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Sample records for high beta frequency

  1. Total beta-globin gene deletion has high frequency in Filipinos

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick, N.; Miyakawa, F.; Hunt, J.A.

    1994-09-01

    The distribution of {beta}-thalassemia [{beta}{sup Th}] mutations is unique to each ethnic group. Most mutations affect one or a few bases; large deletions have been rare. Among families screened in Hawaii, [{beta}{sup Th}] heterozygotes were diagnosed by microcytosis, absence of abnormal hemoglobins on isoelectric focusing, and raised Hb A{sub 2} by chromatography. Gene frequency for {beta}{sup Th} was 0.02 in Filipinos. In Filipinos, polymerase chain reaction [PCR] with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for {beta}{sup Th} mutations detected a mutation in only 6 of 42 {beta}{sup Th} heterozygotes; an IVS2-666 C/T polymorphism showed non-heterozygosity in 37 and heterozygosity in only 5 of these {beta}{sup Th} heterozygotes. One {beta}{sup Th}/{beta}{sup Th} major patient and his mother had no mutation detected by allele-specific oligomer hybridization; PCR failed to amplify any DNA from his {beta}-globin gene. After a total {beta}-globin gene deletion [{beta}{sup Del}] was found in a Filipino family in Ontario, specific PCR amplification for {beta}{sup Del} detected this in 43 of 53 {beta}{sup Th} Filipino samples tested; the above {beta}{sup Th}/{beta}{sup Th} patient was a ({beta}{sup Del}/{beta}{sup Del}) homozygote. The {beta}{sup Del} may account for over 60% of all {beta}{sup Th} alleles in Filipinos; this is the highest proportion of a deletion {beta}{sup Th} mutation reported from any population. Most but not all {beta}{sup Del} heterozygotes had high Hb F [5.13 {plus_minus} 3.94 mean {plus_minus} 1 s.d.] compared to the codon 41/42 four base deletion common in Chinese [2.30 {plus_minus} 0.86], or to {beta}{sup Th} heterozygotes with normal {alpha}-globin genes [2.23 {plus_minus} 0.80].

  2. Subthalamic beta oscillations are attenuated after withdrawal of chronic high frequency neurostimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Trager, Megan H; Koop, Mandy Miller; Velisar, Anca; Blumenfeld, Zack; Nikolau, Judy Syrkin; Quinn, Emma J; Martin, Talora; Bronte-Stewart, Helen

    2016-12-01

    Subthalamic nucleus (STN) local field potential (LFP) recordings demonstrate beta (13-30Hz) band oscillations in Parkinson's disease (PD) defined as elevations of spectral power. The amount of attenuation of beta band power on therapeutic levels of high frequency (HF) deep brain stimulation (DBS) and/or dopaminergic medication has been correlated with the degree of improvement in bradykinesia and rigidity from the therapy, which has led to the suggestion that elevated beta band power is a marker of PD motor disability. A fundamental question has not been answered: whether there is a prolonged attenuation of beta band power after withdrawal of chronic HF DBS and whether this is related to a lack of progression or even improvement in the underlying motor disability. Until now, in human PD subjects, STN LFP recordings were only attainable in the peri-operative period and after short periods of stimulation. For the first time, using an investigational, implanted sensing neurostimulator (Activa® PC+S, Medtronic, Inc.), STN LFPs and motor disability were recorded/assessed after withdrawal of chronic (6 and 12month) HF DBS in freely moving PD subjects. Beta band power was similar within 14s and 60min after stimulation was withdrawn, suggesting that "off therapy" experiments can be conducted almost immediately after stimulation is turned off. After withdrawal of 6 and 12months of STN DBS, beta band power was significantly lower (P<0.05 at 6 and 12months) and off therapy UPDRS scores were better (P<0.05 at 12months) compared to before DBS was started. The attenuation in beta band power was correlated with improvement in motor disability scores (P<0.05). These findings were supported by evidence of a gradual increase in beta band power in two unstimulated STNs after 24months and could not be explained by changes in lead impedance. This suggests that chronic HF DBS exerts long-term plasticity in the sensorimotor network, which may contribute to a lack of progression in

  3. Beta-thalassemia mutations in Rome. A high frequency of the IVSII-745 allele in subjects of latium origin.

    PubMed

    Massa, A; Cianciulli, P; Cianetti, L; Iazzone, R; Cenci, A; Sorrentino, F; Franco, G; Pecci, G; Papa, G; Peschle, C

    1994-01-01

    We studied the molecular bases of beta-thalassemia in Rome, a city centrally located in Latium, which is a region with a low incidence of beta-carriers. People also come to Rome from other regions for specific or prenatal diagnostic assessment. Only 11 patients (20%) out of 62 characterized beta-thalassemia subjects were of Latium family origin. They presented five mutations with an uncommonly high frequency of the IVSII-745 allele, that was found in homozygosis in 4 unrelated patients from a southeastern area in the province of Frosinone. These data may indicate a founder effect.

  4. Low-frequency waves in a high-beta collisionless plasma Polarization, compressibility and helicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, S. P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper considers the linear theory of waves near and below the ion cyclotron frequency in an isothermal electron-ion Vlasov plasma which is isotropic, homogeneous and magnetized. Numerical solutions of the full dispersion equation for the magnetosonic/whistler and Alfven/ion cyclotron modes at beta(i) = 1.0 are presented, and the polarizations, compressibilities, helicities, ion Alfven ratios and ion cross-helicities are exhibited and compared. At sufficiently large beta(i) and theta, the angle of propagation with respect to the magnetic field, the real part of the polarization of the Alfven/ion cyclotron wave changes sign, so that, for such parameters, this mode is no longer left-hand polarized. The Alfven/ion cyclotron mode becomes more compressive as the wavenumber increases, whereas the magnetosonic/whistler becomes more compressive with increasing theta.

  5. Finite beta effects on low- and high-frequency magnetosonic waves in a two-ion-species plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Toida, Mieko; Aota, Yukio

    2013-08-15

    A magnetosonic wave propagating perpendicular to a magnetic field in a two-ion-species plasma has two branches, high-frequency and low-frequency modes. The finite beta effects on these modes are analyzed theoretically on the basis of the three-fluid model with finite ion and electron pressures. First, it is shown that the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation for the low-frequency mode is valid for amplitudes ε<ε{sub max}, where the upper limit of the amplitude ε{sub max} is given as a function of β (β is the ratio of the kinetic and magnetic energy densities), the density ratio, and the cyclotron frequency ratio of two ion species. Next, the linear dispersion relation and KdV equation for the high-frequency mode are derived, including β as a factor. In addition, the theory for heavy ion acceleration by the high-frequency mode pulse and the pulse damping due to this energy transfer in a finite beta plasma are presented.

  6. Excitation of high frequency pressure driven modes by non-axisymmetric equilibrium at high {beta}{sub pol} in PBX-M

    SciTech Connect

    Sesnic, S.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Okabayashi, M.; Takahashi, H.; Bell, R.E.; Bernabei, S.; Chance, M.S.; Hatcher, R.E.; Jardin, S.C.; Kessel, C.E.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.; Manickam, J.; Ono, M.; Paul, S.F.; Sauthoff, N.R.; Holland, A.; Asakura, N.; Duperrex, P.A.; Fonck, R.J.; Gammel, G.M.; Greene, G.J.; Jiang, T.W.; Levinton, F.M.; Powell, E.T.; Roberts, D.W.; Qin, Y.

    1993-06-01

    High-frequency pressure-driven modes have been observed in high-poloidal-{beta} discharges in the Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification (PBX-M). These modes are excited in a non-axisymmetric equilibrium characterized by a large, low frequency m{sub 1}=1/n{sub 1}=1 island, and they are capable of expelling fast ions. The modes reside on or very close to the q=1 surface, and have mode numbers with either m{sub h}=n{sub h} or (less probably) m{sub h}/n{sub h}=m{sub h}/(m{sub h}-1), with m{sub h} varying between 3 and 10. Occasionally, these modes are, simultaneously localized in the vicinity of the m{sub 1}=2/n{sub 1}=1 island. The high frequency modes near the q=1 surface also exhibit a ballooning character, being significantly stronger on the large major radius side of the plasma. When a large m{sub 1}=1/n{sub 1}=1 island is present the mode is poloidally localized in the immediate vicinity of the x-point of the island. The modes, which occur exclusively in high-{beta} discharges, appear to be driven by the plasma pressure or pressure gradient. They can thus be a manifestation of either a toroidicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmode (TAE) at q=(2m{sub h}+ 1)/2n{sub h}, a kinetic ballooning mode (KBM), or some other type of pressure-driven mode. Theory predicts that the TAE mode is a gap mode, but the high frequency modes in PBX-M are found exclusively on or in the immediate neighborhood of magnetic surfaces with low rational numbers.

  7. High frequency capacitance-voltage characteristics of thermally grown SiO2 films on beta-SiC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, S. M.; Berry, W. B.; Kwor, R.; Zeller, M. V.; Matus, L. G.

    1990-01-01

    Silicon dioxide films grown under dry and wet oxidation environment on beta-SiC films have been studied. The beta-SiC films had been heteroepitaxially grown on both on-axis and 2-deg off-axis (001) Si substrates. Capacitance-voltage and conductance-voltage characteristics of metal-oxide-semiconductor structures were measured in a frequency range of 10 kHz to 1 MHz. From these measurements, the interface trap density and the effective fixed oxide charge density were observed to be generally lower for off-axis samples.

  8. Effects of sertraline on brain current source of the high beta frequency band: analysis of electroencephalography during audiovisual erotic stimulation in males with premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Kwon, O Y; Kam, S C; Choi, J H; Do, J M; Hyun, J S

    2011-01-01

    To identify the effects of sertraline, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, for the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE), changes in brain current-source density (CSD) of the high beta frequency band (22-30 Hz) induced by sertraline administration were investigated during audiovisual erotic stimulation. Eleven patients with PE (36.9±7.8 yrs) and 11 male volunteers (24.2±1.9 years) were enrolled. Scalp electroencephalography (EEG) was conducted twice: once before sertraline administration and then again 4 h after the administration of 50 mg sertraline. Statistical non-parametric maps were obtained using the EEG segments to detect the current-density differences in the high beta frequency bands (beta-3, 22-30 Hz) between the EEGs before and after sertraline administration in the patient group and between the patient group and controls after the administration of sertraline during the erotic video sessions. Comparing between before and after sertraline administration in the patients with PE, the CSD of the high beta frequency band at 4 h after sertraline administration increased significantly in both superior frontal gyri and the right medial frontal gyrus (P<0.01). The CSD of the beta-3 band of the patients with PE were less activated significantly in the middle and superior temporal gyrus, lingual and fusiform gyrus, inferior occipital gyrus and cuneus of the right cerebral hemisphere compared with the normal volunteers 4 h after sertraline administration (P<0.01). In conclusion, sertraline administration increased the CSD in both the superior frontal and right middle temporal gyrus in patients with PE. The results suggest that the increased neural activity in these particular cerebral regions after sertraline administration may be associated with inhibitory effects on ejaculation in patients with PE.

  9. Effect of Sertraline on Current-Source Distribution of the High Beta Frequency Band: Analysis of Electroencephalography under Audiovisual Erotic Stimuli in Healthy, Right-Handed Males.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Hyun, Jae Seog; Kwon, Oh-Young

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cerebral changes in high beta frequency oscillations (22-30 Hz) induced by sertraline and by audiovisual erotic stimuli in healthy adult males. Scalp electroencephalographies (EEGs) were conducted twice in 11 healthy, right-handed males, once before sertraline intake and again 4 hours thereafter. The EEGs included four sessions recorded sequentially while the subjects were resting, watching a music video, resting, and watching an erotic video for 3 minutes, 5 minutes, 3 minutes, and 5 minutes, respectively. We performed frequency-domain analysis using the EEGs with a distributed model of current-source analysis. The statistical nonparametric maps were obtained from the sessions of watching erotic and music videos (p<0.05). The erotic stimuli decreased the current-source density of the high beta frequency band in the middle frontal gyrus, the precentral gyrus, the postcentral gyrus, and the supramarginal gyrus of the left cerebral hemisphere in the baseline EEGs taken before sertraline intake (p<0.05). The erotic stimuli did not induce any changes in current-source distribution of the brain 4 hours after sertraline intake. It is speculated that erotic stimuli may decrease the function of the middle frontal gyrus, the precentral gyrus, the postcentral gyrus, and the supramarginal gyrus of the left cerebral hemisphere in healthy adult males. This change may debase the inhibitory control of the brain against erotic stimuli. Sertraline may reduce the decrement in inhibitory control.

  10. Neurofeedback of SMR and beta1 frequencies: An investigation of learning indices and frequency-specific effects.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Miguel G; van Run, Chris; de Fockert, Jan W; Gruzelier, John H

    2017-07-30

    Despite evidence that Sensorimotor Rhythm (SMR) and beta1 neurofeedback have distinct cognitive enhancement effects, it remains unclear whether their amplitudes can be independently enhanced. Furthermore, demands for top-down attention control, postural restraint and maintenance of cognitive set processes, all requiring low-beta frequencies, might masquerade as learning and confound interpretation. The feasibility of selectively enhancing SMR and beta1 amplitudes was investigated with the addition of a random frequency control condition that also requires the potentially confounding cognitive processes. A comprehensive approach to assessing neurofeedback learning was undertaken through the calculation of learning indices within- and across-session and pre-to-post baseline. Herein we provide the first demonstration of beta1 within-session amplitude learning that was not attributable to extraneous cognitive processes, for it was not found with random frequency training. On the other hand, within-session SMR learning might have been obscured by high interindividual variability and methodological limitations such as the type of feedback screen, the insufficient number of sessions, and the exclusion of simultaneous theta and high-beta inhibition. Interestingly, SMR and beta1 amplitude increased across sessions in the three groups suggesting unspecific effects of neurofeedback in the low beta frequency band. Moreover, there was no clear evidence of frequency specificity associated with either SMR or beta1 training. Some methodological limitations may underpin the divergent results with previous studies. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. All rights reserved.

  11. Beta prime regression with application to risky behavior frequency screening.

    PubMed

    Tulupyev, Alexander; Suvorova, Alena; Sousa, Jennifer; Zelterman, Daniel

    2013-10-15

    Our aim is to model the frequency of certain behavioral acts, especially those that are likely to transmit communicable diseases between persons. We develop a generalized linear model on the basis of the beta prime distribution to model the responses to a survey question of the form, 'When was the last time that you engaged in this behavior?' Intuitively, individuals reporting more recent events are more likely to have greater frequency of the risky behavior. The beta prime distribution is especially suited to this application because of its long tail. We adjust for length-biased sampling. We show how to use this distribution as the basis of a linear regression model that accounts for differences in demographic and psychological characteristics of the respondents. We discuss estimation of parameters, residuals, tests for heterogeneity of these parameters, and jackknife measures of influence. We apply the methods to a survey of alcohol abuse use among individuals who are at high risk for spreading HIV and other communicable diseases in a study conducted in Saint Petersburg, Russia. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. High beta plasmas in the PBX tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Bol, K.; Buchenauer, D.; Chance, M.; Couture, P.; Fishman, H.; Fonck, R.; Gammel, G.; Grek, B.; Ida, K.; Itami, K.

    1986-04-01

    Bean-shaped configurations favorable for high ..beta.. discharges have been investigated in the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX) tokamak. Strongly indented bean-shaped plasmas have been successfully formed, and beta values of over 5% have been obtained with 5 MW of injected neutral beam power. These high beta discharges still lie in the first stability regime for ballooning modes, and MHD stability analysis implicates the external kink as responsible for the present ..beta.. limit.

  13. Calculation of the Lattice Frequencies of Alpha and Beta Oxygen.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The optically active lattice frequencies of alpha- and beta-O2 have been calculated using an atom-atom Lennard - Jones potential, with and without the...agreement is obtained between the observed librational frequency and its temperature dependence in beta-O2 and the results calculated using the Lennard - Jones potential... Lennard - Jones atom-atom interaction is a satisfactory model for the potential function in solid oxygen, provided that the packing is such that electronic overlap effects are small. (Author)

  14. High Frequency EPR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatteschi, D.

    EPR has traditionally been used in order to obtain structural information on transition metal compounds, with exciting frequencies in the range 9-35 GHz.The recent availability of high magnetic field has prompted the use of higher frequencies. In this contribution the advantages of using High-Field-High-Frequency EPR (HF EPR) experiments are reviewed. After a brief introduction aiming to recall the fundamentals of EPR spectroscopy, a short description of the experimental apparatus needed to perform HF EPR measurements is provided. The remaining sections report selected examples showing how much information can be obtained by HF EPR spectra. They range from individual ions with integer spin to molecular clusters. Particular attention is devoted to the so called Single Molecule Magnets, SMM, i.e. to molecular clusters which show slow relaxation of the magnetization at low temperature. This effect is due to Ising type magnetic anisotropy which has been efficiently monitored through HF EPR s pectroscopy.

  15. ALMA High Frequency Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, J. D.; Mason, B.; Impellizzeri, V.; Kameno, S.; Fomalont, E.; Chibueze, J.; Takahashi, S.; Remijan, A.; Wilson, C.; ALMA Science Team

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the ALMA High Frequency Campaign is to improve the quality and efficiency of science observing in Bands 8, 9, and 10 (385-950 GHz), the highest frequencies available to the ALMA project. To this end, we outline observing modes which we have demonstrated to improve high frequency calibration for the 12m array and the ACA, and we present the calibration of the total power antennas at these frequencies. Band-to-band (B2B) transfer and bandwidth switching (BWSW), techniques which improve the speed and accuracy of calibration at the highest frequencies, are most necessary in Bands 8, 9, and 10 due to the rarity of strong calibrators. These techniques successfully enable increased signal-to-noise on the calibrator sources (and better calibration solutions) by measuring the calibrators at lower frequencies (B2B) or in wider bandwidths (BWSW) compared to the science target. We have also demonstrated the stability of the bandpass shape to better than 2.4% for 1 hour, hidden behind random noise, in Band 9. Finally, total power observing using the dual sideband receivers in Bands 9 and 10 requires the separation of the two sidebands; this procedure has been demonstrated in Band 9 and is undergoing further testing in Band 10.

  16. [High frequency ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Sattler, E

    2015-07-01

    Diagnostic ultrasound has become a standard procedure in clinical dermatology. Devices with intermediate high frequencies of 7.5-15 MHz are used in dermato-oncology for the staging and postoperative care of skin tumor patients and in angiology for improved vessel diagnostics. In contrast, the high frequency ultrasound systems with 20-100 MHz probes offer a much higher resolution, yet with a lower penetration depth of about 1 cm. The main indications are the preoperative measurements of tumor thickness in malignant melanoma and other skin tumors and the assessment of inflammatory and soft tissue diseases, offering information on the course of these dermatoses and allowing therapy monitoring. This article gives an overview on technical principles, devices, mode of examination, influencing factors, interpretation of the images, indications but also limitations of this technique.

  17. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or "halo" at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes.

  18. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo' at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes. 4 figs.

  19. High-frequency ECG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tragardh, Elin; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2006-01-01

    The standard ECG is by convention limited to 0.05-150 Hz, but higher frequencies are also present in the ECG signal. With high-resolution technology, it is possible to record and analyze these higher frequencies. The highest amplitudes of the high-frequency components are found within the QRS complex. In past years, the term "high frequency", "high fidelity", and "wideband electrocardiography" have been used by several investigators to refer to the process of recording ECGs with an extended bandwidth of up to 1000 Hz. Several investigators have tried to analyze HF-QRS with the hope that additional features seen in the QRS complex would provide information enhancing the diagnostic value of the ECG. The development of computerized ECG-recording devices that made it possible to record ECG signals with high resolution in both time and amplitude, as well as better possibilities to store and process the signals digitally, offered new methods for analysis. Different techniques to extract the HF-QRS have been described. Several bandwidths and filter types have been applied for the extraction as well as different signal-averaging techniques for noise reduction. There is no standard method for acquiring and quantifying HF-QRS. The physiological mechanisms underlying HF-QRS are still not fully understood. One theory is that HF-QRS are related to the conduction velocity and the fragmentation of the depolarization wave in the myocardium. In a three-dimensional model of the ventricles with a fractal conduction system it was shown that high numbers of splitting branches are associated with HF-QRS. In this experiment, it was also shown that the changes seen in HF-QRS in patients with myocardial ischemia might be due to the slowing of the conduction velocity in the region of ischemia. This mechanism has been tested by Watanabe et al by infusing sodium channel blockers into the left anterior descending artery in dogs. In their study, 60 unipolar ECGs were recorded from the entire

  20. Hypnotic induction is followed by state-like changes in the organization of EEG functional connectivity in the theta and beta frequency bands in high-hypnotically susceptible individuals

    PubMed Central

    Jamieson, Graham A.; Burgess, Adrian P.

    2014-01-01

    Altered state theories of hypnosis posit that a qualitatively distinct state of mental processing, which emerges in those with high hypnotic susceptibility following a hypnotic induction, enables the generation of anomalous experiences in response to specific hypnotic suggestions. If so then such a state should be observable as a discrete pattern of changes to functional connectivity (shared information) between brain regions following a hypnotic induction in high but not low hypnotically susceptible participants. Twenty-eight channel EEG was recorded from 12 high susceptible (highs) and 11 low susceptible (lows) participants with their eyes closed prior to and following a standard hypnotic induction. The EEG was used to provide a measure of functional connectivity using both coherence (COH) and the imaginary component of coherence (iCOH), which is insensitive to the effects of volume conduction. COH and iCOH were calculated between all electrode pairs for the frequency bands: delta (0.1–3.9 Hz), theta (4–7.9 Hz) alpha (8–12.9 Hz), beta1 (13–19.9 Hz), beta2 (20–29.9 Hz) and gamma (30–45 Hz). The results showed that there was an increase in theta iCOH from the pre-hypnosis to hypnosis condition in highs but not lows with a large proportion of significant links being focused on a central-parietal hub. There was also a decrease in beta1 iCOH from the pre-hypnosis to hypnosis condition with a focus on a fronto-central and an occipital hub that was greater in high compared to low susceptibles. There were no significant differences for COH or for spectral band amplitude in any frequency band. The results are interpreted as indicating that the hypnotic induction elicited a qualitative change in the organization of specific control systems within the brain for high as compared to low susceptible participants. This change in the functional organization of neural networks is a plausible indicator of the much theorized “hypnotic-state.” PMID:25104928

  1. Hypnotic induction is followed by state-like changes in the organization of EEG functional connectivity in the theta and beta frequency bands in high-hypnotically susceptible individuals.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Graham A; Burgess, Adrian P

    2014-01-01

    Altered state theories of hypnosis posit that a qualitatively distinct state of mental processing, which emerges in those with high hypnotic susceptibility following a hypnotic induction, enables the generation of anomalous experiences in response to specific hypnotic suggestions. If so then such a state should be observable as a discrete pattern of changes to functional connectivity (shared information) between brain regions following a hypnotic induction in high but not low hypnotically susceptible participants. Twenty-eight channel EEG was recorded from 12 high susceptible (highs) and 11 low susceptible (lows) participants with their eyes closed prior to and following a standard hypnotic induction. The EEG was used to provide a measure of functional connectivity using both coherence (COH) and the imaginary component of coherence (iCOH), which is insensitive to the effects of volume conduction. COH and iCOH were calculated between all electrode pairs for the frequency bands: delta (0.1-3.9 Hz), theta (4-7.9 Hz) alpha (8-12.9 Hz), beta1 (13-19.9 Hz), beta2 (20-29.9 Hz) and gamma (30-45 Hz). The results showed that there was an increase in theta iCOH from the pre-hypnosis to hypnosis condition in highs but not lows with a large proportion of significant links being focused on a central-parietal hub. There was also a decrease in beta1 iCOH from the pre-hypnosis to hypnosis condition with a focus on a fronto-central and an occipital hub that was greater in high compared to low susceptibles. There were no significant differences for COH or for spectral band amplitude in any frequency band. The results are interpreted as indicating that the hypnotic induction elicited a qualitative change in the organization of specific control systems within the brain for high as compared to low susceptible participants. This change in the functional organization of neural networks is a plausible indicator of the much theorized "hypnotic-state."

  2. Wall stabilization of high beta plasmas in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, T.S.; Strait, E.J.; Lao, L.L.; Turnbull, A.D.; Burrell, K.H.; Chu, M.S.; Ferron, J.R.; Groebner, R.J.; La Haye, R.J.; Mauel, M.

    1995-02-01

    Detailed analysis of recent high beta discharges in the DIII-D tokamak demonstrates that the resistive vacuum vessel can provide stabilization of low n magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes. The experimental beta values reaching up to {beta}{sub T} = 12.6% are more than 30% larger than the maximum stable beta calculated with no wall stabilization. Plasma rotation is essential for stabilization. When the plasma rotation slows sufficiently, unstable modes with the characteristics of the predicted {open_quotes}resistive wall{close_quotes} mode are observed. Through slowing of the plasma rotation between the q = 2 and q = 3 surfaces with the application of a non-axisymmetric field, the authors have determined that the rotation at the outer rational surfaces is most important, and that the critical rotation frequency is of the order of {Omega}/2{pi} = 1 kHz.

  3. High Resolution Frequency Swept Imaging.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-14

    image resolution comparable to an ordinary photographic camera. In addition to inconvenient size, the cost of filling such a large aperture with... cost of implementing a LFTDR. Because of the large difference between the high frequency imaging frequencies and the low frequency reference frequency... cost . In addition since the measured reference phase must be multiplied by a factor a equal to the ratio of the imaging to the reference frequency

  4. High-frequency broadband transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    London, S. E.; Tomashevich, S. V.

    1981-05-01

    A systematic review of the theory and design principles of high-frequency broadband transformers is presented. It is shown that the transformers of highest performance are those whose coils consist of strips of double-wire and multiwire transmission lines. Such devices are characterized by a wide operating frequency range, and make possible operation at microwave frequencies at high levels of transmitted power.

  5. RWM Critical Rotation Frequency and Beta Dependence in NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sontag, Aaron; Sabbagh, S. A.; Menard, J. E.; Battaglia, D. J.

    2005-10-01

    The resistive wall mode (RWM) can be stabilized by maintaining the plasma toroidal rotation frequency (φφ) above a critical rotation frequency (φcrit). Recent experiments on NSTX seek to determine φcrit and rotation profile effects through actively braking plasma rotation by the application of external magnetic fields. Results from these experiments indicate that maintaining φφ at the q = 2 surface above φA/4q^2 is a necessary condition for RWM stability where φA is the local Alfven frequency. This result is in agreement with a theoretical model derived from a drift-kinetic energy principle. Similarity experiments with DIII-D are being performed to examine the aspect ratio dependence of the φcrit scaling. When φφ at the q = 2 surface drops below φcrit, the growth of internal kink/ballooning modes can prevent the RWM from terminating the discharge. A small beta collapse which drops φcrit, accompanies this mode growth allowing a recovery of RWM rotational stabilization while maintaining βN> βN^no-wall.

  6. High frequency of co-resistance in CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli to non-beta-lactam antibiotics, with the exceptions of amikacin, nitrofurantoin, colistin, tigecycline, and fosfomycin, in a county of Sweden.

    PubMed

    Östholm Balkhed, Åse; Tärnberg, Maria; Monstein, Hans-Jürg; Hällgren, Anita; Hanberger, Håkan; Nilsson, Lennart E

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the in vitro activity of different antibiotics against CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli in a county of Sweden, and to determine the occurrence of multi-resistance and plasmid- mediated quinolone resistance among these isolates. A total of 198 isolates of E. coli with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype and mainly CTX-M genotype were studied. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for amikacin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, colistin, fosfomycin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, nitrofurantoin, tigecycline, tobramycin, trimethoprim, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were determined with the Etest. Susceptibility was defined according to the breakpoints of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). MIC50 and MIC90 values were calculated. Ninety-five percent or more of the isolates were susceptible to amikacin, nitrofurantoin, colistin, tigecycline, and fosfomycin. CTX-M group 9 was more susceptible than CTX-M group 1 to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin. Sixty-eight percent of the isolates were multi-resistant, and the most common multi-resistance pattern was ESBL phenotype with decreased susceptibility to trimethoprim, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin. Only 1 isolate carried a qnrS1 gene, but 37% carried aac(6')-Ib-cr. A high frequency of co-resistance between ESBL-producing E. coli and non-beta-lactam antibiotics was seen. On the other hand, very high susceptibility was seen for amikacin, nitrofurantoin, colistin, tigecycline, and fosfomycin. These data support the replacement of gentamicin and tobramycin, normally used in Sweden, with amikacin, for severe infections.

  7. High frequency pulsed electromigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, David Wayne

    Electromigration life tests were performed on copper-alloyed aluminum test structures that were representative of modern CMOS metallization schemes, complete with Ti/TiN cladding layers and a tungsten-plug contact at the cathode. A total of 18 electrical stress treatments were applied. One was a DC current of 15 mA. The other 17 were pulsed currents, varied according to duty cycle and frequency. The pulse amplitude was 15 mA (˜2.7 × 10sp6 A/cmsp2) for all treatments. Duty cycles ranged from 33.3% to 80%, and frequencies fell into three rough ranges-100 KHz, 1 MHz, and 100 MHz. The ambient test temperature was 200sp°C in all experiments. Six to 9 samples were subjected to each treatment. Experimental data were gathered in the form of test stripe resistance versus time, R(t). For purposes of lifetime analysis, "failure" was defined by the criterion R(t)/R(0) = 1.10, and the median time to failure, tsb{50}, was used as the primary basis of comparison between test groups. It was found that the dependence of tsb{50} on pulse duty cycle conformed rather well to the so-called "average current density model" for duty cycles of 50% and higher. Lifetimes were less enhanced for a duty cycle of 33.3%, but they were still considerably longer than an "on-time" model would predict. No specific dependence of tsb{50} on pulse frequency was revealed by the data, that is, reasonably good predictions of tsb{50} could be made by recognizing the dominant influence of duty cycle. These findings confirm that IC miniaturization can be more aggressively pursued than an on-time prediction would allow. It is significant that this was found to be true for frequencies on the order of 100 MHz, where many present day digital applications operate. Post-test optical micrographs were obtained for each test subject in order to determine the location of electromigration damage. The pulse duty cycle was found to influence the location. Most damage occurred at the cathode contact, regardless of

  8. High frequency nanotube oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Haibing [Houston, TX; Zettl, Alexander K [Kensington, TX

    2012-02-21

    A tunable nanostructure such as a nanotube is used to make an electromechanical oscillator. The mechanically oscillating nanotube can be provided with inertial clamps in the form of metal beads. The metal beads serve to clamp the nanotube so that the fundamental resonance frequency is in the microwave range, i.e., greater than at least 1 GHz, and up to 4 GHz and beyond. An electric current can be run through the nanotube to cause the metal beads to move along the nanotube and changing the length of the intervening nanotube segments. The oscillator can operate at ambient temperature and in air without significant loss of resonance quality. The nanotube is can be fabricated in a semiconductor style process and the device can be provided with source, drain, and gate electrodes, which may be connected to appropriate circuitry for driving and measuring the oscillation. Novel driving and measuring circuits are also disclosed.

  9. Movement-related beta oscillations show high intra-individual reliability.

    PubMed

    Espenhahn, Svenja; de Berker, Archy O; van Wijk, Bernadette C M; Rossiter, Holly E; Ward, Nick S

    2017-02-15

    Oscillatory activity in the beta frequency range (15-30Hz) recorded from human sensorimotor cortex is of increasing interest as a putative biomarker of motor system function and dysfunction. Despite its increasing use in basic and clinical research, surprisingly little is known about the test-retest reliability of spectral power and peak frequency measures of beta oscillatory signals from sensorimotor cortex. Establishing that these beta measures are stable over time in healthy populations is a necessary precursor to their use in the clinic. Here, we used scalp electroencephalography (EEG) to evaluate intra-individual reliability of beta-band oscillations over six sessions, focusing on changes in beta activity during movement (Movement-Related Beta Desynchronization, MRBD) and after movement termination (Post-Movement Beta Rebound, PMBR). Subjects performed visually-cued unimanual wrist flexion and extension. We assessed Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) and between-session correlations for spectral power and peak frequency measures of movement-related and resting beta activity. Movement-related and resting beta power from both sensorimotor cortices was highly reliable across sessions. Resting beta power yielded highest reliability (average ICC=0.903), followed by MRBD (average ICC=0.886) and PMBR (average ICC=0.663). Notably, peak frequency measures yielded lower ICC values compared to the assessment of spectral power, particularly for movement-related beta activity (ICC=0.386-0.402). Our data highlight that power measures of movement-related beta oscillations are highly reliable, while corresponding peak frequency measures show greater intra-individual variability across sessions. Importantly, our finding that beta power estimates show high intra-individual reliability over time serves to validate the notion that these measures reflect meaningful individual differences that can be utilised in basic research and clinical studies. Copyright © 2016 The

  10. Binaural beats at high frequencies.

    PubMed

    McFadden, D; Pasanen, E G

    1975-10-24

    Binaural beats have long been believed to be audible only at low frequencies, but an interaction reminiscent of a binaural beat can sometimes be heard when different two-tone complexes of high frequency are presented to the two ears. The primary requirement is that the frequency separation in the complex at one ear be slightly different from that in the other--that is, that there be a small interaural difference in the envelope periodicities. This finding is in accord with other recent demonstrations that the auditory system is not deaf to interaural time differences at high frequencies.

  11. High-{beta} disruption in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Park, W.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Janos, A.

    1995-07-01

    Three dimensional MHD simulations of high-{beta} plasmas show that toroidally localized high-n ballooning modes can be driven unstable by the local pressure steepening which arises from the evolution of low-n modes. Nonlinearly, the high-n mode becomes even more localized and produces a strong local pressure bulge which destroys the flux surfaces resulting in a thermal quench. The flux surfaces then recover temporarily but now contain large magnetic islands. This scenario is supported by experimental data.

  12. Numerical models for high beta magnetohydrodynamic flow

    SciTech Connect

    Brackbill, J.U.

    1987-01-01

    The fundamentals of numerical magnetohydrodynamics for highly conducting, high-beta plasmas are outlined. The discussions emphasize the physical properties of the flow, and how elementary concepts in numerical analysis can be applied to the construction of finite difference approximations that capture these features. The linear and nonlinear stability of explicit and implicit differencing in time is examined, the origin and effect of numerical diffusion in the calculation of convective transport is described, and a technique for maintaining solenoidality in the magnetic field is developed. Many of the points are illustrated by numerical examples. The techniques described are applicable to the time-dependent, high-beta flows normally encountered in magnetically confined plasmas, plasma switches, and space and astrophysical plasmas. 40 refs.

  13. High beta and confinement studies on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Navratil, G.A.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Iacono, R.; Mauel, M.E.; Sabbagh, S.A. ); Kesner, J. )

    1992-01-01

    A new regime of high poloidal beta operation in TFTR was developed in the course of the first two years of this project (9/25/89 to 9/24/91). Our proposal to continue this successful collaboration between Columbia University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology with the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory for a three year period (9/25/91 to 9/24/94) to continue to investigate improved confinement and tokamak performance in high poloidal beta plasmas in TFTR through the DT phase of operation was approved by the DOE and this is a report of our progress during the first 9 month budget period of the three year grant (9/25/91 to 6/24/92). During the approved three year project period we plan to (1) extend and apply the low current, high QDD discharges to the operation of TFTR using Deuterium and Tritium plasma; (2) continue the analysis and plan experiments on high poloidal beta phenomena in TFTR including: stability properties, enhanced global confinement, local transport, bootstrap current, and divertor formation; (3) plan and carry out experiments on TFTR which attempt to elevate the central q to values > 2 where entry to the second stability regime is predicted to occur; and (4) collaborate on high beta experiments using bean-shaped plasmas with a stabilizing conducting shell in PBX-M. In the seven month period covered by this report we have made progress in each of these four areas through the submission of 4 TFTR Experimental Proposals and the partial execution of 3 of these using a total of 4.5 run days during the August 1991 to February 1992 run.

  14. High power, high frequency component test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Mary Ellen; Krawczonek, Walter

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has available a high frequency, high power laboratory facility for testing various components of aerospace and/or terrestrial power systems. This facility is described here. All of its capabilities and potential applications are detailed.

  15. High frequency fishbones excited by near perpendicular neutral beam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Deng

    2006-07-15

    The high frequency fishbone instability observed in experiments with near perpendicular neutral beam injection is interpreted as the ideal internal kink mode destabilized by circulating energetic ions. The mode frequency is close to the transit frequency of circulating ions. The beta value of the circulating ions is required to peak on the magnetic axis and the average value within the q=1 magnetic surface must exceed a critical value for the mode to grow up.

  16. Beta Peak Frequencies at Rest Correlate with Endogenous GABA+/Cr Concentrations in Sensorimotor Cortex Areas

    PubMed Central

    Baumgarten, Thomas J.; Oeltzschner, Georg; Hoogenboom, Nienke; Wittsack, Hans-Jörg; Schnitzler, Alfons; Lange, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal oscillatory activity in the beta band (15–30 Hz) is a prominent signal within the human sensorimotor cortex. Computational modeling and pharmacological modulation studies suggest an influence of GABAergic interneurons on the generation of beta band oscillations. Accordingly, studies in humans have demonstrated a correlation between GABA concentrations and power of beta band oscillations. It remains unclear, however, if GABA concentrations also influence beta peak frequencies and whether this influence is present in the sensorimotor cortex at rest and without pharmacological modulation. In the present study, we investigated the relation between endogenous GABA concentration (measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy) and beta oscillations (measured by magnetoencephalography) at rest in humans. GABA concentrations and beta band oscillations were measured for left and right sensorimotor and occipital cortex areas. A significant positive linear correlation between GABA concentration and beta peak frequency was found for the left sensorimotor cortex, whereas no significant correlations were found for the right sensorimotor and the occipital cortex. The results show a novel connection between endogenous GABA concentration and beta peak frequency at rest. This finding supports previous results that demonstrated a connection between oscillatory beta activity and pharmacologically modulated GABA concentration in the sensorimotor cortex. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that for a predominantly right-handed sample, the correlation between beta band oscillations and endogenous GABA concentrations is evident only in the left sensorimotor cortex. PMID:27258089

  17. High Temperature Stability of Potassium Beta Alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Kisor, A.; Ryan, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    None. From Objectives section: Evaluate the stability of potassium beta alumina under potassium AMTEC operating conditions. Evaluate the stability regime in which potassium beta alumina can be fabricated.

  18. [Principals of high frequency surgery].

    PubMed

    Bergler, W F; Hörmann, K; Hammerschmitt, N; Huber, K

    2004-10-01

    Electrosurgical instruments are routinely and daily applied at a variety of indications in Otorhinolaryngology. They can be used for cutting, coagulation and devitalisation. All have in common that the high frequency energy is transported into the tissue via an instrument and by this causes a thermal change. Depending on the duration and characteristic of the electricity a vaporisation of the tissue is effected through coagulation, devitalisation and carbonisation. The knowledge of the effects on the tissue by the choice of the different instrument parameters and application systems is essential for an ingenious therapeutically indication. In principal the following application methods for electrosurgery by modulation of the high frequency parameters are distinguished: the monopolar and the bipolar coagulation and devitalisation and the monopolar and the bipolar cutting. This article deals with the physical basis, the effects in the tissue as well as the single application methods of the high frequency surgery.

  19. High-Frequency Channel Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-30

    High-Frequency Channel Characterization Michael B. Porter, Paul Hursky, Martin Siderius Heat , Light, and Sound Research, Inc. 12730 High...Physical Sciences (Bruce Abraham) • Arizona State University (Tolga Duman, Subhadeep Roy) • Heat , Light, and Sound Research, Inc.(M. Porter, A. Abawi, P...NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Heat , Light, and Sound Research, Inc,12730 High

  20. Movement-related frequency modulation of beta oscillatory activity in the human subthalamic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Foffani, G; Bianchi, A M; Baselli, G; Priori, A

    2005-10-15

    Event-related changes of brain electrical rhythms are typically analysed as amplitude modulations of local field potential (LFP) oscillations, like radio amplitude modulation broadcasting. In telecommunications, frequency modulation (FM) is less susceptible to interference than amplitude modulation (AM) and is therefore preferred for high-fidelity transmissions. Here we hypothesized that LFP rhythms detected from deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes implanted in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in patients with Parkinson's disease could represent movement-related activity not only in AM but also in FM. By combining adaptive autoregressive identification with spectral power decomposition, we were able to show that FM of low-beta (13-20 Hz) and high-beta (20-35 Hz) rhythms significantly contributes to the involvement of the human STN in movement preparation, execution and recovery, and that the FM patterns are regulated by the dopamine levels in the system. Movement-related FM of beta oscillatory activity in the human subthalamic nucleus therefore provides a novel informational domain for rhythm-based pathophysiological models of cortico-basal ganglia processing.

  1. Movement-related frequency modulation of beta oscillatory activity in the human subthalamic nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Foffani, G; Bianchi, AM; Baselli, G; Priori, A

    2005-01-01

    Event-related changes of brain electrical rhythms are typically analysed as amplitude modulations of local field potential (LFP) oscillations, like radio amplitude modulation broadcasting. In telecommunications, frequency modulation (FM) is less susceptible to interference than amplitude modulation (AM) and is therefore preferred for high-fidelity transmissions. Here we hypothesized that LFP rhythms detected from deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes implanted in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in patients with Parkinson's disease could represent movement-related activity not only in AM but also in FM. By combining adaptive autoregressive identification with spectral power decomposition, we were able to show that FM of low-beta (13–20 Hz) and high-beta (20–35 Hz) rhythms significantly contributes to the involvement of the human STN in movement preparation, execution and recovery, and that the FM patterns are regulated by the dopamine levels in the system. Movement-related FM of beta oscillatory activity in the human subthalamic nucleus therefore provides a novel informational domain for rhythm-based pathophysiological models of cortico-basal ganglia processing. PMID:16123109

  2. High frequency integrated MOS filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, C.

    1990-01-01

    Several techniques exist for implementing integrated MOS filters. These techniques fit into the general categories of sampled and tuned continuous-time filters. Advantages and limitations of each approach are discussed. This paper focuses primarily on the high frequency capabilities of MOS integrated filters.

  3. High frequency power distribution system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Mikund R.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this project was to provide the technology of high frequency, high power transmission lines to the 100 kW power range at 20 kHz frequency. In addition to the necessary design studies, a 150 m long, 600 V, 60 A transmission line was built, tested and delivered for full vacuum tests. The configuration analysis on five alternative configurations resulted in the final selection of the three parallel Litz straps configuration, which gave a virtually concentric design in the electromagnetic sense. Low inductance, low EMI and flexibility in handling are the key features of this configuration. The final design was made after a parametric study to minimize the losses, weight and inductance. The construction of the cable was completed with no major difficulties. The R,L,C parameters measured on the cable agreed well with the calculated values. The corona tests on insulation samples showed a safety factor of 3.

  4. High frequency power distribution system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Mikund R.

    1986-04-01

    The objective of this project was to provide the technology of high frequency, high power transmission lines to the 100 kW power range at 20 kHz frequency. In addition to the necessary design studies, a 150 m long, 600 V, 60 A transmission line was built, tested and delivered for full vacuum tests. The configuration analysis on five alternative configurations resulted in the final selection of the three parallel Litz straps configuration, which gave a virtually concentric design in the electromagnetic sense. Low inductance, low EMI and flexibility in handling are the key features of this configuration. The final design was made after a parametric study to minimize the losses, weight and inductance. The construction of the cable was completed with no major difficulties. The R,L,C parameters measured on the cable agreed well with the calculated values. The corona tests on insulation samples showed a safety factor of 3.

  5. Increase of TCR V beta accessibility within E beta regulatory region influences its recombination frequency but not allelic exclusion.

    PubMed

    Senoo, Makoto; Wang, Lili; Suzuki, Daisuke; Takeda, Naoki; Shinkai, Yoichi; Habu, Sonoko

    2003-07-15

    Seventy percent of the murine TCRbeta locus (475 kb) was deleted to generate a large deleted TCRbeta (beta(LD)) allele to investigate a possible linkage between germline transcription, recombination frequency, and allelic exclusion of the TCR Vbeta genes. In these beta(LD/LD) mice, the TCRbeta gene locus contained only four Vbeta genes at the 5' side of the locus, and consequently, the Vbeta10 gene was located in the original Dbeta1-Jbeta1cluster within the Ebeta regulatory region. We showed that the frequency of recombination and expression of the Vbeta genes are strongly biased to Vbeta10 in these mutant mice even though the proximity of the other three 5'Vbeta genes was also greatly shortened toward the Dbeta-Jbeta cluster and the Ebeta enhancer. Accordingly, the germline transcription of the Vbeta10 gene in beta(LD/LD) mice was exceptionally enhanced in immature double negative thymocytes compared with that in wild-type mice. During double negative-to-double positive transition of thymocytes, the level of Vbeta10 germline transcription was prominently increased in beta(LD/LD) recombination activating gene 2-deficient mice receiving anti-CD3epsilon Ab in vivo. Interestingly, however, despite the increased accessibility of the Vbeta10 gene in terms of transcription, allelic exclusion of this Vbeta gene was strictly maintained in beta(LD/LD) mice. These results provide strong evidence that increase of Vbeta accessibility influences frequency but not allelic exclusion of the TCR Vbeta rearrangement if the Vbeta gene is located in the Ebeta regulatory region.

  6. A rationale for an individualized administration frequency of epoetin beta: a pharmacological perspective.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, F; Baldamus, C; Villa, G; Ganea, A; De Francisco, A M

    2002-01-01

    Several studies have compared the efficacy of once-weekly subcutaneous (s.c.) epoetin treatment with two or three times weekly treatment in renal anaemia. Epoetin administration frequency has attracted a high level of attention in recent years, and numerous small-scale studies have shown comparable efficacy and tolerability of once-weekly vs more frequent administration. The results of two large-scale, randomized, controlled trials of once-weekly administration of epoetin beta became available recently. One of these studies, by Locatelli et al., was the first to be designed specifically to demonstrate therapeutic equivalence between once-weekly and three times weekly epoetin beta treatment, using rigorous statistical methods. This was a large, multicentre, randomized, parallel group, 24-week study in 173 chronic renal failure patients. Treatment regimens were considered equivalent if: (i) the 90% confidence interval (CI) of the difference between treatment groups was within +/-2% for the time-adjusted area under the haematocrit (Hct) curve (AUC); and (ii) for mean weekly epoetin beta dose, the 90% CI of the ratio of the groups was between 0.8 and 1.25. As recommended by current guidelines for statistical analysis of clinical trial data, multiple analysis populations were examined in order to demonstrate robustness of the results with regard to the population chosen for analysis. Findings from the primary analysis, the per-protocol population, were confirmed by both the intent-to-treat analysis and an exploratory analysis that examined the influence of five patients who received dose increases above the mean. In all three analyses, the 90% CIs were within the pre-specified equivalence ranges for both the difference between treatment groups for Hct AUC and the ratio of mean weekly epoetin beta dose. In conclusion, once-weekly and three times weekly s.c. epoetin beta treatment regimens are statistically equivalent in terms of maintaining stable Hct levels and dose

  7. Frequency of beta-thalassemia or beta-hemoglobinopathy carriers simultaneously affected with alpha-thalassemia in Iran.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Shaban; Bavarsad, Mahsa Shanaki; Dorgalaleh, Akbar; Khatib, Zahra Kashani; Dargahi, Hossein; Nassiri, Nhaid; Hamid, Fatemeh; Rahim, Fakher; Jaseb, Kaveh; Saki, Najmaldin

    2014-01-01

    Beta-thalassemias are prevalent heritable single gene disorders affecting the quantity of the hemoglobin molecule. Rarely, a co-inheritance of these impairments with alpha-thalassemia and/or a hemoglobinopathy occurs and makes an important double heterozygote or homozygous state. Thus finding these cases is essential for genetic counseling. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of coexistent alpha-thalassemia mutations, hemoglobinopathies, and beta-thalassemia determinants. This descriptive study was performed on 5760 patients. We used complete blood cell count, Hb electrophoresis, and HbA2 measurement for thalassemia carrier identification. Increased HbA2 (> or = 3.5%) is the standard diagnostic marker for beta-thalassemia, while normal HbA2 with low MCH and MCV can indicate an alpha-thalassemia carrier or atypical beta-thalassemia minor. Individuals with MCV < 80 fL, MCH < 27 pg, and hemoglobin < or = 15.3 g/dL in men or < or = 14 g/dL in women, were candidates for molecular thalassemia investigations. Patients with abnormal hemoglobin varieties in hemoglobin electrophoresis were referred to a genetics laboratory for hemoglobinopathy detection. 141 subjects out of 5760 were affected by alpha and beta-thalassemia or a beta-hemoglobinopathy simultaneously, including: 13 (11.1%) fetuses, 55 (38.2%) male cases, and 73 (50.7%) females. Among these 141 alpha-thalassemia patients, 92 cases (65.24%) were beta-thalassemia carriers and 3 (2.12%) were beta-thalassemia major, 43(30.49%) had beta-hemoglobinopathies, and 3 cases (2.12%) had co-inherited beta-thalassemia and variant hemoglobins. 31 beta-gene mutations were observed in this population, the most common being HbS Cd6 (A > T) (24%). These thalassemia determinants account for about 46% of all detected mutations. As for alpha-gene mutations, -3.7 detection was the most prevalent. The relatively high prevalence of co-inherited alpha-thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies among beta-thalassemia carriers

  8. Interaction of high-energy trapped particles with ballooning modes in a tokamak with a high-. beta. plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhailovskii, A. B.; Novakovaskii, S. V.; Smolyakov, A. I.

    1988-12-01

    A theory is derived for the interaction of high-energy trapped particleswith ballooning modes in a tokamak with a high-..beta.. plasma. A dispersionrelation is derived to describe the ballooning modes in the presence ofsuch particles; the effects of the high plasma ..beta.. are taken into account.The stability boundary for ballooning modes with zero and finite frequenciesis studied. The effects of finite bananas on the stability of ballooningmodes with zero frequencies are determined.

  9. High-frequency oscillations and the neurobiology of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Uhlhaas, Peter J; Singer, Wolf

    2013-09-01

    Neural oscillations at low- and high-frequency ranges are a fundamental feature of large-scale networks. Recent evidence has indicated that schizophrenia is associated with abnormal amplitude and synchrony of oscillatory activity, in particular, at high (beta/gamma) frequencies. These abnormalities are observed during task-related and spontaneous neuronal activity which may be important for understanding the pathophysiology of the syndrome. In this paper, we shall review the current evidence for impaired beta/gamma-band oscillations and their involvement in cognitive functions and certain symptoms of the disorder. In the first part, we will provide an update on neural oscillations during normal brain functions and discuss underlying mechanisms. This will be followed by a review of studies that have examined high-frequency oscillatory activity in schizophrenia and discuss evidence that relates abnormalities of oscillatory activity to disturbed excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) balance. Finally, we shall identify critical issues for future research in this area.

  10. High-current, high-frequency capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renz, D. D.

    1983-06-01

    The NASA Lewis high-current, high-frequency capacitor development program was conducted under a contract with Maxwell Laboratories, Inc., San Diego, California. The program was started to develop power components for space power systems. One of the components lacking was a high-power, high-frequency capacitor. Some of the technology developed in this program may be directly usable in an all-electric airplane. The materials used in the capacitor included the following: the film is polypropylene, the impregnant is monoisopropyl biphenyl, the conductive epoxy is Emerson and Cuming Stycast 2850 KT, the foil is aluminum, the case is stainless steel (304), and the electrode is a modified copper-ceramic.

  11. High-current, high-frequency capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renz, D. D.

    1983-01-01

    The NASA Lewis high-current, high-frequency capacitor development program was conducted under a contract with Maxwell Laboratories, Inc., San Diego, California. The program was started to develop power components for space power systems. One of the components lacking was a high-power, high-frequency capacitor. Some of the technology developed in this program may be directly usable in an all-electric airplane. The materials used in the capacitor included the following: the film is polypropylene, the impregnant is monoisopropyl biphenyl, the conductive epoxy is Emerson and Cuming Stycast 2850 KT, the foil is aluminum, the case is stainless steel (304), and the electrode is a modified copper-ceramic.

  12. Gyrokinetic turbulence simulations at high plasma beta

    SciTech Connect

    Pueschel, M. J.; Kammerer, M.; Jenko, F.

    2008-10-15

    Electromagnetic gyrokinetic turbulence simulations employing Cyclone Base Case parameters are presented for {beta} values up to and beyond the kinetic ballooning threshold. The {beta} scaling of the turbulent transport is found to be linked to a complex interplay of linear and nonlinear effects. Linear investigation of the kinetic ballooning mode is performed in detail, while nonlinearly, it is found to dominate the turbulence only in a fairly narrow range of {beta} values just below the respective ideal limit. The magnetic transport scales like {beta}{sup 2} and is well described by a Rechester-Rosenbluth-type ansatz.

  13. Putative EEG measures of social anxiety: Comparing frontal alpha asymmetry and delta-beta cross-frequency correlation.

    PubMed

    Harrewijn, A; Van der Molen, M J W; Westenberg, P M

    2016-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine whether frontal alpha asymmetry and delta-beta cross-frequency correlation during resting state, anticipation, and recovery are electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of social anxiety. For the first time, we jointly examined frontal alpha asymmetry and delta-beta correlation during resting state and during a social performance task in high (HSA) versus low (LSA) socially anxious females. Participants performed a social performance task in which they first watched and evaluated a video of a peer, and then prepared their own speech. They believed that their speech would be videotaped and evaluated by a peer. We found that HSA participants showed significant negative delta-beta correlation as compared to LSA participants during both anticipation of and recovery from the stressful social situation. This negative delta-beta correlation might reflect increased activity in subcortical brain regions and decreased activity in cortical brain regions. As we hypothesized, no group differences in delta-beta correlation were found during the resting state. This could indicate that a certain level of stress is needed to find EEG measures of social anxiety. As for frontal alpha asymmetry, we did not find any group differences. The present frontal alpha asymmetry results are discussed in relation to the evident inconsistencies in the frontal alpha asymmetry literature. Together, our results suggest that delta-beta correlation is a putative EEG measure of social anxiety.

  14. Nonlinear Frequency Chirping of beta-induced Aflven eigenmode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huasen

    2011-10-01

    The β-induced Alfvén eigenmode (BAE) is studied using global gyrokinetic toroidal code GTC. Linear simulations show that kinetic effects modify BAE mode structure and reduce the frequency relative to the MHD theory. Both passing and trapped energetic particles contribute to BAE excitation through transit and bounce- precessional resonance, respectively. Nonlinear simulations show that the unstable BAE saturates due to nonlinear wave-particle interaction with both thermal and energetic particles. The saturated amplitude exhibits a coherent oscillation with an asymmetric growing and damping phase. Wavelet analysis shows that the mode frequency has a strong chirping associated with the oscillation of the mode amplitude. Analysis of nonlinear wave-particle interaction shows that the frequency chirping is induced by the nonlinear evolution of coherent structures in the energetic particle phase space of toroidal angle and precessional frequency. Controlled simulations further find that thermal particle nonlinearity plays a key role in controlling the saturation amplitude. We will also report self-consistent energetic particle transport from turbulence simulation with wave-particle and wave-wave nonlinearity treated on the same footing for the first time. Work in collaboration with W. Deng, I. Holod, Z. Lin, Y. Xiao and supported by DOE SciDAC GSEP Center and INCITE Program.

  15. High Frequency Stable Oscillate boiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fenfang; Gonzalez-Avila, Silvestre Roberto; Ohl, Claus Dieter

    2015-11-01

    We present an unexpected regime of resonant bubble oscillations on a thin metal film submerged in water, which is continuously heated with a focused CW laser. The oscillatory bubble dynamics reveals a remarkably stable frequency of several 100 kHz and is resolved from the side using video recordings at 1 million frames per second. The emitted sound is measured simultaneously and shows higher harmonics. Once the laser is switched on the water in contact with the metal layer is superheated and an explosively expanding cavitation bubble is generated. However, after the collapse a microbubble is nucleated from the bubble remains which displays long lasting oscillations. Generally, pinch-off from of the upper part of the microbubble is observed generating a continuous stream of small gas bubbles rising upwards. The cavitation expansion, collapse, and the jetting of gas bubbles are detected by the hydrophone and are correlated to the high speed video. We find the bubble oscillation frequency is dependent on the bubble size and surface tension. A preliminary model based on Marangoni flow and heat transfer can explain the high flow velocities observed, yet the origin of bubble oscillation is currently not well understood.

  16. High Frequency Dynamic Nuclear Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Qing Zhe; Daviso, Eugenio; Can, Thach V.; Markhasin, Evgeny; Jawla, Sudheer K.; Swager, Timothy M.; Temkin, Richard J.; Herzfeld, Judith; Griffin, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Conspectus During the three decades 1980–2010, magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR developed into the method of choice to examine many chemical, physical and biological problems. In particular, a variety of dipolar recoupling methods to measure distances and torsion angles can now constrain molecular structures to high resolution. However, applications are often limited by the low sensitivity of the experiments, due in large part to the necessity of observing spectra of low-γ nuclei such as the I = ½ species 13C or 15N. The difficulty is still greater when quadrupolar nuclei, like 17O or 27Al, are involved. This problem has stimulated efforts to increase the sensitivity of MAS experiments. A particularly powerful approach is dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) which takes advantage of the higher equilibrium polarization of electrons (which conventionally manifests in the great sensitivity advantage of EPR over NMR). In DNP, the sample is doped with a stable paramagnetic polarizing agent and irradiated with microwaves to transfer the high polarization in the electron spin reservoir to the nuclei of interest. The idea was first explored by Overhauser and Slichter in 1953. However, these experiments were carried out on static samples, at magnetic fields that are low by current standards. To be implemented in contemporary MAS NMR experiments, DNP requires microwave sources operating in the subterahertz regime — roughly 150–660 GHz — and cryogenic MAS probes. In addition, improvements were required in the polarizing agents, because the high concentrations of conventional radicals that are required to produce significant enhancements compromise spectral resolution. In the last two decades scientific and technical advances have addressed these problems and brought DNP to the point where it is achieving wide applicability. These advances include the development of high frequency gyrotron microwave sources operating in the subterahertz frequency range. In addition, low

  17. AE activity during transient beta drops in high poloidal beta discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Gong, X. Z.; Ren, Q. L.; Ding, S. Y.; Qian, J. P.; Pan, C. K.; Li, G. Q.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Garofalo, A. M.; McClenaghan, J.

    2016-10-01

    Enhanced AE activity has been observed during transient beta drops in high poloidal beta DIII-D discharges with internal transport barriers (ITBs). These drops in beta are believed to be caused by n=1 external kink modes. In some discharges, beta recovers within 200 ms but, in others, beta stays suppressed. A typical discharge has βP 3, qmin 3, and q95 12. The drop in beta affects both fast ions and thermal particles, and a drop is also observed in the density and rotation. The enhanced AE activity follows the instability that causes the beta drop, is largest at the lowest beta, and subsides as beta recovers. MHD stability analysis is planned. A database study of the plasma conditions associated with the collapse will be also presented. Supported in part by the US Department of Energy under DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-AC05-06OR23100, and by the National Natural Science Foundation of China 11575249, and the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Program of China No. 2015GB110005.

  18. High-frequency Broadband Modulations of Electroencephalographic Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Onton, Julie; Makeig, Scott

    2009-01-01

    High-frequency cortical potentials in electroencephalographic (EEG) scalp recordings have low amplitudes and may be confounded with scalp muscle activities. EEG data from an eyes-closed emotion imagination task were linearly decomposed using independent component analysis (ICA) into maximally independent component (IC) processes. Joint decomposition of IC log spectrograms into source- and frequency-independent modulator (IM) processes revealed three distinct classes of IMs that separately modulated broadband high-frequency (∼15–200 Hz) power of brain, scalp muscle, and likely ocular motor IC processes. Multi-dimensional scaling revealed significant but spatially complex relationships between mean broadband brain IM effects and the valence of the imagined emotions. Thus, contrary to prevalent assumption, unitary modes of spectral modulation of frequencies encompassing the beta, gamma, and high gamma frequency ranges can be isolated from scalp-recorded EEG data and may be differentially associated with brain sources and cognitive activities. PMID:20076775

  19. Progress of High-Beta Experiments in Stellarator/Heliotron

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Kiyomasa Y.; Weller, Arthur; Sakakibara, Satoru; Narushima, Yoshiro; Ohdachi, Satoshi; Narihara, Kazumichi; Tanaka, Kenji; Ida, Katsumi; Toi, Kazuo; Yamada, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Kaneko, Osamu

    2004-07-15

    Recently, dramatic progress has been achieved in the study of helical systems with high-beta experiments. Discharges with more than 3% beta plasmas have been achieved in Large Helical Device (LHD) and Wendelstein 7-AS (W7-AS). Although magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities affect local pressure gradients, the global transport property does not seem to limit the achieved beta value in either device. We summarize the LHD high-beta properties in MHD stability, equilibrium, and transport, and we show the relationship between the experimentally achieved parameters and theoretical predictions. We contrast the LHD results with the W7-AS high-beta properties. In both devices, stationary discharges in the definitely MHD unstable region have not been observed. We mention the key issue for achievement of the beta values >5%.

  20. Destabilization of Internal Kink Modes at High Frequency by Energetic Circulating Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shaojie

    2001-06-04

    A theoretical model is proposed to interpret the high-frequency fishbone instability observed in tangential neutral-beam-injection discharges in a tokamak. It is shown that, when the beam ion beta exceeds a critical value, energetic circulating ions can indeed destabilize the internal kink mode through circulation resonance at a high frequency comparable to the circulation frequency of the energetic ions. The critical beta value of the energetic ions, the real frequency, and the growth rate of the mode are in general agreement with the high-frequency fishbone instability observed in experiments.

