FWEH induced high bootstrap current on Tore Supra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basiuk, V.; Joffrin, E.; Aniel, Th.; Bécoulet, A.; Hoang, G. T.; Litaudon, X.; Hutter, Th.; Nguyen, F.; Saoutic, B.; Houlberg, W. A.; Kessel, C. E.
1997-04-01
Bootstrap current is regarded as a good candidate to sustain a large fraction of the plasma current, in the so-called "advanced" regimes of a tokamak reactor. It is thus important to study the stability of such discharges and to control them. By means of fast wave electron heating (FWEH, up to 9.5 MW), stationary high bootstrap discharges (during 5 seconds, ≈40%) were routinely obtained on Tore Supra. The bootstrap profile is computed with a matrix formulation (1,2) and is directly compared to the experimental determination of the non-inductive current. The simulation of the loop voltage either with the code CRONOS (1D current diffusion code) using the profile of bootstrap current, or with the knowledge of the resistivity, allows also a self consistent determination of the bootstrap current. The bootstrap induced by the FWEH is mainly due to the central pressure electron gradient (the central power deposition strongly peaks the electronic temperature). A 0D study shows that the bootstrap current (Ibs) varies linearly with the poloidal beta (Ibs/Ip≈Cbsβp). The effect of various plasma parameters (toroidal field Bt, line-integrated density nl, ion and electron temperature, plasma current Ip) on the bootstrap profile, and fraction are analysed.
FWEH Induced High Bootstrap Current on Tore Supra
Basiuk, V.; Aniel, T.; Becoulet, A.; Hoang, G. T.; Litaudon, X.; Hutter, T.; Nguyen, F.; Saoutic, B.; Houlberg, W. A.; Kessel, C. E.
1997-01-01
Bootstrap current is regarded as a good candidate to sustain a large fraction of the plasma current, in the so-called `advanced` regimes of a tokamak reactor. It is thus important to study the stability of such discharges and to control them. By means of fast wave electron heating (FWEH, up to 9.5 MW), stationary high bootstrap discharges (during 5 seconds, Angstrom 40 %) were routinely obtained on Tore Supra. The bootstrap profile is computed with a matrix formulation (1,2) and is directly compared to the calculation of the non-inductive current. The simulation of the loop voltage either with the code CRONOS (1D current diffusion code) using the profile of bootstrap current, or with the knowledge of the resistivity, allows also a self consistent determination of the bootstrap current. First results show that the energy enhancement factor H increases linearly with the fraction of bootstrap current. The bootstrap induced by the FWEH is mainly due to the central pressure electron gradient (the central power deposition strongly peaks the electronic temperature). A 0D study shows that the bootstrap current (I{sub bs}) varies linearly with the poloidal beta (I{sub bs}/I{sub p} = C{sub bs} x {beta}{sub p}). The effect of various plasma parameters (toroidal field B{sub t}, line-integrated density nI, ion and electron temperature, plasma current I{sub p}) on the bootstrap profile, fraction, C{sub bs} and on the confinement are analysed.
Simulations of high bootstrap current experiments on Tore Supra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basiuk, V.; Becoulet, A.; Hoang, G. T.; Joffrin, E.; Litaudon, X.; Hutter, T.; Nguyen, F.; Saoutic, B.; Houlberg, W. A.; Kessel, C. E.
1996-11-01
The bootstrap current is a good candidate for sustaining a large fraction of the plasma current, f_boot, in the "Advanced Tokamak" regime of a reactor. It is thus important to study the stability of discharges with high f_boot, and to control them. By means of fast wave electron heating (FWEH, up to 9 MW), stationnary high bootstrap discharges (duration ≈ 5 sec. and f_boot ≈ 0.5) are routinely obtained in Tore Supra. The bootstrap profile is computed with the matrix formulation of Houlberg( E. Joffrin et al.), 22nd EPS (1995) 19C, part IV, p 125. and Kessel.( C.E. Kessel, Nuclear Fusion, 34), (1994). The simulation of the loop voltage either with the code CRONOS( F. Kazarian-Vibert et al.), 22nd EPS (1995), 19C, part III, p 373. (1D current diffusion code) using the profile of bootstrap current, or with the knowledge of the resistivity,^1 allows a self consistent determination of the bootstrap current. First results show that the energy enhancement factor H increases linearly with the f_boot. Effects of various plasma parameters on the bootstrap profile, on f_boot, and on the confinement are analysed in a way to implement a current profile control.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Houlberg, W. A.; Attenberger, S. E.
The reactor potential of some advanced physics operating modes proposed for the TPX physics program are examined. A moderate aspect ratio (A = 4.5 as in TPX), 2 GW reactor is analyzed because of its potential for steady-state, noninductive operation with high bootstrap current fraction. Particle, energy, and toroidal current equations are evolved to steady-state conditions using the 1 1/2-D time-dependent WHIST transport code. The solutions are therefore consistent with particle, energy, and current sources and assumed transport models. Fast wave current drive (FWCD) provides the axial seed current. The bootstrap current typically provides 80-90% of the current, while feedback on the lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) power maintains the total current. The sensitivity of the plasma power amplification factor, Q equivalent to P(sub fus)/P(sub aux), to variations in the plasma properties is examined. The auxiliary current drive power, P(sub aux) = P(sub LH) + P(sub FW); bootstrap current fraction; current drive efficiency; and other parameters are evaluated. The plasma is thermodynamically stable for the energy confinement model assumed (a multiple of ITER89P). The FWCD and LHCD sources provide attractive control possibilities, not only for the current profile, but also for the total fusion power since the gain on the incremental auxiliary power is typically 10-30 in these calculations when overall Q approximately equals 30.
Houlberg, W.A.; Attenberger, S.E.
1994-11-01
The reactor potential of some advanced physics operating modes proposed for the TPX physics program are examined. A moderate aspect ratio (A = 4.5 as in TPX), 2 GW reactor is analyzed because of its potential for steady-state, non-inductive operation with high bootstrap current fraction. Particle, energy and toroidal current equations are evolved to steady-state conditions using the 1-1/2-D time-dependent WHIST transport code. The solutions are therefore consistent with particle, energy and current sources and assumed transport models. Fast wave current drive (FWCD) provides the axial seed current. The bootstrap current typically provides 80-90% of the current, while feedback on the lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) power maintains the total current. The sensitivity of the plasma power amplification factor, Q {triple_bond} P{sub fus}/P{sub aux}, to variations in the plasma properties is examined. The auxiliary current drive power, P{sub aux} = P{sub LH} + P{sub FW}; bootstrap current fraction; current drive efficiency; and other parameters are evaluated. The plasma is thermodynamically stable for the energy confinement model assumed (a multiple of ITER89P). The FWCD and LHCD sources provide attractive control possibilities, not only for the current profile, but also for the total fusion power since the gain on the incremental auxiliary power is typically 10-30 in these calculations when overall Q {approx} 30.
Houlberg, W.A.; Attenberger, S.E.
1995-02-01
The reactor potential of some advanced physics operating modes proposed for the TPX physics program are examined. A moderate aspect ratio (A = 4.5 as in TPX), 2 GW reactor is analyzed because of its potential for steady-state, non-inductive operation with high bootstrap current fraction. Particle, energy and toroidal current equations are evolved to steady-state conditions using the 1-1/2-D time-dependent WHIST transport code. The solutions are therefore consistent with particle, energy and current sources and assumed transport models. Fast wave current drive (FWCD) provides the axial seed current. The bootstrap current typically provides 80-90% of the current, while feedback on the lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) power maintains the total current. The sensitivity of the plasma power amplification factor, Q {equivalent_to} P{sub fus}/P{sub aux}, to variations in the plasma properties is examined. The auxiliary current drive power, P{sub aux} = P{sub LH} + P{sub FW}; bootstrap current fraction: current drive efficiency; and other parameters are evaluated. The plasma is thermodynamically stable for the energy confinement model assumed (a multiple of ITER89P). The FWCD and LHCD sources provide attractive control possibilities, not only for the current profile, but also for the total fusion power since the gain on the incremental auxiliary power is typically 10-30 in these calculations when overall Q {approx} 30.
Numerical simulation of Bootstrap Current
Wu, Yanlin; White, R.B.
1993-05-01
The neoclassical theory of Bootstrap Current in toroidal systems is calculated in magnetic flux coordinates and confirmed by numerical simulation. The effects of magnetic ripple, loop voltage, and magnetic and electrostatic perturbations on bootstrap current for the cases of zero and finite plasma pressure are studied. The numerical results are in reasonable agreement with analytical estimates.
Bootstrap current in a tokamak
Kessel, C.E.
1994-03-01
The bootstrap current in a tokamak is examined by implementing the Hirshman-Sigmar model and comparing the predicted current profiles with those from two popular approximations. The dependences of the bootstrap current profile on the plasma properties are illustrated. The implications for steady state tokamaks are presented through two constraints; the pressure profile must be peaked and {beta}{sub p} must be kept below a critical value.
Test of bootstrap current models using high-βp EAST-demonstration plasmas on DIII-D
Ren, Qilong; Lao, Lang L.; Garofalo, Andrea M.; ...
2015-01-12
Magnetic measurements together with kinetic profile and motional Stark effect measurements are used in full kinetic equilibrium reconstructions to test the Sauter and NEO bootstrap current models in a DIII-D high-more » $${{\\beta}_{\\text{p}}}$$ EAST-demonstration experiment. This aims at developing on DIII-D a high bootstrap current scenario to be extended on EAST for a demonstration of true steady-state at high performance and uses EAST-similar operational conditions: plasma shape, plasma current, toroidal magnetic field, total heating power and current ramp-up rate. It is found that the large edge bootstrap current in these high-$${{\\beta}_{\\text{p}}}$$ plasmas allows the use of magnetic measurements to clearly distinguish the two bootstrap current models. In these high collisionality and high-$${{\\beta}_{\\text{p}}}$$ plasmas, the Sauter model overpredicts the peak of the edge current density by about 30%, while the first-principle kinetic NEO model is in close agreement with the edge current density of the reconstructed equilibrium. Furthermore, these results are consistent with recent work showing that the Sauter model largely overestimates the edge bootstrap current at high collisionality.« less
Limitations of bootstrap current models
Belli, Emily A.; Candy, Jefferey M.; Meneghini, Orso; Osborne, Thomas H.
2014-03-27
We assess the accuracy and limitations of two analytic models of the tokamak bootstrap current: (1) the well-known Sauter model and (2) a recent modification of the Sauter model by Koh et al. For this study, we use simulations from the first-principles kinetic code NEO as the baseline to which the models are compared. Tests are performed using both theoretical parameter scans as well as core- to-edge scans of real DIII-D and NSTX plasma profiles. The effects of extreme aspect ratio, large impurity fraction, energetic particles, and high collisionality are studied. In particular, the error in neglecting cross-species collisional coupling – an approximation inherent to both analytic models – is quantified. Moreover, the implications of the corrections from kinetic NEO simulations on MHD equilibrium reconstructions is studied via integrated modeling with kinetic EFIT.
Limitations of bootstrap current models
Belli, Emily A.; Candy, Jefferey M.; Meneghini, Orso; ...
2014-03-27
We assess the accuracy and limitations of two analytic models of the tokamak bootstrap current: (1) the well-known Sauter model and (2) a recent modification of the Sauter model by Koh et al. For this study, we use simulations from the first-principles kinetic code NEO as the baseline to which the models are compared. Tests are performed using both theoretical parameter scans as well as core- to-edge scans of real DIII-D and NSTX plasma profiles. The effects of extreme aspect ratio, large impurity fraction, energetic particles, and high collisionality are studied. In particular, the error in neglecting cross-species collisional couplingmore » – an approximation inherent to both analytic models – is quantified. Moreover, the implications of the corrections from kinetic NEO simulations on MHD equilibrium reconstructions is studied via integrated modeling with kinetic EFIT.« less
Limitations of bootstrap current models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belli, E. A.; Candy, J.; Meneghini, O.; Osborne, T. H.
2014-04-01
We assess the accuracy and limitations of two analytic models of the tokamak bootstrap current: (1) the well-known Sauter model (1999 Phys. Plasmas 6 2834, 2002 Phys. Plasmas 9 5140) and (2) a recent modification of the Sauter model by Koh et al (2012 Phys. Plasmas 19 072505). For this study, we use simulations from the first-principles kinetic code NEO as the baseline to which the models are compared. Tests are performed using both theoretical parameter scans as well as core-to-edge scans of real DIII-D and NSTX plasma profiles. The effects of extreme aspect ratio, large impurity fraction, energetic particles, and high collisionality are studied. In particular, the error in neglecting cross-species collisional coupling—an approximation inherent to both analytic models—is quantified. Furthermore, the implications of the corrections from kinetic NEO simulations on MHD equilibrium reconstructions is studied via integrated modeling with kinetic EFIT.
Progress toward steady-state tokamak operation exploiting the high bootstrap current fraction regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Q. L.; Garofalo, A. M.; Gong, X. Z.; Holcomb, C. T.; Lao, L. L.; McKee, G. R.; Meneghini, O.; Staebler, G. M.; Grierson, B. A.; Qian, J. P.; Solomon, W. M.; Turnbull, A. D.; Holland, C.; Guo, W. F.; Ding, S. Y.; Pan, C. K.; Xu, G. S.; Wan, B. N.
2016-06-01
Recent DIII-D experiments have increased the normalized fusion performance of the high bootstrap current fraction tokamak regime toward reactor-relevant steady state operation. The experiments, conducted by a joint team of researchers from the DIII-D and EAST tokamaks, developed a fully noninductive scenario that could be extended on EAST to a demonstration of long pulse steady-state tokamak operation. Improved understanding of scenario stability has led to the achievement of very high values of βp and βN , despite strong internal transport barriers. Good confinement has been achieved with reduced toroidal rotation. These high βp plasmas challenge the energy transport understanding, especially in the electron energy channel. A new turbulent transport model, named TGLF-SAT1, has been developed which improves the transport prediction. Experiments extending results to long pulse on EAST, based on the physics basis developed at DIII-D, have been conducted. More investigations will be carried out on EAST with more additional auxiliary power to come online in the near term.
Progress toward steady-state tokamak operation exploiting the high bootstrap current fraction regime
Ren, Q. L.; Garofalo, A. M.; Gong, X. Z.; Holcomb, C. T.; Lao, L. L.; McKee, G. R.; Meneghini, O.; Staebler, G. M.; Grierson, B. A.; Qian, J. P.; Solomon, W. M.; Turnbull, A. D.; Holland, C.; Guo, W. F.; Ding, S. Y.; Pan, C. K.; Xu, G. S.; Wan, B. N.
2016-06-20
Recent DIII-D experiments have increased the normalized fusion performance of the high bootstrap current fraction tokamak regime toward reactor-relevant steady state operation. The experiments, conducted by a joint team of researchers from the DIII-D and EAST tokamaks, developed a fully noninductive scenario that could be extended on EAST to a demonstration of long pulse steady-state tokamak operation. Improved understanding of scenario stability has led to the achievement of very high values of β_{p} and β_{N} despite strong ITBs. Good confinement has been achieved with reduced toroidal rotation. These high β_{p} plasmas challenge the energy transport understanding, especially in the electron energy channel. A new turbulent transport model, named 2 TGLF-SAT1, has been developed which improves the transport prediction. Experiments extending results to long pulse on EAST, based on the physics basis developed at DIII-D, have been conducted. Finally, more investigations will be carried out on EAST with more additional auxiliary power to come online in the near term.
Progress toward steady-state tokamak operation exploiting the high bootstrap current fraction regime
Ren, Q. L.; Garofalo, A. M.; Gong, X. Z.; ...
2016-06-20
Recent DIII-D experiments have increased the normalized fusion performance of the high bootstrap current fraction tokamak regime toward reactor-relevant steady state operation. The experiments, conducted by a joint team of researchers from the DIII-D and EAST tokamaks, developed a fully noninductive scenario that could be extended on EAST to a demonstration of long pulse steady-state tokamak operation. Improved understanding of scenario stability has led to the achievement of very high values of βp and βN despite strong ITBs. Good confinement has been achieved with reduced toroidal rotation. These high βp plasmas challenge the energy transport understanding, especially in the electronmore » energy channel. A new turbulent transport model, named 2 TGLF-SAT1, has been developed which improves the transport prediction. Experiments extending results to long pulse on EAST, based on the physics basis developed at DIII-D, have been conducted. Finally, more investigations will be carried out on EAST with more additional auxiliary power to come online in the near term.« less
Bootstrapped tokamak with oscillating field current drive
Weening, R.H. )
1993-07-01
A magnetic helicity conserving mean-field Ohm's law is used to study bootstrapped tokamaks with oscillating field current drive. The Ohm's law leads to the conclusion that the tokamak bootstrap effect can convert the largely alternating current of oscillating field current drive into a direct toroidal plasma current. This plasma current rectification is due to the intrinsically nonlinear nature of the tokamak bootstrap effect, and suggests that it may be possible to maintain the toroidal current of a tokamak reactor by supplementing the bootstrap current with oscillating field current drive. Steady-state tokamak fusion reactors operating with oscillating field current drive could provide an alternative to tokamak reactors operating with external current drive.
Test of bootstrap current models using high-β_{p} EAST-demonstration plasmas on DIII-D
Ren, Qilong; Lao, Lang L.; Garofalo, Andrea M.; Holcomb, Christopher T.; Solomon, Wayne M.; Belli, Emily A.; Smith, Sterling P.; Meneghini, Orso; Qian, Jinping; Li, Guoaqiang; Wan, Boanian; Ding, Siye; Gong, Xianzu; Xu, G.
2015-01-12
Magnetic measurements together with kinetic profile and motional Stark effect measurements are used in full kinetic equilibrium reconstructions to test the Sauter and NEO bootstrap current models in a DIII-D high-${{\\beta}_{\\text{p}}}$ EAST-demonstration experiment. This aims at developing on DIII-D a high bootstrap current scenario to be extended on EAST for a demonstration of true steady-state at high performance and uses EAST-similar operational conditions: plasma shape, plasma current, toroidal magnetic field, total heating power and current ramp-up rate. It is found that the large edge bootstrap current in these high-${{\\beta}_{\\text{p}}}$ plasmas allows the use of magnetic measurements to clearly distinguish the two bootstrap current models. In these high collisionality and high-${{\\beta}_{\\text{p}}}$ plasmas, the Sauter model overpredicts the peak of the edge current density by about 30%, while the first-principle kinetic NEO model is in close agreement with the edge current density of the reconstructed equilibrium. Furthermore, these results are consistent with recent work showing that the Sauter model largely overestimates the edge bootstrap current at high collisionality.
Control of bootstrap current in the pedestal region of tokamaks
Shaing, K. C.; Lai, A. L.
2013-12-15
The high confinement mode (H-mode) plasmas in the pedestal region of tokamaks are characterized by steep gradient of the radial electric field, and sonic poloidal U{sub p,m} flow that consists of poloidal components of the E×B flow and the plasma flow velocity that is parallel to the magnetic field B. Here, E is the electric field. The bootstrap current that is important for the equilibrium, and stability of the pedestal of H-mode plasmas is shown to have an expression different from that in the conventional theory. In the limit where ‖U{sub p,m}‖≫ 1, the bootstrap current is driven by the electron temperature gradient and inductive electric field fundamentally different from that in the conventional theory. The bootstrap current in the pedestal region can be controlled through manipulating U{sub p,m} and the gradient of the radial electric. This, in turn, can control plasma stability such as edge-localized modes. Quantitative evaluations of various coefficients are shown to illustrate that the bootstrap current remains finite when ‖U{sub p,m}‖ approaches infinite and to provide indications how to control the bootstrap current. Approximate analytic expressions for viscous coefficients that join results in the banana and plateau-Pfirsch-Schluter regimes are presented to facilitate bootstrap and neoclassical transport simulations in the pedestal region.
Bootstrap currents in radio-frequency-driven tokamak equilibria
Hsiao, Ming-Yuan; Ehst, D.A.; Evans, K. Jr.
1988-05-01
Interest in the bootstrap current arising from neoclassical transport in tokamaks has increased recently in view of certain experimental observations. In this study, the bootstrap current is calculated for a number of rf current-driven tokamaks. Two-dimensional, self-consistent, steady-state tokamak MHD equilibria are obtained by including both the transport-driven bootstrap current and the externally driven rf current. The self-consistency is acomplished by iterating between two-dimensional MHD equilibrium calculations and the current calculations (including bootstrap and rf ray-tracing). Calculations for other reactor parameters of interest are also carried out. It is found that for reactor-grade plasmas, the bootstrap current contribution to the toroidal current is, in general, important. An approxiamte scaling law for GAMMA, based on parametric survey performed, is also obtained. 16 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.
ITER equilibrium with bootstrap currents, lower hybrid current drive and fast wave current drive
Ehst, D.A.
1989-03-01
A current drive system is proposed for the technology phase of ITER which relies on rf power and bootstrap currents. The rf/bootstrap system permits operation at high safety factor, and we consider the axial value to be q/sub a/ approx. = 1.9, which minimizes the need for seed current near the magnetic axis. Lower hybrid power (/approximately/30 MW) provides current density near the surface, ICRF (/approximately/65 MHz, /approximately/30 MW) fast waves generate current near the axis, and high frequency fast waves (/approximately/250 MHz, /approximately/74 MW) supply the remaining current density. The system is not yet optimized but appears to offer great flexibility (ion heating for ignition, current rampup, etc.) with relatively inexpensive and well developed technology. 29 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.
Magnetic island induced bootstrap current on island dynamics in tokamaks
Shaing, K.C.; Spong, D.A.
2006-02-15
When a magnetic island is embedded in toroidally symmetric tokamaks, the toroidal symmetry in |B| is broken [K. C. Shaing, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 245003 (2001)]. Here, B is the magnetic field. This broken symmetry induces an additional bootstrap current density in the vicinity of the island. It is illustrated that this island induced bootstrap current density modifies the island evolution equation and imposes a lower limit on the absolute value of the tearing mode stability parameter {delta}{sup '} for the island to be unstable. This lower limit depends on the local poloidal plasma beta {beta}{sub p}, the ratio of the plasma pressure to the poloidal magnetic field pressure. If {beta}{sub p} is high enough, the magnetic island is stable. This mechanism provides an alternative route to stabilize the island.
Magnetic Island Induced Bootstrap Current on Island Dynamics in Tokamaks
Spong, Donald A; Shaing, K. C.
2006-02-01
When a magnetic island is embedded in toroidally symmetric tokamaks, the toroidal symmetry in |B| is broken [K. C. Shaing, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 245003 (2001)] . Here, B is the magnetic field. This broken symmetry induces an additional bootstrap current density in the vicinity of the island. It is illustrated that this island induced bootstrap current density modifies the island evolution equation and imposes a lower limit on the absolute value of the tearing mode stability parameter |{Delta}{prime}| for the island to be unstable. This lower limit depends on the local poloidal plasma beta {beta}{sub p}, the ratio of the plasma pressure to the poloidal magnetic field pressure. If {beta}{sub p} is high enough, the magnetic island is stable. This mechanism provides an alternative route to stabilize the island.
Effects of magnetic islands on bootstrap current in toroidal plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, G.; Lin, Z.
2017-03-01
The effects of magnetic islands on electron bootstrap current in toroidal plasmas are studied using gyrokinetic simulations. The magnetic islands cause little changes of the bootstrap current level in the banana regime because of trapped electron effects. In the plateau regime, the bootstrap current is completely suppressed at the island centers due to the destruction of trapped electron orbits by collisions and the flattening of pressure profiles by the islands. In the collisional regime, small but finite bootstrap current can exist inside the islands because of the pressure gradients created by large collisional transport across the islands. Finally, simulation results show that the bootstrap current level increases near the island separatrix due to steeper local density gradients.
Effects of magnetic islands on bootstrap current in toroidal plasmas
Dong, G.; Lin, Z.
2016-12-19
The effects of magnetic islands on electron bootstrap current in toroidal plasmas are studied using gyrokinetic simulations. The magnetic islands cause little changes of the bootstrap current level in the banana regime because of trapped electron effects. In the plateau regime, the bootstrap current is completely suppressed at the island centers due to the destruction of trapped electron orbits by collisions and the flattening of pressure profiles by the islands. In the collisional regime, small but finite bootstrap current can exist inside the islands because of the pressure gradients created by large collisional transport across the islands. Lastly, simulation resultsmore » show that the bootstrap current level increases near the island separatrix due to steeper local density gradients.« less
Effects of magnetic islands on bootstrap current in toroidal plasmas
Dong, G.; Lin, Z.
2016-12-19
The effects of magnetic islands on electron bootstrap current in toroidal plasmas are studied using gyrokinetic simulations. The magnetic islands cause little changes of the bootstrap current level in the banana regime because of trapped electron effects. In the plateau regime, the bootstrap current is completely suppressed at the island centers due to the destruction of trapped electron orbits by collisions and the flattening of pressure profiles by the islands. In the collisional regime, small but finite bootstrap current can exist inside the islands because of the pressure gradients created by large collisional transport across the islands. Lastly, simulation results show that the bootstrap current level increases near the island separatrix due to steeper local density gradients.
Enhancement of the Bootstrap Current in a Tokamak Pedestal
Kagan, Grigory; Catto, Peter J.
2010-07-23
The strong radial electric field in a subsonic tokamak pedestal modifies the neoclassical ion parallel flow velocity, as well as the radial ion heat flux. Existing experimental evidence of the resulting alteration in the poloidal flow of a trace impurity is discussed. We then demonstrate that the modified parallel ion flow can noticeably enhance the pedestal bootstrap current when the background ions are in the banana regime. Only the coefficient of the ion temperature gradient drive term is affected. The revised expression for the pedestal bootstrap current is presented. The prescription for inserting the modification into any existing banana regime bootstrap current expression is given.
Enhancement of the Bootstrap Current in a Tokamak Pedestal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kagan, Grigory; Catto, Peter J.
2010-07-01
The strong radial electric field in a subsonic tokamak pedestal modifies the neoclassical ion parallel flow velocity, as well as the radial ion heat flux. Existing experimental evidence of the resulting alteration in the poloidal flow of a trace impurity is discussed. We then demonstrate that the modified parallel ion flow can noticeably enhance the pedestal bootstrap current when the background ions are in the banana regime. Only the coefficient of the ion temperature gradient drive term is affected. The revised expression for the pedestal bootstrap current is presented. The prescription for inserting the modification into any existing banana regime bootstrap current expression is given.
The bootstrap current in small rotating magnetic islands
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergmann, A.; Poli, E.; Peeters, A. G.
2009-09-01
The bootstrap current in small magnetic islands of neoclassical tearing modes is studied with guiding center particle simulations including pitch angle scattering. A model for a rotating island and its electric field is used and a new approximation to the electric potential in small islands is derived. Islands with sizes of the order of the ion banana orbit width are studied by means of a two-step model, which allows to treat both ions and electrons kinetically. The bootstrap current in such small islands is found to depend strongly on the direction of rotation of the island. The bootstrap current in small islands rotating in the ion diamagnetic direction is strongly diminished, similarly to what happens in big islands. In small islands rotating in the electron diamagnetic direction, on the contrary, the bootstrap current is almost completely preserved, implying a reduced neoclassical drive of the island growth.
The bootstrap current in small rotating magnetic islands
Bergmann, A.; Poli, E.; Peeters, A. G.
2009-09-15
The bootstrap current in small magnetic islands of neoclassical tearing modes is studied with guiding center particle simulations including pitch angle scattering. A model for a rotating island and its electric field is used and a new approximation to the electric potential in small islands is derived. Islands with sizes of the order of the ion banana orbit width are studied by means of a two-step model, which allows to treat both ions and electrons kinetically. The bootstrap current in such small islands is found to depend strongly on the direction of rotation of the island. The bootstrap current in small islands rotating in the ion diamagnetic direction is strongly diminished, similarly to what happens in big islands. In small islands rotating in the electron diamagnetic direction, on the contrary, the bootstrap current is almost completely preserved, implying a reduced neoclassical drive of the island growth.
Bootstrap current calculations for TJ-II stellarator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinell, Julio J.; Camacho, Katia
2016-10-01
Bootstrap current is stellarators is usually very small since they operate solely with the magnetic confinement provided by the external currents. Since plasma pressure gradients are always present the bootstrap current is always finite, but the magnetic design can be optimized to minimize it. In the helias configuration there is no optimization and therefore it is important to estimate the actual bootstrap current generated by given pressure profiles. Here, we use the configuration of the TJ-II helias to calculate the bootstrap current for various density regimes using the kinetic code DKES. We compute the monoenergetic transport coefficients D11 and D13 to find first the thermal ambipolar diffusion coefficients and the corresponding radial electric field and then the respective bootstrap current. This is made taking experimental density and electron and ion temperature profiles. In spite of the convergence problems of DKES at low collisionality, we can obtain bootstrap current values with acceptable uncertainties, without using Monte Carlo methods. The results are compared with axisymmetric neoclassical computations. The resulting rotational transform is used to obtain the rational surfaces location and predict the transport barriers observed in the experiments. Funded by projects PAPIIT IN109115 and Conacyt 152905.
Simulations of the bootstrap current in small rotating magnetic islands
Bergmann, A.; Poli, E.; Peeters, A. G.
2008-11-01
The bootstrap current in small magnetic islands of neoclassical tearing modes is studied in numerical simulations whith the guiding center particle code HAGIS. The contributions of both, electrons and ions, are included, as well as the island rotation and its electric field. The case of islands that are smaller than the ion banana orbit width is studied. We find that the size of the bootstrap current in small islands depends strongly on the rotation frequency of the island.
The Bootstrap Current and Neutral Beam Current Drive in DIII-D
Politzer, P.A.
2005-10-15
Noninductive current drive is an essential part of the implementation of the DIII-D Advanced Tokamak program. For an efficient steady-state tokamak reactor, the plasma must provide close to 100% bootstrap fraction (f{sub bs}). For noninductive operation of DIII-D, current drive by injection of energetic neutral beams [neutral beam current drive (NBCD)] is also important. DIII-D experiments have reached {approx}80% bootstrap current in stationary discharges without inductive current drive. The remaining current is {approx}20% NBCD. This is achieved at {beta}{sub N} [approximately equal to] {beta}{sub p} > 3, but at relatively high q{sub 95} ({approx}10). In lower q{sub 95} Advanced Tokamak plasmas, f{sub bs} {approx} 0.6 has been reached in essentially noninductive plasmas. The phenomenology of high {beta}{sub p} and {beta}{sub N} plasmas without current control is being studied. These plasmas display a relaxation oscillation involving repetitive formation and collapse of an internal transport barrier. The frequency and severity of these events increase with increasing {beta}, limiting the achievable average {beta} and causing modulation of the total current as well as the pressure. Modeling of both bootstrap and NBCD currents is based on neoclassical theory. Measurements of the total bootstrap and NBCD current agree with calculations. A recent experiment based on the evolution of the transient voltage profile after an L-H transition shows that the more recent bootstrap current models accurately describe the plasma behavior. The profiles and the parametric dependences of the local neutral beam-driven current density have not yet been compared with theory.
TRANSFORMERLESS OPERATION OF DIII-D WITH HIGH BOOTSTRAP FRACTION
POLITZER,PA; HYATT,AW; LUCE,TC; MAHDAVI,MA; MURAKAMI,M; PERKINS,FW; PRATER,R; TURNBULL,AD; CASPER,TA; FERRON,JR; JAYAKUMAR,RJ; LAHAYE,RJ; LAZARUS,EA; PETTY,CC; WADE,MR
2003-07-01
OAK-B135 The authors have initiated an experimental program to address some of the questions associated with operation of a tokamak with high bootstrap current fraction under high performance conditions, without assistance from a transformer. In these discharges they have maintained stationary (or slowly improving) conditions for > 2.2 s at {beta}{sub N} {approx} {beta}{sub p} {approx} 2.8. Significant current overdrive, with dI/dt > 50 kA/s and zero or negative voltage, is sustained for over 0.7 s. The overdrive condition is usually ended with the appearance of MHD activity, which alters the profiles and reduces the bootstrap current. Characteristically these plasmas have 65%-80% bootstrap current, 25%-30% NBCD, and 5%-10% ECCD. Fully noninductive operation is essential for steady-state tokamaks. For efficient operation, the bootstrap current fraction must be close to 100%, allowing for a small additional ({approx} 10%) external current drive capability to be used for control. In such plasmas the current and pressure profiles are rightly coupled because J(r) is entirely determined by p(r) (or more accurately by the kinetic profiles). The pressure gradient in turn is determined by transport coefficients which depend on the poloidal field profile.
Turbulence-driven bootstrap current in low-collisionality tokamaks.
McDevitt, C J; Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua
2013-11-15
Neoclassical bootstrap current is expected to provide a significant fraction of the equilibrium plasma current in tokamak reactors. Here we report a novel mechanism through which a bootstrap current may be driven even in a collisionless plasma. In analogy with the neoclassical mechanism, in which the collisional equilibrium established between trapped and passing electrons produces a steady state current, we show that resonant scattering of electrons by drift wave microturbulence provides an additional means of determining the equilibrium between trapped and passing electrons and thus driving a bootstrap current. Employing a linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator, the plasma current in the presence of both collisions and resonant electron scattering is computed, allowing for the relative strength of these two mechanisms to be quantified as a function of collisionality and fluctuation amplitude.
Stellarator bootstrap current and plasma flow velocity at low collisionality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helander, P.; Parra, F. I.; Newton, S. L.
2017-04-01
The bootstrap current and flow velocity of a low-collisionality stellarator plasma are calculated. As far as possible, the analysis is carried out in a uniform way across all low-collisionality regimes in general stellarator geometry, assuming only that the confinement is good enough that the plasma is approximately in local thermodynamic equilibrium. It is found that conventional expressions for the ion flow speed and bootstrap current in the low-collisionality limit are accurate only in the -collisionality regime and need to be modified in the -regime. The correction due to finite collisionality is also discussed and is found to scale as 2/5$ .
Bootstrap current in enhanced reversed shear tokamaks for volume neutron source applications
Houlberg, W.A.
1995-12-31
The bootstrap current is evaluated for two reference tokamak designs for a Volume Neutron Source (VNS). One is a larger aspect ratio design using superconducting coils (VNS-SC) and the other is a small aspect ratio design using a solid core with normal conducting toroidal field coils (VNS-ST). The target plasma profiles are taken as representative of the recently observed enhanced reverse shear plasmas with hollow magnetic safety factor (q) profiles in the core and corresponding peaked density profiles. The higher q in the plasma center in combination with peaked density is shown to move the peak in the bootstrap current toward the plasma center. This reduces the current drive requirements to a very small axial seed current and a source localized around the location of the desired minimum in the q profile. Very high bootstrap current fractions can be attained in the VNS-SC design with normalized betas (defined in terms of the vacuum toroidal magnetic field at the geometric center of the plasma) of {beta}{sub N} {le} 3.5. The bootstrap current is lower in the VNS-ST design because of its lower aspect ratio; the highest bootstrap fraction found in these limited cases is 50% at {beta}{sub N} = 5.
Interaction of bootstrap-current-driven magnetic islands
Hegna, C.C.; Callen, J.D.
1991-10-01
The formation and interaction of fluctuating neoclassical pressure gradient driven magnetic islands is examined. The interaction of magnetic islands produces a stochastic region around the separatrices of the islands. This interaction causes the island pressure profile to be broadened, reducing the island bootstrap current and drive for the magnetic island. A model is presented that describes the magnetic topology as a bath of interacting magnetic islands with low to medium poloidal mode number (m {congruent} 3{minus}30). The islands grow by the bootstrap current effect and damp due to the flattening of the pressure profile near the island separatrix caused by the interaction of the magnetic islands. The effect of this sporadic growth and decay of the islands ( magnetic bubbling'') is not normally addressed in theories of plasma transport due to magnetic fluctuations. The nature of the transport differs from statistical approaches to magnetic turbulence since the radial step size of the plasma transport is now given by the characteristic island width. This model suggests that tokamak experiments have relatively short-lived, coherent, long wavelength magnetic oscillations present in the steep pressure-gradient regions of the plasma. 42 refs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saarelma, S.; Günter, S.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Zehrfeld, H.-P.
2000-05-01
An ELMy ASDEX Upgrade plasma equilibrium is reconstructed taking into account the bootstrap current. The peeling mode stability of the equilibrium is numerically analysed using the GATO [1] code, and it is found that the bootstrap current can drive the plasma peeling mode unstable. A high-n ballooning mode stability analysis of the equilibria revealed that, while destabilizing the peeling modes, the bootstrap current has a stabilizing effect on the ballooning modes. A combination of these two instabilities is a possible explanation for the type I ELM phenomenon. A triangularity scan showed that increasing triangularity stabilizes the peeling modes and can produce ELM-free periods observed in the experiments.
On the bootstrap current in stellarators and tokamaks
Helander, P.; Geiger, J.; Maassberg, H.
2011-09-15
The expression for the long-mean-free-path limit of the bootstrap current in stellarators is rederived in such a way that the expansion procedure is identical to that used in the corresponding calculation for a tokamak. In addition, the first correction due to finite collisionality is calculated and shown to vanish in quasi-isodynamic configurations without net current. This correction, which is proportional to the square root of the collisionality, is found to compare well with a numerical solution of the first-order drift kinetic equation in spherical tokamak geometry. Numerically, it appears that there is a similar correction in general stellarator geometry, which however depends on the strength of the radial electric field.
EBW-Bootstrap Current Synergy in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)
R.W. Harvey; G. Taylor
2005-02-02
Current driven by electron Bernstein waves (EBW) and by the electron bootstrap effect are calculated separately and concurrently with a kinetic code, to determine the degree of synergy between them. A target {beta} = 40% NSTX plasma is examined. A simple bootstrap model in the CQL3D Fokker-Planck code is used in these studies: the transiting electron distributions are connected in velocity-space at the trapped-passing boundary to trapped-electron distributions which are displaced radially by a half-banana width outwards/inwards for the co-/counter-passing regions. This model agrees well with standard bootstrap current calculations, over the outer 60% of the plasma radius. Relatively small synergy net bootstrap current is obtained for EBW power up to 4 MW. Locally, bootstrap current density increases in proportion to increased plasma pressure, and this effect can significantly affect the radial profile of driven current.
Bootstrap Current for the Edge Pedestal Plasma in a Diverted Tokamak Geometry
Koh, S.; Chang, C. S.; Ku, S.; Menard, J. E.; Weitzner, H.; Choe, W.
2012-08-10
The edge bootstrap current plays a critical role in the equilibrium and stability of the steep edge pedestal plasma. The pedestal plasma has an unconventional and difficult neoclassical property, as compared with the core plasma. It has a narrow passing particle region in velocity space that can be easily modified or destroyed by Coulomb collisions. At the same time, the edge pedestal plasma has steep pressure and electrostatic potential gradients whose scale-lengths are comparable with the ion banana width, and includes a magnetic separatrix surface, across which the topological properties of the magnetic field and particle orbits change abruptly. A driftkinetic particle code XGC0, equipped with a mass-momentum-energy conserving collision operator, is used to study the edge bootstrap current in a realistic diverted magnetic field geometry with a self-consistent radial electric field. When the edge electrons are in the weakly collisional banana regime, surprisingly, the present kinetic simulation confirms that the existing analytic expressions [represented by O. Sauter et al. , Phys. Plasmas 6 , 2834 (1999)] are still valid in this unconventional region, except in a thin radial layer in contact with the magnetic separatrix. The agreement arises from the dominance of the electron contribution to the bootstrap current compared with ion contribution and from a reasonable separation of the trapped-passing dynamics without a strong collisional mixing. However, when the pedestal electrons are in plateau-collisional regime, there is significant deviation of numerical results from the existing analytic formulas, mainly due to large effective collisionality of the passing and the boundary layer trapped particles in edge region. In a conventional aspect ratio tokamak, the edge bootstrap current from kinetic simulation can be significantly less than that from the Sauter formula if the electron collisionality is high. On the other hand, when the aspect ratio is close to unity
Bootstrap current for the edge pedestal plasma in a diverted tokamak geometry
Koh, S.; Choe, W.; Chang, C. S.; Ku, S.; Menard, J. E.; Weitzner, H.
2012-07-15
The edge bootstrap current plays a critical role in the equilibrium and stability of the steep edge pedestal plasma. The pedestal plasma has an unconventional and difficult neoclassical property, as compared with the core plasma. It has a narrow passing particle region in velocity space that can be easily modified or destroyed by Coulomb collisions. At the same time, the edge pedestal plasma has steep pressure and electrostatic potential gradients whose scale-lengths are comparable with the ion banana width, and includes a magnetic separatrix surface, across which the topological properties of the magnetic field and particle orbits change abruptly. A drift-kinetic particle code XGC0, equipped with a mass-momentum-energy conserving collision operator, is used to study the edge bootstrap current in a realistic diverted magnetic field geometry with a self-consistent radial electric field. When the edge electrons are in the weakly collisional banana regime, surprisingly, the present kinetic simulation confirms that the existing analytic expressions [represented by O. Sauter et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 2834 (1999)] are still valid in this unconventional region, except in a thin radial layer in contact with the magnetic separatrix. The agreement arises from the dominance of the electron contribution to the bootstrap current compared with ion contribution and from a reasonable separation of the trapped-passing dynamics without a strong collisional mixing. However, when the pedestal electrons are in plateau-collisional regime, there is significant deviation of numerical results from the existing analytic formulas, mainly due to large effective collisionality of the passing and the boundary layer trapped particles in edge region. In a conventional aspect ratio tokamak, the edge bootstrap current from kinetic simulation can be significantly less than that from the Sauter formula if the electron collisionality is high. On the other hand, when the aspect ratio is close to unity
Island-induced bootstrap current on the saturation of a thin magnetic island in tokamaks
Shaing, K. C.
2007-04-15
It is shown that island-induced bootstrap current density, which results from the symmetry breaking of the vertical bar B vertical bar when an island is embedded in the equilibrium magnetic field B, modifies the evolution equation and the saturation level for a thin magnetic island in tokamaks. This modification is independent of the fraction of the equilibrium bootstrap current density. It is found that island-induced bootstrap current density increases the saturation level for modes with positive values of {delta}{sup '}. Here, {delta}{sup '} is the stability parameter for the linear tearing modes.
Extended estimations of neoclassical transport for the TJ-II stellarator: The bootstrap current
Tribaldos, V.; Beidler, C. D.; Turkin, Y.; Maassberg, H.
2011-10-15
This work extends previous Monte Carlo estimations of neoclassical transport for the TJ-II stellarator [V. Tribaldos, Phys. Plasmas 8, 1229 (2001)] to include, for the first time, the bootstrap current in low collisionality electron cyclotron resonance heated (ECRH) plasmas. The calculations are based on the mono-energetic coefficients calculated with DKES [W. I. van Rij and S. P. Hirshman, Phys. Fluids B 1, 563 (1989)] and MOCA codes. It is shown that despite the difficulties of calculating these coefficient in the long mean free path for TJ-II configurations, the bootstrap current can be accurately estimated based on the moderate temperatures measured in this device with and without enforcing momentum conservation [H. Maassberg et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 072504 (2009)]. The computed bootstrap current is found to be in fair agreement with the currents being measured in ECRH regimes. Finally, the effect of the bootstrap current on the rotational transform profile is discussed.
Aspect Ratio Scaling of Ideal No-wall Stability Limits in High Bootstrap Fraction Tokamak Plasmas
J.E. Menard; M.G. Bell; R.E. Bell; D.A. Gates; S.M. Kaye; B.P. LeBlanc; R. Maingi; S.A. Sabbagh; V. Soukhanovskii; D. Stutman; the NSTX National Research Team
2003-11-25
Recent experiments in the low aspect ratio National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40 (2000) 557] have achieved normalized beta values twice the conventional tokamak limit at low internal inductance and with significant bootstrap current. These experimental results have motivated a computational re-examination of the plasma aspect ratio dependence of ideal no-wall magnetohydrodynamic stability limits. These calculations find that the profile-optimized no-wall stability limit in high bootstrap fraction regimes is well described by a nearly aspect ratio invariant normalized beta parameter utilizing the total magnetic field energy density inside the plasma. However, the scaling of normalized beta with internal inductance is found to be strongly aspect ratio dependent at sufficiently low aspect ratio. These calculations and detailed stability analyses of experimental equilibria indicate that the nonrotating plasma no-wall stability limit has been exceeded by as much as 30% in NSTX in a high bootstrap fraction regime.
On Current Drive and Wave Induced Bootstrap Current in Toroidal Plasmas
Hellsten, T.; Johnson, T.
2008-11-01
A comprehensive treatment of wave-particle interactions in toroidal plasmas including collisional relaxation, applicable to heating or anomalous wave induced transport, has been obtained by using Monte Carlo operators satisfying quasi-neutrality. This approach enables a self-consistent treatment of wave-particle interactions applicable to the banana regime in the neoclassical theory. It allows an extension into a regime with large temperature and density gradients, losses and transport of particles by wave-particle interactions making the method applicable to transport barriers. It is found that at large gradients the relationship between radial electric field, parallel velocity, temperature and density gradient in the neoclassical theory is modified such that coefficient in front of the logarithmic ion temperature gradient, which in the standard neoclassical theory is small and counteracts the electric field caused by the density gradient, now changes sign and contributes to the built up of the radial electric field. The possibility to drive current by absorbing the waves on trapped particles has been studied and how the wave-particle interactions affect the bootstrap current. Two new current drive mechanisms are studied: current drive by wave induced bootstrap current and selective detrapping into passing orbits by directed waves.
Effects of beam-driven poloidal rotation on the neoclassical bootstrap current
Lin-Liu, Y.R.; Hinton, F.L.
1996-12-31
Unbalanced neutral beam injection drives toroidal and poloidal rotations in a tokamak plasma. The beam toroidal momentum input drives the toroidal rotation, and the parallel friction between the thermal ions and fast ions induces the poloidal rotation. A theory of the beam-driven poloidal rotation and its effects on energy transport was given recently by Hinton and Kim. In this work, we extend their considerations to the effects on the neoclassical bootstrap current. For parameters of interest in present neutral beam heated tokamaks, the magnitude of the beam-driven poloidal rotation can be significantly larger than that of the standard neoclassical value due to the ion temperature gradient. The presence of this driven poloidal rotation will manifest itself in modification of the neoclassical bootstrap current. In the case of coinjection, the driven poloidal rotation is in the opposite direction to the rotation driven by the temperature gradient, therefore it enhances the bootstrap current. In comparison with the standard theoretical predictions of the neutral beam-driven current, that enhancement in the bootstrap current varies with the beam and plasma parameters. A calculation of the parallel transport coefficients associated with the driven poloidal flow in finite-aspect ratio tokamaks will be presented. Experimental conditions for observing the enhancement in bootstrap current will be discussed.
Analysis of non-inductive current drive from ECCD and bootstrap on T-10
Lohr, J.; Harvey, R.W.; Luce, T.C.; Petty, C.C. ); James, R.A. ); Alikaev, V.V.; Bagdasarov, A.A.; Borshchegovsky, A.A.; Esipchuk, Y.V.; Gorelov, Y.A.; Pimenov, A.B.; Razumova, K.A.; Roi, I.N.; Trukhin, V.M.; Vasin, N.L. )
1991-10-01
The combination of electron cyclotron current drive and the bootstrap effect has produced completely non-inductively driven current of 75kA for up to 200 msec in the T-10 tokamak. At higher values of plasma current I{sub p} {approximately} 175kA, I{sub p} {ge} 60kA was maintained by ECCD. These experiments have been modeled with the coupled ray training and transport codes TORAY and ONETWO. Within the uncertainties in the experimental data, the calculations show that the sum of bootstrap and ECCD substantially exceeded the net programmed plasma current. 2 figs.
Impurities in a non-axisymmetric plasma: Transport and effect on bootstrap current
Mollén, A.; Landreman, M.; Smith, H. M.; Helander, P.; Braun, S.
2015-11-15
Impurities cause radiation losses and plasma dilution, and in stellarator plasmas the neoclassical ambipolar radial electric field is often unfavorable for avoiding strong impurity peaking. In this work we use a new continuum drift-kinetic solver, the SFINCS code (the Stellarator Fokker-Planck Iterative Neoclassical Conservative Solver) [M. Landreman et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 042503 (2014)] which employs the full linearized Fokker-Planck-Landau operator, to calculate neoclassical impurity transport coefficients for a Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) magnetic configuration. We compare SFINCS calculations with theoretical asymptotes in the high collisionality limit. We observe and explain a 1/ν-scaling of the inter-species radial transport coefficient at low collisionality, arising due to the field term in the inter-species collision operator, and which is not found with simplified collision models even when momentum correction is applied. However, this type of scaling disappears if a radial electric field is present. We also use SFINCS to analyze how the impurity content affects the neoclassical impurity dynamics and the bootstrap current. We show that a change in plasma effective charge Z{sub eff} of order unity can affect the bootstrap current enough to cause a deviation in the divertor strike point locations.
Impurities in a non-axisymmetric plasma. Transport and effect on bootstrap current
Mollén, A.; Landreman, M.; Smith, H. M.; Braun, S.; Helander, P.
2015-11-20
Impurities cause radiation losses and plasma dilution, and in stellarator plasmas the neoclassical ambipolar radial electric field is often unfavorable for avoiding strong impurity peaking. In this work we use a new continuum drift-kinetic solver, the SFINCS code (the Stellarator Fokker-Planck Iterative Neoclassical Conservative Solver) [M. Landreman et al., Phys. Plasmas 21 (2014) 042503] which employs the full linearized Fokker-Planck-Landau operator, to calculate neoclassical impurity transport coefficients for a Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) magnetic configuration. We compare SFINCS calculations with theoretical asymptotes in the high collisionality limit. We observe and explain a 1/nu-scaling of the inter-species radial transport coefficient at low collisionality, arising due to the field term in the inter-species collision operator, and which is not found with simplified collision models even when momentum correction is applied. However, this type of scaling disappears if a radial electric field is present. We use SFINCS to analyze how the impurity content affects the neoclassical impurity dynamics and the bootstrap current. We show that a change in plasma effective charge Z_{eff} of order unity can affect the bootstrap current enough to cause a deviation in the divertor strike point locations.
Impurities in a non-axisymmetric plasma. Transport and effect on bootstrap current
Mollén, A.; Landreman, M.; Smith, H. M.; ...
2015-11-20
Impurities cause radiation losses and plasma dilution, and in stellarator plasmas the neoclassical ambipolar radial electric field is often unfavorable for avoiding strong impurity peaking. In this work we use a new continuum drift-kinetic solver, the SFINCS code (the Stellarator Fokker-Planck Iterative Neoclassical Conservative Solver) [M. Landreman et al., Phys. Plasmas 21 (2014) 042503] which employs the full linearized Fokker-Planck-Landau operator, to calculate neoclassical impurity transport coefficients for a Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) magnetic configuration. We compare SFINCS calculations with theoretical asymptotes in the high collisionality limit. We observe and explain a 1/nu-scaling of the inter-species radial transport coefficient at lowmore » collisionality, arising due to the field term in the inter-species collision operator, and which is not found with simplified collision models even when momentum correction is applied. However, this type of scaling disappears if a radial electric field is present. We use SFINCS to analyze how the impurity content affects the neoclassical impurity dynamics and the bootstrap current. We show that a change in plasma effective charge Zeff of order unity can affect the bootstrap current enough to cause a deviation in the divertor strike point locations.« less
Electron Bernstein wave-bootstrap current synergy in the National Spherical Torus Experiment
Harvey, R.W.; Taylor, G.
2005-05-15
Current driven by electron Bernstein waves (EBW) and by the electron bootstrap effect are calculated separately and concurrently with a kinetic code to determine the degree of synergy between them. A target {beta}=40% NSTX [M. Ono, S. Kaye, M. Peng et al., Proceedings of the 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, edited by M. Spak (IAEA, Vienna, Austria, 1999), Vol. 3, p. 1135] plasma is examined. A simple bootstrap model in the collisional-quasilinear CQL3D Fokker-Planck code (National Technical Information Service document No. DE93002962) is used in these studies: the transiting electron distributions are connected in velocity space at the trapped-passing boundary to trapped-electron distributions that are displaced radially by a half-banana-width outwards/inwards for the co-passing/counter-passing regions. This model agrees well with standard bootstrap current calculations over the outer 60% of the plasma radius. Relatively small synergy net bootstrap current is obtained for EBW power up to 4 MW. Locally, bootstrap current density increases in proportion to increased plasma pressure, and this effect can significantly affect the radial profile of driven current.
Amplification of a turbulence driven seed magnetic island by bootstrap current
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muraglia, M.; Agullo, O.; Poyé, A.; Benkadda, S.; Dubuit, N.; Garbet, X.; Sen, A.
2017-07-01
The amplification of a turbulence driven seed magnetic island by the bootstrap current is investigated numerically in a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model as a possible additional channel for the excitation and development of a neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) in a tokamak. The novel mechanism for such an excitation involves a two-step process, namely, the formation of a seed island due to a nonlinear beating of interchange turbulence modes followed by an amplification of the seed island by the bootstrap current leading to a large saturated island. Our study indicates that the level of turbulence controls both the critical seed island size and the saturated island size.
Coope, Wilfred Anthony; Ferrando i Margalet, Sergi; Allfrey, Simon J.; Kisslinger, Johann; Wobig, Horst F.G.; Narushima, Yoshiro; Okamura, Shoichi; Suzuki, Chihiro; Watanabe, Kiyomasa Y.; Yamazaki, Kozo; Isaev, Maxim Yu
2004-09-15
The impact of the bootstrap current is investigated on the equilibrium properties of a two-period quasi-axisymmetric stellarator reactor with free boundary and on the corresponding ideal magnetohydrodynamic stability properties. Although the magnetic field strength B spectrum is dominated by a m/n = 1/0 component, the discrete filamentary coils trigger some small-amplitude symmetry-breaking components that can disturb the quasi-symmetry of B. Finite {beta} causes the plasma column to shift outward in the absence of bootstrap current. With a self-consistent bootstrap current in the 1/{nu} regime, the plasma becomes more elongated and more distorted in the horizontally elongated up-down symmetric cross section. At {beta} (approximately equal to) 3.25%, the plasma can be restored to its near-vacuum shape with the application of a vertical field with coil currents 20% of those of the modular coils, but at the expense of a significant mirror component in the B-field spectrum. The bootstrap current causes the rotational transform {iota} profile to increase above the critical resonant value ({iota}{sub c} = 1/2 for {beta} {>=}1.1%) and combines with the Pfirsch-Schlueter current to destabilize a m/n = 2/1 external kink mode for {beta} {>=}1.8%.
