, G; Jarpa, M; Hernandez, V; Becerra, J; Vidal, G

    2010-01-01

    A Moving Bed Bioreactor (MBBR) was operated at three different hydraulic retention times for a period of 414 days. The fate of the extractive compounds and the estrogenic activity of the Pinus radiata kraft mill effluents were evaluated using Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detection. Results show that the MBBR reactor is able to remove between 80-83% of estrogenic activity present in the kraft mill Pinus radiata influent, where the values of the effluent's estrogenic activity ranged between 0.123-0.411 ng L(-1), expressed as estrogenic equivalent (EEqs) of 17-a-ethynylestradiol (EE2 eq.). Additionally, the biomass of the MBBR reactor accumulated estrogenic activity ranging between 0.29-0.37 ng EEqs EE2 during the different Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) operations. The main groups present in pulp mills effluents, corresponding to fatty acids, hydrocarbons, phenols, sterols and triterpenes, were detected by solid phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results suggest that the sterols produce the estrogenic activity in the evaluated effluent. PMID:20595766

  3. 40 CFR Table 2 to Part 455 - Organic Pesticide Active Ingredient Effluent Limitations Best Available Technology Economically...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Organic Pesticide Active Ingredient... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Pt. 455, Table 2 Table 2 to Part 455—Organic Pesticide Active Ingredient Effluent Limitations Best Available Technology Economically...

  4. 40 CFR Table 2 to Part 455 - Organic Pesticide Active Ingredient Effluent Limitations Best Available Technology Economically...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Organic Pesticide Active Ingredient... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Pt. 455, Table 2 Table 2 to Part 455—Organic Pesticide Active Ingredient Effluent Limitations Best Available Technology Economically...

  5. IN VITRO ANDROGENIC ACTIVITY OF KRAFT MILL EFFLUENT IS ASSOCIATED WITH MASCULINIZATION OF FEMALE FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Vitro Androgenic Activity of Kraft Mill Effluent is Associated with Masculinization of Female Fish. Lambright, CS 1 , Parks, LG 1, Orlando, E 2, Guillette, LJ, Jr.2, Ankley, G 3, Gray, LE, Jr.1 , 1USEPA, NHEERL, RTP, NC, 2 University of Florida, Dept. of Zoology, Gainesville ...

  6. Effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) on MBR performance and effluent trihalomethane formation: At the initial stage of PAC addition.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yue; Ma, Defang; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu; Huang, Xia

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the MBR was used to treat municipal wastewater for reuse. Effects of powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition on MBR system in terms of effluent water quality, trihalomethane (THM) formation and membrane organic fouling tendency of MBR sludge supernatant at the initial stage of PAC addition were investigated. Effects of chlorine dose and contact time on THM formation and speciation were also studied. PAC addition enhanced the removal of organic matters, especially aromatic components, which improved the UV254 removal rate from 34% to 83%. PAC addition greatly reduced the membrane organic fouling tendency of MBR sludge supernatant. PAC addition reduced the MBR effluent trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) from 351.29 to 241.95μg/L, while increased THM formation reactivity by 42%. PAC addition enhanced the formation of higher toxic bromine-containing THMs. High chlorine dose and contact time resulted in higher THM formation but lower proportion of bromine-containing THMs. PMID:27318162

  7. Poultry slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plant for high quality effluent.

    PubMed

    Del Nery, V; Damianovic, M H Z; Moura, R B; Pozzi, E; Pires, E C; Foresti, E

    2016-01-01

    This paper assesses a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) regarding the technology used, as well as organic matter and nutrient removal efficiencies aiming to optimize the treatment processes involved and wastewater reclamation. The WWTP consists of a dissolved air flotation (DAF) system, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, an aerated-facultative pond (AFP) and a chemical-DAF system. The removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (97.9 ± 1.0%), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (98.6 ± 1.0%) and oil and grease (O&G) (91.1 ± 5.2%) at the WWTP, the nitrogen concentration of 17 ± 11 mg N-NH3 and phosphorus concentration of 1.34 ± 0.93 mg PO4(-3)/L in the final effluent indicate that the processes used are suitable to comply with discharge standards in water bodies. Nitrification and denitrification tests conducted using biomass collected at three AFP points indicated that nitrification and denitrification could take place in the pond.

  8. Poultry slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plant for high quality effluent.

    PubMed

    Del Nery, V; Damianovic, M H Z; Moura, R B; Pozzi, E; Pires, E C; Foresti, E

    2016-01-01

    This paper assesses a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) regarding the technology used, as well as organic matter and nutrient removal efficiencies aiming to optimize the treatment processes involved and wastewater reclamation. The WWTP consists of a dissolved air flotation (DAF) system, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, an aerated-facultative pond (AFP) and a chemical-DAF system. The removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (97.9 ± 1.0%), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (98.6 ± 1.0%) and oil and grease (O&G) (91.1 ± 5.2%) at the WWTP, the nitrogen concentration of 17 ± 11 mg N-NH3 and phosphorus concentration of 1.34 ± 0.93 mg PO4(-3)/L in the final effluent indicate that the processes used are suitable to comply with discharge standards in water bodies. Nitrification and denitrification tests conducted using biomass collected at three AFP points indicated that nitrification and denitrification could take place in the pond. PMID:26819386

  9. Standardized application of yeast bioluminescent reporters as endocrine disruptor screen for comparative analysis of wastewater effluents from membrane bioreactor and traditional activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Eldridge, Melanie; Menn, Fu-min; Dykes, Todd; Sayler, Gary

    2015-12-01

    A standardized protocol is demonstrated for bioluminescent strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae BLYES, BLYAS and BLYR as high-throughput screening tools to monitor the estrogenic, androgenic and toxic potencies in wastewater. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the assay in wastewater monitoring was evaluated for 7 day semi-continuous batch reactor using activated sludge with hormones spiked raw sewage. Yeast bioluminescent assay successfully captured the rapid removal of estrogenic and androgenic activities in the bioreactors, and demonstrated rapid response (≤4 h) with good reproducibility. This standardized protocol was then applied in a 12 months monitoring of the effluent of a WWTP located at Powell, TN, USA featuring parallel-operated full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) and traditional activated sludge (TAS) treatment. Monitoring results showed that estrogenic activity was persistent in all TAS and most MBR effluent samples, while residual androgenic activity was non-detectable throughout the monitored period. The estrogenic equivalents (EEQ) in TAS effluent ranged from 21.61 ng/L to 0.04 pg/L and averaged 3.25 ng/L. The EEQ in MBR effluent ranged from 2.88 ng/L to 0.0134 pg/L and averaged ~10 fold less (0.32 ng/L) than TAS. Despite the large temporal variation, MBR effluent EEQ was consistently lower than TAS on any given sampling date. Most MBR effluent samples also exhibited less cytotoxicity than TAS. Further analysis did not demonstrate significant correlation between effluent EEQ level and WWTP operational parameters including MLSS, SRT, HRT and BOD. PMID:26471181

  10. Standardized application of yeast bioluminescent reporters as endocrine disruptor screen for comparative analysis of wastewater effluents from membrane bioreactor and traditional activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Eldridge, Melanie; Menn, Fu-min; Dykes, Todd; Sayler, Gary

    2015-12-01

    A standardized protocol is demonstrated for bioluminescent strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae BLYES, BLYAS and BLYR as high-throughput screening tools to monitor the estrogenic, androgenic and toxic potencies in wastewater. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the assay in wastewater monitoring was evaluated for 7 day semi-continuous batch reactor using activated sludge with hormones spiked raw sewage. Yeast bioluminescent assay successfully captured the rapid removal of estrogenic and androgenic activities in the bioreactors, and demonstrated rapid response (≤4 h) with good reproducibility. This standardized protocol was then applied in a 12 months monitoring of the effluent of a WWTP located at Powell, TN, USA featuring parallel-operated full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) and traditional activated sludge (TAS) treatment. Monitoring results showed that estrogenic activity was persistent in all TAS and most MBR effluent samples, while residual androgenic activity was non-detectable throughout the monitored period. The estrogenic equivalents (EEQ) in TAS effluent ranged from 21.61 ng/L to 0.04 pg/L and averaged 3.25 ng/L. The EEQ in MBR effluent ranged from 2.88 ng/L to 0.0134 pg/L and averaged ~10 fold less (0.32 ng/L) than TAS. Despite the large temporal variation, MBR effluent EEQ was consistently lower than TAS on any given sampling date. Most MBR effluent samples also exhibited less cytotoxicity than TAS. Further analysis did not demonstrate significant correlation between effluent EEQ level and WWTP operational parameters including MLSS, SRT, HRT and BOD.

  11. Novel two stage bio-oxidation and chlorination process for high strength hazardous coal carbonization effluent.

    PubMed

    Manekar, Pravin; Biswas, Rima; Karthik, Manikavasagam; Nandy, Tapas

    2011-05-15

    Effluent generated from coal carbonization to coke was characterized with high organic content, phenols, ammonium nitrogen, and cyanides. A full scale effluent treatment plant (ETP) working on the principle of single stage carbon-nitrogen bio-oxidation process (SSCNBP) revealed competition between heterotrophic and autotrophic bacteria in the bio-degradation and nitrification process. The effluent was pretreated in a stripper and further combined with other streams to treat in the SSCNBP. Laboratory studies were carried on process and stripped effluents in a bench scale model of ammonia stripper and a two stage bio-oxidation process. The free ammonia removal efficiency of stripper was in the range 70-89%. Bench scale studies of the two stage bio-oxidation process achieved a carbon-nitrogen reduction at 6 days hydraulic retention time (HRT) operating in an extended aeration mode. This paper addresses the studies on selection of a treatment process for removal of organic matter, phenols, cyanide and ammonia nitrogen. The treatment scheme comprising ammonia stripping (pretreatment) followed by the two stage bio-oxidation and chlorination process met the Indian Standards for discharge into Inland Surface Waters. This treatment process package offers a techno-economically viable treatment scheme to neuter hazardous effluent generated from coal carbonization process. PMID:21371822

  12. Combined System of Activated Sludge and Ozonation for the Treatment of Kraft E1 Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Assalin, Marcia Regina; dos Santos Almeida, Edna; Durán, Nelson

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of paper mill effluent for COD, TOC, total phenols and color removal was investigated using combined activated sludge-ozonation processes and single processes. The combined activated sludge-O3/pH 10 treatment was able to remove around 80% of COD, TOC and color from Kraft E1 effluent. For the total phenols, the efficiency removal was around 70%. The ozonation post treatment carried out at pH 8.3 also showed better results than the single process. The COD, TOC, color and total phenols removal efficiency obtained were 75.5, 59.1, 77 and 52.3%, respectively. The difference in the concentrations of free radical produced by activated sludge-O3/pH 10 and activated sludge-O3/pH 8.3 affected mainly the TOC and total phenol removal values. PMID:19440438

  13. Effect of long-term industrial waste effluent pollution on soil enzyme activities and bacterial community composition.

    PubMed

    Subrahmanyam, Gangavarapu; Shen, Ju-Pei; Liu, Yu-Rong; Archana, Gattupalli; Zhang, Li-Mei

    2016-02-01

    Although numerous studies have addressed the influence of exogenous pollutants on microorganisms, the effect of long-term industrial waste effluent (IWE) pollution on the activity and diversity of soil bacteria was still unclear. Three soil samples characterized as uncontaminated (R1), moderately contaminated (R2), and highly contaminated (R3) receiving mixed organic and heavy metal pollutants for more than 20 years through IWE were collected along the Mahi River basin, Gujarat, western India. Basal soil respiration and in situ enzyme activities indicated an apparent deleterious effect of IWE on microbial activity and soil function. Community composition profiling of soil bacteria using 16S rRNA gene amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method indicated an apparent bacterial community shift in the IWE-affected soils. Cloning and sequencing of DGGE bands revealed that the dominated bacterial phyla in polluted soil were affiliated with Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria, indicating that these bacterial phyla may have a high tolerance to pollutants. We suggested that specific bacterial phyla along with soil enzyme activities could be used as relevant biological indicators for long-term pollution assessment on soil quality. Graphical Abstract Bacterial community profiling and soil enzyme activities in long-term industrial waste effluent polluted soils.

  14. Effect of long-term industrial waste effluent pollution on soil enzyme activities and bacterial community composition.

    PubMed

    Subrahmanyam, Gangavarapu; Shen, Ju-Pei; Liu, Yu-Rong; Archana, Gattupalli; Zhang, Li-Mei

    2016-02-01

    Although numerous studies have addressed the influence of exogenous pollutants on microorganisms, the effect of long-term industrial waste effluent (IWE) pollution on the activity and diversity of soil bacteria was still unclear. Three soil samples characterized as uncontaminated (R1), moderately contaminated (R2), and highly contaminated (R3) receiving mixed organic and heavy metal pollutants for more than 20 years through IWE were collected along the Mahi River basin, Gujarat, western India. Basal soil respiration and in situ enzyme activities indicated an apparent deleterious effect of IWE on microbial activity and soil function. Community composition profiling of soil bacteria using 16S rRNA gene amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method indicated an apparent bacterial community shift in the IWE-affected soils. Cloning and sequencing of DGGE bands revealed that the dominated bacterial phyla in polluted soil were affiliated with Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria, indicating that these bacterial phyla may have a high tolerance to pollutants. We suggested that specific bacterial phyla along with soil enzyme activities could be used as relevant biological indicators for long-term pollution assessment on soil quality. Graphical Abstract Bacterial community profiling and soil enzyme activities in long-term industrial waste effluent polluted soils. PMID:26803661

  15. High Laccase Expression by Trametes versicolor in a Simulated Textile Effluent with Different Carbon Sources and PHs.

    PubMed

    Ottoni, Cristiane; Simões, Marta F; Fernandes, Sara; Santos, Cledir R; Lima, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Textile effluents are highly polluting and have variable and complex compositions. They can be extremely complex, with high salt concentrations and alkaline pHs. A fixed-bed bioreactor was used in the present study to simulate a textile effluent treatment, where the white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor, efficiently decolourised the azo dye Reactive Black 5 over 28 days. This occurred under high alkaline conditions, which is unusual, but advantageous, for successful decolourisation processes. Active dye decolourisation was maintained by operation in continuous culture. Colour was eliminated during the course of operation and maximum laccase (Lcc) activity (80.2 U∙L(-1)) was detected after glycerol addition to the bioreactor. Lcc2 gene expression was evaluated with different carbon sources and pH values based on reverse transcriptase-PCR (polymerase chain reaction). Glycerol was shown to promote the highest lcc2 expression at pH 5.5, followed by sucrose and then glucose. The highest levels of expression occurred between three and four days, which corroborate the maximum Lcc activity observed for sucrose and glycerol on the bioreactor. These results give new insights into the use of T. versicolor in textile dye wastewater treatment with high pHs. PMID:27490563

  16. High Laccase Expression by Trametes versicolor in a Simulated Textile Effluent with Different Carbon Sources and PHs

    PubMed Central

    Ottoni, Cristiane; Simões, Marta F.; Fernandes, Sara; Santos, Cledir R.; Lima, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Textile effluents are highly polluting and have variable and complex compositions. They can be extremely complex, with high salt concentrations and alkaline pHs. A fixed-bed bioreactor was used in the present study to simulate a textile effluent treatment, where the white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor, efficiently decolourised the azo dye Reactive Black 5 over 28 days. This occurred under high alkaline conditions, which is unusual, but advantageous, for successful decolourisation processes. Active dye decolourisation was maintained by operation in continuous culture. Colour was eliminated during the course of operation and maximum laccase (Lcc) activity (80.2 U∙L−1) was detected after glycerol addition to the bioreactor. Lcc2 gene expression was evaluated with different carbon sources and pH values based on reverse transcriptase-PCR (polymerase chain reaction). Glycerol was shown to promote the highest lcc2 expression at pH 5.5, followed by sucrose and then glucose. The highest levels of expression occurred between three and four days, which corroborate the maximum Lcc activity observed for sucrose and glycerol on the bioreactor. These results give new insights into the use of T. versicolor in textile dye wastewater treatment with high pHs. PMID:27490563

  17. High efficient treatment of citric acid effluent by Chlorella vulgaris and potential biomass utilization.

    PubMed

    Li, Changling; Yang, Hailin; Xia, Xiaole; Li, Yuji; Chen, Luping; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Wu

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of treating citric acid effluent by green algae Chlorella was investigated. With the highest growth rate, Chlorella vulgaris C9-JN2010 that could efficiently remove nutrients in the citric acid effluent was selected for scale-up batch experiments under the optimal conditions, where its maximum biomass was 1.04 g l(-1) and removal efficiencies of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, total organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand) were above 90.0%. Algal lipid and protein contents were around 340.0 and 500.0 mg · g(-1) of the harvested biomass, respectively. Proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the lipids and eight kinds of essential amino acids in algal protein were 74.0% and 40.0%, respectively. Three major fatty acids were hexadecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosadienoic acid. This specific effluent treatment process could be proposed as a dual-beneficial approach, which converts nutrients in the high strength citric acid effluent into profitable byproducts and reduces the contaminations.

  18. Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of industrial effluents originated from different industrial activities.

    PubMed

    Pathiratne, Asoka; Hemachandra, Chamini K; De Silva, Nimal

    2015-12-01

    Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of treated effluents originated from four types of industrial activities (two textile industries, three rubber based industries, two common treatment plants of industrial zones, and two water treatment plants) was assessed. Physico-chemical parameters including the heavy metal/metalloid levels of the effluents varied depending on the industry profile, but most of the measured parameters in the effluents were within the specified tolerance limits of Sri Lankan environmental regulations for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. In the A. cepa test system, the undiluted effluents induced statistically significant root growth retardation, mitosis depression, and chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in most cases in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water signifying effluent induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Ethyl methane sulphonate (a mutagen, positive control) and all the effluents under 1:8 dilution significantly induced total chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water indicating inadequacy of expected 1:8 dilutions in the receiving waters for curtailing genotoxic impacts. The results support the use of a practically feasible A. cepa test system for rapid screening of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of diverse industrial effluents discharging into inland surface waters. PMID:26547320

  19. Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of industrial effluents originated from different industrial activities.

    PubMed

    Pathiratne, Asoka; Hemachandra, Chamini K; De Silva, Nimal

    2015-12-01

    Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of treated effluents originated from four types of industrial activities (two textile industries, three rubber based industries, two common treatment plants of industrial zones, and two water treatment plants) was assessed. Physico-chemical parameters including the heavy metal/metalloid levels of the effluents varied depending on the industry profile, but most of the measured parameters in the effluents were within the specified tolerance limits of Sri Lankan environmental regulations for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. In the A. cepa test system, the undiluted effluents induced statistically significant root growth retardation, mitosis depression, and chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in most cases in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water signifying effluent induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Ethyl methane sulphonate (a mutagen, positive control) and all the effluents under 1:8 dilution significantly induced total chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water indicating inadequacy of expected 1:8 dilutions in the receiving waters for curtailing genotoxic impacts. The results support the use of a practically feasible A. cepa test system for rapid screening of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of diverse industrial effluents discharging into inland surface waters.

  20. Treatment of industrial effluents using electron beam accelerator and adsorption with activated carbon: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira Sampa, Maria Helena; Rela, Paulo Roberto; Casas, Alexandre Las; Mori, Manoel Nunes; Duarte, Celina Lopes

    2004-09-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of a study that compares the use of electron beam processing and activated carbon adsorption to clean up a standardized organic aqueous solution and a real industrial effluent. The electron beam treatment was performed in a batch system using the IPEN's Electron Beam Accelerators from Radiation Dynamics Inc., Dynamitron 37.5 kW. The granular activated carbon removal treatment was performed using charcoal made from wood "pinus". If the adequate irradiation dose is delivered to the organic pollutant, it is possible to conclude for the studied compounds that the Electron Beam Process is similar to the activated carbon process in organic removal efficiency.

  1. Transplanted zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) as active biomonitors in an effluent-dominated river.

    PubMed

    Smolders, Roel; Bervoets, Lieven; Blust, Ronny

    2002-09-01

    For over 20 years, mussels have been recommended as one of the most suitable biomonitoring organisms for aquatic ecosystems. Though the common mussel (Mytilus edulis) is frequently used for biomonitoring estuarine and marine ecosystems, no freshwater species is promoted for similar monitoring networks. Recently, however, the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has been proposed as a suitable monitoring organism in freshwater ecosystems. The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of transplanted zebra mussels as active biomonitors in an effluent-dominated stream. Results showed that for these purposes, an exposure period of at least a few weeks is required to detect any significant changes in condition status or scope for growth. Wet-tissue-weight:dry-tissue-weight ratio was the most sensitive measure to quantify effects of field exposure on physiological fitness. In case of scope for growth (SfG), energy intake was the factor determining the overall energy budget of the mussels. Based on the dilution rates of the two different effluents present, effluent 2 had the most important effect on the condition status of the exposed organisms. Overall, we conclude that the use of transplanted mussels is a sensitive and easily applicable active biomonitor that can be used to assess water quality, pollution, and subsequent recovery through self-purification in field situations.

  2. A highly efficient polyampholyte hydrogel sorbent based fixed-bed process for heavy metal removal in actual industrial effluent.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guiyin; Luo, Jinming; Liu, Chengbin; Chu, Lin; Ma, Jianhong; Tang, Yanhong; Zeng, Zebing; Luo, Shenglian

    2016-02-01

    High sorption capacity, high sorption rate, and fast separation and regeneration for qualified sorbents used in removing heavy metals from wastewater are urgently needed. In this study, a polyampholyte hydrogel was well designed and prepared via a simple radical polymerization procedure. Due to the remarkable mechanical strength, the three-dimensional polyampholyte hydrogel could be fast separated, easily regenerated and highly reused. The sorption capacities were as high as 216.1 mg/g for Pb(II) and 153.8 mg/g for Cd(II) owing to the existence of the large number of active groups. The adsorption could be conducted in a wide pH range of 3-6 and the equilibrium fast reached in 30 min due to its excellent water penetration for highly accessible to metal ions. The fixed-bed column sorption results indicated that the polyampholyte hydrogel was particularly effective in removing Pb(II) and Cd(II) from actual industrial effluent to meet the regulatory requirements. The treatment volumes of actual smelting effluent using one fixed bed column were as high as 684 bed volumes (BV) (7736 mL) for Pb(II) and 200 BV (2262 mL) for Cd(II). Furthermore, the treatment volumes of actual smelting effluent using tandem three columns reached 924 BV (31,351 mL) for Pb(II) and 250 BV (8483 mL) for Cd(II), producing only 4 BV (136 mL) eluent. Compared with the traditional high density slurry (HDS) process with large amount of sludge, the proposed process would be expected to produce only a small amount of sludge. When the treatment volume was controlled below 209.3 BV (7103 mL), all metal ions in the actual industrial effluent could be effectively removed (<0.01 mg/L). This wok develops a highly practical process based on polyampholyte hydrogel sorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions from practical wastewater.

  3. Activated sludge respirometry to assess solar detoxification of a metal finishing effluent.

    PubMed

    Santos-Juanes, L; Amat, A M; Arques, A; Bernabeu, A; Silvestre, M; Vicente, R; Añó, E

    2008-05-30

    Inhibition of the respiration of activated sludge has been tested as a convenient method to estimate toxicity of aqueous solutions containing copper and cyanide, such as metal finishing effluents; according to this method, an EC50 of 0.5 mg/l was determined for CN(-) and 3.0 mg/l for copper. Solar detoxification of cyanide-containing solutions was studied using TiO2, but this process was unfavourable because of the inhibitory role that plays the copper ions present in real effluents on the oxidation of cyanide. On the other hand, the oxidative effect of hydrogen peroxide was greatly enhanced by Cu2+ and solar irradiation, as complete elimination of free and complexed cyanide could be accomplished, together with precipitation of copper, in experiments carried out at pilot plant scale with real metal finishing effluents. Under these conditions, total detoxification was achieved according to respirometric measurements although some remaining toxicity was determined by more sensitive Vibrio fischeri luminescent assay.

  4. Tracking multiple modes of endocrine activity in Australia's largest inland sewage treatment plant and effluent- receiving environment using a panel of in vitro bioassays.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jenna; Bain, Peter A; Kumar, Anupama; Hepplewhite, Christopher; Ellis, David J; Christy, Andrew G; Beavis, Sara G

    2015-10-01

    Estrogenicity of sewage effluents, and related ecotoxicological effects in effluent-receiving environments, have been widely reported over the last 2 decades. However, relatively little attention has been given to other endocrine pathways that may be similarly disrupted by a growing list of contaminants of concern. Furthermore, the Australian evidence base is limited compared with those of Europe and North America. During a low dilution period in summer, the authors investigated multiple endocrine potencies in Australia's largest inland sewage treatment plant (STP) and the Lower Molonglo/Upper Murrumbidgee effluent-receiving environment. This STP receives 900 L/s of mostly domestic wastewater from a population of 350 000, and contributes a high proportion of total flow in the lower catchment during dry periods. A panel of in vitro receptor-driven transactivation assays were used to detect (anti)estrogenic, (anti) androgenic, (anti)progestagenic, glucocorticoid, and peroxisome-proliferator activity at various stages of the sewage treatment process. Total estrogenic and (anti)androgenic potency was removed after primary and/or secondary treatment; however, total removal efficiency for glucocorticoid potency was poorer (53-66%), and progestagenic potency was found to increase along the treatment train. Estrogenicity was detected in surface waters and bed sediments upstream and downstream of the effluent outfall, at maximum levels 10 times lower than low-hazard thresholds. Glucocorticoid and progestagenic activity were found to persist to 4 km downstream of the effluent outfall, suggesting that future research is needed on these endocrine-disrupting chemical categories in effluent-receiving systems. PMID:25939690

  5. Tracking multiple modes of endocrine activity in Australia's largest inland sewage treatment plant and effluent- receiving environment using a panel of in vitro bioassays.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jenna; Bain, Peter A; Kumar, Anupama; Hepplewhite, Christopher; Ellis, David J; Christy, Andrew G; Beavis, Sara G

    2015-10-01

    Estrogenicity of sewage effluents, and related ecotoxicological effects in effluent-receiving environments, have been widely reported over the last 2 decades. However, relatively little attention has been given to other endocrine pathways that may be similarly disrupted by a growing list of contaminants of concern. Furthermore, the Australian evidence base is limited compared with those of Europe and North America. During a low dilution period in summer, the authors investigated multiple endocrine potencies in Australia's largest inland sewage treatment plant (STP) and the Lower Molonglo/Upper Murrumbidgee effluent-receiving environment. This STP receives 900 L/s of mostly domestic wastewater from a population of 350 000, and contributes a high proportion of total flow in the lower catchment during dry periods. A panel of in vitro receptor-driven transactivation assays were used to detect (anti)estrogenic, (anti) androgenic, (anti)progestagenic, glucocorticoid, and peroxisome-proliferator activity at various stages of the sewage treatment process. Total estrogenic and (anti)androgenic potency was removed after primary and/or secondary treatment; however, total removal efficiency for glucocorticoid potency was poorer (53-66%), and progestagenic potency was found to increase along the treatment train. Estrogenicity was detected in surface waters and bed sediments upstream and downstream of the effluent outfall, at maximum levels 10 times lower than low-hazard thresholds. Glucocorticoid and progestagenic activity were found to persist to 4 km downstream of the effluent outfall, suggesting that future research is needed on these endocrine-disrupting chemical categories in effluent-receiving systems.

  6. Androgenic and estrogenic activity in water bodies receiving cattle feedlot effluent in Eastern Nebraska, USA.

    PubMed

    Soto, Ana M; Calabro, Janine M; Prechtl, Nancy V; Yau, Alice Y; Orlando, Edward F; Daxenberger, Andreas; Kolok, Alan S; Guillette, Louis J; le Bizec, Bruno; Lange, Iris G; Sonnenschein, Carlos

    2004-03-01

    Studies reveal that surface waters worldwide are contaminated with hormonally active agents, many released from sewage treatment plants. Another potential source of aquatic hormonal contamination is livestock feedlot effluent. In this study, we assessed whether feedlot effluent contaminates watercourses by measuring a) total androgenic [methyltrienolone (R1881) equivalents] and estrogenic (17beta-estradiol equivalents) activity using the A-SCREEN and E-SCREEN bioassays and b) concentrations of anabolic agents via gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and enzyme-based immunoassays. Water samples were collected over 3 years from up to six sites [all confluent with the Elkhorn River, Nebraska, USA: a feedlot retention pond (site 1), a site downstream from site 1 (site 2), a stream with intermediate livestock impact (site 3), and three sites with no observable livestock impact (sites 4-6)] and two sources of tap water. In 1999, samples from site 1 contained 9.6 pM R1881 equivalents and 1.7 pM 17beta-estradiol equivalents. Site 2 samples had estrogen levels similar to those in site 1 samples but lower androgen levels (3.8 pM R1881 equivalents). Androgen levels in site 3 samples were similar to those in site 2 samples, whereas estrogen levels decreased to 0.7 pM 17beta-estradiol equivalents. At site 6, androgen levels were approximately half those found at site 3, and estrogen levels were comparable with those at site 3. Sampling in later years was limited to fewer sites because of drought and lack of permission to access one site. Instrumental analysis revealed estrone but no significant levels of resorcylic acid lactones or trenbolone metabolites. Tap water was devoid of hormonal activity. We conclude that feedlot effluents contain sufficient levels of hormonally active agents to warrant further investigation of possible effects on aquatic ecosystem health.

  7. Reduction on the anaerobic biological activity inhibition caused by heavy metals and sulphates in effluents through chemical precipitation with soda and lime.

    PubMed

    Alves, L de Carvalho; Cammarota, M C; De França, F P

    2006-12-01

    The School of Chemistry Environmental Technology Laboratory generates 43.4 1 of effluent with low pH (0.7) and high contents of COD (1908 mgO2 l(-1)), phenol (132.1 mg l(-1)), sulfate (36700 mg l(-1)) and heavy metals (28.2 mg Hg l(-1); 82.1 mg Cr(total) l(-1); 30.8 mg Cu l(-1); 57.4 mg Fe(total) l(-1); 16.2 mg Al l(-1)) weekly. These data show that this effluent presents high toxicity for biological treatment, with a physical-chemical step being necessary before a biological step. Preliminary studies showed that the most toxic constituents of the effluent were sulfate, phenol and total chromium. In this work, a chemical precipitation step with sodium hydroxide or lime was evaluated for the toxicity reduction on anaerobic microbial consortium. These experiments were carried out with increasing concentrations of alkalis in the effluent in order to obtain pH initial values of 8-12. Similar results were obtained for COD (15-28%), turbidity (95-98%), phenol (13-24%) and total chromium (99.8-99.9%) removals in each condition studied with soda or lime. Sulfate was only removed by precipitation with lime, obtaining reductions from 84 to 88%. The toxicity on the anaerobic sludge was studied employing specific methanogenic activity (SMA) analysis of raw and treated effluent (after chemical precipitation step). The SMA experiments showed that chemical precipitation at pH 8 reduces the toxic effect of the effluent on anaerobic microbial consortium three times (with soda) and thirteen times (with lime). These results indicate that precipitation with lime is more efficient at toxicity removal, however the produced sludge volume is around two times higher than that produced with soda.

  8. Reduction on the anaerobic biological activity inhibition caused by heavy metals and sulphates in effluents through chemical precipitation with soda and lime.

    PubMed

    Alves, L de Carvalho; Cammarota, M C; De França, F P

    2006-12-01

    The School of Chemistry Environmental Technology Laboratory generates 43.4 1 of effluent with low pH (0.7) and high contents of COD (1908 mgO2 l(-1)), phenol (132.1 mg l(-1)), sulfate (36700 mg l(-1)) and heavy metals (28.2 mg Hg l(-1); 82.1 mg Cr(total) l(-1); 30.8 mg Cu l(-1); 57.4 mg Fe(total) l(-1); 16.2 mg Al l(-1)) weekly. These data show that this effluent presents high toxicity for biological treatment, with a physical-chemical step being necessary before a biological step. Preliminary studies showed that the most toxic constituents of the effluent were sulfate, phenol and total chromium. In this work, a chemical precipitation step with sodium hydroxide or lime was evaluated for the toxicity reduction on anaerobic microbial consortium. These experiments were carried out with increasing concentrations of alkalis in the effluent in order to obtain pH initial values of 8-12. Similar results were obtained for COD (15-28%), turbidity (95-98%), phenol (13-24%) and total chromium (99.8-99.9%) removals in each condition studied with soda or lime. Sulfate was only removed by precipitation with lime, obtaining reductions from 84 to 88%. The toxicity on the anaerobic sludge was studied employing specific methanogenic activity (SMA) analysis of raw and treated effluent (after chemical precipitation step). The SMA experiments showed that chemical precipitation at pH 8 reduces the toxic effect of the effluent on anaerobic microbial consortium three times (with soda) and thirteen times (with lime). These results indicate that precipitation with lime is more efficient at toxicity removal, however the produced sludge volume is around two times higher than that produced with soda. PMID:17285944

  9. Detoxifying of high strength textile effluent through chemical and bio-oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Manekar, Pravin; Patkar, Guarav; Aswale, Pawan; Mahure, Manisha; Nandy, Tapas

    2014-04-01

    Small-scale textile industries (SSTIs) in India struggled for the economic and environmental race. A full-scale common treatment plant (CETP) working on the principle of destabilising negative charge colloidal particles and bio-oxidation of dissolved organic failed to comply with Inland Surface Waters (ISW) standards. Thus, presence of intense colour and organics with elevated temperature inhibited the process stability. Bench scale treatability studies were conducted on chemical and biological processes for its full-scale apps to detoxify a high strength textile process effluent. Colour, SS and COD removals from the optimised chemical process were 88%, 70% and 40%, respectively. Heterotrophic bacteria oxidised COD and BOD more than 84% and 90% at a loading rate 0.0108kgm(-3)d(-1) at 3h HRT. The combined chemical and bio-oxidation processes showed a great promise for detoxifying the toxic process effluent, and implemented in full-scale CETP. The post-assessment of the CETP resulted in detoxify the toxic effluent. PMID:24531146

  10. Membrane bioreactor application within the treatment of high-strength textile effluent.

    PubMed

    De Jager, D; Sheldon, M S; Edwards, W

    2012-01-01

    A pilot-scale dual-stage membrane bioreactor (dsMBR) incorporating two ultra-filtration (UF) side-stream membrane modules was designed, constructed, operated and evaluated on-site for treating high-strength textile effluent. The effluent stream was characterised by a COD range of between 45 to 2,820 mg/L and an average BOD of 192.5 mg/L. The dsMBR achieved an average COD reduction of 75% with a maximum of 97% over the 9 month test period. The COD concentration obtained after dsMBR treatment averaged at 190 mg/L, which was well within the discharge standard. The average reduction in turbidity and TSS were 94% and 19.6%, respectively, during the UF-MBR stage of the system. Subsequent treatment of the UF-permeate with nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) removed both the residual colour and remaining salt. A consistent reduction in the color of the incoming effluent was evident. The ADMI was reduced from an average of 659 to ∼20, a lower ADMI and colour compared to the potable water. An average conductivity rejection of 91% was achieved with conductivity being reduced from an average of 7,700 to 693 μS/cm and the TDS reduced from an average of 5,700 to 473 mg/L, which facilitated an average TDS rejection of 92%.

  11. Ozonation and biological activated carbon filtration of wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    PubMed

    Reungoat, J; Escher, B I; Macova, M; Argaud, F X; Gernjak, W; Keller, J

    2012-03-01

    This study investigates the fate of trace organic chemicals (TrOCs) in three full-scale reclamation plants using ozonation followed by biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration to treat wastewater treatment plant effluents. Chemical analysis was used to quantify a wide range of TrOCs and combined with bioanalytical tools to assess non-specific toxicity (Microtox assay) and estrogenicity (E-SCREEN assay). Limited dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal (<10%) was observed in the ozonation stages showing that oxidation leads to the formation of transformation products rather than mineralization. The quantified TrOCs were removed to a degree highly dependent on the compounds' structures and the specific ozone dose (mg(O3) mg(DOC)(-1)). Non-specific toxicity was reduced by 31-39%, demonstrating that the mixture of remaining parent compounds and their transformation products as well as newly formed oxidation by-products had an overall lower toxic potential than the mixture of parent compounds. Estrogenicity was reduced by more than 87% indicating that the transformation products of the estrogenic chemicals lost their specific toxicity potential. The subsequent BAC filtration removed between 20 and 50% of the DOC depending on the plant configuration, likely due to biodegradation of organic matter. The filtration was also able to reduce the concentrations of most of the remaining TrOCs by up to 99%, and reduce non-specific toxicity by 33-54%. Overall, the combination of ozonation and BAC filtration can achieve removals of 50% for DOC and more than 90% for a wide range of TrOCs as well as a reduction of 70% of non-specific toxicity and more than 95% of estrogenicity. This process combination is therefore suggested as an effective barrier to reduce the discharge of TrOCs into the environment or their presence in water recycling schemes.

  12. Effect of microalgae/activated sludge ratio on cooperative treatment of anaerobic effluent of municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Roudsari, Fatemeh Pourasgharian; Mehrnia, Mohammad Reza; Asadi, Akram; Moayedi, Zohreh; Ranjbar, Reza

    2014-01-01

    In this work, capability of the green microalga (MA), Chlorella vulgaris, in treating synthetic anaerobic effluent of municipal wastewater was investigated. While pure C. vulgaris (100 % MA) provided maximum soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) and N-NH4(+) removal efficiencies of 27 and 72 % respectively, addition of activated sludge (AS) to MA in different mass ratios (91, 80, 66.7, 9 % MA) improved wastewater treatment efficiency. Thus giving maximum sCOD and N-NH4(+) removal efficiencies 85 and 86.3 % (for MA/AS = 10/1), respectively. Utilizing AS without C. vulgaris, for treating the synthetic wastewater resulted in 87 % maximum sCOD and 42 % maximum N-NH4(+) removal efficiencies. Furthermore, algal growth and specific growth rates were measured in the systems with microalga as the dominant cellular population. As a result, faster algal growth was observed in mixed systems. Specific growth rate of C. vulgaris was 0.14 (day(-1)) in 100 % MA and 0.39 (day(-1)) in 80 % MA. Finally, data gathered by online measurement of dissolved oxygen indicate that algae-activated sludge mixture improves photosynthetic activity of examined microalga strain during anaerobic effluent treatment.

  13. In vitro detection of androgenic and estrogenic activity in complex environmental effluent samples: Lessions learned

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish living in ecosystems contaminated with effluents from human or domestic animal wastes display reproductive alterations suggesting hormone disruption. Recent research with effluent from cattle feeding operations in the US have associated morphological alterations in fish col...

  14. Use of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR) containing powdered activated carbon (PAC) for the treatment of textile effluents.

    PubMed

    Baêta, B E L; Ramos, R L; Lima, D R S; Aquino, S F

    2012-01-01

    This work investigated the use of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (SAMBRs) in the presence and absence of powdered activated carbon (PAC) for the treatment of genuine textile wastewater. The reactors were operated at 35 °C with an HRT of 24 h and the textile effluent was diluted (1:10) with nutrient solution containing yeast extract as the source of the redox mediation riboflavin. The results showed that although both SAMBRs exhibited an excellent performance, the presence of PAC inside SAMBR-1 enhanced reactor stability and removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD), volatile fatty acids (VFA), turbidity and color. The median removal efficiencies of COD and color in SAMBR-1 were, 90 and 94% respectively; whereas for SAMBR-2 (without PAC) these values were 79 and 86%, In addition, the median values of turbidity and VFA were 8 NTU and 8 mg/L for SAMBR-1 and 14 NTU and 26 mg/L for SAMBR-2, indicating that the presence of PAC inside SAMBR-1 led to the production of an anaerobic effluent of high quality regarding such parameters. PMID:22508114

  15. Use of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR) containing powdered activated carbon (PAC) for the treatment of textile effluents.

    PubMed

    Baêta, B E L; Ramos, R L; Lima, D R S; Aquino, S F

    2012-01-01

    This work investigated the use of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (SAMBRs) in the presence and absence of powdered activated carbon (PAC) for the treatment of genuine textile wastewater. The reactors were operated at 35 °C with an HRT of 24 h and the textile effluent was diluted (1:10) with nutrient solution containing yeast extract as the source of the redox mediation riboflavin. The results showed that although both SAMBRs exhibited an excellent performance, the presence of PAC inside SAMBR-1 enhanced reactor stability and removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD), volatile fatty acids (VFA), turbidity and color. The median removal efficiencies of COD and color in SAMBR-1 were, 90 and 94% respectively; whereas for SAMBR-2 (without PAC) these values were 79 and 86%, In addition, the median values of turbidity and VFA were 8 NTU and 8 mg/L for SAMBR-1 and 14 NTU and 26 mg/L for SAMBR-2, indicating that the presence of PAC inside SAMBR-1 led to the production of an anaerobic effluent of high quality regarding such parameters.

  16. Electroadsorption of acilan blau dye from textile effluents by using activated carbon-perlite mixtures.

    PubMed

    Koparal, A S; Yavuz, Y; Bakir Ogütveren, U

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of the removal of dye stuffs from textile effluents by electroadsorption has been investigated. An activated carbon-perlite mixture with a ratio of 8:1 for bipolarity has been used as the adsorbent. Conventional adsorption experiments have also been conducted for comparison. A bipolar trickle reactor has been used in the electroadsorption experiments. The model wastewater has been prepared by using acilan blau dye. Initial dye concentration, bed height between the electrodes, applied potential, flowrate, and the supporting electrolyte concentration have been examined as the parameters affecting the removal efficiency. A local textile plant effluent has been treated in the optimum values of these parameters obtained from the experimental studies. Adsorption kinetics and the amount of adsorbent required to reach the maximum removal efficiency have also been investigated and mass-transfer coefficients have been calculated for adsorption and electroadsorption. The results showed that a removal efficiency of up to 100% can be achieved with energy consumption values of 1.58 kWh/m3 of wastewater treated. However, energy consumption decreases to 0.09 kWh/m3 if an exit dye concentration of 4.65 mg/L is accepted. It can be concluded from this work that this method combines all of the advantages of the activated-carbon adsorption and electrolytic methods for the removal of dyes from wastewater.

  17. Algal biomass production and wastewater treatment in high rate algal ponds receiving disinfected effluent.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Aníbal Fonseca; Calijuri, Maria Lucia; Assemany, Paula Peixoto; Calijuri, Maria do Carmo; dos Reis, Alberto José Delgado

    2013-01-01

    Algal biomass production associated with wastewater is usually carried out in high rate algal ponds (HRAPs), which are concomitantly used in the treatment of such effluent. However, most types of wastewater have high levels of bacteria that can inhibit the growth of algal biomass by competing for space and nutrients. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of ultraviolet (UV) pre-disinfection on the performance of HRAPs used for wastewater treatment and algal biomass production. Two HRAPs were tested: one received effluent from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor- HRAP -and the second received UASB effluent pre-disinfected by UV radiation-(UV)HRAP. Physical, chemical and microbiological parameters were monitored, as well as algal biomass productivity and daily pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) variation. The (UV)HRAP presented highest DO and pH values, as well as greater percentage of chlorophyll a in the biomass, which indicates greater algal biomass productivity. The average percentages of chlorophyll a found in the biomass obtained from the HRAP and the (UV)HRAP were 0.95 +/- 0.65% and 1.58 +/- 0.65%, respectively. However, total biomass productivity was greater in the HRAP (11.4 gVSSm(-2) day(-1)) compared with the (UV)HRAP (9.3 gVSSm(-2) day(-1)). Mean pH values were 7.7 +/- 0.7 in the HRAP and 8.1 +/- 1.0 in the (UV)HRAP, and mean values of DO percent saturation were 87 +/- 26% and 112 +/- 31% for the HRAP and the (UV)HRAP, respectively. Despite these differences, removal efficiencies of organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand, ammoniacal nitrogen and soluble phosphorus were statistically equal at the 5% significance level.

  18. Silica removal in industrial effluents with high silica content and low hardness.

    PubMed

    Latour, Isabel; Miranda, Ruben; Blanco, Angeles

    2014-01-01

    High silica content of de-inked paper mill effluents is limiting their regeneration and reuse after membrane treatments such as reverse osmosis (RO). Silica removal during softening processes is a common treatment; however, the effluent from the paper mill studied has a low hardness content, which makes the addition of magnesium compounds necessary to increase silica removal. Two soluble magnesium compounds (MgCl₂∙6H₂O and MgSO₄∙7H₂O) were tested at five dosages (250-1,500 mg/L) and different initial pH values. High removal rates (80-90%) were obtained with both products at the highest pH tested (11.5). With these removal efficiencies, it is possible to work at high RO recoveries (75-85%) without silica scaling. Although pH regulation significantly increased the conductivity of the waters (at pH 11.5 from 2.1 to 3.7-4.0 mS/cm), this could be partially solved by using Ca(OH)₂ instead of NaOH as pH regulator (final conductivity around 3.0 mS/cm). Maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal obtained with caustic soda was lower than with lime (15 vs. 30%). Additionally, the combined use of a polyaluminum coagulant during the softening process was studied; the coagulant, however, did not significantly improve silica removal, obtaining a maximum increase of only 10%. PMID:24777323

  19. [Isolation, Identification and Characteristic Analysis of an Oil-producing Chlorella sp. Tolerant to High-strength Anaerobic Digestion Effluent].

    PubMed

    Yang, Chuang; Wang, Wen-guo; Ma, Dan-wei; Tang, Xiao-yu; Hu, Qi-chun

    2015-07-01

    A Chlorella strain tolerant to high-strength anaerobic digestion effluent was isolated from the anaerobic digestion effluent with a long-term exposure to air. The strain was identified as a Chlorella by morphological and molecular biological methods, and named Chlorella sp. BWY-1, The anaerobic digestion effluent used in this study was from a biogas plant with the raw materials of swine wastewater after solid-liquid separation. The Chlorella regularis (FACHB-729) was used as the control strain. The comparative study showed that Chlorella sp, BWY-Ihad relatively higher growth rate, biomass accumulation capacity and pollutants removal rate in BG11. and different concentrations of anaerobic digestion effluent. Chlorella sp. BWY-1 had the highest growth rate and biomass productivity (324.40 mg.L-1) in BG11, but its lipid productivity and lipid content increased with the increase of anaerobic digestion effluent concentration, In undiluted anaerobic digestion effluent, the lipid productivity and lipid content of Chlorella sp. BWY-1 were up to 44. 43% and 108. 70 mg.L-1, respectively. Those results showed that the isolated algal strain bad some potential applications in livestock wastewater treatment and bioenergy production, it could be combined with a solid-liquid separation, anaerobic fermentation and other techniques for processing livestock wastewater and producing biodiesel.

  20. 3,3',5-Triiodo-L-thyronine-like activity in effluents from domestic sewage treatment plants detected by in vitro and in vivo bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Murata, Tomonori; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi

    2008-02-01

    Thyroid system-disrupting activity in effluents from municipal domestic sewage treatment plants was detected using three in vitro assays and one in vivo assay. Contaminants in the effluents were extracted by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and eluted stepwise with different organic solvents. The majority of the thyroid system-disrupting activity was detected in the dichloromethane/methanol (1/1) fraction after SPE in all three in vitro assays: competitive assays of 3,3',5-[{sup 125}I]triiodo-L-thyronine ([{sup 125}I]T{sub 3}) binding to the plasma protein transthyretin (TTR assay) and thyroid hormone receptor (TR assay) and T{sub 3}-dependent luciferase assay (Luc assay). Subsequent reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) of the dichloromethane/methanol (1/1) fraction separated contaminants potent in the TR and Luc assays from those potent in the TTR assay. The contaminants potent in the TR and Luc assays were also potent in an in vivo short-term gene expression assay in Xenopus laevis (Tadpole assay). The present study demonstrated that the effluents from domestic sewage treatment plants contain contaminants with T{sub 3}-like activity of {approx} 10{sup -10} M T{sub 3}-equivalent concentration (T{sub 3}EQ) and that the TR and Luc assays are powerful in vitro bioassays for detecting thyroid system-disrupting activity in effluents. The availability and applicability of these bioassays for screening contaminants with thyroid system-disrupting activity in the water environment are discussed.

  1. A risk-based approach to managing active pharmaceutical ingredients in manufacturing effluent.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Daniel J; Mertens, Birgit; Kappler, Kelly; Senac, Thomas; Journel, Romain; Wilson, Peter; Meyerhoff, Roger D; Parke, Neil J; Mastrocco, Frank; Mattson, Bengt; Murray-Smith, Richard; Dolan, David G; Straub, Jürg Oliver; Wiedemann, Michael; Hartmann, Andreas; Finan, Douglas S

    2016-04-01

    The present study describes guidance intended to assist pharmaceutical manufacturers in assessing, mitigating, and managing the potential environmental impacts of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in wastewater from manufacturing operations, including those from external suppliers. The tools are not a substitute for compliance with local regulatory requirements but rather are intended to help manufacturers achieve the general standard of "no discharge of APIs in toxic amounts." The approaches detailed in the present study identify practices for assessing potential environmental risks from APIs in manufacturing effluent and outline measures that can be used to reduce the risk, including selective application of available treatment technologies. These measures either are commonly employed within the industry or have been implemented to a more limited extent based on local circumstances. Much of the material is based on company experience and case studies discussed at an industry workshop held on this topic. PMID:26183919

  2. A risk-based approach to managing active pharmaceutical ingredients in manufacturing effluent.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Daniel J; Mertens, Birgit; Kappler, Kelly; Senac, Thomas; Journel, Romain; Wilson, Peter; Meyerhoff, Roger D; Parke, Neil J; Mastrocco, Frank; Mattson, Bengt; Murray-Smith, Richard; Dolan, David G; Straub, Jürg Oliver; Wiedemann, Michael; Hartmann, Andreas; Finan, Douglas S

    2016-04-01

    The present study describes guidance intended to assist pharmaceutical manufacturers in assessing, mitigating, and managing the potential environmental impacts of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in wastewater from manufacturing operations, including those from external suppliers. The tools are not a substitute for compliance with local regulatory requirements but rather are intended to help manufacturers achieve the general standard of "no discharge of APIs in toxic amounts." The approaches detailed in the present study identify practices for assessing potential environmental risks from APIs in manufacturing effluent and outline measures that can be used to reduce the risk, including selective application of available treatment technologies. These measures either are commonly employed within the industry or have been implemented to a more limited extent based on local circumstances. Much of the material is based on company experience and case studies discussed at an industry workshop held on this topic.

  3. Synergistic effect of biological activated carbon and enhanced coagulation in secondary wastewater effluent treatment.

    PubMed

    Aryal, A; Sathasivan, A; Vigneswaran, S

    2012-01-01

    The use of secondary wastewater effluent (SWWE) is an essential strategy for making better use of limited water resources. However, a wide range of organic compounds eventually renders them unsuitable for recycling. In water treatment processes, biologically activated carbon (BAC) is adopted after physicochemical treatment. However, the effectiveness of such combination for SWWE remains poorly understood. This study investigates the effectiveness of various combinations: BAC/enhanced coagulation (EC) or EC/BAC, especially in terms of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal. The results showed that distinct advantage could be obtained by adopting BAC/EC combination rather than EC/BAC, as microbes in BAC not only remove non-coagulable compounds but also synergize the removal efficiency by releasing some coagulable humic substances.

  4. Antiestrogenic activity and related disinfection by-product formation induced by bromide during chlorine disinfection of sewage secondary effluent.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qian-Yuan; Tang, Xin; Huang, Huang; Li, Yi; Hu, Hong-Ying; Ding, Ya-Nan; Shao, Yi-Ru

    2014-05-30

    Chlorine disinfection, widely used in wastewater reclamation, can form toxic and harmful disinfection by-products (DBPs), some of which are associated with endocrine disruption. In this study, the presence of bromide was found to promote an increase in antiestrogenic activity using a yeast two-hybrid assay in the sewage secondary effluent during chlorine disinfection. Among the dissolved organic matters in the secondary effluent, hydrophobic acids and hydrophilic substance fractions were determined as potential precursors associated with increase in antiestrogenic activity in the secondary effluent induced by bromide. Further antiestrogenic activity evaluation and mass spectrum characterization following the semipreparative liquid chromatography fractionation of a natural organic matter precursor, tyrosine, after chlorination under the presence of bromide revealed, for the first time, that 2-(bromo-4-hydroxyphenyl) acetonitrile (Br-HPAN) and 2-(dibromo-4-hydroxyphenyl) acetonitrile (DBr-HPAN) exhibited antiestrogenic activity. Br-HPAN and DBr-HPAN were the DBPs involved in the increase in antiestrogenic activity in the tyrosine solution. Bromide was shown to induce the formation of Br-HPAN and DBr-HPAN in the secondary effluent during chlorine disinfection.

  5. Effect of cassava mill effluent on biological activity of soil microbial community.

    PubMed

    Igbinosa, Etinosa O

    2015-07-01

    This study assessed the effect of cassava effluent on soil microbiological characteristics and enzymatic activities were investigated in soil samples. Soil properties and heavy metal concentrations were evaluated using standard soil analytical and spectroscopic methods, respectively. The microbiological parameters measured include microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, catalase, urease, dehydrogenase activities and number of culturable aerobic bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes. The pH and temperature regime vary significantly (p < 0.05) throughout the study period. All other physicochemical parameters studied were significantly different (p < 0.05) higher than the control site. Soil organic carbon content gave significant positive correlations with microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, catalase activity and dehydrogenase activity (r = 0.450, 0.461, 0.574 and 0.591 at p < 0.01), respectively. The quantitative analysis of soil microbial density demonstrates a marked decrease in total culturable numbers of the different microbial groups of the polluted soil samples. Soil contamination decreased catalase, urease and dehydrogenase activities. The findings revealed that soil enzymes can be used as indices of soil contamination and bio-indicator of soil quality.