  1. High-Frequency Inductor Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, L. K.

    2014-01-01

    The Finemet-type nanocrystalline alloy represents an advanced soft-magnetic metal-metal-type nanocomposite with an eddy-current-determined high- frequency limit. A survey of different heat treatments under tensile stress is presented to tailor the hysteresis loop by induced transversal anisotropy. The flattened loop having reduced effective permeability enhances the eddy- current limit in the MHz region; For example, continuous stress annealing in a tubular furnace of 1 m length at 650°C, pulling the ribbon with a velocity of 4 m/min under a tensile stress of 200 MPa, results in a wound core having a permeability of 120 and a frequency limit of 10 MHz. Careful annealing preserves the static coercivity below 10 A/m. The power loss at 0.1 T and 100 kHz is only 82 mW/cm3, which is an order of magnitude lower then the values obtained for Sendust™ cores in similar conditions.

  2. Amplifying High Frequency Acoustic Signals

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, C

    2004-02-05

    In search of the hypothetical Higgs boson, a prototype electron accelerator structure has been developed for use in the Next Linear Collider (NLC), SLAC's proposed version of the machine necessary to create the predicted particle. The Next Linear Test Accelerator (NLCTA), designed to provide O.5GeV-lTeV center-of-mass collision energy, generates electromagnetic breakdowns inside its copper structure while the beam is running. The sparks vaporize the surface of the copper, and will eventually ruin the accelerator. They also create high-frequency (hf) acoustic signals (100 kHz-1 MHz). Acoustic sensors have been placed on the structure, however current knowledge regarding sound propagation in copper limits spark location to within one centimeter. A system was needed that simulates the sparks so further study of acoustic propagation can be pursued; the goal is locate them to within one millimeter. Various tests were done in order to identify an appropriate hf signal source, and to identify appropriate acoustic sensors to use. A high-voltage spark generator and the same sensors used on the actual structure proved most useful for the system. Two high-pass filters were also fabricated in order to measure signals that might be created above 2MHz. The 11-gain filter was used on the acoustic simulation system that was developed, and the 100-gain filter will be used on the NLCTA.

  3. High Frequency Linacs for Hadrontherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaldi, Ugo; Braccini, Saverio; Puggioni, Paolo

    The use of radiofrequency linacs for hadrontherapy was proposed about 20 years ago, but only recently has it been understood that the high repetition rate together with the possibility of very rapid energy variations offers an optimal solution to the present challenge of hadrontherapy: "paint" a moving tumor target in three dimensions with a pencil beam. Moreover, the fact that the energy, and thus the particle range, can be electronically adjusted implies that no absorber-based energy selection system is needed, which, in the case of cyclotron-based centers, is the cause of material activation. On the other side, a linac consumes less power than a synchrotron. The first part of this article describes the main advantages of high frequency linacs in hadrontherapy, the early design studies, and the construction and test of the first high-gradient prototype which accelerated protons. The second part illustrates some technical issues relevant to the design of copper standing wave accelerators, the present developments, and two designs of linac-based proton and carbon ion facilities. Superconductive linacs are not discussed, since nanoampere currents are sufficient for therapy. In the last two sections, a comparison with circular accelerators and an overview of future projects are presented.

  4. High frequency, high power capacitor development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, C. W.; Hoffman, P. S.

    1983-01-01

    A program to develop a special high energy density, high power transfer capacitor to operate at frequency of 40 kHz, 600 V rms at 125 A rms plus 600 V dc bias for space operation. The program included material evaluation and selection, a capacitor design was prepared, a thermal analysis performed on the design. Fifty capacitors were manufactured for testing at 10 kHz and 40 kHz for 50 hours at Industrial Electric Heating Co. of Columbus, Ohio. The vacuum endurance test used on environmental chamber and temperature plate furnished by Maxwell. The capacitors were energized with a special power conditioning apparatus developed by Industrial Electric Heating Co. Temperature conditions of the capacitors were monitored by IEHCo test equipment. Successful completion of the vacuum endurance test series confirmed achievement of the main goal of producing a capacitor or reliable operation at high frequency in an environment normally not hospitable to electrical and electronic components. The capacitor developed compared to a typical commercial capacitor at the 40 kHz level represents a decrease in size and weight by a factor of seven.

  5. High frequency, high power capacitor development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, C. W.; Hoffman, P. S.

    1983-03-01

    A program to develop a special high energy density, high power transfer capacitor to operate at frequency of 40 kHz, 600 V rms at 125 A rms plus 600 V dc bias for space operation. The program included material evaluation and selection, a capacitor design was prepared, a thermal analysis performed on the design. Fifty capacitors were manufactured for testing at 10 kHz and 40 kHz for 50 hours at Industrial Electric Heating Co. of Columbus, Ohio. The vacuum endurance test used on environmental chamber and temperature plate furnished by Maxwell. The capacitors were energized with a special power conditioning apparatus developed by Industrial Electric Heating Co. Temperature conditions of the capacitors were monitored by IEHCo test equipment. Successful completion of the vacuum endurance test series confirmed achievement of the main goal of producing a capacitor or reliable operation at high frequency in an environment normally not hospitable to electrical and electronic components. The capacitor developed compared to a typical commercial capacitor at the 40 kHz level represents a decrease in size and weight by a factor of seven.

  6. High-frequency nanophotonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bimberg, D.; Fiol, G.; Meuer, C.; Laemmlin, M.; Kuntz, M.

    2007-02-01

    Recent results on GaAs-based high-speed mode-locked quantum dot (QD) lasers and optical amplifiers with an operation wavelength centered at 1290 nm are reviewed and their complex dependence on device and operating parameters is discussed on the basis of experimental data obtained with integrated fiber-based QD device modules. Hybrid and passive mode-locking of QD lasers with repetition frequencies between 5 and 80 GHz, sub-ps pulse widths, ultra-low timing jitter down to 190 fs, high output peak power beyond 1 W and suppression of Q-switching are reported, showing the large potential of this class of devices for O-band optical fiber applications. Results on cw and dynamical characterization of quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers are presented. QD amplifiers exhibit a close-to-ideal noise figure of 4 dB and demonstrate multi-wavelength amplification of three CWDM wavelengths simultaneously. Modelling of QD polarization dependence shows that it should be possible to achieve polarization insensitive SOAs using vertically coupled QD stacks. Amplification of ultra-fast 80 GHz optical combs and bit-error-free data signal amplification at 40 Gb/s with QD SOAs show the potential for their application in future 100 Gb Ethernet networks.

  7. Divalent beta aluminas: High conductivity solid electrolytes for divalent cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrington, G. C.; Dunn, B.

    1982-10-01

    The Na(+) content of beta alumina can be replaced by a variety of divalent cations in simple ion exchange reactions. The resulting divalent beta' aluminas are the first family of high conductivity solid electrolytes for divalent cations. Divalent beta' aluminas which have been prepared so far include conductors of Ca(2+), Sr(2+), Ba(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Pb(2+), Hg(2+), and Mn(2+). Most have conductivities of about 0.1/(ohm-cm) at 300-400 C. However, the conductivity of Pb(++) beta alumina is 0.0046/(ohm-cm) at 40 C, nearly equal to that of Na(+) beta alumina. Preliminary structure studies indicate that order-disorder reactions among the divalent cations and vacancies in the conduction region of beta alumina critically influence conductivity in the structure.

  8. Atomic frequency standards for ultra-high-frequency stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maleki, L.; Prestage, J. D.; Dick, G. J.

    1987-01-01

    The general features of the Hg-199(+) trapped-ion frequency standard are outlined and compared to other atomic frequency standards, especially the hydrogen maser. The points discussed are those which make the trapped Hg-199(+) standard attractive: high line Q, reduced sensitivity to external magnetic fields, and simplicity of state selection, among others.

  9. High frequency-heated air turbojet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miron, J. H. D.

    1986-01-01

    A description is given of a method to heat air coming from a turbojet compressor to a temperature necessary to produce required expansion without requiring fuel. This is done by high frequency heating, which heats the walls corresponding to the combustion chamber in existing jets, by mounting high frequency coils in them. The current transformer and high frequency generator to be used are discussed.

  10. High Frequency Chandler Wobble Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, F.; Stuck, J.; Thomas, M.

    2003-04-01

    and OMCT forcing fields give no hint for increased excitation power in the Chandler band. Thus it is assumed, that continuous high frequency excitation due to stochastic weather phenomena is responsible for the perpetuation of the Chandler wobble.

  11. High frequency testing of rubber mounts.

    PubMed

    Vahdati, Nader; Saunders, L Ken Lauderbaugh

    2002-04-01

    Rubber and fluid-filled rubber engine mounts are commonly used in automotive and aerospace applications to provide reduced cabin noise and vibration, and/or motion accommodations. In certain applications, the rubber mount may operate at frequencies as high as 5000 Hz. Therefore, dynamic stiffness of the mount needs to be known in this frequency range. Commercial high frequency test machines are practically nonexistent, and the best high frequency test machine on the market is only capable of frequencies as high as 1000 Hz. In this paper, a high frequency test machine is described that allows test engineers to study the high frequency performance of rubber mounts at frequencies up to 5000 Hz.

  12. High Frequency Electronic Packaging Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, M.; Lowry, L.; Lee, K.; Kolawa, E.; Tulintseff, A.; Shalkhauser, K.; Whitaker, J.; Piket-May, M.

    1994-01-01

    Commercial and government communication, radar, and information systems face the challenge of cost and mass reduction via the application of advanced packaging technology. A majority of both government and industry support has been focused on low frequency digital electronics.

  13. High Frequency Electronic Packaging Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, M.; Lowry, L.; Lee, K.; Kolawa, E.; Tulintseff, A.; Shalkhauser, K.; Whitaker, J.; Piket-May, M.

    1994-01-01

    Commercial and government communication, radar, and information systems face the challenge of cost and mass reduction via the application of advanced packaging technology. A majority of both government and industry support has been focused on low frequency digital electronics.

  14. Resistive MHD studies of high-. beta. -tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, V.E.; Carreras, B.A.; Hicks, H.R.; Holmes, J.A.; Garcia, L.

    1981-01-01

    Numerical calculations have been performed to study the MHD activity in high-..beta.. tokamaks such as ISX-B. These initial value calculations built on earlier low ..beta.. techniques, but the ..beta.. effects create several new numerical issues. These issues are discussed and resolved. In addition to time-stepping modules, our system of computer codes includes equilibrium solvers (used to provide an initial condition) and output modules, such as a magnetic field line follower and an X-ray diagnostic code. The transition from current driven modes at low ..beta.. to predominantly pressure driven modes at high ..beta.. is described. The nonlinear studies yield X-ray emissivity plots which are compared with experiment.

  15. 75 FR 81284 - Nationwide Use of High Frequency and Ultra High Frequency Active SONAR Technology; Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Nationwide Use of High Frequency and Ultra High Frequency Active SONAR Technology... of High Frequency (HF) and Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Sound Navigation and Ranging (SONAR) Technology... less than a week; however, for environmental disasters such as the Deepwater Horizon oil spill,...

  16. High-beta equilibria of drift-optimized compact stellarators.

    PubMed

    Ware, A S; Hirshman, S P; Spong, D A; Berry, L A; Deisher, A J; Fu, G Y; Lyon, J F; Sanchez, R

    2002-09-16

    Compact stellarator configurations have been obtained with good neoclassical confinement that are stable to both pressure- and current-driven modes for high values of beta. These configurations are drift-optimized tokamak-stellarator hybrids with a high-shear tokamak-like rotational transform profile and /B/ that is approximately poloidally symmetric. The bootstrap current is consistent with the required equilibrium current and, while larger than that in existing stellarators, is typically only a small fraction (1/3-1/5) of that in an equivalent tokamak. These configurations have strong magnetic wells and consequently high interchange stability beta limits up to beta=23%. Because of the reduced bootstrap current, these configurations are stable to low-n ideal MHD kink modes with no wall stabilization for values of beta ( approximately 7%-11%) significantly larger than in an equivalent advanced tokamak.

  17. Landau damping with high frequency impedance

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz,M.

    2009-05-04

    Coupled bunch longitudinal stability in the presence of high frequency impedances is considered. A frequency domain technique is developed and compared with simulations. The frequency domain technique allows for absolute stability tests and is applied to the problem of longitudinal stability in RHIC with the new 56 MHz RF system.

  18. Beta-frequency EEG activity increased during transcranial direct current stimulation.

    PubMed

    Song, Myeongseop; Shin, Yungjae; Yun, Kyongsik

    2014-12-17

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a technique for noninvasively stimulating specific cortical regions of the brain with small (<2 mA) and constant direct current on the scalp. tDCS has been widely applied, not only for medical treatment, but also for cognitive and somatosensory function enhancement, motor learning improvement, and social behavioral change. However, the mechanism that underlies the effect of tDCS is unclear. In this study, we performed simultaneous electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring during tDCS to understand the dynamic electrophysiological changes throughout the stimulation. A total of 10 healthy individuals participated in this experiment. We recorded EEGs with direct current stimulation, as well as during a 5-min resting state before and after the stimulation. All participants kept their eyes closed during the experiment. Anode and cathode patches of tDCS were placed on the left and the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, respectively. In addition, an EEG electrode was placed on the medial prefrontal cortex. The beta-frequency power increased promptly after starting the stimulation. The significant beta-power increase was maintained during the stimulation. Other frequency bands did not show any significant changes. The results indicate that tDCS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex changed the brain to a ready state for efficient cognitive functioning by increasing the beta-frequency power. This is the first attempt to simultaneously stimulate the cortex and record the EEG and then systematically analyze the prestimulation, during-stimulation, and poststimulation EEG data.

  19. High Frequency Radar Astronomy With HAARP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    a period of several years, the High frequency Active Auroral Research Program ( HAARP ) transmitting array near Gakona, Alaska , has increased in total...High Frequency Radar Astronomy With HAARP Paul Rodriguez Naval Research Laboratory Information Technology Division Washington, DC 20375, USA Edward...high frequency (HF) radar facility used for research purposes. The basic science objective of HAARP is to study nonlinear effects associated with

  20. High-beta extended MHD simulations of stellarators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtel, T. A.; Hegna, C. C.; Sovinec, C. R.; Roberds, N. A.

    2016-10-01

    The high beta properties of stellarator plasmas are studied using the nonlinear, extended MHD code NIMROD. In this work, we describe recent developments to the semi-implicit operator which allow the code to model 3D plasma evolution with better accuracy and efficiency. The configurations under investigation are an l=2, M=5 torsatron with geometry modeled after the Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH) experiment and an l=2, M=10 torsatron capable of having vacuum rotational transform profiles near unity. High-beta plasmas are created using a volumetric heating source and temperature dependent anisotropic thermal conduction and resistivity. To reduce computation expenses, simulations are initialized from stellarator symmetric pseudo-equilibria by turning on symmetry breaking modes at finite beta. The onset of MHD instabilities and nonlinear consequences are monitored as a function of beta as well as the fragility of the magnetic surfaces. Research supported by US DOE under Grant No. DE-FG02-99ER54546.

  1. Lightweight, high-frequency transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, G. E.

    1983-01-01

    The 25-kVA space transformer was developed under contract by Thermal Technology Laboratory, Buffalo, N. Y. The NASA Lewis transformer technology program attempted to develop the baseline technology. For the 25-kVA transformer the input voltage was chosen as 200 V, the output voltage as 1500 V, the input voltage waveform as square wave, the duty cycle as continuous, the frequency range (within certain constraints) as 10 to 40 kHz, the operating temperatures as 85 deg. and 130 C, the baseplate temperature as 50 C, the equivalent leakage inductance as less than 10 micro-h, the operating environment as space, and the life expectancy as 10 years. Such a transformer can also be used for aircraft, ship and terrestrial applications.

  2. Propagation of high frequencies in Scandinavia

    SciTech Connect

    Bame, D.

    1989-04-01

    To determine if seismic signals at frequencies up to 50 Hz are useful for detecting events and discriminating between earthquakes and explosions, approximately 180 events from the three-component high-frequency seismic element (HFSE) installed at the center of the Norwegian Regional Seismic Array (NRSA) have been analyzed. The attenuation of high-frequency signals in Scandinavia varies with distance, azimuth, magnitude, and source effects. Most of the events were detected with HFSE, although detections were better on the NRSA where signal processing techniques were used. Based on a preliminary analysis, high-frequency data do not appear to be a useful discriminant in Scandinavia. 21 refs., 29 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. HIGH CURRENT RADIO FREQUENCY ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Abdelaziz, M.E.

    1963-04-01

    This patent relates to a high current radio frequency ion source. A cylindrical plasma container has a coil disposed around the exterior surface thereof along the longitudinal axis. Means are provided for the injection of an unionized gas into the container and for applying a radio frequency signal to the coil whereby a radio frequency field is generated within the container parallel to the longitudinal axis thereof to ionize the injected gas. Cathode and anode means are provided for extracting transverse to the radio frequency field from an area midway between the ends of the container along the longitudinal axis thereof the ions created by said radio frequency field. (AEC)

  4. Depth of anaesthesia assessment based on adult electroencephalograph beta frequency band.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianning; Wen, Peng

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a new method to apply timing characteristics of electroencephalograph (EEG) beta frequency bands to assess the depth of anaesthesia (DoA). Firstly, the measured EEG signals are denoised and decomposed into 20 different frequency bands. The Mobility (M), permutation entropy (PE) and Lempel-Ziv complexity (LCZ) of each frequency band are calculated. The M, PE and LCZ values of beta frequency bands (21.5-30 Hz) are selected to derive a new index. The new index is evaluated and compared with measured bispectral (BIS). The results show that there is a very close correlation between the proposed index and the BIS during different anaesthetic states. The new index also shows a 25-264 s earlier time response than BIS during the transient period of anaesthetic states. In addition, the proposed index is able to continuously assess the DoA when the quality of signal is poor and the BIS does not have any valid outputs.

  5. Lightning protection devices for high frequencies equipments

    SciTech Connect

    Pierre, J.

    1983-01-01

    Contents: Mechanism of a Lightning Stroke from Antenna to Ground; Principles of Protection Devices for Feeders; Electrical Characteristics of H.F. Protection Devices; Calculation of H.F. Protection Devices; Catalogue Devices for High Frequency Protection; Some Measurement Results for Tees; Measurement Results for Decoupling Line Devices; Installation of High Frequency Devices.

  6. High-frequency oscillations and the neurobiology of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Uhlhaas, Peter J.; Singer, Wolf

    2013-01-01

    Neural oscillations at low- and high-frequency ranges are a fundamental feature of large-scale networks. Recent evidence has indicated that schizophrenia is associated with abnormal amplitude and synchrony of oscillatory activity, in particular, at high (beta/gamma) frequencies. These abnormalities are observed during task-related and spontaneous neuronal activity which may be important for understanding the pathophysiology of the syndrome. In this paper, we shall review the current evidence for impaired beta/gamma-band oscillations and their involvement in cognitive functions and certain symptoms of the disorder. In the first part, we will provide an update on neural oscillations during normal brain functions and discuss underlying mechanisms. This will be followed by a review of studies that have examined high-frequency oscillatory activity in schizophrenia and discuss evidence that relates abnormalities of oscillatory activity to disturbed excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) balance. Finally, we shall identify critical issues for future research in this area. PMID:24174902

  7. Psychophysical tuning curves at very high frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasin, Ifat; Plack, Christopher J.

    2005-10-01

    For most normal-hearing listeners, absolute thresholds increase rapidly above about 16 kHz. One hypothesis is that the high-frequency limit of the hearing-threshold curve is imposed by the transmission characteristics of the middle ear, which attenuates the sound input [Masterton et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 45, 966-985 (1969)]. An alternative hypothesis is that the high-frequency limit of hearing is imposed by the tonotopicity of the cochlea [Ruggero and Temchin, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 13206-13210 (2002)]. The aim of this study was to test these hypotheses. Forward-masked psychophysical tuning curves (PTCs) were derived for signal frequencies of 12-17.5 kHz. For the highest signal frequencies, the high-frequency slopes of some PTCs were steeper than the slope of the hearing-threshold curve. The results also show that the human auditory system displays frequency selectivity for characteristic frequencies (CFs) as high as 17 kHz, above the frequency at which absolute thresholds begin to increase rapidly. The findings suggest that, for CFs up to 17 kHz, the high-frequency limitation in humans is imposed in part by the middle-ear attenuation, and not by the tonotopicity of the cochlea.

  8. 78 FR 70567 - Nationwide Use of High Frequency and Ultra High Frequency Active SONAR Technology; Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ...] Nationwide Use of High Frequency and Ultra High Frequency Active SONAR Technology; Final Programmatic... Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA) for the Nationwide Use of High Frequency (HF) and Ultra High..., for environmental disasters such as the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, SONAR equipment could be used...

  9. A high frequency silicon pressure sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahng, S. K.; Gross, C.

    1980-01-01

    Theoretical and design considerations as well as fabrication and experimental work involved in the development of high-frequency silicon pressure sensors with an ultra-small diaphragm are discussed. A sensor is presented with a rectangular diaphragm of 0.0127 cm x 0.0254 cm x 1.06 micron; the sensor has a natural frequency of 625 kHz and a sensitivity of 0.82 mv/v-psi. High-frequency results from shock tube testing and low-frequency (less than 50 kHz) comparison with microphones are given.

  10. High-. beta. operation and MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) activity on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, K.

    1990-04-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity within three zones (core, half- radius, and edge) of TFTR (Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research (1986), (IAEA, Vienna, 1987), Vol. 1, P. 51) tokamak plasmas are discussed. Near the core of the plasma column, sawteeth are often observed. Two types of sawteeth are studied in detail: one with complete, and the other with incomplete magnetic reconnection. Their characteristics are determined by the shape of the q profile. Near the half-radius the m/n = 3/2 and 2/1 resistive ballooning modes are found to correlate with a beta collapse. The pressure and the pressure gradient at the mode rational surface are found to play an important role in stability. MHD activity is also studied at the plasma edge during limiter H-modes. The Edge Localized Mode (ELMs) are found to have a precursor mode with a frequency between 50--200 kHz and a mode number m/n = 1/0. The mode does not show a ballooning structure. While these instabilities have been studied on many other machines, on TFTR the studies have been extended to high pressure (plasma pressure greater than 4 {times} 10{sup 5} Pa) and low collisionality. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Apparatus for measuring high frequency currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagmann, Mark J. (Inventor); Sutton, John F. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring high frequency currents includes a non-ferrous core current probe that is coupled to a wide-band transimpedance amplifier. The current probe has a secondary winding with a winding resistance that is substantially smaller than the reactance of the winding. The sensitivity of the current probe is substantially flat over a wide band of frequencies. The apparatus is particularly useful for measuring exposure of humans to radio frequency currents.

  12. Microphysics of a multidimensional high beta low Mach number shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsukiyo, S.; Matsumoto, Y.

    2014-12-01

    It is generally thought that a high beta shock is weak so that its structre is relatively laminar and stationary. Such low Mach number shocks have not been paid much attention in terms of particle acceleration. However, Voyager spacecraft revealed that the fluxes of not only the non-thermal ions, which are called as the termination shock particles, but also of the non-thermal electrons are enhanced at the crossings of the termination shock. The heliospheric termination shock has a high effective beta due to the presence of pickup ions which are the component having rather high thermal energy. Radio synchrotron emissions from relics of galaxy cluster mergers imply the presence of relativistic electrons accelerated in merger shocks. A plasma beta of such a merger shock is also thought to be rather high so that the merger shocks are usually assumed to have low Mach numbers. These observational facts imply that even a low Mach number shock can be a good accelerator of non-thermal particles. Here, we perform two-dimensional full particle-in-cell simulation to study microstructure of a high beta low Mach number shock and the associated electron acceleration process. Although the effective magnotosonic Mach number is rather low, ~2.6, the structure of the transition region is highly complex. Ion and electron scale structures coexist. Furthermore, some electrons are accelerated to high energy. We will discuss the mechanisms of producing those two-dimensional microstructures and high energy electrons.

  13. High-frequency conductivity of photoionized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Anakhov, M. V.; Uryupin, S. A.

    2016-08-15

    The tensor of the high-frequency conductivity of a plasma created via tunnel ionization of atoms in the field of linearly or circularly polarized radiation is derived. It is shown that the real part of the conductivity tensor is highly anisotropic. In the case of a toroidal velocity distribution of photoelectrons, the possibility of amplification of a weak high-frequency field polarized at a sufficiently large angle to the anisotropy axis of the initial nonequilibrium distribution is revealed.

  14. MHD activity and energy loss during beta saturation and collapse at high beta poloidal in PBX

    SciTech Connect

    Kugel, H.W.; Sesnic, S.; Bol, K.; Chance, M.; Fishman, H.; Fonck, R.; Gammel, G.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; LeBlanc, B.

    1987-10-01

    High-..beta.. experiments, in medium to high-q tokamak plasmas, exhibit a temporal ..beta.. saturation and collapse. This behavior has been attributed to ballooning, ideal kink, or tearing modes. In PBX, a unique diagnostic capability allowed studies of the relation between MHD and energy loss for neutral-beam-heated (<6 MW), mildly indented (10 to 15%), nearly steady I/sub p/ discharges that approached the Troyon-Gruber limit. Under these conditions, correlations between MHD activity and energy losses have shown that the latter can be almost fully accounted for by various long wavelength MHD instabilities and that there is no need to invoke high-n ballooning modes in PBX. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Prestin and high frequency hearing in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuyi; Liu, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that the evolution of ultrasonic hearing in echolocating bats and cetaceans has involved adaptive amino acid replacements in the cochlear gene prestin. A substantial number of these changes have occurred in parallel in both groups, suggesting that particular amino acid residues might confer greater auditory sensitivity to high frequencies. Here we review some of these findings, and consider whether similar signatures of prestin protein sequence evolution also occur in mammals that possess high frequency hearing for passive localization and conversely, whether this gene has undergone less change in mammals that lack high frequency hearing. PMID:21655450

  16. Conductivity of normal and pathological human erythrocytes (homozygous beta-thalassemia) at radiowave frequencies.

    PubMed

    Ballario, C; Bonincontro, A; Cametti, C; Rosi, A; Sportelli, L

    1984-01-01

    The conductivity of normal and homozygous beta-thalassemic erythrocyte suspensions has been measured over the frequency range from 5 KHz to 100 MHz in the temperature interval from 5 to 45 degrees C. The electrical parameters of the membrane, i.e., the capacitance CM and the conductance GM per unit surface have been calculated from an expression given by Hanai for the conductivity of a suspension of ellipsoidal particles covered with a shell. Some interesting differences between the normal and pathological state are evidentiated.

  17. High-beta neoclassical current and stability experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Callen, J.D.; Dexter, R.N.; Fortgang, C.M.

    1982-07-01

    Equilibrium neoclassical plasma currents and plasma stability at high values of beta have been studied in the Levitated Toroidal Octupole. In a collisionality regime at the border between the banana and plateau regimes, the bootstrap and Pfirsch-Schlueter currents have for the first time been experimentally observed in agreement with neoclassical theory. Also, stable plasmas have been produced with extremely high beta values (2.5 times the MHD ballooning instability beta limit) and compared with the results of a kinetic stability calculation, implicating finite ion gyroradius effects as a possible cause for the observed stability. To augment both the bootstrap current and stability studies, four megawatts of ion cyclotron resonance heating power are being optimized.

  18. Turbulence in unsteady flow at high frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Gary D.

    1990-01-01

    Turbulent flows subjected to oscillations of the mean flow were simulated using a large-eddy simulation computer code for flow in a channel. The objective of the simulations was to provide better understanding of the effects of time-dependent disturbances on the turbulence of a boundary layer and of the underlying physical phenomena regarding the basic interaction between the turbulence and external disturbances. The results confirmed that turbulence is sensitive to certain ranges of frequencies of disturbances. However, no direct connection was found between the frequency of imposed disturbances and the characteristic 'burst' frequency of turbulence. New insight into the nature of turbulence at high frequencies was found. Viscous phenomena near solid walls were found to be the dominant influence for high-frequency perturbations.

  19. Turbulence in unsteady flow at high frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Gary D.

    1990-01-01

    Turbulent flows subjected to oscillations of the mean flow were simulated using a large-eddy simulation computer code for flow in a channel. The objective of the simulations was to provide better understanding of the effects of time-dependent disturbances on the turbulence of a boundary layer and of the underlying physical phenomena regarding the basic interaction between the turbulence and external disturbances. The results confirmed that turbulence is sensitive to certain ranges of frequencies of disturbances. However, no direct connection was found between the frequency of imposed disturbances and the characteristic 'burst' frequency of turbulence. New insight into the nature of turbulence at high frequencies was found. Viscous phenomena near solid walls were found to be the dominant influence for high-frequency perturbations.

  20. Study of the {beta}-{alpha} phase transformations of a Ti-64 sheet induced from a high-temperature {beta} state and a high-temperature {alpha} + {beta} state

    SciTech Connect

    Moustahfid, H.; Gey, N.; Humbert, M.; Philippe, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    The room-temperature {alpha} textures of Ti-64 sheets, inherited from the {beta}-{alpha} phase transformation of high-temperature {beta} textures of the material in the {beta} and {alpha} + {beta} fields, respectively, have been studied. The corresponding high-temperature {beta} textures were also determined by a method developed in their laboratory. The knowledge of the high-temperature {beta} textures allows discussions of the variant selections through transformation modeling. As a result, a variant selection occurs in the presence of the stable {alpha} grains of the {alpha} + {beta} field.

  1. Overview of the Advanced High Frequency Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the competencies, selected areas of research and technology development activities, and current external collaborative efforts of the NASA Glenn Research Center's Advanced High Frequency Branch.

  2. An introduction to high frequency radioteletype systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinnau, Roger R.

    1989-10-01

    A basic introductory guide is provided to modern High Frequency (HF) data communications systems. Described are modern commercial radioteletype systems, data communication protocols, and various secrets of the trade.

  3. Neural coding of high-frequency tones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howes, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    Available evidence was presented indicating that neural discharges in the auditory nerve display characteristic periodicities in response to any tonal stimulus including high-frequency stimuli, and that this periodicity corresponds to the subjective pitch.

  4. Real-time, high frequency QRS electrocardiograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T. (Inventor); DePalma, Jude L. (Inventor); Moradi, Saeed (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Real time cardiac electrical data are received from a patient, manipulated to determine various useful aspects of the ECG signal, and displayed in real time in a useful form on a computer screen or monitor. The monitor displays the high frequency data from the QRS complex in units of microvolts, juxtaposed with a display of conventional ECG data in units of millivolts or microvolts. The high frequency data are analyzed for their root mean square (RMS) voltage values and the discrete RMS values and related parameters are displayed in real time. The high frequency data from the QRS complex are analyzed with imbedded algorithms to determine the presence or absence of reduced amplitude zones, referred to herein as RAZs. RAZs are displayed as go, no-go signals on the computer monitor. The RMS and related values of the high frequency components are displayed as time varying signals, and the presence or absence of RAZs may be similarly displayed over time.

  5. Internal Kink Mode Dynamics in High-beta NSTX Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    J.E. Menard; R.E. Bell; E.D. Fredrickson; D.A. Gates; S.M. Kaye; B.P. LeBlanc; S.S. Medley; W. Park; S.A. Sabbagh; A. Sontag; D. Stutman; K. Tritz; W. Zhu; the NSTX Research Team

    2004-12-22

    Saturated internal kink modes have been observed in many of the highest toroidal {beta} discharges of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). These modes often cause rotation flattening in the plasma core, can degrade energy confinement, and in some cases contribute to the complete loss of plasma angular momentum and stored energy. Characteristics of the modes are measured using soft X-ray, kinetic profile, and magnetic diagnostics. Toroidal flows approaching Alfvenic speeds, island pressure peaking, and enhanced viscous and diamagnetic effects associated with high-{beta} may contribute to mode nonlinear stabilization. These saturation mechanisms are investigated for NSTX parameters and compared to experimental data.

  6. Internal Kink Mode Dynamics in High-{beta} NSTX Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    J.E. Menard; R.E. Bell; E.D. Fredrickson; D.A. Gates; S.M. Kaye; B.P. LeBlanc; S.S. Medley; W. Park; S.A. Sabbagh; A. Sontag; D. Stutman; K. Tritz; W. Zhu; the NSTX Research Team

    2004-12-22

    Saturated internal kink modes have been observed in many of the highest toroidal beta discharges of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). These modes often cause rotation flattening in the plasma core, can degrade energy confinement, and in some cases contribute to the complete loss of plasma angular momentum and stored energy. Characteristics of the modes are measured using soft X-ray, kinetic profile, and magnetic diagnostics. Toroidal flows approaching Alfvenic speeds, island pressure peaking, and enhanced viscous and diamagnetic effects associated with high-beta may contribute to mode nonlinear stabilization. These saturation mechanisms are investigated for NSTX parameters and compared to experimental data.

  7. Ballooning mode stability of elongated high-beta tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauel, Michael E.

    1987-12-01

    The variational principle derived by Choe and Freidberg [Phys. Fluids 29, 1766 (1986)] and used to estimate the geometry of high-beta tokamak equilibria is extended to include elongation. Ballooning mode stability is then investigated, illustrating the influence of elongation on local and global stability.

  8. High frequency conductivity in carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Abukari, S. S. Mensah, S. Y.; Twum, A.; Mensah, N. G.; Adu, K. A.; Rabiu, M.

    2012-12-15

    We report on theoretical analysis of high frequency conductivity in carbon nanotubes. Using the kinetic equation with constant relaxation time, an analytical expression for the complex conductivity is obtained. The real part of the complex conductivity is initially negative at zero frequency and become more negative with increasing frequency, until it reaches a resonance minimum at ω ∼ ω{sub B} for metallic zigzag CNs and ω < ω{sub B} for armchair CNs. This resonance enhancement is indicative for terahertz gain without the formation of current instabilities induced by negative dc conductivity. We noted that due to the high density of states of conduction electrons in metallic zigzag carbon nanotubes and the specific dispersion law inherent in hexagonal crystalline structure result in a uniquely high frequency conductivity than the corresponding values for metallic armchair carbon nanotubes. We suggest that this phenomenon can be used to suppress current instabilities that are normally associated with a negative dc differential conductivity.

  9. Accuracy of High Frequency Maximum Usable Frequencies (MUF) Prediction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-15

    shown in Figure 35 to be rat er constant at about 20 percent for MINIMUF-3.5. Whereas for HFMUFES 4 it is above 30 per- 57 CL - a / C 4L 4’ w I Z. LL U...Predictin2 the Performance of High-Frequency Skywave Telecomunication Systems (the use of the HFMJFES 4 Program), by GW Haydon, M Leftin , and R Rosich...in Ionospheric Maping by Numerical Methods, by WB Jones, RP Graham, and M Leftin , 12 May 1966. (Also Environmental Science Services Administration

  10. Extremely high frequency RF effects on electronics.

    SciTech Connect

    Loubriel, Guillermo Manuel; Vigliano, David; Coleman, Phillip Dale; Williams, Jeffery Thomas; Wouters, Gregg A.; Bacon, Larry Donald; Mar, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to understand the fundamental physics of extremely high frequency RF effects on electronics. To accomplish this objective, we produced models, conducted simulations, and performed measurements to identify the mechanisms of effects as frequency increases into the millimeter-wave regime. Our purpose was to answer the questions, 'What are the tradeoffs between coupling, transmission losses, and device responses as frequency increases?', and, 'How high in frequency do effects on electronic systems continue to occur?' Using full wave electromagnetics codes and a transmission-line/circuit code, we investigated how extremely high-frequency RF propagates on wires and printed circuit board traces. We investigated both field-to-wire coupling and direct illumination of printed circuit boards to determine the significant mechanisms for inducing currents at device terminals. We measured coupling to wires and attenuation along wires for comparison to the simulations, looking at plane-wave coupling as it launches modes onto single and multiconductor structures. We simulated the response of discrete and integrated circuit semiconductor devices to those high-frequency currents and voltages, using SGFramework, the open-source General-purpose Semiconductor Simulator (gss), and Sandia's Charon semiconductor device physics codes. This report documents our findings.

  11. High power, high frequency, vacuum flange

    DOEpatents

    Felker, Brian; McDaniel, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    An improved waveguide flange is disclosed for high power operation that helps prevent arcs from being initiated at the junctions between waveguide sections. The flanges at the end of the waveguide sections have counterbores surrounding the waveguide tubes. When the sections are bolted together the counterbores form a groove that holds a fully annealed copper gasket. Each counterbore has a beveled step that is specially configured to insure the gasket forms a metal-to-metal vacuum seal without gaps or sharp edges. The resultant inner surface of the waveguide is smooth across the junctions between waveguide sections, and arcing is prevented.

  12. High frequency dynamic pressure calibration technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, P. A.; Zasimowich, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    A high frequency dynamic calibration technique for pressure transducers has been developed using a siren pressure generator (SPG). The SPG is an inlet-area-modulated device generating oscillating waveforms with dynamic pressure amplitudes up to 58.6 kPa (8.5 psi) in a frequency range of 1 to 10 kHz. A description of the generator, its operating characteristics and instrumentation used for pressure amplitude and frequency measurements is given. Waveform oscillographs and spectral analysis of the pressure transducers' output signals are presented.

  13. High frequency dynamic pressure calibration technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, P. A.; Zasimowich, R. F.

    A high frequency dynamic calibration technique for pressure transducers has been developed using a siren pressure generator (SPG). The SPG is an inlet-area-modulated device generating oscillating waveforms with dynamic pressure amplitudes up to 58.6 kPa (8.5 psi) in a frequency range of 1 to 10 kHz. A description of the generator, its operating characteristics and instrumentation used for pressure amplitude and frequency measurements is given. Waveform oscillographs and spectral analysis of the pressure transducers' output signals are presented.

  14. High power radio frequency attenuation device

    DOEpatents

    Kerns, Quentin A.; Miller, Harold W.

    1984-01-01

    A resistor device for attenuating radio frequency power includes a radio frequency conductor connected to a series of fins formed of high relative magnetic permeability material. The fins are dimensional to accommodate the skin depth of the current conduction therethrough, as well as an inner heat conducting portion where current does not travel. Thermal connections for air or water cooling are provided for the inner heat conducting portions of each fin. Also disclosed is a resistor device to selectively alternate unwanted radio frequency energy in a resonant cavity.

  15. BRL 17421, a novel beta-lactam antibiotic, highly resistant to beta-lactamases, giving high and prolonged serum levels in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Slocombe, B; Basker, M J; Bentley, P H; Clayton, J P; Cole, M; Comber, K R; Dixon, R A; Edmondson, R A; Jackson, D; Merrikin, D J; Sutherland, R

    1981-01-01

    BRL 17421 is a new semisynthetic beta-lactam antibiotic with an unusual spectrum of antibacterial activity. The compound exhibits exceptional stability to a wide range of bacterial beta-lactamases and is active against the majority of Enterobacteriaceae, including strains highly resistant to many of the penicillins and cephalosporins currently available. Among the clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae tested, the frequency of strains resistant to BRL 17421 was found to be low, and there was a slow rate of emergence of resistance during in vitro studies. BRL 17421 was highly active against Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, including beta-lactamase-producing strains. The compound was markedly less active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacteroides fragilis than against the Enterobacteriaceae. Against the gram-positive bacteria, BRL 17421 showed a very low level of activity. BRL 17421 was found to be 85% bound to human serum, and the antibacterial activity was diminished two- to fourfold in the presence of human serum. Against experimental infections in mice, the activity of BRL 17421 reflected the properties observed in vitro. Studies in human volunteers showed unusually high and prolonged serum concentrations of the compound after parenteral dosage, with a serum half-life of about 5 h, and approximately 85% of the dose was recovered unchanged in the urine. BRL 17421 was poorly absorbed after oral administration. The compound was well tolerated after intramuscular and intravenous administration in volunteers, with no adverse side effects. PMID:6974539

  16. High beta plasma operation in a toroidal plasma producing device

    DOEpatents

    Clarke, John F.

    1978-01-01

    A high beta plasma is produced in a plasma producing device of toroidal configuration by ohmic heating and auxiliary heating. The plasma pressure is continuously monitored and used in a control system to program the current in the poloidal field windings. Throughout the heating process, magnetic flux is conserved inside the plasma and the distortion of the flux surfaces drives a current in the plasma. As a consequence, the total current increases and the poloidal field windings are driven with an equal and opposing increasing current. The spatial distribution of the current in the poloidal field windings is determined by the plasma pressure. Plasma equilibrium is maintained thereby, and high temperature, high beta operation results.

  17. High frequency ultrasonic scattering by biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shung, K. Kirk; Maruvada, Subha

    2002-05-01

    High frequency (HF) diagnostic ultrasonic imaging devices at frequencies higher than 20 MHz have found applications in ophthalmology, dermatology, and vascular surgery. To be able to interpret these images and to further the development of these devices, a better understanding of ultrasonic scattering in biological tissues such as blood, liver, myocardium in the high frequency range is crucial. This work has previously been hampered by the lack of suitable transducers. With the availability of HF transducers going to 90 MHz, HF attenuation and backscatter experiments have been made on porcine red blood cell (RBC) suspensions, for which much data on attenuation and backscatter can be found in the literature in the lower frequency range for frequencies, from 30 to 90 MHz and on bovine tissues for frequencies from 10 to 30 MHz using a modified substitution method that allow the utilization of focused transducers. These results will be reviewed in this talk along with relevant theoretical models that could be applied to interpreting them. The relevance of the parameter that has been frequently used in the biomedical ultrasound literature to describe backscattering, the backscattering coefficient, will be critically examined.

  18. Degradation of PAHs by high frequency ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Manariotis, Ioannis D; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K; Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V

    2011-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are persistent organic compounds, which have been reported in the literature to efficiently degrade at low (e.g. 20 kHz) and moderate (e.g. 506 kHz) ultrasound frequencies. The present study focuses on degradation of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene by ultrasound at three different relatively high frequencies (i.e. 582, 862, and 1142 kHz). The experimental results indicate that for all three frequencies and power inputs ≥ 133 W phenanthrene degrades to concentrations lower than our experimental detection limit (<1 μg/L). Phenanthrene degrades significantly faster at 582 kHz than at 862 and 1142 kHz. For all three frequencies, the degradation rates per unit mass are similar for naphthalene and phenanthrene and lower for pyrene. Furthermore, naphthalene degradation requires less energy than phenanthrene, which requires less energy than pyrene under the same conditions. No hexane-extractable metabolites were identified in the solutions.

  19. High-frequency micromechanical columnar resonators

    PubMed Central

    Kehrbusch, Jenny; Ilin, Elena A; Bozek, Peter; Radzio, Bernhard; Oesterschulze, Egbert

    2009-01-01

    High-frequency silicon columnar microresonators are fabricated using a simple but effective technological scheme. An optimized fabrication scheme was invented to obtain mechanically protected microcolumns with lateral dimensions controlled on a scale of at least 1 μm. In this paper, we investigate the influence of the environmental conditions on the mechanical resonator properties. At ambient conditions, we observed a frequency stability δf/f of less than 10−6 during 5 h of operation at almost constant temperature. However, varying the temperature shifts the frequency by approximately −173 Hz °C− 1. In accordance with a viscous damping model of the ambient gas, we perceived that the quality factor of the first flexural mode decreased with the inverse of the square root of pressure. However, in the low-pressure regime, a linear dependence was observed. We also investigated the influence of the type of the immersing gas on the resonant frequency. PMID:27877296

  20. RF Breakdown in High Frequency Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Doebert, S

    2004-05-27

    RF breakdown in high-frequency accelerators appears to limit the maximum achievable gradient as well as the reliability of such devices. Experimental results from high power tests, obtained mostly in the framework of the NLC/GLC project at 11 GHz and from the CLIC study at 30 GHz, will be used to illustrate the important issues. The dependence of the breakdown phenomena on rf pulse length, operating frequency and fabrication material will be described. Since reliability is extremely important for large scale accelerators such as a linear collider, the measurements of breakdown rate as a function of the operating gradient will be highlighted.

  1. A High Power Frequency Doubled Fiber Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Robert J.; Tu, Meirong; Aveline, Dave; Lundblad, Nathan; Maleki, Lute

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reports on the development of a high power 780 nm laser suitable for space applications of laser cooling. A possible solution is to use frequency doubling of high power 1560 nm telecom lasers. The presentation shows a diagram of the frequency conversion, and a graph of the second harmonic generation in one crystal, and the use of the cascading crystals. Graphs show the second harmonic power as a function of distance between crystals, second harmonic power vs. pump power, tunability of laser systems.

  2. A High Power Frequency Doubled Fiber Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Robert J.; Tu, Meirong; Aveline, Dave; Lundblad, Nathan; Maleki, Lute

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reports on the development of a high power 780 nm laser suitable for space applications of laser cooling. A possible solution is to use frequency doubling of high power 1560 nm telecom lasers. The presentation shows a diagram of the frequency conversion, and a graph of the second harmonic generation in one crystal, and the use of the cascading crystals. Graphs show the second harmonic power as a function of distance between crystals, second harmonic power vs. pump power, tunability of laser systems.

  3. Metrology For High-Frequency Nanoelectronics

    SciTech Connect

    Wallis, T. Mitch; Imtiaz, Atif; Nembach, Hans T.; Rice, Paul; Kabos, Pavel

    2007-09-26

    Two metrological tools for high-frequency measurements of nanoscale systems are described: (i) two/N-port analysis of nanoscale devices as well as (ii) near-field scanning microwave microscopy (NSMM) for materials characterization. Calibrated two/N-port measurements were made on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) welded to a coplanar waveguide. Significant changes in the extracted high-frequency electrical response of the welded MWNT were measured when the contacts to the MWNT were modified. Additionally, NSMM was used to characterize films of nanotube soot deposited on copper and sapphire substrates. The material properties of the films showed a strong dependence on the substrate material.

  4. High frequency inductive lamp and power oscillator

    DOEpatents

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Dymond, Jr., Lauren E.; Gitsevich, Aleksandr; Grimm, William G.; Kipling, Kent; Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Ola, Samuel A.; Simpson, James E.; Trimble, William C.; Tsai, Peter; Turner, Brian P.

    2001-01-01

    A high frequency inductively coupled electrodeless lamp includes an excitation coil with an effective electrical length which is less than one half wavelength of a driving frequency applied thereto, preferably much less. The driving frequency may be greater than 100 MHz and is preferably as high as 915 MHz. Preferably, the excitation coil is configured as a non-helical, semi-cylindrical conductive surface having less than one turn, in the general shape of a wedding ring. At high frequencies, the current in the coil forms two loops which are spaced apart and parallel to each other. Configured appropriately, the coil approximates a Helmholtz configuration. The lamp preferably utilizes an bulb encased in a reflective ceramic cup with a pre-formed aperture defined therethrough. The ceramic cup may include structural features to aid in alignment and I or a flanged face to aid in thermal management. The lamp head is preferably an integrated lamp head comprising a metal matrix composite surrounding an insulating ceramic with the excitation integrally formed on the ceramic. A novel solid-state oscillator preferably provides RF power to the lamp. The oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency. Various control circuits may be employed to adjust the driving frequency of the oscillator.

  5. High frequency inductive lamp and power oscillator

    DOEpatents

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Dolan, James T.; Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Leng, Yongzhang

    2000-01-01

    A high frequency inductively coupled electrodeless lamp includes an excitation coil with an effective electrical length which is less than one half wavelength of a driving frequency applied thereto, preferably much less. The driving frequency may be greater than 100 MHz and is preferably as high as 915 MHz. Preferably, the excitation coil is configured as a non-helical, semi-cylindrical conductive surface having less than one turn, in the general shape of a wedding ring. At high frequencies, the current in the coil forms two loops which are spaced apart and parallel to each other. Configured appropriately, the coil approximates a Helmholtz configuration. The lamp preferably utilizes an bulb encased in a reflective ceramic cup with a pre-formed aperture defined therethrough. The ceramic cup may include structural features to aid in alignment and/or a flanged face to aid in thermal management. The lamp head is preferably an integrated lamp head comprising a metal matrix composite surrounding an insulating ceramic with the excitation integrally formed on the ceramic. A novel solid-state oscillator preferably provides RF power to the lamp. The oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency. Various control circuits may be employed to match the driving frequency of the oscillator to a plurality of tuning states of the lamp.

  6. High beta and second stability region transport and stability analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-12

    This document summarizes progress made on the research of high beta and second region transport and stability. In the area second stability region studies we report on an investigation of the possibility of second region access in the center of TFTR supershots.'' The instabilities found may coincide with experimental observation. Significant progress has been made on the resistive stability properties of high beta poloidal supershot'' discharges. For these studies profiles were taken from the TRANSP transport analysis code which analyzes experimental data. Invoking flattening of the pressure profile on mode rational surfaces causes tearing modes to persist into the experimental range of interest. Further, the experimental observation of the modes seems to be consistent with the predictions of the MHD model. In addition, code development in several areas has proceeded.

  7. High resolution low frequency ultrasonic tomography.

    PubMed

    Lasaygues, P; Lefebvre, J P; Mensah, S

    1997-10-01

    Ultrasonic reflection tomography results from a linearization of the inverse acoustic scattering problem, named the inverse Born approximation. The goal of ultrasonic reflection tomography is to obtain reflectivity images from backscattered measurements. This is a Fourier synthesis problem and the first step is to correctly cover the frequency space of the object. For this inverse problem, we use the classical algorithm of tomographic reconstruction by summation of filtered backprojections. In practice, only a limited number of views are available with our mechanical rig, typically 180, and the frequency bandwidth of the pulses is very limited, typically one octave. The resolving power of the system is them limited by the bandwidth of the pulse. Low and high frequencies can be restored by use of a deconvolution algorithm that enhances resolution. We used a deconvolution technique based on the Papoulis method. The advantage of this technique is conservation of the overall frequency information content of the signals. The enhancement procedure was tested by imaging a square aluminium rod with a cross-section less than the wavelength. In this application, the central frequency of the transducer was 250 kHz so that the central wavelength was 6 mm whereas the cross-section of the rod was 4 mm. Although the Born approximation was not theoretically valid in this case (high contrast), a good reconstruction was obtained.

  8. Experimental studies of linear high-beta heliac plasma configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Greenfield, C.M.; Koepke, M.E.; Ribe, F.L. )

    1990-01-01

    The formation and quasi-equilibrium of a high-beta heliac plasma are investigated in the High-Beta Q Machine (Phys. Fluids {bold 30}, 2885 (1987)), a linear high-beta {ital l}=1 stellarator with an internal current carrying conductor (hardcore). The hardcore current rise time is varied from 9 {mu}sec to smaller values comparable with that of the main compression field (450 nsec). Flux contours and plasma pressure calculated from internal magnetic-probe measurements are used to distinguish between nearly axisymmetric plasma confined near the hardcore and the heliac plasma confined near the magnetic axis. For the shorter hardcore rise times, the axisymmetric plasma pressure becomes small compared to that of the heliac. Further analysis of the data allows calculation of the currents flowing in the plasma, the rotational transform, and the magnetic well depth. Appreciable axial current is observed, consistent with induction by the changing magnetic fields during the heliac formation. The observed relationship between the axial current and rotational transform is confirmed by computer modeling using the HASE magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium code (Nucl. Fusion {bold 23}, 1061 (1983)).

  9. High spectral purity Kerr frequency comb radio frequency photonic oscillator

    PubMed Central

    Liang, W.; Eliyahu, D.; Ilchenko, V. S.; Savchenkov, A. A.; Matsko, A. B.; Seidel, D.; Maleki, L.

    2015-01-01

    Femtosecond laser-based generation of radio frequency signals has produced astonishing improvements in achievable spectral purity, one of the basic features characterizing the performance of an radio frequency oscillator. Kerr frequency combs hold promise for transforming these lab-scale oscillators to chip-scale level. In this work we demonstrate a miniature 10 GHz radio frequency photonic oscillator characterized with phase noise better than −60 dBc Hz−1 at 10 Hz, −90 dBc Hz−1 at 100 Hz and −170 dBc Hz−1 at 10 MHz. The frequency stability of this device, as represented by Allan deviation measurements, is at the level of 10−10 at 1–100 s integration time—orders of magnitude better than existing radio frequency photonic devices of similar size, weight and power consumption. PMID:26260955

  10. High spectral purity Kerr frequency comb radio frequency photonic oscillator.

    PubMed

    Liang, W; Eliyahu, D; Ilchenko, V S; Savchenkov, A A; Matsko, A B; Seidel, D; Maleki, L

    2015-08-11

    Femtosecond laser-based generation of radio frequency signals has produced astonishing improvements in achievable spectral purity, one of the basic features characterizing the performance of an radio frequency oscillator. Kerr frequency combs hold promise for transforming these lab-scale oscillators to chip-scale level. In this work we demonstrate a miniature 10 GHz radio frequency photonic oscillator characterized with phase noise better than -60 dBc Hz(-1) at 10 Hz, -90 dBc Hz(-1) at 100 Hz and -170 dBc Hz(-1) at 10 MHz. The frequency stability of this device, as represented by Allan deviation measurements, is at the level of 10(-10) at 1-100 s integration time-orders of magnitude better than existing radio frequency photonic devices of similar size, weight and power consumption.

  11. [High-frequency oscillatory ventilation in neonates].

    PubMed

    2002-09-01

    High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) may be considered as an alternative in the management of severe neonatal respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. In patients with diffuse pulmonary disease, HFOV can applied as a rescue therapy with a high lung volume strategy to obtain adequate alveolar recruitment. We review the mechanisms of gas exchange, as well as the indications, monitoring and special features of the use HVOF in the neonatal period.

  12. High efficiency quantum cascade laser frequency comb

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Quanyong; Wu, Donghai; Slivken, Steven; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2017-01-01

    An efficient mid-infrared frequency comb source is of great interest to high speed, high resolution spectroscopy and metrology. Here we demonstrate a mid-IR quantum cascade laser frequency comb with a high power output and narrow beatnote linewidth at room temperature. The active region was designed with a strong-coupling between the injector and the upper lasing level for high internal quantum efficiency and a broadband gain. The group velocity dispersion was engineered for efficient, broadband mode-locking via four wave mixing. The comb device exhibits a narrow intermode beatnote linewidth of 50.5 Hz and a maximum wall-plug efficiency of 6.5% covering a spectral coverage of 110 cm−1 at λ ~ 8 μm. The efficiency is improved by a factor of 6 compared with previous demonstrations. The high power efficiency and narrow beatnote linewidth will greatly expand the applications of quantum cascade laser frequency combs including high-precision remote sensing and spectroscopy. PMID:28262834

  13. High efficiency quantum cascade laser frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Quanyong; Wu, Donghai; Slivken, Steven; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2017-03-01

    An efficient mid-infrared frequency comb source is of great interest to high speed, high resolution spectroscopy and metrology. Here we demonstrate a mid-IR quantum cascade laser frequency comb with a high power output and narrow beatnote linewidth at room temperature. The active region was designed with a strong-coupling between the injector and the upper lasing level for high internal quantum efficiency and a broadband gain. The group velocity dispersion was engineered for efficient, broadband mode-locking via four wave mixing. The comb device exhibits a narrow intermode beatnote linewidth of 50.5 Hz and a maximum wall-plug efficiency of 6.5% covering a spectral coverage of 110 cm‑1 at λ ~ 8 μm. The efficiency is improved by a factor of 6 compared with previous demonstrations. The high power efficiency and narrow beatnote linewidth will greatly expand the applications of quantum cascade laser frequency combs including high-precision remote sensing and spectroscopy.

  14. High efficiency quantum cascade laser frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Lu, Quanyong; Wu, Donghai; Slivken, Steven; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2017-03-06

    An efficient mid-infrared frequency comb source is of great interest to high speed, high resolution spectroscopy and metrology. Here we demonstrate a mid-IR quantum cascade laser frequency comb with a high power output and narrow beatnote linewidth at room temperature. The active region was designed with a strong-coupling between the injector and the upper lasing level for high internal quantum efficiency and a broadband gain. The group velocity dispersion was engineered for efficient, broadband mode-locking via four wave mixing. The comb device exhibits a narrow intermode beatnote linewidth of 50.5 Hz and a maximum wall-plug efficiency of 6.5% covering a spectral coverage of 110 cm(-1) at λ ~ 8 μm. The efficiency is improved by a factor of 6 compared with previous demonstrations. The high power efficiency and narrow beatnote linewidth will greatly expand the applications of quantum cascade laser frequency combs including high-precision remote sensing and spectroscopy.

  15. Ionospheric modifications in high frequency heating experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, Spencer P.

    2015-01-15

    Featured observations in high-frequency (HF) heating experiments conducted at Arecibo, EISCAT, and high frequency active auroral research program are discussed. These phenomena appearing in the F region of the ionosphere include high-frequency heater enhanced plasma lines, airglow enhancement, energetic electron flux, artificial ionization layers, artificial spread-F, ionization enhancement, artificial cusp, wideband absorption, short-scale (meters) density irregularities, and stimulated electromagnetic emissions, which were observed when the O-mode HF heater waves with frequencies below foF2 were applied. The implication and associated physical mechanism of each observation are discussed and explained. It is shown that these phenomena caused by the HF heating are all ascribed directly or indirectly to the excitation of parametric instabilities which instigate anomalous heating. Formulation and analysis of parametric instabilities are presented. The results show that oscillating two stream instability and parametric decay instability can be excited by the O-mode HF heater waves, transmitted from all three heating facilities, in the regions near the HF reflection height and near the upper hybrid resonance layer. The excited Langmuir waves, upper hybrid waves, ion acoustic waves, lower hybrid waves, and field-aligned density irregularities set off subsequent wave-wave and wave-electron interactions, giving rise to the observed phenomena.

  16. Ionospheric modifications in high frequency heating experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Spencer P.

    2015-01-01

    Featured observations in high-frequency (HF) heating experiments conducted at Arecibo, EISCAT, and high frequency active auroral research program are discussed. These phenomena appearing in the F region of the ionosphere include high-frequency heater enhanced plasma lines, airglow enhancement, energetic electron flux, artificial ionization layers, artificial spread-F, ionization enhancement, artificial cusp, wideband absorption, short-scale (meters) density irregularities, and stimulated electromagnetic emissions, which were observed when the O-mode HF heater waves with frequencies below foF2 were applied. The implication and associated physical mechanism of each observation are discussed and explained. It is shown that these phenomena caused by the HF heating are all ascribed directly or indirectly to the excitation of parametric instabilities which instigate anomalous heating. Formulation and analysis of parametric instabilities are presented. The results show that oscillating two stream instability and parametric decay instability can be excited by the O-mode HF heater waves, transmitted from all three heating facilities, in the regions near the HF reflection height and near the upper hybrid resonance layer. The excited Langmuir waves, upper hybrid waves, ion acoustic waves, lower hybrid waves, and field-aligned density irregularities set off subsequent wave-wave and wave-electron interactions, giving rise to the observed phenomena.

  17. The LASI high-frequency ellipticity system

    SciTech Connect

    Sternberg, B.K.; Poulton, M.M.

    1995-12-31

    A high-frequency, high-resolution, electromagnetic (EM) imaging system has been developed for environmental geophysics surveys. Some key features of this system include: (1) rapid surveying to allow dense spatial sampling over a large area, (2) high-accuracy measurements which are used to produce a high-resolution image of the subsurface, (3) measurements which have excellent signal-to-noise ratio over a wide bandwidth (31 kHz to 32 MHz), (4) large-scale physical modeling to produce accurate theoretical responses over targets of interest in environmental geophysics surveys, (5) rapid neural network interpretation at the field site, and (6) visualization of complex structures during the survey.

  18. The LASI high-frequency ellipticity system

    SciTech Connect

    Sternberg, B.K.; Poulton, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    A high-frequency, high-resolution, electromagnetic (EM) imaging system has been developed for environmental geophysics surveys. Some key features of this system include: (1) rapid surveying to allow dense spatial sampling over a large area, (2) high-accuracy measurements which are used to produce a high-resolution image of the subsurface, (3) measurements which have excellent signal-to-noise ratio over a wide bandwidth (31 kHz to 32 MHz), (4) large-scale physical modeling to produce accurate theoretical responses over targets of interest in environmental geophysics surveys, (5) rapid neural network interpretation at the field site, and (6) visualization of complex structures during the survey.

  19. Frequency dependent polarization analysis of high-frequency seismograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jeffrey; Vernon, Frank L., III; Lindberg, Craig R.

    1987-11-01

    We present a multitaper algorithm to estimate the polarization of particle motion as a function of frequency from three-component seismic data. This algorithm is based on a singular value decomposition of a matrix of eigenspectra at a given frequency. The right complex eigenvector zˆ corresonding to the largest singular value of the matrix has the same direction as the dominant polarization of seismic motion at that frequency. The elements of the polarization vector zˆ specify the relative amplitudes and phases of motion measured along the recorded components within a chosen frequency band. The width of this frequency band is determined by the time-bandwidth product of the prolate spheroidal tapers used in the analysis. We manipulate the components of zˆ to determine the apparent azimuth and angle of incidence of seismic motion as a function of frequency. The orthogonality of the eigentapers allows one to calculate easily uncertainties in the estimated azimuth and angle of incidence. We apply this algorithm to data from the Anza Seismic Telemetered Array in the frequency band 0 ≤ ƒ ≤ 30 Hz. The polarization is not always a smooth function of frequency and can exhibit sharp jumps, suggesting the existence of scattered modes within the crustal waveguide and/or receiver site resonances.

  20. Measuring pion beta decay with high-energy pion beams

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, W.K. Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA ); Hoffman, C.M. )

    1993-01-01

    Improved measurements of the pion beta decay rate are possible with an intense high-energy pion beam. The rate for the decay [pi][sup +] [yields] [pi][sup 0]e[sup +]v[epsilon] is predicted by the Standard Model (SM) to be R([pi][sup +] [yields] [pi][sup 0]e[sup +]v[epsilon]) = 0.3999[plus minus]0.0005 s[sup [minus]1]. The best experimental number, obtained using in-flight decays, is R([pi][sup +] [yields] [pi][sup 0]e[sup +]v[epsilon]) = 0.394 [plus minus] 0.015 s[sup [minus]1]. A precise measurement would test the SM by testing the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix for which one analysis of the nuclear beta decay data has shown a 0.4% discrepancy. Several nuclear correction factors, needed for nuclear decay, are not present for pion beta decay, so that an experiment at the 0.2% level would be a significant one. Detailed study of possible designs will be needed, as well as extensive testing of components. The reduction of systematic errors to the 0.1% level can only be done over a period of years with a highly stable apparatus and beam. At a minimum, three years of occupancy of a beam line, with 800 hours per year, would be required.