Effects of orbit squeezing on poloidal mass flow and bootstrap current in tokamak plasmas
Shaing, K.C. ); Hsu, C.T. ); Hazeltine, R.D. )
1994-10-01
It is shown, by solving the drift kinetic equation, that the asymptotic values of the poloidal mass flow and the bootstrap current in the banana regime of large-aspect-ratio tokamak plasmas are not affected by orbit squeezing. However, because the definition of ion collisionality [upsilon][sub *[ital i
Neoclassical Transport Including Impurities and the Bootstrap Current in Advanced Helical Systems
Nishimura, Shin; Sugama, Hideo
2004-07-15
A recently developed method to calculate the neoclassical viscosity, diffusion, and current coefficients in general nonsymmetric toroidal plasmas by using the direct solution of the linearized drift kinetic equation with the pitch-angle-scattering collision operator is applied to impurity transport problems and bootstrap current calculations in stellarators. In this new method based on the basic idea of the so-called moment approach, the collisional momentum conservation is taken into account, and thus, it is applicable to the heat and particle diffusivity in advanced stellarators with quasi symmetry, and also to plasma flows currents, and viscosities in general nonsymmetric multispecies plasmas. In this paper, the impurity flow and the bootstrap current observed in the neoclassical internal transport barrier operation in the Compact Helical System are compared with theoretical calculations. Another topic is the benchmark test of existing analytical expressions for the bootstrap currents by comparing with numerically obtained current coefficients. The geometric factor, which is required for the current calculation based on the moment method, given by our new method is compared with these formulas.
Schmitt, J. C.; Talmadge, J. N.; Anderson, D. T.; Hanson, J. D.
2014-09-15
The bootstrap current for three electron cyclotron resonance heated plasma scenarios in a quasihelically symmetric stellarator (the Helically Symmetric Experiment) are analyzed and compared to a neoclassical transport code PENTA. The three conditions correspond to 50 kW input power with a resonance that is off-axis, 50 kW on-axis heating and 100 kW on-axis heating. When the heating location was moved from off-axis to on-axis with 50 kW heating power, the stored energy and the extrapolated steady-state current were both observed to increase. When the on-axis heating power was increased from 50 kW to 100 kW, the stored energy continued to increase while the bootstrap current slightly decreased. This trend is qualitatively in agreement with the calculations which indicate that a large positive electric field for the 100 kW case was driving the current negative in a small region close to the magnetic axis and accounting for the decrease in the total integrated current. This trend in the calculations is only observed to occur when momentum conservation between particle species is included. Without momentum conservation, the calculated bootstrap current increases monotonically. We show that the magnitude of the bootstrap current as calculated by PENTA agrees better with the experiment when momentum conservation between plasma species is included in the calculation. The total current was observed in all cases to flow in a direction to unwind the transform, unlike in a tokamak in which the bootstrap current adds to the transform. The 3-D inductive response of the plasma is simulated to predict the evolution of the current profile during the discharge. The 3-D equilibrium reconstruction code V3FIT is used to reconstruct profiles of the plasma pressure and current constrained by measurements with a set of magnetic diagnostics. The reconstructed profiles are consistent with the measured plasma pressure profile and the simulated current profile when the
Simulation of bootstrap current in 2D and 3D ideal magnetic fields in tokamaks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raghunathan, M.; Graves, J. P.; Cooper, W. A.; Pedro, M.; Sauter, O.
2016-09-01
We aim to simulate the bootstrap current for a MAST-like spherical tokamak using two approaches for magnetic equilibria including externally caused 3D effects such as resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs), the effect of toroidal ripple, and intrinsic 3D effects such as non-resonant internal kink modes. The first approach relies on known neoclassical coefficients in ideal MHD equilibria, using the Sauter (Sauter et al 1999 Phys. Plasmas 6 2834) expression valid for all collisionalities in axisymmetry, and the second approach being the quasi-analytic Shaing-Callen (Shaing and Callen 1983 Phys. Fluids 26 3315) model in the collisionless regime for 3D. Using the ideal free-boundary magnetohydrodynamic code VMEC, we compute the flux-surface averaged bootstrap current density, with the Sauter and Shaing-Callen expressions for 2D and 3D ideal MHD equilibria including an edge pressure barrier with the application of resonant magnetic perturbations, and equilibria possessing a saturated non-resonant 1/1 internal kink mode with a weak internal pressure barrier. We compare the applicability of the self-consistent iterative model on the 3D applications and discuss the limitations and advantages of each bootstrap current model for each type of equilibrium.
Bootstrap Current and Quasi-Symmetry in Reactor-Size Stellarators
Ferrando i Margalet, Sergi; Cooper, Wilfred Anthony; Allfrey, Simon J.; Popovitch, Pavel; Isaev, Maxim Yu
2004-07-15
The impact of the bootstrap current (BC) has become an important issue in the modeling of quasi-symmetric stellarator devices. Magnetohydrodynamic equilibria have been calculated with self-consistent BC in the collisionless 1/{nu} regime for characteristic quasi-symmetric configurations: a three-period quasi-axisymmetric and a four-period quasi-helically symmetric stellarator. The relationship between magnetic geometry and BC is shown along with its effect on the equilibrium when {nu} is increased. The relevance of the nonsymmetric modes is also investigated for both configurations. In each case, the effect on stability has been studied.
A condition for small bootstrap current in three-dimensional toroidal configurations
Mikhailov, M. I.; Nührenberg, J.; Zille, R.
2016-11-15
It is shown that, if the maximum of the magnetic field strength on a magnetic surface in a threedimensional magnetic confinement configuration with stellarator symmetry constitutes a line that is orthogonal to the field lines and crosses the symmetry line, then the bootstrap current density is smaller compared to that in quasi-axisymmetric (qa) [J. Nührenberg et al., in Proc. of Joint Varenna−Lausanne Int. Workshop on Theory of Fusion Plasmas, Varenna, 1994, p. 3] and quasi-helically (qh) symmetric [J. Nührenberg and R. Zille, Phys. Lett. A 129, 113 (1988)] configurations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pfiffner, H. J.
1969-01-01
Circuit can sample a number of transducers in sequence without drawing from them. This bootstrap unloader uses a differential amplifier with one input connected to a circuit which is the equivalent of the circuit to be unloaded, and the other input delivering the proper unloading currents.
Cohen-Adad, J.; Descoteaux, M.; Wald, L.L.
2011-01-01
Purpose To develop a bootstrap method to assess the quality of High Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging (HARDI) data using Q-Ball imaging (QBI) reconstruction. Materials and Methods HARDI data were re-shuffled using regular bootstrap with jackknife sampling. For each bootstrap dataset, the diffusion orientation distribution function (ODF) was estimated voxel-wise using QBI reconstruction based on spherical harmonics functions. The reproducibility of the ODF was assessed using the Jensen-Shannon divergence (JSD) and the angular confidence interval was derived for the first and the second ODF maxima. The sensitivity of the bootstrap method was evaluated on a human subject by adding synthetic noise to the data, by acquiring a map of image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and by varying the echo time and the b-value. Results The JSD was directly linked to the image SNR. The impact of echo times and b-values was reflected by both the JSD and the angular confidence interval, proving the usefulness of the bootstrap method to evaluate specific features of HARDI data. Conclusion The bootstrap method can effectively assess the quality of HARDI data and can be used to evaluate new hardware and pulse sequences, perform multi-fiber probabilistic tractography, and provide reliability metrics to support clinical studies. PMID:21509879
Cohen-Adad, Julien; Descoteaux, Maxime; Wald, Lawrence L
2011-05-01
To develop a bootstrap method to assess the quality of High Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging (HARDI) data using Q-Ball imaging (QBI) reconstruction. HARDI data were re-shuffled using regular bootstrap with jackknife sampling. For each bootstrap dataset, the diffusion orientation distribution function (ODF) was estimated voxel-wise using QBI reconstruction based on spherical harmonics functions. The reproducibility of the ODF was assessed using the Jensen-Shannon divergence (JSD) and the angular confidence interval was derived for the first and the second ODF maxima. The sensitivity of the bootstrap method was evaluated on a human subject by adding synthetic noise to the data, by acquiring a map of image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and by varying the echo time and the b-value. The JSD was directly linked to the image SNR. The impact of echo times and b-values was reflected by both the JSD and the angular confidence interval, proving the usefulness of the bootstrap method to evaluate specific features of HARDI data. The bootstrap method can effectively assess the quality of HARDI data and can be used to evaluate new hardware and pulse sequences, perform multifiber probabilistic tractography, and provide reliability metrics to support clinical studies. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Matsuyama, A.; Isaev, M. Yu.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Nakajima, N.; Hanatani, K.; Cooper, W. A.; Tran, T. M.
2009-05-15
To evaluate the bootstrap current in nonaxisymmetric toroidal plasmas quantitatively, a {delta}f Monte Carlo method is incorporated into the moment approach. From the drift-kinetic equation with the pitch-angle scattering collision operator, the bootstrap current and neoclassical conductivity coefficients are calculated. The neoclassical viscosity is evaluated from these two monoenergetic transport coefficients. Numerical results obtained by the {delta}f Monte Carlo method for a model heliotron are in reasonable agreement with asymptotic formulae and with the results obtained by the variational principle.
Hager, Robert; Chang, C. S.
2016-04-08
As a follow-up on the drift-kinetic study of the non-local bootstrap current in the steep edge pedestal of tokamak plasma by Koh et al. [Phys. Plasmas 19, 072505 (2012)], a gyrokinetic neoclassical study is performed with gyrokinetic ions and drift-kinetic electrons. Besides the gyrokinetic improvement of ion physics from the drift-kinetic treatment, a fully non-linear Fokker-Planck collision operator—that conserves mass, momentum, and energy—is used instead of Koh et al.'s linearized collision operator in consideration of the possibility that the ion distribution function is non-Maxwellian in the steep pedestal. An inaccuracy in Koh et al.'s result is found in the steep edge pedestal that originated from a small error in the collisional momentum conservation. The present study concludes that (1) the bootstrap current in the steep edge pedestal is generally smaller than what has been predicted from the small banana-width (local) approximation [e.g., Sauter et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 2834 (1999) and Belli et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 50, 095010 (2008)], (2) the plasma flow evaluated from the local approximation can significantly deviate from the non-local results, and (3) the bootstrap current in the edge pedestal, where the passing particle region is small, can be dominantly carried by the trapped particles in a broad trapped boundary layer. In conclusion, a new analytic formula based on numerous gyrokinetic simulations using various magnetic equilibria and plasma profiles with self-consistent Grad-Shafranov solutions is constructed.
Hager, Robert; Chang, C. S.
2016-04-08
As a follow-up on the drift-kinetic study of the non-local bootstrap current in the steep edge pedestal of tokamak plasma by Koh et al. [Phys. Plasmas 19, 072505 (2012)], a gyrokinetic neoclassical study is performed with gyrokinetic ions and drift-kinetic electrons. Besides the gyrokinetic improvement of ion physics from the drift-kinetic treatment, a fully non-linear Fokker-Planck collision operator—that conserves mass, momentum, and energy—is used instead of Koh et al.'s linearized collision operator in consideration of the possibility that the ion distribution function is non-Maxwellian in the steep pedestal. An inaccuracy in Koh et al.'s result is found in the steepmore » edge pedestal that originated from a small error in the collisional momentum conservation. The present study concludes that (1) the bootstrap current in the steep edge pedestal is generally smaller than what has been predicted from the small banana-width (local) approximation [e.g., Sauter et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 2834 (1999) and Belli et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 50, 095010 (2008)], (2) the plasma flow evaluated from the local approximation can significantly deviate from the non-local results, and (3) the bootstrap current in the edge pedestal, where the passing particle region is small, can be dominantly carried by the trapped particles in a broad trapped boundary layer. In conclusion, a new analytic formula based on numerous gyrokinetic simulations using various magnetic equilibria and plasma profiles with self-consistent Grad-Shafranov solutions is constructed.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hager, Robert; Chang, C. S.
2016-04-01
As a follow-up on the drift-kinetic study of the non-local bootstrap current in the steep edge pedestal of tokamak plasma by Koh et al. [Phys. Plasmas 19, 072505 (2012)], a gyrokinetic neoclassical study is performed with gyrokinetic ions and drift-kinetic electrons. Besides the gyrokinetic improvement of ion physics from the drift-kinetic treatment, a fully non-linear Fokker-Planck collision operator—that conserves mass, momentum, and energy—is used instead of Koh et al.'s linearized collision operator in consideration of the possibility that the ion distribution function is non-Maxwellian in the steep pedestal. An inaccuracy in Koh et al.'s result is found in the steep edge pedestal that originated from a small error in the collisional momentum conservation. The present study concludes that (1) the bootstrap current in the steep edge pedestal is generally smaller than what has been predicted from the small banana-width (local) approximation [e.g., Sauter et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 2834 (1999) and Belli et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 50, 095010 (2008)], (2) the plasma flow evaluated from the local approximation can significantly deviate from the non-local results, and (3) the bootstrap current in the edge pedestal, where the passing particle region is small, can be dominantly carried by the trapped particles in a broad trapped boundary layer. A new analytic formula based on numerous gyrokinetic simulations using various magnetic equilibria and plasma profiles with self-consistent Grad-Shafranov solutions is constructed.
Hager, Robert Chang, C. S.
2016-04-15
As a follow-up on the drift-kinetic study of the non-local bootstrap current in the steep edge pedestal of tokamak plasma by Koh et al. [Phys. Plasmas 19, 072505 (2012)], a gyrokinetic neoclassical study is performed with gyrokinetic ions and drift-kinetic electrons. Besides the gyrokinetic improvement of ion physics from the drift-kinetic treatment, a fully non-linear Fokker-Planck collision operator—that conserves mass, momentum, and energy—is used instead of Koh et al.'s linearized collision operator in consideration of the possibility that the ion distribution function is non-Maxwellian in the steep pedestal. An inaccuracy in Koh et al.'s result is found in the steep edge pedestal that originated from a small error in the collisional momentum conservation. The present study concludes that (1) the bootstrap current in the steep edge pedestal is generally smaller than what has been predicted from the small banana-width (local) approximation [e.g., Sauter et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 2834 (1999) and Belli et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 50, 095010 (2008)], (2) the plasma flow evaluated from the local approximation can significantly deviate from the non-local results, and (3) the bootstrap current in the edge pedestal, where the passing particle region is small, can be dominantly carried by the trapped particles in a broad trapped boundary layer. A new analytic formula based on numerous gyrokinetic simulations using various magnetic equilibria and plasma profiles with self-consistent Grad-Shafranov solutions is constructed.
A bootstrapped, low-noise, and high-gain photodetector for shot noise measurement
Zhou, Haijun; Yang, Wenhai; Li, Zhixiu; Li, Xuefeng; Zheng, Yaohui
2014-01-15
We presented a low-noise, high-gain photodetector based on the bootstrap structure and the L-C (inductance and capacitance) combination. Electronic characteristics of the photodetector, including electronic noise, gain and frequency response, and dynamic range, were verified through a single-frequency Nd:YVO{sub 4} laser at 1064 nm with coherent output. The measured shot noise of 50 μW laser was 13 dB above the electronic noise at the analysis frequency of 2 MHz, and 10 dB at 3 MHz. And a maximum clearance of 28 dB at 2 MHz was achieved when 1.52 mW laser was illuminated. In addition, the photodetector showed excellent linearities for both DC and AC amplifications in the laser power range between 12.5 μW and 1.52 mW.
A bootstrapped, low-noise, and high-gain photodetector for shot noise measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Haijun; Yang, Wenhai; Li, Zhixiu; Li, Xuefeng; Zheng, Yaohui
2014-01-01
We presented a low-noise, high-gain photodetector based on the bootstrap structure and the L-C (inductance and capacitance) combination. Electronic characteristics of the photodetector, including electronic noise, gain and frequency response, and dynamic range, were verified through a single-frequency Nd:YVO4 laser at 1064 nm with coherent output. The measured shot noise of 50 μW laser was 13 dB above the electronic noise at the analysis frequency of 2 MHz, and 10 dB at 3 MHz. And a maximum clearance of 28 dB at 2 MHz was achieved when 1.52 mW laser was illuminated. In addition, the photodetector showed excellent linearities for both DC and AC amplifications in the laser power range between 12.5 μW and 1.52 mW.
Ferron, J; White, A; Luce, T; Politzer, P; Turco, F; DeBoo, J; Petrie, T; Petty, C; La Haye, R; Hyatt, A; Rhodes, T; Zeng, L; Doyle, E
2009-10-14
Conclusions of this report are: (1) In our scans of q{sub min} and q{sub 95}, the bootstrap current fraction increased with q{sub 95} but did not continue to increase with q{sub min} above about 1.5 as expected by f{sub BS} {approx} q{beta}{sub N}; (2) With existing control tools, q{sub min} {approx} 1.5 appears optimal for maximizing bootstrap current if the calculated ideal wall limit can be reached (only narrowly more so than q{sub min} {approx} 1.1); (3) q{sub min} {approx} 2 discharges achieved lower {beta}{sub N} and calculated n = 1 {beta}{sub N} limits, had increased transport, lower density, lower temperature gradients, and as a result did not produce as much bootstrap current; (4) Highest f{sub BS} achieved at highest q{sub 95} (=6.8), but scan suggests lower q{sub 95} is required for more reactor relevant fusion gain G {approx} {beta}{sub N}H{sub 89}/q{sub 95}{sup 2}; (5) New tools (off-axis NBI, more ECCD) may allow access to higher {beta}{sub N} limits and higher bootstrap fractions.
Qian, Jinping P.; Garofalo, Andrea M.; Gong, Xianzu Z.; ...
2017-03-20
Recent EAST/DIII-D joint experiments on the high poloidal betamore » $${{\\beta}_{\\text{P}}}$$ regime in DIII-D have extended operation with internal transport barriers (ITBs) and excellent energy confinement (H 98y2 ~ 1.6) to higher plasma current, for lower q 95 ≤ 7.0, and more balanced neutral beam injection (NBI) (torque injection < 2 Nm), for lower plasma rotation than previous results. Transport analysis and experimental measurements at low toroidal rotation suggest that the E × B shear effect is not key to the ITB formation in these high $${{\\beta}_{\\text{P}}}$$ discharges. Experiments and TGLF modeling show that the Shafranov shift has a key stabilizing effect on turbulence. Extrapolation of the DIII-D results using a 0D model shows that with the improved confinement, the high bootstrap fraction regime could achieve fusion gain Q = 5 in ITER at $${{\\beta}_{\\text{N}}}$$ ~ 2.9 and q 95 ~ 7. With the optimization of q(0), the required improved confinement is achievable when using 1.5D TGLF-SAT1 for transport simulations. Furthermore, results reported in this paper suggest that the DIII-D high $${{\\beta}_{\\text{P}}}$$ scenario could be a candidate for ITER steady state operation.« less
Temperature Corrected Bootstrap Algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Comiso, Joey C.; Zwally, H. Jay
1997-01-01
A temperature corrected Bootstrap Algorithm has been developed using Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer data in preparation to the upcoming AMSR instrument aboard ADEOS and EOS-PM. The procedure first calculates the effective surface emissivity using emissivities of ice and water at 6 GHz and a mixing formulation that utilizes ice concentrations derived using the current Bootstrap algorithm but using brightness temperatures from 6 GHz and 37 GHz channels. These effective emissivities are then used to calculate surface ice which in turn are used to convert the 18 GHz and 37 GHz brightness temperatures to emissivities. Ice concentrations are then derived using the same technique as with the Bootstrap algorithm but using emissivities instead of brightness temperatures. The results show significant improvement in the area where ice temperature is expected to vary considerably such as near the continental areas in the Antarctic, where the ice temperature is colder than average, and in marginal ice zones.
Temperature Corrected Bootstrap Algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Comiso, Joey C.; Zwally, H. Jay
1997-01-01
A temperature corrected Bootstrap Algorithm has been developed using Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer data in preparation to the upcoming AMSR instrument aboard ADEOS and EOS-PM. The procedure first calculates the effective surface emissivity using emissivities of ice and water at 6 GHz and a mixing formulation that utilizes ice concentrations derived using the current Bootstrap algorithm but using brightness temperatures from 6 GHz and 37 GHz channels. These effective emissivities are then used to calculate surface ice which in turn are used to convert the 18 GHz and 37 GHz brightness temperatures to emissivities. Ice concentrations are then derived using the same technique as with the Bootstrap algorithm but using emissivities instead of brightness temperatures. The results show significant improvement in the area where ice temperature is expected to vary considerably such as near the continental areas in the Antarctic, where the ice temperature is colder than average, and in marginal ice zones.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimada, Hirohiko; Hikami, Shinobu
2016-12-01
The fractal dimensions of polymer chains and high-temperature graphs in the Ising model both in three dimension are determined using the conformal bootstrap applied for the continuation of the O( N) models from N=1 (Ising model) to N=0 (polymer). Even for non-integer N, the O( N) sum rule allows one to study the unitarity bound formally defined from the positivity, which may be violated in a non-unitary CFT. This unitarity bound of the scaling dimension for the O( N)-symmetric-tensor develops a kink as a function of the fundamental field as in the case of the energy operator dimension in the Z_2 (Ising) sum rule. Although this kink structure becomes less pronounced as N tends to zero, we found instead an emerging asymmetric minimum in the current central charge C_J. Despite the non-unitarity of the O( N) model at non-integer N, we find the C_J-kink along the unitarity bound lies very close to the location of the infrared (IR) O( N) CFT estimated by other methods. It is pointed out that certain level degeneracies at the IR CFT should induce these singular shapes of the unitarity bounds. As an application to the quantum and classical spin systems, we also predict critical exponents associated with the N=1 supersymmetry, which could be relevant for locating the corresponding fixed point in the phase diagram.
Completely bootstrapped tokamak
Weening, R.H. ); Boozer, A.H. )
1992-01-01
Numerical simulations of the evolution of large-scale magnetic fields have been developed using a mean-field Ohm's law. The Ohm's law is coupled to a {Delta}{prime} stabilty analysis and a magnetic island growth equation in order to simulate the behavior of tokamak plasmas that are subject to tearing modes. In one set of calculations, the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)-stable regime of the tokamak is examined via the construction of an {ital l}{sub {ital i}} -{ital q}{sub {ital a}} diagram. The results confirm previous calculations that show that tearing modes introduce a stability boundary into the {ital l}{sub {ital i}} -{ital q}{sub {ital a}} space. In another series of simulations, the interaction between tearing modes and the bootstrap current is investigated. The results indicate that a completely bootstrapped tokamak may be possible, even in the absence of any externally applied loop voltage or current drive.
High-beta neoclassical current and stability experiments
Callen, J.D.; Dexter, R.N.; Fortgang, C.M.
1982-07-01
Equilibrium neoclassical plasma currents and plasma stability at high values of beta have been studied in the Levitated Toroidal Octupole. In a collisionality regime at the border between the banana and plateau regimes, the bootstrap and Pfirsch-Schlueter currents have for the first time been experimentally observed in agreement with neoclassical theory. Also, stable plasmas have been produced with extremely high beta values (2.5 times the MHD ballooning instability beta limit) and compared with the results of a kinetic stability calculation, implicating finite ion gyroradius effects as a possible cause for the observed stability. To augment both the bootstrap current and stability studies, four megawatts of ion cyclotron resonance heating power are being optimized.
Moran, Stuart L.; Hutcherson, R. Kenneth
1990-03-27
A triggerable, high voltage, high current, spark gap switch for use in pu power systems. The device comprises a pair of electrodes in a high pressure hydrogen environment that is triggered by introducing an arc between one electrode and a trigger pin. Unusually high repetition rates may be obtained by undervolting the switch, i.e., operating the trigger at voltages much below the self-breakdown voltage of the device.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qian, J. P.; Garofalo, A. M.; Gong, X. Z.; Ren, Q. L.; Ding, S. Y.; Solomon, W. M.; Xu, G. S.; Grierson, B. A.; Guo, W. F.; Holcomb, C. T.; McClenaghan, J.; McKee, G. R.; Pan, C. K.; Huang, J.; Staebler, G. M.; Wan, B. N.
2017-05-01
Recent EAST/DIII-D joint experiments on the high poloidal beta {β\\text{P}} regime in DIII-D have extended operation with internal transport barriers (ITBs) and excellent energy confinement (H 98y2 ~ 1.6) to higher plasma current, for lower q 95 ⩽ 7.0, and more balanced neutral beam injection (NBI) (torque injection < 2 Nm), for lower plasma rotation than previous results (Garofalo et al, IAEA 2014, Gong et al 2014 IAEA Int. Conf. on Fusion Energy). Transport analysis and experimental measurements at low toroidal rotation suggest that the E × B shear effect is not key to the ITB formation in these high {β\\text{P}} discharges. Experiments and TGLF modeling show that the Shafranov shift has a key stabilizing effect on turbulence. Extrapolation of the DIII-D results using a 0D model shows that with the improved confinement, the high bootstrap fraction regime could achieve fusion gain Q = 5 in ITER at {β\\text{N}} ~ 2.9 and q 95 ~ 7. With the optimization of q(0), the required improved confinement is achievable when using 1.5D TGLF-SAT1 for transport simulations. Results reported in this paper suggest that the DIII-D high {β\\text{P}} scenario could be a candidate for ITER steady state operation.
Garofalo, Andrea M.; Gong, Xianzu; Grierson, Brian A.; Ren, Qilong; Solomon, Wayne M.; Strait, Edward J.; Van Zeeland, Michael A.; Holcomb, Christopher T.; Meneghini, Orso; Smith, Sterling P.; Staebler, Gary M.; Wan, Baonian; Bravenec, Ronald; Budny, Robert V.; Ding, Siye; Hanson, Jeremy M.; Heidbrink, William W.; Lao, Lang L.; Li, Guoqiang; Pan, Chengkang; Petty, Craig C.; Qian, Jingping; Paz-Soldan, Carlos; Xu, Guosheng
2015-11-16
Recent EAST/DIII-D joint experiments on the high poloidal beta tokamak regime in DIII-D have demonstrated fully noninductive operation with an internal transport barrier (ITB) at large minor radius, at normalized fusion performance increased by ≥30% relative to earlier work. The advancement was enabled by improved understanding of the “relaxation oscillations”, previously attributed to repetitive ITB collapses, and of the fast ion behavior in this regime. It was found that the “relaxation oscillations” are coupled core-edge modes 2 amenable to wall-stabilization, and that fast ion losses which previously dictated a large plasma-wall separation to avoid wall over-heating, can be reduced to classical levels with sufficient plasma density. By using optimized waveforms of the plasma-wall separation and plasma density, fully noninductive plasmas have been sustained for long durations with excellent energy confinement quality, bootstrap fraction ≥ 80%, β_{N} ≤ 4 , β_{P} ≥ 3 , and β_{T} ≥ 2%. Finally, these results bolster the applicability of the high poloidal beta tokamak regime toward the realization of a steady-state fusion reactor.
Garofalo, Andrea M.; Gong, Xianzu; Grierson, Brian A.; ...
2015-11-16
Recent EAST/DIII-D joint experiments on the high poloidal beta tokamak regime in DIII-D have demonstrated fully noninductive operation with an internal transport barrier (ITB) at large minor radius, at normalized fusion performance increased by ≥30% relative to earlier work. The advancement was enabled by improved understanding of the “relaxation oscillations”, previously attributed to repetitive ITB collapses, and of the fast ion behavior in this regime. It was found that the “relaxation oscillations” are coupled core-edge modes 2 amenable to wall-stabilization, and that fast ion losses which previously dictated a large plasma-wall separation to avoid wall over-heating, can be reduced tomore » classical levels with sufficient plasma density. By using optimized waveforms of the plasma-wall separation and plasma density, fully noninductive plasmas have been sustained for long durations with excellent energy confinement quality, bootstrap fraction ≥ 80%, βN ≤ 4 , βP ≥ 3 , and βT ≥ 2%. Finally, these results bolster the applicability of the high poloidal beta tokamak regime toward the realization of a steady-state fusion reactor.« less
1981-04-01
AFWAL-TR-81- 2016 U iui.N HIGH CURRENT Ŕ POWER CONTROLLER P. E. McCOLLUM Audwo ROCKWELL INTERNATIONAL AUTONETICS STRATEGIC SYSTEMS DIVISION 3370...personnel. During norm3l operation, HCP \\.s pose no hazard, bLt unde- certain operating conditions potential noaza-ds do exist. They are: (1) During
Brown, Ian G.; MacGill, Robert A.; Galvin, James E.
1990-01-01
An ion source utilizing a cathode and anode for producing an electric arc therebetween. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma leaves the generation region and expands through another regon. The density profile of the plasma may be flattened using a magnetic field formed within a vacuum chamber. Ions are extracted from the plasma to produce a high current broad on beam.
Conformal Bootstrap in Mellin Space.
Gopakumar, Rajesh; Kaviraj, Apratim; Sen, Kallol; Sinha, Aninda
2017-02-24
We propose a new approach towards analytically solving for the dynamical content of conformal field theories (CFTs) using the bootstrap philosophy. This combines the original bootstrap idea of Polyakov with the modern technology of the Mellin representation of CFT amplitudes. We employ exchange Witten diagrams with built-in crossing symmetry as our basic building blocks rather than the conventional conformal blocks in a particular channel. Demanding consistency with the operator product expansion (OPE) implies an infinite set of constraints on operator dimensions and OPE coefficients. We illustrate the power of this method in the ε expansion of the Wilson-Fisher fixed point by reproducing anomalous dimensions and, strikingly, obtaining OPE coefficients to higher orders in ε than currently available using other analytic techniques (including Feynman diagram calculations). Our results enable us to get a somewhat better agreement between certain observables in the 3D Ising model and the precise numerical values that have been recently obtained.
Conformal Bootstrap in Mellin Space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gopakumar, Rajesh; Kaviraj, Apratim; Sen, Kallol; Sinha, Aninda
2017-02-01
We propose a new approach towards analytically solving for the dynamical content of conformal field theories (CFTs) using the bootstrap philosophy. This combines the original bootstrap idea of Polyakov with the modern technology of the Mellin representation of CFT amplitudes. We employ exchange Witten diagrams with built-in crossing symmetry as our basic building blocks rather than the conventional conformal blocks in a particular channel. Demanding consistency with the operator product expansion (OPE) implies an infinite set of constraints on operator dimensions and OPE coefficients. We illustrate the power of this method in the ɛ expansion of the Wilson-Fisher fixed point by reproducing anomalous dimensions and, strikingly, obtaining OPE coefficients to higher orders in ɛ than currently available using other analytic techniques (including Feynman diagram calculations). Our results enable us to get a somewhat better agreement between certain observables in the 3D Ising model and the precise numerical values that have been recently obtained.
Bootstrapping One-Loop QCD Amplitudes
Berger, Carola F.; /SLAC
2006-09-08
We review the recently developed bootstrap method for the computation of high-multiplicity QCD amplitudes at one loop. We illustrate the general algorithm step by step with a six-point example. The method combines (generalized) unitarity with on-shell recursion relations to determine the not cut-constructible, rational terms of these amplitudes. Our bootstrap approach works for arbitrary configurations of gluon helicities and arbitrary numbers of external legs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rejon-Barrera, Fernando; Robbins, Daniel
2016-01-01
We work out all of the details required for implementation of the conformal bootstrap program applied to the four-point function of two scalars and two vectors in an abstract conformal field theory in arbitrary dimension. This includes a review of which tensor structures make appearances, a construction of the projectors onto the required mixed symmetry representations, and a computation of the conformal blocks for all possible operators which can be exchanged. These blocks are presented as differential operators acting upon the previously known scalar conformal blocks. Finally, we set up the bootstrap equations which implement crossing symmetry. Special attention is given to the case of conserved vectors, where several simplifications occur.
Efficient bootstrap estimates for tail statistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Breivik, Øyvind; Aarnes, Ole Johan
2017-03-01
Bootstrap resamples can be used to investigate the tail of empirical distributions as well as return value estimates from the extremal behaviour of the sample. Specifically, the confidence intervals on return value estimates or bounds on in-sample tail statistics can be obtained using bootstrap techniques. However, non-parametric bootstrapping from the entire sample is expensive. It is shown here that it suffices to bootstrap from a small subset consisting of the highest entries in the sequence to make estimates that are essentially identical to bootstraps from the entire sample. Similarly, bootstrap estimates of confidence intervals of threshold return estimates are found to be well approximated by using a subset consisting of the highest entries. This has practical consequences in fields such as meteorology, oceanography and hydrology where return values are calculated from very large gridded model integrations spanning decades at high temporal resolution or from large ensembles of independent and identically distributed model fields. In such cases the computational savings are substantial.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simmons-Duffin, David
These notes are from courses given at TASI and the Advanced Strings School in summer 2015. Starting from principles of quantum field theory and the assumption of a traceless stress tensor, we develop the basics of conformal field theory, including conformal Ward identities, radial quantization, reection positivity, the operator product expansion, and conformal blocks. We end with an introduction to numerical bootstrap methods, focusing on the 2d and 3d Ising models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poland, David; Simmons-Duffin, David
2016-06-01
The conformal bootstrap was proposed in the 1970s as a strategy for calculating the properties of second-order phase transitions. After spectacular success elucidating two-dimensional systems, little progress was made on systems in higher dimensions until a recent renaissance beginning in 2008. We report on some of the main results and ideas from this renaissance, focusing on new determinations of critical exponents and correlation functions in the three-dimensional Ising and O(N) models.
High temperature current mirror amplifier
Patterson, III, Raymond B.
1984-05-22
A high temperature current mirror amplifier having biasing means in the transdiode connection of the input transistor for producing a voltage to maintain the base-collector junction reversed-biased and a current means for maintaining a current through the biasing means at high temperatures so that the base-collector junction of the input transistor remained reversed-biased. For accuracy, a second current mirror is provided with a biasing means and current means on the input leg.
Analyzing large datasets with bootstrap penalization.
Fang, Kuangnan; Ma, Shuangge
2017-03-01
Data with a large p (number of covariates) and/or a large n (sample size) are now commonly encountered. For many problems, regularization especially penalization is adopted for estimation and variable selection. The straightforward application of penalization to large datasets demands a "big computer" with high computational power. To improve computational feasibility, we develop bootstrap penalization, which dissects a big penalized estimation into a set of small ones, which can be executed in a highly parallel manner and each only demands a "small computer". The proposed approach takes different strategies for data with different characteristics. For data with a large p but a small to moderate n, covariates are first clustered into relatively homogeneous blocks. The proposed approach consists of two sequential steps. In each step and for each bootstrap sample, we select blocks of covariates and run penalization. The results from multiple bootstrap samples are pooled to generate the final estimate. For data with a large n but a small to moderate p, we bootstrap a small number of subjects, apply penalized estimation, and then conduct a weighted average over multiple bootstrap samples. For data with a large p and a large n, the natural marriage of the previous two methods is applied. Numerical studies, including simulations and data analysis, show that the proposed approach has computational and numerical advantages over the straightforward application of penalization. An R package has been developed to implement the proposed methods. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Bootstrapping language acquisition.
Abend, Omri; Kwiatkowski, Tom; Smith, Nathaniel J; Goldwater, Sharon; Steedman, Mark
2017-07-01
The semantic bootstrapping hypothesis proposes that children acquire their native language through exposure to sentences of the language paired with structured representations of their meaning, whose component substructures can be associated with words and syntactic structures used to express these concepts. The child's task is then to learn a language-specific grammar and lexicon based on (probably contextually ambiguous, possibly somewhat noisy) pairs of sentences and their meaning representations (logical forms). Starting from these assumptions, we develop a Bayesian probabilistic account of semantically bootstrapped first-language acquisition in the child, based on techniques from computational parsing and interpretation of unrestricted text. Our learner jointly models (a) word learning: the mapping between components of the given sentential meaning and lexical words (or phrases) of the language, and (b) syntax learning: the projection of lexical elements onto sentences by universal construction-free syntactic rules. Using an incremental learning algorithm, we apply the model to a dataset of real syntactically complex child-directed utterances and (pseudo) logical forms, the latter including contextually plausible but irrelevant distractors. Taking the Eve section of the CHILDES corpus as input, the model simulates several well-documented phenomena from the developmental literature. In particular, the model exhibits syntactic bootstrapping effects (in which previously learned constructions facilitate the learning of novel words), sudden jumps in learning without explicit parameter setting, acceleration of word-learning (the "vocabulary spurt"), an initial bias favoring the learning of nouns over verbs, and one-shot learning of words and their meanings. The learner thus demonstrates how statistical learning over structured representations can provide a unified account for these seemingly disparate phenomena. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; ...
2016-03-17
We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge CT. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.
Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran
2016-03-17
We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions <ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge C_{T}. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N. Finally, we also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.
High speed, high current pulsed driver circuit
Carlen, Christopher R.
2017-03-21
Various technologies presented herein relate to driving a LED such that the LED emits short duration pulses of light. This is accomplished by driving the LED with short duration, high amplitude current pulses. When the LED is driven by short duration, high amplitude current pulses, the LED emits light at a greater amplitude compared to when the LED is driven by continuous wave current.
High temperature current mirror amplifier
Patterson, R.B. III.
1984-05-22
Disclosed is a high temperature current mirror amplifier having biasing means in the transdiode connection of the input transistor for producing a voltage to maintain the base-collector junction reversed-biased and a current means for maintaining a current through the biasing means at high temperatures so that the base-collector junction of the input transistor remained reversed-biased. For accuracy, a second current mirror is provided with a biasing means and current means on the input leg. 2 figs.
The N=2 superconformal bootstrap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beem, Christopher; Lemos, Madalena; Liendo, Pedro; Rastelli, Leonardo; van Rees, Balt C.
2016-03-01
In this work we initiate the conformal bootstrap program for N=2 super-conformal field theories in four dimensions. We promote an abstract operator-algebraic viewpoint in order to unify the description of Lagrangian and non-Lagrangian theories, and formulate various conjectures concerning the landscape of theories. We analyze in detail the four-point functions of flavor symmetry current multiplets and of N=2 chiral operators. For both correlation functions we review the solution of the superconformal Ward identities and describe their superconformal block decompositions. This provides the foundation for an extensive numerical analysis discussed in the second half of the paper. We find a large number of constraints for operator dimensions, OPE coefficients, and central charges that must hold for any N=2 superconformal field theory.
Explorations in Statistics: the Bootstrap
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Curran-Everett, Douglas
2009-01-01
Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This fourth installment of Explorations in Statistics explores the bootstrap. The bootstrap gives us an empirical approach to estimate the theoretical variability among possible values of a sample statistic such as the…
High current pulse transmission cable
Parsons, W.M.
1990-09-28
This invention is comprised of a transmission cable for carrying high current pulses in which an even numbered plurality of electrical conductors surrounds a central ground conductor. Each electrical conductor is connected so that it at any instant in time it will carry current of opposite polarity to the polarity carried by adjacent conductors. This arrangement cancels practically all of the external fields generated by current in the conductors.
Electropneumatic rheostat regulates high current
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haacker, J. F.; Jedlicka, J. R.; Wagoner, C. B.
1965-01-01
Electropneumatic rheostat maintains a constant direct current in each of several high-power parallel loads, of variable resistance, across a single source. It provides current regulation at any preset value by dissipating the proper amount of energy thermally, and uses a column of mercury to vary the effective length of a resistance element.
A SQUID Bootstrap Circuit with a Large Parameter Tolerance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Guo-Feng; Zhang, Yi; Hans-Joachim, Krause; Kong, Xiang-Yan; Andreas, Offenhäusser; Xie, Xiao-Ming
2013-01-01
The voltage biased (SQUID) bootstrap circuit (SBC) was recently introduced as an effective means to reduce the preamplifier noise contribution. We analyze the tolerances of the SBC noise suppression performance to spreads in SQUID and SBC circuit parameters. It is found that the tolerance to spread mainly caused by the integrated circuit fabrication process could be extended by a one-time adjustable current feedback. A helium-cooled niobium SQUID with a loop inductance of 350 pH is employed to experimentally verify the analysis. From this work, design criteria for fully integrated SBC devices with a high yield can be derived.
Bootstrapping Time Dilation Decoherence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gooding, Cisco; Unruh, William G.
2015-10-01
We present a general relativistic model of a spherical shell of matter with a perfect fluid on its surface coupled to an internal oscillator, which generalizes a model recently introduced by the authors to construct a self-gravitating interferometer (Gooding and Unruh in Phys Rev D 90:044071, 2014). The internal oscillator evolution is defined with respect to the local proper time of the shell, allowing the oscillator to serve as a local clock that ticks differently depending on the shell's position and momentum. A Hamiltonian reduction is performed on the system, and an approximate quantum description is given to the reduced phase space. If we focus only on the external dynamics, we must trace out the clock degree of freedom, and this results in a form of intrinsic decoherence that shares some features with a proposed "universal" decoherence mechanism attributed to gravitational time dilation (Pikovski et al in Nat Phys, 2015). We note that the proposed decoherence remains present in the (gravity-free) limit of flat spacetime, emphasizing that the effect can be attributed entirely to proper time differences, and thus is not necessarily related to gravity. Whereas the effect described in (Pikovski et al in Nat Phys, 2015) vanishes in the absence of an external gravitational field, our approach bootstraps the gravitational contribution to the time dilation decoherence by including self-interaction, yielding a fundamentally gravitational intrinsic decoherence effect.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bagchi, Arjun; Gary, Mirah; Zodinmawia
2017-07-01
We initiate a study of the bootstrap program for field theories with Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) symmetry. Specifically, we look at two-dimensional field theories with BMS3 symmetry, and using the highest weight representations we construct the BMS bootstrap equation by formulating the notion of crossing symmetry in the four-point functions of these field theories. In the limit of large central charge, we find analytic expressions for the BMS blocks that are the basic ingredients for the solution of the bootstrap equation. This constitutes, to the best of our knowledge, the first example of the formulation and significant steps toward the solution of a bootstrap equation in a theory which is not a relativistic conformal field theory.
Ultrafast approximation for phylogenetic bootstrap.
Minh, Bui Quang; Nguyen, Minh Anh Thi; von Haeseler, Arndt
2013-05-01
Nonparametric bootstrap has been a widely used tool in phylogenetic analysis to assess the clade support of phylogenetic trees. However, with the rapidly growing amount of data, this task remains a computational bottleneck. Recently, approximation methods such as the RAxML rapid bootstrap (RBS) and the Shimodaira-Hasegawa-like approximate likelihood ratio test have been introduced to speed up the bootstrap. Here, we suggest an ultrafast bootstrap approximation approach (UFBoot) to compute the support of phylogenetic groups in maximum likelihood (ML) based trees. To achieve this, we combine the resampling estimated log-likelihood method with a simple but effective collection scheme of candidate trees. We also propose a stopping rule that assesses the convergence of branch support values to automatically determine when to stop collecting candidate trees. UFBoot achieves a median speed up of 3.1 (range: 0.66-33.3) to 10.2 (range: 1.32-41.4) compared with RAxML RBS for real DNA and amino acid alignments, respectively. Moreover, our extensive simulations show that UFBoot is robust against moderate model violations and the support values obtained appear to be relatively unbiased compared with the conservative standard bootstrap. This provides a more direct interpretation of the bootstrap support. We offer an efficient and easy-to-use software (available at http://www.cibiv.at/software/iqtree) to perform the UFBoot analysis with ML tree inference.
Confidence Intervals for the Mean: To Bootstrap or Not to Bootstrap
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Calzada, Maria E.; Gardner, Holly
2011-01-01
The results of a simulation conducted by a research team involving undergraduate and high school students indicate that when data is symmetric the student's "t" confidence interval for a mean is superior to the studied non-parametric bootstrap confidence intervals. When data is skewed and for sample sizes n greater than or equal to 10,…
Confidence Intervals for the Mean: To Bootstrap or Not to Bootstrap
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Calzada, Maria E.; Gardner, Holly
2011-01-01
The results of a simulation conducted by a research team involving undergraduate and high school students indicate that when data is symmetric the student's "t" confidence interval for a mean is superior to the studied non-parametric bootstrap confidence intervals. When data is skewed and for sample sizes n greater than or equal to 10,…
Cesario, R. C.; Castaldo, C.; De Angelis, R.; Smeulders, P.; Calabro, G.; Pericoli, V.; Ravera, G.
2007-09-28
LHCD has been used in JET experiments aimed at producing internal transport barriers (ITBs) in highly triangular plasmas ({delta}{approx_equal}0.4) at high {beta}{sub N} (up to 3) for steady-state application. The LHCD is a potentially valuable tool for (i) modifying the target q-profile, which can help avoid deleterious MHD modes and favour the formation of ITBs, and (ii) contributing to the non-inductive current drive required to prolong such plasma regimes. The q-profile evolution has been simulated during the current ramp-up phase for such a discharge (B{sub 0} = 2.3 T, I{sub P} = 1.5 MA) where 2 MW of LHCD has been coupled. The JETTO code was used taking measured plasma profiles, and the LHCD profile modeled by the LHstar code. The results are in agreement with MSE measurements and indicate the importance of the elevated electron temperature due to LHCD, as well as the driven current. During main heating with 18 MW of NBI and 3 MW of ICRH the bootstrap current density at the edge also becomes large, consistently with the observed reduction of the local turbulence and of the MHD activity. JETTO modelling suggests that the bootstrap current can reduce the magnetic shear (sh) at large radius, potentially affecting the MHD stability and turbulence behaviour in this region. Keywords: lower hybrid current drive (LHCD), bootstrap current, q (safety factor) and shear (sh) profile evolutions.
High current transistor pulse generator
Nesterov, V.; Cassel, R.
1991-05-01
A solid state pulse generator capable of delivering high current trapezoidally shaped pulses into an inductive load has been developed at SLAC. Energy stored in the capacitor bank of the pulse generator is switched to the load through a pair of Darlington transistors. A combination of diodes and Darlington transistors is used to obtain trapezoidal or triangular shaped current pulses into an inductive load and to recover the remaining energy in the same capacitor bank without reversing capacitor voltage. The transistors work in the switch mode, and the power losses are low. The rack mounted pulse generators presently used at SLAC contain a 660 microfarad storage capacitor bank and can deliver 400 amps at 800 volts into inductive loads up to 3 mH. The pulse generators are used in several different power systems, including pulse to pulse bipolar power supplies and in application with current pulses distributed into different inductive loads. The current amplitude and discharge time are controlled by the central computer system through a specially developed multichannel controller. Several years of operation with the pulse generators have proven their consistent performance and reliability. 8 figs.
High current transistor pulse generator
Nesterov, V.; Cassel, R.
1991-05-01
A solid state pulse generator capable of delivering high current trapezoidally shaped pulses into an inductive load has been developed at SLAC. Energy stored in the capacitor bank of the pulse generator is switched to the load through a pair of Darlington transistors. A combination of diodes and Darlington transistors is used to obtain trapezoidal or triangular shaped current pulses into an inductive load and to recover the remaining energy in the same capacitor bank without reversing capacitor voltage. The transistors work in the switch mode, and the power losses are low. The rack mounted pulse generators presently used at SLAC contain a 660 microfarad storage capacitor bank and can deliver 400 amps at 800 volts into inductive loads up to 3 mH. The pulse generators are used in several different power systems, including pulse to pulse bipolar power supplies and in application with current pulses distributed into different inductive loads. The current amplitude and discharge time are controlled by the central computer system through a specially developed multichannel controller. Several years of operation with the pulse generators have proven their consistent performance and reliability. 8 figs.
High Critical Current Coated Conductors
Paranthaman, M. P.; Selvamanickam, V.
2011-12-27
One of the important critical needs that came out of the DOE’s coated conductor workshop was to develop a high throughput and economic deposition process for YBCO. Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique, the most critical steps in high technical micro fabrications, has been widely employed in semiconductor industry for various thin film growth. SuperPower has demonstrated that (Y,Gd)BCO films can be deposited rapid with world record performance. In addition to high critical current density with increased film thickness, flux pinning properties of REBCO films needs to be improved to meet the DOE requirements for various electric-power equipments. We have shown that doping with Zr can result in BZO nanocolumns, but at substantially reduced deposition rate. The primary purpose of this subtask is to develop high current density MOCVD-REBCO coated conductors based on the ion-beam assisted (IBAD)-MgO deposition process. Another purpose of this subtask is to investigate HTS conductor design optimization (maximize Je) with emphasis on stability and protection issues, and ac loss for REBCO coated conductors.
Probabilistic tractography using Lasso bootstrap.
Ye, Chuyang; Prince, Jerry L
2017-01-01
Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) can be used for noninvasive imaging of white matter tracts. Using fiber tracking, which propagates fiber streamlines according to fiber orientations (FOs) computed from dMRI, white matter tracts can be reconstructed for investigation of brain diseases and the brain connectome. Because of image noise, probabilistic tractography has been proposed to characterize uncertainties in FO estimation. Bootstrap provides a nonparametric approach to the estimation of FO uncertainties and residual bootstrap has been used for developing probabilistic tractography. However, recently developed models have incorporated sparsity regularization to reduce the required number of gradient directions to resolve crossing FOs, and the residual bootstrap used in previous methods is not applicable to these models. In this work, we propose a probabilistic tractography algorithm named Lasso bootstrap tractography (LBT) for the models that incorporate sparsity. Using a fixed tensor basis and a sparsity assumption, diffusion signals are modeled using a Lasso formulation. With the residuals from the Lasso model, a distribution of diffusion signals is obtained according to a modified Lasso bootstrap strategy. FOs are then estimated from the synthesized diffusion signals by an algorithm that improves FO estimation by enforcing spatial consistency of FOs. Finally, streamlining fiber tracking is performed with the computed FOs. The LBT algorithm was evaluated on simulated and real dMRI data both qualitatively and quantitatively. Results demonstrate that LBT outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bootstrap Approach To Compare the Slopes of Two Calibrations When Few Standards Are Available.
Estévez-Pérez, Graciela; Andrade, Jose M; Wilcox, Rand R
2016-02-16
Comparing the slopes of aqueous-based and standard addition calibration procedures is almost a daily task in analytical laboratories. As usual protocols imply very few standards, sound statistical inference and conclusions are hard to obtain for current classical tests (e.g., the t-test), which may greatly affect decision-making. Thus, there is a need for robust statistics that are not distorted by small samples of experimental values obtained from analytical studies. Several promising alternatives based on bootstrapping are studied in this paper under the typical constraints common in laboratory work. The impact of number of standards, homoscedasticity or heteroscedasticity, three variance patterns, and three error distributions on least-squares fits were considered (in total, 144 simulation scenarios). The Student's t-test is the most valuable procedure when the normality assumption is true and homoscedasticity is present, although it can be highly affected by outliers. A wild bootstrap method leads to average rejection percentages that are closer to the nominal level in almost every situation, and it is recommended for laboratories working with a small number of standards. Finally, it was seen that the Theil-Sen percentile bootstrap statistic is very robust but its rejection percentages depart from the nominal ones (<5%), so its use is not recommended when the number of standards is very small. Finally, a tutorial and free software are given to encourage analytical laboratories to apply bootstrap principles to compare the slopes of two calibration lines.
HIGH VOLTAGE, HIGH CURRENT SPARK GAP SWITCH
Dike, R.S.; Lier, D.W.; Schofield, A.E.; Tuck, J.L.
1962-04-17
A high voltage and current spark gap switch comprising two main electrodes insulatingly supported in opposed spaced relationship and a middle electrode supported medially between the main electrodes and symmetrically about the median line of the main electrodes is described. The middle electrode has a perforation aligned with the median line and an irradiation electrode insulatingly supported in the body of the middle electrode normal to the median line and protruding into the perforation. (AEC)
Bootstrap planning: Theory and application
Chen, P.C.
1994-02-01
We identify a general framework for weak planning called bootstrap planning, which is defined as global planning using only a local planner along with some memory for learning intermediate subgoals. We present a family of algorithms for bootstrap planning, and provide some initial theory on their performance. In our theoretical analysis, we develop a random digraph problem model and use it to make some performance predictions and comparisons of these algorithms. We also use it to provide some techniques for approximating the optimal resource bound on the local planner to achieve the best global planner. We validate our theoretical results with empirical demonstration on the 15-puzzle. We show how to reduce the planning cost of a global planner by 2 orders of magnitude using bootstrap planning. We also demonstrate a natural but not widely recognized connection between search costs and the lognormal distribution.
High current metal ion implantation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Ian G.
1990-04-01
This report summarizes the research and development that has been carried out at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to develop a novel kind of high current metal ion source for metallurgical surface modification application. In ion implantation, an energetic ion beam is injected into a solid surface with the result that the surface composition is changed. For the case when the surface is a metal, the tribological properties of the new metallurgical surface can be significantly improved over the unimplanted surface. Previously, however, very intense metal ion beams have not been available, and this has been an impedance to the development of the field. With the MEVVA (Metal Vapor Vacuum Arc) ion source, metal ion beam currents of very high intensity have become available. This report outlines the progress made under the funded program in the four areas addressed: development of the MEVVA ion source for ion implantation application; research on the ion beam characteristics and behavior; development of the ion implantation facility; metallurgical ion implantation research that was performed.
High-current, high-frequency capacitors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Renz, D. D.
1983-06-01
The NASA Lewis high-current, high-frequency capacitor development program was conducted under a contract with Maxwell Laboratories, Inc., San Diego, California. The program was started to develop power components for space power systems. One of the components lacking was a high-power, high-frequency capacitor. Some of the technology developed in this program may be directly usable in an all-electric airplane. The materials used in the capacitor included the following: the film is polypropylene, the impregnant is monoisopropyl biphenyl, the conductive epoxy is Emerson and Cuming Stycast 2850 KT, the foil is aluminum, the case is stainless steel (304), and the electrode is a modified copper-ceramic.
High-current, high-frequency capacitors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Renz, D. D.
1983-01-01
The NASA Lewis high-current, high-frequency capacitor development program was conducted under a contract with Maxwell Laboratories, Inc., San Diego, California. The program was started to develop power components for space power systems. One of the components lacking was a high-power, high-frequency capacitor. Some of the technology developed in this program may be directly usable in an all-electric airplane. The materials used in the capacitor included the following: the film is polypropylene, the impregnant is monoisopropyl biphenyl, the conductive epoxy is Emerson and Cuming Stycast 2850 KT, the foil is aluminum, the case is stainless steel (304), and the electrode is a modified copper-ceramic.
The bootstrap in bioequivalence studies.
Pigeot, Iris; Hauschke, Dieter; Shao, Jun
2011-11-01
In 1997, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) suggested in its draft guidance the use of new concepts for assessing the bioequivalence of two drug formulations, namely, the concepts of population and individual bioequivalence. Aggregate moment-based and probability-based measures of bioequivalence were introduced to derive criteria in order to decide whether two formulations should be regarded as bioequivalent or not. The statistical decision may be made via a nonparametric bootstrap percentile interval. In this article, we review the history of population and individual bioequivalence with special focus on the role of the bootstrap in this context.
On using the bootstrap for multiple comparisons.
Westfall, Peter H
2011-11-01
There are many ways to bootstrap data for multiple comparisons procedures. Methods described here include (i) bootstrap (parametric and nonparametric) as a generalization of classical normal-based MaxT methods, (ii) bootstrap as an approximation to exact permutation methods, (iii) bootstrap as a generator of realistic null data sets, and (iv) bootstrap as a generator of realistic non-null data sets. Resampling of MinP versus MaxT is discussed, and the use of the bootstrap for closed testing is also presented. Applications to biopharmaceutical statistics are given.