  6. Effect of cassava mill effluent on biological activity of soil microbial community.

    PubMed

    Igbinosa, Etinosa O

    2015-07-01

    This study assessed the effect of cassava effluent on soil microbiological characteristics and enzymatic activities were investigated in soil samples. Soil properties and heavy metal concentrations were evaluated using standard soil analytical and spectroscopic methods, respectively. The microbiological parameters measured include microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, catalase, urease, dehydrogenase activities and number of culturable aerobic bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes. The pH and temperature regime vary significantly (p < 0.05) throughout the study period. All other physicochemical parameters studied were significantly different (p < 0.05) higher than the control site. Soil organic carbon content gave significant positive correlations with microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, catalase activity and dehydrogenase activity (r = 0.450, 0.461, 0.574 and 0.591 at p < 0.01), respectively. The quantitative analysis of soil microbial density demonstrates a marked decrease in total culturable numbers of the different microbial groups of the polluted soil samples. Soil contamination decreased catalase, urease and dehydrogenase activities. The findings revealed that soil enzymes can be used as indices of soil contamination and bio-indicator of soil quality. PMID:26055654

  7. Activated charcoal filter counting for radioiodine effluent concentration determination in protein iodinations.

    PubMed

    Button, T M; Hamilton, R G

    1982-12-01

    Regulatory agencies have recently placed emphasis upon quantification of 125I released to the environment during protein iodinations at radioiodination facilities. This necessitates air sampling in order to determine the concentration of 125I in the effluent. Air sample trapping mechanisms generally employed are activated charcoal filters. Difficulty arises in quantifying the activity of 125I trapped because of the attenuation of the 125I decay photons by the charcoal. Evaluation of the activity incident upon commercially available filters using a scintillation detector and large detector source separation is considered here. It is demonstrated that the activity in the filter may be treated as an exponential distribution within an attentuating matrix. This treatment essentially adds a constant correction factor to the counting efficiency of a given geometry for a filter-affluent flow rate combination. Finally, it is shown that an approximation assuming a uniform distribution of activity produces a large error in correction factor to the counting efficiency for the filters examined. PMID:7152949

  8. Deciphering the Diversities of Astroviruses and Noroviruses in Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents by a High-Throughput Sequencing Method.

    PubMed

    Prevost, B; Lucas, F S; Ambert-Balay, K; Pothier, P; Moulin, L; Wurtzer, S

    2015-10-01

    Although clinical epidemiology lists human enteric viruses to be among the primary causes of acute gastroenteritis in the human population, their circulation in the environment remains poorly investigated. These viruses are excreted by the human population into sewers and may be released into rivers through the effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In order to evaluate the viral diversity and loads in WWTP effluents of the Paris, France, urban area, which includes about 9 million inhabitants (approximately 15% of the French population), the seasonal occurrence of astroviruses and noroviruses in 100 WWTP effluent samples was investigated over 1 year. The coupling of these measurements with a high-throughput sequencing approach allowed the specific estimation of the diversity of human astroviruses (human astrovirus genotype 1 [HAstV-1], HAstV-2, HAstV-5, and HAstV-6), 7 genotypes of noroviruses (NoVs) of genogroup I (NoV GI.1 to NoV GI.6 and NoV GI.8), and 16 genotypes of NoVs of genogroup II (NoV GII.1 to NoV GII.7, NoV GII.9, NoV GII.12 to NoV GII.17, NoV GII.20, and NoV GII.21) in effluent samples. Comparison of the viral diversity in WWTP effluents to the viral diversity found by analysis of clinical data obtained throughout France underlined the consistency between the identified genotypes. However, some genotypes were locally present in effluents and were not found in the analysis of the clinical data. These findings could highlight an underestimation of the diversity of enteric viruses circulating in the human population. Consequently, analysis of WWTP effluents could allow the exploration of viral diversity not only in environmental waters but also in a human population linked to a sewerage network in order to better comprehend viral epidemiology and to forecast seasonal outbreaks.

  9. Deciphering the Diversities of Astroviruses and Noroviruses in Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents by a High-Throughput Sequencing Method

    PubMed Central

    Prevost, B.; Lucas, F. S.; Ambert-Balay, K.; Pothier, P.; Wurtzer, S.

    2015-01-01

    Although clinical epidemiology lists human enteric viruses to be among the primary causes of acute gastroenteritis in the human population, their circulation in the environment remains poorly investigated. These viruses are excreted by the human population into sewers and may be released into rivers through the effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In order to evaluate the viral diversity and loads in WWTP effluents of the Paris, France, urban area, which includes about 9 million inhabitants (approximately 15% of the French population), the seasonal occurrence of astroviruses and noroviruses in 100 WWTP effluent samples was investigated over 1 year. The coupling of these measurements with a high-throughput sequencing approach allowed the specific estimation of the diversity of human astroviruses (human astrovirus genotype 1 [HAstV-1], HAstV-2, HAstV-5, and HAstV-6), 7 genotypes of noroviruses (NoVs) of genogroup I (NoV GI.1 to NoV GI.6 and NoV GI.8), and 16 genotypes of NoVs of genogroup II (NoV GII.1 to NoV GII.7, NoV GII.9, NoV GII.12 to NoV GII.17, NoV GII.20, and NoV GII.21) in effluent samples. Comparison of the viral diversity in WWTP effluents to the viral diversity found by analysis of clinical data obtained throughout France underlined the consistency between the identified genotypes. However, some genotypes were locally present in effluents and were not found in the analysis of the clinical data. These findings could highlight an underestimation of the diversity of enteric viruses circulating in the human population. Consequently, analysis of WWTP effluents could allow the exploration of viral diversity not only in environmental waters but also in a human population linked to a sewerage network in order to better comprehend viral epidemiology and to forecast seasonal outbreaks. PMID:26253673

  10. Deciphering the Diversities of Astroviruses and Noroviruses in Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents by a High-Throughput Sequencing Method.

    PubMed

    Prevost, B; Lucas, F S; Ambert-Balay, K; Pothier, P; Moulin, L; Wurtzer, S

    2015-10-01

    Although clinical epidemiology lists human enteric viruses to be among the primary causes of acute gastroenteritis in the human population, their circulation in the environment remains poorly investigated. These viruses are excreted by the human population into sewers and may be released into rivers through the effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In order to evaluate the viral diversity and loads in WWTP effluents of the Paris, France, urban area, which includes about 9 million inhabitants (approximately 15% of the French population), the seasonal occurrence of astroviruses and noroviruses in 100 WWTP effluent samples was investigated over 1 year. The coupling of these measurements with a high-throughput sequencing approach allowed the specific estimation of the diversity of human astroviruses (human astrovirus genotype 1 [HAstV-1], HAstV-2, HAstV-5, and HAstV-6), 7 genotypes of noroviruses (NoVs) of genogroup I (NoV GI.1 to NoV GI.6 and NoV GI.8), and 16 genotypes of NoVs of genogroup II (NoV GII.1 to NoV GII.7, NoV GII.9, NoV GII.12 to NoV GII.17, NoV GII.20, and NoV GII.21) in effluent samples. Comparison of the viral diversity in WWTP effluents to the viral diversity found by analysis of clinical data obtained throughout France underlined the consistency between the identified genotypes. However, some genotypes were locally present in effluents and were not found in the analysis of the clinical data. These findings could highlight an underestimation of the diversity of enteric viruses circulating in the human population. Consequently, analysis of WWTP effluents could allow the exploration of viral diversity not only in environmental waters but also in a human population linked to a sewerage network in order to better comprehend viral epidemiology and to forecast seasonal outbreaks. PMID:26253673

  11. Reduction in the estrogenic activity of a treated sewage effluent discharge to an English river as a result of a decrease in the concentration of industrially derived surfactants.

    PubMed

    Sheahan, David A; Brighty, Geoff C; Daniel, Mic; Jobling, Susan; Harries, Jule E; Hurst, Mark R; Kennedy, Joe; Kirby, Sonia J; Morris, Steven; Routledge, Edwin J; Sumpter, John P; Waldock, Michael J

    2002-03-01

    As a result of the introduction of tighter discharge limits and effluent treatment processes at source, the concentration of alkylphenol ethoxylates and nonylphenol present in the final effluent discharge from a sewage treatment works that treats trade effluent from the textiles industry was reduced. The estrogenic effects of the final effluent discharge to the Aire River were compared over a four-year period during which various treatment measures were introduced. Male rainbow trout exposed to the effluent on four occasions in consecutive years (1994-1997) showed a reduction in the level of induced vitellogenesis between 1994 and 1997. A marked decrease in gonadosomatic index (GSI) and increase in heptaosomatic index (HSI) was measured in fish exposed to the effluent in 1994. In successive years, these differences diminished, and in the case of the GSI no measurable difference was observed between fish exposed to the final effluent or those in the control group in 1997. However, an increase in HSI was still measurable in 1997 in fish exposed to the final effluent and at sites farther downstream. The reduction in the effects of the effluent paralleled the reduction in the concentration of nonylphenol as well as its mono- and diethoxylates, which have been demonstrated to produce estrogenic effects in trout exposed to these compounds in the laboratory. This study demonstrates that the setting of more restricted discharge limits for known estrogenic chemicals of industrial origin can lead to significant reductions in the estrogenic activity of the watercourses into which the effluents are discharged. PMID:11878464

  12. Potential Water Retention Capacity as a Factor in Silage Effluent Control: Experiments with High Moisture By-product Feedstuffs

    PubMed Central

    Razak, Okine Abdul; Masaaki, Hanada; Yimamu, Aibibula; Meiji, Okamoto

    2012-01-01

    The role of moisture absorptive capacity of pre-silage material and its relationship with silage effluent in high moisture by-product feedstuffs (HMBF) is assessed. The term water retention capacity which is sometimes used in explaining the rate of effluent control in ensilage may be inadequate, since it accounts exclusively for the capacity of an absorbent incorporated into a pre-silage material prior to ensiling, without consideration to how much the pre-silage material can release. A new terminology, ‘potential water retention capacity’ (PWRC), which attempts to address this shortcoming, is proposed. Data were pooled from a series of experiments conducted separately over a period of five years using laboratory silos with four categories of agro by-products (n = 27) with differing moisture contents (highest 96.9%, lowest 78.1% in fresh matter, respectively), and their silages (n = 81). These were from a vegetable source (Daikon, Raphanus sativus), a root tuber source (potato pulp), a fruit source (apple pomace) and a cereal source (brewer’s grain), respectively. The pre-silage materials were adjusted with dry in-silo absorbents consisting wheat straw, wheat or rice bran, beet pulp and bean stalks. The pooled mean for the moisture contents of all pre-silage materials was 78.3% (±10.3). Silage effluent decreased (p<0.01), with increase in PWRC of pre-silage material. The theoretical moisture content and PWRC of pre-silage material necessary to stem effluent flow completely in HMBF silage was 69.1% and 82.9 g/100 g in fresh matter, respectively. The high correlation (r = 0.76) between PWRC of ensiled material and silage effluent indicated that the latter is an important factor in silage-effluent relationship. PMID:25049587

  13. Combining Coagulation/MIEX with Biological Activated Carbon Treatment to Control Organic Fouling in the Microfiltration of Secondary Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Roddick, Felicity A.; Fan, Linhua

    2016-01-01

    Coagulation, magnetic ion exchange resin (MIEX) and biological activated carbon (BAC) were examined at lab scale as standalone, and sequential pre-treatments for controlling the organic fouling of a microfiltration membrane by biologically treated secondary effluent (BTSE) using a multi-cycle approach. MIEX gave slightly greater enhancement in flux than coagulation due to greater removal of high molecular weight (MW) humic substances, although it was unable to remove high MW biopolymers. BAC treatment was considerably more effective for improving the flux than coagulation or MIEX. This was due to the biodegradation of biopolymers and/or their adsorption by the biofilm, and adsorption of humic substances by the activated carbon, as indicated by size exclusion chromatography. Coagulation or MIEX followed by BAC treatment further reduced the problematic foulants and significantly improved the flux performance. The unified membrane fouling index showed that the reduction of membrane fouling by standalone BAC treatment was 42%. This improved to 65%, 70%, and 93% for alum, ferric chloride and MIEX pre-treatment, respectively, when followed by BAC treatment. This study showed the potential of sequential MIEX and BAC pre-treatment for controlling organic fouling and thus enhancing the performance of microfiltration in the reclamation of BTSE. PMID:27483327

  14. Combining Coagulation/MIEX with Biological Activated Carbon Treatment to Control Organic Fouling in the Microfiltration of Secondary Effluent.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Roddick, Felicity A; Fan, Linhua

    2016-01-01

    Coagulation, magnetic ion exchange resin (MIEX) and biological activated carbon (BAC) were examined at lab scale as standalone, and sequential pre-treatments for controlling the organic fouling of a microfiltration membrane by biologically treated secondary effluent (BTSE) using a multi-cycle approach. MIEX gave slightly greater enhancement in flux than coagulation due to greater removal of high molecular weight (MW) humic substances, although it was unable to remove high MW biopolymers. BAC treatment was considerably more effective for improving the flux than coagulation or MIEX. This was due to the biodegradation of biopolymers and/or their adsorption by the biofilm, and adsorption of humic substances by the activated carbon, as indicated by size exclusion chromatography. Coagulation or MIEX followed by BAC treatment further reduced the problematic foulants and significantly improved the flux performance. The unified membrane fouling index showed that the reduction of membrane fouling by standalone BAC treatment was 42%. This improved to 65%, 70%, and 93% for alum, ferric chloride and MIEX pre-treatment, respectively, when followed by BAC treatment. This study showed the potential of sequential MIEX and BAC pre-treatment for controlling organic fouling and thus enhancing the performance of microfiltration in the reclamation of BTSE. PMID:27483327

  15. Combining Coagulation/MIEX with Biological Activated Carbon Treatment to Control Organic Fouling in the Microfiltration of Secondary Effluent.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Roddick, Felicity A; Fan, Linhua

    2016-07-30

    Coagulation, magnetic ion exchange resin (MIEX) and biological activated carbon (BAC) were examined at lab scale as standalone, and sequential pre-treatments for controlling the organic fouling of a microfiltration membrane by biologically treated secondary effluent (BTSE) using a multi-cycle approach. MIEX gave slightly greater enhancement in flux than coagulation due to greater removal of high molecular weight (MW) humic substances, although it was unable to remove high MW biopolymers. BAC treatment was considerably more effective for improving the flux than coagulation or MIEX. This was due to the biodegradation of biopolymers and/or their adsorption by the biofilm, and adsorption of humic substances by the activated carbon, as indicated by size exclusion chromatography. Coagulation or MIEX followed by BAC treatment further reduced the problematic foulants and significantly improved the flux performance. The unified membrane fouling index showed that the reduction of membrane fouling by standalone BAC treatment was 42%. This improved to 65%, 70%, and 93% for alum, ferric chloride and MIEX pre-treatment, respectively, when followed by BAC treatment. This study showed the potential of sequential MIEX and BAC pre-treatment for controlling organic fouling and thus enhancing the performance of microfiltration in the reclamation of BTSE.

  16. Reverse osmosis treatment of 200-area effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Stimson, R.E.

    1984-09-19

    Reverse osmosis testing has demonstrated sufficient decontamination factors for radionuclides and hazardous metals present in 200-area effluents (routine and accidental). Test samples included actual process effluents, simulated effluents, and samples spiked with high activity wastes to simulate a cooling coil leak. No unusual behavior such as loss of flux or salt rejection was observed. Short term performance appears very good but membrane life and fouling tendencies will be determined only in long term testing scheduled at TNX and H-area with the 40 GPM pilot scale unit.

  17. Ability of fractionated petroleum refinery effluent to elicit cyto- and photocytotoxic responses and to induce 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in fish cell lines.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, K; Tom, D J; Bols, N C; Sherry, J P

    2001-04-23

    The ability of fractionated petroleum refinery effluent to cause cellular responses in fish cell lines was evaluated. The cellular responses, which included direct and indirect cytotoxicity, photocytotoxicity and induction of 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, may potentially be linked to sublethal effects observed in effluent-exposed fish and fish larvae. In order to be able to quantify cellular responses rapidly, microtitre plates were used along with fluorescent probes. For the quantification of cyto- and photocytotoxicity, the fluorescent probes were alamar Blue and carboxyfluorescein diacetate acetoxymethyl ester (CFDA-AM), which monitor metabolic activity and cell membrane integrity, respectively. EROD activity was measured as the rate of conversion by EROD of the substrate 7-ethoxyresorufin to its fluorescent product, resorufin. Effluent from an Ontario refinery was fractionated into aqueous and particulate phase. As well, a solid phase extract (SPE) was used to prepare concentrated effluent for testing in the cell lines. The effluent was able to elicit all of the responses of interest although significant cyto- and photocytotoxicity required effluent equivalent concentrations above 100% effluent and could only be revealed upon exposure of cells to the SPE concentrated effluent. Based on their retention on C18, the cytotoxicants are likely to be non-polar to moderately polar chemicals. The presence of polar compounds affecting cellular metabolism was indicated by the responses of exposed cells to a 90% aqueous phase effluent. In contrast to cyto- and photocytotoxicity, EROD induction occurred at effluent equivalent concentrations well below 100% effluent and was elicited by the SPE and the particulate fraction thereby suggesting that most EROD-inducers were particle-bound. Among other applications, the described techniques could help to determine the source of causative agents of sublethal effects in the refining process.

  18. Quantitative detection of powdered activated carbon in wastewater treatment plant effluent by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

    PubMed

    Krahnstöver, Therese; Plattner, Julia; Wintgens, Thomas

    2016-09-15

    For the elimination of potentially harmful micropollutants, powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption is applied in many wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). This holds the risk of PAC leakage into the WWTP effluent and desorption of contaminants into natural water bodies. In order to assess a potential PAC leakage, PAC concentrations below several mg/L have to be detected in the WWTP effluent. None of the methods that are used for water analysis today are able to differentiate between activated carbon and solid background matrix. Thus, a selective, quantitative and easily applicable method is still needed for the detection of PAC residues in wastewater. In the present study, a method was developed to quantitatively measure the PAC content in wastewater by using filtration and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), which is a well-established technique for the distinction between different solid materials. For the sample filtration, quartz filters with a temperature stability up to 950 °C were used. This allowed for sensitive and well reproducible measurements, as the TGA was not affected by the presence of the filter. The sample's mass fractions were calculated by integrating the mass decrease rate obtained by TGA in specific, clearly identifiable peak areas. A two-step TGA heating method consisting of N2 and O2 atmospheres led to a good differentiation between PAC and biological background matrix, thanks to the reduction of peak overlapping. A linear correlation was found between a sample's PAC content and the corresponding peak areas under N2 and O2, the sample volume and the solid mass separated by filtration. Based on these findings, various wastewater samples from different WWTPs were then analyzed by TGA with regard to their PAC content. It was found that, compared to alternative techniques such as measurement of turbidity or total suspended solids, the newly developed TGA method allows for a quantitative and selective detection of PAC concentrations down to 0

  19. Quantitative detection of powdered activated carbon in wastewater treatment plant effluent by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

    PubMed

    Krahnstöver, Therese; Plattner, Julia; Wintgens, Thomas

    2016-09-15

    For the elimination of potentially harmful micropollutants, powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption is applied in many wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). This holds the risk of PAC leakage into the WWTP effluent and desorption of contaminants into natural water bodies. In order to assess a potential PAC leakage, PAC concentrations below several mg/L have to be detected in the WWTP effluent. None of the methods that are used for water analysis today are able to differentiate between activated carbon and solid background matrix. Thus, a selective, quantitative and easily applicable method is still needed for the detection of PAC residues in wastewater. In the present study, a method was developed to quantitatively measure the PAC content in wastewater by using filtration and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), which is a well-established technique for the distinction between different solid materials. For the sample filtration, quartz filters with a temperature stability up to 950 °C were used. This allowed for sensitive and well reproducible measurements, as the TGA was not affected by the presence of the filter. The sample's mass fractions were calculated by integrating the mass decrease rate obtained by TGA in specific, clearly identifiable peak areas. A two-step TGA heating method consisting of N2 and O2 atmospheres led to a good differentiation between PAC and biological background matrix, thanks to the reduction of peak overlapping. A linear correlation was found between a sample's PAC content and the corresponding peak areas under N2 and O2, the sample volume and the solid mass separated by filtration. Based on these findings, various wastewater samples from different WWTPs were then analyzed by TGA with regard to their PAC content. It was found that, compared to alternative techniques such as measurement of turbidity or total suspended solids, the newly developed TGA method allows for a quantitative and selective detection of PAC concentrations down to 0

  20. Super-fine powdered activated carbon (SPAC) for efficient removal of micropollutants from wastewater treatment plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Bonvin, Florence; Jost, Livia; Randin, Lea; Bonvin, Emmanuel; Kohn, Tamar

    2016-03-01

    In an effort to mitigate the discharge of micropollutants to surface waters, adsorption of micropollutants onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) after conventional wastewater treatment has been identified as a promising technology for enhanced removal of pharmaceuticals and pesticides from wastewater. We investigated the effectiveness of super-fine powdered activated carbon, SPAC, (ca. 1 μm mean particle diameter) in comparison to regular-sized PAC (17-37 μm mean diameter) for the optimization of micropollutant removal from wastewater. Adsorption isotherms and batch kinetic experiments were performed for 10 representative micropollutants (bezafibrate, benzotriazole, carbamazepine, diclofenac, gabapentin, mecoprop, metoprolol, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim) onto three commercial PACs and their super-fine variants in carbonate buffer and in wastewater effluent. SPAC showed substantially faster adsorption kinetics of all micropollutants than conventional PAC, regardless of the micropollutant adsorption affinity and the solution matrix. The total adsorptive capacities of SPAC were similar to those of PAC for two of the three tested carbon materials, in all tested waters. However, in effluent wastewater, the presence of effluent organic matter adversely affected micropollutant removal, resulting in lower removal efficiencies especially for micropollutants with low affinity for adsorbent particles in comparison to pure water. In comparison to PAC, SPAC application resulted in up to two-fold enhanced dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal from effluent wastewater. The more efficient adsorption process using SPAC translates into a reduction of contact time and contact tank size as well as reduced carbon dosing for a targeted micropollutant removal. In the tested effluent wastewater (5 mg/L DOC), the necessary dose to achieve 80% average removal of indicator micropollutants (benzotriazole, diclofenac, carbamazepine, mecoprop and sulfamethoxazole) ranged

  1. Super-fine powdered activated carbon (SPAC) for efficient removal of micropollutants from wastewater treatment plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Bonvin, Florence; Jost, Livia; Randin, Lea; Bonvin, Emmanuel; Kohn, Tamar

    2016-03-01

    In an effort to mitigate the discharge of micropollutants to surface waters, adsorption of micropollutants onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) after conventional wastewater treatment has been identified as a promising technology for enhanced removal of pharmaceuticals and pesticides from wastewater. We investigated the effectiveness of super-fine powdered activated carbon, SPAC, (ca. 1 μm mean particle diameter) in comparison to regular-sized PAC (17-37 μm mean diameter) for the optimization of micropollutant removal from wastewater. Adsorption isotherms and batch kinetic experiments were performed for 10 representative micropollutants (bezafibrate, benzotriazole, carbamazepine, diclofenac, gabapentin, mecoprop, metoprolol, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim) onto three commercial PACs and their super-fine variants in carbonate buffer and in wastewater effluent. SPAC showed substantially faster adsorption kinetics of all micropollutants than conventional PAC, regardless of the micropollutant adsorption affinity and the solution matrix. The total adsorptive capacities of SPAC were similar to those of PAC for two of the three tested carbon materials, in all tested waters. However, in effluent wastewater, the presence of effluent organic matter adversely affected micropollutant removal, resulting in lower removal efficiencies especially for micropollutants with low affinity for adsorbent particles in comparison to pure water. In comparison to PAC, SPAC application resulted in up to two-fold enhanced dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal from effluent wastewater. The more efficient adsorption process using SPAC translates into a reduction of contact time and contact tank size as well as reduced carbon dosing for a targeted micropollutant removal. In the tested effluent wastewater (5 mg/L DOC), the necessary dose to achieve 80% average removal of indicator micropollutants (benzotriazole, diclofenac, carbamazepine, mecoprop and sulfamethoxazole) ranged

  2. Microwave-assisted activated carbon from cocoa shell as adsorbent for removal of sodium diclofenac and nimesulide from aqueous effluents.

    PubMed

    Saucier, Caroline; Adebayo, Matthew A; Lima, Eder C; Cataluña, Renato; Thue, Pascal S; Prola, Lizie D T; Puchana-Rosero, M J; Machado, Fernando M; Pavan, Flavio A; Dotto, G L

    2015-05-30

    Microwave-induced chemical activation process was used to prepare an activated carbon from cocoa shell for efficient removal of two anti-inflammatories, sodium diclofenac (DFC) and nimesulide (NM), from aqueous solutions. A paste was obtained from a mixture of cocoa shell and inorganic components; with a ratio of inorganic: organic of 1 (CSC-1.0). The mixture was pyrolyzed in a microwave oven in less than 10 min. The CSC-1.0 was acidified with a 6 mol L(-1) HCl under reflux to produce MWCS-1.0. The CSC-1.0 and MWCS-1.0 were characterized using FTIR, SEM, N2 adsorption/desorption curves, X-ray diffraction, and point of zero charge (pHpzc). Experimental variables such as initial pH of the adsorbate solutions and contact time were optimized for adsorptive characteristics of MWCS-1.0. The optimum pH for removal of anti-inflammatories ranged between 7.0 and 8.0. The kinetic of adsorption was investigated using general order, pseudo first-order and pseu do-second order kinetic models. The maximum amounts of DCF and NM adsorbed onto MWCS-1.0 at 25 °C are 63.47 and 74.81 mg g(-1), respectively. The adsorbent was tested on two simulated hospital effluents. MWCS-1.0 is capable of efficient removal of DCF and NM from a medium that contains high sugar and salt concentrations.

  3. Evaluation of an integrated sponge--granular activated carbon fluidized bed bioreactor for treating primary treated sewage effluent.

    PubMed

    Xing, W; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Listowski, A; Cullum, P

    2011-05-01

    An integrated fluidized bed bioreactor (iFBBR) was designed to incorporate an aerobic sponge FBBR (ASB-FBBR) into an anoxic granular activated carbon FBBR (GAC-FBBR). This iFBBR was operated with and without adding a new starch based flocculant (NSBF) to treat synthetic primary treated sewage effluent (PTSE). The NSBF contains starch based cationic flocculants and trace nutrients. The results indicate that the iFBBR with NSBF addition could remove more than 93% dissolved organic carbon (DOC), 61% total nitrogen (T-N) and 60% total phosphorus (T-P) at just a very short hydraulic retention time of 50 min. The optimum frequency of adding NSBF to the iFFBR is four times per day. As a pretreatment to microfiltration, the iFFBR could increase 5L/m(2)h of critical flux thus reducing the membrane fouling. In addition, better microbial activity was also observed with high DO consumption (>66%) and specific oxygen uptake rate (>35 mg O(2)/g VSS h).

  4. Effect of biological activated carbon pre-treatment to control organic fouling in the microfiltration of biologically treated secondary effluent.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Roddick, Felicity A; Fan, Linhua

    2014-10-15

    Biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration was investigated as a pre-treatment for reducing the organic fouling of a microfiltration membrane (0.1 μm polyvinylidene fluoride) in the treatment of a biologically treated secondary effluent (BTSE) from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. BAC treatment of the BTSE resulted in a marked improvement in permeate flux, which was attributed to the effective removal of organic foulants and particulates. Although the BAC removed significantly less dissolved organic carbon than the granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment which was used as a control for comparison, it led to a markedly greater flux. This was attributed to the effective removal of the very high molecular weight substances such as biopolymers by the BAC through biodegradation and adsorption of those molecules on the biofilm. Size exclusion chromatography showed the BAC treatment led to approximately 30% reduction in these substances, whereas the GAC did not greatly remove these molecules. The BAC treatment led to a greater reduction of loosely-attached and firmly-attached membrane surface foulant, and this was confirmed by attenuated total reflection-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. This study demonstrated the potential of BAC pre-treatment for reducing organic fouling and thus improving flux for the microfiltration of BTSE.

  5. [Advanced Treatment of Effluent from Industrial Park Wastewater Treatment Plant by Ferrous Ion Activated Sodium Persulfate].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Song-mei; Zhou, Zhen; Gu, Ling-yun; Jiang, Hai-tao; Ren, Jia-min; Wang, Luo-chun

    2016-01-15

    Fe(II) activated sodium persulfate (PS) technology was used for advanced treatment of effluent from industrial park wastewater treatment plant. Separate and combined effects of PS/COD, Fe(II)/PS and pH on COD and TOC removal were analyzed by the response surface methodology. Variations of organic substances before and after Fe(II)-PS oxidation were characterized by UV-Vis spectrometry, gel chromatography and three-dimensional fluorescence. PS/COD and Fe(II)/PS had significant effect on COD removal, while all the three factors had significant effect on TOC removal. The combined effect of PS/COD and pH had significant effect on COD removal. COD and TOC removal efficiencies reached 50.7% and 60.6% under optimized conditions of PS/COD 3.47, Fe(II)/PS 3.32 and pH 6.5. Fe(II)-PS oxidation converted macromolecular organic substances to small ones, and reduced contents of protein-, humic- and fulvic-like substances.

  6. Effect of effluent organic matter on the adsorption of perfluorinated compounds onto activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Lv, Lu; Lan, Pei; Zhang, Shujuan; Pan, Bingcai; Zhang, Weiming

    2012-07-30

    Effect of effluent organic matter (EfOM) on the adsorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) was quantitatively investigated at environmentally relevant concentration levels. The adsorption of both perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) onto PAC followed pseudo-second order kinetics and fitted the Freundlich model well under the given conditions. Intraparticle diffusion was found to be the rate-controlling step in the PFC adsorption process onto PAC in the absence and presence of EfOM. The presence of EfOM, either in PFC-EfOM simultaneous adsorption onto fresh PAC or in PFC adsorption onto EfOM-preloaded PAC, significantly reduced the adsorption capacities and sorption rates of PFCs. The pH of zero point of charge was found to be 7.5 for fresh PAC and 4.2 for EfOM-preloaded PAC, suggesting that the adsorbed EfOM imparted a negative charge on PAC surface. The effect of molecular weight distribution of EfOM on the adsorption of PFCs was investigated with two EfOM fractions obtained by ultrafiltration. The low-molecular-weight compounds (<1kDa) were found to be the major contributors to the significant reduction in PFC adsorption capacity, while large-molecular-weight compounds (>30kDa) had much less effect on PFC adsorption capacity. PMID:22609392

  7. Impact of ozonation on ecotoxicity and endocrine activity of tertiary treated wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Dominik; Schaar, Heidemarie; Bartel, Cordula; Schorkopf, Dirk Louis P; Miller, Ingrid; Kreuzinger, Norbert; Möstl, Erich; Grillitsch, Britta

    2012-07-01

    Tertiary wastewater treatment plant effluent before and after ozonation (0.6-1.1g O₃/g DOC) was tested for aquatic ecotoxicity in a battery of standardised microbioassays with green algae, daphnids, and zebrafish eggs. In addition, unconjugated estrogen and 17β-hydroxyandrogen immunoreactive substances were quantified by means of enzyme immunoassays, and endocrine effects were analysed in a 21-day fish screening assay with adult male and female medaka (Oryzias latipes). Ozonation decreased estrogen-immunoreactivity by 97.7±1.2% and, to a lesser extent, androgen-immunoreactivity by 56.3±16.5%. None of the short-term exposure ecotoxicity tests revealed any adverse effects of the tertiary effluent, neither before nor after the ozonation step. Similarly in the fish screening assay, reproductive fitness parameters showed no effects attributed to micropollutants, and no detrimental effects of the effluents were observed. Based on the presented screening, ozonation effectively reduced steroid hormone levels in the wastewater treatment plant effluent without increasing the effluent's ecotoxicity. PMID:22551818

  8. WETTABILITY ALTERATION OF CARBONATE ROCK MEDIATED BY BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCED FROM HIGH-STARCH AGRICULTURAL EFFLUENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Mehdi Salehi; Stephen Johnson; Gregory Bala; Jenn-Tai Liang

    2006-09-01

    Surfactants can be used to alter wettability of reservoir rock, increasing spontaneous imbibition and thus improving oil yields. Commercial synthetic surfactants are often prohibitively expensive and so a crude preparation of the anionic biosurfactant, surfactin, from Bacillus subtilis grown on high-starch industrial and agricultural effluents has been proposed as an economical alternative. To assess the effectiveness of the surfactin, it is compared to commercially available surfactants. In selecting a suitable benchmark surfactant, two metrics are examined: the ability of the surfactants to alter wettability at low concentrations, and the degree to which they are absorbed onto reservoir matrix. We review the literature to survey the adsorption models that have been developed to describe surfactant adsorption in porous media. These models are evaluated using the experimental data from this study. Crushed carbonate rock samples are cleaned and aged in crude oil. The wettability change mediated by dilute solutions of commercial anionic surfactants and surfactin is assessed using a two-phase separation; and surfactant loss due to retention and adsorption the rock is determined.

  9. Screening Complex Effluents for Estrogenic Activity with the T47D-Kbluc Cell Bioassay: Assay Optimization and Comparison to In Vivo Responses in Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    The endocrine activity of complex mixtures of chemicals associated with wastewater treatment plant effluents, runoff from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), and/or other environmental samples can be difficult to characterize based on analytical chemistry. In vitro bi...

  10. Eoetvoesia caeni gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from an activated sludge system treating coke plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Felföldi, Tamás; Vengring, Anita; Kéki, Zsuzsa; Márialigeti, Károly; Schumann, Peter; Tóth, Erika M

    2014-06-01

    A novel bacterium, PB3-7B(T), was isolated on phenol-supplemented inorganic growth medium from a laboratory-scale wastewater purification system that treated coke plant effluent. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain PB3-7B(T) belonged to the family Alcaligenaceae and showed the highest pairwise sequence similarity to Parapusillimonas granuli Ch07(T) (97.5%), Candidimonas bauzanensis BZ59(T) (97.3%) and Pusillimonas noertemannii BN9(T) (97.2%). Strain PB3-7B(T) was rod-shaped, motile and oxidase- and catalase-positive. The predominant fatty acids were C(16 : 0), C(17 : 0) cyclo, C(19 : 0) cyclo ω8c and C(14 : 0) 3-OH, and the major respiratory quinone was Q-8. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain PB3-7B(T) was 59.7 mol%. The novel bacterium can be distinguished from closely related type strains based on its urease activity and the capacity for assimilation of glycerol and amygdalin. On the basis of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular data, strain PB3-7B(T) is considered to represent a new genus and species, for which the name Eoetvoesia caeni gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Eoetvoesia caeni is PB3-7B(T) ( = DSM 25520(T) = NCAIM B 02512(T)).

  11. Effect of untreated sewage effluent irrigation on heavy metal content, microbial population and enzymatic activities of soils in Aligarh.

    PubMed

    Bansal, O P; Singh, Gajraj; Katiyar, Pragati

    2014-07-01

    The study pertains to the impact of domestic and industrial sewage water irrigation on the chemical, biological and enzymatic activities in alluvial soils of Aligarh District. Results showed that soil enzymatic [dehydogenase (DHA), acid and alkaline phosphatase, urease and catalase] activities in the soils increased up to 14 days of incubation and thereafter inhibited significantly. The enzymatic activity were in the order sewage effluent > partial sewage effluent > ground water irrigated soils. Increase in soil enzymatic activities up to 2nd week of incubation was due to decomposition of organic matter. Maximum inhibition of enzymatic activities, after 14 days of incubation were found in sewage effluent irrigated soils and minimum in ground water irrigated soils. Similar trend was also seen for microbial population. Soil enzymatic activities and microbial population were significantly and positively correlated with soil organic matter. Results also indicated that the microbial population and enzymatic activities in sewage irrigated soils decreased continually with irrigation period. The average concentration of total heavy metals in sewage irrigated soils and partial sewage irrigated soils increased and was 3 and 2 times higher for Zn; 4.5 and 1.7 times higher for Cu; 3.8 and 2.4 times higher for Cr; 5.7 and 3.5 times higher for Pb; 3.5 and 2.2 times higher for Cd and 2.7 and 2.0 times higher for Ni respectively than that of ground water irrigated soils. Results also showed that though total heavy metals concentration increased with period of sewage irrigation but the concentration of diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable heavy metals in partial sewage irrigated and sewage irrigated soils remained almost same, which might be due to deposition of heavy metals in crops grown on the soils.

  12. Comparing and modeling organic micro-pollutant adsorption onto powdered activated carbon in different drinking waters and WWTP effluents.

    PubMed

    Zietzschmann, Frederik; Aschermann, Geert; Jekel, Martin

    2016-10-01

    The adsorption of organic micro-pollutants (OMP) onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) was compared between regionally different waters within two groups, namely five drinking waters and seven wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. In all waters, OMP were spiked to adjust similar ratios of the initial OMP and DOC concentrations (c0,OMP/c0,DOC). PAC was dosed specific to the respective DOC (e.g. 2 mg PAC/per mg DOC). Liquid chromatography with online carbon detection shows differences of the background organic matter (BOM) compositions. The OMP removals at given DOC-specific PAC doses vary by ±15% (drinking waters) and ±10% (WWTP effluents). Similar BOM-induced adsorption competition in the waters of the respective group results in overall relationships between the PAC loadings and the liquid phase concentrations of each OMP (in the case of strong adsorbates). Weaker adsorbates show no overall relationships because of the strong BOM-induced adsorption competition near the initial OMP concentration. Correlations between OMP removals and UV254 removals were independent of the water (within the respective group). The equivalent background compound (EBC) model was applied to the experimental data. Using global EBC Freundlich coefficients, the initial EBC concentration correlates with the DOC (both water groups separately) and the low molecular weight (LMW) organics concentrations (all waters combined). With these correlations, the EBC could be initialized by using the DOC or the LMW organics concentration of additional drinking water, WWTP effluent, and surface water samples. PMID:27344250

  13. Effluent treatment for nuclear thermal propulsion ground testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipers, Larry R.

    The objectives are to define treatment functions, review concept options, discuss PIPET effluent treatment system (ETS), and outline future activities. The topics covered include the following: reactor exhaust; effluent treatment functions; effluent treatment categories; effluent treatment options; concept evaluation; PIPETS ETS envelope; PIPET effluent treatment concept; and future activities.

  14. Effluent treatment for nuclear thermal propulsion ground testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipers, Larry R.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives are to define treatment functions, review concept options, discuss PIPET effluent treatment system (ETS), and outline future activities. The topics covered include the following: reactor exhaust; effluent treatment functions; effluent treatment categories; effluent treatment options; concept evaluation; PIPETS ETS envelope; PIPET effluent treatment concept; and future activities.

  15. Estimating effluent COD

    SciTech Connect

    Eckenfelder, W.W.; Landine, R.

    1995-06-01

    In many parts of the world, chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a primary effluent parameter. Unlike BOD, which considers only biodegradable organics, COD also includes non-degradable organics and non-degradable biological oxidation by-products, generally referred to as soluble microbial products (SMP). The SMP can vary from 2% to 10% of the influent degradable COD. If the technology is limited to biological treatment only, the degradable COD will be removed. Further reductions in COD will require physical chemical treatments such as activated carbon. Effluent COD values for several industrial wastewaters are presented. Effluent characteristics from the anaerobic treatment of industrial wastewaters are also discussed.

  16. Nuclear reactor effluent monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Minns, J.L.; Essig, T.H.

    1993-12-31

    Radiological environmental monitoring and effluent monitoring at nuclear power plants is important both for normal operations, as well as in the event of an accident. During normal operations, environmental monitoring verifies the effectiveness of in-plant measures for controlling the release of radioactive materials in the plant. Following an accident, it would be an additional mechanism for estimating doses to members of the general public. This paper identifies the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory basis for requiring radiological environmental and effluent monitoring, licensee conditions for effluent and environmental monitoring, NRC independent oversight activities, and NRC`s program results.

  17. Studies on the alterations in haematological indices, micronuclei induction and pathological marker enzyme activities in Channa punctatus (spotted snakehead) perciformes, channidae exposed to thermal power plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Javed, Mehjbeen; Ahmad, Irshad; Ahmad, Ajaz; Usmani, Nazura; Ahmad, Masood

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the toxicity of thermal power plant effluent containing heavy metals (Fe > Cu > Zn > Mn > Ni > Co > Cr) on haematological indices, micronuclei, lobed nuclei and activity of pathological marker enzymes [alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transferase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT) and creatine kinase (CK)] in Channa punctatus. Total erythrocyte count (-54.52 %), hemoglobin (-36.98 %), packed cell volume (-36.25 %), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (-1.41 %) and oxygen (O2) carrying capacity (-37.04 %) declined significantly over reference fish, however total leukocyte count (+25.43 %), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (+33.52 %) and mean corpuscular volume (+35.49 %) showed elevation. High frequency of micronuclei (1133.3 %) and lobed nuclei (150 %) were observed in exposed fish which may indicate mutagenesis. Activities of pathological marker enzymes ALP, AST, ALT and CK increased significantly in serum of exposed fish. The ratio of ALT: AST in exposed fish was beyond 1 which indicates manifestation of pathological processes. These biomarkers show that fish have macrocytic hypochromic anemia. Leukocytosis showed general defence response against heavy metal toxicity and marker enzymes showed tissue degeneration. In conclusion, thermal power plant effluent has strong potential to induce micronuclei, tissue pathology, making the fish anemic, weak, stressed and vulnerable to diseases. PMID:27386247

  18. Studies on the alterations in haematological indices, micronuclei induction and pathological marker enzyme activities in Channa punctatus (spotted snakehead) perciformes, channidae exposed to thermal power plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Javed, Mehjbeen; Ahmad, Irshad; Ahmad, Ajaz; Usmani, Nazura; Ahmad, Masood

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the toxicity of thermal power plant effluent containing heavy metals (Fe > Cu > Zn > Mn > Ni > Co > Cr) on haematological indices, micronuclei, lobed nuclei and activity of pathological marker enzymes [alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transferase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT) and creatine kinase (CK)] in Channa punctatus. Total erythrocyte count (-54.52 %), hemoglobin (-36.98 %), packed cell volume (-36.25 %), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (-1.41 %) and oxygen (O2) carrying capacity (-37.04 %) declined significantly over reference fish, however total leukocyte count (+25.43 %), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (+33.52 %) and mean corpuscular volume (+35.49 %) showed elevation. High frequency of micronuclei (1133.3 %) and lobed nuclei (150 %) were observed in exposed fish which may indicate mutagenesis. Activities of pathological marker enzymes ALP, AST, ALT and CK increased significantly in serum of exposed fish. The ratio of ALT: AST in exposed fish was beyond 1 which indicates manifestation of pathological processes. These biomarkers show that fish have macrocytic hypochromic anemia. Leukocytosis showed general defence response against heavy metal toxicity and marker enzymes showed tissue degeneration. In conclusion, thermal power plant effluent has strong potential to induce micronuclei, tissue pathology, making the fish anemic, weak, stressed and vulnerable to diseases.

  19. Pharmaceutically active compounds in atlantic canadian sewage treatment plant effluents and receiving waters, and potential for environmental effects as measured by acute and chronic aquatic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Brun, Guy L; Bernier, Marc; Losier, René; Doe, Ken; Jackman, Paula; Lee, Hing-Biu

    2006-08-01

    Ten acidic and two neutral pharmaceuticals were detected in the effluents of eight sewage treatment plants (STPs) from across Atlantic Canada. Concentrations varied between nondetectable and 35 microg/L. The analgesic, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ibuprofen and naproxen were predominant. Carbamazepine, a neutral compound used as an antiepileptic drug, was observed consistently at a median concentration of 79 ng/L. Acetaminophen was found in the effluents of the three largest mechanical STPs at a median concentration of 1.9 microg/L, but not in the lagoon treatment systems. The substantially longer hydraulic retention times may have contributed to more effective removal of acetaminophen in the lagoon treatment systems. Drugs generally were not detected at significant concentrations in the larger bodies of receiving water (Saint John River, Hillsborough River, and Bedford Bay, Canada). However, drug residues in the small receiving streams were 15 to 30% of the effluent median concentrations. Six compounds (caffeine, naproxen, salicylic acid, carbamazepine, metoprolol, and sotolol) were found to persist in a small stream for a distance of at least 17 km, suggesting that small stream exposure to pharmaceutically active residues may be relatively greater than that in large bodies of water. Bioassays assessing acute and chronic effects on four organisms were conducted on four high-use drugs: Acetaminophen, ibuprofen, naproxen, and salicylic acid (metabolite of acetyl salicylic acid). Results indicated no negative effects except for the chronic algal (Selanastrum capricornutum) growth test on ibuprofen (no-observed-effect concentration, 10 microg/L; lowest-observed-effect concentration, 32 microg/L). Effects of these four compounds on invertebrates and plants in the receiving environments are unlikely based on the concentrations measured.

  20. Silage effluent management: a review.

    PubMed

    Gebrehanna, M M; Gordon, R J; Madani, A; VanderZaag, A C; Wood, J D

    2014-10-01

    Silage effluent is a potent wastewater that can be produced when ensiling crops that have a high moisture content (MC). Silage effluent can cause fish-kills and eutrophication due to its high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and nutrient content, respectively. It has a high acidity (pH ≈ 3.5-5) making it corrosive to steel and damaging to concrete, which makes handling, storage and disposal a challenge. Although being recognized as a concentrated wastewater, most research has focused on preventing its production. Despite noted imprecision in effluent production models-and therefore limited ability to predict when effluent will flow-there has been little research aimed at identifying effective reactive management options, such as containment and natural treatment systems. Increasing climate variability and intensifying livestock agriculture are issues that will place a greater importance on developing comprehensive, multi-layered management strategies that include both preventative and reactive measures. This paper reviews important factors governing the production of effluent, approaches to minimize effluent flows as well as treatment and disposal options. The challenges of managing silage effluent are reviewed in the context of its chemical constituents. A multi-faceted approach should be utilized to minimize environmental risks associated with silage effluent. This includes: (i) managing crop moisture content prior to ensiling to reduce effluent production, (ii) ensuring the integrity of silos and effluent storages, and (iii) establishing infrastructure for effluent treatment and disposal. A more thorough investigation of constructed wetlands and vegetated infiltration areas for treating dilute silage effluent is needed. In particular, there should be efforts to improve natural treatment system design criteria by identifying pre-treatment processes and appropriate effluent loading rates. There is also a need for research aimed at understanding the effects of

  1. Phosphorus removal mechanisms in active slag filters treating waste stabilization pond effluent.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Chris; Shilton, Andy; Pratt, Steven; Haverkamp, Richard G; Bolan, Nanthi S

    2007-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) removal mechanisms from waste stabilization pond effluent by a melter slag filter were investigated. The studied filter had treated pond effluent for a decade, but lost its P removal efficiency after 5 years. The P distribution in the slag was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and chemical fractionation. The results showed the slag to be covered by a film comprising metal oxides/oxyhydroxides, organic resin, and Fe-phosphate precipitates. The slag porous matrix beneath this film hosted lower P concentrations and consisted of metal oxides/oxyhydroxides and calcmagnesium silicates. The study revealed the following mechanisms for P removal from effluent by the melter slag: (1) P adsorption onto metal oxides/oxyhydroxides which are ubiquitous throughout the porous slag matrix and its surface film; (2) P precipitation, mainly as Fe-phosphates (determined by SEM/EDS) on the surface film, derived from the release of metal ions into the solution phase; and (3) P sequestration by an amorphous organic resin that comprises a substantial proportion of the surface film, which was deduced by SEM/EDS and XRF. Results of chemical extractions performed on the slag demonstrated that 1 M HCl, which has been used to determine Ca-associated P in previous studies, is an unreliable Ca-P marker. By contrast, the citrate-dithionite reagent was shown to be a good indicator of Fe/Al-associated P and revealed that adsorption onto metal oxides/oxyhydroxides, in the porous matrix as well as its surface film, is the most significant P removal mechanism achieved by the slag filter.

  2. Strategies for selecting optimal sampling and work-up procedures for analysing alkylphenol polyethoxylates in effluents from non-activated sludge biofilm reactors.

    PubMed

    Stenholm, Ake; Holmström, Sara; Hjärthag, Sandra; Lind, Ola

    2012-01-01

    Trace-level analysis of alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEOs) in wastewater containing sludge requires the prior removal of contaminants and preconcentration. In this study, the effects on optimal work-up procedures of the types of alkylphenols present, their degree of ethoxylation, the biofilm wastewater treatment and the sample matrix were investigated for these purposes. The sampling spot for APEO-containing specimens from an industrial wastewater treatment plant was optimized, including a box that surrounded the tubing outlet carrying the wastewater, to prevent sedimented sludge contaminating the collected samples. Following these changes, the sampling precision (in terms of dry matter content) at a point just under the tubing leading from the biofilm reactors was 0.7% RSD. The findings were applied to develop a work-up procedure for use prior to a high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection analysis method capable of quantifying nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPEOs) and poorly investigated dinonylphenol polyethoxylates (DNPEOs) at low microg L(-1) concentrations in effluents from non-activated sludge biofilm reactors. The selected multi-step work-up procedure includes lyophilization and pressurized fluid extraction (PFE) followed by strong ion exchange solid phase extraction (SPE). The yields of the combined procedure, according to tests with NP10EO-spiked effluent from a wastewater treatment plant, were in the 62-78% range. PMID:22519096

  3. Pilot and full scale applications of sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification process for nitrate removal from activated sludge process effluent.

    PubMed

    Sahinkaya, Erkan; Kilic, Adem; Duygulu, Bahadir

    2014-09-01

    Sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification of nitrified activated sludge process effluent was studied in pilot and full scale column bioreactors. Three identical pilot scale column bioreactors packed with varying sulfur/lime-stone ratios (1/1-3/1) were setup in a local wastewater treatment plant and the performances were compared under varying loading conditions for long-term operation. Complete denitrification was obtained in all pilot bioreactors even at nitrate loading of 10 mg NO3(-)-N/(L.h). When the temperature decreased to 10 °C during the winter time at loading of 18 mg NO3(-)-N/(L.h), denitrification efficiency decreased to 60-70% and the bioreactor with S/L ratio of 1/1 gave slightly better performance. A full scale sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification process with a S/L ratio of 1/1 was set up for the denitrification of an activated sludge process effluent with a flow rate of 40 m(3)/d. Almost complete denitrification was attained with a nitrate loading rate of 6.25 mg NO3(-)-N/(L.h). PMID:24862952

  4. Behavior of metals, pathogen parasites, and indicator bacteria in sewage effluents during biological treatment by activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Tonani, K A A; Julião, F C; Trevilato, T M B; Takayanagui, A M M; Bocio, Ana; Domingo, Jose L; Segura-Muñoz, Susana I

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the behavior of metals, pathogen parasites, and indicator bacteria in sewage effluents during biological treatment by activated sludge in a wastewater treatment plant in Ribeirão Preto (WTP-RP), Sao Paulo, Brazil. The evaluation was done during a period of 1 year. Results showed that metal concentrations in treated effluents decreased, reaching concentrations according to those established by national regulations. The activated sludge process at the WTP-RP promoted a partial removal of parasites considered as possible indicators according to the WHO guidelines. Reduction factors varied between 18.2% and 100% for agents such as Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hystolitica, Giardia sp., Ancylostoma sp., Ascaris sp., Fasciola hepatica, and Strongyloides stercoralis. A removal was also observed in total and fecal coliforms quantification. The present study represents an initial evaluation of the chemical and microbiological removal capacity of the WTP-RP. The results should be of interest for the authorities responsible for the environmental health at municipal, regional, national, and international levels.

  5. Determination of the acute toxicities of physicochemical pretreatment and advanced oxidation processes applied to dairy effluents on activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Sivrioğlu, Özge; Yonar, Taner

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the acute toxicities of raw, physicochemical pre-treated, ozonated, and Fenton reagent applied samples of dairy wastewater toward activated sludge microorganisms, evaluated using the International Organization for Standardization's respiration inhibition test (ISO 8192), are presented. Five-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5) was measured to determine the biodegradability of physicochemical treatment, ozonation, Fenton oxidation or no treatment (raw samples) of dairy wastewater. Chemical pretreatment positively affected biodegradability, and the inhibition exhibited by activated sludge was removed to a considerable degree. Ozonation and the Fenton process exhibited good chemical oxygen demand removal (61%) and removal of toxins. Low sludge production was observed for the Fenton process applied to dairy effluents. We did not determine the inhibitory effect of the Fenton-process on the activated sludge mixture. The pollutant-removal efficiencies of the applied processes and their associated operating costs were determined.

  6. Assessment of derived emission limits for radioactive effluents resulted from the decommissioning activities of the VVR-S nuclear research reactor.

    PubMed

    Tuca, C; Stochioiu, A; Sahagia, M; Gurau, D; Dragusin, M

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents complex studies on establishment of derived emission limits for potential radionuclides emitted as gaseous and liquid effluents, during the decommissioning activities (2nd and 3rd phases) of a nuclear research reactor, cooled and moderated with distilled water, type VVR-S, owned by the IFIN-HH. In the present paper there are described: the analysis methods and equipment used, the methodologies for calculating doses and the Derived Emission Limits (DEL), the experimentally measured activities of the representative radionuclides found in gaseous and liquid effluents resulted from decommissioning activities, as well as the effective derived limits of liquid and gaseous effluents, applying the calculation methodologies, specific to critical categories of exposed subjects. A constraint effective dose limit for a person from the critical group of 50 μSv/year was considered in calculations. From the comparison of the two series of values, measured released activities and DELs, there has been concluded that for the gaseous effluents they comply with the DELs, while in the case of liquid effluents they are higher and consequently they must be treated as liquid radioactive wastes.

  7. Assessment of derived emission limits for radioactive effluents resulted from the decommissioning activities of the VVR-S nuclear research reactor.