  1. Measuring pion beta decay with high-energy pion beams

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, W.K. |; Hoffman, C.M.

    1993-02-01

    Improved measurements of the pion beta decay rate are possible with an intense high-energy pion beam. The rate for the decay {pi}{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}e{sup +}v{epsilon} is predicted by the Standard Model (SM) to be R({pi}{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}e{sup +}v{epsilon}) = 0.3999{plus_minus}0.0005 s{sup {minus}1}. The best experimental number, obtained using in-flight decays, is R({pi}{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}e{sup +}v{epsilon}) = 0.394 {plus_minus} 0.015 s{sup {minus}1}. A precise measurement would test the SM by testing the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix for which one analysis of the nuclear beta decay data has shown a 0.4% discrepancy. Several nuclear correction factors, needed for nuclear decay, are not present for pion beta decay, so that an experiment at the 0.2% level would be a significant one. Detailed study of possible designs will be needed, as well as extensive testing of components. The reduction of systematic errors to the 0.1% level can only be done over a period of years with a highly stable apparatus and beam. At a minimum, three years of occupancy of a beam line, with 800 hours per year, would be required.

  2. Modular low aspect ratio-high beta torsatron

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, George V.; Furth, Harold P.

    1984-02-07

    A fusion reactor device in which the toroidal magnetic field and at least a portion of the poloidal magnetic field are provided by a single set of modular coils. The coils are arranged on the surface of a low aspect ratio toroid in planes having the cylindrical coordinate relationship .phi.=.phi..sub.i +kz where k is a constant equal to each coil's pitch and .phi..sub.i is the toroidal angle at which the i'th coil intersects the z=o plane. The device may be described as a modular, high beta torsation whose screw symmetry is pointed along the systems major (z) axis. The toroid defined by the modular coils preferably has a racetrack minor cross section. When vertical field coils and preferably a toroidal plasma current are provided for magnetic field surface closure within the toroid, a vacuum magnetic field of racetrack shaped minor cross section with improved stability and beta valves is obtained.

  3. Linkage relationships in the bovine MHC region. High recombination frequency between class II subregions.

    PubMed

    Andersson, L; Lundén, A; Sigurdardottir, S; Davies, C J; Rask, L

    1988-01-01

    Class II genes of the bovine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) have been investigated by Southern blot analysis using human DNA probes. Previous studies revealed the presence of bovine DO beta, DQ alpha, DQ beta, DR alpha, and DR beta genes, and restriction fragment length polymorphisms for each of these genes were documented. In the present study, the presence of three additional class II genes, designated DZ alpha, DY alpha, and DY beta, are reported. DZ alpha was assumed to correspond to the human DZ alpha gene while the other two were designated DY because their relationship to human class II genes could not be firmly established. The linkage relationships among bovine class II genes and two additional loci, TCP1B and C4, were investigated by family segregation analysis and analysis of linkage disequilibrium. The results clearly indicated that all these loci belong to the same linkage group. This linkage group is divided into two subregions separated by a fairly high recombination frequency. One region includes the C4, DQ alpha, DQ beta, DR alpha, and DR beta loci and the other one is composed of the DO beta, DY alpha, DY beta, and TCP1B loci. No recombinant was observed within any of these subregions and there was a strong or fairly strong linkage disequilibrium between loci within groups. In contrast, as many as five recombinants among three different families were detected in the interval between these subregions giving a recombination frequency estimate of 0.17 +/- 0.07. The fairly high recombination frequency observed between class II genes in cattle is strikingly different from the corresponding recombination estimates in man and mouse. The finding implies either a much larger molecular distance between some of the bovine class II genes or alternatively the presence of a recombinational "hot spot" in the bovine class II region.

  4. High-frequency resonant-tunneling oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, E. R.; Parker, C. D.; Calawa, A. R.; Manfra, M. J.; Chen, C. L.

    1991-01-01

    Advances in high-frequency resonant-tunneling-diode (RTD) oscillators are described. Oscillations up to a frequency of 420 GHz have been achieved in the GaAs/AlAs system. Recent results obtained with In0.53Ga0.47As/AlAs and InAs/AlSb RTDs show a greatly increased power density and indicate the potential for fundamental oscillations up to about 1 THz. These results are consistent with a lumped-element equivalent circuit model of the RTD. The model shows that the maximum oscillation frequency of the GaAs/AlAs RTDs is limited primarily by series resistance, and that the power density is limited by low peak-to-valley current ratio.

  5. High Frequency Laser-Based Ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, R; Chinn, D; Balogun, O; Murray, T

    2005-09-12

    To obtain micrometer resolution of materials using acoustics requires frequencies around 1 GHz. Attenuation of such frequencies is high, limiting the thickness of the parts that can be characterized. Although acoustic microscopes can operate up to several GHz in frequency, they are used primarily as a surface characterization tool. The use of a pulsed laser for acoustic generation allows generation directly in the part, eliminating the loss of energy associated with coupling the energy from a piezoelectric transducer to the part of interest. The use of pulsed laser acoustic generation in combination with optical detection is investigated for the non-contact characterization of materials with features that must be characterized to micrometer resolution.

  6. Protection circuitry for high frequency ultrasonic NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaggares, N. Chris; Tang, Raymond K.; Sinclair, A. N., Prof.; Foster, F. S., Prof.; Haraierciwz, Kasia; Starkoski, Brian

    2000-05-01

    Most commercial ultrasonic NDE equipment employs a voltage spike to stimulate a piezoelectric transducer. To protect the signal processing unit from damage from this spike, a voltage limiter or "diode clamp" is included in the pulser-receiver, and limits the voltage reaching the amplifier or oscilloscope. In this project, the deleterious effects of such limiters on the ultrasonic echo in the high frequency (50-100 MHz range) have been quantified: these effects include significant distortion in the frequency content, and oscillations causing a drop in timing resolution by over a factor of 2. To address these problems, a high-voltage high-frequency switch has been designed to replace the voltage limiter; the switch directs the high-voltage spike away from the signal processing/display unit, towards an impedance-matched termination. A prototype circuit has been built, based on two high-voltage MOSFET's acting as a switch for the bi-polar stimulation pulse. The reduction in echo distortion and improvement in time resolution have been successfully modeled with the CAD tool HSPICE, although parasitic capacitance in the current generation of commercial MOSFET's is a continuing concern.

  7. High frequency x-ray generator basics.

    PubMed

    Sobol, Wlad T

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present basic functional principles of high frequency x-ray generators. The emphasis is put on physical concepts that determine the engineering solutions to the problem of efficient generation and control of high voltage power required to drive the x-ray tube. The physics of magnetically coupled circuits is discussed first, as a background for the discussion of engineering issues related to high-frequency power transformer design. Attention is paid to physical processes that influence such factors as size, efficiency, and reliability of a high voltage power transformer. The basic electrical circuit of a high frequency generator is analyzed next, with focus on functional principles. This section investigates the role and function of basic components, such as power supply, inverter, and voltage doubler. Essential electronic circuits of generator control are then examined, including regulation of voltage, current and timing of electrical power delivery to the x-ray tube. Finally, issues related to efficient feedback control, including basic design of the AEC circuitry are reviewed.

  8. High Frequency Plasma Generators for Ion Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divergilio, W. F.; Goede, H.; Fosnight, V. V.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a one year program to experimentally adapt two new types of high frequency plasma generators to Argon ion thrusters and to analytically study a third high frequency source concept are presented. Conventional 30 cm two grid ion extraction was utilized or proposed for all three sources. The two plasma generating methods selected for experimental study were a radio frequency induction (RFI) source, operating at about 1 MHz, and an electron cyclotron heated (ECH) plasma source operating at about 5 GHz. Both sources utilize multi-linecusp permanent magnet configurations for plasma confinement. The plasma characteristics, plasma loading of the rf antenna, and the rf frequency dependence of source efficiency and antenna circuit efficiency are described for the RFI Multi-cusp source. In a series of tests of this source at Lewis Research Center, minimum discharge losses of 220+/-10 eV/ion were obtained with propellant utilization of .45 at a beam current of 3 amperes. Possible improvement modifications are discussed.

  9. Noise temperature in graphene at high frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rengel, Raúl; Iglesias, José M.; Pascual, Elena; Martín, María J.

    2016-07-01

    A numerical method for obtaining the frequency-dependent noise temperature in monolayer graphene is presented. From the mobility and diffusion coefficient values provided by Monte Carlo simulation, the noise temperature in graphene is studied up to the THz range, considering also the influence of different substrate types. The influence of the applied electric field is investigated: the noise temperature is found to increase with the applied field, dropping down at high frequencies (in the sub-THz range). The results show that the low-frequency value of the noise temperature in graphene on a substrate tends to be reduced as compared to the case of suspended graphene due to the important effect of remote polar phonon interactions, thus indicating a reduced emitted noise power; however, at very high frequencies the influence of the substrate tends to be significantly reduced, and the differences between the suspended and on-substrate cases tend to be minimized. The values obtained are comparable to those observed in GaAs and semiconductor nitrides.

  10. High-frequency Rayleigh-wave method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Xu, Y.; Luo, Y.; Chen, C.; Liu, J.; Ivanov, J.; Zeng, C.

    2009-01-01

    High-frequency (???2 Hz) Rayleigh-wave data acquired with a multichannel recording system have been utilized to determine shear (S)-wave velocities in near-surface geophysics since the early 1980s. This overview article discusses the main research results of high-frequency surface-wave techniques achieved by research groups at the Kansas Geological Survey and China University of Geosciences in the last 15 years. The multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) method is a non-invasive acoustic approach to estimate near-surface S-wave velocity. The differences between MASW results and direct borehole measurements are approximately 15% or less and random. Studies show that simultaneous inversion with higher modes and the fundamental mode can increase model resolution and an investigation depth. The other important seismic property, quality factor (Q), can also be estimated with the MASW method by inverting attenuation coefficients of Rayleigh waves. An inverted model (S-wave velocity or Q) obtained using a damped least-squares method can be assessed by an optimal damping vector in a vicinity of the inverted model determined by an objective function, which is the trace of a weighted sum of model-resolution and model-covariance matrices. Current developments include modeling high-frequency Rayleigh-waves in near-surface media, which builds a foundation for shallow seismic or Rayleigh-wave inversion in the time-offset domain; imaging dispersive energy with high resolution in the frequency-velocity domain and possibly with data in an arbitrary acquisition geometry, which opens a door for 3D surface-wave techniques; and successfully separating surface-wave modes, which provides a valuable tool to perform S-wave velocity profiling with high-horizontal resolution. ?? China University of Geosciences (Wuhan) and Springer-Verlag GmbH 2009.

  11. High Frequency Guided Wave Virtual Array SAFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, R.; Pardini, A.; Diaz, A.

    2003-03-01

    The principles of the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) are generalized for application to high frequency plate wave signals. It is shown that a flaw signal received in long-range plate wave propagation can be analyzed as if the signals were measured by an infinite array of transducers in an unbounded medium. It is shown that SAFT-based flaw sizing can be performed with as few as three or less actual measurement positions.

  12. High-Frequency Percussive Ventilation Revisited

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    physiologic and clin- ical outcomes. Pediatric and adult inhalational injury studies have linked HFPV to an improvement in static lung compliance...sedation–analgesic combinations (usually fentanyl with the individual or combined use of midazolam and propofol and/or dexmedetomidine), patient...1998;84:1174–7. 34. Frantz ID III, Close RH. Alveolar pressure swings during high frequency ventilation in rabbits. Pediatr Res 1985;19:162–6. 35. Pillow

  13. Inverter design for high frequency power distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    A class of simple resonantly commutated inverters are investigated for use in a high power (100 KW - 1000 KW) high frequency (10 KHz - 20 KHz) AC power distribution system. The Mapham inverter is found to provide a unique combination of large thyristor turn-off angle and good utilization factor, much better than an alternate 'current-fed' inverter. The effects of loading the Mapham inverter entirely with rectifier loads are investigated by simulation and with an experimental 3 KW 20 KHz inverter. This inverter is found to be well suited to a power system with heavy rectifier loading.

  14. High to very high frequency metal/anomaly detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, Daniel C.; Brennan, Michael L.; Steer, Michael B.; Melber, Adam W.; Cua, John T.

    2014-05-01

    Typical metal detectors work at very low to low frequencies. In this paper, a metal/anomaly detector design that operates in the high to very high frequency range is presented. This design uses a high-Q tuned loop antenna for metal/anomaly detection. By measuring the return loss or voltage standing wave ratio a frequency notch can be detected. Tuning to the optimal location of the notch can be accomplished by monitoring the phase response. This phase monitoring technique can be used to ground balance the detector. As a metal object is moved along the longitudinal axis of the loop antenna a substantial shift in the frequency of the notch is detected. For metal targets, the frequency shift is positive, and for ferrite and other targets, the frequency shift is negative. This frequency shift is created by the proximity of the target causing a change in the impedance of the antenna. Experiments with a prototype antenna show long-range detection with low power requirements. The detector requires only one loop with one winding which is used for both transmit and receive. This allows for a metal/anomaly detector with a very simple design. The design is lightweight and, depending on loop size, significantly increases detection depth performance. In the full paper, modeling and further experimental results will be presented. Performance results for various types of soil and for different types of targets are presented.

  15. High-frequency neural oscillations and visual processing deficits in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Heng-Ru May; Lana, Luiz; Uhlhaas, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Visual information is fundamental to how we understand our environment, make predictions, and interact with others. Recent research has underscored the importance of visuo-perceptual dysfunctions for cognitive deficits and pathophysiological processes in schizophrenia. In the current paper, we review evidence for the relevance of high frequency (beta/gamma) oscillations towards visuo-perceptual dysfunctions in schizophrenia. In the first part of the paper, we examine the relationship between beta/gamma band oscillations and visual processing during normal brain functioning. We then summarize EEG/MEG-studies which demonstrate reduced amplitude and synchrony of high-frequency activity during visual stimulation in schizophrenia. In the final part of the paper, we identify neurobiological correlates as well as offer perspectives for future research to stimulate further inquiry into the role of high-frequency oscillations in visual processing impairments in the disorder. PMID:24130535

  16. High-frequency plasma-heating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Brambilla, Marco; Lallia, Pascal

    1978-01-01

    An array of adjacent wave guides feed high-frequency energy into a vacuum chamber in which a toroidal plasma is confined by a magnetic field, the wave guide array being located between two toroidal current windings. Waves are excited in the wave guide at a frequency substantially equal to the lower frequency hybrid wave of the plasma and a substantially equal phase shift is provided from one guide to the next between the waves therein. For plasmas of low peripheral density gradient, the guides are excited in the TE.sub.01 mode and the output electric field is parallel to the direction of the toroidal magnetic field. For exciting waves in plasmas of high peripheral density gradient, the guides are excited in the TM.sub.01 mode and the magnetic field at the wave guide outlets is parallel to the direction of the toroidal magnetic field. The wave excited at the outlet of the wave guide array is a progressive wave propagating in the direction opposite to that of the toroidal current and is, therefore, not absorbed by so-called "runaway" electrons.

  17. Parametric nanomechanical amplification at very high frequency.

    PubMed

    Karabalin, R B; Feng, X L; Roukes, M L

    2009-09-01

    Parametric resonance and amplification are important in both fundamental physics and technological applications. Here we report very high frequency (VHF) parametric resonators and mechanical-domain amplifiers based on nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). Compound mechanical nanostructures patterned by multilayer, top-down nanofabrication are read out by a novel scheme that parametrically modulates longitudinal stress in doubly clamped beam NEMS resonators. Parametric pumping and signal amplification are demonstrated for VHF resonators up to approximately 130 MHz and provide useful enhancement of both resonance signal amplitude and quality factor. We find that Joule heating and reduced thermal conductance in these nanostructures ultimately impose an upper limit to device performance. We develop a theoretical model to account for both the parametric response and nonequilibrium thermal transport in these composite nanostructures. The results closely conform to our experimental observations, elucidate the frequency and threshold-voltage scaling in parametric VHF NEMS resonators and sensors, and establish the ultimate sensitivity limits of this approach.

  18. Computer modeling of tactical high frequency antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Bobby G., Jr.

    1992-06-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to compare the performance of three tactical high frequency antennas to be used as possible replacement for the Tactical Data Communications Central (TDCC) antennas. The antennas were modeled using the Numerical Electromagnetics Code, Version 3 (NEC3), and the Eyring Low Profile and Buried Antenna Modeling Program (PAT7) for several different frequencies and ground conditions. The performance was evaluated by comparing gain at the desired takeoff angles, the voltage standing wave ratio of each antenna, and its omni-directional capability. The buried antenna models, the ELPA-302 and horizontal dipole, were most effective when employed over poor ground conditions. The best performance under all conditions tested was demonstrated by the HT-20T. Each of these antennas have tactical advantages and disadvantages and can optimize communications under certain conditions. The selection of the best antenna is situation dependent. An experimental test of these models is recommended to verify the modeling results.

  19. High-frequency ultrasonic wire bonding systems

    PubMed

    Tsujino; Yoshihara; Sano; Ihara

    2000-03-01

    The vibration characteristics of longitudinal-complex transverse vibration systems with multiple resonance frequencies of 350-980 kHz for ultrasonic wire bonding of IC, LSI or electronic devices were studied. The complex vibration systems can be applied for direct welding of semiconductor tips (face-down bonding, flip-chip bonding) and packaging of electronic devices. A longitudinal-complex transverse vibration bonding system consists of a complex transverse vibration rod, two driving longitudinal transducers 7.0 mm in diameter and a transverse vibration welding tip. The vibration distributions along ceramic and stainless-steel welding tips were measured at up to 980 kHz. A high-frequency vibration system with a height of 20.7 mm and a weight of less than 15 g was obtained.

  20. High-power femtosecond Raman frequency shifter.

    PubMed

    Vicario, Carlo; Shalaby, Mostafa; Konyashchenko, Aleksandr; Losev, Leonid; Hauri, Christoph P

    2016-10-15

    We report on the generation of broadband, high-energy femtosecond pulses centered at 1.28 μm by stimulated Raman scattering in a pressurized hydrogen cell. Stimulated Raman scattering is performed by two chirped and delayed pulses originating from a multi-mJ Ti:sapphire amplifier. The Stokes pulse carries record-high energy of 4.4 mJ and is recompressed down to 66 fs by a reflective grating pair. We characterized the short-wavelength mid-infrared source in view of energy stability, beam profile, and conversion efficiency at repetition rates of 100 and 10 Hz. The demonstrated high-energy frequency shifter will benefit intense THz sources based on highly nonlinear organic crystals.

  1. A high frequency electromagnetic impedance imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, Hung-Wen; Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex

    2003-01-15

    Non-invasive, high resolution geophysical mapping of the shallow subsurface is necessary for delineation of buried hazardous wastes, detecting unexploded ordinance, verifying and monitoring of containment or moisture contents, and other environmental applications. Electromagnetic (EM) techniques can be used for this purpose since electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity are representative of the subsurface media. Measurements in the EM frequency band between 1 and 100 MHz are very important for such applications, because the induction number of many targets is small and the ability to determine the subsurface distribution of both electrical properties is required. Earlier workers were successful in developing systems for detecting anomalous areas, but quantitative interpretation of the data was difficult. Accurate measurements are necessary, but difficult to achieve for high-resolution imaging of the subsurface. We are developing a broadband non-invasive method for accurately mapping the electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity of the shallow subsurface using an EM impedance approach similar to the MT exploration technique. Electric and magnetic sensors were tested to ensure that stray EM scattering is minimized and the quality of the data collected with the high-frequency impedance (HFI) system is good enough to allow high-resolution, multi-dimensional imaging of hidden targets. Additional efforts are being made to modify and further develop existing sensors and transmitters to improve the imaging capability and data acquisition efficiency.

  2. Evaluating Acupuncture Point and Nonacupuncture Point Stimulation with EEG: A High-Frequency Power Spectrum Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kwang-Ho; Cho, Seong Jin; Kang, Suk-Yun; Ahn, Seong Hun

    2016-01-01

    To identify physical and sensory responses to acupuncture point stimulation (APS), nonacupuncture point stimulation (NAPS) and no stimulation (NS), changes in the high-frequency power spectrum before and after stimulation were evaluated with electroencephalography (EEG). A total of 37 healthy subjects received APS at the LI4 point, NAPS, or NS with their eyes closed. Background brain waves were measured before, during, and after stimulation using 8 channels. Changes in the power spectra of gamma waves and high beta waves before, during, and after stimulation were comparatively analyzed. After NAPS, absolute high beta power (AHBP), relative high beta power (RHBP), absolute gamma power (AGP), and relative gamma power (RGP) tended to increase in all channels. But no consistent notable changes were found for APS and NS. NAPS is believed to cause temporary reactions to stress, tension, and sensory responses of the human body, while APS responds stably compared to stimulation of other parts of the body. PMID:27818695

  3. Material considerations for high frequency, high power capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W.; Galperin, I.

    1983-01-01

    Dielectric materials chosen for use in this high frequency, high power capacitor must endure hard vacuum conditions, high currents (up to 125 A rms), and frequencies up to 40 kHz. Temperature requirements for this type of capacitor are that capacitor operation must be efficient up to 125 C. A more stringent requirement for the sold dielectric is that the temperature coefficient of dissipation factor should indicate self stabilization well below 125 C. In addition, the dielectric temperature coefficient of capacitance should be negative.

  4. Material considerations for high frequency, high power capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, W.; Galperin, I.

    1983-10-01

    Dielectric materials chosen for use in this high frequency, high power capacitor must endure hard vacuum conditions, high currents (up to 125 A rms), and frequencies up to 40 kHz. Temperature requirements for this type of capacitor are that capacitor operation must be efficient up to 125 C. A more stringent requirement for the sold dielectric is that the temperature coefficient of dissipation factor should indicate self stabilization well below 125 C. In addition, the dielectric temperature coefficient of capacitance should be negative.

  5. High frequency plasma generator for ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goede, H.; Divergilio, W. F.; Fosnight, V. V.; Komatsu, G.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a program to experimentally develop two new types of plasma generators for 30 cm electrostatic argon ion thrusters are presented. The two plasma generating methods selected for this study were by radio frequency induction (RFI), operating at an input power frequency of 1 MHz, and by electron cyclotron heating (ECH) at an operating frequency of 5.0 GHz. Both of these generators utilize multiline cusp permanent magnet configurations for plasma confinement and beam profile optimization. The program goals were to develop a plasma generator possessing the characteristics of high electrical efficiency (low eV/ion) and simplicity of operation while maintaining the reliability and durability of the conventional hollow cathode plasma sources. The RFI plasma generator has achieved minimum discharge losses of 120 eV/ion while the ECH generator has obtained 145 eV/ion, assuming a 90% ion optical transparency of the electrostatic acceleration system. Details of experimental tests with a variety of magnet configurations are presented.

  6. Aerodynamics of high frequency flapping wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zheng; Roll, Jesse; Cheng, Bo; Deng, Xinyan

    2010-11-01

    We investigated the aerodynamic performance of high frequency flapping wings using a 2.5 gram robotic insect mechanism developed in our lab. The mechanism flaps up to 65Hz with a pair of man-made wing mounted with 10cm wingtip-to-wingtip span. The mean aerodynamic lift force was measured by a lever platform, and the flow velocity and vorticity were measured using a stereo DPIV system in the frontal, parasagittal, and horizontal planes. Both near field (leading edge vortex) and far field flow (induced flow) were measured with instantaneous and phase-averaged results. Systematic experiments were performed on the man-made wings, cicada and hawk moth wings due to their similar size, frequency and Reynolds number. For insect wings, we used both dry and freshly-cut wings. The aerodynamic force increase with flapping frequency and the man-made wing generates more than 4 grams of lift at 35Hz with 3 volt input. Here we present the experimental results and the major differences in their aerodynamic performances.

  7. High-frequency graphene voltage amplifier.

    PubMed

    Han, Shu-Jen; Jenkins, Keith A; Valdes Garcia, Alberto; Franklin, Aaron D; Bol, Ageeth A; Haensch, Wilfried

    2011-09-14

    While graphene transistors have proven capable of delivering gigahertz-range cutoff frequencies, applying the devices to RF circuits has been largely hindered by the lack of current saturation in the zero band gap graphene. Herein, the first high-frequency voltage amplifier is demonstrated using large-area chemical vapor deposition grown graphene. The graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) has a 6-finger gate design with gate length of 500 nm. The graphene common-source amplifier exhibits ∼5 dB low frequency gain with the 3 dB bandwidth greater than 6 GHz. This first AC voltage gain demonstration of a GFET is attributed to the clear current saturation in the device, which is enabled by an ultrathin gate dielectric (4 nm HfO(2)) of the embedded gate structures. The device also shows extrinsic transconductance of 1.2 mS/μm at 1 V drain bias, the highest for graphene FETs using large-scale graphene reported to date.

  8. High temperature plasma in beta Lyrae, observed from Copernicus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, Y.; Hack, M.; Hutchings, J. B.; Mccluskey, G. E., Jr.; Plavec, M.; Polidan, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    High-resolution UV spectrophotometry of the complex close binary system beta Lyrae was performed with a telescope spectrometer on board Copernicus. Observations were made at phases 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 with resolutions of 0.2 A (far-UV) and 0.4 A (mid-UV). The far-UV spectrum is completely dominated by emission lines indicating the existence of a high-temperature plasma in this binary. The spectrum of this object is unlike that of any other object observed from Copernicus. It is believed that this high-temperature plasma results from dynamic mass transfer taking place in the binary. The current results are compared with OAO-2 observations and other observational results. The possibility that the secondary component is a collapsed object is also discussed; the Copernicus observations are consistent with the hypothesis that the spectroscopically invisible secondary component is a black hole.

  9. High Frequency Self-pulsing Microplasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassalle, John; Pollard, William; Staack, David

    2014-10-01

    Pulsing behavior in high-pressure microplasmas was studied. Microplasmas are of interest because of potential application in plasma switches for robust electronics. These devices require fast switching. Self-pulsing microplasmas were generated in a variable-length spark gap at pressures between 0 and 220 psig in Air, Ar, N2, H2, and He for spark gap lengths from 15 to 1810 μm. Resulting breakdown voltages varied between 90 and 1500 V. Voltage measurements show pulse frequencies as high as 8.9 MHz in argon at 100 psig. These findings demonstrate the potential for fast switching of plasma switches that incorporate high-pressure microplasmas. Work was supported by the National Science Foundation, Grant #1057175, and the Department of Defense, ARO Grant #W911NF1210007.

  10. High-Frequency Fluctuations During Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jara-Almonte, J.; Ji, H.; Daughton, W. S.; Roytershteyn, V.; Yamada, M.; Yoo, J.; Fox, W. R., II

    2014-12-01

    During collisionless reconnection, the decoupling of the field from the plasma is known to occur only within the localized ion and electron diffusion regions, however predictions from fully kinetic simulations do not agree with experimental observations on the size of the electron diffusion region, implying differing reconnection mechanisms. Previous experiments, along with 2D and 3D simulations, have conclusively shown that this discrepancy cannot be explained by either classical collisions or Lower-Hybrid Drift Instability (Roytershtyn 2010, 2013). Due to computational limitations, however, previous simulations were constrained to have minimal scale separation between the electron skin depth and the Debye length (de/λD ~ 10), much smaller than in experiments (de/λD ~ 300). This lack of scale-separation can drastically modify the electrostatic microphysics within the diffusion layer. Using 3D, fully explicit kinetic simulations with a realistic and unprecedentedly large separation between the Debye length and the electron skin depth, de/λD = 64, we show that high frequency electrostatic waves (ω >> ωLH) can exist within the electron diffusion region. These waves generate small-scale turbulence within the electron diffusion region which acts to broaden the layer. Anomalous resistivity is also generated by the turbulence and significantly modifies the force balance. In addition to simulation results, initial experimental measurements of high frequency fluctuations (electrostatic and electromagnetic, f ≤ 1 GHz) in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) will be presented.

  11. Survey of CTX-M Gene Frequency in Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Isolates Using the Combination Disk and PCR Methods in Ahvaz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moosavian, Mojtaba; Ahmadkhosravy, Nazanin

    2016-01-01

    Background A common mechanism of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics is the production of beta-lactamase by Gram-negative bacteria. Recently, nonderivative extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) from the TEM and SHV enzymes, such as CTX-M, that were related to different geographical regions have been recognized. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of the CTX-M gene in ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates in hospitalized patients in the teaching hospitals of Ahvaz, Iran. Methods Enterobacteriaceae isolates from clinical specimens (other than stool), such as wounds, blood, urine, trachea, discharge, and abscess, were collected and examined. All the isolates were identified using standard biochemical tests. The combination test was carried out based on CLSI criteria for the phenotypic detection of ESBL-producing isolates. After DNA extraction, the CTX-M and CTX-M-1 genes were amplified using PCR among phenotypically positive ESBL isolates. Results Among 240 Enterobacteriaceae isolates, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter were the most common isolates with 171 (71.3%) and 65 (27.1%), respectively. The combination test results also showed that 108 (45%) Enterobacteriaceae isolates were phenotypic ESBL producers, but 104 (96%) isolates were positive for the blaCTX-M gene and 99 (92%) were positive for the blaCTX-M-1 gene according to the PCR method. Conclusions The results of this study phenotypically and genotypically confirmed the high frequency of ESBL-producing strains, such as the CTX-M and CTX-M-1 genes, among Enterobacteriaceae isolates in our region. Therefore, use of antibiotic susceptibility testing for the detection of ESBL isolates prior to the prescription of beta-lactam antibiotics is recommended. This could help prevent the spread of bacteria strains that are resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics. PMID:28138376

  12. High beta plasma in the dynamic Jovian current sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. J.; Kivelson, M. G.; Schardt, A. W.

    1978-01-01

    The equatorial current sheet, which Pioneer 10 repeatedly encountered on its outbound pass through the Jovian magnetosphere, frequently was associated with intense fluxes of energetic protons. Simultaneous observations of the changes in the energetic proton flux and in the magnetic-field magnitude demonstrate that the current sheet is embedded in a high-beta plasma in which high-energy (above 60 keV) ions frequently are the dominant constituents. Large differences in the plasma temperature and the thickness of this plasma sheet between encounters only 10 hours apart indicate that the Jovian plasma sheet is very dynamic on a time scale of hours. Occasional observations of significant temporal variations in the magnetic field and particle populations during periods within the plasma sheet may represent in situ observations of Jovian magnetic disturbances. Comparison with previous observations suggests that low-energy (not more than 5 keV) plasma contributes less than 3% to the current-sheet energy density.

  13. Fundamentals of bipolar high-frequency surgery.

    PubMed

    Reidenbach, H D

    1993-04-01

    In endoscopic surgery a very precise surgical dissection technique and an efficient hemostasis are of decisive importance. The bipolar technique may be regarded as a method which satisfies both requirements, especially regarding a high safety standard in application. In this context the biophysical and technical fundamentals of this method, which have been known in principle for a long time, are described with regard to the special demands of a newly developed field of modern surgery. After classification of this method into a general and a quasi-bipolar mode, various technological solutions of specific bipolar probes, in a strict and in a generalized sense, are characterized in terms of indication. Experimental results obtained with different bipolar instruments and probes are given. The application of modern microprocessor-controlled high-frequency surgery equipment and, wherever necessary, the integration of additional ancillary technology into the specialized bipolar instruments may result in most useful and efficient tools of a key technology in endoscopic surgery.

  14. A setup for Ba-ion extraction from high pressure Xe gas for double-beta decay studies with EXO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, T.; Fudenberg, D.; Sabourov, A.; Varentsov, V. L.; Gratta, G.; Sinclair, D.

    2013-12-01

    An experimental setup is being developed to extract Ba ions from a high-pressure Xe gas environment. It aims to transport Ba ions from 10 bar Xe to vacuum conditions. The setup utilizes a converging-diverging nozzle in combination with a radio-frequency (RF) funnel to move Ba ions into vacuum through the pressure drop of several orders of magnitude. This technique is intended for use in a future multi-ton detector investigating double-beta decay in 136Xe. Efficient extraction and detection of Ba ions, the decay product of 136Xe, would allow for a background-free measurement of the 136Xe double-beta decay.

  15. Childhood Trauma Associated with Enhanced High Frequency Band Powers and Induced Subjective Inattention of Adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Park, Yeonsoo; Jin, Min Jin; Lee, Yeon Jeong; Hahn, Sang Woo

    2017-01-01

    Childhood trauma can lead to various psychological and cognitive symptoms. It has been demonstrated that high frequency electroencephalogram (EEG) powers could be closely correlated with inattention. In this study, we explored the relationship between high frequency EEG powers, inattention, symptoms of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and childhood traumatic experiences. A total of 157 healthy Korean adult volunteers were included and divided into two groups using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) score. The subjective inattention scores, ADHD scale, and anxiety and depression symptom were evaluated. EEG was recorded and quantitative band powers were analyzed. The results were as follows: (1) the high CTQ group showed significantly increased delta, beta1, beta2, beta3 and gamma, and significantly decreased low alpha power compared to the low CTQ group; (2) the high CTQ group had higher inattention score compared to the low CTQ group; (3) the high CTQ group had higher adult ADHD scores; (4) CTQ scores showed significant positive correlations with inattention scores, and adult ADHD scores; (5) unexpectedly, the inattention scores showed significant positive correlations with beta powers and a negative correlation with low alpha power; and (6) the moderated mediation model was confirmed: the depression fully mediated the path from state anxiety to inattention, and the CTQ significantly moderated the pathway between anxiety and depression. Our results show the possibility that childhood adversity may cause subjective inattention and adult ADHD symptoms. Depressive symptoms fully mediated the path from anxiety to inattention, especially in those who report severe childhood traumatic experiences.

  16. High temperature oxidation of beta-NiAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koychak, J. K.; Mitchell, T. E.; Smialek, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The oxidation of single crystal beta-NiAl has been studied primarily using electron microscopy. Oriented metastable Al2O3 phases form during transient oxidation at 800 C. Specific orientation relationships exist on all metal orientations studied and are a result of the small mismatch along aligned close-packed directions in the cation sublattices of the metal and oxide. Transformation of the metastable Al2O3 phases at 1100 C results in an oxide morphology described as the 'lacey' structure of alpha-Al2O3 scales. This structure results from impingement of oriented patches of alpha-Al2O3 as the transformation initiates and moves radially parallel to the surface. Scale growth occurs by diffusion along high angle grain boundaries. A drastic reduction in oxidation rate accompanies the change in oxide morphology.

  17. Equilibrium and stability properties of high-beta torsatrons

    SciTech Connect

    Carreras, B.A.; Hicks, H.R.; Holmes, J.A.; Lynch, V.E.; Garcia, L.; Harris, J.H.; Hender, T.C.; Masden, B.F.

    1983-08-01

    Equilibrium and stability properties of high-beta torsatrons have been investigated using numerical and semianalytical techniques based on the method of toroidal averaging. The averaged equilibria have been compared with those obtained using full three-dimensional codes. Good agreement is obtained, thus validating the averaged method approach. We have studied the stability of plamsas for configurations with different aspect ratios and numbers of field periods. The role of the vertical field has also been studied in detail. The main conclusion is that for moderate aspect ratio torsatrons (A/sub p/ less than or equal to 8), the self-stabilizing effect of the magnetic axis shift is large enough to open a direct path to the second stability region.

  18. Plasma effects in high frequency radiative transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, C.T.

    1981-02-08

    This paper is intended as a survey of collective plasma processes which can affect the transfer of high frequency radiation in a hot dense plasma. We are rapidly approaching an era when this subject will become important in the laboratory. For pedagogical reasons we have chosen to examine plasma processes by relating them to a particular reference plasma which will consist of fully ionized carbon at a temperature kT=1 KeV (10/sup 70/K) and an electron density N = 3 x 10/sup 23/cm/sup -3/, (which corresponds to a mass density rho = 1 gm/cm/sup 3/ and an ion density N/sub i/ = 5 x 10/sup 22/ cm/sup -3/). We will consider the transport in such a plasma of photons ranging from 1 eV to 1 KeV in energy. Such photons will probably be frequently used as diagnostic probes of hot dense laboratory plasmas.

  19. Frequency stable high power lasers in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The concept of a laser heterodyne gravity wave antenna that would operate in solar orbit with a one million kilometer path length is discussed. Laser technology that would be appropriate for operation of this space-based gravity wave detector is also discussed. The rapid progress in diode laser coupled with the energy storage and potentially sub-Hertz linewidths of solid state lasers, and the possibility of efficient frequency conversion by nonlinear optical techniques defines a technology that is appropriate for laser interferometry in space. The present status of diode-laser-pumped, solid state lasers is summarized and future progress is projected in areas of linewidth control, high average power, operating efficiency, and operational lifetimes that are essential for space-based applications.

  20. High frequency oscillators for chaotic radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beal, A. N.; Blakely, J. N.; Corron, N. J.; Dean, R. N.

    2016-05-01

    This work focuses on implementing a class of exactly solvable chaotic oscillators at speeds that allow real world radar applications. The implementation of a chaotic radar using a solvable system has many advantages due to the generation of aperiodic, random-like waveforms with an analytic representation. These advantages include high range resolution, no range ambiguity, and spread spectrum characteristics. These systems allow for optimal detection of a noise-like signal by the means of a linear matched filter using simple and inexpensive methods. This paper outlines the use of exactly solvable chaos in ranging systems, while addressing electronic design issues related to the frequency dependence of the system's stretching function introduced by the use of negative impedance converters (NICs).

  1. High-Frequency Mechanostimulation of Cell Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Kadem, Laith F; Suana, K Grace; Holz, Michelle; Wang, Wei; Westerhaus, Hannes; Herges, Rainer; Selhuber-Unkel, Christine

    2017-01-02

    Cell adhesion is regulated by molecularly defined protein interactions and by mechanical forces, which can activate a dynamic restructuring of adhesion sites. Previous attempts to explore the response of cell adhesion to forces have been limited to applying mechanical stimuli that involve the cytoskeleton. In contrast, we here apply a new, oscillatory type of stimulus through push-pull azobenzenes. Push-pull azobenzenes perform a high-frequency, molecular oscillation upon irradiation with visible light that has frequently been applied in polymer surface relief grating. We here use these oscillations to address single adhesion receptors. The effect of molecular oscillatory forces on cell adhesion has been analyzed using single-cell force spectroscopy and gene expression studies. Our experiments demonstrate a reinforcement of cell adhesion as well as upregulated expression levels of adhesion-associated genes as a result of the nanoscale "tickling" of integrins. This novel type of mechanical stimulus provides a previously unprecedented molecular control of cellular mechanosensing.

  2. Observation of the hot electron interchange instability in a high beta dipolar confined plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Eugenio Enrique

    In this thesis the first study of the high beta, hot electron interchange (HEI) instability in a laboratory, dipolar confined plasma is presented. The Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX) is a new research facility that explores the confinement and stability of plasma created within the dipole field produced by a strong superconducting magnet. In initial experiments long-pulse, quasi-steady state microwave discharges lasting more than 10 sec have been produced with equilibria having peak beta values of 20%. Creation of high-pressure, high beta plasma is possible only when intense HEI instabilities are stabilized by sufficiently high background plasma density. LDX plasma exist within one of three regimes characterized by its response to heating and fueling. The observed HEI instability depends on the regime and can take one of three forms: as quasiperiodic bursts during the low density, low beta plasma regime, as local high beta relaxation events in the high beta plasma regime, and as global, intense energy relaxation bursts, both in the high beta and afterglow plasma regimes. Measurements of the HEI instability are made using high-impedance, floating potential probes and fast Mirnov coils. Analysis of these signals reveals the extent of the transport during high beta plasmas. During intense high beta HEI instabilities, fluctuations at the edge significantly exceed the magnitude of the equilibrium field generated by the high beta electrons and energetic electron confinement ends in under 100 musec. For heated plasmas, one of the consequences of the observed high beta transport is the presence of hysteresis in the neutral gas fueling required to stabilize and maintain the high beta plasma. Finally, a nonlinear, self-consistent numerical simulation of the growth and saturation of the HEI instability has been adapted for LDX and compared to experimental observations.

  3. Modulating action of low frequency oscillations on high frequency instabilities in Hall thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    Liqiu, Wei E-mail: weiliqiu@hit.edu.cn; Liang, Han; Ziyi, Yang; Jing, Li; Yong, Cao; Daren, Yu; Jianhua, Du

    2015-02-07

    It is found that the low frequency oscillations have modulating action on high frequency instabilities in Hall thrusters. The physical mechanism of this modulation is discussed and verified by numerical simulations. Theoretical analyses indicate that the wide-range fluctuations of plasma density and electric field associated with the low frequency oscillations affect the electron drift velocity and anomalous electron transport across the magnetic field. The amplitude and frequency of high frequency oscillations are modulated by low frequency oscillations, which show the periodic variation in the time scale of low frequency oscillations.

  4. Equilibrium and Stability of High-{beta} Plasmas in Wendelstein 7-AS

    SciTech Connect

    Geiger, Joachim E.; Weller, Arthur; Zarnstorff, Michael C.; Nuehrenberg, Carolin; Werner, Andreas Horst Franz; Kolesnichenko, Yaroslav I.

    2004-07-15

    One of the major goals for Wendelstein 7-AS (W7-AS) was the testing of the theoretical basis for the optimized configuration of Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X), currently under construction in Greifswald, Germany. In the last experimental campaign of W7-AS, volume-averaged {beta} values >3% have been achieved. The underlying experimental changes leading to these results are briefly reviewed. The equilibrium characteristics expected from magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory are modeled in a simplified picture and compared with three-dimensional equilibrium calculations. A wide range of parameters has been covered in the experiments with and without net toroidal currents. Experimental data are compared with free-boundary equilibrium calculations and exhibit good agreement. The high-{beta} equilibria usually showed only small MHD activity. The most prominent activities are low-frequency pressure-driven modes connected with low-order rationals also expected from numerical calculations using the CAS3D code, and Alfv and eacute;n modes driven by energetic particles from the tangential neutral beam injection. Comparison of experimentally measured frequencies and mode structures from soft-X-ray tomography with theoretical predictions also shows the improving understanding of these modes in stellarators. The agreement of experiment and theory gives confidence in the predictions for W7-X.

  5. Plant Responses to High Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Vian, Alain; Davies, Eric; Gendraud, Michel; Bonnet, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    High frequency nonionizing electromagnetic fields (HF-EMF) that are increasingly present in the environment constitute a genuine environmental stimulus able to evoke specific responses in plants that share many similarities with those observed after a stressful treatment. Plants constitute an outstanding model to study such interactions since their architecture (high surface area to volume ratio) optimizes their interaction with the environment. In the present review, after identifying the main exposure devices (transverse and gigahertz electromagnetic cells, wave guide, and mode stirred reverberating chamber) and general physics laws that govern EMF interactions with plants, we illustrate some of the observed responses after exposure to HF-EMF at the cellular, molecular, and whole plant scale. Indeed, numerous metabolic activities (reactive oxygen species metabolism, α- and β-amylase, Krebs cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, chlorophyll content, terpene emission, etc.) are modified, gene expression altered (calmodulin, calcium-dependent protein kinase, and proteinase inhibitor), and growth reduced (stem elongation and dry weight) after low power (i.e., nonthermal) HF-EMF exposure. These changes occur not only in the tissues directly exposed but also systemically in distant tissues. While the long-term impact of these metabolic changes remains largely unknown, we propose to consider nonionizing HF-EMF radiation as a noninjurious, genuine environmental factor that readily evokes changes in plant metabolism. PMID:26981524

  6. Extremely high-frequency therapy in oncology.

    PubMed

    Teppone, Mikhail; Avakyan, Romen

    2010-11-01

    This article represents a review of the literature, mainly from Russian sources, dealing with the therapeutic application of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation in the millimeter band applied to experimental and clinical oncology. At the early stage of these studies, efficacy and safety of millimeter electromagnetic radiation (extremely high frequency [EHF]) was proved for various types of malignant tumors. The majority of the further studies demonstrated the high efficacy and safety of millimeter wave radiation in treating patients suffering from both benign and malignant tumors. Developments led to treatment on skin melanoma, cancer of the ear-nose-throat, bowel and breast cancer, cancer of the uterus, lung, and stomach, solid tumors, as well as lymphoma. The main indications for this therapy are (1) preparation prior to radical treatment; (2) prevention and treatment of side-effects and complications from chemotherapy and radiotherapy; (3) prevention of metastases, relapses, and dissemination of the tumor; (4) treatment of the paraneoplastic syndrome; and (5) palliative therapy of incurable patients. In spite of the fact that not all mechanisms underlying effects of EHF therapy are known as yet, this therapeutic modality has been shown to have great potential in clinical oncology from studies performed in Eastern Europe and Russia.

  7. Electromagnetic effects on dynamics of high-beta filamentary structures

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Wonjae; Umansky, Maxim V.; Angus, J. R.; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I.

    2015-01-12

    The impacts of the electromagnetic effects on blob dynamics are considered. Electromagnetic BOUT++ simulations on seeded high-beta blobs demonstrate that inhomogeneity of magnetic curvature or plasma pressure along the filament leads to bending of the blob filaments and the magnetic field lines due to increased propagation time of plasma current (Alfvén time). The bending motion can enhance heat exchange between the plasma facing materials and the inner SOL region. The effects of sheath boundary conditions on the part of the blob away from the boundary are also diminished by the increased Alfvén time. Using linear analysis and the BOUT++ simulation, it is found that electromagnetic effects in high temperature and high density plasmas reduce the growth rate of resistive drift wave turbulence when resistivity drops below some certain value. Lastly, in the course of blobs motion in the SOL its temperature is reduced, which leads to enhancement of resistive effects, so the blob can switch from electromagnetic to electrostatic regime, where resistive drift wave turbulence become important.

  8. Electromagnetic effects on dynamics of high-beta filamentary structures

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Wonjae; Umansky, Maxim V.; Angus, J. R.; ...

    2015-01-12

    The impacts of the electromagnetic effects on blob dynamics are considered. Electromagnetic BOUT++ simulations on seeded high-beta blobs demonstrate that inhomogeneity of magnetic curvature or plasma pressure along the filament leads to bending of the blob filaments and the magnetic field lines due to increased propagation time of plasma current (Alfvén time). The bending motion can enhance heat exchange between the plasma facing materials and the inner SOL region. The effects of sheath boundary conditions on the part of the blob away from the boundary are also diminished by the increased Alfvén time. Using linear analysis and the BOUT++ simulation,more » it is found that electromagnetic effects in high temperature and high density plasmas reduce the growth rate of resistive drift wave turbulence when resistivity drops below some certain value. Lastly, in the course of blobs motion in the SOL its temperature is reduced, which leads to enhancement of resistive effects, so the blob can switch from electromagnetic to electrostatic regime, where resistive drift wave turbulence become important.« less

  9. Electromagnetic effects on dynamics of high-beta filamentary structures

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Wonjae; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I.; Umansky, Maxim V.; Angus, J. R.

    2015-01-15

    The impacts of the electromagnetic effects on blob dynamics are considered. Electromagnetic BOUT++ simulations on seeded high-beta blobs demonstrate that inhomogeneity of magnetic curvature or plasma pressure along the filament leads to bending of the blob filaments and the magnetic field lines due to increased propagation time of plasma current (Alfvén time). The bending motion can enhance heat exchange between the plasma facing materials and the inner scrape-off layer (SOL) region. The effects of sheath boundary conditions on the part of the blob away from the boundary are also diminished by the increased Alfvén time. Using linear analysis and BOUT++ simulations, it is found that electromagnetic effects in high temperature and high density plasmas reduce the growth rate of resistive drift wave instability when resistivity drops below a certain value. The blobs temperature decreases in the course of its motion through the SOL and so the blob can switch from the electromagnetic to the electrostatic regime where resistive drift waves become important again.

  10. Analysis of betaS and betaA genes in a Mexican population with African roots.

    PubMed

    Magaña, María Teresa; Ongay, Zoyla; Tagle, Juan; Bentura, Gilberto; Cobián, José G; Perea, F Javier; Casas-Castañeda, Maricela; Sánchez-López, Yoaly J; Ibarra, Bertha

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the origin of the beta(A) and beta(S) genes in a Mexican population with African roots and a high frequency of hemoglobin S, we analyzed 467 individuals (288 unrelated) from different towns in the states of Guerrero and Oaxaca in the Costa Chica region. The frequency of the sickle-cell trait was 12.8%, which may represent a public health problem. The frequencies of the beta-haplotypes were determined from 350 nonrelated chromosomes (313 beta(A) and 37 beta(S)). We observed 15 different beta(A) haplotypes, the most common of which were haplotypes 1 (48.9%), 2 (13.4%), and 3 (13.4%). The calculation of pairwise distributions and Nei's genetic distance analysis using 32 worldwide populations showed that the beta(A) genes are more closely related to those of Mexican Mestizos and North Africans. Bantu and Benin haplotypes and haplotype 9 were related to the beta(S) genes, with frequencies of 78.8, 18.2, and 3.0%, respectively. Comparison of these haplotypes with 17 other populations revealed a high similitude with the population of the Central African Republic. These data suggest distinct origins for the beta(A) and beta(S) genes in Mexican individuals from the Costa Chica region.

  11. High Frequency Electromagnetic Propagation/Scattering Codes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-01

    Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications , 77...Frequency Limiting, Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications , 77, 469-481 (1980). [12] Y.T. Lo, S.W. Lee, editors, Antenna Handbook, Theory...Widom, Eigenvalue Distribution of Time and Frequency Limiting, Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications , 77, 469-481 (1980). [20] D.

  12. ENGLISH WORDS OF VERY HIGH FREQUENCY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARD, WILLIAM; MCDAVID, VIRGINIA

    THE BIAS OF THE FREQUENCY OF THE 122 MOST COMMONLY USED ENGLISH WORDS WAS STUDIED. THE METHOD USED TO ASSEMBLE THESE DATA IS DESCRIBED FULLY. THE MOST FREQUENTLY USED WORDS WERE TAKEN FROM A DISSERTATION BY GEORGE K. MONROE, "PHONEMIC TRANSCRIPTION OF GRAPHIC POSTBASE AFFIXES IN ENGLISH," GODFREY DEWEY, "RELATIVE FREQUENCY OF ENGLISH SPEECH…

  13. Clinical Utilisation of High-frequency DPOAEs.

    PubMed

    Poling, Gayla; Lee, Jungmee; Siegel, Jonathan; Dhar, Sumitrajit

    2012-01-01

    The value of assessing auditory function at frequencies above 8kHz to detect age-related changes and ototoxic damage in the cochlea is well established but not commonplace. Physiological changes in the auditory periphery due to age and ototoxicity are initially evident, and most prominent, at frequencies above 8kHz [1]. The most well investigated use of hearing thresholds and otoacoustic emissions above 8kHz is in monitoring auditory function in patients undergoing chemotherapy [2]. Ototoxic changes in hearing thresholds at frequencies between 10-14kHz prior to the manifestation of any changes at lower frequencies have been consistently documented in these patients. Age-related changes in hearing also appear at frequencies above 8kHz prior to any observable changes at regular audiometric frequencies [3]. The value of using hearing thresholds at frequencies above 8kHz to detect noise-induced hearing loss is debated in the literature with some reports of hearing thresholds at frequencies above 8kHz demonstrating more sensitivity to noise-induced damage than others [4].

  14. Continuous-wave sum-frequency generation near 194 nm in beta-BaB(2)O(4) crystals with an enhancement cavity.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, M; Hayasaka, K; Imajo, H; Urabe, S

    1992-01-01

    Continuous-wave coherent radiation tunable near 194 nm has been generated by sum-frequency generation in beta-BaB(2)O(4) placed inside an external enhancement cavity. An output power of 16 microW has been obtained with a walk-off-compensated configuration of beta-BaB(2)O(4) crystals.

  15. A High Frequency Model of Cascade Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    1998-01-01

    Closed form asymptotic expressions for computing high frequency noise generated by an annular cascade in an infinite duct containing a uniform flow are presented. There are two new elements in this work. First, the annular duct mode representation does not rely on the often-used Bessel function expansion resulting in simpler expressions for both the radial eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the duct. In particular, the new representation provides an explicit approximate formula for the radial eigenvalues obviating the need for solutions of the transcendental annular duct eigenvalue equation. Also, the radial eigenfunctions are represented in terms of exponentials eliminating the numerical problems associated with generating the Bessel functions on a computer. The second new element is the construction of an unsteady response model for an annular cascade. The new construction satisfies the boundary conditions on both the cascade and duct walls simultaneously adding a new level of realism to the noise calculations. Preliminary results which demonstrate the effectiveness of the new elements are presented. A discussion of the utility of the asymptotic formulas for calculating cascade discrete tone as well as broadband noise is also included.

  16. Laser for high frequency modulated interferometry

    DOEpatents

    Mansfield, D.K.; Vocaturo, M.; Guttadora, L.J.

    1991-07-23

    A Stark-tuned laser operating in the 119 micron line of CH[sub 3]OH has an output power of several tens of milliwatts at 30 Watts of pump power while exhibiting a doublet splitting of about ten MHz with the application of a Stark field on the order of 500 volts/cm. This output power allows for use of the laser in a multi-channel interferometer, while its high operating frequency permits the interferometer to measure rapid electron density changes in a pellet injected or otherwise fueled plasma such as encountered in magnetic fusion devices. The laser includes a long far-infrared (FIR) pyrex resonator tube disposed within a cylindrical water jacket and incorporating charged electrodes for applying the Stark field to a gas confined therein. With the electrodes located within the resonator tube, the resonator tube walls are cooled by a flowing coolant without electrical breakdown in the coolant liquid during application of the Stark field. Wall cooling allows for substantially increased FIR output powers. Provision is made for introducing a buffer gas into the resonator tube for increasing laser output power and its operating bandwidth. 10 figures.

  17. Laser for high frequency modulated interferometry

    DOEpatents

    Mansfield, Dennis K.; Vocaturo, Michael; Guttadora, Lawrence J.

    1991-01-01

    A Stark-tuned laser operating in the 119 micron line of CH.sub.3 OH has an output power of several tens of milliwatts at 30 Watts of pump power while exhibiting a doublet splitting of about ten MHz with the application of a Stark field on the order of 500 volts/cm. This output power allows for use of the laser in a multi-channel interferometer, while its high operating frequency permits the interferometer to measure rapid electron density changes in a pellet injected or otherwise fueled plasma such as encountered in magnetic fusion devices. The laser includes a long far-infrared (FIR) pyrex resonator tube disposed within a cylindrical water jacket and incorporating charged electrodes for applying the Stark field to a gas confined therein. With the electrodes located within the resonator tube, the resonator tube walls are cooled by a flowing coolant without electrical breakdown in the coolant liquid during application of the Stark field. Wall cooling allows for substantially increased FIR output powers. Provision is made for introducing a buffer gas into the resonator tube for increasing laser output power and its operating bandwidth.

  18. High-Frequency Observations of Blazars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marscher, A. P.; Marchenko-Jorstad, S. G.; Mattox, J. R.; Wehrle, A. E.; Aller, M. F.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the results of high-frequency VLBA observations of 42 gamma-ray bright blazars monitored at 22 and 43 GHz between 1993.9 and 1997.6. In 1997 the observations included polarization-sensitive imaging. The cores of gamma-ray blazars are only weakly polarized, with EVPAs (electric-vector position angles) usually within 40 deg of the local direction of the jet. The EVPAs of the jet components are usually within 20 deg of the local jet direction. The apparent speeds of the gamma-ray bright blazars are considerably faster than in the general population of bright compact radio sources. Two X-ray flares (observed with RXTE) of the quasar PKS 1510-089 appear to be related to radio flares, but with the radio leading the X-ray variations by about 2 weeks. This can be explained either by synchrotron self-Compton emission in a component whose variations are limited by light travel time or by the Mirror Compton model.

  19. High-Frequency Observations of Blazars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marscher, A. P.; Marchenko-Jorstad, S. G.; Mattox, J. R.; Wehrle, A. E.; Aller, M. F.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the results of high-frequency VLBA observations of 42 gamma ray bright blazars monitored at 22 and 43 GHz between 1993.9 and 1997-6. In 1997 the observations included polarization-sensitive imaging. The cores of gamma ray blazars are only weakly polarized, with EVPAs (electric-vector position angles) usually within 40 degrees of the local direction of the jet. The EVPAs of the jet components are usually within 20 degrees of the local jet direction. The apparent speeds of the gamma ray bright blazars are considerably faster than in the general population of bright compact radio sources. Two X-ray flares (observed with RXTE) of the quasar PKS 1510-089 appear to be related to radio flares, but with the radio leading the X-ray variations by about 2 weeks. This can be explained either by synchrotron self-Compton emission in a component whose variations are limited by light travel time or by the Mirror Compton model.

  20. High-Frequency Observations of Blazars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marscher, A. P.; Marchenko-Jorstad, S. G.; Mattox, J. R.; Wehrle, A. E.; Aller, M. F.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the results of high-frequency VLBA observations of 42 gamma ray bright blazars monitored at 22 and 43 GHz between 1993.9 and 1997-6. In 1997 the observations included polarization-sensitive imaging. The cores of gamma ray blazars are only weakly polarized, with EVPAs (electric-vector position angles) usually within 40 degrees of the local direction of the jet. The EVPAs of the jet components are usually within 20 degrees of the local jet direction. The apparent speeds of the gamma ray bright blazars are considerably faster than in the general population of bright compact radio sources. Two X-ray flares (observed with RXTE) of the quasar PKS 1510-089 appear to be related to radio flares, but with the radio leading the X-ray variations by about 2 weeks. This can be explained either by synchrotron self-Compton emission in a component whose variations are limited by light travel time or by the Mirror Compton model.

  1. Fibre Bragg gratings subject to high strain at high frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, D. A.

    2011-05-01

    A simple optical interrogation scheme based on an erbium doped fibre super-fluorescent source and a high Finesse Fabry Perot driven at effective frequencies of 20 kHz over ~ 60nm range is used to recover the output signals from Fibre Bragg Gratings (FBG) that can be deployed in a serial array. The FBG were modulated at frequencies up to 10 kHz and strains up to ~4000μstrain. These signals were recovered in the time domain with a very high bandwidth digital scope using a two dimensional waterfall display consisting of a number of segments where the time between segments is equal to the inverse of the system scanning frequency; essentially the sequential 'x' axis tick markers in a conventional x-y graph format. The amplitude induced changes in the wavelength of the FBG are converted to different times and observed as sequential horizontal scans along the time axis of the waterfall, correspond to the variations in the wavelength of the FBG (y axis). Signals from serial FBG arrays appear at different time slices on the time axis enabling near simultaneous determination of the induced strain of each grating.

  2. Disentangling seasonal bacterioplankton population dynamics by high-frequency sampling.

    PubMed

    Lindh, Markus V; Sjöstedt, Johanna; Andersson, Anders F; Baltar, Federico; Hugerth, Luisa W; Lundin, Daniel; Muthusamy, Saraladevi; Legrand, Catherine; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2015-07-01

    Multiyear comparisons of bacterioplankton succession reveal that environmental conditions drive community shifts with repeatable patterns between years. However, corresponding insight into bacterioplankton dynamics at a temporal resolution relevant for detailed examination of variation and characteristics of specific populations within years is essentially lacking. During 1 year, we collected 46 samples in the Baltic Sea for assessing bacterial community composition by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing (nearly twice weekly during productive season). Beta-diversity analysis showed distinct clustering of samples, attributable to seemingly synchronous temporal transitions among populations (populations defined by 97% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity). A wide spectrum of bacterioplankton dynamics was evident, where divergent temporal patterns resulted both from pronounced differences in relative abundance and presence/absence of populations. Rates of change in relative abundance calculated for individual populations ranged from 0.23 to 1.79 day(-1) . Populations that were persistently dominant, transiently abundant or generally rare were found in several major bacterial groups, implying evolution has favoured a similar variety of life strategies within these groups. These findings suggest that high temporal resolution sampling allows constraining the timescales and frequencies at which distinct populations transition between being abundant or rare, thus potentially providing clues about physical, chemical or biological forcing on bacterioplankton community structure. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A High Power Frequency Doubled Fiber Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Rob; Tu, Meirong; Aveline, Dave; Lundblad, Nathan; Maleki, Lute

    2003-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the power frequencies for the doubled fiber laser. It includes information on the 780 nm laser, second harmonic generation in one crystal, cascading crystals, the tenability of laser systems, laser cooling, and directions for future work.

  4. A High Power Frequency Doubled Fiber Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Rob; Tu, Meirong; Aveline, Dave; Lundblad, Nathan; Maleki, Lute

    2003-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the power frequencies for the doubled fiber laser. It includes information on the 780 nm laser, second harmonic generation in one crystal, cascading crystals, the tenability of laser systems, laser cooling, and directions for future work.

  5. MHD analysis of high (. beta. /sub t/) disruptions in PBX (Princeton Beta Experiment)

    SciTech Connect

    Jahns, G.L.; Chance, M.S.; Kaye, S.M.; Manickam, J.; Takahashi, H.; LeBlanc, B.; Morris, A.W.; Reusch, M.; Sesnic, S.

    1987-10-01

    PBX discharges run at the lowest q and highest (..beta../sub t/) always terminated in a hard disruption. The discharges, with (..beta../sub t/) values of up to 5.5% and q-values down to 2.2, were obtained by employing large current ramps and large gas feed rates during neutral beam injection. Previous work has indicated that the achieved (..beta../sub t/)-values were consistent with the limit imposed by the n = 1 ideal external kink with a conducting wall at b/a = 2. In this work, we investigate further the validity of ideal MHD theory in explaining the low-q/sub psi/j disruptions. In particular, the character of the pre-disruption MHD activity in these low-q discharges, specifically the time scales of growth and internal and external mode structures, was compared with those determined from theoretical calculations. The results of these comparisons indicate that non-ideal effects must be considered to obtain detailed agreement between theory and experiment. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  6. High-Frequency and Very-high-Frequency (HF&VHF) above-groundelectromagnetic impedance measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Frangos, William; Becker, Alex; Lee, K.H.