High current high accuracy IGBT pulse generator
Nesterov, V.V.; Donaldson, A.R.
1995-05-01
A solid state pulse generator capable of delivering high current triangular or trapezoidal pulses into an inductive load has been developed at SLAC. Energy stored in a capacitor bank of the pulse generator is switched to the load through a pair of insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT). The circuit can then recover the remaining energy and transfer it back to the capacitor bank without reversing the capacitor voltage. A third IGBT device is employed to control the initial charge to the capacitor bank, a command charging technique, and to compensate for pulse to pulse power losses. The rack mounted pulse generator contains a 525 {mu}F capacitor bank. It can deliver 500 A at 900V into inductive loads up to 3 mH. The current amplitude and discharge time are controlled to 0.02% accuracy by a precision controller through the SLAC central computer system. This pulse generator drives a series pair of extraction dipoles.
HIGH CURRENT COAXIAL PHOTOMULTIPLIER TUBE
Glass, N.W.
1960-01-19
A medium-gain photomultiplier tube having high current output, fast rise- time, and matched output impedance was developed. The photomultiplier tube comprises an elongated cylindrical envelope, a cylindrical anode supported at the axis of the envelope, a plurality of elongated spaced opaque areas on the envelope, and a plurality of light admitting windows. A photo-cathode is supported adjacent to each of the windows, and a plurality of secondary emissive dynodes are arranged in two types of radial arrays which are alternately positioned to fill the annular space between the anode and the envelope. The dynodes are in an array being radially staggered with respect to the dynodes in the adjacent array, the dynodes each having a portion arranged at an angle with respect to the electron path, such that electrons emitted by each cathode undergo multiplication upon impingement on a dynode and redirected flight to the next adjacent dynode.
High current capacity electrical connector
Bettis, Edward S.; Watts, Harry L.
1976-01-13
An electrical connector is provided for coupling high current capacity electrical conductors such as copper busses or the like. The connector is arranged in a "sandwiched" configuration in which a conductor plate contacts the busses along major surfaces thereof clamped between two stainless steel backing plates. The conductor plate is provided with a plurality of contact buttons affixed therein in a spaced array such that the caps of the buttons extend above the conductor plate surface to contact the busses. When clamping bolts provided through openings in the sandwiched arrangement are tightened, Belleville springs provided under the rim of each button cap are compressed and resiliently force the caps into contact with the busses' contacting surfaces to maintain a predetermined electrical contact area provided by the button cap tops. The contact area does not change with changing thermal or mechanical stresses applied to the coupled conductors.
Coefficient Omega Bootstrap Confidence Intervals: Nonnormal Distributions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin
2013-01-01
The performance of the normal theory bootstrap (NTB), the percentile bootstrap (PB), and the bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient omega was assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation under conditions not previously investigated. Of particular interests were nonnormal Likert-type and binary items.…
Coefficient Omega Bootstrap Confidence Intervals: Nonnormal Distributions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin
2013-01-01
The performance of the normal theory bootstrap (NTB), the percentile bootstrap (PB), and the bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient omega was assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation under conditions not previously investigated. Of particular interests were nonnormal Likert-type and binary items.…
Using minimum bootstrap support for splits to construct confidence regions for trees.
Susko, Edward
2007-02-03
Many of the estimated topologies in phylogenetic studies are presented with the bootstrap support for each of the splits in the topology indicated. If phylogenetic estimation is unbiased, high bootstrap support for a split suggests that there is a good deal of certainty that the split actually is present in the tree and low bootstrap support suggests that one or more of the taxa on one side of the estimated split might in reality be located with taxa on the other side. In the latter case the follow-up questions about how many and which of the taxa could reasonably be incorrectly placed as well as where they might alternatively be placed are not addressed through the presented bootstrap support. We present here an algorithm that finds the set of all trees with minimum bootstrap support for their splits greater than some given value. The output is a ranked list of trees, ranked according to the minimum bootstrap supports for splits in the trees. The number of such trees and their topologies provides useful supplementary information in bootstrap analyses about the reasons for low bootstrap support for splits. We also present ways of quantifying low bootstrap support by considering the set of all topologies with minimum bootstrap greater than some quantity as providing a confidence region of topologies. Using a double bootstrap we are able to choose a cutoff so that the set of topologies with minimum bootstrap support for a split greater than that cutoff gives an approximate 95% confidence region. As with bootstrap support one advantage of the methods is that they are generally applicable to the wide variety of phylogenetic estimation methods.
High current gain transistor laser
Liang, Song; Qiao, Lijun; Zhu, Hongliang; Wang, Wei
2016-01-01
A transistor laser (TL), having the structure of a transistor with multi-quantum wells near its base region, bridges the functionality gap between lasers and transistors. However, light emission is produced at the expense of current gain for all the TLs reported up to now, leading to a very low current gain. We propose a novel design of TLs, which have an n-doped InP layer inserted in the emitter ridge. Numerical studies show that a current flow aperture for only holes can be formed in the center of the emitter ridge. As a result, the common emitter current gain can be as large as 143.3, which is over 15 times larger than that of a TL without the aperture. Besides, the effects of nonradiative recombination defects can be reduced greatly because the flow of holes is confined in the center region of the emitter ridge. PMID:27282466
Bootstrapping N}=3 superconformal theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lemos, Madalena; Liendo, Pedro; Meneghelli, Carlo; Mitev, Vladimir
2017-04-01
We initiate the bootstrap program for N=3 superconformal field theories (SCFTs) in four dimensions. The problem is considered from two fronts: the protected subsector described by a 2 d chiral algebra, and crossing symmetry for half-BPS operators whose superconformal primaries parametrize the Coulomb branch of N=3 theories. With the goal of describing a protected subsector of a family of N=3 SCFTs, we propose a new 2 d chiral algebra with super Virasoro symmetry that depends on an arbitrary parameter, identified with the central charge of the theory. Turning to the crossing equations, we work out the superconformal block expansion and apply standard numerical bootstrap techniques in order to constrain the CFT data. We obtain bounds valid for any theory but also, thanks to input from the chiral algebra results, we are able to exclude solutions with N=4 supersymmetry,allowingustozoominonaspecific N=3 SCFT.
Thai, Hoai-Thu; Mentré, France; Holford, Nicholas H G; Veyrat-Follet, Christine; Comets, Emmanuelle
2014-02-01
Bootstrap methods are used in many disciplines to estimate the uncertainty of parameters, including multi-level or linear mixed-effects models. Residual-based bootstrap methods which resample both random effects and residuals are an alternative approach to case bootstrap, which resamples the individuals. Most PKPD applications use the case bootstrap, for which software is available. In this study, we evaluated the performance of three bootstrap methods (case bootstrap, nonparametric residual bootstrap and parametric bootstrap) by a simulation study and compared them to that of an asymptotic method (Asym) in estimating uncertainty of parameters in nonlinear mixed-effects models (NLMEM) with heteroscedastic error. This simulation was conducted using as an example of the PK model for aflibercept, an anti-angiogenic drug. As expected, we found that the bootstrap methods provided better estimates of uncertainty for parameters in NLMEM with high nonlinearity and having balanced designs compared to the Asym, as implemented in MONOLIX. Overall, the parametric bootstrap performed better than the case bootstrap as the true model and variance distribution were used. However, the case bootstrap is faster and simpler as it makes no assumptions on the model and preserves both between subject and residual variability in one resampling step. The performance of the nonparametric residual bootstrap was found to be limited when applying to NLMEM due to its failure to reflate the variance before resampling in unbalanced designs where the Asym and the parametric bootstrap performed well and better than case bootstrap even with stratification.
High critical current superconducting tapes
Holesinger, Terry G.; Jia, Quanxi; Foltyn, Stephen R.
2003-09-23
Improvements in critical current capacity for superconducting film structures are disclosed and include the use of a superconducting RE-BCO layer including a mixture of rare earth metals, e.g., yttrium and europium, where the ratio of yttrium to europium in the RE-BCO layer ranges from about 3 to 1 to from about 1.5 to 1.
Weighted bootstrapping: a correction method for assessing the robustness of phylogenetic trees
2010-01-01
other competing strategies, including the traditional bootstrapping. The high robustness of the normalized SBS could be particularly useful in situations where observed sequences have been affected by noise or have undergone massive insertion or deletion events. The results provided by the four other strategies were very similar regardless the noise level, thus also demonstrating the stability of the traditional bootstrapping method. PMID:20716358
Assessing Model Selection Uncertainty Using a Bootstrap Approach: An update.
Lubke, Gitta H; Campbell, Ian; McArtor, Dan; Miller, Patrick; Luningham, Justin; van den Berg, Stéphanie M
2017-01-01
Model comparisons in the behavioral sciences often aim at selecting the model that best describes the structure in the population. Model selection is usually based on fit indices such as AIC or BIC, and inference is done based on the selected best-fitting model. This practice does not account for the possibility that due to sampling variability, a different model might be selected as the preferred model in a new sample from the same population. A previous study illustrated a bootstrap approach to gauge this model selection uncertainty using two empirical examples. The current study consists of a series of simulations to assess the utility of the proposed bootstrap approach in multi-group and mixture model comparisons. These simulations show that bootstrap selection rates can provide additional information over and above simply relying on the size of AIC and BIC differences in a given sample.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itoh, Kazuki; Muraguchi, Masakazu; Endoh, Tetsuo
2017-04-01
In this paper, integrated voltage regulators (IVRs) with a cascode bridge circuit composed of a high-side (HS) NMOS power switch and a dedicated bootstrap driver using a vertical body channel (BC) MOSFET are proposed for improving efficiency under 100 MHz switching frequency. The proposed circuit utilizes the back-bias effect free characteristic of the vertical BC MOSFET without additional well structures such as a triple-well structure for efficiency enhancement. Power switching of twice the process voltage V MAX with an HS NMOS power switch is realized by a novel circuit technique that directly connects the bootstrap node to the gate of an n-type MOSFET connected to the input voltage. Moreover, by using a vertical BC MOSFET free from the back-bias effect, the on-resistance increase of the HS NMOS power switch due to the high input voltage is significantly suppressed, and the drain-to-source voltage of MOSFETs in the off-state is distributed uniformly in comparison with that of a planar MOSFET. The proposed IVR of 3.3 V input voltage and 1.2 V output voltage is designed and simulated by HSPICE. Additionally, the power transistor size dependence of efficiency indicated that the proposed IVR can achieve a 4.2% higher peak efficiency than the conventional IVR with a 26% smaller total power transistor size.
High temperature superconductor current leads
Hull, John R.; Poeppel, Roger B.
1995-01-01
An electrical lead having one end for connection to an apparatus in a cryogenic environment and the other end for connection to an apparatus outside the cryogenic environment. The electrical lead includes a high temperature superconductor wire and an electrically conductive material distributed therein, where the conductive material is present at the one end of the lead at a concentration in the range of from 0 to about 3% by volume, and at the other end of the lead at a concentration of less than about 20% by volume. Various embodiments are shown for groups of high temperature superconductor wires and sheaths.
High temperature superconductor current leads
Hull, J.R.; Poeppel, R.B.
1995-06-20
An electrical lead is disclosed having one end for connection to an apparatus in a cryogenic environment and the other end for connection to an apparatus outside the cryogenic environment. The electrical lead includes a high temperature superconductor wire and an electrically conductive material distributed therein, where the conductive material is present at the one end of the lead at a concentration in the range of from 0 to about 3% by volume, and at the other end of the lead at a concentration of less than about 20% by volume. Various embodiments are shown for groups of high temperature superconductor wires and sheaths. 9 figs.
Investigations of dipole localization accuracy in MEG using the bootstrap.
Darvas, F; Rautiainen, M; Pantazis, D; Baillet, S; Benali, H; Mosher, J C; Garnero, L; Leahy, R M
2005-04-01
We describe the use of the nonparametric bootstrap to investigate the accuracy of current dipole localization from magnetoencephalography (MEG) studies of event-related neural activity. The bootstrap is well suited to the analysis of event-related MEG data since the experiments are repeated tens or even hundreds of times and averaged to achieve acceptable signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). The set of repetitions or epochs can be viewed as a set of independent realizations of the brain's response to the experiment. Bootstrap resamples can be generated by sampling with replacement from these epochs and averaging. In this study, we applied the bootstrap resampling technique to MEG data from somatotopic experimental and simulated data. Four fingers of the right and left hand of a healthy subject were electrically stimulated, and about 400 trials per stimulation were recorded and averaged in order to measure the somatotopic mapping of the fingers in the S1 area of the brain. Based on single-trial recordings for each finger we performed 5000 bootstrap resamples. We reconstructed dipoles from these resampled averages using the Recursively Applied and Projected (RAP)-MUSIC source localization algorithm. We also performed a simulation for two dipolar sources with overlapping time courses embedded in realistic background brain activity generated using the prestimulus segments of the somatotopic data. To find correspondences between multiple sources in each bootstrap, sample dipoles with similar time series and forward fields were assumed to represent the same source. These dipoles were then clustered by a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) clustering algorithm using their combined normalized time series and topographies as feature vectors. The mean and standard deviation of the dipole position and the dipole time series in each cluster were computed to provide estimates of the accuracy of the reconstructed source locations and time series.
Lower hybrid current drive at ITER-relevant high plasma densities
Cesario, R.; Amicucci, L.; Cardinali, A.; Castaldo, C.; Marinucci, M.; Panaccione, L.; Pericoli-Ridolfini, V.; Tuccillo, A. A.; Tudisco, O.
2009-11-26
Recent experiments indicated that a further non-inductive current, besides bootstrap, should be necessary for developing advanced scenario for ITER. The lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) should provide such tool, but its effectiveness was still not proved in operations with ITER-relevant density of the plasma column periphery. Progress of the LH deposition modelling is presented, performed considering the wave physics of the edge, and different ITER-relevant edge parameters. Operations with relatively high edge electron temperatures are expected to reduce the LH{sub ||} spectral broadening and, consequently, enabling the LH power to propagate also in high density plasmas ({sub ||} is the wavenumber component aligned to the confinement magnetic field). New results of FTU experiments are presented, performed by following the aforementioned modeling: they indicate that, for the first time, the LHCD conditions are established by operating at ITER-relevant high edge densities.
High temperature superconducting fault current limiter
Hull, J.R.
1997-02-04
A fault current limiter for an electrical circuit is disclosed. The fault current limiter includes a high temperature superconductor in the electrical circuit. The high temperature superconductor is cooled below its critical temperature to maintain the superconducting electrical properties during operation as the fault current limiter. 15 figs.
High temperature superconducting fault current limiter
Hull, John R.
1997-01-01
A fault current limiter (10) for an electrical circuit (14). The fault current limiter (10) includes a high temperature superconductor (12) in the electrical circuit (14). The high temperature superconductor (12) is cooled below its critical temperature to maintain the superconducting electrical properties during operation as the fault current limiter (10).
More N =4 superconformal bootstrap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beem, Christopher; Rastelli, Leonardo; van Rees, Balt C.
2017-08-01
In this long overdue second installment, we continue to develop the conformal bootstrap program for N =4 superconformal field theories (SCFTs) in four dimensions via an analysis of the correlation function of four stress-tensor supermultiplets. We review analytic results for this correlator and make contact with the SCFT/chiral algebra correspondence of Beem et al. [Commun. Math. Phys. 336, 1359 (2015), 10.1007/s00220-014-2272-x]. We demonstrate that the constraints of unitarity and crossing symmetry require the central charge c to be greater than or equal to 3 /4 in any interacting N =4 SCFT. We apply numerical bootstrap methods to derive upper bounds on scaling dimensions and operator product expansion coefficients for several low-lying, unprotected operators as a function of the central charge. We interpret our bounds in the context of N =4 super Yang-Mills theories, formulating a series of conjectures regarding the embedding of the conformal manifold—parametrized by the complexified gauge coupling—into the space of scaling dimensions and operator product expansion coefficients. Our conjectures assign a distinguished role to points on the conformal manifold that are self-dual under a subgroup of the S -duality group. This paper contains a more detailed exposition of a number of results previously reported in Beem et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 071601 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.071601] in addition to new results.
Bootstrap percolation on spatial networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Jian; Zhou, Tao; Hu, Yanqing
2015-10-01
Bootstrap percolation is a general representation of some networked activation process, which has found applications in explaining many important social phenomena, such as the propagation of information. Inspired by some recent findings on spatial structure of online social networks, here we study bootstrap percolation on undirected spatial networks, with the probability density function of long-range links’ lengths being a power law with tunable exponent. Setting the size of the giant active component as the order parameter, we find a parameter-dependent critical value for the power-law exponent, above which there is a double phase transition, mixed of a second-order phase transition and a hybrid phase transition with two varying critical points, otherwise there is only a second-order phase transition. We further find a parameter-independent critical value around -1, about which the two critical points for the double phase transition are almost constant. To our surprise, this critical value -1 is just equal or very close to the values of many real online social networks, including LiveJournal, HP Labs email network, Belgian mobile phone network, etc. This work helps us in better understanding the self-organization of spatial structure of online social networks, in terms of the effective function for information spreading.
Bootstrap percolation on spatial networks.
Gao, Jian; Zhou, Tao; Hu, Yanqing
2015-10-01
Bootstrap percolation is a general representation of some networked activation process, which has found applications in explaining many important social phenomena, such as the propagation of information. Inspired by some recent findings on spatial structure of online social networks, here we study bootstrap percolation on undirected spatial networks, with the probability density function of long-range links' lengths being a power law with tunable exponent. Setting the size of the giant active component as the order parameter, we find a parameter-dependent critical value for the power-law exponent, above which there is a double phase transition, mixed of a second-order phase transition and a hybrid phase transition with two varying critical points, otherwise there is only a second-order phase transition. We further find a parameter-independent critical value around -1, about which the two critical points for the double phase transition are almost constant. To our surprise, this critical value -1 is just equal or very close to the values of many real online social networks, including LiveJournal, HP Labs email network, Belgian mobile phone network, etc. This work helps us in better understanding the self-organization of spatial structure of online social networks, in terms of the effective function for information spreading.
Bootstrap percolation on spatial networks
Gao, Jian; Zhou, Tao; Hu, Yanqing
2015-01-01
Bootstrap percolation is a general representation of some networked activation process, which has found applications in explaining many important social phenomena, such as the propagation of information. Inspired by some recent findings on spatial structure of online social networks, here we study bootstrap percolation on undirected spatial networks, with the probability density function of long-range links’ lengths being a power law with tunable exponent. Setting the size of the giant active component as the order parameter, we find a parameter-dependent critical value for the power-law exponent, above which there is a double phase transition, mixed of a second-order phase transition and a hybrid phase transition with two varying critical points, otherwise there is only a second-order phase transition. We further find a parameter-independent critical value around −1, about which the two critical points for the double phase transition are almost constant. To our surprise, this critical value −1 is just equal or very close to the values of many real online social networks, including LiveJournal, HP Labs email network, Belgian mobile phone network, etc. This work helps us in better understanding the self-organization of spatial structure of online social networks, in terms of the effective function for information spreading. PMID:26423347
A neural network based reputation bootstrapping approach for service selection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Quanwang; Zhu, Qingsheng; Li, Peng
2015-10-01
With the concept of service-oriented computing becoming widely accepted in enterprise application integration, more and more computing resources are encapsulated as services and published online. Reputation mechanism has been studied to establish trust on prior unknown services. One of the limitations of current reputation mechanisms is that they cannot assess the reputation of newly deployed services as no record of their previous behaviours exists. Most of the current bootstrapping approaches merely assign default reputation values to newcomers. However, by this kind of methods, either newcomers or existing services will be favoured. In this paper, we present a novel reputation bootstrapping approach, where correlations between features and performance of existing services are learned through an artificial neural network (ANN) and they are then generalised to establish a tentative reputation when evaluating new and unknown services. Reputations of services published previously by the same provider are also incorporated for reputation bootstrapping if available. The proposed reputation bootstrapping approach is seamlessly embedded into an existing reputation model and implemented in the extended service-oriented architecture. Empirical studies of the proposed approach are shown at last.
Apparatus for measuring high frequency currents
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hagmann, Mark J. (Inventor); Sutton, John F. (Inventor)
2003-01-01
An apparatus for measuring high frequency currents includes a non-ferrous core current probe that is coupled to a wide-band transimpedance amplifier. The current probe has a secondary winding with a winding resistance that is substantially smaller than the reactance of the winding. The sensitivity of the current probe is substantially flat over a wide band of frequencies. The apparatus is particularly useful for measuring exposure of humans to radio frequency currents.
Coefficient Alpha Bootstrap Confidence Interval under Nonnormality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin; Newton, Matthew
2012-01-01
Three different bootstrap methods for estimating confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient alpha were investigated. In addition, the bootstrap methods were compared with the most promising coefficient alpha CI estimation methods reported in the literature. The CI methods were assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation utilizing conditions…
Coefficient Alpha Bootstrap Confidence Interval under Nonnormality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin; Newton, Matthew
2012-01-01
Three different bootstrap methods for estimating confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient alpha were investigated. In addition, the bootstrap methods were compared with the most promising coefficient alpha CI estimation methods reported in the literature. The CI methods were assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation utilizing conditions…
Hybrid high direct current circuit interrupter
Rockot, Joseph H.; Mikesell, Harvey E.; Jha, Kamal N.
1998-01-01
A device and a method for interrupting very high direct currents (greater than 100,000 amperes) and simultaneously blocking high voltages (greater than 600 volts). The device utilizes a mechanical switch to carry very high currents continuously with low loss and a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) to bypass the current around the mechanical switch while its contacts are separating. A commutation circuit, connected in parallel with the SCR, turns off the SCR by utilizing a resonant circuit to divert the SCR current after the switch opens.
Bootstrapping the Three Dimensional Supersymmetric Ising Model.
Bobev, Nikolay; El-Showk, Sheer; Mazáč, Dalimil; Paulos, Miguel F
2015-07-31
We implement the conformal bootstrap program for three dimensional conformal field theories with N=2 supersymmetry and find universal constraints on the spectrum of operator dimensions in these theories. By studying the bounds on the dimension of the first scalar appearing in the operator product expansion of a chiral and an antichiral primary, we find a kink at the expected location of the critical three dimensional N=2 Wess-Zumino model, which can be thought of as a supersymmetric analog of the critical Ising model. Focusing on this kink, we determine, to high accuracy, the low-lying spectrum of operator dimensions of the theory, as well as the stress-tensor two-point function. We find that the latter is in an excellent agreement with an exact computation.
High performance and current drive experiments in the JAERI Tokamak-60 Upgrade*
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kondoh, T.
1994-05-01
Recent high-fusion-triple-product and current drive experiments in the JAERI Tokamak-60 Upgrade (JT-60U) [Plasma Devices Oper. 1, 43 (1990)] are reported. The fusion triple product of 1.1×1021 m-3 s keV has been achieved in a more improved confinement mode (high-βp H-mode) in which the confinement is improved in the edge region as well as the core region. The most remarkable feature in the improved confinement mode is the multistage formation of transport barriers. The transport barrier was formed in the plasma interior first. After that, the transport barrier was formed in the edge region. For steady-state operation and current profile control, lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) and neutral beam current drive (NBCD) experiments with bootstrap current contribution are also in progress. Full current drive of 3.6 MA has been achieved at a density of 1.1×1019 m-3 with a current drive efficiency of neṡRpṡICD/PLH=2.5×1019 m-2 A W-1 with a 5.7 MW LH wave injection. Current profile control with various LH wave spectra and with NBCD were also demonstrated.
Taylor, G.; Hosea, J.; Kessel, C. E.; LeBlanc, B; Mueller, D.; Phillips, C. K.; Valeo, E. J.; Wilson, J. R.; Ryan, Philip Michael; Bonoli, P.; Harvey, R. W.
2012-01-01
A deuterium H-mode discharge with a plasma current of 300 kA, an axial toroidal magnetic field of 0.55 T, and a calculated non-inductive plasma current fraction of 0.7 1 has been generated in the National Spherical Torus Experiment by 1.4MW of 30MHz high-harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating and current drive. Seventy-five percent of the non-inductive current was generated inside an internal transport barrier that formed at a normalized minor radius 0.4. Three quarters of the non-inductive current was bootstrap current, and the remaining non-inductive current was generated directly by HHFW power inside a normalized minor radius 0.2. VC 2012 American Institute of Physics.
High pressure, high current, low inductance, high reliability sealed terminals
Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; McKeever, John W [Oak Ridge, TN
2010-03-23
The invention is a terminal assembly having a casing with at least one delivery tapered-cone conductor and at least one return tapered-cone conductor routed there-through. The delivery and return tapered-cone conductors are electrically isolated from each other and positioned in the annuluses of ordered concentric cones at an off-normal angle. The tapered cone conductor service can be AC phase conductors and DC link conductors. The center core has at least one service conduit of gate signal leads, diagnostic signal wires, and refrigerant tubing routed there-through. A seal material is in direct contact with the casing inner surface, the tapered-cone conductors, and the service conduits thereby hermetically filling the interstitial space in the casing interior core and center core. The assembly provides simultaneous high-current, high-pressure, low-inductance, and high-reliability service.
Subnanosecond high-current electron accelerator
Zheltov, K.A.; Petrenko, A.N.
1986-03-01
This paper describes a single-charge electron accelerator with double high-voltage-pulse peaking and a short storage line that is switched by a discharger with two high-surge spark gaps. The electron current pulse has a rise time of 0.12 nsec; the half-amplitude duration is 0.25 nsec, the peak current is ca. 10 kA, and the maximum electron energy is 300keV.
HIGH CURRENT SUPERCONDUCTING CAVITIES AT RHIC.
CALAGA,R.BEN-ZVI,I.ZHAO,Y.ET AL.
2004-07-05
A five-cell high current superconducting cavity for the electron cooling project at RHIC is under fabrication. Higher order modes (HOMs), one of main limiting factors for high current energy-recovery operation, are under investigation. Calculations of HOMs using time-domain methods in Mafia will be discussed and compared to calculations in the frequency domain. Beam breakup thresholds determined from numerical codes for the five-cell cavity will be presented. A possible motivation towards a 2 x 2 superstructure using the current five-cell design will also be discussed.
Model of current enhancement at high pressure
Yu, S.S.; Melendez, R.E.
1983-04-05
A model is proposed to account for the phenomenon of net current enhancement at high pressures recently observed on the Experimental Test Accelerator. The proposed mechanism involves energetic secondary electrons (delta rays) which are pushed forward by the self-magnetic field of the electron beam. For high current beams, the forward delta ray current can build up to a significant fraction of the beam current. Analytic calculations of the steady-state solution as well as the rate of buildup of the delta ray current are presented in this paper. In addition, numerical results from a nonlocal Boltzmann code, NUTS, are presented. The analytic and numerical results have many features which are in qualitative agreement with the experiments, but quantitative discrepancies still exist.
Non-inductive current drive and transport in high beta(N) plasmas in JET
Voitsekhovitch, I; Alper, B.; Budny, R. V.; Buratti, P.; Challis, C D; Ferron, J.R.; Giroud, C.; Laborde, L.; Luce, T.C.; McCune, D.; Menard, J.; Murakami, Masanori; Park, Jin Myung
2009-01-01
A route to stationary MHD stable operation at high beta(N) has been explored at the Joint European Torus (JET) by optimizing the current ramp-up, heating start time and the waveform of neutral beam injection (NBI) power. In these scenarios the current ramp-up has been accompanied by plasma pre-heat (or the NBI has been started before the current flat-top) and NBI power up to 22 MW has been applied during the current flat-top. In the discharges considered transient total beta(N) approximate to 3.3 and stationary (during high power phase) beta(N) approximate to 3 have been achieved by applying the feedback control of beta(N) with the NBI power in configurations with monotonic or flat core safety factor profile and without an internal transport barrier (ITB). The transport and current drive in this scenario is analysed here by using the TRANSP and ASTRA codes. The interpretative analysis performed with TRANSP shows that 50-70% of current is driven non-inductively; half of this current is due to the bootstrap current which has a broad profile since an ITB was deliberately avoided. The GLF23 transport model predicts the temperature profiles within a +/- 22% discrepancy with the measurements over the explored parameter space. Predictive simulations with this model show that the E x B rotational shear plays an important role for thermal ion transport in this scenario, producing up to a 40% increase of the ion temperature. By applying transport and current drive models validated in self-consistent simulations of given reference scenarios in a wider parameter space, the requirements for fully non-inductive stationary operation at JET are estimated. It is shown that the strong stiffness of the temperature profiles predicted by the GLF23 model restricts the bootstrap current at larger heating power. In this situation full non-inductive operation without an ITB can be rather expensive strongly relying on the external non-inductive current drive sources.
An algebraic approach to the analytic bootstrap
Alday, Luis F.; Zhiboedov, Alexander
2017-04-27
We develop an algebraic approach to the analytic bootstrap in CFTs. By acting with the Casimir operator on the crossing equation we map the problem of doing large spin sums to any desired order to the problem of solving a set of recursion relations. We compute corrections to the anomalous dimension of large spin operators due to the exchange of a primary and its descendants in the crossed channel and show that this leads to a Borel-summable expansion. Here, we analyse higher order corrections to the microscopic CFT data in the direct channel and its matching to infinite towers ofmore » operators in the crossed channel. We apply this method to the critical O(N ) model. At large N we reproduce the first few terms in the large spin expansion of the known two-loop anomalous dimensions of higher spin currents in the traceless symmetric representation of O(N ) and make further predictions. At small N we present the results for the truncated large spin expansion series of anomalous dimensions of higher spin currents.« less
An algebraic approach to the analytic bootstrap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alday, Luis F.; Zhiboedov, Alexander
2017-04-01
We develop an algebraic approach to the analytic bootstrap in CFTs. By acting with the Casimir operator on the crossing equation we map the problem of doing large spin sums to any desired order to the problem of solving a set of recursion relations. We compute corrections to the anomalous dimension of large spin operators due to the exchange of a primary and its descendants in the crossed channel and show that this leads to a Borel-summable expansion. We analyse higher order corrections to the microscopic CFT data in the direct channel and its matching to infinite towers of operators in the crossed channel. We apply this method to the critical O( N ) model. At large N we reproduce the first few terms in the large spin expansion of the known two-loop anomalous dimensions of higher spin currents in the traceless symmetric representation of O( N ) and make further predictions. At small N we present the results for the truncated large spin expansion series of anomalous dimensions of higher spin currents.
Taylor, G; Kessel, C E; LeBlanc, B P; Mueller, D; Phillips, D K; Valeo, E J; Wilson, J R; Ryan, P M; Bonoli, P T; Wright, J C
2012-02-13
1.4 MW of 30 MHz high-harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating, with current drive antenna phasing, has generated a Ip = 300kA, BT (0) = 0.55T deuterium H-mode plasma in the National Spherical Torus Experiment that has a non-inductive plasma current fraction, fNI = 0.7-1. Seventy-five percent of the non-inductive current was generated inside an internal transport barrier that formed at a normalized minor radius, r/a {approx} 0.4 . Three quarters of the non-inductive current was bootstrap current and the remaining non-inductive current was generated directly by HHFW power inside r/a {approx} 0.2.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, Se-Kang
2010-01-01
The aim of the current study is to validate the invariance of major profile patterns derived from multidimensional scaling (MDS) by bootstrapping. Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) was employed to obtain profiles and bootstrapping was used to construct the sampling distributions of the profile coordinates and the empirical…
Moving Block Bootstrap for Analyzing Longitudinal Data
Ju, Hyunsu
2015-01-01
In a longitudinal study subjects are followed over time. I focus on a case where the number of replications over time is large relative to the number of subjects in the study. I investigate the use of moving block bootstrap methods for analyzing such data. Asymptotic properties of the bootstrap methods in this setting are derived. The effectiveness of these resampling methods is also demonstrated through a simulation study. PMID:26023251
Moving Block Bootstrap for Analyzing Longitudinal Data.
Ju, Hyunsu
In a longitudinal study subjects are followed over time. I focus on a case where the number of replications over time is large relative to the number of subjects in the study. I investigate the use of moving block bootstrap methods for analyzing such data. Asymptotic properties of the bootstrap methods in this setting are derived. The effectiveness of these resampling methods is also demonstrated through a simulation study.
Investigation of geomagnetic induced current at high latitude during the storm-time variation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Falayi, E. O.; Ogunmodimu, O.; Bolaji, O. S.; Ayanda, J. D.; Ojoniyi, O. S.
2017-06-01
During the geomagnetic disturbances, the geomagnetically induced current (GIC) are influenced by the geoelectric field flowing in conductive Earth. In this paper, we studied the variability of GICs, the time derivatives of the geomagnetic field (dB/dt), geomagnetic indices: Symmetric disturbance field in H (SYM-H) index, AU (eastward electrojet) and AL (westward electrojet) indices, Interplanetary parameters such as solar wind speed (v), and interplanetary magnetic field (Bz) during the geomagnetic storms on 31 March 2001, 21 October 2001, 6 November 2001, 29 October 2003, 31 October 2003 and 9 November 2004 with high solar wind speed due to a coronal mass ejection. Wavelet spectrum based approach was employed to analyze the GIC time series in a sequence of time scales of one to twenty four hours. It was observed that there are more concentration of power between the 14-24 h on 31 March 2001, 17-24 h on 21 October 2001, 1-7 h on 6 November 2001, two peaks were observed between 5-8 h and 21-24 h on 29 October 2003, 1-3 h on 31 October 2003 and 18-22 h on 9 November 2004. Bootstrap method was used to obtain regression correlations between the time derivative of the geomagnetic field (dB/dt) and the observed values of the geomagnetic induced current on 31 March 2001, 21 October 2001, 6 November 2001, 29 October 2003, 31 October 2003 and 9 November 2004 which shows a distributed cluster of correlation coefficients at around r = -0.567, -0.717, -0.477, -0.419, -0.210 and r = -0.488 respectively. We observed that high energy wavelet coefficient correlated well with bootstrap correlation, while low energy wavelet coefficient gives low bootstrap correlation. It was noticed that the geomagnetic storm has a influence on GIC and geomagnetic field derivatives (dB/dt). This might be ascribed to the coronal mass ejection with solar wind due to particle acceleration processes in the solar atmosphere.
Simple, high current, antimony ion source.
Sugiura, H
1979-01-01
A simple metal ion source capable of producing a continuous, uncontaminated, high current beam of Sb ions is presented. It produced a total ion current of 200 muA at 1 kV extraction voltage. A discharge occurred in the source at a pressure of 6x10(-4) Torr. The ion current extracted from the source increased with the 3/2 power of the extraction voltage. The perveance of the source and ion density in the plasma were 8x10(-9) and 1.8x10(11) cm(-3), respectively.
Spectral broadening of parametric instability in lower hybrid current drive at a high density
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cesario, R.; Amicucci, L.; Cardinali, A.; Castaldo, C.; Marinucci, M.; Napoli, F.; Paoletti, F.; De Arcangelis, D.; Ferrari, M.; Galli, A.; Gallo, G.; Pullara, E.; Schettini, G.; Tuccillo, A. A.
2014-04-01
The important goal of adding to the bootstrap current a more flexible tool, capable of producing and controlling steady-state profiles with a high fraction of non-inductive plasma current, could be reached using the lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) effect. Experiments performed on FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade) demonstrated that LHCD can occur at reactor-graded high plasma density, provided that the parametric instability (PI)-produced broadening of the spectrum launched by the antenna is reduced under proper operating conditions, capable of producing relatively high temperature in the outer region of plasma column. This condition was produced by operations that reduce particle recycling from the vessel walls, and enhance the gas fuelling in the core by means of fast pellet. New results of FTU experiments are presented documenting that the useful effect of temperature at the periphery, which reduces the LH spectral broadening and enhances the LH-induced hard-x ray emission level, occurs in a broader range of plasma parameters than in previous work. Modelling results show that a further tool for helping LHCD at a high density would be provided by electron cyclotron resonant heating of plasma periphery. New information is provided on the modelling, able determining frequencies, growth rates and LH spectral broadening produced by PI, which allowed assessing the new method for enabling LHCD at high densities. Further robustness is provided to theoretical and experimental fundaments of the method for LHCD at a high density.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oishi, Tetsutarou; Yamazaki, Kozo; Arimoto, Hideki; Mano, Junji
We applied the TOTAL (toroidal transport analysis linkage) simulation code for the analysis of the operational scenario of D-3He spherical tokamak reactors with high beta values and high bootstrap current fractions. Several technical elements, such as the control of the fuel ratio or selective exhaust of the α particle, need to be developed to establish steady-state burning. Negative magnetic shear configuration is a candidate for the high bootstrap current fraction operation.
Extremely High Current, High-Brightness Energy Recovery Linac
I. Ben-Zvi; D.S. Barton; D.B. Beavis; M. Blaskiewicz; J.M. Brennan; A. Burrill; R. Calaga; P. Cameron; X.Y. Chang; R. Connolly; D.M. Gassner; J.G. Grimes; H. Hahn; A. Hershcovitch; H.-C. Hseuh; P.D.J. Johnson; D. Kayran; J. Kewisch; R.F. Lambiase; V. Litvinenko; G.T. McIntyre; W. Meng; T.C.N. Nehring; T. Nicoletti; B. Oerter; D. Pate; J. Rank; T. Rao; T. Roser; T. Russo; J. Scaduto; Z. Segalov; K. Smith; N.W.W. Williams; K.-C. Wu; V. Yakimenko; K. Yip; A. Zaltsman; Y. Zhao; H. Bluem; A. Burger; M.D. Cole; A.J. Favale; D. Holmes; J. Rathke; T. Schultheiss; A.M.M. Todd; J.R. Delayen; L. W. Funk; P. Kneisel; H.L. Phillips; J.P. Preble
2005-05-16
Next generation ERL light-sources, high-energy electron coolers, high-power Free-Electron Lasers, powerful Compton X-ray sources and many other accelerators were made possible by the emerging technology of high-power, high-brightness electron beams. In order to get the anticipated performance level of ampere-class currents, many technological barriers are yet to be broken. BNL's Collider-Accelerator Department is pursuing some of these technologies for its electron cooling of RHIC application, as well as a possible future electron-hadron collider. We will describe work on CW, high-current and high-brightness electron beams. This will include a description of a superconducting, laser-photocathode RF gun and an accelerator cavity capable of producing low emittance (about 1 micron rms normalized) one nano-Coulomb bunches at currents of the order of one ampere average.
COMPILATION OF CURRENT HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS
Wohl, C.G.; Kelly, R.L.; Armstrong, F.E.; Horne, C.P.; Hutchinson, M.S.; Rittenberg, A.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P.; Addis, L.; Ward, C.E.W.; Baggett, N.; Goldschmidt-Clermong, Y.; Joos, P.; Gelfand, N.; Oyanagi, Y.; Grudtsin, S.N.; Ryabov, Yu.G.
1981-05-01
This is the fourth edition of our compilation of current high energy physics experiments. It is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and nine participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), the Institute for Nuclear Study, Tokyo (INS), KEK, Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. The compilation includes summaries of all high energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that (1) were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about April 1981, and (2) had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1977. We emphasize that only approved experiments are included.
Bayesian inference and the parametric bootstrap
Efron, Bradley
2013-01-01
The parametric bootstrap can be used for the efficient computation of Bayes posterior distributions. Importance sampling formulas take on an easy form relating to the deviance in exponential families, and are particularly simple starting from Jeffreys invariant prior. Because of the i.i.d. nature of bootstrap sampling, familiar formulas describe the computational accuracy of the Bayes estimates. Besides computational methods, the theory provides a connection between Bayesian and frequentist analysis. Efficient algorithms for the frequentist accuracy of Bayesian inferences are developed and demonstrated in a model selection example. PMID:23843930
Bootstrapped models for intrinsic random functions
Campbell, K.
1988-08-01
Use of intrinsic random function stochastic models as a basis for estimation in geostatistical work requires the identification of the generalized covariance function of the underlying process. The fact that this function has to be estimated from data introduces an additional source of error into predictions based on the model. This paper develops the sample reuse procedure called the bootstrap in the context of intrinsic random functions to obtain realistic estimates of these errors. Simulation results support the conclusion that bootstrap distributions of functionals of the process, as well as their kriging variance, provide a reasonable picture of variability introduced by imperfect estimation of the generalized covariance function.
Bootstrapped models for intrinsic random functions
Campbell, K.
1987-01-01
The use of intrinsic random function stochastic models as a basis for estimation in geostatistical work requires the identification of the generalized covariance function of the underlying process, and the fact that this function has to be estimated from the data introduces an additional source of error into predictions based on the model. This paper develops the sample reuse procedure called the ''bootstrap'' in the context of intrinsic random functions to obtain realistic estimates of these errors. Simulation results support the conclusion that bootstrap distributions of functionals of the process, as well as of their ''kriging variance,'' provide a reasonable picture of the variability introduced by imperfect estimation of the generalized covariance function.
In vivo precision of bootstrap algorithms applied to diffusion tensor imaging data.
Vorburger, Robert S; Reischauer, Carolin; Dikaiou, Katerina; Boesiger, Peter
2012-10-01
To determine the precision for in vivo applications of model and non-model-based bootstrap algorithms for estimating the measurement uncertainty of diffusion parameters derived from diffusion tensor imaging data. Four different bootstrap methods were applied to diffusion datasets acquired during 10 repeated imaging sessions. Measurement uncertainty was derived in eight manually selected regions of interest and in the entire brain white matter and gray matter. The precision of the bootstrap methods was analyzed using coefficients of variation and intra-class correlation coefficients. Comprehensive simulations were performed to validate the results. All bootstrap algorithms showed similar precision which slightly varied in dependence of the selected region of interest. The averaged coefficient of variation in the selected regions of interest was 13.81%, 12.35%, and 17.93% with respect to the apparent diffusion coefficient, the fractional anisotropy value, and the cone of uncertainty, respectively. The repeated measurements showed a very high similarity with intraclass-correlation coefficients larger than 0.96. The simulations confirmed most of the in vivo findings. All investigated bootstrap methods perform with a similar, high precision in deriving the measurement uncertainty of diffusion parameters. Thus, the time-efficient model-based bootstrap approaches should be the method of choice in clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
High current regimes in RFX-mod
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valisa, M.; Bolzonella, T.; Buratti, P.; Carraro, L.; Cavazzana, R.; Dal Bello, S.; Martin, P.; Pasqualotto, R.; Sarff, J. S.; Spolaore, M.; Zanca, P.; Zanotto, L.; Agostini, M.; Alfier, A.; Antoni, V.; Apolloni, L.; Auriemma, F.; Barana, O.; Baruzzo, M.; Bettini, P.; Bonfiglio, D.; Bonomo, F.; Brombin, M.; Buffa, A.; Canton, A.; Cappello, S.; Cavinato, M.; Chitarin, G.; DeLorenzi, A.; DeMasi, G.; Escande, D. F.; Fassina, A.; Franz, P.; Gaio, E.; Gazza, E.; Giudicotti, L.; Gnesotto, F.; Gobbin, M.; Grando, L.; Guazzotto, L.; Guo, S. C.; Igochine, V.; Innocente, P.; Lorenzini, R.; Luchetta, A.; Manduchi, G.; Marchiori, G.; Marcuzzi, D.; Marrelli, L.; Martini, S.; Martines, E.; McCollam, K.; Milani, F.; Moresco, M.; Novello, L.; Ortolani, S.; Paccagnella, R.; Peruzzo, S.; Piovan, R.; Piron, L.; Pizzimenti, A.; Piovesan, P.; Pomaro, N.; Predebon, I.; Puiatti, M. E.; Rostagni, G.; Sattin, F.; Scarin, P.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.; Spada, E.; Soppelsa, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spizzo, G.; Taliercio, C.; Terranova, D.; Toigo, V.; Vianello, N.; Yadikin, D.; Zaccaria, P.; Zaniol, B.; Zilli, E.; Zuin, M.
2008-12-01
Optimization of machine operation, including plasma position control, density control and especially feedback control on multiple magnetohydrodynamic modes, has led RFX-mod to operate reliably at 1.5 MA, the highest current ever achieved on a reversed field pinch (RFP). At high current and low density the magnetic topology spontaneously self-organizes in an Ohmical helical symmetry, with the new magnetic axis helically twisting around the geometrical axis of the torus. The separatrix of the island disappears leaving a wide and symmetric thermal structure with large gradients in the electron temperature profile. The new topology still displays an intermittent nature but its overall presence has reached 85% of the current flat-top period. The large gradients in the electron temperature profile appear to be marginal for the destabilization of ion temperature gradient modes on the assumption that ions and electrons have the same gradients. There are indications that higher currents could provide the conditions under which to prove the existence of a true helical equilibrium as the standard RFP configuration.
A Robust High Current Density Electron Gun
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mako, F.; Peter, W.; Shiloh, J.; Len, L. K.
1996-11-01
Proof-of-principle experiments are proposed to validate a new concept for a robust, high-current density Pierce electron gun (RPG) for use in klystrons and high brightness electron sources for accelerators. This rugged, long-life electron gun avoids the difficulties associated with plasma cathodes, thermionic emitters, and field emission cathodes. The RPG concept employs the emission of secondary electrons in a transmission mode as opposed to the conventional mode of reflection, i.e., electrons exit from the back face of a thin negative electron affinity (NEA) material, and in the same direction as the incident beam. Current amplification through one stage of a NEA material could be over 50 times. The amplification is accomplished in one or more stages consisting of one primary emitter and one or more secondary emitters. The primary emitter is a low current density robust emitter (e.g., thoriated tungsten). The secondary emitters are thin NEA electrodes which emit secondary electrons in the same direction as the incident beam. Specific application is targeted for a klystron gun to be used by SLAC with a cold cathode at 30-40 amps/cm^2 output from the secondary emission stage, a ~2 μs pulse length, and ~200 pulses/second.
HIGH CURRENT RADIO FREQUENCY ION SOURCE
Abdelaziz, M.E.
1963-04-01
This patent relates to a high current radio frequency ion source. A cylindrical plasma container has a coil disposed around the exterior surface thereof along the longitudinal axis. Means are provided for the injection of an unionized gas into the container and for applying a radio frequency signal to the coil whereby a radio frequency field is generated within the container parallel to the longitudinal axis thereof to ionize the injected gas. Cathode and anode means are provided for extracting transverse to the radio frequency field from an area midway between the ends of the container along the longitudinal axis thereof the ions created by said radio frequency field. (AEC)
Efron's Bootstrap with Some Applications in Psychology.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lunneborg, Clifford E.
The wide availability of large amounts of inexpensive computing power has encouraged statisticians to explore many approaches to a basis for inference. This paper presents one such "computer-intensive" approach: the bootstrap of Bradley Efron. This methodology fits between the cases where it is assumed that the form of the distribution…
Bootstrapping Methods Applied for Simulating Laboratory Works
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Prodan, Augustin; Campean, Remus
2005-01-01
Purpose: The aim of this work is to implement bootstrapping methods into software tools, based on Java. Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents a category of software e-tools aimed at simulating laboratory works and experiments. Findings: Both students and teaching staff use traditional statistical methods to infer the truth from sample…
How to Bootstrap a Human Communication System
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fay, Nicolas; Arbib, Michael; Garrod, Simon
2013-01-01
How might a human communication system be bootstrapped in the absence of conventional language? We argue that motivated signs play an important role (i.e., signs that are linked to meaning by structural resemblance or by natural association). An experimental study is then reported in which participants try to communicate a range of pre-specified…
A Bootstrap Procedure of Propensity Score Estimation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bai, Haiyan
2013-01-01
Propensity score estimation plays a fundamental role in propensity score matching for reducing group selection bias in observational data. To increase the accuracy of propensity score estimation, the author developed a bootstrap propensity score. The commonly used propensity score matching methods: nearest neighbor matching, caliper matching, and…
A Bootstrap Procedure of Propensity Score Estimation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bai, Haiyan
2013-01-01
Propensity score estimation plays a fundamental role in propensity score matching for reducing group selection bias in observational data. To increase the accuracy of propensity score estimation, the author developed a bootstrap propensity score. The commonly used propensity score matching methods: nearest neighbor matching, caliper matching, and…
How to Bootstrap a Human Communication System
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fay, Nicolas; Arbib, Michael; Garrod, Simon
2013-01-01
How might a human communication system be bootstrapped in the absence of conventional language? We argue that motivated signs play an important role (i.e., signs that are linked to meaning by structural resemblance or by natural association). An experimental study is then reported in which participants try to communicate a range of pre-specified…
Bootstrapping Methods Applied for Simulating Laboratory Works
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Prodan, Augustin; Campean, Remus
2005-01-01
Purpose: The aim of this work is to implement bootstrapping methods into software tools, based on Java. Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents a category of software e-tools aimed at simulating laboratory works and experiments. Findings: Both students and teaching staff use traditional statistical methods to infer the truth from sample…
Pulling Econometrics Students up by Their Bootstraps
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
O'Hara, Michael E.
2014-01-01
Although the concept of the sampling distribution is at the core of much of what we do in econometrics, it is a concept that is often difficult for students to grasp. The thought process behind bootstrapping provides a way for students to conceptualize the sampling distribution in a way that is intuitive and visual. However, teaching students to…
Pulling Econometrics Students up by Their Bootstraps
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
O'Hara, Michael E.
2014-01-01
Although the concept of the sampling distribution is at the core of much of what we do in econometrics, it is a concept that is often difficult for students to grasp. The thought process behind bootstrapping provides a way for students to conceptualize the sampling distribution in a way that is intuitive and visual. However, teaching students to…
The non-local bootstrap--estimation of uncertainty in diffusion MRI.
Yap, Pew-Thian; An, Hongyu; Chen, Yasheng; Shen, Dinggang
2013-01-01
Diffusion MRI is a noninvasive imaging modality that allows for the estimation and visualization of white matter connectivity patterns in the human brain. However, due to the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) nature of diffusion data, deriving useful statistics from the data is adversely affected by different sources of measurement noise. This is aggravated by the fact that the sampling distribution of the statistic of interest is often complex and unknown. In situations as such, the bootstrap, due to its distribution-independent nature, is an appealing tool for the estimation of the variability of almost any statistic, without relying on complicated theoretical calculations, but purely on computer simulation. In this work, we present new bootstrap strategies for variability estimation of diffusion statistics in association with noise. In contrast to the residual bootstrap, which relies on a predetermined data model, or the repetition bootstrap, which requires repeated signal measurements, our approach, called the non-local bootstrap (NLB), is non-parametric and obviates the need for time-consuming multiple acquisitions. The key assumption of NLB is that local image structures recur in the image. We exploit this self-similarity via a multivariate non-parametric kernel regression framework for bootstrap estimation of uncertainty. Evaluation of NLB using a set of high-resolution diffusion-weighted images, with lower than usual SNR due to the small voxel size, indicates that NLB is markedly more robust to noise and results in more accurate inferences.
The Index of Biological Integrity and the bootstrap revisited: an example from Minnesota streams
Dolph, Christine L.; Sheshukov, Aleksey Y.; Chizinski, Christopher J.; Vondracek, Bruce C.; Wilson, Bruce
2010-01-01
Multimetric indices, such as the Index of Biological Integrity (IBI), are increasingly used by management agencies to determine whether surface water quality is impaired. However, important questions about the variability of these indices have not been thoroughly addressed in the scientific literature. In this study, we used a bootstrap approach to quantify variability associated with fish IBIs developed for streams in two Minnesota river basins. We further placed this variability into a management context by comparing it to impairment thresholds currently used in water quality determinations for Minnesota streams. We found that 95% confidence intervals ranged as high as 40 points for IBIs scored on a 0–100 point scale. However, on average, 90% of IBI scores calculated from bootstrap replicate samples for a given stream site yielded the same impairment status as the original IBI score. We suggest that sampling variability in IBI scores is related to both the number of fish and the number of rare taxa in a field collection. A comparison of the effects of different scoring methods on IBI variability indicates that a continuous scoring method may reduce the amount of bias in IBI scores.
High-temperature superconducting current leads
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hull, J. R.
1992-07-01
The use of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) for current leads to deliver power to devices at liquid helium temperature is near commercial realization. The use of HTSs in this application has the potential to reduce refrigeration requirements and helium boiloff to values significantly lower than the theoretical best achievable with conventional leads. Considerable advantage is achieved by operating these leads with an intermediate temperature heat sink. The HTS part of the lead can be made from pressed and sintered powder. Powder-in-tube fabrication is also possible, however, the normal metal part of the lead acts as a thermal short and cannot provide much stabilization without increasing the refrigeration required. Lead stability favors designs with low current density. Such leads can be manufactured with today's technology, and lower refrigeration results from the same allowable burnout time. Higher current densities result in lower boiloff for the same lead length, but bumout times can be very short. In comparing experiment to theory, the density of helium vapor needs to be accounted for in calculating the expected boiloff. For very low-loss leads, two-dimensional heat transfer and the state of the dewar near the leads may play a dominant role in lead performance.
Pass the Globe: Teaching Bootstrapping without Using a Computer
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beaujean, A. Alexander; Cooper-Twamley, Susan
2010-01-01
While bootstrapping is a computationally intensive procedure, teaching about the concept does not necessarily require any more technology than a simple calculator. This article describes an interactive teaching approach for introducing bootstrapping without using a statistics program or a computer.
A Double-Pole High Voltage High Current Switch
2005-12-01
NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A DOUBLE- POLE HIGH...December 2005 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: A Double- Pole High Voltage High Current Switch 6. AUTHOR(S...to divert heavy charged particles, e.g. Cu+. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 68 14. SUBJECT TERMS Double- Pole , Pulse Forming Inductive Network, PFIN
Warton, David I; Thibaut, Loïc; Wang, Yi Alice
2017-01-01
Bootstrap methods are widely used in statistics, and bootstrapping of residuals can be especially useful in the regression context. However, difficulties are encountered extending residual resampling to regression settings where residuals are not identically distributed (thus not amenable to bootstrapping)-common examples including logistic or Poisson regression and generalizations to handle clustered or multivariate data, such as generalised estimating equations. We propose a bootstrap method based on probability integral transform (PIT-) residuals, which we call the PIT-trap, which assumes data come from some marginal distribution F of known parametric form. This method can be understood as a type of "model-free bootstrap", adapted to the problem of discrete and highly multivariate data. PIT-residuals have the key property that they are (asymptotically) pivotal. The PIT-trap thus inherits the key property, not afforded by any other residual resampling approach, that the marginal distribution of data can be preserved under PIT-trapping. This in turn enables the derivation of some standard bootstrap properties, including second-order correctness of pivotal PIT-trap test statistics. In multivariate data, bootstrapping rows of PIT-residuals affords the property that it preserves correlation in data without the need for it to be modelled, a key point of difference as compared to a parametric bootstrap. The proposed method is illustrated on an example involving multivariate abundance data in ecology, and demonstrated via simulation to have improved properties as compared to competing resampling methods.
High current LiSOCl2 batteries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Debiccari, Daniel J.