    PubMed

    Tuca, C; Stochioiu, A; Sahagia, M; Gurau, D; Dragusin, M

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents complex studies on establishment of derived emission limits for potential radionuclides emitted as gaseous and liquid effluents, during the decommissioning activities (2nd and 3rd phases) of a nuclear research reactor, cooled and moderated with distilled water, type VVR-S, owned by the IFIN-HH. In the present paper there are described: the analysis methods and equipment used, the methodologies for calculating doses and the Derived Emission Limits (DEL), the experimentally measured activities of the representative radionuclides found in gaseous and liquid effluents resulted from decommissioning activities, as well as the effective derived limits of liquid and gaseous effluents, applying the calculation methodologies, specific to critical categories of exposed subjects. A constraint effective dose limit for a person from the critical group of 50 μSv/year was considered in calculations. From the comparison of the two series of values, measured released activities and DELs, there has been concluded that for the gaseous effluents they comply with the DELs, while in the case of liquid effluents they are higher and consequently they must be treated as liquid radioactive wastes. PMID:26162768

  8. Textile industrial effluent induces mutagenicity and oxidative DNA damage and exploits oxidative stress biomarkers in rats.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Muhammad Furqan; Ashraf, Muhammad; Anjum, Aftab Ahmad; Javeed, Aqeel; Sharif, Ali; Saleem, Ammara; Akhtar, Bushra

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to complex mixtures like textile effluent poses risks to animal and human health such as mutations, genotoxicity and oxidative damage. Aim of the present study was to quantify metals in industrial effluent and to determine its mutagenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic potential and effects on oxidative stress biomarkers in effluent exposed rats. Metal analysis revealed presence of high amounts of zinc, copper, chromium, iron, arsenic and mercury in industrial effluent. Ames test with/without enzyme activation and MTT assay showed strong association of industrial effluent with mutagenicity and cytotoxicity respectively. In-vitro comet assay revealed evidence of high oxidative DNA damage. When Wistar rats were exposed to industrial effluent in different dilutions for 60 days, then activities of total superoxide dismutase and catalase and hydrogen peroxide concentration were found to be significantly lower in kidney, liver and blood/plasma of effluent exposed rats than control. Vitamin C in a dose of 50 mg/kg/day significantly reduced oxidative effects of effluent in rats. On the basis of this study it is concluded that industrial effluent may cause mutagenicity, in-vitro oxidative stress-related DNA damage and cytotoxicity and may be associated with oxidative stress in rats. Vitamin C may have ameliorating effect when exposed to effluent.

  9. Textile industrial effluent induces mutagenicity and oxidative DNA damage and exploits oxidative stress biomarkers in rats.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Muhammad Furqan; Ashraf, Muhammad; Anjum, Aftab Ahmad; Javeed, Aqeel; Sharif, Ali; Saleem, Ammara; Akhtar, Bushra

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to complex mixtures like textile effluent poses risks to animal and human health such as mutations, genotoxicity and oxidative damage. Aim of the present study was to quantify metals in industrial effluent and to determine its mutagenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic potential and effects on oxidative stress biomarkers in effluent exposed rats. Metal analysis revealed presence of high amounts of zinc, copper, chromium, iron, arsenic and mercury in industrial effluent. Ames test with/without enzyme activation and MTT assay showed strong association of industrial effluent with mutagenicity and cytotoxicity respectively. In-vitro comet assay revealed evidence of high oxidative DNA damage. When Wistar rats were exposed to industrial effluent in different dilutions for 60 days, then activities of total superoxide dismutase and catalase and hydrogen peroxide concentration were found to be significantly lower in kidney, liver and blood/plasma of effluent exposed rats than control. Vitamin C in a dose of 50 mg/kg/day significantly reduced oxidative effects of effluent in rats. On the basis of this study it is concluded that industrial effluent may cause mutagenicity, in-vitro oxidative stress-related DNA damage and cytotoxicity and may be associated with oxidative stress in rats. Vitamin C may have ameliorating effect when exposed to effluent. PMID:26710178

  10. Characterization of bacterial communities in sediments receiving various wastewater effluents with high-throughput sequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Peng-Zhen

    2014-04-01

    454 Pyrosequencing was applied to examine bacterial communities in sediment samples collected from a river receiving effluent discharge from rural domestic sewage (RDS) and various factories, including a tannery (TNS), clothing plant (CTS), and button factory (BTS), respectively. For each sample, 4,510 effective sequences were selected and utilized to do the bacterial diversity and abundance analysis, respectively. In total, 1,288, 2,036, 1,800, and 2,150 operational taxonomic units were obtained at 3% distance cutoff in TNS, CTS, BTS, and RDS, respectively. Bacterial phylotype richness in RDS was higher than the other samples, and TNS had the least richness. The most predominant class in the TNS, CTS, and BTS samples is Betaproteobacteria. Cyanobacteria (no_rank) is the most predominant one in the RDS sample. Circa 31% sequences in TNS were affiliated with the Rhodocyclales order. In the four samples, Aeromonas, Arcobacter, Clostridium, Legionella, Leptospira, Mycobacterium, Pseudomonas, and Treponema genera containing pathogenic bacteria were detected. Characterization of bacterial communities in sediments from various downstream branches indicated that distinct wastewater effluents have similar potential to reduce the natural variability in river ecosystems and contribute to the river biotic homogenization. PMID:24477925

  11. Energy saving membrane treatment of high organic load industrial effluents: from lab to pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Mafalda Pessoa; Xin, Gang; Crespo, João G

    2013-12-15

    In this study, a nanofiltration unit was implemented at an industrial site, for the treatment of industrial wastewater generated during rubber tubing extrusion. The aim was to reduce the energy input required, while assuring a final effluent quality that meets the requirements of environmental legislation. In a first stage, two membrane process treatments, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration, were evaluated at laboratory scale in order to assess the rejection of pollutants and maximise permeate throughput. Permeate generated from nanofiltration using either an NF90 or an NF270 membrane were shown to meet the effluent discharge requirements (<2000 mg COD/l). The less restrictive membrane, NF270, was chosen for study in a pilot plant at the industrial site, due to its higher membrane permeability. The pilot nanofiltration unit was integrated into the treatment plant operation aiming at optimising the process in terms of the efficiency of pollutant removal with minimal energy input. A feasibility study was performed for this case-study and it was concluded that the energy expenditure of the new process represents only 62% of the current energy consumption of the treatment plant. The proposed solution in this work may be retrofitted to full scale wastewater treatment processes, and may be applicable to industries that employ similar manufacturing processes, and face similar difficulties. PMID:24161805

  12. Effect of water composition on TiO2 photocatalytic removal of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and estrogenic activity from secondary effluent.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenlong; Li, Yi; Su, Yaling; Mao, Kai; Wang, Qing

    2012-05-15

    The effect of inorganic ions and dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the TiO(2) photocatalytic removal of estrogenic activity from secondary effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants was investigated. The presence of HPO(4)(2-), NH(4)(+), and HCO(3)(-) resulted in a significantly negative impact on the photocatalytic removal of estrogenic activity from synthetic water due to their strong adsorption on the surface of TiO(2). However, only a weak impact was noted during photocatalytic removal of estrogenic activity from secondary effluent with these ions added, since the presence of DOM in real wastewater played a more important role in inhibiting photocatalytic removal of estrogenic activity than inorganic ions. By investigating the effect of different DOM fractions on photocatalytic removal of estrogenic activity, polar compounds (PC) were found to cause a temporary increase in estrogenic activity during TiO(2) photocatalysis. Fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular weight (MW) analysis on secondary effluent spiked with PC during TiO(2) photocatalysis suggest that large MW organic matter (>4.5kDa) in secondary effluent, such as humic/fulvic acid, not only could play an important role in inhibiting photocatalytic removal of estrogenic activity but also is responsible for the temporary increase in estrogenic activity during the same process.

  13. Impacts of ozonation on the competition between organic micro-pollutants and effluent organic matter in powdered activated carbon adsorption.

    PubMed

    Zietzschmann, F; Mitchell, R-L; Jekel, M

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates if ozonation of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent can reduce the negative impacts of effluent organic matter (EfOM) on the adsorption of organic micro-pollutants (OMP) onto powdered activated carbon (PAC). Pre-treatment of the water included membrane filtration for the removal of suspended/colloidal organics, ozonation with various specific ozone consumptions, and subsequent OMP spiking to comparable initial concentrations in all of the ozonated waters. This approach allowed for comparative PAC adsorption tests. Adsorption analyses show that the adsorbability of EfOM decreases with increasing specific ozone consumptions. This is also reflected by liquid chromatography with online carbon and UV254 detection (LC-OCD) which shows the ozone-induced disintegration of large EfOM into smaller fragments. Also, small organic neutrals are decreased while the small organic acids peak continuously increases with rising specific ozone consumptions. UV254 demonstrates that the aromaticity of all LC-OCD fractions continuously declines together with increasing specific O3 consumptions. This explains the varying EfOM adsorbabilities that occur due to ozonation. The ozone-induced decrease of EfOM adsorbability directly translates into reduced adsorption competition against the adsorption of OMP. With higher specific ozone consumptions, OMP removal and OMP loadings increase. The reduced adsorption competition is reflected in the outputs from equivalent background compound (EBC) modeling. In each of the ozonated waters, correlations between the OMP removals and the UV254 removal were found.

  14. Impacts of ozonation on the competition between organic micro-pollutants and effluent organic matter in powdered activated carbon adsorption.

    PubMed

    Zietzschmann, F; Mitchell, R-L; Jekel, M

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates if ozonation of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent can reduce the negative impacts of effluent organic matter (EfOM) on the adsorption of organic micro-pollutants (OMP) onto powdered activated carbon (PAC). Pre-treatment of the water included membrane filtration for the removal of suspended/colloidal organics, ozonation with various specific ozone consumptions, and subsequent OMP spiking to comparable initial concentrations in all of the ozonated waters. This approach allowed for comparative PAC adsorption tests. Adsorption analyses show that the adsorbability of EfOM decreases with increasing specific ozone consumptions. This is also reflected by liquid chromatography with online carbon and UV254 detection (LC-OCD) which shows the ozone-induced disintegration of large EfOM into smaller fragments. Also, small organic neutrals are decreased while the small organic acids peak continuously increases with rising specific ozone consumptions. UV254 demonstrates that the aromaticity of all LC-OCD fractions continuously declines together with increasing specific O3 consumptions. This explains the varying EfOM adsorbabilities that occur due to ozonation. The ozone-induced decrease of EfOM adsorbability directly translates into reduced adsorption competition against the adsorption of OMP. With higher specific ozone consumptions, OMP removal and OMP loadings increase. The reduced adsorption competition is reflected in the outputs from equivalent background compound (EBC) modeling. In each of the ozonated waters, correlations between the OMP removals and the UV254 removal were found. PMID:26231581

  15. Evaluation of the use of powdered activated carbon in membrane bioreactor for the treatment of bleach pulp mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Míriam C S; Lange, Liséte C; Borges, Cristiano P

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, the use of powered activated carbon (PAC) in membrane bioreactor (MBR) employed in the treatment of bleach pulp mill effluents was evaluated. The MBR was operated with hydraulic residence time of 9.5 h and PAC concentration of 10 g/L. The addition of PAC to the MBR reduced the average concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the permeate from 215 mg/L (82% removal efficiency) to 135 mg/L (88% removal efficiency), producing an effluent that can be reused on bleaching stage. Moreover, the addition of PAC to the MBR resulted in the reduction in applied pressure and provided a more stable operation during the monitoring period. This occurrence was probably due to the increase of critical flux after the addition of PAC. The fouling mechanism was investigated and the results showed that controlling the concentration of soluble microbial products (SMP) and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) by using PAC and keeping the operational flux below critical flux is of major importance for MBR operational sustainability. PMID:25327019

  16. The Buoyant Filter Bioreactor: a high-rate anaerobic reactor for complex wastewater--process dynamics with dairy effluent.

    PubMed

    Haridas, Ajit; Suresh, S; Chitra, K R; Manilal, V B

    2005-03-01

    A novel high-rate anaerobic reactor, called "Buoyant Filter Bioreactor" (BFBR), has been developed for treating lipid-rich complex wastewater. The BFBR is able to decouple the biomass and insoluble COD retention time from the hydraulic retention time by means of a granular filter bed made of buoyant polystyrene beads. Filter clogging is prevented by an automatic backwash driven by biogas release, which fluidizes the granular filter bed in a downward direction. During filter backwash, the solids captured in the filter are reintroduced into the reaction zone of the reactor. The reaction zone is provided with a mixing system, which is independent of the hydraulic retention time. The performance of a laboratory-scale BFBR was studied for the treatment of dairy effluent, chosen as a model complex wastewater. The dairy effluent was not pre-treated for fat removal. The BFBR was operated over 400 d and showed greater than 85% COD removal at 10 kg COD/(m3/d). The COD conversion to methane in the BFBR was essentially complete. The BFBR performance improved with age, and with feed containing 3200 mg COD/l, the treated effluent had 120 mg COD/l and no turbidity. The hold-up of degradable biosolids, including scum, inside the BFBR was estimated using starvation tests. When load is increased, scum accumulates inside the BFBR and then decays after undergoing change from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. This is explained as the accumulation of fat solids, its conversion to insoluble long chain fatty acids and its further solubilization and degradation. PMID:15766954

  17. The Buoyant Filter Bioreactor: a high-rate anaerobic reactor for complex wastewater--process dynamics with dairy effluent.

    PubMed

    Haridas, Ajit; Suresh, S; Chitra, K R; Manilal, V B

    2005-03-01

    A novel high-rate anaerobic reactor, called "Buoyant Filter Bioreactor" (BFBR), has been developed for treating lipid-rich complex wastewater. The BFBR is able to decouple the biomass and insoluble COD retention time from the hydraulic retention time by means of a granular filter bed made of buoyant polystyrene beads. Filter clogging is prevented by an automatic backwash driven by biogas release, which fluidizes the granular filter bed in a downward direction. During filter backwash, the solids captured in the filter are reintroduced into the reaction zone of the reactor. The reaction zone is provided with a mixing system, which is independent of the hydraulic retention time. The performance of a laboratory-scale BFBR was studied for the treatment of dairy effluent, chosen as a model complex wastewater. The dairy effluent was not pre-treated for fat removal. The BFBR was operated over 400 d and showed greater than 85% COD removal at 10 kg COD/(m3/d). The COD conversion to methane in the BFBR was essentially complete. The BFBR performance improved with age, and with feed containing 3200 mg COD/l, the treated effluent had 120 mg COD/l and no turbidity. The hold-up of degradable biosolids, including scum, inside the BFBR was estimated using starvation tests. When load is increased, scum accumulates inside the BFBR and then decays after undergoing change from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. This is explained as the accumulation of fat solids, its conversion to insoluble long chain fatty acids and its further solubilization and degradation.

  18. In vitro characterization of the effectiveness of enhanced sewage treatment processes to eliminate endocrine activity of hospital effluents.

    PubMed

    Maletz, Sibylle; Floehr, Tilman; Beier, Silvio; Klümper, Claudia; Brouwer, Abraham; Behnisch, Peter; Higley, Eric; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus; Gebhardt, Wilhelm; Linnemann, Volker; Pinnekamp, Johannes; Hollert, Henner

    2013-03-15

    Occurrence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic ecosystems is related to sewage effluents. Due to the possible adverse effects on wildlife and humans, degradation and removal of pharmaceuticals and their metabolites during wastewater treatment is an increasingly important task. The present study was part of a proof of concept study at a medium sized country hospital in western Germany that investigated efficiency of advanced treatment processes to remove toxic potencies from sewage. Specifically, the efficiency of treatment processes such as a membrane bioreactor (MBR) and ozonation to remove endocrine disruptive potentials was assessed. Estrogenic effects were characterized by use of two receptor-mediated in vitro transactivation assays, the Lyticase Yeast Estrogen Screen (LYES) and the Estrogen Receptor mediated Chemical Activated LUciferase gene eXpression (ER CALUX(®)). In addition, the H295R Steroidogenesis Assay (H295R) was utilized to detect potential disruption of steroidogenesis. Raw sewage contained measurable estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated potency as determined by use of the LYES (28.9 ± 8.6 ng/L, 0.33× concentration), which was reduced after treatment by MBR (2.3 ± 0.3 ng/L) and ozone (1.2 ± 0.4 ng/L). Results were confirmed by use of ER CALUX(®) which measured concentrations of estrogen equivalents (EEQs) of 0.2 ± 0.11 ng/L (MBR) and 0.01 ± 0.02 ng/L (ozonation). In contrast, treatment with ozone resulted in greater production of estradiol and aromatase activity at 3× and greater concentrations in H295R cells. It is hypothesized that this is partly due to formation of active oxidized products during ozonation. Substance-specific analyses demonstrated efficient removal of most of the measured compounds by ozonation. A comparison of the ER-mediated responses measured by use of the LYES and ER CALUX(®) with those from the chemical analysis using a mass-balance approach revealed estrone (E1) to be the main compound that caused the estrogenic effects

  19. Trade-off between carbon emission and effluent quality of activated sludge processes under seasonal variations of wastewater temperature and mean cell retention time.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingbo; Fu, Xin; Andrés Baquero, G; Sobhani, Reza; Nolasco, Daniel A; Rosso, Diego

    2016-03-15

    Over the seasonal cycles, the mean cell retention time (MCRT) of the activated sludge process is varied to compensate the wastewater temperature variations. The effects of these variations on the carbon footprint (CFP) and effluent quality index (EQI) of a conventional activated sludge (CAS) process and a nitrification/denitrification (NDN) process were quantified. The carbon emission included both biogenic and non-biogenic carbon. Carbon emissions of wasted biosolids management were also addressed. Our results confirmed that the effluent quality indicated by EQI was not necessarily improved by increasing MCRT. Higher MCRT increased the carbon emission and reduced excess sludge production, which decreased the potential for biogas energy recovery. The NDN process was preferable to the CAS process from the perspective of effluent quality. This consideration extended to the whole plant CFP if the N2O emitted during NDN was limited ([N2O]<1% [NH4(+)]removed) as the carbon emission per unit effluent quality achieved by NDN process is less than that of the CAS process. By putting forward carbon emission intensity (γ) derived from CFP and EQI, our work provides a quantitative tool for decision makers evaluating process alternatives when there is a trade-off between carbon emission and effluent quality. PMID:26789371

  20. Trade-off between carbon emission and effluent quality of activated sludge processes under seasonal variations of wastewater temperature and mean cell retention time.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingbo; Fu, Xin; Andrés Baquero, G; Sobhani, Reza; Nolasco, Daniel A; Rosso, Diego

    2016-03-15

    Over the seasonal cycles, the mean cell retention time (MCRT) of the activated sludge process is varied to compensate the wastewater temperature variations. The effects of these variations on the carbon footprint (CFP) and effluent quality index (EQI) of a conventional activated sludge (CAS) process and a nitrification/denitrification (NDN) process were quantified. The carbon emission included both biogenic and non-biogenic carbon. Carbon emissions of wasted biosolids management were also addressed. Our results confirmed that the effluent quality indicated by EQI was not necessarily improved by increasing MCRT. Higher MCRT increased the carbon emission and reduced excess sludge production, which decreased the potential for biogas energy recovery. The NDN process was preferable to the CAS process from the perspective of effluent quality. This consideration extended to the whole plant CFP if the N2O emitted during NDN was limited ([N2O]<1% [NH4(+)]removed) as the carbon emission per unit effluent quality achieved by NDN process is less than that of the CAS process. By putting forward carbon emission intensity (γ) derived from CFP and EQI, our work provides a quantitative tool for decision makers evaluating process alternatives when there is a trade-off between carbon emission and effluent quality.

  1. Adsorptive treatment of brewery effluent using activated Chrysophyllum albidium seed shell carbon.

    PubMed

    Menkiti, Matthew Chukwudi; Aneke, Mathew Chidiebere; Ejikeme, Paul Madus; Onukwuli, Okechukwu Dominic; Menkiti, Nwasinachi Uzoma

    2014-01-01

    Chrysophyllum albidium seed shell, an abundant, biodegradable and inexpensive natural resource was used as a precursor to bioadsorbent production for the removal of suspended and dissolved particles (SDP) from initially coagulated Brewery Effluent (BRE). Influence of key parameters such as contact time, bioadsorbent dose, pH and temperature were investigated using batch mode. The thermal behavior studies were evaluated using Thermogravimetric and Differential scanning calorimetric analyses. The morphological observations and functional groups of the bioadsorbents were determined using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. The adsorption equilibrium, thermodynamics and kinetic of SDP adsorption on H3PO4-treated shell and NH4Cl-treated shell were examined at specified temperatures. Equilibrium data sufficiently fitted the Langmuir isotherm model (R (2) > 0.99; SSE < 0.09). The pseudo-second order kinetic model provided the best correlation (R (2) > 0.99; SSE < 0.14) with the experimental data. The values of ΔG° and ΔH° indicated the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the process. This study demonstrated that C. albidium seed shell could be utilized as low cost, renewable, ecofriendly bioadsorbent for the uptake of SDP from BRE. PMID:24877028

  2. In vitro assessment of retinoic acid and aryl hydrocarbon receptor activity of treated effluent from 39 wastewater-treatment plants in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Allinson, M; Shiraishi, F; Salzman, S A; Allinson, G

    2011-11-01

    This project involved the collection of final effluent samples from 39 wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs) in Victoria, Australia, in late summer (late February to early March 2007). The 39 WWTPs included 15 lagoon-based plants and 24 with activated sludge-based processes. Samples were collected and subjected to measurement of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activity of the dissolved phase using yeast-based recombinant receptor-reporter gene bioassays. More than 90% of the effluents examined in this study elicited RAR activity (<0.5-198 ng/l a-t-RA equivalents [EQ]). All of the effluents had AhR activity (16-279 ng/l βNF EQ). Notwithstanding the paucity of comparative data, on the whole, the levels of RAR and AhR activity observed in this pilot survey of Victorian WWTP effluents were greater than those recently reported internationally. One assumption commonly made is that WWTP discharges will be diluted significantly in the receiving environment, further decreasing the potential risk of the discharges. Making this assumption may not be appropriate for some of Victoria's more ephemeral waterways or where effluent is discharged to an enclosed water body, such as a lake or terminal wetland. However, even where WWTP discharges represent all of the environmental flow in the warmer months, the observed RAR and AhR activity (as all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin [TCDD] EQ, respectively) was still significantly lower than the concentrations of RA, and 2,3,7,8-TCCD known to cause developmental malformations in fish larvae after short-term exposure to these chemicals. Of perhaps greater concern, WWTP effluent can contain significant suspended solids (essentially biosolids), which may be a considerable sink for some hormonally active, hydrophobic compounds, and which may in turn increase the long-term exposure risk for aquatic fauna. Further studies of the nuclear and AhR activity of WWTP effluent suspended

  3. Activated carbons from end-products of tree nut and tree fruit production as sorbents for removing methyl bromide in ventilation effluent from postharvest chamber fumigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    End-products of tree nuts and tree fruits grown in California, USA were evaluated for the ability to remove methyl bromide from the ventilation effluent of postharvest chamber fumigations. Activated carbon sorbents from walnut and almond shells as well as peach and prune pits were prepared using dif...

  4. Use of an In Vitro, Nuclear Receptor Assay Panel to Characterize the Endocrine-Disrupting Activity Load of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent Extracts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of an In Vitro, Nuclear Receptor Assay Panel to Characterize the Endocrine-Disrupting Activity Load of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent Extracts Katie B. Paul 1.2, Ruth Marfil-Vega 1 Marc A. Mills3, Steve 0. Simmons2, Vickie S. Wilson4, Kevin M. Crofton2 10ak Rid...

  5. High-rate MIEX filtration for simultaneous removal of phosphorus and membrane foulants from secondary effluent.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Chul

    2015-02-01

    This work was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of magnetic ion exchange (MIEX) resin under the best possible conditions, passage through a fixed-bed of resin as opposed to the alternative of directly adding resin into a flowing stream. The possibility of using a very small amount of alum in addition to MIEX treatment was also investigated not only to adsorb residual EfOM in the effluent from a bed of MIEX but also to produce a porous cake layer that would keep away foulants from the surface of membrane or its pore walls. The MIEX treatment alone reduced fouling, but to a much lesser extent than for MIEX combined with an under-dosing coagulation (which uses a considerably low amount of alum). Almost all of colloids and organic acids were removed and the nearly complete removal of phosphorus was achieved by MIEX in a fixed-bed even for an extremely short hydraulic retention time of wastewater in the resin bed. MIEX resin removed phosphorus, but organic acids in EfOM were preferentially removed and the effects of competing anions on the removal of EfOM were insignificant. The MIEX treatment with added alum (only 0.5 mg Al L(-1)) dramatically improved the performance of MF and UF membranes and the subsequent membrane filtration also achieved ≤0.01 mg L(-1) of residual phosphorous. This condition also allowed good flux recovery after hydraulic flushing. PMID:25463930

  6. High-rate MIEX filtration for simultaneous removal of phosphorus and membrane foulants from secondary effluent.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Chul

    2015-02-01

    This work was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of magnetic ion exchange (MIEX) resin under the best possible conditions, passage through a fixed-bed of resin as opposed to the alternative of directly adding resin into a flowing stream. The possibility of using a very small amount of alum in addition to MIEX treatment was also investigated not only to adsorb residual EfOM in the effluent from a bed of MIEX but also to produce a porous cake layer that would keep away foulants from the surface of membrane or its pore walls. The MIEX treatment alone reduced fouling, but to a much lesser extent than for MIEX combined with an under-dosing coagulation (which uses a considerably low amount of alum). Almost all of colloids and organic acids were removed and the nearly complete removal of phosphorus was achieved by MIEX in a fixed-bed even for an extremely short hydraulic retention time of wastewater in the resin bed. MIEX resin removed phosphorus, but organic acids in EfOM were preferentially removed and the effects of competing anions on the removal of EfOM were insignificant. The MIEX treatment with added alum (only 0.5 mg Al L(-1)) dramatically improved the performance of MF and UF membranes and the subsequent membrane filtration also achieved ≤0.01 mg L(-1) of residual phosphorous. This condition also allowed good flux recovery after hydraulic flushing.

  7. Dynamics of microbiological parameters, enzymatic activities and worm biomass production during vermicomposting of effluent treatment plant sludge of bakery industry.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Anoop; Suthar, S; Garg, V K

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports the changes in microbial parameters and enzymatic activities during vermicomposting of effluent treatment plant sludge (ETPS) of bakery industry spiked with cow dung (CD) by Eisenia fetida. Six vermibins containing different ratios of ETPS and CD were maintained under controlled laboratory conditions for 15 weeks. Total bacterial and total fungal count increased upto 7th week and declined afterward in all the bins. Maximum bacterial and fungal count was 31.6 CFU × 10(6) g(-1) and 31 CFU × 10(4) g(-1) in 7th week. Maximum dehydrogenase activity was 1921 μg TPF g(-1) h(-1) in 9th week in 100 % CD containing vermibin, whereas maximum urease activity was 1208 μg NH4 (-)N g(-1) h(-1) in 3rd week in 100 % CD containing vermibin. The enzyme activity and microbial counts were lesser in ETPS containing vermibins than control (100 % CD). The growth and fecundity of the worms in different vermibins were also investigated. The results showed that initially biomass and fecundity of the worms increased but decreased at the later stages due to non-availability of the palatable feed. This showed that quality and palatability of food directly affect biological parameters of the system.

  8. A high-yield sampler for toxicological characterization of complex mixtures in combustion effluents.

    PubMed Central

    Kruzel, E L; Lafleur, A L; Braun, A G; Longwell, J P; Thilly, W G; Peters, W A

    1991-01-01

    Combustion sampling for toxicological assessment often requires that large (greater than 100 mg) lots of complex organic mixtures of wide volatility range be rapidly recovered from high temperature gases without contamination. A new sampler, meeting these criteria for studies of public health interest, has been developed and demonstrated. The device provides high sampling rates and intimate contacting of the samples stream with large volumes of a well-cooled, liquid solvent, dichloromethane (DCM). This promotes rapid organics dissolution from carrier gas and particulates and prompt dilution and quenching of the resulting solution, resulting in high organics collection efficiencies with minimal DCM losses. Solvent separation then remits large quantities of concentrated organics for chemical analysis and toxicological testing. One- to seven-hour interrogations of in-flame, post-flame, and flue gas regions gave 50- to 250-mg yields of complex organic mixtures. In side-by-side sampling of combustion exhaust, the DCM sampler provided higher yields of DCM solubles (identified with complex organic mixtures) and of S. typhimuirim mutagens (active without exogenous metabolizing agents) than did a filter/polymeric sorbent bed sampling train. The new sampler also collects polar and high volatile hydrocarbons such as benzaheyde, pentadiyne, m- and p-diethynyl-benzene, and 1-hexen-3,5-diyne. Nitration of naphthalene and pyrene in DCM solution (1 mg/mL each) was less than 1 part in 10(7) after a 345-min exposure to a bubbling flow of moist N2/air mixture (1:1 v/v) containing 107 ppm NO and 1.5 ppm NO2, indicating that for these condition a DCM sampler should resist artifactual nitration of aromatics. However, because of the very high bacterial mutagenicity of some nitroaromatics and the wide range of sampling conditions of environmental interest, nitration and all artifacts must still be scrutinized when using the DCM sampler. The DCM sampler is expected to contribute to public

  9. Enhanced performance of a submerged membrane bioreactor with powdered activated carbon addition for municipal secondary effluent treatment.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hongjun; Wang, Fangyuan; Ding, Linxian; Hong, Huachang; Chen, Jianrong; Lu, Xiaofeng

    2011-09-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of PAC-MBR process treating municipal secondary effluent. Two laboratory-scale submerged MBRs (SMBR) with and without PAC addition were continuously operated in parallel for secondary effluent treatment. Approximately 63%TOC, 95% NH(4)(+)-N and 98% turbidity in secondary effluent were removed by the PAC-MBR process. Most organics in the secondary effluent were found to be low molecular weight (MW) substances, which could be retained in the reactor and then removed to some extent by using PAC-MBR process. Parallel experiments showed that the addition of PAC significantly increased organic removal and responsible for the largest fraction of organic removal. Membrane fouling analysis showed the enhanced membrane performance in terms of sustainable operational time and filtration resistances by PAC addition. Based on these results, the PAC-MBR process was considered as an attractive option for the reduction of pollutants in secondary effluent. PMID:21794980

  10. Wastewater treatment effluent reduces the abundance and diversity of benthic bacterial communities in urban and suburban rivers.

    PubMed

    Drury, Bradley; Rosi-Marshall, Emma; Kelly, John J

    2013-03-01

    In highly urbanized areas, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent can represent a significant component of freshwater ecosystems. As it is impossible for the composition of WWTP effluent to match the composition of the receiving system, the potential exists for effluent to significantly impact the chemical and biological characteristics of the receiving ecosystem. We assessed the impacts of WWTP effluent on the size, activity, and composition of benthic microbial communities by comparing two distinct field sites in the Chicago metropolitan region: a highly urbanized river receiving effluent from a large WWTP and a suburban river receiving effluent from a much smaller WWTP. At sites upstream of effluent input, the urban and suburban rivers differed significantly in chemical characteristics and in the composition of their sediment bacterial communities. Although effluent resulted in significant increases in inorganic nutrients in both rivers, surprisingly, it also resulted in significant decreases in the population size and diversity of sediment bacterial communities. Tag pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes revealed significant effects of effluent on sediment bacterial community composition in both rivers, including decreases in abundances of Deltaproteobacteria, Desulfococcus, Dechloromonas, and Chloroflexi sequences and increases in abundances of Nitrospirae and Sphingobacteriales sequences. The overall effect of the WWTP inputs was that the two rivers, which were distinct in chemical and biological properties upstream of the WWTPs, were almost indistinguishable downstream. These results suggest that WWTP effluent has the potential to reduce the natural variability that exists among river ecosystems and indicate that WWTP effluent may contribute to biotic homogenization.

  11. Comparative toxicity assessment of ozone and activated carbon treated sewage effluents using an in vivo test battery.

    PubMed

    Stalter, Daniel; Magdeburg, Axel; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2010-04-01

    Wastewater treatment plants do not eliminate micropollutants completely and are thus important point sources for these substances. Ozonation and activated carbon treatment might be beneficial for ecosystem health as these techniques provide effective barriers to organic contaminants. However, a toxicity evaluation is required to investigate toxicity reduction and to assess the potential formation of toxic oxidation byproducts during ozonation. Therefore a comparative toxicity evaluation of different treated wastewater effluents was performed on site at a half scale treatment plant equipped with an ozonation step and an activated carbon treatment step in parallel subsequent to conventional activated sludge treatment. For this purpose four invertebrate and one higher plant toxicity test were selected to assess potential biological effects on whole organisms. The reproduction test with the mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum exhibited a decreased reproductive output after advanced treatment compared to conventional treatment. This indicates an effective estrogenicity removal by ozonation and activated carbon treatment and is confirmed by results of the yeast estrogen screen with a reduction of in vitro estrogenic activity by >75%. The Lumbriculus variegatus test revealed a significantly enhanced toxicity after ozonation compared to conventional treatment whereas this effect was reduced following subsequent sand filtration. When ozonation was applied, a significantly increased genotoxicity was observed, detected with the comet assay using haemolymph of the zebra mussel. Again, this effect was removed by subsequent sand filtration to the level of conventional treatment. Activated carbon treatment even resulted in a significant reduction of genotoxicity. Adverse effects after the ozone reactor are possibly a result of the formation of toxic oxidation byproducts. Biologically active sand filtration obviously is an effective barrier to such compounds.

  12. Assessing Waste Water Treatment Plant Effluents For Thyroid Hormone Disrupting Activity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much information has been coming to light on the estrogenic and androgenic activity of chemicals present in the waste water stream and in surface waters, but much less is known about the presence of chemicals with thyroid activity. To address this issue, we have utilized two ass...

  13. A comparative study of the hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity of activated sludge and membrane bioreactor wastewater effluents.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jacque-Ann; Hofmann, Ron

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the hydroxyl radical scavenging characteristics of wastewater from five membrane bioreactor (MBR) and five activated sludge (AS) systems. The average values of the characteristics of both wastewater types was found to be significantly different at a 90% confidence interval in terms UV absorbance at 254 nm, alkalinity, and biopolymer concentration. Effluent organic matter (EfOM), with an average kOH,EfOM of (2.75 ± 1.04) × 10(8) M(-1)s(-1), was identified as the primary hydroxyl scavenger contributing to >70% of the background scavenging in all cases, except when nitrite exceeded 0.3 mg NO(2)(-)-N/L. The average scavenging capacity, EfOM scavenging capacity, and the EfOM reaction rate constant of the AS wastewaters exceeded that of the MBR. However, due to the small sample size (n = 5) and considerable variability in scavenging characteristics among the MBR wastewaters, the difference in EfOM reactivity between the two wastewaters was not statistically significant at a 90% confidence interval. Nevertheless, these preliminary findings suggest the possibility that MBR wastewaters may be more amenable to treatment by advanced oxidation. A plausible explanation is that MBRs were observed to reject biopolymers, and a strong correlation was observed between EfOM scavenging capacity and biopolymer concentration.

  14. A comparative study of the hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity of activated sludge and membrane bioreactor wastewater effluents.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jacque-Ann; Hofmann, Ron

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the hydroxyl radical scavenging characteristics of wastewater from five membrane bioreactor (MBR) and five activated sludge (AS) systems. The average values of the characteristics of both wastewater types was found to be significantly different at a 90% confidence interval in terms UV absorbance at 254 nm, alkalinity, and biopolymer concentration. Effluent organic matter (EfOM), with an average kOH,EfOM of (2.75 ± 1.04) × 10(8) M(-1)s(-1), was identified as the primary hydroxyl scavenger contributing to >70% of the background scavenging in all cases, except when nitrite exceeded 0.3 mg NO(2)(-)-N/L. The average scavenging capacity, EfOM scavenging capacity, and the EfOM reaction rate constant of the AS wastewaters exceeded that of the MBR. However, due to the small sample size (n = 5) and considerable variability in scavenging characteristics among the MBR wastewaters, the difference in EfOM reactivity between the two wastewaters was not statistically significant at a 90% confidence interval. Nevertheless, these preliminary findings suggest the possibility that MBR wastewaters may be more amenable to treatment by advanced oxidation. A plausible explanation is that MBRs were observed to reject biopolymers, and a strong correlation was observed between EfOM scavenging capacity and biopolymer concentration. PMID:27148707

  15. Preparation and Characterization of Activated Cow Bone Powder for the Adsorption of Cadmium from Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AbdulRahman, A.; Latiff, A. A. A.; Daud, Z.; Ridzuan, M. B.; D, N. F. M.; Jagaba, A. H.

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have been conducted on the removal of heavy metals from palm oil mill effluent. In this study, cow bones were developed as an adsorbent for the removal of cadmium II from POME. A batch experiment was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of the prepared activated cow bone powder for the sorption of cadmium II from raw POME. The experiment was carried out under fixed conditions using 100mg/L raw POME combined with different adsorbent dosage of CBP of 184.471 Ra(nm) surface roughness. The equilibrium adsorption capacity of the hydrophobic CBP of average contact angle 890 was determined from the relationship between the initial and equilibrium liquid phase concentrations of POME. The optimum adsorption of cadmium II on CBP was at 10g adsorbent dosage for sample 1 and 2 at 97.8% and 96.93% respectively. The least uptake was at 30g adsorbent weight for both samples at average of 95.1% for both samples. The effective removal of cadmium ion showed that CBP has a great potential for the treatment of heavy metal in POME.

  16. Detection of estrogen- and dioxin-like activity in pulp and paper mill black liquor and effluent using in vitro bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharewski, T.; Berhane, K.; Gillesby, B.; Burnison, K. |

    1995-12-31

    Pulp and paper mill effluent contains a complex mixture of compounds which adversely affect fish physiologically and at the population level. These effects include compromised reproductive fitness and the induction of mixed-function oxidase activities; two classic responses mediated by the estrogen and/or Ah receptor. In vitro recombinant receptor/reporter gene assays were used to examine pulp and paper mill black liquor and effluent for estrogenic, dioxin-like and antiestrogenic activities. Using MCF7 cells transiently transfected with a Gal4-estrogen receptor chimeric construct (Gal4-HEGO) and a Gal4-regulated luciferase reporter gene (17m5-G-Luc), it was estimated that black liquor contains 4 {+-} 2 ppb ``estrogen equivalents``, while negligible estrogenic activity was observed in a methanol-extracted pulp and paper mill effluent fraction (MF). A dioxin response element (DRE)-regulated luciferase reporter gene (pGudLucl.1) transiently transfected into Hepalclc7 wild type cells exhibited a dose-dependent increase in luciferase activity following treatment with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDO), black liquor and MF. Based on the dose response curves, black liquor and MF contain 10 {+-} 4 ppb and 20 {+-} 6 ppt ``TCDD equivalents``, respectively. Moreover, MF exhibited significant AhR-mediated antiestrogenic activity. These results demonstrate the utility of these bioassays and suggest that the effects observed in fish exposed to pulp and paper mill effluent may be due to unidentified ER and AhR ligands not detected by conventional chemical analysis due to the lack of appropriate chemical standards.

  17. High-temperature desulfurization of gasifier effluents with rare earth and rare earth/transition metal oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, Kerry M.; Kalakota, Vikram; Adusumilli, Sumana

    2011-02-11

    We have improved the application of mixed rare-earth oxides (REOs) as hot gas desulfurization adsorbents by impregnating them on stable high surface area supports and by the inclusion of certain transition metal oxides. We report comparative desulfurization experiments at high temperature (900 K) using a synthetic biomass gasifier effluent containing 0.1 vol % H2S, along with H2, CO2, and water. More complex REO sorbents outperform the simpler CeO2/La2O3 mixtures, in some cases significantly. Supporting REOs on Al2O3 (~20 wt % REO) or ZrO2 actually increased the sulfur capacities found after several cycles on a total weight basis. Another major increase in sulfur capacity took place when MnOx or FeOx is incorporated. Apparently most of the Mn or Fe is dispersed on or near the surface of the mixed REOs because the capacities with REOs greatly exceeded those of Al2O3-supported MnOx or FeOx alone at these conditions. In contrast, incorporating Cu has little effect on sulfur adsorption capacities. Both the REO and transition metal/REO adsorbents could be regenerated completely using air for at least five repetitive cycles.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY IN EFFLUENTS FROM SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Newly developed molecular biology methods have been used for the measurement of estrogenic activity in source-biased studies of sewage treatment plants. Studies in Texas and New Mexico have shown the utility of the measurement of changes in vitellogenin gene expression in fathea...

  19. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility/Effluent Treatment Facility Hazards Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Simiele, G.A.

    1994-09-29

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and Effluent Treatment Facility the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  20. Feasibility of Typha latifolia for high salinity effluent treatment in constructed wetlands for integration in resource management systems.

    PubMed

    Jesus, J M; Calheiros, C S C; Castro, P M L; Borges, M T

    2014-01-01

    High salinity wastewaters have limited treatment options due to the occurrence of salt inhibition in conventional biological treatments. Using recirculating marine aquaculture effluents as a case study, this work explored the use of Constructed Wetlands as a treatment option for nutrient and salt loads reduction. Three different substrates were tested for nutrient adsorption, of which expanded clay performed better. This substrate adsorbed 0.31 mg kg(-1) of NH4(+)-N and 5.60 mg kg(-1) of PO4(3-)-P and 6.9 mg kg(-1) dissolved salts after 7 days of contact. Microcosms with Typha latifolia planted in expanded clay and irrigated with aquaculture wastewater (salinity 2.4%, 7 days hydraulic retention time, for 4 weeks), were able to remove 94% NH(4+)-N (inlet 0.25 +/- 0.13 mg L(-1)), 78% NO2(-)-N (inlet 0.78 +/- 0.62 mg L(-1)), 46% NO3(-)-N (inlet 18.83 +/- 8.93 mg L(-1)) whereas PO4(3-)-P was not detected (inlet 1.41 +/- 0.21 mg L(-1)). Maximum salinity reductions of 52% were observed. Despite some growth inhibition, plants remained viable, with 94% survival rate. Daily treatment dynamics studies revealed rapid PO4(3-)-P adsorption, unbalancing the N:P ratio and possibly affecting plant development. An integrated treatment approach, coupled with biomass valorization, is suggested to provide optimal resource management possibilities.

  1. Simultaneous treatment of raw palm oil mill effluent and biodegradation of palm fiber in a high-rate CSTR.

    PubMed

    Khemkhao, Maneerat; Techkarnjanaruk, Somkiet; Phalakornkule, Chantaraporn

    2015-02-01

    A high-rate continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was used to produce biogas from raw palm oil mill effluent (POME) at 55°C at a highest organic loading rate (OLR) of 19 g COD/ld. Physical and chemical pretreatments were not performed on the raw POME. In order to promote retention of suspended solids, the CSTR was installed with a deflector at its upper section. The average methane yield was 0.27 l/g COD, and the biogas production rate per reactor volume was 6.23 l/l d, and the tCOD removal efficiency was 82%. The hydrolysis rate of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin was 6.7, 3.0 and 1.9 g/d, respectively. The results of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) suggested that the dominant hydrolytic bacteria responsible for the biodegradation of the palm fiber and residual oil were Clostridium sp., while the dominant methanogens were Methanothermobacter sp.

  2. A pilot survey of 39 Victorian WWTP effluents using a high speed luminescent umu test in conjunction with a novel GC-MS-database technique for automatic identification of micropollutants.

    PubMed

    Allinson, Mayumi; Kageyama, Shiho; Nakajima, Daisuke; Kamata, Ryo; Shiraishi, Fujio; Goto, Sumio; Salzman, Scott Andrew; Allinson, Graeme

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, samples of treated effluent were collected at point of discharge to the environment from 39 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located across Victoria, Australia grouped by treatment type. Sample genotoxicity was assessed with a high-throughput luminescent umu test method using Salmonella typhimurium TL210 strain, with and without addition of a commercially available metabolic activation system. Samples were also screened using a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric mass-structure database recognition method. A genotoxic response was observed in half of the samples tested without metabolic activation system (activation system, 75% of samples elicited a genotoxic response, the majority of responses were stronger than without metabolic activation (effluents, although none could be unambiguously tied to the genotoxicity observed. Chemicals observed in one or more effluents included food additives (e.g. dibenzylether), various alkyl phenols, tyre leachates (e.g. 2(3H)-benzothiazolone), antioxidants, flame retardants (e.g. tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate), insect repellents (e.g. diethyltoluamide), stimulants (e.g. caffeine) and anticonvulsants (e.g. carbamazepine). Of the 451 pesticides screened, carbamate insecticides (e.g. bendiocarb, propoxur), plant growth regulators (e.g. propham) and herbicides (e.g. atrazine, metolachlor, simazine) were amongst the compounds observed. PMID:22766865

  3. Long-term operation of biological activated carbon pre-treatment for microfiltration of secondary effluent: Correlation between the organic foulants and fouling potential.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Roddick, Felicity A; Fan, Linhua

    2016-03-01

    The impact of long-term (>2 years) biological activated carbon (BAC) treatment for mitigating organic fouling in the microfiltration of biologically treated secondary effluent was investigated. Correlation between the organic constituents and hydraulic filtration resistance was investigated to identify the major components responsible for fouling. Over two years operation, the removal efficiency for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by the BAC treatment was fairly consistent (30 ± 3%), although the reduction in UVA254 gradually decreased from 56 to 34%. BAC treatment effectively decreased the organic foulants in the effluent and so contributed to the mitigation of membrane fouling as shown by reduction in the unified membrane fouling index (UMFI). BAC consistently removed biopolymers whereas the removal of humic substances decreased from 52 to 25% after two years of BAC operation, and thus led to a gradual decrease in UMFI reduction efficiency from 78 to 43%. This was due to gradual reduction in adsorption capacity of the activated carbon as confirmed by analysis of its pore size distribution. Hence humics also played an important role in membrane fouling. However, there was a good correlation between protein and carbohydrate contents with hydraulically reversible and irreversible filtration resistance, compared with UVA254, turbidity and DOC. Although the mitigation of membrane fouling decreased over time, this study demonstrated that the long-term use of BAC pre-treatment of biologically treated secondary effluent prior to microfiltration has potential to reduce the need for frequent chemical cleaning and so increase membrane life span.

  4. Biodiesel from wastewater: lipid production in high rate algal pond receiving disinfected effluent.

    PubMed

    Assemany, Paula Peixoto; Calijuri, Maria Lucia; do Couto, Eduardo de Aguiar; Santiago, Aníbal Fonseca; Dos Reis, Alberto José Delgado

    2015-01-01

    The production of different species of microalgae in consortium with other micro-organisms from wastewaters may represent an alternative process, to reduce the costs, for obtaining biofuels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of pre-ultraviolet disinfection (UV) in the production of lipids from biomass produced in high rate ponds. Two high rate algal ponds were evaluated: a pond that received domestic sewage without disinfection and the other receiving domestic sewage previously disinfected by UV radiation (uvHRAP). The UV disinfection did not lead to significant differences in fatty acid profile and total lipid productivities, although it increased algal biomass concentration and productivity as well as lipid content. Moreover, the overall biomass concentrations and productivities decreased with the UV disinfection, mostly as a consequence of a loss in bacterial load. We thus conclude that uvHRAP disinfection may represent a potential strategy to promote the cleaner and safer growth of algal biomass when cultivated in consortium with other micro-organisms. Mainly regarding the use of wastewater as culture medium, together with a cheaper production of lipids for biodiesel, pre-disinfection may represent an advance since extraction costs could be significantly trimmed due to the increase in lipid content.

  5. Multivariate statistical analysis of a high rate biofilm process treating kraft mill bleach plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Goode, C; LeRoy, J; Allen, D G

    2007-01-01

    This study reports on a multivariate analysis of the moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) wastewater treatment system at a Canadian pulp mill. The modelling approach involved a data overview by principal component analysis (PCA) followed by partial least squares (PLS) modelling with the objective of explaining and predicting changes in the BOD output of the reactor. Over two years of data with 87 process measurements were used to build the models. Variables were collected from the MBBR control scheme as well as upstream in the bleach plant and in digestion. To account for process dynamics, a variable lagging approach was used for variables with significant temporal correlations. It was found that wood type pulped at the mill was a significant variable governing reactor performance. Other important variables included flow parameters, faults in the temperature or pH control of the reactor, and some potential indirect indicators of biomass activity (residual nitrogen and pH out). The most predictive model was found to have an RMSEP value of 606 kgBOD/d, representing a 14.5% average error. This was a good fit, given the measurement error of the BOD test. Overall, the statistical approach was effective in describing and predicting MBBR treatment performance. PMID:17486834

  6. Masculinization of female mosquitofish in Kraft mill effluent-contaminated Fenholloway River water is associated with androgen receptor agonist activity.

    PubMed

    Parks, L G; Lambright, C S; Orlando, E F; Guillette, L J; Ankley, G T; Gray, L E

    2001-08-01

    Female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis holbrooki) downstream from Kraft paper mills in Florida display masculinization of the anal fin, an androgen-dependent trait. The current investigation was designed to determine if water contaminated with pulp-mill effluent (PME) from the Fenholloway River in Florida displayed androgenic activity in vitro and to relate this activity to the reproductive status of female mosquitofish taken from this river. We tested water samples for androgenic activity from a reference site upstream of a Kraft pulp and paper mill on the Fenholloway River, from 3 sites downstream from the mill, and from another reference site on the Econfina River, also in Florida, where there is no paper mill. We also examined anal fin ray morphology in mosquitofish from these rivers for evidence of masculinization. Eighty percent of the female mosquitofish from the Fenholloway River were partially masculinized while another 10% were completely masculinized, based upon the numbers of segments in the longest anal fin ray (18.0 +/- 0.4 vs. 28.1 +/- 0.9 [p < 0.001]) in the Econfina River vs. the Fenholloway River, respectively). In a COS whole cell-binding assay, all 3 PME samples displayed affinity for human androgen receptor (hAR) (p < 0.001). In addition, PME induced androgen-dependent gene expression in CV-1 cells (cotransfected with pCMV hAR and MMTV luciferase reporter), which was inhibited by about 50% by coadministration of hydroxyflutamide (1 microM), an AR antagonist. Water samples collected upstream of the Kraft mill or from the Econfina River did not bind hAR or induce luciferase expression. When CV-1 cells were transfected with human glucocorticoid receptor (hGR) rather than hAR, PME failed to significantly induce MMTV-luciferase expression. Further evidence of the androgenicity was observed using a COS cell AR nuclear-translocalization assay. PME bound hAR and induced translocalization of AR into the nucleus. In contrast, AR remained perinuclear when

  7. MASCULINIZATION OF FEMALE MOSQUITO FISH IN KRAFT MILL EFFLUENT -CONTAMINATED FENHOLLOWAY RIVER WATER IS ASSOCIATED WITH ANDROGEN RECEPTOR AGONIST ACTIVITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis holbrooki) downstream from Kraft paper mills in Florida display masculinization of the anal fin, an androgen-dependent trait. The current investigation was designed to determine if water contaminated with pulp-mill effluent (PME) from the Fen...

  8. MASCULINIZATION OF FEMALE MOSQUITOFISH IN KRAFT MILL EFFLUENT-CONTAMINATED FENHOLLOWAY RIVER WATER IS ASSOCIATED WITH ANDROGEN RECEPTOR AGONIST ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis holbrooki) downstream from Kraft paper mills in Florida display masculinization of the anal fin, an androgen-dependent trait. The current investigation was designed to determine if water contaminated with pulp mill effluent (PME) from the Fe...

  9. IN VITRO CONFIRMATION OF ANDROGENIC ACTIVITY IN KRAFT MILL EFFLUENT WHICH IS ASSOCIATED WITH MASCULINIZED FEMALE MOSQUITOFISH FORP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Female mosquitofish downstream from Kraft paper mills in Florida display masculinization of the anal fin, an androgen-dependent response. This effect can be introduced in the laboratory with exposure to either paper mill effluent (PME) or to androgenic drugs. Hence, it has been h...

  10. Effects of sludge retention times on reactivity of effluent dissolved organic matter for trihalomethane formation in hybrid powdered activated carbon membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Ma, Defang; Gao, Baoyu; Xia, Chufan; Wang, Yan; Yue, Qinyan; Li, Qian

    2014-08-01

    In this study, real municipal wastewater intended for reuse was treated by two identical hybrid PAC/MBRs (membrane bioreactors with powdered activated carbon addition), which were operated at sludge retention times (SRTs) of 30 and 180 days, respectively. In order to investigate the effects of SRT on trihalomethane (THM) formation in chlorinated PAC/MBR effluents, characteristics and THM formation reactivity of effluent dissolved organic matter (EfOM) at different SRTs were examined. PAC/MBR-180 had higher level of EfOM, which contained less simple aromatic proteins and exhibited lower specific UV absorbance. EfOM with molecular weight <5 kDa from PAC/MBR-30 (23%) was lower than PAC/MBR-180 (26%). About 50% of EfOM from PAC/MBR-30 was hydrophobic acids, which was higher than that from PAC/MBR-180 (about 36%). EfOM at SRT 180 days exhibited higher hydrophilicity. Prolonging SRT greatly reduced THM formation reactivity of EfOM, but increased the formation of bromine-containing species during chlorination of PAC/MBR effluents. PMID:24929809

  11. Survival of free DNA encoding antibiotic resistance from transgenic maize and the transformation activity of DNA in ovine saliva, ovine rumen fluid and silage effluent.

    PubMed

    Duggan, P S; Chambers, P A; Heritage, J; Forbes, J M

    2000-10-01

    To assess the likelihood that the bla gene present in a transgenic maize line may transfer from plant material to the microflora associated with animal feeds, we have examined the survival of free DNA in maize silage effluent, ovine rumen fluid and ovine saliva. Plasmid DNA that had previously been exposed to freshly sampled ovine saliva was capable of transforming competent Escherichia coli cells to ampicillin resistance even after 24 h, implying that DNA released from the diet could provide a source of transforming DNA in the oral cavity of sheep. Although target DNA sequences could be amplified by polymerase chain reaction from plasmid DNA after a 30-min incubation in silage effluent and rumen contents, only short term biological activity, lasting less than 1 min, was observed in these environments, as shown by transformation to antibiotic resistance. These experiments were performed under in vitro conditions; therefore further studies are needed to elucidate the biological significance of free DNA in the rumen and oral cavities of sheep and in silage effluent.