    2002-09-20

    We have field-tested an apparatus for measuring the electromagnetic impedance above the ground at a plurality of frequencies in the 0.3 - 30 MHz range. This window in the frequency spectrum, which lies between frequencies used for GPR and those used for conventional loop-loop EM soundings, has not been used because of difficulties in fielding equipment for making absolute and accurate measurements. Model and physical parameter studies however confirm that data in this frequency band can be used to construct high-resolution maps of electrical conductivity and permittivity of near-surface material. Our equipment was assembled using commercial electric and magnetic antennas. The magnetic loop source is excited by a conventional signal generator - power amplifier assembly. Signal detection is accomplished using RF lock-in amplifiers. All system elements are appropriately isolated by optic - fiber links. We estimate a measurement accuracy of about {+-} 10% for an 8-m separation between source and detector. Field tests were done at the University of California Richmond Field Station where the near surface electrical structure is well known. The experimental data at this site are mainly a function of electrical conductivity. In this context, we have obtained good agreement with the known local variations in resistivity both with depth and with position along a 35-m traverse. Additional tests in more resistive regimes where dielectric permittivity is not negligible yield spectral data compatible with the less well known near-surface electrical properties.

  7. An analytic solution of high. beta. equilibrium in a large aspect ratio tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Cowley, S.C.; Kaw, P.K.; Kelly, R.S.; Kulsrud, R.M.

    1991-03-01

    An analytic solution of the high {beta} ({epsilon}{bar {beta}}{sub p} {approximately} {beta}q{sup 2}/{epsilon} {much gt} 1) equilibrium of a large aspect ratio tokamak is presented. Two arbitrary flux functions, the pressure profile p({psi}) and the safety factor profile q({psi}), specify the equilibrium. The solution splits into two asymptotic regions: the core region where {psi} is a function of the major radius alone and a narrow boundary layer region adjoining the conducting wall. The solutions in the two regions are asymptotically matched to each other. For monotonic pressure profiles, the Shafranov shift is equal to the minor radius. For {beta} much bigger than one, the solution contains a region (in place of the magnetic axis) of zero magnetic field and constant pressure. At high {beta} the quantity {beta}{sub I}, which is essentially proportional to the pressure over the total current squared, is largely independent of pressure. We discuss the important ramifications of limited {beta}{sub I} for high {beta} reactors. Generalizations to shaped cross sections and hollow pressure profiles are outlined. We also consider the problem of equilibrium reconstruction in the high {beta} regime. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Increased Beta Frequency (15-30 Hz) Oscillatory Responses in Euthymic Bipolar Patients Under Lithium Monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tan, Devran; Özerdem, Ayşegül; Güntekin, Bahar; Atagün, M Ilhan; Tülay, Elif; Karadağ, Figen; Başar, Erol

    2016-04-01

    The effect of lithium on neurocognition is not still fully explored. Brain oscillatory activity is altered in bipolar disorder. We aimed to assess the oscillatory responses of euthymic bipolar patients and how they are affected by lithium monotherapy. Event-related oscillations in response to visual target stimulus during an oddball paradigm in 16 euthymic drug-free and 13 euthymic lithium-treated bipolar patients were compared with 16 healthy controls. The maximum peak-to-peak amplitudes were measured for each subject's averaged beta (15-30 Hz) responses in the 0- to 300-ms time window over frontal (F3, Fz, F4), central (C3, Cz, C4), temporal (T7, T8), temporo-parietal (TP7, TP8), parietal (P3, Pz, P4), and occipital (O1, Oz, O2) areas. Patients under lithium monotherapy had significantly higher beta responses to visual target stimuli than healthy controls (P=.017) and drug-free patients (P=.015). The increase in beta response was observed at all electrode locations, however, the difference was statistically significant for the left (T7; P=.016) and right (T8; P=.031) temporal beta responses. Increased beta responses in drug-free patients and further significant increase in lithium-treated patients may be indicative of a core pathophysiological process of bipolar disorder and how it is affected by lithium. Whether the finding corresponds to lithium's corrective effect on the underlying pathology or to its neurocognitive side effect remains to be further explored. In either case, the finding is a sign that the oscillatory activity may be useful in tracking medication effect in bipolar disorder. © EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ECNS) 2014.

  9. High Frequency QRS ECG Accurately Detects Cardiomyopathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Arenare, Brian; Poulin, Gregory; Moser, Daniel R.; Delgado, Reynolds

    2005-01-01

    High frequency (HF, 150-250 Hz) analysis over the entire QRS interval of the ECG is more sensitive than conventional ECG for detecting myocardial ischemia. However, the accuracy of HF QRS ECG for detecting cardiomyopathy is unknown. We obtained simultaneous resting conventional and HF QRS 12-lead ECGs in 66 patients with cardiomyopathy (EF = 23.2 plus or minus 6.l%, mean plus or minus SD) and in 66 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using PC-based ECG software recently developed at NASA. The single most accurate ECG parameter for detecting cardiomyopathy was an HF QRS morphological score that takes into consideration the total number and severity of reduced amplitude zones (RAZs) present plus the clustering of RAZs together in contiguous leads. This RAZ score had an area under the receiver operator curve (ROC) of 0.91, and was 88% sensitive, 82% specific and 85% accurate for identifying cardiomyopathy at optimum score cut-off of 140 points. Although conventional ECG parameters such as the QRS and QTc intervals were also significantly longer in patients than controls (P less than 0.001, BBBs excluded), these conventional parameters were less accurate (area under the ROC = 0.77 and 0.77, respectively) than HF QRS morphological parameters for identifying underlying cardiomyopathy. The total amplitude of the HF QRS complexes, as measured by summed root mean square voltages (RMSVs), also differed between patients and controls (33.8 plus or minus 11.5 vs. 41.5 plus or minus 13.6 mV, respectively, P less than 0.003), but this parameter was even less accurate in distinguishing the two groups (area under ROC = 0.67) than the HF QRS morphologic and conventional ECG parameters. Diagnostic accuracy was optimal (86%) when the RAZ score from the HF QRS ECG and the QTc interval from the conventional ECG were used simultaneously with cut-offs of greater than or equal to 40 points and greater than or equal to 445 ms, respectively. In conclusion 12-lead HF QRS ECG employing

  10. High Frequency QRS ECG Accurately Detects Cardiomyopathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Arenare, Brian; Poulin, Gregory; Moser, Daniel R.; Delgado, Reynolds

    2005-01-01

    High frequency (HF, 150-250 Hz) analysis over the entire QRS interval of the ECG is more sensitive than conventional ECG for detecting myocardial ischemia. However, the accuracy of HF QRS ECG for detecting cardiomyopathy is unknown. We obtained simultaneous resting conventional and HF QRS 12-lead ECGs in 66 patients with cardiomyopathy (EF = 23.2 plus or minus 6.l%, mean plus or minus SD) and in 66 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using PC-based ECG software recently developed at NASA. The single most accurate ECG parameter for detecting cardiomyopathy was an HF QRS morphological score that takes into consideration the total number and severity of reduced amplitude zones (RAZs) present plus the clustering of RAZs together in contiguous leads. This RAZ score had an area under the receiver operator curve (ROC) of 0.91, and was 88% sensitive, 82% specific and 85% accurate for identifying cardiomyopathy at optimum score cut-off of 140 points. Although conventional ECG parameters such as the QRS and QTc intervals were also significantly longer in patients than controls (P less than 0.001, BBBs excluded), these conventional parameters were less accurate (area under the ROC = 0.77 and 0.77, respectively) than HF QRS morphological parameters for identifying underlying cardiomyopathy. The total amplitude of the HF QRS complexes, as measured by summed root mean square voltages (RMSVs), also differed between patients and controls (33.8 plus or minus 11.5 vs. 41.5 plus or minus 13.6 mV, respectively, P less than 0.003), but this parameter was even less accurate in distinguishing the two groups (area under ROC = 0.67) than the HF QRS morphologic and conventional ECG parameters. Diagnostic accuracy was optimal (86%) when the RAZ score from the HF QRS ECG and the QTc interval from the conventional ECG were used simultaneously with cut-offs of greater than or equal to 40 points and greater than or equal to 445 ms, respectively. In conclusion 12-lead HF QRS ECG employing

  11. Attenuation estimation using the peak frequency method with high-resolution time-frequency transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tary, J. B.; Van der Baan, M.; Herrera, R. H.

    2016-12-01

    Seismic waves attenuate during their propagation due to Earth anelasticity. Attenuation is usually estimated by frequency domain methods such as the spectral ratio and frequency shift methods. These methods compare large frequency bandwidths of the spectra of two waveforms to compute attenuation. Time-frequency distribution resulting from high-resolution time-frequency transforms are highly localized which prevent their use to compute attenuation with these methods.The peak frequency method only requires the estimation of peak frequencies for a pair of waveforms to estimate attenuation, which is then compatible with high-resolution transforms. We here employ three transforms, namely basis pursuit, synchrosqueezing transform, and complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition (CEEMD). We evaluate their performance regarding attenuation estimation using synthetic examples with different signal-to-noise ratios, and compare their results to those of the spectral ratio and frequency shift methods. In most cases basis pursuit and the synchrosqueezing transform provide accurate results, while CEEMD show a higher sensitivity to the presence of noise.We then apply the three high-resolution transforms and the peak frequency method to two case studies, a seismic reflection profile and a vertical seismic profile (VSP). We employ centroid frequencies instead of peak frequencies because they provide stabler frequency estimates which are then transferred to stabler attenuation estimates. In the case of the seismic reflection profile, the three time-frequency transforms show small increases in centroid frequencies superimposed on a general decreasing trend. This likely corresponds to local tuning effects due to the layering superimposed on the effect of intrinsic attenuation. For the VSP, the three time-frequency transforms show consistent patterns in centroid frequencies and quality factors. These results show the worth of high-resolution transforms for attenuation estimation.

  12. Exploration of multi-fold symmetry element-loaded superconducting radio frequency structure for reliable acceleration of low- & medium-beta ion species

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Shichun; Geng, Rongli

    2015-09-01

    Reliable acceleration of low- to medium-beta proton or heavy ion species is needed for future high-current superconducting radio frequency (SRF) accelerators. Due to the high-Q nature of an SRF resonator, it is sensitive to many factors such as electron loading (from either the accelerated beam or from parasitic field emitted electrons), mechanical vibration, and liquid helium bath pressure fluctuation etc. To increase the stability against those factors, a mechanically strong and stable RF structure is desirable. Guided by this consideration, multi-fold symmetry element-loaded SRF structures (MFSEL), cylindrical tanks with multiple (n>=3) rod-shaped radial elements, are being explored. The top goal of its optimization is to improve mechanical stability. A natural consequence of this structure is a lowered ratio of the peak surface electromagnetic field to the acceleration gradient as compared to the traditional spoke cavity. A disadvantage of this new structure is an increased size for a fixed resonant frequency and optimal beta. This paper describes the optimization of the electro-magnetic (EM) design and preliminary mechanical analysis for such structures.

  13. Untranslated region-dependent exclusive expression of high-sensitivity subforms of alpha4beta2 and alpha3beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Clark A; Gubbins, Earl J; Marks, Michael J; Putman, C Brent; Thimmapaya, Rama; Meyer, Michael D; Surowy, Carol S

    2006-07-01

    alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are recognized as the principal nicotine binding site in brain. Recombinant alpha4beta2 nAChR demonstrate biphasic concentration-response relationships with low- and high-EC50 components. This study shows that untranslated regions (UTR) can influence expression of high-sensitivity subforms of alpha4beta2 and alpha3beta2 nAChR. Oocytes injected with alpha4 and beta2 RNA lacking UTR expressed biphasic concentration-response relationships for acetylcholine with high-sensitivity EC50 values of 0.5 to 2.5 microM (14-24% of the population) and low-sensitivity EC50 values of 110 to 180 microM (76-86%). In contrast, message with UTR expressed exclusively the high-sensitivity alpha4beta2 nAChR subform with an acetylcholine EC50 value of 2.2 microM. Additional studies revealed pharmacological differences between high- and low-sensitivity alpha4beta2 subforms. Whereas the antagonists dihydro-beta-erythroidine (IC50 of 3-6 nM) and methyllycaconitine (IC50 of 40-135 nM) were not selective between high- and low-sensitivity alpha4beta2, chlorisondamine, mecamylamine, and d-tubocurarine were, respectively, 100-, 8-, and 5-fold selective for the alpha4beta2 subform with low sensitivity to acetylcholine. Conversely, agonists that selectively activated the high-sensitivity alpha4beta2 subform with respect to efficacy as well as potency were identified. Furthermore, two of these agonists were shown to activate mouse brain alpha4beta2 as well as the ferret high-sensitivity alpha4beta2 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. With the use of UTR-containing RNA, exclusive expression of a novel high-sensitivity alpha3beta2 nAChR was also achieved. These studies 1) provide further evidence for the existence of multiple subforms of alpha4beta2 nAChR, 2) extend that to alpha3beta2 nAChR, 3) demonstrate UTR influence on beta2-containing nAChR properties, and 4) reveal compounds that interact with alpha4beta2 in a subform-selective manner.

  14. Behaviour of spectral entropy, spectral edge frequency 90%, and alpha and beta power parameters during low-dose propofol infusion.

    PubMed

    Mahon, P; Greene, B R; Greene, C; Boylan, G B; Shorten, G D

    2008-08-01

    In this study we analyse the behaviour, potential clinical application and optimal cortical sampling location of the spectral parameters: (i) relative alpha and beta power; (ii) spectral edge frequency 90%; and (iii) spectral entropy as monitors of moderate propofol-induced sedation. Multi-channel EEG recorded from 12 ASA 1 (American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1) patients during low-dose, target effect-site controlled propofol infusion was used for this analysis. The initial target effect-site concentration was 0.5 microg ml(-1) and increased at 4 min intervals in increments of 0.5 to 2 microg ml(-1). EEG parameters were calculated for 2 s epochs in the frequency ranges 0.5-32 and 0.5-47 Hz. All parameters were calculated in the channels: P4-O2, P3-O1, F4-C4, F3-C3, F3-F4, and Fp1-Fp2. Sedation was assessed clinically using the OAA/S (observer's assessment of alertness/sedation) scale. Relative beta power and spectral entropy increased with increasing propofol effect-site concentration in both the 0.5-47 Hz [F(18, 90) = 3.455, P<0.05 and F(18, 90) = 3.33, P<0.05, respectively] and 0.5-32 Hz frequency range. This effect was significant in each individual channel (P<0.05). No effect was seen of increasing effect-site concentration on relative power in the alpha band. Averaged across all channels, spectral entropy did not outperform relative beta power in either the 0.5-32 Hz [Pk=0.79 vs 0.814 (P>0.05)] or 0.5-47 Hz range [Pk=0.81 vs 0.82 (P>0.05)]. The best performing indicator in any single channel was spectral entropy in the frequency range 0.5-47 Hz in the frontal channel F3-F4 (Pk=0.85). Relative beta power and spectral entropy when considered over the propofol effect-site range studied here increase in value, and correlate well with clinical assessment of sedation.

  15. An inkjet vision measurement technique for high-frequency jetting

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Kye-Si Jang, Min-Hyuck; Park, Ha Yeong; Ko, Hyun-Seok

    2014-06-15

    Inkjet technology has been used as manufacturing a tool for printed electronics. To increase the productivity, the jetting frequency needs to be increased. When using high-frequency jetting, the printed pattern quality could be non-uniform since the jetting performance characteristics including the jetting speed and droplet volume could vary significantly with increases in jet frequency. Therefore, high-frequency jetting behavior must be evaluated properly for improvement. However, it is difficult to measure high-frequency jetting behavior using previous vision analysis methods, because subsequent droplets are close or even merged. In this paper, we present vision measurement techniques to evaluate the drop formation of high-frequency jetting. The proposed method is based on tracking target droplets such that subsequent droplets can be excluded in the image analysis by focusing on the target droplet. Finally, a frequency sweeping method for jetting speed and droplet volume is presented to understand the overall jetting frequency effects on jetting performance.

  16. An inkjet vision measurement technique for high-frequency jetting.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Kye-Si; Jang, Min-Hyuck; Park, Ha Yeong; Ko, Hyun-Seok

    2014-06-01

    Inkjet technology has been used as manufacturing a tool for printed electronics. To increase the productivity, the jetting frequency needs to be increased. When using high-frequency jetting, the printed pattern quality could be non-uniform since the jetting performance characteristics including the jetting speed and droplet volume could vary significantly with increases in jet frequency. Therefore, high-frequency jetting behavior must be evaluated properly for improvement. However, it is difficult to measure high-frequency jetting behavior using previous vision analysis methods, because subsequent droplets are close or even merged. In this paper, we present vision measurement techniques to evaluate the drop formation of high-frequency jetting. The proposed method is based on tracking target droplets such that subsequent droplets can be excluded in the image analysis by focusing on the target droplet. Finally, a frequency sweeping method for jetting speed and droplet volume is presented to understand the overall jetting frequency effects on jetting performance.

  17. Frequency of haplotypes in the beta globin gene cluster in a selected sample of the mexican population.

    PubMed

    Peñaloza, Rosenda; García-Carrancá, Alejandro; Ceras, Teresa; Alvarez, Carlos; Berumen, Jaime; Zavala, Carlos; Salamanca, Fabio

    1995-01-01

    Five polymorphic restriction enzyme sites in the beta globin gene cluster (HindIII Gγ-Hind III Aγ-, Ava II(INV-2) β-and Hpa I and Bam HI 3'β-globin gene) were studied in individuals from 13 families: 13 homozygote patients for sickle cell anemia, two double heterozygotes (one SC and one S/β(Thal) ), 35 AS heterozygotes (23 parents and 12 siblings), one father (A/β(Thal) ), and three normal siblings. In addition, 17 normal unrelated Mexican subjects were studied. All subjects were from the state of Veracruz on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. The Southern blot technique was used. Fifteen haplotypes were identified in the 142 chromosomes. Five were the most frequent: two haplotypes, (+-+++) (52.4%) and (--+-+) (19.0%) were associated with β(S) chromosomes; two haplotypes, (--+++) (38.2%) and (---++) (19.7%), were linked with β(A) chromosomes, and the fifth (--++-) was present in both types of chromosomes. Haplotype (+-+++) corresponded to the Bantu or Senegal type. With Hinc II analysis after PCR amplification in both the 5' and 3' regions of the ψβ-globin gene, it was possible to distinguish between these African types, as in the former both restriction sites are absent. This analysis was done in 23 β(S) and 10 β(A) subjects. All β(S) chromosomes disclosed the Bantu type, while β(A) were similar to Caucasians. Bantu and Benin haplotypes have been found with high frequency in African populations, indicating the great influence of African genes in the population of the Mexican coasts. In addition, two previously unidentified haplotypes were found: (++--+) and (-++++). These can be explainded by crossing-over events and/or by new mutations. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  18. Development and application of nonflammable, high-temperature beta fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, Frederic S.

    1989-01-01

    Recent advances in fiber technology have contributed to the success of the U.S. space program. The inorganic fiber Beta, developed as a result of efforts begun in the early 1960's and heightened following the January 27, 1967 Apollo fire is unique among inorganic and organic fibers. It has been developed into woven, nonwoven, knitted, braided, coated and printed structures. All of these were used extensively for the Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz test project, space shuttle, Spacelab, and satellite programs. In addition to being used successfully in the space program, Beta fibers are being used commercially as firesafe fabrics in homes, hospitals, institutions, public buildings, aircraft, and public transportation, wherever total nonflammability is required. One of the most unique applications of the Beta composite structure is the roofing material for the 80,000-seat Detroit Lion's Silverdome and 5 square miles of the Jeddah International Airport in Saudi Arabia. This fiber has been successfully incorporated into 165 major public construction projects around the globe. The United States alone has used more than 12 million square yards of the material. Beta fiber has been used successfully to date and has a promising future with unlimited potential for both space and commercial application. Efforts are currently underway to improve Beta fiber to meet the requirements of extended service life for the Space Station Freedom, lunar outpost, and Mars exploration missions.

  19. SNS Medium Beta Cryomodule Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Isidoro Campisi; Edward Daly; G. Davis; Jean Delayen; Christiana Grenoble; John Hogan; Lawrence King; Thomas Powers; Joseph Preble; Mircea Stirbet; Haipeng Wang; Mark Wiseman

    2003-09-01

    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerating Facility (Jefferson Lab) is producing 24 Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cryomodules for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cold linac. This includes one medium-beta (0.61) prototype, 11 medium-beta production, and 12 high-beta (0.81) production cryomodules. Each of the medium-beta cryomodules is scheduled to undergo complete operational performance testing at Jefferson Laboratory before shipment to ORNL. To date, the prototype and three production models of the medium beta cryomodule have been tested. The performance results of the tested cryomodules will be discussed.

  20. [Beta amyloid in blood and cerebrospinal fluid is associated with high density lipoproteins].

    PubMed

    Kudinova, N V; Kudinov, A R; Berezov, T T

    1996-01-01

    Cerebrovascular and parenchymal amyloid deposits found in brains of Alzheimer's disease, Down's syndrome and normal aging are mainly composed of aggregated amyloid beta protein (A beta), a unique peptide 39 to 44 amino acids long. A similar but soluble A beta (s A beta) has been identified in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and cell supernatants, indicating that it is a normal protein. We report here that s A beta in normal human plasma and CSF is complexed to high density lipoprotein (HDL) 3 and very high density lipoprotein (VHDL). Biotinylated synthetic peptide A beta 1-40 was traced in normal human plasma in in vitro experiments. Both tracer biotin-labeled A beta 1-40 and native s A beta were specifically recovered in HDL3 and VHDL as it was assessed in immunoprecipitation experiments of purified plasma lipoproteins and lipoprotein depleted plasma. This fact prompted us to ascertain whether the interaction of s A beta with HDL does occur in normal human CSF in vivo. For this purpose normals human CSF was fractionated by means of sequential flotation ultracentrifugation. The presence of s A beta in the resulting lipoprotein fractions as well as in the lipoprotein depleted CSF was analysed by immunoblot analysis, electron and immune-electron microscopy and native size exclusion chromatography. Immunoblot analysis with 6E10 monoclonal anti-A beta antibodies revealed s A beta association with all HDL subspecies of CSF, primarily HDL3 and VHDL and immunoelectron microscopy confirmed an association of s A beta with CSF-HDL particles of 16.8 + 3.2 nm. Native size exclusion chromatography followed by immunoblot analysis with antibodies against A beta and different apoliproproteins indicated an association of s A beta with HDL complexes of approximately 200 kDa molecular weight. Soluble A beta association with HDL3 and VHDL may be involved in maintaining the solubility of A beta in biological fluids and points to a possible role of lipoproteins and lipoprotein lipid

  1. The increase in theta/beta ratio on resting-state EEG in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is mediated by slow alpha peak frequency.

    PubMed

    Lansbergen, Marieke M; Arns, Martijn; van Dongen-Boomsma, Martine; Spronk, Desirée; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2011-01-15

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was found to be characterized by a deviant pattern of electrocortical activity during resting state, particularly increased theta and decreased beta activity. The first objective of the present study is to confirm whether individuals with slow alpha peak frequency contribute to the finding of increased theta activity in ADHD. The second objective is to explore the relation between resting-state brain oscillations and specific cognitive functions. From 49 boys with ADHD and 49 healthy control boys, resting-state EEG during eyes open and eyes closed was recorded, and a variety of cognitive tasks were administered. Theta and beta power and theta/beta ratio were calculated using both fixed frequency bands and individualized frequency bands. As expected, theta/beta ratio, calculated using fixed frequency bands, was significantly higher in ADHD children than control children. However, this group effect was not significant when theta/beta ratio was assessed using individualized frequency bands. No consistent relation was found between resting-state brain oscillations and cognition. The present results suggest that previous findings of increased theta/beta ratio in ADHD may reflect individuals with slow alpha peak frequencies in addition to individuals with true increased theta activity. Therefore, the often reported theta/beta ratio in ADHD can be considered a non-specific measure combining several distinct neurophysiological subgroups such as frontal theta and slowed alpha peak frequencies. Future research should elucidate the functional role of resting-state brain oscillations by investigating neurophysiological subgroups, which may have a clearer relation to cognitive functions than single frequency bands.

  2. High permeability-high frequency stable MnZn ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalarus, J.; Kogias, G.; Holz, D.; Zaspalis, V. T.

    2012-09-01

    Modern MnZn ferrite applications require high magnetic initial permeability and exceptional frequency stability; the former implies large grains, while the latter high grain boundary resistivity. In this article the optimization of the final firing process is described for achieving both. The optimization is based on the homogeneous dissolution of dopants under oxidative conditions and their subsequent precipitation along grain boundaries. This was accomplished by integrating isothermal plateaus at the upper stadia of the cooling stage of the final firing process. MnZn ferrites of the basic composition [Mn0.47Zn0.47Fe0.062+]Fe23+O4 were synthesized with initial permeability (measured at f=10 kHz, B<0.1 mT, T=25 °C) 12,600 and losses, expressed as tan(δ)/μi, of 3.1×10-6 at 10 kHz and 20.5×10-6 at 100 kHz (B<0.1 mT, T=25 °C), that reflect good frequency stability. These results could be reproduced in pilot production scale.

  3. Suppression of diamagnetism by neutrals pressure in partially ionized, high-beta plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, Shunjiro; Kuwahara, Daisuke; Yano, Kazuki; Fruchtman, Amnon

    2016-12-01

    Suppression of diamagnetism in a partially ionized plasma with high beta was experimentally investigated by the use of Langmuir and Hall sensor probes, focusing on a neutrals pressure effect. The plasma beta, which is the ratio of plasma to vacuum magnetic pressures, varied from ˜1% to >100% while the magnetic field varied from ˜120 G to ˜1 G. Here, a uniform magnetized argon plasma was operated mostly in an inductive mode, using a helicon plasma source of the Large Helicon Plasma Device [S. Shinohara et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 057104 (2009)] with a diameter of 738 mm and an axial length of 4860 mm. Electron density varied from 5 × 1015 m-3 to <3 × 1018 m-3, while an argon fill pressure was varied from ˜0.02 Pa to 0.75 Pa as well as the magnetic field mentioned above, with the fixed radio frequency (rf) and power of 7 MHz and ˜3.5 kW, respectively. The observed magnetic field reduction rate, a decrease of the magnetic field divided by the vacuum one, was up to 18%. However, in a certain parameter regime, where the product of ion and electron Hall terms is a key parameter, the measured diamagnetic effect was smaller than that expected by the plasma beta. This suppressed diamagnetism is explained by the neutrals pressure replacing magnetic pressure in balancing plasma pressure. Diamagnetism is weakened if neutrals pressure is comparable to the plasma pressure and if the coupling of plasma and neutrals pressures by ion-neutral collisions is strong enough.

  4. High vs low frequency neural oscillations in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Moran, Lauren V; Hong, L Elliot

    2011-07-01

    There is growing recognition that neural oscillations are important in a wide range of perceptual and cognitive functions. One of the key issues in electrophysiological studies of schizophrenia is whether high or low frequency oscillations, or both, are related to schizophrenia because many brain functions are modulated with frequency specificities. Many recent electrophysiological studies of schizophrenia have focused on high frequency oscillations at gamma band and in general support gamma band dysfunction in schizophrenia. We discuss the concept that gamma oscillation abnormalities in schizophrenia often occur in the background of oscillation abnormalities of lower frequencies. The review discusses the basic neurobiology for the emergence of oscillations of all frequency bands in association with networks of inhibitory interneurons and the convergence and divergence of such mechanisms in generating high vs low frequency oscillations. We then review the literature of oscillatory frequency abnormalities identified in each frequency band in schizophrenia. By describing some of the key functional roles exerted by gamma, low frequencies, and their cross-frequency coupling, we conceptualize that even isolated alterations in gamma or low frequency oscillations may impact the interactions of high and low frequency bands that are involved in key cognitive functions. The review concludes that studying the full spectrum and the interaction of gamma and low frequency oscillations may be critical for deciphering the complex electrophysiological abnormalities observed in schizophrenia patients.

  5. High-Frequency, High-Temperature Fretting Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matlik, J. F.; Farris, T. N.; Haake, F. K.; Swanson, G. R.; Duke, G. C.

    2005-01-01

    Fretting is a structural damage mechanism observed when two nominally clamped surfaces are subjected to an oscillatory loading. A critical location for fretting induced damage has been identified at the blade/disk and blade/damper interfaces of gas turbine engine turbomachinery and space propulsion components. The high-temperature, high-frequency loading environment seen by these components lead to severe stress gradients at the edge-of-contact. These contact stresses drive crack nucleation and propagation in fretting and are very sensitive to the geometry of the contacting bodies, the contact loads, materials, temperature, and contact surface tribology (friction). To diagnose the threat that small and relatively undetectable fretting cracks pose to damage tolerance and structural integrity of in-service components, the objective of this work is to develop a well-characterized experimental fretting rig capable of investigating fretting behavior of advanced aerospace alloys subjected to load and temperature conditions representative of such turbomachinery components.

  6. High Frequency Shock During Random Vibration Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-10

    Testing Level Natural Frequency (Hz) Ch. 17 Q Factor Test 1: White Noise 192.5 47.97 Test 2: -18 dB 192.5 51.11 Test 3: -15 dB 192.5 50.14 Test 4...12 dB 192.5 52.55 Test 5: -9 dB 192.5 44.99 Test 6: -6 dB 190 47.22 Test 7: White Noise 192.5 48.78 • -6dB Random Input • Shock origination...c o u s ti c P re s s u re ( P a ) Pre and Post White Noise Comparison Resonant frequencies and damping are unchanged after the shock event during

  7. High frequency model of stacked film capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbert, T.; Joubert, C.; Daude, N.; Glaize, C.

    2001-11-01

    Polypropylene metallized capacitors are of general use in power electronics because of their reliability, their self-healing capabilities, and their low price. Though the behavior of metallized coiled capacitors has been discussed, no work has been carried out on stacked and flattened metallized capacitors. The purpose of this article is to suggest an analytical model of resonance frequency, stray inductance and impedance of stacked capacitors. We first solve the equation of propagation of the magnetic potential vector (A) in the dielectric of an homogeneous material. Then, we suggest an original method of resolution, like the one used for resonant cavities, in order to present an analytical solution of the problem. Finally, we give some experimental results proving that the physical knowledge of the parameters of the capacitor (dimension of the component, and material constants), enables us to calculate an analytical model of resonance frequency, stray inductance and impedance of stacked capacitors.

  8. Characterization of a beta-glycosidase highly active on disaccharides and of a beta-galactosidase from Tenebrio molitor midgut lumen.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Alexandre H P; Terra, Walter R; Ferreira, Clélia

    2003-02-01

    The midgut of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae has four beta-glycosidases. The properties of two of these enzymes (betaGly1 and betaGly2) have been described elsewhere. In this paper, the characterization of the other two glycosidases (betaGly3 and betaGly4) is described. BetaGly3 has one active site, hydrolyzes disaccharides, cellodextrins, synthetic substrates and beta-glucosides produced by plants. The enzyme is inhibited by amygdalin, cellotriose, cellotetraose and cellopentaose in high concentrations, probably due to transglycosylation. betaGly3 hydrolyzes beta 1,4-glycosidic linkages with a catalytic rate independent of the substrate polymerization degree (k(int)) of 11.9 s(-1). Its active site is formed by four subsites, where subsites +1 and -1 bind glucose residues with higher affinity than subsite +2. The main role of betaGly3 seems to be disaccharide hydrolysis. BetaGly4 is a beta-galactosidase, since it has highest activity against beta-galactosides. It can also hydrolyze fucosides, but not glucosides, and has Triton X-100 as a non-essential activator (K(a)=15 microM, pH 4.5). betaGly4 has two active sites that can hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl beta-galactoside (NPbetaGal). The one hydrolyzing NPbetaGal with more efficiency is also active against methylumbellipheryl beta-D-galactoside and lactose. The other active site hydrolyzes NPbetaFucoside and binds NPbetaGal weakly. BetaGly4 hydrolyzes hydrophobic substrates with high catalytical efficiency and is able to bind octyl-beta-thiogalactoside in its active site with high affinity. The betaGly4 physiological role is supposed to be the hydrolysis of galactolipids that are found in membranes from vegetal tissues. As the enzyme has a hydrophobic site where Triton X-100 can bind, it might be activated by membrane lipids, thus becoming fully active only at the surface of cell membranes.

  9. Effects of interelectrode gap on high frequency and very high frequency capacitively coupled plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bera, Kallol; Rauf, Shahid; Ramaswamy, Kartik; Collins, Ken

    2009-07-15

    Capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) discharges using high frequency (HF) and very high frequency (VHF) sources are widely used for dielectric etching in the semiconductor industry. A two-dimensional fluid plasma model is used to investigate the effects of interelectrode gap on plasma spatial characteristics of both HF and VHF CCPs. The plasma model includes the full set of Maxwell's equations in their potential formulation. The peak in plasma density is close to the electrode edge at 13.5 MHz for a small interelectrode gap. This is due to electric field enhancement at the electrode edge. As the gap is increased, the plasma produced at the electrode edge diffuses to the chamber center and the plasma becomes more uniform. At 180 MHz, where electromagnetic standing wave effects are strong, the plasma density peaks at the chamber center at large interelectrode gap. As the interelectrode gap is decreased, the electron density increases near the electrode edge due to inductive heating and electrostatic electron heating, which makes the plasma more uniform in the interelectrode region.

  10. Micromachined high Q inductors for high-frequency applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae Y.; Allen, Mark G.

    1998-09-01

    To meet requirements in mobile communication and microwave integrated circuits, miniaturization of the inductive components that many of these systems require is of key importance. At present, active circuitry is used which simulates inductor performance and which has high Q-factor and inductance; however, such circuitry has higher power consumption and higher potential for noise injection than passive inductive components. An alternate approach is to fabricate integrated inductors, in which lithographic techniques are used to pattern an inductor directly on a substrate or a chip. However, integrated inductors can suffer from low Q-factor and high parasitic effects due to substrate proximity. To expand the applications of integrated inductors, these characteristics must be improved. High Q integrated spiral inductors are investigated using olymer/metal multilayer processing techniques and surface micromachining techniques. These inductors have spiral geometry with an air core and a large air gap (4Oim height) between the coils and the substrate (to reduce substrate capacitance), and thick, highly conductive electroplated copper conductor lines (to increase the quality factor). Various inductor geometries are investigated by designing and fabricating several inductors with differing core areas and numbers of turns. The fabricated inductors have a Q-factor of 40-75 at 300-700 MHz and an inductance at these frequencies between 30-7OnH.

  11. High Frequency Acoustic Propagation using Level Set Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    solution of the high frequency approximation to the wave equation. Traditional solutions to the Eikonal equation in high frequency acoustics are...curvature can be extracted at any point of the front from the level set function (provided the normal and curvature are well-defined at that point ), and... points per wavelength to resolve the wave). Ray tracing is therefore the current standard for high frequency propagation modeling. LSM may provide

  12. High-frequency Probing Diagnostic for Hall Current Plasma Thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    A.A. Litvak; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch

    2001-10-25

    High-frequency oscillations (1-100 MHz) in Hall thrusters have apparently eluded significant experimental scrutiny. A diagnostic setup, consisting of a single Langmuir probe, a special shielded probe connector-positioner, and an electronic impedance-matching circuit, was successfully built and calibrated. Through simultaneous high-frequency probing of the Hall thruster plasma at multiple locations, high-frequency plasma waves have been identified and characterized for various thruster operating conditions.

  13. On-clip high frequency reliability and failure test structures

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, E.S.; Campbell, D.V.

    1997-04-29

    Self-stressing test structures for realistic high frequency reliability characterizations. An on-chip high frequency oscillator, controlled by DC signals from off-chip, provides a range of high frequency pulses to test structures. The test structures provide information with regard to a variety of reliability failure mechanisms, including hot-carriers, electromigration, and oxide breakdown. The system is normally integrated at the wafer level to predict the failure mechanisms of the production integrated circuits on the same wafer. 22 figs.

  14. On-clip high frequency reliability and failure test structures

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Eric S.; Campbell, David V.

    1997-01-01

    Self-stressing test structures for realistic high frequency reliability characterizations. An on-chip high frequency oscillator, controlled by DC signals from off-chip, provides a range of high frequency pulses to test structures. The test structures provide information with regard to a variety of reliability failure mechanisms, including hot-carriers, electromigration, and oxide breakdown. The system is normally integrated at the wafer level to predict the failure mechanisms of the production integrated circuits on the same wafer.

  15. Alexandrite laser frequency doubling in. beta. -BaB/sub 2/O/sub 4/ crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.; Yeh, J.

    1988-10-01

    Efficient and tunable coherent ultraviolet (360--390 nm) generation in ..beta..-BaB/sub 2/O/sub 4/ crystals using type-I phase matching at room temperature is presented. The phase-matching angle is characterized with an alexandrite laser with a wavelength tuning range of 725--785 nm. The crystal angular bandwidth of 0.9 mrad-cm and spectral bandwidth of 1.15 nm-cm are also measured. UV output pulse energy of 105 mJ at 378 nm with 31% energy conversion efficiency is achieved.

  16. High Frequency Acoustic Suppression - Experimental & Computational Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-02-01

    mechanisms were the same. One of the drawbacks to the microjet impinging jet experiments was, however, that there was no obvious forcing frequency...Reduced In Impinging Jet Problem With 110 psi (Ref. 31) Application of Supersonic Microjets (Ref. 31). -s3 ~100. i 1 0 r 14’ ~10 100 10’ log top...cavity problem. The first step was to use the same actuator as in the Wiltse & Glezer experiment (Figure 5) and to modify the original free -jet

  17. A high frequency resonance gravity gradiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagaev, S. N.; Bezrukov, L. B.; Kvashnin, N. L.; Krysanov, V. A.; Oreshkin, S. I.; Motylev, A. M.; Popov, S. M.; Rudenko, V. N.; Samoilenko, A. A.; Skvortsov, M. N.; Yudin, I. S.

    2014-06-01

    A new setup OGRAN—the large scale opto-acoustical gravitational detector is described. As distinguished from known gravitational bar detectors it uses the optical interferometrical readout for registering weak variations of gravity gradient at the kilohetz frequency region. At room temperature, its sensitivity is limited only by the bar Brownian noise at the bandwidth close to 100 Hz. It is destined for a search for rare events—gravitational pulses coincident with signals of neutrino scintillator (BUST) in the deep underground of Baksan Neutrino Observatory of INR RAS.

  18. A high frequency resonance gravity gradiometer

    SciTech Connect

    Bagaev, S. N.; Kvashnin, N. L.; Skvortsov, M. N.; Bezrukov, L. B.; Krysanov, V. A.; Oreshkin, S. I.; Motylev, A. M.; Popov, S. M.; Samoilenko, A. A.; Yudin, I. S.; Rudenko, V. N.

    2014-06-15

    A new setup OGRAN—the large scale opto-acoustical gravitational detector is described. As distinguished from known gravitational bar detectors it uses the optical interferometrical readout for registering weak variations of gravity gradient at the kilohetz frequency region. At room temperature, its sensitivity is limited only by the bar Brownian noise at the bandwidth close to 100 Hz. It is destined for a search for rare events—gravitational pulses coincident with signals of neutrino scintillator (BUST) in the deep underground of Baksan Neutrino Observatory of INR RAS.

  19. A high frequency resonance gravity gradiometer.

    PubMed

    Bagaev, S N; Bezrukov, L B; Kvashnin, N L; Krysanov, V A; Oreshkin, S I; Motylev, A M; Popov, S M; Rudenko, V N; Samoilenko, A A; Skvortsov, M N; Yudin, I S

    2014-06-01

    A new setup OGRAN--the large scale opto-acoustical gravitational detector is described. As distinguished from known gravitational bar detectors it uses the optical interferometrical readout for registering weak variations of gravity gradient at the kilohetz frequency region. At room temperature, its sensitivity is limited only by the bar Brownian noise at the bandwidth close to 100 Hz. It is destined for a search for rare events--gravitational pulses coincident with signals of neutrino scintillator (BUST) in the deep underground of Baksan Neutrino Observatory of INR RAS.

  20. Self isolating high frequency saturable reactor

    DOEpatents

    Moore, James A.

    1998-06-23

    The present invention discloses a saturable reactor and a method for decoupling the interwinding capacitance from the frequency limitations of the reactor so that the equivalent electrical circuit of the saturable reactor comprises a variable inductor. The saturable reactor comprises a plurality of physically symmetrical magnetic cores with closed loop magnetic paths and a novel method of wiring a control winding and a RF winding. The present invention additionally discloses a matching network and method for matching the impedances of a RF generator to a load. The matching network comprises a matching transformer and a saturable reactor.

  1. Analysis of High Frequency Seismic Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    2 -4 iv 2.3 Relative noise power ia, narrow frequency bands as a function of time for noise segments at NORESS and KKL...Central Sweden Figure 2. The upper perspective diagram shows the number of events (ill all 5946) as a function of geograp ~hical location out to 1500 kml...al. (1986) obtained 1-18 I~igure i2. Number of events with magnitude ML>2.O and ML>3.Q as a fUnction of geograp ~hical location in relation to NORr.SS

  2. High efficiency, oxidation resistant radio frequency susceptor

    DOEpatents

    Besmann, Theodore M.; Klett, James W.

    2004-10-26

    An article and method of producing an article for converting energy from one form to another having a pitch-derived graphitic foam carbon foam substrate and a single layer coating applied to all exposed surfaces wherein the coating is either silicon carbide or carbides formed from a Group IVA metal. The article is used as fully coated carbon foam susceptors that more effectively absorb radio frequency (RF) band energy and more effectively convert the RF energy into thermal band energy or sensible heat. The essentially non-permeable coatings also serve as corrosion or oxidation resistant barriers.

  3. High-frequency asymptotics of circular dichroism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospelov, M. E.

    1996-07-01

    Circular dichroism of optically active isotropic media of chiral molecules Im(n+-n-)/Im(n++n-) falls off as ω-2 at frequencies Ry<<ω<>Z2Ry, where Z is a typical nuclear charge of atoms in the chiral group. The contribution of the spin of electron to the circular dichroism appears in the second order in spin-orbit perturbation only. The polarization of photoelectrons in the absorption of unpolarized light is connected with the chirality of molecule and constitutes Z2α3 from the degree of geometrical asymmetry.

  4. Causal evidence that intrinsic beta-frequency is relevant for enhanced signal propagation in the motor system as shown through rhythmic TMS

    PubMed Central

    Romei, Vincenzo; Bauer, Markus; Brooks, Joseph L.; Economides, Marcos; Penny, Will; Thut, Gregor; Driver, Jon; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Correlative evidence provides support for the idea that brain oscillations underpin neural computations. Recent work using rhythmic stimulation techniques in humans provide causal evidence but the interactions of these external signals with intrinsic rhythmicity remain unclear. Here, we show that sensorimotor cortex follows externally applied rhythmic TMS (rTMS) stimulation in the beta-band but that the elicited responses are strongest at the intrinsic individual beta peak frequency. While these entrainment effects are of short duration, even subthreshold rTMS pulses propagate through the network and elicit significant cortico-spinal coupling, particularly when stimulated at the individual beta-frequency. Our results show that externally enforced rhythmicity interacts with intrinsic brain rhythms such that the individual peak frequency determines the effect of rTMS. The observed downstream spinal effect at the resonance frequency provides evidence for the causal role of brain rhythms for signal propagation. PMID:26584867

  5. Calibration of High Frequency MEMS Microphones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Humphreys, William M.; Bartram, Scott M.; Zuckewar, Allan J.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding and controlling aircraft noise is one of the major research topics of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program. One of the measurement technologies used to acquire noise data is the microphone directional array (DA). Traditional direction array hardware, consisting of commercially available condenser microphones and preamplifiers can be too expensive and their installation in hard-walled wind tunnel test sections too complicated. An emerging micro-machining technology coupled with the latest cutting edge technologies for smaller and faster systems have opened the way for development of MEMS microphones. The MEMS microphone devices are available in the market but suffer from certain important shortcomings. Based on early experiments with array prototypes, it has been found that both the bandwidth and the sound pressure level dynamic range of the microphones should be increased significantly to improve the performance and flexibility of the overall array. Thus, in collaboration with an outside MEMS design vendor, NASA Langley modified commercially available MEMS microphone as shown in Figure 1 to meet the new requirements. Coupled with the design of the enhanced MEMS microphones was the development of a new calibration method for simultaneously obtaining the sensitivity and phase response of the devices over their entire broadband frequency range. Over the years, several methods have been used for microphone calibration. Some of the common methods of microphone calibration are Coupler (Reciprocity, Substitution, and Simultaneous), Pistonphone, Electrostatic actuator, and Free-field calibration (Reciprocity, Substitution, and Simultaneous). Traditionally, electrostatic actuators (EA) have been used to characterize air-condenser microphones for wideband frequency ranges; however, MEMS microphones are not adaptable to the EA method due to their construction and very small diaphragm size. Hence a substitution-based, free-field method was developed to

  6. High frequency properties of resonant tunneling diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, H. Y.; Sinkkonen, J.

    The small signal analysis for the resonant tunneling diode (RTD) is carried out by using a semiclassical transport theory. Multiple scattering effects are accounted for in an optical approximation by using a complex mean free path. An analytical expression for the conduction current is given. The results show that the negative differential conductance prevails up to the frequency f0 limited by the quantum well transit time. The imaginary part of the admittance can be presented by a series inductance as has been recently found experimentally. In addition, the equivalent circuit has a capacitor in parallel with the conductance-inductance branch. Above f0 the admittance shows an oscillatory behaviour. The oscillations are associated with the quantum well transit time resonances.

  7. Corticospinal beta-range coherence is highly dependent on the pre-stationary motor state.

    PubMed

    Omlor, Wolfgang; Patino, Luis; Mendez-Balbuena, Ignacio; Schulte-Mönting, Jürgen; Kristeva, Rumyana

    2011-06-01

    During steady muscle contractions, the human sensorimotor cortex generates oscillations in the beta-frequency range (15-30 Hz) that are coherent with the activity of contralateral spinal motoneurons. This corticospinal coherence is thought to favor stationary motor states, but its mode of operation remains elusive. We hypothesized that corticospinal beta-range coherence depends on the sensorimotor processing state before a steady force task and may thus increase after sensorimotor tuning to dynamic force generation. To test this hypothesis we instructed 16 human subjects to compensate static force after rest as well as after compensating predictable or unpredictable dynamic force with their right index finger. We calculated EEG-EMG coherence, cortical motor spectral power, and the motor performance during the force conditions. Corticospinal beta-coherence during stationary force was excessively elevated if the steady-state contraction was preceded by predictable dynamic force instead of rest, and was highest after unpredictable dynamic force. The beta-power decreased from rest to predictable dynamic force, and was lowest during unpredictable dynamic force. The increase in corticospinal beta-coherence showed a significant negative correlation with the preceding change in beta-power. The tuning to dynamic force did not entail an inferior motor performance during static force. The results imply a correlation between corticospinal beta-range coherence and the computational load of the preceding isometric motor engagement. We suggest beta-range coherence provides a functional corticospinal gateway for steady force-related processing that can override cortical states tuned to dynamic force. The modulation of corticospinal beta-range coherence might thus ensure comparable precision of static force in various motor contexts.

  8. Operating experience with high beta superconducting rf cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Dylla, H.F.; Doolittle, L.R.; Benesch, J.F.

    1993-06-01

    The number of installed and operational {beta} = 1 superconducting rf cavities has grown significantly over the last two years in accelerator laboratories in Europe, Japan and the US. The total installed acceleration capability as of mid-1993 is approximately 1 GeV at nominal gradients. Major installations at CERN, DESY, KEK and CEBAF have provided large increments to the installed base and valuable operational experience. A selection of test data and operational experience gathered to date is reviewed.

  9. Self-demodulation of high-frequency ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Vos, Hendrik J; Goertz, David E; de Jong, Nico

    2010-03-01

    High-frequency (>10 MHz) ultrasound is used in, e.g., small animal imaging or intravascular applications. Currently available ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) have a suboptimal response for high frequencies. This study therefore investigates the nonlinear propagation effects in a high-frequency ultrasound field (25 MHz) and its use for standard UCA and diagnostic frequencies (1-3 MHz). Nonlinear mixing of two high-frequency carrier waves produces a low-frequency wave, known as the self-demodulation or parametric array effect. Hydrophone experiments showed that the self-demodulated field of a focused 25 MHz transducer (850 kPa source pressure) has an amplitude of 45 kPa at 1.5 MHz in water. Such pressure level is sufficient for UCA excitation. Experimental values are confirmed by numerical simulations using the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov equation on a spatially convergent grid.

  10. Observation of an Energetic-Particle-Driven Instability in the Wall-Stabilized High-beta Plasmas in the JT-60U Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunaga, G.; Aiba, N.; Shinohara, K.; Sakamoto, Y.; Isayama, A.; Takechi, M.; Suzuki, T.; Oyama, N.; Asakura, N.; Kamada, Y.; Ozeki, T.

    2009-07-24

    We have observed a bursting mode in the high-beta plasmas above the ideal beta limit without a conducting wall. The mode frequency is chirping down as the mode amplitude increases, and its initial value is close to the precession frequency of the trapped energetic particle from the perpendicular neutral beams. The mode structure is radially extended with a peak around the q=2 surface. This mode can finally trigger the resistive wall mode (RWM) despite enough plasma rotation for RWM stabilization. It is concluded that the mode is driven by trapped energetic particles. The mode is attributed to the interaction between the trapped energetic particles and a marginally stable mode in the wall-stabilized high-beta{sub N} region.

  11. Osteocalcin protects pancreatic beta cell function and survival under high glucose conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kover, Karen; Yan, Yun; Tong, Pei Ying; Watkins, Dara; Li, Xiaoyu; Tasch, James; Hager, Melissa; Clements, Mark; Moore, Wayne V.

    2015-06-19

    Diabetes is characterized by progressive beta cell dysfunction and loss due in part to oxidative stress that occurs from gluco/lipotoxicity. Treatments that directly protect beta cell function and survival in the diabetic milieu are of particular interest. A growing body of evidence suggests that osteocalcin, an abundant non-collagenous protein of bone, supports beta cell function and proliferation. Based on previous gene expression data by microarray, we hypothesized that osteocalcin protects beta cells from glucose-induced oxidative stress. To test our hypothesis we cultured isolated rat islets and INS-1E cells in the presence of normal, high, or high glucose ± osteocalcin for up to 72 h. Oxidative stress and viability/mitochondrial function were measured by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} assay and Alamar Blue assay, respectively. Caspase 3/7 activity was also measured as a marker of apoptosis. A functional test, glucose stimulated insulin release, was conducted and expression of genes/protein was measured by qRT-PCR/western blot/ELISA. Osteocalcin treatment significantly reduced high glucose-induced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} levels while maintaining viability/mitochondrial function. Osteocalcin also significantly improved glucose stimulated insulin secretion and insulin content in rat islets after 48 h of high glucose exposure compared to untreated islets. As expected sustained high glucose down-regulated gene/protein expression of INS1 and BCL2 while increasing TXNIP expression. Interestingly, osteocalcin treatment reversed the effects of high glucose on gene/protein expression. We conclude that osteocalcin can protect beta cells from the negative effects of glucose-induced oxidative stress, in part, by reducing TXNIP expression, thereby preserving beta cell function and survival. - Highlights: • Osteocalcin reduces glucose-induced oxidative stress in beta cells. • Osteocalcin preserves beta cell function and survival under stress conditions. • Osteocalcin reduces glucose

  12. Order-disorder transition in conflicting dynamics leading to rank-frequency generalized beta distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Martinez, R.; Martinez-Mekler, G.; Cocho, G.

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of rank-ordered distributions of phenomena present in a variety of fields such as biology, sociology, linguistics, finance and geophysics has been a matter of intense research. Often power laws have been encountered; however, their validity tends to hold mainly for an intermediate range of rank values. In a recent publication (Martínez-Mekler et al., 2009 [7]), a generalization of the functional form of the beta distribution has been shown to give excellent fits for many systems of very diverse nature, valid for the whole range of rank values, regardless of whether or not a power law behavior has been previously suggested. Here we give some insight on the significance of the two free parameters which appear as exponents in the functional form, by looking into discrete probabilistic branching processes with conflicting dynamics. We analyze a variety of realizations of these so-called expansion-modification models first introduced by Wentian Li (1989) [10]. We focus our attention on an order-disorder transition we encounter as we vary the modification probability p. We characterize this transition by means of the fitting parameters. Our numerical studies show that one of the fitting exponents is related to the presence of long-range correlations exhibited by power spectrum scale invariance, while the other registers the effect of disordering elements leading to a breakdown of these properties. In the absence of long-range correlations, this parameter is sensitive to the occurrence of unlikely events. We also introduce an approximate calculation scheme that relates this dynamics to multinomial multiplicative processes. A better understanding through these models of the meaning of the generalized beta-fitting exponents may contribute to their potential for identifying and characterizing universality classes.

  13. Phase velocity limit of high-frequency photon density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskell, Richard C.; Svaasand, Lars O.; Madsen, Sten; Rojas, Fabio E.; Feng, T.-C.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    1995-05-01

    In frequency-domain photon migration (FDPM), two factors make high modulation frequencies desirable. First, with frequencies as high as a few GHz, the phase lag versus frequency plot has sufficient curvature to yield both the scattering and absorption coefficients of the tissue under examination. Second, because of increased attenuation, high frequency photon density waves probe smaller volumes, an asset in small volume in vivo or in vitro studies. This trend toward higher modulation frequencies has led us to re-examine the derivation of the standard diffusion equation (SDE) from the Boltzman transport equation. We find that a second-order time-derivative term, ordinarily neglected in the derivation, can be significant above 1 GHz for some biological tissue. The revised diffusion equation, including the second-order time-derivative, is often termed the P1 equation. We compare the dispersion relation of the P1 equation with that of the SDE. The P1 phase velocity is slower than that predicted by the SDE; in fact, the SDE phase velocity is unbounded with increasing modulation frequency, while the P1 phase velocity approaches c/sqrt(3) is attained only at modulation frequencies with periods shorter than the mean time between scatterings of a photon, a frequency regime that probes the medium beyond the applicability of diffusion theory. Finally we caution that values for optical properties deduced from FDPM data at high frequencies using the SDE can be in error by 30% or more.

  14. High frequency properties of a CNT-based nanorelay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonsson, L. M.; Axelsson, S.; Nord, T.; Viefers, S.; Kinaret, J. M.

    2004-11-01

    We have theoretically investigated the high frequency properties of a carbon-nanotube-based three-terminal nanoelectromechanical relay. The intrinsic mechanical frequency of the relay is in the GHz regime, and the electromechanical coupling shows a non-linear resonant behaviour in this frequency range. We discuss how these resonances may be detected and show that the resonance frequencies can be tuned by the bias voltage. Also, we show that the influence of external electromagnetic fields on the relay is negligible at all frequencies.

  15. Effects of high frequency current in welding aluminum alloy 6061

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fish, R. E.

    1968-01-01

    Uncontrolled high frequency current causes cracking in the heat-affected zone of aluminum alloy 6061 weldments during tungsten inert gas ac welding. Cracking developed when an improperly adjusted superimposed high frequency current was agitating the semimolten metal in the areas of grain boundary.

  16. Influence of Smoking on Ultra-High-Frequency Auditory Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Prashanth; Varma, Gowtham; Dutta, Kristi Kaveri; Kumar, Prajwal; Goyal, Swati

    2017-04-01

    In this study, an attempt was made to determine the effect of smoking on ultra-high-frequency auditory sensitivity. The study also attempted to determine the relationship between the nature of smoking and ultra-high-frequency otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) and thresholds. The study sample included 25 smokers and 25 non-smokers. A detailed history regarding their smoking habits was collected. High-frequency audiometric thresholds and amplitudes of high-frequency distortion-product OAEs were analyzed for both ears from all participants. The results showed that the ultra-high-frequency thresholds were elevated and that there was reduction in the amplitudes of ultra-high-frequency OAEs in smokers. There was an increased risk of auditory damage with chronic smoking. The study results highlight the application of ultra-high-frequency OAEs and ultra-high-frequency audiometry for the early detection of auditory impairment. However, similar studies should be conducted on a larger population for better generalization of the results.

  17. Parametric excitation of high-frequency electromagnetic waves by the lower-frequency dipole pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Gamayunov, K.V. ); Khazanov, G.V. ); Krivorutsky, E.N.; Veryaev, A.A. )

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of parametric excitation of high-frequency electromagnetic waves by lower-frequency dipole pumping is studied. It is shown that the obtained general dispersive equation may be reduced to the Mathieu equation, provided the case of the flux instability is neglected. In the framework of the developed approach, the excitation of magnetohydrodynamic waves and whistler oscillations is examined.

  18. Structural drilling using the high-frequency (sonic) rotary method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šporin, Jurij; Vukelić, Željko

    2017-03-01

    In Slovenia, there is widespread use of structural drilling along with classical core drilling. Recently, however, the need has arisen for a highly effective core drilling method with the aid of which high-quality core might be obtained. In order to achieve this aim, one among several Slovenian companies dealing with geological surveying has decided to implement structural drilling using a high-frequency drilling method. The following article presents the theoretical foundations for such a high-frequency method, as well as the manner of its implementation. In the final part of the article, a practical comparison between the conventional and the high-frequency core drilling methods is also provided.

  19. High-Resolution Audio with Inaudible High-Frequency Components Induces a Relaxed Attentional State without Conscious Awareness.

    PubMed

    Kuribayashi, Ryuma; Nittono, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution audio has a higher sampling frequency and a greater bit depth than conventional low-resolution audio such as compact disks. The higher sampling frequency enables inaudible sound components (above 20 kHz) that are cut off in low-resolution audio to be reproduced. Previous studies of high-resolution audio have mainly focused on the effect of such high-frequency components. It is known that alpha-band power in a human electroencephalogram (EEG) is larger when the inaudible high-frequency components are present than when they are absent. Traditionally, alpha-band EEG activity has been associated with arousal level. However, no previous studies have explored whether sound sources with high-frequency components affect the arousal level of listeners. The present study examined this possibility by having 22 participants listen to two types of a 400-s musical excerpt of French Suite No. 5 by J. S. Bach (on cembalo, 24-bit quantization, 192 kHz A/D sampling), with or without inaudible high-frequency components, while performing a visual vigilance task. High-alpha (10.5-13 Hz) and low-beta (13-20 Hz) EEG powers were larger for the excerpt with high-frequency components than for the excerpt without them. Reaction times and error rates did not change during the task and were not different between the excerpts. The amplitude of the P3 component elicited by target stimuli in the vigilance task increased in the second half of the listening period for the excerpt with high-frequency components, whereas no such P3 amplitude change was observed for the other excerpt without them. The participants did not distinguish between these excerpts in terms of sound quality. Only a subjective rating of inactive pleasantness after listening was higher for the excerpt with high-frequency components than for the other excerpt. The present study shows that high-resolution audio that retains high-frequency components has an advantage over similar and indistinguishable digital sound

  20. High-Resolution Audio with Inaudible High-Frequency Components Induces a Relaxed Attentional State without Conscious Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Kuribayashi, Ryuma; Nittono, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution audio has a higher sampling frequency and a greater bit depth than conventional low-resolution audio such as compact disks. The higher sampling frequency enables inaudible sound components (above 20 kHz) that are cut off in low-resolution audio to be reproduced. Previous studies of high-resolution audio have mainly focused on the effect of such high-frequency components. It is known that alpha-band power in a human electroencephalogram (EEG) is larger when the inaudible high-frequency components are present than when they are absent. Traditionally, alpha-band EEG activity has been associated with arousal level. However, no previous studies have explored whether sound sources with high-frequency components affect the arousal level of listeners. The present study examined this possibility by having 22 participants listen to two types of a 400-s musical excerpt of French Suite No. 5 by J. S. Bach (on cembalo, 24-bit quantization, 192 kHz A/D sampling), with or without inaudible high-frequency components, while performing a visual vigilance task. High-alpha (10.5–13 Hz) and low-beta (13–20 Hz) EEG powers were larger for the excerpt with high-frequency components than for the excerpt without them. Reaction times and error rates did not change during the task and were not different between the excerpts. The amplitude of the P3 component elicited by target stimuli in the vigilance task increased in the second half of the listening period for the excerpt with high-frequency components, whereas no such P3 amplitude change was observed for the other excerpt without them. The participants did not distinguish between these excerpts in terms of sound quality. Only a subjective rating of inactive pleasantness after listening was higher for the excerpt with high-frequency components than for the other excerpt. The present study shows that high-resolution audio that retains high-frequency components has an advantage over similar and indistinguishable digital

  1. Analysis of MHD instabilities limiting high normalized beta operation in KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y. S.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Berkery, J. W.; Bialek, J. M.; Yoon, S. W.; Kim, J.; Jeon, Y. M.; Bak, J. G.; Ko, W. H.; Hahn, S. H.; in, Y. K.; Choi, M. J.; Lee, S. G.; Kwak, J. G.; Oh, Y. K.; Park, H. K.; Yun, G. S.; Jardin, S. C.

    2016-10-01

    H-mode plasma operation in KSTAR reached high normalized beta up to 4.3 that significantly surpassed the computed n = 1 ideal no-wall beta limit by a factor of 1.6. Pulse lengths at maximum normalized beta were extended to longer pulses by new, more rapid equilibrium control resulting in normalized beta greater than 3 sustained for 1 s. Analysis of these plasmas shows that low- n global kink/ballooning or resistive wall modes (RWMs) were not the cause of the plasma termination. Kinetic modification of the ideal MHD n = 1 stability criterion computed by the MISK code shows the kinetic RWM to be stable, which is consistent with the observed high normalized beta operation. An m/ n = 2/1 tearing mode onsets at high normalized beta greater than 3 that experimentally reduces normalized beta by more than 30%. The stability of the observed 2/1 tearing mode examined by using the M3D-C1 code coupled with the EFIT reconstruction shows a stable 2/1 mode while the equilibrium is experimentally unstable to the 2/1 mode This result may imply that the mode is classically stable, and the pressuredriven neoclassical terms dominate over the current gradient term. Advances in the analysis from the recent run campaign will be reported. Supported by U.S. DOE Grant DE-FG02-99ER54524.