The paper describes cell construction, performance, and safety aspects of two high-rate active Li/SOCl2 batteries designed to operate at current densities as high as 26 mA/sq cm in pulse modes of 20 millisec to several minutes. Both cell designs employ a flat-plate arrangement of electrodes, a cyanoacrylate-coated anode, a bonded carbon/copper cathode, and a 1.6 M electrolyte. The major differences of the two designs are the size of the cell and the method of anode attachment. The two batteries were shown to provide over 10 times the mission life of the Ni-Cd batteries; thus, they will eliminate the logistic problems associated with the recharge requirements of the latter. In addition, a replacement of the Ni-Cd battery types with lighter Li-thionyl chloride batteries will significantly reduce battery weight and increase its capacity.
Neoclassical tearing dynamo and self-sustainment of a bootstrapped tokamak
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Y.; Bhattacharjee, A.
1993-10-01
The dynamo effect due to neoclassical tearing modes is considered. It is found that the global constraints on energy and helicity balance require a redefinition of the dynamo field in neoclassical magnetohydrodynamics. The parallel dynamo field is calculated from the boundary-layer equations governing tearing modes. This dynamo effect can sustain a completely bootstrapped tokamak. A typical steady-state current profile has a core region of weak pressure gradients surrounded by a region of strong pressure gradients, where the current profile is entirely due to the bootstrap effect.
A Bootstrap Approach to an Affordable Exploration Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oeftering, Richard C.
2011-01-01
This paper examines the potential to build an affordable sustainable exploration program by adopting an approach that requires investing in technologies that can be used to build a space infrastructure from very modest initial capabilities. Human exploration has had a history of flight programs that have high development and operational costs. Since Apollo, human exploration has had very constrained budgets and they are expected be constrained in the future. Due to their high operations costs it becomes necessary to consider retiring established space facilities in order to move on to the next exploration challenge. This practice may save cost in the near term but it does so by sacrificing part of the program s future architecture. Human exploration also has a history of sacrificing fully functional flight hardware to achieve mission objectives. An affordable exploration program cannot be built when it involves billions of dollars of discarded space flight hardware, instead, the program must emphasize preserving its high value space assets and building a suitable permanent infrastructure. Further this infrastructure must reduce operational and logistics cost. The paper examines the importance of achieving a high level of logistics independence by minimizing resource consumption, minimizing the dependency on external logistics, and maximizing the utility of resources available. The approach involves the development and deployment of a core suite of technologies that have minimum initial needs yet are able expand upon initial capability in an incremental bootstrap fashion. The bootstrap approach incrementally creates an infrastructure that grows and becomes self sustaining and eventually begins producing the energy, products and consumable propellants that support human exploration. The bootstrap technologies involve new methods of delivering and manipulating energy and materials. These technologies will exploit the space environment, minimize dependencies, and
Achromatic beam transport of High Current Injector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Sarvesh; Mandal, A.
2016-02-01
The high current injector (HCI) provides intense ion beams of high charge state using a high temperature superconducting ECR ion source. The ion beam is accelerated upto a final energy of 1.8 MeV/u due to an electrostatic potential, a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and a drift tube linac (DTL). The ion beam has to be transported to superconducting LINAC which is around 50 m away from DTL. This section is termed as high energy beam transport section (HEBT) and is used to match the beam both in transverse and longitudinal phase space to the entrance of LINAC. The HEBT section is made up of four 90 deg. achromatic bends and interconnecting magnetic quadrupole triplets. Two RF bunchers have been used for longitudinal phase matching to the LINAC. The ion optical design of HEBT section has been simulated using different beam dynamics codes like TRACEWIN, GICOSY and TRACE 3D. The field computation code OPERA 3D has been utilized for hardware design of all the magnets. All the dipole and quadrupole magnets have been field mapped and their test results such as edge angles measurements, homogeneity and harmonic analysis etc. are reported. The whole design of HEBT section has been performed such that the most of the beam optical components share same hardware design and there is ample space for beam diagnostics as per geometry of the building. Many combination of achromatic bends have been simulated to transport the beam in HEBT section but finally the four 90 deg. achromatic bend configuration is found to be the best satisfying all the geometrical constraints with simplified beam tuning process in real time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slatter, Rolf; Goffin, Benoit
2014-08-01
The usage of magnetoresistive (MR) current sensors is increasing steadily in the field of power electronics. Current sensors must not only be accurate and dynamic, but must also be compact and robust. The MR effect is the basis for current sensors with a unique combination of precision and bandwidth in a compact package. A space-qualifiable magnetoresistive current sensor with high accuracy and high bandwidth is being jointly developed by the sensor manufacturer Sensitec and the spacecraft power electronics supplier Thales Alenia Space (T AS) Belgium. Test results for breadboards incorporating commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) sensors are presented as well as an application example in the electronic control and power unit for the thrust vector actuators of the Ariane5-ME launcher.
Lower hybrid current drive at high density in the multi-pass regime
Wallace, G. M.; Faust, I. C.; Meneghini, O.; Parker, R. R.; Shiraiwa, S.; Baek, S. G.; Bonoli, P. T.; Hubbard, A. E.; Hughes, J. W.; LaBombard, B. L.; Lau, C.; Ma, Y.; Reinke, M. L.; Terry, J. L.; Whyte, D. G.; Wright, J. C.; Wukitch, S. J.; Schmidt, A. E.; Harvey, R. W.; Smirnov, A. P.; and others
2012-06-15
Assessing the performance of lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) at high density is critical for developing non-inductive current drive systems on future steady-state experiments. Excellent LHCD efficiency has been observed during fully non-inductive operation ({eta}=2.0-2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} AW{sup -1}m{sup -2} at n{sub e}=0.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} m{sup -3}) on Alcator C-Mod [I. H. Hutchinson et al., Phys. Plasmas 1, 1511 (1994)] under conditions (n{sub e}, magnetic field and topology, and LHCD frequency) relevant to ITER [S. Shiraiwa et al., Nucl. Fusion 51, 103024 (2011)]. To extend these results to advanced tokamak regimes with higher bootstrap current fractions on C-Mod, it is necessary to increase n{sub e} to 1.0-1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} m{sup -3}. However, the number of current-carrying, non-thermal electrons generated by LHCD drops sharply in diverted configurations at densities that are well below the density limit previously observed on limited tokamaks. In these cases, changes in scrape off layer (SOL) ionization and density profiles are observed during LHCD, indicating that significant power is transferred from the LH waves to the SOL. Fokker-Planck simulations of these discharges utilizing ray tracing and full wave propagation codes indicate that LH waves in the high density, multi-pass absorption regime linger in the plasma edge, and SOL region, where absorption near or outside the LCFS results in the loss of current drive efficiency. Modeling predicts that non-thermal emission increases with stronger single-pass absorption. Experimental data show that increasing T{sub e} in high density LH discharges results in higher non-thermal electron emission, as predicted by the models.
Lower hybrid current drive at high density in the multi-pass regimea)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wallace, G. M.; Faust, I. C.; Meneghini, O.; Parker, R. R.; Shiraiwa, S.; Baek, S. G.; Bonoli, P. T.; Hubbard, A. E.; Hughes, J. W.; LaBombard, B. L.; Lau, C.; Ma, Y.; Reinke, M. L.; Terry, J. L.; Whyte, D. G.; Wright, J. C.; Wukitch, S. J.; Harvey, R. W.; Schmidt, A. E.; Smirnov, A. P.; Wilson, J. R.
2012-06-01
Assessing the performance of lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) at high density is critical for developing non-inductive current drive systems on future steady-state experiments. Excellent LHCD efficiency has been observed during fully non-inductive operation (η =2.0-2.5×1019 AW-1m-2 at n¯e=0.5×1020 m-3) on Alcator C-Mod [I. H. Hutchinson et al., Phys. Plasmas 1, 1511 (1994)] under conditions (ne, magnetic field and topology, and LHCD frequency) relevant to ITER [S. Shiraiwa et al., Nucl. Fusion 51, 103024 (2011)]. To extend these results to advanced tokamak regimes with higher bootstrap current fractions on C-Mod, it is necessary to increase n ¯e to 1.0-1.5×1020 m-3. However, the number of current-carrying, non-thermal electrons generated by LHCD drops sharply in diverted configurations at densities that are well below the density limit previously observed on limited tokamaks. In these cases, changes in scrape off layer (SOL) ionization and density profiles are observed during LHCD, indicating that significant power is transferred from the LH waves to the SOL. Fokker-Planck simulations of these discharges utilizing ray tracing and full wave propagation codes indicate that LH waves in the high density, multi-pass absorption regime linger in the plasma edge, and SOL region, where absorption near or outside the LCFS results in the loss of current drive efficiency. Modeling predicts that non-thermal emission increases with stronger single-pass absorption. Experimental data show that increasing Te in high density LH discharges results in higher non-thermal electron emission, as predicted by the models.
Fast high-temperature superconductor switch for high current applications
Solovyov, VF; Li, Q
2013-07-15
Reversible operation of a high current superconductor switch based on the quench of high-resistance second generation high temperature superconducting wire is demonstrated. The quench is induced by a burst of an ac field generated by an inductively coupled radio-frequency coil. The switch makes a superconducting-to-normal transition within 5 ms and also has a rapid recovery to the superconducting state. The device has potential applications as an active current limiter or as a storage switch for superconducting magnetic energy storage systems. Operation in a full flux penetration/flow regime can effectively minimize the detrimental effects of the intrinsic conductor non-uniformity. (C) 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.
Bootstrapping a change-point Cox model for survival data
Xu, Gongjun; Sen, Bodhisattva; Ying, Zhiliang
2014-01-01
This paper investigates the (in)-consistency of various bootstrap methods for making inference on a change-point in time in the Cox model with right censored survival data. A criterion is established for the consistency of any bootstrap method. It is shown that the usual nonparametric bootstrap is inconsistent for the maximum partial likelihood estimation of the change-point. A new model-based bootstrap approach is proposed and its consistency established. Simulation studies are carried out to assess the performance of various bootstrap schemes. PMID:25400719
Development of Superstructures for High Current Application
Jacek Sekutowicz; Peter Kneisel; Genfa Wu
2003-09-01
Devices for acceleration of electron currents beyond 100 mA are becoming increasingly interesting for high power Free Electron Lasers (FEL) or for Energy Recovering Linacs (ERL). To achieve photon beams of several hundred kW, low emittance electron beams of up to 1 A have to be delivered to undulators from a driving linear accelerator. High quality beams and stable operation of accelerating sections are only possible if Higher Order Modes (HOM) generated by the beams can be sufficiently damped. The positive experience with the HERA 4-cell cavities [1], in which the dominant monopole modes are damped to Q{sub ext} {approx} 700 and all dipole modes to Q{sub ext} < 6000 makes it highly likely that a superstructure (SST) consisting of two weakly coupled subunits and employing coaxial HOM dampers of the DESY type can be successfully adapted to a properly designed cavity for acceleration of a {approx}1 A beam. This contribution describes the first approach to design a 750 MHz SST for a 1 A electron beam. The calculate d R/Q values of the HOM's of this SST are quite favorable. The total impedance of the first 16 monopole modes is {approx} 140, approximately a factor of 3 smaller than the impedance of the fundamental mode. It seems very likely that the HOM's can be suppressed to the appropriate levels for stable beam operation. In order to explore achievable damping, a 1500 MHz copper 1:2 model of the SST was built and the Q{sub ext}-values of the dominant HOM's were measured with various HOM coupler configurations. It can be concluded with some confidence that the necessary damping for a 1 A machine can be achieved with the proposed superstructure configuration. However, it is essential to repeat these measurements on a 1:1 model.
Heptagons from the Steinmann cluster bootstrap
Dixon, Lance J.; Drummond, James; Harrington, Thomas; ...
2017-02-28
We reformulate the heptagon cluster bootstrap to take advantage of the Steinmann relations, which require certain double discontinuities of any amplitude to vanish. These constraints vastly reduce the number of functions needed to bootstrap seven-point amplitudes in planarmore » $$ \\mathcal{N} $$ = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, making higher-loop contributions to these amplitudes more computationally accessible. In particular, dual superconformal symmetry and well-defined collinear limits suffice to determine uniquely the symbols of the three-loop NMHV and four-loop MHV seven-point amplitudes. We also show that at three loops, relaxing the dual superconformal $$\\bar{Q}$$ relations and imposing dihedral symmetry (and for NMHV the absence of spurious poles) leaves only a single ambiguity in the heptagon amplitudes. These results point to a strong tension between the collinear properties of the amplitudes and the Steinmann relations.« less
Bootstrap for the case-cohort design
Huang, Yijian
2014-01-01
Summary The case-cohort design facilitates economical investigation of risk factors in a large survival study, with covariate data collected only from the cases and a simple random subset of the full cohort. Methods that accommodate the design have been developed for various semiparametric models, but most inference procedures are based on asymptotic distribution theory. Such inference can be cumbersome to derive and implement, and does not permit confidence band construction. While bootstrap is an obvious alternative, how to resample is unclear because of complications from the two-stage sampling design. We establish an equivalent sampling scheme, and propose a novel and versatile nonparametric bootstrap for robust inference with an appealingly simple single-stage resampling. Theoretical justification and numerical assessment are provided for a number of procedures under the proportional hazards model. PMID:25170175
Kepler Planet Detection Metrics: Statistical Bootstrap Test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jenkins, Jon M.; Burke, Christopher J.
2016-01-01
This document describes the data produced by the Statistical Bootstrap Test over the final three Threshold Crossing Event (TCE) deliveries to NExScI: SOC 9.1 (Q1Q16)1 (Tenenbaum et al. 2014), SOC 9.2 (Q1Q17) aka DR242 (Seader et al. 2015), and SOC 9.3 (Q1Q17) aka DR253 (Twicken et al. 2016). The last few years have seen significant improvements in the SOC science data processing pipeline, leading to higher quality light curves and more sensitive transit searches. The statistical bootstrap analysis results presented here and the numerical results archived at NASAs Exoplanet Science Institute (NExScI) bear witness to these software improvements. This document attempts to introduce and describe the main features and differences between these three data sets as a consequence of the software changes.
Heptagons from the Steinmann cluster bootstrap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dixon, Lance J.; Drummond, James; Harrington, Thomas; McLeod, Andrew J.; Papathanasiou, Georgios; Spradlin, Marcus
2017-02-01
We reformulate the heptagon cluster bootstrap to take advantage of the Steinmann relations, which require certain double discontinuities of any amplitude to vanish. These constraints vastly reduce the number of functions needed to bootstrap seven-point amplitudes in planar N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, making higher-loop contributions to these amplitudes more computationally accessible. In particular, dual superconformal symmetry and well-defined collinear limits suffice to determine uniquely the symbols of the three-loop NMHV and four-loop MHV seven-point amplitudes. We also show that at three loops, relaxing the dual superconformal (\\overline{Q}) relations and imposing dihedral symmetry (and for NMHV the absence of spurious poles) leaves only a single ambiguity in the heptagon amplitudes. These results point to a strong tension between the collinear properties of the amplitudes and the Steinmann relations.
Bootstrap for the case-cohort design.
Huang, Yijian
2014-06-01
The case-cohort design facilitates economical investigation of risk factors in a large survival study, with covariate data collected only from the cases and a simple random subset of the full cohort. Methods that accommodate the design have been developed for various semiparametric models, but most inference procedures are based on asymptotic distribution theory. Such inference can be cumbersome to derive and implement, and does not permit confidence band construction. While bootstrap is an obvious alternative, how to resample is unclear because of complications from the two-stage sampling design. We establish an equivalent sampling scheme, and propose a novel and versatile nonparametric bootstrap for robust inference with an appealingly simple single-stage resampling. Theoretical justification and numerical assessment are provided for a number of procedures under the proportional hazards model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kyselý, Jan
2010-08-01
Bootstrap, a technique for determining the accuracy of statistics, is a tool widely used in climatological and hydrological applications. The paper compares coverage probabilities of confidence intervals of high quantiles (5- to 200-year return values) constructed by the nonparametric and parametric bootstrap in frequency analysis of heavy-tailed data, typical for maxima of precipitation amounts. The simulation experiments are based on a wide range of models used for precipitation extremes (generalized extreme value, generalized Pareto, generalized logistic, and mixed distributions). The coverage probability of the confidence intervals is quantified for several sample sizes ( n = 20, 40, 60, and 100) and tail behaviors. We show that both bootstrap methods underestimate the width of the confidence intervals but that the parametric bootstrap is clearly superior to the nonparametric one. Even a misspecification of the parametric model—often unavoidable in practice—does not prevent the parametric bootstrap from performing better in most cases. A tendency to narrower confidence intervals from the nonparametric than parametric bootstrap is demonstrated in the application to high quantiles of distributions of observed maxima of 1- and 5-day precipitation amounts; the differences increase with the return level. The results show that estimation of uncertainty based on nonparametric bootstrap is highly unreliable, especially for small and moderate sample sizes and for very heavy-tailed data.
Bootstrapping and Maintaining Trust in the Cloud
2016-12-01
proliferation and popularity of infrastructure-as-a- service (IaaS) cloud computing services such as Amazon Web Services and Google Compute Engine means...derivation Identity Key Bootstrap Key Kb Certificate authority Trust Hypervisor TPM Provider Registrar Deep Quote Provider Whitelist...The only exception to this, is that the client can request a deep - quote12 that will get a quote from the hardware TPM in addition to getting a quote
High Current Hollow Cathode Plasma Plume Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomas, Robert E.; Kamhawi, Hani; Williams, George J., Jr.
2014-01-01
Plasma plume measurements are reported for a hollow cathode assembly (HCA) operated at discharge currents of 50, 70, and 100 A at xenon flow rates between 19 - 46 standard cubic centimeter per minute. The HCA was centrally mounted in the NASA-300MS Hall Thruster and was operated in the "spot" and "plume" modes with additional data taken with an applied magnetic field. Langmuir probes, retarding potential analyzers, and optical emission spectroscopy were employed to measure plasma properties near the orifice of the HCA and to assess the charge state of the near-field plasma. Electron temperatures (2-6 electron volt) and plasma potentials are consistent with probe-measured values in previous investigations. Operation with an applied-field yields higher discharge voltages, increased Xe III production, and increased signals from the 833.5 nm C I line. While operating in plume mode and with an applied field, ion energy distribution measurements yield ions with energies significantly exceeding the applied discharge voltage. These findings are correlated with high-frequency oscillations associated with each mode.
MACHINE PROTECTION FOR HIGH AVERAGE CURRENT LINACS
Jordan, Kevin; Allison, Trent; Evans, Richard; Coleman, James; Grippo, Albert
2003-05-01
A fully integrated Machine Protection System (MPS) is critical to efficient commissioning and safe operation of all high current accelerators. The Jefferson Lab FEL [1,2] has multiple electron beam paths and many different types of diagnostic insertion devices. The MPS [3] needs to monitor both the status of these devices and the magnet settings which define the beam path. The matrix of these devices and beam paths are programmed into gate arrays, the output of the matrix is an allowable maximum average power limit. This power limit is enforced by the drive laser for the photocathode gun. The Beam Loss Monitors (BLMs), RF status, and laser safety system status are also inputs to the control matrix. There are 8 Machine Modes (electron path) and 8 Beam Modes (average power limits) that define the safe operating limits for the FEL. Combinations outside of this matrix are unsafe and the beam is inhibited. The power limits range from no beam to 2 megawatts of electron beam power.
Computer automation of high current ion implanters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woodard, Ollie; Lindsey, Paul; Cecil, Joseph; Pipe, Robert
1985-01-01
Complete computer automation of a high current ion implanter has been achieved. Special design considerations were necessary for automation including the development of a simplified ion source, a simplified beam transport control function, and a computer aided real-time feedback dosimetry control system. A special, versatile software architecture was also necessary to allow protected operation by unskilled operators, as well as diagnostic and maintenance modes accessible only to qualified personnel. Integral mounting of the DEC LSI-11 computer in the implanter frame provided additional challenges regarding EMI control and the electrical isolation required. The end result is a system in which all pertinent functions of the implanter are computer monitored and controlled continuously, allowing for automatic set-up, operation, on-line fault detection and diagnostics, with recovery software to correct many transient problems as they occur. This paper will discuss both general and specific solutions to the design problems encountered, and will review the system performance from a user point of view.
High Current Hollow Cathode Plasma Plume Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomas, Robert E.; Kamhawi, Hani; Williams, George J., Jr.
2013-01-01
Plasma plume measurements are reported for a hollow cathode assembly (HCA) oper-ated at discharge currents of 50, 70, and 100 A at xenon ow rates between 19 - 46 sccm.The HCA was centrally mounted in the annulus of the NASA-300MS Hall Thruster andwas operated in the spot and plume modes with additional data taken with an appliedmagnetic eld. Langmuir probes, retarding potential analyzers, and optical emission spec-troscopy were employed to measure plasma properties near the orice of the HCA and toassess the charge state of the near-eld plasma. Electron temperatures (2-6 eV) and plasmapotentials are consistent with probe-measured values in previous investigations. Operationwith an applied-eld yields higher discharge voltages, increased Xe III production, andincreased signals from the 833.5 nm C I line. While operating in plume mode and with anapplied eld, ion energy distribution measurements yield ions with energies signicantlyexceeding the applied discharge voltage. These ndings are correlated with high-frequencyoscillations associated with each mode.
High average power, high current pulsed accelerator technology
Neau, E.L.
1995-05-01
Which current pulsed accelerator technology was developed during the late 60`s through the late 80`s to satisfy the needs of various military related applications such as effects simulators, particle beam devices, free electron lasers, and as drivers for Inertial Confinement Fusion devices. The emphasis in these devices is to achieve very high peak power levels, with pulse lengths on the order of a few 10`s of nanoseconds, peak currents of up to 10`s of MA, and accelerating potentials of up to 10`s of MV. New which average power systems, incorporating thermal management techniques, are enabling the potential use of high peak power technology in a number of diverse industrial application areas such as materials processing, food processing, stack gas cleanup, and the destruction of organic contaminants. These systems employ semiconductor and saturable magnetic switches to achieve short pulse durations that can then be added to efficiently give MV accelerating, potentials while delivering average power levels of a few 100`s of kilowatts to perhaps many megawatts. The Repetitive High Energy Puled Power project is developing short-pulse, high current accelerator technology capable of generating beams with kJ`s of energy per pulse delivered to areas of 1000 cm{sup 2} or more using ions, electrons, or x-rays. Modular technology is employed to meet the needs of a variety of applications requiring from 100`s of kV to MV`s and from 10`s to 100`s of kA. Modest repetition rates, up to a few 100`s of pulses per second (PPS), allow these machines to deliver average currents on the order of a few 100`s of mA. The design and operation of the second generation 300 kW RHEPP-II machine, now being brought on-line to operate at 2.5 MV, 25 kA, and 100 PPS will be described in detail as one example of the new high average power, high current pulsed accelerator technology.
Comparison of bootstrap resampling methods for 3-D PET imaging.
Lartizien, C; Aubin, J-B; Buvat, I
2010-07-01
Two groups of bootstrap methods have been proposed to estimate the statistical properties of positron emission tomography (PET) images by generating multiple statistically equivalent data sets from few data samples. The first group generates resampled data based on a parametric approach assuming that data from which resampling is performed follows a Poisson distribution while the second group consists of nonparametric approaches. These methods either require a unique original sample or a series of statistically equivalent data that can be list-mode files or sinograms. Previous reports regarding these bootstrap approaches suggest different results. This work compares the accuracy of three of these bootstrap methods for 3-D PET imaging based on simulated data. Two methods are based on a unique file, namely a list-mode based nonparametric (LMNP) method and a sinogram based parametric (SP) method. The third method is a sinogram-based nonparametric (SNP) method. Another original method (extended LMNP) was also investigated, which is an extension of the LMNP methods based on deriving a resampled list-mode file by drawings events from multiple original list-mode files. Our comparison is based on the analysis of the statistical moments estimated on the repeated and resampled data. This includes the probability density function and the moments of order 1 and 2. Results show that the two methods based on multiple original data (SNP and extended LMNP) are the only methods that correctly estimate the statistical parameters. Performances of the LMNP and SP methods are variable. Simulated data used in this study were characterized by a high noise level. Differences among the tested strategies might be reduced with clinical data sets with lower noise.
Thibaut, Loïc; Wang, Yi Alice
2017-01-01
Bootstrap methods are widely used in statistics, and bootstrapping of residuals can be especially useful in the regression context. However, difficulties are encountered extending residual resampling to regression settings where residuals are not identically distributed (thus not amenable to bootstrapping)—common examples including logistic or Poisson regression and generalizations to handle clustered or multivariate data, such as generalised estimating equations. We propose a bootstrap method based on probability integral transform (PIT-) residuals, which we call the PIT-trap, which assumes data come from some marginal distribution F of known parametric form. This method can be understood as a type of “model-free bootstrap”, adapted to the problem of discrete and highly multivariate data. PIT-residuals have the key property that they are (asymptotically) pivotal. The PIT-trap thus inherits the key property, not afforded by any other residual resampling approach, that the marginal distribution of data can be preserved under PIT-trapping. This in turn enables the derivation of some standard bootstrap properties, including second-order correctness of pivotal PIT-trap test statistics. In multivariate data, bootstrapping rows of PIT-residuals affords the property that it preserves correlation in data without the need for it to be modelled, a key point of difference as compared to a parametric bootstrap. The proposed method is illustrated on an example involving multivariate abundance data in ecology, and demonstrated via simulation to have improved properties as compared to competing resampling methods. PMID:28738071
Lightweight, High-Current Welding Gun
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Starck, Thomas F.; Brennan, Andrew D.
1989-01-01
Lighweight resistance-welding, hand-held gun supplies alternating or direct current over range of 600 to 4,000 A and applies forces from 40 to 60 lb during welding. Used to weld metal sheets in multilayered stacks.
Lightweight, High-Current Welding Gun
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Starck, Thomas F.; Brennan, Andrew D.
1989-01-01
Lighweight resistance-welding, hand-held gun supplies alternating or direct current over range of 600 to 4,000 A and applies forces from 40 to 60 lb during welding. Used to weld metal sheets in multilayered stacks.
High-Current Betatron and Stereobetatron,
1981-02-04
an increase in the accelerated current and intensity of the radiation/emissicn of charged particle acceleratcrs is at present most urgent/actual and...physics, chemistry, etc. LOC = 80171501 PAGE b In proportion to the introduction of accelarators into the national economy the requirements fcr them are...accelerators, fccus special attention on possibility increases in the accelerated current. An increase in the number of accelerated particles and
Characterization of high-current, high-temperature superconductor current lead elements
Niemann, R.C.; Evans, D.J.; Fisher, B.L.; Brockenborough, W.E.; Roberts, P.R.; Rodenbush, A.J.
1996-08-01
The refrigeration loads of current leads for superconducting magnets can be significantly reduced by using high-temperature superconductor (HTS) leads. An HTS conductor type that is well suited for this application is a laminated sintered stack of HTS powder-in-tube (PIT) tapes. The superconducting elements are normally characterized by their manufacturer by measuring critical currents at 77 K in self field. Additional characterization, which correlates electrical performance at 77 K and at lower temperatures with applied magnetic fields, provides the current lead designer and conductor element manufacturer with critical information. For HTS conductor elements comprising a laminated and sintered stack of Bi-2223 PIT tapes having an alloyed Ag sheath, this characterization uses variable applied fields and operating temperatures.
Developing High Brightness and High Current Beams for HIF Injectors
Ahle, L; Kwan, J W
2002-05-10
The US Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory is continuing research into ion sources and injectors that simultaneously provide high current (0.5-1.0 Amps) and high brightness (normalized emittance better than 1.0 {pi}-mm-mr). The central issue of focus is whether to carry on the traditional approach of large surface ionization sources or to adopt a multi-aperture approach that transports many smaller ''beamlets'' separately at low energies before allowing them to merge. For the large surface source, the recent commissioning of the 2-MeV injector for the High Current experiment has increased our understanding of the beam quality limitations for these sources. We have also improved our techniques for fabricating large diameter aluminosilicate sources to improve lifetime and emission uniformity. For the multi-aperture approach we are continuing to study the feasibility of small surface sources and a RF induced plasma source in preparation for beamlet merging experiments, while continuing to run computer simulations for better understanding of this alternate concept. Experiments into both architectures will be performed on a newly commissioned ion source test stand at LLNL called the STS-500. This stand test provides a platform for testing a variety of ion sources and accelerating structures with 500 kV, 17-microsecond pulses. Recent progress in these areas will be discussed as well as plans for future experiments.
Developing high brightness and high current beams for HIF injectors
Ahle, Larry; Grote, Dave; Kwan, Joe
2002-05-24
The US Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory is continuing research into ion sources and injectors that simultaneously provide high current (0.5-1.0 Amps) and high brightness (normalized emittance better than 1.0 {pi}-mm-mr). The central issue of focus is whether to continue pursuing the traditional approach of large surface ionization sources or to adopt a multiaperture approach that transports many smaller ''beamlets'' separately at low energies before allowing them to merge. For the large surface source concept, the recent commissioning of the 2-MeV injector for the High Current eXperiment has increased our understanding of the beam quality limitations for these sources. We have also improved our techniques for fabricating large diameter aluminosilicate sources to improve lifetime and emission uniformity. For the multiaperture approach, we are continuing to study the feasibility of small surface sources and a RF induced plasma source in preparation for beamlet merging experiments, while continuing to run computer simulations for better understanding of this alternate concept. Experiments into both architectures will be performed on a newly commissioned ion source test stand at LLNL called STS-500. This stand test provides a platform for testing a variety of ion sources and accelerating structures with 500 kV, 17-microsecond pulses. Recent progress in these areas will be discussed as well as plans for future experiments.
Bootstrap Enhanced Penalized Regression for Variable Selection with Neuroimaging Data.
Abram, Samantha V; Helwig, Nathaniel E; Moodie, Craig A; DeYoung, Colin G; MacDonald, Angus W; Waller, Niels G
2016-01-01
Recent advances in fMRI research highlight the use of multivariate methods for examining whole-brain connectivity. Complementary data-driven methods are needed for determining the subset of predictors related to individual differences. Although commonly used for this purpose, ordinary least squares (OLS) regression may not be ideal due to multi-collinearity and over-fitting issues. Penalized regression is a promising and underutilized alternative to OLS regression. In this paper, we propose a nonparametric bootstrap quantile (QNT) approach for variable selection with neuroimaging data. We use real and simulated data, as well as annotated R code, to demonstrate the benefits of our proposed method. Our results illustrate the practical potential of our proposed bootstrap QNT approach. Our real data example demonstrates how our method can be used to relate individual differences in neural network connectivity with an externalizing personality measure. Also, our simulation results reveal that the QNT method is effective under a variety of data conditions. Penalized regression yields more stable estimates and sparser models than OLS regression in situations with large numbers of highly correlated neural predictors. Our results demonstrate that penalized regression is a promising method for examining associations between neural predictors and clinically relevant traits or behaviors. These findings have important implications for the growing field of functional connectivity research, where multivariate methods produce numerous, highly correlated brain networks.
Bootstrap Enhanced Penalized Regression for Variable Selection with Neuroimaging Data
Abram, Samantha V.; Helwig, Nathaniel E.; Moodie, Craig A.; DeYoung, Colin G.; MacDonald, Angus W.; Waller, Niels G.
2016-01-01
Recent advances in fMRI research highlight the use of multivariate methods for examining whole-brain connectivity. Complementary data-driven methods are needed for determining the subset of predictors related to individual differences. Although commonly used for this purpose, ordinary least squares (OLS) regression may not be ideal due to multi-collinearity and over-fitting issues. Penalized regression is a promising and underutilized alternative to OLS regression. In this paper, we propose a nonparametric bootstrap quantile (QNT) approach for variable selection with neuroimaging data. We use real and simulated data, as well as annotated R code, to demonstrate the benefits of our proposed method. Our results illustrate the practical potential of our proposed bootstrap QNT approach. Our real data example demonstrates how our method can be used to relate individual differences in neural network connectivity with an externalizing personality measure. Also, our simulation results reveal that the QNT method is effective under a variety of data conditions. Penalized regression yields more stable estimates and sparser models than OLS regression in situations with large numbers of highly correlated neural predictors. Our results demonstrate that penalized regression is a promising method for examining associations between neural predictors and clinically relevant traits or behaviors. These findings have important implications for the growing field of functional connectivity research, where multivariate methods produce numerous, highly correlated brain networks. PMID:27516732
Modular High Current Test Facility at LLNL
Tully, L K; Goerz, D A; Speer, R D; Ferriera, T J
2008-05-20
This paper describes the 1 MA, 225 kJ test facility in operation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The capacitor bank is constructed from three parallel 1.5 mF modules. The modules are capable of switching simultaneously or sequentially via solid dielectric puncture switches. The bank nominally operates up to 10 kV and reaches peak current with all three cabled modules in approximately 30 {micro}s. Parallel output plates from the bank allow for cable or busbar interfacing to the load. This versatile bank is currently in use for code validation experiments, railgun related activities, switch testing, and diagnostic development.
High-current ion-ring accelerator
Sudan, R.N. )
1993-03-15
An accelerator concept is outlined which enables 10[sup 15] to 10[sup 18] ions in the form of a charge neutralized ion ring to be accelerated to GeV energies. A repetition rate of 10 Hz will deliver an average current in the range of 0.1 A.
High-current plasmas switching devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mustafaev, Aleksandr; Grabovskiy, Artiom; Murillo, Oscar; Soukhomlinov, Vladimir
2016-10-01
Nowadays, the level of development of spatial and earthly nuclear energetic lays down big requirements: total control possibility of current density with a stable work of the instrument in extreme conditions with a big radiation level and temperatures of 1000 K. Among the ways of solving this problem the application of key elements with binary cesium-barium plasmas are available. The results of the investigation on electro-kinetic parameters of plasma Knudsen Cs-Ba key element with big current densities are presented in this work: >The phenomenon of spontaneous current breakage, which has a big influence on the efficiency of the grid extinction, was investigated; >Unique regimes of effective grid extinction, in which the rise of modulated power is realized with a declining of the energetic cost of controlling the current of the key element, were found; >Record energetic parameters for the binary key element were obtained: at an anode potential of 50 V, stable frequencies modulation at 1-10 kHz, the electric power density of 5 kW/cm2 and the efficiency more than 95%.
A bootstrap approach to bump hunting
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Silverman, B. W.
1982-01-01
An important question in cluster analysis and pattern recognition is the determination of the number of clusters into which a given population should be divided. Frequently, particularly when certain specific clustering methods are being used, the number of clusters is taken to be equal to the number of modes, or local maxima, in the probability density function underlying the given data set. The use of kernal density estimates in mode estimation is discussed. The test statistic to be used is defined and a bootstrap technique for assessing significance is given. An illustrative application is followed by an examination of the asymptotic behavior of the test statistic.
Mellin space bootstrap for global symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dey, Parijat; Kaviraj, Apratim; Sinha, Aninda
2017-07-01
We apply analytic conformal bootstrap ideas in Mellin space to conformal field theories with O( N) symmetry and cubic anisotropy. We write down the conditions arising from the consistency between the operator product expansion and crossing symmetry in Mellin space. We solve the constraint equations to compute the anomalous dimension and the OPE coefficients of all operators quadratic in the fields in the epsilon expansion. We reproduce known results and derive new results up to O( ɛ 3). For the O( N) case, we also study the large N limit in general dimensions and reproduce known results at the leading order in 1 /N.
A bootstrap approach to bump hunting
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Silverman, B. W.
1982-01-01
An important question in cluster analysis and pattern recognition is the determination of the number of clusters into which a given population should be divided. Frequently, particularly when certain specific clustering methods are being used, the number of clusters is taken to be equal to the number of modes, or local maxima, in the probability density function underlying the given data set. The use of kernal density estimates in mode estimation is discussed. The test statistic to be used is defined and a bootstrap technique for assessing significance is given. An illustrative application is followed by an examination of the asymptotic behavior of the test statistic.
Bootstrap embedding: An internally consistent fragment-based method.
Welborn, Matthew; Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Van Voorhis, Troy
2016-08-21
Strong correlation poses a difficult problem for electronic structure theory, with computational cost scaling quickly with system size. Fragment embedding is an attractive approach to this problem. By dividing a large complicated system into smaller manageable fragments "embedded" in an approximate description of the rest of the system, we can hope to ameliorate the steep cost of correlated calculations. While appealing, these methods often converge slowly with fragment size because of small errors at the boundary between fragment and bath. We describe a new electronic embedding method, dubbed "Bootstrap Embedding," a self-consistent wavefunction-in-wavefunction embedding theory that uses overlapping fragments to improve the description of fragment edges. We apply this method to the one dimensional Hubbard model and a translationally asymmetric variant, and find that it performs very well for energies and populations. We find Bootstrap Embedding converges rapidly with embedded fragment size, overcoming the surface-area-to-volume-ratio error typical of many embedding methods. We anticipate that this method may lead to a low-scaling, high accuracy treatment of electron correlation in large molecular systems.
Bootstrap embedding: An internally consistent fragment-based method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Welborn, Matthew; Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Van Voorhis, Troy
2016-08-01
Strong correlation poses a difficult problem for electronic structure theory, with computational cost scaling quickly with system size. Fragment embedding is an attractive approach to this problem. By dividing a large complicated system into smaller manageable fragments "embedded" in an approximate description of the rest of the system, we can hope to ameliorate the steep cost of correlated calculations. While appealing, these methods often converge slowly with fragment size because of small errors at the boundary between fragment and bath. We describe a new electronic embedding method, dubbed "Bootstrap Embedding," a self-consistent wavefunction-in-wavefunction embedding theory that uses overlapping fragments to improve the description of fragment edges. We apply this method to the one dimensional Hubbard model and a translationally asymmetric variant, and find that it performs very well for energies and populations. We find Bootstrap Embedding converges rapidly with embedded fragment size, overcoming the surface-area-to-volume-ratio error typical of many embedding methods. We anticipate that this method may lead to a low-scaling, high accuracy treatment of electron correlation in large molecular systems.
Simultaneous Confidence Intervals Based on the Percentile Bootstrap Approach
Mandel, Micha; Betensky, Rebecca A.
2007-01-01
This note concerns the construction of bootstrap simultaneous confidence intervals (SCI) for m parameters. Given B bootstrap samples, we suggest an algorithm with complexity of O(mB log(B)). We apply our algorithm to construct a confidence region for time dependent probabilities of progression in multiple sclerosis and for coefficients in a logistic regression analysis. Alternative normal based simultaneous confidence intervals are presented and compared to the bootstrap intervals. PMID:19137059
Architecture for high critical current superconducting tapes
Jia, Quanxi; Foltyn, Stephen R.
2002-01-01
Improvements in critical current capacity for superconducting film structures are disclosed and include the use of, e.g., multilayer YBCO structures where individual YBCO layers are separated by a layer of an insulating material such as CeO.sub.2 and the like, a layer of a conducting material such as strontium ruthenium oxide and the like or by a second superconducting material such as SmBCO and the like.
A compact submicrosecond, high current generator.
Kovalchuk, B M; Kharlov, A V; Zorin, V B; Zherlitsyn, A A
2009-08-01
Pulsed current generator was developed for experiments with current carrying pulsed plasma. Main parts of the generator are capacitor bank, low inductive current driving lines, and central load part. Generator consists of four identical sections, connected in parallel to one load. Capacitor bank is assembled from 24 capacitor blocks (100 kV, 80 nF), connected in parallel. It stores 9.6 kJ at 100 kV charging voltage. Each capacitor block incorporates a multigap spark switch, which is able to commute by six parallel channels. Switches operate in dry air at atmospheric pressure. The generator was tested with an inductive load and a liner load. At 17.5 nH inductive load and 100 kV of charging voltage it provides 650 kA of current amplitude with 390 ns rise time with 0.6 ohms damping resistors in discharge circuit of each capacitor block. The net generator inductance without a load was optimized to be as low as 15 nH, which results in extremely low impedance of the generator (approximately 0.08 ohms). It ensures effective energy coupling with a low impedance load such as Z pinch. The generator operates reliably without any adjustments in 70-100 kV range of charging voltage. Jitter in delay between output pulse and triggering pulse is less than 5 ns at 70-100 kV charging voltage. Operation and handling are very simple, because no oil or purified gases are required for the generator. The generator has dimensions 5.24x1.2x0.18 m(3) and total weight about 1400 kg, thus manifesting itself as simple, robust, and cost effective apparatus.
Fast, Exact Bootstrap Principal Component Analysis for p > 1 million.
Fisher, Aaron; Caffo, Brian; Schwartz, Brian; Zipunnikov, Vadim
Many have suggested a bootstrap procedure for estimating the sampling variability of principal component analysis (PCA) results. However, when the number of measurements per subject (p) is much larger than the number of subjects (n), calculating and storing the leading principal components from each bootstrap sample can be computationally infeasible. To address this, we outline methods for fast, exact calculation of bootstrap principal components, eigenvalues, and scores. Our methods leverage the fact that all bootstrap samples occupy the same n-dimensional subspace as the original sample. As a result, all bootstrap principal components are limited to the same n-dimensional subspace and can be efficiently represented by their low dimensional coordinates in that subspace. Several uncertainty metrics can be computed solely based on the bootstrap distribution of these low dimensional coordinates, without calculating or storing the p-dimensional bootstrap components. Fast bootstrap PCA is applied to a dataset of sleep electroencephalogram recordings (p = 900, n = 392), and to a dataset of brain magnetic resonance images (MRIs) (p ≈ 3 million, n = 352). For the MRI dataset, our method allows for standard errors for the first 3 principal components based on 1000 bootstrap samples to be calculated on a standard laptop in 47 minutes, as opposed to approximately 4 days with standard methods.
Effects of parameter estimation on maximum-likelihood bootstrap analysis.
Ripplinger, Jennifer; Abdo, Zaid; Sullivan, Jack
2010-08-01
Bipartition support in maximum-likelihood (ML) analysis is most commonly assessed using the nonparametric bootstrap. Although bootstrap replicates should theoretically be analyzed in the same manner as the original data, model selection is almost never conducted for bootstrap replicates, substitution-model parameters are often fixed to their maximum-likelihood estimates (MLEs) for the empirical data, and bootstrap replicates may be subjected to less rigorous heuristic search strategies than the original data set. Even though this approach may increase computational tractability, it may also lead to the recovery of suboptimal tree topologies and affect bootstrap values. However, since well-supported bipartitions are often recovered regardless of method, use of a less intensive bootstrap procedure may not significantly affect the results. In this study, we investigate the impact of parameter estimation (i.e., assessment of substitution-model parameters and tree topology) on ML bootstrap analysis. We find that while forgoing model selection and/or setting substitution-model parameters to their empirical MLEs may lead to significantly different bootstrap values, it probably would not change their biological interpretation. Similarly, even though the use of reduced search methods often results in significant differences among bootstrap values, only omitting branch swapping is likely to change any biological inferences drawn from the data. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fast, Exact Bootstrap Principal Component Analysis for p > 1 million
Fisher, Aaron; Caffo, Brian; Schwartz, Brian; Zipunnikov, Vadim
2015-01-01
Many have suggested a bootstrap procedure for estimating the sampling variability of principal component analysis (PCA) results. However, when the number of measurements per subject (p) is much larger than the number of subjects (n), calculating and storing the leading principal components from each bootstrap sample can be computationally infeasible. To address this, we outline methods for fast, exact calculation of bootstrap principal components, eigenvalues, and scores. Our methods leverage the fact that all bootstrap samples occupy the same n-dimensional subspace as the original sample. As a result, all bootstrap principal components are limited to the same n-dimensional subspace and can be efficiently represented by their low dimensional coordinates in that subspace. Several uncertainty metrics can be computed solely based on the bootstrap distribution of these low dimensional coordinates, without calculating or storing the p-dimensional bootstrap components. Fast bootstrap PCA is applied to a dataset of sleep electroencephalogram recordings (p = 900, n = 392), and to a dataset of brain magnetic resonance images (MRIs) (p ≈ 3 million, n = 352). For the MRI dataset, our method allows for standard errors for the first 3 principal components based on 1000 bootstrap samples to be calculated on a standard laptop in 47 minutes, as opposed to approximately 4 days with standard methods. PMID:27616801
Excitons in solids with time-dependent density-functional theory: the bootstrap kernel and beyond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Byun, Young-Moo; Yang, Zeng-Hui; Ullrich, Carsten
Time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) is an efficient method to describe the optical properties of solids. Lately, a series of bootstrap-type exchange-correlation (xc) kernels have been reported to produce accurate excitons in solids, but different bootstrap-type kernels exist in the literature, with mixed results. In this presentation, we reveal the origin of the confusion and show a new empirical TDDFT xc kernel to compute excitonic properties of semiconductors and insulators efficiently and accurately. Our method can be used for high-throughput screening calculations and large unit cell calculations. Work supported by NSF Grant DMR-1408904.
High-current plasma contactor neutralizer system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beattie, J. R.; Williamson, W. S.; Matossian, J. N.; Vourgourakis, E. J.; Burch, J. L.
1989-01-01
A plasma-contactor neutralizer system is described, for the stabilizing the Orbiter's potential during flights of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science missions. The plasma contactor neutralizer will include a Xe plasma source that can provide steady-state ion-emission currents of up to 1.5 A. The Orbiter's potential will be maintained near that of the surrounding space plasma during electron-beam accelerator firings through a combination of ion emission from the Xe plasma source and electron collection from the ambient space plasma. Configuration diagrams and block diagrams are presented along with the performance characteristics of the system.
How to bootstrap a human communication system.
Fay, Nicolas; Arbib, Michael; Garrod, Simon
2013-01-01
How might a human communication system be bootstrapped in the absence of conventional language? We argue that motivated signs play an important role (i.e., signs that are linked to meaning by structural resemblance or by natural association). An experimental study is then reported in which participants try to communicate a range of pre-specified items to a partner using repeated non-linguistic vocalization, repeated gesture, or repeated non-linguistic vocalization plus gesture (but without using their existing language system). Gesture proved more effective (measured by communication success) and more efficient (measured by the time taken to communicate) than non-linguistic vocalization across a range of item categories (emotion, object, and action). Combining gesture and vocalization did not improve performance beyond gesture alone. We experimentally demonstrate that gesture is a more effective means of bootstrapping a human communication system. We argue that gesture outperforms non-linguistic vocalization because it lends itself more naturally to the production of motivated signs. © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Can statistical learning bootstrap the integers?
Rips, Lance J; Asmuth, Jennifer; Bloomfield, Amber
2013-09-01
This paper examines Piantadosi, Tenenbaum, and Goodman's (2012) model for how children learn the relation between number words ("one" through "ten") and cardinalities (sizes of sets with one through ten elements). This model shows how statistical learning can induce this relation, reorganizing its procedures as it does so in roughly the way children do. We question, however, Piantadosi et al.'s claim that the model performs "Quinian bootstrapping," in the sense of Carey (2009). Unlike bootstrapping, the concept it learns is not discontinuous with the concepts it starts with. Instead, the model learns by recombining its primitives into hypotheses and confirming them statistically. As such, it accords better with earlier claims (Fodor, 1975, 1981) that learning does not increase expressive power. We also question the relevance of the simulation for children's learning. The model starts with a preselected set of15 primitives, and the procedure it learns differs from children's method. Finally, the partial knowledge of the positive integers that the model attains is consistent with an infinite number of nonstandard meanings-for example, that the integers stop after ten or loop from ten back to one.
Bootstrap position analysis for forecasting low flow frequency
Tasker, Gary D.; Dunne, P.
1997-01-01
A method of random resampling of residuals from stochastic models is used to generate a large number of 12-month-long traces of natural monthly runoff to be used in a position analysis model for a water-supply storage and delivery system. Position analysis uses the traces to forecast the likelihood of specified outcomes such as reservoir levels falling below a specified level or streamflows falling below statutory passing flows conditioned on the current reservoir levels and streamflows. The advantages of this resampling scheme, called bootstrap position analysis, are that it does not rely on the unverifiable assumption of normality, fewer parameters need to be estimated directly from the data, and accounting for parameter uncertainty is easily done. For a given set of operating rules and water-use requirements for a system, water managers can use such a model as a decision-making tool to evaluate different operating rules. ?? ASCE,.
Bootstrapping mixed correlators in 4D N = 1 SCFTs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Daliang; Meltzer, David; Stergiou, Andreas
2017-07-01
The numerical conformal bootstrap is used to study mixed correlators in N = 1 superconformal field theories (SCFTs) in d = 4 spacetime dimensions. Systems of fourpoint functions involving scalar chiral and real operators are analyzed, including the case where the scalar real operator is the zero component of a global conserved current multiplet. New results on superconformal blocks as well as universal constraints on the space of 4D N = 1 SCFTs with chiral operators are presented. At the level of precision used, the conditions under which the putative "minimal" 4D N = 1 SCFT may be isolated into a disconnected allowed region remain elusive. Nevertheless, new features of the bounds are found that provide further evidence for the presence of a special solution to crossing symmetry corresponding to the "minimal" 4D N = 1 SCFT.
Low voltage, low power, high performance type II current conveyor-based linear current electrometers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajput, S. S.; Jamuar, S. S.
2002-10-01
Monolithic linear current electrometers in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology using type II current conveyors for high frequency current measurements are proposed. The proposed electrometers can measure the input current from 100 pA to 1.0 μA and have bandwidth in excess of 30 MHz.
Alfaro, Michael E; Zoller, Stefan; Lutzoni, François
2003-02-01
Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling has become increasingly popular in phylogenetics as a method for both estimating the maximum likelihood topology and for assessing nodal confidence. Despite the growing use of posterior probabilities, the relationship between the Bayesian measure of confidence and the most commonly used confidence measure in phylogenetics, the nonparametric bootstrap proportion, is poorly understood. We used computer simulation to investigate the behavior of three phylogenetic confidence methods: Bayesian posterior probabilities calculated via Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling (BMCMC-PP), maximum likelihood bootstrap proportion (ML-BP), and maximum parsimony bootstrap proportion (MP-BP). We simulated the evolution of DNA sequence on 17-taxon topologies under 18 evolutionary scenarios and examined the performance of these methods in assigning confidence to correct monophyletic and incorrect monophyletic groups, and we examined the effects of increasing character number on support value. BMCMC-PP and ML-BP were often strongly correlated with one another but could provide substantially different estimates of support on short internodes. In contrast, BMCMC-PP correlated poorly with MP-BP across most of the simulation conditions that we examined. For a given threshold value, more correct monophyletic groups were supported by BMCMC-PP than by either ML-BP or MP-BP. When threshold values were chosen that fixed the rate of accepting incorrect monophyletic relationship as true at 5%, all three methods recovered most of the correct relationships on the simulated topologies, although BMCMC-PP and ML-BP performed better than MP-BP. BMCMC-PP was usually a less biased predictor of phylogenetic accuracy than either bootstrapping method. BMCMC-PP provided high support values for correct topological bipartitions with fewer characters than was needed for nonparametric bootstrap.
Current Perspectives in High Energy Astrophysics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ormes, Jonathan F. (Editor)
1996-01-01
High energy astrophysics is a space-age discipline that has taken a quantum leap forward in the 1990s. The observables are photons and particles that are unable to penetrate the atmosphere and can only be observed from space or very high altitude balloons. The lectures presented as chapters of this book are based on the results from the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) and Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) missions to which the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center made significant hardware contributions. These missions study emissions from very hot plasmas, nuclear processes, and high energy particle interactions in space. Results to be discussed include gamma-ray beaming from active galactic nuclei (AGN), gamma-ray emission from pulsars, radioactive elements in the interstellar medium, X-ray emission from clusters of galaxies, and the progress being made to unravel the gamma-ray burst mystery. The recently launched X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) and prospects for upcoming Astro-E and Advanced X-ray Astronomy Satellite (AXAF) missions are also discussed.
Current situation on highly pathogenic avian influenza
USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database
Avian influenza is one of the most important diseases affecting the poultry industry worldwide. Avian influenza viruses can cause a range of clinical disease in poultry. Viruses that cause severe disease and mortality are referred to as highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. The Asian ...
High current metal ion implantation facility
Oztarhan, A.; Brown, I.G.; Evans, P.; Watt, G.; Bakkaloglu, C.; Eltas, A.S.; Oks, E.
1998-12-31
A vacuum arc ion source based metal ion implantation facility has been established at Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey and a surface modification research and development program is underway. The system is similar to the one in Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory which was first built and developed by Brown et al. The broad-beam ion source is repetitively pulsed at rates up to {approximately}10 pulses per second (can be increased to 50 pulses per second) and the extracted ion beam current can be up to {approximately}1 Amp. peak or {approximately}10 mA time averaged. The ion source extraction voltage was increased to 60 kV corresponding to mean beam energies of up to 150 keV or more because of the ion charge state multiplicity (extraction voltage can be increased to 100 kV if desired). Commissioning of the facility is in progress. Initial emphasis of the R and D programs that will be carried out will be in forming tribologically enhanced materials for industrial applications. In this paper they describe the design and operation of the implanter, summarize the preliminary performance parameters that have been obtained, and outline some of the programs they anticipate doing.
The High Current RF (HCRF) LINAC Program.
1992-11-01
system that can produce greater than ten megawatts of average optical power during a 200 second battle from a space I platform placed in orbit with a...program with SDIO funding. The goal was to achieve a laser system capable 6 1 U of producing >10 MW of optical power with a total battle time of > 200...that could drive a high-gain single-pass FEL amplifier with a total system efficiency of better than 40% with an optical wavelength of about one
High current density cathode for electrorefining in molten electrolyte
Li, Shelly X.
2010-06-29
A high current density cathode for electrorefining in a molten electrolyte for the continuous production and collection of loose dendritic or powdery deposits. The high current density cathode eliminates the requirement for mechanical scraping and electrochemical stripping of the deposits from the cathode in an anode/cathode module. The high current density cathode comprises a perforated electrical insulated material coating such that the current density is up to 3 A/cm.sup.2.
High current injector for heavy ion fusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, S.; Eylon, S.; Chupp, W. W.
1993-05-01
A 2 MV, 800 mA, K(+) injector for heavy ion fusion studies is under construction. This new injector is a one-beam version of the proposed 4-beam ILSE injector. A new 36-module MARX is being built to achieve a 5 micro-s flat top. The high voltage generator is stiff (less than 5k Omega) to minimize effects of beam-induced transients. A large (approximately 7 in. diameter) curved hot alumina-silicate source emits a 1 micro-s long beam pulse through a gridless extraction electrode, and the ions are accelerated to 1 MV in a diode configuration. Acceleration to 2 MV takes place in a set of electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) units, arranged to simultaneously focus and accelerate the ion beam. Heavy shields and other protection devices have been built in to minimize risks of high voltage breakdown. Beam aberration effects through the ESQ have been studied extensively with theory, simulations, and scaled experiments. The design, simulations, experiments, and engineering of the ESQ injector will be presented.
Sawabe, Kosuke; Imakawa, Masaki; Nakano, Masaki; Yamao, Takeshi; Hotta, Shu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Takenobu, Taishi
2012-12-04
Extremely high current densities are realized in single-crystal ambipolar light-emitting transistors using an electron-injection buffer layer and a current-confinement structure via laser etching. Moreover, a linear increase in the luminance was observed at current densities of up to 1 kA cm(-2) , which is an efficiency-preservation improvement of three orders of magnitude over conventional organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) at high current densities.