  12. 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities -- Quality assurance program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, L.

    1995-03-13

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) describes the quality assurance and management controls used by the 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities (LEF) to perform its activities in accordance with DOE Order 5700.6C. The 200 Area LEF consists of the following facilities: Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF); Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF); Liquid Effluent Retention facility (LERF); and Truck Loading Facility -- (Project W291). The intent is to ensure that all activities such as collection of effluents, treatment, concentration of secondary wastes, verification, sampling and disposal of treated effluents and solids related with the LEF operations, conform to established requirements.

  13. POLISHING THE EFFLUENT FROM AN ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL PERCHLORATE TREATMENT PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anaerobic biological processes effectively reduce perchlorate to chloride. However, the effluent can be biologically unstable, high in particulates and high in disinfection by-product precursor compounds. Such an effluent would be unsuitable for transmission into a drinking water...

  14. Dairy shed effluent treatment and recycling: Effluent characteristics and performance.

    PubMed

    Fyfe, Julian; Hagare, Dharma; Sivakumar, Muttucumaru

    2016-09-15

    Dairy farm milking operations produce considerable amounts of carbon- and nutrient-rich effluent that can be a vital source of nutrients for pasture and crops. The study aim was to characterise dairy shed effluent from a commercial farm and examine the changes produced by treatment, storage and recycling of the effluent through a two-stage stabilisation pond system. The data and insights from the study are broadly applicable to passive pond systems servicing intensive dairy and other livestock operations. Raw effluent contained mostly poorly biodegradable particulate organic material and organically bound nutrients, as well as a large fraction of fixed solids due to effluent recycling. The anaerobic pond provided effective sedimentation and biological treatment, but hydrolysis of organic material occurred predominantly in the sludge and continually added to effluent soluble COD, nutrients and cations. Sludge digestion also suppressed pH in the pond and increased salt levels through formation of alkalinity. High sludge levels significantly impaired pond treatment performance. In the facultative pond, BOD5 concentrations were halved; however smaller reductions in COD showed the refractory nature of incoming organic material. Reductions in soluble N and P were proportional to reductions in respective particulate forms, suggesting that respective removal mechanisms were not independent. Conditions in the ponds were unlikely to support biological nutrient removal. Recycling caused conservative inert constituents to accumulate within the pond system. Material leaving the system was mostly soluble (86% TS) and inert (65% TS), but salt concentrations remained below thresholds for safe land application. PMID:27213866

  15. Valuable product production from wood mill effluents.

    PubMed

    Mato, T; Ben, M; Kennes, C; Veiga, M C

    2010-01-01

    Fibreboard production is one of the most important industrial activities in Galicia (Spain). Great amounts of wastewater are generated, with properties depending on the type of wood, treatment process, final product and water reusing, among others. These effluents are characterized by a high chemical oxygen demand (COD), low pH and nutrients limitation. Aerobic and anaerobic processes have been used for their treatment. Presently, bioplastics production (mainly polyhydroxyalkanoates or PHA) from wastewaters with mixed cultures is being studied. Substrate requirements for these processes are a high organic matter content and low nutrient concentration. Therefore, wood mill effluents could be a suitable feedstock. PHA production from wastewaters is carried out in three steps. First, complex organic matter is converted into volatile fatty acids (VFA) through acidogenic fermentation. Then, VFA are used as substrate in an aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR), in which the enrichement of PHA producing bacteria from a mixed culture is favoured. Finally, the sludge from the SBR is fed with a pulse containing high VFA concentrations, resulting in PHA accumulation inside the cells. In this work, the possibility of applying this process to wood mill effluents is proposed. An acidification percentage of 37% and a storage yield (Y(STO)) of 0.23 Cmmol/Cmmol were obtained. PMID:21076215

  16. Biochemical responses in the gills of Meretrix meretrix after exposure to treated municipal effluent.

    PubMed

    Wan, Ru; Meng, Fanping; Fu, Wenchao; Wang, Qun; Su, Enping

    2015-01-01

    The biochemical effects in marine bivalves exposed to increasing concentrations of treated municipal effluent (TME), as discharged into receiving marine waters, are investigated. The effluent was collected from a municipal sewage treatment plant (STP) in Qingdao (China). Meretrix meretrix were exposed to effluent volume ratio (EVR, ratio of effluent volume accounted for tailwater seawater mixture) 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20% (v/v) TME for 15 days and the following biochemical responses in gills were measured: (1) the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione (GSH) content, and lipid peroxidation levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), as oxidative stress biomarkers; (2) the activity of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and gluthathione S-transferase (GST), as phase I and phase II conjugation enzymes, respectively; (3) acetylcholinesterase (AChE), as a biomarker of neurotoxicity, and (4) metallothioneins (MTs), as proteins strongly induced by heavy metals. Most of the biochemical indices present high and significant variation frequency (above 50%). There is enhancement in the antioxidant enzymes, EROD, GST, AChE, and MTs, as well as consumption of GSH. The current experimental results suggest that effluent with concentrations less than 20% (v/v) do not cause lipid peroxidation damage. This implies that the activated defense is sufficient to protect the bivalves' gill tissues from cytotoxicity produced by the effluent. Furthermore, GSH, GPx, MTs, and GR are suitable, and sufficiently sensitive, biomarkers to indicate the pollution levels in marine environments receiving such effluent. PMID:25450918

  17. Reduction of COD and color of dyeing effluent from a cotton textile mill by adsorption onto bamboo-based activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, A A; Hameed, B H

    2009-12-30

    In this work, activated carbon was prepared from bamboo waste by chemical activation method using phosphoric acid as activating agent. The activated carbon was evaluated for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color reduction of a real textile mill effluent. A maximum reduction in color and COD of 91.84% and 75.21%, respectively was achieved. As a result, the standard B discharge limit of color and COD under the Malaysian Environmental Quality act 1974 was met. The Freundlich isotherm model was found best to describe the obtained equilibrium adsorption data at 30 degrees C. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, total pore volume and the average pore diameter were 988.23 m(2)/g, 0.69 cm(3)/g and 2.82 nm, respectively. Various functional groups on the prepared bamboo activated carbon (BAC) were determined from the FTIR results.

  18. Bioplastic production using wood mill effluents as feedstock.

    PubMed

    Ben, M; Mato, T; Lopez, A; Vila, M; Kennes, C; Veiga, M C

    2011-01-01

    Fibreboard production is one of the most important industrial activities in Galicia (Spain). Great amounts of wastewater are generated, with properties depending on the type of wood, treatment process, final product and water reusing, among others. These effluents are characterized by a high chemical oxygen demand, low pH and nutrients limitation. Although anaerobic digestion is one of the most suitable processes for the treatment, lately bioplastics production (mainly polyhydroxyalkanoates) from wastewaters with mixed cultures is being evaluated. Substrate requirements for these processes consist of high organic matter content and low nutrient concentration. Therefore, wood mill effluents could be a suitable feedstock. In this work, the possibility of producing bioplastics from to wood mill effluents is evaluated. First, wood mill effluent was converted to volatile fatty acids in an acidogenic reactor operated at two different hydraulic retention times of 1 and 1.5 d. The acidification percentage obtained was 37% and 42%, respectively. Then, aerobic batch assays were performed using fermented wood mill effluents obtained at different hydraulic retention times. Assays were developed using different cultures as inoculums. The maximum storage yield of 0.57 Cmmol/Cmmol was obtained when when the culture was enriched on a synthetic media.

  19. Passive secondary biological treatment systems reduce estrogens in dairy shed effluent.

    PubMed

    Gadd, Jennifer B; Northcott, Grant L; Tremblay, Louis A

    2010-10-01

    Steroid estrogens are found at high concentrations in untreated dairy shed effluents. Reduction of estrogenic activity and steroid estrogen concentrations was assessed in two systems used to treat dairy shed effluents: the two-pond system and the advanced pond system. Both include anaerobic and aerobic treatment stages. Samples of effluent were collected from the systems and analyzed for free estrogens, conjugated estrogens and total estrogenic activity using E-Screen assay. Both systems showed increases of up to 8000% in aqueous free estrogens and estrogenic activity after anaerobic treatment, followed by decreases after aerobic treatment (36-83%). The complete systems decreased total steroid estrogen concentrations by 50-100% and estrogen activity by 62-100%, with little difference between systems. Removal rates were lower in winter for both systems. Final effluents from the advanced pond system contained total estrogens at <15-1400 ng/L and estrogenic activity at 3.2-43 ng/L. Final effluent from the two-pond system contained total estrogens at <15-300 ng/L and estrogenic activity at 3.3-25 ng/L. At times the final effluent EEQs exceeded guideline values for protection of freshwater fish and suggest further treatment may be required.

  20. 324 and 327 Facilities Environmental Effluent Specifications

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, D.L.

    1999-08-30

    These effluent specifications address requirements for the 324/321 Facilities, which are undergoing stabilization activities. Effluent specifications are imposed to protect personnel, the environment and the public, by ensuring adequate implementation and compliance with federal and state regulatory requirements and Hanford programs.

  1. 324/327 facilities environmental effluent specifications

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, D.L.

    1998-10-29

    These effluent technical specifications address requirements for the 324/327 facilities, which are undergoing stabilization activities. Effluent technical specifications are imposed to protect personnel, the environment and the public, by ensuring adequate implementation and compliance with federal and state regulatory requirements and Hanford programs.

  2. Quality Assurance Program Plan for FFTF effluent controls. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Seamans, J.A.

    1995-06-08

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan is specific to environmental related activities within the FFTF Property Protected Area. The activities include effluent monitoring and Low Level Waste Certification.

  3. Facility effluent monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the facility effluent monitoring programs and provides an evaluation of effluent monitoring data. These evaluations are useful in assessing the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control systems, as well as management practices.

  4. Wastewater treatment effluent reduces the abundance and diversity of benthic bacterial communities in urban and suburban rivers.

    PubMed

    Drury, Bradley; Rosi-Marshall, Emma; Kelly, John J

    2013-03-01

    In highly urbanized areas, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent can represent a significant component of freshwater ecosystems. As it is impossible for the composition of WWTP effluent to match the composition of the receiving system, the potential exists for effluent to significantly impact the chemical and biological characteristics of the receiving ecosystem. We assessed the impacts of WWTP effluent on the size, activity, and composition of benthic microbial communities by comparing two distinct field sites in the Chicago metropolitan region: a highly urbanized river receiving effluent from a large WWTP and a suburban river receiving effluent from a much smaller WWTP. At sites upstream of effluent input, the urban and suburban rivers differed significantly in chemical characteristics and in the composition of their sediment bacterial communities. Although effluent resulted in significant increases in inorganic nutrients in both rivers, surprisingly, it also resulted in significant decreases in the population size and diversity of sediment bacterial communities. Tag pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes revealed significant effects of effluent on sediment bacterial community composition in both rivers, including decreases in abundances of Deltaproteobacteria, Desulfococcus, Dechloromonas, and Chloroflexi sequences and increases in abundances of Nitrospirae and Sphingobacteriales sequences. The overall effect of the WWTP inputs was that the two rivers, which were distinct in chemical and biological properties upstream of the WWTPs, were almost indistinguishable downstream. These results suggest that WWTP effluent has the potential to reduce the natural variability that exists among river ecosystems and indicate that WWTP effluent may contribute to biotic homogenization. PMID:23315724

  5. Wastewater Treatment Effluent Reduces the Abundance and Diversity of Benthic Bacterial Communities in Urban and Suburban Rivers

    PubMed Central

    Drury, Bradley; Rosi-Marshall, Emma

    2013-01-01

    In highly urbanized areas, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent can represent a significant component of freshwater ecosystems. As it is impossible for the composition of WWTP effluent to match the composition of the receiving system, the potential exists for effluent to significantly impact the chemical and biological characteristics of the receiving ecosystem. We assessed the impacts of WWTP effluent on the size, activity, and composition of benthic microbial communities by comparing two distinct field sites in the Chicago metropolitan region: a highly urbanized river receiving effluent from a large WWTP and a suburban river receiving effluent from a much smaller WWTP. At sites upstream of effluent input, the urban and suburban rivers differed significantly in chemical characteristics and in the composition of their sediment bacterial communities. Although effluent resulted in significant increases in inorganic nutrients in both rivers, surprisingly, it also resulted in significant decreases in the population size and diversity of sediment bacterial communities. Tag pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes revealed significant effects of effluent on sediment bacterial community composition in both rivers, including decreases in abundances of Deltaproteobacteria, Desulfococcus, Dechloromonas, and Chloroflexi sequences and increases in abundances of Nitrospirae and Sphingobacteriales sequences. The overall effect of the WWTP inputs was that the two rivers, which were distinct in chemical and biological properties upstream of the WWTPs, were almost indistinguishable downstream. These results suggest that WWTP effluent has the potential to reduce the natural variability that exists among river ecosystems and indicate that WWTP effluent may contribute to biotic homogenization. PMID:23315724

  6. Effects of effluent organic matter characteristics on the removal of bulk organic matter and selected pharmaceutically active compounds during managed aquifer recharge: Column study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeng, Sung Kyu; Sharma, Saroj K.; Abel, Chol D. T.; Magic-Knezev, Aleksandra; Song, Kyung-Guen; Amy, Gary L.

    2012-10-01

    Soil column experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of effluent organic matter (EfOM) characteristics on the removal of bulk organic matter (OM) and pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) treatment processes. The fate of bulk OM and PhACs during an MAR is important to assess post-treatment requirements. Biodegradable OM from EfOM, originating from biological wastewater treatment, was effectively removed during soil passage. Based on a fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (F-EEM) analysis of wastewater effluent-dominated (WWE-dom) surface water (SW), protein-like substances, i.e., biopolymers, were removed more favorably than fluorescent humic-like substances under oxic compared to anoxic conditions. However, there was no preferential removal of biopolymers or humic substances, determined as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) observed via liquid chromatography with online organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) analysis. Most of the selected PhACs exhibited removal efficiencies of greater than 90% in both SW and WWE-dom SW. However, the removal efficiencies of bezafibrate, diclofenac and gemfibrozil were relatively low in WWE-dom SW, which contained more biodegradable OM than did SW (copiotrophic metabolism). Based on this study, low biodegradable fractions such as humic substances in MR may have enhanced the degradation of diclofenac, gemfibrozil and bezafibrate by inducing an oligotrophic microbial community via long term starvation. Both carbamazepine and clofibric acid showed persistent behaviors and were not influenced by EfOM.

  7. Treatment of a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAnMBR) effluent by an activated sludge system: the role of sulphide and thiosulphate in the process.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ramírez, J E; Seco, A; Ferrer, J; Bouzas, A; García-Usach, F

    2015-01-01

    This work studies the use of a well-known and spread activated sludge system (UCT configuration) to treat the effluent of a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAnMBR) treating domestic wastewater. Ammonia, phosphate, dissolved methane and sulphide concentrations in the SAnMBR effluent were around 55 mg NH4-N L(-1), 7 mg PO4-P L(-1), 30 mg non-methane biodegradable COD L(-1), and 105 mg S(2-) L(-1) respectively. The results showed a nitrification inhibition caused by the presence of sulphur compounds at any of the solids retention time (SRT) studied (15, 20 and 25 days). This inhibition could be overcome increasing the hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 13 to 26 h. Among the sulphur compounds, sulphide was identified as the substance which caused the nitrification inhibition. When the nitrification was well established, removal rates of nitrogen and phosphorus of 56% and 45% were reached respectively. The sulphide present in the influent was completely oxidised to sulphate, contributing this oxidation to the denitrification process. Moreover, the presence of methanotrophic bacteria, detected by FISH technique, could also contribute to the denitrification.

  8. Effluents from oil production activities contain chemicals that interfere with normal function of intra- and extra-cellular estrogen binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Tollefsen, Knut-Erik; Finne, Eivind Farmen; Romstad, Randi; Sandberg, Cecilie

    2006-07-01

    Some environmental pollutants have the ability to alter the endocrine function in fish through interaction with the estrogen receptor (ER). Many of these chemicals are also able to interfere with the endocrine system through other mechanisms of action, however. The plasma sex steroid-binding protein (SBP), which is involved in regulating circulating levels of endogenous sex steroids, has recently been proposed to contribute to pollutant induced disruption of endocrine homeostasis. The objective of the present work was to determine whether industrial effluents contain chemicals that are able to modulate the endocrine system through interference with the function of the ER and SBP using in vitro biological assays (bioassays) from rainbow trout. The results show that solid phase extracts of process water (produced water) from an oil production facility in the North Sea and a land-based oil refinery contain chemicals that are able to induce estrogenic effects as well as displace natural sex steroid 17beta-estradiol from the SBP. The bioactive chemicals were found to be partly resistant to biological degradation, but the identity of the chemicals was not determined. The alkylphenol 4-tert-butylphenol, which is known to occur in effluents from various oil production facilities, was found to be estrogenic and displace 17beta-estradiol from the SBP and may thus contribute to the observed endocrine disrupting activity. PMID:16697461

  9. Study of a large scale powdered activated carbon pilot: Removals of a wide range of emerging and priority micropollutants from wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    PubMed

    Mailler, R; Gasperi, J; Coquet, Y; Deshayes, S; Zedek, S; Cren-Olivé, C; Cartiser, N; Eudes, V; Bressy, A; Caupos, E; Moilleron, R; Chebbo, G; Rocher, V

    2015-04-01

    The efficacy of a fluidized powdered activated carbon (PAC) pilot (CarboPlus(®)) was studied in both nominal (total nitrification + post denitrification) and degraded (partial nitrification + no denitrification) configuration of the Seine Centre WWTP (Colombes, France). In addition to conventional wastewater parameters 54 pharmaceuticals and hormones (PhPHs) and 59 other emerging pollutants were monitored in influents and effluents of the pilot. Thus, the impacts of the WWTP configuration, the process operation and the physico-chemical properties of the studied compounds were assessed in this article. Among the 26 PhPHs quantified in nominal WWTP configuration influents, 8 have high dissolved concentrations (>100 ng/L), 11 have an intermediary concentration (10-100 ng/L) and 7 are quantified below 10 ng/L. Sulfamethoxazole is predominant (about 30% of the sum of the PhPHs). Overall, 6 PhPHs are poorly to moderately removed (<60%), such as ibuprofen, paracetamol or estrone, while 9 are very well removed (>80%), i.e. beta blockers, carbamazepine or trimethoprim, and 11 are well eliminated (60-80%), i.e. diclofenac, naproxen or sulfamethoxazole. In degraded WWTP configuration, higher levels of organic matter and higher concentrations of most pollutants are observed. Consequently, most PhPHs are substantially less removed in percentages but the removed flux is higher. Thus, the PAC dose required to achieve a given removal percentage is higher in degraded WWTP configuration. For the other micropollutants (34 quantified), artificial sweeteners and phthalates are found at particularly high concentrations in degraded WWTP configuration influents, up to μg/L range. Only pesticides, bisphenol A and parabens are largely eliminated (50-95%), while perfluorinated acids, PAHs, triclosan and sweeteners are not or weakly removed (<50%). The remaining compounds exhibit a very variable fate from campaign to campaign. The fresh PAC dose was identified as the most influencing

  10. Study of a large scale powdered activated carbon pilot: Removals of a wide range of emerging and priority micropollutants from wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    PubMed

    Mailler, R; Gasperi, J; Coquet, Y; Deshayes, S; Zedek, S; Cren-Olivé, C; Cartiser, N; Eudes, V; Bressy, A; Caupos, E; Moilleron, R; Chebbo, G; Rocher, V

    2015-04-01

    The efficacy of a fluidized powdered activated carbon (PAC) pilot (CarboPlus(®)) was studied in both nominal (total nitrification + post denitrification) and degraded (partial nitrification + no denitrification) configuration of the Seine Centre WWTP (Colombes, France). In addition to conventional wastewater parameters 54 pharmaceuticals and hormones (PhPHs) and 59 other emerging pollutants were monitored in influents and effluents of the pilot. Thus, the impacts of the WWTP configuration, the process operation and the physico-chemical properties of the studied compounds were assessed in this article. Among the 26 PhPHs quantified in nominal WWTP configuration influents, 8 have high dissolved concentrations (>100 ng/L), 11 have an intermediary concentration (10-100 ng/L) and 7 are quantified below 10 ng/L. Sulfamethoxazole is predominant (about 30% of the sum of the PhPHs). Overall, 6 PhPHs are poorly to moderately removed (<60%), such as ibuprofen, paracetamol or estrone, while 9 are very well removed (>80%), i.e. beta blockers, carbamazepine or trimethoprim, and 11 are well eliminated (60-80%), i.e. diclofenac, naproxen or sulfamethoxazole. In degraded WWTP configuration, higher levels of organic matter and higher concentrations of most pollutants are observed. Consequently, most PhPHs are substantially less removed in percentages but the removed flux is higher. Thus, the PAC dose required to achieve a given removal percentage is higher in degraded WWTP configuration. For the other micropollutants (34 quantified), artificial sweeteners and phthalates are found at particularly high concentrations in degraded WWTP configuration influents, up to μg/L range. Only pesticides, bisphenol A and parabens are largely eliminated (50-95%), while perfluorinated acids, PAHs, triclosan and sweeteners are not or weakly removed (<50%). The remaining compounds exhibit a very variable fate from campaign to campaign. The fresh PAC dose was identified as the most influencing

  11. Evaluation of bioremediation potentiality of ligninolytic Serratia liquefaciens for detoxification of pulp and paper mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Haq, Izharul; Kumar, Sharad; Kumari, Vineeta; Singh, Sudheer Kumar; Raj, Abhay

    2016-03-15

    Due to high pollution load and colour contributing substances, pulp and paper mill effluents cause serious aquatic and soil pollution. A lignin-degrading bacterial strain capable of decolourising Azure-B dye was identified as lignin peroxidase (LiP) producing strain LD-5. The strain was isolated from pulp and paper mill effluent contaminated site. Biochemical and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis suggested that strain LD-5 belonged to the Serratia liquefaciens. The strain LD-5 effectively reduced pollution parameters (colour 72%, lignin 58%, COD 85% and phenol 95%) of real effluent after 144h of treatment at 30°C, pH 7.6 and 120rpm. Extracellular LiP produced by S. liquefaciens during effluent decolourisation was purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulfate (AMS) precipitation and DEAE cellulose column chromatography. The molecular weight of the purified lignin peroxidase was estimated to be ∼28kDa. Optimum pH and temperature for purified lignin peroxidase activity were determined as pH 6.0 and 40°C, respectively. Detoxified effluent was evaluated for residual toxicity by alkaline single cell (comet) gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 36 as model organism. The toxicity reduction to treated effluent was 49.4%. These findings suggest significant potential of S. liquefaciens for bioremediation of pulp and paper mill effluent.

  12. Estrogenic activity measured in a sewage treatment works treating industrial inputs containing high concentrations of alkylphenolic compounds--a case study.

    PubMed

    Sheahan, David A; Brighty, Geoff C; Daniel, Mic; Kirby, Sonia J; Hurst, Mark R; Kennedy, Joe; Morris, Steven; Routledge, Edwin J; Sumpter, John P; Waldock, Michael J

    2002-03-01

    Chemical analyses were combined with a biological assay to investigate the main estrogenic chemicals as they passed through a sewage treatment works (STW) and entered a river. The STW studied was unusual in that it received wastewater from the textile trade. This wastewater was shown to contain high concentrations of alkylphenol polyethoxylates and their degradation products, such as nonylphenol. High-performance liquid chromatography fractionation, combined with biological assay, showed that the majority of the estrogenic activity was contributed by the alkylphenolic chemicals and the natural estrogens 17beta-estradiol and estrone. Despite removal of a high proportion of the alkylphenolic chemicals by the various treatment processes within the STW, concentrations in the final effluent were still high compared to most other STW effluents in the United Kingdom. The effluent was very estrogenic to caged fish, as was the river water 2 and 5 km downstream of the STW, even though less so. Using various approaches, attempts were made to determine which group of chemicals contributed most to the estrogenic activity of the effluent. The analysis suggested that, in this unusual situation, the alkylphenolic chemicals may contribute the majority of the estrogenic activity of the effluent. However, this conclusion was based on a number of uncertainties that are presently unresolved and hence can be considered only tentative. PMID:11878463

  13. High specific activity silicon-32

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Dennis R.; Brzezinski, Mark A.

    1996-01-01

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provided and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  14. High specific activity silicon-32

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, D.R.; Brzezinski, M.A.

    1996-06-11

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provided and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidation state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  15. Application of isolated bacterial consortium in UMBR for detoxification of textile effluent: comparative analysis of resultant oxidative stress and genotoxicity in catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis) exposed to raw and treated effluents.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Priya; Sarkar, Sandeep; Dey, Tanmoy Kumar; Bakshi, Madhurima; Swarnakar, Snehasikta; Mukhopadhayay, Aniruddha; Ghosh, Sourja

    2014-08-01

    A bacterial consortium isolated from activated sludge was identified to be Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Shigella sp. and E. coli. and was found capable of 98.62 % decolourization of highly toxic textile effluent, when applied in an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane bioreactor (UMBR). Ceramic capillary UF membranes prepared over low cost support proved to be highly efficient in adverse experimental conditions. The UMBR permeate and untreated textile effluent (40 % (v/v)) was then used to treat Heteropneustes fossilis for a comparative assessment of their toxicity. Micronucleus count in peripheral blood erythrocytes and comet assay carried out in liver and gill cells showed significantly lower nuclear and tissue specific DNA damage respectively in organisms exposed to membrane permeate and was further supported by considerably lower oxidative stress response enzyme activities in comparison to raw effluent treated individuals. The results indicate efficient detoxification of textile effluent by the UMBR treatment using the isolated bacterial consortium.

  16. Evaluation of effectiveness of chemical and physical sewage treatment technologies for removal of retinoic acid receptor agonistic activity detected in sewage effluent.

    PubMed

    Inoue, D; Matsui, H; Sei, K; Hu, J; Yang, M; Aragane, J; Hirotsuji, J; Ike, M

    2009-01-01

    Retinoic acid receptor (RAR) is a nuclear receptor involved in vertebrate morphogenesis, growth, cellular differentiation, and tissue homeostasis. Excess expression of the retinoid signaling can cause various developmental toxicities in animals and humans. We previously found that influents from sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Japan had a RAR agonistic activity and the activity cannot be removed completely by conventional biological treatments. In this study, we assessed the performance of chemical and physical sewage treatment technologies-ozonation, ultraviolet treatment, chlorination, coagulation using polyaluminium chloride (PAC) and ferric sulfate, and filtration with ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF), and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes-in removal of RAR agonistic activity of STP effluent. All water treatment experiments were conducted in laboratory-scale reactors. The RAR agonistic activity of samples was measured using a yeast two-hybrid assay. Results showed that the effectiveness of tested technologies on the removal of RAR agonistic activity can be ranked as RO or NF > chlorination > ozonation > MF > UV > coagulation with ferric sulfate>coagulation with PAC. Furthermore, the effectiveness of chlorination might rank lower because excess reaction might bring a side effect by producing some RAR agonistic by-product(s).

  17. Characterization of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care products in hospital effluent and waste water influent/effluent by direct-injection LC-MS-MS.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Tiago S; Murphy, Mark; Mendola, Nicholas; Wong, Virginia; Carlson, Doreen; Waring, Linda

    2015-06-15

    Two USEPA Regional Laboratories developed direct-injection LC/MS/MS methods to measure Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) in water matrices. Combined, the laboratories were prepared to analyze 185 PPCPs (with 74 overlapping) belonging to more than 20 therapeutical categories with reporting limits at low part-per-trillion. In partnership with Suffolk County in NY, the laboratories conducted PPCP analysis on 72 samples belonging to 4 Water Systems (WS). Samples were collected at different stages of the WS (hospital effluents, WWTP influents/effluents) to assess PPCP relevance in hospital discharges, impact on WWTP performance and potential ecological risk posed by analytes not eliminated during treatment. Major findings include: a) acceptable accuracy between the two laboratories for most overlapping PPCPs with better agreement for higher concentrations; b) the measurement of PPCPs throughout all investigated WS with total PPCP concentrations ranging between 324 and 965 μg L(-1) for hospital effluent, 259 and 573 μg L(-1) for WWTP influent and 19 and 118 μg L(-1) for WWTP effluent; c) the variable contribution of hospital effluents to the PPCP loads into the WWTP influents (contribution ranging between 1% (WS-2) and 59% (WS-3); d) the PPCP load reduction after treatment for all WS reaching more than 95% for WS using activated sludge processes (WS-2 and WS-4), with inflow above 6500 m(3) d(-1), and having a lower percentage of hospital effluent in the WWTP influent; e) the relevance of four therapeutical categories for the PPCP load in WWTP effluents (analgesics, antidiabetics, antiepileptics and psychoanaleptics); and f) the risk quotients calculated using screening-level Predicted Non Effect Concentration indicate that WWTP effluents contain 33 PPCPs with potential medium to high ecological risk. To our knowledge no other monitoring investigation published in the scientific literature uses direct-injection methods to cover as many PPCPs and

  18. An advanced anaerobic biofilter with effluent recirculation for phenol removal and methane production in treatment of coal gasification wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Yajie; Tabassum, Salma; Zhang, Zhenjia

    2016-09-01

    An advanced anaerobic biofilter (AF) was introduced for the treatment of coal gasification wastewater (CGW), and effluent recirculation was adopted to enhance phenol removal and methane production. The results indicated that AF was reliable in treating diluted CGW, while its efficiency and stability were seriously reduced when directly treating raw CGW. However, its performance could be greatly enhanced by effluent recirculation. Under optimal effluent recirculation of 0.5 to the influent, concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phenol in the effluent could reach as low as 234.0 and 14.2mg/L, respectively. Also, the rate of methane production reached 169.0mLCH4/L/day. Though CGW seemed to restrain the growth of anaerobic microorganisms, especially methanogens, the inhibition was temporary and reversible, and anaerobic bacteria presented strong tolerance. The activities of methanogens cultivated in CGW could quickly recover on feeding with glucose wastewater (GW). However, the adaptability of anaerobic bacteria to the CGW was very poor and the activity of methanogens could not be improved by long-term domestication. By analysis using the Haldane model, it was further confirmed that high effluent recirculation could result in high activity for hydrolytic bacteria and substrate affinity for toxic matters, but only suitable effluent recirculation could result in high methanogenic activity. PMID:27593269

  19. An advanced anaerobic biofilter with effluent recirculation for phenol removal and methane production in treatment of coal gasification wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Yajie; Tabassum, Salma; Zhang, Zhenjia

    2016-09-01

    An advanced anaerobic biofilter (AF) was introduced for the treatment of coal gasification wastewater (CGW), and effluent recirculation was adopted to enhance phenol removal and methane production. The results indicated that AF was reliable in treating diluted CGW, while its efficiency and stability were seriously reduced when directly treating raw CGW. However, its performance could be greatly enhanced by effluent recirculation. Under optimal effluent recirculation of 0.5 to the influent, concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phenol in the effluent could reach as low as 234.0 and 14.2mg/L, respectively. Also, the rate of methane production reached 169.0mLCH4/L/day. Though CGW seemed to restrain the growth of anaerobic microorganisms, especially methanogens, the inhibition was temporary and reversible, and anaerobic bacteria presented strong tolerance. The activities of methanogens cultivated in CGW could quickly recover on feeding with glucose wastewater (GW). However, the adaptability of anaerobic bacteria to the CGW was very poor and the activity of methanogens could not be improved by long-term domestication. By analysis using the Haldane model, it was further confirmed that high effluent recirculation could result in high activity for hydrolytic bacteria and substrate affinity for toxic matters, but only suitable effluent recirculation could result in high methanogenic activity.

  20. Enhanced degradation of textile effluent in constructed wetland system using Typha domingensis and textile effluent-degrading endophytic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Shehzadi, Maryam; Afzal, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Umar; Islam, Ejazul; Mobin, Amina; Anwar, Samina; Khan, Qaiser Mahmood

    2014-07-01

    Textile effluent is one of the main contributors of water pollution and it adversely affects fauna and flora. Constructed wetland is a promising approach to remediate the industrial effluent. The detoxification of industrial effluent in a constructed wetland system may be enhanced by applying beneficial bacteria that are able to degrade contaminants present in industrial effluent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of inoculation of textile effluent-degrading endophytic bacteria on the detoxification of textile effluent in a vertical flow constructed wetland reactor. A wetland plant, Typha domingensis, was vegetated in reactor and inoculated with two endophytic bacterial strains, Microbacterium arborescens TYSI04 and Bacillus pumilus PIRI30. These strains possessed textile effluent-degrading and plant growth-promoting activities. Results indicated that bacterial inoculation improved plant growth, textile effluent degradation and mutagenicity reduction and were correlated with the population of textile effluent-degrading bacteria in the rhizosphere and endosphere of T. domingensis. Bacterial inoculation enhanced textile effluent-degrading bacterial population in rhizosphere, root and shoot of T. domingensis. Significant reductions in COD (79%), BOD (77%) TDS (59%) and TSS (27%) were observed by the combined use of plants and bacteria within 72 h. The resultant effluent meets the wastewater discharge standards of Pakistan and can be discharged into the environment without any risks. This study revealed that the combined use of plant and endophytic bacteria is one of the approaches to enhance textile effluent degradation in a constructed wetland system. PMID:24755300

  1. Growth optimisation of microalga mutant at high CO₂ concentration to purify undiluted anaerobic digestion effluent of swine manure.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jun; Xu, Jiao; Huang, Yun; Li, Yuyou; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2015-02-01

    Growth rate of the microalga Chlorella PY-ZU1 mutated by nuclear irradiation was optimised for use in the purification of undiluted anaerobic digestion effluent of swine manure (UADESM) with 3745 mg L(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 1135 mg L(-1) total nitrogen content. The problem of accessible carbon in UADESM was solved by continuous introduction of 15% (v/v) CO2. Adding phosphorus to UADESM and aeration of UADESM before inoculation both markedly reduced the lag phase of microalgal growth. In addition, the biomass yield and average growth rate of Chlorella PY-ZU1 increased significantly to 4.81 g L(-1) and 601.2 mg L(-1) d(-1), respectively, while the removal efficiencies of total phosphorus, COD and ammonia nitrogen increased to 95%, 79% and 73%, respectively. Thus, the findings indicate that Chlorella PY-ZU1 can be used for effective purification of UADESM, while the biomass can be safely used as animal feed supplement.

  2. Removal of dissolved organic matter by granular-activated carbon adsorption as a pretreatment to reverse osmosis of membrane bioreactor effluents.

    PubMed

    Gur-Reznik, Shirra; Katz, Ilan; Dosoretz, Carlos G

    2008-03-01

    The adsorption of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on granular-activated carbon (GAC) as a pretreatment to reverse osmosis (RO) desalination of membrane bioreactor (MBR) effluents was studied in lab- and pilot-scale columns. The pattern and efficiency of DOM adsorption and fate of the hydrophobic (HPO), transphilic (TPI) and hydrophilic (HPI) fractions were characterized, as well as their impact on organic fouling of the RO membranes. Relatively low DOM adsorption capacity and low intensity of adsorption were observed in batch studies. Continuous adsorption experiments performed within a range of hydraulic velocities of 0.9-12m/h depicted permissible values within the mass transfer zone up to 1.6m/h. The breakthrough curves within this range displayed a non-adsorbable fraction of 24+/-6% and a biodegradable fraction of 49+/-12%. Interestingly, the adsorbable fraction remained almost constant ( approximately 30%) in the entire hydraulic range studied. Comparative analysis by HPO interaction chromatography showed a steady removal (63-66%) of the HPO fraction. SUVA index and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra indicated that DOM changes during the adsorption phase were mainly due to elution of the more HPI components. GAC pretreatment in pilot-scale columns resulted in 80-90% DOM removal from MBR effluents, which in turn stabilized membrane permeability and increased permeate quality. FTIR analysis indicated that the residual DOM present in the RO permeate, regardless of the pretreatment, was mainly of HPI character (e.g., low-molecular-weight humics linked to polysaccharides and proteins). The DOM removed by GAC pretreatment is composed mainly of HPO and biodegradable components, which constitutes the fraction primarily causing organic fouling.

  3. Start-up of the completely autotrophic nitrogen removal process using low activity anammox inoculum to treat low strength UASB effluent.

    PubMed

    Malamis, S; Katsou, E; Frison, N; Di Fabio, S; Noutsopoulos, C; Fatone, F

    2013-11-01

    The start-up of the completely autotrophic nitrogen removal process was examined in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using low activity anoxic ammonium oxidation (anammox) inoculum. The SBR received effluent from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) that treated low strength wastewater. The volumetric nitrogen loading rate (vNLR) was first 0.24 ± 0.11 kg Nm(-3)d(-1) and then reduced to 0.10 ± 0.02 kg Nm(-3)d(-1). The average specific anammox activity was 2.27 ± 1.31 mg N (gVSS h)(-1), at 30°C representing an increase of 161% compared to the inoculum. The decrease in vNLR did not significantly affect anammox activity, but resulted in a decrease of denitrifying heterotrophic activity to very low levels after the first 30 days owing to the decrease of organic loading rate (OLR). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis confirmed the stable presence of anammox bacteria in biomass. Numerous filamentous microorganisms were present, several of which were in a state of endogenous respiration. PMID:24077156

  4. Quality of effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate

    PubMed Central

    Sial, R.A.; Chaudhary, M.F.; Abbas, S.T.; Latif, M.I.; Khan, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Of 6634 registered industries in Pakistan, 1228 are considered to be highly polluting. The major industries include textile, pharmaceutical, chemicals (organic and inorganic), food industries, ceramics, steel, oil mills and leather tanning which spread all over four provinces, with the larger number located in Sindh and Punjab, with smaller number in North Western Frontier Province (NWFP) and Baluchistan. Hattar Industrial Estate extending over 700 acres located in Haripur district of NWFP is a new industrial estate, which has been developed with proper planning for management of industrial effluents. The major industries located in Hattar are ghee industry, chemical (sulfuric acid, synthetic fiber) industry, textile industry and pharmaceuticals industry. These industries, although developed with proper planning are discharging their effluents in the nearby natural drains and ultimately collected in a big drain near Wah. The farmers in the vicinity are using these effluents for growing vegetables and cereal crops due to shortage of water. In view of this discussion, there is a dire need to determine if these effluents are hazardous for soil and plant growth. So, effluents from different industries, sewage and normal tap water samples were collected and analysed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total soluble salts (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen, cations and anions and heavy metals. The effluents of ghee and textile industries are highly alkaline. EC and TSS loads of ghee and textile industries are also above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS), Pakistan. All the effluents had residual sodium carbonates (RSCs), carbonates and bicarbonates in amounts that cannot be used for irrigation. Total toxic metals load in all the effluents is also above the limit i.e. 2.0 mg/L. Copper in effluents of textile and sewage, manganese in ghee industry effluents and iron contents in all the effluents were

  5. 40 CFR 455.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Metallo-Organic Pesticide... this paragraph which may be discharged from the manufacture of metallo-organic active ingredient:...

  6. An investigation into the extent and bilogcal impacts of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in a highly effluent-dominated river in New England

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Assabet River in central Massachusetts is a heavily effluent-dominated river and during low-flow conditions, is composed almost entirely of waterwater effluent (i.e., up to 95%). The U.S EPA Regional New England Laboratory and the U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development ...

  7. Wastewater effluent dispersal in Southern California Bays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Yusuke; Idica, Eileen Y.; McWilliams, James C.; Stolzenbach, Keith D.

    2014-03-01

    The dispersal and dilution of urban wastewater effluents from offshore, subsurface outfalls is simulated with a comprehensive circulation model with downscaling in nested grid configurations for San Pedro and Santa Monica Bays in Southern California during Fall of 2006. The circulation is comprised of mean persistent currents, mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, and tides. Effluent volume inflow rates at Huntington Beach and Hyperion are specified, and both their present outfall locations and alternative nearshore diversion sites are assessed. The effluent tracer concentration fields are highly intermittent mainly due to eddy currents, and their probability distribution functions have long tails of high concentration. The dilution rate is controlled by submesoscale stirring and straining in tracer filaments. The dominant dispersal pattern is alongshore in both directions, approximately along isobaths, over distances of more than 10 km before dilution takes over. The current outfall locations mostly keep the effluent below the surface and away from the shore, as intended, but the nearshore diversions do not.

  8. Millimeter wave sensor for monitoring effluents

    DOEpatents

    Gopalsami, Nachappa; Bakhtiari, Sasan; Raptis, Apostolos C.; Dieckman, Stephen L.

    1995-01-01

    A millimeter-wave sensor for detecting and measuring effluents from processing plants either remotely or on-site includes a high frequency signal source for transmitting frequency-modulated continuous waves in the millimeter or submillimeter range with a wide sweep capability and a computer-controlled detector for detecting a plurality of species of effluents on a real time basis. A high resolution spectrum of an effluent, or effluents, is generated by a deconvolution of the measured spectra resulting in a narrowing of the line widths by 2 or 3 orders of magnitude as compared with the pressure broadened spectra detected at atmospheric pressure for improved spectral specificity and measurement sensitivity. The sensor is particularly adapted for remote monitoring such as where access is limited or sensor cost restricts multiple sensors as well as for large area monitoring under nearly all weather conditions.

  9. In vitro and immunological assessment of the estrogenic activity and concentrations of 17beta-estradiol, estrone, and ethinyl estradiol in treated effluent from 45 wastewater treatment plants in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Allinson, M; Shiraishi, F; Salzman, S A; Allinson, G

    2010-04-01

    The project was conducted between May 2006 and September 2007, and involved the collection of effluent samples from 45 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The 45 WWTPs included 16 lagoon-based plants and 29 with activated sludge-based processes. Permission was obtained from all the relevant water authorities to collect samples of final effluent at point of discharge to the environment, whether that was to a creek, a river, the ocean, or the land. Samples were collected on two occasions, namely, in August 2006 (winter) and late February-early March 2007 (summer), and subjected to a number of biological and chemical analyses, including toxicity tests, measurement of hormonal (estrogenic) activity using yeast-based bioassays, and measurement of specific hormonal concentrations using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Almost all of the effluents examined showed estrogenic activity: in winter, no activity to 73 ng/l 17beta-estradiol equivalents (EEQ); and in summer, no activity to 20 ng/l EEQ. On the whole, the levels of estrogenic activity observed were comparable with the range recently reported in Australia and New Zealand using human estrogen receptor-based assays ("not detected" to approximately 10 ng/l EEQ). The low/no bioassay response was confirmed by the chemical assessment of estradiol, estrone, and ethinyl estradiol concentrations by ELISA, which returned concentrations of these compounds for the most part below 10 ng/l. PMID:20130850

  10. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 325 Facility

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The Applied Chemistry Laboratory (325 Facility) houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and mixed hazardous waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials, and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed, low-level, and transuranic wastes generated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Radioactive material storage and usage occur throughout the facility and include a large number of isotopes. This material is in several forms, including solid, liquid, particulate, and gas. Some of these materials are also heated during testing which can produce vapors. The research activities have been assigned to the following activity designations: High-Level Hot Cell, Hazardous Waste Treatment Unit, Waste Form Development, Special Testing Projects, Chemical Process Development, Analytical Hot Cell, and Analytical Chemistry. The following summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements.

  11. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  12. Environmental Activities, Junior High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, William C.; Larson, Robert J.

    This guide, for use at the junior high level, is aimed at helping our youth become more knowledgeable concerning the environment and associated problems, thus making them aware of how to solve these problems and motivating them to work toward their solution. Among the subjects discussed are art in nature, erosion, body pollution, water pollution,…

  13. The secrets of highly active older adults.

    PubMed

    Franke, Thea; Tong, Catherine; Ashe, Maureen C; McKay, Heather; Sims-Gould, Joanie

    2013-12-01

    Although physical activity is a recognized component in the management of many chronic diseases associated with aging, activity levels tend to progressively decline with increasing age (Manini & Pahor, 2009; Schutzer & Graves, 2004). In this article we examine the key factors that facilitate physical activity in highly active community-dwelling older adults. Using a strengths based approach, we examined the factors that facilitated physical activity in our sample of highly active older adults. Twenty-seven older adults participated in face-to face interviews. We extracted a sub-sample of 10 highly active older adults to be included in the analyses. Based on a framework analysis of our transcripts we identified three factors that facilitate physical activity in our sample, these include: 1) resourcefulness: engagement in self-help strategies such as self-efficacy, self-control and adaptability; 2) social connections: the presence of relationships (friend, neighborhood, institutions) and social activities that support or facilitate high levels of physical activity; and 3) the role of the built and natural environments: features of places and spaces that support and facilitate high levels of physical activity. Findings provide insight into, and factors that facilitate older adults' physical activity. We discuss implications for programs (e.g., accessible community centers, with appropriate programming throughout the lifecourse) and policies geared towards the promotion of physical activity (e.g., the development of spaces that facilitate both physical and social activities). PMID:24300060

  14. NATIONAL WWTP EFFLUENT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reports of potential wildlife risk from exposure to environmental estrogens emphasize the need to better understand both estrogenic presence and persistence in treated wastewater effluents. In addition to wildlife exposure, human exposure should also be examined, especially in si...

  15. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    PubMed

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  16. Faecal indicator organism concentrations in sewage and treated effluents.

    PubMed

    Kay, D; Crowther, J; Stapleton, C M; Wyer, M D; Fewtrell, L; Edwards, A; Francis, C A; McDonald, A T; Watkins, J; Wilkinson, J

    2008-01-01

    The importance of faecal indicator organism (FIO) fluxes within drainage basins is increasing as the European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive and the United States Clean Water Act place requirements on regulators to manage point and diffuse sources of microbial pollution causing non-compliance (EU) or impairment (US) of receiving waters. Central to this management task is knowledge of the likely FIO concentrations in raw sewage and treated effluents, but few empirical data have been published in the peer-reviewed literature. Accordingly, this paper presents results for 1933 samples from 162 different sewage discharge sites in the UK and Jersey, which encompass 12 types of sewage-related discharge, representative of untreated sewage and primary-, secondary- and tertiary-treated effluents. Geometric means (GMs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) have been used to characterise base- and high-flow FIO concentrations. The data sets and sub-sets are mostly quite large (n 40) and may therefore be applied with some confidence to comparable discharge sites in similar geographical regions. Very marked, statistically significant reductions in GM FIO concentrations result from secondary and tertiary treatment, and there are statistically significant differences between some secondary and some tertiary treatments. Flow conditions are also shown to be important: untreated sewage and effluent from primary treatment plant have lower concentrations at high flow, due to dilution within combined sewerage systems, whereas some treated effluents (e.g. from activated sludge plant) have higher concentrations at high flow because of the shorter residence time within the plant. Under base-flow conditions, secondary treatments result in estimated GM FIO reductions of 95.22-99.29% (cf. primary-treated effluent). Corresponding figures for tertiary treatment plants (cf. secondary-treated effluent) are 93.24-96.59% for reedbed/grass plots and 99.71-99.92% for UV disinfection. Results

  17. Faecal indicator organism concentrations in sewage and treated effluents.

    PubMed

    Kay, D; Crowther, J; Stapleton, C M; Wyer, M D; Fewtrell, L; Edwards, A; Francis, C A; McDonald, A T; Watkins, J; Wilkinson, J

    2008-01-01

    The importance of faecal indicator organism (FIO) fluxes within drainage basins is increasing as the European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive and the United States Clean Water Act place requirements on regulators to manage point and diffuse sources of microbial pollution causing non-compliance (EU) or impairment (US) of receiving waters. Central to this management task is knowledge of the likely FIO concentrations in raw sewage and treated effluents, but few empirical data have been published in the peer-reviewed literature. Accordingly, this paper presents results for 1933 samples from 162 different sewage discharge sites in the UK and Jersey, which encompass 12 types of sewage-related discharge, representative of untreated sewage and primary-, secondary- and tertiary-treated effluents. Geometric means (GMs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) have been used to characterise base- and high-flow FIO concentrations. The data sets and sub-sets are mostly quite large (n 40) and may therefore be applied with some confidence to comparable discharge sites in similar geographical regions. Very marked, statistically significant reductions in GM FIO concentrations result from secondary and tertiary treatment, and there are statistically significant differences between some secondary and some tertiary treatments. Flow conditions are also shown to be important: untreated sewage and effluent from primary treatment plant have lower concentrations at high flow, due to dilution within combined sewerage systems, whereas some treated effluents (e.g. from activated sludge plant) have higher concentrations at high flow because of the shorter residence time within the plant. Under base-flow conditions, secondary treatments result in estimated GM FIO reductions of 95.22-99.29% (cf. primary-treated effluent). Corresponding figures for tertiary treatment plants (cf. secondary-treated effluent) are 93.24-96.59% for reedbed/grass plots and 99.71-99.92% for UV disinfection. Results

  18. POLISHING THE EFFLUENT FROM AN ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL PERCHLORATE TREATMENT PROCESS - SLIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anaerobic biological processes effectively reduce perchlorate to chloride. However, the effluent can be biologically unstable, high in particulates and high in disinfection by-product precursor compounds. Such an effluent would be unsuitable for transmission into a drinking water...

  19. Ammonium removal from anaerobically treated effluent by Chlamydomonas acidophila.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Ania; Blanco, Fernando; Lacalle, Arrate; Pinto, Miriam

    2014-02-01

    Several batch culture studies were carried out to evaluate an anaerobically treated effluent as a low-cost growth medium for the microalga Chlamydomonas acidophila and to study the effectiveness of the microalga in removing NH4-N from the effluent. An initial decrease in the effluent pH to 3 was required for adequate growth of C. acidophila and removal of NH4-N. Growth of the microalgae was inhibited at high light intensity (224μmolphotonsm(-2)s(-1) at the surface of the vessels). However, the growth was not greatly affected by the high solid content and turbidity of the effluent. The microalga was able to grow in media containing NH4-N at concentrations of up to 1000mgL(-1) (50% of effluent) and to remove 88mg of NH4-NL(-1) in 10days. C. acidophila therefore appears a promising agent for the removal of NH4-N from anaerobically treated effluents.

  20. Assessment of Radioactive Liquid Effluents Release at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    SciTech Connect

    Bessa Nisti, Marcelo; Godoy dos Santos, Adir Janete

    2008-08-07

    A continuous effluent monitoring program has been established at IPEN's plant in order to allow an environmental impact assessment due to radioactive liquid effluent discharge to sanitary system. Representative samples of radioactive liquid effluents are analyzed by using high resolution gamma spectroscopy and instrumental neutron activation analysis, facing to Brazilian radioprotection regulatory rules. The results are consolidating yearly in the Institute source-term. In this paper, results of the source-term are presented, concerning to years 2004, 2005 and 2006. The total activity discharged was 8.5xl0{sup 8} Bq, 5.7x10{sup 8} Bq and 2.7xl0{sup 8} Bq, respectively. As the release is strongly dependent on the total amount of the effluent and on the dilution factor, special attention is needed in order to obtain the correct value of that last one. The estimated inside plant dilution factor, considering the recent facilities and the reshaping of the sewerage system was 80, 180 and 130, for period of 2004, 2005 and 2006 discharged liquid radioactive effluent.

  1. Assessment of Radioactive Liquid Effluents Release at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisti, Marcelo Bessa; dos Santos, Adir Janete Godoy

    2008-08-01

    A continuous effluent monitoring program has been established at IPEN's plant in order to allow an environmental impact assessment due to radioactive liquid effluent discharge to sanitary system. Representative samples of radioactive liquid effluents are analyzed by using high resolution gamma spectroscopy and instrumental neutron activation analysis, facing to Brazilian radioprotection regulatory rules. The results are consolidating yearly in the Institute source-term. In this paper, results of the source-term are presented, concerning to years 2004, 2005 and 2006. The total activity discharged was 8.5×l08 Bq, 5.7×108 Bq and 2.7×l08 Bq, respectively. As the release is strongly dependent on the total amount of the effluent and on the dilution factor, special attention is needed in order to obtain the correct value of that last one. The estimated inside plant dilution factor, considering the recent facilities and the reshaping of the sewerage system was 80, 180 and 130, for period of 2004, 2005 and 2006 discharged liquid radioactive effluent.

  2. Endocrine active chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and other chemicals of concern in surface water, wastewater-treatment plant effluent, and bed sediment, and biological characteristics in selected streams, Minnesota-design, methods, and data, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Kathy E.; Langer, Susan K.; Barber, Larry B.; Writer, Jeff H.; Ferrey, Mark L.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Furlong, Edward T.; Foreman, William T.; Gray, James L.; ReVello, Rhiannon C.; Martinovic, Dalma; Woodruff, Olivia R.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Brown, Greg K.; Taylor, Howard E.; Ferrer, Imma; Thurman, E. Michael

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the study design, environmental data, and quality-assurance data for an integrated chemical and biological study of selected streams or lakes that receive wastewater-treatment plant effluent in Minnesota. This study was a cooperative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, St. Cloud State University, the University of St. Thomas, and the University of Colorado. The objective of the study was to identify distribution patterns of endocrine active chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and other organic and inorganic chemicals of concern indicative of wastewater effluent, and to identify biological characteristics of estrogenicity and fish responses in the same streams. The U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed water, bed-sediment, and quality-assurance samples, and measured or recorded streamflow once at each sampling location from September through November 2009. Sampling locations included surface water and wastewater-treatment plant effluent. Twenty-five wastewater-treatment plants were selected to include continuous flow and periodic release facilities with differing processing steps (activated sludge or trickling filters) and plant design flows ranging from 0.002 to 10.9 cubic meters per second (0.04 to 251 million gallons per day) throughout Minnesota in varying land-use settings. Water samples were collected from the treated effluent of the 25 wastewater-treatment plants and at one point upstream from and one point downstream from wastewater-treatment plant effluent discharges. Bed-sediment samples also were collected at each of the stream or lake locations. Water samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pharmaceuticals, phytoestrogens and pharmaceuticals, alkylphenols and other neutral organic chemicals, carboxylic acids, and steroidal hormones. A subset (25 samples) of the bed-sediment samples were analyzed for carbon, wastewater-indicator chemicals, and steroidal hormones; the

  3. Improved biodegradation of textile dye effluent by coculture.

    PubMed

    Vijayalakshmidevi, S R; Muthukumar, Karuppan

    2015-04-01

    The present study demonstrates the de-colorization and degradation of textile effluent by coculture consisting of three bacterial species isolated from textile effluent contaminated environment with an aim to reduce the treatment time. The isolates were identified as Ochrobactrum sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Providencia vermicola by 16S rRNA analysis. Their secondary structure was predicted and GC content of the sequence was found to be 54.39, 52.10, and 52.53%. The co-culture showed a prominent increase in the degradation activity due to the action of oxidoreductase enzymatic mechanism of laccase, NADH-DCIP reductase and azoreductase activity. The biodegradability index of 0.75 was achieved with 95% chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction in 16 h and 78 and 85% reduction in total organic carbon (TOC) and total solids was observed. Bioaccumulation of metals was identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The effective decolorization was confirmed from the results of UV-vis spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography and Fourier transformed infrared spectrometer analyzes. The possible degradation pathway was obtained from the analysis of liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis and the metabolites such as 2-amino naphthalene and N-phenyl-1.3,5 triazine were observed. The toxic nature of the effluent was analyzed using phyto-toxicity, cell-death assay and geno-toxicity tests.