  2. Monitoring method and apparatus using high-frequency carrier

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, H.D.

    1996-04-30

    A method and apparatus for monitoring an electrical-motor-driven device by injecting a high frequency carrier signal onto the power line current. The method is accomplished by injecting a high frequency carrier signal onto an AC power line current. The AC power line current supplies the electrical-motor-driven device with electrical energy. As a result, electrical and mechanical characteristics of the electrical-motor-driven device modulate the high frequency carrier signal and the AC power line current. The high frequency carrier signal is then monitored, conditioned and demodulated. Finally, the modulated high frequency carrier signal is analyzed to ascertain the operating condition of the electrical-motor-driven device. 6 figs.

  3. Monitoring method and apparatus using high-frequency carrier

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, Howard D.

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring an electrical-motor-driven device by injecting a high frequency carrier signal onto the power line current. The method is accomplished by injecting a high frequency carrier signal onto an AC power line current. The AC power line current supplies the electrical-motor-driven device with electrical energy. As a result, electrical and mechanical characteristics of the electrical-motor-driven device modulate the high frequency carrier signal and the AC power line current. The high frequency carrier signal is then monitored, conditioned and demodulated. Finally, the modulated high frequency carrier signal is analyzed to ascertain the operating condition of the electrical-motor-driven device.

  4. Fronto-Parietal Anatomical Connections Influence the Modulation of Conscious Visual Perception by High-Beta Frontal Oscillatory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Quentin, Romain; Chanes, Lorena; Vernet, Marine; Valero-Cabré, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    May white matter connectivity influence rhythmic brain activity underlying visual cognition? We here employed diffusion imaging to reconstruct the fronto-parietal white matter pathways in a group of healthy participants who displayed frequency-specific ameliorations of visual sensitivity during the entrainment of high-beta oscillatory activity by rhythmic transcranial magnetic stimulation over their right frontal eye field. Our analyses reveal a strong tract-specific association between the volume of the first branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus and improvements of conscious visual detection driven by frontal beta oscillation patterns. These data indicate that the architecture of specific white matter pathways has the ability to influence the distributed effects of rhythmic spatio-temporal activity, and suggest a potentially relevant role for long-range connectivity in the synchronization of oscillatory patterns across fronto-parietal networks subtending the modulation of conscious visual perception. PMID:24554730

  5. Nanohertz frequency determination for the gravity probe B high frequency superconducting quantum interference device signal.

    PubMed

    Salomon, M; Conklin, J W; Kozaczuk, J; Berberian, J E; Keiser, G M; Silbergleit, A S; Worden, P; Santiago, D I

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we present a method to measure the frequency and the frequency change rate of a digital signal. This method consists of three consecutive algorithms: frequency interpolation, phase differencing, and a third algorithm specifically designed and tested by the authors. The succession of these three algorithms allowed a 5 parts in 10(10) resolution in frequency determination. The algorithm developed by the authors can be applied to a sampled scalar signal such that a model linking the harmonics of its main frequency to the underlying physical phenomenon is available. This method was developed in the framework of the gravity probe B (GP-B) mission. It was applied to the high frequency (HF) component of GP-B's superconducting quantum interference device signal, whose main frequency f(z) is close to the spin frequency of the gyroscopes used in the experiment. A 30 nHz resolution in signal frequency and a 0.1 pHz/s resolution in its decay rate were achieved out of a succession of 1.86 s-long stretches of signal sampled at 2200 Hz. This paper describes the underlying theory of the frequency measurement method as well as its application to GP-B's HF science signal.

  6. High frequency fishbone driven by passing energetic ions in tokamak plasmas

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Feng; Yu, L. M.; Fu, G. Y.; ...

    2017-03-22

    High frequency fishbone instability driven by passing energetic ions was first reported in the Princeton beta experiment with tangential neutral-beam-injection (Heidbrink et al 1986 Phys. Rev. Lett. 57 835–8). It could play an important role for ITER-like burning plasmas, where α particles are mostly passing particles. In this work, a generalized energetic ion distribution function and finite drift orbit width effect are considered to improve the theoretical model for passing particle driving fishbone instability. For purely passing energetic ions with zero drift orbit width, the kinetic energymore » $$\\delta {{W}_{k}}$$ is derived analytically. The derived analytic expression is more accurate as compared to the result of previous work. For a generalized energetic ion distribution function, the fishbone dispersion relation is derived and is solved numerically. As a result, numerical results show that broad and off-axis beam density profiles can significantly increase the beam ion beta threshold $${{\\beta}_{c}}$$ for instability and decrease mode frequency.« less

  7. High temperature pressurized high frequency testing rig and test method

    DOEpatents

    De La Cruz, Jose; Lacey, Paul

    2003-04-15

    An apparatus is described which permits the lubricity of fuel compositions at or near temperatures and pressures experienced by compression ignition fuel injector components during operation in a running engine. The apparatus consists of means to apply a measured force between two surfaces and oscillate them at high frequency while wetted with a sample of the fuel composition heated to an operator selected temperature. Provision is made to permit operation at or near the flash point of the fuel compositions. Additionally a method of using the subject apparatus to simulate ASTM Testing Method D6079 is disclosed, said method involving using the disclosed apparatus to contact the faces of prepared workpieces under a measured load, sealing the workface contact point into the disclosed apparatus while immersing said contact point between said workfaces in a lubricating media to be tested, pressurizing and heating the chamber and thereby the fluid and workfaces therewithin, using the disclosed apparatus to impart a differential linear motion between the workpieces at their contact point until a measurable scar is imparted to at least one workpiece workface, and then evaluating the workface scar.

  8. Resonant magnetohydrodynamic waves in high-beta plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ruderman, M. S.

    2009-04-15

    When a global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave propagates in a weakly dissipative inhomogeneous plasma, the resonant interaction of this wave with either local Alfven or slow MHD waves is possible. This interaction occurs at the resonant position where the phase velocity of the global wave coincides with the phase velocity of either Alfven or slow MHD waves. As a result of this interaction a dissipative layer embracing the resonant position is formed, its thickness being proportional to R{sup -1/3}, where R>>1 is the Reynolds number. The wave motion in the resonant layer is characterized by large amplitudes and large gradients. The presence of large gradients causes strong dissipation of the global wave even in very weakly dissipative plasmas. Very often the global wave motion is characterized by the presence of both Alfven and slow resonances. In plasmas with small or moderate plasma beta {beta}, the resonance positions corresponding to the Alfven and slow resonances are well separated, so that the wave motion in the Alfven and slow dissipative layers embracing the Alfven and slow resonant positions, respectively, can be studied separately. However, when {beta} > or approx. R{sup 1/3}, the two resonance positions are so close that the two dissipative layers overlap. In this case, instead of two dissipative layers, there is one mixed Alfven-slow dissipative layer. In this paper the wave motion in such a mixed dissipative layer is studied. It is shown that this motion is a linear superposition of two motions, one corresponding to the Alfven and the other to the slow dissipative layer. The jump of normal velocity across the mixed dissipative layer related to the energy dissipation rate is equal to the sum of two jumps, one that occurs across the Alfven dissipative layer and the other across the slow dissipative layer.

  9. Real-Time, High-Frequency QRS Electrocardiograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; DePalma, Jude L.; Moradi, Saeed

    2003-01-01

    An electronic system that performs real-time analysis of the low-amplitude, high-frequency, ordinarily invisible components of the QRS portion of an electrocardiographic signal in real time has been developed. Whereas the signals readily visible on a conventional electrocardiogram (ECG) have amplitudes of the order of a millivolt and are characterized by frequencies <100 Hz, the ordinarily invisible components have amplitudes in the microvolt range and are characterized by frequencies from about 150 to about 250 Hz. Deviations of these high-frequency components from a normal pattern can be indicative of myocardial ischemia or myocardial infarction

  10. A MEMS-based high frequency x-ray chopper.

    PubMed

    Siria, A; Dhez, O; Schwartz, W; Torricelli, G; Comin, F; Chevrier, J

    2009-04-29

    Time-resolved x-ray experiments require intensity modulation at high frequencies (advanced rotating choppers have nowadays reached the kHz range). We here demonstrate that a silicon microlever oscillating at 13 kHz with nanometric amplitude can be used as a high frequency x-ray chopper. We claim that using micro-and nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS), it will be possible to achieve higher frequencies in excess of hundreds of megahertz. Working at such a frequency can open a wealth of possibilities in chemistry, biology and physics time-resolved experiments.

  11. Condenser Microphone Protective Grid Correction for High Frequency Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Erik; Bennett, Reginald

    2010-01-01

    Use of a protective grid on small diameter microphones can prolong the lifetime of the unit, but the high frequency effects can complicate data interpretation. Analytical methods have been developed to correct for the grid effect at high frequencies. Specifically, the analysis pertains to quantifying the microphone protective grid response characteristics in the acoustic near field of a rocket plume noise source. A frequency response function computation using two microphones will be explained. Experimental and instrumentation setup details will be provided. The resulting frequency response function for a B&K 4944 condenser microphone protective grid will be presented, along with associated uncertainties

  12. High frequency microbubble-switched oscillations modulated by microfluidic transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fanghao; Dai, Xianming; Li, Chen

    2012-08-01

    Creating high frequency two-phase oscillations (HF-TPOs) remains an important goal in advancing microscale fluidic logic devices, micro-mixers, micro-actuators, and flow controls. However, thermally driven TPO frequency has been hindered by confinements of compressible vapor bubbles and low thermal diffusivity in microfluidic systems. In this study, a mechanism creating high frequency microbubbles growth/collapse cycle has been developed to achieve HF-TPOs. A "microfluidic transistor" was conceptualized and fabricated to passively sustain and modulate HF-TPOs. Three orders of magnitude higher TPO frequency has been achieved compared to TPOs reported in literatures under similar working conditions.

  13. Environmentally Assisted Cracking of High Strength Beta Titanium Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    financially supported by the Virginia Center for Innovative Technology TDC on Electrochemical Science and Engineering (Grant CIT- TDC -88-01) and by the Office...Material Behayir, N.R. Moody and A.W. Thompson, eds., TMS -AIME, Warrendale, PA, p. 891(1990). 18. 0. Vosikovsky, J.Tt. EyaL, Vol. 6, p. 175 (1978). 19...acknowledged. 3 23 REFERENCES 1. Beta Titanium Alloys in the 80’s R.R. Boyer and H.W. Rosenberg, eds., TMS -AIME,3 Warrendale, PA. pp. 209-229, 1983. 2

  14. (Confinement and heating of high beta plasmas. Annual progress report)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Final measurements have been made of flux surfaces and equilibrium pressure balance with improved magnetic probes on the ''steady'' hardcore system with 6 msec risetime. These measurements were made with the power crowbar on the main B/sub z/ and l = 1 stellarator fields. Pressure balance measurements show a ..beta.. distribution peaking at about 40% (centered on the ''bean''). Theoretical work that shows the equivalence of a hardcore shift of 2.5 cm (with respect to the l = 1 axis) and toroidal effects corresponding to aspect ratios >17. Some operational results of the coaxial slow source for compact toroids are described.

  15. Synthesis of aromatic (E)- or (Z)-alpha,beta-unsaturated amides with total or very high selectivity from alpha,beta-epoxyamides and samarium diiodide.

    PubMed

    Concellón, José M; Bardales, Eva

    2003-11-28

    Highly stereoselective synthesis of aromatic alpha,beta-unsaturated amides was achieved by treatment of aromatic alpha,beta-epoxyamides with samarium diiodide. The starting compounds 1 and 3 are easily prepared by the reaction of enolates derived from alpha-chloroamides with carbonyl compounds at -78 degrees C. A mechanism to explain this transformation is proposed.

  16. Effect immunization with highly purified alpha- and beta-toxins on staphylococcal mastitis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Adlam, C; Ward, P D; McCartney, A C; Arbuthnott, J P; Thorley, C M

    1977-08-01

    Experiments were carried out to determine whether immunization of female rabbits with highly purified staphylococcal alpha- or beta-toxins would protect them against intramammary challenge with staphylococci. High circulating anti-alpha-toxin titers reduced the lethal hemorrhagic edematous form of the disease ("blue-breast") produced by strains BB and Compton 201 to a localized chronic abscess form. No such protection was afforded by high anti-beta-toxin titers. Immunization with alpha- or beta-toxins produced no change in the clinical picture of the disease produced by CN.6708, a strain of Staphylococcus responsible for a natural outbreak of abscess-type rabbit mastitis. From these experiments it would appear that alpha-toxin is a key antigen in the blue-breast form of rabbit mastitis. Since the abscess form of the disease was not prevented by immunization with either alpha- or beta-toxin, other virulence factors must be acting to produce this more localized disease.

  17. High-frequency filtering of strong-motion records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Douglas, J.; Boore, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of noise in strong-motion records is most problematic at low and high frequencies where the signal to noise ratio is commonly low compared to that in the mid-spectrum. The impact of low-frequency noise (5 Hz) on computed pseudo-absolute response spectral accelerations (PSAs). In contrast to the case of low-frequency noise our analysis shows that filtering to remove high-frequency noise is only necessary in certain situations and that PSAs can often be used up to 100 Hz even if much lower high-cut corner frequencies are required to remove the noise. This apparent contradiction can be explained by the fact that PSAs are often controlled by ground accelerations associated with much lower frequencies than the natural frequency of the oscillator because path and site attenuation (often modelled by Q and κ, respectively) have removed the highest frequencies. We demonstrate that if high-cut filters are to be used, then their corner frequencies should be selected on an individual basis, as has been done in a few recent studies.

  18. Time Frequency Analysis and Spatial Filtering in the Evaluation of Beta ERS After Finger Movement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    decomposition is needed, a more general analysis can be achieved through Wavelet Packets (WP) [2, TIME FREQUENCY ANALYSIS AND SPATIAL FILTERING IN THE...Cincotti5 1Dipartimento di Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Italy 2Dipartimento di Fisiologia Umana e Farmacologia , Università “La Sapienza”, Roma...shows the general decomposition achieved through WP transform. The gray boxes indicate the more traditional WT decomposition as a particular case of the

  19. Broadband high-frequency waves detected at dipolarization fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Cao, J. B.; Fu, H. S.; Wang, T. Y.; Liu, W. L.; Yao, Z. H.

    2017-04-01

    Dipolarization front (DF) is a sharp boundary most probably separating the reconnection jet from the background plasma sheet. So far at this boundary, the observed waves are mainly in low-frequency range (e.g., magnetosonic waves and lower hybrid waves). Few high-frequency waves are observed in this region. In this paper, we report the broadband high-frequency wave emissions at the DF. These waves, having frequencies extending from the electron cyclotron frequency fce, up to the electron plasma frequency fpe, could contribute 10% to the in situ measurement of intermittent energy conversion at the DF layer. Their generation may be attributed to electron beams, which are simultaneously observed at the DF as well.

  20. Polarization Properties of AGN at High Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorstad, S. G.

    2009-08-01

    I discuss variability of polarization in the core region of parsec scale radio jets and connections between 7 mm polarization in the VLBI core and polarization at shorter wavelengths from the whole source for a sample of AGN with highly relativistic jets known as blazars. The sources show pronounced diversity in polarization behavior that is not clearly understood. I discuss possible reasons for these differences as well as the role that VSOP-2 can play in exploring the magnetic field in the most compact regions of jets.

  1. Advanced high frequency partial discharge measuring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karady, George G.

    1994-01-01

    This report explains the Advanced Partial Discharge Measuring System in ASU's High Voltage Laboratory and presents some of the results obtained using the setup. While in operation an insulation is subjected to wide ranging temperature and voltage stresses. Hence, it is necessary to study the effect of temperature on the behavior of partial discharges in an insulation. The setup described in this report can be used to test samples at temperatures ranging from -50 C to 200 C. The aim of conducting the tests described herein is to be able to predict the behavior of an insulation under different operating conditions in addition to being able to predict the possibility of failure.

  2. HF (High-Frequency) Channel Probe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-31

    ionosphere can be calculated from the relation [Basler and Scott, 19731 (~ 2R(R + [’ -Cos (D-)] +h’(5.1) where R is the radius of the earth (6359 km for...emanating from the earth at high latitudes are a convected sunward on the dawn- and dusk-sides of the auroral zones. When they reach the noon sector, the...for refracting HF radio waves back to the earth , the plasma is essentially swept along with the flux tubes delineated by the magnetic field lines. The

  3. Development of a highly cardioselective ultra short-acting beta-blocker, ONO-1101.

    PubMed

    Iguchi, S; Iwamura, H; Nishizaki, M; Hayashi, A; Senokuchi, K; Kobayashi, K; Sakaki, K; Hachiya, K; Ichioka, Y; Kawamura, M

    1992-06-01

    A novel, highly cardioselective ultra short-acting beta-blocker, ONO-1101, has been developed for application in the emergency treatment of tachycardia and better control of heart rate in surgery. This agent is approximately nine times more potent in beta-blocking activity in vivo and eight times more cardioselective in vitro than esmolol. This beta-blocking drug has a short duration of activity, enabling rapid recovery after cessation of administration if side effects occur. It can be used safely in patients suffering from acute heart disease and represents a major therapeutic advance in the treatment of heart disease.

  4. Transient high-frequency ultrasonic water atomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreras, F.; Amaveda, H.; Lozano, A.

    2002-06-01

    An experimental study was performed to improve the understanding of the characteristics of ultrasonic water atomization when excited with waves in the MHz range. In the present experiments, small volumes of water were atomized, observing the temporal evolution of the process. Typical diameters of the resulting droplets are of the order of a few microns. To visualize them, images were acquired with very high magnification. Appropriate lenses were used to enable high resolution at a distance from the flow. Droplet size distributions were also calculated with a Malvern diffractometer. Droplet exit velocity was measured using particle image velocimetry. It was noticeable that, as the remaining liquid mass deposited over the ultrasonic transducer decreased, the atomization characteristics changed, and a second peak of larger droplets appeared in the size distribution function. This phenomenon is related to the change in the curvature of the liquid surface. Although results are not conclusive, it appears that, under the conditions in this study, some observations about droplet formation are better described by cavitation phenomena rather than by the simplified surface wave theory usually invoked to explain these processes.

  5. Development of Graphene for High Frequency Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Joshua; Snyder, David; Fanton, Mark; Hollander, Matthew; Labella, Michael; Trumbull, Kathleen; Cavalero, Randall; Weiland, Brian; The Pennsylvania State University Team

    2011-03-01

    The practicality and success of a graphene technology depends on the ability to regularly and controllably synthesize graphene; integrate it with metals and dielectrics; and to develop device designs that take advantage of graphene's unique properties. We demonstrate graphene synthesis on SiC(0001) and Sapphire with 1.5% variation in sheet resistance across 100mm wafers. Hall mobility measurements indicate that direct growth of graphene on sapphire leads to a 2x increase in mobility (2200 cm2 /Vs) compared to silicon sublimation from SiC(0001). Additionally, we have developed high quality ohmic contacts to graphene, which improves the contact resistance by nearly 6000x (5 x 10-8 Ohm-cm2) compared to untreated metal/graphene interfaces. Finally, we discuss integration of ultra-thin high-k dielectrics and their impact on graphene transport. Atomic layer deposited oxide heterostructures (seed not equal to overlayer) have deleterious effects on Hall mobility while homostructures lead to an increase in Hall mobility. Importantly, 5nm thick EBPVD Hf O2 gate dielectrics are successfully demonstrated and show improved Hall mobility, on-off ratio, and transconductance relative to Al 2 O3 gates and heterostructure gates.

  6. High-frequency energy in singing and speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monson, Brian Bruce

    While human speech and the human voice generate acoustical energy up to (and beyond) 20 kHz, the energy above approximately 5 kHz has been largely neglected. Evidence is accruing that this high-frequency energy contains perceptual information relevant to speech and voice, including percepts of quality, localization, and intelligibility. The present research was an initial step in the long-range goal of characterizing high-frequency energy in singing voice and speech, with particular regard for its perceptual role and its potential for modification during voice and speech production. In this study, a database of high-fidelity recordings of talkers was created and used for a broad acoustical analysis and general characterization of high-frequency energy, as well as specific characterization of phoneme category, voice and speech intensity level, and mode of production (speech versus singing) by high-frequency energy content. Directionality of radiation of high-frequency energy from the mouth was also examined. The recordings were used for perceptual experiments wherein listeners were asked to discriminate between speech and voice samples that differed only in high-frequency energy content. Listeners were also subjected to gender discrimination tasks, mode-of-production discrimination tasks, and transcription tasks with samples of speech and singing that contained only high-frequency content. The combination of these experiments has revealed that (1) human listeners are able to detect very subtle level changes in high-frequency energy, and (2) human listeners are able to extract significant perceptual information from high-frequency energy.

  7. Frequency of genetic polymorphism for adrenergic receptor beta and cytochrome p450 2D6 enzyme, and effects on tolerability of beta-blocker therapy in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction patients: The Beta GenTURK study.

    PubMed

    Zoghi, Mehdi; Kaya, Hakkı; Çavuşoğlu, Yüksel; Aksakal, Enbiya; Demir, Şerafettin; Yücel, Ceyhun; Mutlu, Haşim; Ergene, Oktay; Yılmaz, Mehmet Birhan

    2016-09-01

    The present objective was to determine frequency of Arginine389Glycine (Arg389Gly) and Cytochrome p450 2D6*10 (Cyp2D6*10) polymorphism in cases of heart failure-reduced ejection fraction (HFREF), and to evaluate the influence of the polymorphisms in response to beta-blocker (BB) therapy. A total of 206 HFREF patients and 90 healthy controls were prospectively enrolled. Genotypes for Arg389Gly and Cyp2D6*10 polymorphisms of the healthy controls and 162 of the 206 heart failure (HF) patients were measured, identified by polymerase-chain-reaction- and restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism analysis. HFREF patients and healthy controls were compared regarding Arg389Gly polymorphism. The HFREF patients were separated into 2 subgroups based on achievement of maximal target dose (MTD) of BB. When comparing frequency of genotype distribution for Arg389Gly polymorphism in HFREF patients to the healthy controls, a statistically significant association was observed with CC genotype and Glisin-Glisin (GG) genotype (p<0.001, odds ratio [OR]=16, confidence interval [CI]: 3.8-67.9 and p<0.001, OR=0.3, CI: 0.2-0.6). Frequency of genotypes for Arg389Gly and Cyp2D6*10 polymorphism were similar in patients who could or could not achieve BB MTD (p=0.13 and p=0.60, respectively). The frequency of Arg389Gly polymorphism in patients with HFREF in the present Turkish population differed from that of the healthy controls. However, neither Arg389Gly polymorphism nor Cyp2D6*10 polymorphism was associated with dose tolerability of BB therapy.

  8. The ADMX-HF (High Frequency) Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, K. W.

    2013-04-01

    For many years, the Axion Dark Matter eXperiment (ADMX) has searched for dark-matter axions by their resonant conversion to photons in a high-Q microwave cavity embedded in a strong magnetic field; to date focusing on the ˜1 GHz range, or ma˜ few micro-eV. A second platform, ADMX-HF is now being constructed at Yale University which will focus on technology development and a first look at data in the ˜10 GHz range. Consisting of a 9T superconducting magnet (40 cm long x 14 cm diameter), a dilution refrigerator and a quantum-limited receiver based on Josephson Parametric Amplifiers (JPA) ADMX-HF is projected to achieve sensitivity within the axion model band, despite its smaller volume than ADMX. ADMX-HF is a collaboration of Yale, JILA/Colorado, UC Berkeley and LLNL, and by agreement will create a unified data set with ADMX.

  9. High-frequency multimodal atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nievergelt, Adrian P; Adams, Jonathan D; Odermatt, Pascal D

    2014-01-01

    Summary Multifrequency atomic force microscopy imaging has been recently demonstrated as a powerful technique for quickly obtaining information about the mechanical properties of a sample. Combining this development with recent gains in imaging speed through small cantilevers holds the promise of a convenient, high-speed method for obtaining nanoscale topography as well as mechanical properties. Nevertheless, instrument bandwidth limitations on cantilever excitation and readout have restricted the ability of multifrequency techniques to fully benefit from small cantilevers. We present an approach for cantilever excitation and deflection readout with a bandwidth of 20 MHz, enabling multifrequency techniques extended beyond 2 MHz for obtaining materials contrast in liquid and air, as well as soft imaging of delicate biological samples. PMID:25671141

  10. [Experiences in high frequency audiometry and possible applications (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Dieroff, H G

    1976-09-01

    Observations on the ultrasonic perception of noise-impaired persons gave rise to use the high frequency audiometry described by Fletcher for the early recognition of noise-induced damages. Using commercial equipment we found that the earpiece was not adapted to high frequency conditions. The adaptation problem and ways of modification are described in detail. After having improved the coupling features reproducible hearing curves were obtained. Examinations were carried out on workers, whose noise exposure exceeded the critical intensity by only a few dB. The following 3 categories of impairment were found: 1. Normal hearing between 125 and 8,000 Hz as well as in the high frequency region. 2. Unsignificant noise-induced impairments between 125 and 8,000 Hz; no high frequency hearing. 3. Acoustic hearing; no high frequency hearing. The results are discussed. It is supposed that high frequency hearing losses due to noise and chemical noxious exposure (streptomycin) are valuable in diagnostics and prognostics. Accordingly persons are to be assessed as noise sensitive, when there is no more high frequency hearing before practising noise work.

  11. Theta and high-beta networks for feedback processing: a simultaneous EEG–fMRI study in healthy male subjects

    PubMed Central

    Andreou, C; Frielinghaus, H; Rauh, J; Mußmann, M; Vauth, S; Braun, P; Leicht, G; Mulert, C

    2017-01-01

    The reward system is important in assessing outcomes to guide behavior. To achieve these purposes, its core components interact with several brain areas involved in cognitive and emotional processing. A key mechanism suggested to subserve these interactions is oscillatory activity, with a prominent role of theta and high-beta oscillations. The present study used single-trial coupling of simultaneously recorded electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging data to investigate networks associated with oscillatory responses to feedback during a two-choice gambling task in healthy male participants (n=19). Differential associations of theta and high-beta oscillations with non-overlapping brain networks were observed: Increase of high-beta power in response to positive feedback was associated with activations in a largely subcortical network encompassing core areas of the reward network. In contrast, theta-band power increase upon loss was associated with activations in a frontoparietal network that included the anterior cingulate cortex. Trait impulsivity correlated significantly with activations in areas of the theta-associated network. Our results suggest that positive and negative feedback is processed by separate brain networks associated with different cognitive functions. Communication within these networks is mediated by oscillations of different frequency, possibly reflecting different modes of dopaminergic signaling. PMID:28140398

  12. Theta and high-beta networks for feedback processing: a simultaneous EEG-fMRI study in healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Andreou, C; Frielinghaus, H; Rauh, J; Mußmann, M; Vauth, S; Braun, P; Leicht, G; Mulert, C

    2017-01-31

    The reward system is important in assessing outcomes to guide behavior. To achieve these purposes, its core components interact with several brain areas involved in cognitive and emotional processing. A key mechanism suggested to subserve these interactions is oscillatory activity, with a prominent role of theta and high-beta oscillations. The present study used single-trial coupling of simultaneously recorded electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging data to investigate networks associated with oscillatory responses to feedback during a two-choice gambling task in healthy male participants (n=19). Differential associations of theta and high-beta oscillations with non-overlapping brain networks were observed: Increase of high-beta power in response to positive feedback was associated with activations in a largely subcortical network encompassing core areas of the reward network. In contrast, theta-band power increase upon loss was associated with activations in a frontoparietal network that included the anterior cingulate cortex. Trait impulsivity correlated significantly with activations in areas of the theta-associated network. Our results suggest that positive and negative feedback is processed by separate brain networks associated with different cognitive functions. Communication within these networks is mediated by oscillations of different frequency, possibly reflecting different modes of dopaminergic signaling.

  13. Analysis of toroidal momentum dissipation by non-axisymmetric fields in high beta, low aspect ratio tokamak experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wubiao

    Sustained passive stabilization of ideal MHD modes in tokamaks and the spherical torus (ST) can be obtained by maintaining high plasma rotation. However, the rotation has been theoretically predicted and experimentally found to decay, eliminating passive stabilization and impeding sustainment of high beta. Understanding the physical mechanisms leading to plasma momentum dissipation is extremely important to determine how the favorable plasma rotation can be sustained and maximized and how the plasma rotation profile can be controlled in the future tokamaks. The present work first quantitatively examines the agreement between electromagnetic torque theory and localized resonant plasma rotation damping by resistive MHD instabilities. The drag caused by the interaction of the tearing mode with the wall eddy currents can quantitatively explain localized resonant plasma toroidal rotation damping induced by the tearing mode. The remainder of the study focuses on quantitative comparison of theory to the observed global plasma rotation damping by applied non-axisymmetric fields and ideal MHD instabilities. Plasmas with beta below, approaching, and above the calculated no-wall beta limit are created to study the non-resonant plasma toroidal rotation damping physics. At low beta, external applied field perturbations are used to study the braking effects of n = 1 and n = 3 field configurations. At beta close to the no-wall limit, resonant field amplification (RFA)/stabilized RWM effects are added to the model in computing the braking magnetic field. At beta well above the no-wall limit, the unstable RWM damps the plasma rotation strongly, and the theoretically computed mode eigenfunction is used to determine the field. An NBI source term, resonant EM torque, fluid viscous force and neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) torque in both plateau and collisionless 1/nu are included in the model. Inclusion of a broad toroidal and poloidal field spectrum is required for quantitative

  14. Interface Strategy To Achieve Tunable High Frequency Attenuation.

    PubMed

    Lv, Hualiang; Zhang, Haiqian; Ji, Guangbin; Xu, Zhichuan J

    2016-03-01

    Among all polarizations, the interface polarization effect is the most effective, especially at high frequency. The design of various ferrite/iron interfaces can significantly enhance the materials' dielectric loss ability at high frequency. This paper presents a simple method to generate ferrite/iron interfaces to enhance the microwave attenuation at high frequency. The ferrites were coated onto carbonyl iron and could be varied to ZnFe2O4, CoFe2O4, Fe3O4, and NiFe2O4. Due to the ferrite/iron interface inducing a stronger dielectric loss effect, all of these materials achieved broad effective frequency width at a coating layer as thin as 1.5 mm. In particular, an effective frequency width of 6.2 GHz could be gained from the Fe@NiFe2O4 composite.

  15. High performance vapour-cell frequency standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharavipour, M.; Affolderbach, C.; Kang, S.; Bandi, T.; Gruet, F.; Pellaton, M.; Mileti, G.

    2016-06-01

    We report our investigations on a compact high-performance rubidium (Rb) vapour-cell clock based on microwave-optical double-resonance (DR). These studies are done in both DR continuous-wave (CW) and Ramsey schemes using the same Physics Package (PP), with the same Rb vapour cell and a magnetron-type cavity with only 45 cm3 external volume. In the CW-DR scheme, we demonstrate a DR signal with a contrast of 26% and a linewidth of 334 Hz; in Ramsey-DR mode Ramsey signals with higher contrast up to 35% and a linewidth of 160 Hz have been demonstrated. Short-term stabilities of 1.4×10-13 τ-1/2 and 2.4×10-13 τ-1/2 are measured for CW-DR and Ramsey-DR schemes, respectively. In the Ramsey-DR operation, thanks to the separation of light and microwave interactions in time, the light-shift effect has been suppressed which allows improving the long-term clock stability as compared to CW-DR operation. Implementations in miniature atomic clocks are considered.

  16. Applications of high-frequency radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Headrick, J. M.; Thomason, J. F.

    1998-07-01

    Efforts to extend radar range by an order of magnitude with use of the ionosphere as a virtual mirror started after the end of World War II. A number of HF radar programs were pursued, with long-range nuclear burst and missile launch detection demonstrated by 1956. Successful east coast radar aircraft detect and track tests extending across the Atlantic were conducted by 1961. The major obstacles to success, the large target-to-clutter ratio and low signal-to-noise ratio, were overcome with matched filter Doppler processing. To search the areas that a 2000 nautical mile (3700 km) radar can reach, very complex and high dynamic range processing is required. The spectacular advances in digital processing technology have made truly wide-area surveillance possible. Use of the surface attached wave over the oceans can enable HF radar to obtain modest extension of range beyond the horizon. The decameter wavelengths used by both skywave and surface wave radars require large physical antenna apertures, but they have unique capabilities for air and surface targets, many of which are of resonant scattering dimensions. Resonant scattering from the ocean permits sea state and direction estimation. Military and commercial applications of HF radar are in their infancy.

  17. The Influence of High-Frequency Envelope Information on Low-Frequency Vowel Identification in Noise.

    PubMed

    Schubotz, Wiebke; Brand, Thomas; Kollmeier, Birger; Ewert, Stephan D

    2016-01-01

    Vowel identification in noise using consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) logatomes was used to investigate a possible interplay of speech information from different frequency regions. It was hypothesized that the periodicity conveyed by the temporal envelope of a high frequency stimulus can enhance the use of the information carried by auditory channels in the low-frequency region that share the same periodicity. It was further hypothesized that this acts as a strobe-like mechanism and would increase the signal-to-noise ratio for the voiced parts of the CVCs. In a first experiment, different high-frequency cues were provided to test this hypothesis, whereas a second experiment examined more closely the role of amplitude modulations and intact phase information within the high-frequency region (4-8 kHz). CVCs were either natural or vocoded speech (both limited to a low-pass cutoff-frequency of 2.5 kHz) and were presented in stationary 3-kHz low-pass filtered masking noise. The experimental results did not support the hypothesized use of periodicity information for aiding low-frequency perception.

  18. [High-frequency ventilation. I. Distribution of alveolar pressure amplitudes during high frequency oscillation in the lung model].

    PubMed

    Theissen, J; Lunkenheimer, P P; Niederer, P; Bush, E; Frieling, G; Lawin, P

    1987-09-01

    The pattern of intrapulmonary pressure distribution was studied during high-frequency ventilation in order to explain the inconsistent results reported in the literature. Methods. Pressure and flow velocity (hot-wire anemometry) were measured in different lung compartments: 1. In transalveolar chambers sealed to the perforated pleural surfaces of dried pig lungs; 2. In emphysema-simulating airbags sealed to the isolated bronchial trees of dried pig lungs; and 3. In transalveolar chambers sealed to the perforated pleural surfaces of freshly excised pig lungs. Results. 1. The pressure amplitudes change from one area to another and depending on the exciting frequency. 2. High-frequency oscillation is associated with an increase in pressure amplitude when the exciting frequency rises, whereas with conventional high-frequency jet ventilation the pressure amplitude is more likely to decrease with frequency. 3. During high-frequency jet ventilation the local pressure amplitude changes with the position of the tube in the trachea rather than with the exciting frequency. 4. When the volume of the measuring chamber is doubled the resulting pressure amplitude falls to half the control value. 5. The pressure amplitude and mean pressure measured in the transalveolar chamber vary more or less independently from the peak flow velocity. High-frequency ventilation is thus seen to be a frequency-dependant, inhomogeneous mode of ventilation that can essentially be homogenized by systematically changing the exciting frequency. The frequency-dependant response to different lung areas to excitation is likely to result from an intrabronchially-localized aerodynamic effect rather than the mechanical properties of the lung parenchyma.

  19. High-frequency threshold measurements using insert earphones.

    PubMed

    Tang, H; Letowski, T

    1992-10-01

    Several recent studies have reported large intersubject variability of high-frequency thresholds measured with circumaural earphones. In the present study, high-frequency thresholds of 10 subjects were measured with circumaural (Sennheiser HD-250) and insert (Etymotic ER-1) earphones at 10, 12, 14, and 16 kHz. Overall results show significantly smaller variability of the threshold data obtained with insert earphones than with circumaural earphones. The above data indicate that insert earphones may be more suitable for high-frequency testing than circumaural earphones.

  20. Factors Affecting the Benefits of High-Frequency Amplification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwitz, Amy R.; Ahlstrom, Jayne B.; Dubno, Judy R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to determine the extent to which high-frequency amplification helped or hindered speech recognition as a function of hearing loss, gain-frequency response, and background noise. Method: Speech recognition was measured monaurally under headphones for nonsense syllables low-pass filtered in one-third-octave steps…

  1. High-frequency hearing in seals and sea lions.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Kane A; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Existing evidence suggests that some pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) can detect underwater sound at frequencies well above the traditional high-frequency hearing limits for their species. This phenomenon, however, is not well studied: Sensitivity patterns at frequencies beyond traditional high-frequency limits are poorly resolved, and the nature of the auditory mechanism mediating hearing at these frequencies is unknown. In the first portion of this study, auditory sensitivity patterns in the 50-180 kHz range were measured for one California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), one harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and one spotted seal (Phoca largha). Results show the presence of two distinct slope-regions at the high-frequency ends of the audiograms of all three subjects. The first region is characterized by a rapid decrease in sensitivity with increasing frequency-i.e. a steep slope-followed by a region of much less rapid sensitivity decrease-i.e. a shallower slope. In the second portion of this study, a masking experiment was conducted to investigate how the basilar membrane of a harbor seal subject responded to acoustic energy from a narrowband masking noise centered at 140 kHz. The measured masking pattern suggests that the initial, rapid decrease in sensitivity on the high-frequency end of the subject's audiogram is not due to cochlear constraints, as has been previously hypothesized, but rather to constraints on the conductive mechanism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Modular low-aspect-ratio high-beta torsatron

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, G.V.

    1982-04-01

    A fusion-reactor device is described which the toroidal magnetic field and at least a portion of the poloidal magnetic field are provided by a single set of modular coils. The coils are arranged on the surface of a low-aspect-ratio toroid in planed having the cylindrical coordinate relationship phi = phi/sub i/ + kz, where k is a constant equal to each coil's pitch and phi/sub i/ is the toroidal angle at which the i'th coil intersects the z = o plane. The toroid defined by the modular coils preferably has a race track minor cross section. When vertical field coils and, preferably, a toroidal plasma current are provided for magnetic-field-surface closure within the toroid, a vacuum magnetic field of racetrack-shaped minor cross section with improved stability and beta valves is obtained.

  3. Radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic emissions from materials under high-frequency mechanical excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, Christian; Moore, David

    2017-01-01

    Direct contact piezoelectric transducers were used to excite compacted polycrystalline dielectric material samples with high amplitude but short duration ultrasound through a frequency range of 50 kHz to 10 MHz, while near field RF emissions were measured in 12 frequency bands from 18 to 750 GHz using a suite of detectors. Emissions were observed only in three detectors, covering the 40-75 GHz, 110-170 GHz, and 170-260 GHz frequency ranges. Emission amplitudes appear to rise nonlinearly with applied ultrasound amplitude, and the emission amplitudes versus ultrasound frequency are different than the thermal responses of these samples. Data comparing thermal responses and electromagnetic emissions versus ultrasound frequency and amplitude for several sample types (oxidizers and energetic materials) are reported.

  4. Beware: Recruitment of Muscle Activity by the EEG-Neurofeedback Trainings of High Frequencies.

    PubMed

    Paluch, Katarzyna; Jurewicz, Katarzyna; Rogala, Jacek; Krauz, Rafał; Szczypińska, Marta; Mikicin, Mirosław; Wróbel, Andrzej; Kublik, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    EEG-neurofeedback (NFB) became a very popular method aimed at improving cognitive and behavioral performance. However, the EMG frequency spectrum overlies the higher EEG oscillations and the NFB trainings focusing on these frequencies is hindered by the problem of EMG load in the information fed back to the subjects. In such a complex signal, it is highly probable that the most controllable component will form the basis for operant conditioning. This might cause different effects in the case of various training protocols and therefore needs to be carefully assessed before designing training protocols and algorithms. In the current experiment a group of healthy adults (n = 14) was trained by professional trainers to up-regulate their beta1 (15-22 Hz) band for eight sessions. The control group (n = 18) underwent the same training regime but without rewards for increasing beta. In half of the participants trained to up-regulate beta1 band (n = 7) a systematic increase in tonic EMG activity was identified offline, implying that muscle activity became a foundation for reinforcement in the trainings. The remaining participants did not present any specific increase of the trained beta1 band amplitude. The training was perceived effective by both trainers and the trainees in all groups. These results indicate the necessity of proper control of muscle activity as a requirement for the genuine EEG-NFB training, especially in protocols that do not aim at the participants' relaxation. The specificity of the information fed back to the participants should be of highest interest to all therapists and researchers, as it might irreversibly alter the results of the training.

  5. Beware: Recruitment of Muscle Activity by the EEG-Neurofeedback Trainings of High Frequencies

    PubMed Central

    Paluch, Katarzyna; Jurewicz, Katarzyna; Rogala, Jacek; Krauz, Rafał; Szczypińska, Marta; Mikicin, Mirosław; Wróbel, Andrzej; Kublik, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    EEG-neurofeedback (NFB) became a very popular method aimed at improving cognitive and behavioral performance. However, the EMG frequency spectrum overlies the higher EEG oscillations and the NFB trainings focusing on these frequencies is hindered by the problem of EMG load in the information fed back to the subjects. In such a complex signal, it is highly probable that the most controllable component will form the basis for operant conditioning. This might cause different effects in the case of various training protocols and therefore needs to be carefully assessed before designing training protocols and algorithms. In the current experiment a group of healthy adults (n = 14) was trained by professional trainers to up-regulate their beta1 (15–22 Hz) band for eight sessions. The control group (n = 18) underwent the same training regime but without rewards for increasing beta. In half of the participants trained to up-regulate beta1 band (n = 7) a systematic increase in tonic EMG activity was identified offline, implying that muscle activity became a foundation for reinforcement in the trainings. The remaining participants did not present any specific increase of the trained beta1 band amplitude. The training was perceived effective by both trainers and the trainees in all groups. These results indicate the necessity of proper control of muscle activity as a requirement for the genuine EEG-NFB training, especially in protocols that do not aim at the participants’ relaxation. The specificity of the information fed back to the participants should be of highest interest to all therapists and researchers, as it might irreversibly alter the results of the training. PMID:28373836

  6. A second mutation associated with apparent [beta]-hexosaminidase A pseudodeficiency: Identification and frequency estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Z.; Chabot, T.; Triggs-Raine, B.L. ); Natowicz, M.R.; Prence, E.M. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA ); Kaback, M.M.; Lim-Steele, S.T.; Brown, D. Univ. of California, San Diego, CA )

    1993-12-01

    Deficient activity of [beta]-hexosaminidase A (Hex A), resulting from mutations in the HEXA gene, typically causes Tay-Sachs disease. However, healthy individuals lacking Hex A activity against synthetic substrates (i.e., individuals who are pseudodeficient) have been described. Recently, an apparently benign C[sub 739]-to-T (Arg247Trp) mutation was found among individuals with Hex A levels indistinguishable from those of carriers of Tay-Sachs disease. This allele, when in compound heterozygosity with a second [open quotes]disease-causing[close quotes] allele, results in Hex A pseudodeficiency. The authors examined the HEXA gene of a healthy 42-year-old who was Hex A deficient but did not have the C[sub 739]-to-T mutation. The HEXA exons were PCR amplified, and the products were analyzed for mutations by using restriction-enzyme digestion or single-strand gel electrophoresis. A G[sub 805]-to-A (Gly269Ser) mutation associated with adult-onset G[sub m2] gangliosidosis was found on one chromosome. A new mutation, C[sub 745]-to-T (Arg 249Trp), was identified on the second chromosome. This mutation was detected in an additional 4/63 (6%) non-Jewish and 0/218 Ashkenazi Jewish enzyme-defined carriers. Although the Arg249Trp change may result in a late-onset form of G[sub M2] gangliosidosis, any phenotype must be very mild. This new mutation and the benign C[sub 739]-to-T mutation together account for [approximately]38% of non-Jewish enzyme-defined carriers. Because carriers of the C[sub 739]-to-T and C[sub 745]-to-T mutations cannot be differentiated from carriers of disease-causing alleles by using the classical biochemical screening approaches, DNA-based analyses for these mutations should be offered for non-Jewish enzyme-defined heterozygotes, before definitive counseling is provided. 46 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. High-molecular-weight barley beta-glucan in chapatis (unleavened Indian flatbread) lowers glycemic index.

    PubMed

    Thondre, Pariyarath S; Henry, C Jeya K

    2009-07-01

    Food products incorporated with soluble dietary fiber beta-glucan have shown varying effects on postprandial glycemia. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that a food product fortified with barley beta-glucan and subjected to minimum processing and mild cooking might be effective in lowering glycemic response. In a randomized, single-blind, controlled crossover trial, 8 healthy human subjects (3 men, 5 women; aged 26-50 years; body mass index, <30 kg/m(2)) consumed unleavened Indian flatbreads called chapatis containing high-molecular-weight barley beta-glucan at doses of 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 g on different occasions. Capillary blood samples were collected at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after consuming the chapatis. The incremental area under the glucose curve values for all the 5 different types of chapatis were significantly low (P < .001) compared with reference food glucose. The incremental area under the glucose curve of chapatis containing 4 and 8 g beta-glucan were significantly lower than control chapatis (P < .05). Postprandial blood glucose was significantly reduced at 45 minutes by chapatis containing 4 g (P < .05) and 8 g beta-glucan (P < .01) and at 60 minutes by chapatis with 8 g beta-glucan (P < .01). The glycemic index (GI) values of chapatis with 4 and 8 g beta-glucan were 43% to 47% lower (GI, 30 and 29, respectively) compared with chapatis without beta-glucan (GI, 54). We conclude that barley beta-glucan significantly reduces GI of chapatis, particularly at doses of 4 and 8 g per serving.

  8. High-frequency thresholds: circumaural earphone versus insert earphone.

    PubMed

    Valente, M; Valente, M; Goebel, J

    1992-11-01

    Benefits of high-frequency audiometry in monitoring hearing sensitivity of patients administered ototoxic medications are well established. High-frequency thresholds have been reported to be variable, due in part to small differences in the placement of the earphone diaphragm over the opening of the ear canal. Reliability may be improved by using insert earphones (ER-2) when obtaining high-frequency thresholds. The purposes of this study were to determine high-frequency threshold test-retest reliability using Koss HV/1A+ and ER-2 earphones and to determine if significant differences are present between high-frequency thresholds obtained using these two earphones. Results obtained on 40 ears of 20 normal hearing adults revealed that differences between the test and retest thresholds for each earphone were not significant. Intrasubject threshold differences between the test and retest thresholds for each earphone were, for the most part, within +/- 10 dB at all test frequencies. Further, significantly greater intensity was required to measure threshold when using the ER-2 earphone when compared to the Koss HV/1A+ at all test frequencies.

  9. High-frequency subband compressed sensing MRI using quadruplet sampling.

    PubMed

    Sung, Kyunghyun; Hargreaves, Brian A

    2013-11-01

    To present and validate a new method that formalizes a direct link between k-space and wavelet domains to apply separate undersampling and reconstruction for high- and low-spatial-frequency k-space data. High- and low-spatial-frequency regions are defined in k-space based on the separation of wavelet subbands, and the conventional compressed sensing problem is transformed into one of localized k-space estimation. To better exploit wavelet-domain sparsity, compressed sensing can be used for high-spatial-frequency regions, whereas parallel imaging can be used for low-spatial-frequency regions. Fourier undersampling is also customized to better accommodate each reconstruction method: random undersampling for compressed sensing and regular undersampling for parallel imaging. Examples using the proposed method demonstrate successful reconstruction of both low-spatial-frequency content and fine structures in high-resolution three-dimensional breast imaging with a net acceleration of 11-12. The proposed method improves the reconstruction accuracy of high-spatial-frequency signal content and avoids incoherent artifacts in low-spatial-frequency regions. This new formulation also reduces the reconstruction time due to the smaller problem size. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. High density terahertz frequency comb produced by coherent synchrotron radiation

    PubMed Central

    Tammaro, S.; Pirali, O.; Roy, P.; Lampin, J.-F.; Ducournau, G.; Cuisset, A.; Hindle, F.; Mouret, G.

    2015-01-01

    Frequency combs have enabled significant progress in frequency metrology and high-resolution spectroscopy extending the achievable resolution while increasing the signal-to-noise ratio. In its coherent mode, synchrotron radiation is accepted to provide an intense terahertz continuum covering a wide spectral range from about 0.1 to 1 THz. Using a dedicated heterodyne receiver, we reveal the purely discrete nature of this emission. A phase relationship between the light pulses leads to a powerful frequency comb spanning over one decade in frequency. The comb has a mode spacing of 846 kHz, a linewidth of about 200 Hz, a fractional precision of about 2 × 10−10 and no frequency offset. The unprecedented potential of the comb for high-resolution spectroscopy is demonstrated by the accurate determination of pure rotation transitions of acetonitrile. PMID:26190043

  11. High density terahertz frequency comb produced by coherent synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Tammaro, S; Pirali, O; Roy, P; Lampin, J-F; Ducournau, G; Cuisset, A; Hindle, F; Mouret, G

    2015-07-20

    Frequency combs have enabled significant progress in frequency metrology and high-resolution spectroscopy extending the achievable resolution while increasing the signal-to-noise ratio. In its coherent mode, synchrotron radiation is accepted to provide an intense terahertz continuum covering a wide spectral range from about 0.1 to 1 THz. Using a dedicated heterodyne receiver, we reveal the purely discrete nature of this emission. A phase relationship between the light pulses leads to a powerful frequency comb spanning over one decade in frequency. The comb has a mode spacing of 846 kHz, a linewidth of about 200 Hz, a fractional precision of about 2 × 10(-10) and no frequency offset. The unprecedented potential of the comb for high-resolution spectroscopy is demonstrated by the accurate determination of pure rotation transitions of acetonitrile.

  12. Increased Low- and High-Frequency Oscillatory Activity in the Prefrontal Cortex of Fibromyalgia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Manyoel; Kim, June Sic; Kim, Dajung J.; Chung, Chun Kee

    2016-01-01

    Recent human neuroimaging studies have suggested that fibromyalgia (FM), a chronic widespread pain disorder, exhibits altered thalamic structure and function. Since the thalamus has extensive reciprocal connection with the cortex, structural and functional thalamic alterations in FM might be linked to aberrant thalamocortical oscillation. This study investigated the presence of abnormal brain rhythmicity in low- and high-frequency bands during resting state in patients with FM and their relationship to clinical pain symptom. Spontaneous magnetoencephalography (MEG) activity was recorded in 18 females with FM and 18 age- and sex-matched healthy control (HC) subjects. The most remarkable finding was that FM patients had general increases in theta, beta and gamma power along with a slowing of the dominant alpha peak. Increased spectral powers in the theta-band were primarily localized to the left dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Beta and gamma over-activation were localized to insular, primary motor and primary and secondary somatosensory (S2) cortices, as well as the DLPFC and OFC. Furthermore, enhanced high-frequency oscillatory activities in the DLPFC and OFC were associated with higher affective pain scores in patients with FM. Our results demonstrate that FM patients feature enhanced low- and high-frequency oscillatory activity in the brain areas related to cognitive and emotional modulation of pain. Increased low- and high-frequency activity of the prefrontal cortex may contribute to persistent perception of pain in FM. Therapeutic intervention based on manipulating neural oscillation to restore normal thalamocortical rhythmicity may be beneficial to pain relief in FM. PMID:27014041

  13. High-frequency matrix converter with square wave input

    DOEpatents

    Carr, Joseph Alexander; Balda, Juan Carlos

    2015-03-31

    A device for producing an alternating current output voltage from a high-frequency, square-wave input voltage comprising, high-frequency, square-wave input a matrix converter and a control system. The matrix converter comprises a plurality of electrical switches. The high-frequency input and the matrix converter are electrically connected to each other. The control system is connected to each switch of the matrix converter. The control system is electrically connected to the input of the matrix converter. The control system is configured to operate each electrical switch of the matrix converter converting a high-frequency, square-wave input voltage across the first input port of the matrix converter and the second input port of the matrix converter to an alternating current output voltage at the output of the matrix converter.

  14. Yellow maize with high beta-carotene is an effective source of vitamin A in healthy Zimbabwean men

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The bioconversion efficiency of yellow maize beta-carotene to retinol in humans is unknown. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the vitamin A value of yellow maize beta-carotene in humans. A high beta-carotene containing yellow maize was grown in a hydroponic medium with 23 atom% 2H2O...

  15. Yellow maize with high (beta)-carotene is an effective source of vitamin A in healthy Zimbabwean men

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    BACKGROUND: The bioconversion efficiency of yellow maize Beta-carotene to retinol in humans is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the vitamin A value of yellow maize Beta-carotene in humans. DESIGN: High Beta-carotene-containing yellow maize was grown in a hydroponic...

  16. Measurement of high-frequency, small scale density fluctuations in improved confinement RFP plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duff, J. R.; Chapman, B. E.; Sarff, J. S.; Carmody, D.; Terry, P. W.; den Hartog, D. J.; Morton, L. A.; Lin, L.; Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.; MST Team

    2014-10-01

    In standard MST RFP plasmas, core transport is governed by magnetic fluctuations associated with global tearing modes. Using pulsed parallel current drive, tearing is significantly reduced and smaller-scale fluctuations are likely important to electron particle and heat transport for these improved confinement plasmas. On MST, an 11-chord FIR laser-based interferometry diagnostic, with ~ 8 cm chord spacing, is used to measure electron density fluctuations with wavenumbers k < 1-2 cm-1. An upgrade underway will allow resolution up to k ~ 15 cm-1. A fast magnetic coil array is employed for magnetic fluctuations. High-frequency (>50 kHz) small-scale (n > 15) density and magnetic fluctuations have been observed in the edge plasma, where density and temperature gradients are largest. These fluctuations are distinct from tearing and have amplitudes that correlate with the density gradient and electron beta. The MST is well suited to explore beta scaling given the large dynamic range (9-26%) found in the device. Correlation of the measured density fluctuations with plasma parameters in high beta plasmas will serve to identify the drive and contribute to validation of gyrokinetic codes. Work supported by DOE and NSF.

  17. Synthetic Aperture Sonar Low Frequency vs. High Frequency Automatic Contact Generation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    resurveyed the harbor with both sidescan sonar (on REMUS) and SAS (on the SSAM AUV) provided by NAVSEA Costal Systems Command. NOMWC, NAVOCEANO and...Synthetic Aperture Sonar Low Frequency vs. High Frequency Automatic Contact Generation J. R. Dubberley and M. L. Gendron Naval Research...Laboratory Code 7440.1 Building 1005 Stennis Space Center, MS 39529 USA Abstract- Synthetic Aperture Sonar (SAS) bottom mapping sensors are on the

  18. Deuterium-tritium TFTR plasmas in the high poloidal beta regime

    SciTech Connect

    Sabbagh, S.A.; Mauel, M.E.; Navratil, G.A.

    1995-03-01

    Deuterium-tritium plasmas with enhanced energy confinement and stability have been produced in the high poloidal beta, advanced tokamak regime in TFTR. Confinement enhancement H {triple_bond} {tau}{sub E}/{tau}{sub E ITER-89P} > 4 has been obtained in a limiter H-mode configuration at moderate plasma current I{sub p} = 0.85 {minus} 1.46 MA. By peaking the plasma current profile, {beta}{sub N dia} {triple_bond} 10{sup 8} < {beta}{sub t{perpendicular}} > aB{sub 0}/I{sub p} = 3 has been obtained in these plasma,s exceeding the {beta}{sub N} limit for TFTR plasmas with lower internal inductance, l{sub i}. Fusion power exceeding 6.7 MW with a fusion power gain Q{sub DT} = 0.22 has been produced with reduced alpha particle first orbit loss provided by the increased l{sub i}.

  19. High frequency ultrasound with color Doppler in dermatology*

    PubMed Central

    Barcaui, Elisa de Oliveira; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Pires; Lopes, Flavia Paiva Proença Lobo; Piñeiro-Maceira, Juan; Barcaui, Carlos Baptista

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography is a method of imaging that classically is used in dermatology to study changes in the hypoderma, as nodules and infectious and inflammatory processes. The introduction of high frequency and resolution equipments enabled the observation of superficial structures, allowing differentiation between skin layers and providing details for the analysis of the skin and its appendages. This paper aims to review the basic principles of high frequency ultrasound and its applications in different areas of dermatology. PMID:27438191

  20. Basis of Ionospheric Modification by High-Frequency Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    for conducting ionospheric heating experiments in Gakona, Alaska, as part of the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program ( HAARP ) [5], is being...upgraded. The upgraded HAARP HF transmitting system will be a phased-array antenna of 180 elements. Each element is a cross dipole, which radiates a...supported by the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program ( HAARP ), the Air Force Research Laboratory at Hanscom Air Force Base, MA, and by the Office

  1. High frequency, small signal MH loops of ferromagnetic thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimes, C. A.; Ong, K. G.

    2000-01-01

    A method is presented for transforming the high frequency bias susceptibility measurements of ferromagnetic thin films into the form of a MH loop with, depending upon the measurement geometry, the y-axis zero crossing giving a measure of the coercive force or anisotropy field. The loops provide a measure of the quantitative and qualitative high frequency switching properties of ferromagnetic thin films. c2000 American Institute of Physics.

  2. Beta 2-adrenergic regulation of ciliary beat frequency in rat bronchiolar epithelium: potentiation by isosmotic cell shrinkage.

    PubMed

    Shiima-Kinoshita, Chisa; Min, Kyong-Yob; Hanafusa, Toshiaki; Mori, Hiroshi; Nakahari, Takashi

    2004-01-15

    Single bronchiolar ciliary cells were isolated from rat lungs. The beta(2)-adrenergic regulation of ciliary beat frequency (CBF) was studied using video-optical microscopy. Terbutaline (a beta(2)-adrenergic agonist) increased CBF in a dose-dependent manner, and it also decreased the volume of the ciliary cells. These terbutaline actions were inhibited by a PKA inhibitor (H-89) and mimicked by forskolin, IBMX and DBcAMP. Ion transport inhibitors were used to isosmotically manipulate the volume of the terbutaline-stimulated bronchiolar ciliary cells. Amiloride (1 microM) and bumetanide (20 microM) potentiated cell shrinkage and the CBF increase, and they shifted the terbutaline dose-response curve to the lower-concentration side. Quinidine (500 microM), in contrast, increased cell volume and suppressed the CBF increase. Moreover, a KCl solution containing amiloride (1 microM) and strophanthidin (100 microM) increased cell volume and suppressed the CBF increase, and then the subsequent removal of either amiloride or strophanthidin decreased cell volume and further increased CBF. NPPB (10 microM) or glybenclamide (200 microM) had no effect on the action of terbutaline. Thus, in terbutaline-stimulated ciliary cells, cell shrinkage enhances the CBF increase; in contrast, cell swelling suppresses it. However, the results of direct manupulation of cell volume by applying osmotic stresses (hyperosmotic shrinkage or hyposmotic swelling) were the opposite of the findings of the isosmotic experiments: hyposmotic cell swelling enhanced the CBF increase, while isosmotic swelling suppressed it. These results suggest that isosmotic and non-isosmotic volume changes in terbutaline-stimulated bronchiolar ciliary cells may trigger different signalling pathways. In conclusion, terbutaline increases CBF and decreases the volume of rat bronchiolar ciliary cells via cAMP accumulation under isosmotic conditions, and the isosmotic cell shrinkage enhances the CBF increase by increasing c

  3. High beta studies on ISX-B with neutral beam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.; Bates, S.C.; Bush, C.E.

    1980-01-01

    Injection of H/sup 0/ into D/sup +/ plasmas with beam power P/sub b/ of up to 1.7 MW has produced rms betas of approx. 4%, volume-averaged betas of approx. 3%, and central betas of approx. 10% in the ISX-B tokamak. Although theoretical calculations indicate that the observed equilibria may be unstable to ballooning modes, no catastrophic loss of confinement has been observed, and beta continues to increase with injection power. In these beam-dominated high-beta discharges the electron and ion energy confinement times are still similar to those obtained with ohmic heating: ion energy confinement is neoclassical within a factor of approx. 2, and electron energy confinement follows the usual Alcator scaling. In high-power injection discharges the character of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) behavior changes, the particle confinement time decreases, and the inward impurity transport appears to be inhibited. These effects, however, may not be linked directly to beta.

  4. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of 17beta-estradiol and 17beta-estradiol-3-acetate solubilities and diffusion coefficents in silicone elastromeric intravaginal rings.

    PubMed

    Russell, J A; Malcolm, R K; Campbell, K; Woolfson, A D

    2000-07-07

    A rapid, sensitive reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of in vitro release of 17beta-estradiol and its ester prodrug, 17beta-estradiol-3-acetate, from silicone intravaginal rings. Partial hydrolysis of the acetate under the aqueous conditions provided by the 1% benzalkonium chloride release medium necessitates its conversion to 17beta-estradiol prior to HPLC analysis. Both steroid peaks have been fully resolved from the benzalkonium chloride peaks by the reported chromatographic method, which employs a C18 bonded reversed-phase column, an acetonitrile-water (50:50, v/v) mobile phase and a UV detection wavelength of 281 nm. The peak area versus 17beta-estradiol concentration was found to be linear over the range of 0.0137-1347 microkg ml(-1). The HPLC method has also been used to determine the silicone solubilities and diffusion coefficients of the two related steroids. The almost 100-fold increase in 17beta-estradiol-3-acetate release from the silicone core-type intravaginal rings compared to 17beta-estradiol is shown to be due to a 60-fold increase in silicone solubility and a one and a half-fold increase in diffusitivity. The results demonstrate that an effective estrogen replacement therapy dose of 17beta-estradiol may be administered from a silicone intravaginal reservoir device containing the labile 17beta-estradiol-3-acetate prodrug.