Equipartitioning in a high current proton linac
Young, L.M.
1997-08-01
The code PARMILA simulates the beam transmission through the Accelerator for the Production of Tritium (APT) linac. The beam is equipartitioned when the longitudinal and transverse temperatures are equal. This paper explores the consequence of equipartitioning in the APT linac. The simulations begin with a beam that starts at the ion-source plasma surface. PARMILA tracks the particles from the RFQ exit through the 1.7-GeV linac. This paper compares two focusing schemes. One scheme uses mostly equal strength quadrupoles. The equipartitioning scheme uses weaker focusing in the high-energy portion of the linac. The RMS beam size with the equipartitioning scheme is larger, but the relative size of the halo is less than in the equal-strength design.
Bootstrap Estimates of Standard Errors in Generalizability Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tong, Ye; Brennan, Robert L.
2007-01-01
Estimating standard errors of estimated variance components has long been a challenging task in generalizability theory. Researchers have speculated about the potential applicability of the bootstrap for obtaining such estimates, but they have identified problems (especially bias) in using the bootstrap. Using Brennan's bias-correcting procedures…
Bootstrap support is not first-order correct.
Susko, Edward
2009-04-01
The appropriate interpretation of bootstrap support for splits and the question of what constitutes large bootstrap support have received considerable attention. One desirable interpretation, indeed the interpretation that was put forward when bootstrap support for splits was first introduced, is that 1-minus bootstrap support is a P value for the hypothesis that the split is not well resolved. As a P value, bootstrap support has been argued to be first-order correct. By obtaining the limiting distribution of bootstrap support for a split when maximum likelihood estimation is conducted, it is shown that bootstrap support is not first-order correct and insight is provided into the nature of the problem. Borrowing from earlier results, it is also shown that similar results hold when the neighbor-joining algorithm is used. Examples suggest that bootstrap support is generally conservative as a P value and give insight as to why this is usually the case. The analysis indicates that the problem is largely due to the unusual nature of tree space where boundary trees always have at least 2 neighbors.
Bootstrap Estimates of Standard Errors in Generalizability Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tong, Ye; Brennan, Robert L.
2007-01-01
Estimating standard errors of estimated variance components has long been a challenging task in generalizability theory. Researchers have speculated about the potential applicability of the bootstrap for obtaining such estimates, but they have identified problems (especially bias) in using the bootstrap. Using Brennan's bias-correcting procedures…
Unbiased Estimates of Variance Components with Bootstrap Procedures
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brennan, Robert L.
2007-01-01
This article provides general procedures for obtaining unbiased estimates of variance components for any random-model balanced design under any bootstrap sampling plan, with the focus on designs of the type typically used in generalizability theory. The results reported here are particularly helpful when the bootstrap is used to estimate standard…
Unbiased Estimates of Variance Components with Bootstrap Procedures
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brennan, Robert L.
2007-01-01
This article provides general procedures for obtaining unbiased estimates of variance components for any random-model balanced design under any bootstrap sampling plan, with the focus on designs of the type typically used in generalizability theory. The results reported here are particularly helpful when the bootstrap is used to estimate standard…
Input evidence regarding the semantic bootstrapping hypothesis.
Rondal, J A; Cession, A
1990-10-01
The input language addressed to 18 language-learning children (MLU 1.00-3.00) was analysed so as to assess the quality of the semantic-syntactic correspondence posited by the semantic bootstrapping hypothesis. The correspondence appears to be quite satisfactory with little variation from the lower to the higher MLUs. All the persons and things referred to in the corpora were labelled by the mothers using nouns. All the actions referred to were labelled using verbs. Most of the attributive information was conveyed by adjectives. Spatial information was expressed through the use of spatial prepositions. As to the functional categories, all agents of actions and causes of events were encoded as subjects of sentences. All patients, themes, sources, goals, locations, and instruments were encoded as objects of sentences (either direct or oblique). This good semantic-syntactic correspondence may make the child's construction of grammatical categories easier.
Bootstrap performance profiles in stochastic algorithms assessment
Costa, Lino; Espírito Santo, Isabel A.C.P.; Oliveira, Pedro
2015-03-10
Optimization with stochastic algorithms has become a relevant research field. Due to its stochastic nature, its assessment is not straightforward and involves integrating accuracy and precision. Performance profiles for the mean do not show the trade-off between accuracy and precision, and parametric stochastic profiles require strong distributional assumptions and are limited to the mean performance for a large number of runs. In this work, bootstrap performance profiles are used to compare stochastic algorithms for different statistics. This technique allows the estimation of the sampling distribution of almost any statistic even with small samples. Multiple comparison profiles are presented for more than two algorithms. The advantages and drawbacks of each assessment methodology are discussed.
Conformal bootstrap, universality and gravitational scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jackson, Steven; McGough, Lauren; Verlinde, Herman
2015-12-01
We use the conformal bootstrap equations to study the non-perturbative gravitational scattering between infalling and outgoing particles in the vicinity of a black hole horizon in AdS. We focus on irrational 2D CFTs with large c and only Virasoro symmetry. The scattering process is described by the matrix element of two light operators (particles) between two heavy states (BTZ black holes). We find that the operator algebra in this regime is (i) universal and identical to that of Liouville CFT, and (ii) takes the form of an exchange algebra, specified by an R-matrix that exactly matches the scattering amplitude of 2 + 1 gravity. The R-matrix is given by a quantum 6j-symbol and the scattering phase by the volume of a hyperbolic tetrahedron. We comment on the relevance of our results to scrambling and the holographic reconstruction of the bulk physics near black hole horizons.
A 'bootstrapped' Teaching/Learning Procedure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Odusina Odusote, Olusogo
1998-04-01
Erasing preconceived antiphysics ideas by nonscience/nonmajor physics students have elicited diverse teaching methods. Introductory general physics courses at college level have been taught by a 'bootstrap' approach. A concise treatment of the syllabus by the teacher in about 1/2 of the course duration, with brief exercises and examples. Students are then introduced to real life situations - toys, home appliances, sports, disasters, etc, and the embedded physics concepts discussed. Usually this generates a feeling of deja vu, which elicits desire for more. Each application usually encompasses topics in a broad range of the syllabus. The other half of the course is used by students to work individually/groups on assigned and graded home-works and essays, with guidance from the lecture notes and the teacher/supervisor. An end of course examination shows increase in the success rate.
Uncertainty estimation in diffusion MRI using the nonlocal bootstrap.
Yap, Pew-Thian; An, Hongyu; Chen, Yasheng; Shen, Dinggang
2014-08-01
In this paper, we propose a new bootstrap scheme, called the nonlocal bootstrap (NLB) for uncertainty estimation. In contrast to the residual bootstrap, which relies on a data model, or the repetition bootstrap, which requires repeated signal measurements, NLB is not restricted by the data structure imposed by a data model and obviates the need for time-consuming multiple acquisitions. NLB hinges on the observation that local imaging information recurs in an image. This self-similarity implies that imaging information coming from spatially distant (nonlocal) regions can be exploited for more effective estimation of statistics of interest. Evaluations using in silico data indicate that NLB produces distribution estimates that are in closer agreement with those generated using Monte Carlo simulations, compared with the conventional residual bootstrap. Evaluations using in vivo data demonstrate that NLB produces results that are in agreement with our knowledge on white matter architecture.
Study of high current commutation by explosive switch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Usuba, S.; Kakudate, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Fujiwara, S.; Miyamoto, M.; Morita, T.; Kubota, A.; den, M.
1993-01-01
The study presents the basic experimental data obtained with a large current opening switch for current commutation using explosives. It is shown that currents up to a maximum of 40 kA can be completely interrupted within 30 microsec. The mechanism of current interruption using a thin conductor plate and methods of measuring interrupting current with a pickup coil and taking photographs with a high-speed camera (one frame per microsec) are discussed.
Performance of Bootstrap MCEWMA: Study case of Sukuk Musyarakah data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Safiih, L. Muhamad; Hila, Z. Nurul
2014-07-01
Sukuk Musyarakah is one of several instruments of Islamic bond investment in Malaysia, where the form of this sukuk is actually based on restructuring the conventional bond to become a Syariah compliant bond. The Syariah compliant is based on prohibition of any influence of usury, benefit or fixed return. Despite of prohibition, daily returns of sukuk are non-fixed return and in statistic, the data of sukuk returns are said to be a time series data which is dependent and autocorrelation distributed. This kind of data is a crucial problem whether in statistical and financing field. Returns of sukuk can be statistically viewed by its volatility, whether it has high volatility that describing the dramatically change of price and categorized it as risky bond or else. However, this crucial problem doesn't get serious attention among researcher compared to conventional bond. In this study, MCEWMA chart in Statistical Process Control (SPC) is mainly used to monitor autocorrelated data and its application on daily returns of securities investment data has gained widespread attention among statistician. However, this chart has always been influence by inaccurate estimation, whether on base model or its limit, due to produce large error and high of probability of signalling out-of-control process for false alarm study. To overcome this problem, a bootstrap approach used in this study, by hybridise it on MCEWMA base model to construct a new chart, i.e. Bootstrap MCEWMA (BMCEWMA) chart. The hybrid model, BMCEWMA, will be applied to daily returns of sukuk Musyarakah for Rantau Abang Capital Bhd. The performance of BMCEWMA base model showed that its more effective compare to real model, MCEWMA based on smaller error estimation, shorter the confidence interval and smaller false alarm. In other word, hybrid chart reduce the variability which shown by smaller error and false alarm. It concludes that the application of BMCEWMA is better than MCEWMA.
A voltage biased superconducting quantum interference device bootstrap circuit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Huiwu; Wang, Yongliang; Mück, Michael; Dong, Hui; Krause, Hans-Joachim; Braginski, Alex I.; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Jiang, Mianheng
2010-06-01
We present a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) readout circuit operating in the voltage bias mode and called a SQUID bootstrap circuit (SBC). The SBC is an alternative implementation of two existing methods for suppression of room-temperature amplifier noise: additional voltage feedback and current feedback. Two circuit branches are connected in parallel. In the dc SQUID branch, an inductively coupled coil connected in series provides the bias current feedback for enhancing the flux-to-current coefficient. The circuit branch parallel to the dc SQUID branch contains an inductively coupled voltage feedback coil with a shunt resistor in series for suppressing the preamplifier noise current by increasing the dynamic resistance. We show that the SBC effectively reduces the preamplifier noise to below the SQUID intrinsic noise. For a helium-cooled planar SQUID magnetometer with a SQUID inductance of 350 pH, a flux noise of about 3 μΦ0 Hz - 1/2 and a magnetic field resolution of less than 3 fT Hz - 1/2 were obtained. The SBC leads to a convenient direct readout electronics for a dc SQUID with a wider adjustment tolerance than other feedback schemes.
High-current channel characteristics in high-pressure gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinchuk, M. E.; Bogomaz, A. A.; Budin, A. V.; Leont'ev, V. V.; Leks, A. G.; Pozubenkov, A. A.; Rutberg, Ph G.
2015-11-01
Research results for discharge initiated by wire explosion in hydrogen at initial pressures up to 30 MPa and current amplitudes up to 1 MA are presented. Measurements of channel radius oscillation amplitude by magnetic probe diagnostics were made to calculate channel plasma parameters. The amplitude of channel radius oscillations was observed to decrease with growth of initial gas pressure and to increase with growth of current amplitude.
HIGH DYNAMIC-RANGE HIGH SPEED LINAC CURRENT MEASUREMENTS
Deibele, Craig Edmond; Curry, Douglas E; Dickson, Richard W
2012-01-01
It is desired to measure the linac current of a charged particle beam with a consistent accuracy over a dynamic range of over 120 dB. Conventional current transformers suffer from droop, can be susceptible to electromagnetic interference (EMI), and can be bandwidth limited. A novel detector and electronics were designed to maximize dynamic range of about 120 dB and measure rise-times on the order of 10 nanoseconds.
Stable superconducting magnet. [high current levels below critical temperature
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boom, R. W. (Inventor)
1967-01-01
Operation of a superconducting magnet is considered. A method is described for; (1) obtaining a relatively high current in a superconducting magnet positioned in a bath of a gas refrigerant; (2) operating a superconducting magnet at a relatively high current level without training; and (3) operating a superconducting magnet containing a plurality of turns of a niobium zirconium wire at a relatively high current level without training.
A common-gate bootstrapped CMOS rectifier for VHF isolated DC-DC converter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Dongfang; Zhang, Feng; Huang, Lu; Li, Jinliang
2017-06-01
A common-gate bootstrapped CMOS rectifier dedicated for VHF (very high frequency) isolated DC-DC converter is proposed. It uses common-gate bootstrapped technique to compensate the power loss due to the threshold voltage, and to solve the reflux problem in the conventional rectifier circuit. As a result, it improves the power conversion efficiency (PCE) and voltage conversion ratio (VCR). The design saves almost 90% of the area compared to a previously reported double capacitor structure. In addition, we compare the previous rectifier with the proposed common-gate bootstrapped rectifier in the case of the same area; simulation results show that the PCE and VCR of the proposed structure are superior to other structures. The proposed common-gate bootstrapped rectifier was fabricated by using CSMC 0.5 μm BCD process. The measured maximum PCE is 86% and VCR achieves 77% at the operating frequency of 20 MHz. The average PCE is about 79% and average VCR achieves 71% in the frequency range of 30-70 MHz. Measured PCE and VCR have been improved compared to previous results.
Bootstrapping a Multilingual Part-of-speech Tagger in One Person-day
2002-01-01
Bootstrapping a Multilingual Part-of-speech Tagger in One Person-day Silviu Cucerzan and David Yarowsky Department of Computer Science and Center for...requires only three resources, which are currently readily available in 60-100 world languages: (1) an online or hard-copy pocket-sized bilingual ...inducing initial lexical POS dis- tributions from English translations in a bilingual dictionary without POS tags. It handles irregular, regular and semi
Perceived Influences on High School Students' Current Career Expectations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Paa, Heidi K.; McWhirter, Ellen Hawley
2000-01-01
Presents descriptive data on high school students' (N=464) perceptions of various factors that might influence their current career expectations. Analysis suggests that high school students are aware of a variety of internal and external influences on their current career expectations. Girls endorsed more types of influence from same sex parent,…
Effects of high frequency current in welding aluminum alloy 6061
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fish, R. E.
1968-01-01
Uncontrolled high frequency current causes cracking in the heat-affected zone of aluminum alloy 6061 weldments during tungsten inert gas ac welding. Cracking developed when an improperly adjusted superimposed high frequency current was agitating the semimolten metal in the areas of grain boundary.
Perceived Influences on High School Students' Current Career Expectations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Paa, Heidi K.; McWhirter, Ellen Hawley
2000-01-01
Presents descriptive data on high school students' (N=464) perceptions of various factors that might influence their current career expectations. Analysis suggests that high school students are aware of a variety of internal and external influences on their current career expectations. Girls endorsed more types of influence from same sex parent,…
Dynamics of laser-guided alternating current high voltage discharges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daigle, J.-F.; Théberge, F.; Lassonde, P.; Kieffer, J.-C.; Fujii, T.; Fortin, J.; Châteauneuf, M.; Dubois, J.
2013-10-01
The dynamics of laser-guided alternating current high voltage discharges are characterized using a streak camera. Laser filaments were used to trigger and guide the discharges produced by a commercial Tesla coil. The streaking images revealed that the dynamics of the guided alternating current high voltage corona are different from that of a direct current source. The measured effective corona velocity and the absence of leader streamers confirmed that it evolves in a pure leader regime.
Jiang, Wenyu; Simon, Richard
2007-12-20
This paper first provides a critical review on some existing methods for estimating the prediction error in classifying microarray data where the number of genes greatly exceeds the number of specimens. Special attention is given to the bootstrap-related methods. When the sample size n is small, we find that all the reviewed methods suffer from either substantial bias or variability. We introduce a repeated leave-one-out bootstrap (RLOOB) method that predicts for each specimen in the sample using bootstrap learning sets of size ln. We then propose an adjusted bootstrap (ABS) method that fits a learning curve to the RLOOB estimates calculated with different bootstrap learning set sizes. The ABS method is robust across the situations we investigate and provides a slightly conservative estimate for the prediction error. Even with small samples, it does not suffer from large upward bias as the leave-one-out bootstrap and the 0.632+ bootstrap, and it does not suffer from large variability as the leave-one-out cross-validation in microarray applications. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
A Superconducting transformer system for high current cable testing
Godeke, A.; Dietderich, D. R.; Joseph, J. M.; Lizarazo, J.; Prestemon, S. O.; Miller, G.; Weijers, H. W.
2010-02-15
This article describes the development of a direct-current (dc) superconducting transformer system for the high current test of superconducting cables. The transformer consists of a core-free 10 464 turn primary solenoid which is enclosed by a 6.5 turn secondary. The transformer is designed to deliver a 50 kA dc secondary current at a dc primary current of about 50 A. The secondary current is measured inductively using two toroidal-wound Rogowski coils. The Rogowski coil signal is digitally integrated, resulting in a voltage signal that is proportional to the secondary current. This voltage signal is used to control the secondary current using a feedback loop which automatically compensates for resistive losses in the splices to the superconducting cable samples that are connected to the secondary. The system has been commissioned up to 28 kA secondary current. The reproducibility in the secondary current measurement is better than 0.05% for the relevant current range up to 25 kA. The drift in the secondary current, which results from drift in the digital integrator, is estimated to be below 0.5 A/min. The system's performance is further demonstrated through a voltage-current measurement on a superconducting cable sample at 11 T background magnetic field. The superconducting transformer system enables fast, high resolution, economic, and safe tests of the critical current of superconducting cable samples.
A superconducting transformer system for high current cable testing.
Godeke, A; Dietderich, D R; Joseph, J M; Lizarazo, J; Prestemon, S O; Miller, G; Weijers, H W
2010-03-01
This article describes the development of a direct-current (dc) superconducting transformer system for the high current test of superconducting cables. The transformer consists of a core-free 10,464 turn primary solenoid which is enclosed by a 6.5 turn secondary. The transformer is designed to deliver a 50 kA dc secondary current at a dc primary current of about 50 A. The secondary current is measured inductively using two toroidal-wound Rogowski coils. The Rogowski coil signal is digitally integrated, resulting in a voltage signal that is proportional to the secondary current. This voltage signal is used to control the secondary current using a feedback loop which automatically compensates for resistive losses in the splices to the superconducting cable samples that are connected to the secondary. The system has been commissioned up to 28 kA secondary current. The reproducibility in the secondary current measurement is better than 0.05% for the relevant current range up to 25 kA. The drift in the secondary current, which results from drift in the digital integrator, is estimated to be below 0.5 A/min. The system's performance is further demonstrated through a voltage-current measurement on a superconducting cable sample at 11 T background magnetic field. The superconducting transformer system enables fast, high resolution, economic, and safe tests of the critical current of superconducting cable samples.
Efficient circuit triggers high-current, high-voltage pulses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Green, E. D.
1964-01-01
Modified circuit uses diodes to effectively disconnect the charging resistors from the circuit during the discharge cycle. Result is an efficient parallel charging, high voltage pulse modulator with low voltage rating of components.
'Bootstrap' Configuration for Multistage Pulse-Tube Coolers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Bich; Nguyen, Lauren
2008-01-01
A bootstrap configuration has been proposed for multistage pulse-tube coolers that, for instance, provide final-stage cooling to temperatures as low as 20 K. The bootstrap configuration supplants the conventional configuration, in which customarily the warm heat exchangers of all stages reject heat at ambient temperature. In the bootstrap configuration, the warm heat exchanger, the inertance tube, and the reservoir of each stage would be thermally anchored to the cold heat exchanger of the next warmer stage. The bootstrapped configuration is superior to the conventional setup, in some cases increasing the 20 K cooler's coefficient of performance two-fold over that of an otherwise equivalent conventional layout. The increased efficiency could translate into less power consumption, less cooler mass, and/or lower cost for a given amount of cooling.
A latent p-value in testing by bootstrap.
Singh, Kesar
2011-11-01
The article poses a testing scheme to ensure that a bootstrap replications based positive outcome of hypothesis testing is reliable enough. The proposal identifies a natural hidden p-value in the context.
High Average Current Electron Guns for High-Power FELs
2009-12-09
20 A/cm2, while more advanced cathodes (with controlled porosity) can generate up to ~ 100 A/cm2. Single crystal cathodes such as lanthanum ...polycrystalline form of carbon that will operate at high temperatures and has improved strength and uniformity compared to grids made of tungsten or
High brightness negative ion sources with high emission current density
Vadim Dudnikov
2002-10-18
Through the development of Charge Exchange Injection [1] and Surface Plasma Sources (SPS) with Cesium Catalysis [2,3,4,5] the possibility for the accumulation of a high brightness proton beam in circular accelerators was increased greatly, and now it is more than sufficient for all real applications. The combination of the SPS with charge-exchange injection improved large accelerators operation and has permitted beam accumulation up to space-charge limit and overcome this limit several times [6]. The early SPS for accelerators have been in operation without modification for {approx}25 years. in this note an attention is concentrated on the seldom-discussed distinctive features of high brightness beam formation in noiseless regimes of negative ion source operation. Beam quality enhancement up to the level j/T > 1 A/cm{sup 2} eV is possible by optimization of negative ion generation, extraction, and transportation in SPS with cesium catalysis. Advanced version of the SPS for accelerators will be described. Features of negative ion beam formation, transportation, space-charge neutralization-overneutralization, and instability damping will be considered. Practical aspects of SPS operation and high brightness beam production will be discussed.
Bootstrap Standard Error Estimates in Dynamic Factor Analysis.
Zhang, Guangjian; Browne, Michael W
2010-05-28
Dynamic factor analysis summarizes changes in scores on a battery of manifest variables over repeated measurements in terms of a time series in a substantially smaller number of latent factors. Algebraic formulae for standard errors of parameter estimates are more difficult to obtain than in the usual intersubject factor analysis because of the interdependence of successive observations. Bootstrap methods can fill this need, however. The standard bootstrap of individual timepoints is not appropriate because it destroys their order in time and consequently gives incorrect standard error estimates. Two bootstrap procedures that are appropriate for dynamic factor analysis are described. The moving block bootstrap breaks down the original time series into blocks and draws samples of blocks instead of individual timepoints. A parametric bootstrap is essentially a Monte Carlo study in which the population parameters are taken to be estimates obtained from the available sample. These bootstrap procedures are demonstrated using 103 days of affective mood self-ratings from a pregnant woman, 90 days of personality self-ratings from a psychology freshman, and a simulation study.
Carving out the end of the world or (superconformal bootstrap in six dimensions)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Chi-Ming; Lin, Ying-Hsuan
2017-08-01
We bootstrap N=(1,0) superconformal field theories in six dimensions, by analyzing the four-point function of flavor current multiplets. Assuming E 8 flavor group, we present universal bounds on the central charge C T and the flavor central charge C J . Based on the numerical data, we conjecture that the rank-one E-string theory saturates the universal lower bound on C J , and numerically determine the spectrum of long multiplets in the rank-one E-string theory. We comment on the possibility of solving the higher-rank E-string theories by bootstrap and thereby probing M-theory on {AdS}_7× {S}^4/{Z}_2.
A Bootstrap Approach to Martian Manufacturing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dorais, Gregory A.
2004-01-01
In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) is an essential element of any affordable strategy for a sustained human presence on Mars. Ideally, Martian habitats would be extremely massive to allow plenty of room to comfortably live and work, as well as to protect the occupants from the environment. Moreover, transportation and power generation systems would also require significant mass if affordable. For our approach to ISRU, we use the industrialization of the U.S. as a metaphor. The 19th century started with small blacksmith shops and ended with massive steel mills primarily accomplished by blacksmiths increasing their production capacity and product size to create larger shops, which produced small mills, which produced the large steel mills that industrialized the country. Most of the mass of a steel mill is comprised of steel in simple shapes, which are produced and repaired with few pieces of equipment also mostly made of steel in basic shapes. Due to this simplicity, we expect that the 19th century manufacturing growth can be repeated on Mars in the 21st century using robots as the primary labor force. We suggest a "bootstrap" approach to manufacturing on Mars that uses a "seed" manufacturing system that uses regolith to create major structural components and spare parts. The regolith would be melted, foamed, and sintered as needed to fabricate parts using casting and solid freeform fabrication techniques. Complex components, such as electronics, would be brought from Earth and integrated as needed. These parts would be assembled to create additional manufacturing systems, which can be both more capable and higher capacity. These subsequent manufacturing systems could refine vast amounts of raw materials to create large components, as well as assemble equipment, habitats, pressure vessels, cranes, pipelines, railways, trains, power generation stations, and other facilities needed to economically maintain a sustained human presence on Mars.
Bootstrapping an NMHV amplitude through three loops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dixon, Lance J.; von Hippel, Matt
2014-10-01
We extend the hexagon function bootstrap to the next-to-maximally-helicity-violating (NMHV) configuration for six-point scattering in planar = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory at three loops. Constraints from the differential equation, from the operator product expansion (OPE) for Wilson loops with operator insertions, and from multi-Regge factorization, lead to a unique answer for the three-loop ratio function. The three-loop result also predicts additional terms in the OPE expansion, as well as the behavior of NMHV amplitudes in the multi-Regge limit at one higher logarithmic accuracy (NNLL) than was used as input. Both predictions are in agreement with recent results from the flux-tube approach. We also study the multi-particle factorization of multi-loop amplitudes for the first time. We find that the function controlling this factorization is purely logarithmic through three loops. We show that a function U , which is closely related to the parity-even part of the ratio function V , is remarkably simple; only five of the nine possible final entries in its symbol are non-vanishing. We study the analytic and numerical behavior of both the parity-even and parity-odd parts of the ratio function on simple lines traversing the space of cross ratios ( u, v, w), as well as on a few two-dimensional planes. Finally, we present an empirical formula for V in terms of elements of the coproduct of the six-gluon MHV remainder function R 6 at one higher loop, which works through three loops for V (four loops for R 6).
BusyBee Web: metagenomic data analysis by bootstrapped supervised binning and annotation
Kiefer, Christina; Fehlmann, Tobias; Backes, Christina
2017-01-01
Abstract Metagenomics-based studies of mixed microbial communities are impacting biotechnology, life sciences and medicine. Computational binning of metagenomic data is a powerful approach for the culture-independent recovery of population-resolved genomic sequences, i.e. from individual or closely related, constituent microorganisms. Existing binning solutions often require a priori characterized reference genomes and/or dedicated compute resources. Extending currently available reference-independent binning tools, we developed the BusyBee Web server for the automated deconvolution of metagenomic data into population-level genomic bins using assembled contigs (Illumina) or long reads (Pacific Biosciences, Oxford Nanopore Technologies). A reversible compression step as well as bootstrapped supervised binning enable quick turnaround times. The binning results are represented in interactive 2D scatterplots. Moreover, bin quality estimates, taxonomic annotations and annotations of antibiotic resistance genes are computed and visualized. Ground truth-based benchmarks of BusyBee Web demonstrate comparably high performance to state-of-the-art binning solutions for assembled contigs and markedly improved performance for long reads (median F1 scores: 70.02–95.21%). Furthermore, the applicability to real-world metagenomic datasets is shown. In conclusion, our reference-independent approach automatically bins assembled contigs or long reads, exhibits high sensitivity and precision, enables intuitive inspection of the results, and only requires FASTA-formatted input. The web-based application is freely accessible at: https://ccb-microbe.cs.uni-saarland.de/busybee. PMID:28472498
High Harmonic Fast Wave heating and current drive for NSTX
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robinson, J. A.; Majeski, R.; Hosea, J.; Menard, J.; Ono, M.; Phillips, C. K.; Wilson, J. R.; Wright, J.; Batchelor, D. B.; Carter, M. D.; Jaeger, E. F.; Ryan, P.; Swain, D.; Mau, T. K.; Chiu, S. C.; Smithe, D.
1997-11-01
Heating and noninductive current drive in NSTX will initially use 6 MW of rf power in the high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) regime. We present numerical modelling of HHFW heating and current drive in NSTX using the PICES, CURRAY, FISIC, and METS95 codes. High electron β during the discharge flattop in NSTX is predicted to result in off-axis power deposition and current drive. However, reductions in the trapped electron fraction (due also to high β effects) are predicted to result in adequate current drive efficiency, with ~ 400 - 500 kA of noninductive current driven. Sufficient per-pass absorption (>10%) to ensure effective electron heating is also expected for the startup plasma. Present plans call for a single twelve strap antenna driven by six FMIT transmitters operating at 30 MHz. The design for the antenna and matching system will also be discussed.
High frequency fluoroptic thermometry current sensing for weapon susceptibility testing
Cernosek, R.W.
1988-01-01
A high frequency current measurement technique for susceptibility testing is proposed. This technique uses a resistive element to produce a temperature change that is sensed by a fluoroptic thermometer. Laboratory testing has shown that RF currents as small as 1.5 mA are measureable for frequencies up to 10 GHz. Errors bounds in determining the current are 6 dB. 7 refs., 6 figs.
Development of Large Current High Precision Pulse Power Supply
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takayanagi, Tomohiro; Koseki, Shoichiro; Kubo, Hiroshi; Katoh, Shuji; Ogawa, Shinichi
JAEA and KEK are jointly constructing a high intensity proton accelerator project J-PARC. Its main accelerator is 3GeV synchrotron. Its injection bump magnets, especially horizontal paint bump magnets, are excited by large pulse currents. Their rated currents are over 10kA and pulse widths are about 1ms. Tracking errors are required to be less than 1%. Multiple connected two-quadrant IGBT choppers are adopted for their power supplies. Their output currents are controlled by feedback control with minor loop voltage control (m-AVR). When output current of a chopper intermits at small current, its output voltage rises up and current control becomes difficult. In this paper response of m-AVR and output voltage characteristics at current intermittent region are studied and an improved control scheme is proposed. The performance is confirmed by a test.
Bootstrapping least-squares estimates in biochemical reaction networks.
Linder, Daniel F; Rempała, Grzegorz A
2015-01-01
The paper proposes new computational methods of computing confidence bounds for the least-squares estimates (LSEs) of rate constants in mass action biochemical reaction network and stochastic epidemic models. Such LSEs are obtained by fitting the set of deterministic ordinary differential equations (ODEs), corresponding to the large-volume limit of a reaction network, to network's partially observed trajectory treated as a continuous-time, pure jump Markov process. In the large-volume limit the LSEs are asymptotically Gaussian, but their limiting covariance structure is complicated since it is described by a set of nonlinear ODEs which are often ill-conditioned and numerically unstable. The current paper considers two bootstrap Monte-Carlo procedures, based on the diffusion and linear noise approximations for pure jump processes, which allow one to avoid solving the limiting covariance ODEs. The results are illustrated with both in-silico and real data examples from the LINE 1 gene retrotranscription model and compared with those obtained using other methods.
High Current Ion Source Development for Heavy Ion Fusion
Westenskow, G A; Grote, D P; Kwan, J W
2003-09-04
We are developing high-current-density high-brightness sources for Heavy Ion Fusion applications. Heavy ion driven inertial fusion requires beams of high brightness in order to achieve high power density at the target for high target gain. At present, there are no existing ion source types that can readily meet all the driver HIF requirements, though sources exist which are adequate for present experiments and which with further development may achieve driver requirements. Our two major efforts have been on alumino-silicate sources and RF plasma sources. Experiments being performed on a 10-cm alumino-silicate source are described. To obtain a compact system for a HIF driver we are studying RF plasma sources where low current beamlets are combined to produce a high current beam. A 80-kV 20-{micro}s source has produced up to 5 mA of Ar{sup +} in a single beamlet. The extraction current density was 100 mA/cm{sup 2}. We present measurements of the extracted current density as a function of RF power and gas pressure, current density uniformity, emittance, and energy dispersion (due to charge exchange).
New Pulsed Power Technology for High Current Accelerators
Caporaso, G J
2002-06-27
Recent advances in solid-state modulators now permit the design of a new class of high current accelerators. These new accelerators will be able to operate in burst mode at frequencies of several MHz with unprecedented flexibility and precision in pulse format. These new modulators can drive accelerators to high average powers that far exceed those of any other technology and can be used to enable precision beam manipulations. New insulator technology combined with novel pulse forming lines and switching may enable the construction of a new type of high gradient, high current accelerator. Recent developments in these areas will be reviewed.
Motor monitoring method and apparatus using high frequency current components
Casada, D.A.
1996-05-21
A motor current analysis method and apparatus for monitoring electrical-motor-driven devices are disclosed. The method and apparatus utilize high frequency portions of the motor current spectra to evaluate the condition of the electric motor and the device driven by the electric motor. The motor current signal produced as a result of an electric motor is monitored and the low frequency components of the signal are removed by a high-pass filter. The signal is then analyzed to determine the condition of the electrical motor and the driven device. 16 figs.
Motor monitoring method and apparatus using high frequency current components
Casada, Donald A.
1996-01-01
A motor current analysis method and apparatus for monitoring electrical-motor-driven devices. The method and apparatus utilize high frequency portions of the motor current spectra to evaluate the condition of the electric motor and the device driven by the electric motor. The motor current signal produced as a result of an electric motor is monitored and the low frequency components of the signal are removed by a high-pass filter. The signal is then analyzed to determine the condition of the electrical motor and the driven device.
Assessment of bootstrap resampling performance for PET data.
Markiewicz, P J; Reader, A J; Matthews, J C
2015-01-07
Bootstrap resampling has been successfully used for estimation of statistical uncertainty of parameters such as tissue metabolism, blood flow or displacement fields for image registration. The performance of bootstrap resampling as applied to PET list-mode data of the human brain and dedicated phantoms is assessed in a novel and systematic way such that: (1) the assessment is carried out in two resampling stages: the 'real world' stage where multiple reference datasets of varying statistical level are generated and the 'bootstrap world' stage where corresponding bootstrap replicates are generated from the reference datasets. (2) All resampled datasets were reconstructed yielding images from which multiple voxel and regions of interest (ROI) values were extracted to form corresponding distributions between the two stages. (3) The difference between the distributions from both stages was quantified using the Jensen-Shannon divergence and the first four moments. It was found that the bootstrap distributions are consistently different to the real world distributions across the statistical levels. The difference was explained by a shift in the mean (up to 33% for voxels and 14% for ROIs) being proportional to the inverse square root of the statistical level (number of counts). Other moments were well replicated by the bootstrap although for very low statistical levels the estimation of the variance was poor. Therefore, the bootstrap method should be used with care when estimating systematic errors (bias) and variance when very low statistical levels are present such as in early time frames of dynamic acquisitions, when the underlying population may not be sufficiently represented.
High-accuracy current sensing circuit with current compensation technique for buck-boost converter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rao, Yuan; Deng, Wan-Ling; Huang, Jun-Kai
2015-03-01
A novel on-chip current sensing circuit with current compensation technique suitable for buck-boost converter is presented in this article. The proposed technique can sense the full-range inductor current with high accuracy and high speed. It is mainly based on matched current mirror and does not require a large proportion of aspect ratio between the powerFET and the senseFET, thus it reduces the complexity of circuit design and the layout mismatch issue without decreasing the power efficiency. The circuit is fabricated with TSMC 0.25 µm 2P5M mixed-signal process. Simulation results show that the buck-boost converter can be operated at 200 kHz to 4 MHz switching frequency with an input voltage from 2.8 to 4.7 V. The output voltage is 3.6 V, and the maximum accuracy for both high and low side sensing current reaches 99% within the load current ranging from 200 to 600 mA.
Clamp provides efficient connection for high-density currents
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mc Carthy, J. R.; Trebes, D. M.
1967-01-01
Electrical connector clamp /bus bar/ gives high contact-surface efficiency for providing a high current to thin wall stainless steel tubing containing hydrogen gas. It uses lead solder film to provide the electrical equivalent of a fusion bond without degrading the grain structure, permitting disassembly and reuse of the components.
Estimating uncertainty in respondent-driven sampling using a tree bootstrap method.
Baraff, Aaron J; McCormick, Tyler H; Raftery, Adrian E
2016-12-20
Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a network-based form of chain-referral sampling used to estimate attributes of populations that are difficult to access using standard survey tools. Although it has grown quickly in popularity since its introduction, the statistical properties of RDS estimates remain elusive. In particular, the sampling variability of these estimates has been shown to be much higher than previously acknowledged, and even methods designed to account for RDS result in misleadingly narrow confidence intervals. In this paper, we introduce a tree bootstrap method for estimating uncertainty in RDS estimates based on resampling recruitment trees. We use simulations from known social networks to show that the tree bootstrap method not only outperforms existing methods but also captures the high variability of RDS, even in extreme cases with high design effects. We also apply the method to data from injecting drug users in Ukraine. Unlike other methods, the tree bootstrap depends only on the structure of the sampled recruitment trees, not on the attributes being measured on the respondents, so correlations between attributes can be estimated as well as variability. Our results suggest that it is possible to accurately assess the high level of uncertainty inherent in RDS.
Estimating uncertainty in respondent-driven sampling using a tree bootstrap method
Baraff, Aaron J.; McCormick, Tyler H.; Raftery, Adrian E.
2016-01-01
Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a network-based form of chain-referral sampling used to estimate attributes of populations that are difficult to access using standard survey tools. Although it has grown quickly in popularity since its introduction, the statistical properties of RDS estimates remain elusive. In particular, the sampling variability of these estimates has been shown to be much higher than previously acknowledged, and even methods designed to account for RDS result in misleadingly narrow confidence intervals. In this paper, we introduce a tree bootstrap method for estimating uncertainty in RDS estimates based on resampling recruitment trees. We use simulations from known social networks to show that the tree bootstrap method not only outperforms existing methods but also captures the high variability of RDS, even in extreme cases with high design effects. We also apply the method to data from injecting drug users in Ukraine. Unlike other methods, the tree bootstrap depends only on the structure of the sampled recruitment trees, not on the attributes being measured on the respondents, so correlations between attributes can be estimated as well as variability. Our results suggest that it is possible to accurately assess the high level of uncertainty inherent in RDS. PMID:27930328
Transmission Level High Temperature Superconducting Fault Current Limiter
Stewart, Gary
2016-10-05
The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of utilizing high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials in a Transmission Level Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SFCL) application. During the project, the type of high-temperature superconducting material used evolved from 1^{st} generation (1G) BSCCO-2212 melt cast bulk high-temperature superconductors to 2^{nd} generation (2G) YBCO-based high-temperature superconducting tape. The SFCL employed SuperPower's “Matrix” technology, that offers modular features to enable scale up to transmission voltage levels. The SFCL consists of individual modules that contain elements and parallel inductors that assist in carrying the current during the fault. A number of these modules are arranged in an m x n array to form the current-limiting matrix.
High-voltage, high-current, solid-state closing switch
Focia, Ronald Jeffrey
2017-08-22
A high-voltage, high-current, solid-state closing switch uses a field-effect transistor (e.g., a MOSFET) to trigger a high-voltage stack of thyristors. The switch can have a high hold-off voltage, high current carrying capacity, and high time-rate-of-change of current, di/dt. The fast closing switch can be used in pulsed power applications.
Robust ANCOVA using a smoother with bootstrap bagging.
Wilcox, Rand R
2009-05-01
Many robust analogs of the classic analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) method have been proposed, some of which are based on some type of regression smoother. A method that first appeared in this journal, which is relatively simple and performs well in simulations, is based on a running interval smoother combined with comparing medians or 20% trimmed means. It makes no parametric assumption about the regression lines and does not assume that the regression lines are parallel. A possible way of improving the efficiency of the running interval smoother is to use bootstrap bagging and a minor goal here is to report some results supporting this approach. The major goal is to consider how ANCOVA might be performed when bootstrap bagging is used. Simple extensions of extant approaches that use some type of bootstrap method were found to be unsatisfactory. However, a basic percentile bootstrap method was found to perform well in simulations. And a reanalysis of data dealing with teachers' expectations about the cognitive ability of students illustrates that bootstrap bagging can make a practical difference.
Unbiased bootstrap error estimation for linear discriminant analysis.
Vu, Thang; Sima, Chao; Braga-Neto, Ulisses M; Dougherty, Edward R
2014-12-01
Convex bootstrap error estimation is a popular tool for classifier error estimation in gene expression studies. A basic question is how to determine the weight for the convex combination between the basic bootstrap estimator and the resubstitution estimator such that the resulting estimator is unbiased at finite sample sizes. The well-known 0.632 bootstrap error estimator uses asymptotic arguments to propose a fixed 0.632 weight, whereas the more recent 0.632+ bootstrap error estimator attempts to set the weight adaptively. In this paper, we study the finite sample problem in the case of linear discriminant analysis under Gaussian populations. We derive exact expressions for the weight that guarantee unbiasedness of the convex bootstrap error estimator in the univariate and multivariate cases, without making asymptotic simplifications. Using exact computation in the univariate case and an accurate approximation in the multivariate case, we obtain the required weight and show that it can deviate significantly from the constant 0.632 weight, depending on the sample size and Bayes error for the problem. The methodology is illustrated by application on data from a well-known cancer classification study.
Bootstrap hypothesis tests for evolutionary trees and other dendrograms.
Brown, J K
1994-01-01
The bootstrap computer-intensive statistical technique is frequently applied to statistical analyses of phylogenetic trees. The widely used rule that a group is supported significantly if it appears in at least 95% of bootstrap trees is conservative in most situations. This paper describes three ways of using the bootstrap to carry out statistical inference on phylogenies. The first method tests whether there is nonrandom support for a single group or tree. The second method compares the support for two groups or trees. The third method tests whether a single group or tree has better support than the set of all possible alternatives; this may be a replacement for the "95% rule." These tests generally require fewer bootstrap trees to be estimated than do other methods of bootstrapping phylogenies. A simple, sequential statistical method can be used to increase the efficiency further. These methods can be applied to tests of multiple hypotheses about a single phylogeny. Parsimony analyses of 5S rRNA sequences of plants and cluster analyses of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA bands in three pathotypes of the cereal eyespot fungus are used as illustrative examples. The tests can be used to analyze dendrograms in subjects other than taxonomy. PMID:7991621
A bootstrap estimation scheme for chemical compositional data with nondetects
Palarea-Albaladejo, J; Martín-Fernández, J.A; Olea, Ricardo A.
2014-01-01
The bootstrap method is commonly used to estimate the distribution of estimators and their associated uncertainty when explicit analytic expressions are not available or are difficult to obtain. It has been widely applied in environmental and geochemical studies, where the data generated often represent parts of whole, typically chemical concentrations. This kind of constrained data is generically called compositional data, and they require specialised statistical methods to properly account for their particular covariance structure. On the other hand, it is not unusual in practice that those data contain labels denoting nondetects, that is, concentrations falling below detection limits. Nondetects impede the implementation of the bootstrap and represent an additional source of uncertainty that must be taken into account. In this work, a bootstrap scheme is devised that handles nondetects by adding an imputation step within the resampling process and conveniently propagates their associated uncertainly. In doing so, it considers the constrained relationships between chemical concentrations originated from their compositional nature. Bootstrap estimates using a range of imputation methods, including new stochastic proposals, are compared across scenarios of increasing difficulty. They are formulated to meet compositional principles following the log-ratio approach, and an adjustment is introduced in the multivariate case to deal with nonclosed samples. Results suggest that nondetect bootstrap based on model-based imputation is generally preferable. A robust approach based on isometric log-ratio transformations appears to be particularly suited in this context. Computer routines in the R statistical programming language are provided.
High Harmonic Fast Wave Heating and Current Drive for NSTX
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robinson, J. A.; Majeski, R.; Menard, J.; Ono, M.; Phillips, C. K.; Wilson, J. R.; Batchelor, D. B.; Carter, M. D.; Jaeger, E. F.; Smithe, D.
1996-11-01
Heating and noninductive current drive in NSTX will initially be accomplished with 6 MW of radio-frequency (rf) power applied in the high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) regime. HHFW heating and current drive differs from conventional fast wave current drive in that, although the frequency of operation (30-40 MHz) is in the range of conventional tokamak experiments, ω_rf ~ 10-20 Ω_ci due to the low magnetic field (0.35 T). Strong absorption (100% per pass) is ensured by the high plasma beta. Here we present numerical modelling of HHFW heating and current drive in NSTX using the PICES, FISIC, and METS95 codes. Preliminary designs for the NSTX HHFW antenna and matching system are also presented, along with analysis of the launched antenna wavenumber spectrum using the RANT3D code.
Multistable current states in high-temperature superconducting composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romanovskii, V. R.
2016-09-01
Conditions for current instabilities that arise in high-temperature superconducting composites with essentially nonlinear dependences of the critical current densities and resistivity on the temperature and magnetic induction have been studied. The analysis has been conducted in terms of zero-dimensional models, which has made it possible to formulate general physical mechanisms behind the formation of currents states in superconducting composites according to the external magnetic field induction, cooling conditions, and the properties of the superconductor and cladding. The possible existence of current and temperature stable steps, as well as stable steps of the electric field strength, in the absence of the superconducting-normal transition, has been demonstrated. Reasons for instabilities under multistable current states have been discussed.
Heat extraction from targets in high current electron beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bubb, Ernest; Altemus, Rosemary; McCarthy, James; Biron, Don
1982-12-01
Various aspects of heat extraction from targets in high current electron beams are examined, among which are the dependences on boundary temperature, beam current density, and convective effects from an ambient gaseous environment. The design of a cooling system which extracts heat by forcing hydrogen (or helium) gas at a pressure of several Torr at near sonic velocities across a target surface is described. Boundary layer theory calculations and empirical measurements of the average heat transfer coefficient for the system are presented.
High-Voltage Current Transformers With Optical Signal Transmission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malewski, Ryszard
1981-02-01
Existing prototype optical current transformers are reviewed and their design as well as their functional characteristics are analyzed in the light of the practical requirements dictated by operating conditions in an extra-high-voltage (EHV) switchyard. A perspective of the development of a new magneto-optic current transformer is explored. The feasibility of such apparatus depends on technological progress in manufacturing mono-mode optical fibers which will not depolarize the transmitted light.
High temperature superconducting current leads for fusion magnet systems
Wu, J.L.; Dederer, J.T.; Singh, S.K. . Science and Technology Center); Hull, J.R. )
1991-01-01
Superconducting magnets for fusion applications typically have very high operating currents. These currents are transmitted from the room temperature power supplies to the low temperature superconducting coils by way of helium-vapor-cooled current leads. Because of the high current magnitude and the resistive characteristics associated with the normal metallic lead conductors, a substantial amount of power is dissipated in the lead. To maintain a stable operation, a high rate of helium vapor flow, generated by the boil-off of liquid helium, is required to cool the lead conductors. This helium boil-off substantially increases both the installation capacity and the operating cost of the helium refrigerator/liquefier. The boil-off of liquid helium can be significantly reduced by employing ceramic high temperature superconductors, such as Y-Ba-Cu-O, in the low temperature part of the lead conductor structure. This concept utilizes the superconducting, as well as the low thermal conductivity properties of the superconductor materials in eliminating power dissipation in part of the current lead and in inhibiting heat conduction into the liquid helium pool, resulting in reduced helium boil-off. This design concept has been conclusively demonstrated by a 2-kA current lead test model using Y-Ba-Cu-O (123) material which, although not optimized in design, has significantly reduced the rate of helium boil-off in comparison to optimized conventional leads. There appear to be no major technological barriers for scaling up this design to higher current levels for applications in fusion magnet systems or in fusion related testing activities. The theoretical basis of the current lead concept, as well as the important design and technology issues are addressed. The potential cost saving derived from employing these leads in fusion magnets is also discussed. In addition, a design concept for a 10-kA lead is presented.
High-current, fast-switching transistor development
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hower, P. L.
1981-01-01
The design, wafer-processing techniques, and various measurements which include forward safe operating area, dc characteristics, and switching times are described for a larger-diameter (33) transistor. An improved base contact for equalizing the base-emitter voltage at high currents was developed along with an improved emitter contact preform which increases the silicon area available for current conduction. The electrical performance achieved is consistent with the proposed optimum design.
High current density pulsed cathode experiments at SLAC
Koontz, R.; Fant, K.; Vlieks, A.
1990-06-01
A 1.9 microperveance beam diode has been constructed to test high current density cathodes for use in klystrons. Several standard and specially coated dispenser cathodes are being tested. Results of tests to date show average cathode current densities in excess of 25 amps/cm, and maximum electric field gradients of more than 450 kV/cm for pulses of the order of 1{mu}sec. 3 refs., 11 figs.
A high current density plasma cathode electron gun
Fu Wenjie; Yan Yang; Li Wenxu; Li Xiaoyun; Wu Jianqiang
2010-02-15
The design, performance, and characteristics of a plasma cathode electron gun are presented. The plasma cathode is based on a hollow cathode direct current discharge, and the electron beam is accelerated by pulse voltage. By discharging at high gas pressure and operating at low gas pressure, both the maximum accelerating voltage and maximum emitting current could be increased. Utilizing argon, with the accelerating voltage up to 9 kV and gas pressure down to 52 mPa, the gun is able to generate an electron beam of about 4.7 A, and the corresponding emitting current density is about 600 A/cm{sup 2}.
Discharge current modes of high power impulse magnetron sputtering
Wu, Zhongzhen Xiao, Shu; Ma, Zhengyong; Cui, Suihan; Ji, Shunping; Pan, Feng; Tian, Xiubo; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K.
2015-09-15
Based on the production and disappearance of ions and electrons in the high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasma near the target, the expression of the discharge current is derived. Depending on the slope, six possible modes are deduced for the discharge current and the feasibility of each mode is discussed. The discharge parameters and target properties are simplified into the discharge voltage, sputtering yield, and ionization energy which mainly affect the discharge plasma. The relationship between these factors and the discharge current modes is also investigated.
High current DyBCO-ROEBEL Assembled Coated Conductor (RACC)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldacker, W.; Nast, R.; Kotzyba, G.; Schlachter, S. I.; Frank, A.; Ringsdorf, B.; Schmidt, C.; Komarek, P.
2006-06-01
Low AC loss high transport current HTS cables (>1 kA) are required for application in transformers, generators and are considered for future generations of fusion reactors coils. 2G coated conductors are suitable candidates for high field application at quite high operation temperatures of 50-77 K, which is crucial precondition for economical cooling costs. As a feasibility study we present the first ROEBEL bar cable of approx. 35 cm length made from industrial DyBCO coated conductor (THEVA GmbH, Germany). Meander shaped ROEBEL strands of 4 mm width with a twist pitch of 180 mm were cut from 10 mm wide CC tapes using a specially designed tool. The strands carried in average 157 Amps/cm-width DC and were assembled to a subcable with 5 strands and a final cable with 16 strands. The 5 strand cable was tested and carried a transport current of >300 Amps DC at 77 K, equivalent to the sum of the individual strand transport critical currents. The 16 strand cable carried 500 A limited through heating effects and non sufficient stabilisation and current sharing. A pulse current load indicated a current carrying potential of >1 kA for the 16 strand cable.
A wild bootstrap approach for the selection of biomarkers in early diagnostic trials.
Zapf, Antonia; Brunner, Edgar; Konietschke, Frank
2015-05-01
In early diagnostic trials, particularly in biomarker studies, the aim is often to select diagnostic tests among several methods. In case of metric, discrete, or even ordered categorical data, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (denoted by AUC) is an appropriate overall accuracy measure for the selection, because the AUC is independent of cut-off points. For selection of biomarkers the individual AUC's are compared with a pre-defined threshold. To keep the overall coverage probability or the multiple type-I error rate, simultaneous confidence intervals and multiple contrast tests are considered. We propose a purely nonparametric approach for the estimation of the AUC's with the corresponding confidence intervals and statistical tests. This approach uses the correlation among the statistics to account for multiplicity. For small sample sizes, a Wild-Bootstrap approach is presented. It is shown that the corresponding intervals and tests are asymptotically exact. Extensive simulation studies indicate that the derived Wild-Bootstrap approach keeps and exploits the nominal type-I error at best, even for high accuracies and in case of small samples sizes. The strength of the correlation, the type of covariance structure, a skewed distribution, and also a moderate imbalanced case-control ratio do not have any impact on the behavior of the approach. A real data set illustrates the application of the proposed methods. We recommend the new Wild Bootstrap approach for the selection of biomarkers in early diagnostic trials, especially for high accuracies and small samples sizes.
Characteristics of current filamentation in high gain photoconductive semiconductor switching
Zutavern, F J; Loubriel, G M; O'Malley, M W; Helgeson, W D; McLaughlin, D L; Denison, G J
1992-01-01
Characteristics of current filamentation are reported for high gain photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS). Infrared photoluminescence is used to monitor carrier recombination radiation during fast initiation of high gain switching in large (1.5 cm gap) lateral GaAs PCSS. Spatial modulation of the optical trigger, a 200--300 ps pulse width laser, is examined. Effects on the location and number of current filaments, rise time, and delay to high gain switching, minimum trigger energy, and degradation of switch contacts are presented. Implications of these measurements for the theoretical understanding and practical development of these switches are discussed. Efforts to increase current density and reduce switch size and optical trigger energy requirements are described. Results from contact development and device lifetime testing are presented and the impact of these results on practical device applications is discussed.
Interdigitated back contact solar cell with high-current collection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garner, C. M.; Nasby, R. D.; Sexton, F. W.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Norwood, D. P.
Internal current collection efficiencies greater than 90% and energy conversion efficiencies of 18 % at 30 suns were measured on a laboratory version of the interdigitated back contact (IBC) solar cell. A phosphorous gettering diffusion was performed on the front surface and then etched off to achieve these high current collection efficiencies. Thermal oxides were grown on the front and back of the cell to passivate the silicon surfaces. Although the internal collection efficiencies of the cell were high, series resistance caused the fill factor (FF) to decrease at concentrations above 30 suns. Dark current measurements on cells with a new grid spacing indicate that the series resistance is much lower than in the previous cell design. It is suggested that this should result in higher efficiencies at high concentration.
High Current Ion Sources and Injectors for Heavy Ion Fusion
Kwan, Joe W.
2005-02-15
Heavy ion beam driven inertial fusion requires short ion beam pulses with high current and high brightness. Depending on the beam current and the number of beams in the driver system, the injector can use a large diameter surface ionization source or merge an array of small beamlets from a plasma source. In this paper, we review the scaling laws that govern the injector design and the various ion source options including the contact ionizer, the aluminosilicate source, the multicusp plasma source, and the MEVVA source.
Bootstrap testing for cross-correlation under low firing activity.
González-Montoro, Aldana M; Cao, Ricardo; Espinosa, Nelson; Cudeiro, Javier; Mariño, Jorge
2015-06-01
A new cross-correlation synchrony index for neural activity is proposed. The index is based on the integration of the kernel estimation of the cross-correlation function. It is used to test for the dynamic synchronization levels of spontaneous neural activity under two induced brain states: sleep-like and awake-like. Two bootstrap resampling plans are proposed to approximate the distribution of the test statistics. The results of the first bootstrap method indicate that it is useful to discern significant differences in the synchronization dynamics of brain states characterized by a neural activity with low firing rate. The second bootstrap method is useful to unveil subtle differences in the synchronization levels of the awake-like state, depending on the activation pathway.