  4. Improved biodegradation of textile dye effluent by coculture.

    PubMed

    Vijayalakshmidevi, S R; Muthukumar, Karuppan

    2015-04-01

    The present study demonstrates the de-colorization and degradation of textile effluent by coculture consisting of three bacterial species isolated from textile effluent contaminated environment with an aim to reduce the treatment time. The isolates were identified as Ochrobactrum sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Providencia vermicola by 16S rRNA analysis. Their secondary structure was predicted and GC content of the sequence was found to be 54.39, 52.10, and 52.53%. The co-culture showed a prominent increase in the degradation activity due to the action of oxidoreductase enzymatic mechanism of laccase, NADH-DCIP reductase and azoreductase activity. The biodegradability index of 0.75 was achieved with 95% chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction in 16 h and 78 and 85% reduction in total organic carbon (TOC) and total solids was observed. Bioaccumulation of metals was identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The effective decolorization was confirmed from the results of UV-vis spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography and Fourier transformed infrared spectrometer analyzes. The possible degradation pathway was obtained from the analysis of liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis and the metabolites such as 2-amino naphthalene and N-phenyl-1.3,5 triazine were observed. The toxic nature of the effluent was analyzed using phyto-toxicity, cell-death assay and geno-toxicity tests. PMID:25594688

  5. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 325 Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, K.D.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1999-04-02

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) has been prepared for the 325 Building Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to meet the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Programs.'' This FEMP has been prepared for the RPL primarily because it has a ''major'' (potential to emit >0.1 mrem/yr) emission point for radionuclide air emissions according to the annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) assessment performed. This section summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the inventory based NESHAP assessment for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements. The RPL at PNNL houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and radioactive mixed waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities within the building include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed radioactive, low-level radioactive, and transuranic wastes generated by PNNL activities.

  6. Degradation of 32 emergent contaminants by UV and neutral photo-fenton in domestic wastewater effluent previously treated by activated sludge.

    PubMed

    De la Cruz, N; Giménez, J; Esplugas, S; Grandjean, D; de Alencastro, L F; Pulgarín, C

    2012-04-15

    This study focuses on the removal of 32 selected micropollutants (pharmaceuticals, corrosion inhibitors and biocides/pesticides) found in an effluent coming from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) based on activated sludge. Dissolved organic matter was present, with an initial total organic carbon of 15.9 mg L(-1), and a real global quantity of micropollutants of 29.5 μg L(-1). The treatments tested on the micropollutants removal were: UV-light emitting at 254 nm (UV(254)) alone, dark Fenton (Fe(2+,3+)/H(2)O(2)) and photo-Fenton (Fe(2+,3+)/H(2)O(2)/light). Different irradiation sources were used for the photo-Fenton experiences: UV(254) and simulated sunlight. Iron and H(2)O(2) concentrations were also changed in photo-Fenton experiences in order to evaluate its influence on the degradation. All the experiments were developed at natural pH, near neutral. Photo-Fenton treatments employing UV(254), 50 mg L(-1) of H(2)O(2), with and without adding iron (5 mg L(-1) of Fe(2+) added or 1.48 mg L(-1) of total iron already present) gave the best results. Global percentages of micropollutants removal achieved were 98 and a 97% respectively, after 30 min of treatments. As the H(2)O(2) concentration increased (10, 25 and 50 mg L(-1)), best degradations were observed. UV(254), Fenton, and photo-Fenton under simulated sunlight gave less promising results with lower percentages of removal. The highlight of this paper is to point out the possibility of the micropollutants degradation in spite the presence of DOM in much higher concentrations. PMID:22305640

  7. Toxic impact of effluents from petrochemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Nikunen, E.

    1985-02-01

    The toxicity of effluents from a petrochemical industry center in southern Finland was tested by conducting bioassays on organisms from three different trophic levels. In fish tests, rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were caged at the discharge site and simultaneously at a reference area. The only clear differences, among the measurements of 25 metabolic parameters, were observed in fish liver where activities of two detoxication enzymes were significantly increased in the exposed group. The water flea (Daphnia magna) was used both in acute (EC50) and long-term reproduction tests. No acute lethal toxicity was detected in any of the wastewater samples investigated. A combined effluent, however, caused a reduction in the reproduction rate with an EC50 of 3%. No mutagenic activity was observed with the Ames test (Salmonella typhimurium, strains TA 97, TA 98, and TA 100) in concentrated effluents, in sediment samples, or in liver samples from predator fish caught from the discharge site.

  8. High density culture of white bass X striped bass fingerlings in raceways using power plant heated effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, C.M.; Burton, G.L.; Schweinforth, R.L.

    1983-06-01

    White bass (Morone chrysops) X striped bass (M. saxatilis) hybrids weighing 1691/lb were initially stocked in five 24 ft/sup 3/ floating screen cages for 20 days. Hybrids averaging one inch in total length and 361 fish/lb were released in four 614 ft/sup 3/ concrete raceways. Two stocking densities, 2.6 and 5.1 fish/ft/sup 3/, were evaluated in the 94-day study using a flow rate of 300 gpm/raceway. Water temperatures averaged 79/sup 0/F and water quality was adequate throughout the production period. Fish were hand fed to satiation daily. Columnaris and Aeromonas hydrophila caused the most serious disease problems. Gas supersaturation was suspect in high mortality levels during cage culture of hybrid bass fry. Cannibalism may have been responsible for unaccountable losses prior to raceway stocking and at harvest. The study yielded 5773 hybrids weighing 658 lb. The high density treatment showed greater weight gain, average weight, average length and percent survival as well as improved food conversion. Results suggest that higher stocking densities and periodic grading may increase production and suppress cannibalism. 10 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Elimination of micropollutants and transformation products from a wastewater treatment plant effluent through pilot scale ozonation followed by various activated carbon and biological filters.

    PubMed

    Knopp, Gregor; Prasse, Carsten; Ternes, Thomas A; Cornel, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment plants are ineffective in removing a broad range of micropollutants, resulting in the release of these compounds into the aquatic environment, including natural drinking water resources. Ozonation is a suitable treatment process for micropollutant removal, although, currently, little is known about the formation, behavior, and removal of transformation products (TP) formed during ozonation. We investigated the elimination of 30 selected micropollutants (pharmaceuticals, X-ray contrast media, industrial chemicals, and TP) by biological treatment coupled with ozonation and, subsequently, in parallel with two biological filters (BF) or granular activated carbon (GAC) filters. The selected micropollutants were removed to very different extents during the conventional biological wastewater treatment process. Ozonation (specific ozone consumption: 0.87 ± 0.29 gO3 gDOC(-1), hydraulic retention time: 17 ± 3 min) eliminated a large number of the investigated micropollutants. Although 11 micropollutants could still be detected after ozonation, most of these were eliminated in subsequent GAC filtration at bed volumes (BV) of approximately 25,000 m(3) m(-3). In contrast, no additional removal of micropollutants was achieved in the BF. Ozonation of the analgesic tramadol led to the formation of tramadol-N-oxide that is effectively eliminated by GAC filters, but not by BF. For the antiviral drug acyclovir, the formation of carboxy-acyclovir was observed during activated sludge treatment, with an average concentration of 3.4 ± 1.4 μg L(-1) detected in effluent samples. Subsequent ozonation resulted in the complete elimination of carboxy-acyclovir and led to the formation of N-(4-carbamoyl-2-imino-5-oxo imidazolidin)-formamido-N-methoxyacetetic acid (COFA; average concentration: 2.6 ± 1.0 μg L(-1)). Neither the BF nor the GAC filters were able to remove COFA. These results highlight the importance of considering TP in the

  10. Elimination of micropollutants and transformation products from a wastewater treatment plant effluent through pilot scale ozonation followed by various activated carbon and biological filters.

    PubMed

    Knopp, Gregor; Prasse, Carsten; Ternes, Thomas A; Cornel, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment plants are ineffective in removing a broad range of micropollutants, resulting in the release of these compounds into the aquatic environment, including natural drinking water resources. Ozonation is a suitable treatment process for micropollutant removal, although, currently, little is known about the formation, behavior, and removal of transformation products (TP) formed during ozonation. We investigated the elimination of 30 selected micropollutants (pharmaceuticals, X-ray contrast media, industrial chemicals, and TP) by biological treatment coupled with ozonation and, subsequently, in parallel with two biological filters (BF) or granular activated carbon (GAC) filters. The selected micropollutants were removed to very different extents during the conventional biological wastewater treatment process. Ozonation (specific ozone consumption: 0.87 ± 0.29 gO3 gDOC(-1), hydraulic retention time: 17 ± 3 min) eliminated a large number of the investigated micropollutants. Although 11 micropollutants could still be detected after ozonation, most of these were eliminated in subsequent GAC filtration at bed volumes (BV) of approximately 25,000 m(3) m(-3). In contrast, no additional removal of micropollutants was achieved in the BF. Ozonation of the analgesic tramadol led to the formation of tramadol-N-oxide that is effectively eliminated by GAC filters, but not by BF. For the antiviral drug acyclovir, the formation of carboxy-acyclovir was observed during activated sludge treatment, with an average concentration of 3.4 ± 1.4 μg L(-1) detected in effluent samples. Subsequent ozonation resulted in the complete elimination of carboxy-acyclovir and led to the formation of N-(4-carbamoyl-2-imino-5-oxo imidazolidin)-formamido-N-methoxyacetetic acid (COFA; average concentration: 2.6 ± 1.0 μg L(-1)). Neither the BF nor the GAC filters were able to remove COFA. These results highlight the importance of considering TP in the

  11. Integrated assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluent estrogenicity in the Upper Murray River, Australia, using the native Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vajda, Alan M.; Kumar, Anupama; Woods, Marianne; Williams, Mike; Doan, Hai; Tolsher, Peter; Kookana, Rai S.; Barber, Larry B.

    2016-01-01

    The contamination of major continental river systems by endocrine-active chemicals (EACs) derived from the discharge of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can affect human and ecosystem health. As part of a long-term effort to develop a native fish model organism for assessment of endocrine disruption in Australia's largest watershed, the Murray-Darling River Basin, the present study evaluated endocrine disruption in adult males of the native Australian Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) exposed to effluent from an activated sludge WWTP and water from the Murray River during a 28-d, continuous-flow, on-site experiment. Analysis of the WWTP effluent and river water detected estrone and 17β-estradiol at concentrations up to approximately 25 ng L−1. Anti-estrogenicity of effluent samples was detected in vitro using yeast-based bioassays (yeast estrogen screen) throughout the experiment, but estrogenicity was limited to the first week of the experiment. Histological evaluation of the testes indicated significant suppression of spermatogenesis by WWTP effluent after 28 d of exposure. Plasma vitellogenin concentrations and expression of vitellogenin messenger RNA in liver were not significantly affected by exposure to WWTP effluent. The combination of low contaminant concentrations in the WWTP effluent, limited endocrine disrupting effects in the Murray rainbowfish, and high in-stream dilution factors (>99%) suggest minimal endocrine disruption impacts on native Australian fish in the Murray River downstream from the WWTP outfall. 

  12. Integrated assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluent estrogenicity in the Upper Murray River, Australia, using the native Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis).

    PubMed

    Vajda, Alan M; Kumar, Anupama; Woods, Marianne; Williams, Mike; Doan, Hai; Tolsher, Peter; Kookana, Rai S; Barber, Larry B

    2015-05-01

    The contamination of major continental river systems by endocrine-active chemicals (EACs) derived from the discharge of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can affect human and ecosystem health. As part of a long-term effort to develop a native fish model organism for assessment of endocrine disruption in Australia's largest watershed, the Murray-Darling River Basin, the present study evaluated endocrine disruption in adult males of the native Australian Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) exposed to effluent from an activated sludge WWTP and water from the Murray River during a 28-d, continuous-flow, on-site experiment. Analysis of the WWTP effluent and river water detected estrone and 17β-estradiol at concentrations up to approximately 25 ng L(-1) . Anti-estrogenicity of effluent samples was detected in vitro using yeast-based bioassays (yeast estrogen screen) throughout the experiment, but estrogenicity was limited to the first week of the experiment. Histological evaluation of the testes indicated significant suppression of spermatogenesis by WWTP effluent after 28 d of exposure. Plasma vitellogenin concentrations and expression of vitellogenin messenger RNA in liver were not significantly affected by exposure to WWTP effluent. The combination of low contaminant concentrations in the WWTP effluent, limited endocrine disrupting effects in the Murray rainbowfish, and high in-stream dilution factors (>99%) suggest minimal endocrine disruption impacts on native Australian fish in the Murray River downstream from the WWTP outfall. PMID:25645549

  13. Integrated assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluent estrogenicity in the Upper Murray River, Australia, using the native Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis).

    PubMed

    Vajda, Alan M; Kumar, Anupama; Woods, Marianne; Williams, Mike; Doan, Hai; Tolsher, Peter; Kookana, Rai S; Barber, Larry B

    2015-05-01

    The contamination of major continental river systems by endocrine-active chemicals (EACs) derived from the discharge of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can affect human and ecosystem health. As part of a long-term effort to develop a native fish model organism for assessment of endocrine disruption in Australia's largest watershed, the Murray-Darling River Basin, the present study evaluated endocrine disruption in adult males of the native Australian Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) exposed to effluent from an activated sludge WWTP and water from the Murray River during a 28-d, continuous-flow, on-site experiment. Analysis of the WWTP effluent and river water detected estrone and 17β-estradiol at concentrations up to approximately 25 ng L(-1) . Anti-estrogenicity of effluent samples was detected in vitro using yeast-based bioassays (yeast estrogen screen) throughout the experiment, but estrogenicity was limited to the first week of the experiment. Histological evaluation of the testes indicated significant suppression of spermatogenesis by WWTP effluent after 28 d of exposure. Plasma vitellogenin concentrations and expression of vitellogenin messenger RNA in liver were not significantly affected by exposure to WWTP effluent. The combination of low contaminant concentrations in the WWTP effluent, limited endocrine disrupting effects in the Murray rainbowfish, and high in-stream dilution factors (>99%) suggest minimal endocrine disruption impacts on native Australian fish in the Murray River downstream from the WWTP outfall.

  14. Cholera: possible infection from aircraft effluent.

    PubMed

    Rondle, C J; Ramesh, B; Krahn, J B; Sherriff, R

    1978-12-01

    This paper presents the hypothesis that some cases of cholera might be due to effluent discharge from aircraft. The theoretical case is borne out by inspection of data on the physical conditions pertaining between high altitudes and ground level. A study of the distribution of isolated outbreaks and single cases of disease and their relation to major airline routes showed a reasonable correspondence. Sporadic outbreaks of cholera in Europe between 1970 and 1975 were found to lie within the flight paths of regular airline services from Calcutta, where cholera is endemic, to the Northern Hemisphere. Laboratory studies on the stability of Vibrio cholerae to conditions likely to be encountered in droplets falling from high altitude to the ground suggested that significant numbers of organisms might survive. It should be noted that in this study no account was taken of the effect of ultra-violet light on viability and it is known that at high altitides the ultraviolet light component of solar radiation is much higher than at ground level. Results of experiments where small numbers of organisms were inoculated into relatively poor media showed that rapid growth ensued and that sufficient organisms were produced to give an infective dose of Vibrio cholerae in 1-10 ml/fluid. It could be concluded that human infection could easily occur by ingestion of fluids such as milk or soup which had some time earlier received a fortuitous but slight contamination from the air. Investigation of one disinfectant (chloramine T) showed that it reacted rapidly and in a complex manner with peptone. One effect of this reaction was the elimination of bactericidal activity and it seems likely that, as at present employed, chloramine T is of doubtful value in aeroplane hygiene. One important conclusion that arises from this work is that if cholera can be spread, even only occasionally, by effluent from aircraft then close investigation should be made of the possibility of other bacteria and

  15. Purpose and Meaning in Highly Active Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penick, Jeffrey M.; Fallshore, Marte

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated the sources of meaning for active seniors. Results indicated that seniors who were most active were relatively high in a wide range of sources of meaning as well as in life satisfaction in general. The importance of meaning and purpose in relation to counseling with older adults is discussed.

  16. Method and apparatus for treating gaseous effluents from waste treatment systems

    DOEpatents

    Flannery, Philip A.; Kujawa, Stephan T.

    2000-01-01

    Effluents from a waste treatment operation are incinerated and oxidized by passing the gases through an inductively coupled plasmas arc torch. The effluents are transformed into plasma within the torch. At extremely high plasma temperatures, the effluents quickly oxidize. The process results in high temperature oxidation of the gases without addition of any mass flow for introduction of energy.

  17. Dynamics of size-fractionated bacterial communities during the coastal dispersal of treated municipal effluents.

    PubMed

    Liu, SiGuang; Luo, YuanRong; Huang, LingFeng

    2016-07-01

    Everyday huge amount of treated municipal wastewater is discharged into the coastal seawater. However, microbial biomarkers for the municipal effluent instead of the fecal species from raw sewage have not been proposed. Meanwhile, bacterial taxa for degrading large amounts of input organics have not been fully understood. In this study, raw effluent and serial water samples were collected from the coastal dispersal of two sewage treatment plants in Xiamen, China. Free-living (FL) and particle-associated (PA) bacterial communities were analyzed via high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and quantitative PCR to measure bacterial abundance. The PA bacterial communities in our samples exhibited higher cell abundance, alpha diversity, and population dynamics than the FL bacterial communities, which supports greater environmental significance of the PA bacterial communities. Two non-fecal but typical genera in activated sludge, Zoogloea and Dechloromonas, exhibited decreased but readily detectable abundance along the effluent dispersal distance. Furthermore, the dominating microbial species near the outfalls were related to well-known marine indigenous taxa, such as SAR11 clade, OM60 clade, low-GC Actinobacteria, and unclassified Flavobacteriales, as well as the less understood taxa like Pseudohongiella and Microbacteriaceae. It is interesting that these taxa exhibited two types of correlation patterns with COD concentration. Our study suggested Zoogloea as a potential indicator of municipal effluents and also proposed potential utilizers of residual effluent COD in marine environments. PMID:26944731

  18. Removal of mercury(II) from aqueous solutions and chlor-alkali industry effluent by steam activated and sulphurised activated carbons prepared from bagasse pith: kinetics and equilibrium studies.

    PubMed

    Anoop Krishnan, K; Anirudhan, T S

    2002-05-27

    The adsorption of mercury from aqueous solutions and chlor-alkali industry effluent on steam activated and sulphurised steam activated carbons prepared from bagasse pith have been studied comparatively. The uptake of mercury(II) (Hg(II)) was maximum by steam activated carbon in presence of SO(2) and H(2)S (SA-SO(2)-H(2)S-C) followed by steam activated carbon in presence of SO(2) (SA-SO(2)-C), steam activated carbon in presence of H(2)S (SA-H(2)S-C) and steam activated carbon (SA-C) at the same concentration, pH and temperature of the solution. Adsorption experiments demonstrate that the adsorption process corresponds to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and equilibrium results correspond to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Kinetic parameters as a function of initial concentration, for all adsorbents were calculated. Batch studies indicated that the optimum pH range for the adsorption of Hg(II) on sulphurised carbons was between 4 and 9 and for sulphur free carbon was between 6 and 9 at 30 degrees C. The adsorptive behaviour of the activated carbons is explained on the basis of their chemical nature and porous texture. Decrease in ionic strength and increase in temperature of the solution has been found to improve the uptake of Hg(II). Synthetic and chlor-alkali industrial wastewaters were also treated by sulphurised activated carbons to demonstrate their efficiencies in removing Hg(II) from wastewaters. Some feasibility experiments have been carried out with a view to recover the adsorbed Hg(II) and regenerate the spent activated carbons using 0.2M HCl solution. The data obtained point towards viable adsorbents, which are both effective as well as economically attractive for Hg(II) removal from wastewaters.

  19. Genome sequence of Desulfovibrio sp. A2, a highly copper resistant, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from effluents of a zinc smelter at the Urals.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Stefano; Abicht, Helge K; Karnachuk, Olga V; Solioz, Marc

    2011-12-01

    Desulfovibrio sp. A2 is an anaerobic gram-negative sulfate-reducing bacterium with remarkable tolerance to copper. It was isolated from wastewater effluents of a zinc smelter at the Urals. Here, we report the 4.2-Mb draft genome sequence of Desulfovibrio sp. A2 and identify potential copper resistance mechanisms.

  20. Toxicity studies on effluents from conventional and carbon-enhanced treatment of refinery wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Borey, R.B.; Parcell, L.J.

    1980-01-01

    In a study conducted for API by Texaco Inc. at the company's Port Arthur, Tex., Class E refinery, short-term (96 h) and long-term (30 day) continuous-flow bioassays on sheepshead killifish were performed to test half-strength and full-strength effluents obtained by each of four different activated sludge unit (ASU) treatments: a conventionally operated ASU plus final filteration; a conventionally operated ASU plus filtration plus granular activated carbon contactors; an ASU to which a blend of commercially available activated carbons was added plus final filtration; and an ASU to which an experimental, noncommercial, high-surface-area, powdered activated carbon was added plus filtration. During normal operation, the fish mortality was too low to indicate significant differences among treatments. During a plant upset, fish mortality was sometimes higher in carbon-treated effluents than in conventionally treated wastewaters. Although not accumulating in the exposed fish, polynuclear aromatics were higher in carbon-treated effluents than in the pretreated refinery wastewater or conventionally treated wastewater. For unknown reasons, cadmium and zinc accumulated in fish exposed to some types of carbon-treated effluents.

  1. Highly efficient removal of Cu(II), Zn(II), Ni(II) and Fe(II) from electroplating wastewater using sulphide from sulphidogenic bioreactor effluent.

    PubMed

    Fang, Di; Zhang, Ruichang; Deng, Wenjing; Li, Jie

    2012-01-01

    A bench-scale, stirred-tank batch precipitator was used to assess the selective removal of Cu2+, Zn2+, Ni2+ and Fe2+ from acidic electroplating wastewater using sulphide from a sulphidogenic bioreactor effluent. At pH approximately 1.7, >99% of Cu was selectively precipitated, over Zn, Ni and Fe, from the wastewater as pure CuS by recycling H2S from the bioreactor effluent via N2 sparging, resulting in a Cu effluent concentration <0.4 mg/L. The rate of Cu precipitation increased from 1.6 to 6.4 mg Cu/(L x min) when the pH of the bioreactor effluent decreased from 7.5 to 5.5. Experiments focusing on the precipitation of Zn, Ni and Fe from the wastewater devoid of Cu (at pH approximately 1.7), using sulphide-rich bioreactor effluent, achieved approximately 85-97% precipitation efficiency for Zn, approximately 25-92% for Ni, and approximately 2-99% for Fe, depending on the initial sulphide/metal molar ratio. The sulphide/metal ratio of 1.76 was found to be optimal for the precipitation of Zn, Ni and Fe with sulphides and, to a lesser extent, with hydroxides, resulting in residual metal concentrations of 1 mg Zn/L, 3 mg Ni/L, and 0.5 mg Fe/L. These findings suggest the potential of waste biogenic sulphides for the selective recovery of valuable metals from acidic metal-rich industrial wastewaters.

  2. Highly efficient removal of Cu(II), Zn(II), Ni(II) and Fe(II) from electroplating wastewater using sulphide from sulphidogenic bioreactor effluent.

    PubMed

    Fang, Di; Zhang, Ruichang; Deng, Wenjing; Li, Jie

    2012-01-01

    A bench-scale, stirred-tank batch precipitator was used to assess the selective removal of Cu2+, Zn2+, Ni2+ and Fe2+ from acidic electroplating wastewater using sulphide from a sulphidogenic bioreactor effluent. At pH approximately 1.7, >99% of Cu was selectively precipitated, over Zn, Ni and Fe, from the wastewater as pure CuS by recycling H2S from the bioreactor effluent via N2 sparging, resulting in a Cu effluent concentration <0.4 mg/L. The rate of Cu precipitation increased from 1.6 to 6.4 mg Cu/(L x min) when the pH of the bioreactor effluent decreased from 7.5 to 5.5. Experiments focusing on the precipitation of Zn, Ni and Fe from the wastewater devoid of Cu (at pH approximately 1.7), using sulphide-rich bioreactor effluent, achieved approximately 85-97% precipitation efficiency for Zn, approximately 25-92% for Ni, and approximately 2-99% for Fe, depending on the initial sulphide/metal molar ratio. The sulphide/metal ratio of 1.76 was found to be optimal for the precipitation of Zn, Ni and Fe with sulphides and, to a lesser extent, with hydroxides, resulting in residual metal concentrations of 1 mg Zn/L, 3 mg Ni/L, and 0.5 mg Fe/L. These findings suggest the potential of waste biogenic sulphides for the selective recovery of valuable metals from acidic metal-rich industrial wastewaters. PMID:22988632

  3. Extracellular enzyme activities during regulated hydrolysis of high-solid organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; He, Pin-Jing; Lü, Fan; Shao, Li-Ming; Wang, Pei

    2007-11-01

    The hydrolysis process, where the complex insoluble organic materials are hydrolyzed by extracellular enzymes, is a rate-limiting step for anaerobic digestion of high-solid organic solid wastes. Recirculating the leachate from hydrolysis reactor and recycling the effluent from methanogenic reactor to hydrolysis reactor in the two-stage solid-liquid anaerobic digestion process could accelerate degradation of organic solid wastes. To justify the influencing mechanism of recirculation and recycling on hydrolysis, the relationship of hydrolysis to the synthesis and locations of extracellular enzymes was evaluated by regulating the dilution rate of the methanogenic effluent recycle. The results showed that the hydrolysis could be enhanced by increasing the dilution rate, resulting from improved total extracellular enzyme activities. About 15%, 25%, 37%, 56% and 92% of carbon, and about 9%, 18%, 27%, 45% and 80% of nitrogen were converted from the solid phase to the liquid phase at dilution rates of 0.09, 0.25, 0.5, 0.9 and 1.8d(-1), respectively. The hydrolysis of organic wastes was mainly attributable to cell-free enzyme, followed by biofilm-associated enzyme. Increasing the dilution rate afforded cell-free extracellular enzymes with more opportunity to access the surface of organic solid waste, which ensured a faster renewal of niche where extracellular enzymes functioned actively. Meanwhile, the increment of biofilm-associated enzyme was promoted concomitantly, and therefore improved the hydrolysis of organic solid wastes.

  4. Enhancement of the performance of a combined microalgae-activated sludge system for the treatment of high strength molasses wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tsioptsias, Costas; Lionta, Gesthimani; Deligiannis, Andreas; Samaras, Petros

    2016-12-01

    The treatment of molasses wastewater, by a combined microalgae-activated sludge process, for the simultaneous organics and total nitrogen reduction, was examined. Further enhancement of the performance of the combined process was accomplished, by means of biofilm carriers or electrocoagulation. A LED light tube was immersed into the reactor tank aiming to enhance the growth of photosynthetic microalgae, while in a similar unit, biofilm carriers were added to the system, representing a moving bed bioreactor. Exposure of the activated sludge biocommunity to light source, resulted in the growth of microalgae and photoreactors exhibited higher removal rates of total nitrogen and nitrates. However, operation at longer times resulted in low effluent quality due to the presence of microalgae cells as a result of high growth rates, and potential light shading effect. Nevertheless, the moving bed system was more beneficial than the single photoreactor, as biofilm carriers provided a self cleaning capacity of the light source, reducing the effect of microalgae deposition. Advanced treatment of the biological effluents, by electrocoagulation, increased even more the process efficiency: the combined photobioreactor and electrocoagulation process resulted in about 78% COD removal and more than 35% total nitrogen removal in the effluent, where nitrates represented almost the single form of total nitrogen. PMID:27589919

  5. Spatio-temporal variations in the composition of organic matter in surface sediments of a mangrove receiving shrimp farm effluents (New Caledonia).

    PubMed

    Aschenbroich, Adélaïde; Marchand, Cyril; Molnar, Nathalie; Deborde, Jonathan; Hubas, Cédric; Rybarczyk, Hervé; Meziane, Tarik

    2015-04-15

    In order to investigate spatio-temporal variations in the composition and origin of the benthic organic matter (OM) at the sediment surface in mangrove receiving shrimp farm effluents, fatty acid (FA) biomarkers, natural stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N), C:N ratios and chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentrations were determined during the active and the non-active period of the farm. Fatty acid compositions in surface sediments within the mangrove forest indicated that organic matter inputs varied along the year as a result of farm activity. Effluents were the source of fresh particulate organic matter for the mangrove, as evidenced by the unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) distribution. The anthropogenic MUFA 18:1ω9 was not only accumulated at the sediment surface in some parts of the mangrove, but was also exported to the seafront. Direct release of bacteria and enhanced in situ production of fungi, as revealed by specific FAs, stimulated mangrove litter decomposition under effluent runoff condition. Also, microalgae released from ponds contributed to maintain high benthic chl-a concentrations in mangrove sediments in winter and to a shift in microphytobenthic community assemblage. Primary production was high whether the farm released effluent or not which questioned the temporary effect of shrimp farm effluent on benthic microalgae dynamic. This study outlined that mangrove benthic organic matter was qualitatively and quantitatively affected by shrimp farm effluent release and that responses to environmental condition changes likely depended on mangrove stand characteristics.

  6. Halonitromethanes formation in wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    PubMed

    Song, Hocheol; Addison, Jesse W; Hu, Jia; Karanfil, Tanju

    2010-03-01

    Halonitromethanes (HNMs) constitute one class of emerging disinfection by-products with high potential health risks. This study investigated the formation and occurrence of HNMs under different disinfection scenarios and the presence of their precursors in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTPs) effluents. Formation potential tests performed on WWTP effluents revealed that HNM formation occurred in the order of ozonation-chlorination > ozonation-chloramination > chlorination > chloramination. Ozonation alone did not produce any HNM. Municipal WWTP effluents contained some reactive HNM precursors, possibly the by-products of biological treatment processes and/or some moiety of industry or household origin. No effects of nitrate on the formation of HNMs were observed in this study, and nitrification in WWTPs appears to remove appreciable portion of HNM precursors, especially those reactive to chlorine. UV disinfection using low pressure lamps in municipal WWTPs had negligible impact on HNM formation potential. HNM concentrations in the effluents of selected WWTPs were either non-detectable or less than minimum reporting level, except for one WWTP that gave trichloronitromethane concentrations in the range of 0.9-1.5 microg L(-1). No HNMs were observed in the effluents disinfected with UV radiation. Therefore, it appears the typical wastewater disinfection processes involving chlorination or UV treatment in WWTPs do not produce significant amounts of HNMs.

  7. A new high activity plasma cholinesterase variant.

    PubMed Central

    Krause, A; Lane, A B; Jenkins, T

    1988-01-01

    A South African Afrikaans speaking family is reported in which a new high activity plasma cholinesterase variant was found to occur in the mother and son. The variant has the same electrophoretic mobility as the "usual' enzyme, but greater heat stability. Its higher specific activity is associated with a normal number of enzyme molecules. The variant may be inherited as a dominant trait, though its locus is uncertain. Images PMID:3225823

  8. Characterizing the genotoxicity of hazardous industrial wastes and effluents using short-term bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Houk, V.S.; DeMarini, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that short-term bioassays can reliably and expeditiously measure the genotoxic potential of hazardous industrial wastes and effluents. Petrochemical wastes have been studied in detail, especially discharges from chemical manufacturing plants and textile and dye effluents. However, there is little information on effluents from pesticide manufacturers. The most extensive evaluations have been conducted on effluents from pulp and paper mills. These studies have shown which pulping plants generate the most genotoxic effluents, which process wastes are most hazardous, have isolated and identified the compounds responsible for the genotoxic activity, have described the environmental fate of these compounds, have evaluated the types of genetic damage likely to occur upon exposure to the effluents, and have identified several treatment methods that effectively reduce the genotoxicity of the effluents. The coupling of bioassays for biological analysis with chemical evaluation provides the most powerful approach to assessing the overall health effects of complex industrial wastes and effluents.

  9. Effect of distillery effluents on some physiological aspects in maize.

    PubMed

    Ramana, S; Biswas, A K; Singh, A B

    2002-09-01

    A field experiment was conducted for two years to study the effect of application of different distillery effluents: raw spent wash (RSW), biomethanated spent wash (BSW), lagoon sludge (LS), recommended NPK + FYM (farm yard manure) and control (no fertilizer and effluent) on some physiological aspects in maize. The study revealed that the application of distillery effluents resulted in increased leaf area, chlorophyll content, nitrate reductase activity total dry weight and grain yield. Among the effluents, the highest grain yield (36.9 qha(-1)) was obtained in BSW followed by RSW (32.2 qha(-1)) and LS (28.3 qha(-1)). Overall, NPK + FYM treatment recorded the highest grain yield (51.8 qha(-1)). However, to achieve the full manurial potential of the effluents, some amount of fertilizer should be supplemented. PMID:12118710

  10. Removal of heavy metals from tannery effluents of Ambur industrial area, Tamilnadu by Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis.

    PubMed

    Balaji, S; Kalaivani, T; Rajasekaran, C; Shalini, M; Vinodhini, S; Priyadharshini, S Sunitha; Vidya, A G

    2015-06-01

    The present study was carried out with the tannery effluent contaminated with heavy metals collected from Ambur industrial area to determine the phycoremediation potential of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. Two different concentrations (50 and 100 %) of heavy metals containing tannery effluent treated with A. platensis were analysed for growth, absorption spectra, biochemical properties and antioxidant enzyme activity levels. The effluent treatments revealed dose-dependent decrease in the levels of A. platensis growth (65.37 % for 50 % effluent and 49.32 % for 100 % effluent), chlorophyll content (97.43 % for 50 % effluent and 71.05 % for 100 % effluent) and total protein content (82.63 % for 50 % effluent and 62.10 % for 100 % effluent) that leads to the reduction of total solids, total dissolved solids and total suspended solids. A. platensis with lower effluent concentration was effective than at higher concentration. Treatment with the effluent also resulted in increased activity levels of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (14.58 units/g fresh weight for 50 % and 24.57 units/g fresh weight for 100 %) and catalase (0.963 units/g fresh weight for 50 % and 1.263 units/g fresh weight for 100 %). Furthermore, heavy metal content was determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. These results indicated that A. platensis has the ability to combat heavy metal stress by the induction of antioxidant enzymes demonstrating its potential usefulness in phycoremediation of tannery effluent.

  11. Removal of heavy metals from tannery effluents of Ambur industrial area, Tamilnadu by Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis.

    PubMed

    Balaji, S; Kalaivani, T; Rajasekaran, C; Shalini, M; Vinodhini, S; Priyadharshini, S Sunitha; Vidya, A G

    2015-06-01

    The present study was carried out with the tannery effluent contaminated with heavy metals collected from Ambur industrial area to determine the phycoremediation potential of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. Two different concentrations (50 and 100 %) of heavy metals containing tannery effluent treated with A. platensis were analysed for growth, absorption spectra, biochemical properties and antioxidant enzyme activity levels. The effluent treatments revealed dose-dependent decrease in the levels of A. platensis growth (65.37 % for 50 % effluent and 49.32 % for 100 % effluent), chlorophyll content (97.43 % for 50 % effluent and 71.05 % for 100 % effluent) and total protein content (82.63 % for 50 % effluent and 62.10 % for 100 % effluent) that leads to the reduction of total solids, total dissolved solids and total suspended solids. A. platensis with lower effluent concentration was effective than at higher concentration. Treatment with the effluent also resulted in increased activity levels of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (14.58 units/g fresh weight for 50 % and 24.57 units/g fresh weight for 100 %) and catalase (0.963 units/g fresh weight for 50 % and 1.263 units/g fresh weight for 100 %). Furthermore, heavy metal content was determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. These results indicated that A. platensis has the ability to combat heavy metal stress by the induction of antioxidant enzymes demonstrating its potential usefulness in phycoremediation of tannery effluent. PMID:25944749

  12. Assessment of current status of zinc in wastewater treatment plants to set effluent standards for protecting aquatic organisms in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Hiroki; Yoshizawa, Masahiro; Minamiyama, Mizuhiko

    2010-10-01

    New environmental standards for protecting aquatic organisms for zinc (e.g., 0.03 mg/L) in surface waters were set in Japan in 2003. Although wastewater effluent might be one of the major pathways of zinc to public water bodies in Japan, current status of concentration of zinc in wastewater effluent was not clear due to higher detection limits (e.g., 0.5 mg/L) than the level required by the new regulations. This study aims at assessing current status of zinc in wastewater effluent in Japan to revise wastewater effluent standards for protecting aquatic organisms. Survey of zinc in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) was carried out in Japan in 2005, setting the detection limits at least 0.01 mg/L. The results of the survey suggested the difficulty to remove zinc (especially dissolved zinc) with conventional activated sludge treatment if concentration of zinc in influent was relatively low. And it was suggested that high concentration of dissolved zinc might be derived from some industries discharging high concentration of zinc. The concentration of zinc in wastewater influent without industrial discharges was about 0.1 mg/L which might be lower than that in wastewater from industries discharging high concentration of zinc. Finally, effluent standards for point sources including WWTPs to public water bodies were set at 2 mg/L in 2006. Based on the results of the survey that it was difficult to remove dissolved zinc discharged from industries at WWTPs, the effluent standards from industries to sewerage were set at the same value of the effluent standards from WWTPs to public water bodies.

  13. The Value of High Adventure Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, John C.

    1978-01-01

    The ultimate value of high-adventure, risk recreation may be that a person confronts existentially the decision of whether or not to venture forth into the unknown. Choice is exercised, the mind and body committed, and the consequences accepted. No one is drafted into the activity. (Author)

  14. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Junior High Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of the junior high science curriculum. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; methods; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher…

  15. Energy Activities for Junior High Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Energy Agency, St. Paul.

    The document contains seven learning activities for junior high students on the energy situation. Objectives are to help students gain understanding and knowledge about the relationships between humans and their social and physical environments; solve problems and clarify issues; examine personal beliefs and values; and recognize the relationships…

  16. Cooperative Activities between High Schools and Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Peggy, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Some of the ways in which colleges can work with high schools to enrich secondary school experiences and increase access to and success in higher education, are described, and an essay on successful cooperative activities is presented. In "Pieces and Parts," James Herbert notes efforts to improve the preparation of students for college by…

  17. 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Hazards Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL, L.R.

    1999-01-15

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of emergency planning activities for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The technical basis for project-specific Emergency Action Levels and Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  18. Investigation of endogenous biomass efficiency in the treatment of unhairing effluents from the tanning industry.

    PubMed

    Mlaik, Najwa; Bouzid, Jalel; Gharsallah, Neji; Belbahri, Lassad; Woodward, Steve; Mechichi, Tahar

    2009-08-01

    The tanning industry is of great economic importance worldwide; however, the potential environmental impact of tanning is significant. An important component in tanning is the removal of hair from the hide (unhairing), a process which generates considerable amounts of toxic effluent characterized by a high concentration of sulphur, rich mineral compounds, a high alkalinity and a high organic load. The purpose of the work described here was to evaluate the biodegradability of the unhairing wastewater by endogenous biomass in batch culture and continuous systems. The detoxification of the effluent was assessed by seed germination tests. The batch culture experiments showed that variations in COD, temperature and pH significantly affected the endogenous biomass growth and activity. The optimal treatment condition corresponded to an initial COD of 6 g/L, pH of 7 and 30 degrees C. Under continuous culture conditions, the reactor was fed for 48 days with the unhairing effluent. The optimal COD removal efficiency was 85.5%. During treatment, a transformation of sulphides into thiosulphates and then sulphates was also observed. The effect of untreated and treated unhairing wastewater on seed germination of different plant species was studied. The data suggested that treatment decreased the wastewater toxicity. Indeed, germination was inhibited when the effluent dilution was lower than 20% and 10% for treated and untreated wastewater, respectively. PMID:19803329

  19. Constructed wetlands design for enhanced phytoremediation of effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, A.J.; Sparks, B.J.; Carder, J.P.; Sumner, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) uses constructed wetlands to solve an environmental compliance problem. Effluents from a coal yard runoff treatment facility (CYRTF) and a sewage treatment plant are both intermittently toxic based on effluent testing conducted under ORNL`s wastewater discharge permit. The CYRTF uses conventional technology (lime neutralization, flocculation); its effluent is toxic due primarily to the presence of high concentrations of calcium. Effluent from the sewage treatment plant is occasionally toxic due to a semivolatile, low-molecular weight constituent, perhaps generated when the wastewater is chlorinated prior to discharge. The two effluent are blended (about 2:8, volume:volume) before being passed through a pair of constructed wetland (CW) cells, each 1.8 m wide and 20 m long, for final equilibration. The CW system treats about 1,800 gallons of blended effluent per day. The effluent blend`s toxicity, as determined by testing with Ceriodaphnia dubia, is reduced by passage through the CW system. This simple aqueous-phase phytoremediation system is environmentally benign and provides the necessary minimal level of treatment for both effluents at low cost. We provide {open_quotes}lessons learned{close_quotes} in building and operating the CW system, and summarize the results of the chemical and toxicological tests used to demonstrate this technology`s application.

  20. Memory deficit in Swiss mice exposed to tannery effluent.

    PubMed

    Rabelo, Letícia Martins; Costa E Silva, Bianca; de Almeida, Sabrina Ferreira; da Silva, Wellington Alves Mizael; de Oliveira Mendes, Bruna; Guimarães, Abraão Tiago Batista; da Silva, Anderson Rodrigo; da Silva Castro, André Luis; de Lima Rodrigues, Aline Sueli; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2016-01-01

    Although it is known that tannery effluents constitute highly toxic pollutants whose effects in humans represent public health problems in several countries, studies involving experimental mammalian models are rare. In this context, the objective of the present study was to assess the effect of the exposure to tannery effluent on the memory of male and female Swiss mice. Animals of each sex were distributed into two experimental groups: the control group, in which the animals received only drinking water and the effluent group, in which the mice received 1% of gross tannery effluent diluted in water. The animals were exposed to the effluent by gavage, oral dosing, for 15days, ensuring the administration of 0.1mL of liquid (water or effluent)/10g of body weight/day. On the 14th and 15th experimental days the animals were submitted to the object recognition test. It was observed that the new object recognition indices calculated for the animals exposed to the effluent (males and females) were significantly lower than those obtained with the control group. The exposure to tannery effluent caused memory deficit in Swiss mice in a similar way for both sexes, reinforcing previous findings that these pollutants affect the central nervous system. It contributes to the knowledge in the area by attesting harmful effects to the cognition of such animals. PMID:27063058

  1. Unsupervised Analysis of the Effects of a Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent on the Fathead Minnow Ovarian Transcriptome

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents contain complex mixtures of chemicals, potentially including endocrine active chemicals (EACs), pharmaceuticals, and other contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). Due to the complex and variable nature of effluents, biological monitori...

  2. Monitoring of xenobiotic ligands for human estrogen receptor and aryl hydrocarbon receptor in industrial wastewater effluents.

    PubMed

    Chou, Pei-Hsin; Liu, Tong-Cun; Lin, Yi-Ling

    2014-07-30

    Industrial wastewater contains a variety of toxic substances, which may severely contaminate the aquatic environment if discharged without adequate treatment. In this study, effluents from a thin film transistor liquid crystal display wastewater treatment plant and the receiving water were analyzed by bioassays and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to investigate the presence of estrogenic compounds, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, and genotoxicants. Xenobiotic AhR agonists were frequently detected and, in particular, strong AhR agonist activity and genotoxicity were found in the suspended solids of the aeration tank outflow. The high AhR agonist activity in the final effluent (FE) and the downstream river water suggested that the treatment plant failed to remove the wastewater-related AhR agonists. In contrast, although significant estrogenic potency could be detected in raw wastewater or effluents from different treatment processes, the FE and the receiving river water exhibited no or weak estrogenicity. Instrumental analysis showed that bisphenol A was often detected in water samples. However, the investigated estrogenic compounds could only account for a small portion of the estrogenicity in the collected samples. Therefore, further investigation is necessary to identify the major estrogenic compounds and AhR agonist contaminants in the wastewater effluents.

  3. Production of high specific activity silicon-32

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, D.R.; Brzezinski, M.A.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project (LDRD) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). There were two primary objectives for the work performed under this project. The first was to take advantage of capabilities and facilities at Los Alamos to produce the radionuclide {sup 32}Si in unusually high specific activity. The second was to combine the radioanalytical expertise at Los Alamos with the expertise at the University of California to develop methods for the application of {sup 32}Si in biological oceanographic research related to global climate modeling. The first objective was met by developing targetry for proton spallation production of {sup 32}Si in KCl targets and chemistry for its recovery in very high specific activity. The second objective was met by developing a validated field-useable, radioanalytical technique, based upon gas-flow proportional counting, to measure the dynamics of silicon uptake by naturally occurring diatoms.

  4. Selective enrichment and production of highly urease active bacteria by non-sterile (open) chemostat culture.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liang; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2013-10-01

    In general, bioprocesses can be subdivided into naturally occurring processes, not requiring sterility (e.g., beer brewing, wine making, lactic acid fermentation, or biogas digestion) and other processes (e.g., the production of enzymes and antibiotics) that typically require a high level of sterility to avoid contaminant microbes overgrowing the production strain. The current paper describes the sustainable, non-sterile production of an industrial enzyme using activated sludge as inoculum. By using selective conditions (high pH, high ammonia concentration, and presence of urea) for the target bacterium, highly active ureolytic bacteria, physiologically resembling Sporosarcina pasteurii were reproducibly enriched and then continuously produced via chemostat operation of the bioreactor. When using a pH of 10 and about 0.2 M urea in a yeast extract-based medium, ureolytic bacteria developed under aerobic chemostat operation at hydraulic retention times of about 10 h with urease levels of about 60 μmol min⁻¹ ml⁻¹ culture. For cost minimization at an industrial scale the costly protein-rich yeast extract medium could be replaced by commercial milk powder or by lysed activated sludge. Glutamate, molasses, or glucose-based media did not result in the enrichment of ureolytic bacteria by the chemostat. The concentration of intracellular urease was sufficiently high such that the produced raw effluent from the reactor could be used directly for biocementation in the field.

  5. Rapid quantification of bacteria and viruses in influent, settled water, activated sludge and effluent from a wastewater treatment plant using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lili; Mao, Guannan; Liu, Jie; Yu, Hui; Gao, Guanghai; Wang, Yingying

    2013-01-01

    As microbiological parameters are important in monitoring the correct operation of wastewater treatment plants and controlling the microbiological quality of wastewater, the abundances of total bacteria (including intact and damaged bacterial cells) and total viruses in wastewater were investigated using a combination of ultrasonication and flow cytometry. The comparisons between flow cytometry (FCM) and other cultivation-independent methods (adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) analysis for bacteria enumeration and epifluorescence microscopy (EFM) for virus enumeration) gave very similar patterns of microbial abundance changes, suggesting that FCM is suitable for targeting and obtaining reliable counts for bacteria and viruses in wastewater samples. The main experimental results obtained were: (1) effective removal of total bacteria in wastewater, with a decrease from an average concentration of 1.74 × 10(8)counts ml(-1) in raw wastewater to 3.91 × 10(6)counts ml(-1) in the effluent, (2) compared to influent raw wastewater, the average concentration of total viruses in the treated effluent (3.94 × 10(8)counts ml(-1)) exhibited no obvious changes, (3) the applied FCM approach is a rapid, easy, and convenient tool for understanding the microbial dynamics and monitoring microbiological quality in wastewater treatment processes.

  6. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 327 Facility

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    The 327 Facility [Post-Irradiation Testing Laboratory] provides office and laboratory space for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) scientific and engineering staff conducting multidisciplinary research in the areas of post-irradiated fuels and structural materials. The facility is designed to accommodate the use of radioactive and hazardous materials in the conduct of these activities. This report summarizes the airborne emissions and liquid effluents and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements.

  7. Isolation of a salt tolerant laccase secreting strain of Trichoderma sp. NFCCI-2745 and optimization of culture conditions and assessing its effectiveness in treating saline phenolic effluents.

    PubMed

    Divya, L M; Prasanth, G K; Sadasivan, C

    2013-12-01

    Most of the hazardous pollutants are phenolic in nature and persists in the environment. The ability of laccases to oxidize phenolic compounds and reduce molecular oxygen to water has led to intensive studies of these enzymes. Therefore the fungal strains with high laccase activity and substrate affinity that can tolerate harsh environmental conditions have a potential for biotechnological applications. Salt tolerant laccase secreting fungi can be utilized in treatment of saline and phenolic rich industrial effluents such as coir effluent and textile effluent that needed to be diluted several fold before microbial treatment. This is the first study describing the isolation and optimization of a salt tolerant strain of Trichoderma sp. potential for industrial applications. The fungus was identified based on morphological characteristics and was subsequently confirmed with molecular techniques and deposited at National Fungal Culture Collections of India (NFCCI) under the Accession No. Trichoderma viride NFCCI 2745. In contrast to other laccase secreting fungi, light conditions did not exert much influence on laccase production of this strain and salinity enhanced its laccase secretion. The fungus effectively removed the phenolic content of the textile effluent, coir-ret liquor and wood processing effluent within 96 hr of incubation. The tolerance of the fungus to high salinity and phenolic compounds makes this strain ideal for treating saline and phenolic rich industrial effluents. PMID:24649671

  8. Technical potential of microalgal bacterial floc raceway ponds treating food-industry effluents while producing microalgal bacterial biomass: An outdoor pilot-scale study.

    PubMed

    Van Den Hende, Sofie; Beelen, Veerle; Julien, Lucie; Lefoulon, Alexandra; Vanhoucke, Thomas; Coolsaet, Carlos; Sonnenholzner, Stanislaus; Vervaeren, Han; Rousseau, Diederik P L

    2016-10-01

    To replace costly mechanical aeration by photosynthetical aeration, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) effluent of food-industry was treated in an outdoor MaB-floc raceway pond. Photosynthetic aeration was sufficient for nitrification, but the raceway effluent quality was below current discharge limits, despite the high hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 35days. Hereafter, conventional activated sludge (CAS) effluent of food-industry was treated in this pond to recover phosphorus. The two-day HRT results in a more realistic pond area, but the phosphorus removal efficiency was low (20%). High biomass productivities were obtained, i.e. 31.3 and 24.9ton total suspended solids hapond(-1)year(-1) for UASB and CAS effluent, respectively. Bioflocculation enabled successful harvesting of CAS effluent-fed MaB-flocs by settling and filtering at 150-250μm to 22.7% total solids. To conclude, MaB-floc raceway ponds cannot be recommended as the sole treatment for these food-industry effluents, but huge potential lies in added-value biomass production. PMID:27450127

  9. Technical potential of microalgal bacterial floc raceway ponds treating food-industry effluents while producing microalgal bacterial biomass: An outdoor pilot-scale study.

    PubMed

    Van Den Hende, Sofie; Beelen, Veerle; Julien, Lucie; Lefoulon, Alexandra; Vanhoucke, Thomas; Coolsaet, Carlos; Sonnenholzner, Stanislaus; Vervaeren, Han; Rousseau, Diederik P L

    2016-10-01

    To replace costly mechanical aeration by photosynthetical aeration, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) effluent of food-industry was treated in an outdoor MaB-floc raceway pond. Photosynthetic aeration was sufficient for nitrification, but the raceway effluent quality was below current discharge limits, despite the high hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 35days. Hereafter, conventional activated sludge (CAS) effluent of food-industry was treated in this pond to recover phosphorus. The two-day HRT results in a more realistic pond area, but the phosphorus removal efficiency was low (20%). High biomass productivities were obtained, i.e. 31.3 and 24.9ton total suspended solids hapond(-1)year(-1) for UASB and CAS effluent, respectively. Bioflocculation enabled successful harvesting of CAS effluent-fed MaB-flocs by settling and filtering at 150-250μm to 22.7% total solids. To conclude, MaB-floc raceway ponds cannot be recommended as the sole treatment for these food-industry effluents, but huge potential lies in added-value biomass production.

  10. A comparison of the suitability of different willow varieties to treat on-site wastewater effluent in an Irish climate.

    PubMed

    Curneen, S J; Gill, L W

    2014-01-15

    Short rotation coppiced willow trees can be used to treat on-site wastewater effluent with the advantage that, if planted in a sealed basin and sized correctly, they produce no effluent discharge. This paper has investigated the evapotranspiration rate of four different willow varieties while also monitoring the effects of three different effluent types on each variety. The willow varieties used are all cultivars of Salix viminalis. The effluents applied were primary (septic tank) effluent, secondary treated effluent and rain water (control). The results obtained showed that the addition of effluent had a positive effect on the evapotranspiration. The willows were also found to uptake a high proportion of the nitrogen and phosphorus from the primary and secondary treated effluents added during the first year. The effect of the different effluents on the evapotranspiration rate has been used to design ten full scale on-site treatment systems which are now being monitored.