  5. High and low spatial frequencies in website evaluations.

    PubMed

    Thielsch, Meinald T; Hirschfeld, Gerrit

    2010-08-01

    Which features of websites are important for users' perceptions regarding aesthetics or usability? This study investigates how evaluations of aesthetic appeal and usability depend on high vs. low spatial frequencies. High spatial frequencies convey information on fine details, whereas low spatial frequencies convey information about the global layout. Participants rated aesthetic appeal and usability of 50 website screenshots from different domains. Screenshots were presented unfiltered, low-pass filtered with blurred targets or high-pass filtered with high-pass filtered targets. The main result is that low spatial frequencies can be seen to have a unique contribution in perceived website aesthetics, thus confirming a central prediction from processing fluency theory. There was no connection between low spatial frequencies and usability evaluations, whereas strong correlations were found between ratings of high-pass filtered websites and those of unfiltered websites in aesthetics and usability. This study thus offers a new perspective on the biological basis of users' website perceptions. This research links ergonomics to neurocognitive models of visual processing. This paper investigates how high and low spatial frequencies, which are neurologically processed in different visual pathways, independently contribute to users' perceptions of websites. This is very relevant for theories of website perceptions and for practitioners of web design.

  6. Characterizing Earthquake Rupture Properties Using Peak High-Frequency Offset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, L.; Meng, L.

    2014-12-01

    Teleseismic array back-projection (BP) of high frequency (~1Hz) seismic waves has been recently applied to image the aftershock sequence of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake. The BP method proves to be effective in capturing early aftershocks that are difficult to be detected due to the contamination of the mainshock coda wave. Furthermore, since the event detection is based on the identification of the local peaks in time series of the BP power, the resulting event location corresponds to the peak high-frequency energy rather than the hypocenter. In this work, we show that the comparison between the BP-determined catalog and conventional phase-picking catalog provides estimates of the spatial and temporal offset between the hypocenter and the peak high-frequency radiation. We propose to measure this peak high-frequency shift of global earthquakes between M4.0 to M7.0. We average the BP locations calibrated by multiple reference events to minimize the uncertainty due to the variation of 3D path effects. In our initial effort focusing on the foreshock and aftershock sequence of the 2014 Iquique earthquake, we find systematic shifts of the peak high-frequency energy towards the down-dip direction. We find that the amount of the shift is a good indication of rupture length, which scales with the earthquake magnitude. Further investigations of the peak high frequency offset may provide constraints on earthquake source properties such as rupture directivity, rupture duration, rupture speed, and stress drop.

  7. Microscale capillary wave turbulence excited by high frequency vibration.

    PubMed

    Blamey, Jeremy; Yeo, Leslie Y; Friend, James R

    2013-03-19

    Low frequency (O(10 Hz-10 kHz)) vibration excitation of capillary waves has been extensively studied for nearly two centuries. Such waves appear at the excitation frequency or at rational multiples of the excitation frequency through nonlinear coupling as a result of the finite displacement of the wave, most often at one-half the excitation frequency in so-called Faraday waves and twice this frequency in superharmonic waves. Less understood, however, are the dynamics of capillary waves driven by high-frequency vibration (>O(100 kHz)) and small interface length scales, an arrangement ideal for a broad variety of applications, from nebulizers for pulmonary drug delivery to complex nanoparticle synthesis. In the few studies conducted to date, a marked departure from the predictions of classical Faraday wave theory has been shown, with the appearance of broadband capillary wave generation from 100 Hz to the excitation frequency and beyond, without a clear explanation. We show that weak wave turbulence is the dominant mechanism in the behavior of the system, as evident from wave height frequency spectra that closely follow the Rayleigh-Jeans spectral response η ≈ ω(-17/12) as a consequence of a period-halving, weakly turbulent cascade that appears within a 1 mm water drop whether driven by thickness-mode or surface acoustic Rayleigh wave excitation. However, such a cascade is one-way, from low to high frequencies. The mechanism of exciting the cascade with high-frequency acoustic waves is an acoustic streaming-driven turbulent jet in the fluid bulk, driving the fundamental capillary wave resonance through the well-known coupling between bulk flow and surface waves. Unlike capillary waves, turbulent acoustic streaming can exhibit subharmonic cascades from high to low frequencies; here it appears from the excitation frequency all the way to the fundamental modes of the capillary wave at some four orders of magnitude in frequency less than the excitation frequency

  8. Parametric Study of High Frequency Pulse Detonation Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutler, Anderw D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes development of high frequency pulse detonation tubes similar to a small pulse detonation engine (PDE). A high-speed valve injects a charge of a mixture of fuel and air at rates of up to 1000 Hz into a constant area tube closed at one end. The reactants detonate in the tube and the products exit as a pulsed jet. High frequency pressure transducers are used to monitor the pressure fluctuations in the device and thrust is measured with a balance. The effects of injection frequency, fuel and air flow rates, tube length, and injection location are considered. Both H2 and C2H4 fuels are considered. Optimum (maximum specific thrust) fuel-air compositions and resonant frequencies are identified. Results are compared to PDE calculations. Design rules are postulated and applications to aerodynamic flow control and propulsion are discussed.

  9. Switch over to the high frequency rf systems near transition

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, J.M.; Wei, J.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to point out that since bunch narrowing naturally occurs in the acceleration process in the vicinity of transition, it should be possible to switch over to the high frequency system close to transition when the bunch has narrowed enough to fit directly into the high frequency bucket. The advantage of this approach is the simplicity, no extra components or gymnastics are required of the low frequency system. The disadvantage, of course, is for protons which do not go through transition. But on the other hand, there is no shortage of intensity for protons and so it should be possible to keep the phase space area low for protons, and then matching to the high frequency bucket should be easily accomplished by adiabatic compression. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Frequencies of inaudible high-frequency sounds differentially affect brain activity: positive and negative hypersonic effects.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Ariko; Yagi, Reiko; Kawai, Norie; Honda, Manabu; Nishina, Emi; Oohashi, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    The hypersonic effect is a phenomenon in which sounds containing significant quantities of non-stationary high-frequency components (HFCs) above the human audible range (max. 20 kHz) activate the midbrain and diencephalon and evoke various physiological, psychological and behavioral responses. Yet important issues remain unverified, especially the relationship existing between the frequency of HFCs and the emergence of the hypersonic effect. In this study, to investigate the relationship between the hypersonic effect and HFC frequencies, we divided an HFC (above 16 kHz) of recorded gamelan music into 12 band components and applied them to subjects along with an audible component (below 16 kHz) to observe changes in the alpha2 frequency component (10-13 Hz) of spontaneous EEGs measured from centro-parieto-occipital regions (Alpha-2 EEG), which we previously reported as an index of the hypersonic effect. Our results showed reciprocal directional changes in Alpha-2 EEGs depending on the frequency of the HFCs presented with audible low-frequency component (LFC). When an HFC above approximately 32 kHz was applied, Alpha-2 EEG increased significantly compared to when only audible sound was applied (positive hypersonic effect), while, when an HFC below approximately 32 kHz was applied, the Alpha-2 EEG decreased (negative hypersonic effect). These findings suggest that the emergence of the hypersonic effect depends on the frequencies of inaudible HFC.

  11. Frequencies of Inaudible High-Frequency Sounds Differentially Affect Brain Activity: Positive and Negative Hypersonic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Ariko; Yagi, Reiko; Kawai, Norie; Honda, Manabu; Nishina, Emi; Oohashi, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    The hypersonic effect is a phenomenon in which sounds containing significant quantities of non-stationary high-frequency components (HFCs) above the human audible range (max. 20 kHz) activate the midbrain and diencephalon and evoke various physiological, psychological and behavioral responses. Yet important issues remain unverified, especially the relationship existing between the frequency of HFCs and the emergence of the hypersonic effect. In this study, to investigate the relationship between the hypersonic effect and HFC frequencies, we divided an HFC (above 16 kHz) of recorded gamelan music into 12 band components and applied them to subjects along with an audible component (below 16 kHz) to observe changes in the alpha2 frequency component (10–13 Hz) of spontaneous EEGs measured from centro-parieto-occipital regions (Alpha-2 EEG), which we previously reported as an index of the hypersonic effect. Our results showed reciprocal directional changes in Alpha-2 EEGs depending on the frequency of the HFCs presented with audible low-frequency component (LFC). When an HFC above approximately 32 kHz was applied, Alpha-2 EEG increased significantly compared to when only audible sound was applied (positive hypersonic effect), while, when an HFC below approximately 32 kHz was applied, the Alpha-2 EEG decreased (negative hypersonic effect). These findings suggest that the emergence of the hypersonic effect depends on the frequencies of inaudible HFC. PMID:24788141

  12. Extended high frequency audiometry in users of personal listening devices.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Poornima; Upadhyay, Prabhakar; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Gautam Bir

    Noise exposure leads to high frequency hearing loss. Use of Personal Listening Devices may lead to decline in high frequency hearing sensitivity because of prolonged exposure to these devices at high volume. This study explores the changes in hearing thresholds by Extended High Frequency audiometry in users of personal listening devices. A descriptive, hospital based observational study was performed with total 100 subjects in age group of 15-30years. Subjects were divided in two groups consisting of 30 subjects (Group A) with no history of Personal Listening Devices use and (Group B) having 70 subjects with history of use of Personal Listening Devices. Conventional pure tone audiometry with extended high frequency audiometry was performed in all the subjects. Significant differences in hearing thresholds of Personal Listening Device users were seen at high frequencies (3kHz, 4kHz and 6kHz) and extended high frequencies (9kHz, 10kHz, 11kHz, 13kHz, 14kHz, 15kHz and 16kHz) with p value <0.05. Elevated hearing thresholds were observed in personal listening devices users which were directly proportional to volume and duration of usage. In present study no significant changes were noted in hearing thresholds in PLD users before 5years of PLD use. However, hearing thresholds were significantly increased at 3kHz, 10kHz, 13kHz in PLD users having >5years usage at high volume. Thus, it can be reasonably concluded that extended high frequencies can be used for early detection of NIHL in PLD users. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. High frequency of antiphospholipid antibodies in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Mankaï, Amani; Manoubi, Wiem; Ghozzi, Mariam; Melayah, Sarra; Sakly, Wahiba; Ghedira, Ibtissem

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate, retrospectively, the frequency of autoantibodies of antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS) in Tunisian patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). We analyzed 80 PBC sera and 80 sera from blood donors. ELISA was used to determine the frequency of antibodies against cardiolipin (aCL IgG, IgA, and IgM) and beta 2 glycoprotein I (aβ2GPI IgG, IgA, and IgM). The frequency of antiphospholipid antibodies (aCL and/or aβ2GPI) was significantly higher in PBC patients than in controls (70 vs. 5%, P < 10(-6)). The frequency of aCL antibodies (IgG, IgA or IgM) was significantly higher in PBC patients than in the control group (23.7 vs. 3.7%, P = 0.0005). The frequencies of aCL IgA and aCL IgM in PBC patients' sera were significantly higher than those in the control group (10 vs. 0%, P = 0.003 and 20 vs. 2.5%, P = 0.001, respectively). Two patients of eighty (2.5%) had aCL IgG, aCL IgA and aCL IgM. The frequency of aβ2GPI antibodies (IgG, IgA, or IgM) was significantly higher in PBC patients than in the control group (70 vs. 1.2%, P < 10(-6)). The frequencies of aβ2GPI IgG, aβ2GPI IgA, and aβ2GPI IgM in PBC patients' sera were significantly higher in patients than in the control group (12.5 vs. 0%, P = 0.003; 62.5 vs. 1.2%, P < 10(-6); and 21.2 vs. 0%, P < 10(-4), respectively). Autoantibodies related to APLS (aCL and aβ2GPI) were present in the majority of patients with PBC, reflecting the ability of these antibodies to engage mediators of damage. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. THE RELATION OF FREQUENCY TO THE PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ULTRA-HIGH FREQUENCY CURRENTS

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Ronald V.; Loomis, Alfred L.

    1929-01-01

    1. Biological effects of electromagnetic waves emitted by a vacuum tube oscillator have been studied at frequencis ranging from 8,300,000 to 158,000,000 cycles per second (1.9 to 38 meters wave-length). 2. The effects produced on animals can be fully explained on the basis of the heat generated by high frequency currents which are induced in them. 3. No evidence was obtained to support the theory that certain wave-lengths have a specific action on living cells. 4. At frequencies below 50,000,000 cycles, the effect of these radiations on animals is proportionate to the intensity of the electro-magnetic field. As the frequency is increased beyond this point, the amount of induced current is diminished and the apparent lethality of the radiation is decreased. This can be explained by changes occurring in the dielectric properties of tissues at low wave-lengths. PMID:19869549

  15. 28-Day oral toxicity study in rats with high purity barley beta-glucan (Glucagel).

    PubMed

    Jonker, D; Hasselwander, O; Tervilä-Wilo, A; Tenning, P P

    2010-01-01

    Beta-glucans are glucose polymers present in cereal grains, particularly barley and oat. Consumption of these grains or concentrated beta-glucan preparations has been shown to lower blood cholesterol. The present study was conducted to assess the safety of a high purity (>75%) barley beta-glucan (Glucagel). The product was fed to Wistar rats (5/sex/group) at dietary levels of 0% (control), 1%, 5% and 10% for 28 days. Clinical and neurobehavioural observations, growth, feed and water consumption, ophthalmoscopy, haematology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, organ weights, necropsy and histopathological examination revealed no adverse effects of Glucagel. High-dose males exhibited lower plasma cholesterol and phospholipids levels and a higher plasma urea level. These slight changes were considered of no toxicological significance. Full and empty caecum weights were increased in mid- and high-dose males. This caecal enlargement was a physiological response to the consumption of a high amount of indigestible carbohydrate and considered of no toxicological concern. In conclusion, feeding Glucagel at dietary levels up to 10% for 28 days was tolerated without any signs of toxicity. This dietary level was equivalent to 7.7 g Glucagel (5.8 g beta-glucan)/kg body weight/day in male rats and 7.8 g Glucagel (5.9 g beta-glucan)/kg body weight/day in female rats. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. GPCR engineering yields high-resolution structural insights into beta2-adrenergic receptor function.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Daniel M; Cherezov, Vadim; Hanson, Michael A; Rasmussen, Søren G F; Thian, Foon Sun; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Choi, Hee-Jung; Yao, Xiao-Jie; Weis, William I; Stevens, Raymond C; Kobilka, Brian K

    2007-11-23

    The beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) is a well-studied prototype for heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that respond to diffusible hormones and neurotransmitters. To overcome the structural flexibility of the beta2AR and to facilitate its crystallization, we engineered a beta2AR fusion protein in which T4 lysozyme (T4L) replaces most of the third intracellular loop of the GPCR ("beta2AR-T4L") and showed that this protein retains near-native pharmacologic properties. Analysis of adrenergic receptor ligand-binding mutants within the context of the reported high-resolution structure of beta2AR-T4L provides insights into inverse-agonist binding and the structural changes required to accommodate catecholamine agonists. Amino acids known to regulate receptor function are linked through packing interactions and a network of hydrogen bonds, suggesting a conformational pathway from the ligand-binding pocket to regions that interact with G proteins.

  17. Low-frequency and high-frequency all-fiber modulators based on birefringence modulation.

    PubMed

    Boyain, A R; Martínez-León, L; Cruz, J L; Diez, A; Andrés, M V

    1999-10-20

    In-line optical modulators with low insertion losses and high maximum optical powers are required for Q switching and cavity dumping of fiber lasers as well as for nonlinear optical-fiber experiments. We report the design of polarimetric all-fiber modulators based on optical-fiber birefringence modulation combined with an all-fiber polarizer. Birefringence modulation involves a piezoelectric ceramic tube. This simple technique permits efficient low-frequency and high-frequency harmonic modulation, up to the megahertz range, as well as modulation of pulses shorter than 1 micros.

  18. Synthesis of (E)-alpha-hydroxy-beta,gamma-unsaturated amides with high selectivity from alpha,beta-epoxyamides by using catalytic samarium diiodide or triiodide.

    PubMed

    Concellón, José M; Bernad, Pablo L; Bardales, Eva

    2004-05-17

    The highly stereoselective synthesis of (E)-alpha-hydroxy-beta,gamma-unsaturated amides starting from alpha,beta-epoxyamides, by using catalytic SmI2 or SmI3, was achieved. This transformation can also be carried out by using SmI2 generated in situ from samarium powder and diiodomethane. The starting compounds 1 are easily prepared by the reaction of enolates derived from alpha-chloroamides with ketones at -78 degrees C. A mechanism to explain this transformation has been proposed. Cyclopropanation of (E)-alpha-hydroxy-beta,gamma-unsaturated amides has been performed to demonstrate their synthetic applications.

  19. Dynamic modulation of excitation and inhibition during stimulation at gamma and beta frequencies in the CA1 hippocampal region.

    PubMed

    Bracci, E; Vreugdenhil, M; Hack, S P; Jefferys, J G

    2001-06-01

    Fast oscillations at gamma and beta frequency are relevant to cognition. During this activity, excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs and IPSPs) are generated rhythmically and synchronously and are thought to play an essential role in pacing the oscillations. The dynamic changes occurring to excitatory and inhibitory synaptic events during repetitive activation of synapses are therefore relevant to fast oscillations. To cast light on this issue in the CA1 region of the hippocampal slice, we used a train of stimuli, to the pyramidal layer, comprising 1 s at 40 Hz followed by 2--3 s at 10 Hz, to mimic the frequency pattern observed during fast oscillations. Whole cell current-clamp recordings from CA1 pyramidal neurons revealed that individual stimuli at 40 Hz produced EPSPs riding on a slow biphasic hyperpolarizing-depolarizing waveform. EPSP amplitude initially increased; it then decreased concomitantly with the slow depolarization and with a large reduction in membrane resistance. During the subsequent 10-Hz train: the cells repolarized, EPSP amplitude and duration increased to above control, and no IPSPs were detected. In the presence of GABA(A) receptor antagonists, the slow depolarization was blocked, and EPSPs of constant amplitude were generated by 10-Hz stimuli. Altering pyramidal cell membrane potential affected the time course of the slow depolarization, with the peak being reached earlier at more negative potentials. Glial recordings revealed that the trains were associated with extracellular potassium accumulation, but the time course of this event was slower than the neuronal depolarization. Numerical simulations showed that intracellular chloride accumulation (due to massive GABAergic activation) can account for these observations. We conclude that synchronous activation of inhibitory synapses at gamma frequency causes a rapid chloride accumulation in pyramidal neurons, decreasing the efficacy of inhibitory potentials. The resulting

  20. High Frequency Resonant Electromagnetic Generation and Detection of Ultrasonic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Katsuhiro; Wright, Oliver; Hyoguchi, Takao

    1994-05-01

    High frequency resonant mode electromagnetic ultrasonic generation and detection in metals is demonstrated at frequencies up to ˜150 MHz with various metal sheet samples. Using a unified theory of the generation and detection process, it is shown how various physical quantities can be measured. The sound velocity or thickness of the sheets can be derived from the resonant frequencies. At resonance the detected amplitude is inversely proportional to the ultrasonic attenuation of the sample, whereas the resonance half-width is proportional to this attenuation. We derive the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient from the half-width, and show how the grain size of the material can be probed. In addition we present results for thin bonded sheets, and show how a measure of the bonding or delamination can be obtained. This high frequency resonant method shows great promise for the non-destructive evaluation of thin sheets and coatings in the sub- 10-µm to 1-mm thickness range.

  1. A high frequency transformer model for the EMTP

    SciTech Connect

    Morched, A.; Marti, L.; Ottevangers, J. )

    1993-07-01

    A model to simulate the high frequency behavior of a power transformer is presented. This model is based on the frequency characteristics of the transformer admittance matrix between its terminals over a given range of frequencies. The transformer admittance characteristics can be obtained from measurements or from detailed internal models based on the physical layout of the transformer. The elements of the nodal admittance matrix are approximated with rational functions consisting of real as well as complex conjugate poles and zeros. These approximations are realized in the form of an RLC network in a format suitable for direct use with EMTP. The high frequency transformer model can be used as a stand-alone linear model or as an add-on module of a more comprehensive model where iron core nonlinearities are represented in detail.

  2. High-frequency jet ventilation in a neonatal foal.

    PubMed

    Bain, F T; Brock, K A; Koterba, A M

    1988-04-01

    High-frequency jet ventilation was performed on a premature foal for respiratory difficulty attributable to in utero-acquired pneumonia. The procedure involves delivery of compressed gas through a small-bore cannula at frequencies up to 400 cycles/min. Ventilation settings of drive pressure, frequency, and FIO2 were varied to optimize PaO2 and PaCO2 values. The foal was ventilated with this equipment for 14 hours. Evidence of a favorable response to this method of ventilation was observed in the form of improvement in arterial blood gas values as well as the foal's attitude and degree of respiratory effort. High-frequency jet ventilation appears to be a useful method of ventilation for respiratory disease in neonatal foals; however, there remains no clear-cut advantage over conventional positive-pressure ventilation.

  3. High-Frequency-Induced Cathodic Breakdown during Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nominé, A.; Nominé, A. V.; Braithwaite, N. St. J.; Belmonte, T.; Henrion, G.

    2017-09-01

    The present communication shows the possibility of observing microdischarges under cathodic polarization during plasma electrolytic oxidation at high frequency. Cathodic microdischarges can ignite beyond a threshold frequency found close to 2 kHz. The presence (respectively, absence) of an electrical double layer is put forward to explain how the applied voltage can be screened, which therefore prevents (respectively, promotes) the ignition of a discharge. Interestingly, in the conditions of the present study, the electrical double layer requires between 175 and 260 μ s to form. This situates the expected threshold frequency between 1.92 and 2.86 kHz, which is in good agreement with the value obtained experimentally.

  4. High-power radio-frequency attenuation device

    DOEpatents

    Kerns, Q.A.; Miller, H.W.

    1981-12-30

    A resistor device for attenuating radio frequency power includes a radio frequency conductor connected to a series of fins formed of high relative magnetic permeability material. The fins are dimensional to accommodate the skin depth of the current conduction therethrough, as well as an inner heat conducting portion where current does not travel. Thermal connections for air or water cooling are provided for the inner heat conducting portions of each fin. Also disclosed is a resistor device to selectively alternate unwanted radio frequency energy in a resonant cavity.

  5. High-Technology Companies Often Turn to Colleges for Confidential 'Beta Tests' of New Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Judith Axler

    1988-01-01

    Beta testing--the process of trying a product in a real-world setting before releasing it commercially--exploits a natural interface between universities and high-technology industries. High-tech companies need confidential, real-world tests of new products, and universities are eager to get an early look at tomorrow's technology. (MLW)

  6. Beta-lactamase reporter system for selecting high-producing yeast clones.

    PubMed

    Hribar, Gorazd; Smilović, Vanja; Zupan, Ana Lenassi; Gaberc-Porekar, Vladka

    2008-04-01

    In modern production of protein biopharmaceuticals, a good screening and selection method of high-producing clones can dramatically influence the whole production process and lead to lower production costs. We have created a rapid, simple, and inexpensive method for selecting high-producing clones in the yeast Pichia pastoris that is based on the beta-lactamase reporter system. By integrating the reporter gene and the gene of interest into the same genome locus, it was possible to use beta-lactamase activity as a measure of the expression level of the protein of interest. A novel expression vector with two independent expression cassettes was designed and tested using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a model. The first cassette contained the GFP gene under the control of a strong, inducible AOX1 promoter, while the second cassette consisted of the beta-lactamase reporter gene under the control of a weak constitutive YPT1 promotor. High-producing GFP clones were selected directly on the plates based on the color change after hydrolysis of the beta-lactamase substrate added to the medium. beta-lactamase activity was found to positively correlate with GFP fluorescence. The reporter system described is widely applicable-it can be easily applied to other, also pharmaceutically relevant proteins and to other yeast expression systems, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Hansenula polymorpha.

  7. High frequency fluoroptic thermometry current sensing for weapon susceptibility testing

    SciTech Connect

    Cernosek, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    A high frequency current measurement technique for susceptibility testing is proposed. This technique uses a resistive element to produce a temperature change that is sensed by a fluoroptic thermometer. Laboratory testing has shown that RF currents as small as 1.5 mA are measureable for frequencies up to 10 GHz. Errors bounds in determining the current are 6 dB. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Engineering Graphene Conductivity for Flexible and High-Frequency Applications.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Alexander J; Carey, J David

    2015-10-14

    Advances in lightweight, flexible, and conformal electronic devices depend on materials that exhibit high electrical conductivity coupled with high mechanical strength. Defect-free graphene is one such material that satisfies both these requirements and which offers a range of attractive and tunable electrical, optoelectronic, and plasmonic characteristics for devices that operate at microwave, terahertz, infrared, or optical frequencies. Essential to the future success of such devices is therefore the ability to control the frequency-dependent conductivity of graphene. Looking to accelerate the development of high-frequency applications of graphene, here we demonstrate how readily accessible and processable organic and organometallic molecules can efficiently dope graphene to carrier densities in excess of 10(13) cm(-2) with conductivities at gigahertz frequencies in excess of 60 mS. In using the molecule 3,6-difluoro-2,5,7,7,8,8-hexacyanoquinodimethane (F2-HCNQ), a high charge transfer (CT) of 0.5 electrons per adsorbed molecule is calculated, resulting in p-type doping of graphene. n-Type doping is achieved using cobaltocene and the sulfur-containing molecule tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) with a CT of 0.41 and 0.24 electrons donated per adsorbed molecule, respectively. Efficient CT is associated with the interaction between the π electrons present in the molecule and in graphene. Calculation of the high-frequency conductivity shows dispersion-less behavior of the real component of the conductivity over a wide range of gigahertz frequencies. Potential high-frequency applications in graphene antennas and communications that can exploit these properties and the broader impacts of using molecular doping to modify functional materials that possess a low-energy Dirac cone are also discussed.

  9. Design of matching layers for high-frequency ultrasonic transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Chunlong; Ma, Jianguo; Chiu, Chi Tat; Williams, Jay A.; Fong, Wayne; Chen, Zeyu; Zhu, BenPeng; Xiong, Rui; Shi, Jing; Hsiai, Tzung K.; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa

    2015-09-01

    Matching the acoustic impedance of high-frequency (≥100 MHz) ultrasound transducers to an aqueous loading medium remains a challenge for fabricating high-frequency transducers. The traditional matching layer design has been problematic to establish high matching performance given requirements on both specific acoustic impedance and precise thickness. Based on both mass-spring scheme and microwave matching network analysis, we interfaced metal-polymer layers for the matching effects. Both methods hold promises for guiding the metal-polymer matching layer design. A 100 MHz LiNbO3 transducer was fabricated to validate the performance of the both matching layer designs. In the pulse-echo experiment, the transducer echo amplitude increased by 84.4% and its -6dB bandwidth increased from 30.2% to 58.3% comparing to the non-matched condition, demonstrating that the matching layer design method is effective for developing high-frequency ultrasonic transducers.

  10. Design of matching layers for high-frequency ultrasonic transducers.

    PubMed

    Fei, Chunlong; Ma, Jianguo; Chiu, Chi Tat; Williams, Jay A; Fong, Wayne; Chen, Zeyu; Zhu, BenPeng; Xiong, Rui; Shi, Jing; Hsiai, Tzung K; Shung, K Kirk; Zhou, Qifa

    2015-09-21

    Matching the acoustic impedance of high-frequency (≥100 MHz) ultrasound transducers to an aqueous loading medium remains a challenge for fabricating high-frequency transducers. The traditional matching layer design has been problematic to establish high matching performance given requirements on both specific acoustic impedance and precise thickness. Based on both mass-spring scheme and microwave matching network analysis, we interfaced metal-polymer layers for the matching effects. Both methods hold promises for guiding the metal-polymer matching layer design. A 100 MHz LiNbO3 transducer was fabricated to validate the performance of the both matching layer designs. In the pulse-echo experiment, the transducer echo amplitude increased by 84.4% and its -6dB bandwidth increased from 30.2% to 58.3% comparing to the non-matched condition, demonstrating that the matching layer design method is effective for developing high-frequency ultrasonic transducers.

  11. The effect of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) at alpha and beta frequency on motor learning.

    PubMed

    Pollok, Bettina; Boysen, Ann-Christin; Krause, Vanessa

    2015-10-15

    At present it remains elusive to what extent motor-cortical alpha (8-12Hz) and beta (13-30Hz) oscillations are associated with motor sequence learning. In order to interact with motor-cortical oscillations, the present study applied transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) at 10Hz, 20Hz and sham stimulation over the left primary motor cortex (M1) during a serial reaction time task (SRTT) in 13 healthy volunteers. In a control experiment, tACS at 35Hz was applied in another sample of 13 volunteers. The participants performed the task with the right hand. A sequential pattern was interleaved by a randomly varying pattern serving as interference from sequence learning. Reaction times were determined as dependent variable. Both 10 and 20Hz tACS facilitated SRTT acquisition in contrast to sham and 35Hz tACS. After acquisition, the interfering condition led to increased reaction times comparable to baseline level during 10Hz, sham and 35Hz tACS. In contrast, during 20Hz tACS the initial learning success was retained despite interference. While motor-cortical tACS at 10 and 20Hz likewise facilitates the acquisition, tACS at 20Hz frequency additionally stabilizes the newly learned motor sequence indicated by less susceptibility to interference. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. High-frequency generation in two coupled semiconductor superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matharu, Satpal; Kusmartsev, Feodor V.; Balanov, Alexander G.

    2013-10-01

    We theoretically show that two semiconductor superlattices arranged on the same substrate and coupled with the same resistive load can be used for a generation of high-frequency periodic and quasiperiodic signals. Each superlattice involved is capable to generate current oscillations associated with drift of domains of high charge concentration. However, the coupling with the common load can eventually lead to synchronization of the current oscillations in the interacting superlattices. We reveal how synchronization depends on detuning between devices and the resistance of the common load, and discuss the effects of coupling and detuning on the high-frequency power output from the system.

  13. Effects of High-Frequency Torsional Impacts on Rock Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaohua; Tang, Liping; Tong, Hua

    2014-07-01

    High-frequency torsional impact drilling (HFTID) is a new technology which provides stable and efficient drilling. The goal of the present study is to investigate the effects of high-frequency torsional impacts on rock drilling. The impact parameters of the high-frequency torsional impact generator (HFTIG) are obtained by conducting a series of laboratory tests. The results of the tests reveal that the impact time decreases and the impact force increases with increasing impact frequency. The parameters are used as input for simulations of the rock crushing process, and a series of models for investigating the respective performance of HFTID and conventional drilling are developed. In addition, the Drucker-Prager criterion is used to describe the constitutive laws of the rock element, and the equivalent plastic strain criterion is adopted as the damage criterion. The models are run to simulate the dynamic rock crushing processes. The results of the simulations show that increase of the impact frequency results in a significant improvement in the rate of penetration (ROP), and a decrease in the life of the HFTIG. Considering the tool life and ROP, the optimum impact frequency of the HFTIG is 15 Hz. Finally, the performance of the HFTID technique is evaluated.

  14. Achieving a long-lived high-beta plasma state by energetic beam injection.

    PubMed

    Guo, H Y; Binderbauer, M W; Tajima, T; Milroy, R D; Steinhauer, L C; Yang, X; Garate, E G; Gota, H; Korepanov, S; Necas, A; Roche, T; Smirnov, A; Trask, E

    2015-04-23

    Developing a stable plasma state with high-beta (ratio of plasma to magnetic pressures) is of critical importance for an economic magnetic fusion reactor. At the forefront of this endeavour is the field-reversed configuration. Here we demonstrate the kinetic stabilizing effect of fast ions on a disruptive magneto-hydrodynamic instability, known as a tilt mode, which poses a central obstacle to further field-reversed configuration development, by energetic beam injection. This technique, combined with the synergistic effect of active plasma boundary control, enables a fully stable ultra-high-beta (approaching 100%) plasma with a long lifetime.

  15. High-density SNP genotyping to define beta-globin locus haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Muralidhar, Shalini; Singh, Manisha; Sylvan, Caprice; Kalra, Inderdeep S; Quinn, Charles T; Onyekwere, Onyinye C; Pace, Betty S

    2009-01-01

    Five major beta-globin locus haplotypes have been established in individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD) from the Benin, Bantu, Senegal, Cameroon, and Arab-Indian populations. Historically, beta-haplotypes were established using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis across the beta-locus, which consists of five functional beta-like globin genes located on chromosome 11. Previous attempts to correlate these haplotypes as robust predictors of clinical phenotypes observed in SCD have not been successful. We speculate that the coverage and distribution of the RFLP sites located proximal to or within the globin genes are not sufficiently dense to accurately reflect the complexity of this region. To test our hypothesis, we performed RFLP analysis and high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping across the beta-locus using DNA samples from healthy African Americans with either normal hemoglobin A (HbAA) or individuals with homozygous SS (HbSS) disease. Using the genotyping data from 88 SNPs and Haploview analysis, we generated a greater number of haplotypes than that observed with RFLP analysis alone. Furthermore, a unique pattern of long-range linkage disequilibrium between the locus control region and the beta-like globin genes was observed in the HbSS group. Interestingly, we observed multiple SNPs within the HindIII restriction site located in the Ggamma-globin intervening sequence II which produced the same RFLP pattern. These findings illustrated the inability of RFLP analysis to decipher the complexity of sequence variations that impacts genomic structure in this region. Our data suggest that high-density SNP mapping may be required to accurately define beta-haplotypes that correlate with the different clinical phenotypes observed in SCD.

  16. Carbon nanotube transistor based high-frequency electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroter, Michael

    At the nanoscale carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have higher carrier mobility and carrier velocity than most incumbent semiconductors. Thus CNT based field-effect transistors (FETs) are being considered as strong candidates for replacing existing MOSFETs in digital applications. In addition, the predicted high intrinsic transit frequency and the more recent finding of ways to achieve highly linear transfer characteristics have inspired investigations on analog high-frequency (HF) applications. High linearity is extremely valuable for an energy efficient usage of the frequency spectrum, particularly in mobile communications. Compared to digital applications, the much more relaxed constraints for CNT placement and lithography combined with already achieved operating frequencies of at least 10 GHz for fabricated devices make an early entry in the low GHz HF market more feasible than in large-scale digital circuits. Such a market entry would be extremely beneficial for funding the development of production CNTFET based process technology. This talk will provide an overview on the present status and feasibility of HF CNTFET technology will be given from an engineering point of view, including device modeling, experimental results, and existing roadblocks. Carbon nanotube transistor based high-frequency electronics.

  17. High frequency ocean acoustic tomography observation at coastal estuary areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zongxi; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Wuyi; Chen, Dongsheng

    2012-11-01

    The ocean acoustic tomography (OAT) technique can obtain oceanographic information and has received much interest. High frequency OAT (in a narrow kHz range) can be used for small and confined areas, such as estuaries and bays, with complicated hydrological conditions. In this study, we investigate the application of high-frequency reciprocal transmission OAT to assess the sound speed, temperature, and current field in the Xiamen sea area using computer simulations and sea experiments. Based on the temperature data obtained from remote sensing and the predefined stream function, high frequency OAT is employed to reconstruct the two-dimensional sound speed, temperature, and current fields of a 1.2km×1.2km small-scale region. The correlation coefficient of the computer inversion result and the original data is higher than 0.8. The result shows that increasing the number of acoustic stations decreases the influence of the travel-time errors in high frequency OAT; however, excessively increasing the number of stations could not significantly improve the inversion accuracy. Furthermore, this method has been tested by a sea experiment on monitoring the shallow water temperature of Wuyuan Bay. High frequency OAT might provide an effective method for temperature and current observation at coastal estuary areas.

  18. Differential stability of beta-sheets and alpha-helices in beta-lactamase: a high temperature molecular dynamics study of unfolding intermediates.

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, S; Vishveshwara, S; Ravishanker, G; Beveridge, D L

    1993-01-01

    beta-Lactamase, which catalyzes beta-lactam antibiotics, is prototypical of large alpha/beta proteins with a scaffolding formed by strong noncovalent interactions. Experimentally, the enzyme is well characterized, and intermediates that are slightly less compact and having nearly the same content of secondary structure have been identified in the folding pathway. In the present study, high temperature molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out on the native enzyme in solution. Analysis of these results in terms of root mean square fluctuations in cartesian and [phi, psi] space, backbone dihedral angles and secondary structural hydrogen bonds forms the basis for an investigation of the topology of partially unfolded states of beta-lactamase. A differential stability has been observed for alpha-helices and beta-sheets upon thermal denaturation to putative unfolding intermediates. These observations contribute to an understanding of the folding/unfolding processes of beta-lactamases in particular, and other alpha/beta proteins in general. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 4 PMID:8312470

  19. Investigation of iron cobalt nanocomposites for high frequency applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Kelsy J.

    FeCo-based nanocomposite soft magnetic materials were developed in collaboration with Magnetics, Division of Spang and Co., for high frequency and high temperature application. Excellent soft magnetic properties include: low coercivity, high permeability, low energy losses, etc. These and large saturation inductions make these alloys attractive for fundamental studies and industrial applications. In this thesis, nanocrystalline composites will be developed from amorphous precursors for applications in two frequency regimes: 1) High frequency (0.01-30 MHz) such as high temperature power inductors, pulsed power transformers, and radio frequency (rf) magnetic heating; and 2) Ultra high frequency (30 MHz - 30 GHz) for radio frequency materials and electromagnetic interference (EMI) or radio frequency interference (RFI) absorption. New nanocomposites with higher saturation induction and high-temperature stability were developed with reduced glass forming elements such as Zr, Nb, Si and B. The amounts of the magnetic transition metals and early transition metal growth inhibitors were varied to determine trade-offs between higher inductions and fine microstructures and consequently low magnetic losses. Alloys having (Fe1-xCox)80+y+zNb4-y B13-zSi2Cu1 (25 ≤ x ≤ 50 and y = 0-4 and z = 0-3) nominal compositions were cast using planar flow casting (PFC) at Magnetics. Technical magnetic properties: permeability, maximum induction, remanence ratio, coercive field and high frequency magnetic losses as a function of composition and annealing temperature are reported after primary crystallization for 1 hr in a transverse magnetic field (TMF). Of note is the development of inductor cores with maximum inductions in excess of 1.76 T and 1.67 T in cores that exhibit power losses comparable with state of the art commercial soft magnetic alloys. For application in EMI/RFI absorption, FeCo-based alloys have the largest saturation induction and a tunable magnetic anisotropy which may

  20. High-frequency neural activity predicts word parsing in ambiguous speech streams.

    PubMed

    Kösem, Anne; Basirat, Anahita; Azizi, Leila; van Wassenhove, Virginie

    2016-12-01

    During speech listening, the brain parses a continuous acoustic stream of information into computational units (e.g., syllables or words) necessary for speech comprehension. Recent neuroscientific hypotheses have proposed that neural oscillations contribute to speech parsing, but whether they do so on the basis of acoustic cues (bottom-up acoustic parsing) or as a function of available linguistic representations (top-down linguistic parsing) is unknown. In this magnetoencephalography study, we contrasted acoustic and linguistic parsing using bistable speech sequences. While listening to the speech sequences, participants were asked to maintain one of the two possible speech percepts through volitional control. We predicted that the tracking of speech dynamics by neural oscillations would not only follow the acoustic properties but also shift in time according to the participant's conscious speech percept. Our results show that the latency of high-frequency activity (specifically, beta and gamma bands) varied as a function of the perceptual report. In contrast, the phase of low-frequency oscillations was not strongly affected by top-down control. Whereas changes in low-frequency neural oscillations were compatible with the encoding of prelexical segmentation cues, high-frequency activity specifically informed on an individual's conscious speech percept. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Electrojet-independent ionospheric extremely low frequency/very low frequency wave generation by powerful high frequency waves

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, Spencer; Snyder, Arnold; Chang, Chia-Lie

    2010-08-15

    Results of extremely low frequency/very low frequency (ELF/VLF) wave generation by intensity-modulated high frequency (HF) heaters of 3.2 MHz in Gakona, Alaska, near local solar noon during a geomagnetic quiet time, are presented to support an electrojet-independent ELF/VLF wave generation mechanism. The modulation was set by splitting the HF transmitter array into two subarrays; one was run at cw full power and the other run alternatively at 50% and 100% power modulation by rectangular waves of 2.02, 5, 8, and 13 kHz. The most effective generation was from the X-mode heater with 100% modulation. While the 8 kHz radiation has the largest wave amplitude, the spectral intensity of the radiation increases with the modulation frequency, i.e., 13 kHz line is the strongest. Ionograms recorded significant virtual height spread of the O-mode sounding echoes. The patterns of the spreads and the changes of the second and third hop virtual height traces caused by the O/X-mode heaters are distinctively different, evidencing that it is due to differently polarized density irregularities generated by the filamentation instability of the O/X-mode HF heaters.

  2. Music students: conventional hearing thresholds and at high frequencies.

    PubMed

    Lüders, Débora; Gonçalves, Cláudia Giglio de Oliveira; Lacerda, Adriana Bender de Moreira; Ribas, Ângela; Conto, Juliana de

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that hearing loss in musicians may cause difficulty in timbre recognition and tuning of instruments. To analyze the hearing thresholds from 250 Hz to 16,000 Hz in a group of music students and compare them to a non-musician group in order to determine whether high-frequency audiometry is a useful tool in the early detection of hearing impairment. Study design was a retrospective observational cohort. Conventional and high-frequency audiometry was performed in 42 music students (Madsen Itera II audiometer and TDH39P headphones for conventional audiometry, and HDA 200 headphones for high-frequency audiometry). Of the 42 students, 38.1% were female students and 61.9% were male students, with a mean age of 26 years. At conventional audiometry, 92.85% had hearing thresholds within normal limits; but even within the normal limits, the worst results were observed in the left ear for all frequencies, except for 4000 Hz; compared to the non-musician group, the worst results occurred at 500 Hz in the left ear, and at 250 Hz, 6000 Hz, 9000 Hz, 10,000 Hz, and 11,200 Hz in both the ears. The periodic evaluation of high-frequency thresholds may be useful in the early detection of hearing loss in musicians. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Fuzzy and conventional control of high-frequency ventilation.

    PubMed

    Noshiro, M; Matsunami, T; Takakuda, K; Ryumae, S; Kagawa, T; Shimizu, M; Fujino, T

    1994-07-01

    A high-frequency ventilator was developed, consisting of a single-phase induction motor, an unbalanced mass and a mechanical vibration system. Intermittent positive pressure respiration was combined with high-frequency ventilation to measure end-tidal pCO2. Hysteresis was observed between the rotational frequency of the high-frequency ventilator and end-tidal pCO2. A fuzzy proportional plus integral control system, designed on the basis of the static characteristics of the controlled system and a knowledge of respiratory physiology, successfully regulated end-tidal pCO2. The characteristics of gas exchange under high-frequency ventilation was approximated by a first-order linear model. A conventional PI control system, designed on the basis of the approximated model, regulated end-tidal pCO2 with a performance similar to that of the fuzzy PI control system. The design of the fuzzy control system required less knowledge about the controlled system than that of the conventional control system.

  4. Dynamics of high-frequency synchronization during seizures.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Giri P; Filatov, Gregory; Bazhenov, Maxim

    2013-05-01

    Pathological synchronization of neuronal firing is considered to be an inherent property of epileptic seizures. However, it remains unclear whether the synchrony increases for the high-frequency multiunit activity as well as for the local field potentials (LFPs). We present spatio-temporal analysis of synchronization during epileptiform activity using wide-band (up to 2,000 Hz) spectral analysis of multielectrode array recordings at up to 60 locations throughout the mouse hippocampus in vitro. Our study revealed a prominent structure of LFP profiles during epileptiform discharges, triggered by elevated extracellular potassium, with characteristic distribution of current sinks and sources with respect to anatomical structure. The cross-coherence of high-frequency activity (500-2,000 Hz) across channels was reduced during epileptic bursts compared with baseline activity and showed the opposite trend for lower frequencies. Furthermore, the magnitude of cross-coherence during epileptiform activity was dependent on distance: electrodes closer to the epileptic foci showed increased cross-coherence and electrodes further away showed reduced cross-coherence for high-frequency activity. These experimental observations were re-created and supported in a computational model. Our study suggests that different intrinsic and synaptic processes can mediate paroxysmal synchronization at low, medium, and high frequencies.

  5. High frequency optical pulse generation by frequency doubling using polarization rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we propose and experimentally characterize a stable 40 GHz optical pulse generation by frequency doubling using polarization rotation in a phase modulator (PM). Only half the electrical driving frequency is required (i.e. 20 GHz); hence the deployment cost can be reduced. Besides, precise control of the bias of the PM is not required. The generated optical pulses have a high center-mode-suppression-ratio (CMSR) of  >  28 dB. The single sideband (SSB) noise spectrum is also measured, and the time-domain waveforms under different CMSRs are also analyzed and discussed.

  6. High frequency amplitude detector for GMI magnetic sensors.

    PubMed

    Asfour, Aktham; Zidi, Manel; Yonnet, Jean-Paul

    2014-12-19

    A new concept of a high-frequency amplitude detector and demodulator for Giant-Magneto-Impedance (GMI) sensors is presented. This concept combines a half wave rectifier, with outstanding capabilities and high speed, and a feedback approach that ensures the amplitude detection with easily adjustable gain. The developed detector is capable of measuring high-frequency and very low amplitude signals without the use of diode-based active rectifiers or analog multipliers. The performances of this detector are addressed throughout the paper. The full circuitry of the design is given, together with a comprehensive theoretical study of the concept and experimental validation. The detector has been used for the amplitude measurement of both single frequency and pulsed signals and for the demodulation of amplitude-modulated signals. It has also been successfully integrated in a GMI sensor prototype. Magnetic field and electrical current measurements in open- and closed-loop of this sensor have also been conducted.

  7. High Frequency Amplitude Detector for GMI Magnetic Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Asfour, Aktham; Zidi, Manel; Yonnet, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    A new concept of a high-frequency amplitude detector and demodulator for Giant-Magneto-Impedance (GMI) sensors is presented. This concept combines a half wave rectifier, with outstanding capabilities and high speed, and a feedback approach that ensures the amplitude detection with easily adjustable gain. The developed detector is capable of measuring high-frequency and very low amplitude signals without the use of diode-based active rectifiers or analog multipliers. The performances of this detector are addressed throughout the paper. The full circuitry of the design is given, together with a comprehensive theoretical study of the concept and experimental validation. The detector has been used for the amplitude measurement of both single frequency and pulsed signals and for the demodulation of amplitude-modulated signals. It has also been successfully integrated in a GMI sensor prototype. Magnetic field and electrical current measurements in open- and closed-loop of this sensor have also been conducted. PMID:25536003

  8. Frequency and temperature dependence of high damping elastomers

    SciTech Connect

    Kulak, R.F.; Hughes, T.H.

    1993-08-01

    High damping steel-laminated elastomeric seismic isolation bearings are one of the preferred devices for isolating large buildings and structures. In the US, the current reference design for the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) uses laminated bearings for seismic isolation. These bearings are constructed from alternating layers of high damping rubber and steel plates. They are typically designed for shear strains between 50 and 100% and are expected to sustain two to three times these levels for beyond design basis loading conditions. Elastomeric bearings are currently designed to provide a system frequency between 0.4 and 0.8 Hz and expected to operate between {minus}20 and 40 degrees Centigrade. To assure proper performance of isolation bearings, it is necessary to characterize the elastomer`s response under expected variations of frequency and temperature. The dynamic response of the elastomer must be characterized within the frequency range that spans the bearing acceptance test frequency, which may be as low as 0.005 Hz, and the design frequency. Similarly, the variation in mechanical characteristics of the elastomer must be determined over the design temperature range, which is between {minus}20 and 40 degrees Centigrade. This paper reports on (1) the capabilities of a testing facility at ANL for testing candidate elastomers, (2) the variation with frequency and temperature of the stiffness and damping of one candidate elastomer, and (3) the effect of these variations on bearing acceptance testing criteria and on the choice of bearing design values for stiffness and damping.

  9. Determination of gas-trapping during high frequency oscillatory ventilation.

    PubMed

    Alexander, J; Milner, A D

    1997-03-01

    To determine the effect of frequency and percent inspiratory time on tidal volume and gas-trapping during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV). Nine preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome tested in the first 48 h of life. Tidal volumes and the presence of gas-trapping were measured by respiratory jacket plethysmography at frequencies of 10, 14, and 17.8 Hz and at inspiratory times of 30%, 50% and 70%, using a commercially available high frequency oscillator.74 Mean (SD) tidal volumes were 2.40 (1.06) ml/kg at 10 Hz, 2.52 (1.07) ml/kg at 14 Hz and fell significantly to 1.96 (0.92) at 17.8 Hz (p < 0.05). Tidal volumes at 50% inspiratory time were significantly greater than at 30% inspiratory time [2.81 (1.42) ml/kg and 2.32 (1.18) ml/kg, respectively] but fell to baseline levels at 70% inspiratory time. There was no significant gas-trapping with increases in either frequency or percent inspiratory time. Gas-trapping is not a significant problem during HFOV in premature infants. Changes in tidal volume with increases in frequency and percent inspiratory time are similar to that seen in animal models.

  10. High-Frequency Wave Measurements in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjorkqvist, J. V.; Kahma, K. K.; Pettersson, H.; Drennan, W. M.

    2016-02-01

    The high-frequency part of the wave field is essential for the understanding of air-sea exchange related processes and the turbulent energy dissipation of breaking waves. The quantification of the dimensionless spectra will aid wave model development and contribute to a better understanding of the fundamental laws governing the evolution of wind driven waves. However, typical wave observation devices, such as wave buoys, are limited to observing frequencies under e.g. 0.6 Hz. Dedicated experiments with devices suitable for high-frequency measurements are, in comparison, rare.We have made high-frequency wave measurements with capacitive wave staffs from RV Aranda. Air turbulence and wind speed measurements are also available and a full motion correction was applied to all measurements. A frequency rage up to 2-3 Hz is enough to study the tail of the wave spectra even during its early development. The unusually high sampling frequency of 200 Hz guarantees that spurious spectral shapes that could be the joint effect of noise and the anti-aliasing filter can be excluded. Directional measurements were made using four wave staffs located 15 or 50 cm apart in the grid.The mobility of the research vessel has enabled measurements in a wide variety of conditions from the Baltic Proper to the irregular Finnish coastal archipelagos. The aim is to determine the conditions and frequency ranges when the shape of the dimensionless spectra is wind dependent. Especially, it's still not clear whether the use of the wind speed or the friction velocity as the scaling parameter produces better results, or where the transition to the Phillips spectra takes place. The directional measurements can shed light on theories that use the directional spread of the two-dimensional spectrum to explain the shape of the one-dimensional spectrum.

  11. High-frequency oscillations in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction.

    PubMed

    Bánsági, Tamás; Leda, Marcin; Toiya, Masahiro; Zhabotinsky, Anatol M; Epstein, Irving R

    2009-05-14

    Chemical oscillations in the classic Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) system typically have a period of a few minutes, which can be increased significantly by changing the organic substrate. Here we show that by changing the temperature and concentrations, an increase of 3-4 orders of magnitude in the frequency of BZ oscillations can be obtained. At elevated temperatures, in high concentration mixtures, the cerium-catalyzed reaction exhibits sinusoidal oscillations with frequencies of 10 Hz or greater. We report the effect of temperature on the frequency and shape of oscillations in experiments under batch conditions and in a four-variable model. We show that our simple model accurately captures the complex temporal behavior of the system and suggests paths toward even higher frequencies.

  12. Reduced length fibre Bragg gratings for high frequency acoustic sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Claire; Robertson, David; Brooks, Chris; Norman, Patrick; Rosalie, Cedric; Rajic, Nik

    2014-12-01

    In-fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs) are now well established for applications in acoustic sensing. The upper frequency response limit of the Bragg grating is determined by its gauge length, which has typically been limited to about 1 mm for commercially available Type 1 gratings. This paper investigates the effect of FBG gauge length on frequency response for sensing of acoustic waves. The investigation shows that the ratio of wavelength to FBG length must be at least 8.8 in order to reliably resolve the strain response without significant gain roll-off. Bragg gratings with a gauge length of 200 µm have been fabricated and their capacity to measure low amplitude high frequency acoustic strain fields in excess of 2 MHz is experimentally demonstrated. The ultimate goal of this work is to enhance the sensitivity of acoustic damage detection techniques by extending the frequency range over which acoustic waves may be reliably measured using FBGs.

  13. High frequency conductivity of hot electrons in carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amekpewu, M.; Mensah, S. Y.; Musah, R.; Mensah, N. G.; Abukari, S. S.; Dompreh, K. A.

    2016-05-01

    High frequency conductivity of hot electrons in undoped single walled achiral Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) under the influence of ac-dc driven fields was considered. We investigated semi-classically Boltzmann's transport equation with and without the presence of the hot electrons' source by deriving the current densities in CNTs. Plots of the normalized current density versus frequency of ac-field revealed an increase in both the minimum and maximum peaks of normalized current density at lower frequencies as a result of a strong injection of hot electrons. The applied ac-field plays a twofold role of suppressing the space-charge instability in CNTs and simultaneously pumping an energy for lower frequency generation and amplification of THz radiations. These have enormous promising applications in very different areas of science and technology.

  14. Lead extraction experience with high frequency excimer laser.

    PubMed

    Tanawuttiwat, Tanyanan; Gallego, Daniel; Carrillo, Roger G

    2014-09-01

    A higher frequency Excimer laser sheath using an 80-Hz pulse repetitive rate was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in April 2012. We reported our initial clinical experience with a high-frequency Excimer laser sheath and compared it with lower-frequency laser sheaths which have been previously used. In this single center, retrospective cohort study, we evaluated patients who underwent lead extraction from December 2008 to May 2013. Those who underwent lead removal without using a laser sheath or with approaches other than subclavian were excluded. Primary endpoints included total laser time, number of pulses, and complications. Data on clinical characteristics, lead type, indications, and outcomes were prospectively collected and analyzed. A total of 427 patients were included in the study (72.6% male; age 67.9 ± 15.23 years). Lower frequency and higher frequency laser sheaths were used in 315 and 112 patients, respectively. A total of 821 leads were removed with 765 leads (93.2%) extracted using the Excimer laser sheath. Lead age was 5.71 ± 4.96 years. Complete extraction was seen in all patients. A higher-frequency laser sheath was associated with a lower laser time and a lower total number of laser pulses even after adjustments for the number of leads, type of leads, and lead age. In the higher frequency group, mortality rate was 0.9% and minor complication rate was 3.6%. When compared with the lower-frequency laser sheath, the higher-frequency laser sheath requires less laser times and more efficient amount of pulses for lead extraction with comparable success rate. Due to the rarity of major and minor complications, no statistical significance was found between the two groups. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. High-frequency audiometric assessment of a young adult population.

    PubMed

    Green, D M; Kidd, G; Stevens, K N

    1987-02-01

    The hearing thresholds of 37 young adults (18-26 years) were measured at 13 frequencies (8, 9,10,...,20 kHz) using a newly developed high-frequency audiometer. All subjects were screened at 15 dB HL at the low audiometric frequencies, had tympanometry within normal limits, and had no history of significant hearing problems. The audiometer delivers sound from a driver unit to the ear canal through a lossy tube and earpiece providing a source impedance essentially equal to the characteristic impedance of the tube. A small microphone located within the earpiece is used to measure the response of the ear canal when an impulse is applied at the driver unit. From this response, a gain function is calculated relating the equivalent sound-pressure level of the source to the SPL at the medial end of the ear canal. For the subjects tested, this gain function showed a gradual increase from 2 to 12 dB over the frequency range. The standard deviation of the gain function was about 2.5 dB across subjects in the lower frequency region (8-14 kHz) and about 4 dB at the higher frequencies. Cross modes and poor fit of the earpiece to the ear canal prevented accurate calibration for some subjects at the highest frequencies. The average SPL at threshold was 23 dB at 8 kHz, 30 dB at 12 kHz, and 87 dB at 18 kHz. Despite the homogeneous nature of the sample, the younger subjects in the sample had reliably better thresholds than the older subjects. Repeated measurements of threshold over an interval as long as 1 month showed a standard deviation of 2.5 dB at the lower frequencies (8-14 kHz) and 4.5 dB at the higher frequencies.

  16. Advanced operation scenarios toward high-beta, steady-state plasmas in KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Si-Woo; Jeon, Y. M.; Woo, M. H.; Bae, Y. S.; Kim, H. S.; Oh, Y. K.; Park, J. M.; Park, Y. S.; Kstar Team

    2016-10-01

    For the realization of the fusion reactor, solving issues for high-beta steady-state operation is one of the essential topics for the present superconducting tokamaks and in this regard, KSTAR has been focusing on maximizing performance and increasing pulse length simultaneously. Typically, study on high beta operation has been focusing on advanced scenario limited at relatively short pulse discharge and partial success has been reported previously. However, it must be stressed that it is critical to verify compatibility of the developed scenario to long-pulse operation and compared with that of the short-pulse, it is turned out stable long-pulse operation is possible only with a reduced level of beta. In this work, the results of recent approaches in long-pulse operation are presented focusing respectively on high betaN, high betap and high li scenarios. For high betaN, the achieved level is close to 3 with Ip =0.4 MA, BT =1.4T and Pext 6MW and it is found to be limited by m/n =2/1 tearing mode and is also sensitive on the internal inductance. For high betap, conditions of the maximum betap is investigated mainly by parametric scans of plasma current (Ip =0.4-0.7 MA) and also neutral beam injection power (3-5MW). The achieved betap is also close to 3 with Ip =0.4 MA, BT =2.9T and Pext 6MW and it is found to be limited by heating power and without indication of MHD activities. Finally, attempt for high li discharge will be addressed on scenario development and transient results.

  17. Early deactivation of slower muscle fibres at high movement frequencies.

    PubMed

    Blake, Ollie M; Wakeling, James M

    2014-10-01

    Animals produce rapid movements using fast cyclical muscle contractions. These types of movements are better suited to faster muscle fibres within muscles of mixed fibre types as they can shorten at faster velocities and achieve higher activation-deactivation rates than their slower counterparts. Preferential recruitment of faster muscle fibres has previously been shown during high velocity contractions. Additionally, muscle deactivation takes longer than activation and therefore may pose a limitation to fast cyclical contractions. It has been speculated that slower fibres may be deactivated before faster fibres to accommodate their longer deactivation time. This study aimed to test whether shifts in muscle fibre recruitment occur with derecruitment of slow fibres before faster fibres at high cycle frequencies. Electromyographic (EMG) signals were collected from the medial gastrocnemius at an extreme range of cycle frequencies and workloads. Wavelets were used to resolve the EMG signals into time and frequency space and the primary sources of variability within the EMG frequency spectra were identified through principal component analysis. Early derecruitment of slower fibres was evident at the end of muscle excitation at higher cycle frequencies, as determined by reduced low-frequency EMG content, and additional slower fibre recruitment was present at the highest cycle frequency. The duration of muscle excitation reached a minimum of about 150 ms and did not change for the three highest cycle frequencies, suggesting a duration limit for the medial gastrocnemius. This study provides further evidence of modifications of muscle fibre recruitment strategies to meet the mechanical demands of movement. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. High-frequency nonreciprocal reflection from magnetic films with overlayers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ying; Nie, Yan; Camley, R. E.

    2013-11-14

    We perform a theoretical study of the nonreciprocal reflection of high-frequency microwave radiation from ferromagnetic films with thin overlayers. Reflection from metallic ferromagnetic films is always near unity and shows no nonreciprocity. In contrast, reflection from a structure which has a dielectric overlayer on top of a film composed of insulated ferromagnetic nanoparticles or nanostructures can show significant nonreciprocity in the 75–80 GHz frequency range, a very high value. This can be important for devices such as isolators or circulators.

  19. ZCS High Frequency Inverter for Aluminum Vessel Induction Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogiwara, Hiroyuki; Nakaoka, Mutsuo

    Recent induction cooking apparatus are utilized for induction heating of ferromagnetic materials at 20-50kHz with a high efficiency. They can not, however, be applied for non-magnetic materials such as aluminum vessels. Here, we present a voltage-clamp reverse conducting ZCS high frequency inverter of half bridge type for induction heating of an aluminum vessel. The switching devices utilized for this inverter are SITs and its operating frequency is determined as 200kHz. This paper describes its circuit constitution and the obtained experimental results from a practical point of view.

  20. High frequency SAW devices based on third harmonic generation.

    PubMed

    Le Brizoual, L; Elmazria, O; Sarry, F; El Hakiki, M; Talbi, A; Alnot, P

    2006-12-01

    We demonstrate the third harmonic generation in a ZnO/Si layered structure to obtain high frequency SAW devices. This configuration eliminates the need of high lithography resolution and allows easy integration of such devices and electronics on the same wafer. A theoretical study was carried out for the determination of the phase velocity and the electromechanical coupling coefficient (K(2)) dispersion curves of the surface acoustic waves. These results are also in agreement with those measured on a SAW filter designed for the third harmonic generation and the operating frequency is up to 2468 MHz.

  1. Motor monitoring method and apparatus using high frequency current components

    DOEpatents

    Casada, D.A.

    1996-05-21

    A motor current analysis method and apparatus for monitoring electrical-motor-driven devices are disclosed. The method and apparatus utilize high frequency portions of the motor current spectra to evaluate the condition of the electric motor and the device driven by the electric motor. The motor current signal produced as a result of an electric motor is monitored and the low frequency components of the signal are removed by a high-pass filter. The signal is then analyzed to determine the condition of the electrical motor and the driven device. 16 figs.

  2. Motor monitoring method and apparatus using high frequency current components

    DOEpatents

    Casada, Donald A.

    1996-01-01

    A motor current analysis method and apparatus for monitoring electrical-motor-driven devices. The method and apparatus utilize high frequency portions of the motor current spectra to evaluate the condition of the electric motor and the device driven by the electric motor. The motor current signal produced as a result of an electric motor is monitored and the low frequency components of the signal are removed by a high-pass filter. The signal is then analyzed to determine the condition of the electrical motor and the driven device.