Cut-touching linear functionals in the conformal bootstrap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiao, Jiaxin; Rychkov, Slava
2017-06-01
The modern conformal bootstrap program often employs the method of linear functionals to derive the numerical or analytical bounds on the CFT data. These functionals must have a crucial "swapping" property, allowing to swap infinite summation with the action of the functional in the conformal bootstrap sum rule. Swapping is easy to justify for the popular functionals involving finite sums of derivatives. However, it is far from obvious for "cut-touching" functionals, involving integration over regions where conformal block decomposition does not converge uniformly. Functionals of this type were recently considered by Mazáč in his work on analytic derivation of optimal bootstrap bounds. We derive general swapping criteria for the cut-touching functionals, and check in a few explicit examples that Mazáč's functionals pass our criteria.
Point Set Denoising Using Bootstrap-Based Radial Basis Function.
Liew, Khang Jie; Ramli, Ahmad; Abd Majid, Ahmad
2016-01-01
This paper examines the application of a bootstrap test error estimation of radial basis functions, specifically thin-plate spline fitting, in surface smoothing. The presence of noisy data is a common issue of the point set model that is generated from 3D scanning devices, and hence, point set denoising is one of the main concerns in point set modelling. Bootstrap test error estimation, which is applied when searching for the smoothing parameters of radial basis functions, is revisited. The main contribution of this paper is a smoothing algorithm that relies on a bootstrap-based radial basis function. The proposed method incorporates a k-nearest neighbour search and then projects the point set to the approximated thin-plate spline surface. Therefore, the denoising process is achieved, and the features are well preserved. A comparison of the proposed method with other smoothing methods is also carried out in this study.
Current-mode analogue interface for high-speed low-current differential signalling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rao, Pasupureddi V. S.; Mandal, Pradip
2010-09-01
In this work, we propose high-speed low-current differential signalling (LCDS) over an electrical chip-to-chip interconnect by using a common-gate transimpedance amplifier followed by a common-source TIA stage. LCDS uses a current-mode receiver compared to a conventional voltage-mode receiver used in most of the signalling technologies such as low-voltage differential signalling, voltage-mode signalling and current-mode logic. The minimum detectable signal level possible with a current-mode receiver for the targeted bit-error rate (BER) makes LCDS an attractive choice. Also the input impedance of the LCDS receiver can be made equal to 100 Ω differential for matching the characteristic impedance of electrical chip-to-chip interconnect. The complete design, analysis and noise characterisation of the TIA front-end is presented. The CGCSTIA is implemented in 1.8 V, 0.18 μm digital CMOS technology. The input-referred noise current and 3-dB bandwidth of the receiver are 1.57 μA and 5.75 GHz, respectively. For the targeted BER of 10-12, a data transfer rate of 6 Gb/s is achieved, while transmitting the data over a FR4 PCB trace of length 20 cm. The power dissipated in the current-mode receiver is 3.6 mW.
RF Input Power Couplers for High Current SRF Applications
Khan, V. F.; Anders, W.; Burrill, Andrew; Knobloch, Jens; Kugeler, Oliver; Neumann, Axel; Wang, Haipeng
2014-12-01
High current SRF technology is being explored in present day accelerator science. The bERLinPro project is presently being built at HZB to address the challenges involved in high current SRF machines with the goal of generating and accelerating a 100 mA electron beam to 50 MeV in continuous wave (cw) mode at 1.3 GHz. One of the main challenges in this project is that of handling the high input RF power required for the photo-injector as well as booster cavities where there is no energy recovery process. A high power co-axial input power coupler is being developed to be used for the photo-injector and booster cavities at the nominal beam current. The coupler is based on the KEK–cERL design and has been modified to minimise the penetration of the coupler tip in the beam pipe without compromising on beam-power coupling (Qext ~105). Herein we report on the RF design of the high power (115 kW per coupler, dual couplers per cavity) bERLinPro (BP) coupler along with initial results on thermal calculations. We summarise the RF conditioning of the TTF-III couplers (modified for cw operation) performed in the past at BESSY/HZB. A similar conditioning is envisaged in the near future for the low current SRF photo-injector and the bERLinPro main linac cryomodule.
Structure of High Latitude Currents in Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiltberger, M.; Rigler, E. J.; Merkin, V.; Lyon, J. G.
2017-03-01
Using three resolutions of the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry global magnetosphere-ionosphere model (LFM) and the Weimer 2005 empirical model we examine the structure of the high latitude field-aligned current patterns. Each resolution was run for the entire Whole Heliosphere Interval which contained two high speed solar wind streams and modest interplanetary magnetic field strengths. Average states of the field-aligned current (FAC) patterns for 8 interplanetary magnetic field clock angle directions are computed using data from these runs. Generally speaking the patterns obtained agree well with results obtained from the Weimer 2005 computing using the solar wind and IMF conditions that correspond to each bin. As the simulation resolution increases the currents become more intense and narrow. A machine learning analysis of the FAC patterns shows that the ratio of Region 1 (R1) to Region 2 (R2) currents decreases as the simulation resolution increases. This brings the simulation results into better agreement with observational predictions and the Weimer 2005 model results. The increase in R2 current strengths also results in the cross polar cap potential (CPCP) pattern being concentrated in higher latitudes. Current-voltage relationships between the R1 and CPCP are quite similar at the higher resolution indicating the simulation is converging on a common solution. We conclude that LFM simulations are capable of reproducing the statistical features of FAC patterns.
Structure of high latitude currents in magnetosphere-ionosphere models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiltberger, M. J.; Lyon, J.; Merkin, V. G.; Rigler, E. J.
2016-12-01
Using three resolutions of the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry global magnetosphere-ionosphere model (LFM) and the Weimer 2005 empirical model the structure of the high latitude field-aligned current patterns is examined. Each LFM resolution was run for the entire Whole Heliosphere Interval (WHI), which contained two high-speed solar wind streams and modest interplanetary magnetic field strengths. Average states of the field-aligned current (FAC) patterns for 8 interplanetary magnetic field clock angle directions are computed using data from these runs. Generally speaking the patterns obtained agree well with results from the Weimer 2005 computed using the solar wind and IMF conditions that correspond to each bin. As the simulation resolution increases the currents become more intense and confined. A machine learning analysis of the FAC patterns shows that the ratio of Region 1 (R1) to Region 2 (R2) currents decreases as the simulation resolution increases. This brings the simulation results into better agreement with observational predictions and the Weimer 2005 model results. The increase in R2 current strengths in the model also results in a better shielding of mid- and low-latitude ionosphere from the polar cap convection, also in agreement with observations. Current-voltage relationships between the R1 strength and the cross-polar cap potential (CPCP) are quite similar at the higher resolutions indicating the simulation is converging on a common solution. We conclude that LFM simulations are capable of reproducing the statistical features of FAC patterns.
A high current density DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump.
Homsy, Alexandra; Koster, Sander; Eijkel, Jan C T; van den Berg, Albert; Lucklum, F; Verpoorte, E; de Rooij, Nico F
2005-04-01
This paper describes the working principle of a DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump that can be operated at high DC current densities (J) in 75-microm-deep microfluidic channels without introducing gas bubbles into the pumping channel. The main design feature for current generation is a micromachined frit-like structure that connects the pumping channel to side reservoirs, where platinum electrodes are located. Current densities up to 4000 A m(-2) could be obtained without noticeable Joule heating in the system. The pump performance was studied as a function of current density and magnetic field intensity, as well as buffer ionic strength and pH. Bead velocities of up to 1 mm s(-1) (0.5 microL min(-1)) were observed in buffered solutions using a 0.4 T NdFeB permanent magnet, at an applied current density of 4000 A m(-2). This pump is intended for transport of electrolyte solutions having a relatively high ionic strength (0.5-1 M) in a DC magnetic field environment. The application of this pump for the study of biological samples in a miniaturized total analysis system (microTAS) with integrated NMR detection is foreseen. In the 7 T NMR environment, a minimum 16-fold increase in volumetric flow rate for a given applied current density is expected.
High dislocation density of tin induced by electric current
Liao, Yi-Han; Liang, Chien-Lung; Lin, Kwang-Lung; Wu, Albert T.
2015-12-15
A dislocation density of as high as 10{sup 17} /m{sup 2} in a tin strip, as revealed by high resolution transmission electron microscope, was induced by current stressing at 6.5 x 10{sup 3} A/ cm{sup 2}. The dislocations exist in terms of dislocation line, dislocation loop, and dislocation aggregates. Electron Backscattered Diffraction images reflect that the high dislocation density induced the formation of low deflection angle subgrains, high deflection angle Widmanstätten grains, and recrystallization. The recrystallization gave rise to grain refining.
Rf Gun with High-Current Density Field Emission Cathode
Jay L. Hirshfield
2005-12-19
High current-density field emission from an array of carbon nanotubes, with field-emission-transistor control, and with secondary electron channel multiplication in a ceramic facing structure, have been combined in a cold cathode for rf guns and diode guns. Electrodynamic and space-charge flow simulations were conducted to specify the cathode configuration and range of emission current density from the field emission cold cathode. Design of this cathode has been made for installation and testing in an existing S-band 2-1/2 cell rf gun. With emission control and modulation, and with current density in the range of 0.1-1 kA/cm2, this cathode could provide performance and long-life not enjoyed by other currently-available cathodes
High latitude equivalent current systems during extremely quiet times
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rostoker, G.; Chen, A. J.; Yasuhara, F.; Akasofu, S.-I.; Kawasaki, K.
1974-01-01
The magnetic perturbation patterns in the polar cap and auroral zone regions are obtained for extremely quiet days using two different techniques. It is shown that the form of the equivalent current flow pattern is extremely sensitive to the level of quietness, and that even so-called quiet days are at times disturbed by substorm activity. Certain characteristic equivalent flow not typically observed during substorms is noted in the polar cap, and this flow appears to be associated with effects of polar cap perturbations discussed by Svalgaard (1973). A region of equatorward flow at high latitudes near the dawn meridian, appears to be Hall current driven by an eastward electric field. The dayside sub-auroral zone is dominated by the Sq-current system, while the nightside shows no significant current flow in the absence of substorm activity.
PyCFTBoot: A Flexible Interface for the Conformal Bootstrap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Behan, Connor
2017-07-01
We introduce PyCFTBoot, a wrapper designed to reduce the barrier to entry in conformal bootstrap calculations that require semidefinite programming. Symengine and SDPB are used for the most intensive symbolic and numerical steps respectively. After reviewing the built-in algorithms for conformal blocks, we explain how to use the code through a number of examples that verify past results. As an application, we show that the multi-correlator bootstrap still appears to single out the Wilson-Fisher fixed points as special theories in dimensions between 3 and 4 despite the recent proof that they violate unitarity.
Bootstrapping Critical Ising Model on Three Dimensional Real Projective Space.
Nakayama, Yu
2016-04-08
Given conformal data on a flat Euclidean space, we use crosscap conformal bootstrap equations to numerically solve the Lee-Yang model as well as the critical Ising model on a three dimensional real projective space. We check the rapid convergence of our bootstrap program in two dimensions from the exact solutions available. Based on the comparison, we estimate that our systematic error on the numerically solved one-point functions of the critical Ising model on a three dimensional real projective space is less than 1%. Our method opens up a novel way to solve conformal field theories on nontrivial geometries.
A High-Current, Stable Nonaqueous Organic Redox Flow Battery
Wei, Xiaoliang; Duan, Wentao; Huang, Jinhua; Zhang, Lu; Li, Bin; Reed, David; Xu, Wu; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei
2016-10-14
Nonaqueous redox flow batteries are promising in pursuit of high-energy storage systems owing to the broad voltage window, but currently are facing key challenges such as poor cycling stability and lack of suitable membranes. Here we report a new nonaqueous all-organic flow chemistry that demonstrates an outstanding cell cycling stability primarily because of high chemical persistency of the organic radical redox species and their good compatibility with the supporting electrolyte. A feasibility study shows that Daramic® and Celgard® porous separators can lead to high cell conductivity in flow cells thus producing remarkable cell efficiency and material utilization even at high current operations. This result suggests that the thickness and pore size are the key performance-determining factors for porous separators. With the greatly improved flow cell performance, this new flow system largely addresses the above mentioned challenges and the findings may greatly expedite the development of durable nonaqueous flow batteries.
Kemball, Athol; Mitra, Modhurita; Chiang, H.-F.
2010-01-15
We report on a broader evaluation of statistical bootstrap resampling methods as a tool for pixel-level calibration and imaging fidelity assessment in radio interferometry. Pixel-level imaging fidelity assessment is a challenging problem, important for the value it holds in robust scientific interpretation of interferometric images, enhancement of automated pipeline reduction systems needed to broaden the user community for these instruments, and understanding leading-edge direction-dependent calibration and imaging challenges for future telescopes such as the Square Kilometre Array. This new computational approach is now possible because of advances in statistical resampling for data with long-range dependence and the available performance of contemporary high-performance computing resources. We expand our earlier numerical evaluation to span a broader domain subset in simulated image fidelity and source brightness distribution morphologies. As before, we evaluate the statistical performance of the bootstrap resampling methods against direct Monte Carlo simulation. We find that both model-based and subsample bootstrap methods continue to show significant promise for the challenging problem of interferometric imaging fidelity assessment when evaluated over the broader domain subset. We report on their measured statistical performance and guidelines for their use and application in practice. We also examine the performance of the underlying polarization self-calibration algorithm used in this study over a range of parallactic angle coverage.
Song, Hangke; Liu, Zhi; Du, Huan; Sun, Guangling; Le Meur, Olivier; Ren, Tongwei
2017-09-01
This paper proposes a novel depth-aware salient object detection and segmentation framework via multiscale discriminative saliency fusion (MDSF) and bootstrap learning for RGBD images (RGB color images with corresponding Depth maps) and stereoscopic images. By exploiting low-level feature contrasts, mid-level feature weighted factors and high-level location priors, various saliency measures on four classes of features are calculated based on multiscale region segmentation. A random forest regressor is learned to perform the discriminative saliency fusion (DSF) and generate the DSF saliency map at each scale, and DSF saliency maps across multiple scales are combined to produce the MDSF saliency map. Furthermore, we propose an effective bootstrap learning-based salient object segmentation method, which is bootstrapped with samples based on the MDSF saliency map and learns multiple kernel support vector machines. Experimental results on two large datasets show how various categories of features contribute to the saliency detection performance and demonstrate that the proposed framework achieves the better performance on both saliency detection and salient object segmentation.
Internal validation of risk models in clustered data: a comparison of bootstrap schemes.
Bouwmeester, W; Moons, K G M; Kappen, T H; van Klei, W A; Twisk, J W R; Eijkemans, M J C; Vergouwe, Y
2013-06-01
Internal validity of a risk model can be studied efficiently with bootstrapping to assess possible optimism in model performance. Assumptions of the regular bootstrap are violated when the development data are clustered. We compared alternative resampling schemes in clustered data for the estimation of optimism in model performance. A simulation study was conducted to compare regular resampling on only the patient level with resampling on only the cluster level and with resampling sequentially on both the cluster and patient levels (2-step approach). Optimism for the concordance index and calibration slope was estimated. Resampling of only patients or only clusters showed accurate estimates of optimism in model performance. The 2-step approach overestimated the optimism in model performance. If the number of centers or intraclass correlation coefficient was high, resampling of clusters showed more accurate estimates than resampling of patients. The 3 bootstrap schemes also were applied to empirical data that were clustered. The results presented in this paper support the use of resampling on only the clusters for estimation of optimism in model performance when data are clustered.
High beta plasma in the dynamic Jovian current sheet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walker, R. J.; Kivelson, M. G.; Schardt, A. W.
1978-01-01
The equatorial current sheet, which Pioneer 10 repeatedly encountered on its outbound pass through the Jovian magnetosphere, frequently was associated with intense fluxes of energetic protons. Simultaneous observations of the changes in the energetic proton flux and in the magnetic-field magnitude demonstrate that the current sheet is embedded in a high-beta plasma in which high-energy (above 60 keV) ions frequently are the dominant constituents. Large differences in the plasma temperature and the thickness of this plasma sheet between encounters only 10 hours apart indicate that the Jovian plasma sheet is very dynamic on a time scale of hours. Occasional observations of significant temporal variations in the magnetic field and particle populations during periods within the plasma sheet may represent in situ observations of Jovian magnetic disturbances. Comparison with previous observations suggests that low-energy (not more than 5 keV) plasma contributes less than 3% to the current-sheet energy density.
High-quality lossy compression: current and future trends
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McLaughlin, Steven W.
1995-01-01
This paper is concerned with current and future trends in the lossy compression of real sources such as imagery, video, speech and music. We put all lossy compression schemes into common framework where each can be characterized in terms of three well-defined advantages: cell shape, region shape and memory advantages. We concentrate on image compression and discuss how new entropy constrained trellis-based compressors achieve cell- shape, region-shape and memory gain resulting in high fidelity and high compression.
Application of RF Superconductivity to High Current Linac
Chan K.C.D.
1998-09-13
In 1997, the authors initiated a development program in Los Alamos for high-current superconducting proton-linac technology to build prototypes components of this linac to demonstrate the feasibility. The authors are building 700-MHz niobium cavities with elliptical shapes, as well as power couplers to transfer high RF power to these cavities. The cavities and power couplers will be integrated in cryostats as linac cryomodules. In this paper, they describe the linac design and the status of the development program.
Current isolating epitaxial buffer layers for high voltage photodiode array
Morse, Jeffrey D.; Cooper, Gregory A.
2002-01-01
An array of photodiodes in series on a common semi-insulating substrate has a non-conductive buffer layer between the photodiodes and the semi-insulating substrate. The buffer layer reduces current injection leakage between the photodiodes of the array and allows optical energy to be converted to high voltage electrical energy.
Treatment of spider bites by high voltage direct current.
Osborn, C D
1991-06-01
Between September 7, 1988, and January 15, 1991, 147 cases of confirmed (19) and suspected spider bites have been treated by high voltage direct current (HVDC) shocks. Venom damage to tissue was arrested at the time of treatment. Pain and systemic symptoms usually improved within 15 minutes. Lesion excision or grafts have not been necessary in any of the 127 cases with completed followup.
59. View of high voltage (4160 volts alternating current) electric ...
59. View of high voltage (4160 volts alternating current) electric load center and motor control center at mezzanine level in transmitter building no. 102. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK
Current status of high conversion pressurized water reactor design studies
Umeoka, T.; Kono, T.; Toyoda, Y.; Ogino, M.; Iwai, S.; Hishida, H.
1988-01-01
Preliminary design studies on high conversion pressurized water reactors (HCPWRs) have been completed, and plant design studies are currently being performed to improve the feasibility of HCPWRs. The present status of the feasibility studies is covered, and the related validation tests to be conducted in the coming years are reviewed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Essid, Hedi; Ouellette, Pierre; Vigeant, Stephane
2010-01-01
The objective of this paper is to measure the efficiency of high schools in Tunisia. We use a statistical data envelopment analysis (DEA)-bootstrap approach with quasi-fixed inputs to estimate the precision of our measure. To do so, we developed a statistical model serving as the foundation of the data generation process (DGP). The DGP is…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Essid, Hedi; Ouellette, Pierre; Vigeant, Stephane
2010-01-01
The objective of this paper is to measure the efficiency of high schools in Tunisia. We use a statistical data envelopment analysis (DEA)-bootstrap approach with quasi-fixed inputs to estimate the precision of our measure. To do so, we developed a statistical model serving as the foundation of the data generation process (DGP). The DGP is…
Current halo structures in high-current plasma experiments: {theta}-pinch
Matveev, Yu. V.
2007-03-15
Experimental data elucidating mechanisms for halo formation in {theta}-pinch discharges are presented and discussed. The experiments were performed with different gases (H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, He, and Ar) in a theta-pinch device with a porcelain vacuum chamber and an excitation coil 15 cm in diameter and 30 cm in length. The stored energy, the current in the excitation coil, and the current half-period were W = 10 kJ, I = 400 kA, and T/2 = 14 {mu}s, respectively. It is found that the plasma rings (halos) surrounding the pinch core arise as a result of coaxial pinch stratification due to both the excitation of closed currents (inductons) inside the pinch and the radial convergence of the plasma current sheaths produced after the explosion of T-layers formed near the wall in the initial stage of the discharge. It is concluded that halo structures observed in pinches, tokamaks, and other high-current devices used in controlled fusion research have the same nature.
Predicting Disease Risk Using Bootstrap Ranking and Classification Algorithms
Manor, Ohad; Segal, Eran
2013-01-01
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are widely used to search for genetic loci that underlie human disease. Another goal is to predict disease risk for different individuals given their genetic sequence. Such predictions could either be used as a “black box” in order to promote changes in life-style and screening for early diagnosis, or as a model that can be studied to better understand the mechanism of the disease. Current methods for risk prediction typically rank single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by the p-value of their association with the disease, and use the top-associated SNPs as input to a classification algorithm. However, the predictive power of such methods is relatively poor. To improve the predictive power, we devised BootRank, which uses bootstrapping in order to obtain a robust prioritization of SNPs for use in predictive models. We show that BootRank improves the ability to predict disease risk of unseen individuals in the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) data and results in a more robust set of SNPs and a larger number of enriched pathways being associated with the different diseases. Finally, we show that combining BootRank with seven different classification algorithms improves performance compared to previous studies that used the WTCCC data. Notably, diseases for which BootRank results in the largest improvements were recently shown to have more heritability than previously thought, likely due to contributions from variants with low minimum allele frequency (MAF), suggesting that BootRank can be beneficial in cases where SNPs affecting the disease are poorly tagged or have low MAF. Overall, our results show that improving disease risk prediction from genotypic information may be a tangible goal, with potential implications for personalized disease screening and treatment. PMID:23990773
Predicting disease risk using bootstrap ranking and classification algorithms.
Manor, Ohad; Segal, Eran
2013-01-01
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are widely used to search for genetic loci that underlie human disease. Another goal is to predict disease risk for different individuals given their genetic sequence. Such predictions could either be used as a "black box" in order to promote changes in life-style and screening for early diagnosis, or as a model that can be studied to better understand the mechanism of the disease. Current methods for risk prediction typically rank single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by the p-value of their association with the disease, and use the top-associated SNPs as input to a classification algorithm. However, the predictive power of such methods is relatively poor. To improve the predictive power, we devised BootRank, which uses bootstrapping in order to obtain a robust prioritization of SNPs for use in predictive models. We show that BootRank improves the ability to predict disease risk of unseen individuals in the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) data and results in a more robust set of SNPs and a larger number of enriched pathways being associated with the different diseases. Finally, we show that combining BootRank with seven different classification algorithms improves performance compared to previous studies that used the WTCCC data. Notably, diseases for which BootRank results in the largest improvements were recently shown to have more heritability than previously thought, likely due to contributions from variants with low minimum allele frequency (MAF), suggesting that BootRank can be beneficial in cases where SNPs affecting the disease are poorly tagged or have low MAF. Overall, our results show that improving disease risk prediction from genotypic information may be a tangible goal, with potential implications for personalized disease screening and treatment.
Path to Efficient Lower Hybrid Current Drive at High Density
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baek, S. G.; Bonoli, P. T.; Brunner, D.; Faust, I.; Labombard, B. L.; Parker, R. R.; Shiraiwa, S.; Wallace, G. M.; Wukitch, S.
2015-11-01
Recovery of lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) efficiency at high density was demonstrated on Alcator C-Mod by modifying the scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma. RF probe measurements around the C-Mod tokamak indicate that the LH wave amplitude at the high field side wall significantly attenuates with plasma density. This is interpreted as enhanced collisional loss due to the increase in the SOL density and width. By taking advantage of the narrower SOL width by doubling plasma current to 1.1 MA, it is found that the LH wave amplitude maintains its strength, and an effective current drive is extended to above 1x10e20 m-3. An order of magnitude increase in non-thermal Bremsstrahlung emission is consistent with ray-tracing results which take into account the change of SOL profiles with current. In the coming campaign, a further investigation on the role of the SOL plasma is planned by raising plasma current above 1.1 MA. This will be aided with newly developed RF magnetic loop antennas mounted on a radially movable probe head. This system is expected to intercept the LH resonance cone on the first pass, allowing us to measure radial profiles of both the wave amplitude and dominant parallel wavenumber in the SOL for the first time. These data will be compared with the GENRAY ray-tracing code. Work supported by USDoE awards DE-FC02-99ER54512.
Fiber optic current monitor for high-voltage applications
Renda, George F.
1992-01-01
A current monitor which derives its power from the conductor being measured for bidirectionally measuring the magnitude of current (from DC to above 50 khz) flowing through a conductor across which a relatively high level DC voltage is applied, includes a pair of identical transmitter modules connected in opposite polarity to one another in series with the conductor being monitored, for producing from one module a first light signal having an intensity directly proportional to the magnitude of current flowing in one direction through the conductor during one period of time, and from the other module a second light signal having an intensity directly proportional to the magnitude of current flowing in the opposite direction through the conductor during another period of time, and a receiver located in a safe area remote from the high voltage area for receiving the first and second light signals, and converting the same to first and second voltage signals having levels indicative of the magnitude of current being measured at a given time.
Transient analysis and burnout of high temperature superconducting current leads
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seol, S. Y.; Hull, J. R.
The transient behaviour of high-temperature superconductor (HTS) current leads operated between liquid helium and liquid nitrogen temperatures is analysed for burnout conditions upon transition of the HTS into the normal state. Leads composed of HTS only and of HTS sheathed by pure silver or silver alloy are investigated numerically for temperature-dependent properties and analytically for temperature-independent properties. For lower values of shape factor (current density times length), the lead can be operated indefinitely without burnout. At higher values of shape factor, the lead reaches burnout in a finite time. With high current densities, the leads heat adiabatically. For a fixed shape factor, low current densities are desired to achieve long burnout times. To achieve a low helium boil-off rate in the superconducting state without danger of burnout, there is a preferred temperature dependence for thermal conductivity, and silver alloy sheaths are preferred to pure silver sheaths. However, for a given current density, pure silver sheaths take longer to burn out.
Fiber optic current monitor for high-voltage applications
Renda, G.F.
1992-04-21
A current monitor which derives its power from the conductor being measured for bidirectionally measuring the magnitude of current (from DC to above 50 khz) flowing through a conductor across which a relatively high level DC voltage is applied, includes a pair of identical transmitter modules connected in opposite polarity to one another in series with the conductor being monitored, for producing from one module a first light signal having an intensity directly proportional to the magnitude of current flowing in one direction through the conductor during one period of time, and from the other module a second light signal having an intensity directly proportional to the magnitude of current flowing in the opposite direction through the conductor during another period of time, and a receiver located in a safe area remote from the high voltage area for receiving the first and second light signals, and converting the same to first and second voltage signals having levels indicative of the magnitude of current being measured at a given time. 6 figs.
Neutral current neutrino-nucleus interactions at high energies
Gay Ducati, M. B.; Machado, M. M.; Machado, M. V. T.
2009-04-01
We present a QCD analysis of the neutral current (NC) neutrino-nucleus interaction at the small-x region using the color dipole formalism. This phenomenological approach is quite successful in describing experimental results in deep inelastic ep scattering and charged current neutrino-nucleus interactions at high energies. We present theoretical predictions for the relevant structure functions and the corresponding implications for the total NC neutrino cross section. It is shown that at small x, the NC boson-nucleon cross section should exhibit the geometric scaling property that has important consequences for ultrahigh energy neutrino phenomenology.
The current status of high temperature superconducting wires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mikhailov, B. P.; Burkhanov, G. S.
1991-12-01
The principal technological difficulties associated with the manufacture of high temperature superconducting (HTSC) wires based on yttrium and lanthanum ceramics are briefly reviewed. It is noted that the superconducting and mechanical properties of HTSC wires or ribbons are largely determined by their microstructure. Particular attention is given to the currently used method of producing HTSC wires whereby the ceramic powder is encased in a pipe shell and then deformed by different methods, such as rolling, drawing, or pressing. The requirements for the shell material are examined, and current densities are presented for HTSC wires produced in shells of copper, silver, aluminum, nickel, stainless steel, and zirconium.
Drift distance survey in DPIS for high current beam production
Kanesue,T.; Okamura, M.; Kondo, K.; Tamura, J.; Kashiwagi, H.; Zhang, Z.
2009-09-20
In a laser ion source, plasma drift distance is one of the most important design parameters. Ion current density and beam pulse width are defined by plasma drift distance between laser target and beam extraction position. In direct plasma injection scheme (DPIS), which uses a laser ion source and Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) linac, we can apply relatively higher electric field at the beam extraction due to the unique shape of a positively biased electrode. However, when we aim at very high current acceleration like several tens of mA, we observed mismatched beam extraction conditions. We tested three different ion current at ion extraction region by changing plasma drift distance to study better extraction condition. In this experiment, C{sup 6+} beam was accelerated. We confirmed that the matching condition can be improved by controlling plasma drift distance.
High current density, cryogenically cooled sliding electrical joint development
Murray, H.
1986-09-01
In the past two years, conceptual designs for fusion energy research devices have focussed on compact, high magnetic field configurations. The concept of sliding electrical joints in the large magnets allows a number of technical advantages including enhanced mechanical integrity, remote maintainability, and reduced project cost. The rationale for sliding electrical joints is presented. The conceptual configuration for this generation of experimental devices is highlghted by an approx. 20 T toroidal field magnet with a flat top conductor current of approx. 300 kA and a sliding electrical joint with a gross current density of approx. 0.6 kA/cm/sup 2/. A numerical model was used to map the conductor current distribution as a function of time and position in the conductor. A series of electrical joint arrangements were produced against the system code envelope constraints for a specific version of the Ignition Studies Project (ISP) which is designated as 1025.
High-Current Energy-Recovering Electron Linacs
Nikolitsa Merminga; David Douglas; Geoffrey Krafft
2003-12-01
The use of energy recovery provides a potentially powerful new paradigm for generation of the charged particle beams used in synchrotron radiation sources, high-energy electron cooling devices, electron-ion colliders, and other applications in photon science and nuclear and high-energy physics. Energy-recovering electron linear accelerators (called energy-recovering linacs, or ERLs) share many characteristics with ordinary linacs, as their six-dimensional beam phase space is largely determined by electron source properties. However, in common with classic storage rings, ERLs possess a high average-current-carrying capability enabled by the energy recovery process, and thus promise similar efficiencies. The authors discuss the concept of energy recovery and its technical challenges and describe the Jefferson Lab (JLab) Infrared Demonstration Free-Electron Laser (IR Demo FEL), originally driven by a 3548-MeV, 5-mA superconducting radiofrequency (srf) ERL, which provided the most substantial demonstration of energy recovery to date: a beam of 250 kW average power. They present an overview of envisioned ERL applications and a development path to achieving the required performance. They use experimental data obtained at the JLab IR Demo FEL and recent experimental results from CEBAF-ERL GeV-scale, comparatively low-current energy-recovery demonstration at JLab to evaluate the feasibility of the new applications of high-current ERLs, as well as ERLs' limitations and ultimate performance.
Los Alamos high-current proton storage ring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lawrence, G. P.; Hardekopf, R. A.; Jason, A. J.; Clout, P. N.; Sawyer, G. A.
1985-05-01
The Proton Storage Ring (PSR), whose installation was recently completed at Los Alamos, is a fast-cycling high-current accumulator designed to produce intense 800 MeV proton pulses for driving a spallation neutron source. The ring converts long beam pulses from the LAMPF linear accelerator into short bunches well matched to requirements of a high-resolution neutron-scattering materials science program. The initial performance goal for this program is to provide 100-(MU)A average current at the neutron production target within a 12-Hz pulse rate. Operation at 20 (MU)A is scheduled for September 1985, with full intensity within the next year. The storage ring was originally designed to function in a second mode in which six 1-ns bunches are accumulated and separately extracted every LAMPF macropulse. Implementation of this mode, which would serve a fast-neutron nuclear-physics program, was deferred in favor of initial concentration on the neutron-scattering program. The PSR design and status is summarized. Unique machine features include high peak current, two-step charge-stripping injection, a low-impedance buncher amplifier to counter beam-loading, and a high-repetition-rate strip-line extraction kicker.
Properties of bootstrap tests for N-of-1 studies.
Lin, Sharon X; Morrison, Leanne; Smith, Peter W F; Hargood, Charlie; Weal, Mark; Yardley, Lucy
2016-11-01
N-of-1 study designs involve the collection and analysis of repeated measures data from an individual not using an intervention and using an intervention. This study explores the use of semi-parametric and parametric bootstrap tests in the analysis of N-of-1 studies under a single time series framework in the presence of autocorrelation. When the Type I error rates of bootstrap tests are compared to Wald tests, our results show that the bootstrap tests have more desirable properties. We compare the results for normally distributed errors with those for contaminated normally distributed errors and find that, except when there is relatively large autocorrelation, there is little difference between the power of the parametric and semi-parametric bootstrap tests. We also experiment with two intervention designs: ABAB and AB, and show the ABAB design has more power. The results provide guidelines for designing N-of-1 studies, in the sense of how many observations and how many intervention changes are needed to achieve a certain level of power and which test should be performed. © 2016 The Authors British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.
Introducing Statistical Inference to Biology Students through Bootstrapping and Randomization
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lock, Robin H.; Lock, Patti Frazer
2008-01-01
Bootstrap methods and randomization tests are increasingly being used as alternatives to standard statistical procedures in biology. They also serve as an effective introduction to the key ideas of statistical inference in introductory courses for biology students. We discuss the use of such simulation based procedures in an integrated curriculum…
Bootstrapping Selected Item Statistics from a Student-Made Test.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burroughs, Monte
This study applied nonparametric bootstrapping to test null hypotheses for selected statistics (KR-20, difficulty, and discrimination) derived from a student-made test. The test, administered to 21 students enrolled in a graduate-level educational assessment class, contained 42 items, 33 of which were analyzed. Random permutations of the data…
Bootstrapping Rapidity Anomalous Dimensions for Transverse-Momentum Resummation
Li, Ye; Zhu, Hua Xing
2017-01-01
Soft function relevant for transverse-momentum resummation for Drell-Yan or Higgs production at hadron colliders are computed through to three loops in the expansion of strong coupling, with the help of bootstrap technique and supersymmetric decomposition. The corresponding rapidity anomalous dimension is extracted. An intriguing relation between anomalous dimensions for transverse-momentum resummation and threshold resummation is found.
Bootstrapping the Syntactic Bootstrapper: Probabilistic Labeling of Prosodic Phrases
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gutman, Ariel; Dautriche, Isabelle; Crabbé, Benoît; Christophe, Anne
2015-01-01
The "syntactic bootstrapping" hypothesis proposes that syntactic structure provides children with cues for learning the meaning of novel words. In this article, we address the question of how children might start acquiring some aspects of syntax before they possess a sizeable lexicon. The study presents two models of early syntax…
Forgetski Vygotsky: Or, a Plea for Bootstrapping Accounts of Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Luntley, Michael
2017-01-01
This paper argues that sociocultural accounts of learning fail to answer the key question about learning--how is it possible? Accordingly, we should adopt an individualist bootstrapping methodology in providing a theory of learning. Such a methodology takes seriously the idea that learning is staged and distinguishes between a non-comprehending…
Bootstraps: A Chronicle of a Real Community School.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harris, Lewis, E.; Harris, Rae
This book describes how the authors and other progressive-minded citizens in Floodwood, Minnesota, started a community school which literally lifted the community "by its bootstraps" from poverty and economic deprivation into one which became economically self-supporting and culturally enriched. A strong case is presented for…
A Connectionist Model for Bootstrap Learning of Syllabic Structure.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vroomen, Jean; van den Bosch, Antal; de Gelder, Beatrice
1998-01-01
Reports language acquisition experiments with simple recurrent networks solving phoneme prediction in continuous phonemic data, which suggests the network output could function as a source for syllable boundary detection. The phoneme prediction network simulates the necessary "bootstrap" to discover syllabic segmentation in unsegmented…
Introducing Statistical Inference to Biology Students through Bootstrapping and Randomization
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lock, Robin H.; Lock, Patti Frazer
2008-01-01
Bootstrap methods and randomization tests are increasingly being used as alternatives to standard statistical procedures in biology. They also serve as an effective introduction to the key ideas of statistical inference in introductory courses for biology students. We discuss the use of such simulation based procedures in an integrated curriculum…
Bootstrap quantification of estimation uncertainties in network degree distributions.
Gel, Yulia R; Lyubchich, Vyacheslav; Ramirez Ramirez, L Leticia
2017-07-19
We propose a new method of nonparametric bootstrap to quantify estimation uncertainties in functions of network degree distribution in large ultra sparse networks. Both network degree distribution and network order are assumed to be unknown. The key idea is based on adaptation of the "blocking" argument, developed for bootstrapping of time series and re-tiling of spatial data, to random networks. We first sample a set of multiple ego networks of varying orders that form a patch, or a network block analogue, and then resample the data within patches. To select an optimal patch size, we develop a new computationally efficient and data-driven cross-validation algorithm. The proposed fast patchwork bootstrap (FPB) methodology further extends the ideas for a case of network mean degree, to inference on a degree distribution. In addition, the FPB is substantially less computationally expensive, requires less information on a graph, and is free from nuisance parameters. In our simulation study, we show that the new bootstrap method outperforms competing approaches by providing sharper and better-calibrated confidence intervals for functions of a network degree distribution than other available approaches, including the cases of networks in an ultra sparse regime. We illustrate the FPB in application to collaboration networks in statistics and computer science and to Wikipedia networks.
Bootstrapping rapidity anomalous dimensions for transverse-momentum resummation
Li, Ye; Zhu, Hua Xing
2017-01-11
Soft function relevant for transverse-momentum resummation for Drell-Yan or Higgs production at hadron colliders are computed through to three loops in the expansion of strong coupling, with the help of bootstrap technique and supersymmetric decomposition. The corresponding rapidity anomalous dimension is extracted. Furthermore, an intriguing relation between anomalous dimensions for transverse-momentum resummation and threshold resummation is found.
Bootstrapping Student Understanding of What Is Going on in Econometrics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kennedy, Peter E.
2001-01-01
Explains that econometrics is an intellectual game played by rules based on the sampling distribution concept. Contains explanations for why many students are uncomfortable with econometrics. Encourages instructors to use explain-how-to-bootstrap exercises to promote student understanding. (RLH)
Generalized Bootstrap Method for Assessment of Uncertainty in Semivariogram Inference
Olea, R.A.; Pardo-Iguzquiza, E.
2011-01-01
The semivariogram and its related function, the covariance, play a central role in classical geostatistics for modeling the average continuity of spatially correlated attributes. Whereas all methods are formulated in terms of the true semivariogram, in practice what can be used are estimated semivariograms and models based on samples. A generalized form of the bootstrap method to properly model spatially correlated data is used to advance knowledge about the reliability of empirical semivariograms and semivariogram models based on a single sample. Among several methods available to generate spatially correlated resamples, we selected a method based on the LU decomposition and used several examples to illustrate the approach. The first one is a synthetic, isotropic, exhaustive sample following a normal distribution, the second example is also a synthetic but following a non-Gaussian random field, and a third empirical sample consists of actual raingauge measurements. Results show wider confidence intervals than those found previously by others with inadequate application of the bootstrap. Also, even for the Gaussian example, distributions for estimated semivariogram values and model parameters are positively skewed. In this sense, bootstrap percentile confidence intervals, which are not centered around the empirical semivariogram and do not require distributional assumptions for its construction, provide an achieved coverage similar to the nominal coverage. The latter cannot be achieved by symmetrical confidence intervals based on the standard error, regardless if the standard error is estimated from a parametric equation or from bootstrap. ?? 2010 International Association for Mathematical Geosciences.
Generation of high-density biskyrmions by electric current
Peng, Licong; Zhang, Ying; He, Min; ...
2017-06-16
Much interest has been focused on the manipulation of magnetic skyrmions, including the generation, annihilation, and motion behaviors, for potential applications in spintronics. We experimentally demonstrate that a high-density Bloch-type biskyrmion lattice in MnNiGa can be generated by applying electric current. It is revealed that the density of biskyrmions can be remarkably increased by increasing the electric current, in contrast to the scattered biskyrmions induced by a magnetic field alone. Furthermore, the transition from the ferromagnetic state to the stripe domain structure can be terminated by the electric current, leading to the biskyrmions dominated residual domain pattern. These biskyrmions inmore » such residual domain structure are extremely stable at zero magnetic and electric fields and can further evolve into the high-density biskyrmion lattice over a temperature range from 100 to 330 K. Finally, our experimental findings open up a new pathway for the generation of skyrmion lattice by electric current manipulation.« less
Observing submesoscale currents from high resolution surface roughness images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rascle, N.; Chapron, B.; Nouguier, F.; Mouche, A.; Ponte, A.
2015-12-01
At times, high resolution sea surface roughness variations can provide stunning details of submesoscale upper ocean dynamics. As interpreted, transformations of short scale wind waves by horizontal current gradients are responsible for those spectacular observations. Here we present tow major advances towards the quantitative interpretation of those observations. First, we show that surface roughness variations mainly trace two particular characteristics of the current gradient tensor, the divergence and the strain in the wind direction. Local vorticity and shear in the wind direction should not affect short scale roughness distribution and would not be detectable. Second, we discuss the effect of the viewing direction using sets of quasi-simultaneous sun glitter images, taken from different satellites to provide different viewing configurations. We show that upwind and crosswind viewing observations can be markedly different. As further confirmed with idealized numerical simulations, this anisotropy well traces surface current strain area, while more isotropic contrasts likely trace areas dominated by surface divergence conditions. These findings suggest the potential to directly observe surface currents at submesoscale by using high resolution roughness observations at multiple azimuth viewing angles.
High current pulse testing for ground rod integrity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walko, Lawrence C.
1991-01-01
A test technique was developed to assess various grounding system concepts used for mobile facilities. The test technique involves applying a high current pulse to the grounding system with the proper waveshape and magnitude to simulate a lightning return stroke. Of concern were the step voltages present along the ground near the point of lightning strike. Step voltage is equated to how fast the current pulse is dissipated by the grounding system. The applied current pulse was produced by a high current capacitor bank with a total energy content of 80 kilojoules. A series of pulse tests were performed on two types of mobile facility grounding systems. One system consisted of an array of four 10 foot copper clad steel ground rods connected by 1/0 gauge wire. The other system was an array of 10 inch long tapered ground rods, strung on stainless steel cable. The focus here is on the pulse test technique used and its relevance to actual lightning strike conditions.
Characterization of a High Current, Long Life Hollow Cathode
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
VanNoord, Jonathan L.; Kamhawi, Hani; McEwen, Heather K.
2006-01-01
The advent of higher power spacecraft makes it desirable to use higher power electric propulsion thrusters such as ion thrusters or Hall thrusters. Higher power thrusters require cathodes that are capable of producing higher currents. One application of these higher power spacecraft is deep-space missions that require tens of thousands of hours of operation. This paper presents the approach used to design a high current, long life hollow cathode assembly for that application, along with test results from the corresponding hollow cathode. The design approach used for the candidate hollow cathode was to reduce the temperature gradient in the insert, yielding a lower peak temperature and allowing current to be produced more uniformly along the insert. The lower temperatures result in a hollow cathode with increased life. The hollow cathode designed was successfully operated at currents from 10 to 60 A with flow rates of 5 to 19 sccm with a maximum orifice temperature measured of 1100 C. Data including discharge voltage, keeper voltage, discharge current, flow rates, and orifice plate temperatures are presented.
Dynamics of a high-current relativistic electron beam
Strelkov, P. S.; Tarakanov, V. P.; Ivanov, I. E. Shumeiko, D. V.
2015-06-15
The dynamics of a high-current relativistic electron beam is studied experimentally and by numerical simulation. The beam is formed in a magnetically insulated diode with a transverse-blade explosive-emission cathode. It is found experimentally that the radius of a 500-keV beam with a current of 2 kA and duration of 500 ns decreases with time during the beam current pulse. The same effect was observed in numerical simulations. This effect is explained by a change in the shape of the cathode plasma during the current pulse, which, according to calculations, leads to a change in the beam parameters, such as the electron pitch angle and the spread over the longitudinal electron momentum. These parameters are hard to measure experimentally; however, the time evolution of the radial profile of the beam current density, which can be measured reliably, coincides with the simulation results. This allows one to expect that the behavior of the other beam parameters also agrees with numerical simulations.
ULTRA-LOW-ENERGY HIGH-CURRENT ION SOURCE
Anders, Andre; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Baldwin, David A.
2009-11-20
The technical objective of the project was to develop an ultra-low-energy, high-intensity ion source (ULEHIIS) for materials processing in high-technology fields including semiconductors, micro-magnetics and optics/opto-electronics. In its primary application, this ion source can be incorporated into the 4Wave thin-film deposition technique called biased target ion-beam deposition (BTIBD), which is a deposition technique based on sputtering (without magnetic field, i.e., not the typical magnetron sputtering). It is a technological challenge because the laws of space charge limited current (Child-Langmuir) set strict limits of how much current can be extracted from a reservoir of ions, such as a suitable discharge plasma. The solution to the problem was an innovative dual-discharge system without the use of extraction grids.
New HOM coupler design for high current SRF cavity
Xu, W.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Belomestnykh, S.; Hahn, H.; Johnson, E.
2011-03-28
Damping higher order modes (HOMs) significantly to avoid beam instability is a challenge for the high current Energy Recovery Linac-based eRHIC at BNL. To avoid the overheating effect and high tuning sensitivity, current, a new band-stop HOM coupler is being designed at BNL. The new HOM coupler has a bandwidth of tens of MHz to reject the fundamental mode, which will avoid overheating due to fundamental frequency shifting because of cooling down. In addition, the S21 parameter of the band-pass filter is nearly flat from first higher order mode to 5 times the fundamental frequency. The simulation results showed that the new couplers effectively damp HOMs for the eRHIC cavity with enlarged beam tube diameter and 2 120{sup o} HOM couplers at each side of cavity. This paper presents the design of HOM coupler, HOM damping capacity for eRHIC cavity and prototype test results.
Spurious 99% bootstrap and jackknife support for unsupported clades.
Simmons, Mark P; Freudenstein, John V
2011-10-01
Quantifying branch support using the bootstrap and/or jackknife is generally considered to be an essential component of rigorous parsimony and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses. Previous authors have described how application of the frequency-within-replicates approach to treating multiple equally optimal trees found in a given bootstrap pseudoreplicate can provide apparent support for otherwise unsupported clades. We demonstrate how a similar problem may occur when a non-representative subset of equally optimal trees are held per pseudoreplicate, which we term the undersampling-within-replicates artifact. We illustrate the frequency-within-replicates and undersampling-within-replicates bootstrap and jackknife artifacts using both contrived and empirical examples, demonstrate that the artifacts can occur in both parsimony and likelihood analyses, and show that the artifacts occur in outputs from multiple different phylogenetic-inference programs. Based on our results, we make the following five recommendations, which are particularly relevant to supermatrix analyses, but apply to all phylogenetic analyses. First, when two or more optimal trees are found in a given pseudoreplicate they should be summarized using the strict-consensus rather than frequency-within-replicates approach. Second jackknife resampling should be used rather than bootstrap resampling. Third, multiple tree searches while holding multiple trees per search should be conducted in each pseudoreplicate rather than conducting only a single search and holding only a single tree. Fourth, branches with a minimum possible optimized length of zero should be collapsed within each tree search rather than collapsing branches only if their maximum possible optimized length is zero. Fifth, resampling values should be mapped onto the strict consensus of all optimal trees found rather than simply presenting the ≥ 50% bootstrap or jackknife tree or mapping the resampling values onto a single optimal tree
High School Sport Specialization Patterns of Current Division I Athletes.
Post, Eric G; Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill M; Stiffler, Mikel R; Brooks, M Alison; Bell, David R; Sanfilippo, Jennifer L; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Heiderscheit, Bryan C; McGuine, Timothy A
Sport specialization is a strategy to acquire superior sport performance in 1 sport but is associated with increased injury risk. Currently, the degree of high school specialization among Division I athletes is unknown. College athletes will display increased rates of specialization as they progress through their high school careers. Descriptive epidemiological study. Level 4. Three hundred forty-three athletes (115 female) representing 9 sports from a Midwest Division I University completed a previously utilized sport specialization questionnaire regarding sport participation patterns for each grade of high school. McNemar and chi-square tests were used to investigate associations of grade, sport, and sex with prevalence of sport specialization category (low, moderate, high) (a priori P ≤ 0.05). Specialization increased throughout high school, with 16.9% (n = 58) and 41.1% (n = 141) of athletes highly specialized in 9th and 12th grades, respectively. Football athletes were less likely to be highly specialized than nonfootball athletes for each year of high school ( P < 0.001). There was no difference in degree of specialization between sexes at any grade level ( P > 0.23). The majority of Division I athletes were not classified as highly specialized throughout high school, but the prevalence of high specialization increased as athletes progressed through high school. Nonfootball athletes were more likely to be highly specialized than football athletes at each grade level. Most athletes who are recruited to participate in collegiate athletics will eventually specialize in their sport, but it does not appear that early specialization is necessary to become a Division I athlete. Athletes should be counseled regarding safe participation in sport during high school to minimize injury and maximize performance.
Recent Improvements in High-Frequency Eddy Current Conductivity Spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abu-Nabah, Bassam A.; Nagy, Peter B.
2008-02-01
Due to its frequency-dependent penetration depth, eddy current measurements are capable of mapping near-surface residual stress profiles based on the so-called piezoresistivity effect, i.e., the stress-dependence of electric conductivity. To capture the peak compressive residual stress in moderately shot-peened (Almen 4-8A) nickel-base superalloys, the eddy current inspection frequency has to go as high as 50-80 MHz. Recently, we have reported the development of a new high-frequency eddy current conductivity measuring system that offers an extended inspection frequency range up to 80 MHz. Unfortunately, spurious self- and stray-capacitance effects render the complex coil impedance variation with lift-off more nonlinear as the frequency increases, which makes it difficult to achieve accurate apparent eddy current conductivity (AECC) measurements with the standard four-point linear interpolation method beyond 25 MHz. In this paper, we will demonstrate that reducing the coil size reduces its sensitivity to capacitive lift-off variations, which is just the opposite of the better known inductive lift-off effect. Although reducing the coil size also reduces its absolute electric impedance and relative sensitivity to conductivity variations, a smaller coil still yields better overall performance for residual stress assessment. In addition, we will demonstrate the benefits of a semi-quadratic interpolation scheme that, together with the reduced lift-off sensitivity of the smaller probe coil, minimizes and in some cases completely eliminates the sensitivity of AECC measurements to lift-off uncertainties. These modifications allow us to do much more robust measurements up to as high as 80-100 MHz with the required high relative accuracy of +/-0.1%.
High Critical Current in Metal Organic Derived YBCO Films
2010-10-31
Report 3 BACKGROUND The Second Generation (2G) high temperature superconducting (HTS) YBCO wire is a versatile, potentially transformational...transformers, fault current limiters, superconducting magnetic energy storage, and power transmission lines [ 1 ] require improvement in the performance of 2G...commercialization of 2G superconducting wire. The obvious route to higher Ic is to increase the thickness, t, of the YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) layer
Boundary Current and Mixing Processes in The High Latitude Oceans
2016-06-07
Boundary Current and Mixing Processes in The High Latitude Oceans Robin D. Muench Earth & Space Research 1910 Fairview Ave E., Ste 210 Seattle...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Earth & Space Research,1910 Fairview Ave E., Ste 210,Seattle,WA,98102 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9...for field platforms and instrumentation used for data collection. Laurence Padman ( Earth & Space Research) has been the primary collaborator. Other
BootGraph: probabilistic fiber tractography using bootstrap algorithms and graph theory.
Vorburger, Robert S; Reischauer, Carolin; Boesiger, Peter
2013-02-01
Bootstrap methods have recently been introduced to diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to estimate the measurement uncertainty of ensuing diffusion parameters directly from the acquired data without the necessity to assume a noise model. These methods have been previously combined with deterministic streamline tractography algorithms to allow for the assessment of connection probabilities in the human brain. Thereby, the local noise induced disturbance in the diffusion data is accumulated additively due to the incremental progression of streamline tractography algorithms. Graph based approaches have been proposed to overcome this drawback of streamline techniques. For this reason, the bootstrap method is in the present work incorporated into a graph setup to derive a new probabilistic fiber tractography method, called BootGraph. The acquired data set is thereby converted into a weighted, undirected graph by defining a vertex in each voxel and edges between adjacent vertices. By means of the cone of uncertainty, which is derived using the wild bootstrap, a weight is thereafter assigned to each edge. Two path finding algorithms are subsequently applied to derive connection probabilities. While the first algorithm is based on the shortest path approach, the second algorithm takes all existing paths between two vertices into consideration. Tracking results are compared to an established algorithm based on the bootstrap method in combination with streamline fiber tractography and to another graph based algorithm. The BootGraph shows a very good performance in crossing situations with respect to false negatives and permits incorporating additional constraints, such as a curvature threshold. By inheriting the advantages of the bootstrap method and graph theory, the BootGraph method provides a computationally efficient and flexible probabilistic tractography setup to compute connection probability maps and virtual fiber pathways without the drawbacks of
An accurate continuous calibration system for high voltage current transformer
Tong Yue; Li Binhong
2011-02-15
A continuous calibration system for high voltage current transformers is presented in this paper. The sensor of this system is based on a kind of electronic instrument current transformer, which is a clamp-shape air core coil. This system uses an optical fiber transmission system for its signal transmission and power supply. Finally the digital integrator and fourth-order convolution window algorithm as error calculation methods are realized by the virtual instrument with a personal computer. It is found that this system can calibrate a high voltage current transformer while energized, which means avoiding a long calibrating period in the power system and the loss of power metering expense. At the same time, it has a wide dynamic range and frequency band, and it can achieve a high accuracy measurement in a complex electromagnetic field environment. The experimental results and the on-site operation results presented in the last part of the paper, prove that it can reach the 0.05 accuracy class and is easy to operate on site.
On the Number of Bootstrap Simulations Required to Construct a Confidence Interval.
1985-03-01
bootstrap simulations needed to construct a percentile-t confidence interval based on an N-sample from a continuous distribution: "i) The bootstrap’s...March 1985 -pA ~ k..% ON THE NUMBER OF BOOTSTRAP SIMULATIONS REQUIRED TO CONSTRUCT A CONFIDENCE INTERVAL by Peter Hall 1 University of North Carolina...Chapel Hill 2 Summary. We make two points about the number, B, of bootstrap simulations needed to construct a percentile-t confidence interval based on
Compilation of current high-energy-physics experiments
Wohl, C.G.; Kelly, R.L.; Armstrong, F.E.