  11. Quiescent Fibroblasts Exhibit High Metabolic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lemons, Johanna M. S.; Feng, Xiao-Jiang; Bennett, Bryson D.; Legesse-Miller, Aster; Johnson, Elizabeth L.; Raitman, Irene; Pollina, Elizabeth A.; Rabitz, Herschel A.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Coller, Hilary A.

    2010-01-01

    Many cells in mammals exist in the state of quiescence, which is characterized by reversible exit from the cell cycle. Quiescent cells are widely reported to exhibit reduced size, nucleotide synthesis, and metabolic activity. Much lower glycolytic rates have been reported in quiescent compared with proliferating lymphocytes. In contrast, we show here that primary human fibroblasts continue to exhibit high metabolic rates when induced into quiescence via contact inhibition. By monitoring isotope labeling through metabolic pathways and quantitatively identifying fluxes from the data, we show that contact-inhibited fibroblasts utilize glucose in all branches of central carbon metabolism at rates similar to those of proliferating cells, with greater overflow flux from the pentose phosphate pathway back to glycolysis. Inhibition of the pentose phosphate pathway resulted in apoptosis preferentially in quiescent fibroblasts. By feeding the cells labeled glutamine, we also detected a “backwards” flux in the tricarboxylic acid cycle from α-ketoglutarate to citrate that was enhanced in contact-inhibited fibroblasts; this flux likely contributes to shuttling of NADPH from the mitochondrion to cytosol for redox defense or fatty acid synthesis. The high metabolic activity of the fibroblasts was directed in part toward breakdown and resynthesis of protein and lipid, and in part toward excretion of extracellular matrix proteins. Thus, reduced metabolic activity is not a hallmark of the quiescent state. Quiescent fibroblasts, relieved of the biosynthetic requirements associated with generating progeny, direct their metabolic activity to preservation of self integrity and alternative functions beneficial to the organism as a whole. PMID:21049082

  12. Exposure of composite tannery effluent on snail, Pila globosa: A comparative assessment of toxic impacts of the untreated and membrane treated effluents.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Priyankari; Swarnakar, Snehasikta; Mukhopadhyay, Aniruddha; Ghosh, Sourja

    2016-04-01

    Effluent from tannery industries can significantly affect the aquatic environment due to the presence of a variety of recalcitrant components. The present study focuses on a comparative assessment of the toxic impacts of an untreated tannery effluent and membrane treated effluents using snail, Pila globosa as an aquatic model. Composite tannery effluent collected from a common effluent treatment plant was selected as the untreated effluent. To investigate the effect of treated effluents on the aquatic organism the effluent was treated by two ways, viz. a single stage microfiltration (MF) using ceramic membrane and a two-step process involving MF followed by reverse osmosis (RO). The whole body tissue, gonad and mantle of P. globosa were subjected to enzyme assays like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-GPx), glutathione S- transferase (GST), etc. for assessing toxic impact. Changes in the biochemical parameters like protein, carbohydrate and amino acid were observed including histological studies of gonad and mantle tissue upon treatment with tannery effluents. To examine potential DNA damage due to the exposure of the effluent, comet assay was conducted. The study revealed that with an exposure to the untreated effluent, activity of the antioxidant enzymes increased significantly while the protein and carbohydrate content reduced largely in the whole body tissue, gonad as well as mantle tissues of P. globosa. Histological study indicated considerable damage in the gonad and mantle tissues following exposure to the untreated effluent. Comet assay using hemolymph of P. globosa following exposure to tannery effluent, showed significant genotoxicity. Interestingly, compared to the untreated effluent, damaging effect was reduced in molluscs tissues when exposed to MF treated effluent and even lesser when exposed to MF+RO treated effluent. Apart from the reduced activities of oxidative stress enzymes, the

  13. Exposure of composite tannery effluent on snail, Pila globosa: A comparative assessment of toxic impacts of the untreated and membrane treated effluents.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Priyankari; Swarnakar, Snehasikta; Mukhopadhyay, Aniruddha; Ghosh, Sourja

    2016-04-01

    Effluent from tannery industries can significantly affect the aquatic environment due to the presence of a variety of recalcitrant components. The present study focuses on a comparative assessment of the toxic impacts of an untreated tannery effluent and membrane treated effluents using snail, Pila globosa as an aquatic model. Composite tannery effluent collected from a common effluent treatment plant was selected as the untreated effluent. To investigate the effect of treated effluents on the aquatic organism the effluent was treated by two ways, viz. a single stage microfiltration (MF) using ceramic membrane and a two-step process involving MF followed by reverse osmosis (RO). The whole body tissue, gonad and mantle of P. globosa were subjected to enzyme assays like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-GPx), glutathione S- transferase (GST), etc. for assessing toxic impact. Changes in the biochemical parameters like protein, carbohydrate and amino acid were observed including histological studies of gonad and mantle tissue upon treatment with tannery effluents. To examine potential DNA damage due to the exposure of the effluent, comet assay was conducted. The study revealed that with an exposure to the untreated effluent, activity of the antioxidant enzymes increased significantly while the protein and carbohydrate content reduced largely in the whole body tissue, gonad as well as mantle tissues of P. globosa. Histological study indicated considerable damage in the gonad and mantle tissues following exposure to the untreated effluent. Comet assay using hemolymph of P. globosa following exposure to tannery effluent, showed significant genotoxicity. Interestingly, compared to the untreated effluent, damaging effect was reduced in molluscs tissues when exposed to MF treated effluent and even lesser when exposed to MF+RO treated effluent. Apart from the reduced activities of oxidative stress enzymes, the

  14. Production Of High Specific Activity Copper-67

    DOEpatents

    Jamriska, Sr., David J.; Taylor, Wayne A.; Ott, Martin A.; Fowler, Malcolm; Heaton, Richard C.

    2003-10-28

    A process for the selective production and isolation of high specific activity Cu.sup.67 from proton-irradiated enriched Zn.sup.70 target comprises target fabrication, target irradiation with low energy (<25 MeV) protons, chemical separation of the Cu.sup.67 product from the target material and radioactive impurities of gallium, cobalt, iron, and stable aluminum via electrochemical methods or ion exchange using both anion and cation organic ion exchangers, chemical recovery of the enriched Zn.sup.70 target material, and fabrication of new targets for re-irradiation is disclosed.

  15. Production Of High Specific Activity Copper-67

    DOEpatents

    Jamriska, Sr., David J.; Taylor, Wayne A.; Ott, Martin A.; Fowler, Malcolm; Heaton, Richard C.

    2002-12-03

    A process for the selective production and isolation of high specific activity cu.sup.67 from proton-irradiated enriched Zn.sup.70 target comprises target fabrication, target irradiation with low energy (<25 MeV) protons, chemical separation of the Cu.sup.67 product from the target material and radioactive impurities of gallium, cobalt, iron, and stable aluminum via electrochemical methods or ion exchange using both anion and cation organic ion exchangers, chemical recovery of the enriched Zn.sup.70 target material, and fabrication of new targets for re-irradiation is disclosed.

  16. Thief carbon catalyst for oxidation of mercury in effluent stream

    DOEpatents

    Granite, Evan J.; Pennline, Henry W.

    2011-12-06

    A catalyst for the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg), in an effluent stream is presented. The catalyst facilitates removal of mercury through the oxidation of elemental Hg into mercury (II) moieties. The active component of the catalyst is partially combusted coal, or "Thief" carbon, which can be pre-treated with a halogen. An untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-promoting in the presence of an effluent gas streams entrained with a halogen.

  17. Bio-oxidation of thiocyanates typical of coal conversion effluents. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Neufeld, R. D.; Mattson, L.; Lubon, P.

    1981-01-08

    Thiocyanates have been found in most coal conversion and coke plant effluents. The objectives of this study were to develop data for the biological degradation fate kinetics of thiocyanate removal, and to develop material balance information for the fate of sulfur and nitrogen resulting from such bio-decomposition of aqueous thiocyanates. A literature review of thiocyanate bio-degradation indicates that while much biochemistry information is available, little information in the biological processing arena is known. Based on both batch and continuous culture experiments utilizing an activated sludge type of system with strictly thiocyanate degradating organisms, the specific utilization rate for SCN degradation was found to follow a substrate inhibition biokinetic relationship as: d(SCN)/dt-X = 2.24/(1 + (5/SCN) + (SCN/1340)/sup 6/) where; d(SCN)/dt-X = lb SCN used/lb biomass-day, SCN = mg/L SCN in effluent. The observed biomass sludge production rate was quantified as a function of sludge age in the bio-reactor. The major metabolic by-products of SCN aerobic biodegradation are ammonia and sulfate, with such formation being stochiometric with SCN. High levels of SCN in coal conversion and Stretford system effluents may lead to biological nitrification process requirements to be added to the wastetreatment scheme for compliance with BAT effluent ammonia discharge restrictions.

  18. Estrogenic and androgenic effects of municipal wastewater effluent on reproductive endpoint biomarkers in three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    PubMed

    Björkblom, Carina; Högfors, Eva; Salste, Lotta; Bergelin, Eija; Olsson, Per-Erik; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Wiklund, Tom

    2009-05-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment plants have been associated with the release of endocrine-disrupting chemicals, which consequently lead to alterations of reproductive function in aquatic organisms. The three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) has quantifiable biomarkers for assessment of both estrogen (vitellogenin) and androgen (spiggin) activity, which makes this species very valuable in the research of endocrine disruption. The estrogenic and androgenic biomarkers were used for evaluating exposure effects of municipal wastewater effluent. We evaluated the effects of 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17alpha-methyltestosterone (MT), and wastewater effluents on induction of vitellogenin and spiggin production, gonadosomatic index, hepatosomatic index, nephrosomatic index, plasma steroid levels, and histopathology. Adult female and male sticklebacks were exposed to 20 ng/L of EE2, 10 microg/L of MT, and wastewater effluent (10, 50, and 80% of original concentration) in a flow-through system for an exposure of one week and an extended exposure of four weeks. Chemical analyses of the steroids were done for verification of exposure concentrations and presence in the used wastewater. Our results show that municipal wastewater effluent exerts estrogenic action on three-spined stickleback as observed by elevated vitellogenin levels in exposed fish, corresponding to the effect seen in fish exposed to EE2. Furthermore, wastewater and EE2 exerted similar histopathological effects on testis of exposed fish. Although domestic effluent is suspected to have a high content of natural androgens, no obvious androgenic effect of wastewater was observed in the present study.

  19. Infectivity of Giardia duodenalis Cysts from UV Light-Disinfected Wastewater Effluent Using a Nude BALB/c Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Luciana Urbano; Alves, Delma Pegolo; Guaraldo, Ana Maria Aparecida; Cantusio Neto, Romeu; Durigan, Mauricio; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

    2013-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a protozoan of public health interest that causes gastroenteritis in humans and other animals. In the city of Campinas in southeast Brazil, giardiasis is endemic, and this pathogen is detected at high concentrations in wastewater effluents, which are potential reservoirs for transmission. The Samambaia wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in the city of Campinas employs an activated sludge system for sewage treatment and ultraviolet (UV) light for disinfection of effluents. To evaluate this disinfection process with respect to inactivating G. duodenalis cysts, two sample types were investigated: (i) effluent without UV disinfection (EFL) and (ii) effluent with UV disinfection (EFL+UV). Nude immunodeficient BALB/c mice were intragastrically inoculated with a mean dose of 14 cysts of G. duodenalis recovered from effluent from this WWTP, EFL, or EFL+UV. All animals inoculated with G. duodenalis cysts developed the infection, but animals inoculated with UV-exposed cysts released a lower average concentration of cysts in their faeces than animals inoculated with cysts that were not UV disinfected. Trophozoites were also observed in both groups of animals. These findings suggest that G. duodenalis cysts exposed to UV light were damaged but were still able to cause infection.

  20. Infectivity of Giardia duodenalis Cysts from UV Light-Disinfected Wastewater Effluent Using a Nude BALB/c Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Luciana Urbano; Alves, Delma Pegolo; Guaraldo, Ana Maria Aparecida; Cantusio Neto, Romeu; Durigan, Mauricio; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

    2013-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a protozoan of public health interest that causes gastroenteritis in humans and other animals. In the city of Campinas in southeast Brazil, giardiasis is endemic, and this pathogen is detected at high concentrations in wastewater effluents, which are potential reservoirs for transmission. The Samambaia wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in the city of Campinas employs an activated sludge system for sewage treatment and ultraviolet (UV) light for disinfection of effluents. To evaluate this disinfection process with respect to inactivating G. duodenalis cysts, two sample types were investigated: (i) effluent without UV disinfection (EFL) and (ii) effluent with UV disinfection (EFL+UV). Nude immunodeficient BALB/c mice were intragastrically inoculated with a mean dose of 14 cysts of G. duodenalis recovered from effluent from this WWTP, EFL, or EFL+UV. All animals inoculated with G. duodenalis cysts developed the infection, but animals inoculated with UV-exposed cysts released a lower average concentration of cysts in their faeces than animals inoculated with cysts that were not UV disinfected. Trophozoites were also observed in both groups of animals. These findings suggest that G. duodenalis cysts exposed to UV light were damaged but were still able to cause infection. PMID:27335858

  1. Infectivity of Giardia duodenalis Cysts from UV Light-Disinfected Wastewater Effluent Using a Nude BALB/c Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Luciana Urbano; Alves, Delma Pegolo; Guaraldo, Ana Maria Aparecida; Cantusio Neto, Romeu; Durigan, Mauricio; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

    2013-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a protozoan of public health interest that causes gastroenteritis in humans and other animals. In the city of Campinas in southeast Brazil, giardiasis is endemic, and this pathogen is detected at high concentrations in wastewater effluents, which are potential reservoirs for transmission. The Samambaia wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in the city of Campinas employs an activated sludge system for sewage treatment and ultraviolet (UV) light for disinfection of effluents. To evaluate this disinfection process with respect to inactivating G. duodenalis cysts, two sample types were investigated: (i) effluent without UV disinfection (EFL) and (ii) effluent with UV disinfection (EFL+UV). Nude immunodeficient BALB/c mice were intragastrically inoculated with a mean dose of 14 cysts of G. duodenalis recovered from effluent from this WWTP, EFL, or EFL+UV. All animals inoculated with G. duodenalis cysts developed the infection, but animals inoculated with UV-exposed cysts released a lower average concentration of cysts in their faeces than animals inoculated with cysts that were not UV disinfected. Trophozoites were also observed in both groups of animals. These findings suggest that G. duodenalis cysts exposed to UV light were damaged but were still able to cause infection. PMID:27335858

  2. Performance evaluation of biofil toilet waste digester technologies in Ghana: the efficacy of effluent treatment options.

    PubMed

    Amoah, Philip; Gbenatey Nartey, Eric; Schrecongost, Alyse

    2016-12-01

    The study was carried out to assess the efficacy of a standard Biofil toilet digester with regard to its effluent quality and to evaluate the performance of new effluent polishing options being developed by BiofilCom. Influent and effluent were collected from 18 standard Biofil digesters connected to full-flush toilets. Effluent from five pilot installations with improved effluent polishing options were also taken for analyses. Ten other Biofil installations were selected to assess the impact of digester effluent discharge on the surrounding soil. Pollutant concentrations in the Biofil effluent exceeded both Ghana EPA and WHO standards for discharge though pollutant removal efficiencies were high: 84% for biochemical oxygen demand, 86.1% for chemical oxygen demand and 82.4% for total suspended solids. Escherichia coli and total coliform levels were significantly reduced by 63% and 95.6%, respectively, and nutrients were the least removed from effluents. Generally, effluents from the majority of the pilot polishing options met most of the discharge standards. E. coli were present in the soil at all study sites, except one. Biofil digester effluent is discharged subsurface but comparing their effluent quality with standards for discharge into water courses is relevant especially in areas of frequent flooding and high water tables.

  3. Radioactivity in the industrial effluent disposed soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, R. D.; Narayanaswamy, R.; Meenashisundaram, V.

    2012-04-01

    Studies on radiation and radioactivity distribution in the soils of effluent disposed from the sugar industry in India have been conducted. The external gamma dose rates in air and natural radionuclides activities in the soils were measured using an Environmental Radiation Dosimeter and a Gamma-ray Spectrometer respectively. The soil samples were also subject to various physico-chemical analyses. This study revealed some remarkable results that are discussed in the article.

  4. Fast microbial reduction of ferrihydrite colloids from a soil effluent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzsche, Andreas; Bosch, Julian; Rennert, Thilo; Heister, Katja; Braunschweig, Juliane; Meckenstock, Rainer U.; Totsche, Kai U.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies on the microbial reduction of synthetic iron oxide colloids showed their superior electron accepting property in comparison to bulk iron oxides. However, natural colloidal iron oxides differ in composition from their synthetic counterparts. Besides a potential effect of colloid size, microbial iron reduction may be accelerated by electron-shuttling dissolved organic matter (DOM) as well as slowed down by inhibitors such as arsenic. We examined the microbial reduction of OM- and arsenic-containing ferrihydrite colloids. Four effluent fractions were collected from a soil column experiment run under water-saturated conditions. Ferrihydrite colloids precipitated from the soil effluent and exhibited stable hydrodynamic diameters ranging from 281 (±146) nm in the effluent fraction that was collected first and 100 (±43) nm in a subsequently obtained effluent fraction. Aliquots of these oxic effluent fractions were added to anoxic low salt medium containing diluted suspensions of Geobacter sulfurreducens. Independent of the initial colloid size, the soil effluent ferrihydrite colloids were quickly and completely reduced. The rates of Fe2+ formation ranged between 1.9 and 3.3 fmol h-1 cell-1, and are in the range of or slightly exceeding previously reported rates of synthetic ferrihydrite colloids (1.3 fmol h-1 cell-1), but greatly exceeding previously known rates of macroaggregate-ferrihydrite reduction (0.07 fmol h-1 cell-1). The inhibition of microbial Fe(III) reduction by arsenic is unlikely or overridden by the concurrent enhancement induced by soil effluent DOM. These organic species may have increased the already high intrinsic reducibility of colloidal ferrihydrite owing to quinone-mediated electron shuttling. Additionally, OM, which is structurally associated with the soil effluent ferrihydrite colloids, may also contribute to the higher reactivity due to increasing solubility and specific surface area of ferrihydrite. In conclusion, ferrihydrite

  5. Donor-acceptor organo-imido polyoxometalates: high transparency, high activity redox-active NLO chromophores.

    PubMed

    Al-Yasari, Ahmed; Van Steerteghem, Nick; El Moll, Hani; Clays, Koen; Fielden, John

    2016-02-21

    We show that polyoxometalates (POMs) are an excellent redox-active acceptor on which to base high performance 2(nd) order non-linear optical (NLO) chromophores. This is demonstrated through three new organoimido-Lindqvist derivatives with HRS β0-values exceeding those of any dipolar organic system with comparable donor, π-system and absorption profile. Thus, organoimido POMs may provide a new generation of high performance, high transparency, and potentially redox-switchable NLO materials. PMID:26815652

  6. Donor-acceptor organo-imido polyoxometalates: high transparency, high activity redox-active NLO chromophores.

    PubMed

    Al-Yasari, Ahmed; Van Steerteghem, Nick; El Moll, Hani; Clays, Koen; Fielden, John

    2016-02-21

    We show that polyoxometalates (POMs) are an excellent redox-active acceptor on which to base high performance 2(nd) order non-linear optical (NLO) chromophores. This is demonstrated through three new organoimido-Lindqvist derivatives with HRS β0-values exceeding those of any dipolar organic system with comparable donor, π-system and absorption profile. Thus, organoimido POMs may provide a new generation of high performance, high transparency, and potentially redox-switchable NLO materials.

  7. Disinfection of secondary effluents by infiltration percolation.

    PubMed

    Makni, H

    2001-01-01

    Among the most attractive applications of reclaimed wastewater are: irrigation of public parks, sports fields, golf courses and market gardening. These uses require advanced wastewater treatment including disinfection. According to WHO guidelines (1989) and current rules and regulations in Tunisia, faecal coliform levels have to be reduced to < 10(3) or 10(2) CFU/100 mL. In Tunisia, most wastewater plants are only secondary treatment and, in order to meet health related regulations, the effluents need to be disinfected. However, it is usual for secondary effluents to need filtration prior to disinfection. Effectiveness of conventional disinfection processes, such as chlorination and UV radiation, are dependent upon the oxidation level and the levels of suspended solids of the treated water. Ozonation is relatively expensive and energy consuming. The consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of conventional techniques, their reliability, investment needs and operational costs will lead to the use of less sophisticated alternative techniques for certain facilities. Among alternative techniques, soil aquifer treatment and infiltration percolation through sand beds have been studied in Arizona, Israel, France, Spain and Morocco. Infiltration percolation plants have been intermittently fed with secondary or high quality primary effluents which percolated through 1.5-2 m unsaturated coarse sand and were recovered by under-drains. In such infiltration percolation facilities, microorganisms were eliminated through numerous physical, physicochemical and biological inter-related processes (mechanical filtration, adsorption and microbial degradation respectively). Efficiency of faecal coliform removal was dependent upon the water detention times in the filtering medium and on the oxidation of the filtered water. Effluents of Sfax town aerated ponds were infiltrated through 1.5 m deep sand columns in order to determine the performance of infiltration percolation in the

  8. ENHANCED BIODEGRADATION OF IOPROMIDE AND TRIMETHOPRIM IN NITRIFYING ACTIVATED SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Iopromide and trimethoprim are frequently detected pharmaceuticals in effluents of wastewater treatment plants and in surface waters due to their persistence and high usage. Laboratory scale experiments showed that a significantly higher removal rate in nutrifying activated sludg...

  9. Modeling of organic substrate transformation in the high-rate activated sludge process.

    PubMed

    Nogaj, Thomas; Randall, Andrew; Jimenez, Jose; Takacs, Imre; Bott, Charles; Miller, Mark; Murthy, Sudhir; Wett, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the development of a modified activated sludge model No.1 framework to describe the organic substrate transformation in the high-rate activated sludge (HRAS) process. New process mechanisms for dual soluble substrate utilization, production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), absorption of soluble substrate (storage), and adsorption of colloidal substrate were included in the modified model. Data from two HRAS pilot plants were investigated to calibrate and to validate the proposed model for HRAS systems. A subdivision of readily biodegradable soluble substrate into a slow and fast fraction were included to allow accurate description of effluent soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) in HRAS versus longer solids retention time (SRT) systems. The modified model incorporates production of EPS and storage polymers as part of the aerobic growth transformation process on the soluble substrate and transformation processes for flocculation of colloidal COD to particulate COD. The adsorbed organics are then converted through hydrolysis to the slowly biodegradable soluble fraction. Two soluble substrate models were evaluated during this study, i.e., the dual substrate and the diauxic models. Both models used two state variables for biodegradable soluble substrate (SBf and SBs) and a single biomass population. The A-stage pilot typically removed 63% of the soluble substrate (SB) at an SRT <0.13 d and 79% at SRT of 0.23 d. In comparison, the dual substrate model predicted 58% removal at the lower SRT and 78% at the higher SRT, with the diauxic model predicting 32% and 70% removals, respectively. Overall, the dual substrate model provided better results than the diauxic model and therefore it was adopted during this study. The dual substrate model successfully described the higher effluent soluble COD observed in the HRAS systems due to the partial removal of SBs, which is almost completely removed in higher SRT systems.

  10. Toxicity of municipal wastewater effluents contaminated by pentachlorophenol in southwest Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wylie, G.D.; Finger, S.E.; Crawford, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Toxicity of effluents from two sewage treatment plants in Joplin, Missouri, was tested using Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas. No test organisms survived in effluents from either plant, in effluents diluted with water from Turkey Creek (the receiving stream), or in water from Turkey Creek. Mortality was complete in all but the most dilute treatments of effluents, in which reconstituted water was used as the diluent. High concentrations of pentachlorophenol (130–970 μg liter−1) in effluents and the receiving stream likely caused mortality during the 7-day tests. Detectable concentrations of other phenolic compounds indicated the presence in Turkey Creek of other toxic by-products of pentachlorophenol manufacture. This study demonstrated the utility of biological tests of whole effluents to determine toxicity of wastewater effluents.

  11. Development of a bioreactor for remediation of textile effluent and dye mixture: a plant-bacterial synergistic strategy.

    PubMed

    Kabra, Akhil N; Khandare, Rahul V; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop a plant-bacterial synergistic system for efficient treatment of the textile effluents. Decolorization of the dye Scarlet RR and a dye mixture was studied under in vitro conditions using Glandularia pulchella (Sweet) Tronc., Pseudomonas monteilii ANK and their consortium. Four reactors viz. soil, bacteria, plant and consortium were developed that were subjected for treatment of textile effluents and dye mixture. Under in vitro conditions G. pulchella and P. monteilii showed decolorization of the dye Scarlet RR (SRR) by 97 and 84%, within 72 and 96 h respectively, while their consortium showed 100% decolorization of the dye within 48 h. In case of dye mixture G. pulchella, P. monteilii and consortium-PG showed an ADMI removal of 78, 67 and 92% respectively within 96 h. During decolorization of SRR G. pulchella showed induction in the activities of enzymes lignin peroxidase and DCIP reductase while P. monteilii showed induction of laccase, DCIP reductase and tyrosinase, indicating their involvement in the dye metabolism. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (FTIR) and High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) confirmed the biotransformation of SRR and dye mixture into different metabolites. Soil, bacteria, plant and consortium reactors performed an ADMI removal of 42, 46, 62 and 93% in the first decolorization cycle while it showed an average ADMI removal of 21, 27, 59 and 93% in the next three (second, third and fourth) decolorization cycles respectively for the dye mixture within 24 h. Consortium reactor showed an average ADMI removal of 95% within 48 and 60 h for textile effluents A and B respectively for three decolorization cycles, while it showed an average TOC, COD and BOD removal of 74, 70 and 70%, 66, 72 and 67%, and 70, 70 and 66% for three decolorization cycles of the dye mixture (second, third and fourth decolorization cycles), effluent A and

  12. Decolorization and detoxification of two textile industry effluents by the laccase/1-hydroxybenzotriazole system.

    PubMed

    Benzina, Ouafa; Daâssi, Dalel; Zouari-Mechichi, Héla; Frikha, Fakher; Woodward, Steve; Belbahri, Lassaad; Rodriguez-Couto, Susana; Mechichi, Tahar

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the optimal conditions for the decolorization and the detoxification of two effluents from a textile industry-effluent A (the reactive dye bath Bezactive) and effluent B (the direct dye bath Tubantin)-using a laccase mediator system. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize textile effluents decolorization. A Box-Behnken design using RSM with the four variables pH, effluent concentration, 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT) concentration, and enzyme (laccase) concentration was used to determine correlations between the effects of these variables on the decolorization of the two effluents. The optimum conditions for pH and concentrations of HBT, effluent and laccase were 5, 1 mM, 50 % and 0.6 U/ml, respectively, for maximum decolorization of effluent A (68 %). For effluent B, optima were 4, 1 mM, 75 %, and 0.6 U/ml, respectively, for maximum decolorization of approximately 88 %. Both effluents were treated at 30 °C for 20 h. A quadratic model was obtained for each decolorization through this design. The experimental and predicted values were in good agreement and both models were highly significant. In addition, the toxicity of the two effluents was determined before and after laccase treatment using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bacillus cereus, and germination of tomato seeds.

  13. A Rinsing Effluent Evaporator for Dismantling Operations - 13271

    SciTech Connect

    Rives, Rachel

    2013-07-01

    Between 1958 and 1997, the UP1 plant at Marcoule - located in the south of France - reprocessed and recycled nearly 20,000 MT of used fuel from special defense applications reactors, as well as fuel from the first generation of electricity generating reactors in France (natural uranium fuel, CO{sub 2}-cooled, graphite-moderated). Decommissioning and Dismantling of the UP1 plant and its associated units started in 1998. Since 2005, the UP1 facility has been operated by AREVA as the Marcoule Management and Operation contractor for French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). An important part of this decommissioning program deals with the vitrification facility of Marcoule. This facility includes 20 tanks devoted to interim storage of highly active solutions, prior to vitrification. In 2006, a rinsing program was defined as part of the tank cleanup strategy. The main objective of the rinsing phases was to decrease activity in order to limit the volume of 'long-life active' waste produced during the decommissioning operations, so the tanks can be dismantled without the need of remote operations. To enable this rinsing program, and anticipating large volumes of generated effluent, the construction of an evaporation unit proved to be essential. The main objective of this unit was to concentrate the effluent produced during tank rinsing operations by a factor of approximately 10, prior to it being treated by vitrification. The evaporator design phase was launched in September 2006. The main challenge for the Project team was the installation of this new unit within a nuclear facility still in operation and in existing compartments not initially designed for this purpose. Cold operating tests were completed in 2008, and in May 2009, the final connections to the process were activated to start the hot test phase. During the first hot test operations performed on the first batches of clean-up effluent, the evaporator had a major operating problem. Extremely large quantities of

  14. A Conceptual Model For Effluent-Dependent Riverine Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, M. T.; Meyerhoff, R. D.; Osterkamp, W. R.; Smith, E. L.; Hawkins, R. H.

    2001-12-01

    The Arid West Water Quality Research Project (WQRP) is a multi-year, EPA-funded scientific endeavor directed by the Pima County, Wastewater Management Department in southern Arizona and focussed upon several interconnected ecological questions. These questions are crucial to water quality management in the arid and semi arid western US. A key component has been the ecological, hydrological and geomorphological investigation of habitat created by the discharge of treated effluent into ephemeral streams. Such environments are fundamentally different from the dry streams or rivers they displace; however, they are clearly not the perennial streams they superficially resemble. Under Arizona State regulations, such streams can bear the use designation of "Effluent Dependent Waters," or EDWs. Before this investigation, a hydrological/ecological conceptual model for these unique ecosystems had not been published. We have constructed one for general review that is designed to direct future work in the WQRP. The project investigated ten representative, yet contrasting EDW sites distributed throughout arid areas of the western US, to gather both historical and reconnaissance level field data, including in-stream and riparian, habitat and morphometric fluvial data. In most cases, the cross sectional area of the prior channel is oversized relative to the discharge of the introduced effluent. Where bed control is absent, the channels are incised downstream of the discharge point, further suggesting a disequilibrium between the channel and the regulated effluent flow. Several of the studied stream systems primarily convey storm water and are aggradational, exhibiting braided or anastomizing channels, high energy bedforms, and spatially dynamic interfluves. Active channels are formed in response to individual storm events and can be highly dynamic in both location and cross-sectional morphology. This poses a geomorphological challenge in the selection of a discharge point. We

  15. Production of high specific activity silicon-32

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Dennis R.; Brzezinski, Mark A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provide and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  16. Active coloration with flexible high contrast metastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Li; Kapraun, Jonas; Ferrara, James; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J.

    2015-02-01

    The ability to actively control the perceived color of objects is highly desirable for a variety of applications, such as camouflage, sensing, and displays. Such a phenomenon can be readily found in nature - the chameleon is an excellent example. However, the capability to change color at-will has yet to be reproduced by humans. Ultra-thin dielectric high contrast metastructures (HCMs) have been shown to exhibit unique versatility to manipulate light. In this work, we report a completely new flexible HCM structure whose color can be varied by stretching the membrane. This is accomplished with a novel HCM design that annihilates the 0th order diffraction in a grating while enhancing the -1st order. The color perception of the HCM, determined by the -1st diffraction order, is thus easily changed with the variation of its period. The ultra-thin HCM is patterned on a silicon-on-insulator wafer and transferred onto a flexible membrane. We measure more than 15 times stronger intensity in the -1st order diffraction than the 0th order, in excellent agreement with theoretical results. We experimentally demonstrate brilliant colors and change the color of a 1 cm×1 cm sample from green to orange (39 nm wavelength change) with a stretch of 4.9% (25 nm period change). The same effect can be used for steering a laser beam. We demonstrate more than 40 resolvable beam spots.

  17. Facility effluent monitoring plan for WESF

    SciTech Connect

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    1999-09-01

    The FEMP for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) provides sufficient information on the WESF effluent characteristics and the effluent monitoring systems so that a compliance assessment against applicable requirements may be performed. Radioactive and hazardous material source terms are related to specific effluent streams that are in turn, related to discharge points and, finally are compared to the effluent monitoring system capability.

  18. Role of livestock effluent suspended particulate in sealing effluent ponds.

    PubMed

    Bennett, J McL; Warren, B R

    2015-05-01

    Intensive livestock feed-lots have become more prevalent in recent years to help in meeting the predicted food production targets based on expected population growth. Effluent from these is stored in ponds, representing a potential concern for seepage and contamination of groundwater. Whilst previous literature suggests that effluent particulate can limit seepage adequately in combination with a clay liner, this research addresses potential concerns for sealing of ponds with low concentration fine and then evaluates this against proposed filter-cake based methodologies to describe and predict hydraulic reduction. Short soil cores were compacted to 98% of the maximum dry density and subject to ponded head percolation with unfiltered-sediment-reduced effluent, effluent filtered to <3 μm, and chemically synthesized effluent. Reduction in hydraulic conductivity was observed to be primarily due to the colloidal fraction of the effluent, with larger particulate fractions providing minimal further reduction. Pond sealing was shown to follow mathematical models of filter-cake formation, but without the formation of a physical seal on top of the soil surface. Management considerations based on the results are presented.

  19. Waste treatment of kraft effluents by white-rot fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, R.

    1996-10-01

    The residual lignin in unbleached kraft pulp is commonly removed to afford a fully bleached pulp through a multi-stage bleaching process consisting of chlorination and alkaline-extraction stages. The effluent from such a bleaching process is of growing environmental concern because it shows a dark brown color and contains numerous chlorinated organic substances. Moreover, this effluent is not easily recycled within a mill recovery system because of the potential corrosion problems created by its high chlorine content. White-rot fungi have even heavily modified lignin such as kraft lignin and atoms demonstrated that kraft bleaching effluent can be rot fungi, in particular, Trametes versicolor and this review lecture, the possibility of the application of kraft effluents will be discussed.

  20. Radiation treatment of municipal effluent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawai, Teruko; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Shimokawa, Toshinari; Sawai, Takeshi

    1993-10-01

    The recycling of municipal wastewater is an effective means of coping with the water shortage in Tokyo. After irradiation, the refractory organic substances in wastewater were decomposed. COD, light brown color, offensive odor and foaminess in the effluents were reduced with increasing dose. Inactivation efficiencies (D 10) of six microorganisms added to the secondary effluents and return sludge supernatant by irradiation were investigated. The survival curves of total bacteria, total coliforms and enterococci in the secondary effluents were compared. The number of total coliforms exponentially decreased with increasing dose and fell to undetectable levels at 0.5 kGy. The elimination of suspended solids in the secondary effluents is effective in diminishing the dose required to disinfect and prevent bacteria regrowth.

  1. Ammonium removal from anaerobically treated effluent by Chlamydomonas acidophila.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Ania; Blanco, Fernando; Lacalle, Arrate; Pinto, Miriam

    2014-02-01

    Several batch culture studies were carried out to evaluate an anaerobically treated effluent as a low-cost growth medium for the microalga Chlamydomonas acidophila and to study the effectiveness of the microalga in removing NH4-N from the effluent. An initial decrease in the effluent pH to 3 was required for adequate growth of C. acidophila and removal of NH4-N. Growth of the microalgae was inhibited at high light intensity (224μmolphotonsm(-2)s(-1) at the surface of the vessels). However, the growth was not greatly affected by the high solid content and turbidity of the effluent. The microalga was able to grow in media containing NH4-N at concentrations of up to 1000mgL(-1) (50% of effluent) and to remove 88mg of NH4-NL(-1) in 10days. C. acidophila therefore appears a promising agent for the removal of NH4-N from anaerobically treated effluents. PMID:24342946

  2. High performance composites with active stiffness control.

    PubMed

    Tridech, Charnwit; Maples, Henry A; Robinson, Paul; Bismarck, Alexander

    2013-09-25

    High performance carbon fiber reinforced composites with controllable stiffness could revolutionize the use of composite materials in structural applications. Here we describe a structural material, which has a stiffness that can be actively controlled on demand. Such a material could have applications in morphing wings or deployable structures. A carbon fiber reinforced-epoxy composite is described that can undergo an 88% reduction in flexural stiffness at elevated temperatures and fully recover when cooled, with no discernible damage or loss in properties. Once the stiffness has been reduced, the required deformations can be achieved at much lower actuation forces. For this proof-of-concept study a thin polyacrylamide (PAAm) layer was electrocoated onto carbon fibers that were then embedded into an epoxy matrix via resin infusion. Heating the PAAm coating above its glass transition temperature caused it to soften and allowed the fibers to slide within the matrix. To produce the stiffness change the carbon fibers were used as resistance heating elements by passing a current through them. When the PAAm coating had softened, the ability of the interphase to transfer load to the fibers was significantly reduced, greatly lowering the flexural stiffness of the composite. By changing the moisture content in PAAm fiber coating, the temperature at which the PAAm softens and the composites undergo a reduction in stiffness can be tuned. PMID:23978266

  3. Anaerobic co-digestion of table olive debittering & washing effluent, cattle manure and pig manure in batch and high volume laboratory anaerobic digesters: effect of temperature.

    PubMed

    Zarkadas, Ioannis S; Pilidis, George A

    2011-04-01

    The prospective of table olive debittering & washing Effluent (DWE) as feed stock wastewater for anaerobic digestion (AD) systems was investigated in batch and continuous systems together with cattle and pig manures. While DWE considered unsuitable for biological treatment methods due to its unbalanced nature, the co-digestion of the wastewaters resulted in a 50% increase in the methane production/gram volatile solids(added) (CH(4)/gVS(added)), accompanied by 30% phenol reduction and 80% total organic carbon removal (TOC). pH increase during the co-digestion period was not identified as an inhibitory factor and all reactors were able to withstand this operational condition change. Moreover, no volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation was observed, indicating that the reactors were not operating under stress-overloading state. Under thermophilic conditions a 7% increase on the TOC removal efficiency was achieved when compared to the mesophilic systems while, under mesophilic conditions phenolic compounds reduction was 10% higher compared to the thermophilic systems.

  4. High-Throughput Analysis of Enzyme Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Guoxin

    2007-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) techniques have been applied to many research fields nowadays. Robot microarray printing technique and automation microtiter handling technique allows HTS performing in both heterogeneous and homogeneous formats, with minimal sample required for each assay element. In this dissertation, new HTS techniques for enzyme activity analysis were developed. First, patterns of immobilized enzyme on nylon screen were detected by multiplexed capillary system. The imaging resolution is limited by the outer diameter of the capillaries. In order to get finer images, capillaries with smaller outer diameters can be used to form the imaging probe. Application of capillary electrophoresis allows separation of the product from the substrate in the reaction mixture, so that the product doesn't have to have different optical properties with the substrate. UV absorption detection allows almost universal detection for organic molecules. Thus, no modifications of either the substrate or the product molecules are necessary. This technique has the potential to be used in screening of local distribution variations of specific bio-molecules in a tissue or in screening of multiple immobilized catalysts. Another high-throughput screening technique is developed by directly monitoring the light intensity of the immobilized-catalyst surface using a scientific charge-coupled device (CCD). Briefly, the surface of enzyme microarray is focused onto a scientific CCD using an objective lens. By carefully choosing the detection wavelength, generation of product on an enzyme spot can be seen by the CCD. Analyzing the light intensity change over time on an enzyme spot can give information of reaction rate. The same microarray can be used for many times. Thus, high-throughput kinetic studies of hundreds of catalytic reactions are made possible. At last, we studied the fluorescence emission spectra of ADP and obtained the detection limits for ADP under three different

  5. Metabolic Activity of Bacteria at High Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, A.; Daniel, I.; Oger, P.

    2008-12-01

    Over the last 20 years, there has been increasing evidence for the presence of a large number of microbes in the oceanic subsurface. Such a habitat has a very low energy input because it is deprived of light. A few meters below the sediment surface, conditions are already anoxic in most cases, sulfate reduction and/or methanogenesis becoming thus the primary respiratory reactions of organic matter. Neither the fate of methanogenesis, nor the fate of Dissimilatory Metal-Reduction (DMR) has been investigated so far as a function of pressure. For this reason, we measured experimentally the pressure limits of microbial anaerobic energetic metabolism. In practice, we measured in situ the kinetics of selenite respiration by the bacterial model Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) between 0 and 150 MPa at 30°C. MR-1 stationary-phase cells were used in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium amended with lactate as an additional electron donor and sodium selenite as an electron acceptor. In situ measurements were performed by X- ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy in both a diamond-anvil cell and an autoclave. A red precipitate of amorphous Se(0) was virtually observed at any pressure to 150 MPa. A progressive reduction of selenite Se(IV) into selenium Se(0) was also observed in the evolution of XANES spectra with time. All kinetics between 0.1 and 150 MPa can be adjusted to a first order kinetic law. MR-1 respires all available selenite up to 60 MPa. Above 60 MPa, the respiration yield decreases linearly as a function of pressure and reaches 0 at 155 ±5 MPa. This indicates that selenite respiration by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 stops at about 155 MPa, whereas its growth is arrested at 50 MPa. Hence, the present results show that the respiration of selenium by the strain MR-1 occurs efficiently up to 60 MPa and 30°C, i.e. from the surface of a continental sediment to an equivalent depth of about 2 km, or beneath a 5-km water column and

  6. Modelling defined mixtures of environmental oestrogens found in domestic animal and sewage treatment effluents using an in vitro oestrogen-mediated transcriptional activation assay (T47D-KBluc).

    PubMed

    Bermudez, Dieldrich S; Gray, L Earl; Wilson, Vickie S

    2012-06-01

    There is growing concern of exposure of fish, wildlife and humans to water sources contaminated with oestrogens and the potential impact on reproductive health. Environmental oestrogens can come from various sources including concentrated animal feedlot operations (CAFO), municipal waste, agricultural and industrial effluents. US EPA's drinking water contaminant candidate list 3 (CCL3) includes several oestrogenic compounds. Although these contaminants are currently not subject to any proposed or promulgated national primary drinking water regulations, they are known or anticipated to occur in public water systems and may require future regulation under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Using an in vitro transcriptional activation assay, this study evaluated oestrogens from CCL3 both individually and as a seven oestrogen mixture (fixed ray design) over a broad range of concentrations, including environmentally relevant concentrations. Log EC(50) and Hillslope values for individual oestrogens were as follows: estrone, -11.92, 1.283; estradiol-17α, -9.61, 1.486; estradiol-17β, 11.77, 1.494; estriol, -11.14, 1.074; ethinyl estradiol-17α, -12.63, 1.562; Mestranol, -11.08, 0.809 and Equilin, -11.48, 0.946. In addition, mixtures that mirrored the primary oestrogens found in swine, poultry and dairy CAFO effluent (fixed-ratio ray design), and a ternary mixture (4 × 4 × 4 factorial design) of oestrogens found in hormone replacement therapy and/or oral contraceptives were tested. Mixtures were evaluated for additivity using both the concentration addition (CA) model and oestrogen equivalence (EEQ) model. For each of the mixture studies, a broad range of concentrations were tested, both above and below environmentally relevant concentrations. Results show that the observed data did not vary consistently from either the CA or EEQ predictions for any mixture. Therefore, either the CA or EEQ model should be useful predictors for modelling oestrogen mixtures. PMID:22612477

  7. A review of membrane fouling in municipal secondary effluent reclamation.

    PubMed

    Ke, Xu; Hongqiang, Ren; Lili, Ding; Jinju, Geng; Tingting, Zhang

    2013-02-01

    Reclamation of municipal secondary effluent for non-potable purposes is considered vital in alleviating the demand for existing limited water supplies while helping to protect remaining water sources from being polluted. In recent decades, reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membrane technologies have become increasingly attractive for reclamation of municipal secondary effluent because they are highly efficient, easy to operate, and economical. However, membrane fouling is a major obstacle in the development of membrane technology in municipal secondary effluent reclamation. This paper reviews three types of membrane fouling in municipal secondary effluent reclamation, namely, effluent organic matter (EfOM) membrane fouling, microbial membrane fouling, and inorganic membrane fouling, as well as their correlation. Membrane fouling by EfOM and microbes are found to be severe, and they are significantly correlated. Most previous studies conducted laboratory-scale experiments of membrane fouling with model organic matters and bacteria, but these model organic matters and bacteria might still be unrepresentative. More studies on membrane fouling in municipal secondary effluent reclamation with actual wastewater are essential.

  8. Development of highly sensitive extractive spectrophotometric determination of nickel(II) in medicinal leaves, soil, industrial effluents and standard alloy samples using pyridoxal-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Loka Subramanyam; Kumar, Jyothi Rajesh; Reddy, Koduru Janardhan; Thriveni, Thenepalli; Reddy, Ammireddy Varada

    2008-01-01

    Pyridoxal-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (PPT) is proposed as a new sensitive reagent for the extractive spectrophotometric determination of nickel(II). PPT reacts with nickel(II) in the pH range 4.0-6.0 to form a reddish brown colored complex, which was well-extracted into n-butanol. The absorbance value of the Ni(II)-PPT complex was measured at different time intervals at 430nm, to ascertain the stability of the complex. The system obeyed Beer's law up to 0.5-5.0microgmL(-1) of nickel(II), with an excellent linearity in terms of the correlation coefficient value of 0.99. The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of the extracted species are 1.92 x 10(4)Lmol(-1)cm(-1) and 0.003057microgcm(-2) respectively at 430nm. The detection limit of the method is 0.069microgmL(-1). To assess precision and accuracy of the developed method, determinations were carried out at different concentrations. The relative standard deviation of all measurements does not exceed 2.62%. The developed method has been satisfactorily applied for the determination of nickel(II), when present alone or in the presence of diverse ions, which are usually associated with nickel(II) in medicinal leaves, soil and industrial effluent samples. Various standard and certified reference materials (CM 247 LC, IN 718, BCS 233, 266, 253 and 251) have also been tested for the determination of nickel for the purpose of validation of the present method. The results of the proposed method are compared with those obtained from an atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS).

  9. High Flight. Aerospace Activities, K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    Following discussions of Oklahoma aerospace history and the history of flight, interdisciplinary aerospace activities are presented. Each activity includes title, concept fostered, purpose, list of materials needed, and procedure(s). Topics include planets, the solar system, rockets, airplanes, air travel, space exploration, principles of flight,…

  10. 200 area effluent treatment facility opertaional test report

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, A.F.

    1995-10-26

    This document reports the results of the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (200 Area ETF) operational testing activities. These Operational testing activities demonstrated that the functional, operational and design requirements of the 200 Area ETF have been met and identified open items which require retesting.

  11. Influence of different mesh filter module configurations on effluent quality and long-term filtration performance.

    PubMed

    Loderer, Christian; Wörle, Anna; Fuchs, Werner

    2012-04-01

    Recently, a new type of wastewater treatment system became the focus of scientific research: the mesh filter activated sludge system. It is a modification of the membrane bioreactor (MBR), in which a membrane filtration process serves for sludge separation. The main difference is that a mesh filter is used instead of the membrane. The effluent is not of the same excellent quality as with membrane bioreactors due to the much lager pore sizes of the mesh. Nevertheless, it still resembles the quality of currently used standard treatment system, the activated sludge process. The new process shows high future potential as an alternative where a small footprint of these plants is required (3 times lower footprint than conventional activated sludge systems because of neglecting the secondary clarifier and reducing the biological stage). However, so far only limited information on this innovative process is available. In this study, the effect of different pore sizes and different mesh module configurations on the effluent quality was investigated varying the parameters cross-flow velocity (CFV) and flux rate. Furthermore the long-term filtration performance was studied in a pilot reactor system and results were compared to the full-scale conventional activated sludge process established at the same site. The results demonstrate that the configuration of the filter module has little impact on effluent quality and is only of importance with regard to engineering aspects. Most important for a successful operation are the hydrodynamic conditions within the filter module. The statement "the higher the pore size the higher the effluent turbidity" was verified. Excellent effluent quality with suspended solids between 5 and 15 mg L(-1) and high biological elimination rates (chemical oxygen demand (COD) 90-95%, biological oxygen demand (BOD5) 94-98%, total nitrogen (TN) 70-80%, and ammonium nitrogen (NH(4)-N) 95-99%) were achieved and also compared to those of conventional

  12. Influence of different mesh filter module configurations on effluent quality and long-term filtration performance.

    PubMed

    Loderer, Christian; Wörle, Anna; Fuchs, Werner

    2012-04-01

    Recently, a new type of wastewater treatment system became the focus of scientific research: the mesh filter activated sludge system. It is a modification of the membrane bioreactor (MBR), in which a membrane filtration process serves for sludge separation. The main difference is that a mesh filter is used instead of the membrane. The effluent is not of the same excellent quality as with membrane bioreactors due to the much lager pore sizes of the mesh. Nevertheless, it still resembles the quality of currently used standard treatment system, the activated sludge process. The new process shows high future potential as an alternative where a small footprint of these plants is required (3 times lower footprint than conventional activated sludge systems because of neglecting the secondary clarifier and reducing the biological stage). However, so far only limited information on this innovative process is available. In this study, the effect of different pore sizes and different mesh module configurations on the effluent quality was investigated varying the parameters cross-flow velocity (CFV) and flux rate. Furthermore the long-term filtration performance was studied in a pilot reactor system and results were compared to the full-scale conventional activated sludge process established at the same site. The results demonstrate that the configuration of the filter module has little impact on effluent quality and is only of importance with regard to engineering aspects. Most important for a successful operation are the hydrodynamic conditions within the filter module. The statement "the higher the pore size the higher the effluent turbidity" was verified. Excellent effluent quality with suspended solids between 5 and 15 mg L(-1) and high biological elimination rates (chemical oxygen demand (COD) 90-95%, biological oxygen demand (BOD5) 94-98%, total nitrogen (TN) 70-80%, and ammonium nitrogen (NH(4)-N) 95-99%) were achieved and also compared to those of conventional

  13. 40 CFR 471.66 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471.66 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  14. 40 CFR 471.86 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Forming Subcategory § 471.86 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  15. 40 CFR 471.26 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Magnesium Forming Subcategory § 471.26 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  16. 40 CFR 471.76 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium Forming Subcategory § 471.76 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  17. 40 CFR 471.76 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium Forming Subcategory § 471.76 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  18. 40 CFR 471.86 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Forming Subcategory § 471.86 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  19. 40 CFR 471.26 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Magnesium Forming Subcategory § 471.26 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  20. 40 CFR 471.66 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Forming Subcategory § 471.66 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  1. 40 CFR 409.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar... beet sugar processing operation. Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1...

  2. 40 CFR 409.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar... beet sugar processing operation. Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1...

  3. 40 CFR 409.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar... beet sugar processing operation. Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1...

  4. 40 CFR 409.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar... beet sugar processing operation. Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1...

  5. 40 CFR 409.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar... beet sugar processing operation. Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1...

  6. 40 CFR 464.17 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Casting Subcategory § 464.17 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  7. 40 CFR 428.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Latex Rubber Subcategory § 428.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  8. 40 CFR 428.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Latex Rubber Subcategory § 428.43 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  9. 40 CFR 428.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Latex Rubber Subcategory § 428.43 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  10. 40 CFR 428.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Solution Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  11. 40 CFR 428.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Latex Rubber Subcategory § 428.43 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  12. 40 CFR 428.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Emulsion Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  13. 40 CFR 428.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Emulsion Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  14. 40 CFR 428.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Solution Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  15. 40 CFR 428.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Latex Rubber Subcategory § 428.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  16. 40 CFR 440.115 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Platinum Ores Subcategory § 440.115 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  17. 40 CFR 440.112 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Platinum Ores Subcategory § 440.112 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  18. 40 CFR 440.115 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Platinum Ores Subcategory § 440.115 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  19. 40 CFR 440.112 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Platinum Ores Subcategory § 440.112 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  20. 40 CFR 440.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.92 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  1. 40 CFR 440.35 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores Subcategory § 440.35 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  2. 40 CFR 440.115 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Platinum Ores Subcategory § 440.115 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  3. 40 CFR 440.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.92 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  4. 40 CFR 440.112 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Platinum Ores Subcategory § 440.112 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  5. 40 CFR 440.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.92 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  6. Is the Intergenerational Transmission of High Cultural Activities Biased by the Retrospective Measurement of Parental High Cultural Activities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Jannes; de Graaf, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    In this article we study the bias caused by the conventional retrospective measurement of parental high cultural activities in the effects of parental high cultural activities and educational attainment on son's or daughter's high cultural activities. Multi-informant data show that there is both random measurement error and correlated error in the…

  7. Effluent blending in constructed wetlands: Pollution prevention applications at a coal yard treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    Carder, J.P.; Hoylman, A.M.; Sparks, B.J.

    1995-12-31

    Effluent blending, in combination with constructed wetland biotechnology, is a promising method for reducing the loading rates of pollution to receiving streams. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a project is underway to demonstrate this principle. An 8:2 ratio of sewage treatment plant to coal yard runoff treatment facility (CYRTF) effluent will be polished by 2 constructed wetland cells containing emergent wetland plants in saturated pea gravel at a rate of 3600 gallons per day. The relatively high concentration of nutrients in the STP effluent should stimulate biological processes leading to the reduction of chemical oxygen demand and the conversion of excess sulfate (in the CYRTF effluent) to alkalinity. Chlorine, which is added to the STP effluent to control bacteria, should also be eliminated. Measurements of wastewater toxicity, before and after the effluent blend has passed through the constructed wetlands, will be used to assess the technology`s effectiveness at reducing pollution.

  8. CYP1A andother biomarker responses to effluents from a textile mill in the Volta River (Ghana) using caged tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) andsediment-exposed mudfish (Clarias anguillaris).