  3. Casimir force between δ -δ' mirrors transparent at high frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, Alessandra N.; Silva, Jeferson Danilo L.; Alves, Danilo T.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate, in the context of a real massless scalar field in 1 +1 dimensions, models of partially reflecting mirrors simulated by Dirac δ -δ' point interactions. In the literature, these models do not exhibit full transparency at high frequencies. In order to provide a more realistic feature for these models, we propose a modified δ -δ' point interaction that enables full transparency in the limit of high frequencies. Taking this modified δ -δ' model into account, we investigate the Casimir force, comparing our results with those found in the literature.

  4. High frequency fatigue testing of Udimet 700 at 1400 F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conn, A. F.; Rudy, S. L.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation pertaining to the development of life prediction methods for materials subjected to high temperature creep/fatigue conditions is presented. High frequency (13.4 kHz) fatigue data were measured at 1400 F on specimens of the nickel-based alloy Udimet 700. Tests were conducted on the virgin material, as well as on specimens which had received prior exposures to high temperature, fatigue, and creep.

  5. Effects of tazobactam on the frequency of the emergence of resistant strains from Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii, and Proteus vulgaris (beta-lactamase derepressed mutants).

    PubMed

    Higashitani, F; Nishida, K; Hyodo, A; Inoue, M

    1995-09-01

    When Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii, and Proteus vulgaris were treated with piperacillin (PIPC) in combination with tazobactam (TAZ), the in vitro frequency of emergence of resistant strains (beta-lactamase producing mutants) was lower than with PIPC or ceftazidime (CAZ) treated bacteria. In a mouse intraperitoneal infection model caused by E. cloacae, beta-lactamase derepressed mutants were detected following therapy with PIPC or CAZ, although no derepressed mutants were detected after treatment with PIPC in combination with TAZ. This suppression of the selection of derepressed mutants, which produce large amounts of beta-lactamases, by the combination of TAZ and PIPC suggests that the combination delays the increase of resistant mutants compared with PIPC alone.

  6. Pressure-driven sound turbulence in a high-beta plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenzel, R. L.

    1990-01-01

    LF turbulence is investigated experimentally in a 2-m-long 1-m-diameter magnetized electron fluid with beta(e) = about 0.5 and unmagnetized ions, generated in a double-pulsed linear dc discharge under a uniform external magnetic field of 15 G. The results of measurements with Langmuir probes, electric probes, and a directional particle analyzer are presented in graphs and characterized in detail. It is shown that the strong cross-field sound turbulence observed near the lower hybrid frequency is caused by the electron pressure gradient rather than E x B drift, with (1) temperature-gradient wave refraction as the dominant saturation mechanism, (2) wave-enhanced ion mass flow, and (3) only negligible ion-tail formation. The relevance of the present findings for studies of magnetic shock propagation is indicated.

  7. High-Frequency Normal Mode Propagation in Aluminum Cylinders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Myung W.; Waite, William F.

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic measurements made using compressional-wave (P-wave) and shear-wave (S-wave) transducers in aluminum cylinders reveal waveform features with high amplitudes and with velocities that depend on the feature's dominant frequency. In a given waveform, high-frequency features generally arrive earlier than low-frequency features, typical for normal mode propagation. To analyze these waveforms, the elastic equation is solved in a cylindrical coordinate system for the high-frequency case in which the acoustic wavelength is small compared to the cylinder geometry, and the surrounding medium is air. Dispersive P- and S-wave normal mode propagations are predicted to exist, but owing to complex interference patterns inside a cylinder, the phase and group velocities are not smooth functions of frequency. To assess the normal mode group velocities and relative amplitudes, approximate dispersion relations are derived using Bessel functions. The utility of the normal mode theory and approximations from a theoretical and experimental standpoint are demonstrated by showing how the sequence of P- and S-wave normal mode arrivals can vary between samples of different size, and how fundamental normal modes can be mistaken for the faster, but significantly smaller amplitude, P- and S-body waves from which P- and S-wave speeds are calculated.

  8. Neuronal morphology generates high-frequency firing resonance.

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Srdjan; Szapiro, Germán; Schwartz, Eric; Barbour, Boris; Brunel, Nicolas; Hakim, Vincent

    2015-05-06

    The attenuation of neuronal voltage responses to high-frequency current inputs by the membrane capacitance is believed to limit single-cell bandwidth. However, neuronal populations subject to stochastic fluctuations can follow inputs beyond this limit. We investigated this apparent paradox theoretically and experimentally using Purkinje cells in the cerebellum, a motor structure that benefits from rapid information transfer. We analyzed the modulation of firing in response to the somatic injection of sinusoidal currents. Computational modeling suggested that, instead of decreasing with frequency, modulation amplitude can increase up to high frequencies because of cellular morphology. Electrophysiological measurements in adult rat slices confirmed this prediction and displayed a marked resonance at 200 Hz. We elucidated the underlying mechanism, showing that the two-compartment morphology of the Purkinje cell, interacting with a simple spiking mechanism and dendritic fluctuations, is sufficient to create high-frequency signal amplification. This mechanism, which we term morphology-induced resonance, is selective for somatic inputs, which in the Purkinje cell are exclusively inhibitory. The resonance sensitizes Purkinje cells in the frequency range of population oscillations observed in vivo.

  9. Asynchronous BCI control using high-frequency SSVEP.

    PubMed

    Diez, Pablo F; Mut, Vicente A; Avila Perona, Enrique M; Laciar Leber, Eric

    2011-07-14

    Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential (SSVEP) is a visual cortical response evoked by repetitive stimuli with a light source flickering at frequencies above 4 Hz and could be classified into three ranges: low (up to 12 Hz), medium (12-30) and high frequency (> 30 Hz). SSVEP-based Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) are principally focused on the low and medium range of frequencies whereas there are only a few projects in the high-frequency range. However, they only evaluate the performance of different methods to extract SSVEP. This research proposed a high-frequency SSVEP-based asynchronous BCI in order to control the navigation of a mobile object on the screen through a scenario and to reach its final destination. This could help impaired people to navigate a robotic wheelchair. There were three different scenarios with different difficulty levels (easy, medium and difficult). The signal processing method is based on Fourier transform and three EEG measurement channels. The research obtained accuracies ranging in classification from 65% to 100% with Information Transfer Rate varying from 9.4 to 45 bits/min. Our proposed method allows all subjects participating in the study to control the mobile object and to reach a final target without prior training.

  10. High fat programming of beta cell compensation, exhaustion, death and dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Cerf, Marlon E

    2015-03-01

    Programming refers to events during critical developmental windows that shape progeny health outcomes. Fetal programming refers to the effects of intrauterine (in utero) events. Lactational programming refers to the effects of events during suckling (weaning). Developmental programming refers to the effects of events during both fetal and lactational life. Postnatal programming refers to the effects of events either from birth (lactational life) to adolescence or from weaning (end of lactation) to adolescence. Islets are most plastic during the early life course; hence programming during fetal and lactational life is most potent. High fat (HF) programming is the maintenance on a HF diet (HFD) during critical developmental life stages that alters progeny metabolism and physiology. HF programming induces variable diabetogenic phenotypes dependent on the timing and duration of the dietary insult. Maternal obesity reinforces HF programming effects in progeny. HF programming, through acute hyperglycemia, initiates beta cell compensation. However, HF programming eventually leads to chronic hyperglycemia that triggers beta cell exhaustion, death and dysfunction. In HF programming, beta cell dysfunction often co-presents with insulin resistance. Balanced, healthy nutrition during developmental windows is critical for preserving beta cell structure and function. Thus early positive nutritional interventions that coincide with the development of beta cells may reduce the overwhelming burden of diabetes and metabolic disease. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Frequency-dependent spatiotemporal profiles of visual responses recorded with subdural ECoG electrodes in awake monkeys: Differences between high- and low-frequency activity.

    PubMed

    Takaura, Kana; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu; Fujii, Naotaka

    2016-01-01

    Electrocorticography (ECoG) constitutes a powerful and promising neural recording modality in humans and animals. ECoG signals are often decomposed into several frequency bands, among which the so-called high-gamma band (80-250Hz) has been proposed to reflect local cortical functions near the cortical surface below the ECoG electrodes. It is typically assumed that the lower the frequency bands, the lower the spatial resolution of the signals; thus, there is not much to gain by analyzing the event-related changes of the ECoG signals in the lower-frequency bands. However, differences across frequency bands have not been systematically investigated. To address this issue, we recorded ECoG activity from two awake monkeys performing a retinotopic mapping task. We characterized the spatiotemporal profiles of the visual responses in the time-frequency domain. We defined the preferred spatial position, receptive field (RF), and response latencies of band-limited power (BLP) (i.e., alpha [3.9-11.7Hz], beta [15.6-23.4Hz], low [30-80Hz] and high [80-250Hz] gamma) for each electrode and compared them across bands and time-domain visual evoked potentials (VEPs). At the population level, we found that the spatial preferences were comparable across bands and VEPs. The high-gamma power showed a smaller RF than the other bands and VEPs. The response latencies for the alpha band were always longer than the latencies for the other bands and fastest in VEPs. Comparing the response profiles in both space and time for each cortical region (V1, V4+, and TEO/TE) revealed regional idiosyncrasies. Although the latencies of visual responses in the beta, low-, and high-gamma bands were almost identical in V1 and V4+, beta and low-gamma BLP occurred about 17ms earlier than high-gamma power in TEO/TE. Furthermore, TEO/TE exhibited a unique pattern in the spatial response profile: the alpha and high-gamma responses tended to prefer the foveal regions, whereas the beta and low-gamma responses

  12. Frequencies and amplitudes of high-degree solar oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, James Morris

    Measurements of some of the properties of high-degree solar p- and f-mode oscillations are presented. Using high-resolution velocity images from Big Bear Solar Observatory, we have measured mode frequencies, which provide information about the composition and internal structure of the Sun, and mode velocity amplitudes (corrected for the effects of atmospheric seeing), which tell us about the oscillation excitation and damping mechanisms. We present a new and more accurate table of the Sun's acoustic vibration frequencies, nunl, as a function of radial order n and spherical harmonic degree l. These frequencies are averages over azimuthal order m and approximate the normal mode frequencies of a nonrotating spherically symmetric Sun near solar minimum. The frequencies presented here are for solar p- and f-modes with 180 less than or = l less than or = 1920, 0 less than or = n less than or = 8, and 1.7 mHz less than or = nunl less than or = 5.3 mHz. The uncertainties, sigmanl, in the frequencies areas are as low as 3.1 micro-Hz. The theoretically expected f-mode frequencies are given by omega squared = gkh approx. = gl/R, where g is the gravitational acceleration at the surface, kh is the horizontal component of the wave vector, and R is the radius of the Sun. We find that the observed frequencies are significantly less than expected for l greater than 1000, for which we have no explanation. Observations of high-degree oscillations, which have very small spatial features, suffer from the effects of atmospheric image blurring and image motion (or 'seeing'), thereby reducing the amplitudes of their spatial-frequency components. In an attempt to correct the velocity amplitudes for these effects, we simultaneously measured the atmospheric modulation transfer function (MTF) by looking at the effects of seeing on the solar limb. We are able to correct the velocity amplitudes using the MTF out to l approx. = 1200. We find that the frequency of the peak velocity power (as a

  13. Low-Beta Structure for High Energy Part of Project X

    SciTech Connect

    Solyak, N.; Gonin, I.; Yakovlev, V.; Drozdov, I.; Perunov, N.; /Moscow, MIPT

    2009-05-01

    Long 11-cell, {beta} = 0.81 L-band structure is considered as an initial stage of the high-energy part of the Project-X in order to accommodate to a standard Type-4 cryomodule. The cavity shape is optimized for maximal energy gain providing the same time field flatness along the structure not worse than for ILC {beta} = 1 cavity, and the same ratio of surface magnetic field to electric field. The results of spectrum analysis for monopole and dipole HOMs is presented as well.

  14. Note: High precision measurements using high frequency gigahertz signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Aohan; Fu, Siyuan; Sakurai, Atsunori; Liu, Liang; Edman, Fredrik; Pullerits, Tõnu; Öwall, Viktor; Karki, Khadga Jung

    2014-12-01

    Generalized lock-in amplifiers use digital cavities with Q-factors as high as 5 × 108 to measure signals with very high precision. In this Note, we show that generalized lock-in amplifiers can be used to analyze microwave (giga-hertz) signals with a precision of few tens of hertz. We propose that the physical changes in the medium of propagation can be measured precisely by the ultra-high precision measurement of the signal. We provide evidence to our proposition by verifying the Newton's law of cooling by measuring the effect of change in temperature on the phase and amplitude of the signals propagating through two calibrated cables. The technique could be used to precisely measure different physical properties of the propagation medium, for example, the change in length, resistance, etc. Real time implementation of the technique can open up new methodologies of in situ virtual metrology in material design.

  15. Note: High precision measurements using high frequency gigahertz signals.

    PubMed

    Jin, Aohan; Fu, Siyuan; Sakurai, Atsunori; Liu, Liang; Edman, Fredrik; Pullerits, Tõnu; Öwall, Viktor; Karki, Khadga Jung

    2014-12-01

    Generalized lock-in amplifiers use digital cavities with Q-factors as high as 5 × 10(8) to measure signals with very high precision. In this Note, we show that generalized lock-in amplifiers can be used to analyze microwave (giga-hertz) signals with a precision of few tens of hertz. We propose that the physical changes in the medium of propagation can be measured precisely by the ultra-high precision measurement of the signal. We provide evidence to our proposition by verifying the Newton's law of cooling by measuring the effect of change in temperature on the phase and amplitude of the signals propagating through two calibrated cables. The technique could be used to precisely measure different physical properties of the propagation medium, for example, the change in length, resistance, etc. Real time implementation of the technique can open up new methodologies of in situ virtual metrology in material design.

  16. MHD instabilities and their control in high-beta plasmas in KSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    In, Yongkyoon

    2013-02-06

    We established 3 specific tasks as follows: Task 1 - Investigate the MHD activity during the current ramp-up phase with shaped plasmas; Task 2 - Develop a theoretical model that may show the hollowness dependent instability; Task 3 - Explore the beta-limiting instabilities. To address each task, FAR-TECH actively participated in the 2012 KSTAR run-campaign, which helped us make productive progress. Specifically, the shaping dependence of MHD activity during current ramp-up phase was investigated using dedicated run-time in KSTAR (October 4 and 9, 2012), which was also attempted to address the hollowness of temperature (or pressure) profiles. Also, a performance-limiting disruption, which occurred in a relatively high intermediate beta plasma (shot 7110) in KSTAR ({beta}{sub N} ~ 1.7), was studied, and the preliminary analysis shows that the disruption might not be stability-limited but likely density-limited.

  17. Near-equilibrium growth of thick, high quality beta-SiC by sublimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, Virgil B.; Fekade, Konjit; Spencer, Michael G.

    1993-01-01

    A close spaced near-equilibrium growth technique was used to produce thick, high quality epitaxial layers of beta-silicon carbide. The process utilized a sublimation method to grow morphologically smooth layers. The beta silicon carbide growth layers varied from about 200 to 750 microns in thickness. Chemical vapor deposition grown, 2-10 microns, beta silicon carbide films were used as seeds at 1860 and 1910 C growth temperatures. The respective average growth rates were 20 and 30 microns per hour. The layers are p-type with a 3.1 x 10 exp 17/cu cm carrier concentration. Electrical measurements indicate considerable improvement in the breakdown voltage of Schottky barriers on growth samples. Breakdown values ranged from 25 to 60 V. These measurements represent the highest values reported for 3C-SiC.

  18. Highly stereoselective intermolecular oxy-michael addition reaction to alpha,beta-unsaturated malonate esters.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, David J; Dixon, Darren J; Hernandez-Juan, Felix A

    2004-04-29

    [reaction: see text] The highly diastereoselective oxy-Michael addition of the "naked" anion of (6S)-methyl delta lactol to alkylidiene-, arylidene-, and heteroarylidenemalonate derivatives leading to the direct formation of THP-protected beta-hydroxy ester derivatives is described. Subsequent acid-mediated deprotection affords the enantioenriched aldol products in quantitative yields.

  19. High excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid in patients with ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Landaas, S; Solem, E

    1983-02-01

    High concentrations of beta-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA) were found to be present in the urine from patients with ketoacidosis. The R-form was always the dominating isomer of BAIBA. The finding is discussed, and it is suggested that the mechanism might be a derangement in the degradation of valine.

  20. Estimation of frequency wave spectrum from high frequency radar data using a parametric model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toro, V. G.; Ocampo, F. J.; Flores-Vidal, X.; Durazo, R.; Flament, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    Models that obtain wave information from high frequency radars (HF) use information of the measured second order Doppler spectrum. The estimation is completed through an integral equation as in the case of the Barrick model, or linearly as in the Hasselmann model. For the latter, the linear form uses a parameter (α) obtained using an exclusive set of data (EuroROSE) which suggests a universal expression of such parameter. In this work we developed a methodology and better approach to extract second order information from the Doppler spectra, and a new parameterization for α was obtained by comparing with in situ measured information in the Gulf of Tehuantepec (GT), Mexico. We present frequency spectra and significant wave height obtained for a four-month data set in the GT, during the season of strong (> 10 ms-1) northerly gap winds. We found that signal strength of Doppler spectra showed a clear diurnal cycle. The time average of these spectra allowed us to select the spectra with high SNR value. The second-order information obtained was used in the mathematical model of Hasselmann, and found that α, which is a function of frequency, depends on wind speed (U10). The results suggest a good agreement between the data measured by the ASIS buoy and those obtained by the Hasselmann model. The results showed improvement in the estimation of wave frequency spectrum and pointed at the need to have a theoretical model for α to be used in any data set.

  1. Peak High-Frequency HRV and Peak Alpha Frequency Higher in PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Oken, Barry S.

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is difficult to treat and current PTSD treatments are not effective for all people. Despite limited evidence for its efficacy, some clinicians have implemented biofeedback for PTSD treatment. As a first step in constructing an effective biofeedback treatment program, we assessed respiration, electroencephalography (EEG) and heart rate variability (HRV) as potential biofeedback parameters for a future clinical trial. This cross-sectional study included 86 veterans; 59 with and 27 without PTSD. Data were collected on EEG measures, HRV, and respiration rate during an attentive resting state. Measures were analyzed to assess sensitivity to PTSD status and the relationship to PTSD symptoms. Peak alpha frequency was higher in the PTSD group (F(1,84) = 6.14, p = 0.01). Peak high-frequency HRV was lower in the PTSD group (F(2,78) = 26.5, p<0.00005) when adjusting for respiration rate. All other EEG and HRV measures and respiration were not different between groups. Peak high-frequency HRV and peak alpha frequency are sensitive to PTSD status and may be potential biofeedback parameters for future PTSD clinical trials. PMID:23178990

  2. Clustered Desynchronization from High-Frequency Deep Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Dan; Moehlis, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    While high-frequency deep brain stimulation is a well established treatment for Parkinson’s disease, its underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we show that two competing hypotheses, desynchronization and entrainment in a population of model neurons, may not be mutually exclusive. We find that in a noisy group of phase oscillators, high frequency perturbations can separate the population into multiple clusters, each with a nearly identical proportion of the overall population. This phenomenon can be understood by studying maps of the underlying deterministic system and is guaranteed to be observed for small noise strengths. When we apply this framework to populations of Type I and Type II neurons, we observe clustered desynchronization at many pulsing frequencies. PMID:26713619

  3. Self-integrating inductive loop for measuring high frequency pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas-Moreno, Mónica V.; Robles, Guillermo; Martínez-Tarifa, Juan M.; Sanz-Feito, Javier

    2011-08-01

    High frequency pulses can be measured by means of inductive sensors. The main advantage of these sensors consists of non-contact measurements that isolate and protect measuring equipment. The objective of this paper is to present the implementation of an inductive sensor for measuring rapidly varying currents. It consists of a rectangular loop with a resistor at its terminals. The inductive loop gives the derivative of the current according to Faraday's law and the resistor connected to the loop modifies the sensor's frequency response to obtain an output proportional to the current pulse. The self-integrating inductive sensor was validated with two sensors, a non-inductive resistor and a commercial high frequency current transformer. The results were compared to determine the advantages and drawbacks of the probe as an adequate inductive transducer.

  4. High-frequency microrheology reveals cytoskeleton dynamics in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigato, Annafrancesca; Miyagi, Atsushi; Scheuring, Simon; Rico, Felix

    2017-08-01

    Living cells are viscoelastic materials, dominated by an elastic response on timescales longer than a millisecond. On shorter timescales, the dynamics of individual cytoskeleton filaments are expected to emerge, but active microrheology measurements on cells accessing this regime are scarce. Here, we develop high-frequency microrheology experiments to probe the viscoelastic response of living cells from 1 Hz to 100 kHz. We report the viscoelasticity of different cell types under cytoskeletal drug treatments. On previously inaccessible short timescales, cells exhibit rich viscoelastic responses that depend on the state of the cytoskeleton. Benign and malignant cancer cells revealed remarkably different scaling laws at high frequencies, providing a unique mechanical fingerprint. Microrheology over a wide dynamic range--up to the frequency characterizing the molecular components--provides a mechanistic understanding of cell mechanics.

  5. Automated Screening for High-Frequency Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    MacKinnon, Robert C.; Jansen, Marije; Moore, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Hearing loss at high frequencies produces perceptual difficulties and is often an early sign of a more general hearing loss. This study reports the development and validation of two new speech-based hearing screening tests in English that focus on detecting hearing loss at frequencies above 2000 Hz. Design: The Internet-delivered, speech-in noise tests used closed target-word sets of digit triplets or consonant–vowel–consonant (CVC) words presented against a speech-shaped noise masker. The digit triplet test uses the digits 0 to 9 (excluding the disyllabic 7), grouped in quasi-random triplets. The CVC test uses simple words (e.g., “cat”) selected for the high-frequency spectral content of the consonants. During testing, triplets or CVC words were identified in an adaptive procedure to obtain the speech reception threshold (SRT) in noise. For these new, high-frequency (HF) tests, the noise was low-pass filtered to produce greater masking of the low-frequency speech components, increasing the sensitivity of the test for HF hearing loss. Individual test tokens (digits, CVCs) were first homogenized using a group of 10 normal-hearing (NH) listeners by equalizing intelligibility across tokens at several speech-in-noise levels. Both tests were then validated and standardized using groups of 24 NH listeners and 50 listeners with hearing impairment. Performance on the new high frequency digit triplet (HF-triplet) and CVC (HF-CVC) tests was compared with audiometric hearing loss, and with that on the unfiltered, broadband digit triplet test (BB-triplet) test, and the ASL (Adaptive Sentence Lists) speech-in-noise test. Results: The HF-triplet and HF-CVC test results (SRT) both correlated positively and highly with high-frequency audiometric hearing loss and with the ASL test. SRT for both tests as a function of high-frequency hearing loss increased at nearly three times the rate as that of the BB-triplet test. The intraindividual variability (SD) on the

  6. Automated screening for high-frequency hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Vlaming, Marcel S M G; MacKinnon, Robert C; Jansen, Marije; Moore, David R

    2014-01-01

    Hearing loss at high frequencies produces perceptual difficulties and is often an early sign of a more general hearing loss. This study reports the development and validation of two new speech-based hearing screening tests in English that focus on detecting hearing loss at frequencies above 2000 Hz. The Internet-delivered, speech-in noise tests used closed target-word sets of digit triplets or consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words presented against a speech-shaped noise masker. The digit triplet test uses the digits 0 to 9 (excluding the disyllabic 7), grouped in quasi-random triplets. The CVC test uses simple words (e.g., "cat") selected for the high-frequency spectral content of the consonants. During testing, triplets or CVC words were identified in an adaptive procedure to obtain the speech reception threshold (SRT) in noise. For these new, high-frequency (HF) tests, the noise was low-pass filtered to produce greater masking of the low-frequency speech components, increasing the sensitivity of the test for HF hearing loss. Individual test tokens (digits, CVCs) were first homogenized using a group of 10 normal-hearing (NH) listeners by equalizing intelligibility across tokens at several speech-in-noise levels. Both tests were then validated and standardized using groups of 24 NH listeners and 50 listeners with hearing impairment. Performance on the new high frequency digit triplet (HF-triplet) and CVC (HF-CVC) tests was compared with audiometric hearing loss, and with that on the unfiltered, broadband digit triplet test (BB-triplet) test, and the ASL (Adaptive Sentence Lists) speech-in-noise test. The HF-triplet and HF-CVC test results (SRT) both correlated positively and highly with high-frequency audiometric hearing loss and with the ASL test. SRT for both tests as a function of high-frequency hearing loss increased at nearly three times the rate as that of the BB-triplet test. The intraindividual variability (SD) on the tests was about 2.1 (HF-triplet) and 1

  7. Hydrogenation of the alpha,beta-Unsaturated Aldehydes Acrolein, Crotonaldehyde, and Prenal over Pt Single Crystals: A Kinetic and Sum-Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kliewer, C.J.; Somorjai, G.A.

    2008-11-26

    Sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) and kinetic measurements using gas chromatography have been used to study the surface reaction intermediates during the hydrogenation of three {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated aldehydes, acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and prenal, over Pt(111) at Torr pressures (1 Torr aldehyde, 100 Torr hydrogen) in the temperature range of 295K to 415K. SFG-VS data showed that acrolein has mixed adsorption species of {eta}{sub 2}-di-{sigma}(CC)-trans, {eta}{sub 2}-di-{sigma}(CC)-cis as well as highly coordinated {eta}{sub 3} or {eta}{sub 4} species. Crotonaldehyde adsorbed to Pt(111) as {eta}{sub 2} surface intermediates. SFG-VS during prenal hydrogenation also suggested the presence of the {eta}{sub 2} adsorption species, and became more highly coordinated as the temperature was raised to 415K, in agreement with its enhanced C=O hydrogenation. The effect of catalyst surface structure was clarified by carrying out the hydrogenation of crotonaldehyde over both Pt(111) and Pt(100) single crystals while acquiring the SFG-VS spectra in situ. Both the kinetics and SFG-VS showed little structure sensitivity. Pt(100) generated more decarbonylation 'cracking' product while Pt(111) had a higher selectivity for the formation of the desired unsaturated alcohol, crotylalcohol.

  8. High beta, sawtooth-free tokamak operation using energetic trapped particles

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.B.; Bussac, M.N.; Romanelli, F.

    1988-08-01

    It is shown that a population of high energy trapped particles, such as that produced by ion cyclotron heating in tokamaks, can result in a plasma completely stable to both sawtooth oscillations and the fishbone mode. The stable window of operation increases in size with plasma temperature and with trapped particle energy, and provides a means of obtaining a stable plasma with high current and high beta. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Determining the frequency, depth and velocity of preferential flow by high frequency soil moisture monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardie, Marcus; Lisson, Shaun; Doyle, Richard; Cotching, William

    2013-01-01

    Preferential flow in agricultural soils has been demonstrated to result in agrochemical mobilisation to shallow ground water. Land managers and environmental regulators need simple cost effective techniques for identifying soil - land use combinations in which preferential flow occurs. Existing techniques for identifying preferential flow have a range of limitations including; often being destructive, non in situ, small sampling volumes, or are subject to artificial boundary conditions. This study demonstrated that high frequency soil moisture monitoring using a multi-sensory capacitance probe mounted within a vertically rammed access tube, was able to determine the occurrence, depth, and wetting front velocity of preferential flow events following rainfall. Occurrence of preferential flow was not related to either rainfall intensity or rainfall amount, rather preferential flow occurred when antecedent soil moisture content was below 226 mm soil moisture storage (0-70 cm). Results indicate that high temporal frequency soil moisture monitoring may be used to identify soil type - land use combinations in which the presence of preferential flow increases the risk of shallow groundwater contamination by rapid transport of agrochemicals through the soil profile. However use of high frequency based soil moisture monitoring to determine agrochemical mobilisation risk may be limited by, inability to determine the volume of preferential flow, difficulty observing macropore flow at high antecedent soil moisture content, and creation of artificial voids during installation of access tubes in stony soils.

  10. Determining the frequency, depth and velocity of preferential flow by high frequency soil moisture monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hardie, Marcus; Lisson, Shaun; Doyle, Richard; Cotching, William

    2013-01-01

    Preferential flow in agricultural soils has been demonstrated to result in agrochemical mobilisation to shallow ground water. Land managers and environmental regulators need simple cost effective techniques for identifying soil - land use combinations in which preferential flow occurs. Existing techniques for identifying preferential flow have a range of limitations including; often being destructive, non in situ, small sampling volumes, or are subject to artificial boundary conditions. This study demonstrated that high frequency soil moisture monitoring using a multi-sensory capacitance probe mounted within a vertically rammed access tube, was able to determine the occurrence, depth, and wetting front velocity of preferential flow events following rainfall. Occurrence of preferential flow was not related to either rainfall intensity or rainfall amount, rather preferential flow occurred when antecedent soil moisture content was below 226 mm soil moisture storage (0-70 cm). Results indicate that high temporal frequency soil moisture monitoring may be used to identify soil type - land use combinations in which the presence of preferential flow increases the risk of shallow groundwater contamination by rapid transport of agrochemicals through the soil profile. However use of high frequency based soil moisture monitoring to determine agrochemical mobilisation risk may be limited by, inability to determine the volume of preferential flow, difficulty observing macropore flow at high antecedent soil moisture content, and creation of artificial voids during installation of access tubes in stony soils.

  11. High poloidal beta equilibria in TFTR limited by a natural inboard poloidal field null

    SciTech Connect

    Sabbagh, S.A.; Gross, R.A.; Mauel, M.E.; Navratil, G.A. . Dept. of Applied Physics); Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.; Bitter, M.; Bretz, N.L.; Budny, R.V.; Bush, C.E.; Chance, M.S.; Efthimion, P.C.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Hatcher, R.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Hirshman, S.P.; Janos, A.C.; Jardin, S.C.; Jassby, D.L.; Manickam, J.; McCune, D.C.; McGuire, K.M.; Medley, S.S.; Mueller, D.; Nagayama, Y.; Ow

    1991-07-01

    Recent operation of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor TFTR, has produced plasma equilibria with values of {Lambda} {triple bond} {beta}{sub p eq} + l{sub i}/2 as large as 7, {epsilon}{beta}{sub p dia} {triple bond} 2{mu}{sub 0}{epsilon}/{much lt}B{sub p}{much gt}{sup 2} as large as 1.6, and Troyon normalized diamagnetic beta, {beta}{sub N dia} {triple bond} 10{sup 8}<{beta}{sub t}{perpendicular}>aB{sub 0}/I{sub p} as large as 4.7. When {epsilon}{beta}{sub p dia} {approx gt} 1.25, a separatrix entered the vacuum chamber, producing a naturally diverted discharge which was sustained for many energy confinement times, {tau}{sub E}. The largest values of {epsilon}{beta}{sub p} and plasma stored energy were obtained when the plasma current was ramped down prior to neutral beam injection. The measured peak ion and electron temperatures were as large as 24 keV and 8.5 keV, respectively. Plasma stored energy in excess of 2.5 MJ and {tau}{sub E} greater than 130 msec were obtained. Confinement times of greater than 3 times that expected from L-mode predictions have been achieved. The fusion power gain. Q{sub DD}, reached a values of 1.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} in a discharge with I{sub p} = 1 MA and {epsilon}{beta}{sub p dia} = 0.85. A large, sustained negative loop voltage during the steady state portion of the discharge indicates that a substantial non-inductive component of I{sub p} exists in these plasmas. Transport code analysis indicates that the bootstrap current constitutes up to 65% of I{sup p}. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) ballooning stability analysis shows that while these plasmas are near, or at the {beta}{sub p} limit, the pressure gradient in the plasma core is in the first region of stability to high-n modes. 24 refs., 10 figs.

  12. High frequency alternating current chip nano calorimeter with laser heating

    SciTech Connect

    Shoifet, E.; Schick, C.; Chua, Y. Z.; Huth, H.

    2013-07-15

    Heat capacity spectroscopy at frequencies up to 100 kHz is commonly performed by thermal effusivity measurements applying the 3ω-technique. Here we show that AC-calorimetry using a thin film chip sensor allows for the measurement of frequency dependent heat capacity in the thin film limit up to about 1 MHz. Using films thinner than the thermal length of the thermal wave (∼1 μm) at such frequencies is advantageous because it provides heat capacity alone and not in combination with other quantities like thermal conductivity, at least on a qualitative basis. The used calorimetric sensor and the sample are each less than 1 μm thick. For high frequency AC-calorimetry, high cooling rates at very small temperature differences are required. This is realized by minimizing the heated spot to the size of the on chip thermocouple (3 × 6 μm{sup 2}). A modulated laser beam shaped and positioned by a glass fiber is used as the heat source. The device was used to measure the complex heat capacity in the vicinity of the dynamic glass transition (structural relaxation) of poly(methyl methacrylate). Combining different calorimeters finally provides data between 10{sup −3} Hz and 10{sup 6} Hz. In this frequency range the dynamic glass transition shifts about 120 K.

  13. High frequency alternating current chip nano calorimeter with laser heating.

    PubMed

    Shoifet, E; Chua, Y Z; Huth, H; Schick, C

    2013-07-01

    Heat capacity spectroscopy at frequencies up to 100 kHz is commonly performed by thermal effusivity measurements applying the 3ω-technique. Here we show that AC-calorimetry using a thin film chip sensor allows for the measurement of frequency dependent heat capacity in the thin film limit up to about 1 MHz. Using films thinner than the thermal length of the thermal wave (~1 μm) at such frequencies is advantageous because it provides heat capacity alone and not in combination with other quantities like thermal conductivity, at least on a qualitative basis. The used calorimetric sensor and the sample are each less than 1 μm thick. For high frequency AC-calorimetry, high cooling rates at very small temperature differences are required. This is realized by minimizing the heated spot to the size of the on chip thermocouple (3 × 6 μm(2)). A modulated laser beam shaped and positioned by a glass fiber is used as the heat source. The device was used to measure the complex heat capacity in the vicinity of the dynamic glass transition (structural relaxation) of poly(methyl methacrylate). Combining different calorimeters finally provides data between 10(-3) Hz and 10(6) Hz. In this frequency range the dynamic glass transition shifts about 120 K.

  14. High frequency alternating current chip nano calorimeter with laser heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoifet, E.; Chua, Y. Z.; Huth, H.; Schick, C.

    2013-07-01

    Heat capacity spectroscopy at frequencies up to 100 kHz is commonly performed by thermal effusivity measurements applying the 3ω-technique. Here we show that AC-calorimetry using a thin film chip sensor allows for the measurement of frequency dependent heat capacity in the thin film limit up to about 1 MHz. Using films thinner than the thermal length of the thermal wave (˜1 μm) at such frequencies is advantageous because it provides heat capacity alone and not in combination with other quantities like thermal conductivity, at least on a qualitative basis. The used calorimetric sensor and the sample are each less than 1 μm thick. For high frequency AC-calorimetry, high cooling rates at very small temperature differences are required. This is realized by minimizing the heated spot to the size of the on chip thermocouple (3 × 6 μm2). A modulated laser beam shaped and positioned by a glass fiber is used as the heat source. The device was used to measure the complex heat capacity in the vicinity of the dynamic glass transition (structural relaxation) of poly(methyl methacrylate). Combining different calorimeters finally provides data between 10-3 Hz and 106 Hz. In this frequency range the dynamic glass transition shifts about 120 K.

  15. High frequency electrical conduction block of the pudendal nerve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadra, Narendra; Bhadra, Niloy; Kilgore, Kevin; Gustafson, Kenneth J.

    2006-06-01

    A reversible electrical block of the pudendal nerves may provide a valuable method for restoration of urinary voiding in individuals with bladder-sphincter dyssynergia. This study quantified the stimulus parameters and effectiveness of high frequency (HFAC) sinusoidal waveforms on the pudendal nerves to produce block of the external urethral sphincter (EUS). A proximal electrode on the pudendal nerve after its exit from the sciatic notch was used to apply low frequency stimuli to evoke EUS contractions. HFAC at frequencies from 1 to 30 kHz with amplitudes from 1 to 10 V were applied through a conforming tripolar nerve cuff electrode implanted distally. Sphincter responses were recorded with a catheter mounted micro-transducer. A fast onset and reversible motor block was obtained over this range of frequencies. The HFAC block showed three phases: a high onset response, often a period of repetitive firing and usually a steady state of complete or partial block. A complete EUS block was obtained in all animals. The block thresholds showed a linear relationship with frequency. HFAC pudendal nerve stimulation effectively produced a quickly reversible block of evoked urethral sphincter contractions. The HFAC pudendal block could be a valuable tool in the rehabilitation of bladder-sphincter dyssynergia.

  16. Extremely high-frequency micro-Doppler measurements of humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedden, Abigail S.; Silvious, Jerry L.; Dietlein, Charles R.; Green, Jeremy A.; Wikner, David A.

    2014-05-01

    The development of sensors that are capable of penetrating smoke, dust, fog, clouds, and rain is critical for maintaining situational awareness in degraded visual environments and for providing support to the Warfighter. Atmospheric penetration properties, the ability to form high-resolution imagery with modest apertures, and available source power make the extremely high-frequency (EHF) portion of the spectrum promising for the development of radio frequency (RF) sensors capable of penetrating visual obscurants. Comprehensive phenomenology studies including polarization and backscatter properties of relevant targets are lacking at these frequencies. The Army Research Laboratory (ARL) is developing a fully-polarimetric frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) instrumentation radar to explore polarization and backscatter properties of in-situ rain, scattering from natural and man-made surfaces, and the radar cross section and micro-Doppler signatures of humans at EHF frequencies, specifically, around the 220 GHz atmospheric window. This work presents an overview of the design and construction of the radar system, hardware performance, data acquisition software, and initial results including an analysis of human micro-Doppler signatures.

  17. Osteogenic Effect of High-frequency Acceleration on Alveolar Bone

    PubMed Central

    Alikhani, M.; Khoo, E.; Alyami, B.; Raptis, M.; Salgueiro, J.M.; Oliveira, S.M.; Boskey, A.; Teixeira, C.C.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical stimulation contributes to the health of alveolar bone, but no therapy using the osteogenic effects of these stimuli to increase alveolar bone formation has been developed. We propose that the application of high-frequency acceleration to teeth in the absence of significant loading is osteogenic. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided among control, sham, and experimental groups. The experimental group underwent localized accelerations at different frequencies for 5 min/day on the occlusal surface of the maxillary right first molar at a very low magnitude of loading (4 µε). Sham rats received a similar load in the absence of acceleration or frequency. The alveolar bone of the maxilla was evaluated by microcomputed tomography (µCT), histology, fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR imaging), and RT-PCR for osteogenic genes. Results demonstrate that application of high-frequency acceleration significantly increased alveolar bone formation. These effects were not restricted to the area of application, and loading could be replaced by frequency and acceleration. These studies propose a simple mechanical therapy that may play a significant role in alveolar bone formation and maintenance. PMID:22337699

  18. High-frequency Pulse-tube Refrigerator for 4 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaeva, I. A.; Klaasse Bos, C. G.; de Waele, A. T. A. M.

    2006-04-01

    At present pulse-tube refrigerators (PTRs), used for the important temperature region of 4 K, are of the Gifford-McMahon (GM)-type. The main sources of losses in GM-type PTRs are the compressor and the rotary valve. The efficiency of the combination of the compressor and the rotary valve is only about 30%. In addition to that GM-type compressors are heavy and need periodic maintenance. The main goal of this research is to develop a Stirling-type 4-K pulse-tube refrigerator. This implies higher operating frequencies, compared to the usual 1-2 Hz. At higher frequencies a number of properties of a pulse-tube system, such as length-to-diameter ratios of the pulse tubes and the regenerator, volume and configuration of a regenerator material, phase-shift control method, etc., change significantly, and, therefore, require detailed study. The interactions between various parameters of the pulse tube and of the linear compressor are very complicated. Therefore, as a first part of this research, we study the pulse tube at high frequencies, independent of the compressor. We generate high-frequency pressure oscillations, using a GM-type compressor and a special type of rotary valve, which enables us to operate at frequencies up to 20 Hz. Results of this work are described in this contribution.

  19. Disruption of microalgal cells using high-frequency focused ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Yuan, Wenqiao; Jiang, Xiaoning; Jing, Yun; Wang, Zhuochen

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of high-frequency focused ultrasound (HFFU) in microalgal cell disruption. Two microalgal species including Scenedesmus dimorphus and Nannochloropsis oculata were treated by a 3.2-MHz, 40-W focused ultrasound and a 100-W, low-frequency (20kHz) non-focused ultrasound (LFNFU). The results demonstrated that HFFU was effective in the disruption of microalgal cells, indicated by significantly increased lipid fluorescence density, the decrease of cell sizes, and the increase of chlorophyll a fluorescence density after treatments. Compared with LFNFU, HFFU treatment was more energy efficient. The combination of high and low frequency treatments was found to be even more effective than single frequency treatment at the same processing time, indicating that frequency played a critical role in cell disruption. In both HFFU and LFNFU treatments, the effectiveness of cell disruption was found to be dependent on the cell treated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Collocations of High Frequency Noun Keywords in Prescribed Science Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Sujatha; Mukundan, Jayakaran

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the discourse of science through the study of collocational patterns of high frequency noun keywords in science textbooks used by upper secondary students in Malaysia. Research has shown that one of the areas of difficulty in science discourse concerns lexis, especially that of collocations. This paper describes a corpus-based…

  1. Practical techniques for enhancing the high-frequency MASW method

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For soil exploration in the vadose zone, a high-frequency multi-channel analysis of surface waves (HF-MASW) method has been developed. In the study, several practical techniques were applied to enhance the overtone image of the HF-MASW method. They included (1) the self-adaptive MASW method using a ...

  2. Piezoelectric films for high frequency ultrasonic transducers in biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qifa; Lau, Sienting; Wu, Dawei; Shung, K. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Piezoelectric films have recently attracted considerable attention in the development of various sensor and actuator devices such as nonvolatile memories, tunable microwave circuits and ultrasound transducers. In this paper, an overview of the state of art in piezoelectric films for high frequency transducer applications is presented. Firstly, the basic principles of piezoelectric materials and design considerations for ultrasound transducers will be introduced. Following the review, the current status of the piezoelectric films and recent progress in the development of high frequency ultrasonic transducers will be discussed. Then details for preparation and structure of the materials derived from piezoelectric thick film technologies will be described. Both chemical and physical methods are included in the discussion, namely, the sol–gel approach, aerosol technology and hydrothermal method. The electric and piezoelectric properties of the piezoelectric films, which are very important for transducer applications, such as permittivity and electromechanical coupling factor, are also addressed. Finally, the recent developments in the high frequency transducers and arrays with piezoelectric ZnO and PZT thick film using MEMS technology are presented. In addition, current problems and further direction of the piezoelectric films for very high frequency ultrasound application (up to GHz) are also discussed. PMID:21720451

  3. Carbon nanotube transistor based high-frequency electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroter, Michael

    At the nanoscale carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have higher carrier mobility and carrier velocity than most incumbent semiconductors. Thus CNT based field-effect transistors (FETs) are being considered as strong candidates for replacing existing MOSFETs in digital applications. In addition, the predicted high intrinsic transit frequency and the more recent finding of ways to achieve highly linear transfer characteristics have inspired investigations on analog high-frequency (HF) applications. High linearity is extremely valuable for an energy efficient usage of the frequency spectrum, particularly in mobile communications. Compared to digital applications, the much more relaxed constraints for CNT placement and lithography combined with already achieved operating frequencies of at least 10 GHz for fabricated devices make an early entry in the low GHz HF market more feasible than in large-scale digital circuits. Such a market entry would be extremely beneficial for funding the development of production CNTFET based process technology. This talk will provide an overview on the present status and feasibility of HF CNTFET technology will be given from an engineering point of view, including device modeling, experimental results, and existing roadblocks.

  4. Measurement of high frequency waves using a wave follower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, S.; Shemdin, O. H.

    1983-01-01

    High frequency waves were measured using a laser-optical sensor mounted on a wave follower. Measured down-wind wave slope spectra are shown to be wind speed dependent; the mean square wave-slopes are generally larger than those measured by Cox and Munk (1954) using the sun glitter method.

  5. High-Frequency Oscillations and Seizure Generation in Neocortical Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worrell, Greg A.; Parish, Landi; Cranstoun, Stephen D.; Jonas, Rachel; Baltuch, Gordon; Litt, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Neocortical seizures are often poorly localized, explosive and widespread at onset, making them poorly amenable to epilepsy surgery in the absence of associated focal brain lesions. We describe, for the first time in an unselected group of patients with neocortical epilepsy, the finding that high-frequency (60--100 Hz) epileptiform oscillations…

  6. Piezoelectric films for high frequency ultrasonic transducers in biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qifa; Lau, Sienting; Wu, Dawei; Shung, K Kirk

    2011-02-01

    Piezoelectric films have recently attracted considerable attention in the development of various sensor and actuator devices such as nonvolatile memories, tunable microwave circuits and ultrasound transducers. In this paper, an overview of the state of art in piezoelectric films for high frequency transducer applications is presented. Firstly, the basic principles of piezoelectric materials and design considerations for ultrasound transducers will be introduced. Following the review, the current status of the piezoelectric films and recent progress in the development of high frequency ultrasonic transducers will be discussed. Then details for preparation and structure of the materials derived from piezoelectric thick film technologies will be described. Both chemical and physical methods are included in the discussion, namely, the sol-gel approach, aerosol technology and hydrothermal method. The electric and piezoelectric properties of the piezoelectric films, which are very important for transducer applications, such as permittivity and electromechanical coupling factor, are also addressed. Finally, the recent developments in the high frequency transducers and arrays with piezoelectric ZnO and PZT thick film using MEMS technology are presented. In addition, current problems and further direction of the piezoelectric films for very high frequency ultrasound application (up to GHz) are also discussed.

  7. High-Frequency Axial Fatigue Test Procedures for Spectrum Loading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-20

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED NAVAL AIR WARFARE CENTER AIRCRAFT DIVISION PATUXENT RIVER, MARYLAND TECHNICAL INFORMATION MEMORANDUM...REPORT NO: NAWCADPAX/TIM-2016/49 HIGH-FREQUENCY AXIAL FATIGUE TEST PROCEEDURES FOR SPECTRUM LOADING by David T. Rusk, AIR ...4.3.3.5 Robert E. Taylor, AIR 4.3.4.1 20 July 2016 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. DEPARTMENT

  8. High temporal frequency measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) are the most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs). Variation in soil moisture can be very dynamic, and it is one of the dominant factors controlling the net exchange of these three GHGs. Although technologies for high-frequency,...

  9. Surface modification of lignocellulosic fibers using high-frequency ultrasound

    Treesearch

    Jayant B. Gadhe; Ram B. Gupta; Thomas Elder

    2005-01-01

    Enzymatic and chemical oxidation of fiber surfaces has been reported in the literature as a method for producing medium density fiberboards without using synthetic adhesives. This work focuses on modifying the surface properties of wood fibers by the generation of free radicals using high-frequency ultrasound. A sonochemical reactor operating at 610 kHz is used to...

  10. Frequency of Guns in the Households of High School Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coker, Ann L.; Bush, Heather M.; Follingstad, Diane R.; Brancato, Candace J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In 2013, President Obama lifted the federal ban on gun violence research. The current study provides one of the first reports to estimate household gun ownership as reported by youth. Methods: In this cohort study of 3,006 high school seniors from 24 schools, we examined the frequency of household guns ownership. Results: About 65%…

  11. Phase controlled dc-ac converter with high frequency switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Koosuke; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Shoyama, Masahito

    A sinusoidal dc-ac converter is presented in which a pair of switches is placed on each side of the primary and secondary of the isolation transformer. This converter is controlled by the phase difference between the two pairs of switches. The transformer is miniaturized by making the switching frequency high. This converter is especially suitable for small uninterruptible power supply systems.

  12. Frequency of Guns in the Households of High School Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coker, Ann L.; Bush, Heather M.; Follingstad, Diane R.; Brancato, Candace J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In 2013, President Obama lifted the federal ban on gun violence research. The current study provides one of the first reports to estimate household gun ownership as reported by youth. Methods: In this cohort study of 3,006 high school seniors from 24 schools, we examined the frequency of household guns ownership. Results: About 65%…

  13. High-Frequency Oscillations and Seizure Generation in Neocortical Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worrell, Greg A.; Parish, Landi; Cranstoun, Stephen D.; Jonas, Rachel; Baltuch, Gordon; Litt, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Neocortical seizures are often poorly localized, explosive and widespread at onset, making them poorly amenable to epilepsy surgery in the absence of associated focal brain lesions. We describe, for the first time in an unselected group of patients with neocortical epilepsy, the finding that high-frequency (60--100 Hz) epileptiform oscillations…

  14. Studies of high-frequency seismic wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minster, Jean-Bernard; Berger, Jonathan

    1991-03-01

    This final report results are: (1) a study of the location of regional seismic events using a sparse network, with an application to eastern Kazakhstan; (2) an analysis of high frequency seismic observations collected in eastern Kazakhstan, including in particular calibration chemical explosions; (3) a study of the discrimination of quarry blasts from single explosions, using sonogram analysis of data collected in eastern Kazakhstan; (4) the extension of the discrimination methodology developed in the previous paper to small aperture array data, and application to the automated discrimination between earthquake and quarry blasts at NORESS; (5) the use of a new technique, labelled beam stack imaging, to map shallow crust scatterers near a small aperture array, with applications to NORESS; (6) a study of the polarization characteristics of high-frequency borehole seismograms recorded near Anza, California; and (7) an analysis of attenuation and site effects on high-frequency seismic waves, using high-frequency borehole seismograms recorded in the San Jacinto fault zone, near Anza, California.

  15. Production and study of high-beta plasma confined by a superconducting dipole magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Garnier, D.T.; Hansen, A.; Mauel, M.E.; Ortiz, E.; Boxer, A.C.; Ellsworth, J.; Karim, I.; Kesner, J.; Mahar, S.; Roach, A.

    2006-05-15

    The Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX) [J. Kesner et al., in Fusion Energy 1998, 1165 (1999)] is a new research facility that is exploring the confinement and stability of plasma created within the dipole field produced by a strong superconducting magnet. Unlike other configurations in which stability depends on curvature and magnetic shear, magnetohydrodynamic stability of a dipole derives from plasma compressibility. Theoretically, the dipole magnetic geometry can stabilize a centrally peaked plasma pressure that exceeds the local magnetic pressure ({beta}>1), and the absence of magnetic shear allows particle and energy confinement to decouple. In initial experiments, long-pulse, quasi-steady-state microwave discharges lasting more than 10 s have been produced that are consistent with equilibria having peak beta values of 20%. Detailed measurements have been made of discharge evolution, plasma dynamics and instability, and the roles of gas fueling, microwave power deposition profiles, and plasma boundary shape. In these initial experiments, the high-field superconducting floating coil was supported by three thin supports. The plasma is created by multifrequency electron cyclotron resonance heating at 2.45 and 6.4 GHz, and a population of energetic electrons, with mean energies above 50 keV, dominates the plasma pressure. Creation of high-pressure, high-beta plasma is possible only when intense hot electron interchange instabilities are stabilized by sufficiently high background plasma density. A dramatic transition from a low-density, low-beta regime to a more quiescent, high-beta regime is observed when the plasma fueling rate and confinement time become sufficiently large.

  16. Sensitivity to Error Fields in NSTX High Beta Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jong-Kyu; Menard, Jonathan E.; Gerhardt, Stefan P.; Buttery, Richard J.; Sabbagh, Steve A.; Bell, Steve E.; LeBlanc, Benoit P.

    2011-11-07

    It was found that error field threshold decreases for high β in NSTX, although the density correlation in conventional threshold scaling implies the threshold would increase since higher β plasmas in our study have higher plasma density. This greater sensitivity to error field in higher β plasmas is due to error field amplification by plasmas. When the effect of amplification is included with ideal plasma response calculations, the conventional density correlation can be restored and threshold scaling becomes more consistent with low β plasmas. However, it was also found that the threshold can be significantly changed depending on plasma rotation. When plasma rotation was reduced by non-resonant magnetic braking, the further increase of sensitivity to error field was observed.

  17. High-frequency Oscillations in Eyewalls of Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weibiao; Chen, Shumin

    2017-04-01

    High-frequency oscillations, with periods of about 2 hours, are first identified by applying wavelet analysis to observed minutely wind speeds around the eye and eyewall of tropical cyclones (TCs). Analysis of a model simulation of Typhoon Hagupit (2008) shows that the oscillations also occur in the intensity of TC, vertical motion, convergence activity and air density around the eyewall. Sequences of oscillations in these variables follow a certain order. In a typical cycle, the drop of density in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is followed by an increase in the inward radial wind; this enhanced frictional convergence causes increase in density, followed by a decrease in the inward radial wind. The increase in convergence in the PBL causes increase of updraft at the top of the PBL, followed by high vertical velocity at high altitude of 8-10 km, then the increase of the maximum wind speed, and vice versa. Key words: tropical cyclone, high-frequency oscillations, eyewall, intensity

  18. Analysis of winding losses in high frequency foil wound inductors

    SciTech Connect

    Kutkut, N.H.; Novotny, D.W.; Divan, D.M.; Yeow, E.

    1995-12-31

    The design of high power and high frequency foil wound inductors is not a straightforward task. At high frequencies, additional losses occur within the foil windings due to the eddy currents induced by skin, proximity, fringing and other ac effects. In addition, the winding structure greatly affects the distribution of losses within the windings. In this paper, the various loss mechanisms of a foil winding are analyzed and quantified. Both analytical and finite element analysis tools are utilized to investigate and understand the different loss mechanisms. The results show a strong correlation between the current and field distributions within the windings where the current is always attracted to the high field regions. By shaping and controlling the field distribution in a given design, the current distribution can be improved which results in an improvement in the winding losses.

  19. Testing the high turbulence level breakdown of low-frequency gyrokinetics against high-frequency cyclokinetic simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhao; Waltz, R. E.

    2015-05-15

    This paper presents numerical simulations of the nonlinear cyclokinetic equations in the cyclotron harmonic representation [R. E. Waltz and Zhao Deng, Phys. Plasmas 20, 012507 (2013)]. Simulations are done with a local flux-tube geometry and with the parallel motion and variation suppressed using a newly developed rCYCLO code. Cyclokinetic simulations dynamically follow the high-frequency ion gyro-phase motion which is nonlinearly coupled into the low-frequency drift-waves possibly interrupting and suppressing gyro-averaging and increasing the transport over gyrokinetic levels. By comparing the more fundamental cyclokinetic simulations with the corresponding gyrokinetic simulations, the breakdown of gyrokinetics at high turbulence levels is quantitatively tested over a range of relative ion cyclotron frequency 10 < Ω*{sup  }< 100 where Ω*{sup  }= 1/ρ*, and ρ* is the relative ion gyroradius. The gyrokinetic linear mode rates closely match the cyclokinetic low-frequency rates for Ω*{sup  }> 5. Gyrokinetic transport recovers cyclokinetic transport at high relative ion cyclotron frequency (Ω*{sup  }≥ 50) and low turbulence level as required. Cyclokinetic transport is found to be lower than gyrokinetic transport at high turbulence levels and low-Ω* values with stable ion cyclotron (IC) modes. The gyrokinetic approximation is found to break down when the density perturbations exceed 20%. For cyclokinetic simulations with sufficiently unstable IC modes and sufficiently low Ω*{sup  }∼ 10, the high-frequency component of cyclokinetic transport level can exceed the gyrokinetic transport level. However, the low-frequency component of the cyclokinetic transport and turbulence level does not exceed that of gyrokinetics. At higher and more physically relevant Ω*{sup  }≥ 50 values and physically realistic IC driving rates, the low-frequency component of the cyclokinetic transport and turbulence level is still smaller than that of

  20. High-overtone Self-Focusing Acoustic Transducers for High Frequency Ultrasonic Doppler

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jie; Lee, Chuangyuan; Kim, Eun Sok; Wu, Dawei; Hu, Changhong; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk.; Wang, Gaofeng; Yu, Hongyu

    2010-01-01

    This work reports the potential use of high-overtone self-focusing acoustic transducers for high frequency ultrasonic Doppler. By using harmonic frequencies of a thick bulk Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) transducer with a novel air-reflector Fresnel lens, we obtained strong ultrasound signals at 60 MHz (3rd harmonic) and 100 MHz (5th harmonic). Both experimental and theoretical analysis has demonstrated that the transducers can be applied to Doppler systems with high frequencies up to 100 MHz. PMID:20206371

  1. I. The design, synthesis, and structure of antiparallel beta-sheet and beta-strand mimics. II. The design of a scripted chemistry outreach program to high schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldman, Amy Sue

    I. Protein structure is not easily predicted from the linear sequence of amino acids. An increased ability to create protein structures would allow researchers to develop new peptide-based therapeutics and materials, and would provide insights into the mechanisms of protein folding. Toward this end, we have designed and synthesized two-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet mimics containing conformationally biased scaffolds and semicarbazide, urea, and hydrazide linker groups that attach peptide chains to the scaffold. The mimics exhibited populations of intramolecularly hydrogen-bonded beta-sheet-like conformers as determined by spectroscopic techniques such as FTIR, sp1H NMR, and ROESY studies. During our studies, we determined that a urea-hydrazide beta-strand mimic was able to tightly hydrogen bond to peptides in an antiparallel beta-sheet-like configuration. Several derivatives of the urea-hydrazide beta-strand mimic were synthesized. Preliminary data by electron microscopy indicate that the beta-strand mimics have an effect on the folding of Alzheimer's Abeta peptide. These data suggest that the urea-hydrazide beta-strand mimics and related compounds may be developed into therapeutics which effect the folding of the Abeta peptide into neurotoxic aggregates. II. In recent years, there has been concern about the low level of science literacy and science interest among Americans. A declining interest in science impacts the abilities of people to make informed decisions about technology. To increase the interest in science among secondary students, we have developed the UCI Chemistry Outreach Program to High Schools. The Program features demonstration shows and discussions about chemistry in everyday life. The development and use of show scripts has enabled large numbers of graduate and undergraduate student volunteers to demonstrate chemistry to more than 12,000 local high school students. Teachers, students, and volunteers have expressed their enjoyment of The UCI

  2. High frequency columnar silicon microresonators for mass detection

    SciTech Connect

    Kehrbusch, J.; Ilin, E. A.; Hullin, M.; Oesterschulze, E.

    2008-07-14

    A simple but effective technological scheme for the fabrication of high frequency silicon columnar microresonators is presented. With the proposed technique the dimensions of the microresonators are controlled on a scale of at least 1 {mu}m. Characterization of the mechanical properties of silicon columns gave resonant frequencies of the lowest flexural mode of 3-7 MHz with quality factors of up to 2500 in air and {approx}8800 under vacuum condition. Columnar microresonators were operated as mass balance with a sensitivity of 1 Hz/fg. A mass detection limit of 25 fg was deduced from experiments.

  3. Compact high voltage, high peak power, high frequency transformer for converter type modulator applications.

    PubMed

    Reghu, T; Mandloi, V; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2016-04-01

    The design and development of a compact high voltage, high peak power, high frequency transformer for a converter type modulator of klystron amplifiers is presented. The transformer has been designed to operate at a frequency of 20 kHz and at a flux swing of ±0.6 T. Iron (Fe) based nanocrystalline material has been selected as a core for the construction of the transformer. The transformer employs a specially designed solid Teflon bobbin having 120 kV insulation for winding the high voltage secondary windings. The flux swing of the core has been experimentally found by plotting the hysteresis loop at actual operating conditions. Based on the design, a prototype transformer has been built which is per se a unique combination of high voltage, high frequency, and peak power specifications. The transformer was able to provide 58 kV (pk-pk) at the secondary with a peak power handling capability of 700 kVA. The transformation ratio was 1:17. The performance of the transformer is also presented and discussed.

  4. Compact high voltage, high peak power, high frequency transformer for converter type modulator applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reghu, T.; Mandloi, V.; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2016-04-01

    The design and development of a compact high voltage, high peak power, high frequency transformer for a converter type modulator of klystron amplifiers is presented. The transformer has been designed to operate at a frequency of 20 kHz and at a flux swing of ±0.6 T. Iron (Fe) based nanocrystalline material has been selected as a core for the construction of the transformer. The transformer employs a specially designed solid Teflon bobbin having 120 kV insulation for winding the high voltage secondary windings. The flux swing of the core has been experimentally found by plotting the hysteresis loop at actual operating conditions. Based on the design, a prototype transformer has been built which is per se a unique combination of high voltage, high frequency, and peak power specifications. The transformer was able to provide 58 kV (pk-pk) at the secondary with a peak power handling capability of 700 kVA. The transformation ratio was 1:17. The performance of the transformer is also presented and discussed.

  5. Feasibility of using frequency offset on very high frequency air/ground voice channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badinelli, Martin; Cushman, Arthur; Randazzo, Philip

    1990-03-01

    In some large Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) air traffic control sectors, the controller manually switches between multiple ground transmitters to communicate with aircraft at opposite ends of the sector. This puts an additional burden on the controller. Aeronautical Radio, Inc. (ARINC) uses a frequency offset system which produces five frequencies from one channel assignment. ARINC provides this service to commercial air carriers who use receivers designed to ARINC specifications. These receivers are capable of eliminating the audio heterodyne generated by the offsetting process. The commercial air carriers use this system for airline business. The testing performed at the FAA Technical Center to evaluate this system as a means of controlling the air traffic in large sectors is described. The tests indicate that a frequency offset system cannot be used with general aviation aircraft receivers because many cannot filter out the audio heterodyne. Use of frequency offset may be possible in high altitude sectors where commercial aviation receivers, which meet ARINC specifications, are used if some additional concerns are resolved.