1980-04-01
This is the third edition of a compilation of current high energy physics experiments. It is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and ten participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), the Institute for Nuclear Study, Tokyo (INS), KEK, Rutherford (RHEL), Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. The compilation includes summaries of all high energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that (1) were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about January 1980, and (2) had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1976.
Compilation of current high-energy physics experiments
Wohl, C.G.; Kelly, R.L.; Armstrong, F.E.
1981-05-01
This is the fourth edition of the compilation of current high energy physics experiments. It is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and nine participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), the Institute for Nuclear Study, Tokyo (INS), KEK, Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. The compilation includes summaries of all high energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that (1) were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about April 1981, and (2) had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1977. Only approved experiments are included.
Bootstrap finance: the art of start-ups.
Bhide, A
1992-01-01
Entrepreneurship is more popular than ever: courses are full, policymakers emphasize new ventures, managers yearn to go off on their own. Would-be founders often misplace their energies, however. Believing in a "big money" model of entrepreneurship, they spend a lot of time trying to attract investors instead of using wits and hustle to get their ideas off the ground. A study of 100 of the 1989 Inc. "500" list of fastest growing U.S. start-ups attests to the value of bootstrapping. In fact, what it takes to start a business often conflicts with what venture capitalists require. Investors prefer solid plans, well-defined markets, and track records. Entrepreneurs are heavy on energy and enthusiasm but may be short on credentials. They thrive in rapidly changing environments where uncertain prospects may scare off established companies. Rolling with the punches is often more important than formal plans. Striving to adhere to investors' criteria can diminish the flexibility--the try-it, fix-it approach--an entrepreneur needs to make a new venture work. Seven principles are basic for successful start-ups: get operational fast; look for quick break-even, cash-generating projects; offer high-value products or services that can sustain direct personal selling; don't try to hire the crack team; keep growth in check; focus on cash; and cultivate banks early. Growth and change are the start-up's natural environment. But change is also the reward for success: just as ventures grow, their founders usually have to take a fresh look at everything again: roles, organization, even the very policies that got the business up and running.
Current Status of High Voltage Engineering in Indonesia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hidayat, Syarif; Hidayat, Suwarno; Zoro, Reynaldo
This paper reports current status of research activities in the field of high voltage engineering and its application in Indonesia. In general, the activities were driven by the application of high voltage (HV) and extra high voltage (EHV) transmission systems in the country. The operation and maintenance of HV and EHV equipments are greatly affected by the tropical climate of the country. This attracts researchers to investigate the effects of tropical climate on HV and EHV equipments. Other researches concentrated on the investigation of physics of tropical lightning and lightning protection. In this paper, applications and problems of high voltage engineering, research activities in universities, as well as in research institutes and utilities are briefly introduced.
Dynamics of charged current sheets at high-latitude magnetopause
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savin, S.; Amata, E.; Zelenyi, L.; Dunlop, M.; Andre, M.; Song, P.; Blecki, J.; Buechner, J.; Rauch, J. L.; Skalsky, A.
E. Amata (2), L. Zelenyi (1), M. Dunlop (3), M. Andre (4), P. Song (5), J. Blecki (6), J. Buechner (7), J.L Rauch, J.G. Trotignon (8), G. Consolini, F. Marcucci (2), B. Nikutowski (7), A. Skalsky, S. Romanov, E. Panov (1) (2) IFSI, Roma, Italy, (3) RAL, UK, (4) IRFU, Uppsala, Sweden, (5) U. Mass. Lowell, USA, (6) SRC, Warsaw, Poland, (7) MPAe, Germany, (8) LPCE, Orleans, France; We study dynamics of thin current sheets over polar cusps from data of Interball-1 and Cluster. At the high-beta magnetopause current sheet width often reaches ion gyroradius scales, that leads to their Hall dynamics in the presence of local surface charges. Respective perpendicular electric fields provide the means for momentum coupling through the current sheets and are able to accelerate ions with gyroradius of the order or larger than the sheet width. At borders of large diamagnetic cavities this mechanism is able to support mass exchange and accelerate/ heat incoming magnetosheath particles. At larger scales the inhomogeneous electric fields at the current sheet borders can accelerate incident plasma downtail along magnetopause via inertial drift. It serves to move external plasma away for dynamic equilibrium supporting. Farther away from magnetopause similar nonlinear electric field wave trains, selfconsistently produced by interaction of reflected from the obstacle waves with magnetosheath fluctuations, destroy the incident flux into accelerated magnetosonic jets and decelerated Alfvenic flows and generate small-scale current sheets due to different sign of electron and ion inertial drift in the nonlinear electric field bursts. We suggest that this direct kinetic energy transformation creates current sheets with anomalous statistics of field rotation angles in the turbulent boundary layer in front of magnetopause, which have been attributed earlier to an intermittent turbulence. We compare measured spectra with a model of nonlinear system with intermittent chaotic behavior. Work was
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franco, Glaura C.; Reisen, Valderio A.
2007-03-01
This paper deals with different bootstrap approaches and bootstrap confidence intervals in the fractionally autoregressive moving average (ARFIMA(p,d,q)) process [J. Hosking, Fractional differencing, Biometrika 68(1) (1981) 165-175] using parametric and semi-parametric estimation techniques for the memory parameter d. The bootstrap procedures considered are: the classical bootstrap in the residuals of the fitted model [B. Efron, R. Tibshirani, An Introduction to the Bootstrap, Chapman and Hall, New York, 1993], the bootstrap in the spectral density function [E. Paparoditis, D.N Politis, The local bootstrap for periodogram statistics. J. Time Ser. Anal. 20(2) (1999) 193-222], the bootstrap in the residuals resulting from the regression equation of the semi-parametric estimators [G.C Franco, V.A Reisen, Bootstrap techniques in semiparametric estimation methods for ARFIMA models: a comparison study, Comput. Statist. 19 (2004) 243-259] and the Sieve bootstrap [P. Bühlmann, Sieve bootstrap for time series, Bernoulli 3 (1997) 123-148]. The performance of these procedures and confidence intervals for d in the stationary and non-stationary ranges are empirically obtained through Monte Carlo experiments. The bootstrap confidence intervals here proposed are alternative procedures with some accuracy to obtain confidence intervals for d.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Spinella, Sarah
2011-01-01
As result replicability is essential to science and difficult to achieve through external replicability, the present paper notes the insufficiency of null hypothesis statistical significance testing (NHSST) and explains the bootstrap as a plausible alternative, with a heuristic example to illustrate the bootstrap method. The bootstrap relies on…
Electrical and hydrodynamic characterization of a high current pulsed arc
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sousa Martins, R.; Chemartin, L.; Zaepffel, C.; Lalande, Ph; Soufiani, A.
2016-05-01
High current pulsed arcs are of significant industrial interest and, aiming to reduce time and cost, there is progressively more and more need for computation tools that describe and predict the behaviour of these arcs. These simulation codes need inputs and validations by experimental databases, but accurate data is missing for this category of electric discharges. The principal lack of understanding is with respect to the transient phase of the current, which can reach thousands of amperes in a few microseconds. In this paper, we present the work realized on an experimental setup that simulates in the laboratory an arc column subjected to five levels of high pulsed current, ranging from 10 kA to 100 kA, with the last one corresponding to the standard lightning current waveform used in aircraft certification processes. This device was instrumented by high speed video cameras to assess the characteristic sizes of the arc channel and to characterize the shock wave generated by the arc expansion. The arc channel radius was measured over time during the axisymmetric phase and reached 3.2 cm. The position and velocity of the shock wave was determined during the first 140 μs. The background-oriented schlieren method was used to study the shock wave and a model for the light deflection inside the shock wave was developed. The mass density profile of the shock wave was estimated and showed good agreement with Rankine-Hugoniot relations at the wave front. Electrical measurements were also used to estimate the time-dependent resistance and conductivity of the arc for times lasting up to 50 μs.
High frequency fast wave current drive for DEMO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koch, R.; Lerche, E.; Van Eester, D.; Nightingale, M.
2011-12-01
A steady-state tokamak reactor (SSTR) requires a high efficiency current drive system, from plug to driven mega-amps. RF systems working in the ion-cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) have high efficiency from plug to antenna but a limited current drive (CD) efficiency and centrally peaked CD profiles. The latter feature is not adequate for a SSTR where the current should be sufficiently broad to keep the central safety factor (possibly significantly) above 1. In addition, the fact that the fast wave (FW) is evanescent at the edge limits coupling, requiring high voltage operation, which makes the system dependent on plasma edge properties and prone to arcing, reducing its reliability. A possible way to overcome these weaknesses is to operate at higher frequency (10 times or more the cyclotron frequency). The advantages are: (1) The coupling can be much better (waves propagate in vacuum) if the parallel refractive index n∥ is kept below one, (2) The FW group velocity tends to align to the magnetic field, so the power circumnavigates the magnetic axis and can drive off-axis current, (3) Due to the latter property, n∥ can be upshifted along the wave propagation path, allowing low n∥ launch (hence good coupling, large CD efficiency) with ultimately good electron absorption (which requires higher n∥). Note however that the n∥ upshift is a self-organized feature, that electron absorption is in competition with α-particle absorption and that uncoupling of the FW from the lower hybrid resonance at the edge requires n∥ slightly above one. The latter possibly counterproductive features might complicate the picture. The different aspects of this potentially attractive off-axis FWCD scheme are discussed.
High-current carbon-epoxy capillary cathode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gleizer, J. Z.; Queller, T.; Bliokh, Yu.; Yatom, S.; Vekselman, V.; Krasik, Ya. E.; Bernshtam, V.
2012-07-01
The results of experiments on the reproducible generation of an electron beam having a high current density of up to 300 A/cm2 and a satisfactorily uniform cross-sectional distribution of current density in a ˜200 kV, ˜450 ns vacuum diode with a carbon-epoxy capillary cathode are presented. It was found that the source of the electrons is the plasma formed as a result of flashover inside the capillaries. It is shown that the plasma formation occurs at an electric field ≤15 kV/cm and that the cathode sustains thousands of pulses without degradation in its emission properties. Time- and space-resolved visible light observation and spectroscopy analyses were used to determine the cathode plasma's density, temperature, and expansion velocity. It was found that the density of the cathode plasma decreases rapidly in relation to the distance from the cathode. In addition, it was found that the main reason for the short-circuiting of the accelerating gap is the formation and expansion of the anode plasma. Finally, it was shown that when an external guiding magnetic field is present, the injection of the electron beam into the drift space with a current amplitude exceeding its critical value changes the radial distribution of the current density of the electron beam because the inner electrons are reflected from the virtual cathode.
Anode jet in a high-current vacuum arc
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popov, S. A.; Schneider, A. V.; Batrakov, A. V.; Sandolache, G.; Rowe, S. W.; Markov, A. B.; Zyul'kova, L. A.
2012-07-01
A stable intense jet with a clear-cut bright sheath has been detected on the anode of a 10-ms-long high-current vacuum arc with a current amplitude of 15 kA. The jet is adjacent to the hot spot of a molten metal on the anode surface. The primary light of the jet is emitted by neutrals. The sheath of the jet is surrounded by an ion-induced diffuse glow. The anode jet arises from interaction between the cathode and anode plasmas. Because of this, the size of the jet inversely depends on the current of the arc and the jet becomes observable only by the end of the current pulse. This object (anode jet with a bright sheath) is well reproducible when the arc is initiated between copper-chromium electrodes. In the case of pure copper electrodes, such objects occur randomly and appear at long projections of the molten metal, where heat release is hampered, and at large drops moving in the interelectrode gap. This means that the anode evaporation intensity is crucial for the appearance of bright-sheath jets.
Formation of fast notched'' current waveforms through a high inductance
Spanjers, G.; Nelson, B.A.; Ribe, F.L. )
1991-10-01
A fast notch'' current has been produced on the (4 {mu}H) hardcore central conductor (C. M. Greenfield, M. E. Koepke, and F. L. Ribe, Phys. Fluids B {bold 2}, 133 (1990)) of the high beta Q machine, a 2.6 m theta pinch (S. O. Knox, H. Meuth, E. Sevillano, and F. L. Ribe, 3rd IEEE International Pulsed Power Conf., 1981, IEEE Publ. 81 CH1662/6, paper 3.1). With the notch circuitry, the current can be slowly ({tau}{sub 1/4} = 14 {mu}s) brought to a crowbarred dc value (20 kA) and then quickly ({tau}{sub 1/4} = 1.3 {mu}s) notched'' to a different value (typically either 0 kA or twice the dc value) and then quickly returned to the dc value. The use of a new inductively loaded spark gap switch eliminates extraneous ringing in the final crowbarred current waveform. As described here, by driving the hardcore circuit with two isolated capacitor banks, and a voltage stepup transformer, the notch current is created using spark gaps and ignitrons for switching, resulting in an inexpensive and technically simple circuit.
Broad-beam, high current, metal ion implantation facility
Brown, I.G.; Dickinson, M.R.; Galvin, J.E.; Godechot, X.; MacGill, R.A.
1990-07-01
We have developed a high current metal ion implantation facility with which high current beams of virtually all the solid metals of the Periodic Table can be produced. The facility makes use of a metal vapor vacuum arc ion source which is operated in a pulsed mode, with pulse width 0.25 ms and repetition rate up to 100 pps. Beam extraction voltage is up to 100 kV, corresponding to an ion energy of up to several hundred keV because of the ion charge state multiplicity; beam current is up to several Amperes peak and around 10 mA time averaged delivered onto target. Implantation is done in a broad-beam mode, with a direct line-of-sight from ion source to target. Here we describe the facility and some of the implants that have been carried out using it, including the seeding' of silicon wafers prior to CVD with titanium, palladium or tungsten, the formation of buried iridium silicide layers, and actinide (uranium and thorium) doping of III-V compounds. 16 refs., 6 figs.
What happens in Josephson junctions at high critical current densities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Massarotti, D.; Stornaiuolo, D.; Lucignano, P.; Caruso, R.; Galletti, L.; Montemurro, D.; Jouault, B.; Campagnano, G.; Arani, H. F.; Longobardi, L.; Parlato, L.; Pepe, G. P.; Rotoli, G.; Tagliacozzo, A.; Lombardi, F.; Tafuri, F.
2017-07-01
The impressive advances in material science and nanotechnology are more and more promoting the use of exotic barriers and/or superconductors, thus paving the way to new families of Josephson junctions. Semiconducting, ferromagnetic, topological insulator and graphene barriers are leading to unconventional and anomalous aspects of the Josephson coupling, which might be useful to respond to some issues on key problems of solid state physics. However, the complexity of the layout and of the competing physical processes occurring in the junctions is posing novel questions on the interpretation of their phenomenology. We classify some significant behaviors of hybrid and unconventional junctions in terms of their first imprinting, i.e., current-voltage curves, and propose a phenomenological approach to describe some features of junctions characterized by relatively high critical current densities Jc. Accurate arguments on the distribution of switching currents will provide quantitative criteria to understand physical processes occurring in high-Jc junctions. These notions are universal and apply to all kinds of junctions.
High current density stability of ohmic contacts to silicon carbide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Downey, Brian P.
The materials properties of SiC, such as wide bandgap, high breakdown electric field, and good thermal conductivity, make it an appealing option for high temperature and high power applications. The replacement of Si devices with SiC components could lead to a reduction in device size, weight, complexity, and cooling requirements along with an increase in device efficiency. One area of concern under high temperature or high current operation is the stability of the ohmic contacts. Ohmic contact degradation can cause an increase in parasitic resistance, which can diminish device performance. While contact studies have primarily focused on the high temperature stability of ohmic contacts to SiC, different failure mechanisms may arise under high current density stressing due to the influence of electromigration. In addition, preferential degradation may occur at the anode or cathode due to the directionality of current flow, known as a polarity effect. The failure mechanisms of ohmic contacts to p-type SiC under high current density stressing are explored. Complementary materials characterization techniques were used to analyze contact degradation, particularly the use of cross-sections prepared by focused ion beam for imaging using field emission scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis using Auger electron spectroscopy. Initially the degradation of commonly studied Ni and Al-based contacts was investigated under continuous DC current. The contact metallization included a bond pad consisting of a TiW diffusion barrier and thick Au overlayer. The Ni contacts were found to degrade due to the growth of voids within the ohmic contact layer, which were initially produced during the high temperature Ni/SiC ohmic contact anneal. The Al-based contacts degraded due to the movement of Al from the ohmic contact layer to the surface of the Au bond pad, and the movement of Au into the ohmic contact layer from the bond pad. The inequality of Al and Au fluxes generated
Survey of Digital Feedback Systems in High Current Storage Rings
Teytelman, Dmitry
2003-06-06
In the last decade demand for brightness in synchrotron light sources and luminosity in circular colliders led to construction of multiple high current storage rings. Many of these new machines require feedback systems to achieve design stored beam currents. In the same time frame the rapid advances in the technology of digital signal processing allowed the implementation of these complex feedback systems. In this paper I concentrate on three applications of feedback to storage rings: orbit control in light sources, coupled-bunch instability control, and low-level RF control. Each of these applications is challenging in areas of processing bandwidth, algorithm complexity, and control of time-varying beam and system dynamics. I will review existing implementations as well as comment on promising future directions.
High-side Digitally Current Controlled Biphasic Bipolar Microstimulator
Hanson, Timothy L.; Ómarsson, Björn; O'Doherty, Joseph E.; Peikon, Ian D.; Lebedev, Mikhail; Nicolelis, Miguel AL.
2012-01-01
Electrical stimulation of nervous tissue has been extensively used as both a tool in experimental neuroscience research and as a method for restoring of neural functions in patients suffering from sensory and motor disabilities. In the central nervous system, intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) has been shown to be an effective method for inducing or biasing perception, including visual and tactile sensation. ICMS also holds promise for enabling brain-machine-brain interfaces (BMBIs) by directly writing information into the brain. Here we detail the design of a high-side, digitally current-controlled biphasic, bipolar microstimulator, and describe the validation of the device in vivo. As many applications of this technique, including BMBIs, require recording as well as stimulation, we pay careful attention to isolation of the stimulus channels and parasitic current injection. With the realized device and standard recording hardware - without active artifact rejection - we are able to observe stimulus artifacts of less than 2 ms in duration. PMID:22328184
Optimization of high-temperature superconductor current leads
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seol, S. Y.; Hull, J. R.; Chyu, M. C.
Methods to improve the performance of high-temperature superconducting current leads are analyzed. Designs are considered that are inherently safe from burnup, even if the lead enters the normal state. The effect of a tapered lead that takes advantage of the increase in critical current density with decreasing temperature will decrease helium boiloff by about a factor of two for an area ratio of four. A new concept, in which Ag powder is distributed in increasing concentration from the cold end to the hot end of the lead in sintered YBCO, is shown to have comparable performance to that of leads made with Ag-alloy sheaths. Performance of the best inherently safe designs is about one order of magnitude better than that of optimized nonsuperconducting leads. BSCCO leads with Ag-alloy sheaths show improved performance for Au fractions up to about 3%, after which increases in Au fraction yield negligible performance improvement.
Engineering design of a high-temperature superconductor current lead
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niemann, R. C.; Cha, Y. S.; Hull, J. R.; Daugherty, M. A.; Buckles, W. E.
As part of the US Department of Energy's Superconductivity Pilot Center Program, Argonne National Laboratory and Superconductivity, Inc., are developing high-temperature superconductor (HTS) current leads suitable for application to superconducting magnetic energy storage systems. The principal objective of the development program is to design, construct, and evaluate the performance of HTS current leads suitable for near-term applications. Supporting objectives are to (1) develop performance criteria; (2) develop a detailed design; (3) analyze performance; (4) gain manufacturing experience in the areas of materials and components procurement, fabrication and assembly, quality assurance, and cost; (5) measure performance of critical components and the overall assembly; (6) identify design uncertainties and develop a program for their study; and (7) develop application-acceptance criteria.
High-frequency radar observations of ocean surface currents.
Paduan, Jeffrey D; Washburn, Libe
2013-01-01
This article reviews the discovery, development, and use of high-frequency (HF) radio wave backscatter in oceanography. HF radars, as the instruments are commonly called, remotely measure ocean surface currents by exploiting a Bragg resonant backscatter phenomenon. Electromagnetic waves in the HF band (3-30 MHz) have wavelengths that are commensurate with wind-driven gravity waves on the ocean surface; the ocean waves whose wavelengths are exactly half as long as those of the broadcast radio waves are responsible for the resonant backscatter. Networks of HF radar systems are capable of mapping surface currents hourly out to ranges approaching 200 km with a horizontal resolution of a few kilometers. Such information has many uses, including search and rescue support and oil-spill mitigation in real time and larval population connectivity assessment when viewed over many years. Today, HF radar networks form the backbone of many ocean observing systems, and the data are assimilated into ocean circulation models.
High current beam transport with multiple beam arrays
Kim, C.H.
1985-05-01
Highlights of recent experimental and theoretical research progress on the high current beam transport of single and multiple beams by the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) group at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) are presented. In the single beam transport experiment (SBTE), stability boundaries and the emittance growth of a space charge dominated beam in a long quadrupole transport channel were measured and compared with theory and computer simulations. Also, a multiple beam ion induction linac (MBE-4) is being constructed at LBL which will permit study of multiple beam transport arrays, and acceleration and bunch length compression of individually focused beamlets. Various design considerations of MBE-4 regarding scaling laws, nonlinear effects, misalignments, and transverse and longitudinal space charge effects are summarized. Some aspects of longitudinal beam dynamics including schemes to generate the accelerating voltage waveforms and to amplify beam current are also discussed.
High-side digitally current controlled biphasic bipolar microstimulator.
Hanson, Timothy L; Ómarsson, Björn; O'Doherty, Joseph E; Peikon, Ian D; Lebedev, Mikhail A; Nicolelis, Miguel A L
2012-05-01
Electrical stimulation of nervous tissue has been extensively used as both a tool in experimental neuroscience research and as a method for restoring of neural functions in patients suffering from sensory and motor disabilities. In the central nervous system, intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) has been shown to be an effective method for inducing or biasing perception, including visual and tactile sensation. ICMS also holds promise for enabling brain-machine-brain interfaces (BMBIs) by directly writing information into the brain. Here we detail the design of a high-side, digitally current-controlled biphasic, bipolar microstimulator, and describe the validation of the device in vivo. As many applications of this technique, including BMBIs, require recording as well as stimulation, we pay careful attention to isolation of the stimulus channels and parasitic current injection. With the realized device and standard recording hardware-without active artifact rejection-we are able to observe stimulus artifacts of less than 2 ms in duration.
Heavy-Ion Injector for the High Current Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bieniosek, F. M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J. W.; Prost, L.; Seidl, P.
2001-10-01
We report on progress in development of the Heavy-Ion Injector at LBNL, which is being prepared for use as an injector for the High Current Experiment (HCX). It is composed of a 10-cm-diameter surface ionization source, an extraction diode, and an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator, with a typical operating current of 0.6 A of potassium ions at 1.8 MeV, and a beam pulse length of 4.5 microsecs. We have improved the Injector equipment and diagnostics, and have characterized the source emission and radial beam profiles at the diode and ESQ regions. We find improved agreement with EGUN predictions, and improved compatibility with the downstream matching section. Plans are to attach the matching section and the initial ESQ transport section of HCX. Results will be presented and compared with EGUN and WARP simulations.
Some Physical and Engineering Aspects of High Current EBIS
Pikin, A; Prelec, K.
1999-05-21
Some applications of an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) require intensities of highly charged ions significantly greater than those which have been achieved in present EBIS sources. For example, the ion source for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) must be capable of generating 3 x 10{sup 9} ions of Au{sup 35+} or 2 x 10{sup 9} ions of U{sup 45+} per pulse. In this case, if the fraction of ions of interest is 20% of the total ion space charge, the total extracted charge is {approximately} 5 x 10{sup 11}. It is also desirable to extract these ions in a 10 {micro}s pulse to allow single turn injection into the first synchrotrons. Requirements for an EBIS which could meet the needs of the LHC at CERN are similar ({approximately} 1.5 x 10{sup 9} ions of Pb{sup 54+} in 5.5 {micro}s). This charge yield is about an order of magnitude greater than that achieved in existing EBIS sources, and is what is meant here by high current. This also implies, then, an EBIS with a high electron beam current.
Energetic neutral contamination in modern high-current implanters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cherekdjian, S.; Weisenberger, W.
1991-04-01
The presence of energetic neutrals in a high-current, high-energy implant can result in nonuniformities on a silicon wafer. A larger concern is when the energetic neutrals are not of the desired energy. This is a major consideration when designing ion implanters with pre- and post-acceleration stages. This paper investigates the levels of pre-accelerated boron neutrals present in a 180 kV boron implant. The machines investigated were a Nova 20A and an Applied Materials PI9000. A comparison of their vacuum systems and their ability to cope with photoresist batches and argon backfill are presented. Silicon wafers were mapped by four-point probe resistivity measurements and the levels of pre-accelerated neutrals were quantified by spreading resistance profiles (SRPs). It is clearly demonstrated that good uniformity on a bare silicon wafer is not an indicator of a clean ion beam. Even though it is well understood that this problem is vacuum-related, modern high-current implanters are still being built and marketed with improper vacuum isolation and insufficient pumping capability.
Astro-E2 Magnesium Diboride High Current Leads
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Panek, J. S.; Tuttle, J. G.; Riall, S.; Mustafi, S.; Gray, A.; Edmonds, R.; Marrero, V.
2003-01-01
The recent discovery of superconducting properties in MgB_2 and rapid development of small diameter steel-clad wires has opened up the possibility of enhancing the design of the baseline Astro-E2 high current lead assembly. Replacing YBCO filaments with MgB_2 wires and modifying the heat sink location can give much higher margins against quench from temperature oscillations of the 4 K heat sink, although wih some overall thermal penalty. The design and performance of a new lead assembly during flight qualification is discussed, with emphasis on thermal, structural, and electrical test results.
Development of RF linac for high-current applications
Chan, K.C.D.; Lawrence, G.P.; Schneider, J.D.
1997-12-31
High-current proton linacs are promising sources of neutrons for material processing and research applications. Recently, a linac design that makes use of a combination of normal-conducting (NC) and superconducting (SC) linac technologies has been proposed for the US Accelerator Production of Tritium Project. As a result, a multi-year engineering development and demonstration (ED and D) program is underway. In this paper, the authors will describe the design and merits of the NC/SC hybrid approach. The scope, technology issues, and present status of the ED and D Program, and the participation of industry will also be described.
Pulsed High-Current Experiments at IPP ASci CR Prague
Kolacek, K.; Schmidt, J.; Prukner, V.; Frolov, O.; Straus, J.; Bohacek, V.; Martinkova, M.
2006-01-05
The aim of our first high current capillary discharge was to reach amplified spontaneous emission on neon-like argon ({lambda} = 46.9 nm). This was finally accomplished. Our new capillary discharge experiment has larger transverse dimensions, four-channel laser-triggered spark gap, and free optical access to both capillary ends. At present it is electrically tested. In this apparatus the capillary can be replaced by a device with exploding wire in water locally compressed by focused cylindrical converging shock wave (for soft X-ray lasing at shorter wavelength). This part is also at present tested.
Pulsed High-Current Experiments at IPP ASci CR Prague
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolacek, K.; Schmidt, J.; Prukner, V.; Frolov, O.; Straus, J.; Bohacek, V.; Martinkova, M.
2006-01-01
The aim of our first high current capillary discharge was to reach amplified spontaneous emission on neon-like argon (λ = 46.9 nm). This was finally accomplished. Our new capillary discharge experiment has larger transverse dimensions, four-channel laser-triggered spark gap, and free optical access to both capillary ends. At present it is electrically tested. In this apparatus the capillary can be replaced by a device with exploding wire in water locally compressed by focused cylindrical converging shock wave (for soft X-ray lasing at shorter wavelength). This part is also at present tested.
High Current Cathode Thermal Behavior, Part II: Theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goodfellow, K. D.; Polk, J. E.
1993-01-01
Cathode erosion is one of the life limiting mechanisms for several classes of electric thrusters. Since cathode erosion is strongly dependent on the cathode temperature, a quantitative understanding of the effects of cathode operation on the cathode temperature is required. The development of a cathode/plasma interaction model for determining the heat loads to the cathode as function of the various free stream plasma parameters is presented. This model is combined with a cathode thermal model in order to provide a complete and integrated picture of high current cathode operation.
Low Impedance Bellows for High-current Beam Operations
Wu, G; Nassiri, A; Waldschmidt, G J; Yang, Y; Feingold, J J; Mammosser, J D; Rimmer, R A; Wang, H; Jang, J; Kim, S H
2012-07-01
In particle accelerators, bellows are commonly used to connect beamline components. Such bellows are traditionally shielded to lower the beam impedance. Excessive beam impedance can cause overheating in the bellows, especially in high beam current operation. For an SRF-based accelerator, the bellows must also be particulate free. Many designs of shielded bellows incorporate rf slides or fingers that prevent convolutions from being exposed to wakefields. Unfortunately these mechanical structures tend to generate particulates that, if left in the SRF accelerator, can migrate into superconducting cavities, the accelerator's critical components. In this paper, we describe a prototype unshielded bellows that has low beam impedance and no risk of particulate generation.
Astro-E2 Magnesium Diboride High Current Leads
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Panek, J. S.; Tuttle, J. G.; Riall, S.; Mustafi, S.; Gray, A.; Edmonds, R.; Marrero, V.
2003-01-01
The recent discovery of superconducting properties in MgB_2 and rapid development of small diameter steel-clad wires has opened up the possibility of enhancing the design of the baseline Astro-E2 high current lead assembly. Replacing YBCO filaments with MgB_2 wires and modifying the heat sink location can give much higher margins against quench from temperature oscillations of the 4 K heat sink, although wih some overall thermal penalty. The design and performance of a new lead assembly during flight qualification is discussed, with emphasis on thermal, structural, and electrical test results.
New progress of high current gasdynamic ion source (invited).
Skalyga, V; Izotov, I; Golubev, S; Sidorov, A; Razin, S; Vodopyanov, A; Tarvainen, O; Koivisto, H; Kalvas, T
2016-02-01
The experimental and theoretical research carried out at the Institute of Applied Physics resulted in development of a new type of electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs)-the gasdynamic ECRIS. The gasdynamic ECRIS features a confinement mechanism in a magnetic trap that is different from Geller's ECRIS confinement, i.e., the quasi-gasdynamic one similar to that in fusion mirror traps. Experimental studies of gasdynamic ECRIS were performed at Simple Mirror Ion Source (SMIS) 37 facility. The plasma was created by 37.5 and 75 GHz gyrotron radiation with power up to 100 kW. High frequency microwaves allowed to create and sustain plasma with significant density (up to 8 × 10(13) cm(-3)) and to maintain the main advantages of conventional ECRIS such as high ionization degree and low ion energy. Reaching such high plasma density relies on the fact that the critical density grows with the microwave frequency squared. High microwave power provided the average electron energy on a level of 50-300 eV enough for efficient ionization even at neutral gas pressure range of 10(-4)-10(-3) mbar. Gasdynamic ECRIS has demonstrated a good performance producing high current (100-300 mA) multi-charged ion beams with moderate average charge (Z = 4-5 for argon). Gasdynamic ECRIS has appeared to be especially effective in low emittance hydrogen and deuterium beams formation. Proton beams with current up to 500 emA and RMS emittance below 0.07 π ⋅ mm ⋅ mrad have been demonstrated in recent experiments.
New progress of high current gasdynamic ion source (invited)
Skalyga, V. Sidorov, A.; Vodopyanov, A.; Izotov, I.; Golubev, S.; Razin, S.; Tarvainen, O.; Koivisto, H.; Kalvas, T.
2016-02-15
The experimental and theoretical research carried out at the Institute of Applied Physics resulted in development of a new type of electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs)—the gasdynamic ECRIS. The gasdynamic ECRIS features a confinement mechanism in a magnetic trap that is different from Geller’s ECRIS confinement, i.e., the quasi-gasdynamic one similar to that in fusion mirror traps. Experimental studies of gasdynamic ECRIS were performed at Simple Mirror Ion Source (SMIS) 37 facility. The plasma was created by 37.5 and 75 GHz gyrotron radiation with power up to 100 kW. High frequency microwaves allowed to create and sustain plasma with significant density (up to 8 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −3}) and to maintain the main advantages of conventional ECRIS such as high ionization degree and low ion energy. Reaching such high plasma density relies on the fact that the critical density grows with the microwave frequency squared. High microwave power provided the average electron energy on a level of 50-300 eV enough for efficient ionization even at neutral gas pressure range of 10{sup −4}–10{sup −3} mbar. Gasdynamic ECRIS has demonstrated a good performance producing high current (100-300 mA) multi-charged ion beams with moderate average charge (Z = 4-5 for argon). Gasdynamic ECRIS has appeared to be especially effective in low emittance hydrogen and deuterium beams formation. Proton beams with current up to 500 emA and RMS emittance below 0.07 π ⋅ mm ⋅ mrad have been demonstrated in recent experiments.
New progress of high current gasdynamic ion source (invited)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skalyga, V.; Izotov, I.; Golubev, S.; Sidorov, A.; Razin, S.; Vodopyanov, A.; Tarvainen, O.; Koivisto, H.; Kalvas, T.
2016-02-01
The experimental and theoretical research carried out at the Institute of Applied Physics resulted in development of a new type of electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs)—the gasdynamic ECRIS. The gasdynamic ECRIS features a confinement mechanism in a magnetic trap that is different from Geller's ECRIS confinement, i.e., the quasi-gasdynamic one similar to that in fusion mirror traps. Experimental studies of gasdynamic ECRIS were performed at Simple Mirror Ion Source (SMIS) 37 facility. The plasma was created by 37.5 and 75 GHz gyrotron radiation with power up to 100 kW. High frequency microwaves allowed to create and sustain plasma with significant density (up to 8 × 1013 cm-3) and to maintain the main advantages of conventional ECRIS such as high ionization degree and low ion energy. Reaching such high plasma density relies on the fact that the critical density grows with the microwave frequency squared. High microwave power provided the average electron energy on a level of 50-300 eV enough for efficient ionization even at neutral gas pressure range of 10-4-10-3 mbar. Gasdynamic ECRIS has demonstrated a good performance producing high current (100-300 mA) multi-charged ion beams with moderate average charge (Z = 4-5 for argon). Gasdynamic ECRIS has appeared to be especially effective in low emittance hydrogen and deuterium beams formation. Proton beams with current up to 500 emA and RMS emittance below 0.07 π ṡ mm ṡ mrad have been demonstrated in recent experiments.
Unsteady density-current equations for highly curved terrain
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sivakumaran, N. S.; Dressler, R. F.
1989-01-01
New nonlinear partial differential equations containing terrain curvature and its rate of change are derived that describe the flow of an atmospheric density current. Unlike the classical hydraulic-type equations for density currents, the new equations are valid for two-dimensional, gradually varied flow over highly curved terrain, hence suitable for computing unsteady (or steady) flows over arbitrary mountain/valley profiles. The model assumes the atmosphere above the density current exerts a known arbitrary variable pressure upon the unknown interface. Later this is specialized to the varying hydrostatic pressure of the atmosphere above. The new equations yield the variable velocity distribution, the interface position, and the pressure distribution that contains a centrifugal component, often significantly larger than its hydrostatic component. These partial differential equations are hyperbolic, and the characteristic equations and characteristic directions are derived. Using these to form a characteristic mesh, a hypothetical unsteady curved-flow problem is calculated, not based upon observed data, merely as an example to illustrate the simplicity of their application to unsteady flows over mountains.
The MEVVA ion source for high current metal ion implantation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Ian; Washburn, Jack
The MEVVA (Metal Vapor Vacuum Arc) ion source is a new kind of source which can produce high current beams of metal ions. Beams of a wide range of elements have been produced, spanning the periodic table from lithium up to and including uranium. The source extraction voltage is up to 60 kV, and we are increasing this up to 120 kV. A total ion beam current of over 1 A has been extracted from the present embodiment of the concept, and this is not an inherent limit. The ion charge state distribution varies with cathode material and are current, and beams like Li +, Co +.2+.3+ and U 3+.4+.5+.6+ for example, are typical; thus the implantation energy can be up to several hundred kV without additional acceleration. The ion source has potential applications for ion implantation and ion beam mixing for achievement of improved corrosion resistance or wear resistance in metals or surface modification of ceramic materials and semiconductors. Here we outline the source and its performance, and describe some very preliminary implantation work using this source.
High Intracellular Chloride Slows the Decay of Glycinergic Currents
Pitt, Samantha J.; Sivilotti, Lucia G.; Beato, Marco
2009-01-01
The time course of currents mediated by native and recombinant glycine receptors was examined with a combination of rapid agonist applications to outside-out patches and single-channel recording. The deactivation time constant of currents evoked by brief, saturating pulses of glycine is profoundly affected by the chloride concentration on the intracellular side of the cell membrane. Deactivation was threefold slower when intracellular chloride was increased from a low level (10 mm), similar to that observed in living mature neurons, to 131 mm (“symmetrical” chloride, often used in pipette internal solutions). Single-channel analysis revealed that high chloride has its greatest effect on the channel closing rate, slowing it by a factor of 2 compared with the value we estimated in the cell-attached mode (in which the channels are at physiological intracellular chloride concentrations). The same effect of chloride was observed when glycinergic evoked synaptic currents were recorded from juvenile rat spinal motoneurons in vitro, because the decay time constant was reduced from ∼7ms to ∼3 ms when cells were dialyzed with 10 mm chloride intracellular recording solution. Our results indicate that the time course of glycinergic synaptic inhibition in intact neurons is much faster than is estimated by measurements in symmetrical chloride and can be modulated by changes in intracellular chloride concentration in the range that can occur in physiological or pathological conditions. PMID:18987182
Method for making a high current fiber brush collector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scuro, S. J.
1986-05-01
An axial-type homopolar motor having high density, high current fiber brush collectors affording efficient, low contact resistance and low operating temperatures is discussed. The collectors include a ring of concentric row of brushes in equally spaced beveled holes soldered in place using a fixture for heating the ring to just below the solder melting point at a soldering iron for the local application of additional heat at each brush. Prior to soldering, an oxide film is formed on the surfaces of the brushes and ring, and the bevels are burnished to form a wetting surface. Flux applied with the solder at each bevel removes to an effective soldering depth the oxide film on the brushes and the holes.
Advanced electromagnetic design of cavities for high current accelerators
Krawczyk, F.L.
1995-05-01
For high-current accelerators such as those proposed for transmutation technologies or spallation sources, preconstruction numerical modeling has a high importance. Non axisymmetric cavities require a full 3-D modeling. A complex analysis of structures beyond tuning and the calculation of Q and shunt impedance is required and also the interaction with the mechanical properties of the structures has to be taken into account. This paper reports on recent work done at LANL for proposed beam funnels, a new normal-conducting medium-energy structure (CCDTL) and superconducting cavities for medium energy. The electromagnetic calculations have been done with MAFIA, Rel 3.2, the thermal and stress analysis results reported come from the ABAQUS engineering code.
Energetic ion production in high current hollow cathodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foster, John; Kovach, Yao; Arthur, Neil; Viges, Eric; Davis, Chris
2015-09-01
High power Hall and gridded ion thrusters are being considered as a propulsion option supporting human operations (cargo or tug) to Mars. These engines utilize hollow cathodes for plasma production and beam neutralization. It has now been well documented that these cathodes produce energetic ions when operated at high current densities. Such ions are observed with peak energies approaching 100 eV. Because these ions can drive erosion of the cathode assembly, they represent a credible failure mode. An understanding of energetic ion production and approaches to mitigation is therefore desired. Presented here are data documenting the presence of energetic ions for both a barium oxide and a lanthanum hexaboride cathode as measured using a retarding potential analyzer. Also presented are energetic ion mitigation approaches, which are designed to eliminate the ion energy transfer mechanism. NASA SBIR Contract NNX15CP62P.
The Transition to High School: Current Knowledge, Future Directions
2011-01-01
In the American educational system, school transitions are frequent and predictable, but they can disrupt student functioning across developmental domains. How students experience school transitions has been a focus of research for some time, but the high school transition has received less attention, and the limited research often focuses on a particular developmental domain (e.g., academics and socioemotional well-being) to the exclusion of a more integrated model. This review relies on life course theory to establish an organizational framework for interpreting and connecting the diffuse and sometimes disparate findings on the high school transition, including adolescent developmental trajectories and the influence of social ties, changing sociocultural contexts, and stratification systems. Conclusions identify aspects for future inquiry suggested by current knowledge and the tenets of the life course perspective. PMID:21966178
Bootstrapping GEE models for fMRI regional connectivity.
D'Angelo, Gina M; Lazar, Nicole A; Zhou, Gongfu; Eddy, William F; Morris, John C; Sheline, Yvette I
2012-12-01
An Alzheimer's fMRI study has motivated us to evaluate inter-regional correlations during rest between groups. We apply generalized estimating equation (GEE) models to test for differences in regional correlations across groups. Both the GEE marginal model and GEE transition model are evaluated and compared to the standard pooling Fisher-z approach using simulation studies. Standard errors of all methods are estimated both theoretically (model-based) and empirically (bootstrap). Of all the methods, we find that the transition models have the best statistical properties. Overall, the model-based standard errors and bootstrap standard errors perform about the same. We also demonstrate the methods with a functional connectivity study in a healthy cognitively normal population of ApoE4+ participants and ApoE4- participants who are recruited from the Adult Children's Study conducted at the Washington University Knight Alzheimer's Disease Research Center.
A bootstrap lunar base: Preliminary design review 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1987-01-01
A bootstrap lunar base is the gateway to manned solar system exploration and requires new ideas and new designs on the cutting edge of technology. A preliminary design for a Bootstrap Lunar Base, the second provided by this contractor, is presented. An overview of the work completed is discussed as well as the technical, management, and cost strategies to complete the program requirements. The lunar base design stresses the transforming capabilities of its lander vehicles to aid in base construction. The design also emphasizes modularity and expandability in the base configuration to support the long-term goals of scientific research and profitable lunar resource exploitation. To successfully construct, develop, and inhabit a permanent lunar base, however, several technological advancements must first be realized. Some of these technological advancements are also discussed.
Confidence Estimation via the Parametric Bootstrap in Logistic Joinpoint Regression
Gill, Ryan; Rempala, Grzegorz A.; Czajkowski, Michal
2009-01-01
We consider asymptotic properties of the maximum likelihood and related estimators in a clustered logistic joinpoint model with an unknown joinpoint. Sufficient conditions are given for the consistency of confidence bounds produced by the parametric bootstrap; one of the conditions required is that the true location of the joinpoint is not at one of the observation times. A simulation study is presented to illustrate the lack of consistency of the bootstrap confidence bounds when the joinpoint is an observation time. A removal algorithm is presented which corrects this problem, but at the price of an increased mean square error. Finally, the methods are applied to data on yearly cancer mortality in the United States for individuals age 65 and over. PMID:20160983
Bootstrapping the energy flow in the beginning of life.
Hengeveld, R; Fedonkin, M A
2007-01-01
This paper suggests that the energy flow on which all living structures depend only started up slowly, the low-energy, initial phase starting up a second, slightly more energetic phase, and so on. In this way, the build up of the energy flow follows a bootstrapping process similar to that found in the development of computers, the first generation making possible the calculations necessary for constructing the second one, etc. In the biogenetic upstart of an energy flow, non-metals in the lower periods of the Periodic Table of Elements would have constituted the most primitive systems, their operation being enhanced and later supplanted by elements in the higher periods that demand more energy. This bootstrapping process would put the development of the metabolisms based on the second period elements carbon, nitrogen and oxygen at the end of the evolutionary process rather than at, or even before, the biogenetic event.
Modeling ion-induced electrons in the High Current Experiment
Stoltz, P.H.; Verboncoeur, J.P.; Cohen, R.H.; Molvik, A.W.; Vay, J.-L.; Veitzer, S.A.
2006-05-15
A primary concern for high current ion accelerators is contaminant electrons. These electrons can interfere with the beam ions, causing emittance growth and beam loss. Numerical simulation is a main tool for understanding the interaction of the ion beam with the contaminant electrons, but these simulations then require accurate models of electron generation. These models include ion-induced electron emission from ions hitting the beam pipe walls or diagnostics. However, major codes for modeling ion beam transport are written in different programming languages and used on different computing platforms. For electron generation models to be maximally useful, researchers should be able to use them easily from many languages and platforms. A model of ion-induced electrons including the electron energy distribution is presented here, including a discussion of how to use the Babel software tool to make these models available in multiple languages and how to use the GNU Autotools to make them available on multiple platforms. An application to simulation of the end region of the High Current Experiment is shown. These simulations show formation of a virtual cathode with a potential energy well of amplitude 12.0 eV, approximately six times the most probable energy of the ion-induced electrons. Oscillations of the virtual cathode could lead to possible longitudinal and transverse modulation of the density of the electrons moving out of the virtual cathode.
High Current Cathodes Fabricated by KrF Laser Ablation
Gilgenbach, Ronald M.; Lau, Y. Y.; Jones, M. C.; Johnston, M. D.; Jordan, N. M.; Hoff, B. W.
2010-10-08
In this paper we review several high power laser ablation techniques that have been utilized to fabricate high current (1-80 kA) electron beam cathodes for accelerators and microwave sources: 1) Projection Ablation Lithography (PAL) cathodes, 2) Ablation Line Focus (ALF) cathodes, and 3) Metal-Oxide-Junction (MOJ) cathodes. Laser-ablative micromachining techniques (PAL and ALF) have been utilized to generate micron-scale features on metal substrates that provide electric field (beta) enhancement for Fowler-Nordheim emission and plasma cathodes. Since these laser-ablated patterns are directly, laser-written on the substrate metal they exhibit much higher thermal conductivity for higher current capability and increased damage thresholds. Metal-Oxide-Junction (MOJ) cathodes exploit the triple-point electron emission that occurs at the interface between metal, insulator and vacuum.The ablation laser is a KrF excimer laser with a pulse energy of 600 mJ and pulselength of 20 ns. Cathode experiments were performed on the MELBA-C accelerator: V = -300 kV, pulselength = 0.5 microsecond. Data will be presented for PAL, ALF and MOJ cathodes.
Modeling ion-induced electrons in the High Current Experimenta)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stoltz, P. H.; Verboncoeur, J. P.; Cohen, R. H.; Molvik, A. W.; Vay, J.-L.; Veitzer, S. A.
2006-05-01
A primary concern for high current ion accelerators is contaminant electrons. These electrons can interfere with the beam ions, causing emittance growth and beam loss. Numerical simulation is a main tool for understanding the interaction of the ion beam with the contaminant electrons, but these simulations then require accurate models of electron generation. These models include ion-induced electron emission from ions hitting the beam pipe walls or diagnostics. However, major codes for modeling ion beam transport are written in different programming languages and used on different computing platforms. For electron generation models to be maximally useful, researchers should be able to use them easily from many languages and platforms. A model of ion-induced electrons including the electron energy distribution is presented here, including a discussion of how to use the Babel software tool to make these models available in multiple languages and how to use the GNU Autotools to make them available on multiple platforms. An application to simulation of the end region of the High Current Experiment is shown. These simulations show formation of a virtual cathode with a potential energy well of amplitude 12.0eV, approximately six times the most probable energy of the ion-induced electrons. Oscillations of the virtual cathode could lead to possible longitudinal and transverse modulation of the density of the electrons moving out of the virtual cathode.
Deng, Nina; Allison, Jeroan J; Fang, Hua Julia; Ash, Arlene S; Ware, John E
2013-05-31
Relative validity (RV), a ratio of ANOVA F-statistics, is often used to compare the validity of patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures. We used the bootstrap to establish the statistical significance of the RV and to identify key factors affecting its significance. Based on responses from 453 chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients to 16 CKD-specific and generic PRO measures, RVs were computed to determine how well each measure discriminated across clinically-defined groups of patients compared to the most discriminating (reference) measure. Statistical significance of RV was quantified by the 95% bootstrap confidence interval. Simulations examined the effects of sample size, denominator F-statistic, correlation between comparator and reference measures, and number of bootstrap replicates. The statistical significance of the RV increased as the magnitude of denominator F-statistic increased or as the correlation between comparator and reference measures increased. A denominator F-statistic of 57 conveyed sufficient power (80%) to detect an RV of 0.6 for two measures correlated at r = 0.7. Larger denominator F-statistics or higher correlations provided greater power. Larger sample size with a fixed denominator F-statistic or more bootstrap replicates (beyond 500) had minimal impact. The bootstrap is valuable for establishing the statistical significance of RV estimates. A reasonably large denominator F-statistic (F > 57) is required for adequate power when using the RV to compare the validity of measures with small or moderate correlations (r < 0.7). Substantially greater power can be achieved when comparing measures of a very high correlation (r > 0.9).
2013-01-01
Background Relative validity (RV), a ratio of ANOVA F-statistics, is often used to compare the validity of patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures. We used the bootstrap to establish the statistical significance of the RV and to identify key factors affecting its significance. Methods Based on responses from 453 chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients to 16 CKD-specific and generic PRO measures, RVs were computed to determine how well each measure discriminated across clinically-defined groups of patients compared to the most discriminating (reference) measure. Statistical significance of RV was quantified by the 95% bootstrap confidence interval. Simulations examined the effects of sample size, denominator F-statistic, correlation between comparator and reference measures, and number of bootstrap replicates. Results The statistical significance of the RV increased as the magnitude of denominator F-statistic increased or as the correlation between comparator and reference measures increased. A denominator F-statistic of 57 conveyed sufficient power (80%) to detect an RV of 0.6 for two measures correlated at r = 0.7. Larger denominator F-statistics or higher correlations provided greater power. Larger sample size with a fixed denominator F-statistic or more bootstrap replicates (beyond 500) had minimal impact. Conclusions The bootstrap is valuable for establishing the statistical significance of RV estimates. A reasonably large denominator F-statistic (F > 57) is required for adequate power when using the RV to compare the validity of measures with small or moderate correlations (r < 0.7). Substantially greater power can be achieved when comparing measures of a very high correlation (r > 0.9). PMID:23721463
Bootstrapping a five-loop amplitude using Steinmann relations
Caron-Huot, Simon; Dixon, Lance J.; McLeod, Andrew; ...
2016-12-05
Here, the analytic structure of scattering amplitudes is restricted by Steinmann relations, which enforce the vanishing of certain discontinuities of discontinuities. We show that these relations dramatically simplify the function space for the hexagon function bootstrap in planar maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. Armed with this simplification, along with the constraints of dual conformal symmetry and Regge exponentiation, we obtain the complete five-loop six-particle amplitude.
'Bootstrap' charging of surfaces composed of multiple materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.; Parks, D. E.
1981-01-01
The paper examines the charging of a checkerboard array of two materials, only one of which tends to acquire a negative potential alone, using the NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP). The influence of the charging material's field causes the otherwise 'non-charging' material to acquire a negative potential due to the suppression of its secondary emission ('bootstrap' charging). The NASCAP predictions for the equilibrium potential difference between the two materials are compared to results based on an analytical model.
Bootstrapping a Five-Loop Amplitude Using Steinmann Relations.
Caron-Huot, Simon; Dixon, Lance J; McLeod, Andrew; von Hippel, Matt
2016-12-09
The analytic structure of scattering amplitudes is restricted by Steinmann relations, which enforce the vanishing of certain discontinuities of discontinuities. We show that these relations dramatically simplify the function space for the hexagon function bootstrap in planar maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. Armed with this simplification, along with the constraints of dual conformal symmetry and Regge exponentiation, we obtain the complete five-loop six-particle amplitude.
A cluster bootstrap for two-loop MHV amplitudes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golden, John; Spradlin, Marcus
2015-02-01
We apply a bootstrap procedure to two-loop MHV amplitudes in planar super-Yang-Mills theory. We argue that the mathematically most complicated part (the Λ2 B 2 coproduct component) of the n-particle amplitude is uniquely determined by a simple cluster algebra property together with a few physical constraints (dihedral symmetry, analytic structure, supersymmetry, and well-defined collinear limits). We present a concise, closed-form expression which manifests these properties for all n.
Electron trapping in high-current ion beam pipes
Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.
2000-03-01
The space charge voltage depression in a drifting heavy ion beam during the final stages of current pulse compression can be hundreds of kilovolts. For example, a 1kA beam of ions at beta = v/c = 0.4 would have a beam center-to-edge potential difference of 75kV. With suitable clearance from beam edge to the beam pipe, this amount is typically increased by a factor of 2 to 3 by the (1 + 2 ln(b/a)) term that accounts for the ratio of pipe radius to beam radius. Such high voltages, and resulting high electric fields at the pipe wall, will result in electrons being pulled into the beam pipe. These electrons which are emitted from the grounded beam pipe, will pass through the ion beam at high velocity and then turn around without (usually) striking the wall and continue to pass through the beam on repeated oscillations. It is possible to control the longitudinal motion of these trapped electrons by suitably varying the pipe size while considering the beam diameter. A segment of the beam pipe that has a larger diameter will result in a potential well that traps the electrons longitudinally. In a constant current scenario in a uniform pipe, the electrons will drift in the direction of the beam. However, the head and especially the tail of the ion beam will have a dramatic effect on the electrons, causing them to be pulled into the ion beam. These complex processes will continue until the ion beam passes through an optical element such as a beam transport magnet that will effectively block the motion of the electron clouds following the ions. In this paper, the authors will show examples of how electrons can be trapped and controlled by varying the conditions determining their emission and confinement. Ray tracing simulations using the EGN2[1] computer code will be used to model the electron trajectories in the presence of a high current heavy ion beam. The self magnetic field of the ion beam, while not sufficient to affect the ions themselves significantly, has a strong
Isotopic germanium targets for high beam current applications at GAMMASPHERE.
Greene, J. P.; Lauritsen, T.
2000-11-29
The creation of a specific heavy ion residue via heavy ion fusion can usually be achieved through a number of beam and target combinations. Sometimes it is necessary to choose combinations with rare beams and/or difficult targets in order to achieve the physics goals of an experiment. A case in point was a recent experiment to produce {sup 152}Dy at very high spins and low excitation energy with detection of the residue in a recoil mass analyzer. Both to create the nucleus cold and with a small recoil-cone so that the efficiency of the mass analyzer would be high, it was necessary to use the {sup 80}Se on {sup 76}Ge reaction rather than the standard {sup 48}Ca on {sup 108}Pd reaction. Because the recoil velocity of the {sup 152}Dy residues was very high using this symmetric reaction (5% v/c), it was furthermore necessary to use a stack of two thin targets to reduce the Doppler broadening. Germanium targets are fragile and do not withstand high beam currents, therefore the {sup 76}Ge target stacks were mounted on a rotating target wheel. A description of the {sup 76}Ge target stack preparation will be presented and the target performance described.
Necessary Condition for Emergent Symmetry from the Conformal Bootstrap.