    PubMed

    Gadagbui, B K; Goksrøyr, A

    1996-01-01

    Abstract The ecotoxicological effects of a textile mill effluent were investigated by caging tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in the Volta River, Ghana, andby exposing mudfish (Clarias anguillaris) to sediment collected from the same river. Tilapia were caged for 3 weeks at three locations (0.6, 4, and8 km) downstream from the effluent outlet. Mudfish were exposed in the laboratory for 2 weeks to sediment collected from the vicinity of the effluent outlet and8 km downstream. Upstream reference locations 2 km (tilapia) and10.2 km (mudfish) were included. Liver cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) monooxygenase activity (measured as activity of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, EROD, andCYP1A protein level) andtwo conjugation enzymes, UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UDP-GT) andglutathione Stransferase (GST), were analysed. A distance-related decrease in EROD activity andCYP1A protein level was observed. EROD activity was 21-fold higher in tilapia caged at the site nearest the effluent outlet and25-fold higher in mudfish exposed to sediment collected from the vicinity of the outlet, compared with the respective reference values. UDP-GT andGST levels increased significantly by 70 and27%, respectively, in tilapia while the respective levels in mudfish were 73 and28%, compared with reference values. The results clearly indicate that the textile mill effluent contains some highly potent inducers of biotransformation enzymes. This first assessment of the biological effects of organic pollutants in the Volta River demonstrates the utility of the CYP1A system as a valuable early warning biomarker of industrial effluents andalso as a biomarker to detect exposure of aquatic resources to environmental chemical contamination in tropical waters. PMID:23888992

  9. CYP1A andother biomarker responses to effluents from a textile mill in the Volta River (Ghana) using caged tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) andsediment-exposed mudfish (Clarias anguillaris).

    PubMed

    Gadagbui, B K; Goksrøyr, A

    1996-01-01

    Abstract The ecotoxicological effects of a textile mill effluent were investigated by caging tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in the Volta River, Ghana, andby exposing mudfish (Clarias anguillaris) to sediment collected from the same river. Tilapia were caged for 3 weeks at three locations (0.6, 4, and8 km) downstream from the effluent outlet. Mudfish were exposed in the laboratory for 2 weeks to sediment collected from the vicinity of the effluent outlet and8 km downstream. Upstream reference locations 2 km (tilapia) and10.2 km (mudfish) were included. Liver cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) monooxygenase activity (measured as activity of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, EROD, andCYP1A protein level) andtwo conjugation enzymes, UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UDP-GT) andglutathione Stransferase (GST), were analysed. A distance-related decrease in EROD activity andCYP1A protein level was observed. EROD activity was 21-fold higher in tilapia caged at the site nearest the effluent outlet and25-fold higher in mudfish exposed to sediment collected from the vicinity of the outlet, compared with the respective reference values. UDP-GT andGST levels increased significantly by 70 and27%, respectively, in tilapia while the respective levels in mudfish were 73 and28%, compared with reference values. The results clearly indicate that the textile mill effluent contains some highly potent inducers of biotransformation enzymes. This first assessment of the biological effects of organic pollutants in the Volta River demonstrates the utility of the CYP1A system as a valuable early warning biomarker of industrial effluents andalso as a biomarker to detect exposure of aquatic resources to environmental chemical contamination in tropical waters.

  10. Environmental regulatory guide for radiological effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, the US Department of Energy (DOE) is obligated to regulate its own activities so as to provide radiation protection for both workers and the public.'' Presidential Executive Order 12088, Federal Compliance with Pollution Control Standards,'' further requires the heads of executive agencies to ensure that all Federal facilities and activities comply with applicable pollution control standards and to take all actions necessary for the prevention, control, and abatement of environmental pollution. This regulatory guide describes the elements of an acceptable effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance program for DOE sites involving radioactive materials. These elements are applicable to all DOE and contractor activities for which the DOE exercises environmental, safety, and health responsibilities, and are intended to be applicable over the broad range of DOE facilities and sites. In situations where the high-priority elements may not provide sufficient coverage of a specific monitoring or surveillance topic, the document provides additional guidance. The high-priority elements are written as procedures and activities that should'' be performed, and the guidance is written as procedures and activities that should'' be performed. The regulatory guide both incorporates and expands on requirements embodied in DOE 5400.5 and DOE 5400.1. 221 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. ESTROGENIC AND CYP1A RESPONSE OF MUMMICHOGS AND SUNSHINE BASS TO SEWAGE EFFLUENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies demonstrating feminization of effluent-exposed wild-caught male fish in the UK have prompted much research regarding the estrogenic activity of effluent from municipal sewage treatment plants (MSTPs). To investigate the estrogenicity and cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) ...

  12. Photoelectrocatalytic decolorization and degradation of textile effluent using ZnO thin films.

    PubMed

    Sapkal, R T; Shinde, S S; Mahadik, M A; Mohite, V S; Waghmode, T R; Govindwar, S P; Rajpure, K Y; Bhosale, C H

    2012-09-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been successfully deposited onto fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass at substrate temperature of 400 °C and used as electrode in photoelectrocatalytic reactor. The untreated textile effluent was circulated through photoelectrocatalytic reactor under UVA illumination for the decolorization and degradation. Textile effluent was decolorized by 93% within 3h at room temperature with significant reduction in COD (69%). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of samples before and after decolorization confirmed the degradation of dyes molecules from textile effluent into simpler oxidizable products. Phytotoxicity study revealed reduction in toxic nature of textile effluent after treatment.

  13. Distillery effluent induced alterations in the haematological profile of fingerlings of Colisa fasciatus.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Anuradha; Shukla, J P

    2013-09-01

    Present study deals with the impact of Gorakhpur distillery effluent at various concentration levels (5, 10 and 20%) on the blood profile of fingerling of, Colisa fosciotus after 30 days of exposure. Observations revealed that 5% of effluent concentration produced no significant alterations in various haematological parameters except for clotting time and immature erythrocytes. However, 10% of effluent concentration brought significant alterations in hematocrit as well as clotting time and 20% of effluent concentration produced highly significant (P<0.001) alteration in most of the haematological parameters except for hemoglobin percentage. PMID:24558806

  14. Life cycle assessment comparison of activated sludge, trickling filter, and high-rate anaerobic-aerobic digestion (HRAAD).

    PubMed

    Postacchini, Leonardo; Lamichhane, Krishna M; Furukawa, Dennis; Babcock, Roger W; Ciarapica, F E; Cooney, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    This paper conducts a comparative assessment of the environmental impacts of three methods of treating primary clarifier effluent in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) through life cycle assessment methodology. The three technologies, activated sludge (AS), high rate anaerobic-aerobic digestion (HRAAD), and trickling filter (TF), were assessed for treatment of wastewater possessing average values of biochemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids of 90 mg L(-1) and 70 mg L(-1), respectively. The operational requirements to process the municipal wastewater to effluent that meets USEPA regulations have been calculated. The data for the AS system were collected from the East Honolulu WWTP (Hawaii, USA) while data for the HRAAD system were collected from a demonstration-scale system at the same plant. The data for the TF system were estimated from published literature. Two different assessment methods have been used in this study: IMPACT 2002+ and TRACI 2. The results show that TF had the smallest environmental impacts and that AS had the largest, while HRAAD was in between the two but with much reduced impacts compared with AS. Additionally, the study shows that lower sludge production is the greatest advantage of HRAAD for reducing environmental impacts compared with AS. PMID:27191555

  15. Detection, identification and formation of new iodinated disinfection byproducts in chlorinated saline wastewater effluents.

    PubMed

    Gong, Tingting; Zhang, Xiangru

    2015-01-01

    The use of seawater for toilet flushing introduces high levels of inorganic ions, including iodide ions, into a city's wastewater treatment systems, resulting in saline wastewater effluents. Chlorination is widely used in disinfecting wastewater effluents owing to its low cost and high efficiency. During chlorination of saline wastewater effluents, iodide may be oxidized to hypoiodous acid, which may further react with effluent organic matter to form iodinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Iodinated DBPs show significantly higher toxicity than their brominated and chlorinated analogues and thus have been drawing increasing concerns. In this study, polar iodinated DBPs were detected in chlorinated saline wastewater effluents using a novel precursor ion scan method. The major polar iodinated DBPs were identified and quantified, and their organic precursors and formation pathways were investigated. The formation of iodinated DBPs under different chlorine doses and contact times was also studied. The results indicated that a few polar iodinated DBPs were generated in the chlorinated saline primary effluent, but few were generated in the chlorinated saline secondary effluent. Several major polar iodinated DBPs in the chlorinated saline primary effluent were proposed with structures, among which a new group of polar iodinated DBPs, iodo-trihydroxybenzenesulfonic acids, were identified and quantified. The organic precursors of this new group of DBPs were found to be 4-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid and 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene, and the formation pathways of these new DBPs were tentatively proposed. Both chlorine dose and contact time affected the formation of iodinated DBPs in the chlorinated saline wastewater effluents.

  16. Detection, identification and formation of new iodinated disinfection byproducts in chlorinated saline wastewater effluents.

    PubMed

    Gong, Tingting; Zhang, Xiangru

    2015-01-01

    The use of seawater for toilet flushing introduces high levels of inorganic ions, including iodide ions, into a city's wastewater treatment systems, resulting in saline wastewater effluents. Chlorination is widely used in disinfecting wastewater effluents owing to its low cost and high efficiency. During chlorination of saline wastewater effluents, iodide may be oxidized to hypoiodous acid, which may further react with effluent organic matter to form iodinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Iodinated DBPs show significantly higher toxicity than their brominated and chlorinated analogues and thus have been drawing increasing concerns. In this study, polar iodinated DBPs were detected in chlorinated saline wastewater effluents using a novel precursor ion scan method. The major polar iodinated DBPs were identified and quantified, and their organic precursors and formation pathways were investigated. The formation of iodinated DBPs under different chlorine doses and contact times was also studied. The results indicated that a few polar iodinated DBPs were generated in the chlorinated saline primary effluent, but few were generated in the chlorinated saline secondary effluent. Several major polar iodinated DBPs in the chlorinated saline primary effluent were proposed with structures, among which a new group of polar iodinated DBPs, iodo-trihydroxybenzenesulfonic acids, were identified and quantified. The organic precursors of this new group of DBPs were found to be 4-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid and 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene, and the formation pathways of these new DBPs were tentatively proposed. Both chlorine dose and contact time affected the formation of iodinated DBPs in the chlorinated saline wastewater effluents. PMID:25462718

  17. Fermentative effluents from hydrogen producing bioreactor as substrate for poly(beta-OH) butyrate production with simultaneous treatment: an integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Venkata Mohan, S; Reddy, M Venkateswar; Subhash, G Venkata; Sarma, P N

    2010-12-01

    The feasibility of bioplastics production as poly(beta-OH)butyrate (PHB) was studied with individual volatile fatty acids (VFA) and acid-rich effluents from a biohydrogen producing reactor (HBR) as primary substrates employing aerobic consortia as biocatalyst under anoxic microenvironment. Butyrate as substrate showed higher PHB productivity (33%) followed by acetate (32%), acids mixture (16%) and propionate (11%) among synthetic VFA studied. Acid-rich effluents from HBR yielded higher PHB productivity (25%) especially at lower substrate loading conditions. Decrement observed in PHB production (from 25% to 6%) with increase in substrate load might be due to the presence of high concentration of residual carbon along with acid metabolites. Neutral redox operation showed effective PHB production compared to acidic and basic conditions due to associated higher metabolic activity of the biocatalyst. The integrated approach helped to treat additional COD from acid-rich HBR effluents apart from by-product recovery. PMID:20667721

  18. Strategies for decolorization and detoxification of pulp and paper mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Garg, Satyendra K; Tripathi, Manikant

    2011-01-01

    The potential hazards associated with industrial effluents, coupled with increasing awareness of environment problems, have prompted many countries to limit the indiscriminate discharge of untreated wastewaters. The pulp and paper industry has been among the most significant of industrial polluters of the waterways, and therefore has been one of the industries of concern. The pulp and paper industry produces large quantities of brown/black effluent that primarily result from pulping, bleaching, and paper-making production stages. The dark color and toxicity of pulp-paper mill effluent comes primarily from lignin and its chlorinated derivatives (e.g., lignosulphonic acid, resins, phenols, and hydrocarbons) that are released during various processing steps of lignocellulosic materials. The color originates from pulping and pulp bleaching stages, while adsorbable organic halides (AOX) originates exclusively from chlorine bleaching. Discharge of untreated effluent results in increased BOD/COD, slime growth, thermal problems, scum formation, discoloration, loss of aesthetic quality and toxicity to the aquatic life, in the receiving waterbodies. The dark brow color of pulp-paper effluent is not only responsible for aesthetic unacceptability, but also prevents the passage of sunlight through colored waterbodies. This reduces the photosynthetic activity of aquatic flora, ultimately causing depletion of dissolved oxygen. The pulp-paper organic waste, coupled with the presence of chlorine, results in the generation of highly chlorinated organic compounds. These toxic constituents of wastewater pose a human health risk through long term exposure. via drinking water and\\or through consumption of fish that can bioaccumulate certain pollutants from the food chain. Therefore, considerable attention has been focused by many countries on decolorization of paper mill effluents , along with reduction in the contaminants that pose human health or other environmental hazards. Various

  19. Morphological, Physiological and Biochemical Impact of Ink Industry Effluent on Germination of Maize (Zea mays), Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor).

    PubMed

    Zayneb, Chaâbene; Lamia, Khanous; Olfa, Ellouze; Naïma, Jebahi; Grubb, C Douglas; Bassem, Khemakhem; Hafedh, Mejdoub; Amine, Elleuch

    2015-11-01

    The present study focuses on effects of untreated and treated ink industry wastewater on germination of maize, barley and sorghum. Wastewater had a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and metal content compared to treated effluent. Germination decreased with increasing COD concentration. Speed of germination also followed the same trend, except for maize seeds exposed to untreated effluent (E), which germinated slightly faster than controls. These alterations of seedling development were mirrored by changes in soluble protein content. E exerted a positive effect on soluble protein content and maximum levels occurred after 10 days with treated effluent using coagulation/flocculation (TEc/f) process and treated effluent using combined process (coagulation/flocculation/biosorption) (TEc/f/b). Likewise, activity of α-amylase was influenced by effluent composition. Its expression depended on the species, exposure time and applied treatment. Nevertheless, current results indicated TEc/f/b had no observable toxic effects on germination and could be a beneficial alternative resource to irrigation water.

  20. Morphological, Physiological and Biochemical Impact of Ink Industry Effluent on Germination of Maize (Zea mays), Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor).

    PubMed

    Zayneb, Chaâbene; Lamia, Khanous; Olfa, Ellouze; Naïma, Jebahi; Grubb, C Douglas; Bassem, Khemakhem; Hafedh, Mejdoub; Amine, Elleuch

    2015-11-01

    The present study focuses on effects of untreated and treated ink industry wastewater on germination of maize, barley and sorghum. Wastewater had a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and metal content compared to treated effluent. Germination decreased with increasing COD concentration. Speed of germination also followed the same trend, except for maize seeds exposed to untreated effluent (E), which germinated slightly faster than controls. These alterations of seedling development were mirrored by changes in soluble protein content. E exerted a positive effect on soluble protein content and maximum levels occurred after 10 days with treated effluent using coagulation/flocculation (TEc/f) process and treated effluent using combined process (coagulation/flocculation/biosorption) (TEc/f/b). Likewise, activity of α-amylase was influenced by effluent composition. Its expression depended on the species, exposure time and applied treatment. Nevertheless, current results indicated TEc/f/b had no observable toxic effects on germination and could be a beneficial alternative resource to irrigation water. PMID:26341252

  1. The sublethal effects of petroleum refinery effluents: Mixed function oxygenase (MFO) induction in rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Sherry, J.; Scott, B.; Parrott, J.; Hodson, P.; Rao, S.

    1995-12-31

    Canada uses a single biological parameter which is based on the ability of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to survive a 24 hour exposure to assess and regulate the toxicity of refinery effluents. The acute toxicity of Canadian refinery effluents is generally well controlled. Long term exposures to sublethal toxicants, which are not covered by the current regulations, could have adverse ecological effects. Since PAHs, such as benzo(a)pyrene, can occur in refinery effluents, the authors tested the hypothesis that refinery effluents can induce mixed-function oxygenase measured as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) activity in fish. Two end of pipe effluent samples were collected from each of four Ontario refineries. All effluents induced EROD activity in young trout in a dose dependent manner. The EROD parameter has potential as a bioindicator of exposure to refinery effluents. The samples were also tested for toxicity to fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae and to a fish cell line (Ictalurus nebulosus). Fathead minnow growth was significantly reduced by six out of eight samples, and larval survival was affected by one sample. The in vitro data were less consistent: weak toxicity was detected in some samples but the dose response relationship was poor. Direct acting mutagens were detected in two effluents using the Ames Fluctuation assay.

  2. 40 CFR 417.163 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory § 417.163 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree... detergent operations the following values pertain: Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum...

  3. 40 CFR 417.163 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory § 417.163 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree... detergent operations the following values pertain: Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum...

  4. 40 CFR 417.163 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory § 417.163 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree... detergent operations the following values pertain: Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum...

  5. 40 CFR 455.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of... shall achieve the following effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  6. High specific activity platinum-195m

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Du, Miting; Beets, Arnold L.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    2004-10-12

    A new composition of matter includes .sup.195m Pt characterized by a specific activity of at least 30 mCi/mg Pt, generally made by method that includes the steps of: exposing .sup.193 Ir to a flux of neutrons sufficient to convert a portion of the .sup.193 Ir to .sup.195m Pt to form an irradiated material; dissolving the irradiated material to form an intermediate solution comprising Ir and Pt; and separating the Pt from the Ir by cation exchange chromatography to produce .sup.195m Pt.

  7. Demasculinization of male fish by wastewater treatment plant effluent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vajda, A.M.; Barber, L.B.; Gray, J.L.; Lopez, E.M.; Bolden, A.M.; Schoenfuss, H.L.; Norris, D.O.

    2011-01-01

    Adult male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to effluent from the City of Boulder, Colorado wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) under controlled conditions in the field to determine if the effluent induced reproductive disruption in fish. Gonadal intersex and other evidence of reproductive disruption were previously identified in white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) in Boulder Creek downstream from this WWTP effluent outfall. Fish were exposed within a mobile flow-through exposure laboratory in July 2005 and August 2006 to WWTP effluent (EFF), Boulder Creek water (REF), or mixtures of EFF and REF for up to 28 days. Primary (sperm abundance) and secondary (nuptial tubercles and dorsal fat pads) sex characteristics were demasculinized within 14 days of exposure to 50% and 100% EFF. Vitellogenin was maximally elevated in both 50% and 100% EFF treatments within 7 days and significantly elevated by 25% EFF within 14 days. The steroidal estrogens 17??-estradiol, estrone, estriol, and 17??-ethynylestradiol, as well as estrogenic alkylphenols and bisphenol A were identified within the EFF treatments and not in the REF treatment. These results support the hypothesis that the reproductive disruption observed in this watershed is due to endocrine-active chemicals in the WWTP effluent. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Hanford Site Treated Effluent Disposal Facility process flow sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Bendixsen, R.B.

    1993-04-01

    This report presents a novel method of using precipitation, destruction and recycle factors to prepare a process flow sheet. The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) will treat process sewer waste water from the 300 Area of the Hanford Site, located near Richland, Washington, and discharge a permittable effluent flow into the Columbia River. When completed and operating, the TEDF effluent water flow will meet or exceed water quality standards for the 300 Area process sewer effluents. A preliminary safety analysis document (PSAD), a preconstruction requirement, needed a process flow sheet detailing the concentrations of radionuclides, inorganics and organics throughout the process, including the effluents, and providing estimates of stream flow quantities, activities, composition, and properties (i.e. temperature, pressure, specific gravity, pH and heat transfer rates). As the facility begins to operate, data from process samples can be used to provide better estimates of the factors, the factors can be entered into the flow sheet and the flow sheet will estimate more accurate steady state concentrations for the components. This report shows how the factors were developed and how they were used in developing a flow sheet to estimate component concentrations for the process flows. The report concludes with how TEDF sample data can improve the ability of the flow sheet to accurately predict concentrations of components in the process.

  9. Highly Stable and Active Catalyst for Sabatier Reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Jianli; Brooks, Kriston P.

    2012-01-01

    Highly active Ru/TiO2 catalysts for Sabatier reaction have been developed. The catalysts have shown to be stable under repeated shutting down/startup conditions. When the Ru/TiO2 catalyst is coated on the engineered substrate Fe-CrAlY felt, activity enhancement is more than doubled when compared with an identically prepared engineered catalyst made from commercial Degussa catalyst. Also, bimetallic Ru-Rh/TiO2 catalysts show high activity at high throughput.

  10. Hospital effluents as a source of emerging pollutants: An overview of micropollutants and sustainable treatment options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verlicchi, P.; Galletti, A.; Petrovic, M.; Barceló, D.

    2010-08-01

    SummaryHospital wastewaters contain a variety of toxic or persistent substances such as pharmaceuticals, radionuclides, solvents and disinfectants for medical purposes in a wide range of concentrations due to laboratory and research activities or medicine excretion. Most of these compounds belong to the so called emerging contaminants; quite often unregulated pollutants which may be candidates for future regulation depending on research on their potential health effects and monitoring of their occurrence. Their main characteristic is that they do not need to persist in the environment to cause negative effects since their high transformation/removal rates can be compensated for by their continuous introduction into the environment. Some of these compounds, most of them pharmaceuticals and personal care products may also be present in urban wastewaters. Their concentrations in the effluents may vary from ng L -1 to μg L -1. In this paper, hospital effluents and urban wastewaters are compared in terms of quali-quantitative characteristics. On the basis of an in-depth survey: (i) hospital average specific daily water consumptions (L patient -1 day -1) are evaluated and compared to urban ones (L person -1 day -1), (ii) conventional parameters concentrations in hospital effluents are compared to urban ones and (iii) main pharmaceuticals and other emerging compounds contents are compared in the two wastewaters. Finally, an overview of the removal capacity of the different treatments is reported.

  11. An ecotoxicological approach to assessing the impact of tanning industry effluent on river health.

    PubMed

    Mwinyihija, Mwinyikione; Meharg, Andy; Dawson, Julian; Strachan, Norval J C; Killham, Ken

    2006-04-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the sediment health and water quality of the River Sagana, Kenya, as impacted by the local tanning industry. Chemical analysis identified the main chemical pollutants (pentachlorophenols and chromium) while a bioassay addressed pollutant bioavailability. The bioassay, exploiting the luminescence response of a lux marked bacterial biosensor, was coupled to a dehydrogenase and Dapnia magna test to determine toxicity effects on sediments. Results highlighted the toxicity of the tannery effluent to the sediments at the point of discharge (64% of control bioluminescence) with gradual improvement downstream. There was a significant increase in dehydrogenase downstream, with the enzyme activity attaining a peak at 600 m, also indicating a gradual reduction of toxicity. Biological oxygen demand (19.56 mg L(-1)) dissolved oxygen (3.97 mg L(-1)) and high lethal dose value (85%) of D. magna also confirmed an initial stress at the point of discharge and recovery downstream. Optical density of surface water demonstrated an increase in suspended particulates and colour after the discharge point, eventually decreasing beyond 400 m. In conclusion, the study highlighted the importance of understanding the biogeochemistry of river systems impacted by industries discharging effluent into them and the invaluable role of a biosensor-based ecotoxicological approach to address effluent hazards, particularly in relation to river sediments.

  12. Method for removing and decolorizing aqueous waste effluents containing dissolved or dispersed organic matter

    DOEpatents

    Case, F.N.; Ketchen, E.E.

    1975-10-14

    A method is provided for treating organic waste material dissolved or dispersed in an aqueous effluent, which comprises contacting the effluent with an inert particulate carbonaceous sorbent at an oxygen pressure up to 2000 psi, irradiating the resultant mixture with high energy radiation until a decolorized liquid is produced, and then separating the decolorized liquid.

  13. Nonradiological liquid effluent monitoring program. 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.A.; Peterson-Wright, L.J.; Meachum, T.R.

    1993-08-01

    A monitoring program for nonradioactive parameters and pollutants in liquid effluents was initiated in October 1985 for facilities operated by EG&G Idaho, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Program design and implementation are discussed in this report. Design and methodologies for sampling, analysis, and data management are also discussed. Monitoring results for 28 liquid effluent streams from (October 1991 through December 1992) are presented with emphasis on calendar year 1992 activities. All parameter measurements and concentrations were below the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act toxic characteristics limits.

  14. Cleanup Verification Package for the 116-K-2 Effluent Trench

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2006-04-04

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 116-K-2 effluent trench, also referred to as the 116-K-2 mile-long trench and the 116-K-2 site. During its period of operation, the 116-K-2 site was used to dispose of cooling water effluent from the 105-KE and 105-KW Reactors by percolation into the soil. This site also received mixed liquid wastes from the 105-KW and 105-KE fuel storage basins, reactor floor drains, and miscellaneous decontamination activities.

  15. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 324 Facility

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    The 324 Facility [Waste Technology Engineering Laboratory] in the 300 Area primarily supports the research and development of radioactive and nonradioactive waste vitrification technologies, biological waste remediation technologies, spent nuclear fuel studies, waste mixing and transport studies, and tritium development programs. All of the above-mentioned programs deal with, and have the potential to, release hazardous and/or radioactive material. The potential for discharge would primarily result from (1) conducting research activities using the hazardous materials, (2) storing radionuclides and hazardous chemicals, and (3) waste accumulation and storage. This report summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents, and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterizing effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements.

  16. Reverse osmosis separation of radiocontaminants from ammonium diuranate effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhakar, S.; Misra, B.M.; Roy, S.B.; Meghal, A.M.; Mukherjee, T.K. )

    1994-05-01

    A reverse osmosis process has been found to be effective for the separation of radiocontaminants from ammonium diuranate effluents in a uranium metal plant. Pilot-plant-scale experiments were conducted using cellulosic membranes in a plate module system and actual plant effluents containing more than about 40,000 ppm of ammonium and nitrate species and having radiocontaminants corresponding to specific activities of about 10[sup [minus]3] Ci/m[sup 3] beta/gamma emitters. The results indicated that more than 95% by volume of the treated effluents were within disposal limits, while the remaining contained the concentrate, which can be treated for possible containment. 6 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Effects of spray-irrigated treated effluent on water quantity and quality, and the fate and transport of nitrogen in a small watershed, New Garden Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreffler, Curtis L.; Galeone, Daniel G.; Veneziale, John M.; Olson, Leif E.; O'Brien, David L.

    2005-01-01

    An increasing number of communities in Pennsylvania are implementing land-treatment systems to dispose of treated sewage effluent. Disposal of treated effluent by spraying onto the land surface, instead of discharging to streams, may recharge the ground-water system and reduce degradation of stream-water quality. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP) and the Chester County Water Resources Authority (CCWRA) and with assistance from the New Garden Township Sewer Authority, conducted a study from October 1997 through December 2001 to assess the effects of spray irrigation of secondary treated sewage effluent on the water quantity and quality and the fate and transport of nitrogen in a 38-acre watershed in New Garden Township, Chester County, Pa. On an annual basis, the spray irrigation increased the recharge to the watershed. Compared to the annual recharge determined for the Red Clay Creek watershed above the USGS streamflow-gaging station (01479820) near Kennett Square, Pa., the spray irrigation increased annual recharge in the study watershed by approximately 8.8 in. (inches) in 2000 and 4.3 in. in 2001. For 2000 and 2001, the spray irrigation increased recharge 65-70 percent more than the recharge estimates determined for the Red Clay Creek watershed. The increased recharge was equal to 30-39 percent of the applied effluent. The spray-irrigated effluent increased base flow in the watershed. The magnitude of the increase appeared to be related to the time of year when the application rates increased. During the late fall through winter and into the early spring period, when application rates were low, base flow increased by approximately 50 percent over the period prior to effluent application. During the early spring through summer to the late fall period, when application rates were high, base flow increased by approximately 200 percent over the period prior to effluent application

  18. In vitro assessment of estrogenic bioactivity in complex environmental effluents**

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental effluents contain a diversity of chemicals, can originate from a variety of sources, and have been found to contain estrogenic and/or androgenic activity. In this study, samples were collected from targeted sites or as runoff from an agriculture field that was spray...

  19. In vitro assessment of estrogenic bioactivity in complex environmental effluents

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental effluents contain a diversity of chemicals, can originate from a variety of sources, and have been found to contain estrogenic and/or androgenic activity. In this study, samples were collected from targeted sites or as runoff from an agriculture field that was spray...

  20. Effects of a municipal effluent on the freshwater mussel Elliptio complanata following challenge with Vibrio anguillarum.

    PubMed

    François, Gagné; Mélanie, Douville; Marlène, Fortier; Michel, Fournier

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cumulative effects of exposure to a pathogenic bacteria and municipal effluent in the freshwater mussel Elliptio complanata. Mussels were exposed to increasing concentrations of an ozone-treated effluent at 15°C for 7days. A sub-group of mussels was inoculated with Vibrio anguillarum and exposed to the same conditions as above. After the exposure period, mussels were collected to assess hemocyte count and viability, immunocompetence (phagocytosis and nitrite production), oxidative stress/inflammation (cyclooxygenase and lipid peroxidation) and oxygen radical/xenobiotic scavenging activity (metallothioniens, glutathione S-transferase). The results showed that mussels exposed to municipal effluent had increased hemocyte counts, phagocytosis, nitrites, lipid peroxidation and metallothioneins. In the inoculated mussels, the same responses were observed, in addition to cyclooxygenase and glutathione S-transferase activities. Multivariate analyses revealed that (1) the response pattern changed with effluent concentration, where increased responses observed at low effluent concentrations (>10%, V/V) were attenuated at higher effluent concentrations, (2) the effluent produced more pronounced changes in lipid peroxidation, metallothionein and hemocyte viability, and (3) the simultaneous presence of V. anguillarum led to more important changes in hemocyte count and viability and nitrite levels. In conclusion, the presence of V. anguillarum could alter the response of mussels to municipal effluent, which could lead to increased inflammation in mussels. PMID:26574092

  1. Mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of a textile azo dye processing plant effluent that impacts a drinking water source.

    PubMed

    Alves de Lima, Rodrigo Otávio; Bazo, Ana Paula; Salvadori, Daisy Maria Fávero; Rech, Célia Maria; de Palma Oliveira, Danielle; de Aragão Umbuzeiro, Gisela

    2007-01-10

    Recently a textile azo dye processing plant effluent was identified as one of the sources of mutagenic activity detected in the Cristais River, a drinking water source in Brazil [G.A. Umbuzeiro, D.A. Roubicek, C.M. Rech, M.I.Z. Sato, L.D. Claxton, Investigating the sources of the mutagenic activity found in a river using the Salmonella assay and different water extraction procedures, Chemosphere 54 (2004) 1589-1597]. Besides presenting high mutagenic activity in the Salmonella/microsome assay, the mutagenic nitro-aminoazobenzenes dyes CI Disperse Blue 373, CI Disperse Violet 93, and CI Disperse Orange 37 [G.A. Umbuzeiro, H.S. Freeman, S.H. Warren, D.P. Oliveira, Y. Terao, T. Watanabe, L.D. Claxton, The contribution of azo dyes in the mutagenic activity of the Cristais river, Chemosphere 60 (2005) 55-64] as well as benzidine, a known carcinogenic compound [T.M. Mazzo, A.A. Saczk, G.A. Umbuzeiro, M.V.B. Zanoni, Analysis of aromatic amines in surface waters receiving wastewater from textile industry by liquid chromatographic with eletrochemical detection, Anal. Lett., in press] were found in this effluent. After approximately 6 km from the discharge of this effluent, a drinking water treatment plant treats and distributes the water to a population of approximate 60,000. As shown previously, the mutagens in the DWTP intake water are not completely removed by the treatment. The water used for human consumption presented mutagenic activity related to nitro-aromatics and aromatic amines compounds probably derived from the cited textile processing plant effluent discharge [G.A. Umbuzeiro, D.A. Roubicek, C.M. Rech, M.I.Z. Sato, L.D. Claxton, Investigating the sources of the mutagenic activity found in a river using the Salmonella assay and different water extraction procedures, Chemosphere 54 (2004) 1589-1597; G.A. Umbuzeiro, H.S. Freeman, S.H. Warren, D.P. Oliveira, Y. Terao, T. Watanabe, L.D. Claxton, The contribution of azo dyes in the mutagenic activity of the Cristais

  2. Active control system for high speed windmills

    DOEpatents

    Avery, D.E.

    1988-01-12

    A pump stroke is matched to the operating speed of a high speed windmill. The windmill drives a hydraulic pump for a control. Changes in speed of a wind driven shaft open supply and exhaust valves to opposite ends of a hydraulic actuator to lengthen and shorten an oscillating arm thereby lengthening and shortening the stroke of an output pump. Diminishing wind to a stall speed causes the valves to operate the hydraulic cylinder to shorten the oscillating arm to zero. A pressure accumulator in the hydraulic system provides the force necessary to supply the hydraulic fluid under pressure to drive the actuator into and out of the zero position in response to the windmill shaft speed approaching and exceeding windmill stall speed. 4 figs.

  3. Active control system for high speed windmills

    DOEpatents

    Avery, Don E.

    1988-01-01

    A pump stroke is matched to the operating speed of a high speed windmill. The windmill drives a hydraulic pump for a control. Changes in speed of a wind driven shaft open supply and exhaust valves to opposite ends of a hydraulic actuator to lengthen and shorten an oscillating arm thereby lengthening and shortening the stroke of an output pump. Diminishing wind to a stall speed causes the valves to operate the hydraulic cylinder to shorten the oscillating arm to zero. A pressure accumulator in the hydraulic system provides the force necessary to supply the hydraulic fluid under pressure to drive the actuator into and out of the zero position in response to the windmill shaft speed approaching and exceeding windmill stall speed.

  4. Effects of ammonium effluents on planktonic primary production and decomposition in a coastal brackish water environment I. Nutrient balance of the water body and effluent tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamminen, T.

    Effects of ammonium discharge on the regulation of photosynthetic production was studied from June to October 1979 in the Archipelago Sea, near the entrance of the Gulf of Finland. Sampled were the inner archipelago loaded with ammonium-rich industry effluents and some stations towards the open sea. Acute effects of effluent on natural algal and bacterial communities were tested by measurements of primary productivity and heterotrophic activity. Effluent tests were also conducted with a test alga ( Chorella sp.). Nutrient ratios and AGP tests indicated that nitrogen was the principal limiting nutrient for algal growth even in the ammonium-loaded regions. Therefore, the discharge causes a considerable eutrophication in the area. Effluent concentrations from 0.01 to 1% stimulated primary productivity of natural algal communities up to 230% of the control, whereas 10% concentrations were toxic. Test algae tolerated also 10% of effluent in some cases, and showed stimulations up to 960% of the control. No stimulation of heterotrophic activity was usually detected in effluent tests, and the threshold of toxicity was considerably lower than with algae. The effect of effluents on heterotrophic bacteria of the water body is therefore likely to be mediated through autotrophic production.

  5. Extraction chromatographic separation of promethium from high active waste solutions of Purex origin

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanujam, A.; Achuthan, P.V.; Dhami, P.S.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Kannan, R.; Mathur, J.N.

    1995-03-01

    An extraction chromatographic procedure for the separation of {sup 147}Pm from High Active Waste solutions of Purex process has been developed. Octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide(CMPO) and 2-ethylhexyl-2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid (KSM-17), both sorbed separately on an inert support(chromosorb-102) have been sequentially employed for this purpose. In the CMPO column, the rare earths and the trivalent actinides are sorbed together with uranium, plutonium and traces of few other fission products. The elution of this column with 0.04 M HNO{sub 3} gives an eluate containing trivalent actinides and lanthanides. This solution, after adjusting the pH to 2.0, is used as feed for the second extraction chromatographic column based on KSM-17. All the trivalent metal ions are sorbed on the column leaving the trace impurities in the effluent. Fractional elution of the metal ions from this column is carried out with nitric acid of varying concentrations. At 0.09 M HNO{sub 3}, the pure beta emitting fraction of {sup 147}Pm has been obtained. 16 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. The Trophic Fate of Shrimp Farm Effluent in Mangrove Creeks of North Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mckinnon, A. D.; Trott, L. A.; Cappo, M.; Miller, D. K.; Duggan, S.; Speare, P.; Davidson, A.

    2002-10-01

    Zooplankton and fish communities in mangrove creeks removed materials originating from the discharge of effluent from ponds used for shrimp aquaculture at two commercial farms in North Queensland, Australia. Undisturbed mangrove creeks were compared to creeks receiving effluent from shrimp farms. Shrimp farm effluent was rich in chlorophyll a (56 μg l -1) and bacteria (1·9×10 6 cells ml -1). The potential grazing impact of ciliates was higher than that of copepod nauplii or copepodids upstream. In contrast, copepods were more important downstream. Carbon removal by ciliates and copepods accounted for as much as 85% of primary production during non-discharge periods, but was less important during discharge periods. Direct measurement of microzooplankton grazing with the dilution method indicated that growth and grazing were usually in balance, but during pond discharge periods microzooplankton grazing removed >120% of primary production and 117-266% of bacterioplankton production in the mixed lower reaches of the creeks and immediately offshore. Grazing by bacterivores was saturated in the upper reaches of the creeks, but was very high near the creek mouths, where the range of specific grazing rates was 5·2-11·8 d -1. Baitfish juveniles were abundant in the creek systems, and fed either directly on macro-particulates by indiscriminate filter feeding, or by selective feeding on microfauna. Trophic processes and their associated respiratory losses are instrumental in the assimilation and dissipation of effluent materials within the creek system, and are responsible for returning concentrations of bio-available materials to ambient levels. The sustainable use of coastal environments depends to a large degree on understanding and regulating the impacts from activities within the catchment. This research provides environmental managers with direct evidence that, under certain conditions, perturbations in creek water quality and biota originating from shrimp farm

  7. Treatment of effluents from uranium oxide production.

    PubMed

    Ladeira, A C Q; Gonçalves, J S; Morais, C A

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle comprises a series of industrial processes which involve the production of electricity from uranium in nuclear power reactors. In Brazil the conversion of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) into uranium dioxide (UO2) takes place in Resende (RJ) at the Nuclear Fuel Factory (FCN). The process generates liquid effluents with significant concentrations of uranium, which might be treated before being discharged into the environment. This study investigates the recovery of uranium from three distinct liquid effluents: one with a high carbonate content and the other with an elevated fluoride concentration. This paper also presents a study on carbonate removal from an effluent that consists of a water-methanol solution generated during the filtration of the yellow cake (ammonium uranyl tricarbonate). The results showed that: (1) the uranium from the carbonated solution can be recovered through the ion exchange technique using the strong base anionic resin IRA 910-U, as the carbonate has been removed as CO2 after heating; (2) the most suitable technique to recover uranium from the fluoride solution is its precipitation as (NH4)2UO4F2 (ammonium fluorouranate peroxide), (3) the solution free of carbonate can be added to the fluoride solution and the uranium from the final solution can be recovered by precipitation as ammonium fluorouranate peroxide as well; (4) the carbonate from the water-methanol solution can be recovered as calcium carbonate through the addition of calcium chloride, or it can be recovered as ammonium sulphate through the addition of sulphuric acid. The ammonium sulphate product can be used as a fertilizer.

  8. Non-targeted analysis of wastewater treatment plant effluents by high performance liquid chromatography-time slice-solid phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance/time-of-flight-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Godejohann, Markus; Berset, Jean-Daniel; Muff, Daniel

    2011-12-23

    Extracts of effluents from two different wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Switzerland taken during the application period of pesticides were examined by coupling an HPLC-MS system to a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer using a post column peak trapping device. By trapping 1 min portions of the chromatogram onto post column solid phase extraction cartridges (time slice-SPE-NMR) a comprehensive overview of proton carrying constituents could be achieved. Non-supervised statistical analysis of the NMR spectra obtained by this approach revealed NMR resonances pointing to contaminants present in decreasing proton concentration in the extracts. Comparison of exact mass data acquired during the trapping process to these NMR resonances enabled the identification of the pesticides Linuron, Metazachlor, Ethofumesate, Isoproturon, Metamitron, Propazine and Chloridazon. Desaminometamitron, a known transformation product of Metamitron could also be identified together with unexpected highly concentrated C8, C10 and C12 fatty acids and their glycerol mono- and di esters. Other compounds identified were a drug metabolite (3-Carboxymefenamic acid), a sun screen agent (Ensulizole: 2-Phenyl-1H-1,3-benzodiazole-6-sulfonic acid) and industrial chemicals (Benzotriazole, N-Benzyl-indole). In addition, a number of well-resolved proton spectra cannot be attributed to a mass response showing the need of further investigations using 2D-NMR and different ionization techniques.

  9. Acclimation of swine effluent sludges and development activities for removal of nitrogen by the anaerobic oxidation of ammonia (Anammox) process in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When residuals from intensive swine production are released without adequate treatment, they represent a significant environmental problem that can cause great environmental impact in rivers and water bodies. Although treatment technologies are well developed for removal of organic load from high-st...

  10. Economical evaluation of sludge reduction and characterization of effluent organic matter in an alternating aeration activated sludge system combining ozone/ultrasound pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shan-Shan; Guo, Wan-Qian; Chen, Yi-Di; Wu, Qing-Lian; Luo, Hai-Chao; Peng, Si-Mai; Zheng, He-Shan; Feng, Xiao-Chi; Zhou, Xu; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2015-02-01

    An ozone/ultrasound lysis-cryptic growth technology combining a continuous flow anaerobic-anoxic-microaerobic-aerobic (AAMA+O3/US) system was investigated. Techno-economic evaluation and sludge lyses return ratio (r) optimization of this AAMA+O3/US system were systematically and comprehensively discussed. Economic assessment demonstrated that this AAMA+O3/US system with r of 30% (AAMA+O3/US2# system) was more economically feasible that can give a 14.04% saving of costs. In addition to economic benefits, a 55.08% reduction in sludge production, and respective 21.17% and 5.45% increases in TN and TP removal efficiencies were observed in this AAMA+O3/US2# system. Considering the process performances and economic benefits, r of 30% in AAMA+O3/US2# system was recommended. Excitation-emission matrix and Fourier transform infrared spectra analyses also proved that less refractory soluble microbial products were generated from AAMA+O3/US2# system. Improvement in 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride electron transport system (TTC-ETS) activity in AAMA+O3/US2# further indicated that a lower sludge lyses return ratio stimulated the microbial activity. PMID:25490102

  11. Physiological effects of thermomechanical newsprint mill effluent on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Linton, E D; Scuton, D A; McKinley, R S

    2005-11-01

    Anadramous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) returning to Exploits River, Newfoundland, Canada, to spawn encounter low concentrations of thermomechanical pulp (TMP) effluent as they migrate upstream past an integrated newsprint mill. Various physiological responses of adult Atlantic salmon from the Exploits River were studied under laboratory conditions. The effects of a 6-h exposure to 0%, 6%, 12%, or 25% (v/v) TMP effluent or an increasing concentration gradient of effluent (0-25%) on cardiac output (Q ), critical swimming performance (U(crit)), hematocrit, and blood glucose, cortisol, lactate, and osmolality were examined. Relative to other treatment groups, Q during routine and low-level activity was 7-10% higher in fish exposed to at least 12% effluent. The 25% exposure group had a distinctly lower U(crit) and scope for increase in Q than the other treatment groups. These findings suggest that effluent exposure elevates physiological maintenance and repair costs, resulting in a reallocation of energetic resources.

  12. Comparative analysis of effluent water quality from a municipal treatment plant and two on-site wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Santos N; Clubbs, Rebekah L; Stanley, Jacob K; Scheffe, Brian; Yelderman, Joe C; Brooks, Bryan W

    2013-06-01

    Though decentralized on-site technologies are extensively employed for wastewater treatment around the globe, an understanding of effluent water quality impairments associated with these systems remain less understood than effluent discharges from centralized municipal wastewater treatment facilities. Using a unique experimental facility, a novel comparative analysis of effluent water quality was performed from model decentralized aerobic (ATS) and septic (STS) on-site wastewater treatment systems and a centralized municipal wastewater treatment plant (MTP). The ATS and STS units did not benefit from further soil treatment. Each system received common influent wastewater from the Waco, Texas, USA Metropolitan Area Regional Sewerage System. We tested the hypothesis that MTP effluent would exhibit higher water quality than on-site effluents, based on parameters selected for study. A tiered testing approach was employed to assess the three effluent discharges: select routine water quality parameters (Tier I), whole effluent toxicity (Tier II), and select endocrine-active compounds (Tier III). Contrary to our hypothesis, ATS effluent was not statistically different from MTP effluents, based on Tier I and III parameters, but reproductive responses of Daphnia magna were slightly more sensitive to ATS than MTP effluents. STS effluent water quality was identified as most degraded of the three wastewater treatment systems. Parameters used to assess centralized wastewater treatment plant effluent water quality such as whole effluent toxicity and endocrine active substances appear useful for water quality assessments of decentralized discharges. Aerobic on-site wastewater treatment systems may represent more robust options than traditional septic systems for on-site wastewater treatment in watersheds with appreciable groundwater - surface water exchange.

  13. Comparative analysis of effluent water quality from a municipal treatment plant and two on-site wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Santos N; Clubbs, Rebekah L; Stanley, Jacob K; Scheffe, Brian; Yelderman, Joe C; Brooks, Bryan W

    2013-06-01

    Though decentralized on-site technologies are extensively employed for wastewater treatment around the globe, an understanding of effluent water quality impairments associated with these systems remain less understood than effluent discharges from centralized municipal wastewater treatment facilities. Using a unique experimental facility, a novel comparative analysis of effluent water quality was performed from model decentralized aerobic (ATS) and septic (STS) on-site wastewater treatment systems and a centralized municipal wastewater treatment plant (MTP). The ATS and STS units did not benefit from further soil treatment. Each system received common influent wastewater from the Waco, Texas, USA Metropolitan Area Regional Sewerage System. We tested the hypothesis that MTP effluent would exhibit higher water quality than on-site effluents, based on parameters selected for study. A tiered testing approach was employed to assess the three effluent discharges: select routine water quality parameters (Tier I), whole effluent toxicity (Tier II), and select endocrine-active compounds (Tier III). Contrary to our hypothesis, ATS effluent was not statistically different from MTP effluents, based on Tier I and III parameters, but reproductive responses of Daphnia magna were slightly more sensitive to ATS than MTP effluents. STS effluent water quality was identified as most degraded of the three wastewater treatment systems. Parameters used to assess centralized wastewater treatment plant effluent water quality such as whole effluent toxicity and endocrine active substances appear useful for water quality assessments of decentralized discharges. Aerobic on-site wastewater treatment systems may represent more robust options than traditional septic systems for on-site wastewater treatment in watersheds with appreciable groundwater - surface water exchange. PMID:23557723

  14. From Little Acorns...Self Awareness Activity for Junior High and High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Rosemary

    The document contains nine self awareness activities designed to precede or accompany typical career awareness activities in the junior high school and high school curricula. Four objectives for the career education goal of self awareness are stated. The activities require little or no materials, media, or advance preparation. Purposes and…

  15. Waste monitoring system for effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, J.M.; Gomez, B.; Trujillo, L.; Malcom, J.E.; Nekimken, H.; Pope, N.; Bibeau, R.

    1995-07-01

    The waste monitoring system in use at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Plutonium Facility, TA-55, is a computer-based system that proves real-time information on industrial effluents. Remote computers monitor discharge events and data moves from one system to another via a local area network. This report describes the history, system design, summary, instrumentation list, displays, trending screens, and layout of the waste monitoring system.

  16. Partial nitrification in a high-load activated sludge system by biofilter backwash water recirculation.

    PubMed

    Melicz, Z

    2003-01-01

    The South-Budapest Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (SBWWTP) based on the high-load activated sludge process (AS) was upgraded into nutrient removal in 1998-1999 in Hungary. Biofor type nitrifying (NP) and denitrifying (DN) biofilters were implemented for nitrogen removal downstream of the (AS) stage in order to meet the required effluent standards characterized by 50 mgCOD l(-1), 10 mgBOI5 l(-1), 10 mgTN l(-1), 1 mgTP l(-1) and 35 mgTSS l(-1). Phosphorus removal is obtained by chemical addition. The study presented sums up the performance of the upgraded plant throughout 25 months. Besides the efficient pre-denitrification obtained in the AS basin, significant ammonium oxidation was observed in the aerated zone, upon the introduction of recirculation of nitrate rich water and backwash water. The introduction of biofilter backwash water, containing nitrifying biomass, has generated significant ammonium conversion in the aerated basins, where nitrification was observed previously to a very limited extent. Process parameters of the AS stage were: aerobic sludge age of 1.5-2.0 days, 1.5 hours hydraulic retention time, specific sludge load of 1.1 kgCOD kgMLSS(-1) d(-1). The nitrification in the AS tank has significantly reduced below 16 degrees C, however, denitrification efficiency was not as highly dependent upon temperature during the investigated period. The paper investigates the nitrogen balance of the plant in two aspects: (i) the effects of seeding on nitrification in the high load AS reactor and (ii) pre-denitrification potential in the anoxic zone of the AS tank of the pre-settled wastewater.

  17. Soluble phosphate fertilizer production using acid effluent from metallurgical industry.

    PubMed

    Mattiello, Edson M; Resende Filho, Itamar D P; Barreto, Matheus S; Soares, Aline R; Silva, Ivo R da; Vergütz, Leonardus; Melo, Leônidas C A; Soares, Emanuelle M B

    2016-01-15

    Preventive and effective waste management requires cleaner production strategies and technologies for recycling and reuse. Metallurgical industries produce a great amount of acid effluent that must be discarded in a responsible manner, protecting the environment. The focus of this study was to examine the use of this effluent to increase reactivity of some phosphate rocks, thus enabling soluble phosphate fertilizer production. The effluent was diluted in deionized water with the following concentrations 0; 12.5; 25; 50; 75% (v v(-1)), which were added to four natural phosphate rocks: Araxá, Patos, Bayovar and Catalão and then left to react for 1 h and 24 h. There was an increase in water (PW), neutral ammonium citrate (PNAC) and citric acid (PCA) soluble phosphorus fractions. Such increases were dependent of rock type while the reaction time had no significant effect (p < 0.05) on the chemical and mineralogical phosphate characteristics. Phosphate fertilizers with low toxic metal concentrations and a high level of micronutrients were produced compared to the original natural rocks. The minimum amount of total P2O5, PNAC and PW, required for national legislation for phosphate partially acidulated fertilizer, were met when using Catalão and the effluent at the concentration of 55% (v v(-1)). Fertilizer similar to partially acidulated phosphate was obtained when Bayovar with effluent at 37.5% (v v(-1)) was used. Even though fertilizers obtained from Araxá and Patos did not contain the minimum levels of total P2O5 required by legislation, they can be used as a nutrient source and for acid effluent recycling and reuse. PMID:26496844

  18. Soluble phosphate fertilizer production using acid effluent from metallurgical industry.

    PubMed

    Mattiello, Edson M; Resende Filho, Itamar D P; Barreto, Matheus S; Soares, Aline R; Silva, Ivo R da; Vergütz, Leonardus; Melo, Leônidas C A; Soares, Emanuelle M B

    2016-01-15

    Preventive and effective waste management requires cleaner production strategies and technologies for recycling and reuse. Metallurgical industries produce a great amount of acid effluent that must be discarded in a responsible manner, protecting the environment. The focus of this study was to examine the use of this effluent to increase reactivity of some phosphate rocks, thus enabling soluble phosphate fertilizer production. The effluent was diluted in deionized water with the following concentrations 0; 12.5; 25; 50; 75% (v v(-1)), which were added to four natural phosphate rocks: Araxá, Patos, Bayovar and Catalão and then left to react for 1 h and 24 h. There was an increase in water (PW), neutral ammonium citrate (PNAC) and citric acid (PCA) soluble phosphorus fractions. Such increases were dependent of rock type while the reaction time had no significant effect (p < 0.05) on the chemical and mineralogical phosphate characteristics. Phosphate fertilizers with low toxic metal concentrations and a high level of micronutrients were produced compared to the original natural rocks. The minimum amount of total P2O5, PNAC and PW, required for national legislation for phosphate partially acidulated fertilizer, were met when using Catalão and the effluent at the concentration of 55% (v v(-1)). Fertilizer similar to partially acidulated phosphate was obtained when Bayovar with effluent at 37.5% (v v(-1)) was used. Even though fertilizers obtained from Araxá and Patos did not contain the minimum levels of total P2O5 required by legislation, they can be used as a nutrient source and for acid effluent recycling and reuse.

  19. Physical activity behavior and related characteristics of highly-active 8th grade girls

    PubMed Central

    Taverno Ross, Sharon E.; Dowda, Marsha; Beets, Michael W.; Pate, Russell R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose While girls are generally less physically active than boys, some girls regularly engage in high levels of physical activity (PA); however, very little is known about these girls and how they differ from those who are less physically active. This study examined the PA behavior and related characteristics of highly-active adolescent girls and compared them with those who are less active. Methods Data from 1,866 8th grade girls from 6 field centers across the U.S. participating in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) were included in the present analysis. Mixed model ANOVAs examined differences in sociodemographic, anthropometric, psychosocial, and physical activity (accelerometry and self-report) variables between high- and low-active girls; effect sizes were calculated for the differences. Results High-active girls were taller, had lower BMIs and body fat, and were less sedentary. High-active girls scored higher on self-efficacy, enjoyment of PA, self-management strategies, outcome-expectancy value, and support from family and friends than low-active girls. Low-active girls participated in more leisure-time and educational sedentary activities than high-active girls. High-active girls participated in more PA classes/lessons outside of school, team sports, and individual sports. They were also more likely to participate in sports in an organized setting in the community or at school than low-active girls. Conclusions Health promotion efforts should focus on decreasing the amount of time girls spend in sedentary activities and replacing that time with organized PA opportunities; such efforts should seek to minimize perceived barriers and increase self-efficacy and support for PA. PMID:23384978

  20. Assessment of the environmental impact of artificial effluent lagoon in Jiayuguan City of China.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yuan-sheng; Luan, Zhao-kun; Barber, C; Williamson, D

    2003-07-01

    An artificial effluent lagoon for storing wastewater were excavated in Jiayuguan City since 1994. As a part of a demonstration project of Sino-Australia cooperation, an assessment of the environmental impact of the lagoon was carried out. The assessment was based on field and laboratory tests and predictive model. The main impacts from the lagoon site are likely to be on the groundwater system, and, to a lesser extent, on ambient air quality in the vicinity. Currently it is expected that groundwater is being polluted with effluent from the effluent lagoon. Air pollution (odor nuisance) is mainly caused by untreated effluent in the irrigation channel. The impact of high total dissolved salt (TDS) on groundwater is likely to be significant in the long run if the lagoon is continuously used. There is, consequently, no likelihood of contamination of surface water system, particularly of the city water supply system, from infiltration of effluent at the lagoon.