  6. Proteasome Dysfunction Mediates High Glucose-Induced Apoptosis in Rodent Beta Cells and Human Islets

    PubMed Central

    Broca, Christophe; Varin, Elodie; Armanet, Mathieu; Tourrel-Cuzin, Cécile; Bosco, Domenico; Dalle, Stéphane; Wojtusciszyn, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS), a major cellular protein degradation machinery, plays key roles in the regulation of many cell functions. Glucotoxicity mediated by chronic hyperglycaemia is detrimental to the function and survival of pancreatic beta cells. The aim of our study was to determine whether proteasome dysfunction could be involved in beta cell apoptosis in glucotoxic conditions, and to evaluate whether such a dysfunction might be pharmacologically corrected. Therefore, UPS activity was measured in GK rats islets, INS-1E beta cells or human islets after high glucose and/or UPS inhibitor exposure. Immunoblotting was used to quantify polyubiquitinated proteins, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress through CHOP expression, and apoptosis through the cleavage of PARP and caspase-3, whereas total cell death was detected through histone-associated DNA fragments measurement. In vitro, we found that chronic exposure of INS-1E cells to high glucose concentrations significantly decreases the three proteasome activities by 20% and leads to caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. We showed that pharmacological blockade of UPS activity by 20% leads to apoptosis in a same way. Indeed, ER stress was involved in both conditions. These results were confirmed in human islets, and proteasome activities were also decreased in hyperglycemic GK rats islets. Moreover, we observed that a high glucose treatment hypersensitized beta cells to the apoptotic effect of proteasome inhibitors. Noteworthily, the decreased proteasome activity can be corrected with Exendin-4, which also protected against glucotoxicity-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our findings reveal an important role of proteasome activity in high glucose-induced beta cell apoptosis, potentially linking ER stress and glucotoxicity. These proteasome dysfunctions can be reversed by a GLP-1 analog. Thus, UPS may be a potent target to treat deleterious metabolic conditions leading to type 2 diabetes. PMID:24642635

  7. High frequency resolution terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangala, Bagvanth Reddy

    2013-12-01

    A new method for the high frequency resolution terahertz time-domain spectroscopy is developed based on the characteristic matrix method. This method is useful for studying planar samples or stack of planar samples. The terahertz radiation was generated by optical rectification in a ZnTe crystal and detected by another ZnTe crystal via electro-optic sampling method. In this new characteristic matrix based method, the spectra of the sample and reference waveforms will be modeled by using characteristic matrices. We applied this new method to measure the optical constants of air. The terahertz transmission through the layered systems air-Teflon-air-Quartz-air and Nitrogen gas-Teflon-Nitrogen gas-Quartz-Nitrogen gas was modeled by the characteristic matrix method. A transmission coefficient is derived from these models which was optimized to fit the experimental transmission coefficient to extract the optical constants of air. The optimization of an error function involving the experimental complex transmission coefficient and the theoretical transmission coefficient was performed using patternsearch algorithm of MATLAB. Since this method takes account of the echo waveforms due to reflections in the layered samples, this method allows analysis of longer time-domain waveforms giving rise to very high frequency resolution in the frequency-domain. We have presented the high frequency resolution terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of air and compared the results with the literature values. We have also fitted the complex susceptibility of air to the Lorentzian and Gaussian functions to extract the linewidths.

  8. Advances in high frequency ultrasound separation of particulates from biomass.

    PubMed

    Juliano, Pablo; Augustin, Mary Ann; Xu, Xin-Qing; Mawson, Raymond; Knoerzer, Kai

    2017-03-01

    In recent years the use of high frequency ultrasound standing waves (megasonics) for droplet or cell separation from biomass has emerged beyond the microfluidics scale into the litre to industrial scale applications. The principle for this separation technology relies on the differential positioning of individual droplets or particles across an ultrasonic standing wave field within the reactor and subsequent biomass material predisposition for separation via rapid droplet agglomeration or coalescence into larger entities. Large scale transducers have been characterised with sonochemiluminescence and hydrophones to enable better reactor designs. High frequency enhanced separation technology has been demonstrated at industrial scale for oil recovery in the palm oil industry and at litre scale to assist olive oil, coconut oil and milk fat separation. Other applications include algal cell dewatering and milk fat globule fractionation. Frequency selection depends on the material properties and structure in the biomass mixture. Higher frequencies (1 and 2MHz) have proven preferable for better separation of materials with smaller sized droplets such as milk fat globules. For palm oil and olive oil, separation has been demonstrated within the 400-600kHz region, which has high radical production, without detectable impact on product quality. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Motion analysis using 3D high-resolution frequency analysis.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Takaaki; Fujii, Kenta; Hirobayashi, Shigeki; Yoshizawa, Toshio; Misawa, Tadanobu

    2013-08-01

    The spatiotemporal spectra of a video that contains a moving object form a plane in the 3D frequency domain. This plane, which is described as the theoretical motion plane, reflects the velocity of the moving objects, which is calculated from the slope. However, if the resolution of the frequency analysis method is not high enough to obtain actual spectra from the object signal, the spatiotemporal spectra disperse away from the theoretical motion plane. In this paper, we propose a high-resolution frequency analysis method, described as 3D nonharmonic analysis (NHA), which is only weakly influenced by the analysis window. In addition, we estimate the motion vectors of objects in a video using the plane-clustering method, in conjunction with the least-squares method, for 3D NHA spatiotemporal spectra. We experimentally verify the accuracy of the 3D NHA and its usefulness for a sequence containing complex motions, such as cross-over motion, through comparison with 3D fast Fourier transform. The experimental results show that increasing the frequency resolution contributes to high-accuracy estimation of a motion plane.

  10. High-frequency audiometry: test reliability and procedural considerations.

    PubMed

    Stelmachowicz, P G; Beauchaine, K A; Kalberer, A; Kelly, W J; Jesteadt, W

    1989-02-01

    This study compared the reliability of a recently developed high-frequency audiometer (HFA) [Stevens et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 81, 470-484 (1987)] with a less complicated system that uses supraaural earphones (Koss system). The new approach permits calibration on an individual basis, making it possible to express thresholds at high frequencies in dB SPL. Data obtained from 50 normal-hearing subjects, ranging in age from 10-60 years, were used to evaluate the effects on reliability of threshold variance, earpiece/earphone fitting variance, and the variance associated with the HFA calibration process. Without earpiece/earphone replacement, the reliability of thresholds for the two systems is similar. With replacement, the HFA showed poorer reliability than the Koss system above 11 kHz, largely due to errors in estimating the calibration function. HFA reliability is greater for subjects with valid calibration functions over the entire frequency range. When average correction factors are applied to the Koss data in an effort to convert threshold estimates to dB SPL, individual transfer functions are not represented accurately. Thus the benefit of being able to express thresholds at high frequencies in dB SPL must be weighed against the additional source of variability introduced by the HFA calibration process.

  11. Experiments on linear high beta helical axis stellarators to study simulated toroidal effects and Alfven-wave heating

    SciTech Connect

    Ribe, F.L.; Nelson, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses induced axial current studies in a hardcore Theta-Pinch; nonaxisymmetric RF heating of a high-Beta plasma column; formation of Axisymmetric hardcore theta pinches with notched hardcore current; and externally driven till made experiments on the high-beta Q machine field reversed configuration. (LSP)

  12. Regenerator Operation at Very High Frequencies for Microcryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radebaugh, Ray; O'Gallagher, Agnes

    2006-04-01

    The size of Stirling and Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers is dominated by the size of the pressure oscillator. Such cryocoolers typically operate at frequencies up to about 60 Hz for cold-end temperatures above about 60 K. Higher operating frequencies would allow the size and mass of the pressure oscillator to be reduced for a given power input. However, simply increasing the operating frequency leads to large losses in the regenerator. The simple analytical equations derived here show how the right combination of frequency and pressure, along with optimized regenerator geometry, can lead to successful regenerator operation at frequencies up to 1 kHz. Efficient regenerator operation at such high frequencies is possible only with pressures of about 5 to 8 MPa and with very small hydraulic diameters and lengths. Other geometrical parameters must also be optimized for such conditions. The analytical equations are used to provide guidance to the right combination of parameters. We give example numerical calculations with REGEN3.2 in the paper for 60 Hz, 400 Hz, and 1000 Hz operation of optimized screen regenerators and show that the coefficient of performance at 400 Hz and 1000 Hz is about 78 % and 68 %, respectively, of that for 60 Hz when an average pressure of 7 MPa is used with the higher frequency, compared with 2.5 MPa for 60 Hz operation. The 1000 Hz coefficient of performance for parallel tubes is about the same as that of the screen geometry at 60 Hz. The compressor and cold-end swept volumes are reduced by a factor of 47 at 1000 Hz, compared with the 60 Hz case for the same input acoustic power, which can enable the development of microcryocoolers for MEMS applications.

  13. A high-performance Hg(+) trapped ion frequency standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prestage, J. D.; Tjoelker, R. L.; Dick, G. J.; Maleki, L.

    1992-01-01

    A high-performance frequency standard based on (199)Hg(+) ions confined in a hybrid radio frequency (RF)/dc linear ion trap is demonstrated. This trap permits storage of large numbers of ions with reduced susceptibility to the second-order Doppler effect caused by the RF confining fields. A 160-mHz-wide atomic resonance line for the 40.5-GHz clock transition is used to steer the output of a 5-mHz crystal oscillator to obtain a stability of 2 x 10(exp -15) for 24,000-second averaging times. Measurements with a 37-mHz line width for the Hg(+) clock transition demonstrate that the inherent stability for this frequency standard is better than 1 x 10(exp -15) at 10,000-second averaging times.

  14. High-frequency electric field measurement using a toroidal antenna

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ki Ha

    2002-01-01

    A simple and compact method and apparatus for detecting high frequency electric fields, particularly in the frequency range of 1 MHz to 100 MHz, uses a compact toroidal antenna. For typical geophysical applications the sensor will be used to detect electric fields for a wide range of spectrum starting from about 1 MHz, in particular in the frequency range between 1 to 100 MHz, to detect small objects in the upper few meters of the ground. Time-varying magnetic fields associated with time-varying electric fields induce an emf (voltage) in a toroidal coil. The electric field at the center of (and perpendicular to the plane of) the toroid is shown to be linearly related to this induced voltage. By measuring the voltage across a toroidal coil one can easily and accurately determine the electric field.

  15. High-frequency measurements of multilayer ceramic capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafferty, R. E.; Maher, J. P.

    1981-06-01

    A resonant coaxial transmission line, short circuited at one end and open circuited at the other, whose fundamental resonant frequency and Q factor are known, is perturbed with a test capacitor connected either in series at the shorted end of the line, or in shunt at the open end. Measuring the Q factor of the system with the delta f technique yields the effective series resistance, capacitance, and the Q factor of the test specimen. This method of measurement has the advantage that there are no adjustable elements to alter circuit conditions in an unprescribed way, the only variable is the frequency which can be measured with an uncertainty of less than 1 ppm, the loss of the line as a function of frequency is quite predictable, and the Q factor of the line can be made sufficiently high to support accurate measurements of low loss capacitors.

  16. Highly flexible distributions to fit multiple frequency financial returns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BenSaïda, Ahmed; Slim, Skander

    2016-01-01

    Financial data are usually studied via low flexible distributions, independently of the frequency of the data, due to their simplicity and analytical tractability. In this paper we analyze two highly flexible five-parameter distributions into fitting financial returns, these are the skewed generalized t (SGT) and the generalized hyperbolic (GH). Applications carried on two exchange rates (Euro-Dollar and Dollar-Yen), and two indexes (S&P 500 and Nikkei 225) over four frequencies: weekly, daily, 30-min and 5-min, confirm the superiority of the SGT and GH in approximating the distribution of a given data at a remarkable precision. Moreover, as we move from higher to lower frequency, the distribution's overall shape does indeed change radically, and the estimated parameters refute the tendency to normality, which calls into question the aggregational Gaussianity's stylized fact.

  17. Graphene Quantum Capacitors for High Frequency Tunable Analog Applications.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, Clara F; Vitale, Wolfgang A; Sharma, Pankaj; Tamagnone, Michele; Mosig, Juan R; Ionescu, Adrian M

    2016-08-10

    Graphene quantum capacitors (GQC) are demonstrated to be enablers of radio-frequency (RF) functions through voltage-tuning of their capacitance. We show that GQC complements MEMS and MOSFETs in terms of performance for high frequency analog applications and tunability. We propose a CMOS compatible fabrication process and report the first experimental assessment of their performance at microwaves frequencies (up to 10 GHz), demonstrating experimental GQCs in the pF range with a tuning ratio of 1.34:1 within 1.25 V, and Q-factors up to 12 at 1 GHz. The figures of merit of graphene variable capacitors are studied in detail from 150 to 350 K. Furthermore, we describe a systematic, graphene specific approach to optimize their performance and predict the figures of merit achieved if such a methodology is applied.

  18. Recent Improvements in High-Frequency Eddy Current Conductivity Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Nabah, Bassam A.; Nagy, Peter B.

    2008-02-01

    Due to its frequency-dependent penetration depth, eddy current measurements are capable of mapping near-surface residual stress profiles based on the so-called piezoresistivity effect, i.e., the stress-dependence of electric conductivity. To capture the peak compressive residual stress in moderately shot-peened (Almen 4-8A) nickel-base superalloys, the eddy current inspection frequency has to go as high as 50-80 MHz. Recently, we have reported the development of a new high-frequency eddy current conductivity measuring system that offers an extended inspection frequency range up to 80 MHz. Unfortunately, spurious self- and stray-capacitance effects render the complex coil impedance variation with lift-off more nonlinear as the frequency increases, which makes it difficult to achieve accurate apparent eddy current conductivity (AECC) measurements with the standard four-point linear interpolation method beyond 25 MHz. In this paper, we will demonstrate that reducing the coil size reduces its sensitivity to capacitive lift-off variations, which is just the opposite of the better known inductive lift-off effect. Although reducing the coil size also reduces its absolute electric impedance and relative sensitivity to conductivity variations, a smaller coil still yields better overall performance for residual stress assessment. In addition, we will demonstrate the benefits of a semi-quadratic interpolation scheme that, together with the reduced lift-off sensitivity of the smaller probe coil, minimizes and in some cases completely eliminates the sensitivity of AECC measurements to lift-off uncertainties. These modifications allow us to do much more robust measurements up to as high as 80-100 MHz with the required high relative accuracy of +/-0.1%.

  19. Interpreting beta-diversity components over time to conserve metacommunities in highly dynamic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Ruhí, Albert; Datry, Thibault; Sabo, John L

    2017-02-11

    The concept of metacommunity (i.e., a set of local communities linked by dispersal) has gained great popularity among community ecologists. However, metacommunity research mostly addresses questions on spatial patterns of biodiversity at the regional scale, whereas conservation planning requires quantifying temporal variation in those metacommunities and the contributions that individual (local) sites make to regional dynamics. We propose that recent advances in diversity-partitioning methods may allow for a better understanding of metacommunity dynamics and the identification of keystone sites. We used time series of the 2 components of beta diversity (richness and replacement) and the contributions of local sites to these components to examine which sites controlled source-sink dynamics in a highly dynamic model system (an intermittent river). The relative importance of the richness and replacement components of beta diversity fluctuated over time, and sample aggregation led to underestimation of beta diversity by up to 35%. Our literature review revealed that research on intermittent rivers would benefit greatly from examination of beta-diversity components over time. Adequately appraising spatiotemporal variability in community composition and identifying sites that are pivotal for maintaining biodiversity at the landscape scale are key needs for conservation prioritization and planning. Thus, our framework may be used to guide conservation actions in highly dynamic ecosystems when time-series data describing biodiversity across sites connected by dispersal are available. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Software for Displaying High-Frequency Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmore, Jason L.

    2003-01-01

    An easy-to-use, intuitive computer program was written to satisfy a need of test operators and data requestors to quickly view and manipulate high-frequency test data recorded at the East and West Test Areas at Marshall Space Flight Center. By enabling rapid analysis, this program makes it possible to reduce times between test runs, thereby potentially reducing the overall cost of test operations. The program can be used to perform quick frequency analysis, using multiple fast- Fourier-transform windowing and amplitude options. The program can generate amplitude-versus-time plots with full zoom capabilities, frequency-component plots at specified time intervals, and waterfall plots (plots of spectral intensity versus frequency at successive small time intervals, showing the changing frequency components over time). There are options for printing of the plots and saving plot data as text files that can be imported into other application programs. The program can perform all of the aforementioned plotting and plot-data-handling functions on a relatively inexpensive computer; other software that performs the same functions requires computers with large amounts of power and memory.

  1. High-speed frequency-domain terahertz coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Yahng, Ji Sang; Park, Choon-Su; Lee, Hwi Don; Kim, Chang-Seok; Yee, Dae-Su

    2016-01-25

    High-speed frequency-domain terahertz (THz) coherence tomography is demonstrated using frequency sweeping of continuous-wave THz radiation and beam steering. For axial scanning, THz frequency sweeping with a kHz sweep rate and a THz sweep range is executed using THz photomixing with an optical beat source consisting of a wavelength-swept laser and a distributed feedback laser diode. During the frequency sweep, frequency-domain THz interferograms are measured using coherent homodyne detection employing signal averaging for noise reduction and used as axial-scan data via fast Fourier transform. Axial-scan data are acquired while scanning a transverse range of 100 × 100 mm(2) by use of a THz beam scanner with moving neither sample nor THz transmitter/receiver unit. It takes 100 s to acquire axial-scan data for 100 × 100 points with 5 averaged traces at a sweep rate of 1 kHz. THz tomographic images of a glass fiber reinforced polymer sample with artificial internal defects are presented, acquired using the tomography system.

  2. High-performing vapor-cell frequency standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godone, A.; Levi, F.; Calosso, C. E.; Micalizio, S.

    2015-03-01

    Many nowadays scientific and technological applications need very precise time and frequency reference signals. Very often, only atomic clocks can guarantee the high level of accuracy and stability required by these signals. In the current scenario of atomic frequency standards, vapor-cell clocks are particularly suited to be employed in those activities that demand good frequency stability performances joined to compactness, reliability and low power consumption. Recently, due to better-performing laser sources and to innovative techniques to prepare and detect the atoms, several cell-based prototypes exhibiting unprecedented frequency stability have been developed. We review advances in the field of laser-pumped vapor-cell clocks and we provide an overview of the techniques that allowed to achieve frequency stabilities in the order of 1×10-13 at 1s (short term) and in the range of 10-15 for the medium-long term. These stabilities are two orders of magnitude better than current commercial Rb clocks. We also prospect the possibility of further improving these results.

  3. Toward a High-Frequency Pulsed-Detonation Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutler, Andrew D.; Drummond, J. Philip

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the continued development of an actuator, energized by pulsed detonations, that provides a pulsed jet suitable for flow control in high-speed applications. A high-speed valve, capable of delivering a pulsed stream of reactants a mixture of H2 and air at rates of up to 1500 pulses per second, has been constructed. The reactants burn in a resonant tube and the products exit the tube as a pulsed jet. High frequency pressure transducers have been used to monitor the pressure fluctuations in the device at various reactant injection frequencies, including both resonant and off-resonant conditions. Pulsed detonations have been demonstrated in the lambda/4 mode of an 8 inch long tube at approx. 600 Hz. The pulsed jet at the exit of the device has been observed using shadowgraph and an infrared camera.

  4. Toward a High-Frequency Pulsed-Detonation Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutler, Andrew D.; Drummond, J. Philip

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the continued development of an actuator, energized by pulsed detonations, that provides a pulsed jet suitable for flow control in high-speed applications. A high-speed valve, capable of delivering a pulsed stream of reactants a mixture of H2 and air at rates of up to 1500 pulses per second, has been constructed. The reactants burn in a resonant tube and the products exit the tube as a pulsed jet. High frequency pressure transducers have been used to monitor the pressure fluctuations in the device at various reactant injection frequencies, including both resonant and off-resonant conditions. Pulsed detonations have been demonstrated in the lambda/4 mode of an 8 inch long tube at approximately 600 Hz. The pulsed jet at the exit of the device has been observed using shadowgraph and an infrared camera.

  5. Classification of high frequency oscillations in epileptic intracerebral EEG.

    PubMed

    Jrad, Nisrine; Kachenoura, Amar; Merlet, Isabelle; Nica, Anca; Benar, Christian G; Wendling, Fabrice

    2015-08-01

    High Frequency Oscillations (HFOs 40-500 Hz), recorded from intracerebral electroencephalography (iEEG) in epileptic patients, are categorized into four distinct sub-bands (Gamma, High-Gamma, Ripples and Fast Ripples). They have recently been used as a reliable biomarker of epileptogenic zones. The objective of this paper is to investigate the possibility of discriminating between the different classes of HFOs which physiological/pathological value is critical for diagnostic but remains to be clarified. The proposed method is based on the definition of a relevant feature vector built from energy ratios (computed using Wavelet Transform-WT) in a-priori-defined frequency bands. It makes use of a multiclass Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and is applied to iEEG signals recorded in patients candidate to epilepsy surgery. Results obtained from bootstrap on training/test datasets indicate high performances in terms of sensitivity and specificity.

  6. Fusion alpha-particle losses in a high-beta rippled tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Bunno, M.; Nakamura, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Shinohara, K.; Matsunaga, G.; Tani, K.

    2013-08-15

    In tokamak plasmas, the confinement of energetic ions depends on the magnetic field structure. If the plasma pressure is finite, the equilibrium current (i.e., the Pfirsch-Schlüter current and diamagnetic current) flows in the plasma to maintain the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium. These plasma currents generate poloidal and toroidal magnetic field and alter the field structure. Moreover, if we consider the non-axisymmetry of magnetic field structures such as toroidal field (TF) ripples, the non-axisymmetric component of the equilibrium current can alter TF ripples themselves. When the plasma beta becomes high, the changes in the field structure due to the equilibrium current might affect the confinement of energetic ions significantly. We intend to clarify how these currents alter the field structure and affect the confinement of alpha particles in high-beta plasma. The MHD equilibrium is calculated using VMEC and the orbits of fusion alpha particles are followed by using the fully three-dimensional magnetic field orbit-following Monte Carlo code. In relatively low-beta plasma (e.g., the volume-averaged beta value <β>≤2%), the changes in the magnetic field component due to the plasma current negligibly affect the confinement of alpha particles except for the Shafranov shift effect. However, for <β>≥3%, the diamagnetic effect reduces the magnetic field strength and significantly increases alpha-particle losses. In these high-beta cases, the non-axisymmetric field component generated by the equilibrium current also increases these losses, but not as effectively as compared to the diamagnetic effect.

  7. Exploring the relationship of phase and peak-frequency EEG alpha-band and beta-band activity to temporal judgments of stimulus duration.

    PubMed

    Milton, Alex; Pleydell-Pearce, Christopher

    2017-10-01

    Pre-stimulus phase has been shown to influence temporal judgments concerning order, causality and simultaneity. One hypothesis is that phase cycles frame discrete perceptual snapshots over time. Yet, existing studies have explored the effect of pre-stimulus phase on fine-grained temporal judgments whereas no study has shown whether pre-stimulus phase influences sub-second temporal judgments lasting several phase cycles. If effects of phase on fine-grained temporal judgments reflect perceptual framing, then the perception of longer intervals might show some dependency on the frequency of phase cycles. Higher frequencies should promote increased temporal resolution and discrimination. We tested the relationship between the phase and frequency of oscillations and temporal judgments for longer durations. Participants judged the relative duration of two successive intervals lasting several phase cycles each. Pre-stimulus alpha-band and beta-band phase was associated with subsequent temporal judgments, although not sensitivity, therein providing evidence that pre-stimulus phase is related to temporal judgments that span a longer time-scale than has been previously demonstrated. Although we report evidence that peak-frequency of the alpha-band is related to one measure of task performance, this study does not provide evidence that higher peak frequencies of alpha- or beta-band activity are related to improved duration discrimination of longer intervals.

  8. High-frequency H-PDLC optical chopper for frequency division multiplexing fluorescence confocal microscope system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yanmeng; Zheng, Jihong; Tang, Pingyu; Wang, Tingting; Huang, Aiqin; Zhou, Zengjun; Zhuang, Songlin

    2011-10-01

    The optical chopper array based on Holographic Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal (H-PDLC) working at high frequencies, for example 1KHz, 2KHz, and its application in an improved Frequency Division Multiplexed Fluorescence Confocal Microscope (FDMFCM) system are reported in this article. The system is a combination of the confocal microscopy and the frequency division multiplexing technique. Taking advantages of the optical chopper array based on H-PDLC that avoids mechanical movements, the FDMFCM system is able to obtain better Signal-Noise Ratio (SNR), smaller volume, more independent channels and more efficient scanning. What's more, the FDMCFM maintained the high special resolution ability and realized faster temporal resolution than pervious system. Using the proposed device, the FDMFCM system conducts successful parallel detection of rat neural cells. Fluorescence intensity signals from two different points on the specimen, which represent concentration of certain kind of proteins in the sample cells, are achieved. The experimental results show that the proposed H-PDLC optical chopper array has feasibility in FDMFCM system, which owes to its unique characteristics such as fast response, simple fabrication and lower consumption etc. With the development of H-PDLC based devices, there will be prospective in upgrading FDMFCM system's performance in the biomedical area.

  9. Frequency of the codon 807 mutation in the cGMP phosphodiesterase beta-subunit gene in Irish setters and other dog breeds with hereditary retinal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, G D; Baldwin, V; Weeks, K M; Acland, G M; Ray, K

    1999-01-01

    Rod-cone dysplasia 1 (rcd1) in Irish setters is caused by a nonsense mutation in the cGMP phosphodiesterase beta-subunit gene (PDE6B). We examined the frequency of the mutant allele in the Irish setter population and determined if the defect is present in dogs of other breeds which are affected with other inherited photoreceptor diseases. Between 1994 and 1997, samples were obtained from 436 clinically normal Irish setters, a red wolf, and dogs from 23 different breeds. The mutation in codon 807 of PDE6B was detected in genomic DNA by heteroduplex analysis, allele-specific PCR, or restriction enzyme digestion. Of the 436 samples from clinically normal setters, 34 contained the mutation in one of the two PDE6B alleles (carrier rate = 7.8%). In contrast, the same mutation was not found in the red wolf or dogs of other breeds affected with PRA or inherited photoreceptor diseases. The high percentage of tested carriers, however, is not representative of the number of carriers in the population since some dogs tested were closely related and did not represent a random sample of the Irish setter breed.

  10. Factors controlling high-frequency radiation from extended ruptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beresnev, Igor A.

    2017-04-01

    Small-scale slip heterogeneity or variations in rupture velocity on the fault plane are often invoked to explain the high-frequency radiation from earthquakes. This view has no theoretical basis, which follows, for example, from the representation integral of elasticity, an exact solution for the radiated wave field. The Fourier transform, applied to the integral, shows that the seismic spectrum is fully controlled by that of the source time function, while the distribution of final slip and rupture acceleration/deceleration only contribute to directivity. This inference is corroborated by the precise numerical computation of the full radiated field from the representation integral. We compare calculated radiation from four finite-fault models: (1) uniform slip function with low slip velocity, (2) slip function spatially modulated by a sinusoidal function, (3) slip function spatially modulated by a sinusoidal function with random roughness added, and (4) uniform slip function with high slip velocity. The addition of "asperities," both regular and irregular, does not cause any systematic increase in the spectral level of high-frequency radiation, except for the creation of maxima due to constructive interference. On the other hand, an increase in the maximum rate of slip on the fault leads to highly amplified high frequencies, in accordance with the prediction on the basis of a simple point-source treatment of the fault. Hence, computations show that the temporal rate of slip, not the spatial heterogeneity on faults, is the predominant factor forming the high-frequency radiation and thus controlling the velocity and acceleration of the resulting ground motions.

  11. Factors controlling high-frequency radiation from extended ruptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beresnev, Igor A.

    2017-09-01

    Small-scale slip heterogeneity or variations in rupture velocity on the fault plane are often invoked to explain the high-frequency radiation from earthquakes. This view has no theoretical basis, which follows, for example, from the representation integral of elasticity, an exact solution for the radiated wave field. The Fourier transform, applied to the integral, shows that the seismic spectrum is fully controlled by that of the source time function, while the distribution of final slip and rupture acceleration/deceleration only contribute to directivity. This inference is corroborated by the precise numerical computation of the full radiated field from the representation integral. We compare calculated radiation from four finite-fault models: (1) uniform slip function with low slip velocity, (2) slip function spatially modulated by a sinusoidal function, (3) slip function spatially modulated by a sinusoidal function with random roughness added, and (4) uniform slip function with high slip velocity. The addition of "asperities," both regular and irregular, does not cause any systematic increase in the spectral level of high-frequency radiation, except for the creation of maxima due to constructive interference. On the other hand, an increase in the maximum rate of slip on the fault leads to highly amplified high frequencies, in accordance with the prediction on the basis of a simple point-source treatment of the fault. Hence, computations show that the temporal rate of slip, not the spatial heterogeneity on faults, is the predominant factor forming the high-frequency radiation and thus controlling the velocity and acceleration of the resulting ground motions.

  12. High temporal frequency measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, K.; Phillips, R.; Davidson, E.

    2013-11-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) are the most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Variation in soil moisture can be very dynamic, and it is one of the dominant factors controlling the net exchange of these three greenhouse gases (GHG). Although technologies for high frequency, precise measurements of CO2 have been available for years, methods for measuring soil fluxes of CH4 and N2O at high temporal frequency have been hampered by lack of appropriate technology for in situ real-time measurements. A previously developed automated chamber system for measuring CO2 flux from soils was configured to run in-line with a new quantum cascade laser (QCLAS) instrument that measures N2O and CH4. Here we present data from a forested wetland in Maine and an agricultural field in North Dakota, which provided examples of both net uptake and production for N2O and CH4. The objective was to provide a range of conditions in which to run the new system and to compare results to a traditional manual static chamber method. The high precision and more than ten-times lower minimum detectable flux of the QCLAS system, compared to the manual system, provided confidence in measurements of small N2O uptake in the forested wetland. At the agricultural field, the greatest difference between the automated and manual sampling systems came from the effect of the relatively infrequent manual sampling of the high spatial variation, or "hot spots", in GHG fluxes. "Hot spots" greatly influenced the seasonal estimates, particularly for N2O, over one 74 day alfalfa crop cycle. The high temporal frequency of the automated system clearly characterized the transient response of all three GHG's to precipitation and demonstrated a clear diel pattern related to temperature for GHG's. A combination of high frequency automated, and spatially distributed chambers would be ideal for characterizing "hot spots" and "hot moments" of GHG fluxes.

  13. High temporal frequency measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, K.; Phillips, R.; Davidson, E.

    2014-05-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) are the most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs). Variation in soil moisture can be very dynamic, and it is one of the dominant factors controlling the net exchange of these three GHGs. Although technologies for high-frequency, precise measurements of CO2 have been available for years, methods for measuring soil fluxes of CH4 and N2O at high temporal frequency have been hampered by lack of appropriate technology for in situ real-time measurements. A previously developed automated chamber system for measuring CO2 flux from soils was configured to run in line with a new quantum cascade laser (QCLAS) instrument that measures N2O and CH4. Here we present data from a forested wetland in Maine and an agricultural field in North Dakota, which provided examples of both net uptake and production for N2O and CH4. The objective was to provide a range of conditions in which to run the new system and to compare results to a traditional manual static-chamber method. The high-precision and more-than-10-times-lower minimum detectable flux of the QCLAS system, compared to the manual system, provided confidence in measurements of small N2O uptake in the forested wetland. At the agricultural field, the greatest difference between the automated and manual sampling systems came from the effect of the relatively infrequent manual sampling of the high spatial variation, or "hot spots", in GHG fluxes. Hot spots greatly influenced the seasonal estimates, particularly for N2O, over one 74-day alfalfa crop cycle. The high temporal frequency of the automated system clearly characterized the transient response of all three GHGs to precipitation and demonstrated a clear diel pattern related to temperature for GHGs. A combination of high-frequency automated and spatially distributed chambers would be ideal for characterizing hot spots and "hot moments" of GHG fluxes.

  14. High-Frequency Excitation of a Plane Wake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cain, Alan B.; Rogers, Michael M.

    2000-01-01

    In the early 1990's, Glezer and his co-workers at Georgia Tech made a startling discovery. They found that forcing at frequencies too high to directly affect the production scales led to a dramatic alteration in the development of a turbulent shear layer. An experimental study of this phenomenon is presented in Wiltse and Glezer. They used piezoelectric actuators located near the jet exit plane to force the shear layers of a square low-speed jet. The actuators were driven at a high frequency in the Kolmogorov inertial subrange, much higher than the frequencies associated with the large-scale motion (where the turbulent energy is produced and located) but much lower than those associated with the Kolmogorov scale (where the turbulent energy is dissipated). Measurements of the shear-layer turbulence showed that direct excitation of small-scale motion by high-frequency forcing led to an increase in the turbulent dissipation of more than an order of magnitude in the initial region of the shear layer! The turbulent dissipation gradually decreased with downstream distance but remained above the corresponding level for the unforced flow at all locations examined. The high-frequency forcing increased the turbulent kinetic energy in the initial region near the actuators, but the kinetic energy decreased quite rapidly with downstream distance, dropping to levels that were a small fraction of the level for the unforced case. Perhaps most importantly from the present standpoint, the high-frequency forcing significantly decreased the energy in the large-scale motion, increasingly so with downstream distance. Wiltse and Glezer interpreted this behavior as an enhanced transfer of energy from the large scales to the small scales. The initial work by Wiltse and Glezer has expanded into other applications. To explore the potential of high-frequency forcing for active acoustic suppression, in 1998 the first author proposed a set of experiments involving an edge tone shear layer and

  15. DC and High-Frequency Characteristics of GaN Schottky Varactors for Frequency Multiplication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chong; Pavlidis, Dimitris; Considine, Laurence

    The design, fabrication and characterization of GaN based varactor diodes are presented. MOCVD was used for layer growth and the DC characteristic of 4µm diameter diodes showed a turn-on voltage of 0.5V, a breakdown voltage of 21V and a modulation ratio of 1.63. High frequency characterization allowed obtaining the diode equivalent circuit and observed the bias dependence of the series resistance. The diode cutoff frequency was 900GHz. A large-signal model was developed for the diode and the device power performance was evaluated. A power of 7.2dBm with an efficiency of 16.6% was predicted for 47GHz to 94GHz doubling.

  16. High-frequency wave normals in the solar wind

    SciTech Connect

    Herbert, F.; Smith, L.D.; Sonett, C.P.

    1984-05-01

    High-frequency (0.01--0.04 Hz) magnetic fluctuations in 506 ten-minute intervals of contemporaneous Explorer 35 and Apollo 12 measurements made in the solar wind near the morning side of the Earth's bow shock show the presence of a large population of disturbances resembling Alfven waves. Each wavefront normal n is systematically aligned (median deviation = 35/sup 0/) with , the associated ten-minute average of the magnetic field. Because of variability in the direction of from one interval to another, the coupled distribution of n is nearly isotropic in solar ecliptic coordinates, in contrast with the results of other studies of waves at much lower frequency indicating outward propagation from the sun. Presumably the high frequency waves discussed here are stirred into isotropy (in solar ecliptic coordinates) by following the low frequency fluctuations. As these waves maintain their alignement of n with despite the great variation of , a strong physical alignment constraint is inferred.

  17. A high-frequency electrospray driven by gas volume charges

    SciTech Connect

    Lastochkin, Dmitri; Chang, H.-C.

    2005-06-15

    High-frequency (>10 kHz) ac electrospray is shown to eject volatile dielectric liquid drops by an entirely different mechanism from dc sprays. The steady dc Taylor conic tip is absent and continuous spraying of submicron drops is replaced by individual dynamic pinchoff events involving the entire drop. We attribute this spraying mechanism to a normal Maxwell force produced by an undispersed plasma cloud in front of the meniscus that produces a visible glow at the spherical tip. The volume charge within the cloud is formed by electron-induced gas ionization of the evaporated liquid and produces a large normal field that is much higher than the nominal applied field such that drop ejection occurs at a voltage (at high frequencies) that is as much as ten times lower than that for dc sprays. The ejection force is sensitive to the liquid properties (but not its electrolyte composition), the ac frequency and trace amounts of inert gases, which are believed to catalyze the ionization reactions. As electroneutral drops are ejected, due to the large (>100) ratio between individual drop ejection time and the ac frequency, this mechanism can produce large (microns) electroneutral drops at relatively low voltages.

  18. Development and optimization of acoustic bubble structures at high frequencies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Judy; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian; Yasui, Kyuichi; Tuziuti, Toru; Kozuka, Teruyuki; Towata, Atsuya; Iida, Yasuo

    2011-01-01

    At high ultrasound frequencies, active bubble structures are difficult to capture due to the decrease in timescale per acoustic cycle and size of bubbles with increasing frequencies. However the current study demonstrates an association between the spatial distribution of visible bubbles and that of the active bubble structure established in the path of the propagating acoustic wave. By monitoring the occurrence of these visible bubbles, the development of active bubbles can be inferred for high frequencies. A series of still images depicting the formation of visible bubble structures suggest that a strong standing wave field exists at early stages of wave propagation and weakens by the increase in the attenuation of the acoustic wave, caused by the formation of large coalesced bubbles. This attenuation is clearly demonstrated by the occurrence of a force which causes bubbles to be driven toward the liquid surface and limit standing wave fields to near the surface. This force is explained in terms of the acoustic streaming and traveling wave force. It is found that a strong standing wave field is established at 168 kHz. At 448 kHz, large coalesced bubbles can significantly attenuate the acoustic pressure amplitude and weaken the standing wave field. When the frequency is increased to 726 kHz, acoustic streaming becomes significant and is the dominant force behind the disruption of the standing wave structure. The disruption of the standing wave structure can be minimized under certain pulse ON and OFF ratios.

  19. High-frequency BiCMOS transconductance integrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beards, R. Douglas

    1990-10-01

    The capabilities of a fine-line bipolar complementary metal oxide semiconductor (BiCMOS) process in the design of wideband transconductance integrators for precision monolithic continuous time filtering are explored. The design considerations of such an integrator are examined in detail, with an emphasis on tunability and phase compensation as a means for realizing a precision wideband design. The concept of open-loop transconductance filtering is described and possible circuit topologies are investigated. Detailed small-signal and large-signal analysis of one proposed circuit which has both tunable bandwidth and tunable phase compensation is presented. Application of such an integrator to open-loop transconductance filtering in the 10-50 MHz frequency range is studied. Simulation results show specific performance expectations of the proposed circuit. The tunable compensation circuit was seen to restrict the amplitude of signals which the integrator can pass without severe distortion or even instability occurring. A potential solution to this problem is deemed to be unsuitable for high frequency applications. The general design philosophy of applying low-frequency techniques to realize a high frequency circuit was seen to result in several fundamental problems.

  20. Very High Frequency (Beyond 100 MHz) PZT Kerfless Linear Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Da-Wei; Zhou, Qifa; Geng, Xuecang; Liu, Chang-Geng; Djuth, Frank; Shung, K. Kirk

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication, and measurements of very high frequency kerfless linear arrays prepared from PZT film and PZT bulk material. A 12-µm PZT thick film fabricated from PZT-5H powder/solution composite and a piece of 15-µm PZT-5H sheet were used to fabricate 32-element kerfless high-frequency linear arrays with photolithography. The PZT thick film was prepared by spin-coating of PZT sol-gel composite solution. The thin PZT-5H sheet sample was prepared by lapping a PZT-5H ceramic with a precision lapping machine. The measured results of the 2 arrays were compared. The PZT film array had a center frequency of 120 MHz, a bandwidth of 60% with a parylene matching layer, and an insertion loss of 41 dB. The PZT ceramic sheet array was found to have a center frequency of 128 MHz with a poorer bandwidth (40% with a parylene matching layer) but a better sensitivity (28 dB insertion loss). PMID:19942516

  1. Resent developments in high-frequency surface-wave techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, J.; Pan, Y.; Zeng, C.

    2012-12-01

    High-frequency Rayleigh-wave methods, such as Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW), are getting increasingly attention in the near-surface geophysics and geotechnique community in the last 20 years because of their non-invasive, non-destructive, efficient, and low-cost advantages and their success in environmental and engineering applications. They are viewed by near-surface geophysics community as the one of most promise techniques in the future. However, they face unique problems related to extremely irregular velocity variations in near-surface geology or man-made constructions, for example, highway, foundation, dam, levee, jetty, etc., which are not solvable by techniques or algorithms widely used in earthquake seismology or oil/gas seismic exploration. We present solutions to the problems associated with near-surface materials that possess velocity inverse and high Poisson's ratio. Calculation of dispersion curves by existing algorithms may fail for some special velocity models due to velocity inverse (a high-velocity layer on the top of a low-velocity layer). Two velocity models are most common in near-surface applications. One is a low-velocity half space model and the other a high-velocity topmost layer. The former model results in a complex matrix that no roots can be found in the real number domain, which implies that no phase velocities can be calculated in certain frequency ranges based on current exist algorithms. A solution is to use the real part of the root of the complex number. It is well-known that phase velocities approach about 91% of the shear (S)-wave velocity of the topmost layer when wavelengths are much shorter than the thickness of the topmost layer. The later model, however, results in that phase velocities in a high-frequency range calculated using the current algorithms approach a velocity associated with the S-wave velocity of the second layer NOT the topmost layer. A solution to this problem is to use a two-layer model to

  2. In vitro bile-acid binding and fermentation of high, medium, and low molecular weight beta-glucan.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Jung; White, Pamela J

    2010-01-13

    The impact of beta-glucan molecular weight (MW) on in vitro bile-acid binding and in vitro fermentation with human fecal flora was evaluated. beta-Glucan extracted from oat line 'N979-5-4' was treated with lichenase (1,3-1,4-beta-D-glucanase) to yield high (6.87x10(5) g/mol), medium (3.71x10(5) g/mol), and low (1.56x10(5) g/mol) MW fractions. The low MW beta-glucan bound more bile acid than did the high MW beta-glucan (p<0.05). If the positive control, cholestyramine, was considered to bind bile acid at 100%, the relative bile-acid binding of the original oat flour and the extracted beta-glucan with high, medium, and low MW was 15, 27, 24, and 21%, respectively. Significant effects of high, medium, and low MW beta-glucans on total SCFA were observed compared to the blank without substrate (p<0.05). There were no differences in pH changes and total gas production among high, medium, and low MW beta-glucans, and lactulose. The low MW beta-glucan produced greater amounts of SCFA than the high MW after 24 h of fermentation. Among the major SCFA, more propionate was produced from all MW fractions of extracted beta-glucans than from lactulose. In vitro fermentation of extracted beta-glucan fractions with different MW lowered pH and produced SCFA, providing potential biological function.

  3. Soft Magnetic Materials in High-Frequency, High-Power Conversion Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Leary, AM; Ohodnicki, PR; McHenry, ME

    2012-07-04

    Advanced soft magnetic materials are needed to match high-power density and switching frequencies made possible by advances in wide band-gap semiconductors. Magnetics capable of operating at higher operating frequencies have the potential to greatly reduce the size of megawatt level power electronics. In this article, we examine the role of soft magnetic materials in high-frequency power applications and we discuss current material's limitations and highlight emerging trends in soft magnetic material design for high-frequency and power applications using the materials paradigm of synthesis -> structure -> property -> performance relationships.

  4. Design of matching layers for high-frequency ultrasonic transducers

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Chunlong; Ma, Jianguo; Chiu, Chi Tat; Williams, Jay A.; Fong, Wayne; Chen, Zeyu; Zhu, BenPeng; Xiong, Rui; Shi, Jing; Hsiai, Tzung K.; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa

    2015-01-01

    Matching the acoustic impedance of high-frequency (≥100 MHz) ultrasound transducers to an aqueous loading medium remains a challenge for fabricating high-frequency transducers. The traditional matching layer design has been problematic to establish high matching performance given requirements on both specific acoustic impedance and precise thickness. Based on both mass-spring scheme and microwave matching network analysis, we interfaced metal-polymer layers for the matching effects. Both methods hold promises for guiding the metal-polymer matching layer design. A 100 MHz LiNbO3 transducer was fabricated to validate the performance of the both matching layer designs. In the pulse-echo experiment, the transducer echo amplitude increased by 84.4% and its −6dB bandwidth increased from 30.2% to 58.3% comparing to the non-matched condition, demonstrating that the matching layer design method is effective for developing high-frequency ultrasonic transducers. PMID:26445518

  5. Nonlinear cavity dumping of a high finesse frequency mixing module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Andersen, Martin T.; Johansson, Sandra; Canalias, Carlota; Laurell, Fredrik; Buchhave, Preben; Karamehmedovic, Emir; Pedersen, Christian

    2007-07-01

    We present a novel generic approach for pulsed light generation in the visible spectrum. We demonstrate how the circulating field of a high finesse laser can be efficiently cavity dumped through sum-frequency mixing with externally injected high peak power single pass pulses. Periodically poled KTP is used as the nonlinear medium to minimize the peak power requirement of the injected beam. The experimental setup consists of a high finesse 1342 nm Nd:YVO4 laser cavity and a passively Qswitched Nd:YAG laser. Yellow pulses at 593 nm are generated.

  6. Magnetoencephalography study of different relationships among low- and high-frequency-band neural activities during the induction of peaceful and fearful audiovisual modalities among males and females.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chia-Yen; Lin, Ching-Po

    2017-01-02

    Our previous study estimated the bias from the match attributes of the auditory and visual modalities related to a peaceful mood in the male brain. However, the interactions among the four main frequency bands of neural activity remain unknown. Therefore, this study uses magnetoencephalography to explore gender differences in the perceptions of auditory and visual modalities related to peaceful and fearful moods. Instead of analyzing single frequencies, this study analyzes interactions between low-frequency phase and high-frequency amplitude to reflect neural communication. The top four values in each of the 10 brain regions were averaged to give a representative value for further analysis with repeated-measures ANOVA. The results from the cross-frequency analyses suggest that delta-theta, delta-alpha, delta-beta, and delta-gamma couplings are associated with interactions between emotion and modality; theta-alpha, theta-beta, and theta-gamma couplings are associated with interactions between gender and emotion/time; alpha-beta and alpha-gamma couplings are associated with time; and beta-gamma coupling is associated with interactions between gender and modality. Although no obvious hemispheric lateralization of emotion in the macroscopic neural activity was found, these results reveal that males have stronger couplings (e.g., beta-gamma coupling) in the visual modality related to peaceful mood, whereas females have stronger couplings (e.g., beta-gamma coupling) in the audiovisual modality related to fearful mood. Gender differences become much more apparent when analysis is based on cross-frequency coupling. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Piezoelectric Shaker Development for High Frequency Calibration of Accelerometers

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Bev; Harper, Kari K.; Vogl, Gregory W.

    2010-05-28

    Calibration of vibration transducers requires sinusoidal motion over a wide frequency range with low distortion and low cross-axial motion. Piezoelectric shakers are well suited to generate such motion and are suitable for use with laser interferometric methods at frequencies of 3 kHz and above. An advantage of piezoelectric shakers is the higher achievable accelerations and displacement amplitudes as compared to electro-dynamic (ED) shakers. Typical commercial ED calibration shakers produce maximum accelerations from 100 m/s{sup 2} to 500 m/s{sup 2}. Very large ED shakers may produce somewhat higher accelerations but require large amplifiers and expensive cooling systems to dissipate heat. Due to the limitations in maximum accelerations by ED shakers at frequencies above 5 kHz, the amplitudes of the generated sinusoidal displacement are frequently below the resolution of laser interferometers used in primary calibration methods. This limits the usefulness of ED shakers in interferometric based calibrations at higher frequencies.Small piezoelectric shakers provide much higher acceleration and displacement amplitudes for frequencies above 5 kHz, making these shakers very useful for accelerometer calibrations employing laser interferometric measurements, as will be shown in this paper. These piezoelectric shakers have been developed and used at NIST for many years for high frequency calibration of accelerometers. This paper documents the construction and performance of a new version of these shakers developed at NIST for the calibration of accelerometers over the range of 3 kHz to 30 kHz and possibly higher. Examples of typical calibration results are also given.

  8. High-Frequency Resonance in the Gerbil Medial Superior Olive

    PubMed Central

    Mikiel-Hunter, Jason; Kotak, Vibhakar; Rinzel, John

    2016-01-01

    A high-frequency, subthreshold resonance in the guinea pig medial superior olive (MSO) was recently linked to the efficient extraction of spatial cues from the fine structure of acoustic stimuli. We report here that MSO neurons in gerbil also have resonant properties and, based on our whole-cell recordings and computational modeling, that a low-voltage-gated potassium current, IKLT, underlies the resonance. We show that resonance was lost following dynamic clamp replacement of IKLT with a leak conductance and in the model when voltage-gating of IKLT was suppressed. Resonance was characterized using small amplitude sinusoidal stimuli to generate impedance curves as typically done for linear systems analysis. Extending our study into the nonlinear, voltage-dependent regime, we increased stimulus amplitude and found, experimentally and in simulations, that the subthreshold resonant frequency (242Hz for weak stimuli) increased continuously to the resonant frequency for spiking (285Hz). The spike resonance of these phasic-firing (type III excitable) MSO neurons and of the model is of particular interest also because previous studies of resonance typically involved neurons/models (type II excitable, such as the standard Hodgkin-Huxley model) that can fire tonically for steady inputs. To probe more directly how these resonances relate to MSO neurons as slope-detectors, we presented periodic trains of brief, fast-rising excitatory post-synaptic potentials (EPSCs) to the model. While weak subthreshold EPSC trains were essentially low-pass filtered, resonance emerged as EPSC amplitude increased. Interestingly, for spike-evoking EPSC trains, the threshold amplitude at spike resonant frequency (317Hz) was lower than the single ESPC threshold. Our finding of a frequency-dependent threshold for repetitive brief EPSC stimuli and preferred frequency for spiking calls for further consideration of both subthreshold and suprathreshold resonance to fast and precise temporal processing

  9. Effects of guanidine hydrochloride and high pressure on subsite flexibility of beta-amylase.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Naoki; Kajimoto, Sachie; Mitani, Daisuke; Kunugi, Shigeru

    2002-04-29

    We investigated the effects of guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) and high pressure on the conformational flexibility of the active site of sweet potato beta-amylase by monitoring the sulfhydryl reaction and the enzymatic activity. The reactivity of Cys345 at the active site, one of six inert half cystine residues of this enzyme, was enhanced by GuHCl at concentrations below 0.5 M. A GuHCl-induced change of the active site was also observed through an intensity change in the near-UV circular dichroism (CD) spectrum. On the other hand, the native conformation of sweet potato beta-amylase observed through fluorescence polarization, far-UV CD spectrum and intrinsic fluorescence was not influenced by GuHCl at concentrations below 0.5 M. Therefore, Cys345 reaction caused by GuHCl was due to an alteration of the local conformation of the active site. GuHCl-induced reaction of Cys345, located in the vicinity of subsites 3 and 4, is attributed to enhanced subsite flexibility, which is responsible for substrate slipping in a single-chain attack mechanism. Due to the flexible conformation, the local region of the subsite is more susceptible to GuHCl perturbation than the molecule overall. The enzymatic activity of sweet potato beta-amylase was reversibly inhibited by GuHCl at concentrations below 0.5 M, and kinetic analysis of the enzymatic mechanism showed that GuHCl decreases the kcat value. High pressure below 400 MPa also inactivated sweet potato beta-amylase with an increase in Cys345 reactivity. These findings indicated that excessively enhanced subsite flexibility reduced the enzymatic activity of sweet potato beta-amylase.

  10. Clonal analysis of human tumors with M27 beta, a highly informative polymorphic X chromosomal probe.

    PubMed Central

    Fey, M F; Peter, H J; Hinds, H L; Zimmermann, A; Liechti-Gallati, S; Gerber, H; Studer, H; Tobler, A

    1992-01-01

    The clonality of human tumors can be studied by X inactivation/methylation analysis in female patients heterozygous for X-linked DNA polymorphisms. We present a detailed study on clonal tumor analysis with M27 beta, a highly informative probe detecting a polymorphic X chromosomal locus, DXS255. The polymorphism detected at this locus is due to variable numbers of tandem repeats. The rate of constitutional heterozygosity detected by M27 beta was 88%. Normal tissue from gastrointestinal mucosa and thyroid showed random, hence polyclonal, patterns. Nonrandom clonal X inactivation was detected in all 22 malignant neoplasms that had been shown to be clonal by other DNA markers, such as antigen receptor gene rearrangements or clonal loss of heterozygosity at 17p and other loci. 16/48 normal blood leukocyte samples (33%) showed considerably skewed X inactivation patterns. Comparison of blood leukocytes and normal tissue indicated that in a given individual, X inactivation patterns may be tissue specific. M27 beta was used to study the clonal composition of 13 benign thyroid nodules from 12 multinodular goiters with rapid recent growth, traditionally termed "adenomas." Nine of them were clonal, whereas four nodules and tissue from a case of Graves' goiter were not, indicating that some, but not all, such thyroid nodules may represent true clonal neoplasms. The M27 beta probe permits one to study the clonal composition by the X inactivation approach of a wide variety of solid tumors from most female patients. As a control, normal tissue homologous to the tumor type of interest is preferable to DNA from blood leukocytes, since the latter may show nonrandom X inactivation patterns in a fairly high proportion of cases. M27 beta may, therefore, be of limited use for the clonal analysis of neoplasms derived from hematopoietic cells. Images PMID:1349026

  11. Physics Basis for High-Beta, Low-Aspect-Ratio Stellarator Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    A. Brooks; A.H. Reiman; G.H. Neilson; M.C. Zarnstorff; et al

    1999-11-01

    High-beta, low-aspect-ratio (compact) stellarators are promising solutions to the problem of developing a magnetic plasma configuration for magnetic fusion power plants that can be sustained in steady-state without disrupting. These concepts combine features of stellarators and advanced tokamaks and have aspect ratios similar to those of tokamaks (2-4). They are based on computed plasma configurations that are shaped in three dimensions to provide desired stability and transport properties. Experiments are planned as part of a program to develop this concept. A beta = 4% quasi-axisymmetric plasma configuration has been evaluated for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX). It has a substantial bootstrap current and is shaped to stabilize ballooning, external kink, vertical, and neoclassical tearing modes without feedback or close-fitting conductors. Quasi-omnigeneous plasma configurations stable to ballooning modes at beta = 4% have been evaluated for the Quasi-Omnigeneous Stellarator (QOS) experiment. These equilibria have relatively low bootstrap currents and are insensitive to changes in beta. Coil configurations have been calculated that reconstruct these plasma configurations, preserving their important physics properties. Theory- and experiment-based confinement analyses are used to evaluate the technical capabilities needed to reach target plasma conditions. The physics basis for these complementary experiments is described.

  12. Low frequency/high sensitivity triaxial monolithic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acernese, F.; Canonico, R.; De Rosa, R.; Giordano, G.; Romano, R.; Barone, F.

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes a new mechanical implementation of a triaxial sensor, configurable as seismometer and/or as accelerometer, consisting of three one-dimensional monolithic FP sensors, suitably geometrically positioned. The triaxial sensor is, therefore, compact, light, scalable, tunable instrument (frequency < 100 mHz with large band (10-7 Hz - 10 Hz), high quality factor (Q < 1500 in air) with good immunity to environmental noises, guaranteed by an integrated laser optical readout. The measured sensitivity curve is in very good agreement with the theoretical ones (10-12m/√Hz) in the band (0.1 ÷ 10Hz). Typical applications are in the field of earthquake engineering, geophysics, civil engineering and in all applications requiring large band-low frequency performances coupled with high sensitivities.

  13. Very low frequency/high sensitivity triaxial monolithic inertial sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acernese, F.; De Rosa, R.; Giordano, G.; Romano, R.; Barone, F.

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes a new mechanical implementation of a triaxial sensor, configurable as seismometer and/or as accelerometer, consisting of three one-dimensional monolithic FP sensors, suitably geometrically positioned. The triaxial sensor is, therefore, compact, light, scalable, tunable instrument (frequency < 100mHz), with large band (10-7 Hz - 10Hz), high quality factor (Q > 2500 in air) with good immunity to environmental noises, guaranteed by an integrated laser optical readout. The measured sensitivity curve is in very good agreement with the theoretical ones (10-12m/√Hz) in the band (0.1 ÷ 10Hz). Typical applications are in the field of earthquake engineering, geophysics, civil engineering and in all applications requiring large band-low frequency performances coupled with high sensitivities.

  14. Low frequency/high sensitivity triaxial monolithic inertial sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acernese, F.; De Rosa, R.; Giordano, G.; Romano, Rocco; Barone, F.

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes a new mechanical implementation of a triaxial sensor, configurable as seismometer and/or as accelerometer, consisting of three one-dimensional monolithic FP sensors, suitably geometrically positioned. The triaxial sensor is, therefore, compact, light, scalable, tunable instrument (frequency < 100mHz), with large band (10-7 Hz - 10Hz), high quality factor (Q < 2500 in air) with good immunity to environmental noises, guaranteed by an integrated laser optical readout. The measured sensitivity curve is in very good agreement with the theoretical ones (10-12m/pHz) in the band (0.1 ÷ 10Hz). Typical applications are in the field of earthquake engineering, geophysics, civil engineering and in all applications requiring large band-low frequency performances coupled with high sensitivities.

  15. High-frequency acoustic modes in an ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Mauro C C

    2013-09-21

    High-frequency collective dynamics of the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide, [C6C1im]Br, has been investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. Time correlation functions of mass current fluctuations were calculated for several wavevectors and the dispersion curves of excitations, ω(k), for longitudinal and transverse acoustic sound modes were obtained at different temperatures and pressures. Two different thermodynamic states have the same high-frequency sound velocity irrespective of the temperature provided that both have the same density. Partial time correlation functions of mass currents were calculated for the atoms belonging to the polar or the non-polar domains resulting from the heterogeneous structure of [C6C1im]Br. The partial correlation functions indicate that the polar domains are stiffer than the non-polar domains of the simulated ionic liquid.

  16. High-Frequency Power Gain in the Mammalian Cochlea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maoiléidigh, Dáibhid Ó.; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2011-11-01

    Amplification in the mammalian inner ear is thought to result from a nonlinear active process known as the cochlear amplifier. Although there is much evidence that outer hair cells (OHCs) play a central role in the cochlear amplifier, the mechanism of amplification remains uncertain. In non-mammalian ears hair bundles can perform mechanical work and account for the active process in vitro, yet in the mammalian cochlea membrane-based electromotility is required for amplification in vivo. A key issue is how OHCs conduct mechanical power amplification at high frequencies. We present a physical model of a segment of the mammalian cochlea that can amplify the power of external signals. In this representation both electromotility and active hair-bundle motility are required for mechanical power gain at high frequencies. We demonstrate how the endocochlear potential, the OHC resting potential, Ca2+ gradients, and ATP-fueled myosin motors serve as the energy sources underlying mechanical power gain in the cochlear amplifier.

  17. How High Frequency Trading Affects a Market Index

    PubMed Central

    Kenett, Dror Y.; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Stanley, H. Eugene; gur-Gershgoren, Gitit

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between a market index and its constituent stocks is complicated. While an index is a weighted average of its constituent stocks, when the investigated time scale is one day or longer the index has been found to have a stronger effect on the stocks than vice versa. We explore how this interaction changes in short time scales using high frequency data. Using a correlation-based analysis approach, we find that in short time scales stocks have a stronger influence on the index. These findings have implications for high frequency trading and suggest that the price of an index should be published on shorter time scales, as close as possible to those of the actual transaction time scale. PMID:23817553

  18. Status asthmaticus treated by high-frequency oscillatory ventilation.

    PubMed

    Duval, E L; van Vught, A J

    2000-10-01

    We present a 2.5-year-old girl in severe asthma crisis who clinically deteriorated on conventional mechanical ventilation, but was successfully ventilated with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV). Although HFOV is accepted as a technique for managing pediatric respiratory failure, its use in obstructive airway disease is generally thought to be contraindicated because of the risk of dynamic air-trapping. However, we suggest that obstructive airway disease can safely be managed with HFOV, provided certain conditions are met. These include the application of sufficiently high mean airway pressures to open and stent the airways ("an open airway strategy"), lower frequencies to overcome the greater attenuation of the oscillatory waves in the narrowed airways, permissive hypercapnia to enable reducing pressure swings as much as possible, longer expiratory times, and muscle paralysis to avoid spontaneous breathing.

  19. High-frequency oscillation of the airway and chest wall.

    PubMed

    Fink, James B; Mahlmeister, Michael J

    2002-07-01

    High-frequency oscillation (HFO), applied to either the airway or chest wall, has been associated with changes in sputum attributes and clearance. The evolution of evidence, both in vitro and in vivo, supporting the use of HFO is reviewed. Devices that apply HFO to the airway range from the relatively simple mechanical Flutter and Acapella devices to the more complex Percussionaire Intrapercussive Ventilators. and the Hayek Oscillator are designed to provide high-frequency chest wall compression. Operation and use of these devices are described with examples of differentiation of device types by characterization of flows, and airway and esophageal pressures. Although HFO devices span a broad range of costs, they provide a reasonable therapeutic option to support secretion clearance for patients with cystic fibrosis.

  20. Extracting cardiac myofiber orientations from high frequency ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xulei; Cong, Zhibin; Jiang, Rong; Shen, Ming; Wagner, Mary B.; Kirshbom, Paul; Fei, Baowei

    2013-03-01

    Cardiac myofiber plays an important role in stress mechanism during heart beating periods. The orientation of myofibers decides the effects of the stress distribution and the whole heart deformation. It is important to image and quantitatively extract these orientations for understanding the cardiac physiological and pathological mechanism and for diagnosis of chronic diseases. Ultrasound has been wildly used in cardiac diagnosis because of its ability of performing dynamic and noninvasive imaging and because of its low cost. An extraction method is proposed to automatically detect the cardiac myofiber orientations from high frequency ultrasound images. First, heart walls containing myofibers are imaged by B-mode high frequency (<20 MHz) ultrasound imaging. Second, myofiber orientations are extracted from ultrasound images using the proposed method that combines a nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filter, Canny edge detector, Hough transform, and K-means clustering. This method is validated by the results of ultrasound data from phantoms and pig hearts.