Nakayama, Yu; Ohtsuki, Tomoki
2016-09-23
We use the conformal bootstrap program to derive the necessary conditions for emergent symmetry enhancement from discrete symmetry (e.g., Z_{n}) to continuous symmetry [e.g., U(1)] under the renormalization group flow. In three dimensions, in order for Z_{2} symmetry to be enhanced to U(1) symmetry, the conformal bootstrap program predicts that the scaling dimension of the order parameter field at the infrared conformal fixed point must satisfy Δ_{1}>1.08. We also obtain the similar necessary conditions for Z_{3} symmetry with Δ_{1}>0.580 and Z_{4} symmetry with Δ_{1}>0.504 from the simultaneous conformal bootstrap analysis of multiple four-point functions. As applications, we show that our necessary conditions impose severe constraints on the nature of the chiral phase transition in QCD, the deconfinement criticality in Néel valence bond solid transitions, and anisotropic deformations in critical O(n) models. We prove that some fixed points proposed in the literature are unstable under the perturbation that cannot be forbidden by the discrete symmetry. In these situations, the second-order phase transition with enhanced symmetry cannot happen.
Application of the Bootstrap Statistical Method in Deriving Vibroacoustic Specifications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hughes, William O.; Paez, Thomas L.
2006-01-01
This paper discusses the Bootstrap Method for specification of vibroacoustic test specifications. Vibroacoustic test specifications are necessary to properly accept or qualify a spacecraft and its components for the expected acoustic, random vibration and shock environments seen on an expendable launch vehicle. Traditionally, NASA and the U.S. Air Force have employed methods of Normal Tolerance Limits to derive these test levels based upon the amount of data available, and the probability and confidence levels desired. The Normal Tolerance Limit method contains inherent assumptions about the distribution of the data. The Bootstrap is a distribution-free statistical subsampling method which uses the measured data themselves to establish estimates of statistical measures of random sources. This is achieved through the computation of large numbers of Bootstrap replicates of a data measure of interest and the use of these replicates to derive test levels consistent with the probability and confidence desired. The comparison of the results of these two methods is illustrated via an example utilizing actual spacecraft vibroacoustic data.
Generalised block bootstrap and its use in meteorology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varga, László; Zempléni, András
2017-06-01
In an earlier paper, Rakonczai et al.(2014) emphasised the importance of investigating the effective sample size in case of autocorrelated data. The simulations were based on the block bootstrap methodology. However, the discreteness of the usual block size did not allow for exact calculations. In this paper we propose a new generalisation of the block bootstrap methodology, which allows for any positive real number as expected block size. We relate it to the existing optimisation procedures and apply it to a temperature data set. Our other focus is on statistical tests, where quite often the actual sample size plays an important role, even in the case of relatively large samples. This is especially the case for copulas. These are used for investigating the dependencies among data sets. As in quite a few real applications the time dependence cannot be neglected, we investigated the effect of this phenomenon on the used test statistic. The critical value can be computed by the proposed new block bootstrap simulation, where the block size is determined by fitting a VAR model to the observations. The results are illustrated for models of the used temperature data.
Truncatable bootstrap equations in algebraic form and critical surface exponents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gliozzi, Ferdinando
2016-10-01
We describe examples of drastic truncations of conformal bootstrap equations encoding much more information than that obtained by a direct numerical approach. A three-term truncation of the four point function of a free scalar in any space dimensions provides algebraic identities among conformal block derivatives which generate the exact spectrum of the infinitely many primary operators contributing to it. In boundary conformal field theories, we point out that the appearance of free parameters in the solutions of bootstrap equations is not an artifact of truncations, rather it reflects a physical property of permeable conformal interfaces which are described by the same equations. Surface transitions correspond to isolated points in the parameter space. We are able to locate them in the case of 3d Ising model, thanks to a useful algebraic form of 3d boundary bootstrap equations. It turns out that the low-lying spectra of the surface operators in the ordinary and the special transitions of 3d Ising model form two different solutions of the same polynomial equation. Their interplay yields an estimate of the surface renormalization group exponents, y h = 0 .72558(18) for the ordinary universality class and y h = 1 .646(2) for the special universality class, which compare well with the most recent Monte Carlo calculations. Estimates of other surface exponents as well as OPE coefficients are also obtained.
CME Velocity and Acceleration Error Estimates Using the Bootstrap Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michalek, Grzegorz; Gopalswamy, Nat; Yashiro, Seiji
2017-08-01
The bootstrap method is used to determine errors of basic attributes of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) visually identified in images obtained by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission's Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) instruments. The basic parameters of CMEs are stored, among others, in a database known as the SOHO/LASCO CME catalog and are widely employed for many research studies. The basic attributes of CMEs ( e.g. velocity and acceleration) are obtained from manually generated height-time plots. The subjective nature of manual measurements introduces random errors that are difficult to quantify. In many studies the impact of such measurement errors is overlooked. In this study we present a new possibility to estimate measurements errors in the basic attributes of CMEs. This approach is a computer-intensive method because it requires repeating the original data analysis procedure several times using replicate datasets. This is also commonly called the bootstrap method in the literature. We show that the bootstrap approach can be used to estimate the errors of the basic attributes of CMEs having moderately large numbers of height-time measurements. The velocity errors are in the vast majority small and depend mostly on the number of height-time points measured for a particular event. In the case of acceleration, the errors are significant, and for more than half of all CMEs, they are larger than the acceleration itself.
Quantitative evaluation of PET image using event information bootstrap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Hankyeol; Kwak, Shin Hye; Kim, Kyeong Min; Kang, Joo Hyun; Chung, Yong Hyun; Woo, Sang-Keun
2016-04-01
The purpose of this study was to enhance the effect in the PET image quality according to event bootstrap of small animal PET data. In order to investigate the time difference condition, realigned sinograms were generated from randomly sampled data set using bootstrap. List-mode data was obtained from small animal PET scanner for Ge-68 30 sec, Y-90 20 min and Y-90 60 min. PET image was reconstructed by Ordered Subset Expectation Maximization(OSEM) 2D with the list-mode format. Image analysis was investigated by Signal to Noise Ratio(SNR) of Ge-68 and Y-90 image. Non-parametric resampled PET image SNR percent change for the Ge-68 30 sec, Y-90 60 min, and Y-90 20 min was 1.69 %, 7.03 %, and 4.78 %, respectively. SNR percent change of non-parametric resampled PET image with time difference condition was 1.08 % for the Ge-68 30 sec, 6.74 % for the Y-90 60 min and 10.94 % for the Y-90 29 min. The result indicated that the bootstrap with time difference condition had a potential to improve a noisy Y-90 PET image quality. This method should be expected to reduce Y-90 PET measurement time and to enhance its accuracy.
Observations of High Peak Current 'lull' Lightning Flashes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Y.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Edens, H. E.; Stock, M.
2015-12-01
A new and peculiar type of negative cloud-to-ground (-CG) lightning flash has been found from LMA observations of storms. Called a 'lull' flash, the discharge begins with a short duration (~5-10 ms), stepped leader and high peak current return stroke, followed by a brief period of inactivity. After a few tens to a few hundreds of milliseconds, the discharge reignites in the same location as a normal -CG. VHF observations show a complete lack of activity during the lull. The flashes were first identified from LMA observations during a 2008 lightning study in West Virginia (Krehbiel, 2012 ILDC), but are seen in other normally electrified storms. They are characterized by large negative peak currents (-50 to -150 kA) in NLDN data. Here we report detailed LMA, interferometer, and fast antenna observations of lull flashes obtained at Langmuir Laboratory in 2013. A series of six lull CGs occurred over an 11 min time interval in a small storm on August 5. Analysis of the observations shows the breakdown immediately produced a stepped leader that went straight to ground. The durations from initial breakdown to the return stroke (RS) was 2-15 ms, corresponding to leader speeds of 4×105 to 3×106 m/s. Peak currents of the RSs were -32 to -188 kA. The lulls began 10-29 ms after the RSs, and lasted 40-100 ms before the discharge reignited. By contrast, the durations, speeds and peak current values of the reignited first strokes were those of normal -CGs, namely, 9 to 105 ms, -11.5kA to 55.8kA, and 0.6×105 to 6.7×105 m/s. Further analysis indicates the lull flashes occurred when the storm had substantial negative charge but little lower positive charge, allowing the initial stroke to go straight to ground at a high speed. The energetic stroke somehow quenches the discharge a short time afterward while much negative charge remains, which leads to reignition and the second part of the discharge. Exactly how and why this happens remains an open question.
High current rf (HCRF) linac program. Final report
Not Available
1992-11-01
The High Current Radio Frequency (HCRF) Accelerator program began as an effort funded by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO) through the Office of Naval Research (ONR). The three options carried a negotiated total of $3,731,115 so that the total negotiated amount was $3,950,340. SDIO only provided $600,000 for the effort, and only one of the three options was exercised. An additional $310,000 was provided by DARPA, the Office of Naval Technology (ONT) and the Naval Ocean System Center (NOSC) for a collaborative effort to explore an RF technology application in naval surveillance (ultra-wideband radar), an activity covered by the HCRF statement of work. Technical work on the HCRF program consisted of in-depth technology studies and experimental support on the naval radar task. The overall goal of the HCRF program was to develop an fundamentally new technology for compact (high gradient) electron accelerators that can efficiently drive high gain, single pass FEL amplifiers producing output radiation at a wavelength of approximately one micron or less in a pulsed format for boost phase and mid-course SDIO missions. SDIO mission requirements dictated that the accelerator technology goals be consistent with a laser system that can produce greater than ten megawatts of average optical power during a 200 second battle from a space platform placed in orbit with a single heavy lift booster.
Current Status of the Advanced High Temperature Reactor
Holcomb, David Eugene; Ilas, Dan; Qualls, A L; Peretz, Fred J; Varma, Venugopal Koikal; Bradley, Eric Craig; Cisneros, Anselmo T.
2012-01-01
The Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a design concept for a central station type [1500 MW(e)] Fluoride salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) that is currently under development by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy's Advanced Reactor Concepts program. FHRs, by definition, feature low-pressure liquid fluoride salt cooling, coated-particle fuel, a high-temperature power cycle, and fully passive decay heat rejection. The overall goal of the AHTR development program is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of FHRs as low-cost, large-size power producers while maintaining full passive safety. The AHTR design option exploration is a multidisciplinary design effort that combines core neutronic and fuel configuration evaluation with structural, thermal, and hydraulic analysis to produce a reactor and vessel concept and place it within a power generation station. The AHTR design remains at the notional level of maturity, as key technologies require further development and a logically complete integrated design has not been finalized. The present design space exploration, however, indicates that reasonable options exist for the AHTR core, primary heat transport path, and fuel cycle provided that materials and systems technologies develop as anticipated.
Current status of the advanced high temperature reactor
Holcomb, D. E.; Iias, D.; Quails, A. L.; Peretz, F. J.; Varma, V. K.; Bradley, E. C.; Cisneros, A. T.
2012-07-01
The Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a design concept for a central station type [1500 MW(e)] Fluoride salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) that is currently under development by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the U. S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy's Advanced Reactor Concepts program. FHRs, by definition, feature low-pressure liquid fluoride salt cooling, coated-particle fuel, a high-temperature power cycle, and fully passive decay heat rejection. The overall goal of the AHTR development program is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of FHRs as low-cost, large-size power producers while maintaining full passive safety. The AHTR design option exploration is a multidisciplinary design effort that combines core neutronic and fuel configuration evaluation with structural, thermal, and hydraulic analysis to produce a reactor and vessel concept and place it within a power generation station. The AHTR design remains at the notional level of maturity, as key technologies require further development and a logically complete integrated design has not been finalized. The present design space exploration, however, indicates that reasonable options exist for the AHTR core, primary heat transport path, and fuel cycle provided that materials and systems technologies develop as anticipated. (authors)
Mevva development for the new GSI high-current injector
Wolf, B.H.; Emig, H.; Spaedtke, P.
1996-08-01
To increase the intensity of the heavy ion synchrotron SIS for heavy elements by a factor of {approximately}50, a new prestripper accelerator is planned for Unilac and the heavy ion synchrotron SIS. It is designed to accept ions with mass/charge {le} 65 and an injection energy of 2.2 keV/u. A vacuum arc ion source with a strong axial magnetic field will deliver 15 mA of U{sup 4+} as heaviest element at a repetition rate of 1 Hz and a pulse length of 300 {mu}s. The investigation of the Mevva ion source with pulsed magnetic field of several kGauss have shown that ion currents of 8 mA U{sup 4+} can be measured at the authors test bench after 5m of transport and charge analysis (transmission at the test bench 25% only). The noise on the extracted ion beam was already {le}25%, a value similar to the Pig ion source in the sputter mode, but efficient high current beam transport probably requests further improvements.
Current-matched high-efficiency, multijunction monolithic solar cells
Olson, J.M.; Kurtz, S.R.
1993-06-29
A high-efficiency multijunction photovoltaic solar cell is described, consisting essentially of: a top semiconductor cell fabricated from Ga[sub x]In[sub l[minus]x]P wherein x is (0 < x < 0.5) a light-sensitive n/p homojunction therein for absorbing higher energy photons; a bottom semiconductor cell fabricated from GaAs with a light sensitive n/p homojunction therein for absorbing lower energy photons; and wherein the top cell thickness is optimized by thinning to from 0.5 to 1.7 microns and less than the bottom cell thickness in order to provide current matching between the top cell and the bottom cell in order to obtain improved conversion efficiency, a low-resistance attachment between the top cell and the bottom cell, wherein the top cell is lattice matched to the bottom cell; and electrical contact means attached to opposite sides of the solar cell to conduct current away from and into the solar cell.
Thermionic cathode electron gun for high current densities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herniter, Marc E.; Getty, Ward D.
1987-08-01
An electron gun using lanthanum hexaboride as a cathode material is being studied for use as a robust thermionic emitter at high cathode current densities. It has a standard planar cathode, Pierce-type electron gun design with a space-charge-limited perveance of 3.2 x 10 to the -6th A/V exp 3/2. Thus far it has been operated up to 36 kV in the space-charge-limited regime. The cathode is heated by electron bombardment and radiation from an auxiliary tungsten filament. The total heating requirement is found to be 202 W/sq cm of cathode area at a cathode temperature of 1626 C. These observations are found to be in reasonable agreement with a thermal steady-state power balance model. Beam current distribution measurements are made with a movable collector and Faraday cup, and are found to be in agreement with an electron-gun computer code. The cathode temperature distribution is also measured.
A high-current pulsed cathodic vacuum arc plasma source
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oates, T. W. H.; Pigott, J.; Mckenzie, D. R.; Bilek, M. M. M.
2003-11-01
Cathodic vacuum arcs (CVAs) are well established as a method for producing metal plasmas for thin film deposition and as a source of metal ions. Fundamental differences exist between direct current (dc) and pulsed CVAs. We present here results of our investigations into the design and construction of a high-current center-triggered pulsed CVA. Power supply design based on electrolytic capacitors is discussed and optimized based on obtaining the most effective utilization of the cathode material. Anode configuration is also discussed with respect to the optimization of the electron collection capability. Type I and II cathode spots are observed and discussed with respect to cathode surface contamination. An unfiltered deposition rate of 1.7 nm per pulse, at a distance of 100 mm from the source, has been demonstrated. Instantaneous plasma densities in excess of 1×1019 m-3 are observed after magnetic filtering. Time averaged densities an order of magnitude greater than common dc arc densities have been demonstrated, limited by pulse repetition rate and filter efficiency.
A mechanical connector design for high-current, high-coulomb pulsed power systems
Susoeff, A.R.; Hawke, R.S.; Leighton, K.S.
1992-02-25
A technique to make reliable high-current, high-coulomb electrical contact was developed for transmitting power into railguns. The method uses spring loaded removable connectors that are installed independently from the launcher. The simple rod-type design and absence of fastener holes allow maximum utilization of material mechanical properties. Repeated experiments with 9.5-mm diameter connectors demonstrated reliable pulsed charge transfer of 200 coulombs at currents of over 400kA. 20 refs.
High-vibration detection using motor current signature analysis
Castleberry, K.N.
1996-08-01
Motor current signature analysis (CSA) has been used for several years as a diagnostic tool for electrical problems in ac, induction motors. Personnel at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have found that CSA can also provide information about system vibrations and imbalances similar to the information provided by an accelerometer. As a result, CSA techniques for monitoring the status of the equipment, such as pumps and compressors, driven by induction motors have been developed and used in dedicated monitoring systems. In this work, researchers have found that CSA responds proportionately to imbalances in rotating equipment and can be used to detect the In high-vibration conditions that can result. This report describes how vibration monitoring with CSA can be implemented and presents test data to support that use.
A distributed current stimulator ASIC for high density neural stimulation.
Jeong Hoan Park; Chaebin Kim; Seung-Hee Ahn; Tae Mok Gwon; Joonsoo Jeong; Sang Beom Jun; Sung June Kim
2016-08-01
This paper presents a novel distributed neural stimulator scheme. Instead of a single stimulator ASIC in the package, multiple ASICs are embedded at each electrode site for stimulation with a high density electrode array. This distributed architecture enables the simplification of wiring between electrodes and stimulator ASIC that otherwise could become too complex as the number of electrode increases. The individual ASIC chip is designed to have a shared data bus that independently controls multiple stimulating channels. Therefore, the number of metal lines is determined by the distributed ASICs, not by the channel number. The function of current steering is also implemented within each ASIC in order to increase the effective number of channels via pseudo channel stimulation. Therefore, the chip area can be used more efficiently. The designed chip was fabricated with area of 0.3 mm2 using 0.18 μm BCDMOS process, and the bench-top test was also conducted to validate chip performance.
Current and Future High Power Operation of Fermilab Main Injector
Kourbanis, I.; Adamson, P.; Brown, B.; Capista, D.; Chou, W.; Morris, D.; Seyia, K.; Wu, G.; Yang, M.J.; /Fermilab
2009-04-01
Fermilab's Main Injector on acceleration cycles to 120 GeV has been running a mixed mode operation delivering beam to both the antiproton source for pbar production and to the NuMI[1] target for neutrino production since 2005. On January 2008 the slip stacking process used to increase the beam to the pbar target was expanded to include the beam to the NuMI target increasing the MI beam power at 120 GeV to 400KW. The current high power MI operation will be described along with the plans to increase the power to 700KW for NOvA and to 2.1 MW for project X.
Summary of multiterminal high-voltage direct current transmission technology
Biggs, R.B.; Jewell, W.T.
1984-05-01
This report summarizes the present state of multiterminal (MT) high-voltage direct current (HVDC) power transmission. The purpose is to reassess the need for HVDC circuit breakers and to identify needed research for MT HVDC. The fundamentals of this technology are presented, and previous research and development is reviewed. Although no MT HVDC systems have yet been built, many concepts have been proposed. Some require a dc breaker, and others do not. Both options have advantages and disadvantages for various applications, so the selection will depend on the proposed application. Research is needed to define operating characteristics of various MT HVDC systems. In some applications, dc breakers will be useful, so research into HVDC interruption should continue. Also, dc fault detection and control algorithms for MT systems should be studied.
Design of a proof of principle high current transport experiment
Lund, S.M.; Bangerter, R.O.; Barnard, J.J.; Celata, C.M.; Faltens, A.; Friedman, A.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Seidl, P.A.
2000-01-15
Preliminary designs of an intense heavy-ion beam transport experiment to test issues for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) are presented. This transport channel will represent a single high current density beam at full driver scale and will evaluate practical issues such as aperture filling factors, electrons, halo, imperfect vacuum, etc., that cannot be fully tested using scaled experiments. Various machine configurations are evaluated in the context of the range of physics and technology issues that can be explored in a manner relevant to a full scale driver. it is anticipated that results from this experiment will allow confident construction of next generation ''Integrated Research Experiments'' leading to a full scale driver for energy production.
Ultra-high current density thin-film Si diode
Wang, Qi [Littleton, CO
2008-04-22
A combination of a thin-film .mu.c-Si and a-Si:H containing diode structure characterized by an ultra-high current density that exceeds 1000 A/cm.sup.2, comprising: a substrate; a bottom metal layer disposed on the substrate; an n-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited the bottom metal layer; an i-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited on the n-layer; a buffer layer of a-Si:H deposited on the i-layer, a p-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited on the buffer layer; and a top metal layer deposited on the p-layer.
Space charge templates for high-current beam modeling
Vorobiev, Leonid G.; /Fermilab
2008-07-01
A computational method to evaluate space charge potential and gradients of charged particle beam in the presence of conducting boundaries, has been introduced. The three-dimensional (3D) field of the beam can be derived as a convolution of macro Green's functions (template fields), satisfying the same boundary conditions, as the original beam. Numerical experiments gave a confidence that space charge effects can be modeled by templates with enough accuracy and generality within dramatically faster computational times than standard combination: a grid density + Poisson solvers, realized in the most of Particle in Cell codes. The achieved rapidity may significantly broaden the high-current beam design space, making the optimization in automatic mode possible, which so far was only feasible for simplest self-field formulations such as rms envelope equations. The template technique may be used as a standalone program, or as an optional field solver in existing beam dynamics codes both in one-passage structures and in rings.
High Accuracy Temperature Measurements Using RTDs with Current Loop Conditioning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hill, Gerald M.
1997-01-01
To measure temperatures with a greater degree of accuracy than is possible with thermocouples, RTDs (Resistive Temperature Detectors) are typically used. Calibration standards use specialized high precision RTD probes with accuracies approaching 0.001 F. These are extremely delicate devices, and far too costly to be used in test facility instrumentation. Less costly sensors which are designed for aeronautical wind tunnel testing are available and can be readily adapted to probes, rakes, and test rigs. With proper signal conditioning of the sensor, temperature accuracies of 0.1 F is obtainable. For reasons that will be explored in this paper, the Anderson current loop is the preferred method used for signal conditioning. This scheme has been used in NASA Lewis Research Center's 9 x 15 Low Speed Wind Tunnel, and is detailed.
PENETRATION AND DEFECT FORMATION IN HIGH CURRENT ARC WELDING
MENDEZ,P.F.; EAGAR, T.W.
2003-01-01
The work performed during the three previous years can be roughly divided into two main categories: (1) development of advanced modeling techniques; and (2) modeling of arc welding process. The work in the first category comprised the development of the Order of Magnitude Scaling (OMS) technique, which is complementary to numerical modeling techniques such as finite elements, but it provides approximate formulas instead of just numerical results. Borrowing concepts from OMS, another modeling technique based on empirical data was also developed. During this stage special software was also developed. The second category comprised the application of OMS to the three main subsystems of arc welding: the weld pool, the arc, and the electrode. For each of these subsystems they found scaling laws and regimes. With this knowledge, they analyzed the generation of weld pool defects during high current arc welding, proposed a mechanistic description of the process, and possible solutions.
Ultra-high current density thin-film Si diode
Wang; Qi
2008-04-22
A combination of a thin-film .mu.c-Si and a-Si:H containing diode structure characterized by an ultra-high current density that exceeds 1000 A/cm.sup.2, comprising: a substrate; a bottom metal layer disposed on the substrate; an n-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited the bottom metal layer; an i-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited on the n-layer; a buffer layer of a-Si:H deposited on the i-layer, a p-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited on the buffer layer; and a top metal layer deposited on the p-layer.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Enders, Craig K.
2005-01-01
The Bollen-Stine bootstrap can be used to correct for standard error and fit statistic bias that occurs in structural equation modeling (SEM) applications due to nonnormal data. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the use of a custom SAS macro program that can be used to implement the Bollen-Stine bootstrap with existing SEM software.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Enders, Craig K.
2005-01-01
The Bollen-Stine bootstrap can be used to correct for standard error and fit statistic bias that occurs in structural equation modeling (SEM) applications due to nonnormal data. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the use of a custom SAS macro program that can be used to implement the Bollen-Stine bootstrap with existing SEM software.…
The high current transport experiment for heavy ion inertial fusion
Prost, L.R.; Baca, D.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.W.; Leitner, M.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Cohen, R.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.W.; Morse, E.
2004-05-01
The High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is part of the US program to explore heavy-ion beam transport at a scale representative of the low-energy end of an induction linac driver for fusion energy production. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge-dominated heavy-ion beams at high intensity (line charge density {approx} 0.2 {micro}C/m) over long pulse durations (4 {micro}s) in alternating gradient focusing lattices of electrostatic or magnetic quadrupoles. This experiment is testing transport issues resulting from nonlinear space-charge effects and collective modes, beam centroid alignment and steering, envelope matching, image charges and focusing field nonlinearities, halo and, electron and gas cloud effects. We present the results for a coasting 1 MeV K{sup +} ion beam transported through ten electrostatic quadrupoles. The measurements cover two different fill factor studies (60% and 80% of the clear aperture radius) for which the transverse phase-space of the beam was characterized in detail, along with beam energy measurements and the first halo measurements. Electrostatic quadrupole transport at high beam fill factor ({approx}80%) is achieved with acceptable emittance growth and beam loss, even though the initial beam distribution is not ideal (but the emittance is low) nor in thermal equilibrium. We achieved good envelope control, and rematching may only be needed every ten lattice periods (at 80% fill factor) in a longer lattice of similar design. We also show that understanding and controlling the time dependence of the envelope parameters is critical to achieving high fill factors, notably because of the injector and matching section dynamics.
Inference for optimal dynamic treatment regimes using an adaptive m-out-of-n bootstrap scheme.
Chakraborty, Bibhas; Laber, Eric B; Zhao, Yingqi
2013-09-01
A dynamic treatment regime consists of a set of decision rules that dictate how to individualize treatment to patients based on available treatment and covariate history. A common method for estimating an optimal dynamic treatment regime from data is Q-learning which involves nonsmooth operations of the data. This nonsmoothness causes standard asymptotic approaches for inference like the bootstrap or Taylor series arguments to breakdown if applied without correction. Here, we consider the m-out-of-n bootstrap for constructing confidence intervals for the parameters indexing the optimal dynamic regime. We propose an adaptive choice of m and show that it produces asymptotically correct confidence sets under fixed alternatives. Furthermore, the proposed method has the advantage of being conceptually and computationally much simple than competing methods possessing this same theoretical property. We provide an extensive simulation study to compare the proposed method with currently available inference procedures. The results suggest that the proposed method delivers nominal coverage while being less conservative than alternatives. The proposed methods are implemented in the qLearn R-package and have been made available on the Comprehensive R-Archive Network (http://cran.r-project.org/). Analysis of the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study is used as an illustrative example. © 2013, The International Biometric Society.
Inference for Optimal Dynamic Treatment Regimes using an Adaptive m-out-of-n Bootstrap Scheme
Chakraborty, Bibhas; Laber, Eric B.; Zhao, Yingqi
2013-01-01
Summary A dynamic treatment regime consists of a set of decision rules that dictate how to individualize treatment to patients based on available treatment and covariate history. A common method for estimating an optimal dynamic treatment regime from data is Q-learning which involves nonsmooth operations of the data. This nonsmoothness causes standard asymptotic approaches for inference like the bootstrap or Taylor series arguments to breakdown if applied without correction. Here, we consider the m-out-of-n bootstrap for constructing confidence intervals for the parameters indexing the optimal dynamic regime. We propose an adaptive choice of m and show that it produces asymptotically correct confidence sets under fixed alternatives. Furthermore, the proposed method has the advantage of being conceptually and computationally much more simple than competing methods possessing this same theoretical property. We provide an extensive simulation study to compare the proposed method with currently available inference procedures. The results suggest that the proposed method delivers nominal coverage while being less conservative than alternatives. The proposed methods are implemented in the qLearn R-package and have been made available on the Comprehensive R-Archive Network (http://cran.r-project.org/). Analysis of the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study is used as an illustrative example. PMID:23845276
Haroon, Hamied A; Morris, David M; Embleton, Karl V; Alexander, Daniel C; Parker, Geoffrey J M
2009-04-01
Bootstrapping of repeated diffusion-weighted image datasets enables nonparametric quantification of the uncertainty in the inferred fiber orientation. The wild bootstrap and the residual bootstrap are model-based residual resampling methods which use a single dataset. Previously, the wild bootstrap method has been presented as an alternative to conventional bootstrapping for diffusion tensor imaging. Here we present a study of an implementation of model-based residual bootstrapping using q -ball analysis and compare the outputs with conventional bootstrapping. We show that model-based residual bootstrap q-ball generates results that closely match the output of the conventional bootstrap. Both the residual and conventional bootstrap of multifiber methods can be used to estimate the probability of different numbers of fiber populations existing in different brain tissues. Also, we have shown that these methods can be used to provide input for probabilistic tractography, avoiding existing limitations associated with data calibration and model selection.
A high current, short pulse electron source for wakefield accelerators
Ho, Ching-Hung
1992-12-31
Design studies for the generation of a high current, short pulse electron source for the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator are presented. An L-band laser photocathode rf gun cavity is designed using the computer code URMEL to maximize the electric field on the cathode surface for fixed frequency and rf input power. A new technique using a curved incoming laser wavefront to minimize the space charge effect near the photocathode is studied. A preaccelerator with large iris to minimize wakefield effects is used to boost the drive beam to a useful energy of around 20 MeV for wakefield acceleration experiments. Focusing in the photocathode gun and the preaccelerator is accomplished with solenoids. Beam dynamics simulations throughout the preaccelerator are performed using particle simulation codes TBCI-SF and PARMELA. An example providing a useful set of operation parameters for the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator is given. The effects of the sagitta of the curved beam and laser amplitude and timing jitter effects are discussed. Measurement results of low rf power level bench tests and a high power test for the gun cavity are presented and discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bryunetkin, B. A.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Ivanenkov, G. V.; Khakhalin, S. Ya.; Mingaleev, A. R.; Pikuz, S. A.; Romanova, V. M.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Skobelev, I. Yu.
1994-03-01
The review of X-pinch investigations in high current diode of BIN facility (250 kA, 100 ns) is presented. The main purposes were to investigate pinch forming processes and hot dense plasma properties. X-pinch is also considered as a source for multiple charged ions spectroscopy and for X-ray optics testing. The set of diagnostics applied in these experiments allowed us to investigate the pinch forming processes in different configurations of crossed wires loads. High spectral and space resolved measurements of plasma radiation in 1-200 Å range, absolute energy measurements and electron beam registration were provided. Plasma parameters were obtained from relative intensities and shapes of multiple charged ions spectral lines. Electron density of plasma with the temperature Te = 0.2-1 keV variated from 1023 cm-3 in hot spot to 1018 cm-3 during plasma expansion. In recombining plasma, an inversion of Al He-like ions levels population was registrated. Total radiation output of 0.5 mm pinch reached hundreds Joules in 2-100 Å range during 100 ns.
A high current, short pulse electron source for wakefield accelerators
Ho, Ching-Hung.
1992-01-01
Design studies for the generation of a high current, short pulse electron source for the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator are presented. An L-band laser photocathode rf gun cavity is designed using the computer code URMEL to maximize the electric field on the cathode surface for fixed frequency and rf input power. A new technique using a curved incoming laser wavefront to minimize the space charge effect near the photocathode is studied. A preaccelerator with large iris to minimize wakefield effects is used to boost the drive beam to a useful energy of around 20 MeV for wakefield acceleration experiments. Focusing in the photocathode gun and the preaccelerator is accomplished with solenoids. Beam dynamics simulations throughout the preaccelerator are performed using particle simulation codes TBCI-SF and PARMELA. An example providing a useful set of operation parameters for the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator is given. The effects of the sagitta of the curved beam and laser amplitude and timing jitter effects are discussed. Measurement results of low rf power level bench tests and a high power test for the gun cavity are presented and discussed.
Thai, Hoai-Thu; Mentré, France; Holford, Nicholas H G; Veyrat-Follet, Christine; Comets, Emmanuelle
2013-01-01
A version of the nonparametric bootstrap, which resamples the entire subjects from original data, called the case bootstrap, has been increasingly used for estimating uncertainty of parameters in mixed-effects models. It is usually applied to obtain more robust estimates of the parameters and more realistic confidence intervals (CIs). Alternative bootstrap methods, such as residual bootstrap and parametric bootstrap that resample both random effects and residuals, have been proposed to better take into account the hierarchical structure of multi-level and longitudinal data. However, few studies have been performed to compare these different approaches. In this study, we used simulation to evaluate bootstrap methods proposed for linear mixed-effect models. We also compared the results obtained by maximum likelihood (ML) and restricted maximum likelihood (REML). Our simulation studies evidenced the good performance of the case bootstrap as well as the bootstraps of both random effects and residuals. On the other hand, the bootstrap methods that resample only the residuals and the bootstraps combining case and residuals performed poorly. REML and ML provided similar bootstrap estimates of uncertainty, but there was slightly more bias and poorer coverage rate for variance parameters with ML in the sparse design. We applied the proposed methods to a real dataset from a study investigating the natural evolution of Parkinson's disease and were able to confirm that the methods provide plausible estimates of uncertainty. Given that most real-life datasets tend to exhibit heterogeneity in sampling schedules, the residual bootstraps would be expected to perform better than the case bootstrap. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Clipper for High-Impedance Current-Drive Line
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woodhouse, Christopher E.
1987-01-01
New circuit leakage reduced by shunting current through saturated input at operational-amplifier follower already part of Howland, or equivalent, current source. Typical application is in circuit of germanium resistance thermometer in cryogenic system.
Standard arc welders provide high amperage direct current source
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beasley, W. D.; Brooks, J. D.
1966-01-01
Standard arc welders or power supplies are hooked up in parallel or series connections to obtain an adequate supply of current or voltage for various purposes. This method provides maximum flexibility in a wide range of voltages and currents.
DESIGN NOTE: A very high output resistance current source
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayatleh, K.; Terzopoulos, N.; Hart, B. L.
2007-01-01
The vertical stacking of two identical sub-circuits—improved versions of a bipolar transistor configuration proposed by Baxandall and Swallow—driven by dual output current mirrors, facilitates the design of a current generator producing a direct current of 1 mA with an incremental output resistance exceeding 200 GΩ.
Current State of the Art in High Brightness LEDs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Craford, George
2007-03-01
LED's have been commercially available since the 1960's. For many years they were used primarily for indicator applications. The remarkable increase in materials technology and efficiency that has been achieved since the early 1990's for AlInGaP red and amber LEDs, and InGaN green and blue LEDs, has enabled the penetration of markets such as outdoor display, signaling, and automotive brake light and turn signal applications. White LEDs, which are either blue LEDs combined with a phosphor, or a combination of red, green, and blue LEDs, are being used in emerging applications such as cell phone flash, television backlights, projection, and automotive headlights. In addition, to efficiency improvements these applications have required the development of higher power packages and, in some of these applications which are etendue limited, higher luminance devices. High power devices are commercially available which are capable of 140 lumens output and have an efficacy of around 70 lm/W for white emission. New package and chip technologies have been demonstrated which have a luminance of 38 mega nits (Mcd/m^2), approximately 50% more luminance than that of an automotive headlamp halogen bulb (˜25 mega nits). The recent progress in materials technology, packaging, and chip technology makes it clear that LED's will become important for general illumination applications. The rate of LED penetration of this market will depend upon continued increases in performance and lower costs as well as better control of the white spectral emission. Efficiency, current density, and costs are closely linked because the cost in dollars/lumen is inversely proportional to how many lumens can be realized from each unit of device area for a given device type. Performance as high as 138 lm/W, and over 40% wall plug efficiency, has been reported for low power research devices and over 90 lm/W for high power research devices. It is clear that high power commercial products with performance in
Hermida, R.C.; Halberg, F.; Bingham, C.; Pozo, F. Del
1985-01-01
On a data set of 12 endocrine variables in blood from a small number of clinically healthy adult women studied with systematically-placed samples around the clock and the seasons, pattern discrimination methods had singled out certain hormone values in certain seasons as classifiers for a high vs. low risk of developing diseases associated with a high blood pressure. Further evidence in support of such classifiers was obtained, first, by increasing the number of series from 1 to 3 age groups and, second, by extending the scope of the data on any one age group by bootstrapping. Classifier roles were strongly supported for plasma aldosterone and TSH originally by an analysis of variance and, in the case of aldosterone, by circannual cosinor analysis, as well as by the analysis of added data and by bootstrapping. Identification of classifiers provides cost-effective endocrine checks complementing the targetted automatic monitoring of blood pressure as part of a system of chrono-engineering for health maintenance.
Compact high current generator for x-ray radiography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kharlov, A. V.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Zorin, V. B.
2006-12-01
We report here a design of the portable high current generator, which can be used for a row of experiments and applications, including, but not limited to, X pinch, plasma focus, vacuum spark, etc. The X generator consists of the capacitor bank, multigap spark switch, load chamber, and built-in high voltage triggering generator. The capacitor bank consists of 12 General Atomics 35404 type capacitors (20nF, 25nH, 0.2Ω, 100kV). It stores ˜0.8kJ at 80kV charging voltage. Each three capacitors are commuted to a load by the multigap spark switch, which is able to commute by eight parallel channels. Switches operate in ambient air at atmospheric pressure. At 76kV charging voltage the generator provides ˜260kA with 120ns rise time and 5nH inductive load and ˜220kA with 145ns rise time and 10nH. Delay of output pulse relative to high voltage triggering pulse is ˜65ns with 5ns jitter. The dimensions of the generator are 1240×1240×225mm3 and the weight is ˜250kg, and only one high voltage power supply is required as additional equipment for the generator. The generator with a pumping system is placed on area about 0.5m2. Operation and handling are very simple, because no oil nor purified gases are required for the generator. The X generator has been successfully employed for experiments on the Ni X pinch load. X-ray pulse duration (full width at half maximum above 1keV) was about 5ns. Radiation yield Wr⩾500mJ was observed in the 1.2-1.5KeV range and Wr⩾20mJ in the 3-5keV energy range, which is comparable to results, obtained on the nanosecond accelerators. Clearly resolved images of 6μm wire indicate micron level size of hot spot. These results demonstrate possibility of this generator for application for x-ray backlighting.
High-latitude Conic Current Sheets in the Solar Wind
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khabarova, Olga V.; Malova, Helmi V.; Kislov, Roman A.; Zelenyi, Lev M.; Obridko, Vladimir N.; Kharshiladze, Alexander F.; Tokumaru, Munetoshi; Sokół, Justyna M.; Grzedzielski, Stan; Fujiki, Ken’ichi
2017-02-01
We provide observational evidence for the existence of large-scale cylindrical (or conic-like) current sheets (CCSs) at high heliolatitudes. Long-lived CCSs were detected by Ulysses during its passages over the South Solar Pole in 1994 and 2007. The characteristic scale of these tornado-like structures is several times less than a typical width of coronal holes within which the CCSs are observed. CCS crossings are characterized by a dramatic decrease in the solar wind speed and plasma beta typical for predicted profiles of CCSs. Ulysses crossed the same CCS at different heliolatitudes at 2–3 au several times in 1994, as the CCS was declined from the rotation axis and corotated with the Sun. In 2007, a CCS was detected directly over the South Pole, and its structure was strongly highlighted by the interaction with comet McNaught. Restorations of solar coronal magnetic field lines reveal the occurrence of conic-like magnetic separators over the solar poles in both 1994 and 2007. Such separators exist only during solar minima. Interplanetary scintillation data analysis confirms the presence of long-lived low-speed regions surrounded by the typical polar high-speed solar wind in solar minima. Energetic particle flux enhancements up to several MeV/nuc are observed at edges of the CCSs. We built simple MHD models of a CCS to illustrate its key features. The CCSs may be formed as a result of nonaxiality of the solar rotation axis and magnetic axis, as predicted by the Fisk–Parker hybrid heliospheric magnetic field model in the modification of Burger and coworkers.
A neutron diagnostic for high current deuterium beams
Rebai, M.; Perelli Cippo, E.; Cavenago, M.; Dalla Palma, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Tollin, M.; Croci, G.; Gervasini, G.; Ghezzi, F.; Grosso, G.; Tardocchi, M.; Murtas, F.; Gorini, G.
2012-02-15
A neutron diagnostic for high current deuterium beams is proposed for installation on the spectral shear interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction (SPIDER, Source for Production of Ion of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma) test beam facility. The proposed detection system is called Close-contact Neutron Emission Surface Mapping (CNESM). The diagnostic aims at providing the map of the neutron emission on the beam dump surface by placing a detector in close contact, right behind the dump. CNESM uses gas electron multiplier detectors equipped with a cathode that also serves as neutron-proton converter foil. The cathode is made of a thin polythene film and an aluminium film; it is designed for detection of neutrons of energy >2.2 MeV with an incidence angle < 45 deg. CNESM was designed on the basis of simulations of the different steps from the deuteron beam interaction with the beam dump to the neutron detection in the nGEM. Neutron scattering was simulated with the MCNPX code. CNESM on SPIDER is a first step towards the application of this diagnostic technique to the MITICA beam test facility, where it will be used to resolve the horizontal profile of the beam intensity.
Ionization front in a high-current gas dischargea)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choueiri, Edgar Y.; Randolph, Thomas M.
2007-03-01
Spectroscopic measurements of ion/neutral density ratio profiles are made inside the high-current, low-pressure discharge of a coaxial magnetoplasmadynamic thruster and show the existence of a thin ionization front, upstream in the discharge, that effectively ionizes the incoming gas to ionization levels above 50%. The measurements allow an estimate of the width of this ionization front to be on the order of a few millimeters. Due to the known existence of microturbulence in the plasma, which can produce suprathermal electrons, an explanation of the measurements based on the existence of a suprathermal tail in the electron energy distribution function is sought. A theoretical model for the width of the ionization front is combined with a multilevel excitation model for argon and shows that a Maxwellian electron distribution function cannot account for the small length scale of the ionization front, and that the latter is more consistent with an electron distribution function having a suprathermal population, the magnitude of which is estimated by comparing the model to the experiments.
Ionization front in a high-current gas discharge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choueiri, Edgar Y.; Randolph, Thomas M.
2007-02-01
Spectroscopic measurements of ion/neutral density ratio profiles are made inside the high-current, low-pressure discharge of a coaxial magnetoplasmadynamic thruster and show the existence of a thin ionization front, upstream in the discharge, that effectively ionizes the incoming gas to ionization levels above 50%. The measurements allow an estimate of the width of this ionization front to be on the order of a few millimeters. Due to the known existence of microturbulence in the plasma, which can produce suprathermal electrons, an explanation of the measurements based on the existence of a suprathermal tail in the electron energy distribution function is sought. A theoretical model for the width of the ionization front is combined with a multilevel excitation model for argon and shows that a Maxwellian electron distribution function cannot account for the small length scale of the ionization front, and that the latter is more consistent with an electron distribution function having a suprathermal population, the magnitude of which is estimated by comparing the model to the experiments.
High-density matter: current status and future challenges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stone, J. R.
2015-05-01
There are many fascinating processes in the Universe which we observe in more and more in detail thanks to increasingly sophisticated technology. One of the most interesting phenomena is the life cycle of stars, their birth, evolution and death. If the stars are massive enough, they end their lives in the core-collapse supernova explosion, the one of the most violent events in the Universe. As the result, the densest objects in the Universe, neutron stars and/or black holes are created. Naturally, the physical basis of these events should be understood in line with observation. The current status of our knowledge of processes in the life of stars is far from adequate for their true understanding. We show that although many models have been constructed their detailed ability to describe observations is limited or non-existent. Furthermore the general failure of all models means that we cannot tell which are heading in the right direction. A possible way forward in modeling of high-density matter is outlined, exemplified by the quark-meson-coupling model (QMC). This model has a natural explanation for the saturation of nuclear forces and depends on very few adjustable parameters, strongly constrained by the underlying physics. Latest QMC results for compact objects and finite nuclei are presented.
High-speed counter-current chromatographic separation of phytosterols.
Schröder, Markus; Vetter, Walter
2011-07-01
Phytosterols are bioactive compounds which occur in low concentrations in plant oils. Due to their beneficial effects on human health, phytosterols have already been supplemented to food. Commercial phytosterol standards show insufficient purity and/or are very expensive. In this study, we developed a high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method for the fractionation and analysis of a commercial crude β-sitosterol standard (purity ∼60% according to supplier). Different solvent systems were tested in shake-flask experiments, and the system n-hexane/methanol/aqueous silver nitrate solution (34/24/1, v/v/v) was finally used for HSCCC fractionation. About 50 mg phytosterols was injected and distributed into 57 fractions. Selected fractions were condensed and re-injected into the HSCCC system. This measure provided pure sitostanol (>99%) and β-sitosterol (∼99%), as well as a mixture of campesterol and stigmasterol without further phytosterols. An enriched HSCCC fraction facilitated the mass spectrometric analysis of further 11 minor phytosterols (after trimethylsilylation). It was also shown that the commercial product contained about 0.3% carotinoids which eluted without delay into an early HSCCC fraction and which were separated from the phytosterols.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad
2009-01-01
Electronic systems designed for use in deep space and planetary exploration missions are expected to encounter extreme temperatures and wide thermal swings. Silicon-based devices are limited in their wide-temperature capability and usually require extra measures, such as cooling or heating mechanisms, to provide adequate ambient temperature for proper operation. Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology, on the other hand, lately has been gaining wide spread use in applications where high temperatures are encountered. Due to their inherent design, SOI-based integrated circuit chips are able to operate at temperatures higher than those of the silicon devices by virtue of reducing leakage currents, eliminating parasitic junctions, and limiting internal heating. In addition, SOI devices provide faster switching, consume less power, and offer improved radiation-tolerance. Very little data, however, exist on the performance of such devices and circuits under cryogenic temperatures. In this work, the performance of an SOI bootstrapped, full-bridge driver integrated circuit was evaluated under extreme temperatures and thermal cycling. The investigations were carried out to establish a baseline on the functionality and to determine suitability of this device for use in space exploration missions under extreme temperature conditions.
Double disordered YBCO coated conductors of industrial scale: high currents in high magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abraimov, D.; Ballarino, A.; Barth, C.; Bottura, L.; Dietrich, R.; Francis, A.; Jaroszynski, J.; Majkic, G. S.; McCallister, J.; Polyanskii, A.; Rossi, L.; Rutt, A.; Santos, M.; Schlenga, K.; Selvamanickam, V.; Senatore, C.; Usoskin, A.; Viouchkov, Y. L.
2015-11-01
A significant increase of critical current in high magnetic field, up to 31 T, was recorded in long tapes manufactured by employing a double-disorder route. In a double-disordered high-temperature superconductor (HTS), a superimposing of intrinsic and extrinsic disorder takes place in a way that (i) the intrinsic disorder is caused by local stoichiometry deviations that lead to defects of crystallinity that serve as pining centers in the YBa2Cu3O x-δ matrix and (ii) the extrinsic disorder is introduced via embedded atoms or particles of foreign material (e.g. barium zirconate), which create a set of lattice defects. We analyzed possible technological reasons for this current gain. The properties of these tapes over a wider field-temperature range as well as field anisotropy were also studied. Record values of critical current as high as 309 A at 31 T, 500 A at 18 Tm and 1200 A at 5 T were found in 4 mm wide tape at 4.2 K and B perpendicular to tape surface. HTS layers were processed in medium-scale equipment that allows a maximum batch length of 250 m while 22 m long batches were provided for investigation. Abnormally high ratios (up to 10) of critical current density measured at 4.2 K, 19 T to critical current density measured at 77 K, self-field were observed in tapes with the highest in-field critical current. Anisotropy of the critical current as well as angular dependences of n and α values were investigated. The temperature dependence of critical current is presented for temperatures between 4.2 and 40 K. Prospects for the suppression of the dog-bone effect by Cu plating and upscale of processing chain to >500 m piece length are discussed.
The impact of sunlight on high-latitude equivalent currents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laundal, K. M.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Østgaard, N.; Reistad, J. P.; Haaland, S.; Snekvik, K.; Tenfjord, P.; Ohtani, S.; Milan, S. E.
2016-03-01
Ground magnetic field measurements can be mathematically related to an overhead ionospheric equivalent current. In this study we look in detail at how the global equivalent current, calculated using more than 30 years of SuperMAG magnetometer data, changes with sunlight conditions. The calculations are done using spherical harmonic analysis in quasi-dipole coordinates, a technique which leads to improved accuracy compared to previous studies. Sorting the data according to the location of the sunlight terminator and orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), we find that the equivalent current resembles ionospheric convection patterns on the sunlit side of the terminator but not on the dark side. On the dark side, with southward IMF, the current is strongly dominated by a dawn cell and the current across the polar cap has a strong dawnward component. The contrast between the sunlit and dark side increases with increasing values of the F10.7 index, showing that increasing solar EUV flux changes not only the magnitude but also the morphology of the equivalent current system. The results are consistent with a recent study showing that Birkeland currents indirectly determine the equivalent current in darkness and that Hall currents dominate in sunlight. This has implication for the interpretation of ground magnetic field measurements and suggests that the magnetic disturbances at conjugate points will be asymmetrical when the solar illumination is different.
How to Bootstrap Security for Ad-Hoc Network: Revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shin, Wook; Gunter, Carl A.; Kiyomoto, Shinsaku; Fukushima, Kazuhide; Tanaka, Toshiaki
There are various network-enabled and embedded computers deployed around us. Although we can get enormous conveniences by connecting them together, it is difficult to securely associate them in an ad-hoc manner. The difficulties originate from authentication and key distribution problems among devices that are strangers to each other. In this paper, we review the existing ways of initiating secure communication for ad-hoc network devices, and propose another solution. Exploiting Pairing-based cryptography and the notion of location-limited channel, the proposed solution bootstraps security conveniently and efficiently. Further, it supports ownership enforcement and key-escrow.
A PICTORIAL PRESENTATION OF ESOPHAGEAL HIGH RESOLUTION MANOMETRY CURRENT PARAMETERS.
Lafraia, Fernanda M; Herbella, Fernando A M; Kalluf, Julia R; Patti, Marco G
2017-01-01
High resolution manometry is the current technology used to the study of esophageal motility and is replacing conventional manometry in important centers for esophageal motility with parameters used on esophageal motility, following the Chicago Classification. This classification unifies high resolution manometry interpretation and classifies esophageal disorders. This review shows, in a pictorial presentation, the new parameters established by the Chicago Classification, version 3.0, aimed to allow an easy comprehension and interpretation of high resolution manometry. Esophageal manometries performed by the authors were reviewed to select illustrative tracings representing Chicago Classification parameters. The parameters are: Esophagogastric Morphology, that classifies this junction according to its physiology and anatomy; Integrated Relaxation Pressure, that measures the lower esophageal sphincter relaxation; Distal Contractile Integral, that evaluates the contraction vigor of each wave; and, Distal Latency, that measures the peristalsis velocity from the beginning of the swallow to the epiphrenic ampulla. Clinical applications of these new concepts is still under evaluation. Mostrar, de forma pictórica, os novos parâmetros compilados na versão 3.0 da Classificação de Chicago, buscando facilitar a compreensão e interpretação da manometria de alta resolução. Foram revistas as manometrias da casuística dos autores e selecionados os traçados representativos dos parâmetros da Classificação de Chicago. Entre os parâmetros apresentados foram considerados a Morfologia da Transição Gastroesofágica, que classifica o segmento de acordo com sua fisiologia e anatomia; a Integral da Pressão de Relaxamento, que mede o relaxamento do esfíncter esofagiano inferior; a Integral Contrátil Distal, que avalia o vigor contrátil da onda peristáltica; e, a Latência Distal, que mede o tempo da peristalse, desde o início da deglutição até a ampola epifr
Switch contact device for interrupting high current, high voltage, AC and DC circuits
Via, Lester C.; Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Ryan, John M.
2005-01-04
A high voltage switch contact structure capable of interrupting high voltage, high current AC and DC circuits. The contact structure confines the arc created when contacts open to the thin area between two insulating surfaces in intimate contact. This forces the arc into the shape of a thin sheet which loses heat energy far more rapidly than an arc column having a circular cross-section. These high heat losses require a dramatic increase in the voltage required to maintain the arc, thus extinguishing it when the required voltage exceeds the available voltage. The arc extinguishing process with this invention is not dependent on the occurrence of a current zero crossing and, consequently, is capable of rapidly interrupting both AC and DC circuits. The contact structure achieves its high performance without the use of sulfur hexafluoride.
A High-Gradient CW R Photo-Cathode Electron Gun for High Current Injectors
Robert Rimmer
2005-05-01
The paper describes the analysis and preliminary design of a high-gradient photo-cathode RF gun optimized for high current CW operation. The gun cell shape is optimized to provide maximum acceleration for the newly emitted beam while minimizing wall losses in the structure. The design is intended for use in future high-current high-power CW FELs but the shape optimization for low wall losses may be advantageous for other applications such as XFELs or Linear Colliders using high peak power low duty factor guns where pulse heating is a limitation. The concept allows for DC bias on the photocathode in order to repel ions and improve cathode lifetime.
A bootstrapping soft shrinkage approach for variable selection in chemical modeling.
Deng, Bai-Chuan; Yun, Yong-Huan; Cao, Dong-Sheng; Yin, Yu-Long; Wang, Wei-Ting; Lu, Hong-Mei; Luo, Qian-Yi; Liang, Yi-Zeng
2016-02-18
In this study, a new variable selection method called bootstrapping soft shrinkage (BOSS) method is developed. It is derived from the idea of weighted bootstrap sampling (WBS) and model population analysis (MPA). The weights of variables are determined based on the absolute values of regression coefficients. WBS is applied according to the weights to generate sub-models and MPA is used to analyze the sub-models to update weights for variables. The optimization procedure follows the rule of soft shrinkage, in which less important variables are not eliminated directly but are assigned smaller weights. The algorithm runs iteratively and terminates until the number of variables reaches one. The optimal variable set with the lowest root mean squared error of cross-validation (RMSECV) is selected. The method was tested on three groups of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic datasets, i.e. corn datasets, diesel fuels datasets and soy datasets. Three high performing variable selection methods, i.e. Monte Carlo uninformative variable elimination (MCUVE), competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) and genetic algorithm partial least squares (GA-PLS) are used for comparison. The results show that BOSS is promising with improved prediction performance. The Matlab codes for implementing BOSS are freely available on the website: http://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/52770-boss.
Bootstrap resampling approach to disaggregate analysis of road crashes in Hong Kong.
Pei, Xin; Sze, N N; Wong, S C; Yao, Danya
2016-10-01
Road safety affects health and development worldwide; thus, it is essential to examine the factors that influence crashes and injuries. As the relationships between crashes, crash severity, and possible risk factors can vary depending on the type of collision, we attempt to develop separate prediction models for different crash types (i.e., single- versus multi-vehicle crashes and slight injury versus killed and serious injury crashes). Taking advantage of the availability of crash and traffic data disaggregated by time and space, it is possible to identify the factors that may contribute to crash risks in Hong Kong, including traffic flow, road design, and weather conditions. To remove the effects of excess zeros on prediction performance in a highly disaggregated crash prediction model, a bootstrap resampling method is applied. The results indicate that more accurate and reliable parameter estimates, with reduced standard errors, can be obtained with the use of a bootstrap resampling method. Results revealed that factors including rainfall, geometric design, traffic control, and temporal variations all determined the crash risk and crash severity. This helps to shed light on the development of remedial engineering and traffic management and control measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.