  1. Activities of everyday life with high spinal loads.

    PubMed

    Rohlmann, Antonius; Pohl, David; Bender, Alwina; Graichen, Friedmar; Dymke, Jörn; Schmidt, Hendrik; Bergmann, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Activities with high spinal loads should be avoided by patients with back problems. Awareness about these activities and knowledge of the associated loads are important for the proper design and pre-clinical testing of spinal implants. The loads on an instrumented vertebral body replacement have been telemetrically measured for approximately 1000 combinations of activities and parameters in 5 patients over a period up to 65 months postoperatively. A database containing, among others, extreme values for load components in more than 13,500 datasets was searched for 10 activities that cause the highest resultant force, bending moment, torsional moment, or shear force in an anatomical direction. The following activities caused high resultant forces: lifting a weight from the ground, forward elevation of straight arms with a weight in hands, moving a weight laterally in front of the body with hanging arms, changing the body position, staircase walking, tying shoes, and upper body flexion. All activities have in common that the center of mass of the upper body was moved anteriorly. Forces up to 1650 N were measured for these activities of daily life. However, there was a large intra- and inter-individual variation in the implant loads for the various activities depending on how exercises were performed. Measured shear forces were usually higher in the posterior direction than in the anterior direction. Activities with high resultant forces usually caused high values of other load components. PMID:24866883

  2. Instrumentation of sampling aircraft for measurement of launch vehicle effluents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wornom, D. E.; Woods, D. C.; Thomas, M. E.; Tyson, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    An aircraft was selected and instrumented to measure effluents emitted from large solid propellant rockets during launch activities. The considerations involved in aircraft selection, sampling probes, and instrumentation are discussed with respect to obtaining valid airborne measurements. Discussions of the data acquisition system used, the instrument power system, and operational sampling procedures are included. Representative measurements obtained from an actual rocket launch monitoring activity are also presented.

  3. Ecotoxicological risks associated with tannery effluent wastewater.

    PubMed

    Shakir, Lubna; Ejaz, Sohail; Ashraf, Muhammad; Qureshi, Naureen Aziz; Anjum, Aftab Ahmad; Iltaf, Imran; Javeed, Aqeel

    2012-09-01

    The problem of water pollution acquires greater relevance in the context of a developing agrarian economy like Pakistan. Even though, the leather industry is a leading economic sector in Pakistan, there is an increasing environmental concern regarding tanneries because they produce large amounts of potentially toxic wastewater containing both trivalent and hexavalent chromium, which are equally hazardous for human population, aquaculture and agricultural activities in the area. Therefore, we defined the scope of the present study as to employ different bioassays to determine the eco-toxic potential of tannery effluent wastewater (TW) and its chromium based components, i.e., potassium dichromate (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) and chromium sulfate Cr(2)(SO(4))(3). Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis of TW was carried out to determine the concentration of chromium in TW and then equal concentrations of hexavalent (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) and trivalent chromium Cr(2)(SO(4))(3) were obtained for this study. Cytotoxicity assay, artemia bioassay and phytotoxicity assay was utilized to investigate the eco-toxicological potential of different concentrations of TW, K(2)Cr(2)O(7) and Cr(2)(SO(4))(3). All the dilutions of TW, K(2)Cr(2)O(7) and Cr(2)(SO(4))(3) presented concentration dependent cytotoxic effects in these assays. The data clearly represents that among all three tested materials, different dilutions of K(2)Cr(2)O(7) caused significantly more damage (P<0.001) to vero cell, brine shrimp and germination of maize seeds. Interestingly, the overall toxicity effects of TW treated groups were subsequent to K(2)Cr(2)O(7) treated group. Based on biological evidences presented in this article, it is concluded that hexavalent chromium (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) and TW has got significant eco-damaging potential clearly elaborating that environmental burden in district Kasur is numerous and high levels of chromium is posing a considerable risk to the human population, aquaculture and agricultural

  4. Comprehensive characterization of oil refinery effluent-derived humic substances using various spectroscopic approaches.

    PubMed

    Lingbo, Li; Song, Yan; Congbi, Han; Guangbo, Shan

    2005-07-01

    Refinery effluent-derived humic substances (HS) are important for developing refinery effluent reclamation techniques and studying the environmental chemistry of wastewater effluents. In this study, dissolved organic matter (DOM) from refinery effluent was concentrated using a portable reverse osmosis (RO) system. HS were isolated from RO retentates with XAD-8 resin. A variety of approaches such as specific UV absorbance at 254nm (SUV(254)), elemental analysis, size exclusion chromatography (SEC), solid-state cross polarization magic angle spinning (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry ((13)C CPMAS NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), and electrospray ionization/ion trap/mass spectrometry (ESI/ion trap/MS) were employed for characterization of HS. The portable RO system exhibited high yield and recovery of DOM for concentrating refinery effluent. The concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the refinery effluent was 9.9mg/l, in which humic acids (HA) and fulvic acids (FA) accounted for 2.3% and 34.6%, respectively. Elemental and SUV(254) analyses indicated relative high amounts of aliphatic structures and low amounts of aromatic structures in refinery effluent-derived HS. Refinery effluent-derived HS displayed lower molecular weight than natural HS. The number-average molecular weight (M(n)) and the weight-average molecular weight (M(w)) of HA were 1069 and 2934, and those of FA were 679 and 1212 by SEC, respectively. By ESI/ion trap/MS, the M(n) and the M(w) of FA were 330 and 383. Four kinds of carbon structures (aliphatic, aromatic, heteroaliphatic, and carboxylic carbons) were found in refinery effluent-derived HS by (13)C NMR analysis. The quantitative results support the interpretation that these HS are rich in aliphatic carbons and poor in aromatic carbons. Proteinaceous materials were identified by FTIR analysis in refinery effluent-derived HS. PMID:15950039

  5. Removal of dissolved organic matter in municipal effluent with ozonation, slow sand filtration and nanofiltration as high quality pre-treatment option for artificial groundwater recharge.

    PubMed

    Linlin, Wu; Xuan, Zhao; Meng, Zhang

    2011-04-01

    In the paper the combination process of ozonation, slow sand filtration (SSF) and nanofiltration (NF) was investigated with respect to dissolved organic matter (DOM) removal as high quality pre-treatment option for artificial groundwater recharge. With the help of ozonation leading to breakdown of the large organic molecules, SSF preferentially removes soluble microbial by-product-like substances and DOM with molecular weight (MW) less than 1.0 kDa. NF, however, removes aromatic, humic acid-like and fulvic acid-like substances efficiently and specially removes DOM with MW above 1.0 kDa. The residual DOM of the membrane permeate is dominated by small organics with MW 500 Da, which can be further reduced by the aquifer treatment, despite of the very low concentration. Consequently, the O(3)/SSF/NF system offers a complementary process in DOM removal. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) can be reduced from 6.5±1.1 to 0.7±0.3 mg L(-1) and from 267±24 to 52±6 μg L(-1), respectively. The very low DOC concentration of 0.6±0.2 mg L(-1) and THMFP of 44±4 μg L(-1) can be reached after the aquifer treatment.

  6. Measurement of actinides and strontium-90 in high activity waste

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III; Nelson, M.R.

    1994-08-01

    The reliable measurement of trace radionuclides in high activity waste is important to support waste processing activities at SRS (F and H Area Waste Tanks, Extended Sludge Processing (ESP) and In-Tank precipitation (ITP) processing). Separation techniques are needed to remove high levels of gamma activity and alpha/beta interferences prior to analytical measurement. Using new extraction chromatographic resins from EiChrom Industries, Inc., the SRS Central Laboratory has developed new high speed separation methods that enable measurement of neptunium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, americium and strontium-90 in high activity waste solutions. Small particle size resin and applied vacuum are used to reduce analysis times and enhance column performance. Extraction chromatographic resins are easy to use and eliminate the generation of contaminated liquid organic waste.

  7. High-intensity intermittent activities at school: controversies and facts.

    PubMed

    Ratel, S; Lazaar, N; Dore, E; Baquet, G; Williams, C A; Berthoin, S; Van Praagh, E; Bedu, M; Duche, P

    2004-09-01

    In comparison to continuous aerobic type activity, little is known about high-intensity intermittent physical activity in children. Repeated short-term high-intensity activities (> maximal aerobic speed and <10 s) are more characteristic of the spontaneous physical activity of children. Recent studies have shown during repetitive bouts of sprints separated by short recovery intervals, that prepubescent children compared with adults are more able to maintain their performance without substantial fatigue. Moreover, repetitive runs at high velocities (near and higher than the maximal aerobic speed) separated by short recovery periods may elicit a high oxygen consumption in children. Several studies using interval training programmes for 7 weeks, twice a week for 30 min in physical education lessons showed that children's aerobic performance (maximal O2 uptake, maximal aerobic speed) could be enhanced. Training based on these repeated short-term high-intensity exercises could also improve children's anaerobic performance (short-term muscle power, strength and speed). Current evidence suggests that recovery from high-intensity exercises is faster in children than in adults and that repeated runs at high velocities separated by short recovery intervals can improve both aerobic and anaerobic performance. Although continuous aerobic type activity is more scientifically established as a training mode, repeated short-term high-intensity exercises in physical education programmes should be considered to enhance aerobic, as well as, anaerobic fitness in children. PMID:15756166

  8. Two stage treatment of dairy effluent using immobilized Chlorella pyrenoidosa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dairy effluents contains high organic load and unscrupulous discharge of these effluents into aquatic bodies is a matter of serious concern besides deteriorating their water quality. Whilst physico-chemical treatment is the common mode of treatment, immobilized microalgae can be potentially employed to treat high organic content which offer numerous benefits along with waste water treatment. Methods A novel low cost two stage treatment was employed for the complete treatment of dairy effluent. The first stage consists of treating the diary effluent in a photobioreactor (1 L) using immobilized Chlorella pyrenoidosa while the second stage involves a two column sand bed filtration technique. Results Whilst NH4+-N was completely removed, a 98% removal of PO43--P was achieved within 96 h of two stage purification processes. The filtrate was tested for toxicity and no mortality was observed in the zebra fish which was used as a model at the end of 96 h bioassay. Moreover, a significant decrease in biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand was achieved by this novel method. Also the biomass separated was tested as a biofertilizer to the rice seeds and a 30% increase in terms of length of root and shoot was observed after the addition of biomass to the rice plants. Conclusions We conclude that the two stage treatment of dairy effluent is highly effective in removal of BOD and COD besides nutrients like nitrates and phosphates. The treatment also helps in discharging treated waste water safely into the receiving water bodies since it is non toxic for aquatic life. Further, the algal biomass separated after first stage of treatment was highly capable of increasing the growth of rice plants because of nitrogen fixation ability of the green alga and offers a great potential as a biofertilizer. PMID:24355316

  9. Micropollutants produced by disinfection of wastewater effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley, R.L.; Cumming, R.B.; Lee, N.E.; Thompson, J.E.; Lewis, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    Recent research conducted with the objective of determining some of the chemical mutagenic characteristics of nonvolatile micropollutants in treated wastewater effluents is summarized. The effluents from nine wastewater plants were examined relative to the chemical effects of the disinfectants chlorine, ozone, and uv light on nonvolatile organic constituents and the formation of mutagenic constituents during disinfection. Results indicate that disinfection by chlorine or ozone can lead to an increase in the number of mutagenic materials in the effluents. (JGB)

  10. High School Girls' Perceptions of Selected Fitness Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Bretzing, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    High school students, and particularly girls, are not very active (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006). To help girls develop the abilities to enjoy lifetime, healthy physical activity, physical educators need to provide curricula that will achieve this goal. In the process, they need to make sure they are aligned with the current…

  11. Junior High Career Maturity Activities. Report No. 33-A-57.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afdahl, Anne; And Others

    The activities in this curriculum guide are designed to facilitate self-evaluation, goal setting, and educator-student planning of junior high learning experiences relating to career maturity. It is suggested that the career maturity measurement activity worksheets can be included in the student's school record and used as a reference base for…

  12. High-Throughput Screening for Streptomyces Antibiotic Biosynthesis Activators

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li; Wang, Yemin; Guo, Hang; Xu, Min; Deng, Zixin

    2012-01-01

    A genomic cosmid library of Streptomyces clavuligerus was constructed and transferred efficiently by conjugation to Streptomyces lividans, and 12 distinct groups of overlapping cosmid clones that activated the silent actinorhodin biosynthesis gene cluster were identified. This generally applicable high-throughput screening procedure greatly facilitates the identification of antibiotic biosynthesis activators. PMID:22504805

  13. Highly active nanoreactors: nanomaterial encapsulation based on confined catalysis.

    PubMed

    Sanlés-Sobrido, Marcos; Pérez-Lorenzo, Moisés; Rodríguez-González, Benito; Salgueiriño, Verónica; Correa-Duarte, Miguel A

    2012-04-16

    It happens inside: highly active nanoreactors are prepared by encapsulating dendritic Pt nanoparticles (NPs) grown on a polystyrene template inside hollow porous silica capsules. The catalytic activity of these Pt NPs is preserved after encapsulation and template removal. Different metals, such as Ni, can thus be reduced inside the capsules, thereby leading to the formation of composites with tunable magnetic properties.

  14. Human Spaceflight: Activities for the Intermediate and Junior High Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartsfield, John W.; Hartsfield, Kendra J.

    Since its beginning, space science has created high interest and continues to prod the imagination of students. This activity packet, which has been designed to enhance the curriculum and challenge gifted students, contains background information on spaceflight as well as 24 interdisciplinary classroom activities, 3 crossword puzzles, and 3 word…

  15. Pathogens Assessment in Reclaimed Effluent Used for Industrial Crops Irrigation

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sa’ed, R.

    2007-01-01

    Reuse of treated effluent is a highly valued water source in Palestine, however with limited success due to public health concerns. This paper assesses the potential pathogens in raw, treated and reclaimed wastewater at Albireh urban wastewater treatment facility, and provides scientific knowledge to update the Palestinian reuse guidelines. Laboratory analyses of collected samples over a period of 4 months have indicated that the raw wastewater from Albireh city contained high numbers of fecal coliforms and worm eggs while 31% of the samples were Salmonella positive. Treated effluent suitable for restricted irrigation demonstrated that the plant was efficient in removing indicator bacteria, where fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci removal averaged 99.64% and 93.44%, respectively. Although not disinfected, treated effluent was free of Salmonella and parasites, hence safe for restricted agricultural purposes. All samples of the reclaimed effluent and three samples of irrigated grass were devoid of microbial pathogens indicating a safe use in unrestricted agricultural utilization. Adequate operation of wastewater treatment facilities, scientific updating of reuse guidelines and launching public awareness campaigns are core factors for successful and sustainable large-scale wastewater reuse schemes in Palestine. PMID:17431318

  16. Biological treatments of textile industrial effluents in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ugoji, E O; Aboaba, O O

    2004-10-01

    The assessment of the effluents from two textile industries in Ilupeju in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria showed that they were high in conductivity, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS) and contained traces of heavy metals like Ca, Zn but high concentrations of Cr and Pb. These wastewaters are normally discharged into neighbouring water bodies. Five bacterial groups, namely Micrococcus sp., Enterobacter sp., Alcaligens sp., Bacillus sp. and Acinetobacter sp. were isolated from these effluents. They were used individually for biotreatment and found to be able to utilize the components of the wastewaters for growth, Bacillus sp. and Acinetobacter sp. being the most efficient utilizers as they were able to reduce BOD to zero. The total viable count (TVC) increased significantly depicting growth of the bacterial population. The pH was regulated from 3.4-6.80 for NSF effluent and 12.2-10.29 for STI effluent. The work emphasises the level of industrial pollution in our environment as wastes are indiscrimately dumped into surrounding water bodies in urban areas, the textile industry being a case study. The treatment of any form of waste before disposal into the environment is important and ensures safety of the populace. PMID:15907081

  17. INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT TREATMENT USING IONIZING RADIATION COMBINED TO TITANIUM DIOXIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Duarte, C.L.; Oikawa, H.; Mori, M.N.; Sampa, M.H.O.

    2004-10-04

    The Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) with OH radicals are the most efficient to mineralize organic compounds, and there are various methods to generate OH radicals as the use of ozone, hydrogen peroxide and ultra-violet radiation and ionizing radiation. The irradiation of aqueous solutions with high-energy electrons results in the excitation and ionizing of the molecules and rapid (10{sup -14} - 10{sup -9} s) formation of reactive intermediates. These reactive species will react with organic compounds present in industrial effluent inducing their decomposition. Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) catalyzed photoreaction is used to remove a wide range of pollutants in air and water media, combined to UV/VIS light, FeO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, but as far as known there is no report on the combination with ionizing radiation. In some recent studies, the removal of organic pollutants in industrial effluent, such as Benzene, Toluene, and Xylene from petroleum production using ionizing radiation was investigated. It has been ob served that none of the methods can be used individually in wastewater treatment applications with good economics and high degree of energy efficiency. In the present work, the efficiency of ionizing radiation in presence of TiO{sub 2} to treat industrial effluent was evaluated. The main aim to combine these technologies is to improve the efficiency for very hard effluents and to reduce the processing cost for future implementation to large-scale design.

  18. Coupling ultrafiltration with an activated carbon cloth for the treatment of highly coloured wastewaters: a techno-economic study.

    PubMed

    Métivier-Pignon, H; Faur-Brasquet, C; Jaouen, P; Le Cloirec, P

    2003-06-01

    This work investigates the coupling of a membrane technique, ultrafiltration, with a recent adsorbent, activated carbon cloth for the treatment of industrial highly coloured wastewaters. A first experimental part shows the high treatment ability of this process for fountain-pen inks effluents arising from the rinsing of vats in which inks were produced. Whereas ultrafiltration enables more than 97% of colour removal, COD and DOC are not completely retained and a residual value of 1,700 mg l(-1) of DOC is obtained in the permeate. The second step of the process, activated carbon cloth, allows residual organic matter to be removed and a complete discolouring of the permeate. Adsorption capacities of COD and DOC are high, equal to 500 and 250 mg g(-1) respectively. Furthermore, this adsorbent induces a complete removal of glycol compounds (acting as antifreeze) which were not retined by a nanofiltration technique. A second part is an evaluation of the economic feasibility of such an integrated process. Only direct costs are considered at this phase of the study, and are divided into fixed costs (equipment, depreciation, maintenance), variable costs (electricity and consumption) and labour costs. The technical-economic study is carried out for two configurations: a low capacity unit (the UF membrane area is 2.4 m2) and an industrial capacity unit (with a 100 m2 UF membrane). Costs per treated m3 are respectively 111 and 32 euros, with costs partitioning which are dependent on the unit capacity.

  19. 75 FR 81284 - Nationwide Use of High Frequency and Ultra High Frequency Active SONAR Technology; Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Nationwide Use of High Frequency and Ultra High Frequency Active SONAR Technology... of High Frequency (HF) and Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Sound Navigation and Ranging (SONAR) Technology... in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Background and Purpose...

  20. 40 CFR 411.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... Subcategory § 411.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable... following effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  1. 40 CFR 411.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... Nonleaching Subcategory § 411.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction... following effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  2. 40 CFR 411.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... Subcategory § 411.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable... following effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  3. 40 CFR 411.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... Subcategory § 411.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable... following effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  4. 40 CFR 411.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... Subcategory § 411.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable... following effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  5. 40 CFR 411.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... Nonleaching Subcategory § 411.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction... following effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  6. 40 CFR 411.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... Subcategory § 411.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable... following effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  7. 40 CFR 411.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... Nonleaching Subcategory § 411.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction... following effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  8. 40 CFR 411.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... Nonleaching Subcategory § 411.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction... following effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  9. 40 CFR 411.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... Nonleaching Subcategory § 411.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction... following effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  10. Formation of new brominated disinfection byproducts during chlorination of saline sewage effluents.

    PubMed

    Ding, Guoyu; Zhang, Xiangru; Yang, Mengting; Pan, Yang

    2013-05-15

    Chlorination could be the most cost-effective method for disinfecting saline sewage effluents resulting from toilet flushing with seawater. Upon chlorination, the high levels of bromide ions in saline sewage effluents (up to 32 mg/L) can be oxidized to hypobromous acid/hypobromite, which could then react with organic matter in the sewage effluents to form brominated disinfection byproducts (Br-DBPs). In this study, primary and secondary saline sewage effluents were collected and chlorinated at different chlorine doses, and a powerful precursor ion scan method using ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry was adopted for detection and identification of polar Br-DBPs in these samples. With the new method, 54 major polar Br-DBPs were detected in the chlorinated saline effluents and six of them were newly identified as wastewater DBPs, including bromomaleic acid, 5-bromosalicylic acid, 3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2,6-dibromo-4-nitrophenol, and 2,4,6-tribromophenol. The formation of polar Br-DBPs, especially those newly detected ones, during chlorination of the saline effluents was studied. For the secondary saline effluent, various polar Br-DBPs formed and reached their maximum levels at different chlorine doses, whereas for the primary saline effluent, the formation of polar Br-DBPs basically kept increasing with increasing chlorine dose. Compared with the secondary saline effluent, the primary saline effluent generated fewer and less Br-DBPs and rarely generated nitrogenous Br-DBPs.

  11. Assessment of the effluent quality from a gold mining industry in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Acheampong, Mike A; Paksirajan, Kannan; Lens, Piet N L

    2013-06-01

    The physical and chemical qualities of the process effluent and the tailings dam wastewater of AngloGold-Ashanti Limited, a gold mining company in Ghana, were studied from June to September, 2010. The process effluent from the gold extraction plant contains high amounts of suspended solids and is therefore highly turbid. Arsenic, copper and cyanide were identified as the major pollutants in the process effluent with average concentrations of 10.0, 3.1 and 21.6 mg L(-1), respectively. Arsenic, copper, iron and free cyanide (CN(-)) concentrations in the process effluent exceeded the Ghana EPA discharge limits; therefore, it is necessary to treat the process effluent before it can be discharged into the environment. Principal component analysis of the data indicated that the process effluent characteristics were influenced by the gold extraction process as well as the nature of the gold-bearing ore processed. No significant correlation was observed between the wastewater characteristics themselves, except for the dissolved oxygen and the biochemical oxygen demand. The process effluent is fed to the Sansu tailings dam, which removes 99.9 % of the total suspended solids and 99.7 % of the turbidity; but copper, arsenic and cyanide concentrations were still high. The effluent produced can be classified as inorganic with a high load of non-biodegradable compounds. It was noted that, though the Sansu tailings dam stores the polluted effluent from the gold extraction plant, there will still be serious environmental problems in the event of failure of the dam.

  12. Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

  13. Photon and neutron active interrogation of highly enriched uranium.

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, W. L.; Goulding, C. A.; Hollas, C. L.; Moss, C. E.

    2004-01-01

    The physics of photon and neutron active interrogation of highly enriched uranium (HEU) using the delayed neutron reinterrogation method is described in this paper. Two sets of active interrogation experiments were performed using a set of subcritical configurations of cocentric HEU metal hemishells. One set of measurements utilized a pulsed 14-MeV neutron generator as the active source. The second set of measurements utilized a linear accelerator-based bremsstrahlung photon source as an active interrogation source. The neutron responses were measured for both sets of experiments. The operational details and results for both measurement sets are described.

  14. Effluent treatment in the paint and coating industry. (Latest citations from World Surface Coatings abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the analysis and treatment of effluents from the coating industry. Filters used for solvent adsorption and recovery, activated carbon adsorption of paint fumes, hydrogen peroxide treatment of wastes, effluent heat recovery, and biological treatments are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  15. Meeting NPDES permit limits for an effluent-dependent stream

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, W.L.

    1998-09-01

    When the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina received a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit containing very low copper and toxicity limits for an effluent-dependent stream, an innovative and cost-effective method to meet them was sought. The South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control mandated that compliance with the new limits be achieved within three years of the effective date of the permit. SRS personnel studied various regulatory options for complying with the new limits including Water Effect Ratio, use of a Metals Translator, blending with additional effluents, and outfall relocation. Regulatory options were determined to not be feasible because the receiving stream is effluent dependent. Treatment options were studied after it was determined that none of the regulatory pathways were viable. Corrosion inhibitors were evaluated on a full-scale basis with only limited benefits. Ion exchange was promising, but not cost effective for a high flow effluent with a very low concentration of copper. A treatment wetlands, not normally given consideration for the removal of metals, proved to be the most cost effective method studied and is currently under construction.

  16. Treatment of paper and pulp mill effluent by coagulation.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Parmesh Kumar; Majumdar, Bidyut; Choudhary, Rumi; Yadav, Deepak Kumar; Chand, Shri

    2010-04-01

    Pulp and paper mill effluent is highly polluting and is a subject of great environmental concern. In the present research we studied the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colour from paper mill effluent, using the coagulation process. A batch coagulation study was conducted using various coagulants such as aluminium chloride (AlCl3), polyaluminium chloride (PAC) and copper sulphate (CuSO4 x 5H20). The initial pH of the effluent had a tremendous effect on the COD and colour removal. The PAC reduced COD by 83% and reduced colour by 92% at an optimum pH of 5.0 and a coagulant dose of 8 mL L(-1). With AlCl3, at an optimum pH of 4.0 and a coagulant dose of 5 g L(-1), 72% COD removal and 84% colour removal were observed. At an optimum pH of 6.0 and a mass loading of 5 g L(-1), 76% COD reduction and 78% colour reduction were obtained with copper sulphate. It was also observed that, after addition of coagulant, the pH of the effluent decreased. The decrease in the pH was highest with AlCl3, followed by PAC and then CuSO4 x 5H20. PMID:20450109

  17. Wastewater effluent, combined sewer overflows, and other sources of organic compounds to Lake Champlain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, P.; Chalmers, A.

    2009-01-01

    Some sources of organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) to streams, lakes, and estuaries, including wastewater-treatment-plant effluent, have been well documented, but other sources, particularly wet-weather discharges from combined-sewer-overflow (CSO) and urban runoff, may also be major sources of OWCs. Samples of wastewater-treatment-plant (WWTP) effluent, CSO effluent, urban streams, large rivers, a reference (undeveloped) stream, and Lake Champlain were collected from March to August 2006. The highest concentrations of many OWCs associated with wastewater were in WWTP-effluent samples, but high concentrations of some OWCs in samples of CSO effluent and storm runoff from urban streams subject to leaky sewer pipes or CSOs were also detected. Total concentrations and numbers of compounds detected differed substantially among sampling sites. The highest total OWC concentrations (10-100 ??g/l) were in samples of WWTP and CSO effluent. Total OWC concentrations in samples from urban streams ranged from 0.1 to 10 ??g/l, and urban stream-stormflow samples had higher concentrations than baseflow samples because of contributions of OWCs from CSOs and leaking sewer pipes. The relations between OWC concentrations in WWTP-effluent and those in CSO effluent and urban streams varied with the degree to which the compound is removed through normal wastewater treatment. Concentrations of compounds that are highly removed during normal wastewater treatment [including caffeine, Tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate, and cholesterol] were generally similar to or higher in CSO effluent than in WWTP effluent (and ranged from around 1 to over 10 ??g/l) because CSO effluent is untreated, and were higher in urban-stream stormflow samples than in baseflow samples as a result of CSO discharge and leakage from near-surface sources during storms. Concentrations of compounds that are poorly removed during treatment, by contrast, are higher in WWTP effluent than in CSO, due to dilution. Results indicate

  18. Electrocoagulation for the treatment of textile industry effluent--a review.

    PubMed

    Khandegar, V; Saroha, Anil K

    2013-10-15

    Various techniques such as physical, chemical, biological, advanced oxidation and electrochemical are used for the treatment of industrial effluent. The commonly used conventional biological treatment processes are time consuming, need large operational area and are not effective for effluent containing toxic elements. Advanced oxidation techniques result in high treatment cost and are generally used to obtain high purity grade water. The chemical coagulation technique is slow and generates large amount of sludge. Electrocoagulation has recently attracted attention as a potential technique for treating industrial effluent due to its versatility and environmental compatibility. This technique uses direct current source between metal electrodes immersed in the effluent, which causes the dissolution of electrode plates into the effluent. The metal ions, at an appropriate pH, can form wide range of coagulated species and metal hydroxides that destabilize and aggregate particles or precipitate and adsorb the dissolved contaminants. Therefore, the objective of the present manuscript is to review the potential of electrocoagulation for the treatment of industrial effluents, mainly removal of dyes from textile effluent.

  19. Laboratory studies of electrochemical treatment of industrial azo dye effluent.

    PubMed

    Vaghela, Sanjay S; Jethva, Ashok D; Mehta, Bhavesh B; Dave, Sunil P; Adimurthy, Subbarayappa; Ramachandraiah, Gadde

    2005-04-15

    Removal of color and reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in an industrial azo dye effluent containing chiefly reactive dyes were investigated under single-pass conditions at a dimensionally stable anode (DSA) in a thin electrochemical flow reactor at different current densities, flow rates, and dilutions. With 50% diluted effluent, decolorization was achieved up to 85-99% at 10-40 mA/ cm2 at 5 mL/min flow rate and 50-88% at 30-40 mA/ cm2 at high (10-15 mL/min) flow rates. The COD reduction was maximum (81%) at 39.9 mA/cm2 or above when solution-electrode contact time (Ct) was as high as 21.7 s/cm2 and decreased as Ct declined at a given current density. Cyclic voltammetric studies suggesting an indirect oxidation of dye molecules over the anode surface were carried out at a glassy carbon electrode. The effect of pH on decolorization and COD reduction was determined. An electrochemical mechanism mediated by OCl- operating in the decolorization and COD reduction processes was suggested. The effluent was further treated with NaOCI. The oxidized products from the treated effluents were isolated and confirmed to be free from chlorine-substituted products by IR spectroscopy. From the apparent pseudo-first-order rate data, the second-order rate coefficients were evaluated to be 2.9 M(-1) s(-1) at 5 mL/ min, 76.2 M(-1) s(-1) at 10 mL/min, and 156.1 M(-1) s(-1) at 15 mL/ min for color removal, and 1.19 M(-1) s(-1) at 5 mL/min, 1.79 M(-1) s(-1) at 10 mL/min, and 3.57 M(-1) s(-1) at 15 mL/min for COD reduction. Field studies were also carried out with a pilot-scale cell at the source of effluent generation of different plants corresponding to the industry. Decolorization was achieved to about 94-99% with azo dye effluents at 0.7-1.0 L/min flow costing around Indian Rupees 0.02-0.04 per liter, and to about 54-75% in other related effluents at 0.3-1.0 L/min flow under single-pass conditions. PMID:15884385

  20. Ecofriendly degradation, decolorization and detoxification of textile effluent by a developed bacterial consortium.

    PubMed

    Phugare, Swapnil S; Kalyani, Dayanand C; Surwase, Shripad N; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2011-07-01

    Present study illustrates the effectual decolorization and degradation of the textile effluent using a developed bacterial consortium SDS, consisted of bacterial species Providencia sp. SDS and Pseudomonas aeuroginosa strain BCH, originally isolated from dye contaminated soil. The intensive metabolic activity of the consortium SDS led to complete decolorization of textile effluent within 20 h at pH 7 and temperature 30°C. Significant induction in the activities of veratryl alcohol oxidase, laccase, azoreductase and DCIP reductase were observed during decolorization, which indicates their involvement in decolorization and degradation process. The decolorization and biodegradation was monitored using UV-vis spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, HPLC and HPTLC analysis. Toxicological analysis of effluent before and after treatment was performed using classical Allium cepa test. Investigations of various toxicological parameters viz, oxidative stress response, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and phytotoxicity, collectively concludes that, the toxicity of effluent reduces significantly after treatment with consortium SDS.

  1. Positively charged filters for virus recovery from wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, L T; Farrah, S R; Bitton, G

    1981-01-01

    Positively charged Zeta Plus filters were used to concentrate enteroviruses from 19 liters of effluent from activated sludge units. Neither the addition of salts nor the acidification of the effluent was required for adsorption of viruses to the filters. Viruses adsorbed to the filters were eluted by treating the filters with a solution of 4 M urea buffered at pH 9 with 0.05 M lysine. Eluted viruses were concentrated into final volumes of 1 to 2 ml by using a two-step concentration procedure that employed inorganic and organic flocculation. Approximately 50% of the viruses added to effluents could be recovered in the final sample. The procedure was used to monitor effluents from activated sludge units at two wastewater treatment plants for the presence of enteroviruses. PMID:6274257

  2. Process for treating effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, C.M.; Shapiro, C.

    1997-11-25

    A method for treating a gaseous effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor containing entrained solids is provided comprising the steps of expanding the gas/solids effluent from a first to a second lower pressure at a temperature at which no liquid condenses; separating the solids from the gas effluent; neutralizing the effluent to remove any acid gases; condensing the effluent; and retaining the purified effluent to the supercritical water oxidation reactor. 6 figs.

  3. Process for treating effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, Charles M.; Shapiro, Carolyn

    1997-01-01

    A method for treating a gaseous effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor containing entrained solids is provided comprising the steps of expanding the gas/solids effluent from a first to a second lower pressure at a temperature at which no liquid condenses; separating the solids from the gas effluent; neutralizing the effluent to remove any acid gases; condensing the effluent; and retaining the purified effluent to the supercritical water oxidation reactor.

  4. Liquid effluent study characterization data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    During the development of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), public comments were received regarding reduction of the discharge of liquid effluents into the soil column. As a result, the US Department of Energy (DOE), with concurrence of the Washington State Department of Ecology (WSDE)and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), committed to a special project designed to document the discharge history and the charter of Hanford Site liquid discharges. The results of this project will be used in determining the need for additional waste stream analysis, and/or to negotiate additional milestones pertaining to such discharges in the Tri-Party Agreement. Wastestream sampling data collected prior to October 1989 were reported in the Waste Stream Characterization Report. Preliminary Stream-specific Reports were prepared which evaluated that data and proposed dangerous waste designations for each stream. This document contains the wastestream sampling and analysis data collected as part of the liquid effluent study. Data contained in this report were obtained from samples collected from October 1989 through March 1990. Information is presented on the wastestreams that have been sampled, the parameters analyzed, and the dates and times at which the samples were collected. This information will be evaluated in the final Stream-Specific Reports. 9 refs., 4 tabs.

  5. Use of various acute, sublethal and early life-stage tests to evaluate the toxicity of refinery effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Sherry, J.; Scott, B.; Dutka, B.

    1997-11-01

    The toxicities of effluents from three Ontario, Canada, refineries were assessed with microbes, plants, invertebrates, and fish. Acute toxicity was assessed by the Microtox test, an assay based on electron transport activity in submitochondrial particles, and Daphnia magna (water flea); growth of Selenastrum capricornutum (alga); growth of Lemna minor (aquatic plant); germination of Lactuca sativa (nonaquatic plant); survival, growth, and maturation of Panagrellus redivivus (nematode); and genotoxicity in the SOS-Chromotest. Only the Microtox test and the submitochondrial particle test detected acute toxicity in the effluent samples. Reduced survival and sublethal responses were caused by some effluents, but not all effluents were toxic, and none caused a response in all of the tests applied. The results suggest that the effluent treatment systems used at Ontario refineries have largely eliminated acute toxicity to the organisms in their test battery. Although reduced survival and sublethal effects were detected in some of the effluents, the effects were minor. Some of the tests provided evidence, albeit weak, of variations in the responses of the test organisms to a temporal series of effluent samples. Not unexpectedly, there were also minor differences in the responses of the tests to effluents from the three refineries. The fathead minnow test seems to be a sensitive indicator of the sublethal toxicity of Ontario refinery effluents.

  6. F and H Area Effluent Treatment Facility (F/H ETF): ultrafiltration and hyperfiltration systems testing at Carre, Inc. with simulated F and H area effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, J.P.

    1984-05-23

    The F and H Area Effluent Treatment Facility is essentially a four-stage process that will decontaminate the waste water that is currently being discharged to seepage basins in the Separations Areas. The stages include pretreatment, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, and evaporation. A series of tests were performed at Carre, Inc. (Seneca, SC) from March 5 through March 13, to determine the usefulness of ultrafiltration (UF) in the pretreatment stage of the ETF. The results of that testing program indicate that UF would be an excellent means of removing entrained activity from the 200 Area process effluents. Hyperfiltration (HF) was also tested as a means of providing an improved concentration factor from the reverse osmosis stage. The results show that the membranes that were tested would not reject salt well enough at high salt concentrations to be useful in the final reverse osmosis stage. However, there are several membranes which are commercially available that would provide the needed rejection if they could be applied (dynamically) on the Carre support structure. This avenue is still being explored, as theoretically, it could eliminate the need for the F/H ETF evaporator.

  7. 40 CFR 471.36 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel-Cobalt Forming Subcategory § 471.36 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  8. 40 CFR 471.36 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel-Cobalt Forming Subcategory § 471.36 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  9. 40 CFR 430.82 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Wood Chemical Pulp Subcategory § 430.82 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  10. 40 CFR 430.84 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Wood Chemical Pulp Subcategory § 430.84 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  11. 40 CFR 430.83 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Wood Chemical Pulp Subcategory § 430.83 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  12. 40 CFR 430.82 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Wood Chemical Pulp Subcategory § 430.82 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  13. 40 CFR 430.83 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Wood Chemical Pulp Subcategory § 430.83 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  14. 40 CFR 430.84 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Wood Chemical Pulp Subcategory § 430.84 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  15. 40 CFR 446.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PAINT FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Paint Subcategory § 446.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  16. 40 CFR 446.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PAINT FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Paint Subcategory § 446.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  17. 40 CFR 464.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-continuous dischargers. (a) Casting Cleaning Operations. BPT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or pollutant... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Casting Subcategory § 464.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  18. A Methodology for Post Operational Clean Out of a Highly Active Facility Including Solids Behaviour - 12386

    SciTech Connect

    Edmondson, Michael J.; Ward, Tracy R.; Maxwell, Lisa J.

    2012-07-01

    The Highly Active Liquor Evaporation and Storage (HALES) plant at Sellafield handles acidic fission product containing liquor with typical activities of the order of 18x10{sup 9} Bq/ml. A strategy experimental feedback approach has been used to establish a wash regime for the Post Operational Clean Out (POCO) of the oldest storage tanks for this liquor. Two different wash reagents have been identified as being potentially suitable for removal of acid insoluble fission product precipitates. Ammonium carbamate and sodium carbonate yield similar products during the proposed wash cycle. The proposed wash reagents provide dissolution of caesium phosphomolybdate (CPM) and zirconium molybdate (ZM) solid phases but yields a fine, mobile precipitate of metal carbonates from the Highly Active Liquor (HAL) supernate. Addition of nitric acid to the wash effluent can cause CPM to precipitate where there is sufficient caesium and phosphorous available. Where they are not present (from ZM dissolution) the nitric acid addition initially produces a nitrate precipitate which then re-dissolves, along with the metal carbonates, to give a solid-free solution. The different behaviour of the two solids during the wash cycle has led to the proposal for an amended flowsheet. Additional studies on the potential to change the morphology of crystallising ZM have presented opportunities for changing the rheology of ZM sediments through doping with tellurium or particular organic acids. Two different wash reagents have been identified as being potentially suitable for the POCO of HALES Oldside HASTs. AC and SC both yield similar products during the proposed wash cycle. However, the different behaviour of the two principle HAL solids, CPM and ZM, during the wash cycle has led to the proposal for an amended flowsheet. Additional studies on the potential to change the morphology of crystallising ZM have presented opportunities for changing its rheology through doping with tellurium or certain

  19. A New Organic/Inorganic Hybrid with High Electrorheological Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, X. P.; Duan, X.

    In-situ sol-gel method to prepare colloidal hybrids of surfactant modified polysucchride and titanium oxide has been presented, and experiments indicated these highly ER active particles exhibited a remarkable ER effect. The static shear stress can be up to 37 k Pa (shear rate 5 S-1) under DC field of 4 kV/mm at root temperature, well above that of simple blends of starch and TiO2. In the meanwhile, temperature dependence and sedimentation stability were also greatly improved. Based on recent experimental facts, we find that dielectric properties and surface (interface) activity are two necessary conditions fulfilling the requirement of high ER activity. Adequate grinding of particles with oil can effectively enhance the shear stress, which may be owed to the decline of the activation energy needed for restructuring. It has provided us a new horizon for preparation of excellent ER materials and further studies should be continued to make.

  20. 78 FR 70567 - Nationwide Use of High Frequency and Ultra High Frequency Active SONAR Technology; Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Nationwide Use of High Frequency and Ultra High Frequency Active SONAR Technology...) and Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Sound Navigation and Ranging (SONAR) Technology and Finding of No... less than two weeks; however, for environmental disasters such as the Deepwater Horizon oil...

  1. Synthesis of conducting polymer nanospheres of high electrochemical activity.

    PubMed

    Kłucińska, Katarzyna; Jaworska, Ewa; Gryczan, Piotr; Maksymiuk, Krzysztof; Michalska, Agata

    2015-08-14

    We propose a novel approach to obtain conducting polymer nanoparticles with high electrochemical activity and a narrow size distribution. The method - templateless and seedless - uses polyacrylate microspheres to deliver the monomer for the polymerization reaction. Thus the obtained nanostructures have an active - unblocked - surface allowing fast charge/ion-exchange and the formation of stable suspensions in water. The obtained nanostructures have the potential to be applied in different fields ranging from conductive coatings and additives for increasing electronic conductivity, to electrochemical sensors.

  2. Anammox for ammonia removal from pig manure effluents: effect of organic matter content on process performance.

    PubMed

    Molinuevo, Beatriz; García, María Cruz; Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-04-01

    The anammox process, under different organic loading rates (COD), was evaluated using a semi-continuous UASB reactor at 37 degrees C. Three different substrates were used: initially, synthetic wastewater, and later, two different pig manure effluents (after UASB-post-digestion and after partial oxidation) diluted with synthetic wastewater. High ammonium removal was achieved, up to 92.1+/-4.9% for diluted UASB-post-digested effluent (95 mg COD L(-1)) and up to 98.5+/-0.8% for diluted partially oxidized effluent (121 mg COD L(-1)). Mass balance clearly showed that an increase in organic loading (from 95 mg COD L(-1) to 237 mg COD L(-1) and from 121 mg COD L(-1) to 290 mg COD L(-1) for the UASB-post-digested effluent and the partially oxidized effluent, respectively) negatively affected the anammox process and facilitated heterotrophic denitrification. Partial oxidation as a pre-treatment method improved ammonium removal at high organic matter concentration. Up to threshold organic load concentration of 142 mg COD L(-1) of UASB-post-digested effluent and 242 mg COD L(-1) of partially oxidized effluent, no effect of organic loading on ammonia removal was registered (ammonium removal was above 80%). However, COD concentrations above 237 mg L(-1) (loading rate of 112 mg COD L(-1)day(-1)) for post-digested effluent and above 290 mg L(-1) (loading rate of 136 mg COD L(-1)day(-1)) for partially oxidized effluent resulted in complete cease of ammonium removal. Results obtained showed that, denitrification and anammox process were simultaneously occurring in the reactor. Denitrification became the dominant ammonium removal process when the COD loading was increased.

  3. Existence of high-order correlations in cortical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benucci, Andrea; Verschure, Paul F.; König, Peter

    2003-10-01

    Neurons collect signals originating from a large number of other cells. The variability of this integrated population activity at the millisecond time scale is a critical constraint on the degree of signal integration and processing performed by single neurons. Optical imaging, EEG, and fMRI studies have indicated that cortical activity shows a high degree of variability at a time scale of hundreds of ms. However, currently no experimental methods are available to directly assess the variability in the activity of populations of neurons at a time scale closer to that of the characteristic time constants of neurons, i.e., around 10 ms. Here we integrate pertinent experimental data in one rigorous mathematical framework to demonstrate that (1) the high temporal variability in the spiking activity of individual neurons, (2) the second-order correlation properties of the spiking activity of cortical neurons, and (3) the correlations of the subthreshold dynamics, all impose high amplitude, fast variability in the population activity of cortical neurons. This implies that higher order correlations, a necessary condition for temporal coding models, must be a central feature of cortical dynamics.

  4. Water movement and fate of nitrogen during drip dispersal of wastewater effluent into a semi-arid landscape.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, Robert L; Parzen, Rebecca; Tomaras, Jill; Lowe, Kathryn S

    2014-04-01

    Drip dispersal of partially treated wastewater was investigated as an approach for onsite water reclamation and beneficial reuse of water and nutrients in a semi-arid climate. At the Mines Park Test Site in Golden, Colorado, a drip dispersal system (DDS) was installed at 20- to 30-cm depth in an Ascalon sandy loam soil profile. Two zones with the same layout were established to enable study of two different hydraulic loading rates. Zones 1 and 2 each had one half of the landscape surface with native vegetation and the other with Kentucky bluegrass sod. After startup activities, domestic septic tank effluent was dispersed five times a day at footprint loading rates of 5 L/m(2)/d for Zone 1 and 10 L/m(2)/d for Zone 2. Over a two-year period, monitoring included the frequency and volume of effluent dispersed and its absorption by the landscape. After the first year of operation in October a (15)N tracer test was completed in the sodded portion of Zone 1 and samples of vegetation and soil materials were collected and analyzed for water content, pH, nitrogen, (15)N, and bacteria. Research revealed that both zones were capable of absorbing the effluent water applied at 5 or 10 L/m(2)/d. Effluent water dispersed from an emitter infiltrates at the emitter and along the drip tubing and water movement is influenced by hydrologic conditions. Based on precipitation and evapotranspiration at the Test Site, only a portion of the effluent water dispersed migrated downward in the soil (approx. 34% or 64% for Zone 1 or 2, respectively). Sampling within Zone 1 revealed water filled porosities were high throughout the soil profile (>85%) and water content was most elevated along the drip tubing (17-22% dry wt.), which is also where soil pH was most depressed (pH 4.5) due to nitrification reactions. NH4(+) and NO3(-) retention occurred near the dispersal location for several days and approximately 51% of the N applied was estimated to be removed by plant uptake and denitrification

  5. Genotoxicity evaluation of tannery effluent treated with newly isolated hexavalent chromium reducing Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Vineeta; Yadav, Ashutosh; Haq, Izharul; Kumar, Sharad; Bharagava, Ram Naresh; Singh, Sudheer Kumar; Raj, Abhay

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the efficiency of free and immobilized cells of newly isolated hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] reducing Bacillus cereus strain Cr1 (accession no. KJ162160) was studied in the treatment of tannery effluent. The analysis of effluents revealed high chemical oxygen demand (COD-1260 mg/L), biological oxygen demand (BOD5-660 mg/L), total dissolved solids (TDS-14000 mg/L), electrical conductivity (EC-21.5 mS/cm) and total chromium (TC-2.4 mg/L). The effluents also showed genotoxic effects to Allium cepa. Treatment of tannery effluent with isolated B. cereus strain led to considerable reduction of pollutant load. The pollutant load reduction was studied with both immobilized and free cells and immobilized cells were more effective in reducing COD (65%), BOD (80%), TDS (67%), EC (65%) and TC (92%) after 48 h. GC-MS analysis of pre and post-treatment tannery effluent samples revealed reduction of organic load after treatment with free and immobilized cells. An improvement in mitotic index and reduction in chromosomal aberrations was also observed in A. cepa grown with post-treatement effluent samples compared to untreated sample. Results demonstrate that both methods of bacterial treatment (free and immobilized) were efficient in reducing the pollutant load of tannery effluent as well as in reducing genotoxic effects, however, treatment with immobilized cells was more effective. PMID:27591849

  6. Evaluation of screening procedures for bioconcentratable organic chemicals in effluents and sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhard, L.P.; Sheedy, B.R.

    1995-04-01

    Screening procedures have been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to isolate and tentatively identify nonpolar organic chemicals in effluent and sediment samples with high potential to form chemical residues in aquatic organisms. The objective of this study was to determine if the sample components tentatively identified by the effluent- and sediment-screening procedures actually form chemical residues in aquatic organisms. This evaluation consisted of analyzing effluent and sediment samples from a field site with discharges from two coke-manufacturing facilities using the screening procedures. Effluent, sediment, crayfish (Decapoda), and sunfish (Lepomis sp.) samples from the field site were also prepared using conventional sample preparation procedures and analyzed for the tentatively identified chemicals (TIDs) reported by the screening procedures. Results of the screening procedures were then compared to the results of the analyses on the samples prepared using the conventional sample preparation procedures. For the effluent-screening procedure, 182 of 183 TIDs in Coke Plant 1 effluent and all of the 7 TIDs in Coke Plant 2 effluent were found in the crayfish, sunfish, and/or sediment samples downstream of the discharges. For the sediment-screening procedure, 92 of 93 TIDs and all of 47 TIDs in sediment samples from two sampling stations downstream of the discharges were found in the crayfish and/or sunfish samples.

  7. 40 CFR 405.87 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ice Cream, Frozen Desserts, Novelties and Other Dairy Desserts Subcategory § 405.87 Effluent limitations...

  8. 40 CFR 405.87 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ice Cream, Frozen Desserts, Novelties and Other Dairy Desserts Subcategory § 405.87 Effluent limitations...

  9. 40 CFR 405.87 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ice Cream, Frozen Desserts, Novelties and Other Dairy Desserts Subcategory § 405.87 Effluent limitations...

  10. 40 CFR 405.57 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cottage Cheese and Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.57 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the...

  11. 40 CFR 405.87 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ice Cream, Frozen Desserts, Novelties and Other Dairy Desserts Subcategory § 405.87 Effluent limitations...

  12. 40 CFR 471.56 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Refractory Metals Forming Subcategory § 471.56 Effluent limitations representing the degree of...

  13. 40 CFR 471.96 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zirconium-Hafnium Forming Subcategory § 471.96 Effluent limitations representing the degree of...

  14. 40 CFR 471.46 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Precious Metals Forming Subcategory § 471.46 Effluent limitations representing the degree of...

  15. 40 CFR 471.56 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Refractory Metals Forming Subcategory § 471.56 Effluent limitations representing the degree of...

  16. 40 CFR 471.46 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Precious Metals Forming Subcategory § 471.46 Effluent limitations representing the degree of...

  17. 40 CFR 471.96 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zirconium-Hafnium Forming Subcategory § 471.96 Effluent limitations representing the degree of...

  18. 40 CFR 471.106 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Metals Powders Subcategory § 471.106 Effluent limitations representing the degree of...

  19. 40 CFR 471.106 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Metals Powders Subcategory § 471.106 Effluent limitations representing the degree of...

  20. 40 CFR 417.173 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergents by Dry Blending Subcategory § 417.173 Effluent limitations guidelines...

  1. 40 CFR 417.153 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Spray Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.153 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  2. 40 CFR 417.153 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Spray Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.153 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  3. 40 CFR 417.173 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergents by Dry Blending Subcategory § 417.173 Effluent limitations guidelines...

  4. 40 CFR 417.193 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.193 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  5. 40 CFR 417.183 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.183 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  6. 40 CFR 417.183 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.183 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  7. 40 CFR 417.193 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.193 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  8. 40 CFR 417.193 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.193 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  9. 40 CFR 417.183 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.183 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  10. 40 CFR 417.172 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergents by Dry Blending Subcategory § 417.172 Effluent limitations...

  11. 40 CFR 417.153 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Spray Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.153 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  12. 40 CFR 417.172 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergents by Dry Blending Subcategory § 417.172 Effluent limitations...

  13. 40 CFR 417.173 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergents by Dry Blending Subcategory § 417.173 Effluent limitations guidelines...

  14. 40 CFR 417.173 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergents by Dry Blending Subcategory § 417.173 Effluent limitations guidelines...

  15. 40 CFR 417.193 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.193 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  16. 40 CFR 417.172 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergents by Dry Blending Subcategory § 417.172 Effluent limitations...

  17. 40 CFR 417.172 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergents by Dry Blending Subcategory § 417.172 Effluent limitations...

  18. 40 CFR 417.183 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.183 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  19. 40 CFR 417.153 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Spray Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.153 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  20. 40 CFR 417.183 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.183 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  1. 40 CFR 417.172 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergents by Dry Blending Subcategory § 417.172 Effluent limitations...

  2. 40 CFR 417.173 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergents by Dry Blending Subcategory § 417.173 Effluent limitations guidelines...

  3. 40 CFR 417.153 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Spray Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.153 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  4. 40 CFR 417.193 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.193 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  5. 40 CFR 426.133 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hand Pressed and Blown Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.133 Effluent limitations guidelines...

  6. 40 CFR 426.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sheet Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  7. 40 CFR 426.77 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.77 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  8. 40 CFR 426.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Plate Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  9. 40 CFR 426.132 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hand Pressed and Blown Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.132 Effluent limitations...

  10. 40 CFR 426.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sheet Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  11. 40 CFR 426.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  12. 40 CFR 426.133 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hand Pressed and Blown Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.133 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the...

  13. 40 CFR 426.72 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.72 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  14. 40 CFR 426.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Plate Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  15. 40 CFR 426.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  16. 40 CFR 426.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  17. 40 CFR 426.132 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hand Pressed and Blown Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.132 Effluent limitations...

  18. 40 CFR 426.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Rolled Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  19. 40 CFR 426.73 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.73 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  20. 40 CFR 426.77 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Laminating Subcategory § 426.77 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...